Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M
The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.
Macci, Cristina; Masciandaro, Grazia; Ceccanti, Brunello
The disposal of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) represents a substantial environmental problem in Italy. A vermicompost process could be an alternative and valid method for the management of OMW. In a laboratory experiment, the OMW were absorbed onto a ligno-cellulosic solid matrix and 30 adult earthworms of Eisenia fetida specie were added. The experiment was carried out for 13 weeks. The number of earthworms increased throughout the experimental period and after 2 weeks about 90% of the earthworms had become sexually mature. The decrease in total organic carbon (about 35%), C : N ratio (from 31.2 to 12.3) and biochemical parameters (hydrolytic enzymes averagely 40% and dehydrogenase 23%), and the increase in humification rate (pyrophosphate extractable carbon (PEC) from 17.6 to 33.3 mg g(-1), and PEC : water-soluble carbon from 1.76 to 2.97) indicated the mineralization and the stabilization of organic matter at the end of the vermicomposting process. At the end of the experiment, the extracellular beta-glucosidase, phosphatase, urease and protease activities, measured in the pyrophosphate extract of the vermicompost, were found to be always higher or equal to that measured at the beginning of the vermicomposting process, suggesting that the enzymes bound to humic matter resisted biological attack and environmental stress. Moreover, the results obtained from the phyto-test showed that the OMW lose their toxicity and stimulate plant germination and growth.
Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...
Keren, Yonatan; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda; Borisover, Mikhail
Soil pesticide sorption is well known to affect the fate of pesticides, their bioavailability and the potential to contaminate air and water. Soil - pesticide interactions may be strongly influenced by soil organic matter (SOM) and organic matter (OM)-rich soil amendments. One special OM source in soils is related to olive oil production residues that may include both solid and liquid wastes. In the Mediterranean area, the olive oil production is considered as an important field in the agricultural sector. Due to the significant rise in olive oil production, the amount of wastes is growing respectively. Olive oil mill waste water (OMWW) is the liquid byproduct in the so-called "three phase" technological process. Features of OMWW include the high content of fatty aliphatic components and polyphenols and their often-considered toxicity. One way of OMWW disposal is the land spreading, e.g., in olive orchards. The land application of OMWW (either controlled or not) is supposed to affect the multiple soil properties, including hydrophobicity and the potential of soils to interact with pesticides. Therefore, there is both basic and applied interest in elucidating the interactions between organic compounds and soils affected by OMWW. However, little is known about the impact of OMWW - soil interactions on sorption of organic compounds, and specifically, on sorption of agrochemicals. This paper reports an experimental study of sorption interactions of a series of organic compounds including widely used herbicides such as diuron and simazine, in a range of soils that were affected by OMWW (i) historically or (ii) in the controlled land disposal experiments. It is demonstrated that there is a distinct increase in apparent sorption of organic chemicals in soils affected by OMWW. In selected systems, this increase may be explained by increase in SOM content. However, the SOM quality places a role: the rise in organic compound - soil interactions may both exceed the SOM
Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A
Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi
As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry.
The influence of olive oil mill waste (OOMW) amendment on soil processes affecting the herbicide oxyfluorfen (2-chloro-4-trifluoromethylphenyl-3-ethoxy-4-nitrophenyl ether) in two soils (P2 and SJ) was assessed under laboratory conditions. The soils used were from two diverse locations in Guadalqui...
Rincón, Bárbara; Borja, Rafael
A study of the anaerobic acidogenesis of wet olive cake or olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from the two-phase olive oil mill industry was carried out. Eight different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) ranging from 50.0-10.7 days were studied. An increase of 935.7 % in total volatile fatty acids (VFA) over the initial acidic concentration in the OMSW (1.4 g L(-1) expressed as acetic acid) was achieved. The results showed a maximum total VFA generation rate of 5.05 g COD L(-1)d(-1), this rate being achieved at the same hydraulic retention time as the maximum acetic acid production (8.2 g L(-1)) and as the maximum acidification degree (34.4 %).
Ferrara, Luciano; Panzella, Lucia; Napolitano, Alessandra; Giudicianni, Italo; d'Ischia, Marco; Arienzo, Michele
Two olive mill wastewaters (OMW) samples, OMWa and OMWb, containing different polyphenolic loads were used for decontaminating an unauthorized dump site in the Campania region, south Italy. In a bench-scale experiment, OMWa at pH 6.0 (OMWapH6.0) and 4.7 (OMWapH4.7), OMWb at pH 4.7 (OMWbpH4.7) and OMWa free of the polyphenolic moiety polyphenol-free OMWa (PF-OMWa) were added to the soil for a 96 h contact time. At 96 h, OMWapH4.7 was more effective than OMWapH6.0, with Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn removal percentages of 30.7-68.1. Cd and Pb levels were 6.0 and 915 mg kg(-1), respectively, decreasing below the regulatory limits for industrial and commercial areas (15.0 and 1 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively). A threefold decrease in Zn levels was also observed from 13.5 × 10(3) to 4.3 × 10(3) mg kg(-1). The metal removal efficiency of PF-OMWa dropped from 30.7 % to 15.6 % for Cd and from 37.9 % to 1.3 % for Pb. OMWbpH4.7 at 96 h was more efficient than OMWapH4.7, with mean removal percentages of 32.5 versus 7.8, respectively.
Hawari, A; Rawajfih, Z; Nsour, N
This work investigated the equilibrium batch dynamics of using olive oil mill solid residues as an adsorbent for zinc removal from aqueous solutions. It was found that a sorbent concentration of 4 g L(-1) achieved the best removal percentage and the best sorbent capacity. Adsorption equilibrium was reached in 60 min for an initial zinc concentration of 0.25 mmol/L and 180 min for an initial zinc concentration of 1-3 mmol/L. A particle size of olive mill residue ranging from 0.85 to 1.18 mm was used in the study. It was found that the maximum adsorption capacity of zinc was at a pH value of 5.0. It was found that q(max) for zinc ions, was 5.63, 6.46, and 7.11 mg g(-1) at temperature values of 298, 308, and 328 K, respectively. The data pertaining to the sorption dependence upon metal ion concentration could be fitted to a Langmuir isotherm model. The second-order kinetic model provided the best correlation of the data. The change in entropy (DeltaS degrees ) and heat of adsorption (DeltaH degrees ) for zinc ions adsorption on olive mill solid residues were estimated as -1419 kJ kg(-1)K(-1) and 4.7 kJ kg(-1), respectively. The examined low-cost adsorbent could offer an effective way to decrease zinc ions concentration in wastewater.
Tekaya, Meriem; El-Gharbi, Sinda; Chehab, Hechmi; Attia, Faouzi; Hammami, Mohamed; Mechri, Beligh
The objectives of this study were to determine the long-term effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with rock phosphate (RP) in a field of olive trees, on olive fruits and oil quality. The results revealed that olive fruits of OMW-RP amended plants had higher contents of polyphenols and mannitol indicating that agronomic application of OMW with RP generated an oxidative stress. Land spreading of OMW with RP altered the relative proportions of individual sugars in leaves and fruits. Consequently, the oil content decreased significantly, and a marked decrease in the contents of carotenoids and chlorophylls was also observed. Changes also took place in the composition of fatty acids, particularly by the increase of linoleic acid and the decrease of oleic acid. Our results suggested that the use of OMW in combination with RP is expected to have a major negative impact on olive fruit and oil quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Inceli, Ahmet Levent; Sengezer-Inceli, Meliha
In this research, acute effect of the olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW) on the frog larvae has been studied. Larvae showed hyperactivity symptoms first and loss of balance and remained motionless due to toxicity of wastewater. Toxicity was observed between 2 and 159 min depending on the test concentrations. Upon removing the phenolic compounds from the OMWW, this effect was seen after 248 min. Potential effects of the OMWW in Lake Iznik were also researched. Salinity of the lake water changed from 0.2 ‰ to 0.0 ‰ respectively in the measurements done in May and December.
Fragoso, R A; Duarte, E A
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) results from the production of olive oil, which is an important traditional agro-industry in Mediterranean countries. In continuous three-phase centrifugation 1.0-1.2 m(3) of OMW are produced per ton of processed olives. Discharge of OMW is of serious environmental concern due to its high content of organic matter with phytotoxic properties, namely phenolic compounds. Meanwhile, drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS) is produced in high amounts and has long been considered as a waste for landfill. The aim of this work was the assessment of reusing DWTS for OMW treatment. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis was carried out to determine the phenolic compounds present and to evaluate if they are recalcitrant. Treatability assays were performed using a dosage of DWTS from 50 to 300 g L(-1). Treatment efficiency was evaluated based on the removal of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), total solids (TS), total suspended solids (TSS), total volatile solids (TVS), oil and grease (OG), phenols (total phosphorous (TP) and HPLC fraction). Results from OMW HPLC characterization identified a total of 13 compounds; the major ones were hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, caffeic acid, p-cumaric acid and oleuropein. Treatability assays led to a maximum reduction of about 90% of some of the phenolic compounds determined by HPLC. Addition of 200-300 g L(-1) of DWTS reduced 40-50% of COD, 45-50% of TP, a maximum of nearly 70% TSS and 45% for TS and TVS. The OG fraction showed a reduction of about 90%, achieved adding 300 g L(-1) od DWTS. This study points out the possibility of establishing an integrated management of OMW and DWTS, contributing to a decrease in the environmental impact of two industrial activities, olive oil production and drinking water treatment.
Kiliç, M Yalili; Yonar, T; Kestioğlu, K
The pilot-scale treatability of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) by physicochemical methods, ultrafiltration and advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) was investigated. Physicochemical methods (acid cracking, oil separation and coagulation-flocculation) showed high efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (85%), oil and grease (O&G) (> 97%), suspended solids (SS) (> 99%) and phenol (92%) removal from the OOMW. Ultrafiltration followed by physicochemical methods is effective in reducing the SS, O&G. The final permeate quality is found to be excellent with over 90% improvements in the COD and phenol parameters. AOPs (ozonation at a high pH, O3/UV, H2O2/UV, and O3/H2O2/UV) increased the removal efficiency and the O3/H2O2/UV combination among other AOPs studied in this paper was found to give the best results (> 99% removal for COD, > 99% removal for phenol and > 99% removal for total organic carbon). Pilot-scale treatment plant has been continuously operated on site for three years (3 months olive oil production campaign period of each year). The capital and operating costs of the applied treatment alternatives were also determined at the end of these seasons. The results obtained in this study have been patented for 7 years by the Turkish Patent Institute.
Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed
In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.
Martini, Elisabetta; Merola, Giovanni; Tomassetti, Mauro; Campanella, Luigi
New immunosensors working in organic solvent mixtures (OPIEs) for the analysis of traces of different pesticides (triazinic, organophosphates and chlorurates) present in hydrophobic matrices such as olive oil were developed and tested. A Clark electrode was used as transducer and peroxidase enzyme as marker. The competitive process took place in a chloroform-hexane 50% (V/V) mixture, while the subsequent enzymatic final measurement was performed in decane and using tert-butylhydroperoxide as substrate of the enzymatic reaction. A linear response of between about 10nM and 5.0μM was usually obtained in the presence of olive oil. Recovery tests were carried out in commercial or artisanal extra virgin olive oil. Traces of pesticides were also checked in the oily matrix, in pomace and mill wastewaters from an industrial oil mill. Immunosensors show good selectivity and satisfactory precision and recovery tests performed in olive oil gave excellent results.
Fiorentino, Antonio; Gentili, Alessandra; Isidori, Marina; Lavorgna, Margherita; Parrella, Alfredo; Temussi, Fabio
Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW) are recalcitrant to biodegradation for their toxicity due to high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), and phenolic compounds. In the present study OMW, collected in southern Italy, were subjected first to a chemical oxidative procedure with FeCl3 and then to a biological treatment. The latter was performed in a pilot plant where mixed commercial selected bacteria, suitable for polyphenols and lipid degradation, were inoculated. The effect of treatments was assessed through COD removal, reduction of total phenols, and decrease of toxicity using primary consumers of the aquatic food chain (the rotifer Brachionus calyciflorus and the crustacean Daphnia magna). The results showed that the chemical oxidation was efficacious in reducing all parameters analyzed. A further decrease was found by combining chemical and biological treatments.
Benitez, F.J.; Beltran-Heredia, J.; Acero, J.L.; Pinilla, M.L.
A kinetic study of the degradation by ozone of eight phenolic acids present in wastewaters from olive oil mills has been performed by using a competition kinetic method. The selected phenolic acids are: caffeic, p-coumaric, syringic, vanillic, 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoic, veratric, p-hydroxy-benzoic, and protocatechuic. The influence of the operating variables (temperature, pH, and ozone partial pressure in the gas stream) is established, and the stoichiometric ratios for the individual direct reactions between ozone and each acid are determined. Once the reaction rate constants are evaluated, they are correlated as a function of temperature and pH into kinetic expressions which are provided for every phenolic acid. The global process occurs in the fast and pseudo-first-order kinetic regime of absorption, a condition required by the competition model to be used.
Peixoto, F; Martins, F; Amaral, C; Gomes-Laranjo, J; Almeida, J; Palmeira, C M
In a previous work the ability of Candida oleophila to use phenolic compounds as sole carbon and energy source at high concentrations without an additional carbon source was reported. C. oleophila grown in bioreactor batch cultures in a diluted and sterilized olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) caused a significant decrease in the total tannins content but no significant alteration was observed in phenolic acid and fatty acid content. Both treated and untreated OMWs were tested to evaluate the capacity in interfering with mitochondrial bioenergetics. Mitochondrial respiration was not affected by treated OMW on the range of used concentrations, contrary to the untreated OMW. Furthermore, mitochondrial membrane potential and respiratory complexes were always significantly less affected by treated OMW in comparison with untreated OMW. However, supplementary treatment should be applied before OMW could be considered non-toxic.
Aybeke, Mehmet; Sidal, Uour
The aim of this study is to assess the effects of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) application as irrigation water on in vitro pollen germination, focusing on total protein quantity. In test groups, pollen germination substances such as sucrose, H3BO3 and Ca(NO3)2 were added to different concentrations of OOMW and used as germination media. Regarding control group, the same substance melted into water instead of OOMW. As a result, in general, pollen germination percentage was decreased significantly in all OOMW concentrations than that of the control group, except 1/1000 concentrations. Similarly, total protein quantities declined linearly depending on decreasing OOMW concentrations, except 1/1 concentration which has 4-5 times the control value. Consequently, it was established that OOMW generally decreased pollen germination ratio and had carcinogenic effects on protein synthesis mechanism and must not be used as irrigation water without purification.
Donoso-Bravo, Andres; Ortega-Martinez, E; Ruiz-Filippi, G
Anaerobic digestion is a consolidated bioprocess which can be further enhanced by incorporating an upstream pretreatment unit. The olive oil production produces a large amount of solid waste which needs to be properly managed and disposed. Three different pretreatment techniques were evaluated in regard to their impact on the anaerobic biodegradability: manual milling of olive pomace (OP), enzyme maceration, direct enzyme addition, and thermal hydrolysis of two-phase olive mill waste. The Gompertz equation was used to obtain parameters for comparison purposes. A substrate/inoculum ratio 0.5 was found to be the best to be used in anaerobic batch test with olive pomace as substrate. Mechanical pretreatment of OP by milling increases the methane production rate while keeping the maximum methane yield. The enzymatic pretreatment showed different results depending on the chosen pretreatment strategies. After the enzymatic maceration pretreatment, a methane production of 274 ml CH4 g VS added (-1) was achieved, which represents an improvement of 32 and 71 % compared to the blank and control, respectively. The direct enzyme addition pretreatment showed no improvement in both the rate and the maximum methane production. Steam explosion showed no improvement on the anaerobic degradability of two-phase olive mill waste; however, thermal hydrolysis with no rapid depressurization enhanced notoriously both the maximum rate (50 %) and methane yield (70 %).
Simyrdanis, Kleanthis; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Kirkou, Stella; Sarris, Apostolos; Tsourlos, Panagiotis
Olive oil mills' wastes (OOMW) are one of the byproducts of the oil production that can lead to serious environmental pollution when they are deposited in ponds dug on the ground surface. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) method can provide a valuable tool in order to monitor through time the physical flow of the wastes into the subsurface. ERT could potentially locate the electrical signature due to lower resistivity values resulting from the leakage of OOMW to the subsurface. For this purpose, two vertical boreholes were installed (12m depth, 9 m apart) in the vicinity of an existing pond which is filled with OOMW during the oil production period. The test site is situated in Saint Andreas village about 15km south of the city of Rethymno (Crete, Greece). Surface ERT measurements were collected along multiple lines in order to reconstruct the subsurface resistivity models. Data acquisition was performed with standard and optimized electrode configuration protocols. The monitoring survey includes the ERT data collection for a period of time. The study was initiated before the OOMW were deposited in the pond, so resistivity fluctuations are expected due to the flow of OOMW in the porous subsurface media through time. Preliminary results show the good correlation of the ERT images with the drilled geological formations and the identification of low resistivity subsurface zone that could be attributed to the flow of the wastes within the porous layers.
Foutlane, A; Saadallah, M; Echihabi, L; Bourchich, L
The National Office for Drinking Water (ONEP), responsible for the drinking-water supply in Morocco, faces serious difficulties in producing water of good quality at a reasonable price from the River Sebou waters. The ONEP's three water treatment plants have been disrupted or even stopped due to the poor quality of waters received. The main source of pollution is the urban and industrial waste of the town of Fes, compounded by episodic pollution caused by the olive oil mills of Fes and its surrounding area. The ONEP study shows that the additional production costs incurred as a result of the pollution by wastewater from olive oil mills far exceeds the drinking-water rates charged in the study area.
Caporaso, Nicola; Genovese, Alessandro; Burke, Róisín; Barry-Ryan, Catherine; Sacchi, Raffaele
The present paper reports on the use of phenolic extracts from olive mill wastewater (OMW) in model olive oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions to study their effect on their physical and chemical stability. Spray-dried OMW polyphenols were added to a model 20% olive O/W emulsion stabilized with whey protein isolate (WPI) and xanthan gum, in phosphate buffer solution at pH 7. The emulsions were characterised under accelerated storage conditions (40 °C) up to 30 days. Physical stability was evaluated by analysing the creaming rate, mean particle size distribution and mean droplet size, viscosity and rheological properties, while chemical stability was assessed through the measurement of primary and secondary oxidation products. The rheological behaviour and creaming stability of the emulsions were dramatically improved by using xanthan gum, whereas the concentration of WPI and the addition of encapsulated OMW phenolics did not result in a significant improvement of physical stability. The formation of oxidation products was higher when higher concentrations of encapsulated polyphenols were used, indicating a possible binding with the WPI added in the system as a natural emulsifier. This paper might help in solving the issue of using the olive mill wastewater from olive processing in formulating functional food products with high antioxidant activity and improved health properties.
Ruiz, Juan Carlos; de la Rubia, Teresa; Pérez, Juana; Martínez Lopez, José
Our previous results have demonstrated that Phanerochaete flavido-alba decoloration, dephenolization and detoxification of olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) were associated with changes in the ligninolytic major exoenzymes accumulated in the cultures. This paper describes the effect of the two main OMW components (monomeric aromatic compounds and a major brownish polymeric pigment), on extracellular P. flavido-alba ligninolytic enzymes. Laccase was the sole ligninolytic enzyme detected in cultures containing monomeric aromatic compounds. Laccase and an acidic manganese-dependent peroxidase (MnPA, pI<2.8) were accumulated in cultures with OMW or polymeric pigment. Also, modified manganese-dependent peroxidases were observed mainly in OMW-supplemented cultures. Laccase was more stable to the effect of OMW toxic components and was accumulated in monomeric aromatic-supplemented cultures, suggesting a more important role than manganese-dependent peroxidases in OMW detoxification. Alternatively, MnPA accumulated in cultures containing the polymeric pigment seems to be more essential than laccase for degradation of this recalcitrant macromolecule by P. flavido-alba.
Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Rato-Nunes, José Manuel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier; Becerra, Daniel; Ramírez, Manuel
The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the behavior of metribuzin in Mediterranean agricultural soils is evaluated, and the effects of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions are assessed. Four soils were selected and amended in the laboratory with DW at the rates of 2.5% and 5%. One of these soils was also amended in the field with 27 and 54 Mg ha(-1) of DW for 9 years. Significant increases in metribuzin sorption were observed in all the amended soils. In the laboratory, the 5% DW application rate increased the t1/2 values of metribuzin from 22.9, 35.8, 29.1, and 20.0 d for the original soils to 59.2, 51.1, 45.7, and 29.4d, respectively. This was attributable mainly to the inhibitory effect of the amendment on microbial activity. However, the addition of DW transformed naturally under field conditions decreased the persistence down to 3.93 d at the greater application rate. Both amendments (fresh and field-aged DW) significantly reduced the amount of metribuzin leached. This study showed that DW amendment may be an effective and sustainable management practice for controlling groundwater contamination by metribuzin.
Jaouani, A; Vanthournhout, M; Penninckx, M J
In order to define an efficient pre-treatment of Olive Oil Mill Wastewater (OOMW) to overcome major obstacles to biological treatment, various organic and mineral coagulants have been tested. In particular, the application of quicklime until a pH around 12 - 12.4 was reached, allowed the reduction of almost 37% of the initial COD, and approximately 88% and 71% of the colour and phenolic content of the waste. Hence, further biological treatments with an adapted aerobic consortium (AC) and a white rot fungus (WRF) strain were improved. The WRF Coriolopsis polyzona was more efficient than AC to reduce colour and polyphenols when the waste was prior diluted or pre-treated; however, it was less effective in COD removal. The combined treatment: lime - AC of OOMW having initial COD of 102 g l(-1) led to the elimination of about 77, 91 and 63%, of the COD, phenols and colour, respectively. Interestingly, the opposite combination AC - lime permitted better COD, phenols and colour reduction to respectively, 21, 11 and 11% of the initial values. This latter condition is technically recommended since only one step separation was needed and no pH correction was necessary before undergoing aerobic treatment. Moreover, the process would produce a sludge potentially rich in organic matter, and consequently, useful as an agricultural amendment or/and as an additive in animal nutrition.
Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco
The qualitative characteristics of four monovarietal olive oils produced in Calabria region (Southern Italy) were evaluated. The aim of this work was to evidence the differences on chemical parameters due to variety and to growing environment. Results demonstrated a large variability in qualitative indexes according to the variety. Most of the Grossa di Gerace oils sampled in Ionian Southern coast revealed a high total acidity (percentage upper 0.8% of oleic acid). Fatty acid composition showed some varietal characters: in Grossa di Gerace oils possessed a low content of oleic acid and many Carolea oils showed a heptadecenoic acid level higher than 0.3% as European Rules requires for the extra virgin olive oil category. Carolea cultivar is widely grown in different sites of Calabria and so it is influenced by the different climatic conditions: the obtained oils strongly differed according to the production area. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Alexakis, Dimitrios D.; Sarris, Apostolos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Soupios, Pantelis; Doula, Maria; Cavvadias, Victor
The olive-oil industry is one of the most important sectors of agricultural production in Greece, which is the third in olive-oil production country worldwide. Olive oil mill wastes (OOMW) constitute a major factor in pollution in olivegrowing regions and an important problem to be solved for the agricultural industry. The olive-oil mill wastes are normally deposited at tanks, or directly in the soil or even on adjacent torrents, rivers and lakes posing a high risk to the environmental pollution and the community health. GEODIAMETRIS project aspires to develop integrated geoinformatic methodologies for performing monitoring of land pollution from the disposal of OOMW in the island of Crete -Greece. These methodologies integrate GPS surveys, satellite remote sensing and risk assessment analysis in GIS environment, application of in situ and laboratory geophysical methodologies as well as soil and water physicochemical analysis. Concerning project's preliminary results, all the operating OOMW areas located in Crete have been already registered through extensive GPS field campaigns. Their spatial and attribute information has been stored in an integrated GIS database and an overall OOMW spectral signature database has been constructed through the analysis of multi-temporal Landsat-8 OLI satellite images. In addition, a specific OOMW area located in Alikianos village (Chania-Crete) has been selected as one of the main case study areas. Various geophysical methodologies, such as Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Induced Polarization, multifrequency electromagnetic, Self Potential measurements and Ground Penetrating Radar have been already implemented. Soil as well as liquid samples have been collected for performing physico-chemical analysis. The preliminary results have already contributed to the gradual development of an integrated environmental monitoring tool for studying and understanding environmental degradation from the disposal of OOMW.
The addition of organic amendments to soil increases soil organic matter content and stimulates soil microbial activity. Thus, processes affecting herbicide fate in the soil should be affected. The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of olive oil production industry organic waste (a...
Agalias, Apostolis; Magiatis, Prokopios; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros; Mikros, Emmanuel; Tsarbopoulos, Anthony; Gikas, Evagelos; Spanos, Ioannis; Manios, Thrasyvoulos
The high polyphenol content of the wastewater is the major environmental problem caused by the olive mills. A pilot scale system for the treatment of the olive oil mills wastewater was developed aiming at the recovery of high added value-contained polyphenols and the reduction of the environmental problems. The treatment system consists of three main successive sections: The first one includes successive filtration stages aiming at the gradual reduction of the wastewater suspended solids up to a limit of 25 microm. The second section includes passing of the filtered wastewater through a series of adsorbent resins (XAD16 and XAD7HP) in order to achieve the de-odoring and decolorization of the wastewater and the removal/ recovery of the polyphenol and lactone content. The third section of the procedure includes the thermal evaporation and recovery of the organic solvents mixture, which has been used in the resin regeneration process, and finally the separation of the polyphenols and other organic substance contents using fast centrifuge partition chromatography. The final outcome of the whole procedure is (i) an odorless yellowish wastewater with a 99.99% reduced content in polyphenols and 98% reduced COD, (ii) an extract rich in polyphenols and lactones with high antioxidant activity and high added value, (iii) an extract containing the coloring substances of the olive fruit, and (iv) pure hydroxytyrosol.
Doula, Maria K; Elaiopoulos, Kyriakos; Kavvadias, Victor A; Mavraganis, Vasilis
In the framework of LIFE07 ENV/GR/000280 Project "Strategies to improve and protect soil quality from the disposal of olive oil mills wastes in the Mediterranean-PROSODOL", a laboratory experiment was conducted in order to investigate to which extent the natural zeolite clinoptilolite is capable of limiting environmental degradation caused by the uncontrolled disposal of olive oil mills wastes (OOMW). Clinoptilolite was added in various ratios (from 0% up to 30%w/w) to soil samples, which were collected from four OOMW disposal sites (from both the interior of the disposal ponds and the surroundings) located in a pilot Municipality in Rethymno, Crete, Greece. Water soluble K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Fe, Cu, polyphenols, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and PO4(3-) were measured in leachates after equilibration of the soil samples with clinoptilolite It was observed that water soluble K, NO3-, Cl-, SO4(2-) and polyphenols were decreased with an increase in zeolite percentage; Ca leaching was slightly increased or remained nearly constant; Mg leaching remained constant or increased, especially for pond soils; and PO4(3-) leaching was very low. Although the soil samples' content in available Mn, Cu, Zn, Fe was high, the metals were not detected in the leachates.
Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan
The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729
Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Maniadakis, Konstantinos; Kalogeraki, Maria; Mari, Eirini; Stratakis, Emmanouil; Terzakis, Stelios; Boytzakis, Panagiotis; Naziridis, Yiannis; Zampetakis, Leonidas
The aim of this paper was to evaluate the use of different bulking agents in different ratios as a means to control, optimise and eventually reduce the duration of the thermophilic period in two-phase olive oil mill sludge (OOMS) composting. The bulking agents used were: (i) olive tree leaves (OTL), (ii) olive tree shredded branches (OTB) and (iii) woodchips (WDC). The selection of these materials was based on their abundance and availability on the island of Crete, the southernmost point of Greece. The ratios studied were: Pile 1, OOMS:OTL in 1:1 v/v; Pile 2, OOMS:WDC in 1:1.5 v/v; Pile 3, OOMS:OTL in 1:2 v/v; Pile 4, OOMS:OTL:OTB in 1:1:1 v/v; and Pile 5, OOMS:OTL:OTB in 1:1:2 v/v. The composting system used was that of windrows with the volume of each pile approximately 20-25 m3. The experiments took place over two consecutive years. A composting turner was used and turnings were performed at one and two week intervals. In each pile a variety of physiochemical parameters were monitored. Temperature remained high in all five trials. Piles 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 temperatures recorded values of above 50 degrees C for 106, 158, 160, 175 and 183 days, respectively. Volumes were reduced by approximately 67%, 62%, 63%, 80% and 84%, respectively. Temperature remained high, mainly due to the presence in large amounts of oily substances which during their complete oxidation release important amounts of energy and aid the cometabolism of more stable molecules such as lignin. This process is better described as the slow "burning" of a "fuel" mixture in an "engine" than composting. This approach is based on the extensive similarities of this process to that of crude oil sludge or similar waste composting.
Jimenez-Alvarez, D; Giuffrida, F; Golay, P A; Cotting, C; Lardeau, A; Keely, Brendan J
The antioxidant activity of oregano, parsley, olive mill wastewaters (OMWW), Trolox, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was evaluated in bulk oils and oil-in-water (o/w) emulsions enriched with 5% tuna oil by monitoring the formation of hydroperoxides, hexanal, and t-t-2,4-heptadienal in samples stored at 37 degrees C for 14 days. In bulk oil, the order of antioxidant activity was, in decreasing order (p < 0.05), OMWW > oregano > parsley > EDTA > Trolox. The antioxidant activity in o/w emulsion followed the same order except that EDTA was as efficient an antioxidant as OMWW. In addition, the total phenolic content, the radical scavenging properties, the reducing capacity, and the iron chelating activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano extracts were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau, oxygen radical absorbance capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and iron(II) chelating activity assays, respectively. The antioxidant activity of OMWW, parsley, and oregano in food systems was related to their total phenolic content and radical scavenging capacity but not to their ability to chelate iron in vitro. OMWW was identified as a promising source of antioxidants to retard lipid oxidation in fish oil-enriched food products.
Gerasopoulos, Konstantinos; Stagos, Dimitrios; Kokkas, Stylianos; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Kantas, Dimitrios; Goulas, Panagiotis; Kouretas, Dimitrios
In the present study, a ceramic membrane microfiltration method was used for the separation of two liquid products, the downstream permeate and the upstream retentate, from olive mill wastewater (OMWW). These liquid products were examined for their antioxidant activity by incorporating them into broilers' feed. Twenty four broilers 13 d old were divided into two feeding groups receiving supplementation with OMWW retentate or permeate for 37 d. Blood was drawn at 17, 27 and 37 d, while tissues (muscle, heart, liver) were collected at 37 d. The antioxidant effects were assessed by measuring oxidative stress biomarkers in blood and tissues. The results showed that broilers given feed supplemented with OMWW retentate or permeate had significantly lower protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation levels and higher total antioxidant capacity in plasma and tissues compared to control group. In both OMWW groups, catalase activity in erythrocytes and tissues was significantly increased compared to control group. OMWW retentate administration increased significantly GSH in erythrocytes in broilers with low GSH, although both OMWW products significantly reduced GSH in broilers with high GSH. Thus, it has been demonstrated for the first time that supplementation with OMWW processing residues could be used for enhancing broilers' redox status. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...
