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Sample records for olive cake

  1. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA.

  2. Direct combustion of olive cake using fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Khraisha, Y.H.; Hamdan, M.A.; Qalalweh, H.S.

    1999-05-01

    A fluidized bed combustor of 0.146 m diameter and 1 m length was fabricated from stainless steel to burn olive cake. Initially, and in order to obtain fluidization, the system was operated under cold conditions using a sand with particle size in the range of 500 to 710 microns. The continuous combustion experiments were carried out under controlled conditions, such that the effects of bed temperature, olive cake feed rate, fluidization velocity, and particle size on combustion efficiency and flue gas composition were investigated. It was found that the combustion efficiency decreases with the bed temperature, fluidization velocity, and the feed rate, while it increases with the particle size used. Further, the gas products analysis carried out using a gas chromatography analyzer have shown a nonmeasured amount of SO{sub 2}, and small amounts of CO. Finally, the temperature distribution along the bed indicated that the temperature throughout the bed is fairly uniform, demonstrating a good mixing of reactants, which is important for efficient combustion.

  3. Evaluation of the effectiveness of olive cake residue as an expansive soil stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nalbantoglu, Zalihe; Tawfiq, Salma

    2006-08-01

    The quantity of the by-product olive cake residue generated in most parts of the Mediterranean countries continues to increase and expected to double in amount within 10 15 years. This increase intensifies the problems associated with the disposal of this by-product. Olive cake residue has a potential for use as a soil stabilizer and large volumes can be beneficially used. This study is directed toward determining if olive cake residue can be utilized to increase the strength and stability of expansive soils which constitute a costly natural hazard to lightweight structures on shallow foundations. A series of laboratory tests using engineering properties, such as Atterberg limits, moisture-density relationship (compaction), swell, unconfined compressive strength were undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness and performance of the olive cake residue as a soil stabilizer. Test results indicate that an addition of only 3% burned olive waste into the soil causes a reduction in plasticity, volume change and an increase in the unconfined compressive strength. However, it was observed that the presence of burned olive waste in the soil greater than 3% caused an increase in the compressibility and a decrease in the unconfined compressive strength. Test results indicate that the use of olive waste in soil stabilization gives greater benefits to the environment than simply disposing of the by-product, olive cake residue.

  4. Pb(II) and Cd(II) removal from aqueous solutions by olive cake.

    PubMed

    Doyurum, Sabriye; Celik, Ali

    2006-11-01

    The removal of heavy metals from wastewater using olive cake as an adsorbent was investigated. The effect of the contact time, pH, temperature, and concentration of adsorbate on adsorption performance of olive cake for Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were examined by batch method. Adsorption of Pb(II) and Cd(II) in aqueous solution onto olive cake was studied in single component. After establishing the optimum conditions, elution of these ions from the adsorbent surface was also examined. The optimum sorption conditions were determined for two elements. Maximum desorption of the Pb(II) and Cd(II) ions were found to be 95.92 and 53.97% by 0.5M HNO(3) and 0.2M HCl, respectively. The morphological analysis of the olive cake was performed by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:16806680

  5. Cultivation and bioactivity assessment of Grifola frondosa fruiting bodies on olive oil press cakes substrates.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Andrej; Svagelj, Mirjan; Berovic, Marin; Liu, Yanfang; Zhang, Jingsong; Pohleven, Franc; Klinar, Dusan

    2009-11-30

    Grifola frondosa, a medicinal and edible mushroom, was cultivated on substrates composed of olive oil press cakes with different supplements. Crude extracts were prepared from mature fruiting bodies and tested for their capacity to stimulate splenocyte proliferation. Two wild-growing fruiting bodies were extracted for comparison. Olive oil press cakes reduced the mushroom yield, and the best biological efficiency was obtained on substrates supplemented with wheat bran and without olive oil press cakes. All extracts were capable of inducing splenocyte proliferation and were half as effective as the positive control (6.0 microg/mL phytohaemagglutinin). No correlation between substrate composition and bioactivity could be established. Extracts from wild-growing G. frondosa were superior to cultivated ones in respect to biological activity.

  6. Assessment of olive cake as soil amendment for the controlled release of triazine herbicides.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Sánchez-Moreno, Lourdes; Peña, Aránzazu

    2007-05-25

    Organic matter-rich agricultural by-products are being produced in huge quantities and can be applied to soil as a disposal strategy. The application of two different rates (2 and 8% w/w) of olive cake to a Mediterranean calcareous soil resulted in an increased sorption of four triazine herbicides, which was higher for the more hydrophobic compounds (terbuthylazine and prometryn) and lower for the more polar ones (simazine and cyanazine). However, when the sorption coefficients were normalised to the total soil organic carbon (K(oc)), the results did not significantly differ between simazine and cyanazine which is an indication that the olive cake did not exert different sorption capacity for both compounds. On the contrary, K(oc) values for terbuthylazine and prometryn increased in the amended soils. Our results from experiments using mixtures of several pesticides suggest that competition for sorption sites resulted in a decrease of herbicide sorption. Desorption was hysteretical both for the amended and unamended soils, but the addition of olive cake at the highest dose diminished desorption of most of the herbicides. In conclusion, the addition of olive cake behaves as a promising method for reducing the risk of groundwater pollution by pesticides.

  7. In vitro utilization of lime treated olive cake as a component of complete feed for small ruminants

    PubMed Central

    Ishfaq, A.; Sharma, R. K.; Rastogi, A.; Malla, B. A.; Farooq, J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The current in vitro study was carried out to determine the chemical composition and inclusion level of lime treated olive cake on acid detergent fiber (ADF) replacement basis in adult male goats. Materials and Methods: Crude olive cake was collected and evaluated for proximate composition and protein fractionation. It was treated with 6% lime and incubated for 1 week under room temperature in 2 kg sealed polythene bags and was evaluated for proximate composition after incubation. Different isonitrogenous complete diets containing 0-50% of lime treated olive cake on ADF replacement basis were formulated as per the requirement of adult male goats. In ADF replacement, fiber and concentrate sources were replaced by lime treated olive cake by replacing the 0-50% ADF percentage of the total 40% ADF value of complete feed. The formulated complete diets were tested for in vitro degradation parameters. Results: Treatment of olive cake with 6% slaked lime increased availability of cellulose and alleviated digestibility depression caused by high ether extract percentage. Organic matter, nitrogen free extract, ADF and neutral detergent fiber were significantly lowered by lime treatment of olive cake. The cornell net carbohydrate and protein system analysis showed that non-degradable protein represented by acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN) was 21.71% whereas the non-available protein represented by neutral detergent insoluble nitrogen (NDIN) was 38.86% in crude olive cake. The in vitro dry matter degradation (IVDMD) values were comparable at all replacement levels. However, a point of inflection was observed at 40% ADF replacement level, which was supported by truly degradable organic matter (TDOM), microbial biomass production (MBP), efficiency of MBP and partitioning factor values (PF). Conclusion: In our study, we concluded that there is comparable difference in composition of Indian olive cake when compared with European olive cake. The most important finding

  8. Volatiles in raw and cooked meat from lambs fed olive cake and linseed.

    PubMed

    Gravador, R S; Serra, A; Luciano, G; Pennisi, P; Vasta, V; Mele, M; Pauselli, M; Priolo, A

    2015-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the effects of feeding olive cake and linseed to lambs on the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in raw and cooked meat. Four groups of eight male Appenninica lambs each were fed: conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C), concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L), concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC), or concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The longissimus dorsi muscle of each lamb was sampled at slaughter and was subjected to VOC profiling through the use of SPME-GC-MS. In the raw meat, the concentration of 3-methylpentanoic acid was higher in treatment C as compared with treatments L, OC and OCL (P<0.01). Moreover the level of nonanoic acid was greater in treatments C and OC than in treatment L (P<0.05). With respect to alcohols, in raw meat the amount of 2-phenoxyethanol in treatment OCL was lower than in treatments C (P<0.01) and OC (P<0.05), while in cooked meat the amount of 1-pentanol was higher in treatment C than in treatment OC (P<0.05). Apart from these compounds, none of the lipid oxidation-derived volatiles was significantly affected by the dietary treatment. Therefore, the results suggest that the replacement of cereal concentrates with linseed and/or olive cake did not cause appreciable changes in the production of volatile organic compounds in lamb meat.

  9. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized.

  10. Indaziflam adsorption in soils amended with olive cake and olive cake biochar: Effect of dose and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indaziflam has been approved by the USEPA for weed control in residential and commercial areas, golf courses, and nurseries. Recently, the use has been expanded to citrus, walnuts and olives, among other crops. According to the USEPA, indaziflam is a herbicide that can be mobile in soils, leaching ...

  11. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  12. Environmental impact associated with activated carbon preparation from olive-waste cake via life cycle assessment.

    PubMed

    Hjaila, K; Baccar, R; Sarrà, M; Gasol, C M; Blánquez, P

    2013-11-30

    The life cycle assessment (LCA) environmental tool was implemented to quantify the potential environmental impacts associated with the activated carbon (AC) production process from olive-waste cakes in Tunisia. On the basis of laboratory investigations for AC preparation, a flowchart was developed and the environmental impacts were determined. The LCA functional unit chosen was the production of 1 kg of AC from by-product olive-waste cakes. The results showed that impregnation using H3PO4 presented the highest environmental impacts for the majority of the indicators tested: acidification potential (62%), eutrophication (96%), ozone depletion potential (44%), human toxicity (64%), fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity (90%) and terrestrial ecotoxicity (92%). One of the highest impacts was found to be the global warming potential (11.096 kg CO2 eq/kg AC), which was equally weighted between the steps involving impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC. The cumulative energy demand of the AC production process from the by-product olive-waste cakes was 167.63 MJ contributed by impregnation, pyrolysis, and drying the washed AC steps. The use of phosphoric acid and electricity in the AC production were the main factors responsible for the majority of the impacts. If certain modifications are incorporated into the AC production, such as implementing synthesis gas recovery and reusing it as an energy source and recovery of phosphoric acid after AC washing, additional savings could be realized, and environmental impacts could be minimized. PMID:24091159

  13. Compost and vermicompost of olive cake to bioremediate triazines-contaminated soil.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Moreno, Laura; Peña, Aránzazu

    2009-02-15

    The use of organic amendments to bioremediate potential organic pollutants of soil and water has become an increasingly relevant issue in the last years. This strategy has been applied to four triazine herbicides in a typical calcareous agricultural soil of the Mediterranean area. The soil was amended with olive cake, compost and vermicompost of olive cake at rates four times higher than the agronomic dose in order to stimulate biodegradation of simazine, terbuthylazine, cyanazine and prometryn, added in a mixture to the soils. Degradation studies were carried out in sterile and microbially active soil to evaluate the effect of the chemical and biological degradation of triazines. The residual herbicide concentrations at the end of the degradation assay showed no significant differences between non amended and amended soil. However, the addition of compost and vermicompost enhanced the biological degradation rate of triazines during the first week of incubation, with half-lives ranging form 5 to 18 days for the amended soils, whilst negligible degradation occurred in non-amended soil during this period. In contrast, olive cake did not significantly modify the degradation of triazines in spite that the addition of this amendment to soil resulted in the highest dehidrogenase activity values. In all the substrates, degradation of cyanazine and prometryn was faster (between 1.5 and two times higher) than those of terbuthylazine and simazine, without significant relationship with sorption parameters. The first order kinetic equation satisfactorily explained the experimental data for all triazines. A biphasic model, such as that proposed by Hoerl, was better to predict the very rapid triazines decay during the first week of incubation in soil amended with compost and vermicompost.

  14. Effective moisture diffusivity determination and mathematical modelling of the drying curves of the olive-waste cake.

    PubMed

    Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Miranda, Margarita; Díaz, Luis Puente; Lopez, Lorena; Rodriguez, Katia; Di Scala, Karina

    2010-10-01

    Olive cake is an important agro industrial by-product with the dried cake being the input material of many applications areas. In this research, the drying kinetics of olive cake during convective dehydration at five temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80 and 90 degrees C) was investigated. Several empirical mathematical models were selected to describe experimental drying kinetics data, namely, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Modified Henderson and Pabis, Two-Terms, Logarithmic and Weibull. Air temperature showed a significant effect on drying rates. Based on the statistical tests results (sum squared errors, chi-square and correlation coefficients), the Modified Henderson and Pabis equation is the most suitable model to describe the experimental drying curves. Effective moisture diffusivity of olive cake was in the range of 2.03x10(-9)-1.71x10(-9) m(2) s(-1). An activation energy value of 12.43 kJ mol(-1) was determined. The findings allow the successful simulation of olive cake drying between 50 and 90 degrees C. PMID:20452204

  15. Characterization of carbons from olive cake by sorption of wastewater pollutants.

    PubMed

    Cimino, G; Cappello, R M; Caristi, C; Toscano, G

    2005-11-01

    Studies has been conducted to compare the sorption properties between raw carbons made from olive cake and commercial activated carbons to remove aquatic pollutant such as heavy metal (HM), phenol (Ph), dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid-sodium salt detergent (DBSNa) and methylene blue dye (MB). Effect of acidic treatments by H2SO4, HCl and HNO3 on the sorption properties of olive cake carbon (OCC) were studied by mass titration, SEM photographs, sorption isotherms. It is found that acidic treatment changes the surface properties of OCC but do not enhance its sorption capacity. Compared to commercial activated carbons the OCC derivatives generally are equally able to uptake HM and Ph from solution but MB and DBSNa are not. This different behaviour is to attribute to manufacturing and activation treatments so as surface groups of the precursor sorbent material. For the heavy metals, chromium and silver were removed effectively but to small extent cadmium. This may be because of the various charge densities of metal elements tested. The results of the multiple experiments indicate that sorption of cadmium ions can be significantly improved by the presence of complexing agents sorbed from the carbon. An empirical mathematical form is proposed to correlate experimental data and to compare the performance of the different sorbent materials. PMID:16257318

  16. Recovering Bioactive Compounds from Olive Oil Filter Cake by Advanced Extraction Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Castro-Puyana, María; Mendiola, Jose A.; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Ibáñez, Elena

    2014-01-01

    The potential of by-products generated during extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) filtration as a natural source of phenolic compounds (with demonstrated bioactivity) has been evaluated using pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) and considering mixtures of two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) solvents (ethanol and water) at temperatures ranging from 40 to 175 °C. The extracts were characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to diode array detection (DAD) and electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-ESI-TOF/MS) to determine the phenolic-composition of the filter cake. The best isolation procedure to extract the phenolic fraction from the filter cake was accomplished using ethanol and water (50:50, v/v) at 120 °C. The main phenolic compounds identified in the samples were characterized as phenolic alcohols or derivatives (hydroxytyrosol and its oxidation product), secoiridoids (decarboxymethylated and hydroxylated forms of oleuropein and ligstroside aglycones), flavones (luteolin and apigenin) and elenolic acid derivatives. The PLE extraction process can be applied to produce enriched extracts with applications as bioactive food ingredients, as well as nutraceuticals. PMID:25226536

  17. Effect of Dietary Treatment with Olive Oil By-Product (Olive Cake) on Physicochemical, Sensory and Microbial Characteristics of Beef During Storage

    PubMed Central

    Ranucci, David; Miraglia, Dino; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that the use of natural preservatives through animal diets could increase the shelf life of meat and meat products since many plant-derived substances show antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. The aim of this work was to study the effect of olive cake dietary supplementation on beef oxidative stability and antimicrobial activity during storage. Beef cattle were randomly divided into three homogeneous groups that were assigned to one of the three diets: a commercial unified based diet administered for 90 days until slaughter (CTR), CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake administered for 90 days until slaughter (OC1), and CTR diet supplemented with 0.5% olive cake and administered for 60 days followed by the administration of the CTR diet for 30 days until slaughter (OC2). Beefsteaks were overwrapped with oxygen-permeable packaging and analysed at four different storage times (zero, three, six and nine days). At the four sampling times considered from all of the samples, total viable count (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae counts, colour coordinates (CIE L*a*b* colour system), peroxide value (PV), thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARs) determinations and descriptive sensory analyses were performed. No differences in TVC and Enterobacteriaceae count were detected among the groups over all of the sampling times considered. Differences were recorder among groups for PV, TBARS, colour and sensory analysis. The addition of olive cake in the animal diet had an effect on lipid oxidation reducing the level of PV, TBARS and retarding colour deterioration and the development of off odour in OC meat during storage. PMID:27800420

  18. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of beef patties incorporated with destoned olive cake powder.

    PubMed

    Hawashin, Majed D; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Ahmed, Isam A Mohamed; Ghafoor, Kashif; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-12-01

    The biological efficacy of different concentrations (2%, 4%, and 6%) of destoned olive cake (DOC) as improvers of the quality, storability, and safety of beef patties was investigated. Increasing the percentage of DOC in the patties improved (P≤0.05) the protein and fat contents, cooking yield, moisture and fat retention, total phenolic, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, while the dimensional shrinkage and TBARS showed a progressive reduction. The pH of the patties decreased gradually with the storage time. DOC-incorporated patties showed significantly (P≤0.05) lower total plate count than untreated. Surface color values of raw beef patties were decreased gradually with the storage time. Throughout the storage period, all the sensory traits of non-formulated patties were significantly (P≤0.05) reduced, whereas the formulated patties revealed considerable stability of all characters. Overall, this study identified antioxidant and antimicrobial potentiality of DOC, which could pave the way for its use as an extender of the shelf life of the patties.

  19. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory evaluation of beef patties incorporated with destoned olive cake powder.

    PubMed

    Hawashin, Majed D; Al-Juhaimi, Fahad; Ahmed, Isam A Mohamed; Ghafoor, Kashif; Babiker, Elfadil E

    2016-12-01

    The biological efficacy of different concentrations (2%, 4%, and 6%) of destoned olive cake (DOC) as improvers of the quality, storability, and safety of beef patties was investigated. Increasing the percentage of DOC in the patties improved (P≤0.05) the protein and fat contents, cooking yield, moisture and fat retention, total phenolic, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, while the dimensional shrinkage and TBARS showed a progressive reduction. The pH of the patties decreased gradually with the storage time. DOC-incorporated patties showed significantly (P≤0.05) lower total plate count than untreated. Surface color values of raw beef patties were decreased gradually with the storage time. Throughout the storage period, all the sensory traits of non-formulated patties were significantly (P≤0.05) reduced, whereas the formulated patties revealed considerable stability of all characters. Overall, this study identified antioxidant and antimicrobial potentiality of DOC, which could pave the way for its use as an extender of the shelf life of the patties. PMID:27471795

  20. Effect of biomass-sulfur interaction on ash composition and agglomeration for the co-combustion of high-sulfur lignite coals and olive cake in a circulating fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Varol, Murat; Atimtay, Aysel T

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of biomass-sulfur interaction on ash composition and agglomeration for the co-combustion of high-sulfur lignite coals and olive cake in a circulating fluidized bed combustor. The tests included co-combustion of 50-50% by wt. mixtures of Bursa-Orhaneli lignite+olive cake and Denizli-Kale lignite+olive cake, with and without limestone addition. Ash samples were subjected to XRF, XRD and SEM/EDS analyses. While MgO was high in the bottom ash for Bursa-Orhaneli lignite and olive cake mixture, Al2O3 was high for Denizli-Kale lignite and olive cake mixture. Due to high Al2O3 content, Muscovite was the dominant phase in the bottom ash of Denizli Kale. CaO in the bottom ash has increased for both fuel mixtures due to limestone addition. K was in Arcanite phase in the co-combustion test of Bursa/Orhaneli lignite and olive cake, however, it mostly appeared in Potassium Calcium Sulfate phase with limestone addition.

  1. Improving the nutritive value of Olive Cake by solid state cultivation of the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius.

    PubMed

    Neifar, Mohamed; Jaouani, Atef; Ayari, Amani; Abid, Olfa; Salem, Hichem Ben; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Najar, Taha; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouze

    2013-03-01

    Olive Cake (OC) generated by the olive oil industries, well implanted in Tunisia, represents a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem. This work presents the study of bioconversion of OC in solid state fermentation with the medicinal mushroom, Fomes fomentarius so as to upgrade its nutritional values and digestibility for its use as ruminants feed. The fungus was cultured on OC for 7-30 d, and subsequently the chemical composition, lignocellulolytic enzyme activities and in vitro digestibility of the resultant substrate were determined. The results obtained showed an increase in the crude protein ranging from 6% to 22% for the control and for treated OC, respectively. Significant (P<0.05) decreases in the values of neutral detergent fiber (hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin), acid detergent fiber (lignin and cellulose) and acid detergent lignin were detected (23%, 13% and 10%, respectively). The estimated in vitro digestibility improved from 9% (control) to 25% (treated OC). The present findings revealed F. fomentarius to be an efficient organism for lignocellulolytic enzymes production and simultaneous enhancement in crude protein and in vitro digestibility of OC.

  2. Improving the nutritive value of Olive Cake by solid state cultivation of the medicinal mushroom Fomes fomentarius.

    PubMed

    Neifar, Mohamed; Jaouani, Atef; Ayari, Amani; Abid, Olfa; Salem, Hichem Ben; Boudabous, Abdellatif; Najar, Taha; Ghorbel, Raoudha Ellouze

    2013-03-01

    Olive Cake (OC) generated by the olive oil industries, well implanted in Tunisia, represents a major disposal and potentially severe pollution problem. This work presents the study of bioconversion of OC in solid state fermentation with the medicinal mushroom, Fomes fomentarius so as to upgrade its nutritional values and digestibility for its use as ruminants feed. The fungus was cultured on OC for 7-30 d, and subsequently the chemical composition, lignocellulolytic enzyme activities and in vitro digestibility of the resultant substrate were determined. The results obtained showed an increase in the crude protein ranging from 6% to 22% for the control and for treated OC, respectively. Significant (P<0.05) decreases in the values of neutral detergent fiber (hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin), acid detergent fiber (lignin and cellulose) and acid detergent lignin were detected (23%, 13% and 10%, respectively). The estimated in vitro digestibility improved from 9% (control) to 25% (treated OC). The present findings revealed F. fomentarius to be an efficient organism for lignocellulolytic enzymes production and simultaneous enhancement in crude protein and in vitro digestibility of OC. PMID:23332675

  3. Preparation of activated carbon from Tunisian olive-waste cakes and its application for adsorption of heavy metal ions.

    PubMed

    Baccar, R; Bouzid, J; Feki, M; Montiel, A

    2009-03-15

    The present work explored the use of Tunisian olive-waste cakes, a by-product of the manufacture process of olive oil in mills, as a potential feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon. Chemical activation of this precursor, using phosphoric acid as dehydrating agent, was adopted. To optimize the preparation method, the effect of the main process parameters (such as acid concentration, impregnation ratio, temperature of pyrolysis step) on the performances of the obtained activated carbons (expressed in terms of iodine and methylene blue numbers and specific surface area) was studied. The optimal activated carbon was fully characterized considering its adsorption properties as well as its chemical structure and morphology. To enhance the adsorption capacity of this carbon for heavy metals, a modification of the chemical characteristics of the sorbent surface was performed, using KMnO(4) as oxidant. The efficiency of this treatment was evaluated considering the adsorption of Cu(2+) ions as a model for metallic species. Column adsorption tests showed the high capacity of the activated carbon to reduce KMnO(4) into insoluble manganese (IV) oxide (MnO(2)) which impregnated the sorbent surface. The results indicated also that copper uptake capacity was enhanced by a factor of up to 3 for the permanganate-treated activated carbon.

  4. Olive

    MedlinePlus

    ... some research suggests other dietary oils such as sunflower and rapeseed (canola) might reduce “bad” low-density ... eczema. Diabetes. Compared to polyunsaturated oils such as sunflower oil, olive oil in a Mediterranean-type diet ...

  5. The use of stoned olive cake and rolled linseed in the diet of intensively reared lambs: effect on the intramuscular fatty-acid composition.

    PubMed

    Mele, M; Serra, A; Pauselli, M; Luciano, G; Lanza, M; Pennisi, P; Conte, G; Taticchi, A; Esposto, S; Morbidini, L

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the inclusion of stoned olive cake and rolled linseed in a concentrate-based diet for lambs on the fatty-acid composition of polar and non-polar intramuscular lipids of the longissimus dorsi muscle. To achieve this objective, 32 Appenninica lambs were randomly distributed into four groups of eight lambs each and were fed conventional cereal-based concentrates (diet C); concentrates containing 20% on a dry matter (DM) basis of rolled linseed (diet L); concentrates containing 35% DM of stoned olive cake (diet OC); and concentrates containing both rolled linseed (10% DM) and stoned olive cake (17% DM; diet OCL). The concentrates were administered together with grass hay at a 20:80 forage:concentrate ratio. Growing performances and carcass traits were evaluated. The fatty-acid composition was analysed in the total intramuscular lipids, as well as in the polar and neutral lipids. The average feed intake and the growth performance of lambs were not affected by the dietary treatments, as a consequence of similar nutritional characteristics of the diets. The inclusion of rolled linseed in the L and OCL diets increased the content of C18:3 n-3 in intramuscular total lipids, which was threefold higher in meat from the L lambs and more than twofold higher in meat from the OCL lambs compared with the C and OC treatments. The n-6:n-3 ratio significantly decreased in the meat from lambs in the L and OCL groups, reaching values below 3. The L treatment resulted in the highest level of trans-18:1 fatty acids in the muscle. Regardless of the dietary treatment, the t10-18:1 was the major isomer, representing 55%, 45%, 49% and 45% of total trans-18:1 for C, L, OC and OCL treatments, respectively. Neutral lipids from the OC-fed lambs contained the highest amount of c9-18:1 (more than 36% of total fatty acids); however, the content of c9-18:1 did not differ between the OC and C lambs, suggesting an intensive biohydrogenation of

  6. Treated Olive Cake as a Non-forage Fiber Source for Growing Awassi Lambs: Effects on Nutrient Intake, Rumen and Urine pH, Performance, and Carcass Yield

    PubMed Central

    Awawdeh, M. S.; Obeidat, B. S.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of partial replacement of wheat hay with sun-dried (SOC) or acid-treated SOC (ASOC) olive cake on nutrient intake and performance of Awassi lambs. An additional objective was to study the effects of acid treatment of olive cake (OC) on its chemical composition and nutritive value. On DM basis, sun-drying of OC did not dramatically affect its chemical composition. On the other hand, treating SOC with phosphoric acid decreased (p<0.05) SOC contents of neutral detergent fiber. Twenty seven male lambs (17.6±0.75 kg body weight) individually housed in shaded pens were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments (9 lambs/treatment). Dietary treatments were formulated to be isocaloric and isonitrogenous by replacing 50% of wheat hay in the control diet (CTL) with SOC or ASOC and to meet all nutrient requirements. Dietary treatments had no effects on nutrient intake or digestibility except for ether extract. Lambs fed the SOC diet had (p = 0.05) faster growth rate, greater final body weight, and greater total body weight gain in comparison with the CTL diet, but not different from the ASOC diet. Additionally, lambs fed the SOC diet had greater (p = 0.03) hot and cold carcass weights than the ASOC diet, but not different from the CTL diet. However, feed conversion ratios and dressing percentages were similar among dietary treatments. In conclusion, replacing half of dietary wheat hay with SOC improved performance of Awassi lambs with no detrimental effects on nutrients intake or digestibility. No further improvements in the nutritive value of SOC and lambs performance were detected when SOC was treated with acid. PMID:25049836

  7. Influence of olive oil press cakes on Shiitake culinary-medicinal mushroom, lentinus edodes (Berk.) singer (higher basidiomycetes) fruiting bodies production and effect of their crude polysaccharides on CCRF-CEM cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Gregori, Andrej; Kretschmer, Nadine; Wagner, Susanne; Boechzelt, Herbert; Klinar, Dusan; Bauer, Rudolf; Pohleven, Franc

    2012-01-01

    Lentinus edodes (Berk.) Singer fruiting bodies were cultivated on substrates composed of beech sawdust, wheat bran, and calcium sulfate hemihydrate (gypsum), containing different proportions of olive oil press cakes (OOPC). We determined the influence of OOPC on fruiting bodies production and proliferation of CCRF-CEM leukemia cells. A negative influence of OOPC on mycelia growth and maturation was noticed. When growth medium contained 80% OOPC, fruiting bodies ceased forming. To investigate the cytotoxicity on CCRF-CEM cells in vitro, cells were treated with crude polysaccharides extracted from L. edodes fruiting bodies. Also in this case a negative correlation between OOPC content and cytotoxicity was found.

  8. Celebratory Cakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahoney, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Cakes are no longer the simple desserts they once were. The cake has evolved into an elaborate, sculptural form that represents a special occasion. Sculptural cake forms have become expressive designs using three-dimensional shapes, an array of surface textures, and a range of colors. The use of cakes in the artwork of David Gilhooly, Wayne…

  9. The Classical Cake Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Norman N.; Fisch, Forest N.

    1973-01-01

    Discussed are techniques of presentation and solution of the Classical Cake Problem. A frosted cake with a square base is to be cut into n pieces with the volume of cake and frosting the same for each piece. Needed are minimal geometric concepts and the formula for the volume of a prism. (JP)

  10. Basic Cake Decorating Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bogdany, Mel

    Included in this student workbook for basic cake decorating are the following: (1) Drawings of steps in a basic way to ice a layer cake, how to make a paper cone, various sizes of flower nails, various sizes and types of tin pastry tubes, and special rose tubes; (2) recipes for basic decorating icings (buttercream, rose paste, and royal icing);…

  11. Vermicomposting of a lignocellulosic waste from olive oil industry: a pilot scale study.

    PubMed

    Benítez, E; Sainz, H; Melgar, R; Nogales, R

    2002-04-01

    The vermicomposting with Eisenia andrei of dry olive cake, a lignocellulosic waste produced during the extraction of olive oil, either alone or mixed with municipal biosolids, was studied in a nine-month pilot scale experiment. Number and biomass of earthworms and enzyme activities were periodically monitored and relevant properties of the final products were determined. In the assayed substrates, the total biomass of earthworms increased at the end of the experimental period between 9 and 12-fold respectively in comparison with the earthworm biomass initially inoculated. The increase in hydrolytic enzymes and overall microbial activity during the vermicomposting process indicated the biodegradation of the olive cake and resulted in the disappearance of the initial phytotoxicity of the substrate. However, the recalcitrant lignocellulosic nature of the dry olive cake prevented suitable humification during the vermicomposting process. For this reason, in addition to organic amendments, other management procedures should be considered. PMID:12058819

  12. Biobriquetting of rapeseed cake

    SciTech Connect

    Karaosmanoglu, F.

    2000-04-01

    One of the ways of obtaining biofuel is briquetting of biomass sources. In this study, without adding a binder the briquetting possibility of rapeseed cake obtained through cold press and Soxhlet extraction procedures has been investigated. The shatter indices, water resistivities, and calorific values of the biobriquets were established. The biobriquet prepared from the extracted cake tested under a pressure of 150 MPa and with a moisture level of 10.1% was determined as an alternative biofuel and subjected to thermogravimetric analysis in an oxidizing atmosphere of air.

  13. Compression of Cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nason, Sarah; Houghton, Brittany; Renfro, Timothy

    2012-03-01

    The fall university physics class, at McMurry University, created a compression modulus experiment that even high school students could do. The class came up with this idea after a Young's modulus experiment which involved stretching wire. A question was raised of what would happen if we compressed something else? We created our own Young's modulus experiment, but in a more entertaining way. The experiment involves measuring the height of a cake both before and after a weight has been applied to the cake. We worked to derive the compression modulus by applying weight to a cake. In the end, we had our experimental cake and, ate it too! To cite this abstract, use the following reference: http://meetings.aps.org/link/BAPS.2012.TSS.B1.1

  14. Layer-Cake Earth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tedford, Rebecca; Warny, Sophie

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors offer a safe, fun, effective way to introduce geology concepts to elementary school children of all ages: "coring" layer cakes. This activity introduces the concepts and challenges that geologists face and at the same time strengthens students' inferential, observational, and problem-solving skills. It also addresses…

  15. A Piece of Cake.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aceto, Jeffrey T.

    1995-01-01

    A civil engineer describes his first day as a substitute teacher. Despite detailed lesson plans and good intentions, maintaining an orderly class environment is far from a "piece of cake." Recess duty is an ordeal, and lunch in the shabby teacher's lounge is uninspiring. The biggest benefit is appreciation of what constitutes a full-time teacher's…

  16. Cake filtration with particle penetration at the cake surface

    SciTech Connect

    Corapcioglu, M.Y. ); Abboud, N.M. )

    1990-08-01

    Particles in drilling muds build a filter cake on borehole walls and can migrate into the adjacent porous formation and cause formation damage. This study analyzes cake formation, including particle penetration at the cake surface. Mass-balance equations for captured and suspended particles and the fluid phase are averaged along the cake thickness, taking into account conditions of the surface and the septum. Capture mechanisms, such as surface straining, and internal cake erosion and particle capture are included in the analysis. The results are ordinary differential equations in terms of thickness, average particle concentration, average porosity, and such operational parameters as slurry concentration, injection rate, and volumetric solid fraction. Results show that during early stages of cake formation, penetrated-particle concentration peaks and then declines rapidly shortly thereafter.

  17. Modeling of compressible cake filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Abbound, N.M. . Dept. of Civil Engineering); Corapcioglu, M.Y. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1993-10-15

    The transport of suspended solid particles in a liquid through porous media has importance from the viewpoint of engineering practice and industrial applications. Deposition of solid particles on a filter cloth or on a pervious porous medium forms the filter cakes. Following a literature survey, a governing equation for the cake thickness is obtained by considering an instantaneous material balance. In addition to the conservation of mass equations for the liquid, and for suspended and captured solid particles, functional relations among porosity, permeability, and pressure are obtained from literature and solved simultaneously. Later, numerical solutions for cake porosity, pore pressure, cake permeability, velocity of solid particles, concentration of suspended solid particles, and net rate of deposition are obtained. At each instant of time, the porosity decreases throughout the cake from the surface to the filter septum where it has the smallest value. As the cake thickness increases, the trends in pressure variation are similar to data obtained by other researchers. This comparison shows the validity of the theory and the associated solution presented. A sensitivity analysis shows higher pressure values at the filter septum for a less pervious membrane. Finally, a reduction in compressibility parameter provides a thicker cake, causes more particles to be captured inside the cake, and reduces the volumetric filtrate rate. The increase of solid velocity with the reduction in compressibility parameter shows that more rigid cakes compress less.

  18. Literature review on production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil enriched in bioactive compounds. Potential use of byproducts as alternative sources of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto

    2013-06-01

    This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.

  19. The Icing or the Cake?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doubet, Kristina J.; Hockett, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, authors Kristina J. Doubet and Jessica A. Hockett argue that student engagement is more than a decorative icing on a cake; it's the cake itself. They cite research that an engaged student is more likely to invest in and understand the content being taught. With this in mind, the authors detail the following four principles that…

  20. Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Owen, R W; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, E; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the latter part of the twentieth century demonstrate fairly conclusively that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle with decreased incidence of degenerative diseases. The data show that populations within Europe that consume the so-called 'Mediterranean diet' have lower incidences of major illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Studies have suggested that the health-conferring benefits of the Mediterranean diet are due mainly to a high consumption of fibre, fish, fruits and vegetables. More recent research has focused on other important factors such as olives and olive oil. Obviously fibre (especially wholegrain-derived products), fruits and vegetables supply an important source of dietary antioxidants. What is the contribution from olives and olive oil? Apparently the potential is extremely high but epidemiologic studies rarely investigate consumption of these very important products in-depth, perhaps due to a lack of exact information on the types and amounts of antioxidants present. Recent studies have shown that olives and olive oil contain antioxidants in abundance. Olives (especially those that have not been subjected to the Spanish brining process) contain up to 16 g/kg typified by acteosides, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and phenyl propionic acids. Olive oil, especially extra virgin, contains smaller amounts of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but also contains secoiridoids and lignans in abundance. Both olives and olive oil contain substantial amounts of other compounds deemed to be anticancer agents (e.g. squalene and terpenoids) as well as the peroxidation-resistant lipid oleic acid. It seems probable that olive and olive oil consumption in southern Europe represents an important contribution to the beneficial effects on health of the Mediterranean diet.

  1. Filter cake characterization studies

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; Smeltzer, E.E.; Alvin, M.A.; Lippert, T.E.

    1995-11-01

    The Westinghouse Electric Corporation, Science & Technology Center is developing an Integrated Low Emissions Cleanup (ILEC) concept for high-temperature gas cleaning to meet environmental standards, as well as to provide gas turbine protection. The ILEC system is a ceramic barrier hot gas filter (HGF) that removes particulate while simultaneously contributing to the control of sulfur, alkali, and potentially other contaminants in high-temperature, high-pressure fuel gases, or combustion gases. The gas-phase contaminant removal is performed by sorbent particles injected into the HGF. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate, at a bench scale, the technical feasibility of the ILEC concept for multi-contaminant control, and to provide test data applicable to the design of subsequent field tests. The program has conducted ceramic barrier filter testing under simulated PFBC conditions to resolve issues relating to filter cake permeability, pulse cleaning, and filter cake additive performance. ILEC testing has also been performed to assess the potential for in-filter sulfur and alkali removal.

  2. Let Them Eat Faux Cake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peace, Suze

    2012-01-01

    In this article, students create a "faux" cake sculpture. It is a three-dimensional artwork made of paper, colored with markers, and decorated with old marker caps and polystyrene packing peanuts for icing swirls.

  3. Convective drying of sludge cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  4. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  5. Marble Cake Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langmuir, C. H.