Morillo, J A; Antizar-Ladislao, B; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J
Olive-mill wastes are produced by the industry of olive oil production, which is a very important economic activity, particularly for Spain, Italy and Greece, leading to a large environmental problem of current concern in the Mediterranean basin. There is as yet no accepted treatment method for all the wastes generated during olive oil production, mainly due to technical and economical limitations but also the scattered nature of olive mills across the Mediterranean basin. The production of virgin olive oil is expanding worldwide, which will lead to even larger amounts of olive-mill waste, unless new treatment and valorisation technologies are devised. These are encouraged by the trend of current environmental policies, which favour protocols that include valorisation of the waste. This makes biological treatments of particular interest. Thus, research into different biodegradation options for olive-mill wastes and the development of new bioremediation technologies and/or strategies, as well as the valorisation of microbial biotechnology, are all currently needed. This review, whilst presenting a general overview, focus critically on the most significant recent advances in the various types of biological treatments, the bioremediation technology most commonly applied and the valorisation options, which together will form the pillar for future developments within this field.
Manios, Thrassyvoulos; Maniadakis, Konstantinos; Boutzakis, Panagiotis; Naziridis, Yiannis; Lasaridi, Katia; Markakis, George; Stentiford, Edward I
The aim of this work was to make some preliminary evaluations on CO(2) and CH(4) emissions during composting of two-phase olive oil mill sludge (OOMS). OOMS, olive tree leaves (OTL) and shredded olive tree branches (OTB) were used as feedstock for Pile I and Pile II with a 1:1:1 and 1:1:2v/v ratio, respectively. Each pile was originally 1.2m high, 2.0m wide and approximately 15.0m long. Four 500 ml volume glass funnels were inverted and introduced in each pile, two in the core (buried 50-60 cm from the surface) and two near the surface under a thin 10-15 cm layer of the mixture. Thin (0.5 cm diameter) plastic, 80 cm long tubes were connected to the funnels. A mobile gas analyser (GA2000) was used to measure the composition (by volume) of O2, CO2 and CH4 on a daily basis. The funnels were removed prior to each turning and reinserted afterwards. From each pair of funnels (core and surface) of both piles, one was kept closed between samplings. Two way ANOVA was used to test differences between piles and among the tubes. Post hoc Tukey tests were also used to further investigate these differences. There was a significant difference (at p<0.001) in the two piles for all three gases. The average concentrations of O2, CO2 and CH4 in Pile I, from all four funnels was 16.86%, 3.89% and 0.25%, respectively, where for Pile II the average values were 18.07%, 2.38% and 0.04%, respectively. The presence of OOMS in larger amounts in Pile I (resulting in more intense decomposing phenomena), and the larger particle size of OTB in Pile II (resulting in increasing porosity) are the probable causes of these significant differences. Samples from open funnels presented lower, but not significantly lower, O2 composition (higher for CO2 and CH4) in comparison with closed funnels in both depths and both piles. Not significant were also the different mean gas compositions between core and surface funnels in the same pile.
Chiaiese, Pasquale; Palomba, Francesca; Tatino, Filippo; Lanzillo, Carmine; Pinto, Gabriele; Pollio, Antonino; Filippone, Edgardo
Olive oil mill wastewaters (OMWs) are characterised by low pH and a high content of mono- and polyaromatic compounds that exert microbial and phytotoxic activity. The laccase cDNA of the poxA1b gene from Pleurotus ostreatus, carrying a signal peptide sequence for enzyme secretion and driven by the CaMV 35S promoter, was cloned into a plant expression vector. Nuclear genetic transformation was carried out by co-cultivation of Agrobacterium tumefaciens with tobacco cv Samsun NN leaves and cells of five different microalgae accessions belonging to the genera Chlamydomonas, Chlorella and Ankistrodesmus. Transgenic plants and microalgae were able to express and secrete the recombinant laccase in the root exudates and the culture medium, respectively. In comparison to untransformed controls, the ability to reduce phenol content in OMW solution was enhanced up to 2.8-fold in transgenic tobacco lines and by up to about 40% in two microalgae accessions. The present work provides new evidence for metabolic improvement of green organisms through the transgenic approach to remediation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...
Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Víctor-Ortega, María Dolores; Martínez-Ferez, Antonio
Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW) and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v) washing wastewaters (MOMW) was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ) for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ = 2 h) and 21.4% (τ = 3 h), respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% COD(removal), 19.2% total phenols(removal), and 28.1% total suspended solids(removal) were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% COD(removal), 27.5% total phenols(removal), and 25.0% total suspended solids(removal) for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of COD(removal), in contrast with 33.2% of COD(removal) for OMW.
Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Víctor-Ortega, María Dolores; Martínez-Ferez, Antonio
Photocatalytic degradation of olive oil mill wastewater from two-phase continuous centrifugation process was studied. A novel photocatalyst with ferromagnetic properties was characterized and investigated. The degradation capacity of the photocatalytic process of olive oil washing wastewater (OMW) and mixture of olives and olive oil (1 v/v) washing wastewaters (MOMW) was demonstrated. At lab-scale, the %COD removal and residence time (τ) for MOMW and OMW were 58.4% (τ = 2 h) and 21.4% (τ = 3 h), respectively. On the other hand, at pilot scale, 23.4% CODremoval, 19.2% total phenolsremoval, and 28.1% total suspended solidsremoval were registered at the end of the UV/TiO2 process for OMW, whereas 58.3% CODremoval, 27.5% total phenolsremoval, and 25.0% total suspended solidsremoval for MOMW. Also, before the UV/TiO2 reaction, a pH-T flocculation operation as pretreatment was realized. The overall efficiency of the treatment process for MOMW was up to 91% of CODremoval, in contrast with 33.2% of CODremoval for OMW. PMID:24489490
Vichi, Stefania; Romero, Agustí; Tous, Joan; Caixach, Josep
The activity of olive microbiota during the oil extraction process could be a critical point for virgin olive oil quality. With the aim to evaluate the role of microbiological activity during the virgin olive oil extraction process, just before oil extraction freshly collected healthy olive fruits were immersed in contaminated water from an olive mill washing tank. The oils extracted were then compared with control samples from the same batch of hand-picked olives. The presence of lactic and enteric bacteria, fungi and Pseudomonas on the surface of olives was proved to be much higher in washed than in control olives, with increments in cfu/g between 2 and 3 orders of magnitude. The biogenesis of volatile compounds and the extraction of olive polyphenols and pigments were significantly influenced by the microbiological profile of olives even without any previous storage. In most cases the effect of olive microbiota on oil characteristics was greater than the effect exerted by malaxation time and temperature. Oils from microbiologically contaminated olives showed lower amounts of C5 volatiles and higher levels of C6 volatiles from the lipoxygenase pathway and some fermentation products. On the other hand, a decrease of chlorophylls, pheophytins, xanthophylls and the ratio chlorophyll/pheophytin was observed in these oils. Likewise, the microbiological activity during oil extraction led to significantly lower amounts of polyphenols, in particular of oleuropein derivatives. These differences in olive oil chemical composition were reflected in oil sensory characteristics by the decrease of the green and bitter attributes and by the modification of the oil color chromatic ordinates.
Owen, R W; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, E; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H
Epidemiologic studies conducted in the latter part of the twentieth century demonstrate fairly conclusively that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle with decreased incidence of degenerative diseases. The data show that populations within Europe that consume the so-called 'Mediterranean diet' have lower incidences of major illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Studies have suggested that the health-conferring benefits of the Mediterranean diet are due mainly to a high consumption of fibre, fish, fruits and vegetables. More recent research has focused on other important factors such as olives and olive oil. Obviously fibre (especially wholegrain-derived products), fruits and vegetables supply an important source of dietary antioxidants. What is the contribution from olives and olive oil? Apparently the potential is extremely high but epidemiologic studies rarely investigate consumption of these very important products in-depth, perhaps due to a lack of exact information on the types and amounts of antioxidants present. Recent studies have shown that olives and olive oil contain antioxidants in abundance. Olives (especially those that have not been subjected to the Spanish brining process) contain up to 16 g/kg typified by acteosides, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and phenyl propionic acids. Olive oil, especially extra virgin, contains smaller amounts of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but also contains secoiridoids and lignans in abundance. Both olives and olive oil contain substantial amounts of other compounds deemed to be anticancer agents (e.g. squalene and terpenoids) as well as the peroxidation-resistant lipid oleic acid. It seems probable that olive and olive oil consumption in southern Europe represents an important contribution to the beneficial effects on health of the Mediterranean diet.
Justino, Celine I L; Pereira, Ruth; Freitas, Ana C; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Panteleitchouk, Teresa S L; Duarte, Armando C
The olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is a problematic and polluting effluent which may degrade the soil and water quality, with critical negative impacts on ecosystems functions and services provided. The main purpose of this review paper is presenting the state of the art of OMW treatments focusing on their efficiency to reduce OMW toxicity, and emphasizing the role of ecotoxicological tests on the evaluation of such efficiency before the up-scale of treatment methodologies being considered. In the majority of research works, the reduction of OMW toxicity is related to the degradation of phenolic compounds (considered as the main responsible for the toxic effects of OMW on seed germination, on bacteria, and on different species of soil and aquatic invertebrates) or the decrease of chemical oxygen demand content, which is not scientifically sound. Batteries of ecotoxicological tests are not applied before and after OMW treatments as they should be, thus leading to knowledge gaps in terms of accurate and real assessment of OMW toxicity. Although the toxicity of OMW is usually high, the evaluation of effects on sub-lethal endpoints, on individual and multispecies test systems, are currently lacking, and the real impacts yielded by its dilution, in freshwater trophic chains of receiving systems can not be assessed. As far as the terrestrial compartment is considered, ecotoxicological data available include tests only with plants and the evaluation of soil microbial parameters, reflecting concerns with the impacts on crops when using OMW for irrigation purposes. The evaluation of its ecotoxicity to other edaphic species were not performed giving rise to a completely lack of knowledge about the consequences of such practice on other soil functions. OMW production is a great environmental problem in Mediterranean countries; hence, engineers, chemists and ecotoxicologists should face this problem together to find an ecologically friend solution.
From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.
Bettazzi, E; Morelli, M; Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Azzari, E; Lubello, C
Olive oil production, one of the main agro-industries in Mediterranean countries, generates significant amounts of olive mill wastewaters (OMWs), which represent a serious environmental problem, because of their high organic load, the acidic pH and the presence of recalcitrant and toxic substances such as phenolic and lipidic compounds (up to several grams per litre). In Italy, traditional disposal on the soil is the most common way to discharge OMWs. This work is aimed at investigating the efficiency and feasibility of AOPs and biological processes for OMW treatment. Trials have been carried out on wastewaters taken from one of the largest three-phase mills of Italy, located in Quarrata (Tuscany), as well as on synthetic solutions. Ozone and Fenton's reagents applied both on OMWs and on phenolic synthetic solutions guaranteed polyphenol removal efficiency up to 95%. Aerobic biological treatment was performed in a batch reactor filled with raw OMWs (pH = 4.5, T = 30 degrees C) without biomass inoculum. A biomass rich of fungi, developed after about 30 days, was able to biodegrade phenolic compounds reaching a removal efficiency of 70%. Pretreatment of OMWs by means of oxidation increased their biological treatability.
Meneses, Dayana P; Gudiña, Eduardo J; Fernandes, Fabiano; Gonçalves, Luciana R B; Rodrigues, Lígia R; Rodrigues, Sueli
In this study, the biosurfactant production by an Aureobasidium thailandense LB01 was reported for the first time. Different agro-industrial by-products (corn steep liquor, sugarcane molasses, and olive oil mill wastewater) were evaluated as alternative low-cost substrates. The composition of the culture medium was optimized through response surface methodology. The highest biosurfactant production (139±16mg/L) was achieved using a culture medium containing yeast extract (2g/L); olive oil mill wastewater (1.5%, w/w); glucose (6g/L) and KH2PO4 (1g/L) after 48h of fermentation. The partially purified biosurfactant exhibited a critical micelle concentration of 550mg/L, reducing the surface tension of water up to 31.2mN/m. Its molecular structure was found to be similar to a lauric acid ester. The biosurfactant exhibited a better performance than the chemical surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) in oil dispersion assays, thus suggesting its potential application in bioremediation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.
Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas
Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199
Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Hodaifa, Gassan; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio
Physicochemical characterization of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) was studied after a primary and secondary treatment was implemented in an olive oil factory in Jaén (Spain), comprising natural precipitation, Fenton-like reaction, flocculation-sedimentation and olive stone filtration in series. The application of membrane technology in improving the quality of the secondary-treated OMW (OMW/ST) was examined, to reduce the hazardous electroconductivity (EC) values (2-3 mS cm(-1)). Particle size distribution on OMW/ST shows supra-micron colloids and suspended solids as well as sub-micron particles with a mean size below 1.5 μm remaining in considerable concentration. The high organic pollutants percentage (31.7%) registered with an average diameter below 3 kDa is sensibly relevant for membrane fouling. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria growth warns of possible membrane biofouling formation. The saturation index indicates to work upon recovery factor below 90%. Finally, operating at a pressure equal to 15 bar ensured low fouling and high flux production on the selected NF membrane (69.9 L h(-1)m(-2)) and significant rejection efficiencies (55.5% and 88.5% for EC and COD). This permits obtaining an effluent with good quality according to the recommendations of the Food and Agricultural Association (FAO) with the goal of reusing the regenerated water for irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Khalatbary, Ali Reza
Olive oil is a rich source of phenolic components which have a wide variety of beneficial health effects in vitro, in vivo, and clinically. The beneficial effects of olive oil phenols attributed to a variety of biological activities including free radical scavenging/antioxidant actions, anti-inflammatory effects, anti-carcinogenic properties, and anti-microbial activities. On the other hand, olive oil phenols have been shown to be some of neuroprotective effects against cerebral ischemia, spinal cord injury, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's diseases, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, aging, and peripheral neuropathy. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the mechanisms of neuroprotective effects of olive oil phenols.
Peña, David; López-Piñeiro, Antonio; Albarrán, Ángel; Becerra, Daniel; Sánchez-Llerena, Javier
Olive oil agrifood industry generates large amounts of waste whose recycling as organic amendment represents an alternative to their disposal. The impact of de-oiled two-phase olive mill waste (DW) on the fate of 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) in Mediterranean agricultural soils was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of the transformation of organic matter from this waste under field conditions was assessed. Four Mediterranean agricultural soils were selected and amended in laboratory with fresh DW and field-aged DW (DW and ADW treatments, respectively). Adsorption capacity increased by factors between 1.18 and 3.59, for the DW-amended soils, and by factor of 4.93, for ADW-amended soil, with respect to unamended soils, when 5% amendment was applied. The DW amendment had inhibitory effect on dehydrogenase activity and slowed herbicide dissipation, whereas the opposite effect was observed in ADW treatments. In the field-amended soil, the amount of MCPA leached was significantly reduced from 56.9% for unamended soil to 15.9% at the 5% rate. However, leaching losses of MCPA increased in the laboratory-amended soils, because of their high water-soluble organic carbon values which could enhance MCPA mobility, especially in the acidic soils. Therefore, the application of DW as organic amendment in Mediterranean agricultural soils could be an important management strategy to reduce MCPA leaching, especially if the organic matter had been previously transformed by ageing processes.
Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A
Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Covas, María-Isabel; Konstantinidou, Valentini; Fitó, Montserrat
The Mediterranean diet, in which olive oil is the primary source of fat, is associated with a low mortality for cardiovascular disease. Data concerning olive oil consumption and primary end points for cardiovascular disease are scarce. However, a large body of knowledge exists providing evidence of the benefits of olive oil consumption on secondary end points for the disease. Besides the classical benefits on the lipid profile provided by olive oil consumption compared with that of saturated fat, a broad spectrum of benefits on cardiovascular risk factors is now emerging associated with olive oil consumption. We review the state of the art concerning the knowledge of the most important biological and clinical effects related to olive oil and its minor components. The recent advances in human nutrigenomics associated with olive oil consumption will also be assessed. The wide range of benefits associated with olive oil consumption could contribute to explaining the low rate of cardiovascular mortality found in southern European-Mediterranean countries, in comparison with other westernized countries, despite a high prevalence of coronary heart disease risk factors.
Armenta, S; Moros, J; Garrigues, S; de la Guardia, M
The enormous possibilities offered by near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the (on/in/at-line) quality control process of olive fruits, pastes, and oils are summarized throughout this paper. Special attention has been paid to the combination of NIR and chemometric treatments for the on-line analysis of olive fruits and also for the quality parameters evaluation on olive oils and pastes which can enhance the production of a high quality olive oil and the selection of olive fruit with superior properties. The implementation of NIR sensors in olive mills with successful results has also been reviewed and the commercial olive fruit and oil analyzers highlighted.
The California olive oil industry produces tons of 2-phase olive mill waste (2POMW) every year as a byproduct of the olive oil milling process. 2POMW is rich in health-promoting phenolic compounds, but it is greater than 60% moisture (wet basis) in its native form and thus expensive to store and tr...
Olive mill wastewater (OMWW), generated during production of olive oil, is an untapped source of nutritious compounds. Thus, processors want to separate OMWW into a high-value, concentrated product stream and near-pure water. However, the amount and characteristics of the produced OMWW depend on t...
Yao, Qian; He, Gang; Guo, Xiaoqiang; Hu, Yibing; Shen, Yuanfu; Gou, Xiaojun
Context Although olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is a good source of bioactive phenolic compounds, disposing OMWW is a serious environmental challenge. Production of wine via fermenting OMWW may be a promising alternative to deal with OMWW. However, whether or not olive wine from OMWW still reserves its original bioactivities remains unclear. Objective This study examines antioxidant activity of olive wine fermented from OMWW. Materials and methods Hydroxytyrosol in olive oil was determined by HPLC. Total flavonoid, total polyphenol and in vitro antioxidant activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Aged mice were intragastricly administered 7, 14 and 28 mL/kg olive wine consecutively for 30 d. Afterward, levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl, reduced glutathione (GSH) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) were assayed in mouse plasma and liver. Results Contents of hydroxytyrosol, total flavonoid and total polyphenol in olive wine were 0.14 ± 0.01, 0.29 ± 0.06 and 0.43 ± 0.03 mg/mL, respectively. The IC50 value of olive wine to scavenge DPPH and hydroxyl free radicals was 2.5% and 3.2% (v/v), respectively. Compared with the solvent control group, olive wine with a dose of 28 mL/kg remarkably lowered mouse MDA concentration in liver, and reduced protein carbonyl level in plasma (p < 0.05). Meanwhile, olive wine at doses of 7 and 28 mL/kg notably enhanced SOD activity in both mouse plasma and liver (p < 0.05). The beneficial effect on liver was superior to that of γ-tocopherol. Conclusion The study demonstrated that olive wine from OMWW has potential for treating oxidative stress-associated diseases.
Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis
INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg
Ben Sassi, A; Ouazzani, N; Walker, G M; Ibnsouda, S; El Mzibri, M; Boussaid, A
A total of 105 yeast strains were isolated from Moroccan olive oil production plants and evaluated for their ability to grow in olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW). The 9 isolates that grew best on OMW were selected for further study to evaluate their effect on removal of organic pollutants and OMW phytotoxicity (barley seed germination test). The results showed that at least four yeast isolates effectively lowered the toxicity of this effluent in addition to providing very useful materials in terms of both yeast biomass (6 g/l DW) and an irrigation fluid. This group of yeast isolates significantly reduced the concentration of total phenols (44% removal) and Chemical Oxygen Demand, COD (63% removal). The best germination rate of 80% for undiluted OMW was obtained for strain Candida holstii that also increased the pH from 4.76 to 6.75. Principal component analysis of the results obtained for the best yeast strains confirmed the importance of COD and total phenol reduction along with increase of organic nitrogen and final pH for the improvement of germination rates and phytotoxic reduction. This study has highlighted the potential of indigenous yeasts in detoxification of olive mill wastewaters.
Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said
The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663
Caffaz, S; Caretti, C; Morelli, M; Lubello, C; Azzari, E
Olive oil extraction is one of the most important traditional food industries in the Mediterranean region, especially in Italy. In addition to olive oil, this industry produces by-products, in particular olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) and olive husks, which represent a serious environmental problem. OMWs can be rarely treated in a municipal WWTP, using conventional wastewater treatments. A novel biological process has to be considered in order to treat OMWs. Literature data show that yeasts and different kinds of fungi are able to reduce both the organic and the phenolic content of the OMW. The present work is aimed at investigating the growth of a biomass rich in fungi in a batch reactor filled with OMW and its capacity to degrade the organic and phenolic load. The aerobic OMW degradation obtained using this biomass reached a COD and TP removal efficiency of 86 and 70%, respectively. Respirometric tests have been carried out in order to measure the biomass activity on different substrates: OMW and phenolic compounds (gallic and p-coumaric acids). The polyphenolic biodegradation efficiency of fungi biomass was higher than the one of a non-acclimated activated sludge biomass. Fungi biomass was able to completely degrade pure phenolic compounds.
Seferou, P.; Soupios, P.; Kourgialas, N. N.; Dokou, Z.; Karatzas, G. P.; Candasayar, E.; Papadopoulos, N.; Dimitriou, V.; Sarris, A.; Sauter, M.
An integrated approach for monitoring the vertical transport of a solute into the subsurface by using a geophysical method and a simulation model is proposed and evaluated. A medium-scale (1 m3) laboratory tank experiment was constructed to represent a real subsurface system, where an olive-oil mill wastewater (OOMW) spill might occur. High-resolution cross-hole electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) was performed to monitor the OOMW transport. Time-lapse ERT images defined the spatial geometry of the interface between the contaminated and uncontaminated soil into the unsaturated and saturated zones. Knowing the subsurface characteristics, the finite element flow and transport model FEFLOW was used for simulating the contaminant movement, utilizing the ERT results as a surrogate for concentration measurements for the calibration process. A statistical analysis of the ERT measurements and the corresponding transport model results for various time steps showed a good agreement between them. In addition, a sensitivity analysis of the most important parameters of the simulation model (unsaturated flow, saturated flow and transport) was performed. This laboratory-scale study emphasizes that the combined use of geophysical and transport-modeling approaches can be useful for small-scale field applications where contaminant concentration measurements are scarce, provided that its transferability from laboratory to field conditions is investigated thoroughly.
Yazdanbakhsh, Ahmadreza; Mehdipour, Fayyaz; Eslami, Akbar; Maleksari, Hajar Sharifi; Ghanbari, Farshid
Olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW) is one of the most important industrial wastewaters in the world due to high organic load and phenolic compounds. In this study, an integration of three processes including coagulation, acid cracking and Fenton-like was evaluated to treat OOMW. The performance of alum, ferric chloride and polyaluminum chloride was studied as coagulants. Among coagulants, ferric chloride showed the best results in comparison with the others. Coagulation process with FeCl3 removed 91.2% chemical oxygen demand (COD), 91.3% phenol, 98.9% total suspended solids and 99.2% turbidity at condition of pH = 6 and 3,000 mg/L coagulant dosage. Acid cracking process following the coagulation process with ferric chloride could slightly degrade organic compounds and provided suitable condition for the next process. Fenton-like process with zero valent iron (ZVI) was applied after coagulation and acid cracking. The optimal removal efficiency was achieved by Fenton-like process which was accomplished in condition of 7 g/L ZVI, 1,000 mg/L H2O2 and 180 min reaction time. The biodegradability of final effluent of this integration was improved significantly and biochemical oxygen demand5/COD value increased from 0.14 to 0.83. The results of germination tests revealed that phytotoxicity of the final effluent decreased.
Campanari, Sabrina; e Silva, Francisca A; Bertin, Lorenzo; Villano, Marianna; Majone, Mauro
Mixed microbial culture polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) production has been investigated by using olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) as no-cost feedstock in a multi-stage process, also involving phenols removal and recovery. The selection of PHA-storing microorganisms occurred in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR), fed with dephenolized and fermented OMW and operated at different organic loading rates (OLR), ranging from 2.40 to 8.40gCOD/Ld. The optimal operating condition was observed at an OLR of 4.70gCOD/Ld, which showed the highest values of storage rate and yield (339±48mgCOD/gCODh and 0.56±0.05 COD/COD, respectively). The OLR applied to the SBR largely affected the performance of the PHA-accumulating reactor, which was fed through multiple pulsed additions of pretreated OMW. From an overall mass balance, involving all the stages of the process, an abatement of about 85% of the OMW initial COD (chemical oxygen demand) was estimated whereas the conversion of the influent COD into PHA was about 10% (or 22% by taking into account only the COD contained in the pretreated OMW, which is directly fed to the PHA production stages). Overall, polymer volumetric productivity (calculated from the combination of both the SBR and the accumulation reactor) accounted for 1.50gPHA/Ld.
Lentza-Rizos, C; Avramides, E J
The attacks of pests and diseases and the presence of weeds make it necessary to apply pesticides to olive trees to ensure crop protection. Residues of these compounds may remain and contaminate the oil produced. For the analysis of pesticide residues in olive oil, the most common methods are multiresidue methods for fatty substrates, based on partitioning between hexane or light petroleum and acetonitrile. Recently, other methods have been applied, such as ready-to-use, disposable minicolumns or direct injection of oil into a capillary gas chromatograph equipped with a precolumn with an oil recovery tank. Although several pesticides are registered in oil-producing countries for use on olive trees, available literature on the level and fate of residues is very limited. However, it is clear that fat-soluble pesticides tend to concentrate in the oil, both after full coverage and bait spraying, and their use close to harvest should therefore be avoided. Because it is sometimes necessary to use such pesticides late in autumn because of their effectiveness in cases of severe attack, residue trials should be carried out to determine the residue concentration in oil and to set a reasonable preharvest safety interval. Data produced by such trials would permit the establishment of MRLs (tolerances) in olive oil to cover cases where the residues, although relatively high, are not of toxicological significance for consumers (risk assessment). Such is the case with corn oil and the fat-soluble insecticide methyl pirimiphos, registered in the U.S. for use on corn. The U.S. EPA tolerance for methyl pirimiphos in corn is 8 mg/kg, whereas it is 11 times higher (88 mg/kg) for corn oil because it is known to concentrate in the oil. Similar provisions for olive oil, based on data from residue trials according to Good Agricultural Practice, the long-term toxicity of each pesticide as expressed by its ADI for man, and olive oil consumption patterns, would facilitate international trade
Cabras, P; Angioni, A; Garau, V L; Pirisi, F M; Cabitza, F; Pala, M
Field trials were carried out to study the persistence of acephate and buprofezin on olives. Two cultivars, pizz'e carroga and pendolino, with very large and small fruits respectively were used. After treatment, no difference was found between the two pesticide deposits on the olives. The disappearance rates, calculated as pseudo first order kinetics, were similar for both pesticides (on average 12 days). Methamidophos, the acephate metabolite, was always present on all olives, and in some pendolino samples it showed higher residues than the maximum residue limit (MRL). During washing, the first step of olive processing, the residue level of both pesticides on the olives did not decrease. After processing of the olives into oil, no residues of acephate or methamidophos were found in the olive oil, while the residues of buprofezin were on average four times higher than on olives.
Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika
The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.
Cicerale, Sara; Conlan, Xavier A; Sinclair, Andrew J; Keast, Russell S J
The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Most recent interest has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have shown that olive oil phenolics have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, and antimicrobial activity. Presumably, regular dietary consumption of virgin olive oil containing phenolic compounds manifests in health benefits associated with a Mediterranean diet. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the physiological effects of olive oil phenolics. Moreover, a number of factors have the ability to affect phenolic concentrations in virgin olive oil, so it is of great importance to understand these factors in order to preserve the essential health promoting benefits of olive oil phenolic compounds.
Flores, Nelly; Cabot, Pere Lluís; Centellas, Francesc; Garrido, José Antonio; Rodríguez, Rosa María; Brillas, Enric; Sirés, Ignasi
The degradation of 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, a ubiquitous component of olive oil mill wastewater (OOMW), has been studied by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H2O2 (AO-H2O2), electro-Fenton (EF) and photoelectro-Fenton (PEF). Experiments were performed in either a 0.050M Na2SO4 solution or a real OOMW at pH 3.0, using a cell with a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode for H2O2 generation. Hydroxyl radicals formed at the BDD surface from water oxidation in all processes and/or in the bulk from Fenton's reaction between added Fe(2+) and generated H2O2 in EF and PEF were the main oxidants. In both matrices, the oxidation ability of the processes increased in the order AO-H2O2
Aggelis, G; Iconomou, D; Christou, M; Bokas, D; Kotzailias, S; Christou, G; Tsagou, V; Papanikolaou, S
Pleurotus ostreatus grown in bioreactor batch cultures in a model phenolic wastewater (diluted and sterilized olive oil mill wastewater-OMW), caused significant phenolic removal. Laccase, the sole ligninolytic enzyme detected in the growth environment, was produced during primary metabolic growth. The bioprocess was simulated with the aid of a mathematical model and the parameters of growth were determined. When the fungal biomass was increased in the reactor (during repeated batch experiments) the rate of reducing sugars consumption progressively increased, but a phenolic fraction seemed of being strongly resistant to oxidation. The toxicity of OMW against the seeds of Lepidium sativum and the marine Branchiopoda Artemia sp. was significantly decreased after biotreatment. On the contrary, the toxicity against the freshwater Branchiopoda Daphnia magna was not affected by the treatment, whereas on the soil and freshwater sediments Ostracoda Heterocypris incongruens was slightly decreased. Both treated and untreated OMWs, used as water for irrigation of lettuce and tomato plants, did not significantly affect the uptake of several nutrients by the cultivated plants, but resulted in a decrease in the plant yields, which was minimized when high OMW dilutions were used. As a conclusion, P. ostreatus is able to reduce phenolic content and toxicity of sterilized OMW, in bioreactor cultures. However, high OMW dilutions should be used, and/or additional treatment should be applied before use of the OMW in the environment, e.g. as water for irrigation. Further research should be done in order to transfer this technology under industrial conditions (e.g. by using unsterilized OMW).
Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg
The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.
Peikert, B.; Bandow, N.; Schaumann, G. E.
Olive oil mill wastewater is the effluent generated by the olive oil extraction process. It is the main waste product of this industry mainly being produced in the Mediterranean Basin. Because proper treatment options are rare it is often disposed into the environment, e.g. fields or wadies. Due to its high concentration of fatty acids and phytotoxic phenolic compounds and its high chemical and biological oxygen demand, olive oil mill wastewater becomes a serious environmental problem. In this screening study we investigated long-term effects of olive oil mill wastewater application on soil properties in several locations in the West Bank and Israel. We determined wettability via water drop penetration time and the contact angle as well as general soil properties including pH, EC, carbon content, and we conducted thermogravimetrical analyses in order to characterize the impact of the waste water on the quality of soil organic matter. Our results show that application of olive oil mill wastewater has various effects. We determined contact angles between 110 and 120° and water drop penetration times up to 1367 s indicating significant reduction in wettability. Furthermore, soil carbon and nitrogen content and water extractable organic matter increased as well as electric conductivity, which could be pointed out as a fertilizing effect. In contrast soil pH was significantly reduced. Conducting thermal analyses we observed an increase in the labile and refractory carbon fraction. Probably first one is responsible for induced water repellency. As a consequence the reduced wettability negatively affects soil quality. It would therefore be promising to minimize the hydrophobizing impacts without losing fertilizing effects of the olive oil mill wastewater.
Organic amendment addition to agricultural soils is an agronomic practice that can greatly affect the behavior of pesticides. Olive-mill waste (OMW) is an organic residue generated in great amounts in olive oil producing countries, and its addition to agricultural soils has been proposed as an alter...
Tur Marí, Josep A
Olive oil is one of the most characteristic Mediterranean Diet foods, also being a key contributor to the healthy aspects attributed to this dietary pattern. Since 4000 BC, olive oil has been obtained in the Mediterranean area, but now it is exceeding its natural borders, and currently the use of olive oil is a worldwide synonym of health and gastronomic quality. Olive oil has important effects on the body, and has protective effects against several pathologies, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, and various cancers, as well as to diminish the age-related cognitive decline. These effects are due to the olive oil richness in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant substances. Olive oil has been and is the food that define one of the most oldest methods of cooking: frying.
Agapiou, Athos; Papadopoulos, Nikos; Sarris, Apostolos
The olive oil industry is considered to be as one of the driving sectors of the agricultural economy of the Mediterranean basin. The extraction of olive oil generates huge quantities of wastes that may have a great impact on land and water environments due to high concentrations in phenolic compounds that could cause ophytotoxicity. This paper aims to examine the potential use of freely distributed satellite images for the detection of olive oil mil waste (OOMW) areas in the island of Crete through the use of two cases studies. In the first case study an archive GeoEye OrbView-3 image was used to detect OOMW areas using the Spectral Angle Mapper detection algorithm and other geometric and topographic parameters. In the second case study, Google Earth images were examined through different classification algorithms at different scales. The overall results demonstrate that remote sensing techniques can be used as an alternative to field observations so as to detect and monitor OOMW areas Furthermore, freely distributed RGB images from digital globes (such as Google Earth) can be sufficiently and effectively used for this purpose.
Abou Omar, Tarek F; Sukhn, Carol; Fares, Souha A; Abiad, Mohamad G; Habib, Rima R; Dhaini, Hassan R
The use of bisphenol A (BPA) in packaging has grown over the past 50 years despite concerns of its migration into packaged food and beverages, resulting in human exposure. Many studies have reported tumorigenic effects and endocrine alterations associated with BPA in animal models. This study aims at assessing human exposure to BPA from olive oil. A total of 27 olive oil samples were collected from mills and local villagers in the Hasbaya District, a major olive oil harvesting region in Lebanon. Information on storage conditions was also collected. BPA was extracted and quantified by HPLC. Results showed significantly higher BPA levels in olive oil samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging (mean = 333 vs. 150 μg/kg, p value = 0.006), samples with a plastic storage duration of >1 year compared to those with a storage duration of <1 year (mean = 452 vs. 288 μg/kg, p value = 0.008), and oil samples sourced from locals compared to oil mills (mean = 376 vs. 228 μg/kg, p value = 0.022). Statistically significant higher BPA levels remained for samples stored in plastic vs. non-plastic packaging in the bootstrap multivariable linear regression (B = 121.56, 95% CI 53.44-194.39, p value = 0.009). This is the first report on BPA levels in Mediterranean olive oil. The estimated exposure was 1.38% of the EFSA tolerable daily intake, hence there are no concerns about potential health risks from olive oil consumption.
Pepi, Milva; Cappelli, Serena; Hachicho, Nancy; Perra, Guido; Renzi, Monia; Tarabelli, Alessandro; Altieri, Roberto; Esposito, Alessandro; Focardi, Silvano E; Heipieper, Hermann J
Four bacterial strains capable of growing in the presence of tannic acid as sole carbon and energy source were isolated from olive mill waste mixtures. 16S rRNA gene sequencing assigned them to the genus Klebsiella. The most efficient strain, Klebsiella sp. strain C2A, was able to degrade 3.5 g L(-1) tannic acid within 35 h with synthesizing gallic acid as main product. The capability of Klebsiella sp. strain C2A to produce tannase was evidenced at high concentrations of tannic acid up to 50 g L(-1) . The bacteria adapted to the toxicity of tannic acids by an increase in the membrane lipid fatty acids degree of saturation, especially in the presence of concentrations higher than 20 g L(-1) . The highly tolerant and adaptable bacterial strain characterized in this study could be used in bioremediation processes of wastes rich in polyphenols such as those derived from olive mills, winery or tanneries.
Poerschmann, J; Baskyr, I; Weiner, B; Koehler, R; Wedwitschka, H; Kopinke, F-D
Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) is an emerging technology to treat wet biomasses aimed at producing a biochar material. Herein, olive mill wastewater (OMW) was subjected to HTC. Mass balance considerations provide evidence that the yield of biochar is low (~30%, w/w), which is associated with a low fraction of carbohydrates in OMW. The combination of different preparation schemes, pre-chromatographic derivatization reactions and GC/MS analysis for the analysis of organic compounds in aqueous HTC-solutions allowed to identify and quantify a wide array of analytes which belong either to intrinsic constituents of OMW or to characteristic HTC-breakdown products. Biophenols, such as hydroxyl-tyrosol (OH-Tyr), tyrosol (Tyr) account for the most abundant members of the first group. Most abundant breakdown products include phenol and benzenediols as well as short-chain organic acids. Secoiridoids, such as decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon, all of them being typical components of OMW, are less abundant in HTC-solutions.
Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo
The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.
Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N
Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner.
Abrunhosa, Luís; Oliveira, Felisbela; Dantas, Danielle; Gonçalves, Cristiana; Belo, Isabel
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) characteristics make it a suitable resource to be used as a microbial culture media to produce value-added compounds, such as enzymes. In this work, the ability of the novel species Aspergillus ibericus to discolor OMW and produce lipase was studied. An initial screening on plates containing an OMW-based agar medium and an emulsified olive oil/rhodamine-B agar medium was employed to select the strain A. ibericus MUM 03.49. Then, experiments in conical flasks with liquid OMW-based media showed that the fungus could growth on undiluted OMW, with a chemical oxygen demand (COD) of 97 ± 2 g/L, and to produce up to 2,927 ± 54 U/L of lipase. When pure OMW was used in the media, the maximum COD and color reduction achieved were 45 and 97 %, respectively. When OMW diluted to 10 % was used, A. ibericus was able to reduce phenolic and aromatic compounds by 37 and 39 %, respectively. Additionally, lipase production was found to be promoted by the addition of mineral nutrients. When the fermentations were scaled up to a 2-L bioreactor, A. ibericus produced up to 8,319 ± 33 U/L of lipase, and the maximum COD and color reduction were 57 and 24 %, respectively.
Vietina, Michelangelo; Agrimonti, Caterina; Marmiroli, Nelson
Extra virgin olive oil is frequently subjected to adulterations with addition of oils obtained from plants other than olive. DNA analysis is a fast and economic tool to identify plant components in oils. Extraction and amplification of DNA by PCR was tested in olives, in milled seeds and in oils, to investigate its use in olive oil traceability. DNA was extracted from different oils made of hazelnut, maize, sunflower, peanut, sesame, soybean, rice and pumpkin. Comparing the DNA melting profiles in reference plant materials and in the oils, it was possible to identify any plant components in oils and mixtures of oils. Real-Time PCR (RT-PCR) platform has been added of the new methodology of high resolution melting (HRM), both were used to analyse olive oils mixed with different percentage of other oils. Results showed HRM a cost effective method for efficient detection of adulterations in olive oils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa
This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.
Paiva-Martins, Fatima; Correia, Rui; Félix, Susana; Ferreira, Pedro; Gordon, Michael H
The possibility of preparing olive oil, with the same nutritional value and stability characteristics found in virgin olive oil, by the enrichment of refined olive oil with olive leaf polyphenols was studied. To obtain antioxidant phenols similar to those found in virgin olive oil, these components were extracted from the leaves of several olive cultivars from the Northern region of Portugal, namely, Carrasca, Ripa, Negruche, Cordovil, Verdeal, Madural, and Bical cultivars, under several conditions. The concentration of a leaf extract required for addition to refined olive oil to obtain the same stability as virgin olive oil was determined. The extract from 1 kg of leaves was sufficient to fortify 50-320 L of refined olive oil to a similar stability as a virgin olive oil sample depending on the metal concentration of the oil, cultivar, and time of the year when the leaves were picked.
Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z.
Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878
García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Romero-Segura, Carmen; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G
The effect of modifying polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX) activity during the extraction of virgin olive oil has been assessed in terms of its influence on the phenolic profile of the oil produced. These enzymes were modified by adding exogenous enzyme or specific inhibitors during the milling and subsequent kneading step, studying the effect on specific phenolic compounds in the oils. PPO is the main enzyme involved in phenolic oxidation at the milling step whereas POX activity seems to be the main influence during the kneading step. The data obtained suggest it is possible to increase the nutritional and organoleptic quality of virgin olive oil by inhibiting these enzymes during olive fruit processing. Treatment with the PPO inhibitor tropolone produced a twofold increase in the phenolic fraction, which would therefore seem to be an interesting strategy to improve the nutritional and organoleptic properties of virgin olive oil. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Visioli, Francesco; Galli, Claudio
Olive oil is the principal source of fat in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Extra-virgin olive oil contains a considerable amount of phenolic compounds, for example, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, that are responsible for its peculiar taste and for its high stability. Evidence is accumulating to demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo; also, they exert other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.
Cecchi, Lorenzo; Innocenti, Marzia; Melani, Fabrizio; Migliorini, Marzia; Conte, Lanfranco; Mulinacci, Nadia
Herein we describe the influence of olive oil refining processes on the lignan profile. The detection of new isobaric lignans is suggested to reveal frauds in commercial extra-Virgin Olive Oils. We analyzed five commercial olive oils by HPLC-DAD-TOF/MS to evaluate their lignan content and detected, for the first time, some isobaric forms of natural (+)-pinoresinol and (+)-1-acetoxypinoresinol. Then we analyzed partially and fully-refined oils from Italy, Tunisia and Spain. The isobaric forms occur only during the bleaching step of the refining process and remain unaltered after the final deodorizing step. Molecular dynamic simulation helped to identify the most probable chemical structures corresponding to these new isobars with data in agreement with the chromatographic findings. The total lignan amounts in commercial olive oils was close to 2mg/L. Detection of these new lignans can be used as marker of undeclared refining procedures in commercial extra-virgin and/or Virgin Olive Oils.
Şahin, Selin; Bilgin, Mehmet
Research into finding new uses for by-products of table olive and olive oil industry are of great value not only to the economy but also to the environment where olives are grown and to the human health. Since leaves represent around 10% of the total weight of olives arriving at the mill, it is worth obtaining high added-value compounds from those materials for the preparation of dietary supplements, nutraceuticals, functional food ingredients or cosmeceuticals. In this review article, olive tree (Olea europaea L.) leaf is reviewed as being a potential inexpensive, renewable and abundant source of biophenols. The importance of this agricultural and industrial waste is emphasised by means of describing its availability, nutritional and therapeutic effects and studies conducted on this field. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Ciafardini, G; Cioccia, G; Zullo, B A
The opalescent appearance of the newly produced olive oil is due to the presence of solid particles and microdrops of vegetation water in which the microorganisms from the olives' carposphere are trapped. Present research has demonstrated that the microbiota of the fresh extracted olive oil, produced in the mills, is mainly composed of yeasts and to a lesser extent of molds. The close link between the composition of the microbiota of the olives' carposphere undergoing to processing, and that of the microbiota of the newly produced olive oil, concerns only the yeasts and molds, given that the bacterial component is by and large destroyed mainly in the kneaded paste during the malaxation process. Six physiologically homogenous yeast groups were highlighted in the wash water, kneaded paste and newly produced olive oil from the Taggiasca variety which had been collected in mills located in the Liguria region. The more predominant yeasts of each group belonged to a single species called respectively: Kluyveromyces marxianus, Candida oleophila, Candida diddensiae, Candida norvegica, Wickerhamomyces anomalus and Debaryomyces hansenii. Apart from K. marxianus, which was found only in the wash water, all the other species were found in the wash water and in the kneaded paste as well as in the newly produced olive oil, while in the six-month stored olive oil, was found only one physiologically homogeneous group of yeast represented by the W. anomalus specie. These findings in according to our previous studies carried out on other types of mono varietal olive oils, confirms that the habitat of the Taggiascas' extra virgin olive oil, had a strong selective pressure on the yeast biota, allowing only to a few member of yeast species, contaminating the fresh product, to survive and reproduce in it during storage.
Fraga, Maria C; Sanches, Sandra; Crespo, João G; Pereira, Vanessa J
Extremely high removals of total suspended solids and oil and grease were obtained when olive mill wastewaters were filtered using new silicon carbide tubular membranes. These new membranes were used at constant permeate flux to treat real olive mill wastewaters at pilot scale. The filtration conditions were evaluated and optimized in terms of the selection of the permeate flux and flux maintenance strategies employed-backpulsing and backwashing-in order to reduce fouling formation. The results obtained reveal that the combination of backpulses and backwashes helps to maintain the permeate flux, avoids transmembrane pressure increase and decreases the cake resistance. Moreover, membrane cleaning procedures were compared and the main agents responsible for fouling formation identified. Results also show that, under total recirculation, despite an increased concentration of pollutants in the feed stream, the quality of the permeate is maintained. Membrane filtration using silicon carbide membranes is an effective alternative to dissolved air flotation and can be applied efficiently to remove total suspended solids and oil and grease from olive mill wastewaters.
Fraga, Maria C.; Sanches, Sandra; Crespo, João G.; Pereira, Vanessa J.
Extremely high removals of total suspended solids and oil and grease were obtained when olive mill wastewaters were filtered using new silicon carbide tubular membranes. These new membranes were used at constant permeate flux to treat real olive mill wastewaters at pilot scale. The filtration conditions were evaluated and optimized in terms of the selection of the permeate flux and flux maintenance strategies employed—backpulsing and backwashing—in order to reduce fouling formation. The results obtained reveal that the combination of backpulses and backwashes helps to maintain the permeate flux, avoids transmembrane pressure increase and decreases the cake resistance. Moreover, membrane cleaning procedures were compared and the main agents responsible for fouling formation identified. Results also show that, under total recirculation, despite an increased concentration of pollutants in the feed stream, the quality of the permeate is maintained. Membrane filtration using silicon carbide membranes is an effective alternative to dissolved air flotation and can be applied efficiently to remove total suspended solids and oil and grease from olive mill wastewaters. PMID:28264453
Sanches, S; Fraga, M C; Silva, N A; Nunes, P; Crespo, J G; Pereira, V J
The treatment of large volumes of olive mill wastewater is presently a challenge. This study reports the technical and economical feasibility of a sequential treatment of olive mill wastewater comprising a dissolved air flotation pre-treatment and nanofiltration. Different pilot nanofiltration assays were conducted in a concentration mode up to different volume reduction factors (29, 45, 58, and 81). Data attained demonstrated that nanofiltration can be operated at considerably high volume reduction factors and still be effective towards the removal of several components. A flux decline of approximately 50% was observed at the highest volume reduction factor, mainly due to increase of the osmotic pressure. Considerably high rejections were obtained across all experiments for total suspended solids (83 to >99%), total organic carbon (64 to 99%), chemical oxygen demand (53 to 77%), and oil and grease (67 to >82%). Treated water was in compliance with European legal limits for discharge regarding total suspended solids and oil and grease. The potential recovery of phenolic compounds was evaluated and found not relevant. It was demonstrated that nanofiltration is economically feasible, involving operation costs of approximately 2.56-3.08 €/m(3), depending on the working plan schedule and volume reduction factor, and requiring a footprint of approximately 52 m(2) to treat 1000 m(3) of olive mill wastewater.
Inarejos-García, Antonio M; Gómez-Rico, Aurora; Desamparados Salvador, M; Fregapane, Giuseppe
The quality of virgin olive oil (VOO) is intimately related to the characteristics and composition of the olive fruit at the moment of its milling. In this study, the determination of suitable olive storage conditions and feasibility of using this preprocessing operation to modulate the sensory taste of VOO are reported. Several olive batches were stored in different conditions (from monolayer up to 60 cm thickness, at 20 and 10 degrees C) for a period of up to three weeks, and the quality and composition of minor constituents, mainly phenols and volatiles, in the corresponding VOO were monitored. Cornicabra cultivar VOO obtained from drupes stored for 5 or 8 days at 20 or 10 degrees C, respectively, retained the "extra virgin" category, according to chemical quality indices, since only small increases in free acidity and peroxide values were observed, and the bitter index of this monovarietal oil was reduced by 30-40%. Storage under monolayer conditions at 10 degrees C for up to two weeks is also feasible because "off-odor" development was delayed, a 50% reduction in bitterness was obtained, and the overall good quality of the final product was preserved.
Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella
Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections.
Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M
Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.
Olive is a tree. People use the oil from the fruit and seeds, water extracts of the fruit, and the leaves to make ... with significant side effects in clinical studies. Olive trees produce pollen that can cause seasonal respiratory allergy ...
Ureña, C.; Azañón, J. M.; Corpas, F.; Nieto, F.; León-Buendía, C.
In Southern Spain, Olive grove is an artificial forest which has a surface of 18.000 km2, representing more than 25% of olive oil world production. During the manufacturing process of this oil, different types of residues are generated. The most important is a biomass called olive mill wastewater. It is a dark colored liquid which can not be directly poured onto natural watercourses. On the one hand, part of this biomass is burnt to produce electrical energy or treated to make a bio-diesel. On the other hand, we propose the use of olive mill wastewater as a stabilization agent for expansive clayey soils. Using raw biomass as a stabilization agent two objectives are achieved: adding value to biomass and reducing the problems of expansive soils. Moreover, an important reduction of economic costs can take place. A pure bentonite clay was chosen as a sample of original expansive soil. It is abundant in Southern Spain and its main component is Na-Montmorillonite. Bentonite is very susceptible to changes in the environmental available moisture and very unsuitable for its use in civil engineering due to its low bearing capacity, high plasticity and volume changes. Several dosages (5%, 10%, 15%) of olive mill wastewater were added to the original sample of bentonite. To study eventual improvements in the mechanical properties of soil, Proctor, Atterberg Limits, California Bearing Ratio, Swelling Pressure and X-Ray Diffraction tests were carried out, following Spanish standards UNE by AENOR. Both geotechnical and mineralogical characterizations were developed at two different curing times: 15 and 30 days. The Plasticity Index (PI) of the original bentonite soil was 251 (High Plasticity). The addition of 15% of olive mill wastewater yielded reductions of PI similar to those produced by the addition of 5% of Portland cement. The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) values increased slightly after the treatment with biomass leading to very similar values to those obtained after the
... gov/news/fullstory_163557.html Mediterranean Diet Plus Olive Oil a Boost to Heart Health? It enhances ... HealthDay News) -- A Mediterranean diet high in virgin olive oil may boost the protective effects of "good" ...
Kumar, G. V. Prasanna; Dewangan, K. N.; Sarkar, Amaresh
Context: Noise of machines in various agro-based industries was found to be the major occupational hazard for the workers of industries. The predominant noise sources need to be identified and the causes of high noise need to be studied to undertake the appropriate measures to reduce the noise level in one of the major agro-based industries, oil mills. Aims: To identify the predominant noise sources in the workrooms of oil mills. To study the causes of noise in oil mills. To measure the extent of noise exposure of oil mill workers. To examine the response of workers towards noise, so that appropriate measures can be undertaken to minimize the noise exposure. Settings and Design: A noise survey was conducted in the three renowned oil mills of north-eastern region of India. Materials and Methods: Information like output capacity, size of power source, maintenance condition of the machines and workroom configurations of the oil mills was collected by personal observations and enquiry with the owner of the mill. Using a Sound Level Meter (SLM) (Model-824, Larson and Davis, USA), equivalent SPL was measured at operator's ear level in the working zone of the workers near each machine of the mills. In order to study the variation of SPL in the workrooms of the oil mill throughout its operation, equivalent SPL was measured at two appropriate locations of working zone of the workers in each mill. For conducting the noise survey, the guidelines of Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety (CCOHS) were followed. Grid points were marked on the floor of the workroom of the oil mill at a spacing of 1 m × 1 m. SPL at grid points were measured at about 1.5 m above the floor. The direction of the SLM was towards the nearby noisy source. To increase accuracy, two replications were taken at each grid point. All the data were recorded for 30 sec. At the end of the experiment, data were downloaded to a personal computer. With the help of utility software of Larson and Davis
Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A
The disappearance of the bitter taste of newly produced olive oil during storage is due to the enzymatic hydrolysis of the bitter-tasting secoiridoid compound known as oleuropein. Current knowledge attributes the enzymatic hydrolysis of the oleuropein to the beta-glucosidase present in the olives. The present study, however, has demonstrated for the first time that oleuropein present in olive oil can be hydrolysed by beta-glucosidase from the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida wickerhamii. The enzymatic analyses carried out directly on the untreated olive oil and on sterilized olive oil inoculated with the above-mentioned yeasts proved the beta-glucosidase activity through the hydrolysis of both the synthetic substrate p-nitrophenyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside (PNPG) and the oleuropein. The absence of lipases in the isolated S. cerevisiae and C. wickerhamii examined lead us to believe that the yeasts contribute in a positive way towards the improvement of the organological quality of the oil without altering the composition of the triglycerides.
Puertollano, M A; Puertollano, E; Alvarez de Cienfuegos, G; de Pablo Martínez, Manuel Antonio
Polyunsaturated fatty acids contribute to the suppression of immune system functions. For this reason, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have been applied in the resolution of inflammatory disorders. Although the inhibition of several immune functions promotes beneficial effects on the human health, this state may lead to a significant reduction of immune protection against infectious microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites). Nevertheless, less attention has been paid to the action of olive oil in immunonutrition. Olive oil, a main constituent of the Mediterranean diet, is capable of modulating several immune functions, but it does not reduce host immune resistance to infectious microorganisms. Based on these criteria, we corroborate that olive oil administration may exert beneficial effects on the human health and especially on immune system, because it contributes to the reduction of typical inflammatory activity observed in patients suffering from autoimmune disorders, but without exacerbating the susceptibility to pathogen agents. The administration of olive oil in lipid emulsions may exert beneficial effects on the health and particularly on the immune system of immunocompromised patients. Therefore, this fact acquires a crucial importance in clinical nutrition. This review contributes to clarify the interaction between the administration of diets containing olive oil and immune system, as well as to determine the effect promoted by this essential component of Mediterranean diet in the immunomodulation against an infectious agent.
Köseoğlu, Oya; Sevim, Didar; Kadiroğlu, Pınar
The aim of this study was to discriminate the extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) based on quality characteristics, chemical composition and antioxidant activity according to ripening stages of olives. Two different olive varieties (Memecik and Gemlik) were obtained at different stages of ripening based on skin color (green, purple and black). Quality properties of olive oils; free fatty acidity, peroxide value, K232 and K270, purity properties; fatty acid and triacylglycerol (TAG) composition and antioxidant compounds like total phenol, carotenoid and chlorophyll content and antioxidant activity (oxidative stability, ABTS radical scavenging activity) analyses were performed. Higher amount of oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids were observed in olive oils. Oleic acid amount of olive oils decreased, linoleic acid increased with ripening. The most abundant TAG of olive oils were ECN 48, OOO, SLO+POO, ECN 46 and LOO/PLO. Olive oils were clearly classified by principal component analysis based on fatty acid and TAG composition.
Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G
This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt.
Pavlidou, A; Anastasopoulou, E; Dassenakis, M; Hatzianestis, I; Paraskevopoulou, V; Simboura, N; Rousselaki, E; Drakopoulou, P
This work aims to contribute to the knowledge of the impacts of olive oil waste discharge to freshwater and oligotrophic marine environments, since the ecological impact of olive oil wastes in riverine and coastal marine ecosystems, which are the final repositories of the pollutants, is a great environmental problem on a global scale, mostly concerning all the Mediterranean countries with olive oil production. Messinia, in southwestern Greece, is one of the greatest olive oil production areas in Europe. During the last decade around 1.4×10(6)tons of olive oil mill wastewater has been disposed in the rivers of Messinia and finally entered the marine ecosystem of Messiniakos gulf. The pollution from olive oil mill wastewater in the main rivers of Messinia and the oligotrophic coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf and its effects on marine organisms were evaluated, before, during and after the olive oil production period. Elevated amounts of phenols (36.2-178 mg L(-1)) and high concentrations of ammonium (7.29-18.9 mmol L(-1)) and inorganic phosphorus (0.5-7.48 mmol L(-1)) were measured in small streams where the liquid disposals from several olive oil industries were gathered before their discharge in the major rivers of Messinia. The large number of olive oil units has downgraded the riverine and marine ecosystems during the productive period and a period more than five months is needed for the recovery of the ecosystem. Statistical analysis showed that the enrichment of freshwater and the coastal zone of Messiniakos gulf in ammonia, nitrite, phenols, total organic carbon, copper, manganese and nickel was directly correlated with the wastes from olive oil. Toxicity tests using 24h LC50 Palaemonidae shrimp confirm that olive mill wastewater possesses very high toxicity in the aquatic environment.
One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346
Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan
This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.
Janakat, Sana; Al-Nabulsi, Anas; Hammad, Fwzieh; Holley, Richard
Total phenolic compounds (TPC), antioxidant activity (AA), lipid peroxidation inhibition (percent) (LPOIP), free fatty acid and peroxide values were measured in olive oil samples over the period of 12 months in comparison with oil samples extracted from amurca (olive oil lees) and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the canister (near amurca) after 12 months of storage. Olive oil samples taken over the period of 12 months possessed decreasing amounts of TPC, AA and LPOIP, which led to increased peroxide and free fatty acid values. In contrast, oil extracted from amurca and olive oil samples taken from the bottom of the container after 12 months of storage possessed significantly higher TPC, AA, LPOIP and consequently lower free fatty acid and peroxide values. These results show that the presence of naturally occurring amurca (sediment) in stored olive oil stabilizes olive oil quality during storage.
Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao
Olive fruits contain an n-alkane series of saturated hydrocarbons mainly in the pulp. Lower amounts of a complex mixture of paraffins, unresolved by gas chromatography (UCM--unresolved complex mixture), have been found in cuticle, stone (woody shell and seed), olive leaves, and talc used as an aid to olive oil extraction. The amounts of both kinds of hydrocarbons are related to the olive cultivar and are transferred to oils in a proportion depending on the oil-obtaining process (centrifugation or solvent extraction). In olive oil obtained by centrifugation, only n-alkanes were detected. However, in olive oil extracted by second centrifugation, small amounts of UCM paraffins were detected together with the n-alkanes. Olive pomace oils showed a very variable content of both types of hydrocarbons according to the different obtaining process, such as double centrifugation, solvent extraction or centrifugation followed by solvent extraction. 'White mineral oil' used in oil extraction machinery is the source of the high concentrations of UCM paraffins found in some olive and olive pomace oils. In the case of second centrifugation olive oil, a maximum limit of 50 mg kg(-1) of UCM is suggested, whereas in the case of crude olive pomace oil, it amounts to 250 mg kg(-1) plus an additional minimum of 1.0 for the n-alkanes/UCM ratio.
Prooxidant Effects of Verbascoside, a Bioactive Compound from Olive Oil Mill Wastewater, on In Vitro Developmental Potential of Ovine Prepubertal Oocytes and Bioenergetic/Oxidative Stress Parameters of Fresh and Vitrified Oocytes
Dell'Aquila, M. E.; Bogliolo, L.; Russo, R.; Martino, N. A.; Filioli Uranio, M.; Ariu, F.; Amati, F.; Sardanelli, A. M.; Linsalata, V.; Ferruzzi, M. G.; Cardinali, A.; Minervini, F.
Verbascoside (VB) is a bioactive polyphenol from olive oil mill wastewater with known antioxidant activity. Oxidative stress is an emerging problem in assisted reproductive technology (ART). Juvenile ART is a promising topic because, in farm animals, it reduces the generation gap and, in human reproductive medicine, it helps to overcome premature ovarian failure. The aim of this study was to test the effects of VB on the developmental competence of ovine prepubertal oocytes and the bioenergetic/oxidative stress status of fresh and vitrified oocytes. In fresh oocytes, VB exerted prooxidant short-term effects, that is, catalase activity increase and uncoupled increases of mitochondria and reactive oxygen species (ROS) fluorescence signals, and long-term effects, that is, reduced blastocyst formation rate. In vitrified oocytes, VB increased ROS levels. Prooxidant VB effects in ovine prepubertal oocytes could be related to higher VB accumulation, which was found as almost one thousand times higher than that reported in other cell systems in previous studies. Also, long exposure times of oocytes to VB, throughout the duration of in vitro maturation culture, may have contributed to significant increase of oocyte oxidation. Further studies are needed to identify lower concentrations and/or shorter exposure times to figure out VB antioxidant effects in juvenile ARTs. PMID:24719893
Field-scale electrical geophysics over an olive oil mill waste deposition site: Evaluating the information content of resistivity versus induced polarization (IP) images for delineating the spatial extent of organic contamination
Ntarlagiannis, Dimitrios; Robinson, Judith; Soupios, Pantelis; Slater, Lee
We performed 2D resistivity and IP measurements over a known olive oil mill waste plume at a site in western Crete, Greece. The objectives of the survey were: (1) to determine whether IP is more diagnostic in delineating the spatial extent of the plume relative to resistivity measurements alone; (2) to evaluate whether the additional information content obtained from IP is worth the effort given longer data acquisition times and higher measurement errors that inevitably characterize field IP data acquisition. Complex conductivity inversion of the field IP dataset revealed that the organic plume is characterized as a region of high electrical conductivity (real part of complex conductivity) consistent with the conceptual model for the electrical structure of a biodegraded LNAPL contaminant plume. The plume is also characterized by a region of high polarizability (imaginary part of complex conductivity) that is more localized to the known plume location (based on conventional monitoring) relative to the high conductivity region in the electrical conductivity image. This observation is attributed to the fact that electrical conductivity is more strongly controlled by hydrogeological and geological characteristics of the site that mask the response from the biodegraded plume. This result encourages the use of field IP to improve the spatial delineation of organic contamination in the subsurface. However, more laborious field procedures are required to acquire reliable field IP data and the inversion of field IP data remains more challenging than resistivity data alone.
Frankel, Edwin; Bakhouche, Abdelhakim; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Segura-Carretero, Antonio; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto
This review describes the olive oil production process to obtain extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) enriched in polyphenol and byproducts generated as sources of antioxidants. EVOO is obtained exclusively by mechanical and physical processes including collecting, washing, and crushing of olives, malaxation of olive paste, centrifugation, storage, and filtration. The effect of each step is discussed to minimize losses of polyphenols from large quantities of wastes. Phenolic compounds including phenolic acids, alcohols, secoiridoids, lignans, and flavonoids are characterized in olive oil mill wastewater, olive pomace, storage byproducts, and filter cake. Different industrial pilot plant processes are developed to recover phenolic compounds from olive oil byproducts with antioxidant and bioactive properties. The technological information compiled in this review will help olive oil producers to improve EVOO quality and establish new processes to obtain valuable extracts enriched in polyphenols from byproducts with food ingredient applications.