    2007-12-01

    Since the original suggestions by Hanson (Geol. Soc. London, 1977) and Allegre and Turcotte (Nature, 1986), the concept of a "veined" or "marble cake" mantle has gained wide acceptance as a paradigm for mantle composition and components. The "veined mantle" was conceived thinking of the mantle as an ultramafic migmatite with many types of veins, but emphasized metasomatic components contained in hydrous phases as an explanation for alkali basalts. The "marble cake" mantle emphasized recycled oceanic lithosphere. Both types of veins are inevitable consequences of mantle convection. Oceanic lithosphere is recycled and stretched; low melting components of the mantle are inevitably melted in ascending mantle flow, even beneath thick lithsosphere. Both vein types have been widely invoked to explain incompatible element enriched basalts from the mantle. Most recently, disequilibrium melting of veined mantle sources by various mechanisms have become a popular suggestion to explain diverse aspects of mantle geochemistry (e.g. Sobolev et al., Nature, 2005; Phipps Morgan et al., EPSL, 1999). The physical mechanisms that would allow disequilibrium melting of fine scale veins, however, remain to be demonstrated. Average upper mantle composition is residual to continents and requires removal of low F melts to generate the depleted MORB source, and enrichment by low F melts to create the enriched source. Such a process is also necessary in the Sobolev et al model for Hawaii, which generates the equivalent of a low F melt by two stages of larger degree melting. Enriched sources are not restricted to ocean islands, and the name "OIB source" is a misnomer. Enriched basalts occur on normal ridges, in back-arc basins, behind subduction zones, in continental rifts and in isolated volcanic cones. Most of these are not mantle plumes. Enriched components have been ascribed to recycled ocean lithosphere, but recycled ocean crust is depleted, not enriched. Therefore the isotopic signature

  6. Omental cakes: unusual aetiologies and CT appearances.

    PubMed

    Mamlouk, Mark Daniel; Vansonnenberg, Eric; Shankar, Sridhar; Silverman, Stuart G

    2011-08-01

    BACKGROUND: Omental cakes typically are associated with ovarian carcinoma, as this is the most common malignant aetiology. Nonetheless, numerous other neoplasms, as well as infectious and benign processes, can produce omental cakes. METHODS: A broader knowledge of the various causes of omental cakes is valuable diagnostically and to direct appropriate clinical management. RESULTS: We present a spectrum of both common and unusual aetiologies that demonstrate the variable computed tomographic appearances of omental cakes. CONCLUSION: The anatomy and embryology are discussed, as well as the importance of biopsy when the aetiology of omental cakes is uncertain.

  7. Coke cake behavior under compressive forces

    SciTech Connect

    Watakabe, S.; Takeda, T.; Itaya, H.; Suginobe, H.

    1997-12-31

    The deformation of the coke cake and load on the side wall during pushing were studied using an electric furnace equipped with a movable wall. Coke cake was found to deform in three stages under compressive forces. The coke cake was shortened in the pushing direction in the cake deformation stage, and load was generated on the side walls in the high wall load stage. Secondary cracks in the coke cake were found to prevent load transmission on the wall. The maximum load transmission rate was controlled by adjusting the maximum fluidity and mean reflectance of the blended coal.

  8. Olive oil's extra benefits.

    PubMed

    2016-08-17

    Could a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil reduce the risk of breast cancer? Niki Mourouti and Demosthenes Panagiotakos' study in Evidence Based Nursing examined the effects on cancer risks of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil. PMID:27533420

  9. Analysis of cake growth in cake filtration: Effect of fine particle retention

    SciTech Connect

    Tien, C.; Bai, R.; Ramarao, B.V.

    1997-01-01

    Equations were derived that describe the dynamics of cake growth in cake filtration, and methods for their solutions were developed. In deriving the equations, the moving boundary nature of the cake formation process and the effect of fine particle retention were considered. It was shown that fine particle retention may contribute significantly to the decrease of cake permeability and thus alters the performance of cake filtration even if the amount of fine particles involved is small. Through numerical examples, it was also demonstrated that fine particle retention in filter cakes may cause serious errors in determining the constitutive relationships from filter test data.

  10. Microcrystalline cellulose replacement in cakes and biscuits.

    PubMed

    Brys, K D; Zabik, M E

    1976-07-01

    Sensory and physical characteristics of cakes and biscuits with up to 60 per cent of flour replaced, volume for volume, with microcrystalline cellulose were compared with those of the respective controls. High quality products were obtained at replacement levels of 40 and 20 per cent, respectively, in lean-formula cakes and in biscuits. At these replacement levels, caloric density was reduced by 12 and 10 per cent, respectively, in the cakes and biscuits.

  11. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  12. Compressible cake filtration: monitoring cake formation and shrinkage using synchrotron X-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Bierck, B.R.; Wells, S.A.; Dick, R.I.

    1988-05-01

    High energy, highly collimated X-rays produced at the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Sources (CHESS) enabled real-time suspended solids concentration measurements each second with 0.5 mm vertical separation in a kaolin filter cake. Suspended solids concentration profiles reflected expected effects of cumulative fluid drag forces. Shrinkage caused a significant increase in average cake suspended solids concentration after expiration of the slurry, and the saturated cake ultimately formed was virtually homogeneous. Shrinkage is consolidation under compressive forces created when capillary menisci form at air/liquid interfaces, and has a significant effect on cake structure in latter stages of compressible cake filtration.

  13. Analgesic Effects of Toad Cake and Toad-cake-containing Herbal Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Eiji; Shimizu, Yasuharu; Masui, Ryo; Usui, Tomomi; Sudoh, Keiichi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: This study was conducted to clarify the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. Methods: We counted the writhing response of mice after the intraperitoneal administration of acetic acid as a nociceptive pain model and the withdrawal response after the plantar surface stimulation of the hind paw induced by partial sciatic nerve ligation of the mice as a neuropathic pain model to investigate the analgesic effect of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. A co-treatment study with serotonin biosynthesis inhibitory drug 4-chloro- DL-phenylalanine methyl ester hydrochloride (PCPA), the catecholamine biosynthesis inhibitory drug α-methyl- DL-tyrosine methyl ester hydrochloride (AMPT) or the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone hydrochloride was also conducted. Results: Analgesic effects in a mouse model of nociceptive pain and neuropathic pain were shown by oral administration of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs. The effects of toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA, but not with AMPT or naloxone in the nociceptive pain model; the analgesic effect of toad-cake-containing herbal drugs also disappeared upon co-treatment with PCPA in the neuropathic pain model. Conclusion: Toad cake and toad-cake-containing herbal drugs have potential for the treatments of nociceptive pain and of neuropathic pain, such as post-herpetic neuralgia, trigeminal neuralgia, diabetic neuralgia, and postoperative or posttraumatic pain, by activation of the central serotonin nervous system. PMID:25780693

  14. Modeling cake buildup under TMP-step filtration in a membrane bioreactor: cake compressibility is significant.

    PubMed

    Bugge, Thomas V; Jørgensen, Mads K; Christensen, Morten L; Keiding, Kristian

    2012-09-15

    Fouling is inevitable in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) due to the complex nature of activated sludge, which contains a broad variety of potential foulants. Filter cakes that build up from sludge particles are traditionally highly compressible due to both the deformation of the individual sludge particles and the rearrangement of these particles in the cake. However, this phenomenon has been little examined in studies of fouling mechanisms in MBR systems. This study examines the properties of the cake layer, modeling the cake buildup and specific cake resistance (α), including compressibility, in terms of pressure-dependent α. The changes in fouling resistance during transmembrane pressure (TMP)-step filtration in an MBR setup were simulated using an empirical pressure dependence of the specific cake resistance and a simple mass balance model. The total change in fouling resistance in each TMP step could be divided into an initial rapid change in specific cake resistance due to filter cake compression followed by simple cake buildup. By including cake compression in this simple model, the model fitted the data with high precision. We demonstrated that compressibility should be considered when describing cake fouling in MBRs.

  15. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  16. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance. PMID:22380740

  17. Measurements of filter-cake properties

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.J.

    1996-12-31

    The Pressurized Fluidized-Bed Combustion (PFBC) and Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) programs of the U.S. Department of Energy require filtration, at temperatures from about 600 to 900 {degrees}C, of fine particles of coal ash, char, or spent and unreacted sorbent from hot-gas streams. Achieving acceptable filter lifetimes requires solutions to or avoidance of, such problems as incomplete filter cleaning, re-entrainment (i.e., re-filtration) of particles from filter cleaning, and bridging of filter cake between adjacent filters. These and other potential problems may arise from the materials properties of filter cakes, from the filter-bank design, and from the mechanisms of filter cleaning. Avoiding re-entrainment requires that some bonding and agglomeration of particles occur in the cakes (so that the agglomerates from filter cleaning are too large to be re-entrained), but excessive agglomeration can produce poor cleaning or bridging. For both PFBC and IGCC applications, we can form filter cakes at process temperatures, gas compositions, and gas flow rates, and measure the gas-phase permeabilities, porosities, tensile strengths, and deformation coefficients of these filter cakes to determine their dependencies on temperature, reaction time, gas composition, particle compositions, and particle size distributions. Filter-cake shear strengths and flow factors can be measured for powders ``as received,`` for filter cakes that we have heated to process temperatures, or for powders heated in reactive gases to simulate gas-solid reactions in process filter cakes.

  18. Cake formation in fabric filtration of gases

    SciTech Connect

    Aguiar, M.L.; Coury, J.R.

    1996-10-01

    The formation of dust cakes on the surface of a flat square polyester felt has been studied. Cake porosity was estimated from pressure drop and deposited mass measurements, utilizing correlations from the literature. These results have been compared to direct porosity measurements, obtained by image analysis of cake cross sections. Cakes of limestone particles with four different size ranges (median Sauter diameters of 2.5, 3.3, 6.9, and 10.7 {micro}m) and four thicknesses, ranging from 130 to 1,200 {micro}m, were tested. The results have shown cake porosity to be increasing considerably with decreasing particle diameter. Also, the porosity was found to be dependent on cake thickness and position, indicating compressible dust layers. The porosity estimated from the correlations agreed reasonable well with the measured average in a cross section and could be used in practical cases in which overall values are required, provided that the cake is not too thin. Finally, an expression for pressure drop in a compressible cake porosity, based on a differential form of the Ergum equation, was developed with good agreement with experimental results.

  19. Recycling of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Jody, B.J.; Daniels, E.J.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Karvelas, D.E.

    1991-12-01

    The secondary aluminum industry generates more than 110 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of salt-cake waste every year. This waste stream contains about 3--5% aluminum, 15--30% aluminum oxide, 30--40% sodium chloride, and 20--30% potassium chloride. As much as 50% of the content of this waste is combined salt (sodium and potassium chlorides). Salt-cake waste is currently disposed of in conventional landfills. In addition, over 50 {times} 10{sup 3} tons of black dross that is not economical to reprocess a rotary furnace for aluminum recovery ends up in landfills. The composition of the dross is similar to that of salt cake, except that it contains higher concentrations of aluminum (up to 20%) and correspondingly lower amounts of salts. Because of the high solubility of the salts in water, these residues, when put in landfills, represent a potential source of pollution to surface-water and groundwater supplies. The increasing number of environmental regulations on the generation and disposal of industrial wastes are likely to restrict the disposal of these salt-containing wastes in conventional landfills. Processes exist that employ the dissolution and recovery of the salts from the waste stream. These wet-processing methods are economical only when the aluminum concentration in that waste exceeds about 10%. Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) conducted a study in which existing technologies were reviewed and new concepts that are potentially more cost-effective than existing processes were developed and evaluated. These include freeze crystallization, solvent/antisolvent extraction, common-ion effect, high-pressure/high-temperature process, and capillary-effect systems. This paper presents some of the technical and economic results of the aforementioned ANL study.

  20. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  1. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  2. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  3. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  4. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  5. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  6. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  7. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  8. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  9. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  10. Recovery of hydrocarbon oil from filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Tyson, W. H.; Stuart, F. A.

    1985-10-01

    A process for recovering hydrocarbon oils and hydrocarbon oils containing dissolved additives from filter cakes produced by filtering such oils using a siliceous filter aid. A small amount of a release agent, up to 2 cc per gram of filter cake, is slowly added to the filter cake with agitation to prevent formation of a release agent phase and then a further quantity of release agent is added to the resultant mixture with gentle stirring and the final mixture is then held quiescent at elevated temperature until an oil phase separates. The oil phase is removed and the remainder of the mixture is filtered to separate a release agent filtrate and a filter cake consisting mainly of filter aid.

  11. Method of dissolving organic filter cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hollenbeck, K.H.; Norman, L.R.

    1989-03-07

    A method of dissolving a polysaccharide-containing filter cake present in a subterranean formation is described, comprising: injecting an effective amount of a treatment fluid comprising a water soluble source of fluoride ions present in an amount sufficient to provide a molar concentration of from about 0.01 to about 0.5 and a source of hydrogen ions present in an amount sufficient to produce a pH in the treatment fluid in the range of from about 2 to about 4 into a subterranean formation wherein a filter cake is present; and maintaining the treatment fluid within the subterranean formation and in contact with the filter cake for a sufficient time to dissolve at least a portion of the filter cake.

  12. Cake kidney drained by single ureter.

    PubMed

    Calado, Adriano A; Macedo, Antonio; Srougi, Miguel

    2004-01-01

    Cake kidney is a rare congenital anomaly of the urogenital tract, with a few more than 20 cases described in the literature. It can be diagnosed at any age range. Normally, drainage is achieved by 2 ureters, and there are only 5 reports in the literature of cake kidney drained by a single ureter. The authors describe one more case of this rare malformation of the urinary tract.

  13. Preparation of food supplements from oilseed cakes.

    PubMed

    Sunil, L; Appaiah, Prakruthi; Prasanth Kumar, P K; Gopala Krishna, A G

    2015-05-01

    Oilseed cakes have been in use for feed preparation. Being rich in proteins, antioxidants, fibers, vitamins and minerals, oilseed cakes have been considered ideal for food supplementation. These oilseed cakes can be processed and made more palatable and edible by suitable treatments and then incorporated as food supplements for human consumption. Rice bran pellets (RBP), stabilized rice bran (SRB), coconut cake (CC) and sesame cake (SC) were taken up for the study. These were mixed with distilled water and cooked in such a way to separate the cooked solid residue and liquid extract followed by freeze drying to get two products from each. The raw, cooked dried residue and extract were analyzed for various parameters such as moisture (0.9-27.4 %), fat (2.1-16.1 %), ash (3.3-9.0 %), minerals (2.6-633.2 mg/100 g), total dietary fiber (23.2-58.2 %), crude fiber (2.7-10.5 %), protein (3.2-34.0 %), and the fat further analyzed for fatty acid composition, oryzanol (138-258 mg/100 g) and lignan (99-113 mg/100 g) contents and also evaluated sensory evaluation. Nutritional composition of products as affected by cooking was studied. The cooked products (residue and extract) showed changes in nutrients content and composition from that of the starting cakes and raw materials, but retained more nutrients in cooked residue than in the extract. The sensory evaluation of cooked residue and extract showed overall higher acceptability by the panelists than the starting cakes and raw materials. On the basis of these findings it can be concluded that these cooked residue and extract products are highly valuable for food supplementation than the raw ones.

  14. Analytical chemistry of aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Graczyk, D.G.; Essling, A.M.; Huff, E.A.; Smith, F.P.; Snyder, C.T.

    1997-02-01

    Component phases of Al salt cake or products from processing salt cake, resist dissolution, a key first step in most analysis procedures. In this work (analysis support to a study of conversion of salt cake fines to value-added oxide products), analysis methods were adapted or devised for determining leachable salt, total halides (Cl and F), Al metal, and elemental composition. Leaching of salt cake fines was by ultrasonic agitation with deionized water. The leachate was analyzed for anions by ion chromatography and for cations by ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy. Only chloride could be measured in the anions, and charge balances between cations and chloride were near unity, indicating that all major dissolved species were chloride salts. For total halides, the chloride and fluorides components were first decomposed by KOH fusion, and the dissolved chloride and fluoride were measured by ion chromatography. Al metal in the fines was determined by a hydrogen evolution procedure adapted for submilligram quantities of metallic Al: the Al was reacted with HCl in a closed system containing a measured amount of high-purity He. After reaction, the H/He ratio was measured by mass spectroscopy. Recoveries of Al metal standards (about 30mg) averaged 93%. Comparison of the acid evolution with caustic reaction of the Al metal showed virtually identical results, but reaction was faster in the acid medium. Decomposition of the salt cake with mineral acids left residues that had to be dissolved by fusion with Na carbonate. Better dissolution was obtained by fusing the salt cake with Li tetraborate; the resulting solution could be used for accurate Al assay of salt cake materials by classical 8-hydroxyquinolate gravimetry.

  15. From baking a cake to solving the diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olszewski, Edward A.

    2006-06-01

    We explain how modifying a cake recipe by changing either the dimensions of the cake or the amount of cake batter alters the baking time. We restrict our consideration to the génoise and obtain a semiempirical relation for the baking time as a function of oven temperature, initial temperature of the cake batter, and dimensions of the unbaked cake. The relation, which is based on the diffusion equation, has three parameters whose values are estimated from data obtained by baking cakes in cylindrical pans of various diameters. The relation takes into account the evaporation of moisture at the top surface of the cake, which is the dominant factor affecting the baking time of a cake.

  16. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    PubMed

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given. PMID:26661685

  17. Different Oils and Health Benefit Statements Affect Physicochemical Properties, Consumer Liking, Emotion, and Purchase Intent: A Case of Sponge Cake.

    PubMed

    Poonnakasem, Naratip; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Chaiwanichsiri, Saiwarun; Laohasongkram, Kalaya; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon

    2016-01-01

    Effects of different oils on physicochemical properties, consumer liking, emotion, and purchase intent of sponge cakes were evaluated. Three healthy oils (extra virgin coconut oil, EVCO; extra virgin olive oil, EVOO; rice bran oil, RBO) compared with butter (the control), were used at 20% (w/w, wheat flour basis) in sponge cake formulations. Five positive (calm, good, happy, pleased, satisfied) and 3 negative (guilty, unsafe, worried) emotion terms, selected from the EsSense Profile(®) with slight modification using an online (N = 234) check-all-that-apply questionnaire, were used for consumer testing. Consumers (N = 148) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes on a 9-point hedonic scale, 8 emotion responses on a 5-point rating scale, and purchase intent on a binomial scale. Overall liking, emotion, and purchase intent were evaluated before compared with after health benefit statement of oils had been given to consumers. Overall liking and positive emotion (except calm) scores of sponge cake made with EVCO were higher than those made with EVOO and RBO. Specific volume, expansion ratio, and moisture content of control, EVCO, and EVOO were not significantly different, but higher than RBO sponge cake. JAR results showed that sponge cake made with RBO had the least softness that was reflected by the highest hardness (6.61 to 9.69 compared with. 12.76N). Oil (EVCO/EVOO/RBO) health benefit statement provided to consumer significantly increased overall liking, positive emotion, and purchase intent scores while decreased negative emotion scores. Overall liking and pleased emotion were critical attributes influencing purchase intent (odds ratio = 2.06 to 3.75), whereas calm and happy became not critical after health benefit statement had been given.

  18. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  19. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  20. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  1. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  2. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  3. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  4. Bioconversion of wastes from the olive oil and confectionary industries: spectroscopic study of humic acids.

    PubMed

    Sellami, F; Hachicha, S; Chtourou, M; Medhioub, K; Ammar, E

    2007-11-01

    Structural changes in humic acids extracted from composted mixtures of sesame bark with the paste of olive mill wastewater or exhausted olive cake, were investigated using FTIR spectroscopy and solid state 13C CP/MAS techniques. The C/N ratio and organic matter degradation decreased significantly after 6 months of composting. The FTIR spectra of humic acids content showed an increase in the aromatic compounds content and a degradation of aliphatic chains. During composting, nuclear magnetic resonance 13C spectral analyses confirmed that aromatic groups exhibited a slight increase while the aliphatic groups decreased and disappeared at the end of the composting process. These results showed that during composting, aliphatic chains were preferentially oxidized, while aromatic macromolecules were bio converted into highly functionalized compounds. PMID:18290538

  5. Cake Filtration in Viscoelastic Polymer Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surý, Alexander; Machač, Ivan

    2009-07-01

    In this contribution, the filtration equations for a cake filtration in viscoelastic fluids are presented. They are based on a capillary hybrid model for the flow of a power law fluid. In order to express the elastic pressure drop excess in the flow of viscoelastic filtrate through the filter cake and filter screen, modified Deborah number correction functions are included into these equations. Their validity was examined experimentally. Filtration experiments with suspensions of hardened polystyrene particles (Krasten) in viscoelastic aqueous solutions of polyacryl amides (0.4% and 0.6%wt. Kerafloc) were carried out at a constant pressure on a cylindrical filtration unit using filter screens of different resistance.

  6. Olive Mill Waste Extracts: Polyphenols Content, Antioxidant, and Antimicrobial Activities

    PubMed Central

    Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid

    2015-01-01

    Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221

  7. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    PubMed

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design.

  8. Utilization of coconut oil cake for the production of lipase using Bacillus coagulans VKL1.

    PubMed

    Gowthami, Palanisamy; Muthukumar, Karuppan; Velan, Manickam

    2015-01-01

    The overproduction of enzymes was performed by manipulating the medium components. In our study, solvent-tolerant thermophilic lipase-producing Bacillus coagulans was isolated from soil samples and a stepwise optimization strategy was employed to increase the lipase production using coconut oil cake basal medium. In the first step, the influence of pH, temperature, carbon source, nitrogen source and inducers on lipase activity was investigated by the One-Factor-At-A-Time (OFAT) method. In the second step, the three significant factors resulted from OFAT were optimized by the statistical approach (CCD).The optimum values of olive oil (0.5%), Tween 80 (0.6%) and FeSO4 (0.05%) was found to be responsible for a 3.2-fold increase in the lipase production identified by Central Composite Design. PMID:26133510

  9. SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLYCAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLY-CAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS AT #03 STATION. WHEN THE CAKES HAVE COOLED SUFFICIENTLY, THE CASTER STATION IS MOVED ASIDE TO EXPOSE THE QUENCH TANK AND MOLDS. EACH CAKE OF THE THREE CAKES WEIGHS UP TO APPROXIMATELY 20,000. THE DIMENSIONS OF BRASS CAKES RANGE UP TO 27 1\\2" WIDE X 6 3\\4" THICK X 25' LONG, CORRESPONDING MAXIMUMS FOR COPPER CAKES ARE 37 1\\2" X 5" X 24'. #01 STATION, DATING FROM THE EARLY 1960'S CASTS ONLY A SINGLE BAR (RATHER THAN THREE SIMULTANEOUSLY), THAT IS APPROXIMATELY HALF THE LENGTH OF CAKES FROM THE OTHER STATIONS (150' V. 300") AND WEIGHS UP TO 12,500 LBS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  10. SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLYCAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE VIEW OF PREPARATION FOR PULLING CONTINUOUSLY-CAST "CAKES" FROM MOLDS AT #03 STATION. WHEN THE CAKES HAVE COOLED SUFFICIENTLY, THE CASTER STATION IS MOVED ASIDE TO EXPOSE THE QUENCH TANK AND MOLDS. EACH CAKE OF THE THREE CAKES WEIGHS UP TO APPROXIMATELY 20,000 LBS THE DIMENSIONS OF BRASS CAKES RANGE UP TO 27 1\\2" WIDE X 6 3\\4" THICK X 25' LONG, CORRESPONDING MAXIMUMS FOR COPPER CAKES ARE 37 1\\2" X 5" X 24'. #01 STATION, DATING FROM THE EARLY 1960'S CASTS ONLY A SINGLE BAR (RATHER THAN THREE SIMULTANEOUSLY), THAT IS APPROXIMATELY HALF THE LENGTH OF CAKES FROM THE OTHER STATIONS (150' V. 300") AND WEIGHS UP TO 12,500 LBS. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  11. Separation of aflatoxins from filter cake

    SciTech Connect

    Ogawa, I.; Chriswell, C.D.

    1982-02-01

    Size-exclusion chromatography using silianized porous silica microspheres is used to clean up an environmental sample prior to aflatoxin analysis. B/sub 1/ and B/sub 2/ aflatoxins were found in an anaerobic digestor filter cake sample at concentrations of 1 ppb.

  12. Restructuring of colloidal cakes during dewatering.

    PubMed

    Madeline, J B; Meireles, M; Bourgerette, C; Botet, R; Schweins, R; Cabane, B

    2007-02-13

    Aqueous suspensions of aggregated silica particles have been dewatered to the point where the colloidal aggregates connect to each other and build a macroscopic network. These wet cakes have been compressed through the application of osmotic pressure. Some cakes offer a strong resistance to osmotic pressure and remain at a low volume fraction of solids; other cakes yield at low applied pressures, achieving nearly complete solid/liquid separation. We used small angle neutron scattering and transmission electron microscopy to determine the processes by which the particles move and reorganize during cake collapse. We found that these restructuring processes follow a general course composed of three stages: (1) at all scales, voids are compressed, with large voids compressed more extensively than smaller ones; the local order remains unchanged; (2) all voids with diameters in the range of 2-20 particle diameters collapse, and a few dense regions (lumps) are formed; and (3) the dense lumps build a rigid skeleton that resists further compression. Depending on the nature of interparticle bonds, some cakes jump spontaneously into stage 3 while others remain stuck in stage 1. To elucidate the relation between bond strength and compression resistance, we have constructed a numerical model of the colloidal network. In this model, particles interact through noncentral forces that are produced by springs attached to their surfaces. Networks made of bonds that break upon stretching evolve through a plastic deformation that reproduces the three stages of restructuring evidenced by the experiments. Networks made of bonds that are fragile jump into stage 3. Networks made of bonds that can be stretched without breaking evolve through elastic compression and restructure only according to stage 1.

  13. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  14. Dynamics and rheology of fouling cakes formed during ultrafiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Datta, S.; Gaddis, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The solute cake which forms on a membrane surface during ultrafiltration processes is well known for its fouling characteristics. The dynamics and rheology of the cake are investigated and observed under the action of cross-flow shear. Experiments with slurries having 300 nm diameter particles of titanium dioxide indicate average volume concentrations of 0.56 or 0.57 and show that this cake indeed {open_quote}flows{close_quote} with a creeping velocity under applied shear. The cake thickness reaches a steady state when the solute advection towards the membrane balances the solute mass carried away at the trailing edge by the creeping cake. The viscosity-shear rate dependence of this layer is determined experimentally and the {open_quote}creeping velocity{close_quote} of the cake is calculated assuming the transverse drag force is determined from the Kozeny-Carman equation. Upon instantaneous compression the cake compresses while maintaining its mass distribution. The change in cake resistance allows interpretation of the pressure modified concentration. The volume concentration, determined from the mathematical modeling, is shown to lie between 0.54 to 0.65. Observations show that the top few layers of this cake move freely with the shearing flow due to the lifting action of normal stresses in the cake under external shear. Volume concentrations up to 0.65 are indicated from the analysis.

  15. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  16. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  17. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  18. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  19. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  20. Temperature and weight loss profiles of model cakes baked in the microwave oven.

    PubMed

    Sumnu, G; Ndife, M K; Bayindirli, L

    1999-01-01

    Model cake systems were formulated with wheat and rice starches at hydration levels of 112.5% and 137.5% (flour weight basis) and baked in a microwave oven at power levels of 80% and 100%. Temperature profiles and weight loss profiles of the cakes baked in the microwave oven were compared with those of the cakes baked conventionally. One cake was baked at a time, and three replications of each treatment were used. Center and edge temperatures of microwave cakes increased significantly with increasing moisture content of the batter and oven power. Weight loss of the cakes was dependent on oven power, starch type and hydration levels. Cakes baked in the microwave oven had greater weight loss than the cakes baked in convection mode. Wheat starch cakes had greater volumes than rice starch cakes. Rice starch cakes were more tender than wheat starch cakes.

  1. Production of staphylococcal enterotoxin A in cream-filled cake.

    PubMed

    Anunciaçao, L L; Linardi, W R; do Carmo, L S; Bergdoll, M S

    1995-07-01

    Cakes were baked with normal ingredients and filled with cream, inoculated with different size enterotoxigenic-staphylococcal inocula. Samples of the cakes were incubated at room temperature and put in the refrigerator. Samples of cake and filling were taken at different times and analyzed for staphylococcal count and presence of enterotoxin. The smaller the inoculum, the longer the time required for sufficient growth (10(6)) to occur for production of detectable enterotoxin. Enterotoxin added to the cake dough before baking (210 degrees C, 45 min) did not survive the baking. The presence of enterotoxin in the contaminated cream filling indicated this as the cause of staphylococcal food poisoning from cream-filled cakes. Refrigeration of the cakes prevented the growth of the staphylococci.

  2. Oil cakes and their biotechnological applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, Sumitra; Singh, Sudheer Kumar; Larroche, Christian; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo; Pandey, Ashok

    2007-07-01

    Oil cakes have been in use for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industry. Being rich in protein, some of these have also been considered ideal for food supplementation. However, with increasing emphasis on cost reduction of industrial processes and value addition to agro-industrial residues, oil cakes could be ideal source of proteinaceous nutrients and as support matrix for various biotechnological processes. Several oil cakes, in particular edible oil cakes offer potential benefits when utilized as substrate for bioprocesses. These have been utilized for fermentative production of enzymes, antibiotics, mushrooms, etc. Biotechnological applications of oil cakes also include their usages for vitamins and antioxidants production. This review discusses various applications of oil cakes in fermentation and biotechnological processes, their value addition by implementation in feed and energy source (for the production of biogas, bio-oil) as well.

  3. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    PubMed Central

    Mutman, Utkan

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

  4. Effect of the co-occurring components from olive oil and thyme extracts on the antioxidant status and its bioavailability in an acute ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Serra, Aida; Chen, C-Y Oliver; Macià, Alba; Romero, Maria-Paz; Covas, Maria-Isabel; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this work was to examine whether bioactives in thyme could enhance the antioxidant capacity of phenolics in virgin olive oil and their bioavailability in Wistar rats. After acute oral administration of extracts from olive cake (OE), thyme (TE) or their combination (OTE), blood samples were collected from 0 to 360 min. Plasma antioxidant status was analyzed by DPPH and FRAP in plasma and by SOD, CAT and GPx activities in erythrocytes. Plasma pharmacokinetics of the main metabolites of bioactives in olive oil and thyme were characterized. Plasma non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity was significantly modulated by OE, TE, and OTE in a time-, assay, and extract-dependent manner. OE, TE, and OTE all significantly decreased superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and catalase (CAT) activity was increased. Pharmacokinetic results showed that plasma concentration (Cmax) of the main olive phenolic metabolites in rats fed with OTE were similar to those of OE. These results indicate that an enhanced bioavailability of olive phenolic compounds could occur in the presence of thyme, although any synergistic effect was observed in the antioxidant status when both phenolic extracts were administered. Antioxidant protection by phenolics from olive and thyme against oxidative stress occurs primarily through a direct antioxidant effect and may be related to the phenolic plasmatic metabolites.

  5. Compression and swelling of activated sludge cakes during dewatering.

    PubMed

    Sveegaard, Steffen Gralert; Keiding, Kristian; Christensen, Morten Lykkegaard

    2012-10-15

    A drainage/filtration apparatus was developed for automatically determining sedimentation velocity and dewatering rate. Pressure-step testing was used to study filter cake compressibility, resistance, and swelling. Activated sludge was analysed, and the data indicate that the sludge is highly compressible even at low pressures (10 kPa). Furthermore, compressed sludge cakes swell if the pressure is released. Hence, the average specific cake resistance decreases if the pressure is released, though the resistance is higher after the compression cycle than before. Sludge must be dewatered under low pressure, because higher pressure only compresses the cake and does not improve the dewatering rate.

  6. The economics of salt cake recycling

    SciTech Connect

    Graziano, D.; Hryn, J.N.; Daniels, E.J.

    1996-03-01

    The Process Evaluation Section at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has a major program aimed at developing cost-effective technologies for salt cake recycling. This paper addresses the economic feasibility of technologies for the recovery of aluminum, salt, and residue-oxide fractions from salt cake. Four processes were assessed for salt recovery from salt cake: (1) base case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with evaporation to crystallize salts; (2) high-temperature case: leaching in water at 250{degree}C, with flash crystallization to precipitate salts; (3) solventlantisolvent case: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, concentrating by evaporation, and reacting with acetone to precipitate salts; and (4) electrodialysis: leaching in water at 25{degree}C, with concentration and recovery of salts by electrodialysis. All test cases for salt recovery had a negative present value, given current pricing structure and 20% return on investment. Although manufacturing costs (variable plus fixed) could reasonably be recovered in the sales price of the salt product, capital costs cannot. The economics for the recycling processes are improved, however, if the residueoxide can be sold instead of landfilled. For example, the base case process would be profitable at a wet oxide value of $220/metric ton. The economics of alternative scenarios were also considered, including aluminum recovery with landfilling of salts and oxides.

  7. Oliver Wendell Holmes 1

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Gustaf E.

    1974-01-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425

  8. Oliver Sacks in Mendeleev's Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, James L.

    2003-08-01

    After returning to New York, Oliver Sacks sent to us a preprint of Uncle Tungsten, which we had the pleasure of perusing for a whole year before publication. After the events of September 11, 2001, my wife and I anxiously awaited word that he was all right. We were relieved—and honored—when in early December we received an autographed copy of Uncle Tungsten (3). We will always treasure Oliver Sacks’s book, his remarkable story of chemistry, and our friendship with him.

  9. Application of the fractal theory on the study of filter cake constructure

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X.; Xu, J.; Deng, C.; Qian, L.; Yan, K.

    1995-12-31

    Cake filtration is a complex process and the cake constructure is very difficult to describe in theory. Cake constructure parameters, such as the cake porosity, pore size shape and even its distribution, are main factors influencing the filtration results but have not been thoroughly understood yet. In this paper the fractal theory, an effective mathematical method in describing the self-similar phenomenon is used to investigate the filter cake constructure, and the scanning electron microscope and automatic image analyzer are used to measure the cake constructure. Cakes which formed in different conditions are examined and the fractal dimension of the cake are calculated. The study shows that the constructure of the filter cake can be approximated by Sierpinski fractal geometry and that the fractal dimension of filter cake, related to the particle characteristics, slurry concentration and filtration pressure is a good parameter to describe the pore size distribution and the cake penetrability.

  10. The potential of replacing soyabean oil cake with macadamia oil cake in broiler diets.

    PubMed

    Acheampong-Boateng, Owoahene; Bakare, Archibold G; Mbatha, Khanyisile R

    2016-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the potential of macadamia oil cake (MOC) as a replacement of soyabean oil cake (SOC) in Ross broiler diets. The 600 1-day-old male broiler chicks were randomly blocked into 30 equal-weight groups of 20 chicks. For each growth phase, basal and summit diets were blended in various proportions (100 % SOC and 0 % MOC, 75 % SOC and 25 % MOC, 50 % SOC and 50 % MOC, 25 % SOC and 75 % MOC, and 0 % SOC and 100 % MOC) to form five treatments. The diet with 100 % MOC had the least feed intake, final body weight and weight gain compared to other diets (P < 0.05). The increased abdominal fat of broilers fed more than 50 % levels of MOC could be due to high levels of lipids in MOC compared to soyabean oil cake. The feed conversion ratio did not differ significantly for most of the treatments (P > 0.05). It was concluded that the threshold of 25 % MOC can replace soybean oil cake meal in the diets of broiler provided that this alternative feed ingredient is readily available at an affordable cost.

  11. Secondary Aluminum Processing Waste: Salt Cake Characterization and Reactivity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty-nine salt cake samples were collected from 10 SAP facilities across the U.S. The facilities were identified by the Aluminum Association to cover a wide range of processes. Results suggest that while the percent metal leached from the salt cake was relatively low, the leac...

  12. Meta-Envy-Free Cake-Cutting Protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Yoshifumi; Okamoto, Tatsuaki

    This paper discusses cake-cutting protocols when the cake is a heterogeneous good that is represented by an interval in the real line. We propose a new desirable property, the meta-envy-freeness of cake-cutting, which has not been formally considered before. Though envy-freeness was considered to be one of the most important desirable properties, envy-freeness does not prevent envy about role assignment in the protocols. We define meta-envy-freeness that formalizes this kind of envy. We show that current envy-free cake-cutting protocols do not satisfy meta-envy-freeness. Formerly proposed properties such as strong envy-free, exact, and equitable do not directly consider this type of envy and these properties are very difficult to realize. This paper then shows meta-envy-free cake-cutting protocols for two and three party cases.

  13. Cleanup of internal filter cake during flowback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suri, Ajay

    The flow initiation pressure (FIP) is used as an estimate of the differential pressure (between the reservoir and the well) required to initiate production. The standard practice to measure FIP uses a constant flowback rate. This method is shown to be inadequate to measure the FIP. An improved flowback method, which uses a series of constant differential pressures, is used instead to measure the FIP. This method closely represents the constant drawdown experienced between the reservoir and the wellbore. In addition the permeability during flowback is measured at increasing differential pressures, resulting in a spectrum of return permeability values. Two types of drilling fluids (sized calcium carbonate and bentonite) are used for conducting the filtration and flowback experiments for porous media ranging in permeability from 4 to 1500 md. Both single-phase and two-phase experiments are conducted in lab-simulated open-hole and perforated completions to better understand the factors affecting the FIP and the return permeability spectra. We observe small values for FIP in all the experiments (considerably smaller than those measured using the constant flowback method). The values of FIP yield pressure gradients that are achievable in vertical wells but may not be easily achieved in horizontal wells. The FIP and the return permeability spectra are controlled by the cleanup of the internal filter cake. A Bingham fluid in a network of pores is used to model the cleanup of the internal filter cake during flowback. The results indicate that very large pressure gradients are required during flowback to cleanup the entire internal filter cake. However, a pressure gradient of 10 psi/inch is found to yield a skin factor < 1 for most open-hole completions. For perforated completions, pressure gradients up to 20 psi/inch and flow rates up to 0.3 bbl/day/perf yield skin factors < 2.