Guneser, Onur; Demirkol, Asli; Yuceer, Yonca Karagul; Togay, Sine Ozmen; Hosoglu, Muge Isleten; Elibol, Murat
The purpose of this study was to investigate the production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste by microbial fermentation of Rhizopus oryzae and Candida tropicalis. Olive mill waste fermentations were performed in shake and bioreactor cultures. Production of flavor compounds from olive mill waste was followed by Gas Chromatography-Mass spectrometry, Gas chromatography- olfactometry and Spectrum Sensory Analysis(®). As a result, 1.73-log and 3.23-log cfu/mL increases were observed in the microbial populations of R. oryzae and C. tropicalis during shake cultures, respectively. C. tropicalis can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene from olive mill waste than R. oryzae in shake cultures. The concentration of d-limonene was determined as 185.56 and 249.54μg/kg in the fermented olive mill waste by R. oryzae and C. tropicalis in shake cultures respectively. In contrast, R. oryzae can produce a higher concentration of d-limonene (87.73μg/kg) d-limonene than C. tropicalis (11.95μg/kg) in bioreactor cultures. Based on sensory analysis, unripe olive, wet towel, sweet aromatic, fermented aromas were determined at high intensity in olive mill waste fermented with R. oryzae meanwhile olive mill waste fermented with C. tropicalis had only a high intensity of unripe olive and oily aroma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Microbiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed
The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations.
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...
... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...
Christoforou, Elias; Fokaides, Paris A
In recent years, the utilization of olive industry by-products for energy purposes has gained significant research interest and many studies have been conducted focused on the exploitation of olive mill solid waste (OMSW) derived from the discontinuous or continuous processing of olive fruits. In this review study, the primary characteristics of OMSW and the techniques used to define their thermal performance are described. The theoretical background of the main waste-to-energy conversion pathways of solid olive mill wastes, as well as the basic pre-treatment techniques for upgrading solid fuels, are presented. The study aims to present the main findings and major conclusions of previously published works undertaken in the last two decades focused on the characterization of olive mill solid wastes and the utilization of different types of solid olive mill residues for energy purposes. The study also aims to highlight the research challenges in this field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parente, Maria Emma; Gámbaro, Adriana; Boinbaser, Lucia; Roascio, Antonella
The influence of olive oil concentration and sensory profile on the odor of virgin olive oil-based cosmetic creams was studied. Four olive oils were selected on the basis of different intensities of positive and defective odor attributes: two extra virgin olive oils, one virgin olive oil, and one ordinary virgin olive oil. Thirty cosmetic creams were prepared, by both cold and hot processing methods, using each of the above oils at concentrations of 3%, 5%, and 10%, in addition to mineral oil controls. A trained sensory panel evaluated the fruitiness and defectiveness intensities in the odor of creams, using unstructured 10-cm scales ranging from "none at all" to "much." The fruity and defective attributes perceived in the odor of creams were significantly influenced by the sensory profile of the starting olive oil, oil concentration, and preparation method. Overall, these findings suggest that virgin olive oils of only slightly fruity odor may be conveniently used for the preparation of cold-processed cosmetic creams, whereas ordinary virgin olive oils appear to be suitable for the preparation of cosmetic creams only by hot processing of the emulsion at a low oil concentration.
Murkovic, Michael; Lechner, Sonja; Pietzka, Ariane; Bratacos, Michael; Katzogiannos, Evangellos
Virgin olive oil is well known for its high content of phenolic substances that are thought to have health-promoting properties. These substances also contribute to the distinctive taste of the oil. In this study, tyrosol, vanillic acid, luteolin, and apigenin were identified and quantified by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). In the seven samples analysed, tyrosol, the most abundant, was in the range of 1.4-29 mg/kg, vanillic acid was in the range of 0.67-4.0 mg/kg, luteolin was in the range of 0.22-7.0 mg/kg, and apigenin was in the range of 0.68-1.6 mg/kg. It was also shown that in olive oil, squalene can be analysed by using a refractive index detector. In the samples analysed, squalene occurred in the range of 3.9-9.6 g/l.
Covas, María-Isabel; de la Torre, Rafael; Fitó, Montserrat
Olive oil is considered to be one of the most healthy dietary fats. However, several types of olive oils are present in the market. A key question for the consumer is: What of the olive oils is the best when concerning nutritional purposes? With the data available at present, the answer is: the Virgin Olive Oil (VOO), rich in phenolic compounds. On November 2011, the European Food Safety Authority released a claim concerning the benefits of daily ingestion of olive oil rich in phenolic compounds, such as VOO. In this review, we summarised the key work that has provided the evidence of the benefits of VOO consumption on other types of edible oils, even olive oils. We focused on data from randomised, controlled human studies, which are capable of providing the evidence of Level I that is required for performing nutritional recommendations at population level.
Agricultural practices generally require the use of pesticides by olive growers for the best olive and olive oil production. Thus, analytical methods are needed to identify and quantify the pesticide residues that may be present, and ensure that the product complies with regulatory requirements. I...
Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar
The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.
Tercan, Sevgul; Seker, Mahmut
The solid fraction of olive mill waste water (OMWW) was separated from OMWW and then the solutes in the solid fraction of OMWW were extracted with ethanol. The detection of polyphenols in the ethanol extract showed the presence of polyphenols in the solid fraction of OMWW. Effects of solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction and agitation time on the extraction of polyphenols from the solid fraction of OMWW were examined and the maximum amount of polyphenol was extracted from the solid fraction of OMWW with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 15 at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time. Percent yields and purities of the polyphenols extracted from solid fraction of OMWW were higher than those of the polyphenols extracted from olive pomace with ethanol at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time with solvent-to-solid ratio of 15.
Di Lecce, Giuseppe; Cassano, Alfredo; Bendini, Alessandra; Conidi, Carmela; Giorno, Lidietta; Toschi, Tullia Gallina
Up to now, the management of olive mill wastewaters, a three-phase mill by-product, remains an unsolved problem, in particular for those regions where huge quantities of vegetable water are produced. Olive mill wastewaters were therefore treated to evaluate the characteristics of permeate and retentate fractions produced by an integrated membrane system working at two different volume concentration factors. The effect of two membrane-based filtration steps (microfiltration and nanofiltration) on the content of chemical oxygen demand, dry matter, sensory quality, phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of permeate and retentate samples was evaluated. Furthermore, the effect of two different volume concentration factors (VCF), in the nanofiltration step, were investigated. At high VCF values, the total phenolic content in the retentate fraction was found to be 3.7-fold higher than the starting one, while the reduction of chemical oxygen demand in the permeate fraction was greater than 97% also at lower VCF values. Each filtration step has provided useful information concerning the utility and appropriateness of the processes chosen, suggesting a sustainable hypothesis of 'normal industrial practice' that can be included in current processes of oil extraction, in order to purify water and recover phenolic compounds with high added value. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.
Vasiliadou, Ioanna A; Muktadirul Bari Chowdhury, Abu Khayer Md; Akratos, Christos S; Tekerlekopoulou, Athanasia G; Pavlou, Stavros; Vayenas, Dimitrios V
The present study aimed at developing an integrated mathematical model for the composting process of olive mill waste. The multi-component model was developed to simulate the composting of three-phase olive mill solid waste with olive leaves and different materials as bulking agents. The modeling system included heat transfer, organic substrate degradation, oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production, water content change, and biological processes. First-order kinetics were used to describe the hydrolysis of insoluble organic matter, followed by formation of biomass. Microbial biomass growth was modeled with a double-substrate limitation by hydrolyzed available organic substrate and oxygen using Monod kinetics. The inhibitory factors of temperature and moisture content were included in the system. The production and consumption of nitrogen and phosphorous were also included in the model. In order to evaluate the kinetic parameters, and to validate the model, six pilot-scale composting experiments in controlled laboratory conditions were used. Low values of hydrolysis rates were observed (0.002841/d) coinciding with the high cellulose and lignin content of the composting materials used. Model simulations were in good agreement with the experimental results. Sensitivity analysis was performed and the modeling efficiency was determined to further evaluate the model predictions. Results revealed that oxygen simulations were more sensitive on the input parameters of the model compared to those of water, temperature and insoluble organic matter. Finally, the Nash and Sutcliff index (E), showed that the experimental data of insoluble organic matter (E>0.909) and temperature (E>0.678) were better simulated than those of water.
Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.
The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.
Analysis of metal cations and inorganic anions in olive oil mill waste waters by atomic absorption spectroscopy and ion chromatography. Detection of metals bound mainly to the organic polymeric fraction.
Arienzo, M; Capasso, R
Metal cations were quantitatively detected by atomic absorption spectrometry in samples of olive oil mill waste waters obtained by a pressure process (omww(1)) (K, 17.1; Mg, 2.72; Ca, 2.24; Na, 0.40; Fe, 0.123; Zn, 0.0630; Mn, 0.0147; Cu, 0.00860 g L(-)(1)) and a centrifugation process (omww(2)) (K, 9.80; Mg, 1.65; Ca, 1.35; Na, 0. 162; Fe, 0.0330; Zn, 0.0301; Mn, 0.00910; Cu, 0.00980 g L(-)(1)). The inorganic anions, determined in the same samples by ion chromatography, proved to be Cl(-), H(2)PO(4)(-), F(-), SO(4)(2)(-), and NO(3)(-) (1.61, 1.05, 0.66, 0.52, and 0.023 g L(-)(1), respectively, in omww(1) and 0.61, 0.40, 0.25, 0.20, and 0.0090 g L(-)(1), respectively, in omww(2)). Most of the metal cations were revealed to be bound to the omww organic polymeric fraction (opf), composed of polysaccharides, phenol polymers, and proteins. Opf relative molecular weight was substantially estimated in the range between 1000 and 30000 Da for approximately 75% and in the range from 30000 to 100000 Da for approximately 25%. The free residual cations pool proved to be neutralized by the inorganic counteranions. Finally, the possible exploitation of this material in agriculture and in environmental biotechnology processes is also discussed in the light of its chemical and biochemical oxygen demand parameters.
Texas Olive Ranch is the first one to produce olive oil and has the sole product in the Texas market place; several growers are now starting to cultivate olive at various sites in Texas. The quality of olive oil produced and pressed in Texas has never been explored. This study was conducted to inv...
García-González, Diego L; Aparicio, Ramón
Olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, is continually evolving toward a more competitive global market. Being one of the most studied foods across different disciplines, olive oil still needs intensive research activity to face some vulnerabilities and challenges. This perspective describes some of them and shows a vision of research on olive oil for the near future, bringing together those aspects that are more relevant for better understanding and protection of this edible oil. To accomplish the most urgent challenges, some possible strategies are outlined, taking advantage of the latest analytical advances, considering six areas: (i) olive growing; (ii) processing, byproduct, and environmental issues; (iii) virgin olive oil sensory quality; (iv) purity, authentication, and traceability; (v) health and nutrition; (vi) consumers. The coming research, besides achieving those challenges, would increase the understanding of some aspects that are still the subject of debate and controversy among scientists focused on olive oil.
Cardinali, Angela; Pati, Sandra; Minervini, Fiorenza; D'Antuono, Isabella; Linsalata, Vito; Lattanzio, Vincenzo
Olive oil processing industries generate substantial quantities of phenolic-rich byproducts, which could be valuable natural sources of antioxidants. This work is focused on the recovery and structural characterization of antioxidant compounds from olive mill wastewater (OMWW), a polluting byproduct of the olive oil production process. Phenolics were extracted from the waste material using a membrane technology coupled to low-pressure gel filtration chromatography on a Sephadex LH-20. The LH-20 fraction was, in turn, characterized for its phenolic composition by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analyses. Verbascoside, isoverbascoside, β-hydroxyverbascoside, β-hydroxyisoverbascoside, and various oxidized phenolics were identified. Uptake of verbascoside, purified from the LH-20 fraction, by HT-29 cells, an established model system for studying drug transport properties, was also assayed. Finally, the antioxidant activities of the LH-20 fraction and verbascoside were characterized by two different techniques. Individual verbascoside was more active as a scavenger of reactive oxygen species and as a chemopreventive agent protecting low-density lipoproteins from oxidative damage than the LH-20 fraction.
Montealegre, Cristina; Marina Alegre, María Luisa; García-Ruiz, Carmen
This review provides an overview of traceability studies performed to date (April 2009) for olive oils. Special emphasis has been made on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud to consumers. Several parameters with discriminant power have been used for olive oil traceability according to the olive variety used in the production of the oil. They have been considered as traceability markers to the botanical origin and classified, in this work, as compositional and genetical markers.
Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria
The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20–50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10−11 to 1.406 × 10−9 m2/s in forced convection (ma = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10−11 to 6.277 × 10−10 m2/s in natural convection (ma = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick’s diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order. PMID:22174639
Montero, Irene; Miranda, Teresa; Arranz, Jose Ignacio; Rojas, Carmen Victoria
The thin-layer behavior of by-products from olive oil production was determined in a solar dryer in passive and active operation modes for a temperature range of 20-50 °C. The increase in the air temperature reduced the drying time of olive pomace, sludge and olive mill wastewater. Moisture ratio was analyzed to obtain effective diffusivity values, varying in the oil mill by-products from 9.136 × 10(-11) to 1.406 × 10(-9) m(2)/s in forced convection (m(a) = 0.22 kg/s), and from 9.296 × 10(-11) to 6.277 × 10(-10) m(2)/s in natural convection (m(a) = 0.042 kg/s). Diffusivity values at each temperature were obtained using the Fick's diffusion model and, regardless of the convection, they increased with the air temperature. The temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity was determined by an Arrhenius type relationship. The activation energies were found to be 38.64 kJ/mol, 30.44 kJ/mol and 47.64 kJ/mol for the olive pomace, the sludge and the olive mill wastewater in active mode, respectively, and 91.35 kJ/mol, 14.04 kJ/mol and 77.15 kJ/mol in natural mode, in that order.
Zou, Ming-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Fang; Qi, Xiao-Hua; Ma, Han-Lu; Dong, Ying; Liu, Chun-Wei; Guo, Xun; Wang, Hong
The authentication of olive oil and its adulteration with lower priced oils are still serious problems in the olive oil industry. In this study, a method based on the intensity ratio of the Raman spectroscopy vibration bands, especially on the intensity ratio of the cis ( ==C-H) and cis (C=C) bonds normalized by the band at 1441 cm(-1) (CH(2)), was established to authenticate genuine/fake olive oil. These intensity ratios of the vibration bands given in the form of a two-dimensional chart allow first the discrimination between the various grades of olive oil and the seed oils and then the detection of olive oil fraud by the line of y = 0.7, which is observed under most experiments and dot charts. This method can reliably distinguish the genuine olive oils from the olive oils containing 5% (volume percentage) or more of other edible oils, such as soybean oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower seed oil, or corn oil. Compared to the traditional principal component analysis method, this method is more intuitive, more precise, and easier to use. Moreover, this method also has the advantages of simplicity efficiency and has no need for sample preprocessing, being especially suitable for on-site testing in field applications.
Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto
The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
El Hassani, F Z; Zinedine, A; Amraoui, M Bendriss; Errachidi, F; Alaoui, S Mdaghri; Aissam, H; Merzouki, M; Benlemlih, M
In this study, changes in viability, biomass production, essential oil yield and essential oil composition of Mentha spicata L. (spearmint) exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) were investigated. Spearmint cuttings were sensitive to OMW and, after 6h of incubation in raw or diluted OMW, their viability was null. The short contact of raw OMW with mint cuttings caused an irreversible damage in rhizogenesis and shoots development. Roots were more sensitive to phytotoxicity than shoots. In a field essay, spearmint showed a good capability to recover when OMW was spread at 8 l m(-2) at the vegetative phase of growth (45 days after plantation). At this dose, a slight increase of mostly of the mint essential oil constituents was obtained. When the dose applied was 16 l m(-2), phytotoxicity was manifested by a high reduction of biomass and essential oil yield. The essential oil composition was also affected and a disappearance of many of mint essential oil constituents was observed with an increase of 59% for carvone, the major compound of spearmint essential oil. As far as we know, this is the first report on the effect of field application of OMW on an aromatic plant essential oil yield and composition.
Colomer, Ramón; Menéndez, Javier A
Olive oil is an integral ingredient of the "Mediterranean diet" and accumulating evidence suggests that it may have a potential role in lowering the risk of several types of cancers. The mechanisms by which the cancer-preventing effects of olive oil can be performed, however, are not known. We recently hypothesized that a novel molecular explanation concerning the anti-cancer actions of olive oil may relate to the ability of its monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) oleic acid (OA; 18:1n-9) to specifically regulate cancer-related oncogenes. Supporting our hypothesis, exogenous supplementation of cultured breast cancer cells with physiological concentrations of OA was found to suppress the overexpression of HER2 (Her-2/neu, erbB-2), a well-characterized oncogene playing a key role in the etiology, progression and response to chemotherapy and endocrine therapy in approximately 20% of breast carcinomas. OA treatment was also found to synergistically enhance the efficacy of trastuzumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody binding with high affinity to the ectodomain (ECD) of the Her2-coded p185(HER2) oncoprotein. Moreover, OA exposure significantly diminished the proteolytic cleavage of the ECD of HER2 and, consequently, its activation status, a crucial molecular event that determines both the aggressive behavior and the response to trastuzumab of Her2-overexpressing breast carcinomas. Our most recent findings further reveal that OA exposure may suppresses HER2 at the transcriptional level by up-regulating the expression of the Ets protein PEA3 -a DNA-binding protein that specifically blocks HER2 promoter activity- in breast, ovarian and stomach cancer cell lines. This anti-HER2 property of OA offers a previously unrecognized molecular mechanism by which olive oil may regulate the malignant behavior of cancer cells. From a clinical perspective, it could provide an effective means of influencing the outcome of Her-2/neu-overexpressing human carcinomas with poor prognosis
Beltran, Gabriel; Sánchez, Raquel; Sánchez-Ortiz, Araceli; Aguilera, Maria P; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio
Olives dropped on the ground naturally sometimes are not separated from those fresh and healthy collected from the tree for harvest and processing. In this work we compared the quality, ethanol content and bioactive components of virgin olive oils from ground-picked olives, tree-picked fruits and their mixture. Ground-picked olives produced 'Lampante' virgin olive oils; these are of a lower quality category, because of important alterations in chemical and sensory characteristics. Ethyl esters showed the highest values, although under the regulated limit. The mixture of ground and tree-picked olives gave oils classified as 'virgin' because of sensory defects, although the quality parameters did not exceed the limits for the 'extra' category. Ethanol content showed a significant increase in the oils from ground- picked olives and their mixture with respect to those from tree-picked fruits. Furthermore, bioactive compounds showed a significant decrease as fruit quality was poorer. Ground-picked olives must be harvested and processed separately since they produce low-quality virgin olive oils with sensory defects and lower concentrations of bioactive compounds. The higher acidity and ethanol concentration observed in oils from ground-picked fruits or their mixture may help ethyl ester synthesis during storage. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Steinmetz, Zacharias; Kurtz, Markus; Peikert, Benjamin; Zipori, Isaac; Dag, Arnon; Schaumann, Gabriele E.
During olive oil production in Mediterranean countries, large amounts of olive mill wastewater (OMW) are generated within a short period of time. OMW has a high nutrient content and could serve as fertilizer when applied on land. However, its fatty and phenolic constituents have adverse effects on hydrological and biological soil properties. It is still unknown how seasonal fluctuations in temperature and precipitation influence the fate and effect of OMW components on soil in a long-term perspective. An appropriate application season could mitigate negative consequences of OMW while preserving its beneficial effects. In order to investigate this, 14 L OMW m-2 were applied to different plots of an olive orchard in Gilat, Israel, in winter, spring, and summer, respectively. Hydrological soil properties (water drop penetration time, hydraulic conductivity, dynamic contact angle), physicochemical parameters (pH, EC, soluble ions, phenolic compounds, organic matter), and biological degradation (bait-lamina test) were measured to assess the soil state after OMW application. After one rainy season following OMW application, the soil quality of summer treatments significantly decreased compared to the control. This was particularly apparent in a ten-fold higher soil water repellency, a three-times lower biodegradation performance, and a four-fold higher content of phenolic compounds. 1.5 years after the last OMW application, the soil properties of winter treatments were comparable to the control, which suggests a certain recovery potential of the soil. Spring treatments resulted in an intermediate response compared to summer and winter treatments, but without any precipitation following OMW application. Strongest OMW effects were found in the top soil layers. Further research is needed to quantify the effect of spring treatments as well as to gain further insight into leaching effects, the composition of organic OMW constituents, and the kinetics of their degradation in
Regni, Luca; Nasini, Luigi; Ilarioni, Luana; Brunori, Antonio; Massaccesi, Luisa; Agnelli, Alberto; Proietti, Primo
The soil amendment with organic wastes represents a way to increase the soil fertility and the organic carbon (C) stored in the agro-ecosystems. Among the organic waste materials produced by agricultural and industrial activities, olive mill wastes derived from the olive oil extraction process may represent a suitable soil amendment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fresh (SOMW) or composted mixture of SOMW and shredded olive tree prunings (C-SOMW+P) on the vegetative and productive activities of olive trees, on the C stored in the tree non-permanent structures (prunings and fruits) and in the soil. The plots treated with SOMW or C-SOMW+P showed higher vegetative and productive activities than the untreated plots, and this was attributed to the higher total N and availability of P and K supplied by the amendments. Consequently, treatments increased the C sequestered in the tree non-permanent structures than in the control trees. However, no significant different effect between SOMW and C-SOMW+P treatments was found for the C stored in prunings and fruits, whereas it was evident a stronger influence of C-SOMW+P than SOMW on soil C sequestration. Indeed, about 50% the C supplied by the treatment with C-SOMW+P was sequestered in the olive grove system, with more than 90% of the sequestered C stored into the soil. The low amount of C sequestered in the soil following the addition of SOMW was attributed to its richness of moisture and easily degradable compounds that triggered the mineralization processes controlled by the soil microbial community. Although the 8 years of amendment produced a higher fruit yields than the control, no difference occurred between the characteristics and the oil content of the olive fruits. Only the total phenol content for the oil obtained from the SOMW-treated plots was significantly higher. The other considered fruit characteristics did not show significant differences. PMID:28119719
Regni, Luca; Nasini, Luigi; Ilarioni, Luana; Brunori, Antonio; Massaccesi, Luisa; Agnelli, Alberto; Proietti, Primo
The soil amendment with organic wastes represents a way to increase the soil fertility and the organic carbon (C) stored in the agro-ecosystems. Among the organic waste materials produced by agricultural and industrial activities, olive mill wastes derived from the olive oil extraction process may represent a suitable soil amendment. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of fresh (SOMW) or composted mixture of SOMW and shredded olive tree prunings (C-SOMW+P) on the vegetative and productive activities of olive trees, on the C stored in the tree non-permanent structures (prunings and fruits) and in the soil. The plots treated with SOMW or C-SOMW+P showed higher vegetative and productive activities than the untreated plots, and this was attributed to the higher total N and availability of P and K supplied by the amendments. Consequently, treatments increased the C sequestered in the tree non-permanent structures than in the control trees. However, no significant different effect between SOMW and C-SOMW+P treatments was found for the C stored in prunings and fruits, whereas it was evident a stronger influence of C-SOMW+P than SOMW on soil C sequestration. Indeed, about 50% the C supplied by the treatment with C-SOMW+P was sequestered in the olive grove system, with more than 90% of the sequestered C stored into the soil. The low amount of C sequestered in the soil following the addition of SOMW was attributed to its richness of moisture and easily degradable compounds that triggered the mineralization processes controlled by the soil microbial community. Although the 8 years of amendment produced a higher fruit yields than the control, no difference occurred between the characteristics and the oil content of the olive fruits. Only the total phenol content for the oil obtained from the SOMW-treated plots was significantly higher. The other considered fruit characteristics did not show significant differences.
Esfandyari, Yahya; Mahdavi, Yousef; Seyedsalehi, Mahdi; Hoseini, Mohammad; Safari, Gholam Hossein; Ghozikali, Mohammad Ghanbari; Kamani, Hossein; Jaafari, Jalil
Olive mill wastewater is considered as one of the most polluting effluents of the food industry and constitutes a source of important environmental problems. In this study, the removal of pollutants (chemical oxygen demand (COD), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5), polyphenols, turbidity, color, total suspended solids (TSS), and oil and grease) from olive oil mill processing wastewater by peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process with bipolar aluminum electrodes was evaluated using a pilot continuous reactor. In the electrochemical unit, aluminum (Al), stainless steel, and RuO2/Ti plates were used. The effects of pH, hydrogen peroxide doses, current density, NaCl concentrations, and reaction times were studied. Under optimal conditions of pH 4, current density of 40 mA/m(2), 1000 mg/L H2O2, 1 g/L NaCl, and 30-min reaction time, the peroxi-electrochemical method yielded very effective removal of organic pollution from the olive mill wastewater diluted four times. The treatment process reduced COD by 96%, BOD5 by 93.6%, total, polyphenols by 94.4%, color by 91.4%, turbidity by 88.7, suspended solids by 97% and oil and grease by 97.1%. The biodegradability index (BOD5/COD) increased from 0.29 to 0.46. Therefore, the peroxi-electrocoagulation/electrooxidation-electroflotation process is considered as an effective and feasible process for pre-treating olive mill wastewater, making possible a post-treatment of the effluent in a biological system.
Mazzotti, Fabio; Benabdelkamel, Hicham; Di Donna, Leonardo; Maiuolo, Loredana; Napoli, Anna; Sindona, Giovanni
Hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, the strong antioxidant present in large amount in virgin olive oil have been assayed by LC-MS/MS under MRM condition and isotope dilution method, using d(2)-labelled internal standards obtained by simple synthetic procedures. The assay has been performed under MRM condition monitoring two transitions for each analyte to improve the specificity. This paper deals with a modern approach for assaying the content of this polyphenols in virgin olive oil down to a limit of a few hundreds of parts per billion. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol ranged from 10 to 47ppm and from 5 to 25ppm in commercial olive oil, respectively. The accuracy (98-107%) and analytical parameters values confirm the reliability of the proposed approach. The method can be extended to any natural matrices, including mill wastes, after a simple step of sample preparation.
In the State of California, waste material from olive milling (“alperujo” for 2-phase milling and “pomace” for 3-phase milling) is increasing as the domestic olive oil industry grows. Current best practices, including land application and conversion to animal feed, for disposing of olive milling wa...
Aissa, Imen; Kharrat, Nadia; Aloui, Fatma; Sellami, Mohamed; Bouaziz, Mohamed; Gargouri, Youssef
Antioxidants are highly important gradients used to preserve cosmetic products and reduce the effect of oxidative stress on the skin. The present work explores the possibility of using phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) as effective alternatives to the commercial antioxidants used in cosmetic formulations deemed by their allergic and carcinogenic effects. Esterification of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol extracted from OMW with various fatty acids was conducted using Novozyme 435 lipase as a biocatalyst. Upon synthesis, butyrate, caprate, laurate, and palmitate tyrosyl and hydroxytyrosyl esters were isolated and evaluated for their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Results showed that laurate derivatives are the most efficient in preventing lipid oxidation and inhibiting growth of pathogenic strains. In the prospective of industrial use, laurate tyrosyl and hydroxytyrosyl derivatives were incorporated in a formulation of moisturizer to substitute the commercial antioxidant butylated hydroxyltoluene. Oleuropein, extracted from olive leaves powder, was also tested as an antiaging ingredient in cosmetic formulations. The evaluation of physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial properties of the new cosmetic products indicated that oleuropein and lipophilic derivatives do not affect the properties of the standard formulation. Oleuropein and lipophilic derivatives can be added as active ingredients to stabilize cosmetic preparations. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.
Leouifoudi, Inass; Harnafi, Hicham; Zyad, Abdelmajid
Natural polyphenols extracts have been usually associated with great bioactive properties. In this work, we investigated in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of the phenolic olive mill wastewater extracts (OWWE) and the olive cake extracts (OCE). Using the Folin Ciocalteux method, OWWE contained higher total phenol content compared to OCE (8.90 ± 0.728 g/L versus 0.95 ± 0.017 mg/g). The phenolic compounds identification was carried out with a performance liquid chromatograph coupled to tandem mass spectrometry equipment (HPLC-ESI-MS). With this method, a list of polyphenols from OWWE and OCE was obtained. The antioxidant activity was measured in aqueous (DPPH) and emulsion (BCBT) systems. Using the DPPH assay, the results show that OWWE was more active than OCE and interestingly the extracts originating from mountainous areas were more active than those produced from plain areas (EC50 = 12.1 ± 5.6 μg/mL; EC50 = 157.7 ± 34.9 μg/mL, resp.). However, when the antioxidant activity was reversed in the BCBT, OCE produced from plain area was more potent than mountainous OCE. Testing by the gel diffusion assay, all the tested extracts have showed significant spectrum antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, whereas the biophenols extracts showed more limited activity against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus faecalis. PMID:26693221
Ntougias, Spyridon; Gaitis, Fragiskos; Katsaris, Panagiotis; Skoulika, Stavroula; Iliopoulos, Nikiforos; Zervakis, Georgios I
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated during the oil extraction from Olea europea L. var. koroneiki olives was sampled at the beginning, the middle and the end of the harvesting season for three successive crop production years, and from four olive mills. OMW samples were examined in respect to their physicochemical characteristics, fatty acid composition of the lipid fraction, and adverse effects on biomass production of nine white-rot fungi of the basidiomycetous genus Pleurotus. Total N, nitrogen species, potassium and phosphate concentrations as well as total phenolics content of OMW samples were influenced by the crop year but not from the harvest period (albeit higher values for nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and potassium as well as total phenolics contents were obtained during ripening of olives), whereas protein concentration, total organic carbon and total solids were not significantly affected by the crop year or the harvest period. In addition, fatty acids composition, i.e. nC14:0, nC16:1Δ9cis, nC17:1Δ10cis, nC18:0, nC18:1Δ9cis, nC22:0 and nC24:0 varied significantly during different crop years and harvest periods. Olive fruits maturity and biannual alternate-bearing appear to play key-roles in the fatty acid variation detected in OMW samples. OMW toxicity as evaluated by the mycelium growth of Pleurotus strains was influenced significantly by the phenolic content of OMW samples obtained during three successive crop years; in contrast, the olives harvest period did not affect Pleurotus biomass production. Hence, experimental data indicated that selected Pleurotus strains could serve as bioindicators of OMW toxicity. Development of viable OMW detoxification processes as well as the exploitation of the effluent's fertilizing value are discussed in the light of the above findings.
Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen
The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.
Zagklis, Dimitris P; Vavouraki, Aikaterini I; Kornaros, Michael E; Paraskeva, Christakis A
Olive tree cultivation has a long history in the Mediterranean countries, and even today consists an important cultural, economic, and environmental aspect of the area. The production of olive oil through 3-phase extraction systems, leads to the co-production of large quantities of olive mill wastewater (OMW), with toxic compounds that inhibit its biodegradation. Membrane filtration has been used for the exploitation of this byproduct, through the isolation of valuable phenolic compounds. In the current work, a fraction of the waste occurring from a membrane process was used. More specifically the reverse osmosis concentrate, after a nanofiltration, containing the low-molecular-weight compounds, was further treated with resin adsorption/desorption. The non ionic XAD4, XAD16, and XAD7HP resins were implemented, for the recovery of phenols and their separation from carbohydrates. The recovered phenolic compounds were concentrated through vacuum evaporation reaching a final concentration of 378 g/L in gallic acid equivalents containing 84.8 g/L hydroxytyrosol.
Ochando-Pulido, J M; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Hodaifa, G; Martinez-Ferez, A
Management of the effluent from the olive oil industry is of capital importance nowadays, especially in the Mediterranean countries. Most of the scarce existing studies concerning olive mill wastewater (OMW) treatment by means of membrane processes not only do fix their aims simply on achieving irrigation standards, but lack suitable pretreatments against deleterious fouling issues. With the target of achieving the parametric requirements for public waterways discharge or even for reuse in the production process, a bench-scale study was undertaken to evaluate the feasibility of a thin-film composite reverse osmosis (RO) membrane (polyamide/polysulfone) for the purification of OMW. Previously, OMW was pretreated by means of chemical oxidation based on Fenton's reagent, flocculation-sedimentation and biosorption through olive stones. Impacts of the main operating parameters on permeate flux and pollutants rejection of the RO process, as well as fouling on the membrane surface, were examined for removing the significant ionic concentration and remaining organic matter load of the pretreated OMW. Combining operating parameters adequately in a semibatch operating regime ensured high and sustainable permeate flux, yielding over 99.4% and 98.5% removal efficiencies for the chemical oxygen demand and ionic content respectively, as well as complete rejection of phenols, iron and suspended solids.
Parrotta, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Casini, Silvia; Romi, Marco; Cai, Giampiero
Disposal and reuse of olive-mill wastes are both an economic and environmental problem, especially in countries where the cultivation of olive trees is extensive. Microorganism-based bioaugmentation can be used to reduce the pollutant capacity of wastes. In this work, bioaugmentation was used to reduce the polyphenolic content of both liquid and solid wastes. After processing, bioaugmented wastes were tested on the root development of maize seeds and on photosynthesis-related molecules of tobacco plants. In maize, we found that bioaugmentation made olive-mill wastes harmless for seed germination. In tobacco, we analyzed the content of RuBisCO (ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase oxygenase) and of the photosynthetic pigments lutein, chlorophylls, and β-carotene. Levels of RuBisCO were negatively affected by untreated wastewater but increased if plants were treated with bioaugmented wastewater. On the contrary, levels of RuBisCO increased in the case of plants treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Pigment levels showed dissimilar behavior because their concentration increased if plants were irrigated with raw wastewater or treated with raw olive-mill solid waste. Treatment with bioaugmented wastes restored pigment content. Findings show that untreated wastes are potentially toxic at the commencement of treatment, but plants can eventually adapt after an initial stress period. Bioaugmented wastes do not induce immediate damages, and plants rapidly recover optimal levels of photosynthetic molecules.
Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle
Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D.
Peña, Fernando; Cárdenas, Soledad; Gallego, Mercedes; Valcárcel, Miguel
Control of adulteration of olive oil, together with authentication and contamination, is one of the main aspects in the quality control of olive oil. Adulteration with hazelnut oil is one of the most difficult to detect due to the similar composition of hazelnut and olive oils; both virgin olive oil and olive oil are subjected to that kind of adulteration. The main objective of this work was to develop an analytical method able to detect adulteration of virgin olive oils and olive oils with hazelnut oil by means of its analysis by a headspace autosampler directly coupled to a mass spectrometer used as detector (ChemSensor). As no chromatographic separation of the individual components of the samples exists, a global signal of the sample is obtained and employed for its characterization by means of chemometric techniques. Four different crude hazelnut oils from Turkey were employed for the development of the method. Multivariate regression techniques (partial least squares and principal components analysis) were applied to generate adequate regression models. Good values were obtained in both techniques for the parameters employed (standard errors of prediction (SEP) and prediction residual error sum of squares (PRESS)) to evaluate its goodness. With the proposed method, minimum adulteration levels of 7 and 15% can be detected in refined and virgin olive oils, respectively. Once validated, the method was applied to the detection of such adulteration in commercial olive oil and virgin olive oil samples.
Cardinali, Angela; Cicco, Nunzia; Linsalata, Vito; Minervini, Fiorenza; Pati, Sandra; Pieralice, Maria; Tursi, Nunzia; Lattanzio, Vincenzo
Olive oil production generates large amounts of recalcitrant compounds, the olive oil mill wastewater (OMWW), which represent one of the most contaminating effluents among those produced by the agrofood industries. Nowadays, this view has changed to one that recognizes the waste as a low-cost starting material rich in bioactive compounds, particularly biophenols, that can be extracted and applied as natural antioxidants for the food and pharmaceutical industries. The data reported in this paper indicate that the OMWW extracts, besides low molecular weight antioxidant phenolics such as tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, also contain phenolics with a molecular weight in the range of 600-5000 Da, which exhibit efficient scavenging activities against hydroxyl and peroxyl radicals. This group of phenolics includes, besides verbascoside, isoverbascoside, and an oxidized form of verbascoside, a number of higher molecular weight phenolics arising from oxidative polymerization of hydroxytyrosol and caffeic acid. Overall, these higher molecular weight phenolics prove to be, in some in vitro tests, more efficient scavengers of hydrophilic hydroxyl radicals than hydroxytyrosol, which could be used for industrial applications as natural nontoxic antioxidants.
Mansour-Benamar, Malika; Savoie, Jean-Michel; Chavant, Louis
Olive oil industry generates huge quantities of solid olive mill wastes (SOMW), causing environmental damage. Cultivation of edible mushrooms, such as Pleurotus ostreatus is a valuable approach for SOMW valorization. A local strain mycelium (Tizi-Ouzou, Algeria) of P. ostreatus (LPO) was isolated from castor oil plants. Oyster mushroom spawn, produced on barley grains, was used to inoculate wet SOMW, steamed in a traditional steamer during 45 min. The mycelium growth rate on SOMW was first estimated in Petri dish by measuring the surface colonized by the mycelium. The fruit body yields were estimated on culture bags containing 2 kg each of SOMW inoculated at 7% (w/w). The local strain potential was compared with that of a commercial one. Both strains produced high-quality mushrooms, but with low yields. The supplementation of the SOMW with wheat straw at the rate of 10% and 2% of CaCO3 had significantly enhanced the productivity of the two strains, multiplying it by 3.2 for LPO and by 2.6 for CPO.
Visioli, Francesco; Poli, Andrea; Gall, Claudio
Olive oil is the principal source of fats in the Mediterranean diet, which has been associated with a lower incidence of coronary heart disease and certain cancers. Phenolic compounds, e.g., hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, in extra-virgin olive oil are responsible for its peculiar pungent taste and for its high stability. Recent findings demonstrate that olive oil phenolics are powerful antioxidants, both in vitro and in vivo, and possess other potent biological activities that could partially account for the observed healthful effects of the Mediterranean diet.
Waterman, Emily; Lockwood, Brian
The olive tree, Olea europaea, is native to the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia Minor. The fruit and compression-extracted oil have a wide range of therapeutic and culinary applications. Olive oil also constitutes a major component of the "Mediterranean diet." The chief active components of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolics include hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein, which occur in highest levels in virgin olive oil and have demonstrated antioxidant activity. Antioxidants are believed to be responsible for a number of olive oil's biological activities. Oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, has shown activity in cancer prevention, while squalene has also been identified as having anticancer effects. Olive oil consumption has benefit for colon and breast cancer prevention. The oil has been widely studied for its effects on coronary heart disease (CHD), specifically for its ability to reduce blood pressure and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Antimicrobial activity of hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and oleuropein has been demonstrated against several strains of bacteria implicated in intestinal and respiratory infections. Although the majority of research has been conducted on the oil, consumption of whole olives might also confer health benefits.
Pineda, Manuel; Rojas, María; Gálvez-Valdivieso, Gregorio; Aguilar, Miguel
There are many substances that can interfere with olive oil quality. Some of them are well characterized, but many others have an unknown origin. Saturated hydrocarbons make an extraordinary complex family of numerous molecules, some of them present naturally in vegetable oils. When major natural saturated hydrocarbons are analyzed by standard chromatographic methods, this complex mixture of saturated hydrocarbons appears as a hump in the chromatogram and is commonly named as unresolved complex mixture (UCM), whose origin remains unknown. In this work we studied the occurrence and the origin of aliphatic saturated hydrocarbons in olive oil. Hydrocarbons were analyzed in olive oil and along the industrial process of oil extraction. We also analyzed n-alkanes and the UCM fraction of hydrocarbons in leaf, fruit and oil from different varieties and different locations, and we also analyzed the soils at these locations. We conclude that the hydrocarbons present in olive oil do not necessarily have their origin in a contamination during olive oil elaboration; they seem to have a natural origin, as a result of olive tree metabolism and/or as the result of an intake and accumulation by the olive tree directly from the environment during its entire life cycle. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
Sedej, Ivana; Milczarek, Rebecca; Wang, Selina C; Sheng, Runqi; de Jesús Avena-Bustillos, Roberto; Dao, Lan; Takeoka, Gary
A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also to extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW and compare the techniques in terms of the dried product quality and feasibility of the process. The OMWW from 2 (3-phase and 2-phase) California mills was subjected to a 2-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich coproduct stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure water stream that could be recycled into the milling process. Spray-, freeze-, and infrared-drying were applied to obtain solid material from the RO-R. Drying of the RO-R was made possible only with addition of 10% maltodextrin as a carrier. The total soluble phenolics in dried RO-R were in the range 0.15 to 0.58 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for 2-phase RO-R, and 1.38 to 2.17 mg gallic acid equivalents/g of dry weight for the 3-phase RO-R. Spray-dried RO-R from 3-phase OMWW showed remarkable antioxidant activity. Protocatechuic acid, tyrosol, vanillic acid, and p-coumaric acid were quantified in all dried RO-R, whereas 3-hydroxytyrosol was found in 3-phase dried RO-R. This combination of separation and drying technologies helps to add value and shelf-stability to an olive oil by-product and increase environmental sustainability of its production.
Bremer, Maria G E G; Smits, Nathalie G E; Haasnoot, Willem
The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 microg/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%.
Smits, Nathalie G. E.; Haasnoot, Willem
The fraudulent addition of hazelnut oil to more expensive olive oil not only causes economical loss but may also result in problems for allergic individuals as they may inadvertently be exposed to potentially allergenic hazelnut proteins. To improve consumer safety, a rapid and sensitive direct biosensor immunoassay, based on a highly specific monoclonal antibody, was developed to detect the presence of hazelnut proteins in olive oils. The sample preparation was easy (extraction with buffer); the assay time was fast (4.5 min only) and the limit of detection was low (0.08 μg/g of hazelnut proteins in olive oil). Recoveries obtained with an olive oil mixed with different amounts of a hazelnut protein containing hazelnut oil varied between 93% and 109%. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s00216-009-2720-1) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users. PMID:19263041
Bermek, Hakan; Catal, Tunc; Akan, S Süha; Ulutaş, Mehmet Sefa; Kumru, Mert; Özgüven, Mine; Liu, Hong; Özçelik, Beraat; Akarsubaşı, Alper Tunga
Olive mill wastewaters create significant environmental issues in olive-processing countries. One of the most hazardous groups of pollutants in these wastewaters is phenolic compounds. Here, olive mill wastewater was used as substrate and treated in single-chamber air-cathode microbial fuel cells. Olive mill wastewater yielded a maximum voltage of 381 mV on an external resistance of 1 kΩ. Notable decreases in the contents of 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, tyrosol, gallic acid and p-coumaric acid were detected. Chemical oxygen demand removal rates were 65 % while removal of total phenolics by the process was lower (49 %). Microbial community analysis during the olive mill wastewater treating MFC has shown that both exoelectrogenic and phenol-degrading microorganisms have been enriched during the operation. Brevundimonas-, Sphingomonas- and Novosphingobium-related phylotypes were enriched on the anode biofilm, while Alphaproteobacteria and Bacteriodetes dominated the cathode biofilm. As one of the novel studies, it has been demonstrated that recalcitrant olive mill wastewaters could be treated and utilized for power generation in microbial fuel cells.
Swamy, Sugunakar Raju Godishala; Nandan, Surapaneni Rateesh Kumar; Kulkarni, Pavan G; Rao, Thokala Madhusudan; Palakurthy, Pavan
Xylene is a flammable liquid with characteristic petroleum or aromatic odours, it is miscible with most of the organic solvents and paraffin wax. Xylene clears tissues rapidly and renders transparency, facilitating clearing endpoint determination, this made it to be used as a clearing agent in routine histopathological techniques. Even though it is a good clearing agent, it causes damage to the tissues by its hardening effect particularly those fixed in non-protein coagulant fixatives. Apart from these tissue effects, it has severe, long lasting ill effects on health of technicians and pathologists when exposed to longer duration. Hence in order to overcome these effects and replace xylene with a safe alternative agent, the present study was carried out to assess the clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different natural oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil and Rose oil in comparison with that of Xylene. According to Bernoulli's principle of fluid dynamics, to decrease viscosity of these oils and increase penetration into tissues for rapid clearing hot-air oven technique was used. To assess:1) Clearing ability and bio-friendly nature of four different oils i.e., Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil in comparison with that of xylene, 2) Application of Bernoulli's principle of fluid dynamics in rapid clearing of tissues by using hot-air oven. Forty different formalin fixed tissue samples were taken. Each sample of tissue was cut into 5 bits (40x5=200 total bits) which were subjected for dehydration in differential alcohol gradients. Later, each bit is kept in 4 different oils such as Carrot oil, Olive oil, Pine oil, Rose oil and xylene and transferred into hot-air oven. Further routine steps of processing, sectioning and staining were done. Individual sections cleared in four different oils were assessed for cellular architecture, staining quality and a comparison was done between them. Results showed that all the four oils had ability to clear
Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran
Objective(s): Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results: According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P<0.001). Ozonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent. PMID:26523224
Rotondi, Annalisa; Bendini, Alessandra; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Mari, Matteo; Lercker, Giovanni; Toschi, Tullia Gallina
The evaluation of the influence of olive ripening degree on the stability of extra virgin olive oils by the determination of the oxidative stability index, the DPPH(*) radical test, and the quali-quantitative analysis of phenolic compounds, as well as the study of the variation of their sensory profiles, plays a key role in the assessment of the overall olive oil quality. Olives of the cv. Nostrana di Brisighella grown in the north-central Italian region of Emilia-Romagna were picked at four different stages of ripeness and immediately processed in an experimental mill. The polar extracts of oil samples were submitted to spectrophotometric analysis of total phenols and o-diphenols and to liquid chromatographic determination of their quali-quantitative profile (HPLC-DAD/MSD). To attain a complete description of oil samples, fatty acid composition, ultraviolet indices (K(232), K(270), and deltaK), free acidity degree, and peroxide value were also determined according to the European Union methods stated in Regulation 2568/91 (1, Off. J. Eur. Communities 1991, L248, 1-82). Sensory quantitative descriptive analysis (QDA) and triangular tests were performed to establish the influence of olive ripening degree on the resulting oil's organoleptic properties. The evolution of the analytical parameters studied shows that the ripeness stage of Nostrana di Brisighella olives that yields the best oil corresponds to a Jaén index value between 2.5 and 3.5. Oils produced from olives harvested within this time frame present a superior sensory profile accompanied by the highest possible chemical and nutritional properties.
Bodini, S F; Cicalini, A R; Santori, F
The potential of phytoremediation as a treatment option for olive mill wastewater (OMW) was tested on five perennial tree species. Cupressus sempervirens and Quercus ilex proved tolerant to six-month OMW treatment followed by six-month water irrigation, whereas Salix sp. and Laurus nobilis and, later, Pinus mugo suffered from phytotoxic effects. Test plants were compared to controls after treatment and irrigation, by monitoring biochemical and microbiological variations in the rhizosphere soil. OMW-treated soils were exposed to 50-fold higher phenols concentrations, which, irrespective of whether the respective plants were OMW-resistant or susceptible, were reduced by more than 90% by the end of the irrigation cycle, owing to significantly increased laccase, peroxidase and β-glucosidase activities, recovery/acquisition of bacterial culturability and transitory development of specialized fungal communities sharing the presence of Geotrichum candidum. Of all results, the identification of Penicillium chrysogenum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum as dominant rhizosphere fungi was distinctive of OMW-tolerant species.
Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J
Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.
El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Khayet, Mohamed; Hafidi, Abdellatif
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is an important environmental pollution problem, especially in the Mediterranean, which is the main olive oil production region worldwide. Environmental impact of OMW is related to its high organic load and particularly to the phytotoxic and antibacterial action of its phenolic content. In fact, polyphenols are known as powerful antioxidants with interesting nutritional and pharmaceutical properties. In the present work, the efficiency of OMW Micellar Enhanced Ultrafiltration (MEUF) treatment for removal and concentration of polyphenols was investigated, using an anionic surfactant (Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate salt, SDS) and a hydrophobic poly(vinyldene fluoride) (PVDF) membrane. The effects of the process experimental conditions on the permeate flux were investigated, and the secondary membrane resistance created by SDS molecules was evaluated. The initial fluxes of OMW processing by MEUF using SDS were 25.7 and 44.5 l/m2 h under transmembrane pressures of 3.5 and 4.5 bar, respectively. The rejection rate of polyphenols without using any surfactant ranged from 5 to 28%, whereas, it reached 74% when SDS was used under optimum pH (pH 2). The MEUF provides a slightly colored permeate (about 88% less dark), which requires clearly less chemical oxygen demand (COD) for its oxidation (4.33% of the initial COD). These results showed that MEUF process can efficiently be applied to the treatment of OMW and for the concentration and recovery of polyphenols.
Aly, Anwar A; Hasan, Yousef N Y; Al-Farraj, Abdullah S
Olive mill wastewater (OMW), a liquid by-product of the olive oil industry, represents a severe environmental problem owing to its high pollution load. In this study, successive columns containing different types of natural materials were investigated for their OMW treatment efficiency. Passing OMW through three columns of gravel, fine sand, and a mixture of acidified cotton and zeolite (weight:weight ratio of cotton:clinoptilolite of 2:1), followed by treatment with activated charcoal (AC) and lime, was the best treatment in terms of the quality of water obtained. This treatment decreased concentrations of [Formula: see text] , B, K, P, and total fat in OMW by mean percentages of 78.0, 92.4, 66.6, 48.3, and 93.3%, respectively. Furthermore, it decreased OMW turbidity and electric conductivity (EC) by 96.8 and 48.4%, respectively. Most contaminants were removed from the OMW in the cotton/clinoptilolite column owing to the high sorption affinity of clinoptilolite on its active sites. The AC was efficient for organic particle removal; meanwhile, lime was used to raise the pH of the treated OMW (TOMW) from 2.9 to 5.1. This simple method enables us to obtain environmentally friendly TOMW that can be safely used for irrigation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aharonov-Nadborny, R; Raviv, M; Graber, E R
Olive mill waste water (OMWW) is a major byproduct of the three phase olive oil production process. OMWW has high acidity (pH ∼ 4-5), high salt content (EC ∼ 5-10 mS cm(-1)), extremely high biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD up to 100,000 and 220,000 mg L(-1), respectively), and also high concentrations of organic compounds such as phenols and polyphenols. As a result, OMWW cannot be freely discharged into domestic wastewater treatment plants, but on-site treatment is very expensive and not sufficiently effective. Uses for OMWW such as agricultural recycling and co-composting were found to be impractical or expensive. Thus, OMWW is frequently spread on agricultural land for disposal. However, excessive or uncontrolled spreading of such organic-rich and saline wastewater could have many deleterious effects on soil quality, including salinization, phytotoxicity, or contaminant movement. The impact of OMWW on the leaching of adsorbed terbuthylazine, a soil-applied herbicide, was tested in four soils of varying physical and chemical properties. Although terbuthylazine solubility in OMWW is significantly higher than in water, leaching of adsorbed terbuthylazine from OMWW-treated soils was less than from control treatments. Low soil organic carbon and clay contents were major factors that contributed to reduced terbuthylazine leaching after soil treatment with OMWW. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio
Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR) and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD), osmotic distillation (OD) and forward osmosis (FO). Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided.
Olivieri, Giuseppe; Russo, Maria Elena; Giardina, Paola; Marzocchella, Antonio; Sannia, Giovanni; Salatino, Piero
The reduction of polyphenols content in olive mill wastewater (OMW) is a major issue in olive oil manufacturing. Although researchers have pointed out the potential of white-rot fungus in dephenolizing OMW, the results available in the literature mainly concern pretreated (sterilized) OMW. This paper deals with the reduction of polyphenols content in untreated OMW by means of a white-rot fungus, Pleurotus ostreatus. Dephenolization was performed both in an airlift bioreactor and in aerated flasks. The process was carried out under controlled non-sterile conditions, with different operating configurations (batch, continuous, biomass recycling) representative of potential industrial operations. Total organic carbon, polyphenols concentration, phenol oxidase activity, dissolved oxygen concentration, oxygen consumption rate, and pH were measured during every run. Tests were carried out with or without added nutrients (potato starch and potato dextrose) and laccases inducers (i.e., CuSO₄). OMW endogenous microorganisms were competing with P. ostreatus for oxygen during simultaneous fermentation. Dephenolization of raw OMW by P. ostreatus under single batch was as large as 70%. Dephenolization was still extensive even when biomass was recycled up to six times. OMW pre-aeration had to be provided under continuous operation to avoid oxygen consumption by endogenous microorganisms that might spoil the process. The role of laccases in the dephenolization process has been discussed. Dephenolization under batch conditions with biomass recycling and added nutrients proved to be the most effective configuration for OMW polyphenols reduction in industrial plants (42-68% for five cycles).
Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I.
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment. PMID:24987685
Abdelhadi, Samya O; Dosoretz, Carlos G; Rytwo, Giora; Gerchman, Yoram; Azaizeh, Hassan
Commercial activated carbon (CAC) and biochar are useful adsorbents for removing heavy metals (HM) from water, but their production is costly. Biochar production from olive solid waste from two olive cultivars (Picual and Souri) and two oil production process (two- or three-phase) and two temperatures (350 and 450°C) was tested. The biochar yield was 24-35% of the biomass, with a surface area of 1.65-8.12m(2)g(-1), as compared to 1100m(2)g(-1) for CAC. Picual residue from the two-phase milling technique, pyrolysed at 350°C, had the best cumulative removal capacity for Cu(+2), Pb(+2), Cd(+2), Ni(+2) and Zn(+2) with more than 85% compared to other biochar types and CAC. These results suggest that surface area cannot be used as a sole predictor of HM removal capacity. FTIR analysis revealed the presence of different functional groups in the different biochar types, which may be related to the differences in absorbing capacities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio
Many reclamation treatments as well as integrated processes for the purification of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) have already been proposed and developed but not led to completely satisfactory results, principally due to complexity or cost-ineffectiveness. The olive oil industry in its current status, composed of little and dispersed factories, cannot stand such high costs. Moreover, these treatments are not able to abate the high concentration of dissolved inorganic matter present in these highly polluted effluents. In the present work, a review on the actual state of the art concerning the treatment and disposal of OMW by membranes is addressed, comprising microfiltration (MF), ultrafiltration (UF), nanofiltration (NF), and reverse osmosis (RO), as well as membrane bioreactors (MBR) and non-conventional membrane processes such as vacuum distillation (VD), osmotic distillation (OD) and forward osmosis (FO). Membrane processes are becoming extensively used to replace many conventional processes in the purification of water and groundwater as well as in the reclamation of wastewater streams of very diverse sources, such as those generated by agro-industrial activities. Moreover, a brief insight into inhibition and control of fouling by properly-tailored pretreatment processes upstream the membrane operation and the use of the critical and threshold flux theories is provided. PMID:26426062
Asfi, Maria; Ouzounidou, Georgia; Panajiotidis, Sampson; Therios, Ioannis; Moustakas, Michael
Olive mill-wastewater (OMW), a by-product of the olive oil extraction process, represents a significant environmental problem in Mediterranean areas. We studied the impact of OMW dilutions (1:10 and 1:20) on growth, photosynthesis, proline and sugar accumulation as well as on pollen morphology of spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) plants, to evaluate the application of OMW dilutions as pretreatment technique, prior to land disposal. Biomass, height, total chlorophyll and leaf area of spinach declined progressively with decreasing OMW dilution. Since fatty acids and phenolic compounds (present in the OMW) are considered precursors in the polymerization of sporopollenin, we suggest that under OMW treatment spinach plants seem to 'direct' the excess of these substances in the production and formation of increased pollen grains. Proline did not accumulate under OMW stress, but decreased possible due to transport to pollens in response to increased demand to over-production of pollens. Both OMW dilutions resulted in a decreased efficiency of PSII functioning and an increased excitation pressure (1-q(p)). It is concluded that, higher than 1:20 OMW dilutions should be used, and/or additional treatment should be applied before use of the OMW in the environment.
Koutrotsios, Georgios; Zervakis, Georgios I
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) constitutes a major cause of environmental pollution in olive-oil producing regions. Sixty wood-rot macrofungi assigned in 43 species were evaluated for their efficacy to colonize solidified OMW media at initially established optimal growth temperatures. Subsequently eight strains of the following species were qualified: Abortiporus biennis, Ganoderma carnosum, Hapalopilus croceus, Hericium erinaceus, Irpex lacteus, Phanerochaete chrysosporium, Pleurotus djamor, and P. pulmonarius. Fungal growth in OMW (25%v/v in water) resulted in marked reduction of total phenolic content, which was significantly correlated with the effluent's decolorization. A. biennis was the best performing strain (it decreased phenolics by 92% and color by 64%) followed by P. djamor and I. lacteus. Increase of plant seeds germination was less pronounced evidencing that phenolics are only partly responsible for OMW's phytotoxicity. Laccase production was highly correlated with all three biodegradation parameters for H. croceus, Ph. chrysosporium, and Pleurotus spp., and so were manganese-independent and manganese dependent peroxidases for A. biennis and I. lacteus. Monitoring of enzymes with respect to biomass production indicated that Pleurotus spp., H. croceus, and Ph. chrysosporium shared common patterns for all three activities. Moreover, generation of enzymes at the early biodegradation stages enhanced the efficiency of OMW treatment.
Rached, Mouna Ben; Galaverna, Gianni; Cirlini, Martina; Boujneh, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar; Guerfel, Mokhtar
The aim of this study examined the characterization of extra virgin olive oil samples from the main cultivar Chemlali, grown in five olive orchards with different soil type (Sandy, Clay, Stony, Brown, Limestone and Gypsum). Volatile compounds were studied using headspace-solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technics. Moreover, the sterol profile was established using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. 35 different volatile compounds were identified: alcohols, esters, aldehydes, ketones and hydrocarbons. The chemical composition of the volatile fraction was characterized by the preeminence of 2-hexenal (32.75%) and 1-hexanol (31.88%). Three sterols were identified and characterized. For all olive oil samples, ß-sitosterol (302.25 mg/kg) was the most abundant sterol. Interestingly, our results showed significant qualitative and quantitative differences in the levels of the volatile compounds and sterols from oils obtained from olive trees grown in different soil type.
Puértolas, Eduardo; Martínez de Marañón, Iñigo
The impact of the use of pulsed electric field (PEF) technology on Arroniz olive oil production in terms of extraction yield and chemical and sensory quality has been studied at pilot scale in an industrial oil mill. The application of a PEF treatment (2 kV/cm; 11.25 kJ/kg) to the olive paste significantly increased the extraction yield by 13.3%, with respect to a control. Furthermore, olive oil obtained by PEF showed total phenolic content, total phytosterols and total tocopherols significantly higher than control (11.5%, 9.9% and 15.0%, respectively). The use of PEF had no negative effects on general chemical and sensory characteristics of the olive oil, maintaining the highest quality according to EU legal standards (EVOO; extra virgin olive oil). Therefore, PEF could be an appropriate technology to improve olive oil yield and produce EVOO enriched in human-health-related compounds, such as polyphenols, phytosterols and tocopherols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell
The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.
Monasterio, Romina P; Fernández, María de los Ángeles; Silva, María Fernanda
Olive oil, obtained from Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae) fruits, is an important ingredient in the Mediterranean diet. The purpose of this paper is to review and evaluate olive oil analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE). This review covers a selection of the literature published on this topic over the past decade. The current state of the art of the topic is evaluated, with special emphasis on separation conditions, analysis purpose, and analytes investigated. CE has been used to characterize or to carry out authenticity studies. Particular attention has been focused on the botanical origin because high-quality monovarietal olive oils have been recently introduced on the markets and their quality control requires the development of new and powerful analytical tools as well as new regulations to avoid fraud. CE represents a good compromise between sample throughput, sample volume, satisfactory characterization, and sustainability for the analysis of target compounds present in olive oils.
Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G
The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils.
Garrido, Inmaculada; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Casimiro, Ilda; Casero, Pedro Joaquin; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Ocampo, Juan Antonio; Espinosa, Francisco
The contamination of soils with dry olive-mill residue can represent a serious problem as being an environmental stressor in plants. It has been demonstrated that inoculation of aqueous extract of olive oil-mill residue (ADOR) with saprobe fungi removes some phenolic compounds. In this paper we studied the effect of ADOR uninoculated or inoculated with saprobe fungi in sunflower seedling roots. The germination and root growth, O2·- generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and extracellular peroxidases (EC-POXs) activities, and the content of some metabolites involved in the tolerance of stress were tested. The roots germinated in ADOR uninoculated show a decrease in meristem size, resulting in a reduction of the root length and fresh weight, and in the number of layers forming the cortex, but did not alter the dry weight, protein and soluble amino acid content. ADOR caused the decreases in O2·- generation and EC-POX′s activities and protein oxidation, but enhanced SOD activity, lipid peroxidation and proline content. Fluorescence imaging showed that ADOR induced O2·- and H2O2 accumulation in the roots. The increase in SOD and the decrease in EC-POX′s activities might be involved in the enhancement of H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation. Control roots treated with ADOR for 10 min show an oxidative burst. Roots germinated in ADOR inoculated with saprobe fungi partially recovered normal levels of ROS, morphological characteristics and antioxidant activities. These results suggested that treatment with ADOR caused a phytotoxic effect during germination inducing an oxidative stress. The inoculation of ADOR with saprobe fungi limited the stress. PMID:23049960
Ciafardini, G; Zullo, B A; Iride, A
Newly produced olive oil has an opalescent appearance due to the presence of solid particles and micro-drops of vegetation water from the fruits. Some of our recent microbiological research has shown that a rich micro-flora is present in the suspended fraction of the freshly produced olive oil capable of improving the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the oleuropein. Present research however has, for the first time, demonstrated the presence of lipase-positive yeasts in some samples of extra virgin olive oil which can lower the quality of the oil through the hydrolysis of the triglycerides. The tests performed with yeasts of our collection, previously isolated from olive oil, demonstrated that two lipase-producing yeast strains named Saccharomyces cerevisiae 1525 and Williopsis californica 1639 were able to hydrolyse different specific synthetic substrates represented by p-nitrophenyl stearate, 4-nitrophenyl palmitate, tripalmitin and triolein as well as olive oil triglycerides. The lipase activity in S. cerevisiae 1525 was confined to the whole cells, whereas in W. californica 1639 it was also detected in the extracellular fraction. The enzyme activity in both yeasts was influenced by the ratio of the aqueous to the organic phase reaching its maximum value in S. cerevisiae 1525 when the water added to the olive oil was present in a ratio of 0.25% (v/v), whereas in W. californica 1639 the optimal ratio was 1% (v/v). Furthermore, the free fatty acids of olive oil proved to be good inducers of lipase activity in both yeasts. The microbiological analysis carried out on commercial extra virgin olive oil, produced in four different geographic areas, demonstrated that the presence of lipase-producing yeast varied from zero to 56% of the total yeasts detected, according to the source of oil samples. The discovery of lipase-positive yeasts in some extra virgin olive oils leads us to believe that yeasts are able to contribute in a positive or negative way towards
Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Durante, Viviana; La Notte, Domenico
Malaxation has been recognized as one of the most critical points in the mechanical extraction process for virgin olive oil (VOO). It is a low and continuous kneading of olive paste at a carefully monitored temperature. Through this essential technological operation the small droplets of the oil formed during the milling merge into large drops that can be easily separated with a decanter centrifuge. During this technological phase, a complex and necessary bioprocess takes place in order to determine the quality and composition of the final product. The malaxer is a heat exchanger characterized by a low overall heat transfer coefficient because the ratio of surface area to volume is disadvantageous, so it is important to find an innovative technology to improve heat-exchange. As matter of fact, the malaxing step is the only discontinuous phase in a continuous extraction process. In the next future, the essential challenge of VOO industrial plant manufacturing sector is to design and build advanced machines in order to transform the discontinuous malaxing step in a continuous phase and improve the working capacity of the industrial plants. In order to reduce the malaxing time enhancing the quality of the product, two ultrasound-assisted virgin olive oil extraction processes were tested against the traditional method. The sonication treatment was applied on olives submerged in a water bath (before the crushing) and on olive paste (after the crushing). The ultrasound technology provides a reduction of the malaxing duration improving VOO yields and its minor compounds content. Better extractibility and higher minor compounds contents were obtained by sonicating the olives submerged in a water bath than olive paste. After experimental trials the results were employed to suggest innovative scaling up solutions of the process and new applications of ultrasounds in the VOO industry.