  14. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  15. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  16. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension. PMID:26775852

  17. An Interview with Oliver Sacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Dale; Palo, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Presents an interview with Oliver Sachs. Discusses his approach to writing, including the physical pen-and-ink approach as opposed to using a word processor; his use of journals; his motivation for writing; his approach to revision; and his view of himself as a writer. (NH)

  18. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  19. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  20. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  1. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  3. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  4. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  5. Application of Plackett-Burman Experimental Design for Lipase Production by Aspergillus niger Using Shea Butter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Salihu, Aliyu; Bala, Muntari; Bala, Shuaibu M.

    2013-01-01

    Plackett-Burman design was used to efficiently select important medium components affecting the lipase production by Aspergillus niger using shea butter cake as the main substrate. Out of the eleven medium components screened, six comprising of sucrose, (NH4)2SO4, Na2HPO4, MgSO4, Tween-80, and olive oil were found to contribute positively to the overall lipase production with a maximum production of 3.35 U/g. Influence of tween-80 on lipase production was investigated, and 1.0% (v/w) of tween-80 resulted in maximum lipase production of 6.10 U/g. Thus, the statistical approach employed in this study allows for rapid identification of important medium parameters affecting the lipase production, and further statistical optimization of medium and process parameters can be explored using response surface methodology. PMID:25937979

  6. Relative importance of moisture migration and amylopectin retrogradation for pound cake crumb firming.

    PubMed

    Luyts, A; Wilderjans, E; Van Haesendonck, I; Brijs, K; Courtin, C M; Delcour, J A

    2013-12-15

    Moisture migration largely impacts cake crumb firmness during storage at ambient temperature. To study the importance of phenomena other than crumb to crust moisture migration and to exclude moisture and temperature gradients during baking, crustless cakes were baked using an electrical resistance oven (ERO). Cake crumb firming was evaluated by texture analysis. First, ERO cakes with properties similar to those baked conventionally were produced. Cake batter moisture content (MC) was adjusted to ensure complete starch gelatinisation in the baking process. In cakes baked conventionally, most of the increase in crumb firmness during storage was caused by moisture migration. Proton nuclear magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) showed that the population containing protons of crystalline starch grew during cake storage. These and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) data pointed to only limited amylopectin retrogradation. The limited increase in amylopectin retrogradation during cake storage cannot solely account for the significant firming of ERO cakes and, hence, other phenomena are involved in cake firming.

  7. Mechanism of cake buildup in crossflow filtration of colloidal suspensions

    SciTech Connect

    Jiao, D.; Sharma, M.M. )

    1994-02-01

    Experimental results are presented for the crossflow filtration of concentrated bentonite suspensions. It is proposed that the hydrodynamic forces acting on the suspended colloids determine the rate of cake buildup and, therefore, the fluid loss rate. A simple model is proposed that predicts a power law relationship between the filtration rate and the shear stress at the cake surface. This is found to be consistent with experimental data at different filtration times at various suspension flow rates using three different suspensions. The mode shows that the cake formed will be inhomogeneous with smaller and smaller particles being deposited as filtration proceeds. An equilibrium cake thickness is achieved when no particles small enough to be deposited are available in the suspension. The cake thickness as a function of time can be computed form the model. It is also shown that for a given suspension rheology and flow rate there exists a critical permeability of the filter below which no cake will be formed. This critical permeability has been computed for these experiments. The model suggests that the equilibrium cake thickness can be precisely controlled by an appropriate choice of suspension flow rate and filter permeability. These observations have important implications in cross-flow filtration and in slip-casting of inorganic membranes.

  8. Quality assessment of composts prepared with olive mill wastewater and agricultural wastes.

    PubMed

    Hachicha, Salma; Sallemi, Fatma; Medhioub, Khaled; Hachicha, Ridha; Ammar, Emna

    2008-12-01

    The co-composting of solid residue from olive oil production process, exhausted olive cake (EOC), with poultry manure (PM) watered with olive mill wastewater (OMW) was considered as an efficient method for the treatment of olive oil extraction effluent having high organic content including phenolic polluting compounds. The process was carried out by using three aerated windrows of variable compositions. OMW was used continuously during the bio-oxidative period, which lasted three months, to replace water for windrow moistening. The main process parameters (temperature, pH, humidity and C/N) were monitored over four months to ascertain the maturity of the compost. The composting process lasted four months during which 26 moistenings of the mixtures were performed with OMW or water to keep moisture within the ideal range of 45-60% (w/w). At the maturity stage, the C/N ratios were less than 16, pH of the resulting products were slightly alkaline (pH=8) and electrical conductivity was relatively high in the OMW mixtures (5.46-5.48 Sm(-1)) when compared with water application. Nitrates increased (0.16-0.42%) and phenol contents were reduced by more than 49%. Mature composts were then used as an amendment for potato production in a field where no inhibitory effect was observed. Potato productivity increased 10-23% as a result of compost application. No noticeable negative impact of OMW on the soil system was observed. Phenolic compound concentrations in the stabilised composts were comparable in the three studied mixtures (different sites) and averaged 0.24%. Considering previous results and this three year study, it has been observed that the benefit of these composts demonstrated the potential sustainable agronomic production of potato while using locally available recycled organic materials.

  9. [The quality of fat: olive oil].

    PubMed

    Tur Marí, Josep A

    2004-06-01

    Olive oil is one of the most characteristic Mediterranean Diet foods, also being a key contributor to the healthy aspects attributed to this dietary pattern. Since 4000 BC, olive oil has been obtained in the Mediterranean area, but now it is exceeding its natural borders, and currently the use of olive oil is a worldwide synonym of health and gastronomic quality. Olive oil has important effects on the body, and has protective effects against several pathologies, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, and various cancers, as well as to diminish the age-related cognitive decline. These effects are due to the olive oil richness in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant substances. Olive oil has been and is the food that define one of the most oldest methods of cooking: frying.

  10. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  11. A combined method of silver recovery from zinc cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Otrozhdenova, L.A.; Malinovskaya, N.D.; Maksimov, I.I.; Khodov, N.D.; Kuznetzov, O.K.

    1995-12-31

    While processing zinc cakes with application of Weltz-technology silver remains unrecovered and goes into clinker. In order to prevent it the elaboration of effective silver recovery methods from zinc cakes before their weltzing becomes necessary. A combined method of zinc cakes treatment with leaching and flotation in a closed water circuit has been worked out. The technological scheme envisages the use of sulphgydril collectors in combination and comprises a series of consecutive operations: leaching, filtration, precipitation (cementing) and flotation. Total silver recovery is approximately 94%. The technology elaborated has been realized in a project by which the construction of a new shop is under way now.

  12. Antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from Jatropha curcas seed cake.

    PubMed

    Saetae, Dolaporn; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2010-02-01

    Phorbol ester extraction was carried out from Jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. Four repeated extractions from 5 g J. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. The ethanolic extract of J. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: Fusarium oxysporum, Pythium aphanidermatum, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, Curvularia lunata, Fusarium semitectum, Colletotrichum capsici and Colletotrichum gloeosporiodes. The extract contained phorbol esters mainly responsible for antifungal activities. The extract could therefore be used as an antifungal agent for agricultural applications. PMID:20208435

  13. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  14. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins. PMID:24261535

  15. Thermodynamic fundamentals of ferrous cake sulfitization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyurin, A. G.; Vasekha, M. V.; Biryukov, A. I.

    2016-03-01

    The Pourbaix diagrams of the systems SO 4 2- -SO 3 2- -H2O and iron hydroxide (oxide)-H2O are refined. The E(pH) dependence of the sulfitization of iron(III) hydroxide is refined with allowance for the regions of predominant phase constituents of the systems. The potential E-pH electrochemical equilibrium diagrams of the systems Fe(OH)3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, FeOOH-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O, and Fe2O3-H2SO4-SO 3 2- -H2O are plotted. These diagrams can be considered as a thermodynamic basis for the sulfite conversion of the ferrous cake of copper-nickel production.

  16. Mycoflora and mycotoxin production in oilseed cakes during farm storage.

    PubMed

    Lanier, Caroline; Heutte, Natacha; Richard, Estelle; Bouchart, Valerie; Lebailly, Pierre; Garon, David

    2009-02-25

    Agricultural activities involve the use of oilseed cakes as a source of proteins for livestock. Because the storage of oilseed cakes could induce the development of molds and the production of mycotoxins, a survey was conducted during the 5 months of farm storage. Mycoflora was studied by microscopic examinations, and the presence of Aspergillus fumigatus was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. A multimycotoxin method was developed to quantify seven mycotoxins (aflatoxin B(1), alternariol, fumonisin B(1), gliotoxin, ochratoxin A, T-2 toxin, and zearalenone) in oilseed cakes by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Among 34 fungal species identified, A. fumigatus and Aspergillus repens were observed during 5 and 4 months, respectively. Gliotoxin, an immunosuppressive mycotoxin, was quantified in oilseed cakes up to 45 microg/kg, which was associated with the presence of toxigenic isolates of A. fumigatus.

  17. 4. Photocopy of drawing, 1915. LOCATION AND SUPPORTS, CAKE CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of drawing, 1915. LOCATION AND SUPPORTS, CAKE CONVEYOR (Courtesy of Stillman-Delahanty-Ferris Co.) - Spencer Kellogg & Sons, Incorporated, Pier & Transit Shed, 139-155 River Road, Edgewater, Bergen County, NJ

  18. Electrodialysis technology for salt recovery from aluminum salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Hryn, J. N.; Krumdick, G.; Graziano, D.; Sreenivasarao, K.

    2000-02-02

    Electrodialysis technology for recovering salt from aluminum salt cake is being developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Salt cake, a slag-like aluminum-industry waste stream, contains aluminum metal, salt (NaCl and KCl), and nonmetallics (primarily aluminum oxide). Salt cake can be recycled by digesting with water and filtering to recover the metal and oxide values. A major obstacle to widespread salt cake recycling is the cost of recovering salt from the process brine. Electrodialysis technology developed at Argonne appears to be a cost-effective approach to handling the salt brines, compared to evaporation or disposal. In Argonne's technology, the salt brine is concentrated until salt crystals are precipitated in the electrodialysis stack; the crystals are recovered downstream. The technology is being evaluated on the pilot scale using Eurodia's EUR 40-76-5 stack.

  19. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  20. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    PubMed

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality. PMID:25577329

  1. Effects of powder from white cabbage outer leaves on sponge cake quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prokopov, Tsvetko; Goranova, Zhivka; Baeva, Marianna; Slavov, Anton; Galanakis, Charis M.

    2015-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop high fibre cakes utilizing and valorising cabbage by-products - cabbage outer leaves. Cabbage outer leaves were dried and milled in order to produce cabbage leaf powder. The cabbage leaf powder was added at 0, 10, 20% into sponge cake. All of the samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis and sensory evaluation. Methods of descriptive sensory analysis were used for a comparative analysis of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder and the cake without cabbage leaf powder. Addition of cabbage leaf powder in sponge cakes significantly affected the cake volume and textural properties. Springiness of cakes with cabbage leaf powder and crumb tenderness were lower, while the structure was stable at high loads, as expressed by lower shrinkage in comparison with the control cake. The nutritional value of the sponge cakes with cabbage leaf powder was lower than the control cake. The cells cakes modified by cabbage leaf powder were smaller and almost equal, uniformly distributed in the crumb, and at the same time had thicker walls. The cakes with addition of cabbage leaf powder showed the springiness and their crumb tenderness were lower, while their structure was stable at high loads. Control cake showed higher water-absorbing capacity compared to the cakes with 10 and 20% cabbage leaf powder.

  2. Use of baru (Brazilian almond) waste from physical extraction of oil to produce gluten free cakes.

    PubMed

    Pineli, Lívia de Lacerda de Oliveira; de Aguiar, Lorena Andrade; de Oliveira, Guilherme Theodoro; Botelho, Raquel Braz Assunção; Ibiapina, Maria do Desterro Ferreira Pereira; de Lima, Herbert Cavalcanti; Costa, Ana Maria

    2015-03-01

    The extraction of oil from baru almonds produces a waste that carries part of their nutritional qualities and antioxidants. It can be used to produce partially deffated baru flour (PDBF). We aimed to evaluate the applicability of PDBF and the effect of the addition of xanthan gum (XG) to produce gluten free cakes. Cakes were prepared with 100% wheat flour (WF cake) and with 100% PDBF and four different levels of XG (0%-PDBF cake, 0.1%-X1, 0.2%-X2 and 0.3%-X3 cakes), and evaluated for composition, antioxidants, moisture, specific volume, texture and sensory acceptance. PDBF cakes showed lower carbohydrate values, but higher protein, lipids, calories and antioxidant contents. They were rich in fiber, as well as iron, zinc and copper. The replacement of WF by PDBF resulted in an increased hardness and adhesiveness and a decreased cohesiveness, elasticity and moisture. Chewiness of X2 cake was similar to that of WF cake. X2 and X3 cakes showed specific volume closer to that of WF cake. No difference was found among the treatments for texture and appearance acceptances. Flavor of X2 and X3 cakes were more accepted than WF cake. Acceptance of all cakes were in the liking region of hedonic scale. PBDF associated to XG is a feasible option to substitute WF in gluten free cake, improving its nutritional quality.

  3. Characteristics of rapeseed oil cake using nitrogen adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokołowska, Z.; Bowanko, G.; Boguta, P.; Tys, J.; Skiba, K.

    2013-09-01

    Adsorption of nitrogen on the rapeseed oil cake and rapeseed oil cake with wheat meal extrudates was investigated. The results are presented as adsorption-desorption isotherms. The Brunauer-Emmet and Teller equation was used to analyse the experimental sorption data. To obtain estimates of the surface area and surface fractal dimension, the sorption isotherms were analyzed using the Brunauer-Emmet and Teller and Frenkel-Halsey-Hill equations. Mesopore analysis was carried out using the Dollimore and Heal method. The properties and surface characteristic of rapeseed oil cake extrudates are related to different basic properties of particular samples and duration of the extrusion process. Extrusion conditions lead to essential differences in particular products. For all kinds of rapeseed oil cakes the amount of adsorbed nitrogen was different, but for the rapeseed oil cake extrudates a large amount of adsorbed nitrogenwas observed. The average surface area of the rapeseed oil cake extrudates was about 6.5-7.0 m2 g-1, whereas it was equal to about 4.0-6.0 m2 g-1 for rapeseed oil cake with the wheat meal extrudates. In the case of non-extruded rapeseed oil cake and wheat meal, the dominant group included ca. 2 and 5 nmpores. The values of surface fractal dimension suggested that the surface of the extrudates was more homogenous than that of the raw material. Duration of the extrusion process to 80 s resulted in a decrease in the specific surface area, surface fractal dimension, and porosity of the extrudates.

  4. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  5. Moisture sorption, compressibility and caking of lactose polymorphs.

    PubMed

    Listiohadi, Y; Hourigan, J A; Sleigh, R W; Steele, R J

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct storage studies on the moisture sorption and caking properties of lactose powder containing different polymorphs (i.e. alpha-monohydrate, alpha-anhydrous unstable, alpha-anhydrous stable, beta-anhydrous) and spray-dried lactose. The dry sample was compacted using a texture analyzer in paper cylinders and stored at relative humidity (RH) of 33%, 43%, 57% and 75% (25 degrees C, for 3 months). The samples were monitored for weight gain, moisture content, alpha/beta balance and hardness. A simple new method of powder compression for measuring the degree of hardness of caked lactose was developed using a texture analyzer. Clear distinctions were found in the storage behavior of the five different samples. Storage at various RHs caused severe caking to beta-lactose anhydrous and spray-dried lactose. The beta-lactose anhydrous was hygroscopic at 75% RH. The spray-dried lactose, which contained some amorphous lactose, was hygroscopic at all RHs studied. Its moisture sorption behavior differed from that of its major component, alpha-lactose monohydrate, by initially absorbing moisture then desorbing. alpha-Lactose monohydrate was less hygroscopic at 75% RH and it formed friable cakes. The alpha-lactose anhydrous stable was hygroscopic at 75% RH and initially formed hard cakes which became friable during storage. The unstable form of anhydrous alpha-lactose was hygroscopic at all levels of RH studied but did not cake. PMID:18485633

  6. Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Bernardini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its high proportion of oleic acid (which is considered as "neutral" in terms of cardioprotection), extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds, which other vegetable oils do not contain. This review critically appraises the current scientific evidence of a healthful role of olive phenols, with particular emphasis on hydroxytyrosol and related molecules.

  7. Content of biogenic amines in table olives.

    PubMed

    García-García, P; Brenes-Balbuena, M; Hornero-Méndez, D; García-Borrego, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2000-01-01

    Content of biogenic amines in flesh and brines of table olives was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of their benzoyl derivatives. No biogenic amines were found in the flesh of fresh fruits at any stage of ripeness. Contents of biogenic amines in Spanish-style green or stored olives increased throughout the brining period but were always higher in the former. Putrescine was the amine found in the highest concentration. Small quantities of cadaverine were found in the samples taken after 3 months of brining. This compound and histamine, tyramine, and tryptamine were also found in samples taken after 12 months. Gordal cultivar showed the highest contents, followed by Manzanilla and Hojiblanca. No relationship was found between contents of biogenic amines and lactic acid production or table olive spoilages, although zapatera olives had considerably higher amounts than those brines that had undergone a normal process. Concentrations in directly brined olives were markedly lower than contents in Spanish-style olives. With respect to partition between flesh and brine, there was equilibrium between both media in the case of Spanish-style olives, whereas the contents in directly brined olives were higher in flesh than brine. PMID:10643779

  8. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  9. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  10. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z.

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  11. Comparison of cake compositions, pepsin digestibility and amino acids concentration of proteins isolated from black mustard and yellow mustard cakes.

    PubMed

    Sarker, Ashish Kumar; Saha, Dipti; Begum, Hasina; Zaman, Asaduz; Rahman, Md Mashiar

    2015-01-01

    As a byproduct of oil production, black and yellow mustard cakes protein are considered as potential source of plant protein for feed applications to poultry, fish and swine industries. The protein contents in black and yellow mustard cakes were 38.17% and 28.80% and their pepsin digestibility was 80.33% and 77.43%, respectively. The proteins were extracted at different pH and maximum proteins (89.13% of 38.17% and 87.76% of 28.80% respectively) isolated from black and yellow mustard cakes at pH 12. The purity of isolated proteins of black and yellow mustard cakes was 89.83% and 91.12% respectively and their pepsin digestibility was 89.67% and 90.17% respectively which assigned the absence of antinutritional compounds. It was found that essential amino acids isoleucine, lysine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan and non essential amino acids arginine and tyrosine were present in greater concentration in black mustard cake protein whereas other amino acids were higher in yellow mustard cake protein.

  12. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  13. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as two distinct types. Unless a specific type is stated in this...

  14. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  15. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  16. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  17. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as two distinct types. Unless a specific type is stated in this...

  18. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  19. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  20. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  1. The sweet cake that reaches parts other cakes can't!

    PubMed

    Hussain, R M

    2003-02-01

    This is a case report of a previously healthy woman of 56 years who presented with a life threatening tetraparesis, severe hypokalaemia, hypertension, and raised muscle enzymes. The cause of was finally found to be unusual and very much "local". Initial inquiry into her drug history was negative until she was made aware that herbal remedies could cause serious adverse reactions. She then mentioned that she had been eating a large number of "Pontefract cakes" (a liquorice sweet) for the management of her chronic constipation. This case highlights the importance of asking about herbal remedies when taking a drug history in all patients, including those admitted as medical emergencies.

  2. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  3. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  4. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil.

  5. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

  6. Comparative study of texture of normal and energy reduced sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Baeva, M R; Panchev, I N; Terzieva, V V

    2000-08-01

    The complete sucrose elimination and its replacement by microencapsulated aspartame (Nutra Sweet) and bulking agents (sorbitol, wheat starch and wheat germ) on the physical and textural sensory characteristics of two diabetic sponge cakes against a control sponge cake was studied. Mathematical and statistical methods were used and regression models worked out, describing the physical and textural characteristics of the three sponge cakes and their values were optimized. The effect on the porosity, springiness, volume and shrinkage of sponge takes was substantial and depended on the amount of the added ingredients. The diabetic sponge cake containing wheat germ showed the least physical and sensory deviations against the control sponge cake. The energy value of the diabetic sponge cakes against the control one was reduced with 25% for the ordinary sponge cake without sucrose and with 29% for sponge cake without sucrose containing wheat germ.

  7. Permeability of collapsed cakes formed by deposition of fractal aggregates upon membrane filtration.

    PubMed

    Park, Pyung-Kyu; Lee, Chung-Hak; Lee, Sangho

    2006-04-15

    We have investigated, theoretically, the physical properties of cake layers formed from aggregates to obtain a better understanding of membrane systems used in conjunction with coagulation/flocculation pretreatment. We developed a model based on fractal theory and incorporated a cake collapse effect to predict the porosity and permeability of the cake layers. The floc size, fractal dimension, and transmembrane pressure were main parameters that we used in these model calculations. We performed experiments using a batch cell device and a confocal laser-scanning microscope to verify the predicted specific cake resistances and porosities under various conditions. Based on the results of the model, the reduction in inter-aggregate porosity is more important than that in intra-aggregate porosity during the cake collapsing process. The specific cake resistance decreases upon increasing the aggregate size and decreasing the fractal dimensions. The modeled porosities and specific cake resistances of the collapsed cake layer agreed reasonably well with those obtained experimentally.

  8. Recovering Spirit Sets Sight on Cake

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    These are the first images sent back from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit since the rover experienced communications problems on the 18th sol, or martian day, of its mission. They were acquired at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 26 (Jan. 29, 2004), showing that the camera's health remained excellent during Spirit's recovery. Two of Spirit's potential target rocks, which are near the rock called Adirondack, can be seen on the lower left and right. The rock on the left has been named 'Cake,' and the white rock on the right has been named 'Blanco.'

    In the upper left is a color image of the panoramic camera calibration target, also known as the martian sundial. The color panel of the calibration target looks almost exactly like it did on Earth, indicating that the color shown of Mars, though approximated, is close to true color.

    The monochrome image in the upper right shows the sun, magnified five times. This image was acquired by the panoramic camera as part of a routine sequence of images designed to monitor the dust abundance in the martian atmosphere. The dust abundance appears to be decreasing slowly with time, consistent with the atmosphere continuing to clear after the large dust storm of last December.

  9. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly. PMID:27472350

  10. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly. PMID:27472350

  11. Bilberry and bilberry press cake as sources of dietary fibre

    PubMed Central

    Aura, Anna-Marja; Holopainen-Mantila, Ulla; Sibakov, Juhani; Kössö, Tuija; Mokkila, Mirja; Kaisa, Poutanen

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary recommendations for Nordic countries urge the use of plant foods as a basis for healthy nutrition. Currently, the level of dietary fibre (DF) intake is not adequate. Berries are an elementary part of the recommended Nordic healthy diet and could be consumed in higher amounts. Materials and methods Finnish bilberries and a bilberry press cake from juice processing were studied for DF content, carbohydrate composition, and non-carbohydrate fibre content, which was analysed as sulphuric acid insoluble and soluble material. The microstructure of all samples was also studied using light microscopy and toluidine blue O, calcofluor, and acid fuchsin staining. Results The total DF contents of fresh and freeze-dried bilberries and the press cake were 3.0, 24.1, and 58.9%, respectively. Most of the DF was insoluble. Only about half of it was carbohydrate, the rest being mostly sulphuric acid–insoluble material, waxy cutin from skins, and resilient seeds. Bilberry seeds represented over half of the press cake fraction, and in addition to skin, they were the major DF sources. Microscopy revealed that skins in the press cake were intact and the surface of the seeds had thick-walled cells. Conclusions Bilberry press cake is thus a good source of insoluble non-carbohydrate DF, and could be used to provide DF-rich foods to contribute to versatile intake of DF. PMID:26652738

  12. Potentials of biodegraded cashew pomace for cake baking.

    PubMed

    Aderiye, B I; Igbedioh, S O; Caurie, S A

    1992-04-01

    The use of biodegraded cashew pomace processed into flour for cake baking was investigated. The physico-chemical changes during the submerged fermentation of the pomace and the organoleptic qualities of the composite cake were also monitored. There was an increase of about 50% in protein content of the pomace after 96 h of fermentation. However, a reduction of about 61% in the total microbial count after 24 h was due to the toxic effect of the organic acids on the microbial cells during fermentation. The cashew flour had high crude fibre (ca. 20-33%) and carbohydrate (ca. 16-47%) values. The composite cake made from a 10:90 combination of 96 h-degraded cashew flour/wheat flour respectively was the most accepted. The cake which had a specific volume of 0.53 ml/g lost 11.1% moisture when 38 g of its batter was exposed to 190 degrees C for 10 minutes. This cake had a calorie value of 293.8/100 g and may be useful in feeding diabetic patients who require low carbohydrate foods.

  13. Characterization of salt cake from secondary aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiao-Lan; Badawy, Amro El; Arambewela, Mahendranath; Ford, Robert; Barlaz, Morton; Tolaymat, Thabet

    2014-05-30

    Salt cake is a major waste component generated from the recycling of secondary aluminum processing (SAP) waste. Worldwide, the aluminum industry produces nearly 5 million tons of waste annually and the end-of-life management of these wastes is becoming a challenge in the U.S. and elsewhere. In this study, the mineral phases, metal content and metal leachability of 39 SAP waste salt cake samples collected from 10 different facilities across the U.S. were determined. The results showed that aluminum (Al), aluminum oxide, aluminum nitride and its oxides, spinel and elpasolite are the dominant aluminum mineral phases in salt cake. The average total Al content was 14% (w/w). The overall percentage of the total leachable Al in salt cake was 0.6% with approximately 80% of the samples leaching at a level less than 1% of the total aluminum content. The extracted trace metal concentrations in deionized water were relatively low (μgL(-1) level). The toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) was employed to further evaluate leachability and the results indicated that the leached concentrations of toxic metals from salt cake were much lower than the EPA toxicity limit set by USEPA.

  14. Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

  15. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes.

  16. Navy Bean Flour Particle Size and Protein Content Affect Cake Baking and Batter Quality(1).

    PubMed

    Singh, Mukti; Byars, Jeffrey A; Liu, Sean X

    2015-06-01

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to 3 levels with navy bean starch. The effect of navy bean flour and its fractions at 3 levels of protein on cake batter rheology and cake quality was studied and compared with wheat flour samples. Batters prepared from navy bean flour and its fractions had higher viscosity than the cake flour. Reducing the protein content by addition of starch significantly lowered the viscosity of cake batters. The whole navy bean flour and coarse bean fraction cakes were softer than cakes made with wheat flour but had reduced springiness. Principal component analysis showed a clear discrimination of cakes according to protein. It also showed that low protein navy bean flour cakes were similar to wheat flour cakes. Navy bean flour with protein content adjusted to the level of cake (wheat) flour has potential as a healthy alternative in gluten-free cakes. PMID:25922214

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an...

  18. SIDE VIEW OF PULLING CAKES AT #03 STATION. A 50TON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SIDE VIEW OF PULLING CAKES AT #03 STATION. A 50-TON OVERHEAD CRANE WITH 15-TON "GRABBERS" WILL PINCH THE CAKE AT ITS TOP AND PULL IT UPWARD FROM THE MOLD. CAKES ARE THEN CARRIED TO THE WEST SIDE OF THE CAST HOUSE AND LAID ON FLATBED CARS FOR TRANSFER TO THE REROLL BAY. - American Brass Foundry, 70 Sayre Street, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  19. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  20. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  1. Effect of flour-oil composite as powdered fat source in low-fat cake mixes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Excess steam jet-cooked composites containing wheat flour and 30 to 55% canola oil were drum dried and used to replace the oil and part of the flour in low-fat cake mix formulations. Specific gravity and viscosity of cake batters were measured. The cakes were analyzed for crumb grain, color, textu...

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an...

  3. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-6 - Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. 319.8-6 Section... of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-6 Cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal. Entry of cottonseed cake and cottonseed meal will be authorized through any port at which the services of an...

  7. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  8. 40 CFR 417.190 - Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. 417.190 Section 417.190 Protection of Environment... POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Manufacture of Detergent Bars and Cakes Subcategory § 417.190 Applicability; description of the manufacture of detergent bars and cakes subcategory. The provisions of this subpart...

  9. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations.

  10. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

  11. The effect of fat replacers on batter and cake properties.

    PubMed

    Psimouli, Vassiliki; Oreopoulou, Vassiliki

    2013-10-01

    Fat was replaced at 35% to 100% in cakes by maltodextrin (dextrose equivalent = 3), inulin (high performance and granulated), oligofructose, citrus pectin, and microparticulated protein. Fat replacement by 35% did not induce significant differences in general. Above 65% fat replacement resulted in statistically significant (P < 0.05) decreased viscosity (except for pectin) that was followed by statistically significant decrease in air incorporation and broader bubble size distribution. The starch gelatinization temperature showed a statistically significant increase when fat was replaced by fructose oligosaccharides. The cakes presented statistically significant increase of hardness, elasticity, and decrease of volume development as fat replacement increased above 65%. Also cakes with increased fat replacement received lower scores on taste and flavor, whereas at total fat replacement they were evaluated as not acceptable. Nevertheless, at 65% fat replacement, the samples presented acceptable textural, physical, and sensorial attributes.

  12. Hydrological methods preferentially recover cesium from nuclear waste salt cake

    SciTech Connect

    Brooke, J.N.; Hamm, L.L.

    1997-05-01

    The Savannah River Site is treating high level radioactive waste in the form of insoluble solids (sludge), crystallized salt (salt cake), and salt solutions. High costs and operational concerns have prompted DOE to look for ways to improve the salt cake treatment process. A numerical model was developed to evaluate the feasibility of pump and treat technology for extracting cesium from salt cake. A modified version of the VAM3DCG code was used to first establish a steady-state flow field, then to simulate 30 days of operation. Simulation results suggest that efficient cesium extraction can be obtained with low displacement volumes. The actual extraction process will probably be less impressive because of nonuniform properties. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Cake properties in ultrafiltration of TiO2 fine particles combined with HA: in situ measurement of cake thickness by fluid dynamic gauging and CFD calculation of imposed shear stress for cake controlling.

    PubMed

    Du, Xing; Qu, Fangshu; Liang, Heng; Li, Kai; Chang, Haiqing; Li, Guibai

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the cake buildup of TiO2 fine particles in the presence of humid acid (HA) and cake layer controlling during ultrafiltration (UF) were investigated. Specifically, we measured the cake thickness using fluid dynamic gauging (FDG) method under various solution conditions, including TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L), HA concentration (0-5 mg/L, total organic carbon (TOC)), and pH values (e.g., 4, 6 and 10), and calculated the shear stress distribution induced by stirring using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to analyze the cake layer controlling conditions, including the operation flux (50-200 L m(-2) h(-1)) and TiO2 concentration (0.1-0.5 g/L). It was found that lower TiO2/HA concentration ratio could lead to exceedingly severe membrane fouling because of the formation of a relatively denser cake layer by filling the voids of cake layer with HA, and pH was essential for cake layer formation owing to the net repulsion between particles. Additionally, it was observed that shear stress was rewarding for mitigating cake growth under lower operation flux as a result of sufficient back-transport forces, and exhibited an excellent performance on cake layer controlling in lower TiO2 concentrations due to slight interaction forces on the vicinity of membrane.

  14. Theory of the caking of carbon compositions and coal charges

    SciTech Connect

    Syskov, K.I.; Lapina, N.A.; Gromova, O.B.; Petrov, N.V.

    1981-01-01

    Results are presented of theoretical studies and experimental investigations of the mechanism of caking of coal charges and carbon compositions. The caking of carbon compositions and of coal charges is due to the sorption of the binder (the liquid component of the plastic coal mass) by the filler (the noncaking components). The influence of the main factors (degree of grinding of the filler, molding pressure, rate of heating) on the size of the increase in the yield of coke from binder has been studied. 18 refs.

  15. The effect of filter cakes on filter medium resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, G.G.; Arconti, J.; Kanel, J.

    1994-10-01

    The high resistance of a filter medium to fluid flow is a universal problem affecting many industries. The small thickness of the filter media makes local pressure and porosity measurements impractical. Analysis of the continuum equations and boundary conditions provide a basis for defining a relative medium resistance. Experiments are conducted on three particulate materials and on three different high flow rate filter media. The results show that the increase in medium resistance varies up to about four times the resistance of a clean filter medium with no cake present. The results also show that in most cases the relative resistance is dependent upon cake height.

  16. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    PubMed

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections. PMID:22634935

  17. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  18. Main antimicrobial compounds in table olives.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eduardo; Brenes, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; García, Aranzazu; de Castro, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The inhibitors involved in the lactic acid fermentation of table olives were investigated in aseptic olive brines of the Manzanilla and Gordal varieties. Phenolic and oleosidic compounds in these brines were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection, and several substances were also characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol showed the strongest antilactic acid bacteria activity, and its presence in brines could explain the growth inhibition of these microorganisms during olive fermentation. However, it was found that the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, identified for the first time in table olives, and an isomer of oleoside 11-methyl ester were also effective against Lactobacillus pentosus and can, therefore, contribute to the antimicrobial activity of olive brines. It must also be stressed that the three new inhibitors discovered in table olive brines exerted a more potent antibacterial activity than the well-studied oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. PMID:17970590

  19. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  20. Layer-cake vs. fruit-cake stratigraphy of megadune-related snows of East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wise, D. U.; Cianfarra, P.; Salvini, F.

    2009-12-01

    Published models of snow deposits of the East Antarctic Plateau visualize km-scale snow stripes in scattered megadune fields as actively-forming stratigraphic zones growing through later Holocene time in parallel with other patches and zones of more normal snow and ice, in effect a stratigraphy of lumps scattered like fruit-cake “goodies.” An alternate four-unit layer-cake model seems more appropriate based on superposition relationships in satellite images. In this model the oldest unit (#1) contains upslope-climbing, relic megadune sets and cosets of pseudo-beds beneath the striped surfaces. This unit is transitional upward into unit #2, divisible into several facies: a) abandoned megadune plains or wind-swept snow regs to use a sand desert term, b) sudden appearance of high topographic relief “Duke of York” dunes from the children’s song of the Grand Old Duke’s soldiers abandoned “neither up nor down,” c) extensions of megadune snow stripes growing into downslope-migrating, lobate dunes, and d) downslope-migrating sheets of coalesced, mostly lobate dune forms, commonly lineated on regional scales. Unit #3 is a pile of snow blankets, transverse and longitudinal dunes that commonly form snow ergs, another sand desert term. This unit is semi-transparent to radar as indicted by near-surface trends and patterns on Modis images disappearing on radar images to show clearly defined unit #2 facies patterns for the same area. These three stratigraphic units appear analogous to an abbreviated form of the aqueous Bouma sequence of fining upward turbiditic beds that pass from upper flow regime (UFR), upstream-climbing antidunes through transitional units into lower flow regime (LFR), downstream-migrating dunes. If megadunes are UFR, very rapid deposition necessitated massive supplies of moisture-rich air available only from open water in the Ross and Weddell Seas or across narrow winter ice shelves of the Southern Ocean, a climate much warmer than present

  1. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  2. Cement cake properties in static filtration--On the role of fluid loss control additives on the cake porosity

    SciTech Connect

    Desbrieres, J. )

    1993-11-01

    The mechanism of the action of fluid loss control additives in cementing oilwell operations is principally the reduction of permeability of the cement filter cake. From filtration equations physical characteristics as porosity of the cement filter cake were investigated and compared with experimental data. A good correlation is observed when no adsorption is involved. The smallest pore diameter for obtaining an efficient control of fluid loss is shown to be of the same order of magnitude as the gyration radius of used macromolecular chains.

  3. Novel extraction approach for liquid samples: stir cake sorptive extraction using monolith.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaojia; Chen, Linli; Lin, Fuhua; Yuan, Dongxing

    2011-08-01

    In this study, a new extraction approach for liquid samples--stir cake sorptive extraction using monoliths as extractive medium was developed. The preparation procedure of stir cake is very simple. First, monolithic cake is synthesized according to the in situ polymerization of monolith; then, the cake is inserted in an original unit (holder), which is constructed from a syringe cartridge and allows the magnetic stirring of the cake during the extraction process. The effects of dimension of monolithic cake and unit design on the extraction performance were optimized in detail. To demonstrate the usability of this new extraction approach, poly(vinylimidazole-divinylbenzene) was prepared and acted as the extractive cake. The analysis of steroid hormones in milk samples by the combination of stir cake with high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection, was selected as a paradigm for the practical evaluation of stir cake sorptive extraction. Under the optimized extraction conditions, low detection limits (S/N=3) and quantification limits (S/N=10) of the proposed method for the target analytes were achieved within the range between 0.33-0.69 and 1.08-2.28 μg/L, respectively. The method also showed good linearity, repeatability, high feasibility and acceptable recoveries. Because the monolithic cake does not contact with the vessel wall during stirring, there is no friction loss of extractive medium and the stir cake can be used for more than 1000 h.

  4. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS. PMID:25604540

  5. Rheological, physical, and sensory attributes of gluten-free rice cakes containing resistant starch.

    PubMed

    Tsatsaragkou, Kleopatra; Papantoniou, Maria; Mandala, Ioanna

    2015-02-01

    In this study the effect of resistant starch (RS) addition on gluten-free cakes from rice flour and tapioca starch physical and sensorial properties was investigated. Increase in RS concentration made cake batters less elastic (drop of G'(ω), G''(ω) values) and thinner (viscosity decreased). Cakes specific volume increased with an increase in RS level and was maximized for 15 g/100 g RS, although porosity values were significantly unaffected by RS content. Crumb grain analysis exhibited a decrease in surface porosity, number of pores and an increase in average pore diameter as RS concentration increased. During storage, cake crumb remained softer in formulations with increasing amounts of RS. Sensory evaluation of cakes demonstrated the acceptance of all formulations, with cake containing 20 g/100 g RS mostly preferred. Gluten-free cakes with improved quality characteristics and high nutritional value can be manufactured by the incorporation of RS.

  6. Effects of processing conditions on the physical and chemical properties of buckwheat grit cakes.

    PubMed

    Im, Ji-Soon; Huff, Harold E; Hsieh, Fu-Hung

    2003-01-29

    Buckwheat grit cakes were prepared with a rice cake machine using the following independent variables: tempering moisture contents (15, 17, and 19%, wb), heating temperatures (240, 246, 252, and 258 degrees C), and heating times (5, 6, 7, and 8 s). Higher moisture, higher heating temperature, or longer heating time produced cakes with a higher cake specific volume. Cakes became lighter in color at a lower heating temperature or a shorter heating time. The hardest cake was produced at 252 degrees C for 5 s at 19% moisture content. The percent weight loss after tumbling decreased with increasing heating times and heating temperatures. Increased heating time resulted in more expanded products. The average rutin content decreased as the heating temperature or heating time increased. These results suggest that processing conditions, including tempering moisture, heating temperature, and heating time, significantly influenced physical and chemical qualities of buckwheat grit cakes such as specific volume, hardness, integrity, color, internal structure, and rutin content.

  7. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes.

  8. Effect of selected spices on chemical and sensory markers in fortified rye-buckwheat cakes.

    PubMed

    Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Zieliński, Henryk; Ciesarová, Zuzana; Kukurová, Kristina; Lamparski, Grzegorz

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of selected spices on chemical and sensorial markers in cakes formulated on rye and light buckwheat flour fortified with spices. Among collection of spices, rye-buckwheat cakes fortified individually with cloves, nutmeg, allspice, cinnamon, vanilla, and spice mix revealed the highest sensory characteristics and overall quality. Cakes fortified with cloves, allspice, and spice mix showed the highest antioxidant capacity, total phenolics, rutin, and almost threefold higher available lysine contents. The reduced furosine content as well as free and total fluorescent intermediatory compounds were observed as compared to nonfortified cakes. The FAST index was significantly lowered in all cakes enriched with spices, especially with cloves, allspice, and mix. In contrast, browning index increased in compare to cakes without spices. It can be suggested that clove, allspice, vanilla, and spice mix should be used for production of safety and good quality cakes. PMID:27386114

  9. Significance of starch properties and quantity on sponge cake volume

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We evaluated the qualitative and quantitative effects of wheat starch on sponge cake (SC) baking quality. Twenty wheat flours, including soft white and club wheat of normal, partial waxy and waxy endosperm, and hard wheat, were tested for amylose content, pasting properties, and SC baking quality. S...

  10. [Asymptomatic, right reno-ureteral calculi in a cake kidney].

    PubMed

    Cocimano, V; Marino, G; Genovese, M G; Cavallotti, G P; Cevoli, R

    1989-01-01

    The primary caudal site of the urogenital anlage in the embryo explains why certain positional anomalies occur during cranial migration and are the outcome of various associated factors. A case of ectopic fusion in the ileo-sacral site known as cake kidney whose peculiarity consists of totally asymptomatic right multiple reno-ureteral lithiasis identified by chance is reported.

  11. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the crude protein and ether extract levels, with average values of 23.38% and 2.15% in the sheep meat, respectively. The physical-chemical characteristics of the loin were not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat. PMID:27288901

  12. Use of neem cake as an organic substrate component

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Nursery and greenhouse growers continue to seek materials to decrease costs of plant production while maintaining environmental stewardship. Incorporation of neem cake as a substrate component could potentially impact nitrogen release as a result of altering substrate bacterial activity. The study...

  13. Using Layer-Cake Geology to Illustrate Structural Topographic Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, John Robert

    1987-01-01

    Discusses some of the difficulties of visualizing underlying geologic structural patterns by using maps or wooden blocks. Suggests the use of a modified layer cake to show dipping beds, folds, faults and differential erosion, as well as the relationships of stream valleys to outcrop patterns. (TW)

  14. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents.

    PubMed

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Birch, John

    2014-02-24

    Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH(•), 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II)/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems.

  15. Meat quality of lambs fed diets with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, L S; Barbosa, A M; Carvalho, G G P; Simionato, J I; Freitas, J E; Araújo, M L G M L; Pereira, L; Silva, R R; Lacerda, E C Q; Carvalho, B M A

    2016-11-01

    Replacement of soybean meal by peanut cake was evaluated on the meat quality of 45 Dorper × Santa Inês crossbred lambs. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and nine repetitions, and fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate mixed with 0.0%, 25.0%, 50.0%, 75.0% or 100.0% peanut cake based on the dry mass of the complete diet. The longissimus lumborum muscle was used to determine the proximate composition, physical-chemical characteristics and fatty acid profile. Significant differences (P<0.05) were found for the crude protein and ether extract levels, with average values of 23.38% and 2.15% in the sheep meat, respectively. The physical-chemical characteristics of the loin were not affected (P>0.05) by the diets. The fatty acid profile was affected by peanut cake supplementation for myristic, myristoleic, palmitoleic, linolenic and arachidonic fatty acids. Peanut cake can be added in the diet of lambs no effect on physical-chemical characteristics. However, the total replacement of the soybean meal altered the proximate composition and fatty acid profile of the meat.

  16. Antioxidative Polyphenols from Defatted Oilseed Cakes: Effect of Solvents

    PubMed Central

    Teh, Sue-Siang; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din; Birch, John

    2014-01-01

    Defatted hemp, flax and canola seed cakes were extracted with different solvent systems namely methanol, ethanol, acetone, methanol 80%, acetone 80% and mixed solvent of methanol:acetone:water (MAW, 7:7:6, v/v/v). Each extract was analyzed for antioxidant capacity using ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assays. MAW exhibited the highest extraction of phenolic and flavonoid contents in the seed cakes, followed by acetone 80% and methanol 80%. The antioxidant capacity was proportional to the polyphenols recovery in the extracts. Canola seed cakes possessed the highest recovery of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity, followed by hemp and flax seed cakes. MAW extract of canola contained total phenolic content, 2104.67 ± 2.52 mg GAE/100 g fresh weight; total flavonoids, 37.79 ± 0.04 mg LUE/100 g fresh weight; percentage inhibition of DPPH•, 33.03 ± 0.38%; FRAP assay, 8.78 ± 0.07 μmol Fe (II)/g fresh weight. Identification of individual polyphenol compounds were performed HPLC. MAW extract of canola had the highest (P < 0.05) concentration of all individual polyphenols except gallic acid and catechin. Highest concentration of quercetin and luteolin in MAW extract of hemp was obtained among all solvent systems. PMID:26784664

  17. Integrated pore blockage-cake filtration model for crossflow filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Richard C.; Billing, Justin M.; Russell, Renee L.; Shimskey, Rick W.; Smith, Harry D.; Peterson, Reid A.

    2011-07-01

    Crossflow filtration is to be a key process in the treatment and disposal of approximately 60,000 metric tons of high-level radioactive waste stored at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is assessing filter performance with waste simulant materials that mimic the chemical and physical properties of Hanford tank waste. Prior simulant studies indicated that waste filtration performance may be limited by pore and cake fouling. To limit the shutdown of waste treatment operations, the pre-treatment facility plans to recover filter flux losses from cake formation and filter fouling by frequently backpulsing the filter elements. The objective of the current paper is to develop a simple model of flux decline resulting from cake and pore fouling and potential flux recovery through backpulsing of the filters for Hanford waste filtration operations. To this end, a model capable of characterizing the decline in waste-simulant filter flux as a function of both irreversible pore blockage and reversible cake formation is proposed. This model is used to characterize the filtration behavior of Hanford waste simulants in both continuous and backpulsed operations. The model is then used to infer the optimal backpulse frequency under specific operating conditions.

  18. Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. Obtainment and characterization of a potential functional ingredient from olive.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-01-01

    Current olive oil production methods generate huge amounts of polluting waste, containing most of the health-related compounds in olive. Here, a new product is obtained from olive after pitting, drying and oil extraction, without generating waste. Its characterization showed the presence, within a single matrix, of more than 90% of the polyphenols present in olive, including hydroyxtyrosols (commonly not transferred to olive oil), dietary fiber, oleic acid and polyalcohols. This product is a potential new functional ingredient, consumption of which may lead to additive and/or synergic activities among its constituents; some of which already have approved health claims. Additionally, the olive oil obtained exhibits profiles of fatty acids and phenolic compounds similar to those of commercial olive oil. The procurement of this potential functional ingredient may represent a new approach to the revalorization of olive that additionally decreases waste.

  20. Gravity drainage of activated sludge: new experimental method and considerations of settling velocity, specific cake resistance and cake compressibility.

    PubMed

    Dominiak, Dominik; Christensen, Morten; Keiding, Kristian; Nielsen, Per Halkjær

    2011-02-01

    A laboratory scale setup was used for characterization of gravitational drainage of waste activated sludge. The aim of the study was to assess how time of drainage and cake dry matter depended on volumetric load, SS content and sludge floc properties. It was demonstrated that activated sludge forms compressible cakes, even at the low pressures found in gravitational drainage. The values of specific cake resistance were two to three orders of magnitude lower than those obtained in pressure filtration. Despite the compressible nature of sludge, key macroscopic parameters such as time of drainage and cake solid content showed simple functional dependency of the volumetric load and SS of a given sludge. This suggests that the proposed method may be applied for design purposes without the use of extensive numerical modeling. The possibilities for application of this new technique are, among others, the estimation of sludge drainability prior to mechanical dewatering on a belt filter, or the application of surplus sludge on reed beds, as well as adjustments of sludge loading, concentration or sludge pre-treatment in order to optimize the drainage process.

  1. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  2. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  3. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  4. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source. PMID:26840281

  5. Isothermal microwave and microwave-convection drying of olive pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive pomace is the residue produced when olives are pressed for oil. Valuable polyphenolic compounds can be extracted from olive pomace, but this material is more than 60% water (wet basis) and thus costly to transport and process in its original, wet form. The objective of this study was thus to ...

  6. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... to olives imported for charitable organizations or processing for oil, but shall be subject to the... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  9. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  10. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  11. A comparison of cake properties in traditional and turbulence promoter assisted microfiltration of particulate suspensions.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuanfa; He, Gaohong; Li, Baojun; Hu, Zhengwen; Ju, Jia

    2012-05-15

    The use of turbulence promoter can effectively enhance the permeate flux in crossflow microfiltration (CFMF) of particulate suspensions. Flux enhancement which is generally attributed to the reduction in cake thickness, however, has still not been clearly understood. In this study, the effects of turbulence promoter on cake properties (thickness, porosity and particle size) were investigated during CFMF of calcium carbonate suspension. It indicates that turbulence promoter has important effects on cake properties that directly affect the cake resistance. The significant reduction in thickness and slight increase in porosity are positive to reduce the cake resistance. The remarkable decrease in particle size is the negative effect due to the increased specific resistance of a cake. As a whole, the overall cake resistance is still diminished by turbulence promoter and therefore permeate flux is improved. The theoretical calculation of cake resistance shows a good consistence with the experimental result. The cake properties in both cases (using a turbulence promoter or not) almost exhibit the similar trends under various operating conditions. Differently, the use of turbulence promoter can greatly alleviate the effects of transmembrane pressure or feed concentration on growth of cake layer and intensify the effects of inlet velocity on diminishing the particle deposition.

  12. Caking of medium rank, low vitrinite coal types and their blends during pyrolysis under pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, S.C.; Ooms, A.; Slaghuis, J.H.

    1997-12-31

    Bituminous coals of medium rank (RoV 0.6--0.7) with a low vitrinite content show, as a rule, no propensities to caking when heated at atmospheric pressure. It was found, however, that this property of coal changes when heated under elevated pressures. Standard caking tests (e.g., ASTM D 720-91) were found inadequate to assess caking propensities under pressure. Caking of coal at pressures up to 26 bar under different dynamic gas atmospheres was investigated. Argon, carbon dioxide, syngas (H{sub 2} + CO) and steam were used. It was found that, independent of gas type, mild to extensive caking of these coals occurred. A series of experiments at 26 bar Argon pressure was conducted on several coals from the Mpumalanga Province of South Africa. The caking propensity of each individual coal was assessed as well as that of various blends. Depending on the type of coal and the blending ratio, it was found that caking was not necessarily proportional to that of the individual coals in the blends. Attenuation or synergism occurred in certain blends. The caking of coal depends mainly on the rank and vitrinite content. Ash content, oxidation and devolatilized coal (due to dolerite intrusions) contribute to lower caking propensities. It is known that caking of coal can seriously influence the operation of a fixed bed coal reactor such as a Lurgi gasifier. Even mild caking of coal will change the particle size distribution in the reactor. This in turn will affect the permeability and gas flow distribution through such a reactor. With the knowledge of the caking propensity of individual coal types, blends of coals can be optimized to reduce caking and subsequently enhance gasifier operation.

  13. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  14. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastián; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

  15. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    PubMed

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  16. Olive Fruit Phenols Transfer, Transformation, and Partition Trail during Laboratory-Scale Olive Oil Processing.

    PubMed

    Jerman Klen, Tina; Golc Wondra, Alenka; Vrhovšek, Urška; Sivilotti, Paolo; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-05-13

    This work is the most comprehensive study on the quantitative behavior of olive fruit phenols during olive oil processing, providing insight into their transfer, transformation, and partition trail. In total, 69 phenols were quantified in 6 olive matrices from a three-phase extraction line employing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis. Crushing had a larger effect than malaxation in terms of phenolic degradation and transformation, resulting in several new evolutions of respective derivatives. The peel and pulp together confined 95% of total fruit phenols, while stone only 5%. However, only 0.53% of all ended-up in olive oil, nearly 6% in wastewater, and 48% in pomace. Secoiridoids were the predominant class in all matrices, though represented by different individuals. Their partition behavior was rather similar to other phenolic classes, where with few minor exceptions only aglycones were partitioned to the oil, while other glycosides were lost with the wastes.

  17. Characterization of Virgin Olive Oils with Two Kinds of 'Frostbitten Olives' Sensory Defect.

    PubMed

    Romero, Inmaculada; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2016-07-13

    The frost of olives on the tree due to drops of temperature can produce sensory defects in virgin olive oil (VOO). Temperature changes can be abrupt with freeze-thaw cycles or gradual, and they produce sensory and chemical variations in the oil. This study has analyzed the quality parameters (free fatty acids, peroxide value, UV absorption, and fatty acid ethyl esters) and phenols of VOOs described with the 'frostbitten olives' sensory defect. The phenol profiles allowed grouping these VOOs into two types. One of them, characterized with "soapy" and "strawberry-like" aroma descriptors, had higher values of 1-acetoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol, and aldehydic form of the ligstroside aglycon. The other one, characterized with "wood" and "humidity" descriptors, had higher concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. Most VOOs (75%) from the first group, associated with abrupt drops of temperature, have concentration of phenols higher than the value established by the health claim on olive oil polyphenols approved by the European Commission. PMID:27315238

  18. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  19. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  20. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp.

    PubMed

    Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K; Lyberatos, G

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

  1. Prediction of the collection efficiency, the porosity, and the pressure drop across filter cakes in particulate air filtration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Otoom, Awni Y.

    This study presents a new statistical model to predict the collection efficiency, cake thickness, cake porosity, and pressure drop across filter cakes during the particulate filtration of gases. This model is based on generation of a random distribution of particle sizes and particle falling locations. The model predicts the cake collection efficiency, which was found to be strongly dependent on the ratio of the mean particle size to the mean pore size of the filter medium. The average cake porosity decreases with increasing cake thickness and the pressure drop increases when the mean particle diameter decreases.

  2. Toxic effects of chlorinated cake flour in rats.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, H M; Lawrence, G A; Tryphonas, L

    1977-05-01

    Four experiments were conducted using weanling Wistar rats to determine whether chlorinated cake flour or its constituents were toxic. Levels of 0.2 and 1.0% chlorine added to unbleached cake flour significantly (p less than 0.01) reduced growth rate by 20.7 and 85.2% and increased liver weight relative to body weight by 16.7 and 25.3%, respectively. Lipids extracted from flour chlorinated at the same levels had similar effects. Rat chow diets containing 0.2 and 0.6% chlorine in the form of chlorinated wheat gluten reduced growth rate and increased liver weight as a percentage of body weight. A rat chow diet containing 0.2% chlorine as chlorinated flour lipids increased absolute liver weight by 40%, kidney by 20%, and heart by 10% compared to pair-fed controls. PMID:864787

  3. Segmentation of Retinal Blood Vessels Based on Cake Filter

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Xi-Rong; Ge, Xin; She, Li-Huang; Zhang, Shi

    2015-01-01

    Segmentation of retinal blood vessels is significant to diagnosis and evaluation of ocular diseases like glaucoma and systemic diseases such as diabetes and hypertension. The retinal blood vessel segmentation for small and low contrast vessels is still a challenging problem. To solve this problem, a new method based on cake filter is proposed. Firstly, a quadrature filter band called cake filter band is made up in Fourier field. Then the real component fusion is used to separate the blood vessel from the background. Finally, the blood vessel network is got by a self-adaption threshold. The experiments implemented on the STARE database indicate that the new method has a better performance than the traditional ones on the small vessels extraction, average accuracy rate, and true and false positive rate. PMID:26636095

  4. The Layer Cake Walls of Valles Marineris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    are the 'usual' set that the CRISM team uses to provide an overview of infrared data, because dust has a less obscuring effect, and because they are sensitive to a wide variety of minerals. Layering is clearly evident in the wall rocks. The conspicuous band running along the base of the chasma wall appears slightly yellowish, and the scarp at the edge of the topographic bench appears slightly green.

    The bottom two panels use combinations of wavelengths to show the strengths of absorptions that provide 'fingerprints' of different minerals. In the lower left panel, red shows strength of a 0.53-micron absorption due to oxidized iron in dust, green shows strength of an inflection in the spectrum at 0.6 microns that may be related to rock coatings, and blue shows strength of a 1-micron absorption due to the igneous minerals olivine and pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band appears slightly blue, indicating a stronger signature of olivine and/or pyroxene. In the lower right panel, red is a measure of an absorption particular to olivine, green is a measure of a 2.3-micron absorption due to phyllosilicates (clay-like minerals formed when rock was subjected to liquid water), and blue is a measure of absorptions particular to pyroxene. The conspicuous horizontal band is now resolved into an upper portion richer in pyroxene, underlain by material richer in olivine than the rest of the wall rock. Also, erosion-resistant material forming the topographic bench is underlain by phyllosilicate-containing material exposed on the scarp.

    Taken together, these data reveal a layer cake-like composition of the crustal material exposed in Coprates Chasma's wall. Most of the rock is rich in pyroxene, which is expected because much of Mars' crust consists of volcanic basaltic rock. However discrete layers are richer in olivine, and in some layers the presence of phyllosilicates indicates interaction of rock with liquid water. Because the phyllosilicate-containing layer is low on

  5. Structural development of sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes during baking.

    PubMed

    Baeva, Marianna Rousseva; Terzieva, Vesselina Velichkova; Panchev, Ivan Nedelchev

    2003-06-01

    The influence of sucrose, wheat starch and sorbitol upon the heat- and mass-exchanging processes forming the structure of sponge cake was studied. Under the influence of wheat starch and sorbitol the structure of the sucrose-free sponge cake was formed at more uniform total moisture release. This process was done at lower temperatures and smoother change of the sponge cake height with respect to the sucrose-sweetened sponge cake. The porous and steady structure of both cakes was finally formed at identical time--between 18th and 19th minute, at the applied conditions for baking of each batter (metal pan with diameter 15.4 cm and depth 6.2 cm containing 300 g of batter and placed in an electric oven "Rahovetz-02", Bulgaria for 30 min at 180 degrees C). The water-losses at the end of baking (10.30% and 10.40% for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) and the final temperatures reached in the crumb central layers (96.6 degrees C and 96.3 degrees C for the sucrose-sweetened cake and sucrose-free cake, respectively) during baking of both samples were not statistically different. The addition of wheat starch and sorbitol in sucrose-free sponge cake lead to the statistically different values for the porosity (76.15% and 72.98%) and the volume (1014.17 cm3 and 984.25 cm3) of the sucrose-sweetened and sucrose-free sponge cakes, respectively. As a result, the sucrose-free sponge cake formed during baking had a more homogeneous and finer microstructure with respect to that ofthe sucrose-sweetened one.

  6. Management of root lesion nematode, Pratylenchus delattrei in crossandra using oil cakes.

    PubMed

    Jothi, G; Babu, Rajeswari Sundara; Ramakrishnan, S; Rajendran, G

    2004-07-01

    Selected oil cakes, neem, castor and mahua, were tried independently and in combination with a chemical nematicide (carbofuran 3G) for the management of Pratylenchus delattrei in crossandra under glass house conditions. The neem oil cake was effective compared to other oil cakes used and there was a synergistic effect when the neemcake was coupled with carbofuran 3G in the management of Pratylenchus delattrei. The treatment resulted in better establishment of seedlings, and with increased plant bio-mass and flower yield.

  7. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/.

  8. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/ PMID:26827236

  9. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. PMID:26827236

  10. Process for changing caking coals to noncaking coals

    DOEpatents

    Beeson, Justin L.

    1980-01-01

    Caking coals are treated in a slurry including alkaline earth metal hydroxides at moderate pressures and temperatures in air to form noncaking carbonaceous material. Hydroxides such as calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide or barium hydroxide are contemplated for slurrying with the coal to interact with the agglomerating constituents. The slurry is subsequently dewatered and dried in air at atmospheric pressure to produce a nonagglomerating carbonaceous material that can be conveniently handled in various coal conversion and combustion processes.

  11. Microbiological Analysis of Rice Cake Processing in Korea.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Choi, Na-Jung; Ha, Sang-Do; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the microbial contamination in rice cake materials and products during processing and in the operation environment in nonhazard analysis [and] critical control point factories. Furthermore, the environmental health of the processing facilities and the bacterial and fungal contamination on the workers' hands were investigated. Pour plate methods were used for enumeration of aerobic plate count (APC), yeast and molds (YM), Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus aureus, and Clostridium perfringens, whereas Petrifilm count plates were used for enumeration of coliforms and Escherichia coli. The respective microbial levels of APC, coliforms, YM, and B. cereus were in the range of 2.6 to 4.7, 1.0 to 3.8, not detected (ND) to 2.9, and ND to 2.8 log CFU/g in the raw materials and in the range of 2.3 to 6.2, ND to 3.6, ND to 2.7, and ND to 3.7 log CFU/g during processing of the rice cake products. During the processing of rice cakes, APC, coliforms, YM, and B. cereus increased during soaking and smashing treatments and decreased after steaming treatment. E. coli, S. aureus, and C. perfringens were not detected in any of the raw materials and operating areas or during processing. B. cereus was detected on the operators' hands at microbial contamination levels of 1.9 ± 0.19 to 2.0 ± 0.19 log CFU/g. The results showed that B. cereus in the end product is presumably the main concern for rice cakes. In addition, the high contamination level of B. cereus during manufacturing processes, including soaking, smashing, and molding, and the absence of B. cereus from the air sampling plates indicated that the contaminated equipment showed the potential risk to cause cross-contamination.

  12. Deproteinated palm kernel cake-derived oligosaccharides: A preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Suet Pin; Chia, Chin Hua; Fang, Zhen; Zakaria, Sarani; Chee, Kah Leong

    2014-09-01

    Preliminary study on microwave-assisted hydrolysis of deproteinated palm kernel cake (DPKC) to produce oligosaccharides using succinic acid was performed. Three important factors, i.e., temperature, acid concentration and reaction time, were selected to carry out the hydrolysis processes. Results showed that the highest yield of DPKC-derived oligosaccharides can be obtained at a parameter 170 °C, 0.2 N SA and 20 min of reaction time.

  13. A kinetic study on sesame cake protein hydrolysis by Alcalase.

    PubMed

    Demirhan, Elçin; Apar, Dilek Kılıç; Özbek, Belma

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the hydrolysis of sesame cake protein was performed by Alcalase, a bacterial protease produced by Bacillus licheniformis, to investigate the reaction kinetics of sesame cake hydrolysis and to determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase. The reactions were carried out for 10 min in 0.1 L of aqueous solutions containing 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30 g protein/L at various temperature and pH values. To determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase, a series of inhibition experiments were conducted with the addition of various amounts of hydrolysate. The reaction kinetics was investigated by initial rate approach. The initial reaction rates were determined from the slopes of the linear models that fitted to the experimental data. The kinetic parameters, K(m) and V(max), were estimated as 41.17 g/L and 9.24 meqv/L x min. The Lineweaver-Burk plots showed that the type of inhibition for Alcalase determined as uncompetitive, and the inhibition constant, K(i), was estimated as 38.24% (hydrolysate/substrate mixture). Practical Application: Plant proteins are increasingly being used as an alternative to proteins from animal sources to perform functional roles in food formulation. Knowledge of the kinetics of the hydrolysis reaction is essential for the optimization of enzymatic protein hydrolysis and for increasing the utilization of plant proteins in food products. Therefore, in the present study, the hydrolysis of sesame cake protein was performed by Alcalase, a bacterial protease produced by B. licheniformis, to investigate the reaction kinetics of sesame cake hydrolysis and to determine decay and product inhibition effects for Alcalase.

  14. Direct Estimate of Cocoa Powder Content in Cakes by Colorimetry and Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dóka, O.; Bicanic, D.; Kulcsár, R.

    2014-12-01

    Cocoa is a very important ingredient in the food industry and largely consumed worldwide. In this investigation, colorimetry and photoacoustic spectroscopy were used to directly assess the content of cocoa powder in cakes; both methods provided satisfactory results. The calibration curve was constructed using a series of home-made cakes containing varying amount of cocoa powder. Then, at a later stage, the same calibration curve was used to quantify the cocoa content of several commercially available cakes. For self-made cakes, the relationship between the PAS signal and the content of cocoa powder was linear while a quadratic dependence was obtained for the colorimetric index (brightness) and total color difference ().

  15. An improved method for visualizing the morphology of lyophilized product cakes.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philippe; Patapoff, Thomas W

    2011-01-01

    Due to low optical contrast, the morphology of lyophilized product cakes is difficult to observe and photograph. Furthermore, internal structures are normally not visible unless the cake is fractured. Because most lyophilized substances are hygroscopic and quite fragile, the product cake, once removed from the vial, will rapidly degrade. We propose herein a technique that allows a lyophilized product cake to be preserved, manipulated, and easily observed outside the vial. This technique yields high-quality, cross sectional images that reveal intricate fine structures without the use of expensive specialized equipment.

  16. Effect of incorporation of chicken blood plasma on physico-chemical properties of cakes.

    PubMed

    Warhadpande, R M; Dutta, K K; Mahanta, J D; Hazarika, M

    2010-12-01

    Level of inclusion of chicken blood plasma (CBP) in the preparation of cakes was assessed in respect of certain physico-chemical quality traits. The cakes were prepared with and without added flavour. In each group, seven cakes were prepared from 0 (control) to 60% level of inclusion of CBP with 10% interval. The cakes at 40% level of incorporation of CBP recorded highest visual grades for colour and consistency. There was gradual rise in cake volume up to 40% level and on further increase in level of inclusion of CBP resulted into subsequent fall in cake volumes. The pH of cakes did not differ significantly up to 20% level but it increased beyond 20%. The moisture, total ash and crude protein contents of cakes exhibited an increasing trend from 0 to 60% level of inclusion of CBP. The ether extract of cakes showed a gradual decrease at increased level of inclusion of CBP. There was no significant effect of flavour for all the parameters studied. Based on the overall results, it may be concluded that CBP could be successfully used up to 30% level of inclusion for value addition in egg products.

  17. Dominant thermogravimetric signatures of lignin in cashew shell as compared to cashew shell cake.

    PubMed

    Gangil, Sandip

    2014-03-01

    Dominant thermogravimetric signatures related to lignin were observed in cashew shell as compared to these signatures in cashew shell cake. The phenomenon of weakening of lignin from cashew shell to cashew shell cake was explained on the basis of changes in the activation energies. The pertinent temperature regimes responsible for the release of different constituents of both the bio-materials were identified and compared. The activation energies of cashew shell and cashew shell cake were compared using Kissinger-Akahira-Sunose method. Thermogravimetric profiling of cashew shell and cashew shell cake indicated that these were different kinds of bio-materials.

  18. A capillary network model for filter cake based on pore structure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.; Lin, C.L.

    1996-12-31

    Dewatering of fine coal by continuous filtration involves filter cake formation and removal of surface moisture by drawing air through the capillaries of the cake. In order to gain a better understanding of the complex transport phenomena that occur in the filter cake, analysis of the effect of three-dimensional pore geometry on the effective transport properties of the filter cake is necessary. This paper provides information on the techniques and methodology necessary to provide a detailed three-dimensional analysis of a completely interconnected porous system. In addition, a conceptual capillary network model based on a 3-D interconnected porous system is proposed.

  19. An outbreak of norovirus gastroenteritis associated with wedding cakes.

    PubMed

    Friedman, D S; Heisey-Grove, D; Argyros, F; Berl, E; Nsubuga, J; Stiles, T; Fontana, J; Beard, R S; Monroe, S; McGrath, M E; Sutherby, H; Dicker, R C; DeMaria, A; Matyas, B T

    2005-12-01

    We sought to determine the source of a norovirus outbreak among attendees of 46 weddings taking place during a single weekend. Norovirus-compatible illness was experienced by 332 (39%) of wedding guests surveyed; the outbreak affected up to 2700 persons. Illness was associated with eating wedding cake provided by a bakery common to the weddings (adjusted RR 4.5, P<0.001). A cake requiring direct hand contact during its preparation accounted for the majority of illness. At least two bakery employees experienced norovirus-compatible illness during the week preceding the weddings. Identical sequence types of norovirus were detected in stool specimens submitted by two wedding guests, a wedding hall employee, and one of the ill bakery employees. It is likely that one or more food workers at the bakery contaminated the wedding cakes through direct and indirect contact. These findings reinforce the necessity of proper food-handling practices and of policies that discourage food handlers from working while ill.

  20. Edible applications of shellac oleogels: spreads, chocolate paste and cakes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ashok R; Rajarethinem, Pravin S; Grędowska, Agnieszka; Turhan, Ozge; Lesaffer, Ans; De Vos, Winnok H; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate three potential edible applications of shellac oleogels as (i) a continuous oil phase for preparation of emulsifier-free, structured w/o emulsions (spreads), (ii) a replacer for oil-binders in chocolate paste formulations and (iii) a shortening alternative for cake preparation. Water-in-oil emulsions with up to 60 wt% water were prepared without the need for an emulsifier by simply using shellac oleogels as the continuous oil phase. The water droplets in these emulsions (size < 40 μm) were stabilized via interfacial and bulk crystallization of shellac. Chocolate paste prepared by complete replacement of an oil-binder and a partial replacement of palm oil (∼27%) with a shellac oleogel, showed no sign of 'oiling-out' when stored at elevated temperature (30 °C) for several weeks. Further, cakes prepared using oleogel-based w/o emulsions (20 wt% water) as a shortening alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake.

  1. Magnesium peroxide breaker system improves filter cake removal

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, J.W. Jr.; Kayga, P.D.

    1995-10-01

    Treating drilling, completion and workover fluids with 0.5 to 1 lb/bbl of magnesium peroxide will, with proper completion procedures, substantially improve filter cake removal. Magnesium peroxide is very stable in an alkaline environment and remains inactive when added to polymer-based drilling, completion or workover fluids. Since the magnesium peroxide material is a powdered solid, it becomes an integral part of the deposited filter cake. The peroxide can be activated with a mild acid soak that produces hydrogen peroxide and decomposes into oxygen and hydroxyl radicals (OH) when catalyzed by a transition metal. These highly reactive (OH) species attack positions on the polymers that are resistant to acid alone. Significant improvements in filter cake removal can be realized by using the magnesium peroxide as a breaker, in alkaline water-based systems, especially in wells with a bottomhole temperature of 150 F or less in the following operations: Drilling into pay zone; Underreaming; Lost circulation pills; and Fluid loss pills for gravel prepacks.

  2. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  3. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  4. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  5. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  6. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  7. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  8. Modeling of Pilot-Scale Salt-cake Dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Toghiani, R.K.; Smith, L.T.; Lindner, J.S.; Tachiev, G.I.; Yaari, G.

    2006-07-01

    Large portions of the high-level waste present at the Hanford Site and Savannah River Site are comprised of porous salts with associated interstitial liquors. Various processes have been proposed wherein the aqueous phase is removed followed by dissolution of the salt with further mixing or blending of the resulting stream in a receiver tank. This leads to a large reduction in the radioactivity for the dissolved salt-cake; however, the interstitial retrieval process is hindered by capillary forces within the salt-cake pores and large aqueous phase fractions may remain. Thus, the interim stabilized or low-curie salt processes may have less separation effectiveness than desired. In addition, based on the initial extent of pretreatment of the waste, the salt-cake may be either unsaturated or hydraulically saturated. Different interactions are expected based on the contact of the diluent with the salt and/or on mixing the diluent with the salt and some fraction of interstitial liquid. The initial approximation is that the dissolution is governed by the associated thermodynamics of the system. This may be correct assuming sufficient time for contact between the salt and diluent has occurred. Pilot-scale simulant salt-cake dissolution experiments have been conducted by the Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University. As part of a companion program, these experiments have been modeled at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL, Mississippi State University) using the Environmental Simulation Program (ESP, OLI Systems, Inc.). Hanford simulant compositions were examined under unsaturated and saturated conditions. To account for channeling that occurred during the unsaturated experiment, additional operations were required for the process flowsheet. Direct modeling of the saturated bed was possible without this consideration. The results have impacts on the salt-cake retrieval process. First, depending on the extent of interstitial

  9. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

  10. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  11. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes, part 3: hydrophobic vials and the question of adhesion.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-06-01

    The importance of cake adhesion to the inside vial wall during lyophilization of amorphous trehalose cakes was determined by using hydrophobized vials. The degrees of cake shrinkage and cracking were determined independently by photographic imaging of the cake top surface in a dark cell. Additionally, measurements with microcomputed tomography were performed. Adhesion is found to be a determining factor in both cake shrinkage and cracking. The correlation between cake detachment from the vial inner wall and trehalose concentration indicates that adhesion of the frozen solute phase is a determining factor in shrinkage. The hydrophobized vials give reduced cracking at trehalose concentrations of up to 15%. The reduced wetting of the hydrophobized inside vial wall gives a planar cake topography with a uniform distribution of cracks within the cake.

  12. MATCAKE: a flexible toolbox for 2D NMR spectra integration by CAKE algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Rocco; Acernese, Fausto; Vilasi, Silvia; Paris, Debora; Motta, Andrea; Barone, Fabrizio

    2011-04-01

    MatCAKE (www.cake.unisa.it) is a toolbox for integrating 2D NMR spectra by the CAKE (Monte CArlo peaK volume Estimation)1 algorithm within the Matlab environment (www.mathworks.com). Quantitative information from multidimensional NMR experiments can be obtained by peak volume integration. The standard procedure (selection of a region around the chosen peak and addition of all values) is often biased by poor peak definition because of peak overlap. CAKE is a simple algorithm designed for volume integration of (partially) overlapping peaks. Assuming the axial symmetry of two-dimensional NMR peaks, as it occurs in NOESY and TOCSY when Lorentz-Gauss transformation of the signals is carried out, CAKE estimates the peak volume by multiplying a volume fraction by a factor R. It represents a proportionality ratio between the total and the fractional volume, which is identified as a slice in an exposed region of the overlapping peaks. The volume fraction is obtained via Monte Carlo Hit-or-Miss technique, which proved to be the most efficient because of the small region and the limited number of points within the selected area. Due to the large number of software packages available for processing nuclear magnetic resonance data, MatCAKE is designed just for implementing the new CAKE algorithm. In MatCAKe, in fact, only already processed bidimensional spectra are imported and, at the moment, the only volume integration (by CAKE and by the most simple standard procedure) are allowed. MatCAKE is a free software at disposal for the scientific community and can be obtained on line at the web address cake.unisa.it.