Veloso, Ana C A; Dias, Luís G; Rodrigues, Nuno; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M
Olive oils may be commercialized as intense, medium or light, according to the intensity perception of fruitiness, bitterness and pungency attributes, assessed by a sensory panel. In this work, the capability of an electronic tongue to correctly classify olive oils according to the sensory intensity perception levels was evaluated. Cross-sensitivity and non-specific lipid polymeric membranes were used as sensors. The sensor device was firstly tested using quinine monohydrochloride standard solutions. Mean sensitivities of 14±2 to 25±6 mV/decade, depending on the type of plasticizer used in the lipid membranes, were obtained showing the device capability for evaluating bitterness. Then, linear discriminant models based on sub-sets of sensors, selected by a meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm, were established enabling to correctly classify 91% of olive oils according to their intensity sensory grade (leave-one-out cross-validation procedure). This capability was further evaluated using a repeated K-fold cross-validation procedure, showing that the electronic tongue allowed an average correct classification of 80% of the olive oils used for internal-validation. So, the electronic tongue can be seen as a taste sensor, allowing differentiating olive oils with different sensory intensities, and could be used as a preliminary, complementary and practical tool for panelists during olive oil sensory analysis.
Veneziani, G; Esposto, S; Taticchi, A; Urbani, S; Selvaggini, R; Di Maio, I; Sordini, B; Servili, M
In recent years, the temperature of processed olives in many olive-growing areas was often close to 30°C, due to the global warming and an early harvesting period. Consequently, the new trends in the extraction process have to include the opportunity to cool the olives or olive paste before processing to obtain high quality EVOO. A tubular thermal exchanger was used for a rapid cooling treatment (CT) of olive paste after crushing. The results did not show a significant difference in the oil yield or any modifications in the legal parameters. The cooling process determined a significant improvement of phenolic compounds in all the three Italian cultivar EVOOs analyzed, whereas the volatile compounds showed a variability largely affected by the genetic origin of the olives with C6 aldehydes that seem to be more stable than C6 alcohols and esters.
Olive oil is the major source of mono-unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean basin. It has been demonstrated that several olive components play an important role in human health. Among these components, polyphenols play a very important role. They are responsible for olive oil stability and sensory attributes. Moreover, they have pharmacological properties, are natural antioxidants and inhibit the proliferation of many pathogen microorganisms. Studies in vitro have demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol scavenges free radicals, inhibits human low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation which is a process involved in the pathogenesis of the atherosclerosis, inhibits platelet aggregation and discloses anticancer activity on cancer cells by means of pro-apoptotic mechanisms. It has also been demonstrated that hydroxytyrosol acts in vitro against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which are involved in many infections of respiratory and intestinal tracts. In this review, the most recent patents developed to improve technologies for recovering of antioxidant compounds of olive oil, olive oil industrial by products and waste-waters have been presented.
Yousfi, Khaled; Cayuela, José A; García, José M
Green mature olives (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial') were stored at 5 degrees C, and the oil extracted from them showed a middle intensity level of sensory-evaluated bitterness. The storage times necessary for this reduction were different for the three varieties tested, requiring 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, for 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial' olives. The level of commercial quality of the extracted oil did not deteriorate as a consequence of previous fruit storage. Olives matured during refrigeration at 5 degrees C, as the increase of maturation index and the decrease of color index and fruit firmness indicated. Similarly, as the fruit storage period progressed, the total phenolic compound content of the extracted oils decreased. Although the use of green mature olives may require a more prolonged storage time, it allows for a better postharvest handling of the fruits, which are more resistant to physical damage or fungal infections than the riper ones.
Achak, M; Hafidi, A; Ouazzani, N; Sayadi, S; Mandi, L
The aim of this work is to determine the potential of application of banana peel as a biosorbent for removing phenolic compounds from olive mill wastewaters. The effect of adsorbent dosage, pH and contact time were investigated. The results showed that the increase in the banana peel dosage from 10 to 30 g/L significantly increased the phenolic compounds adsorption rates from 60 to 88%. Increase in the pH to above neutrality resulted in the increase in the phenolic compounds adsorption capacity. The adsorption process was fast, and it reached equilibrium in 3-h contact time. The Freundlich and Langmuir adsorption models were used for mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium and it was found that experimental data fitted very well to both Freundlich and Langmuir models. Batch adsorption models, based on the assumption of the pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intraparticle diffusion mechanism, showed that kinetic data follow closely the pseudo-second-order than the pseudo-first-order and intraparticle diffusion. Desorption studies showed that low pH value was efficient for desorption of phenolic compounds. These results indicate clearly the efficiency of banana peel as a low-cost solution for olive mill wastewaters treatment and give some preliminary elements for the comprehension of the interactions between banana peel as a bioadsorbent and the very polluting compounds from the olive oil industry.
Masmoudi, Saoussan; Jarboui, Raja; El Feki, Hafedh; Gea, Teresa; Medhioub, Khaled; Ammar, Emna
Compost stability assessment within different particle size fractions was studied. Humic acids (HAs) were extracted from two kinds of co-composts prepared using evaporated olive mill wastewater (OMSW) or solid waste from olive oil extraction (OC) and poultry manure (PM). The elemental composition, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and 13C-NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) analysis and molecular weight distribution were investigated to assess the composted organic matter stability in different fractions. In both composts, organic matter content was higher in the > 2 mm fractions than in the < 2 mm fractions, because of fractions' richness in hardly biodegradable compounds. Spectroscopic analysis revealed that OMSW compost fraction < 2 mm and OC compost 2-4 mm fraction were rich in aromatic compounds and oxygenated groups but poor in aliphatic structure. Moreover, the HA distribution reflected a high stabilized compost < 2 mm fraction, especially from evaporated effluent known as phytotoxic. However, the 4-6 mm fraction included high aliphatic compounds besides aromatic structures and did not exhibit any phytotoxicity, confirming compost fraction maturity. However, the low C/N ratio, the high OMSW compost mineral nutritive elements and the high aromatic C rate reflected highly stabilized products. Consequently, the performance of both prepared organic fertilizers for agriculture use contested the previous negative effect ascribed to olive mill wastewater.
Berasategi, Izaskun; Barriuso, Blanca; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar
The stability of the saponifiable and unsaponifiable fractions of avocado oil, under a drastic heating treatment, was studied and compared to that of olive oil. Avocado and olive oil were characterised and compared at time 0h and after different times of heating process (180°C). PUFA/SFA (0.61 at t=0) and ω-6/ω-3 (14.05 at t=0) were higher in avocado oil than in olive oil during the whole experiment. Avocado oil was richer than olive oil in total phytosterols at time 0h (339.64; 228.27mg/100g) and at 9h (270.44; 210.30mg/100g) of heating. TBARs was higher in olive oil after 3h, reaching the maximum values in both oils at 6h of heating treatment. Vitamin E was higher in olive oil (35.52 vs. 24.5mg/100g) and it disappeared earlier in avocado oil (at 4 vs. 5h). The stability of avocado oil was similar to that of olive oil.
Bradshaw, Heather B; Leishman, Emma
Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil.
Tejada, Silvia; Pinya, Samuel; Del Mar Bibiloni, Maria; Tur, Josep A; Pons, Antoni; Sureda, Antoni
The Mediterranean diet includes olive oil as its primary source of fat. This diet is frequently associated to longevity and a lower incidence of chronic diseases thanks to its biological activities and health effects. Apart from oleic acid, olive oil contains many bioactive components including polyphenols that have been reported to exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Polyphenols may for the most part be responsible for the protective effects against cardiovascular diseases associated with olive oil. Hydroxytyrosol is one of the major phenolic compounds in olive oil and has demonstrated strong radical-scavenging properties. Several studies have been performed in order to look further into the effects of the polyphenol hydroxytyrosol in relation to cardiovascular events and illnesses in animal trials and in vitro. However, no clinical trials have focused on the specific action of hydroxytyrosol and cardiovascular diseases, although some are being undertaken to look at olive oil or olive leaf extract properties. In this review, the available literature on hydroxytyrosol effects as a cardioprotective agent is reported and discussed. Moreover, we also discuss the chemistry, nutritional aspects and bioavailability of hydroxytyrosol.
Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus
The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes.
Oz, Nilgun Ayman; Uzun, Alev Cagla
This study investigates applicability of low frequency ultrasound technology to olive mill wastewaters (OMWs) as a pretreatment step prior to anaerobic batch reactors to improve biogas production and methane yield. OMWs originating from three phase processes are characterized with high organic content and complex nature. The treatment of the wastewater is problematic and alternative treatment options should be investigated. In the first part of the study, OMW samples were subjected to ultrasound at a frequency of 20kHz with applied powers varying between 50 and 100W under temperature controlled conditions for different time periods in order to determine the most effective sonication conditions. The level of organic matter solubilization at ultrasound experiments was assessed by calculating the ratio of soluble chemical oxygen demand/total chemical oxygen demand (SCOD/TCOD). The results revealed that the optimum ultrasonic condition for diluted OMW is 20kHz, 0.4W/mL for 10min. The application of ultrasound to OMW increased SCOD/TCOD ratio from 0.59 to 0.79. Statistical analysis (Friedman's tests) show that ultrasound was significantly effective on diluted OMW (p<0.05) in terms of SCOD parameter, but not for raw OMW (p>0.05). For raw OMW, this increase has been found to be limited due to high concentration of suspended solids (SS). In the second part of the study, biogas and methane production rates of anaerobic batch reactor fed with the ultrasound pretreated OMW samples were compared with the results of control reactor fed with untreated OMW in order to determine the effect of sonication. A nonparametric statistical procedure, Mann-Whitney U test, was used to compare biogas and methane production from anaerobic batch reactors for control and ultrasound pretreated samples. Results showed that application of low frequency ultrasound to OMW significantly improved both biogas and methane production in anaerobic batch reactor fed with the wastewater (p<0.05). Anaerobic
Brugè, Francesca; Bacchetti, Tiziana; Principi, Federica; Littarru, Gian Paolo; Tiano, Luca
Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a member of the vitamin K2 family, performs several functions, all related to its recognised effect on post-translational carboxylation of certain protein-bound glutamate residues. Due to its lipophilic structure MK-7 is soluble in olive oil, so the aim of the present study was to test whether extra-virgin (EV) olive oil enriched with MK-7 significantly increases MK-7 plasma levels and has an effect on osteocalcin and its carboxylation status. Healthy young volunteers (n 12) were administered 20 ml EV olive oil per d for 2 weeks, followed by 2 weeks of the same amount of olive oil enriched with 45 μg and then 90 μg MK-7, with an appropriate washout time in between. Blood was collected and plasma separated in each phase of the study. We found that integration of the diet with EV olive oil alone did not produce any significant variation of MK-7 plasma levels compared with baseline. Supplementation with MK-7-enriched olive oil resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in plasma levels. The high dose also significantly increased carboxylated osteocalcin (cOC) and decreased undercarboxylated osteocalcin (ucOC) plasma levels, resulting in a significant increase in the cOC:ucOC ratio. A significant correlation was also found between percentage variation of plasma cOCA:ucOC ratio and increase in plasma MK-7 levels. We conclude that regular consumption of MK-7-enriched olive oil may constitute a valid approach in order to preserve some key biochemical mechanisms controlling bone mineralisation.
Piroddi, Marta; Albini, Adriana; Fabiani, Roberto; Giovannelli, Lisa; Luceri, Cristina; Natella, Fausta; Rosignoli, Patrizia; Rossi, Teresa; Taticchi, Agnese; Servili, Maurizio; Galli, Francesco
Nutrigenomics data on the functional components of olive oil are still sparse, but rapidly increasing. Olive oil is the main source of fat and health-promoting component of the Mediterranean diet. Positive effects have been observed on genes involved in the pathobiology of most prevalent age- and lifestyle-related human conditions, such as cancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegeneration. Other effects on health-promoting genes have been identified for bioactive components of olives and olive leafs. Omics technologies are offering unique opportunities to identify nutritional and health biomarkers associated with these gene responses, the use of which in personalized and even predictive protocols of investigation, is a main breakthrough in modern medicine and nutrition. Gene regulation properties of the functional components of olive oil, such as oleic acid, biophenols and vitamin E, point to a role for these molecules as natural homeostatic and even hormetic factors with applications as prevention agents in conditions of premature and pathologic aging. Therapeutic applications can be foreseen in conditions of chronic inflammation, and particularly in cancer, which will be discussed in detail in this review paper as major clinical target of nutritional interventions with olive oil and its functional components. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):17-41, 2017.
Song, Shufeng; Wang, Dan; Yang, Jie; Liu, Qing; Zhao, Yunfeng
To develop a qualitative screening method by high performance liquid chromatograph-photo-diode array (HPLC-PDA) and a confirmation method by ultra performance liquid chromatograph-quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Qtof-MSMS) for Copper Chlorophyll in olive oils. Commercial liposoluble copper chlorophyll diluted by petroleum ether was purified and concentrated by sep-pak silica solid-phase extraction (SPE) cartridges, the injection was separated by symmetry shield RP18 column, and detected by the PDA at the wavelength 430 nm. The injection was separated by ACQUITY UPLC BEH (18)C and determined by UPLC-Qtof-MSMS in negative atmospheric pressure chemical ionization mode, then confirmed by the exact mass of parent ion and secondary fragment ion provided by the mass spectrum. Samples from supermarket were screened for Cu-pyropheophytin a by established method. Cu-pyropheophytin a could be used for discrimination as indicative compound whether the olive oils were mixed with copper chlorophyll. 25 samples including olive oil, soybean oil and spirulina from supermarket were screened, Cu-pyropheophytin a was found in one type of olive oil. This method could be used for screening and qualitative analysis of Copper Chlorophyll in olive oils for its accuracy , reliability and excellent specificity.
Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Martinez, Antonio; Rivas, Francisco; García-Mesa, Jose A; Parra, Andres
A simple and rapid extraction method has been employed to determine several value-added compounds, mainly triterpenes, in two-phase olive-mill-waste samples. The compounds were extracted with methanol or ethyl acetate, and the initial fresh samples were treated for classic techniques such as drying, drying and oil extraction, and drying and sifting of the olive stones. For the identification and quantitation of the compounds, an ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method was employed. The best results of the triterpenic compound content were achieved by extraction with methanol from the fresh sample for the oleanolic and ursolic acids, and erythrodiol and uvaol; and from the dried-extracted sample for the maslinic acid. Conversely, the best results for the linoleic acid content were reached by extraction with ethyl acetate from the dried-sifted sample. These are remarkable processes that make the solid wastes from the olive-oil industry reach a high added value.
Ochando-Pulido, J M; Martinez-Ferez, A
Direct disposal of the heavily polluted effluent from olive oil industry (olive mill wastewater, OMW) to the environment or to domestic wastewater treatment plants is actually prohibited in most countries, and conventional treatments are ineffective. Membranes are currently one of the most versatile technologies for environmental quality control. Notwithstanding, studies on OMW reclamation by membranes are still scarce, and fouling inhibition and prediction to improve large-scale membrane performance still remain unresolved. Consequently, adequately targeted pretreatment for the specific binomium membrane-feed, as well as optimized operating conditions for the proper membranes, is today's challenge to ensure threshold flux values. Several membrane materials, configurations and pore sizes have been elucidated, and also different pretreatments including sedimentation, centrifugation, biosorption, sieving, filtration and microfiltration, various types of flocculation as well as advance oxidation processes have been applied so far. Recovery of potential-value compounds, such as a variety of polyphenols highlighting oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol, has been attempted too. All this research should constitute the starting point to proceed with OMW purification beyond recycling for irrigation or depuration for sewer discharge, with the aim of complying with standards to reuse the effluent in the olive oil production process, together with cost-effective recovery of added-value compounds.
Santonico, Marco; Gianni, Giacomo; Capuano, Rosamaria; Migliorini, Marzia; Catini, Alexandro; Dini, Francesca; Martinelli, Eugenio; Paolesse, Roberto; D'Amico, Arnaldo; Di Natale, Corrado
Olive oil quality is strictly correlated to the volatile compounds profile. Both quality and defects can be connected to the presence of specific volatile compounds in the oil headspace. In this paper, olive oil samples have been artificially modified by adding a number of compounds known to be typical of the more frequent defects: fusty, musty, muddy and rancid. Results demonstrate the sensitivity of the electronic nose to the compounds characterizing the defects and then the capability of the instrument to identify the defects in real samples.
Rationale: Air pollution exposure has been associated with adverse cardiovascular health effects. Our clinical studies suggest that fish oil (FO) and olive oil (OO) supplementations attenuate the cardiovascular responses to inhaled concentrated ambient particles. This study was...
Assy, Nimer; Nassar, Faris; Nasser, Gattas; Grosovski, Maria
The clinical implications of non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) derive from their potential to progress to fibrosis and cirrhosis. Inappropriate dietary fat intake, excessive intake of soft drinks, insulin resistance and increased oxidative stress results in increased free fatty acid delivery to the liver and increased hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. An olive oil-rich diet decreases accumulation of TGs in the liver, improves postprandial TGs, glucose and glucagon-like peptide-1 responses in insulin-resistant subjects, and upregulates glucose transporter-2 expression in the liver. The principal mechanisms include: decreased nuclear factor-kappaB activation, decreased low-density lipoprotein oxidation, and improved insulin resistance by reduced production of inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-6) and improvement of jun N-terminal kinase-mediated phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate-1. The beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet is derived from monounsaturated fatty acids, mainly from olive oil. In this review, we describe the dietary sources of the monounsaturated fatty acids, the composition of olive oil, dietary fats and their relationship to insulin resistance and postprandial lipid and glucose responses in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, clinical and experimental studies that assess the relationship between olive oil and NAFLD, and the mechanism by which olive oil ameliorates fatty liver, and we discuss future perspectives.
Emami, Nader; Daniel, Sam J
Olive oil is often used by patients to soften ear wax or to relieve ear canal obstruction. It is also sold in drugstores as a cerumenolytic. To date, no study has assessed the safety of ototopical olive oil on hearing in the presence of tympanic membrane perforation. The present study aimed to assess the safety of ototopic olive oil on hearing in the presence of tympanic membrane perforation. Prospective, randomized, controlled trial in a chinchilla animal model. Eleven chinchillas underwent bilateral myringotomy. In each animal, one ear was randomly assigned to receive olive oil (experimental ear), while the contralateral control ear received normal saline. Auditory brain response (ABR) test was performed at baseline and then 7, 14, and 30 days following the application. At 30 days follow-up, there was no significant change in auditory brain response thresholds at 8, 16, 20, or 25 kHz. Scanning electron microscope imaging showed no damage to the hair cells. Olive oil does not seem to cause hearing loss in chinchillas with perforated tympanic membranes. Future clinical studies are required. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.
A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also extract and utilize valuable by-products. Therefore, the objectives of this study were to explore different techniques for drying a phenolic-rich membrane filtration fraction of OMWW a...
The objective of this study was to determine the drying behavior of 2-phase olive mill waste (2POMW) under isothermal microwave-convection drying conditions. 2POMW samples were dried in a thin layer in a variable-power pilot microwave oven with impinging air, using a feedback controller to maintain...
Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Aguilera, M P
Solid-phase microextraction was used as a technique for headspace sampling of extra virgin olive oil and virgin olive oil samples with different off-flavours. A 100 microm coated polydimethylsiloxane fiber was used to extract volatile aldehydes, the sampling temperature was 45 degrees C and the fiber has been exposed to the headspace for 15 min. Nonanal and 2-decenal were present in all the olive oils with extraction off-flavours but were not in extra virgin olive oil sample.
Gomec, Cigdem Y; Erdim, Esra; Turan, Ilknur; Aydin, Ali F; Ozturk, Izzet
In this study, the applicability of physico-chemical methods was investigated for the pre-treatment of the olive mill effluents prior to the discharge into the common sewerage ending with a municipal wastewater treatment plant. The samples were taken from an olive oil industry operated as three-phase process located in Turkey. Various pre-treatment methods including acid craking, polyelectrolyte and lime additions were applied. Advanced oxidation study using Fenton's process was also investigated following pre-treatment by acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte. Acid cracking alone gave satisfactory treatment efficiencies and polyelectrolite additions to the acid-cracked samples enhanced treatment efficiency. Since a complete treatment plant is available at the end of the sewer system, results indicated that the effluents of the investigated industry could be discharged into the municipal sewerage in the case of total chemical oxygen demand (COD(tot)), suspended solid (SS) and volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentrations according to the Turkish Water Pollution Control Regulation after pre-treatment with 5 ppm anionic polyelectrolyte following acid cracking. The minimum COD(tot), SS and VSS removals were observed when raw wastewater was pre-treated with lime and the discharge standards to the municipal sewer system could not be met. Advanced oxidation with Fenton's process was applied after acid cracking and cationic polyelectrolyte treatment in order to investigate further reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentration for minimizing the influence of this industrial discharge on the existing municipal wastewater treatment plant. Results indicated that COD(tot) removal increased up to 89% from 74% after Fenton's oxidation for the acid cracked samples in which cationic polyelectrolite (10 ppm) was added.
Kalua, Curtis M; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D
Virgin olive oil samples stored in the light at ambient temperature, in the dark at ambient temperature, and at low temperature in the dark for 12 months both with and without headspace were separated into recognizable patterns with stepwise linear discriminant analysis. The discrimination with variables volatile and phenolic compounds, free fatty acid (FFA), peroxide values, K232, and K270 revealed a departure of stored oil from freshness and showed significant (p < 0.01) differences between storage conditions. Virgin olive oil stored at low temperature had characteristics closest to fresh oil while oil stored in the light showed the largest departure from freshness. Parameters that exclusively and significantly (p < 0.01) discriminated storage conditions were identified as potential markers of the storage condition. In the presence of oxygen, hexanal was a marker of storage in the light, FFA was a marker for dark storage, and markers of low-temperature storage were acetic acid and pentanal. In the absence of oxygen, octane was the marker for storage in the light whereas tyrosol and hexanol were markers of virgin olive oil stored in the dark, with no marker indicative of low-temperature storage. E-2-Hexenal, K232, and K270 were identified as markers of virgin olive oil freshness.
Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed
Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed
López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio
The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil.
Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar
Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.
Chiavaro, Emma; Vittadini, Elena; Rodriguez-Estrada, Maria Teresa; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Bendini, Alessandra
The potential application of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to verify adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with refined hazelnut oil was evaluated. Extra virgin olive oil and hazelnut oil were characterised by significantly different cooling and heating DSC thermal profiles. Addition of hazelnut oil significantly enhanced crystallisation enthalpy (at hazelnut oil ⩾20%) and shifted the transition towards lower temperatures (at hazelnut oil ⩾5%). Lineshape of heating thermograms of extra virgin olive oil was significantly altered by hazelnut oil addition: a characteristic exothermic event originated at -27°C in extra virgin olive oil and progressively disappeared with increasing hazelnut oil content, while the major endothermic peak at -3.5°C broadened (at hazelnut oil ⩾40%) and the minor endothermic peak at 8°C shifted toward lower temperatures (at hazelnut oil ⩾5%). The preliminary results presented in this study suggest that DSC analysis may be a useful tool for detecting adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with refined hazelnut oil. Copyright © 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R
Extra virgin olive oil is highly consumed and well known for its nutritional and health benefits. However, it is fatty food highly susceptible to lipid oxidation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the preserving effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L. spp vulgare called "oregano compacto") essential oil on physical and chemical properties in extra virgin olive oil during storage. Oregano essential oil composition was analyzed by GC-MS. This essential oil was added into extra virgin olive oil at 0.05%. The samples were stored in 3 different conditions: darkness, light exposure, and temperature (60 °C). Chemical indicators of lipid oxidation (peroxide value, p-anisidine value, conjugated dienes, free fatty acidity, and carotenoid and chlorophyll contents) were measured. High content in carvomenthol (22.52%), terpinolene (19.77%), thymol (13.51%), and γ-terpinene (10.30%) were detected in oregano essential oil. Olive oil samples without oregano essential oil stored at 60 °C and exposure at artificial light had the highest peroxide values during storage. Higher p-anisidine and K232 values after day 7 of storage were detected in temperature, darkness, and light exposure treatments. Light treatment was the main factor that degraded chlorophyll causing loss of color. The highest chlorophyll content (3.87 mg/kg) was observed in olive oil with essential oil at the end of storage. In general, olive oil samples added with oregano essential oil had lower peroxide, conjugated dienes, and p-anisidine values and higher chlorophyll and carotenoid contents during storage. Oregano essential oil retards lipid oxidation process in olive oil prolonging its shelf life. Oregano essential oil was and is used with the purpose of flavoring and aromatizing food. This essential oil due to its composition has shown antioxidant activity. Synthetic antioxidants such as butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) are thought to be promoters of carcinogenesis
Chamberlin, Adam C.; Levitt, David G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.
Olive oil partition coefficients are useful for modeling the bioavailability of drug-like compounds. We have recently developed an accurate solvation model called SM8 for aqueous and organic solvents (Marenich, A. V.; Olson, R. M.; Kelly, C. P.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 2011) and a temperature-dependent solvation model called SM8T for aqueous solution (Chamberlin, A. C.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 3024). Here we describe an extension of SM8T to predict air–olive oil and water–olive oil partitioning for drug-like solutes as functions of temperature. We also describe the database of experimental partition coefficients used to parameterize the model; this database includes 371 entries for 304 compounds spanning the 291–310 K temperature range. PMID:19434923
Bakre, S M; Gadmale, D K; Toche, R B; Gaikwad, V B
A new method is developed to determine the presence of sunflower oil in olive oil. α-tocopherol is selected as discriminating parameter for detecting sunflower oil adulterant in olive oil. Admixtures of olive oil and sunflower oil (5 %, 10 %, 15 % and 20 % sunflower oil in olive oil) are prepared. These admixtures are analysed by reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence detector. The sample preparation does not require saponification or addition of antioxidant. The chromatographic system consists of a C18 column with methanol: acetonitrile (50:50) mobile phase. Fluorescence detector excitation wavelength is set at 290 nm and emission wavelength is set at 330 nm. The α tocopherol concentration increases linearly in olive oil adulterated with sunflower oil. The method is simple, selective, sensitive and is precise (RSD = 2.65 %) for α tocopherol. The present method can precisely detect 5 % sunflower oil in olive oil.
Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J
Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.
Piacentini, Emma; Poerio, Teresa; Bazzarelli, Fabio; Giorno, Lidietta
Biophenols are highly prized for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs) are rich in biophenols. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the recovery and valorization of these compounds. Applications for the encapsulation have increased in the food industry as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, among others. Advancements in micro-fabrication methods are needed to design new functional particles with target properties in terms of size, size distribution, and functional activity. This paper describes the use of the membrane emulsification method for the fine-tuning of microparticle production with biofunctional activity. In particular, in this pioneering work, membrane emulsification has been used as an advanced method for biophenols encapsulation. Catechol has been used as a biophenol model, while a biophenols mixture recovered from OMWWs were used as a real matrix. Water-in-oil emulsions with droplet sizes approximately 2.3 times the membrane pore diameter, a distribution span of 0.33, and high encapsulation efficiency (98% ± 1% and 92% ± 3%, for catechol and biophenols, respectively) were produced. The release of biophenols was also investigated. PMID:27171115
Piacentini, Emma; Poerio, Teresa; Bazzarelli, Fabio; Giorno, Lidietta
Biophenols are highly prized for their free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities. Olive mill wastewaters (OMWWs) are rich in biophenols. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the recovery and valorization of these compounds. Applications for the encapsulation have increased in the food industry as well as the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields, among others. Advancements in micro-fabrication methods are needed to design new functional particles with target properties in terms of size, size distribution, and functional activity. This paper describes the use of the membrane emulsification method for the fine-tuning of microparticle production with biofunctional activity. In particular, in this pioneering work, membrane emulsification has been used as an advanced method for biophenols encapsulation. Catechol has been used as a biophenol model, while a biophenols mixture recovered from OMWWs were used as a real matrix. Water-in-oil emulsions with droplet sizes approximately 2.3 times the membrane pore diameter, a distribution span of 0.33, and high encapsulation efficiency (98% ± 1% and 92% ± 3%, for catechol and biophenols, respectively) were produced. The release of biophenols was also investigated.
Ochando-Pulido, J M; Hodaifa, G; Victor-Ortega, M D; Rodriguez-Vives, S; Martinez-Ferez, A
In this work, complete reclamation of the olive mill effluents coming from a two-phase olive oil extraction process (OME-2) was studied on a pilot scale. The developed depuration procedure integrates an advanced oxidation process based on Fenton's reagent (secondary treatment) coupled with a final reverse osmosis (RO) stage (purification step). The former aims for the removal of the major concentration of refractory organic pollutants present in OME-2, whereas the latter provides efficient purification of the high salinity. Complete physicochemical composition of OME-2 after the secondary treatment was examined, including the particle size distribution, organic matter gradation and bacterial growth, in order to assess the selection of the membrane and its fouling propensity. Hydrodynamics and selectivity of the membrane were accurately modelized. Upon optimization of the hydrodynamic conditions, the RO membrane showed stable performance and fouling problems were satisfactorily overcome. Steady-state permeate flux equal to 21.1 L h(-1)m(-2) and rejection values up to 99.1% and 98.1% of the organic pollutants and electroconductivity were respectively attained. This ensured parametric values below standard limits for reuse of the regenerated effluent, e.g. in the olives washing machines, offering the possibility of closing the loop and thus rending the production process environmentally friendly. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio
A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h−1 m−2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h−2 m−2 bar−1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day−1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m−3 total costs for the RO process were estimated. PMID:24957058
Ochando-Pulido, Javier Miguel; Hodaifa, Gassan; Victor-Ortega, Maria Dolores; Martinez-Ferez, Antonio
A secondary treatment for olive mill wastewater coming from factories working with the two-phase olive oil production process (OMW-2) has been set-up on an industrial scale in an olive oil mill in the premises of Jaén (Spain). The secondary treatment comprises Fenton-like oxidation followed by flocculation-sedimentation and filtration through olive stones. In this work, performance modelization and preliminary cost analysis of a final reverse osmosis (RO) process was examined on pilot scale for ulterior purification of OMW-2 with the goal of closing the loop of the industrial production process. Reduction of concentration polarization on the RO membrane equal to 26.3% was provided upon increment of the turbulence over the membrane to values of Reynolds number equal to 2.6 × 104. Medium operating pressure (25 bar) should be chosen to achieve significant steady state permeate flux (21.1 L h-1 m-2) and minimize membrane fouling, ensuring less than 14.7% flux drop and up to 90% feed recovery. Under these conditions, irreversible fouling below 0.08 L h-2 m-2 bar-1 helped increase the longevity of the membrane and reduce the costs of the treatment. For 10 m3 day-1 OMW-2 on average, 47.4 m2 required membrane area and 0.87 € m-3 total costs for the RO process were estimated.