  13. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-12-25

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93-106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100-200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake and

  14. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-01-01

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93–106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100–200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake

  15. Experimental study of cake formation on heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in a pilot scale pulse jet bag filter using optical in-situ cake height measurement.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman; Krammer, Gernot

    2011-12-25

    Pulse-jet bag filters are frequently employed for particle removal from off gases. Separated solids form a layer on the permeable filter media called filter cake. The cake is responsible for increasing pressure drop. Therefore, the cake has to be detached at a predefined upper pressure drop limit or at predefined time intervals. Thus the process is intrinsically semi-continuous. The cake formation and cake detachment are interdependent and may influence the performance of the filter. Therefore, understanding formation and detachment of filter cake is important. In this regard, the filter media is the key component in the system. Needle felts are the most commonly used media in bag filters. Cake formation studies with heat treated and membrane coated needle felts in pilot scale pulse jet bag filter were carried out. The data is processed according to the procedures that were published already [Powder Technology, Volume 173, Issue 2, 19 April 2007, Pages 93-106]. Pressure drop evolution, cake height distribution evolution, cake patches area distribution and their characterization using fractal analysis on different needle felts are presented here. It is observed that concavity of pressure drop curve for membrane coated needle felt is principally caused by presence of inhomogeneous cake area load whereas it is inherent for heat treated media. Presence of residual cake enhances the concavity of pressure drop at the start of filtration cycle. Patchy cleaning is observed only when jet pulse pressure is too low and unable to provide the necessary force to detach the cake. The border line is very sharp. Based on experiments with limestone dust and three types of needle felts, for the jet pulse pressure above 4 bar and filtration velocity below 50 mm/s, cake is detached completely except a thin residual layer (100-200 μm). Uniformity and smoothness of residual cake depends on the surface characteristics of the filter media. Cake height distribution of residual cake and

  16. Nutritionally "Empty" but "Full" of Meanings: The Socio-Cultural Significance of Birthday Cakes in Four Early Childhood Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albon, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    This article examines the socio-cultural significance of birthday cakes with the purpose of reflecting upon birthday cake practices enacted in four early childhood settings in England. I argue that birthday cakes occupy an ambiguous place in early childhood practice: seen to be both "risky"--a term I problematise--"and"…

  17. Cake Flour Is Not Just Any Old White Powder: A Fun Take-Home Experiment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullen, Kevin; Rasmus, C.; Virtue, Melinda; Slik, Kate; Wrigley, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Baking cakes with different recipes can provide an exercise in the application of the scientific method, illustrating the need to vary only one ingredient at a time for correct derivation of conclusions. This experiment, most likely to be performed at home, compares a cake flour with flours from durum wheat, rice and cornflour (gluten-free…

  18. Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life.

    PubMed

    Zieliński, Henryk; del Castillo, Maria Dolores; Przygodzka, Małgorzata; Ciesarova, Zuzana; Kukurova, Kristina; Zielińska, Danuta

    2012-12-15

    Changes in chemical composition and antioxidative properties of rye ginger cakes during their shelf-life were investigated in this study. In particular, the changes in antioxidants content, antioxidative and reducing capacity, and Maillard reaction development in rye ginger cakes after long-term storage were addressed. Ginger cakes produced according to the traditional and current recipe were stored for 5 years at room temperature in a dark place. The total phenolic compounds (TPC), inositol hexaphosphate (IP6), reduced (GSH) and oxidised glutathione (GSSG) contents, antioxidant and reducing capacity and Maillard reaction products (MRPs) were determined in ginger cakes after storage and then compared to those measured after baking. After long-term storage a decrease in TPC and IP6 contents in cakes was noted. In contrast, an increase in antioxidative and reducing capacity of stored cakes was observed. Long-term storage induced formation of furosine, advanced and final Maillard reaction products and caused changes in both reduced and oxidised forms of glutathione. After long-term storage the modest changes in furosine, FAST index and browning in ginger cake formulated with dark rye flour may suggest that this product is the healthiest among others. Therefore, traditional rye ginger cakes can be considered as an example of a healthy food that is also relatively stable during long term storage as noted by the small chemical changes observed in its composition.

  19. Process and composition to enhance removal of polymer-containing filter cakes from wellbores

    SciTech Connect

    Mondshine, T.C.; Benta, G.R.

    1993-08-24

    A method is described for removing the filter cake from the surface of a hydrocarbon-containing subterranean formation, the filter cake comprising bridging particles and at least one polysaccharide polymer, which comprises contacting the filter cake with a solution comprising an aqueous brine, a peroxide selected from the group consisting of alkaline earth metal peroxides, zinc peroxide, and mixtures thereof, and an acidic substance to provide the soak solution with a pH in the range from about 1 to about 8, for a period of time at least sufficient to decompose the polysaccharide polymers therein to such an extent that the filter cake forms a loosely adherent mass on the surface of the formation, and thereafter contacting the filter cake with a wash solution in which the bridging particles are soluble to remove the remaining filter cake solids. A composition is described for decomposing polysaccharide polymers contained within filter cakes on the sides of a borehole, the filter cake containing at least one polysaccharide polymer and bridging particles, which comprises an aqueous brine in which the bridging particles are not appreciably soluble, an alkaline earth metal peroxide in an amount from about 2.8 kg/m[sup 3] to about 57 kg/m[sup 3], a soluble activator to enhance the rate of decomposition of the polysaccharide, and an acidic substance to provide the composition with a pH in the range from about 1 to about 8.

  20. Using Texture Analysis Technique to Assess the Freeze-Dried Cakes in Vials.

    PubMed

    Hackl, Ellen V; Ermolina, Irina

    2016-07-01

    A freeze-dried (FD) cake should possess, among other properties, a sufficient dryness and strength to prevent cracking or powdering during transportation and storage. In this study, the application of a standard texture analysis (TA) technique to study the mechanical properties of the FD cakes directly in glass vials used for freeze-drying has been demonstrated. Examining the FD cakes in glass vials has many advantages as it allows studying the intact FD cakes minimizing the bias from texture distortion during samples preparation, and reducing the moisture uptake. A procedure allowing quantitative assessment of the strength, fracturability, and elastic properties of the FD cakes using TA has been developed. The results show that the TA method is sensitive to the variations in cake materials, storage conditions (temperature, excessive moisture), and cake quality. The results also show that TA can also be applied for optimization and improvement of the freeze-drying protocols and rapid disintegrating tablet formulation development. The simplicity of the TA technique and a number of different probes available on the market allow using the TA for the routine reliable and robust tests of FD solids providing valuable information on the strength and texture of the cakes.

  1. Jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and shortening composites for use in cake icings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Butter cream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  2. Fouling cake layer in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor treating saline wastewaters: curse or a blessing?

    PubMed

    Vyrides, I; Stuckey, D C

    2011-01-01

    The treatment of inhibitory (saline) wastewaters is known to produce considerable amounts of soluble microbial products (SMPs), and this has been implicated in membrane fouling; the fate of these SMPs was of considerable interest in this work. This study also investigated the contribution of SMPs to membrane fouling of the; (a) cake layer/biofilm layer, (b) the compounds below the biofilm/cake layer and strongly attached to the surface of the membrane, (c) the compounds in the inner pores of the membrane, and (d) the membrane. It was found that the cake/biofilm layer was the main reason for fouling of the membrane. Interestingly, the bacteria attached to the cake/biofilm layer showed higher biodegradation rates compared with the bacteria in suspension. Moreover, the bacteria attached to the cake layer showed higher amounts of attached extracellular polysaccharides (EPS) compared with the bacteria in suspension, possibly due to accumulation of the released EPS from suspended biomass in the cake/biofilm layer. Molecular weight (MW) analysis of the effluent and reactor bulk showed that the cake layer can retain a large fraction of the SMPs in the reactor and prevent them from being released into the effluent. Hence, while cake layers lead to lower fluxes in submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactors (SAMBRS), and hence higher costs, they can improve the quality of the reactor effluent.

  3. Extraction, composition and functional properties of pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study compared two methods for extracting the protein in pennycress (Thlaspi arvense L.) press cake and determined the composition and functional properties of the protein products. Proteins in pennycress press cake were extracted by using the conventional alkali solubilization-acid precipitati...

  4. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    PubMed

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics. PMID:20497788

  5. Chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel can be used as egg or oil replacer in cake formulations.

    PubMed

    Borneo, Rafael; Aguirre, Alicia; León, Alberto E

    2010-06-01

    This study determined the overall acceptability, sensory characteristics, functional properties, and nutrient content of cakes made using chia (Salvia hispanica L) gel as a replacement for oil or eggs. Chia gel was used to replace 25%, 50%, and 75% of oil or eggs in a control cake formulation. Seventy-five untrained panelists participated in rating cakes on a seven-point hedonic scale. Analysis of variance conducted on the sensory characteristics and overall acceptability indicated a statistically significant effect when replacing oil or eggs for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability (P<0.05). Post hoc analysis (using Fisher's least significant difference method) indicated that the 25% chia gel cakes were not significantly different from the control for color, taste, texture, and overall acceptability. The 50% oil substituted (with chia gel) cake, compared to control, had 36 fewer kilocalories and 4 g less fat per 100-g portion. Cake weight was not affected by chia gel in the formulation, although cake volume was lower as the percentage of substitution increased. Symmetry was generally not affected. This study demonstrates that chia gel can replace as much as 25% of oil or eggs in cakes while yielding a more nutritious product with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  6. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils.

  7. Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N

    2010-10-01

    Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner. PMID:20627547

  8. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, performance, and carcass yield of lambs fed licuri cake.

    PubMed

    Costa, J B; Oliveira, R L; Silva, T M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, A M; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R; Rocha, T C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of the inclusion of licuri cake in the diets of crossbred Santa Inês lambs, based on intake, digestibility, N balance, urea N, and performance. We used 44 male lambs that were vaccinated and wormed, with an average age of 6 mo and an average BW of 21.2 kg ± 2.7 kg. The lambs were fed a mixture of Tifton-85 hay (40%) and a concentrated mixture (60%) composed of ground corn, soybean meal, and mineral premix. For the treatments, licuri cake was added at levels of 0, 8, 16, and 24% of DM, with the licuri cake replacing soybean meal and ground corn. We used 11 lambs per treatment in a randomized design. The lambs were confined for 70 d, and the digestibility trial occurred between Day 40 and Day 55. The increased level of licuri cake inclusion promoted a linear reduction in DM intake ( = 0.00) with a 39% reduction between treatments with the 0 and 24% cakes. On the other hand, ether extract () consumption showed an initial quadratic increase ( = 0.00). The total weight gain and ADG showed a linear decrease ( = 0.00) with the addition of licuri cake. The inclusion of licuri cake linearly enhanced ( = 0.02) the digestibility of CP and EE, whereas the digestibility of other nutrients in lambs remained unchanged ( > 0.05). The licuri cake increase led to a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in the N intake, fecal N, and retained N in lambs. Urinary N was not changed. The slaughter carcass weight, HCW, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, and cold carcass yield showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake. Carcass morphometric measurements were influenced by experimental diets, showing linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake to diets. The fat thickness, conformation, external length, internal length, leg length, rump width, and chest circumference showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the inclusion of licuri cake in diets. The inclusion of licuri cake decreased DMI and digestibility, reflecting

  9. Intake, digestibility, nitrogen balance, performance, and carcass yield of lambs fed licuri cake.

    PubMed

    Costa, J B; Oliveira, R L; Silva, T M; Ribeiro, R D X; Silva, A M; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R; Rocha, T C

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of the inclusion of licuri cake in the diets of crossbred Santa Inês lambs, based on intake, digestibility, N balance, urea N, and performance. We used 44 male lambs that were vaccinated and wormed, with an average age of 6 mo and an average BW of 21.2 kg ± 2.7 kg. The lambs were fed a mixture of Tifton-85 hay (40%) and a concentrated mixture (60%) composed of ground corn, soybean meal, and mineral premix. For the treatments, licuri cake was added at levels of 0, 8, 16, and 24% of DM, with the licuri cake replacing soybean meal and ground corn. We used 11 lambs per treatment in a randomized design. The lambs were confined for 70 d, and the digestibility trial occurred between Day 40 and Day 55. The increased level of licuri cake inclusion promoted a linear reduction in DM intake ( = 0.00) with a 39% reduction between treatments with the 0 and 24% cakes. On the other hand, ether extract () consumption showed an initial quadratic increase ( = 0.00). The total weight gain and ADG showed a linear decrease ( = 0.00) with the addition of licuri cake. The inclusion of licuri cake linearly enhanced ( = 0.02) the digestibility of CP and EE, whereas the digestibility of other nutrients in lambs remained unchanged ( > 0.05). The licuri cake increase led to a linear decrease ( < 0.05) in the N intake, fecal N, and retained N in lambs. Urinary N was not changed. The slaughter carcass weight, HCW, cold carcass weight, hot carcass yield, and cold carcass yield showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake. Carcass morphometric measurements were influenced by experimental diets, showing linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the addition of licuri cake to diets. The fat thickness, conformation, external length, internal length, leg length, rump width, and chest circumference showed linear decreases ( < 0.05) with the inclusion of licuri cake in diets. The inclusion of licuri cake decreased DMI and digestibility, reflecting

  10. Evaporation of suspensions to form an incompressible cake and to fill filter pores with solid particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khuzhayorov, B. Kh.

    2011-11-01

    Equations of filtration of suspensions to form an incompressible cake of particles on the surface of the filter with simultaneous passage of a certain share of the particles from the cake to the filter's pore space and next to the region of a filtered liquid are derived from the principles of the mechanics of multiphase media. The influence of the travel of the particles in the region of the cake and the filter on the dynamics of growth of the cake bed is investigated. An analysis of the derived dynamic filtration equations shows that allowance for the factors of travel and accumulation of particles in the cake and the filter causes their total filtration resistance, in particular the resistance in the inertial component of the filtration law, to decrease.

  11. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment. PMID:25327023

  12. Effect of oilseed cakes on alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305.

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, T; Chandra, A K

    1982-01-01

    The effects of oilseed cakes on extracellular thermostable alpha-amylase production by Bacillus licheniformis CUMC305 was investigated. Each oilseed cake was made of groundnut, mustard, sesame, linseed, coconut copra, madhuca, or cotton. alpha-Amylase production was considerably improved in all instances and varied with the oilseed cake concentration in basal medium containing peptone and beef extract. Maximum increases were effected by a low concentration (0.5 to 1.0%) of groundnut or coconut, a high concentration (3%) of linseed or mustard, and an Rintermediate concentration (2%) of cotton, madhuca, or sesame. The oilseed cakes made of groundnut or mustard could completely replace the conventional peptone-beef extract medium as the fermentation base for the production of alpha-amylase by B. licheniformis. The addition of corn steep liquor to cotton, linseed, sesame, or madhuca cake in the medium improved alpha-amylase production. PMID:6181738

  13. Permeability of filter cakes of palm oil in relation to mechanical expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kamst, G.F.; Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Graauw, J. de

    1997-03-01

    Permeability and compressibility data are required for an adequate process model for compressible-cake filtration and mechanical expression. Experimental and modeling results of the permeability of palm-oil filter cakes (a highly compressible viscoelastic material) are combined with compressibility data, leading to a model for the expression step. Permeability measurements show that permeability depends strongly on the quantity of fine particles in the cake. Removal of fine particles from the slurry before expression significantly increases the solid-phase content during expression due to higher permeability. Modeling results of the expression step show that for palm-oil filter cakes there is a pressure above which the attainable mass fraction of solids becomes independent of pressure. Decrease in specific cake resistance has two effects: a higher mass fraction of solids at the same pressure and a higher pressure at which the mass fraction of solids is not affected further.

  14. Blocking laws analysis of dead-end constant flux microfiltration of compressible cakes.

    PubMed

    Chellam, Shankararaman; Xu, Wendong

    2006-09-01

    New blocking law models for dead-end constant flux microfiltration of colloids forming cakes that compressed in a linear and power law manner were derived. Constant pressure and constant flux experiments were performed using bacteria, colloidal silica, and treated natural waters to validate these new models and quantitatively verify blocking law predictions on the role of cake compressibility in microfilter fouling. Statistically invariant values of cake specific resistance and compressibility were obtained for constant flux and constant pressure operation for each feed suspension. This suggests that colloids formed cakes whose hydraulic resistance is dominated by a morphology that did not depend on their mode of deposition, confirming that the cake permeability was determined by the instantaneous pressure. Additionally, an inverse relationship between extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) secreted by bacteria and hydrodynamic flux restoration procedures was obtained demonstrating the importance of linking EPS to backwashing frequency when bacteria are present in the feed water.

  15. Generation pattern of sulfur containing gases from anaerobically digested sludge cakes.

    PubMed

    Novak, John T; Adams, Gregory; Chen, Yen-Chih; Erdal, Zeynep; Forbes, Robert H; Glindemann, Dietmar; Hargreaves, J Ronald; Hentz, Lawrence; Higgins, Matthew J; Murthy, Sudhir N; Witherspoon, Jay

    2006-08-01

    Eleven dewatered sludge cakes collected from anaerobic digesters at different treatment plants were evaluated for the amount, type, and pattern of odorous gas production. All but one of the sludge cakes were from mesophilic anaerobic digesters. One was from a thermophilic digester. The pattern and quantities of sulfur gases were found to be unique for each of the samples with regard to the products produced, magnitude, and subsequent decline. The main odor-causing chemicals were volatile sulfur compounds, which included hydrogen sulfide, methanethiol, and dimethyl sulfide. Volatile sulfur compound production peaked in 3 to 8 days and then declined. The decline was a result of conversion of organic sulfur compounds to sulfide. In one side-by-side test, a high-solids centrifuge cake generated more odorous compounds than the low-solids centrifuge cake. The data show that anaerobic digestion does not eliminate the odor potential of anaerobically digested dewatered cakes.

  16. Measurement of shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes. Part I: final-product assessment.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, Sabine; Seyferth, Stefan; Lee, Geoffrey

    2015-01-01

    An experimental technique is presented to determine independently shrinkage and cracking in lyophilized amorphous cakes based on photographic imaging of their top surface. An inverse correlation between cake shrinkage and cracking during freeze-drying is seen. Shrinkage relaxes the drying tension and gives little cracking, whereas if shrinkage is restrained then more cracking occurs. A lower shrinkage and greater cracking with higher disaccharide concentration correlates with change in cake hardness and brittleness. Adhesion of the cake to the inside vial wall could not be identified as a determining factor for shrinkage. Shrinkage is non-uniform across the cake's surface and is manifested largely in the peripheral region. A correlation between shrinkage and w(g)' for different disaccharides suggests that drying tension develops as non-frozen water is lost from the porous solid after sublimation of the ice phase has exposed the solid/gas interface.

  17. [Aflatoxins in food: tests of decontamination of peanut cakes by ionizing treatment].

    PubMed

    Diop, Y M; Ndiaye, B; Diouf, A; Fall, M; Thiam, A; Ciss, M; Hasselmann, C; Ba, D

    1999-01-01

    The efficacy of ionising treatment for decontaminating peanut cakes was tested. The influence of cakes water content and the effect of ionisation dose rate were studied. The results obtained after a reverse phase liquid chromatographic determination of B1, B2, G1 and G2 aflatoxins have revealed an important contamination of the peanut cakes (up to 1000 ppb of total aflatoxin's contents). After ionising treatment at 25 kGy, the aflatoxins degradation in peanut cake's was less important in dried samples (about 5-10% at 0.55 water activity: aw) than in the humid ones (40-60% degradation at 0.95 water activity). At this dose, any indicative difference of the degradation rate of aflatoxins, with regard to the ionising process was observed. The efficacy of ionising treatment for decontaminating peanut cakes could probably be improved, however the economic interest of such process as alternative of the treatment with ammonia is questionable.

  18. Nitrogen mineralization from anaerobically digested centrifuge cake and aged air-dried biosolids.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kuldip; Hundal, Lakhwinder S; Cox, Albert E; Granato, Thomas

    2014-09-01

    This study was conducted to estimate nitrogen (N) mineralization of anaerobically digested centrifuge cake from the Stickney Water Reclamation Plant (SWRP) and Calumet Water Reclamation Plant (CWRP), lagoon-aged air-dried biosolids from the CWRP, and Milorganite at three rates of application (0, 12.5 and 25 Mg ha(-1)). The N mineralized varied among biosolids as follows: Milorganite (44%) > SWRP centrifuge cake (35%) > CWRP centrifuge cake (31%) > aged air-dried (13%). The N mineralized in the SWRP cake (32%) and CWRP aged air-dried biosolids (12%) determined from the 15N study were in agreement with the first study. The N mineralization value for centrifuge cake biosolids observed in our study is higher than the value given in the Part 503 rule and Illinois Part 391 guidelines. These results will be used to fine-tune biosolids application rate to match crop N demand without compromising yield while minimizing any adverse effect on the environment.

  19. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  20. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-01

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  1. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil.

  2. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase.

  3. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. PMID:26775971

  4. Cosmic ray abundance measurements with the CAKE balloon experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecchini, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Giacomelli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Medinaceli, E.; Patrizii, L.; Togo, V.

    We present the results from the CAKE (Cosmic Abundance below Knee Energy) balloon experiment which uses nuclear track detectors. The final experiment goal is the determination of the charge spectrum of CR nuclei with Z > 30 in the primary cosmic radiation. The detector, which has a geometric acceptance of \\~ 1.7 m2 sr, was exposed in a trans-mediterranean stratospheric balloon flight. Calibrations of the detectors used (CR39 and Lexan), scanning strategies and algorithms for tracking particles in an automatic mode are presented. The present status of the results is discussed

  5. Recycling of Aluminum Salt Cake: Utilization of Evolved Ammonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Zhang, Mei; Teng, Lidong; Seetharaman, Seshadri

    2013-02-01

    The communication presents an extension of the leaching process of the salt cake earlier developed by the present authors. The process describes the investigations in capturing the ammonia gas evolved by hydrolysis of AlN during aqueous leaching at 373 K (100 °C) by CO2-saturated water. The product, i.e., ammonium bicarbonate which is free of chlorides, is a value-added product and can find application in the fertilizer industry. The present method has the added advantage of fixing CO2 as well.

  6. Effect of surfactant washing on enhanced dewatering of fine coal. [Microstructure and porosity of coal filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Binkley, T.O.

    1985-01-01

    The final moisture content of fine coal filter cakes in coal preparation plants is determined by the filtration and dewatering process. Washing the coal filter cake with a surfactant solution is a potentially economical technique to reduce the final moisture in a fine coal filter cake. The microscopic structure of the porous coal filter cake determines the relative permeability, porosity and final moisture content of the coal filter cake. An experimental study of washing fine coal filter cakes formed from coal-water slurries was conducted. The effect of surfactants on the structure of fine coal filter cakes and the final moisture of these filter cakes was investigated. The filter cake structure was determined using the Cahn and Fullman section chord method. This micrographic technique of quantitative stereology utilized an optical microscope and an image analyzer to measure particle and pore sizes. The washing phenomena using Triton X-114 and Aerosol-OT was investigated to determine the ability of surfactants to enhance the dewatering of fine coal. A significant reduction in final moisture content was achieved by washing the filter cake with a 100 ppM Aerosol-OT solution. While Triton X-114 can also produce a significant reduction in the final moisture content in a filter cake, the amount of surfactant adsorbed from the wash liquor onto the coal in the filter cake was, however, more than Aerosol-OT. Wash ratios of ten gave optimum results for both types of surfactants. The effects of washing on particle and pore size distributions in the coal filter cake were analyzed by micrographic measurement. The mean size of the particles and pores was used to correlate the washing results. Comparisons were made between double distilled water filter cakes and double distilled water filter cakes washed with either double distilled water or surfactant solutions. Experimental results are discussed. 25 refs., 68 figs., 32 tabs.

  7. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry.

  8. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  9. Digestibility and effect of copra cake on rate of gain, feed efficiency and protein retention of fattening pigs.

    PubMed

    Lekule, F P; Homb, T; Kategile, J A

    1986-11-01

    Sixteen barrows and 16 gilts of average liveweight 40 kg were fed on diets containing 0, 10, 20 or 30% copra cake. The copra cake replaced an equal weight of soyabean-maize meal in the diet. The rates of gain were 705, 719, 543 and 438 g/day and the ratios of feed per unit of gain were 3.21, 3.11, 3.83 and 4.91 for 0, 10, 20 and 30% copra cake diets respectively. Feed intake was reduced when 20 and 30% levels of copra cake were included in the diet. Reduced consumption, digestibility and possibly poor lysine availability and protein digestibility of copra cake are advanced as the main contributing factors for decreased rate and efficiency of gain when copra cake was incorporated beyond 10%. In a second experiment 18 female pigs weighing between 40 and 60 kg were put into metabolism cages and fed diets containing five to 30% copra cake. The copra cake replaced an equal weight of wheat bran. Faeces and urine were collected and analysed. The digestibility of copra cake was found to be low especially for protein (56.3% for true protein) Protein retention was reduced by high levels of copra cake inclusion. It is concluded that high levels of copra cake reduce performance of fattening pigs due to reduced feed intake and poor protein digestibility. Ten % seems to be the optimum level of inclusion.

  10. Biogas production from Jatropha curcas press-cake

    SciTech Connect

    Staubmann, R.; Guebitz, G.M.; Lafferty, R.M.

    1997-12-31

    Seeds of the tropical plant Jatropha curcas (purge nut, physic nut) are used for the production of oil. Several methods for oil extraction have been developed. In all processes, about 50% of the weight of the seeds remain as a press cake containing mainly protein and carbohydrates. Investigations have shown that this residue contains toxic compounds and cannot be used as animal feed without further processing. Preliminary experiments have shown that the residue is a good substrate for biogas production. Biogas formation was studied using a semicontinous upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor; a contact-process and an anaerobic filter each reactor having a total volume of 110 L. A maximum production rate of 3.5 m{sup 3} m{sup -3} d{sup -1} was obtained in the anaerobic filter with a loading rate of 13 kg COD m{sup -3} d{sup -1}. However, the UAS reactor and the contact-process were not suitable for using this substrate. When using an anaerobic filter with Jatropha curcas seed cake as a substrate, 76% of the COD was degraded and 1 kg degraded COD yielded 355 L of biogas containing 70% methane. 28 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-García, Julia; Puig, Ana; Salvador, Ana; Hernando, Isabel

    2012-02-01

    The effects of several fat replacement levels (0%, 35%, 50%, 70%, and 100%) by inulin in sponge cake microstructure and physicochemical properties were studied. Oil substitution for inulin decreased significantly (P < 0.05) batter viscosity, giving heterogeneous bubbles size distributions as it was observed by light microscopy. Using confocal laser scanning microscopy the fat was observed to be located at the bubbles' interface, enabling an optimum crumb cake structure development during baking. Cryo-SEM micrographs of cake crumbs showed a continuous matrix with embedded starch granules and coated with oil; when fat replacement levels increased, starch granules appeared as detached structures. Cakes with fat replacement up to 70% had a high crumb air cell values; they were softer and rated as acceptable by an untrained sensory panel (n = 51). So, the reformulation of a standard sponge cake recipe to obtain a new product with additional health benefits and accepted by consumers is achieved. Practical Application:  In this study, fat is replaced by inulin in cakes, which is a fiber mainly obtained from chicory roots. Sponge cake formulations with reductions in fat content up to 70% are achieved. These high-quality products can be labeled as "reduced in fat" according to U.S. FDA (2009) and EU regulations (European-Union 2006).

  12. Effects of cake collapse caused by deposition of fractal aggregates on pressure drop during ceramic filtration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Li, Cai-Ting; Wei, Xian-Xun; Gao, Hong-Liang; Wen, Qing-Bo; Fan, Xiao-Peng; Shu, Xin; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Wei, Wei; Zhai, Yun-Bo; He, Yi-De; Li, Shan-Hong

    2011-05-15

    A cake collapse model was developed by taking the combined effects of fractal dimension, relaxation ratio, coordination number, and aggregate diameter into consideration. The cake porosity including intraaggregate and interaggregate porosities was modeled successively by three typical coordination numbers (n = 6, 8, and 12). Accordingly, an inversion method made it possible to deduce the coordination number using the measured cake porosities, and the reverse-calculated value with minimum error and the corresponding relaxation ratios were applied as the parameters for the model. As a result, the profiles of intraaggregate and interaggregate porosities and cake porosity were respectively predicted in contrast to the integrated variation of the relaxation ratio and the fractal dimension. Furthermore, a comparison between the model predictions of the cake pressure drop gradients with and without aggregate compression was conducted to validate the presence of cake collapse. The results show that the predictions based on the proposed collapse model are in agreement with the experiments, and the coordination number is one of the key factors that must be incorporated into the cake collapse models.

  13. Utilization of deoiled Jatropha curcas seed cake for production of xylanase from thermophilic Scytalidium thermophilum.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Chetna; Khare, S K

    2011-01-01

    Jatropha curcas is a major biodiesel crop. Large amount of deoiled cake is generated as by-product during biodiesel production from its seeds. Deoiled J. curcas seed cake was assessed as substrate for the production of xylanase from thermophilic fungus Scytalidium thermophilum by solid-state fermentation. The seed cake was efficiently utilized by S. thermophilum for its growth during which it produced good amount of heat stable extracellular xylanase. The solid-state fermentation conditions were optimized for maximum xylanase production. Under the optimized conditions viz. deoiled seed cake supplemented with 1% oat-spelt xylan, adjusted to pH 9.0, moisture content 1:3 w/v, inoculated with 1×10(6) spores per 5 g cake and incubated at 45 °C, 1455 U xylanase/g deoiled seed cake was obtained. The xylanase was useful in biobleaching of paper pulp. Solid-state fermentation of deoiled cake appears a potentially viable approach for its effective utilization.

  14. Recovery of aluminum from rotary furnace salt cake by low impact rotary tumbling

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, D.J.

    1996-10-01

    The goal of secondary dross recyclers is to maximize the aluminum units recovered from the dross they process and minimize the amount of material they have to send to a landfill. Salt cake is a by-product of the rotary salt furnace processors. Although there are systems available to totally recycle this material, the financial aspects of the process can be debated depending on the volume of salt cake generated by the facility. Normally, from 3 to 10% aluminum is contained in this salt cake by weight. For a generator of only a million pounds a month of salt cake, This amount of aluminum is a significant number. Before now, the equipment to extract the aluminum from the salt cake has been very expensive, difficult to maintain and taken up a lot of real estate. Most processors have not gone with this option and all of the material is sent to the landfill. The Tumbler, as manufactured and designed by Didion and ALTEK, separates the aluminum from the salt cake in an efficient manner. The equipment is simple and easy to run in difficult environments. Yet, it takes a minimum of floor space. In this paper, the authors review the operation of The Tumbler on typical salt cake. White dross, black dross and pot line bath are also materials that can be processed by this system and will be touched on in the paper.

  15. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  16. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  17. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... provided in table I of 7 CFR 52.38: Provided further, That there is no off flavor in any sample unit. Table... Obliza variety, shall be of such a size that not more than 35 percent, by count, of the olives may...

  18. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions.

    PubMed

    Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2010-10-01

    The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen.

  19. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  20. VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  1. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... / Monday, April 29, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the... marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive...

  2. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate....63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  3. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    PubMed

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-01

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  4. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    PubMed

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-01

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses. PMID:25390818

  5. Cake: a bioinformatics pipeline for the integrated analysis of somatic variants in cancer genomes

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Mamunur; Robles-Espinoza, Carla Daniela; Rust, Alistair G.; Adams, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary: We have developed Cake, a bioinformatics software pipeline that integrates four publicly available somatic variant-calling algorithms to identify single nucleotide variants with higher sensitivity and accuracy than any one algorithm alone. Cake can be run on a high-performance computer cluster or used as a stand-alone application. Availabilty: Cake is open-source and is available from http://cakesomatic.sourceforge.net/ Contact: da1@sanger.ac.uk Supplementary Information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:23803469

  6. Experimental studies on steam pressure filtration of coal concentrate filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Gerl, S.; Stahl, W.

    1995-12-31

    Steam pressure filtration combines mechanical and thermal processes in one filtration device. Steam condensation at the cold layers of the filter cake, build a condensation front, which even removes the capillary water from the porous filter cake. Depending on the choice of parameters it is possible to achieve a very low residual moisture content. The influence of the parameters on the dewatering results was systematically examined on a bench-scale apparatus. This paper explains the physical fundamentals, the influence of the cake dewatering parameters, and one possible method of applying the process to a disk filter device as well.

  7. Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

  8. Effects of different emulsifier types, fat contents, and gum types on retardation of staling of microwave-baked cakes.

    PubMed

    Seyhun, Nadide; Sumnu, Gülüm; Sahin, Serpil

    2003-08-01

    The effects of different types of emulsifiers, gums, and fat contents on the retardation of staling of microwave-baked cakes were investigated. First, different types of emulsifiers (DATEM, Lecigran, and Purawave) at three different fat contents (50%, 25%, and 0%) were added to cake formulations to retard staling of microwave-baked cakes. Then, three types of gums (guar gum, xanthan gum, and methylcellulose) were added to the optimum formulations chosen. As a control, cakes formulated without any emulsifier or gum addition and baked in an conventional oven at 175 degrees C for 25 min was used. Weight loss, firmness, soluble starch and amylose content of the cakes were used as the indicators of staling criteria. Cakes were baked in a microwave oven for 1.5 min at 100% power. Variation of staling parameters during storage of cakes followed zero-order kinetics. Use of emulsifiers and gums helped to retard staling of microwave-baked cakes. Fat content was found to be a significant factor in affecting variation of firmness and weight loss of the cakes during storage. DATEM and Purawave were the most effective emulsifier types. Using gums in combination with emulsifiers gave better moisture retention and softer cakes than using gums alone.

  9. Andreev bound states for cake shape superconducting normal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cserti, J.; Béri, B.; Kormányos, A.; Pollner, P.; Kaufmann, Z.

    2004-09-01

    The energy spectrum of cake shape normal-superconducting systems is calculated by solving the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equation. We take into account the mismatch in the effective masses and Fermi energies of the normal and superconducting regions as well as the potential barrier at the interface. In the case of a perfect interface and without mismatch, the energy levels are treated by semi-classics. Analytical expressions for the density of states and its integral, the step function, are derived and compared with that obtained from exact numerics. We find a very good agreement between the two calculations. It is shown that the spectrum possesses an energy gap and the density of states is singular at the edge of the gap. The effect of the mismatch and the potential barrier on the gap is also investigated.

  10. A Jigsaw Puzzle Layer Cake of Spatial Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Xiaogang; Fox, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The Infrastructure for Spatial Information in Europe (INSPIRE; http://inspire.jrc.ec.europa.eu) is a European Union (EU) directive that aims to provide a legal framework to share environmental spatial data among public sector organizations across Europe and to facilitate public access to data. To meet these goals, INSPIRE's organization is analogous to a layer cake in which each layer is composed of interlocking pieces of a jigsaw puzzle. The metaphor, although mixed, is apt (see additional supporting information in the online version of this article), and as researchers outside the program, we offer our perspective on how INSPIRE may address challenges raised by the variety of data themes and the wide coverage of collaborators.

  11. LDPE/PHB blends filled with castor oil cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burlein, Gustavo A.; Rocha, Marisa C. G.

    2015-05-01

    The response surface methodology (RSM) is a collection of mathematical techniques useful for developing, improving and optimizing process. In this study, RSM technique was applied to evaluate the effect of the components proportion on the mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/ poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) (PHB) blends filled with castor oil cake (CC). The blends were prepared by melt mixing in a twin screw extruder. Low density polyethylene, poly (3-hydroxy-butyrate) and castor oil pressed cake were represented by the input variables designated as LDPE, PHB and CC, respectively. As it was desirable to consider the largest LDPE content in the ternary system, the components of the mixture were subjected to the following constraints: 0.7 ≤ LDPE ≤ 1.0, 0≤ PHB≤0.3 e 0 ≤ CC ≤0.3. The mechanical properties of the different mixtures were determined by conventional ASTM tests and were evaluated through analysis of variance performed by the Minitab software. Some polynomial equations were tested in order to describe the mechanical behavior of the samples. The quadratic model in pseudo components was selected for describing the tensile behavior because it was the most efficient from a statistical point of view (p-value ≤ 0.05; coefficient of determination (r2) close to 1 and variation inflation factor (VIF) values < 5). The results showed that the LDPE Young's modulus increases but the other tensile properties and impact resistance deteriorate with the addition of PHB or CC. The tensile strength values of binary mixtures of LDPE lie in the range from 8.9 to 10 MPa. As some commercial grades of LDPE have mechanical strength in this range, it may be inferred that the addition of a certain amount of PHB or CC to LDPE may be considered as a possibility for obtaining LDPE based materials with increased susceptibility to biodegradation. The cubic model in pseudo components was selected for describe the flexural strength of the samples because it was

  12. Quality of products containing defatted groundnut cake flour.

    PubMed

    Purohit, Chitra; Rajyalakshmi, Peram

    2011-02-01

    Defatted groundnut cake obtained from commercial oil processing units and that prepared in laboratory oil expeller (LOE) were analyzed for quality parameters. Defatted groundnut cake flour (DGCF) was incorporated at 15-100% levels in laddoo, chutney powder, fryums (deep fried crisp and crunchy item), biscuits, noodles and extruded snacks. The products were studied for sensory, physico-chemical and shelf-life quality. DGCF was creamish white with bulk density of 0.55 ± 0.03 g/ml, water absorption capacity 135.6 ± 1.97 ml %, oil absorption capacity 100.3 ± 1.16 ml % and foam capacity 33 ± 1%. Protein, fat and ash contents were 51.6 ± 0.06, 4.5 ± 0.05 and 4.2 ± 0.11%, respectively. Tannins and aflatoxin B1 were not detected. The increase of protein due to incorporation of DGCF into the products ranged from 5.5 to 21.9%. Shelf-life studies indicated the maximum storability for 90 days for all the products except laddoo, which could be stored for 30 days at ambient temperature (28 ± 2°C). All the products were acceptable and the order of preference for the products as indicated by adults (fryums, chutney powder, extruded snacks, noodles, biscuits and laddoo) and children (biscuits, laddoo, extruded snacks, fryums, noodles and chutney powder) varied.