Delgado-Lista, Javier; Garcia-Rios, Antonio; Perez-Martinez, Pablo; Lopez-Miranda, Jose; Perez-Jimenez, Francisco
Mediterranean diet is one of the healthiest nutritional models used in developed countries. The actual interest in this dietary model is based in two main premises. First, the high palatability for the consumer, which aids to the adherence to the model on a life-long basis, and second, the mounting evidence on the beneficial properties that its consumption provokes in cardiovascular risk factors, cancer and cognitive age associated decline. Olive oil is the principal component of Mediterranean diet, both by its predominant position as the main energy source, and its presence in almost all cooked and/or seasoned food. The influence of the olive oil on the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet is well known. Albeit an initial stage in which monounsaturated fatty acids (mainly oleic acid) were studied as the sole player of these effects, the knowledge about the micronutrients has evolved to a much more complex model in which the processing of the oil and the content in some minor contents of the virgin olive oil play a fundamental role. In this article we will review the current evidences that relate olive oil with the haemostatic system.
Roca, María; Gallardo-Guerrero, Lourdes; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel; Gandul Rojas, Beatriz
The present work proposes an analytical method able to detect in an adulterated olive oil sample the addition of the copper complexes of chlorophylls (E 141i). The method consists of a pigment extraction in liquid phase and subsequent analysis by HPLC-DAD. The profile of chlorophyll pigments of an olive oil is determined essentially by its content in pheophytins (a and b), but in no case any copper derivative. Different samples of colorant E 141i have been analyzed, the natural coloring additives used to adulterate vegetable oils. The 99.59+/-0.52% of the chlorophyll pigments present in the different samples of E 141i colorant are not those of an olive oil (more than 75% are cupro-derivatives). Thus, the simple detection of one of the compounds in an olive oil indicates adulteration. The major chlorophyll derivative in all the E 141i colorants samples is Cu-pyropheophytin a and its limit of detection (LOD) defined at a signal-to-noise ratio of about 3 was 6.58 ng/g.
Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio
Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils.
Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio
Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010
Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele
The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Alesci, Alessio; Cicero, Nicola; Salvo, Andrea; Palombieri, Deborah; Zaccone, Daniele; Dugo, Giacomo; Bruno, Maurizio; Vadalà, Rossella; Lauriano, Eugenia Rita; Pergolizzi, Simona
The present research aims to evaluate the beneficial effects of polyphenols derived from waste water from a olive mill, obtained by non-plastic molecular imprinting device, in a hypercholesterolemic diet on Carassius auratus, commonly known as goldfish that was selected as experimental model. The study was conducted with morphological and histochemical analyses and also the data were supported by immunohistochemical analysis. Results show the beneficial activity of polyphenols with a reduction of the damage in the steatotic group, confirming that they may be suggested in the treatment of diseases by lipid accumulation, and used as any addition in feed for farmed fish, in order to improve the organoleptic and nutritional quality. The beneficial effects of waste oil extract should be suggested in the contexts of research programmes focused on the products to the health system. Furthermore, the olive mill waste water polyphenols free can be used as natural fertilizers.
Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I
Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.
Background Rates of osteoporosis are significantly lower in regions of the world where olive oil consumption is a dietary cornerstone. Olive oil may represent a source of oleoyl serine (OS), which showed efficacy in animal models of osteoporosis. Here, we tested the hypothesis that OS as well as structurally analogous N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol lipids are present in the following cooking oils: olive, walnut, canola, high heat canola, peanut, safflower, sesame, toasted sesame, grape seed, and smart balance omega. Methods Methanolic lipid extracts from each of the cooking oils were partially purified on C-18 solid-phase extraction columns. Extracts were analyzed with high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and 33 lipids were measured in each sample, including OS and bioactive analogs. Results Of the oils screened here, walnut oil had the highest number of lipids detected (22/33). Olive oil had the second highest number of lipids detected (20/33), whereas grape-seed and high-heat canola oil were tied for lowest number of detected lipids (6/33). OS was detected in 8 of the 10 oils tested and the levels were highest in olive oil, suggesting that there is something about the olive plant that enriches this lipid. Conclusions Cooking oils contain varying levels of bioactive lipids from the N-acyl amide and 2-acyl glycerol families. Olive oil is a dietary source of OS, which may contribute to lowered prevalence of osteoporosis in countries with high consumption of this oil. PMID:26565552
De Luca, Michele; Restuccia, Donatella; Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Puoci, Francesco; Ragno, Gaetano
Chemometric discrimination of extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from whole and stoned olive pastes was carried out by using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) data and partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS1-DA) approach. Four Italian commercial EVOO brands, all in both whole and stoned version, were considered in this study. The adopted chemometric methodologies were able to describe the different chemical features in phenolic and volatile compounds contained in the two types of oil by using unspecific IR spectral information. Principal component analysis (PCA) was employed in cluster analysis to capture data patterns and to highlight differences between technological processes and EVOO brands. The PLS1-DA algorithm was used as supervised discriminant analysis to identify the different oil extraction procedures. Discriminant analysis was extended to the evaluation of possible adulteration by addition of aliquots of oil from whole paste to the most valuable oil from stoned olives. The statistical parameters from external validation of all the PLS models were very satisfactory, with low root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and relative error (RE%). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.
Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.
Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni
In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.
Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…
Madrona, Andrés; Pereira-Caro, Gema; Mateos, Raquel; Rodríguez, Guillermo; Trujillo, Mariana; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan; Espartero, José L
The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.
Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.
Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…
Fabiani, Roberto; Rosignoli, Patrizia; De Bartolomeo, Angelo; Fuccelli, Raffaela; Servili, Maurizio; Montedoro, Gian Francesco; Morozzi, Guido
Our aim in this study was to provide further support to the hypothesis that phenolic compounds may play an important role in the anticarcinogenic properties of olive oil. We measured the effect of olive oil phenols on hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2))-induced DNA damage in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and promyelocytic leukemia cells (HL60) using single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Hydroxytyrosol [3,4-dyhydroxyphenyl-ethanol (3,4-DHPEA)] and a complex mixture of phenols extracted from both virgin olive oil (OO-PE) and olive mill wastewater (WW-PE) reduced the DNA damage at concentrations as low as 1 micromol/L when coincubated in the medium with H(2)O(2) (40 micromol/L). At 10 micromol/L 3,4-DHPEA, the protection was 93% in HL60 and 89% in PBMC. A similar protective activity was also shown by the dialdehydic form of elenoic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) on both kinds of cells. Other purified compounds such as isomer of oleuropein aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA), oleuropein, tyrosol, [p-hydroxyphenyl-ethanol (p-HPEA)] the dialdehydic form of elenoic acid linked to tyrosol, caffeic acid, and verbascoside also protected the cells against H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage although with a lower efficacy (range of protection, 25-75%). On the other hand, when tested in a model system in which the oxidative stress was induced by phorbole 12-myristate 13-acetate-activated monocytes, p-HPEA was more effective than 3,4-DHPEA in preventing the oxidative DNA damage. Overall, these results suggest that OO-PE and WW-PE may efficiently prevent the initiation step of carcinogenesis in vivo, because the concentrations effective against the oxidative DNA damage could be easily reached with normal intake of olive oil.
Delgado, Claudia; Guinard, Jean-Xavier
Production and consumption of extra-virgin olive has been increasing in the United States, particularly in California. The objective of this study was to compare the sensory characteristics of 22 extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from California, Italy, Spain, Chile, and Australia using a generic descriptive analysis. A total of 22 sensory attributes were identified and defined by the descriptive panel. With the exception of thick and citrus, all sensory attributes were significantly different among the oils. Canonical Variate Analysis (CVA) showed that California oils differed from some imported EVOOs, mainly by their absence of defects. A second analysis, of only those attributes included in the International Olive Council (IOC) official scorecard, provided a less detailed description of the samples and did not allow for a full characterization of the oils. While the IOC attributes allowed for faster classification in terms of clean versus defective EVOOs, the more comprehensive descriptive analysis provided both more information and a more refined classification of the samples. Variety and region of origin were important factors in the classification of both Californian and imported EVOOs. Measuring olive oil sensory quality using the IOC method-positive attributes of fruitiness, bitterness, and pungency, and defects including fusty, musty, winey, and rancid-allows for the certification of oils as extra virgin but it provides limited information on the sensory characteristics of the oils. A full descriptive profile, on the other hand, provides information that can be used by producers in the processing and marketing of their oils, and is a useful tool in the education of consumers about the wide range of (positive) sensory attributes in EVOO and the various sensory styles of EVOO.
Schopfer, Francisco J.; Salvatore, Sonia R.; Sánchez-Calvo, Beatriz; Vitturi, Dario; Valderrama, Raquel; Barroso, Juan B.; Radi, Rafael; Freeman, Bruce A.; Rubbo, Homero
Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and olives, key sources of unsaturated fatty acids in the Mediterranean diet, provide health benefits to humans. Nitric oxide (•NO) and nitrite (NO2−)-dependent reactions of unsaturated fatty acids yield electrophilic nitroalkene derivatives (NO2-FA) that manifest salutary pleiotropic cell signaling responses in mammals. Herein, the endogenous presence of NO2-FA in both EVOO and fresh olives was demonstrated by mass spectrometry. The electrophilic nature of these species was affirmed by the detection of significant levels of protein cysteine adducts of nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA-cysteine) in fresh olives, especially in the peel. Further nitration of EVOO by NO2− under acidic gastric digestive conditions revealed that human consumption of olive lipids will produce additional nitro-conjugated linoleic acid (NO2-cLA) and nitro-oleic acid (NO2-OA). The presence of free and protein-adducted NO2-FA in both mammalian and plant lipids further affirm a role for these species as signaling mediators. Since NO2-FA instigate adaptive anti-inflammatory gene expression and metabolic responses, these redox-derived metabolites may contribute to the cardiovascular benefits associated with the Mediterranean diet. PMID:24454759
Ben Othman, N; Ayed, L; Assas, N; Kachouri, F; Hammami, M; Hamdi, M
Treatment of olive mill wastewater by different biological process led to an important decrease of organic compounds but the black coloration due to the recalcitrant phenolic compounds persists. Experimental design using fractional factorial plan showed that, among the seven studied factors, yeast extract, dilution and glucose exhibited a positive effect on Pediococcus pentosaceus growth and treated olive mill wastewater (TOMW) decolourisation. Optimization of influent factors showed that 2.5 and 1g/l are the suitable concentrations of glucose and yeast extract, respectively. Optimum TOMW decolourisation was reached when TOMW was diluted to 2.5 initial OD390 value. The growth of P. pentosaceus on TOMW led to high molecular weight phenolic compounds removal as shown by the sephadex G-50 chromatogram. Simple phenolic compound removal was also observed. Bacterial growth on TOMW induced an ecological removal of recalcitrant phenolic compounds without chemical sludge production.
El Hajjouji, H; Bailly, J R; Winterton, P; Merlina, G; Revel, J C; Hafidi, M
The treatment of olive mill waste water was studied on the laboratory scale. Physico-chemical analyses showed the final products had a mean pH of 5.4 without neutralisation and 5.7 when lime was added to the process. Raising the pH by adding lime had a positive outcome on the degradation of phenols, whose levels were reduced by over 76%. The lime also changed the structure of the organic matter, as seen in the infra-red spectra. Combining the FT-IR and 13C NMR data showed that with addition of lime, the density of aliphatic groups decreased to the benefit of aromatic groups, indicating that polymerisation of the organic matter occurred during the bioprocess. Under our experimental conditions, the biotransformation of olive mill waste water appears to favour the stabilisation of the organic matter through mechanisms analogous to those that lead to the formation of humus in the soil.
Abid, N; Chamkha, M; Godon, J J; Sayadi, S
Olive mill waste water sludge obtained by the electro-Fenton oxidation of olive mill waste water was composted in a bench scale reactor. The evolution of microbial species within the composter was investigated using a respirometric test and by means of both cultivation-dependent and independent approaches (Polymerase Chain Reaction-Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism, PCR SSCP). During the period of high respiration rate (7-24 days), cultivation method showed that thermophilic bacteria as well as actinomycetes dominated over eumycetes. During the composting process, the PCR-SSCP method showed a higher diversity of the bacterial community than the eukaryotic one. After 60 days of composting, the compost exhibited a microbial stability and a clear absence of phytotoxicity.
ZHENG, XIAOHUA; HUANG, HUIJUAN; ZHENG, XIAOBING; LI, BAOHENG
The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil on bone and uterus in ovariectomized rats. A total of 34 surgically ovariectomized or sham-operated virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: i) Sham-operated control rats (sham group); ii) Ovariectomized rats (OVX group); iii) Olive oil-supplemented ovariectomized rats (olive group); and iv) Diethylstilbestrol-supplemented ovariectomized rats (E2 group). At 12 weeks following left ventricular blood sacrificed to detect plasma estradiol (E2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the left femur proximal 1/3 slices were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Uterine wet weight and the uterus index (ratio of uterine wet weight and body weight) were compared, and the uterine endometrium was observed using a light microscope. In the OVX group, serum E2 was significantly lower and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with the sham group. By contrast, serum E2 levels increased and IL-1β levels decreased in the olive group, but showed no significant difference compared with the sham group. The lumbar spine BMD in the olive group was increased compared with OVX group. Electron microscopy revealed sparse collagen fibers in the OVX group, with decreased density and multi-cavity, showing pathological features of osteoporosis. By contrast, the situation was improved in the E2 and olive groups, in which organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were visible and active. Compared with the sham group rats, the uterine wet weight and uterine index decreased in the OVX and olive groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the E2 group. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia was not observed in the olive group, which were apparently different from E2 group. The present results suggest that olive
Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri
The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause.
Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca; Montemurro, Filomena; Martino, Maria Elena; Balzan, Stefania; Servili, Maurizio; Novelli, Enrico; Cardazzo, Barbara
Olive mill wastes are sources of phenolic compounds with a wide array of biological activities, including antimicrobial effects. A potential option for bioremediation to overcome ecological problems is the reutilization of these natural compounds in food production. The aim of this work was to gain a better understanding of the antimicrobial mode of action of a phenols extract from olive vegetation water (PEOVW) at molecular level by studying Escherichia coli as a model microorganism. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed on E. coli K-12 exposed to PEOVW. The repression of genes for flagellar synthesis and the involvement of genes linked to biofilm formation and stress response were observed. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of PEOVW significantly decreased biofilm formation, swarming and swimming motility, thus confirming the gene expression data. This study provides interesting insights on the molecular action of PEOVW on E. coli K-12. Given these anti-biofilm properties and considering that biofilm formation is a serious problem for the food industry and human health, PEOVW has proved to be a high-value natural product. Olive mill wastes are sources of phenolic compounds with a wide array of biological activities, including antimicrobial effects. Genome-wide transcriptional analysis was performed on E. coli K-12 exposed to phenols extract from olive vegetation water (PEOVW). Sub-inhibitory concentrations of PEOVW significantly decreased biofilm formation, swarming and swimming motility. Given these anti-biofilm properties PEOVW has proved to be a high-value natural product. PMID:24628798
Kyçyk, Onejda; Aguilera, Maria Paz; Gaforio, José Juan; Jiménez, Antonio; Beltrán, Gabriel
In olive oil, sterols constitute the majority of the unsaponifiable fraction. In recent years there has been increased interest in the sterols of olive oil for their health benefits and their importance to virgin olive oil (VOO) quality regulation. Forty-three olive (Olea europaea L.) cultivars from the World Olive Germplasm Bank, IFAPA Centro 'Alameda de Obispo', Cordoba, Spain were studied for their oil sterol composition and total content. The main sterols found in olive oil were β-sitosterol, Δ(5) -avenasterol, campesterol and stigmasterol, most of them showing high variability. Most cultivars showed total sterol contents within the limits established by EU regulations, although 28% of VOOs analysed were outside the limits established for total content and/or for individual sterols. Over the group of cultivars, total sterol contents ranged from 855 to 2185 mg kg(-1) . The high variability observed was due to the genetic component, since other agronomic and technological factors were similar. Because of the high variability, the sterol fraction can be considered as a useful tool to characterize and discriminate monovarietal VOOs. The results can be useful for nutritionists for VOO inclusion in nutrition studies. Furthermore, the variability observed can be applied in olive breeding projects to select the parents of new olive cultivars with an improved sterol fraction. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
García, José M; Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez-Rubio, Ana G; Diaz-Espejo, Antonio; Montero, Antonio; Fernández, José E
Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI) is used in hedgerow olive orchards to achieve a sustainable balance between water savings, tree vigor and oil production. Its effects on the presence of compounds responsible for the taste of the oil and its nutritional value are controversial. The present 3-year study was conducted in an 'Arbequina' orchard (1667 trees ha(-1) ) under a full irrigation (FI) treatment (470.1 mm year(-1) of water) and two RDI treatments scaled to replace 60% and 30%, respectively, of FI. The quality parameters, antioxidant contents and volatiles of the extracted virgin olive oil (VOO) were analyzed. In general, oils from the 30% RDI treatment had higher contents of pigments and phenolic compounds, a higher oleic/linoleic ratio and the highest oxidative stability, despite their lower tocopherol content. FI oils showed higher (E)-2-hexenal, 1-penten-3-one, ocimene, E-2-pentenal and pentene dimer contents than 30RDI oils, but lower contents of (E)-2-pentenol and volatile esters. The results of the present study suggest that a RDI strategy supplying 30% of the total irrigation needs induces an increase in natural antioxidants in VOO. Neither yield, nor the rest of the quality parameters were affected by the reduced irrigation. However, abundant autumn precipitation can over-ride these effects of 30% RDI treatment on oil quality. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Boubaker, Fezzani; Ridha, Ben Cheikh
The anaerobic digestion model No. 1 (ADM1), conceived by the international water association (IWA) task group for mathematical modelling of anaerobic digestion processes is a structured generic model which includes multiples steps describing biochemical and physicochemical processes encountered in the anaerobic degradation of complex organic substrates and a common platform for further model enhancement and validation of dynamic simulations for a variety of anaerobic processes. In this study the ADM1 model was modified and applied to simulate the mesophilic anaerobic co-digestion of olive mill wastewater (OMW) with olive mill solid waste (OMSW). The ADM1 equations were coded and implemented using the simulation software package MATLAB/Simulink. The most sensitive parameters were calibrated and validated using updated experimental data of our previous work. The results indicated that the ADM1 model could simulate with good accuracy: gas flows, methane and carbon-dioxide contents, pH and total volatile fatty acids (TVFA) concentrations of effluents for various feed concentrations digested at different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) and especially at HRTs of 36 and 24 days. Furthermore, effluent alkalinity and ammonium nitrogen were successfully predicted by the model at HRTs of 12 and 24 days for some feed concentrations.
López-Cano, Inés; Roig, Asunción; Cayuela, María Luz; Alburquerque, Jose Antonio; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel Angel
The use of biochar has been revealed to have beneficial effects during the composting of manures and other N-rich materials by reducing N losses and enhancing the rate of the process. However, the impact of biochar has not been explored in other complex organic matrices with low N nitrogen that may hinder the composting process. The main novelty of this work was to study the impact of a small amount of biochar (4%) on the composting process of olive mill wastes, which are characterised by a recalcitrant lignocellulosic composition with reduced nitrogen (N) availability. Two treatments: (i) control (olive mill waste 46%+sheep manure 54%, dry weight) and (ii) the same mixture treated with biochar (4%), were composted during 31 weeks. The incorporation of a small amount of biochar improved N cycling by increasing NO3(-)-N content, indicating a higher nitrifying activity, and reducing N losses by 15% without affecting the amount of N2O released. The use of biochar as an additive for composting could improve the value of olive mill waste composts by reducing N losses and increasing N availability in lignocellulosic and N-poor materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele
Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.
Alias, A. N.; Zabidi, Z. M.; Yaacob, Y.; Amir, I. S.; Alshurdin, S. H. N.; Aini, N. A.
The effect of impurities in olive oil blending with palm oil was characterized using polarized absorption method. Polarized absorption was based on the absorption of light which vibrating in a particular plane to pass through the sample. This polarized light allowed the molecule to absorb at the specific orientation. There were four samples have been prepared that were 100:0, 70:30, 50:50 and 0:100 with volume ratio of the olives to palm oil. Two linear polarizers were mounting between the samples in order to get linearly polarized. This specific orientation was affected the absorption spectra of the sample. The results have shown that the analyzing polarizer with angle 00 has bell shape spectra. All the orientation of analyzing polarizer had shown the maximum current output at 100% olive oil. Whereas 100% palm oil has shown the minimum current output. The changing in absorption spectra indicates that the anisotropic properties of each sample were different due to the present of impurities.
Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José
Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P < 0·05). After the consumption of VOO, the maximum concentration of these peaks was reached at 60 min, while EVOO shifted this maximum to 120 min. Despite these differences, the wide variability of results indicates that the absorption and metabolism of olive oil phenols are highly dependent on the individual.
Sayago, A; García-Gonzalez, D L; Morales, M T; Aparicio, R
The fluorescence spectroscopy technique has been tested as regards its ability to differentiate between refined hazelnut and olive oils. Classification of these oils based on their excitation-emission fluorescence spectra data (spectral range 300-500 nm of the excitation spectra at lambdaem=655 and spectral range 650-900 of the emission spectra at lambdaex=50 nm) was performed using principal component analysis and artificial neural networks. Both methods provided good discrimination between the refined hazelnut and olive oils. The results have also pointed out the possibilities of a spectrofluorimetric method joined to multivariate analysis, to differentiate refined oils, and even to detect the presence of refined hazelnut oils in refined olive oils at percentages higher than 9%.
Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin
The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.
Edraki, Mitra; Akbarzadeh, Armin; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Tanideh, Nader; Salehi, Alireza; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid
The purpose of this study is to evaluate the healing effect of silver sulfadiazine (SSD), sea buckthorn, olive oil, and 5% sea buckthorn and olive oil mixture on full-thickness burn wounds with respect to both gross and histopathologic features. Full-thickness burns were induced on 60 rats; the rats were then were divided into 5 groups and treated with sea buckthorn, olive oil, a 5% sea buckthorn/olive oil mixture, SSD, and normal saline (control). They were observed for 28 days, and the wounds' healing process was evaluated. Wound contraction occurred faster in sea buckthorn, olive oil, and the sea buckthorn/olive oil mixture groups compared with the SSD and control groups. The volume of the exudates was controlled more effectively in wounds treated with the sea buckthorn/olive oil mixture. Purulent exudates were observed in the control group, but the others did not show infection. The group treated with sea buckthorn/olive oil mixture revealed more developed re-epithelialization with continuous basement membrane with a mature granulation tissue, whereas the SSD-treated group showed ulceration, necrosis, and immature granulation. The results show that sea buckthorn and olive oil individually are proper dressing for burn wounds and that they also show a synergetic effect when they are used together. A sea buckthorn and olive oil mixture could be considered as an alternative dressing for full-thickness burns because of improved wound healing characteristics and antibacterial property.
Eidi, Akram; Moghadam-kia, Sara; Moghadam, Jalal Zarringhalam; Eidi, Maryam; Rezazadeh, Shamsali
Olive [Olea europaea L. (Oleaceae)] is a long-lived evergreen tree that is widespread in different parts of the world. Olive oil has been reported to relieve pain; however, there is still insufficient data in the literature on the subject. Thus, it is considered worthwhile investigating the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in adult male Balb/C mice. The antinociceptive effects were studied using formalin, hot plate and writhing tests. The acute anti-inflammatory effects of olive oil in mice were studied using xylene ear edema test. Olive oil (1, 5 and 10 ml/kg body wt.) was injected intraperitoneally. Intact animals served as controls. Our results showed that the olive oil only decreased the second phase of formalin-induced pain. In the hot plate test, olive oil did not raise the pain threshold over the 60 min duration of the test. Olive oil exhibited antinociceptive activity against writhing-induced pain by acetic acid. In the xylene ear edema test, olive oil showed significant anti-inflammatory activity in the mice. The present data indicated that olive oil has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in mice but further investigation of these effects is required to elucidate the mechanism(s) involved in analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects of Olea europaea oil.
Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) from two California mills (3-phase and 2-phase) was subjected to a two-step membrane filtration process using a novel vibratory system. The obtained reverse osmosis retentate (RO-R) is a phenolic-rich co-product stream, and the reverse osmosis permeate is a near-pure wat...
Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Makni, Jamel; Rebai, Ahmed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed
Fatty acid composition as an indicator of purity suggests that linolenic acid content could be used as a parameter for the detection of extra/virgin olive oil fraud with 5% of soybean oil. The adulteration could also be detected by the increase of the trans-fatty acid contents with 3% of soybean oil, 2% of corn oil, and 4% of sunflower oil. The use of the ΔECN42 proved to be effective in Chemlali extra-virgin olive oil adulteration even at low levels: 1% of sunflower oil, 3% of soybean oil, and 3% of corn oil. The sterol profile is almost decisive in clarifying the adulteration of olive oils with other cheaper ones: 1% of sunflower oil could be detected by the increase of Δ7-stigmastenol and 4% of corn oil by the increase of campesterol. Linear discriminant analysis could represent a powerful tool for faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration.
Baeten, Vincent; Fernández Pierna, Juan Antonio; Dardenne, Pierre; Meurens, Marc; García-González, Diego L; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón
The detection of the presence of refined hazelnut oil in refined olive oil at low percentages is still a challenge with the current official standards. FT-Raman and FT-MIR spectroscopies have been used to determine the level of detection of the presence of hazelnut oil in olive oil. Spectroscopic analysis has been made not only with the entire oil but also with its unsaponifiable matter. Univariate and multivariate statistical models have been designed with this objective. This study shows that a complete discrimination between olive and hazelnut oils is possible and that adulteration can be detected if the presence of hazelnut oil in olive oil is >8% and if the blends are of Turkish olive and hazelnut oils. The limit of detection is higher when the blends are of edible oils from diverse geographical origins.
Vichi, S; Pizzale, L; Toffano, E; Bortolomeazzi, R; Conte, L
Free sterols were evaluated as factors for discriminating between genuine virgin olive oil and hazelnut-mixed virgin olive oil. Numeric analyses of the results amplified the differences between groups. The application of this method to virgin olive oil samples and their mixtures with 10% hazelnut oil distinguished between genuine and nongenuine virgin olive oil with statistical certainty. Triacylglycerol analysis was tested for the same purpose by using parameter deltaECN42, but although it possessed a discriminating capacity, it alone could not distinguish the aforementioned groups with sufficient certainty. Free delta7-sterols data were combined with deltaECN42 data into a single discriminating function to improve differentiation and bring more ruggedness, and for detection of low amounts (10%) of hazelnut oil in virgin olive oil. In fact, the values obtained by addition of delta7-sterol data and deltaECN42 data showed a higher discriminating capacity than single parameters. In a single operation the method produced all the oil fractions necessary for analysis of free sterols and triacylglycerols with ECN42. Solid-phase extraction was applied in substitution of traditional chromatography on a silica column.
Ammar, Sonda; Zribi, Akram; Ben Mansour, Amir; Ayadi, Mohamed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed
The present work has been carried out to ascertain the influence of different processing systems employed in olive process on the chemical composition, quality and stability of three Chemlali olive oils. Among these oils, two were classified as extra-virgin olive oils and the third named repassed olive oil was classified as an ordinary virgin olive oil. The analysis of the effect of the processing (two- and three-phases) on the analytical determinations values, revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in some parameters, mainly in oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, total waxes, total phenols, o-diphenols and α-tocopherol contents as well as phenolic composition. The phenolic composition values were higher in the extra-virgin olive oil obtained from the two-phase system than in that obtained from the three-phase processing because it does not require the addition of water to the olive paste. Nevertheless, they were lower in the ordinary virgin olive oil (repassed olive oil) which was obtained by introducing hot water to the wet residues into the centrifugation processing at two-phases, than those in the extra-virgin olive oils obtained from the two- and three-phase processing.
Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.
Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.
Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela
PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes.
Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela
PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038
Essential oils from Rhanterium epapposum Oliv. (Asteraceae) was investigated for its repellent, antimicrobial and acetyl- and butyrylcholine esterase inhibitory activities. The oil showed good repellent activity while oils demonstrated weak in antimicrobial and cholinesterase inhibitions. Terpenoids...
Aviani, I; Raviv, M; Hadar, Y; Saadi, I; Dag, A; Ben-Gal, A; Yermiyahu, U; Zipori, I; Laor, Y
Olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were obtained at laboratory scale by milling olives from four cultivars grown at different irrigation levels and harvested at different times. Samples were compared based on wastewater quantity, pH, suspended matter, salinity, organic load, total phenols, NPK, and phytotoxicity. Principal component analysis discriminated between harvest times, regardless of olive cultivar, indicating substantial influence of fruit ripeness on OMW characteristics. OMW properties were affected both by the composition and the extraction efficiency of fruit water. As the fruit water content increased, the concentrations of solutes in the fruit water decreased, but the original fruit water composed a larger portion of the total wastewater volume. These contradicting effects resulted in lack of correlation between fruit water content and OMW properties. The significant effects shown for fruit ripeness, irrigation and cultivar on OMW characteristics indicate that olive horticultural conditions should be considered in future OMW management. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Luna, G; Morales, M T; Aparicio, R
The effects of UV radiation on the chemical and sensory characteristics of virgin olive oils (cv. Arbequina and Picual) were assessed. Even small doses of UV radiation induced oxidation of the virgin olive oil samples. Total phenols and fatty acids contents decreased during the process as well as the intensity of the bitter and fruity sensory attributes, while the intensity of the rancid sensory attribute notably increased. Acetaldehyde, 2-butenal, 2-pentenal, octane, octanal, hexanal, nonanal, and 2-decenal were the volatile compounds most affected, showing an important increase during the irradiation process. Nonanal, hexanal, and pentanal showed high correlation with the rancid sensory attribute (90%, 86%, and 86%, respectively). 2-Decenal and nonanal concentrations allowed us to predict the alteration level of the samples by mean of multiple Ridge regression.