  13. Toxicity of Gossypol from Cottonseed Cake to Sheep Ovarian Follicles

    PubMed Central

    Câmara, Antônio Carlos Lopes; Gadelha, Ivana Cristina Nunes; Borges, Pedro Augusto Cordeiro; de Paiva, Silvano Alves; Melo, Marília Martins; Soto-Blanco, Benito

    2015-01-01

    Gossypol, a polyphenol compound produced by cotton plant, has proven reproductive toxicity, but the effects of gossypol on sheep ovaries are unknown. This study was aimed to determine the in vitro and in vivo effects of gossypol on the ovarian follicles of sheep. This trial was divided into two experiments. In the first one, we used twelve non-pregnant, nulliparous, Santa Inês crossbred ewes, which were randomly distributed into two equal groups and fed diets with and without cottonseed cake. Feed was offered at 1.5% of the animal’s body weight for 63 days. The concentrations of total and free gossypol in the cottonseed cake were 3.28 mg/g and 0.11 mg/g, respectively. Throughout the trial period, no animal showed clinical signs of toxicity and no effects on body weight were observed. However, there was a significantly lower number of viable ovarian follicles (20.6%) and higher number of atretic follicles (79.4%) in the gossypol-fed sheep compared to the control (85.1 and 34.9%, respectively). These findings were observed at all stages of follicular development. In the second experiment, eight ovaries from slaughterhouse were cultured with different concentrations of gossypol acetic acid (0, 5, 10 and 20 μg/mL) for 24 hours or seven days. The in vitro action of gossypol resulted in a significant decrease in viable ovarian follicles, especially the primary and transition follicles, and a significant increase in the number of atretic follicles after 24 hours of culture. These follicles were greatly affected when cultured with gossypol for seven days. It is concluded that gossypol present in cotton seeds directly acts on ovarian follicles in sheep to increase atresia. PMID:26600470

  14. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-05-22

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction, scrub, and strip DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. The results indicate no significant problems processing dissolved salt cake compared to supernate. During the course of testing, researchers observed sorption of cesium on glass sample vials containing strip solutions. The problem was detected in the material balance calculated for each organic/aqueous contact. Methods and recommendations for avoiding this problem are discussed.

  15. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  16. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  17. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    PubMed

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes. PMID:27570282

  18. Effect of different flours on quality of legume cakes to be baked in microwave-infrared combination oven and conventional oven.

    PubMed

    Ozkahraman, Betul Canan; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the quality of legume cakes baked in microwave-infrared combination (MW-IR) oven with conventional oven. Legume cake formulations were developed by replacing 10 % wheat flour by lentil, chickpea and pea flour. As a control, wheat flour containing cakes were used. Weight loss, specific volume, texture, color, gelatinization degree, macro and micro-structure of cakes were investigated. MW-IR baked cakes had higher specific volume, weight loss and crust color change and lower hardness values than conventionally baked cakes. Larger pores were observed in MW-IR baked cakes according to scanning electron microscope (SEM) images. Pea flour giving the hardest structure, lowest specific volume and gelatinization degree was determined to be the least acceptable legume flour. On the other hand, lentil and chickpea flour containing cakes had the softest structure and highest specific volume showing that lentil and chickpea flour can be used to produce functional cakes.

  19. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  20. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D.

  1. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the Aβ peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

  2. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides.

  3. Neem cake: chemical composition and larvicidal activity on Asian tiger mosquito.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Mariani, Susanna; Maccioni, Oliviero; Coccioletti, Tiziana; Murugan, Kardaray

    2012-07-01

    New pesticides based on natural products are urgently needed, in consideration of their environmental care and lower collateral effects. Neem oil, the main product obtained from Azadiractha indica A. Juss, commonly known as neem tree, is mainly used in medical devices, cosmetics and soaps, as well as important insecticide. Manufacturing of neem oil first includes the collection of the neem seeds as raw material used for the extraction. Neem cake is the waste by-product remaining after extraction processes. The quality of the oil, as that of the cake, strictly depends from the quality of seeds as well as from the type of extraction processes used, which strongly influences the chemical composition of the product. Currently, the different types of commercial neem cake on the market are roughly identified as oiled and deoiled cake, but several other differences can be detected. The differences are relevant and must be determined, to obtain the necessary correlation between chemical constitution and larvicidal activities. Six different batches of neem cake, marketed by several Indian and European companies, were analyzed by HPLC and HPTLC, and their fingerprints compared, obtaining information about the different compositions, focusing in particular on nortriterpenes, considered as the main active components of neem oil. Therefore, the chemical composition of each cake was connected with the biological activitiy, i.e., the effects of the extracts of the six neem cakes were tested on eggs and larvae of Aedes albopictus (Stegomyia albopicta) (Diptera: Culicidae), commonly known as Asian tiger mosquito. The results confirmed the previously reported larvicide effects of neem cake that, however, can now be related to the chemical composition, in particular with nortriterpenes, allowing in that way to discriminate between the quality of the various marketed products, as potential domestic insecticides. PMID:22422292

  4. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results: According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P<0.001). Ozonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent. PMID:26523224

  5. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  6. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production

    PubMed Central

    Olivares-Palma, S. M.; Meale, S. J.; Pereira, L. G. R.; Machado, F. S.; Carneiro, H.; Lopes, F. C. F.; Maurício, R. M.; Chaves, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  7. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M. Suleman

    2012-01-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use. PMID:24415802

  8. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-01-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability. PMID:26451358

  9. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability. PMID:25049890

  10. Improvement of quality attributes of sponge cake using infrared dried button mushroom.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Asadi, Fereshteh; Najafi, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Infrared-hot air method, when properly applied, can be used for achieving a high-quality product. The objective of this study was to determine the rheological properties of cake batters and physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of sponge cake supplemented with four different levels (control, 5 %, 10 %, and 15 %) of button mushroom powder. The button mushroom slices were dried in an infrared-hot air dryer (250 W and 60 °C). The physical (volume, density, color) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat and ash) attributes were determined in the cakes. Increasing the level of substitution from 5 % to 15 % button mushroom powder significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein and ash. The apparent viscosity in cake batter, and volume, springiness, and cohesiveness values of baked cakes increased with increasing button mushroom powder levels whereas the density, consistency, hardness, gumminess, chewiness and crumb L, b values of samples showed a reverse trend. Sensory evaluation results indicated that cake with 10 % button mushroom powder was rated the most acceptable. PMID:27570266

  11. Correlation between filter cake structure and filtration properties of model drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Y.; Rosenberg, E.; Argillier, J.F.; Durrieu, J.; Montes, J.

    1995-11-01

    This study was undertaken in order to correlate the filtration behavior of water based muds with the structural properties of the cake. The structure of the cake is analyzed by cryo scanning electron microscopy that enables the visualization of a section of the frozen cake. Static and dynamic filtration experiments were performed both through rock slices and paper filters. On rock slices it is possible to visualize the structure of the internal cakes that invade the pores of the rock and in particular to show a selective filtration of the polymer when using a formulation containing bentonite and a fluid loss reducer. When compared to static filtration, dynamic filtration of a clay suspension gives higher filtrate volumes but leads to a cake texture characterized by a more regular network and smaller pore size. The augmentation of the filtrate volumes with shear rates is the result of both a decrease of the cake thickness and a diminution of connections between the clay sheets induced by shear rates. When polymer is added the structure of the pore walls seems less affected by shear rates, probably because of the high degree of dispersion already reached in the suspension by addition of the polymer and the ability of polymer to establish connections between particles.

  12. Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Sponge Cakes with Rubus coreanus Powder.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jun Ho

    2015-09-01

    To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.

  13. In vitro Fermentation, Digestion Kinetics and Methane Production of Oilseed Press Cakes from Biodiesel Production.

    PubMed

    Olivares-Palma, S M; Meale, S J; Pereira, L G R; Machado, F S; Carneiro, H; Lopes, F C F; Maurício, R M; Chaves, A V

    2013-08-01

    Following the extraction of oil for biodiesel production, oilseed press cakes are high in fat. As the dietary supplementation of fat is currently considered the most promising strategy of consistently depressing methanogenesis, it follows that oilseed press cakes may have a similar potential for CH4 abatement. As such, this study aimed to characterise the nutritive value of several oilseed press cakes, glycerine and soybean meal (SBM) and to examine their effects on in vitro ruminal fermentation, digestion kinetics and CH4 production. Moringa press oil seeds exhibited the greatest in sacco effective degradability (ED) of DM and CP (p<0.05). In vitro gas production (ml/g digested DM) was not affected (p = 0.70) by supplement at 48 h of incubation. In vitro DMD was increased with the supplementation of glycerine and SBM at all levels of inclusion. Moringa oilseed press cakes produced the lowest CH4 (mg/g digested DM) at 6 and 12 h of incubation (p<0.05). The findings suggest that moringa oilseed press cake at 400 g/kg DM has the greatest potential of the oilseed press cakes examined in this study, to reduce CH4 production, without adversely affecting nutrient degradability.

  14. Improvement of quality attributes of sponge cake using infrared dried button mushroom.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Fakhreddin; Kashaninejad, Mahdi; Asadi, Fereshteh; Najafi, Amin

    2016-03-01

    Infrared-hot air method, when properly applied, can be used for achieving a high-quality product. The objective of this study was to determine the rheological properties of cake batters and physico-chemical, textural and sensory properties of sponge cake supplemented with four different levels (control, 5 %, 10 %, and 15 %) of button mushroom powder. The button mushroom slices were dried in an infrared-hot air dryer (250 W and 60 °C). The physical (volume, density, color) and chemical (moisture, protein, fat and ash) attributes were determined in the cakes. Increasing the level of substitution from 5 % to 15 % button mushroom powder significantly (p < 0.05) increased the protein and ash. The apparent viscosity in cake batter, and volume, springiness, and cohesiveness values of baked cakes increased with increasing button mushroom powder levels whereas the density, consistency, hardness, gumminess, chewiness and crumb L, b values of samples showed a reverse trend. Sensory evaluation results indicated that cake with 10 % button mushroom powder was rated the most acceptable.

  15. Influence of operating parameters on cake formation in pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Mahmood; Krammer, Gernot; Khan, Rafi Ullah; Tahir, M Suleman

    2012-07-01

    Bag filters are commonly used for fine particles removal in off-gas purification. There dust laden gas pervades through permeable filter media starting at a lower pressure drop limit leaving dust (called filter cake) on the filter media. The filter cakeformation is influenced by many factors including filtration velocity, dust concentration, pressure drop limits, and filter media resistance. Effect of the stated parameters is investigated experimentally in a pilot scale pulse-jet bag filter test facility where lime stone dust is separated from air at ambient conditions. Results reveal that filtration velocity significantly affects filter pressure drop as well as cake properties; cake density and specific cake resistance. Cake density is slightly affected by dust concentration. Specific resistance of filter cake increases with velocity, slightly affected by dust concentration, changes inversely with the upper pressure drop limit and decreases over a prolonged use (aging). Specific resistance of filter media is independent of upper pressure drop limit and increases linearly over a prolonged use.

  16. Detoxification of Jatropha curcas kernel cake by a novel Streptomyces fimicarius strain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xing-Hong; Ou, Lingcheng; Fu, Liang-Liang; Zheng, Shui; Lou, Ji-Dong; Gomes-Laranjo, José; Li, Jiao; Zhang, Changhe

    2013-09-15

    A huge amount of kernel cake, which contains a variety of toxins including phorbol esters (tumor promoters), is projected to be generated yearly in the near future by the Jatropha biodiesel industry. We showed that the kernel cake strongly inhibited plant seed germination and root growth and was highly toxic to carp fingerlings, even though phorbol esters were undetectable by HPLC. Therefore it must be detoxified before disposal to the environment. A mathematic model was established to estimate the general toxicity of the kernel cake by determining the survival time of carp fingerling. A new strain (Streptomyces fimicarius YUCM 310038) capable of degrading the total toxicity by more than 97% in a 9-day solid state fermentation was screened out from 578 strains including 198 known strains and 380 strains isolated from air and soil. The kernel cake fermented by YUCM 310038 was nontoxic to plants and carp fingerlings and significantly promoted tobacco plant growth, indicating its potential to transform the toxic kernel cake to bio-safe animal feed or organic fertilizer to remove the environmental concern and to reduce the cost of the Jatropha biodiesel industry. Microbial strain profile essential for the kernel cake detoxification was discussed.

  17. Characterization of cake layer structure on the microfiltration membrane permeability by iron pre-coagulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Pan, Siru; Luo, Dongping

    2013-02-01

    A cake layer is formed by coagulation aggregates under certain transmembrane pressure in the coagulation-microfiltration (MF) process. The characteristics of humic acid aggregates coagulated by different iron-based coagulants, such as charge, size, fractal dimension and compressibility, have an effect on the cake layer structure. At the optimum iron dose of 0.6 to 0.8 mmol/L for ferric chloride (FC) and polymer ferric sulfate (PFS) pre-coagulation, at the point of charge neutralization for near zero zeta potential, the aggregate particles produced possess the greatest size and highest fractal dimension, which contributes to the cake layer being most loose with high porosity and low compressibility. Thus the membrane filterability is better. At a low or high iron dose of FC and PFS, a high negative or positive zeta potential with high charge repulsion results in so many small aggregate particles and low fractal dimension that the cake layer is compact with low porosity and high compressibility. Therefore the membrane fouling is accelerated and MF permeability becomes worse. The variation of cake layer structure as measured by scanning electric microscopy corresponds with the fact that the smaller the coagulation flocs size and fractal dimension are, the lower the porosity and the tighter the cake layer conformation. This also explains the MF membrane flux variation visually and accurately.

  18. Adverse effect of cake collapse on the functional integrity of freeze-dried bull spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Hara, Hiromasa; Tagiri, Miho; Hwang, In-Sul; Takahashi, Masato; Hirabayashi, Masumi; Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-06-01

    Under optimal freeze-drying conditions, solutions exhibit a cake-like porous structure. However, if the solution temperature is higher than the glass transition temperature of the maximally freeze-concentrated phase (Tg') during drying phase, the glassy matrix undergoes viscous flow, resulting in cake collapse. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of cake collapse on the integrity of freeze-dried bull spermatozoa. In a preliminary experiment, factors affecting the Tg' of conventional EGTA buffer (consisting of Tris-HCl, EGTA and NaCl) were investigated in order to establish the main experimental protocol because EGTA buffer Tg' was too low (-45.0°C) to suppress collapse. Modification of the EGTA buffer composition by complete removal of NaCl and addition of trehalose (mEGTA buffer) resulted in an increase of Tg' up to -27.7°C. In the main experiment, blastocyst yields after ooplasmic injection of freeze-dried sperm preserved in collapsed cakes (drying temperature: 0 or -15°C) were significantly lower than those of sperm preserved in non-collapsed cake (drying temperature: -30°C). In conclusion, freeze-dried cake collapse may be undesirable for maintaining sperm functions to support embryonic development, and can be inhibited by controlling both Tg' of freeze-drying buffer and temperature during the drying phase.

  19. Intake and digestibility, rumen fermentation, and concentrations of metabolites in steers fed with peanut cake.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Paulo Andrade; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; Jaeger, Soraya Maria Palma Luz; de Paula Leite, Meiby Carneiro; Bagaldo, Adriana Regina; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Correia, Braulio Rocha; de Santana Filho, Nivaldo Barreto

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluated peanut cake as a replacement for soybean meal in the diet of steers. We used five castrated Holstein × Zebu steers, fistulated, with average live weight 550 kg, in a 5 × 5 Latin square design. The diets were composed of Tifton hay and ground corn with peanut cake (0, 25, 50, 75, and 100 %) as a replacement for soybean meal in the concentrate. Intake (kg/day) of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, and crude protein were not affected by peanut cake, but ether extract intake increased linearly with the level of peanut cake in the diet. The digestibility of dry matter showed a quadratic effect, with a calculated maximum regression level of 56 % at 37 % replacement. There was no effect of the level of peanut cake on metabolizable energy intake and net energy, ammonia nitrogen, rumen pH, plasma urea, and glucose concentrations. We recommend replacing soybean meal in the concentrate with up to 40 % peanut cake.

  20. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    PubMed

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  1. New insights into membrane fouling based on characterization of cake sludge and bulk sludge: an especial attention to sludge aggregation.

    PubMed

    Su, Xinying; Tian, Yu; Li, Hui; Wang, Cuina

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain a better understanding of the relationship between sludge characteristics and the cake formation in membrane bioreactors (MBRs), the characteristics of cake sludge and bulk sludge were investigated and compared. Based on the extended Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (extended DLVO) theory, the aggregation abilities of cake sludge and bulk sludge were also evaluated. It is observed that cake sludge showed worse aggregation ability than bulk sludge. Further analysis indicated that small flocs, colloids, loosely bound extracellular polymeric substances (LB-EPS), hydrophobicity and negative charge played important role in cake formation and sludge aggregation. Cake sludge with worse aggregation had higher distribution spread index (DSI), more colloids and LB-EPS, higher hydrophobicity and more negative charge. The results indicated that sludge aggregation might reflect membrane fouling potential of sludge.

  2. Comparison of polyphenol extractions from olive pomace and solid fraction of olive mill waste water.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Sevgul; Seker, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    The solid fraction of olive mill waste water (OMWW) was separated from OMWW and then the solutes in the solid fraction of OMWW were extracted with ethanol. The detection of polyphenols in the ethanol extract showed the presence of polyphenols in the solid fraction of OMWW. Effects of solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction and agitation time on the extraction of polyphenols from the solid fraction of OMWW were examined and the maximum amount of polyphenol was extracted from the solid fraction of OMWW with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 15 at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time. Percent yields and purities of the polyphenols extracted from solid fraction of OMWW were higher than those of the polyphenols extracted from olive pomace with ethanol at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time with solvent-to-solid ratio of 15.

  3. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process.

  4. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    PubMed Central

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

  5. Dynamic and static filtrate-loss techniques for monitoring filter-cake quality improves drilling-fluid performance

    SciTech Connect

    Chesser, B.G.; Clark, D.E.; Wise, W.V.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes properties that are desirable in a water-based filter cake and test methods that can be used to measure these properties. One method uses a dynamic filtrate-loss apparatus that stirs the fluid mechanically during filtration. Test results show that the initial dynamic filter-cake formation is very important in controlling all future filtration properties and cake quality. The various factors affecting filter-cake quality and how they can be controlled to give better field performance are discussed.

  6. The effect of different formulations on physical properties of cakes baked with microwave and near infrared-microwave combinations.

    PubMed

    Sakiyan, Ozge; Sumnu, Gulum; Sahin, Serpil; Meda, Venkatesh

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of different formulations on color and textural characteristics of different cakes during baking in microwave and near infrared-microwave combination ovens. For comparison, cakes were also baked in conventional ovens. Color and hardness for both types of baking schemes were found to be dependent on formulation. Cakes containing Simplesse, a fat replacer consisting mostly of whey protein, baked in microwave and near infrared-microwave combination ovens were found to be the firmest cakes.

  7. Comparison of aspartame- and fructose-sweetened layer cakes: importance of panels of users for evaluation of alternative sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Hess, D A; Setser, C S

    1986-07-01

    Panelists with and without known carbohydrate metabolic diseases evaluated layer cakes sweetened with aspartame, alone or in combination with low levels of fructose, for texture and flavor. Panelists used a 5-point, descriptive rating scale to evaluate flavor and texture of lemon, orange, spice, and chocolate layer cakes baked in conventional and microwave ovens. Panelists judged that aspartame alone was not suitable in layer cakes. In general, healthy panelists evaluated the cakes as sweeter, crust bitterness as greater, and overall eating quality as higher than the panel members with carbohydrate metabolic disorders. Panelists did not differ in their evaluation of textural qualities.

  8. Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Virginia

    1966-01-01

    This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

  9. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production.

  10. 74. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 73.08. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  11. 73. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 73.08. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  12. Reduction of virgin olive oil bitterness by fruit cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Khaled; Cayuela, José A; García, José M

    2008-11-12

    Green mature olives (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial') were stored at 5 degrees C, and the oil extracted from them showed a middle intensity level of sensory-evaluated bitterness. The storage times necessary for this reduction were different for the three varieties tested, requiring 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, for 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial' olives. The level of commercial quality of the extracted oil did not deteriorate as a consequence of previous fruit storage. Olives matured during refrigeration at 5 degrees C, as the increase of maturation index and the decrease of color index and fruit firmness indicated. Similarly, as the fruit storage period progressed, the total phenolic compound content of the extracted oils decreased. Although the use of green mature olives may require a more prolonged storage time, it allows for a better postharvest handling of the fruits, which are more resistant to physical damage or fungal infections than the riper ones. PMID:18937491

  13. Soil amendment with olive mill wastes: impact on groundwater.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Maria Clementina; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Volpe, Angela

    2013-12-15

    Two sets of soil lysimeters were amended with solid and liquid olive mill wastes and the composition of leachate was analysed. Five treatments were carried out using: olive mill wastewater (OMW) at two different rates (80 and 320 m(3)/ha); OMW pre-treated by catalytical digestion with MnO2; compost obtained by exhausted olive pomace; freshwater as the control. Electric conductivity, pH, potassium, total polyphenols and nitrates were monitored in the leachate as indexes of potential groundwater contamination. The study demonstrated that the impact of all the selected amendments on groundwater was the minimum. OMW was safely applied to soil even at four times the rate allowed by the Italian law, and pre-treatment by catalytical digestion was not necessary to further reduce the impact on groundwater. The application of olive pomace compost was equally safe.

  14. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds. PMID:20386648

  15. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with Sloughing Spoilage of California Ripe Olives

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ishwarlal B.; Vaughn, Reese H.

    1973-01-01

    Sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives during processing is characterized by severe softening, skin rupture, and flesh sloughing. It was assumed that cellulolytic activity was responsible for skin rupture and sloughing of flesh, and so a deliberate search was made for cellulolytic bacteria from olives undergoing sloughing spoilage. A bacterium identified as Cellulomonas flavigena was highly cellulolytic, attacking filter paper, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel, and olive tissue. Other bacteria attacking CMC, but not filter paper, enhanced the activity of the Cellulomonas strain when grown in mixed culture, although they did not, in pure culture, have any effect on filter paper. These latter cultures (all degraded olive tissue) represented the genera Xanthomonas, Aerobacter, and Escherichia. Other noncellulolytic bacteria belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Kurthia, and Micrococcus also were used for study of mixed culture fermentation of cellulose by C. flavigena. Cellobiose accumulation at levels of 1.0% (w/v) and above suppressed growth of C. flavigena. Images PMID:4568890

  16. Cellulolytic bacteria associated with sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives.

    PubMed

    Patel, I B; Vaughn, R H

    1973-01-01

    Sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives during processing is characterized by severe softening, skin rupture, and flesh sloughing. It was assumed that cellulolytic activity was responsible for skin rupture and sloughing of flesh, and so a deliberate search was made for cellulolytic bacteria from olives undergoing sloughing spoilage. A bacterium identified as Cellulomonas flavigena was highly cellulolytic, attacking filter paper, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel, and olive tissue. Other bacteria attacking CMC, but not filter paper, enhanced the activity of the Cellulomonas strain when grown in mixed culture, although they did not, in pure culture, have any effect on filter paper. These latter cultures (all degraded olive tissue) represented the genera Xanthomonas, Aerobacter, and Escherichia. Other noncellulolytic bacteria belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Kurthia, and Micrococcus also were used for study of mixed culture fermentation of cellulose by C. flavigena. Cellobiose accumulation at levels of 1.0% (w/v) and above suppressed growth of C. flavigena.

  17. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  18. Guaianolide sesquiterpenes from Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv.

    PubMed

    Stavri, Michael; Mathew, K T; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D; Falconer, Robert A; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.52 mM and cytotoxicity (IC50 of 5.8+/-0.2 microM) in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, EJ-138.

  19. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect

    İnaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  20. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  1. Study of microscopic structure of porous media - fine coal filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    The macroscopic properties of the porous media, e.g., permeability, capillary pressure, relative permeability, depend upon the microscopic structure of the porous medium. In the coal preparation plants, the filtration and dewatering rates of the fine coal filter cakes are important in determining the final moisture content. The microscopic structure of the porous coal filter cakes plays an important role in these operations. Moreover, the two phase flow through the porous medium can be explained in detail by considering its pore structure. Hence, the development of a technique for the micro-structural analysis of unconsolidated coal filter cakes is investigated. The technique developed is also applicable to many consolidated porous media like sandstones, rocks, etc. Optical methods were utilized to study the micro-structure of fine coal cakes. The investigation of -32 mesh Pittsburgh seam coal cakes reveals a non-uniform structure at low solid concentration of 0.33 kg coal/kg water. An increase in the solid concentration in the slurry produces a more uniform structure with an increase in the filtration and dewatering rates. It was found that coal filter cakes are incompressible over the range of 28 to 67 kPa applied vacuum. An important aspect of this work was to provide quantitative information about the presence of air bubbles in the coal filter cakes. These air bubbles are evolved from the aerated slurry and they reduce the filtration rates. A linear correlation between the particle and pore size distribution of -32 mesh Pittsburgh coal was found.

  2. Detoxification and anti-nutrients reduction of Jatropha curcas seed cake by Bacillus fermentation.

    PubMed

    Phengnuam, Thanyarat; Suntornsuk, Worapot

    2013-02-01

    Jatropha curcas seed cake is a by-product generated from oil extraction of J. curcas seed. Although it contains a high amount of protein, it has phorbol esters and anti-nutritional factors such as phytate, trypsin inhibitor, lectin and saponin. It cannot be applied directly in the food or animal feed industries. This investigation was aimed at detoxifying the toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in J. curcas seed cake by fermentation with Bacillus spp. Two GRAS (generally recognized as safe) Bacillus strains used in the study were Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis with solid-state and submerged fermentations. Solid-state fermentation was done on 10 g of seed cake with a moisture content of 70% for 7 days, while submerged fermentation was carried out on 10 g of seed cake in 100 ml distilled water for 5 days. The fermentations were incubated at the optimum condition of each strain. After fermentation, bacterial growth, pH, toxic and anti-nutritional compounds were determined. Results showed that B. licheniformis with submerged fermentation were the most effective method to degrade toxic and anti-nutritional compounds in the seed cake. After fermentation, phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor were reduced by 62%, 42% and 75%, respectively, while lectin could not be eliminated. The reduction of phorbol esters, phytate and trypsin inhibitor was related to esterase, phytase and protease activities, respectively. J. curcas seed cake could be mainly detoxified by bacterial fermentation and the high-protein fermented seed cake could be potentially applied to animal feed.

  3. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry.

  4. Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory.

  5. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  6. Modification of volatile compound profile of virgin olive oil due to hot-water treatment of olive fruit.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ana G; Luaces, Pilar; Ríos, José J; García, José M; Sanz, Carlos

    2003-10-22

    The effect of hot-water treatments of olive fruits before processing on the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma was investigated by quantifying the variation within the major classes of volatile compounds. Data showed that hot-water treatments gave rise to changes in the volatile aroma profile of virgin olive oil from the three olive cultivars under study, Manzanilla, Picual, and Verdial. Different effects by thermal treatments were observed according to cultivar. In general, these changes are mainly due to a decrease in the contents of C(6) aldehydes and C(5) compounds. Contents of C(6) alcohols and esters remained constant or decreased slightly when the temperature of the treatment was increased. Thus, heat treatments seemed to promote a partial deactivation of the lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase enzyme system, whereas other enzymatic activities, within the lipoxygenase pathway, such as alcohol dehydrogenase and alcohol acyltransferase, remained apparently unaffected as a consequence of heat treatments. PMID:14558776

  7. Quarantined Apollo 11 Astronauts Watch Cake Cutting Ceremony

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 11 mission, the first manned lunar mission, launched from the Kennedy Space Center, Florida via the Space Flight Center (MSFC) developed Saturn V launch vehicle on July 16, 1969 and safely returned to Earth on July 24, 1969. Aboard the space craft were astronauts Neil A. Armstrong, commander; Michael Collins, Command Module (CM) pilot; and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., Lunar Module (LM) pilot. The CM, piloted by Michael Collins remained in a parking orbit around the Moon while the LM, named 'Eagle'', carrying astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin, landed on the Moon. During 2½ hours of surface exploration, the crew collected 47 pounds of lunar surface material for analysis back on Earth. The recovery operation took place in the Pacific Ocean where Navy para-rescue men recovered the capsule housing the 3-man Apollo 11 crew. The crew was airlifted to safety aboard the U.S.S. Hornet recovery ship, where they were quartered in a Mobile Quarantine Facility (MQF) which served as their home for 21 days following the mission. In this photograph, the Hornet crew and honor guard snap to attention to begin the official cake cutting ceremony for the Apollo 11 astronauts. Astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin are visible in the window of the MQF.

  8. Bioconversion of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using apple filter cake

    PubMed Central

    Medaura, M. Cecilia; Ércoli, Eduardo C.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using apple filter cake, a fruit-processing waste to enhance the bioremediation of petroleum contaminated soil. A rotating barrel system was used to study the bioconversion of the xenobiotic compound by natural occurring microbial population. The soil had been accidentally polluted with a total petroleum hydrocarbon concentration of 41,000 ppm. Although this global value was maintained during the process, microbial intervention was evidenced through transformation of the petroleum fractions. Thus, fractions that represent a risk for the environment (GRO, Gasoline Range Organics i.e., C6 to C10–12; DRO, Diesel Range Organics i.e., C8–12 to C24–26 and RRO, Residual Range Organics i.e., C25 to C35) were significantly reduced, from 2.95% to 1.39%. On the contrary, heavier weight fraction from C35 plus other organics increased in value from 1.15% to 3.00%. The noticeable diminution of low molecular weight hydrocarbons content and hence environmental risk by the process plus the improvement of the physical characteristics of the soil, are promising results with regard to future application at large scale. PMID:24031241

  9. Anaerobic digestion of sunflower oil cake: a current overview.

    PubMed

    De la Rubia, M A; Fernández-Cegrí, V; Raposo, F; Borja, R

    2013-01-01

    Due to the chemical and physical structure of a lignocellulosic biomass, its anaerobic digestion (AD) is a slow and difficult process. In this paper, the results obtained from a batch biochemical methane potential (BMP) test and fed-batch mesophilic AD assays of sunflower oil cake (SuOC) are presented. Taking into account the low digestibility shown during one-stage experiments the methane yield decreased considerably after increasing the organic loading rate (OLR) from 2 to 3 g VS L(-1) d(-1), SuOC was subjected to a two-stage AD process (hydrolytic-acidogenic and methanogenic stages), in two separate reactors operating in series where the methanogenic stage became acidified (with >1,600 mg acetic acid L(-1)) at an OLR as low as 2 g VS L(-1) d(-1). More recently, BMP assays were carried out after mechanical, thermal, and ultrasonic pre-treatments to determine the best option on the basis of the methane yield obtained. PMID:23168643

  10. The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. Results Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes

  11. Performance of feedlot lambs fed palm kernel cake-based diets.

    PubMed

    da Conceição dos Santos, Rozilda; Alves, Kaliandra Souza; Mezzomo, Rafael; Oliveira, Luis Rennan Sampaio; Cutrim, Darley Oliveira; Gomes, Daiany Iris; Leite, Gilmara Pinto; Araújo, Marcio Yuri de Souza

    2016-02-01

    Fifty-four castrated male lambs with an average body weight of 23 ± 0.35 kg were randomly assigned to five treatments that consisted of different levels of palm kernel cake in the diet (0.0, 7.5, 15.0, 22.5, and 30.0 % on a DM basis) in order to evaluate the effects on intake, digestibility, empty body weight, and body gain composition. The intakes of dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, and non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) presented with a decreasing linear effect. However, the intakes of EE and NDF presented with increased linear results as the palm kernel cake was added to the concentrate. There was a quadratic effect for the digestibility coefficient of all nutrients, except for NFC. The palm kernel cake had a decreasing linear effect on final body weight, empty body weight, and the average daily gain of the animals that were fed increased levels of palm kernel cake. The inclusion of palm kernel cake as a partial substitute for concentrate decreases the intake of the majority of nutrients, except for EE and NDF, and consequently, causes deleterious effects on the nutrient digestibility and performance of lambs that are fed a 50:50 roughage/concentrate ratio.

  12. Quantitative evaluation method of the bubble structure of sponge cake by using morphology image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatebe, Hironobu; Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Katsuta, Yukio; Nonaka, Masahiko

    2005-12-01

    Now a day, many evaluation methods for the food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that are using for the quality evaluation. An advantage of the image processing is to be able to evaluate objectively. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner. Because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow, the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale values, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. First, input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

  13. Bubble structure evaluation method of sponge cake by using image morphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Kunihito; Yamamoto, Kazuhiko; Nonaka, Masahiko; Katsuta, Yukiyo; Kasamatsu, Chinatsu

    2007-01-01

    Nowadays, many evaluation methods for food industry by using image processing are proposed. These methods are becoming new evaluation method besides the sensory test and the solid-state measurement that have been used for the quality evaluation recently. The goal of our research is structure evaluation of sponge cake by using the image processing. In this paper, we propose a feature extraction method of the bobble structure in the sponge cake. Analysis of the bubble structure is one of the important properties to understand characteristics of the cake from the image. In order to take the cake image, first we cut cakes and measured that's surface by using the CIS scanner, because the depth of field of this type scanner is very shallow. Therefore the bubble region of the surface has low gray scale value, and it has a feature that is blur. We extracted bubble regions from the surface images based on these features. The input image is binarized, and the feature of bubble is extracted by the morphology analysis. In order to evaluate the result of feature extraction, we compared correlation with "Size of the bubble" of the sensory test result. From a result, the bubble extraction by using morphology analysis gives good correlation. It is shown that our method is as well as the subjectivity evaluation.

  14. Case Report of Multimodality Imaging in Omental Cake: Plain Radiograph, Computed Tomography, and Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Juan, Yu-Hsiang; Cheung, Yun-Chung; Ng, Koon-Kwan; Ng, Shu-Hang; Huang, Jen-Seng; Chang, Liang-Che; Lin, Yu-Ching

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The imaging finding of omental cake has been demonstrated in other modalities, such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. However, to the best of our knowledge, the image presentation of omental cake on a routine kidney-ureter-bladder film has not been reported before in the literature. We presented a unique case of a 61-year-old woman, with known advanced cecal colon mucinous adenocarcinoma, presented to our institution with abdominal fullness, poor appetite, and decreased stool passage for 20 days. Physical examination was unremarkable, except distended abdomen. Subsequent study revealed massive post-pigtail catheter drainage ascites with a prominent soft-tissue mass-causing centralization and tethering of focally distended small bowel gas, suggestive of omental cake on plain radiograph. The imaging finding in plain radiograph corresponds to the findings in other imaging modalities, including abdominal sonography and computed tomography. The patient underwent subtotal colectomy and ileostomy during later courses of chemotherapy due to adhesion ileus and possible intraabdominal abscess, and pathologic study confirmed the diagnosis of cecal mucinous adenocarcinoma and peritoneal carcinomatosis. Although the image finding of omental cake on plain radiograph has never been described, this image finding is unique and should be recognized, as it may suggest the presence of omental cake when first identified in the emergency department from patients with abdominal distension and warrant further evaluation to evaluate the underlying cause. PMID:26559303

  15. Characterization of commercial amylases for the removal of filter cake on petroleum wells.

    PubMed

    Kyaw, Nattascha; de Mesquita, Rafael Fonseca; Kameda, Etel; Neto, João Crisósthomo de Queiroz; Langone, Marta Antunes Pereira; Coelho, Maria Alice Zarur

    2010-05-01

    Drilling fluid has many functions, such as carry cuttings from the hole permitting their separation at the surface, cool and clean the bit, reduce friction between the drill pipe and wellbore, maintain the stability of the wellbore, and prevent the inflow of fluids from the wellbore and form a thin, low-permeable filter cake. Filter cake removal is an important step concerning both production and injection in wells, mainly concerning horizontal completion. The drilling fluids are typically comprised of starch, the most important component of the filter cake. A common approach to remove this filter cake is the use of acid solutions. However, these are non-specific reactants. A possible alternative is the use of enzymatic preparations, like amylases, that are able to hydrolyze starch. Wells usually operate in drastic conditions for enzymatic preparations, such as high temperature, high salt concentration, and high pressure. Thus, the main objective of this work was to characterize four enzymatic preparations for filter cake removal under open hole conditions. The results showed that high salt concentrations (204,000 ppm NaCl) in completion fluid decreased amylolytic activity. All enzymatic preparations were able to catalyze starch hydrolysis at all temperatures tested (30, 65, 80, and 95 degrees C). An increase of amylolytic activity was observed with the increase of pressure (100, 500 and 1,000 psi) for one commercial amylase.

  16. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned. PMID:19015937

  17. Impact of potassium bromate and potassium iodate in a pound cake system.

    PubMed

    Wilderjans, Edith; Lagrain, Bert; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2010-05-26

    This study investigates the impact of the oxidants potassium bromate and potassium iodate (8, 16, 32, 64, and 128 micromol/g dry matter of egg white protein) on pound cake making. The impact of the oxidants on egg white characteristics was studied in a model system. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the oxidants caused egg white to denature later. During heating in a rapid visco analyzer, the oxidants caused the free sulfhydryl (SH) group levels to decrease more intensively and over a smaller temperature range. The oxidants made the proteins more resistant to decreases in protein extractability in sodium dodecyl sulfate containing buffer during cake recipe mixing and less resistant to such decreases during cake baking. We assume that, during baking, the degree to which SH/disulfide exchange and SH oxidation can occur depends on the properties of the protein at the onset of the process. In our view, the prevention of extractability loss during mixing increased the availability of SH groups and caused more such loss during baking. During cooling, all cakes baked with added oxidants showed less collapse. On the basis of the presented data, we put forward that only those protein reactions that occur during baking contribute to the formation of a network that supports final cake structure and prevents collapse.

  18. Effect of Freezing on Lyophilization Process Performance and Drug Product Cake Appearance.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Reza; Gattu, Shravan K; Stewart, John M; Patel, Sajal M

    2016-04-01

    This study highlights the significance of the freezing step and the critical role it can play in modulating process performance and product quality during freeze-drying. For the model protein formulation evaluated, the mechanism of freezing had a significant impact on cake appearance, a potential critical product quality attribute for a lyophilized drug product. Contrary to common knowledge, a freezing step with annealing resulted in 20% increase in primary drying time compared to without annealing. In addition, annealing resulted in poor cake appearance with shrinkage, cracks, and formation of a distinct skin at the top surface of the cake. Finally, higher product resistance (7.5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g) was observed in the case of annealing compared to when annealing was not included (5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g), which explains the longer primary drying time due to reduced sublimation rates. An alternative freezing option using controlled ice nucleation resulted in reduced primary drying time (i.e., 30% reduction compared to annealing) and a more homogenous batch with elegant uniform (i.e., significantly improved) cake appearance. Here, a mechanistic understanding of the distinct differences in cake appearance as a function of freezing mechanism is proposed within the context of ice nucleation temperature, ice crystal growth, and presumed solute distribution within the frozen matrix. PMID:27019959

  19. Fuzzy Logic-based expert system for evaluating cake quality of freeze-dried formulations.

    PubMed

    Trnka, Hjalte; Wu, Jian X; Van De Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-12-01

    Freeze-drying of peptide and protein-based pharmaceuticals is an increasingly important field of research. The diverse nature of these compounds, limited understanding of excipient functionality, and difficult-to-analyze quality attributes together with the increasing importance of the biosimilarity concept complicate the development phase of safe and cost-effective drug products. To streamline the development phase and to make high-throughput formulation screening possible, efficient solutions for analyzing critical quality attributes such as cake quality with minimal material consumption are needed. The aim of this study was to develop a fuzzy logic system based on image analysis (IA) for analyzing cake quality. Freeze-dried samples with different visual quality attributes were prepared in well plates. Imaging solutions together with image analytical routines were developed for extracting critical visual features such as the degree of cake collapse, glassiness, and color uniformity. On the basis of the IA outputs, a fuzzy logic system for analysis of these freeze-dried cakes was constructed. After this development phase, the system was tested with a new screening well plate. The developed fuzzy logic-based system was found to give comparable quality scores with visual evaluation, making high-throughput classification of cake quality possible.

  20. Twin screw wet granulation: Effect of process and formulation variables on powder caking during production.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Mohammed F; Dhenge, Ranjit M; Cartwright, James J; Hounslow, Michael J; Salman, Agba D

    2015-12-30

    This work focuses on monitoring the behaviour and the mass of the built up/caking of powder during wet granulation using Twin Screw Granulator (TSG). The variables changed during this work are; powder (α-lactose monohydrate and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC)), the screw configuration (conveying and kneading elements) and the weight percentage of hydroxypropyl-methyl cellulose (HPMC) dissolved in the granulation liquid (i.e. changing liquid viscosity). Additionally, the effect of these variables on the size distribution, of the granules produced, was determined. The experiments were conducted using an acrylic transparent barrel. A stainless steel barrel was then used to conduct the two extreme granulation liquid viscosities with two different screw configurations, using lactose only. This was done to compare the findings to those obtained from the transparent barrel for validation purpose. These variables showed to affect the behaviour and the mass of the powder caking as well as the size distribution of granules. Overall, the use of kneading element resulted in uniform behaviour in caking with higher mass. Furthermore, increasing the amount of HPMC resulted in a reduction of the mass of powder caking for lactose, while showing inconsistent trend for MCC. Furthermore, lactose showed to have a greater tendency to cake in comparison to MCC. The results, for lactose, obtained from the stainless steel barrel compared well with their corresponding conditions from the transparent barrel, as the screw configuration and HPMC mass varied. PMID:26536529

  1. Monitoring changes in sponge cakes during aging by front face fluorescence spectroscopy and instrumental techniques.

    PubMed

    Botosoa, Eliot Patrick; Chénè, Christine; Karoui, Romdhane

    2013-03-20

    In the present study, sponge cakes, produced at the pilot scale, were monitored during aging (i.e., 1, 3, 6, 9, 16, and 20 days) by three different analytical techniques. For the texture analyzer, the hardness and elasticity of crumb cakes were found to significantly increase and decrease, respectively, throughout aging. Color parameters (L*, a*, and b*) showed only slight change throughout aging, and a high correlation (R(2) = 0.88) was observed between the whiteness and the yellowness. Tryptophan fluorescence spectra (excitation, 290 nm; emission, 305-490 nm) recorded on cakes exhibited three maxima located at 382, 435, and 467 nm that were attributed to maximum emission of tryptophan (382 nm) and fluorescent Maillard reaction products (435 and 467 nm). The principal component analysis (PCA) applied to the tryptophan spectra allowed a clear discrimination of cakes aged for 1, 3, and 6 days from those aged for 9, 16, and 20 days. Finally, canonical correlation analysis (CCA) performed on the textural and tryptophan fluorescence spectral data sets showed that the two groups of variables were highly correlated because the squared canonical coefficients for canonical variates were 0.99, indicating that cake texture determined at the macroscopic level by texture analyzer is a reflection of its structure at the molecular level determined by fluorescence spectroscopy.

  2. Microstructural characterization of alumina and silicon carbide slip-cast cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.A.; Kerch, H.M.; Haerle, A.G.; Keller, J.

    1996-10-01

    The effect of solids loading, particle-size distribution, and suspension viscosity on the resultant microstructure of slip-cast monolithic ceramics prepared from aqueous suspensions of alumina and silicon carbide was studied. Unimodal alumina suspensions (average particle size = 0.6 {micro}m) were prepared at 35, 37, and 42 vol%. Silicon carbide suspensions (average particle size = 0.7 {micro}m) were produced with different quantities of dispersant at 37 vol%. Similarly, aqueous alumina suspensions of 42 and 50 vol% were produced with a bimodal particle-size distribution. The slip-cast microstructures were characterized by mercury porosimetry and small-angle neutron scattering, which provided pore size (distribution), pore fraction, and pore morphology. Essentially, the combination of these techniques deciphered packing differences obtained in the cake microstructures. for the alumina cakes produced from the 35, 37, and 42 vol% suspensions, the individual characterization techniques, mercury intrusion, and the neutron scattering measurements showed that the cake microstructures were similar in pore size and quantity. However, comparison of the techniques and their assumptions showed differences in the pore shape. Mercury porosimetry and neutron scattering showed bimodal porosity for the cake produced form a mixture of 85% 6-{micro}m particles and 15% 0.6-{micro}m particles. Pore volume fraction and pore size increases were correlated with increased viscosity in the silicon carbide suspensions. In addition, the silicon carbide cake microstructures were measured, and homogeneity was evaluated as a function of position in the cast.

  3. Quality evaluation of co-composted wheat straw, poultry droppings and oil seed cakes.

    PubMed

    Gaind, Sunita; Nain, Lata; Patel, V B

    2009-06-01

    Poultry droppings, neem cake, castor cake, jatropha cake and grass clippings were used separately as organic nitrogen additives to decrease the high C:N ratio of wheat straw. Composting was carried out aerobically in presence of fungal consortium developed by including Aspergillus awamori, Aspergillus nidulans, Trichoderma viride and Phanerochaete chrysosporium. The degraded product was characterized to assess the technical viability of organic nitrogen supplements as well as fungal consortium in improving the quality of compost and hastening the process of decomposition of high lignocellulolytic waste. Evaluation of maturity showed that mixture of wheat straw, poultry dropping and jatropha cake had the lowest C:N ratio of 10:1, the highest humic acid fraction of 3.15%, the lowest dehydrogenase activity and a germination index exceeding 80% in 60 days of decomposition. Inoculated and grass clipping amended wheat straw-poultry dropping mixture resulted in compost with highest humus content of 11.8% and C:N ratio of 13.5, humic acid fraction of 2.84% and germination index of 59.66%. Fungal consortium was effective in improving the humus content of all the composted mixtures. In some treatments, germination index could not be correlated with C:N ratio. Non edible oil seed cake supplemented substrate mixtures did not respond to fungal inoculation as far as C:N ratio was concerned.

  4. The role of the filter cake in hot gas cleaning with ceramic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Duo, W.; Grace, J.R.; Lim, C.J.; Brereton, M.H.; Watkinson, A.P.; Laursen, K.

    1999-01-01

    Experiments were carried out in a pilot-scale test rig at temperatures of 600--770 C to investigate the potential of filter cakes formed in hot gas filtration to remove sulfur dioxide, nitric oxide, and alkalis. The results demonstrate that a filter cake of fly ash particles is capable of contributing to SO{sub 2} capture, particularly with injection of a fresh sorbent. A filter cake of mixed limestone and alumina particles formed at 600 C showed a higher resistance to flow than one formed at 700 C. The efficiency of SO{sub 2} removal increased with the temperature over the range investigated. Both the cake and filter absorbed alkalis by chemical reaction, showing that the filter cake will help to protect the gas turbine, as well as the filter itself, against alkali attack. NO{sub x} emissions were not affected by the presence of the filter in an oxidizing atmosphere, while a considerable reduction of NO was obtained in the presence of CO.

  5. Morphological and compressional mechanical properties of freeze-dried mannitol, sucrose, and trehalose cakes.

    PubMed

    Devi, Sharmila; Williams, Daryl

    2013-12-01

    A novel mechanical compression test has been developed which allows cake mechanical properties to be assessed quantitatively, and can be applied to fragile and moisture-sensitive freeze-dried (FD) cakes within the vials without sample preparation. FD mannitol, sucrose, and trehalose cakes, prepared from 5% aqueous solutions, exhibited linear compressive elastic behavior for small strains with apparent moduli of 25, 148, and 207 kPa, respectively. These materials exhibited brittle cracking/crushing failure of the cells over a wide strain range, with low crushing stresses from 11to 31 kPa for 0.15-0.25 strain. This technique is sensitive to differences in freezing conditions for sucrose formulations and the moisture content of sucrose cakes. The test highlights the rapid changes in cake mechanical properties occurring when moisture-sensitive excipients such as sucrose are briefly exposed to ambient humidity. Using established models for the compressive mechanical behavior of closed cellular solids, a method for predicting cell wall thickness is demonstrated. Three FD formulations gave predicted wall thicknesses of 1.1-1.6 μm, consistent with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images obtained. SEM determined that unit cell dimensions for all formulations were similar and it was concluded that if all other factors were identical, excipient choice plays a minor role in determining the pore shape/morphology.

  6. Effects of suspended titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cake layer formation in submerged membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lijie; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Xia, Siqing; Jiang, Wei; Ye, Biao; Xu, Xiaoyin; Gu, Zaoli; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu-Hao; Meng, Xiangzhou; Fan, Jinhong; Zhao, Jianfu

    2014-01-01

    Effects of the suspended titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs, 50 mg/L) on the cake layer formation in a submerged MBR were systematically investigated. With nanometer sizes, TiO2 NPs were found to aggravate membrane pore blocking but postpone cake layer fouling. TiO2 NPs showed obvious effects on the structure and the distribution of the organic and the inorganic compounds in cake layer. Concentrations of fatty acids and cholesterol in the cake layer increased due to the acute response of bacteria to the toxicity of TiO2 NPs. Line-analysis and dot map of energy-dispersive X-ray were also carried out. Since TiO2 NPs inhibited the interactions between the inorganic and the organic compounds, the inorganic compounds (especially SiO2) were prevented from depositing onto the membrane surface. Thus, the postponed cake layer fouling was due to the changing features of the complexes on the membrane surface caused by TiO2 NPs.

  7. Dust cake behavior in filters with high surface area to volume ratios

    SciTech Connect

    Straub, D.L.; Chiang, T.K.; Dennis, R.A.

    1994-10-01

    High-temperature particulate control devices are an integral part of advanced coal-fired power systems. By efficiently removing minute particles from high-temperature gas streams, environmentally clean and efficient power systems can be realized. In recent years, economic incentives have prompted developers of high-temperature and high-pressure (HTHP) particulate filtration systems to pursue filter element designs with more filter surface area for a given volume. Although higher surface-to-volume (SV) ratio filter designs are driven by economic incentives, physical constraints and the fundamental behavior of dust cake formation and removal will limit the maximum SV ratio. In an attempt to improve the understanding of dust cake behavior in a well controlled environment, a two-dimensional cold flow filter module is being tested. This filter module can be used to investigate dust cake formation, removal, and re-entrainment over a range of operating conditions. Preliminary results suggest that the cohesive strength of the particulate media has a strong influence on how the dust cake is removed during reverse pulse cleaning. Furthermore, the properties of the particulate media play an important role in forming non-uniform dust cakes. In the following paragraphs, the experimental apparatus, preliminary results, and future plans will be discussed.

  8. Criticality considerations for salt-cake disolution in DOE waste tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Trumble, E.F.; Niemer, K.A.

    1995-12-31

    A large amount of high-level waste is being stored in the form of salt cake at the Savannah River site (SRS) in large (1.3 x 106 gal) underground tanks awaiting startup of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). This salt cake will be dissolved with water, and the solution will be fed to DWPF for immobilization in borosilicate glass. Some of the waste that was transferred to the tanks contained enriched uranium and plutonium from chemical reprocessing streams. As water is added to these tanks to dissolve the salt cake, the insoluble portion of this fissile material will be left behind in the tank as the salt solution is pumped out. Because the salt acts as a diluent to the fissile material, the process of repeated water addition, salt dissolution, and salt solution removal will act as a concentrating mechanism for the undissolved fissile material that will remain in the tank. It is estimated that tank 41 H at SRS contains 20 to 120 kg of enriched uranium, varying from 10 to 70% {sup 235}U, distributed nonuniformly throughout the tank. This paper discusses the criticality concerns associated with the dissolution of salt cake in this tank. These concerns are also applicable to other salt cake waste tanks that contain significant quantities of enriched uranium and/or plutonium.

  9. Effect of Freezing on Lyophilization Process Performance and Drug Product Cake Appearance.

    PubMed

    Esfandiary, Reza; Gattu, Shravan K; Stewart, John M; Patel, Sajal M

    2016-04-01

    This study highlights the significance of the freezing step and the critical role it can play in modulating process performance and product quality during freeze-drying. For the model protein formulation evaluated, the mechanism of freezing had a significant impact on cake appearance, a potential critical product quality attribute for a lyophilized drug product. Contrary to common knowledge, a freezing step with annealing resulted in 20% increase in primary drying time compared to without annealing. In addition, annealing resulted in poor cake appearance with shrinkage, cracks, and formation of a distinct skin at the top surface of the cake. Finally, higher product resistance (7.5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g) was observed in the case of annealing compared to when annealing was not included (5 cm(2).Torr.hr/g), which explains the longer primary drying time due to reduced sublimation rates. An alternative freezing option using controlled ice nucleation resulted in reduced primary drying time (i.e., 30% reduction compared to annealing) and a more homogenous batch with elegant uniform (i.e., significantly improved) cake appearance. Here, a mechanistic understanding of the distinct differences in cake appearance as a function of freezing mechanism is proposed within the context of ice nucleation temperature, ice crystal growth, and presumed solute distribution within the frozen matrix.

  10. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data

  11. Low-fat cake icings made from jet-cooked high amylose corn starch and fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cake decorating continues to be popular for special occasions. Buttercream is an all-purpose icing that is used to both ice and decorate cakes. Cream icings contain up to 40% shortening. As the consumers become aware of the need to reduce fat in their diet, the demand for healthy, flavorful, low-...

  12. On the origin of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Morchio, G

    1995-04-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and styrene were determined in olives and the oils produced thereof, as well as at various intermediate steps during production. Concentrations were compared to those found in samples of air taken from the olive grove and the olive mills. In an exposition experiment in the laboratory, olives absorbed aromatic compounds, approaching saturation corresponding to the partition coefficient between air and oil. However, concentrations in olives delivered to the mills were 4-10 times higher than expected from the analysis of the air in the olive grove. In the olive mills, concentrations were increased further by a factor of up to 2 because of uptake from air which contained high concentrations of aromatics. Styrene concentrations strongly increased during storage of crushed olives at ambient temperature, which confirms the hypothesis that styrene is a product of metabolism.

  13. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %). PMID:24733437

  14. A comparative study on the decomposition of edible and non-edible oil cakes in the Gangetic alluvial soil of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Sudeshna; Das, Ritwika; Das, Amal Chandra

    2014-08-01

    An experiment has been conducted under laboratory conditions to investigate the effect of decomposition of two edible oil cakes, viz. mustard cake (Brassica juncea L) and groundnut cake (Arachis hypogaea L), and two non-edible oil cakes, viz. mahua cake (Madhuca indica Gmel) and neem cake (Azadirachta indica Juss), at the rate of 5.0 t ha(-1) on the changes of microbial growth and activities in relation to transformations and availability of some plant nutrients in the Gangetic alluvial (Typic Haplustept) soil of West Bengal, India. Incorporation of oil cakes, in general, highly induced the proliferation of total bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi, resulting in greater retention and availability of oxidizable C, N, and P in soil. As compared to untreated control, the highest stimulation of total bacteria and actinomycetes was recorded with mustard cake (111.9 and 84.3 %, respectively) followed by groundnut cake (50.5 and 52.4 %, respectively), while the fungal colonies were highly accentuated due to the incorporation of neem cake (102.8 %) in soil. The retention of oxidizable organic C was highly increased due to decomposition of non-edible oil cakes, more so under mahua cake (14.5 %), whereas edible oil cakes and groundnut cake in particular exerted maximum stimulation (16.7 %) towards the retention of total N in soil. A similar trend was recorded towards the accumulation of available mineral N in soil and this was more pronounced with mustard cake (45.6 %) for exchangeable NH4 (+) and with groundnut cake (63.9 %) for soluble NO3 (-). The highest retention of total P (46.9 %) was manifested by the soil when it was incorporated with neem cake followed by the edible oil cakes; while the available P was highly induced due to the addition of edible oil cakes, the highest being under groundnut cake (23.5 %) followed by mustard cake (19.6 %).

  15. Utilization of Calophyllum inophyllum shell and kernel oil cake for reducing sugar production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Wu, Jang-Hong; Yeh, Li-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at fully utilizing fruit biomass of Calophyllum inophyllum for reducing sugar production. The effects of pretreatment conditions and post reaction wash on the lignin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis of shell were investigated. The oil cake was also subjected to solvent extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the sequential acid/alkaline pretreatment of C. inophyllum shell resulted in better delignification than alkaline or acid only pretreatment. The reducing sugar yields obtained from sequential acid/alkaline pretreated shell and solvent extracted oil cake were 0.24g/g and 0.66g/g, respectively. The results suggested that the shell and oil cake of C. inophyllum could also be feedstocks for reducing sugar production.

  16. UVB-Protective Effects of Isoflavone Extracts from Soybean Cake in Human Keratinocytes

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Han-Sun; Wu, Wen-Bin; Fang, Jia-You; Chen, Bing-Huei; Kao, Tsai-Hua; Chen, Ying-Ting; Huang, Chieh-Chen; Hung, Chi-Feng

    2007-01-01

    It has been shown by chromatography that aglycone, glucoside, acetylglucoside and malonylglucoside isoflavone extracts prepared from soybean cake showed better antioxidant activities than isoflavone standards. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of these isoflavone extracts against ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced keratinocyte damage. Our results demonstrated that these soybean cake isoflavone extracts could inhibit UVB-induced keratinocyte death. Moreover, they could inhibit UVB-induced intracellular release of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) Furthermore, these isoflavone extracts differentially inhibited UVB-induced MAPK phosphorylation. The ERK1/2 and p38 phosphorylation was not inhibited by all tested isoflavone extracts, whereas JNK phosphorylation was inhibited by group I to group III isoflavone extracts. Since these isoflavone extracts are relative stable and easily obtained than the isoflavone standards, we suggest that soybean cake may be a useful potential source for developing effective skin care agents in against photoaging.

  17. NMR signal analysis to characterize solid, aqueous, and lipid phases in baked cakes.

    PubMed

    Le Grand, F; Cambert, M; Mariette, F

    2007-12-26

    Proton mobility was studied in molecular fractions of some model systems and of cake using a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation technique. For cake, five spin-spin relaxation times (T2) were obtained from transverse relaxation curves: T2 (1) approximately 20 micros, T2 (2) approximately 0.2 ms, T2 (3) approximately 3 ms, T2 (4) approximately 50 ms, and T2 (2) approximately 165 ms. The faster component was attributed to the solid phase, components 2 and 3 were associated with the aqueous phase, and the two slowest components were linked to the lipid phase. After cooking, the crust contained more fat but less water than the center part of the cake. The amount of gelatinized starch was lower in the crust, and water was more mobile due to less interaction with macromolecules. This preliminary study revealed different effects of storage on the center and crust.

  18. Solid-phase creep during the expression of palm-oil filter cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Kamst, G.F.; Bruinsma, O.S.L.; Graauw, J. de

    1997-03-01

    For an adequate model of the processes of compressible cake filtration and mechanical expression, permeability and compressibility data are required. Experimental and modeling results of the creep behavior of palm-oil filter cakes at constant and time-dependent pressures are presented. Creep curves of palm-oil cakes at constant pressures cannot be modeled with linear viscoelastic models. Modeling with a modified form of the empirical equation of Nutting gives satisfactory results. This modification does not lead to unrealistic values of the porosity at extreme conditions, contrary to the original form of the equation of Nutting. Creep curves at time-dependent pressures were modeled with two nonlinear viscoelastic models, which describe the time-dependent creep behavior as a function of the pressure history and creep curves at constant pressures. Modeling with the strain-hardening model provides the best porosity predictions.

  19. Antifungal activity of Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa in rice cakes.

    PubMed

    Baek, Eunjong; Kim, Hyojin; Choi, Hyejung; Yoon, Sun; Kim, Jeongho

    2012-10-01

    The antifungal activity of organic acids greatly improves the shelf life of bread and bakery products. However, little is known about the effect of lactic acid fermentation on fungal contamination in rice cakes. Here, we show that lactic acid fermentation in rice dough can greatly retard the growth of three fungal species when present in rice cakes, namely Cladosporium sp. YS1, Neurospora sp. YS3, and Penicillium crustosum YS2. The antifungal activity of the lactic acid bacteria against these fungi was much better than that of 0.3% calcium propionate. We found that organic acids including lactic and acetic acid, which are byproducts of lactic fermentation or can be artificially added, were the main antifungal substances. We also found that some Leuconostoc citreum and Weissella confusa strains could be good starter species for rice dough fermentation. These results imply that these lactic acid bacteria can be applicable to improve the preservation of rice cakes.

  20. Processing conditions affect nutrient digestibility of cold-pressed canola cake for grower pigs.

    PubMed

    Seneviratne, R W; Beltranena, E; Newkirk, R W; Goonewardene, L A; Zijlstra, R T

    2011-08-01

    Cold-pressed canola cake is a coproduct of biodiesel production that contains more residual oil than expeller-pressed and solvent-extracted canola meal. Cold-pressed canola cake might be an attractive feedstuff for swine due to local availability from small plants. However, the nutritional quality and content of anti-nutritional factors of cold-pressed canola cake are poorly defined and vary with processing conditions. This experiment evaluated cold-pressed canola cake processed using 4 different conditions: a nonheated and heated barrel at slow and fast screw speed in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Seven ileally cannulated barrows (26 kg of BW) were fed twice daily at 2.8 × maintenance diets containing either 44% of 1 of the 4 cold-pressed canola cake samples, expeller-pressed canola meal, canola seed, or an N-free diet in a 7 × 7 Latin square. The objectives were to measure the energy and AA digestibility and to calculate standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA and NE content. Each 9-d experimental period consisted of a 5-d diet adaptation, followed by 2-d feces and 2-d ileal digesta collections, and 7 observations per diet were obtained. Cold-pressed canola cake contained 41% CP, 16% ether extract, and 5 µmol of total glucosinolates/g (DM basis). Both apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and total tract energy digestibility of energy in cold-pressed canola cake was 36% greater (P < 0.05) in heated vs. nonheated conditions and 8% greater (P < 0.05) in fast vs. slow screw speed without interaction, indicating that heat enhanced energy digestibility. The AID of energy of cold-pressed canola cake was 13 and 118% greater (P < 0.01) than expeller-pressed canola meal and canola seed, respectively. Heat and speed interacted (P < 0.05) for SID of AA of test ingredients, but effects were not consistent among AA. The DE and calculated NE content of cold-pressed canola cake was 0.73 and 0.52 Mcal/kg greater (P=0.001; DM basis), respectively, than expeller-pressed canola

  1. Solvent Extraction Batch Distribution Coefficients with Savannah River Site Dissolved Salt Cake

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, D.D.

    2002-03-07

    Researchers characterized high-level waste derived from dissolved salt cake from the Savannah River Site (SRS) tank farm and measured the cesium distribution coefficients (DCs) for extraction, scrub, and stripping steps of the caustic-side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet. The measurements used two SRS high-level waste samples derived entirely or in part from salt cake. The chemical compositions of both samples are reported. Dissolved salt cake waste contained less Cs-137 and more dianions than is typical of supernate samples. Extraction and scrub DCs values for both samples exceeded process requirements and agreed well with model predictions. Strip DCs values for the Tank 46F sample also met process requirements. However, strip DCs values could not be calculated for the Tank 38H sample due to the poor material balance for Cs-137. Potential explanations for the poor material balance are discussed and additional work to determine the cause is described.

  2. Concentration and precipitation of NaCl and KCl from salt cake leach solutions by electrodialysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sreenivasarao, K; Patsiogiannis, F.; Hryn, J.N.

    1997-02-09

    Electrodialysis was investigated for cost-effective recovery of salt from salt cake leach solutions. (Salt cake is a waste stream generated by the aluminum industry during treatment of aluminum drosses and scrap.) We used a pilot-scale electrodialysis stack of 5 membrane pairs, each with an effective area of 0.02 m{sup 2}. The diluate stream contained synthetic NaCl, KCl,mixtures of NaCl and KCl, and actual salt cake leach solutions (mainly NaCl and KCl, with small amounts of MgCl{sub 2}). We concentrated and precipitated NaCl and KCl salts from the concentrate steam when the initial diluate stream concentration was 21.5 to 28.8 wt% NaCl and KCl. We found that water transferring through the membranes was a significant factor in overall efficiency of salt recovery by electrodialysis.

  3. Utilization of Calophyllum inophyllum shell and kernel oil cake for reducing sugar production.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yu-Shen; Wu, Jang-Hong; Yeh, Li-Hsien

    2016-07-01

    This study is aimed at fully utilizing fruit biomass of Calophyllum inophyllum for reducing sugar production. The effects of pretreatment conditions and post reaction wash on the lignin removal and enzymatic hydrolysis of shell were investigated. The oil cake was also subjected to solvent extraction followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The results showed that the sequential acid/alkaline pretreatment of C. inophyllum shell resulted in better delignification than alkaline or acid only pretreatment. The reducing sugar yields obtained from sequential acid/alkaline pretreated shell and solvent extracted oil cake were 0.24g/g and 0.66g/g, respectively. The results suggested that the shell and oil cake of C. inophyllum could also be feedstocks for reducing sugar production. PMID:27130225

  4. Enzyme production and profile by Aspergillus niger during solid substrate fermentation using palm kernel cake as substrate.

    PubMed

    Ong, L G A; Abd-Aziz, S; Noraini, S; Karim, M I A; Hassan, M A

    2004-01-01

    The oil palm sector is one of the major plantation industries in Malaysia. Palm kernel cake is a byproduct of extracted palm kernel oil. Mostly palm kernel cake is wasted or is mixed with other nutrients and used as animal feed, especially for ruminant animals. Recently, palm kernel cake has been identified as an important ingredient for the formulation of animal feed, and it is also exported especially to Europe, South Korea, and Japan. It can barely be consumed by nonruminant (monogastric) animals owing to the high percentages of hemicellulose and cellulose contents. Palm kernel cake must undergo suitable pretreatment in order to decrease the percentage of hemicellulose and cellulose. One of the methods employed in this study is fermentation with microorganisms, particularly fungi, to partially degrade the hemicellulose and cellulose content. This work focused on the production of enzymes by Aspergillus niger and profiling using palm kernel cake as carbon source.

  5. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively. PMID:21568822

  6. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    PubMed

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  7. Effect of virgin coconut meal (VCM) on the rheological, micro-structure and baking properties of cake and batter.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Yashi; Semwal, Anil Dutt

    2015-12-01

    Virgin coconut meal (VCM) cakes were prepared by replacing refined wheat flour (maida) (5 to 20 % level) to check its effect on chemical, textural and rheological attributes of cake. The addition of VCM significantly (p ≤ 0.05) increased redness (a*), yellowness (b*) while reduced lightness (L*) of cakes. The incorporation of VCM affects the hardness, adhesiveness gumminess and chewiness of cake. The effect of flour replacement with VCM increased the viscosity of batter which leads to increase in consistency index and lower the shearthining behavior. The viscoelastic behavior of cake batter in which elastic modulus (G') and viscous modulus (G") both were decreased with the increase in percentage of VCM. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed that the onset (To), end set (Tc) and enthalpy of gelatinization (ΔH) increased with the increased level of VCM.

  8. Membrane fouling in a submerged membrane bioreactor with focus on surface properties and interactions of cake sludge and bulk sludge.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haiying; Lin, Hongjun; Zhang, Meijia; Hong, Huachang; He, Yiming; Wang, Fangyuan; Zhao, Leihong

    2014-10-01

    In this study, the fouling behaviors and surface properties of cake sludge and bulk sludge in a submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) were investigated and compared. It was found that the specific filtration resistance (SFR) of cake sludge was about 5 times higher than that of bulk sludge. Two types of sludge possessed similar extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content, particle size distribution (PSD) and zeta potential. However, their surface properties in terms of surface tensions were significantly different. Further analysis showed that cake sludge was more hydrophilic and had worse aggregation ability. Moreover, cake sludge surface possessed more hydrocarbon, less oxygen and nitrogen moieties than bulk sludge surface. It was suggested that, rather than EPS and PSD differences, the differences in the surface composition were the main cause of the great differences in SFR and adhesion ability between cake sludge and bulk sludge.

  9. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives.

  10. Olive oil exhibits osteoprotection in ovariectomized rats without estrogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, XIAOHUA; HUANG, HUIJUAN; ZHENG, XIAOBING; LI, BAOHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil on bone and uterus in ovariectomized rats. A total of 34 surgically ovariectomized or sham-operated virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: i) Sham-operated control rats (sham group); ii) Ovariectomized rats (OVX group); iii) Olive oil-supplemented ovariectomized rats (olive group); and iv) Diethylstilbestrol-supplemented ovariectomized rats (E2 group). At 12 weeks following left ventricular blood sacrificed to detect plasma estradiol (E2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the left femur proximal 1/3 slices were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Uterine wet weight and the uterus index (ratio of uterine wet weight and body weight) were compared, and the uterine endometrium was observed using a light microscope. In the OVX group, serum E2 was significantly lower and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with the sham group. By contrast, serum E2 levels increased and IL-1β levels decreased in the olive group, but showed no significant difference compared with the sham group. The lumbar spine BMD in the olive group was increased compared with OVX group. Electron microscopy revealed sparse collagen fibers in the OVX group, with decreased density and multi-cavity, showing pathological features of osteoporosis. By contrast, the situation was improved in the E2 and olive groups, in which organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were visible and active. Compared with the sham group rats, the uterine wet weight and uterine index decreased in the OVX and olive groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the E2 group. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia was not observed in the olive group, which were apparently different from E2 group. The present results suggest that olive

  11. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained. PMID:22911344

  12. Membrane fouling in a membrane bioreactor (MBR): sludge cake formation and fouling characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ping Chu, Hiu; Li, Xiao-Yan

    2005-05-01

    A submerged membrane bioreactor (MBR) with a working volume of 1.4 L and a hollow fiber microfiltration membrane was used to treat a contaminated raw water supply at a short hydraulic retention time (HRT) of approximately 1 h. Filtration flux tests were conducted regularly on the membrane to determine various fouling resistances, and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were employed to characterize the biofouling development and sludge cake formation on the membrane. The experimental results demonstrate that the MBR is highly effective in drinking water treatment for the removal of organic pollutants, ammonia, and UV absorbance. During the MBR operation, the fouling materials were not uniformly distributed on the entire surface of all of the membrane fibers. The membrane was covered partially by a static sludge cake that could not be removed by the shear force of aeration, and partially by a thin sludge film that was frequently washed away by aeration turbulence. The filtration resistance coefficients were 308.4 x 10(11) m(-1) on average for the sludge cake, 32.5 x 10(11) m(-1) on average for the dynamic sludge film, and increased from 10.5 x 10(11) to 59.7 x 10(11) m(-1) for the membrane pore fouling after 10 weeks of MBR operation at a filtration flux of 0.5 m3/m2 x d. Polysaccharides and other biopolymers were found to accumulate on the membrane, and hence decreased membrane permeability. More important, the adsorption of biopolymers on the membrane modified its surface property and led to easier biomass attachment and tighter sludge cake deposition, which resulted in a progressive sludge cake growth and serious membrane fouling. The sludge cake coverage on the membrane can be minimized by the separation, with adequate space, of the membrane filters, to which sufficient aeration turbulence can then be applied.

  13. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, K.V.; Deus-de-Oliveira, N.; Godoy, M.G.; Guimarães, Z.A.S.; Nascimento, V.V.; de Melo, E.J.T.; Freire, D.M.G.; Dansa-Petretski, M.; Machado, O.L.T.

    2012-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 × 105 cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained. PMID:22911344

  14. Acceptance and purchase intent of US consumers for nonwheat rice butter cakes.

    PubMed

    Sae-Eaw, A; Chompreeda, P; Prinyawiwatkul, W; Haruthaithanasan, V; Suwonsichon, T; Saidu, J E; Xu, Z

    2007-03-01

    This study evaluated consumer acceptance and purchase intent of nonwheat butter cake formulations prepared with Thai jasmine rice flour. Three nonwheat rice butter cakes were prepared with varying amounts of powdered emulsifier (propylene glycol ester:diacetyl tartaric acid ester of monoglyceride, 8:2) at 0% (product A), 7.5% (product B), and 15% (product C) of the margarine content (15%) in the cake formulation. A commercial wheat-based butter cake served as the control. Consumers (n= 400) evaluated acceptability of 9 sensory attributes using a 9-point hedonic scale. Overall acceptance and purchase intent were determined with a binomial (yes/no) scale. At least 81% of consumers accepted products B and C, of which 42.1% and 47%, respectively, would purchase the products if commercially available. Product A was neither liked nor disliked with an overall liking score of 5.39. The butter cake products were differentiated by textural acceptability (overall texture, softness, and moistness) with a canonical correlation of 0.71 to 0.79. Overall liking and taste influenced overall acceptance and purchase intent. Odor influenced purchase intent (P= 0.0014), but not overall acceptance. The odds ratio of overall liking was 3.462 for purchase intent, indicating the probability of the product being purchased is 3.462 times higher (than not being purchased, P < 0.0001) with every 1-unit increase of the overall liking score. Based on the logit model, overall acceptance and purchase intent could be predicted with 89.3% and 83.3% accuracy, respectively. The study demonstrated feasibility of completely substituting wheat flour with Thai jasmine rice flour for production of butter cake products acceptable to American consumers.

  15. Progress in pressurized fluidized bed combustion (PFBC) filter cakes and filter cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; Grimm, U.; Haddad, G.J.; VanOsdol, J.; Ferer, M.V.

    1996-12-31

    The Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) program of the US Department of Energy includes a Second Generation technology with a goal of 45% net efficiency and an Advanced Cycle technology with an efficiency greater than 50%. Both technologies require filtration, at temperatures in excess of 700 C, of fine particles of coal ash and spent and unreacted sorbent from the hot-gas stream. The authors have developed and tested physically realistic equations that allow real-time determination of filter-cake thicknesses from on-line measurements of tube-sheet pressure drops and gas and particle flow rates, and laboratory measurements of filter-cake porosities. The models also accommodate changes of cake-strengths and cleaning produced by changes in particle-size distributions before filtration (e.g., as produced by cyclone detuning). The degree of agglomeration in filter cakes strongly depends on chemical reactions, diffusion, and neck formation, which in turn depend on the operating temperature and frequency of filter-cleaning. When a dolomitic sorbent is used with a filter-vessel temperature of {approximately}700 C, capture of SO{sub 2} by sulfation of MgO (elutriated from the combustor) occurs in the filter cakes. Sulfation reactions produce bonding between particles and thus agglomeration. Agglomeration also can occur by sintering of MgSO{sub 4} or of CaSO{sub 4}; the latter compound also is elutriated from the combustor. However, the end-product produced by sulfation in the filter cakes of the Tidd PFBC demonstration plant was not MgSO{sub 4}, but Mg{sub 2}Ca(SO{sub 4}){sub 3}. The amounts of this compound and the rate at which it was produced also have been determined for the Tidd filter unit.

  16. Simultaneous allergen inactivation and detoxification of castor bean cake by treatment with calcium compounds.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, K V; Deus-de-Oliveira, N; Godoy, M G; Guimarães, Z A S; Nascimento, V V; Melo, E J T de; Freire, D M G; Dansa-Petretski, M; Machado, O L T

    2012-11-01

    Ricinus communis L. is of great economic importance due to the oil extracted from its seeds. Castor oil has been used for pharmaceutical and industrial applications, as a lubricant or coating agent, as a component of plastic products, as a fungicide or in the synthesis of biodiesel fuels. After oil extraction, a castor cake with a large amount of protein is obtained. However, this by-product cannot be used as animal feed due to the presence of toxic (ricin) and allergenic (2S albumin) proteins. Here, we propose two processes for detoxification and allergen inactivation of the castor cake. In addition, we establish a biological test to detect ricin and validate these detoxification processes. In this test, Vero cells were treated with ricin, and cell death was assessed by cell counting and measurement of lactate dehydrogenase activity. The limit of detection of the Vero cell assay was 10 ng/mL using a concentration of 1.6 x 10(5) cells/well. Solid-state fermentation (SSF) and treatment with calcium compounds were used as cake detoxification processes. For SSF, Aspergillus niger was grown using a castor cake as a substrate, and this cake was analyzed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of SSF. Ricin was eliminated after 24 h of SSF treatment. The cake was treated with 4 or 8% Ca(OH)2 or CaO, and both the toxicity and the allergenic properties were entirely abolished. A by-product free of toxicity and allergens was obtained.

  17. Sunflower cake as a natural composite: composition and plastic properties.

    PubMed

    Geneau-Sbartaï, Céline; Leyris, Juliette; Silvestre, Françoise; Rigal, Luc

    2008-12-10

    Nowadays, the end-of-life of plastic products and the decrease of fossil energy are great environmental problems. Moreover, with the increase of food and nonfood transformations of renewable resources, the quantities of agro-industrial byproducts and wastes increase hugely. These facts allow the development of plastic substitutes made from agro-resources. Many researches show the feasibility of molding biopolymers extracted from plants like a common polymeric matrix. Other natural macromolecules are used like fillers into polyolefins, for example. However, limited works present results about the transformation of a natural blend of biopolymers into a plastic material. The aim of this study is the determination of the composition of sunflower cake (SFC) and also the characterization of its components. These were identified by chemical and biochemical analysis often used in agricultural or food chemistry. Most of the extraction and purification processes modify the macrostructure of several biopolymers (e.g., denaturation of proteins, cleavage or creation of weak bonds, etc.). So, the composition of different parts of the sunflower seed (husk, kernel, and also protein isolate) was determined, and the plasticlike properties of their components were studied with thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, and a dynamic mechanical thermal analysis apparatus. Finally, this indirect way of characterization showed that SFC can be considered a natural composite. In SFC, several components like lignocellulosic fibers [40%/dry matter (DM)], which essentially come from the husk of sunflower seed, can act as fillers. However, other biopolymers like globulins ( approximately 30% of the 30% of sunflower seed proteins/DM of SFC) can be shaped as a thermoplastic-like material because this kind of protein has a temperature of glass transition and a temperature of denaturation that seems to be similar to a melting temperature. These proteins have also viscoelastic

  18. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae.

  19. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  20. Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed

    PubMed Central

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Stamatakis, Giorgos; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. PMID:24084786

  1. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  2. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  3. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

  4. High resolution NMR characterization of olive oils in terms of quality, authenticity and geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P

    2011-12-01

    This review deals with the most relevant results obtained in the last 10 years of studies of olive oils by high field nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these, quality and authenticity of olive oils, as well as geographical and variety characterization of Mediterranean olive oils, are discussed.

  5. Olive quick decline in Italy is associated with unique strain of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) is a destructive new disease currently affecting approximately 20,000 acres of olive in southern Italy—an area approximately the size of California’s table olive production in California. Symptoms of OQDS include extensive branch and twig dieback, yellow and brown...

  6. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  7. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  8. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  9. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  10. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  11. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  12. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  13. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  14. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  15. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  16. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  17. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  18. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation.

  19. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation. PMID:27343599

  20. Survival and growth of foodborne pathogens during cooking and storage of oriental-style rice cakes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Young; Chung, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Joong-Han; Dougherty, Richard H; Kangi, Dong-Hyun

    2006-12-01

    Fresh cooked rice cakes for retail sale are typically held at room temperature because refrigeration dramatically reduces their quality. Room temperature, high water activity, and a pH of > 4.6 provided an environment conducive to pathogen growth. To date, no studies have been published regarding survival and growth of foodborne pathogens in fresh cooked rice cakes. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of steam cooking on foodborne pathogens and their subsequent growth in five varieties of rice cakes made from flours of regular rice, sweet rice, white rice, tapioca, and mung bean. Bacillus cereus spores were detected in white rice, tapioca, and mung bean samples. The rice cake flours were inoculated with non-spore-forming foodborne pathogens (Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus) or spore-forming bacteria (Bacillus cereus) and steam cooked (100 degrees C) for 30 min. Steam cooking significantly reduced (> 6 log CFU/g) non-spore-forming foodborne pathogens in all samples and inactivated spores of B. cereus by 1 to 2 log CFU/g. Although spores of B. cereus survived steam cooking and germinated during 3 days of storage at room temperature, populations in most rice cakes remained below 106 CFU/g, which is the threshold for producing toxin. Rice cakes made from mung bean flour supported growth and germination of B. cereus spores above that critical level. In mung bean rice cakes, enterotoxin production was detected by the second day, when B cereus cell populations reached about 6.9 log CFU/g. The toxin concentration increased with storage time. However, our results suggest that rapid growth of total mesophilic microorganisms by more than 7 to 8 log CFU/ml during the first day of storage produced off flavors and spoilage before B. cereus was able to grow enough to produce toxins. Therefore, steam-cooked rice cakes made from a variety of flours including mung bean flour are safe

  1. Calibration of a neutron coincidence counter for measurement of the plutonium content of wet oxalate cakes

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, T.W.

    1983-04-01

    A novel calibration procedure has been applied to the dual-ring thermal neutron coincidence counter used at the Los Alamos Plutonium Processing Facility to measure the plutonium content of wet oxalate cakes. The calibration uses the measured content of the plutonium oxide product and the coincidence counter response to estimate the plutonium content in up to four wet plutonium oxalate cakes. These estimated mass values are then used to calibrate the counter. The calibration calculation is iterative in determining the calibration function coefficients and plutonium masses for oxalate material.

  2. Fixed-bed pyrolysis of cottonseed cake: Product yields and compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Puetuen, A.E.; Oezbay, N.; Kockar, O.M.; Puetuen, E.

    1997-11-01

    Fixed-bed pyrolysis experiments have been conducted on a sample of cottonseed cake to determine the possibility of being a potential source of renewable fuels and chemical feedstocks. The effects of heating rate, pyrolysis atmosphere, and pyrolysis temperature on the pyrolysis product yields and chemical compositions have been investigated. The maximum oil yield of 27% was obtained in N{sub 2} atmosphere at pyrolysis temperature of 550 C and heating rate of 7 C/min. The chemical characterization has shown that the oil obtained from cottonseed cake was quite similar to the crude oil and shale oil.

  3. Reduction of salt cake waste by removing low value oxide fines

    SciTech Connect

    Skoch, J.T.; Collins, R.L.

    1995-12-31

    With the ongoing pressure on the secondary aluminum business to limit the amount of waste generated from processing aluminum dross, it becomes very advantageous to preprocess the dross to reduce waste. The advantage of preprocessing is that it significantly reduces the oxides and salt cake generated when melted. Various products can be produced from the oxides for the steel industry. The paper will demonstrate that removal of oxide fines before melting will result in large volumes of material not being landfilled. The authors will show that the end result of this technology is to significantly reduce the amount of salt cake sent to a landfill while maximizing the recyclability of the aluminum dross.

  4. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  5. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest. PMID:25727685

  6. Effect of temperature and aeration rate on co-composting of olive mill wastewater with olive stone wooden residues.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, Alphapostolos; Barampouti, Elli Maria; Mai, Sofia; Loizides, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Co-composting of the solid residues and wastewater from the olive oil production process was examined as a potential bioremediation treatment for these wastes. Experimental results from a semi batch laboratory pilot plant were reported. Composting was performed for 20 days under constant moisture 40% and the temperature ranged from 55 to 72°C and the oxygen partial pressure from 10 to 17%. An operational region of temperature and oxygen partial pressure was defined in order to achieve a ratio of total olive mill wastewater consumption to olive stone wooden residue stabilization equal or greater than 2.5, the typical ratio for an olive mill plant. Another critical parameter for the optimisation of the 20-day co-composting process that was examined was the biological efficiency of the process, as the carbon dioxide produced to the total carbon available to biomass. A strong sigmoid correlation of co-composting efficiency with temperature derived, reaching a maximum plateau of 0.50 at 68°C. The optimum conditions for a 20-day semi batch co-composting proved to be 68°C and 16-17% oxygen partial pressure, indicating that this process could be an integrated treatment scheme for olive mills. PMID:20401685

  7. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  8. Characterization of fatty alcohol and sterol fractions in olive tree.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Solano, Mara; Ruiz-Jimenez, José; Luque De Castro, María D

    2010-07-14

    The determination of sterols and fatty alcohols is a part of the study of the metabolomic profile of the unsaponifiable fraction in olive tree. Leaves and drupes from three varieties of olive tree (Arbequina, Picual, and Manzanilla) were used. The content of the target compounds was studied in five ripeness stages and three harvesting periods for olive drupes and leaves, respectively. A method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction and derivatization for the individual identification and quantitation of sterols and fatty alcohols, involving chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection by selected ion monitoring, was used. The concentrations of alcohols and sterols in the drupes ranged between 0.1 and 1086.9 mug/g and between 0.1 and 5855.3 mug/g, respectively, which are higher than in leaves. Statistical studies were developed to show the relationship between the concentration of the target analytes and variety, ripeness stage, and harvesting period. PMID:20550122

  9. Modeling Free Energies of Solvation in Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlin, Adam C.; Levitt, David G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Olive oil partition coefficients are useful for modeling the bioavailability of drug-like compounds. We have recently developed an accurate solvation model called SM8 for aqueous and organic solvents (Marenich, A. V.; Olson, R. M.; Kelly, C. P.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 2011) and a temperature-dependent solvation model called SM8T for aqueous solution (Chamberlin, A. C.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 3024). Here we describe an extension of SM8T to predict air–olive oil and water–olive oil partitioning for drug-like solutes as functions of temperature. We also describe the database of experimental partition coefficients used to parameterize the model; this database includes 371 entries for 304 compounds spanning the 291–310 K temperature range. PMID:19434923

  10. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  11. Carcass traits and meat quality of crossbred Boer goats fed peanut cake as a substitute for soybean meal.

    PubMed

    Silva, T M; de Medeiros, A N; Oliveira, R L; Gonzaga Neto, S; Queiroga, R de C R do E; Ribeiro, R D X; Leão, A G; Bezerra, L R

    2016-07-01

    This study aimed to determine the impact of replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diets of crossbred Boer goats as determined by carcass characteristics and quality and by the fatty acid profile of meat. Forty vaccinated and dewormed crossbred Boer goats were used. Goats had an average age of 5 mo and an average BW of 15.6 ± 2.7 kg. Goats were fed Tifton-85 hay and a concentrate consisting of corn bran, soybean meal, and mineral premix. Peanut cake was substituted for soybean meal at levels of 0.0, 33.33, 66.67, and 100%. Biometric and carcass morphometric measurements of crossbred Boer goats were not affected by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. There was no influence of the replacement of soybean meal with peanut cake on weight at slaughter ( = 0.28), HCW ( = 0.26), cold carcass weight ( = 0.23), noncarcass components of weight ( = 0.71), or muscularity index values ( = 0.11). However, regression equations indicated that there would be a reduction of 18 and 11% for loin eye area and muscle:bone ratio, respectively, between the treatment without peanut cake and the treatment with total soybean meal replacement. The weights and yields of the commercial cuts were not affected ( > 0.05) by replacing soybean meal with peanut cake in the diet. Replacing soybean meal with peanut cake did not affect the pH ( = 0.79), color index ( > 0.05), and chemical composition ( > 0.05) of the meat (). However, a quadratic trend for the ash content was observed with peanut cake inclusion in the diet ( = 0.09). Peanut cake inclusion in the diet did not affect the concentrations of the sum of SFA ( = 0.29), the sum of unsaturated fatty acids (UFA; = 0.29), or the sum of PUFA ( = 0.97) or the SFA:UFA ratio ( = 0.23) in goat meat. However, there was a linear decrease ( = 0.01) in the sum of odd-chain fatty acids in the meat with increasing peanut cake in the diet. Soybean meal replacement with peanut cake did not affect the n-6:n-3 ratio ( = 0.13) or the

  12. Effect of adding palm oil mill decanter cake slurry with regular turning operation on the composting process and quality of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches.

    PubMed

    Yahya, Azmi; Sye, Chong Puay; Ishola, Tajudeen Abiodun; Suryanto, Hadi

    2010-11-01

    Formation of compost from oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) and decanter cake slurry by adding palm oil mill effluent (POME) with regular turning operation was investigated. The experiment was conducted in a commercial composting plant under the normal production process. The addition of decanter cake slurry has hastened the composting process of the EFB. The C/N ratio after 51 days for the mature compost with the decanter cake slurry was 18.65 while that of the matured compost without the decanter cake slurry remained high at 28.96. The compost formed from the addition of decanter cake to EFB and POME had 46.4% nitrogen, 17.9% phosphorus, 17.7% potassium and 23.1% calcium more than that without decanter cake. The use of compost produced from EFB, POME and decanter cake slurry could solve more environmental problems and enhance economic benefits in the oil palm industry.

  13. Influence of eggs on the aroma composition of a sponge cake and on the aroma release in model studies on flavored sponge cakes.

    PubMed

    Pozo-Bayón, Maria Angeles; Ruíz-Rodríguez, Alejandro; Pernin, Karine; Cayot, Nathalie

    2007-02-21

    The use of solvent-assisted flavor evaporation extraction (SAFE) and purge and trap in Tenax allowed the identification of more than 100 volatile compounds in a sponge cake (SC-e). Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) of the SAFE extracts of crumb and crust were achieved in order to determine the most potent odorants of SC-e. The change in the traditional dough formulation of SC-e in which eggs were substituted by baking powder (SC-b) as the leavening agent produced important changes in some key aroma compounds. The release curves of some aroma compounds-some of them generated during baking and others added in the dough-were followed by cumulative headspace analysis. In the flavored SC-b, the aroma release curves showed a plateau after 15 min of purge, while the release increased proportionally with the purge time in the flavored SC-e. In general, except for some of the aroma compounds with the highest log P values, the rate of release of most of the added and generated aroma compounds was significantly influenced by the changes in the cake formulation. The higher rates of release found for the aroma compounds in SC-b could contribute to explain its rapid exhaustion of aroma compounds in the purge and trap experiments and might lead to poorer sensorial characteristics of this cake during storage.

  14. Soil organic carbon pools in olive groves of different age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaccesi, Luisa; De Feudis, Mauro; Nasini, Luigi; Regni, Luca; D'Ascoli, Rosaria; Castaldi, Simona; Proietti, Primo; Agnelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, the practices which favor the increase of soil organic carbon in the agroecosystem have been widely studied because of their influence on the reduction of atmospheric CO2 (Lal, 1993; Schlesinger, 2000). The accumulation of the organic carbon into the soil depends to a great extent upon climate and pedological properties (Burke et al., 1989; Miller et al., 1994), although in the agricultural soils the cultivation system also plays a key role. The olive grove might potentially represent a relevant land use to improve C sequestration in soil, but there are few data available to support this hypothesis. In a study site located in central Italy (Deruta, PG), we analyzed the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in two olive groves of different age (7 and 30 years) and, as control, in a site adjacent to the groves cropped with cereals for at least 30 years. With the aim to isolate and quantify the active, intermediate and passive functional SOC pools in the olive groves and in the control, we used a combined physical and chemical fractionation method (Zimmermann et al., 2007). The main results shown that the total organic carbon content in the Ap horizons was the highest in the 30-years-old olive grove, followed by the 7-years-old olive grove, and then by the control soil. The content of active C, in form of particulate organic matter (POM) and water soluble organic matter (WEOM), was greater in the olive grove compared to the control soil and increase with the age of the grove. About the amount of C in the intermediate and passive pools, no significant differences were found among the olive groves and the control. These preliminary results indicated that the greater total organic C content occurred in the 30-year-old olive grove with respect to the 7-years-old grove and the control, has to be ascribed to the greater content of active organic matter (POM and WEOM), and not to the accumulation in soil of organic C in a more stabilised form.

  15. Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

  16. Deoiledjatropha seed cake is a useful nutrient for pullulan production

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ever increasing demand for fossil fuels is a major factor for rapid depletion of these non-renewable energy resources, which has enhanced the interest of finding out alternative sources of energy. In recent years jatropha seed oil has been used extensively for production of bio-diesel and has shown significant potential to replace petroleum fuels at least partially. De-oiled jatropha seed cake (DOJSC) which comprises of approximately 55 to 65% of the biomass is a byproduct of bio-diesel industry. DOJSC contains toxic components like phorbol esters which restricts its utilization as animal feed. Thus along with the enhancement of biodiesel production from jatropha, there is an associated problem of handling this toxic byproduct. Utilization of DOJSC as a feed stock for production of biochemicals may be an attractive solution to the problem. Pullulan is an industrially important polysaccharide with several potential applications in food, pharmaceuticals and cosmetic industries. However, the major bottleneck for commercial utilization of pullulan is its high cost. A cost effective process for pullulan production may be developed using DOJSC as sole nutrient source which will in turn also help in utilization of the byproduct of bio-diesel industry. Results In the present study, DOJSC has been used as a nutrient for production of pullulan, in place of conventional nutrients like yeast extract and peptone. Process optimization was done in shake flasks, and under optimized conditions (8% DOJSC, 15% dextrose, 28°C temperature, 200 rpm, 5% inoculum, 6.0 pH) 83.98 g/L pullulan was obtained. The process was further validated in a 5 L laboratory scale fermenter. Conclusion This is the first report of using DOJSC as nutrient for production of an exopolysaccharide. Successful use of DOJSC as nutrient will help in finding significant application of this toxic byproduct of biodiesel industry. This in turn also have a significant impact on cost reduction and may lead to

  17. The role of gluten in a pound cake system: A model approach based on gluten-starch blends.

    PubMed

    Wilderjans, Edith; Pareyt, Bram; Goesaert, Hans; Brijs, Kristof; Delcour, Jan A

    2008-10-15

    In order to evaluate the role of gluten in cake-making, gluten-starch (GS) blends with different ratios of gluten to starch were tested in a research pound cake formula. The viscosities of batters made from commercial GS blends in the otherwise standardised formula increased with their gluten content. High viscosities during heating provide the batters with the capacity to retain expanding air nuclei, and thereby led to desired product volumes. In line with the above, increasing gluten levels in the cake recipes led to a more extended oven spring period. Cakes with a starch content exceeding 92.5% in the GS blend suffered from substantial collapse during cooling. They had a coarse crumb with a solid gummy layer at the bottom. Image analysis showed statistical differences in numbers of cells per cm(2), cell to total area ratio and mean cell area (p<0.05). Both density and mean cell area were related to gluten level. Moreover, mean cell area and cell to total area ratio were the highest for cakes with the lowest density and highest gluten levels. Relative sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, 2.0%) buffer (pH 6.8) extractabilities of protein from cakes baked with the different GS blends decreased with gluten content and were strongly correlated with the intensity of collapse. Taken together, the results teach that protein gives the cakes resistance to collapse, resulting in desirable volumes and an optimal grain structure with uniform cell distribution. PMID:26047278

  18. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems

    PubMed Central

    Yunus, Agha W.; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-01-01

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4–5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake. PMID:26075378

  19. Evaluation of antioxidant, rheological, physical and sensorial properties of wheat flour dough and cake containing turmeric powder.

    PubMed

    Park, S H; Lim, H S; Hwang, S Y

    2012-10-01

    The effects of addition of turmeric powder (0%, 2%, 4%, 6% and 8%) were examined in order to obtain an antioxidant-enriched cake with good physico-chemical and sensorial properties. The rheological properties of doughs were evaluated using dynamic rheological measurements. Physical properties, curcumin content, radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH assay) and sensory analysis (hedonic test) of the supplemented cake were determined. Addition of turmeric powder up to 8% caused significant changes on dough characteristics and on cake rheological properties. The highest curcumin (203 mg/kg) and RSA-DPPH activity (45%) were achieved in the cake having the highest percentage of turmeric powder (8%); however, this sample showed the worst results regarding the rheological properties. Moreover, by sensory evaluation this cake sample was not acceptable. A 6% substitution of wheat flour with turmeric powder showed acceptable sensory scores which were comparable to those of 0-4% turmeric cakes. This indicated that up to 6% level of turmeric powder might be included in cake formulation.

  20. The Effect of Human Serum Albumin and Hematocrit on the Cake Collapse Temperature of Lyophilized Red Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Runyon, Daniel E; Higgins, Adam Z

    2015-10-01

    Freeze-drying, or lyophilization, has shown great promise in addressing many of the logistical challenges of storing and preserving red blood cells (RBCs). A crucial part of any RBC lyophilization protocol is the primary drying temperature, which affects the sample drying rate and the dried cake's ability to form a stable glassy solid. Primary drying is most efficient just below the temperature at which the porous structure of the cake begins to collapse, known as the cake collapse temperature. In this short report, we utilize freeze-drying microscopy to examine the effects of human serum albumin (HSA) and hematocrit on the cake collapse temperature. Increasing the hematocrit from 0% to 20% significantly raised the cake collapse temperature from - 37.8°C to -34.8°C. Addition of 5% HSA to a 20% hematocrit RBC suspension further increased the cake collapse temperature to -20.4°C. These data provide a basis for future study of the relationship between cake collapse and overall cell survival, with the object of building a clinically-viable RBC lyophilization protocol.

  1. Mycotoxin Cocktail in the Samples of Oilseed Cake from Early Maturing Cotton Varieties Associated with Cattle Feeding Problems.

    PubMed

    Yunus, Agha W; Sulyok, Michael; Böhm, Josef

    2015-06-12

    Cottonseed cake in South East Asia has been associated with health issues in ruminants in the recent years. The present study was carried out to investigate the health issues associated with cottonseed cake feeding in dairy animals in Pakistan. All the cake samples were confirmed to be from early maturing cotton varieties (maturing prior to or during Monsoon). A survey of the resource persons indicated that the feeding problems with cottonseed cake appeared after 4-5 months of post-production storage. All the cake samples had heavy bacterial counts, and contaminated with over a dozen different fungal genera. Screening for toxins revealed co-contamination with toxic levels of nearly a dozen mycotoxins including aflatoxin B1 + B2 (556 to 5574 ppb), ochratoxin A + B (47 to 2335 ppb), cyclopiazonic acid (1090 to 6706 ppb), equisetin (2226 to 12672 ppb), rubrofusarin (81 to 1125), tenuazonic acid (549 to 9882 ppb), 3-nitropropionic acid (111 to 1032 ppb), and citrinin (29 to 359 ppb). Two buffalo calves in a diagnostic feed trial also showed signs of complex toxicity. These results indicate that inappropriate processing and storage of the cake, in the typical conditions of the subcontinent, could be the main contributory factors regarding the low quality of cottonseed cake.

  2. Influence of waxy rice flour substitution for wheat flour on characteristics of batter and freeze-thawed cake.

    PubMed

    Jongsutjarittam, Nisachon; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2013-09-12

    This study aimed to improve the freeze-thawed cake properties by10-20% waxy rice flour (WRF) substitution for wheat flour (WF). Viscosity of WRF-substituted batters was lower; consequently, trapped air was less uniformly distributed than WF batter. After five freeze-thaw cycles, firmness and enthalpy of melting retrograded amylopectin of WF- and WRF-substituted cakes increased and the matrix surrounding the air pores from SEM images was denser than in fresh-baked cakes. Sensory evaluation showed an increase in firmness and a decrease in firmness acceptability of freeze-thawed cakes. However, freeze-thawed cake with WRF substitution had significantly less firmness, less dense matrix and more acceptability than WF cake. This could have been due to a low amylose content of WRF and the spread of ruptured waxy rice starch granules around swollen wheat starch granules as observed by CLSM. Thus, WRF could be used for WF substitution to improve the firmness in freeze-thawed cake.

  3. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    PubMed

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive.

  4. Fractional volume integration in two-dimensional NMR spectra: CAKE, a Monte Carlo approach.

    PubMed

    Romano, Rocco; Paris, Debora; Acernese, Fausto; Barone, Fabrizio; Motta, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative information from multi-dimensional NMR experiments can be obtained by peak volume integration. The standard procedure (selection of a region around the chosen peak and addition of all values) is often biased by poor peak definition because of peak overlap. Here we describe a simple method, called CAKE, for volume integration of (partially) overlapping peaks. Assuming the axial symmetry of two-dimensional NMR peaks, as it occurs in NOESY and TOCSY when Lorentz-Gauss transformation of the signals is carried out, CAKE estimates the peak volume by multiplying a volume fraction by a factor R. It represents a proportionality ratio between the total and the fractional volume, which is identified as a slice in an exposed region of the overlapping peaks. The volume fraction is obtained via Monte Carlo Hit-or-Miss technique, which proved to be the most efficient because of the small region and the limited number of points within the selected area. Tests on simulated and experimental peaks, with different degrees of overlap and signal-to-noise ratios, show that CAKE results in improved volume estimates. A main advantage of CAKE is that the volume fraction can be flexibly chosen so as to minimize the effect of overlap, frequently observed in two-dimensional spectra. PMID:18396078

  5. Astronauts Conrad and Cooper slice cake on U.S.S. Lake Champlain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1965-01-01

    Astronauts Charles Conrad Jr. (left) and L. Gordon Cooper Jr. prepate to slice into the huge cake prepared for them by the cooks onboard the aircraft carrier U.S.S. Lake Champlain. They are using ornamental Navy swords for knives.

  6. Apollo 9 crew prepares to cut cake on U.S.S. Guadalcanal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The Apollo 9 crew prepares to cut the 350-pound cake which was baked on the U.S.S. Guadalcanal in their honor. Left to right, are Astronauts Russell L. Schweickart, David R. Scott, and James A. McDivitt. Looking on at right is Capt. Roy M. Sudduth, commanding officer of the U.S.S. Guadalcanal.

  7. Monitoring the crystallization of starch and lipid components of the cake crumb during staling.

    PubMed

    Hesso, N; Le-Bail, A; Loisel, C; Chevallier, S; Pontoire, B; Queveau, D; Le-Bail, P

    2015-11-20

    Cake staling is a complex problem which has still not been fully understood. Starch polymers retrogradation, which is linked to biopolymers recrystallisation, is the most important factor affecting cake firmness in addition to water migration and fat crystallization. In this study, the effect of storage temperatures of 4°C and 20°C on starch retrogradation and fat recrystallization was investigated. Starch retrogradation can be tracked through changes in crystalline structure via X-rays diffraction as well as through melting of crystals via calorimetry. These techniques have been coupled to study the different phenomena occurring during staling. The results revealed that the storage of cakes at 20°C for 25 days showed more starch polymer retrogradation and more intense fat recrystallization in the β form than at 4°C. Consequently, the staling was delayed when a low storage temperature like 4°C was used, which is recommended to retain high quality cakes during storage.

  8. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha−1 of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha−1, dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  9. Gemini 12 crew cut cake aboard U.S.S. Wasp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    A happy Gemini 12 prime crew slice a cake made aboard the aircraft carrier, U.S.S. Wasp. Astronauts James A. Lovell Jr. (left), command pilot, and Edwin E. Aldrin Jr., pilot, had just been picked up from the splashdown area by helicopter.

  10. Response of Sugarcane in a Red Ultisol to Phosphorus Rates, Phosphorus Sources, and Filter Cake.

    PubMed

    Caione, Gustavo; Prado, Renato de Mello; Campos, Cid Naudi Silva; Rosatto Moda, Leandro; de Lima Vasconcelos, Ricardo; Pizauro Júnior, João Martins

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated the effect of phosphorus application rates from various sources and in the presence or absence of filter cake on soil phosphorus, plant phosphorus, changes in acid phosphatase activity, and sugarcane productivity grown in Eutrophic Red Ultisol. Three P sources were used (triple superphosphate, Araxa rock phosphate, and Bayovar rock phosphate) and four application rates (0, 90, 180, and 360 kg ha(-1) of P2O5) in the presence or absence of filter cake (7.5 t ha(-1), dry basis). The soil P, the accumulated plant P, the leaf acid phosphatase activity and straw, the stalk productivity, the concentration of soluble solids in the juice (Brix), the juice sucrose content (Pol), and the purity were the parameters evaluated. We found that P applications increased levels of soil, leaf, and juice phosphorus and led to higher phosphorus accumulation and greater stalk and straw productivity. These levels were highest in the presence of filter cake. Acid phosphatase activity decreased with increasing plant phosphorus concentration. Phosphate fertilization did not show effect on sugarcane technological quality. We concluded that P application, regardless of source, improved phosphorus nutrition and increased productivity in sugarcane and, when associated with filter cake, reduced the need for mineral fertilizer. PMID:26078993

  11. Simultaneous synthesis/assembly of anisotropic cake-shaped porphyrin particles toward colloidal microcrystals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Kuang, Minxuan; Jin, Feng; Cai, Jinhua; Shi, Lei; Zheng, Yongmei; Wang, Jingxia; Jiang, Lei

    2016-03-01

    The one-step synthesis/assembly of a cake-shaped porphyrin colloidal microcrystal with tailored height-diameter was demonstrated based on interfacial assembly and the water-droplet template. The as-fabricated anisotropic colloidal crystals showed special optic properties and enhanced optic-limiting behavior.

  12. Fractional volume integration in two-dimensional NMR spectra: CAKE, a Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Rocco; Paris, Debora; Acernese, Fausto; Barone, Fabrizio; Motta, Andrea

    2008-06-01

    Quantitative information from multi-dimensional NMR experiments can be obtained by peak volume integration. The standard procedure (selection of a region around the chosen peak and addition of all values) is often biased by poor peak definition because of peak overlap. Here we describe a simple method, called CAKE, for volume integration of (partially) overlapping peaks. Assuming the axial symmetry of two-dimensional NMR peaks, as it occurs in NOESY and TOCSY when Lorentz-Gauss transformation of the signals is carried out, CAKE estimates the peak volume by multiplying a volume fraction by a factor R. It represents a proportionality ratio between the total and the fractional volume, which is identified as a slice in an exposed region of the overlapping peaks. The volume fraction is obtained via Monte Carlo Hit-or-Miss technique, which proved to be the most efficient because of the small region and the limited number of points within the selected area. Tests on simulated and experimental peaks, with different degrees of overlap and signal-to-noise ratios, show that CAKE results in improved volume estimates. A main advantage of CAKE is that the volume fraction can be flexibly chosen so as to minimize the effect of overlap, frequently observed in two-dimensional spectra.

  13. Fractional volume integration in two-dimensional NMR spectra: CAKE, a Monte Carlo approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, Rocco; Acernese, Fausto; Paris, Debora; Motta, Andrea; Barone, Fabrizio

    2009-03-01

    Quantitative information from multidimensional NMR experiments can be obtained by peak volume integration. The standard procedure (selection of a region around the chosen peak and addition of all values) is often biased by poor peak definition because of peak overlap. Here we describe a simple method, called CAKE, for volume integration of (partially) overlapping peaks. Assuming the axial symmetry of two-dimensional NMR peaks, as it occurs in NOESY and TOCSY when Lorentz-Gauss transformation of the signals is carried out, CAKE estimates the peak volume by multiplying a volume fraction by a factor R. It represents a proportionality ratio between the total and the fractional volume, which is identified as a slice in an exposed region of the overlapping peaks. The volume fraction is obtained via Monte Carlo Hit-or-Miss technique, which proved to be the most efficient because of the small region and the limited number of points within the selected area. Tests on simulated and experimental peaks, with different degrees of overlap and signal-to-noise ratios, show that CAKE results in improved volume estimates. A main advantage of CAKE is that the volume fraction can be flexibly chosen so as to minimize the effect of overlap, frequently observed in two-dimensional spectra.

  14. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Whole navy bean flour and its fine and coarse particle size fractions were used to completely replace wheat flour in cakes. Replacement of wheat flour with whole bean flour significantly increased the protein content. The protein content was adjusted to three levels with navy bean starch. The effect...

  15. Navy bean flour particle size and protein content affect cake baking and batter quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is a great demand for wheat alternatives in foods, particularly baked goods, as gluten sensitivity increases. Baked goods such as cakes have wheat flour as a major ingredient, which is rich in gluten protein. Bean proteins do not have gluten, and are a good source of soluble fiber, B-vitamins,...

  16. Development of converter operation technology using ironbearing concentrates and clinker-steel cakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Protopopov, E. V.; Feyler, S. V.; Amelin, A. V.; Chumov, E. P.

    2016-09-01

    Technological process of steel production in converters using clinker-steel cakes and iron-bearing concentrates of “EVRAZ ZSMK” JSC slag processing unit ensuring liquid-phase reduction of iron from oxides is designed. Developed technology allows implementation of iron-containing materials recycling, reduces consumption of scrap, increases liquid metal yield, improves environmental safety in the region.

  17. Method of phorbol ester degradation in Jatropha curcas L. seed cake using rice bran lipase.

    PubMed

    Hidayat, Chusnul; Hastuti, Pudji; Wardhani, Avita Kusuma; Nadia, Lana Santika

    2014-03-01

    A novel enzymatic degradation of phorbol esters (PE) in the jatropha seed cake was developed using lipase. Cihera rice bran lipase had the highest ability to hydrolyze PE, and reduced PE to a safe level after 8 h of incubation. Enzymatic degradation may be a promising method for PE degradation.

  18. Oil cakes - a by-product of agriculture industry as a fortificant in bakery products.

    PubMed

    Behera, Satyabadi; Indumathi, K; Mahadevamma, S; Sudha, M L

    2013-11-01

    Groundnut cake (GNC) and soybean cake (SBC) by-product of agriculture industry had protein and protein digestibility in the range of 42.7-50.5 and 71.3-76.8%, respectively. Polyphenols present in GNC and SBC were cholorogenic acid, syringic acid and p-coumaric acid. The number of bands separated in soybean meal was greater than the bands observed in GNC flour as seen in SDS-PAGE pattern, respectively. SEM of groundnut flour showed distension of protein bodies due to roasting of the oil cakes. The water absorption of wheat flour GNC blends decreased from 59.2 to 57.3% and increased in wheat flour SBC blends from 59.2 to 68.3% with an increase in oil cake from 0 to 20%. With increase in either GNC or SBC, the biscuits became harder. Addition of glycerol monostearate and sodium stearoyl lactylate in combination with 20% blend of GNC/SBC decreased the breaking strength values and increased the sensory parameters of the biscuits. Nutritionally rich biscuits were thus prepared by incorporating GNC/SBC.

  19. Application of Zataria multiflora Boiss. and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils as two natural preservatives in cake

    PubMed Central

    Kordsardouei, Habibe; Barzegar, Mohsen; Sahari, Mohamad Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Oxidation of oils has an important effect on nutritional and organoleptic properties of foodstuffs. Nowadays, new tendency has created a necessity to use natural compounds such as essential oils for producing functional foods. In this study, antioxidant, antifungal, and organoleptic properties of Zataria multiflora Boiss. (ZMEO) and Cinnamon zeylanicum essential oils (CZEO) have been checked as two natural preservatives in the cakes. Materials and Methods: The antioxidant activity of essential oils were determined by measuring thiobarbituric, peroxide, and free fatty acid values of prepared cakes during 60 days storage at 25 ˚C. Antifungal properties of essential oils were determined and given as the ratio of colony number in samples containing ZMEO and CZEO to the control. Results: Different concentrations of essential oils prevented oxidation rate and reducd preliminary and secondary oxidation products compared with butylate hydroxyanisole (BHA (100 and 200 ppm)) and control cakes. Moreover, ZMEO and CZEO at three concentrations (500, 1000, and 1500 ppm) reduced the fungal growth more than samples containing BHA (100 and 200 ppm) and the control. Conclusion: Our results showed that optimum concenteration of ZMEO and CZEO for using in the cakes was 500 ppm therefore it can be replaced instead of synthetic preservatives in foodstuffs. PMID:25050280

  20. Responsive Surface Methodology Optimizes Extraction Conditions of Industrial by-products, Camellia japonica Seed Cake

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Kyeom; Lim, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Mi-So; Choi, Soo Jung; Kim, Mi-Jeong; Kim, Cho Rong; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Shin, Eui-Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Background: The central nervous system is easily damaged by oxidative stress due to high oxygen consumption and poor defensive capacity. Hence, multiple studies have demonstrated that inhibiting oxidative stress-induced damage, through an antioxidant-rich diet, might be a reasonable approach to prevent neurodegenerative disease. Objective: In the present study, response surface methodology was utilized to optimize the extraction for neuro-protective constituents of Camellia japonica byproducts. Materials and Methods: Rat pheochromocytoma cells were used to evaluate protective potential of Camellia japonica byproducts. Results: Optimum conditions were 33.84 min, 75.24%, and 75.82°C for time, ethanol concentration and temperature. Further, we demonstrated that major organic acid contents were significantly impacted by the extraction conditions, which may explain varying magnitude of protective potential between fractions. Conclusions: Given the paucity of information in regards to defatted C. japonica seed cake and their health promoting potential, our results herein provide interesting preliminary data for utilization of this byproduct from oil processing in both academic and industrial applications. SUMMARY Neuro-protective potential of C. japonica seed cake on cell viability was affected by extraction conditionsExtraction conditions effectively influenced on active constituents of C. japonica seed cakeBiological activity of C. japonica seed cake was optimized by the responsive surface methodology. Abbreviations used: GC-MS: Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer, MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, PC12 cells: Pheochromocytoma, RSM: Response surface methodology. PMID:27601847