Ruiz-Canela, Miguel; Martínez-González, Miguel A
Ischemic heart disease is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many mechanistic reasons support that a high consumption of olive oil may provide a protection against myocardial infarction, the hallmark of ischemic heart disease. International comparisons are also consistent with this hypothesis. Surprisingly, there is not much evidence coming from analytical epidemiological studies about this issue. A case-control study conducted at the University of Navarra (Spain) found a strong inverse association between olive oil consumption and the risk of a first non-fatal myocardial infarction. Subsequently a large cohort in Italy and another case-control study conducted in Greece also found inverse associations. However, no complete consistency exists and further prospective studies and trials are being implemented in order to obtain more complete evidence.
Casazza, Alessandro A.; Perego, Patrizia
Summary The adsorption of phenolic compounds from olive oil wastewater by commercial activated carbon was studied as a function of adsorbent quantity and temperature. The sorption kinetics and the equilibrium isotherms were evaluated. Under optimum conditions (8 g of activated carbon per 100 mL), the maximum sorption capacity of activated carbon expressed as mg of caffeic acid equivalent per g of activated carbon was 35.8 at 10 °C, 35.4 at 25 °C and 36.1 at 40 °C. The pseudo-second-order model was considered as the most suitable for kinetic results, and Langmuir isotherm was chosen to better describe the sorption system. The results confirmed the efficiency of activated carbon to remove almost all phenolic compound fractions from olive mill effluent. The preliminary results obtained will be used in future studies. The carbohydrate fraction of this upgraded residue could be employed to produce bioethanol, and adsorbed phenolic compounds can be recovered and used in different industries. PMID:27904350
Cuomo, Francesca; Venditti, Francesco; Cinelli, Giuseppe; Ceglie, Andrea; Lopez, Francesco
The use of titanium dioxide as heterogeneous photocatalyst is drawing considerable attention for water and air purification and remediation. Recently, TiO2 particles have been modified in order to make this material attractive for industrial and environmental remediation usage. In the present study, phenolic compounds of olive mill wastewater (OMW) were degraded in the presence of glucose-doped titanium particles (CDT) through a photocatalysis process activated by visible light. The photocatalyst effectiveness towards the polluted wastewater from olive oil industry was tested on systems having different initial concentrations of phenols and in the presence of different amounts of CDT. For kinetic analysis the role of Ti/TPh ratio (amount of catalyst/amount of total phenols) was investigated. The rate constant (k2) and the amounts of species adsorbed on adsorbent at equilibrium (qe) of each reaction were calculated by fitting kinetics data to a second-order kinetic adsorption model. The results collected at different Ti/TPh ratios showed that the amount of phenols that can be removed from the water solution linearly increases with the Ti/TPh ratio till a maximum value (optimal ratio) at which no further degradation of phenolic compounds was obtainable. Such kind of parameter allows to identify the optimal value of catalyst and the initial substrate concentration for a high level of degradation. The results showed in this study can have an important impact for an applicative point of view.
Fernández, Francisco J; Sánchez-Arias, Virginia; Rodríguez, Lourdes; Villaseñor, José
Representative samples of the following biowastes typically generated in Castilla La Mancha (Spain) were composted using a pilot-scale closed rotary drum composting reactor provided with adequate control systems: waste from the olive oil industry (olive mill waste; OMW), winery-distillery waste containing basically grape stalk and exhausted grape marc (WDW), and domestic sewage sludge. Composting these biowastes was only successful when using a bulking agent or if sufficient porosity was supported. OMW waste composting was not possible, probably because of its negligible porosity, which likely caused anaerobic conditions. WDW was successfully composted using a mixture of solid wastes generated from the same winery. SS was also successfully composted, although its higher heavy metal content was a limitation. Co-composting was an adequate strategy because the improved mixture characteristics helped to maintain optimal operating conditions. By co-composting, the duration of the thermophilic period increased, the final maturity level improved and OMW was successfully composted. Using the proposed reactor, composting could be accelerated compared to classical outdoor techniques, enabling easy control of the process. Moisture could be easily controlled by wet air feeding and leachate recirculation. Inline outlet gas analysis helped to control aerobic conditions without excessive aeration. The temperature reached high values in a few days, and sufficient thermal requirements for pathogen removal were met. The correct combination of biowastes along with appropriate reactor design would allow composting as a management option for such abundant biowastes in this part of Spain. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Morillo, J A; Aguilera, M; Antízar-Ladislao, B; Fuentes, S; Ramos-Cormenzana, A; Russell, N J; Monteoliva-Sánchez, M
Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is a semisolid effluent that is rich in contaminating polyphenols and is produced in large amounts by the industry of olive oil production. Laboratory-scale bioreactors were used to investigate the biodegradation of TPOMW by its indigenous microbiota. The effect of nutrient addition (inorganic N and P) and aeration of the bioreactors was studied. Microbial changes were investigated by PCR-temperature time gradient electrophoresis (TTGE) and following the dynamics of polar lipid fatty acids (PLFA). The greatest decrease in the polyphenolic and organic matter contents of bioreactors was concomitant with an increase in the PLFA fungal/bacterial ratio. Amplicon sequences of nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) and 16S rDNA allowed identification of fungal and bacterial types, respectively, by comparative DNA sequence analyses. Predominant fungi identified included members of the genera Penicillium, Candida, Geotrichum, Pichia, Cladosporium, and Aschochyta. A total of 14 bacterial genera were detected, with a dominance of organisms that have previously been associated with plant material. Overall, this work highlights that indigenous microbiota within the bioreactors through stimulation of the fungal fraction, is able to degrade the polyphenolic content without the inoculation of specific microorganisms.
Aharonov-Nadborny, R; Tsechansky, L; Raviv, M; Graber, E R
Olive mill waste water (OMWW) is an acidic (pH 4-5), saline (EC ∼ 5-10 mS cm(-1)), blackish-red aqueous byproduct of the three phase olive oil production process, with a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) of up to 220,000 mg L(-1). OMWW is conventionally disposed of by uncontrolled dumping into the environment or by semi-controlled spreading on agricultural soils. It was hypothesized that spreading such liquids on agricultural soils could result in the release and mobilization of indigenous soil metals. The effect of OMWW spreading on leaching of metal cations (Na, K, Mg, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn) was tested in four non-contaminated agricultural soils having different textures (sand, clay loam, clay, and loam) and chemical properties. While the OMWW contributed metals to the soil solution, it also mobilized indigenous soil metals as a function of soil clay content, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and soil pH-buffer capacity. Leaching of soil-originated metals from the sandy soil was substantially greater than from the loam and clay soils, while the clay loam was enriched with metals derived from the OMWW. These trends were attributed to cation exchange and organic-metal complex formation. The organic matter fraction of OMWW forms complexes with metal cations; these complexes may be mobile or precipitate, depending on the soil chemical and physical environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.
Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.
Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat
The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.
Hossain, Md Arafat; Canning, John; Cook, Kevin; Ast, Sandra; Jamalipour, Abbas
Degradation of olive oil under light and heat are analysed using an optical fibre based low-cost portable smartphone spectrofluorimeter. Visible fluorescence bands associated with phenolic acids, vitamins and chlorophyll centred at λ 452, 525 and 670 nm respectively are generated using near-UV excitation (LED λex 370 nm), of extra virgin olive oil are degraded more likely than refined olive oil under light and heat exposure. Packaging is shown to be critical when assessing the origin of degradation.
Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.
In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…
Blatchly, Richard A.; Delen, Zeynep; O'Hara, Patricia B.
In the last decade, our understanding of the chemistry of olive oil has dramatically improved. Here, the essential chemistry of olive oil and its important minor constituents is described and related to the typical sensory categories used to rate and experience oils: color, aroma, bitterness, and pungency. We also describe experiments to explore…
Anastasopoulou, Evaggelia; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Skoulikidis, Nikos; Dassenakis, Manos; Hatzianestis, Ioannis
Sediment analysis at four major rivers (Pamisos, Aris, Velikas and Nedon) and their estuaries towards heavy metals took place in the Prefecture of Messinia, Greece, during two sampling campaigns in 2008 and 2011. The main industrial activity in the region is the operation of 250 olive oil industries and the main problem concerning pollution derives from the vast quantities of olive mill waste waters that are being generated annually most of which is currently discharged in nearby streams. Chemical parameters such as phenols, total organic carbon and certain heavy metals were found to be strongly correlated with the wastes from the olive oil industries. Major and minor elements (heavy metals) were measured in riverine and estuarine sediments. In parallel heavy metals were determined in the olive waste from a local industry, using atomic absorption spectrometry, in order to correlate the results with the sediment analysis. Major and Minor elements were recorded based upon the total percentage of the sediment samples and in order to eliminate the grain size effect, the concentrations were normalized towards Al. A pollution indice, the sediment enrichment factor, was also calculated, the high values of which towards Cr are of particular interest. Additionally organic carbon and total phenolic compounds were determined in rivers and their estuaries. High concentrations of Chromium were recorded in River Aris sediment, which seems to be the most polluted. Relatively high concentrations of zinc were encountered at rivers Aris and Pamisos while the chromium load seems to be higher near the estuaries of the rivers. The olive mill waste water analysis confirmed the existence of chromium in the waste and extremely elevated values were also found at a nearby station where these wastes tend to accumulate for decades. In contrast the results from the Nedon River indicated that it is not affected, since the low values found remained constant from the source of the river until its
Karaosmanoglu, Hande; Soyer, Ferda; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen
Turkish extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) from different varieties/geographical origins and their phenolic compounds were investigated in terms of their antimicrobial and antioxidant properties in comparison to refined olive, hazelnut, and canola oils. Antimicrobial activity was tested against three foodborne pathogenic bacteria, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes , and Salmonella Enteritidis. Although all EVOOs showed a bactericidal effect, the individual phenolic compounds demonstrated only slight antimicrobial activity. Moreover, refined oil samples did not show any antimicrobial activity. Among the phenolic compounds, cinnamic acid (2 mg/kg of oil) had the highest percent inhibition value with 0.25 log reduction against L. monocytogenes. The synergistic interactions of tyrosol, vanillin, vanillic, and cinnamic acids were also observed against Salmonella Enteritidis. The antioxidant activities of oils were tested by beta-carotene-linoleate model system and ABTS method. In both methods, EVOOs showed higher antioxidant activities, whereas refined oils had lower activity. The ABTS method provided a higher correlation (0.89) with total phenol content.
Turner, Rufus; Etienne, Nicolas; Alonso, Maria Garcia; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; Minihane, Anne Marie; Weinberg, Peter D; Rimbach, Gerald
The aim of the current study was to investigate the antioxidant and cellular activity of the olive oil phenolics oleuropein, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and homovanillic alcohol (which is also a major metabolite of hydroxytyrosol). Well-characterized chemical and biochemical assays were used to assess the antioxidant potential of the compounds. Further experiments investigated their influence in cell culture on cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (LDL), nitric oxide production by activated macrophages, and secretion of chemoattractant and cell adhesion molecules by the endothelium. Inhibitory influences on in vitro platelet aggregation were also measured. The antioxidant assays indicated that homovanillic alcohol was a significantly more potent antioxidant than the other phenolics, both in chemical assays and in prolonging the lag phase of LDL oxidation. Cell culture experiments suggested that the olive oil phenolics induce a significant reduction in the secretion of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (and a trend towards a reduced secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1), and protect against cytotoxic effects of hydrogen peroxide and oxidized LDL. However, no influence on nitric oxide production or platelet aggregation was evident. The data show that olive oil phenolics have biochemical and cellular actions, which, if also apparent in vivo, could exert cardioprotective effects.
Pelucchi, Claudio; Bosetti, Cristina; Negri, Eva; Lipworth, Loren; La Vecchia, Carlo
Consumption of olive oil has been related to reduced risk of several diseases, including various neoplasms. In this paper, we reviewed epidemiological studies on olive oil and cancer published up to 2010. We performed a systematic literature search in the Medline database and, after assessment of relevant papers, we included 25 studies providing original data on olive oil consumption and cancer risk. We also performed a meta-analysis of studies of breast cancer, calculating the pooled relative risk (RR), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI), for high vs. low olive oil consumption. Several studies conducted in Southern Europe reported olive oil consumption as a favourable indicator of breast, digestive tract, and particularly upper aero-digestive tract cancers. For the latter, after adjustment for alcohol and tobacco use, the RRs between extreme levels of olive oil consumption were 0.3-0.4, and there was an over 5-fold difference in risk between subjects consuming mainly olive oil and those consuming mainly butter. The summary RR of breast cancer was 0.62 (95% CI, 0.44-0.88) for the highest vs. lowest level of olive oil consumption. Thus, preferring olive oil to other added lipids, particularly those rich in saturated fats, can decrease the risk of upper digestive and respiratory tract neoplasms, breast and, possibly, colorectal and other cancer sites.
Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo
Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil.
Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Morgado, N; Prada, J L; Pérez-Jiménez, F; Muriana, F J
This work was undertaken to determine the effect of diets enriched with olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil on very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) triacylglycerol composition of healthy human subjects. Both oils contain a similar proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) but differ in their triacylglycerol composition. All 22 human subjects initially consumed a low fat, high carbohydrate diet as recommended by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP-I). They then consumed the two experimental oils (40% dietary energy) in a crossover design. The olive oil and high oleic sunflower oil diets resulted in significant increases in palmitoleic (55%, P < 0.05), oleic (27%, P < 0.01) and eicosenoic (>100%, P < 0.001) acids of VLDL triacylglycerols, whereas there was a significant decrease in linoleic acid (38%, P < 0.001). In addition, the high oleic sunflower oil diet increased the content of stearic acid (60%, P < 0.05) and total saturated fatty acids (14%, P < 0.05). Both MUFA-rich diets significantly (P < 0.01) decreased the content of sn-glycerol-palmitate-linoleate-oleate, sn-glycerol-palmitoleate-dioleate and sn-glycerol-palmitate-dilinoleate in VLDL with regard to the NCEP-I diet, whereas they increased the content of sn-glycerol-trioleate (>100%, P < 0.001 after the olive oil diet; 80%, P < 0.05 after the high oleic sunflower oil diet). Intake of olive oil, in particular, significantly decreased the content of sn-glycerol-tripalmitate (36%, P < 0.01) and increased the content of dioleoyl-containing triacylglycerols. MUFA (P < 0.01) and arachidonic acid (P < 0.001) tended to be rich in the sn-2 position of VLDL triacylglycerols during the periods of consuming the olive oil or high oleic sunflower oil diets. In addition, olive oil, but not high oleic sunflower oil, further contributed to VLDL triacylglycerols that contained alpha-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acids acylated in the sn-2 position. These data suggest that differences in the composition
Román Falcó, Iván P; Grané Teruel, Nuria; Prats Moya, Soledad; Martín Carratalá, M Luisa
A new approach for the determination of kinetic parameters of the cis/trans isomerization during the oxidation process of 24 virgin olive oils belonging to 8 different varieties is presented. The accelerated process of degradation at 100 °C was monitored by recording the Fourier transform infrared spectra. The parameters obtained confirm pseudo-first-order kinetics for the degradation of cis and the appearance of trans double bonds. The kinetic approach affords the induction time and the rate coefficient; these parameters are related to the fatty acid profile of the fresh olive oils. The data obtained were used to compare the oil stability of the samples with the help of multivariate statistical techniques. Fatty acid allowed a classification of the samples in five groups, one of them constituted by the cultivars with higher stability. Meanwhile, the kinetic parameters showed greater ability for the characterization of olive oils, allowing the classification in seven groups.
Paradiso, Vito Michele; Clemente, Antonia; Summo, Carmine; Pasqualone, Antonella; Caponio, Francesco
The determination of phenolic compounds in extra virgin olive oils (EVOO) by means of rapid, low-cost, environment-free methods would be a desirable achievement. A natural deep eutectic solvent (DES) based on glucose and lactic acid was considered as extraction solvent for phenolic compounds in EVOO. DESs are green solvents characterized by high availability, biodegradability, safety, and low cost. The spectrophotometric characteristics of DES extracts of 65 EVOO samples were related to the total phenolic content of the oils, assessed by methanol-water extraction coupled to the Folin-Ciocalteu assay. A regression model (ncalibration=45, nvalidation=20), including the absorbance at two wavelengths (257, 324nm), was obtained, with an adjusted R(2)=0.762. Therefore the DES could provide a promising and viable approach for a green screening method of phenolic compounds in EVOO, by means of simple spectrophotometric measurements of extracts, even for on-field analysis (for example in olive mills).
Adulteration of virgin olive oil with less expensive oils such as hazelnut oil is a serious problem for quality control of olive oil. Detection of the presence of hazelnut oil in olive oil at low percentages (<20%) is limited with current official standard methods. In this review, various classes of phytosterols in these two oils are assessed as possible markers to detect adulterated olive oil. The composition of 4-desmethyl- and 4-monomethylsterols is similar in both oils, but the 4,4'-dimethylsterols differ. Lupeol and an unknown (lupane skeleton) compound from 4,4'-dimethylsterols are exclusively present in hazelnut oil and can be used as markers via GC-MS monitoring to detect adulteration at levels as low as 2%. The phytosterol classes need to be separated and enriched by a preparative method prior to analysis by GC or GC/MS; these SPE and TLC methods are also described in this review.
Franco, Ma Nieves; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Martínez, Manuel; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel
Virgin Olive Oil (VOO) is a product much demanded by consumers looking for the highest quality and certain traits considered to be typical of the Mediterranean area. The olive fruit's properties and the industry-regulated physicochemical and sensory parameters of seven cultivars were evaluated during the ripening process. In general, the oil percentage in both the wet and dry material increased for all the cultivars from the green to the spotted stages of maturation, and they stayed constant statistically until the ripe stage with just a few exceptions. The lowest oil content was observed in the Manzanilla Cacereña cultivar in all stages of maturation. The cultivars that presented the lowest oil yields in the Abencor system were Manzanilla Cacereña and Carrasqueña, and the highest Corniche. In general, all the cultivars except one presented good behaviour during the mixing process, the exception being Manzanilla Cacereña which presented the lowest values of the extractability percentage. The moisture content of the olives presented a common pattern, increasing from the green to the spotted stage, with the differences being significant in the Corniche, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz cultivars. All the oils analysed were classified into the "extra virgin" category according to the results for the regulated parameters. The fruity, bitter, and pungent attributes decreased during ripening in all the cultivars studied. In the green stage of maturation, Arbequina had the least intensity of bitterness and pungency, but there were no significant differences among cultivars in the fruity attribute.
Christy, Alfred A; Kasemsumran, Sumaporn; Du, Yiping; Ozaki, Yukihiro
A new procedure has been developed for the classification and quantification of the adulteration of pure olive oil by soya oil, sun flower oil, corn oil, walnut oil and hazelnut oil. The study was based on a chemometric analysis of the near-infrared (NIR) spectra of olive-oil mixtures containing different adulterants. The adulteration of olive oil was carefully carried out gravimetrically in a 4 mm quartz cuvette, starting with pure olive oil in the cuvette first. NIR spectra of the 525 adulterated mixtures were measured in the region of 12,000-4000 cm(-1). The spectra were subjected batch wise to multiplicative signal correction (MSC) before calculating the principal component (PCA) models. The MSC-corrected data were subjected to Savitzky-Golay smoothing and a mean normalization procedure before developing partial least-squares calibration (PLS) models. The results revealed that the models predicted the adulterants, corn oil, sun flower oil, soya oil, walnut oil and hazelnut oil involved in olive oil with error limits +/-0.57, +/-1.32, +/-0.96, +/-0.56 and +/-0.57% weight/weight, respectively. Furthermore, the PCA developed models were able to classify unknown adulterated olive oil mixtures with almost 100% certainty. Quantification of the adulterants was carried out using their respective PLS models within the same error limits as mentioned above.
Rohilla, Hina; Singh, Gajender; Punia, Parul
Introduction Recently non-albicans Candida has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in blood stream infections. Some species of the Candida are becoming increasingly resistant to first line and second line antifungals such as echinocandins and fluconazole. In view of increasing global antifungal resistance, role of alternative and better antifungals like natural plant products need to be explored. Essential oils are known to exhibit antimicrobial activity against various fungi. Hence, we evaluated the efficacy of cinnamon oil and olive oil against Candida spp. Aim To evaluate the invitro antifungal activity of olive oil and cinnamon oil against blood stream Candida isolates. Materials and Methods The present prospective observational study was conducted in the Department of Microbiology at a tertiary care teaching hospital during one year June 2011-July 2012. Blood samples were collected from 1376 patients clinically suspected to have fungal septicaemia, out of which 100 (7.2%) Candida isolates obtained, were speciated by conventional methods. Antifungal susceptibility testing of all the isolates was done against fluconazole, voriconazole as per NCCL (M27-A2) and against olive oil and cinnamon oil by agar well diffusion method. Results Prevalence of Candidemia was 7.26%. C. albicans (85.3%) and C. parapsilosis (85.7%) were most sensitive to fluconazole followed by C. tropicalis (67.4%). All isolates were 100% sensitive to voriconazole. Both oils were found to be effective against nearly 50% of the Candida isolates. About 55.5% of fluconazole resistant C. krusei strains were sensitive to olive and cinnamon oil. Conclusion Fluconazole resistant non-albicans Candida has emerged as major cause of Candidemia. Cinnamon and olive oil show marked sensitivity against albicans and non-albicans spp. PMID:27656437
Aranda, V; Macci, C; Peruzzi, E; Masciandaro, G
This study evaluates soil fertility, biochemical activity and the soil's ability to stabilize organic matter after application of composted olive-mill pomace. This organic amendment was applied in two different olive groves in southern Spain having different soil typologies (carbonated and silicic). Olive grove soils after 17 years of organic management with application of olive-mill pomace co-compost were of higher quality than those with conventional management where no co-compost had been applied. The main chemical parameters studied (total organic carbon, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, exchangeable bases, cation exchange capacity, total extractable carbon (TEC), and humic-to-fulvic acids ratio), significantly increased in soils treated with the organic amendment. In particular, the more resistant pool of organic matter (TEC) enhanced by about six and eight fold in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively. Moreover, the amended silicic soils showed the most significant increases in enzyme activities linked to C and P cycles (β-glucosidase twenty-five fold higher and phosphatase seven fold higher). Organic management in both soils induced higher organic matter mineralization, as shown by the higher pyrrole/phenol index (increasing 40% and 150% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively), and lower furfural/pyrrole index (decreasing 27% and 71% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). As a result of mineralization, organic matter incorporated was also more stable as suggested by the trend of the aliphatic/aromatic index (decreasing 36% and 30% in carbonated and silicic soils, respectively). Therefore, management system and soil type are key factors in increasing long-term C stability or sequestration in soils. Thus application of olive-oil extraction by-products to soils could lead to important mid-to -long-term agro-environmental benefits, and be a valuable alternative use for one of the most widespread polluting wastes in the Mediterranean
Tardioli, S; Bànnè, E; Santori, F
Soil was treated with olive mill waste water (OMW) in order to study the effect of this agriculture waste on soil fungal population. Changes in fungal composition were observed after soil pollution. In order to test OMW selective pressure, growth kinetics of Penicillium cyclopium, Scopulariopsis brevicaulis and Cladosporium cladosporioides were studied on solid media supplemented with different OMW concentrations. S. brevicaulis and C. cladosporioides did not grow at OMW concentration higher than 50%, while at concentrations lower than 50% a growth decrease was observed. Instead, P. cyclopium was able to actively grow at all concentrations of OMW tested. Therefore the OMW can influence and modify the soil fungal homeostasis.
Tortosa, Germán; Castellano-Hinojosa, Antonio; Correa-Galeote, David; Bedmar, Eulogio J
Microorganisms are the main contributing factor responsible for organic matter degradation during composting. In this research, the 454-pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene was used to elucidate evolution of bacterial diversity during mesophilic, thermophilic and maturation composting stages of the two-phase olive mill waste ("alperujo"), the main by-product of the Spanish olive oil industry. Two similar piles were performance composting AL with sheep manure as bulking agent. Actinobacteria, Bacteriodetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the main phyla found in genomic libraries from each composting phase. Shannon and Chao1 biodiversity indices showed a clear difference between the mesophilic/thermophilic and maturation phases, which was mainly due to detection of new genera. PCA analysis of the relative number of sequences confirmed maturation affected bacterial population structure, and Pearson correlation coefficients between physicochemical composting parameters and relative number of genera sequences suggest that Planomicrobium and Ohtaekwangia could be considered as biomarkers for AL composting maturation.
Ortiz, M Alicia; Dorantes, A Lidia; Gallndez, M Juvencio; Cardenas, S Elizabeth
Avocado (Persea americana Mill) is an oil-rich fruit, the pulp containing up to 33% of the oil. It is rich in monounsaturated fatty acids, and has nutritional properties similar to olive oil. However, there is no widespread commercial method for oil recovery from avocado pulp. The aim of this study is to contribute to the limited knowledge about the micro- and ultrastructure of avocado. It presents a micro- and ultrastructural study of avocado pulp before and after three different oil recovery methods, in order to relate the quality and yielding of the oil to the cellular changes in the pulp. This study was made using light, scanning electron, and electron transmission microscopy. The microwave-squeezing method yielded 67% of the oil, preserved the shape of the cell by causing only a slight modification, and gave the best quality oil. Hexane extraction yielded 59%, causing the idioblastic oil cells to become irregularly shaped and rough-surfaced. Acetone extraction yielded 12%, and deformed the cellular wall while the oil remained inside, giving a poor quality oil. On the basis of these results, the microwave-squeezing method is suggested as a new option for oil recovery from avocadopulp. This method could be adapted for industrial processing.
Asensio, Claudia M; Nepote, Valeria; Grosso, Nelson R
Four commercial varieties of oregano are farmed in Argentina: "Compacto,"Cordobes,"Criollo," y "Mendocino." Oregano essential oil is known for antioxidant properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in the intensities of positive and negative attributes in extra virgin olive oil with addition of essential oil obtained from the 4 Argentinean oregano types. Oregano essential oil was added into olive oil at 0.05% w/w. The samples were stored in darkness and light exposure during 126 d at room temperature. The intensity ratings of fruity, pungency, bitterness, oregano flavor, and rancid flavor were evaluated every 21 d by a trained sensory panel. In general, samples with addition of oregano essential oil in olive oil exhibited higher and lower intensity ratings of positive and negative attributes, respectively, during storage compared with the control samples. The first 2 principal components explained 72.3% of the variability in the olive oil samples. In general, positive attributes of olive oil were highly associated with the addition of oregano essential oil in darkness, whereas rancid flavor was negatively associated with them. Olive oil with oregano "Cordobes" essential oil was oppositely associated with light exposure treatments and negative attribute (rancid flavor) suggesting better performance as natural antioxidant of this essential oil in olive oil. The result of this study showed that the presence of oregano essential oil, specially "Cordobes" type, preserve sensory quality of extra virgin olive oil prolonging the shelf life of this product. Extra virgin olive oil is highly appreciated for its health benefits, taste, and aroma. These properties are an important aspect in this product quality and need to be preserved. The addition of natural additives instead of synthetic ones covers the present trend in food technology. This research showed that the addition of oregano essential oil preserved the intensity ratings of positive attributes
Uçar, Suat; Karagöz, Selhan
The co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at different blend ratios was investigated at 500ºC in a fixed bed reactor. The effect of olive bagasse to crude rapeseed oil ratio on the product distributions and properties of the pyrolysis products were comparatively investigated. The addition of crude rapeseed oil into olive bagasse in the co-pyrolysis led to formation of upgraded biofuels in terms of liquid yields and properties. While the pyrolysis of olive bagasse produced a liquid yield of 52.5 wt %, the highest liquid yield of 73.5 wt % was obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4. The bio-oil derived from olive bagasse contained 5% naphtha, 10% heavy naphtha, 30% gas oil, and 55% heavy gas oil. In the case of bio-oil obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil at a blend ratio of 1:4, the light naphtha, heavy naphtha, and light gas oil content increased. This is an indication of the improved characteristics of the bio-oil obtained from the co-processing. The heating value of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of olive bagasse alone was 34.6 MJ kg(-1) and the heating values of bio-oils obtained from the co-pyrolysis of olive bagasse with crude rapeseed oil ranged from 37.6 to 41.6 MJ kg(-1). It was demonstrated that the co-processing of waste biomass with crude plant oil is a good alternative to improve bio-oil yields and properties.
Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I
The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils.
Xu, Zheng; Morris, Robert H.; Bencsik, Martin; Newton, Michael I.
The detection of adulteration in edible oils is a concern in the food industry, especially for the higher priced virgin olive oils. This article presents a low field unilateral nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the detection of the adulteration of virgin olive oil that can be performed through sealed bottles providing a non-destructive screening technique. Adulterations of an extra virgin olive oil with different percentages of sunflower oil and red palm oil were measured with a commercial unilateral instrument, the profile NMR-Mouse. The NMR signal was processed using a 2-dimensional Inverse Laplace transformation to analyze the transverse relaxation and self-diffusion behaviors of different oils. The obtained results demonstrated the feasibility of detecting adulterations of olive oil with percentages of at least 10% of sunflower and red palm oils. PMID:24469355
Banias, Georgios; Achillas, Charisios; Vlachokostas, Christos; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Stefanou, Maria
The production of olive oil is considered to be one of the largest agricultural business sectors in the Mediterranean area. Apart from its significant impact on the economies of countries in Southern Europe, Northern Africa and Middle East, olive oil production also involves considerable social and environmental considerations. However, despite such importance, the environmental effects of olive oil production have not been studied as much other agricultural productions and farming systems, which are more characteristic of central and northern Europe. We present a thorough and systematic literature review of scientific publications with respect to the use of environmental tools in the life cycle of olive oil. The analysis takes into consideration the farming of olive trees, the manufacture of olive oil, packaging, transportation and reverse logistics. To that end, journal publications up to 2015 in this specific field are recorded and, at the same time, the most important environmental impacts are revealed and a gap analysis is carried out. The analysis conducted reveals that farming of olive trees (with pesticide use and waste/by-product production being the 'hottest' topics) and the manufacturing of olive oil (concentrating mostly on waste/by-product production and management) are the phases with the highest environmental focus from the scientific community. Moreover, gaps in the literature are detected mostly with respect to fuel consumption and the use and promotion of renewable energy sources in olive oil production. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Biodiesel, the mono-alkyl esters of vegetable oils, animal fats or other triacylglycerol-containing materials and an alternative to conventional petroleum-based diesel fuel, has been derived from a variety of feedstocks. Numerous feedstocks have been investigated as potential biodiesel sources, incl...
Romero, Concepción; Medina, Eduardo; Vargas, Julio; Brenes, Manuel; De Castro, Antonio
Helicobacter pylori is linked to a majority of peptic ulcers and to some types of gastric cancer, and resistance of the microorganism to antibiotic treatment is now found worldwide. Virgin olive oil is an unrefined vegetable oil that contains a significant amount of phenolic compounds. Under simulated conditions, we have demonstrated that these substances can diffuse from the oil into the gastric juice and be stable for hours in this acidic environment. In vitro, they exerted a strong bactericidal activity against eight strains of H. pylori, three of them resistant to some antibiotics. Among the phenolic compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl ligstroside aglycon showed the strongest bactericidal effect at a concentration as low as 1.3 microg/mL. Although the experimental conditions are different from other reported works, this bactericidal concentration is much lower than those found for phenolic compounds from tea, wine, and plant extracts. These results open the possibility of considering virgin olive oil a chemopreventive agent for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer, but this bioactivity should be confirmed in vivo in the future.
Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel
The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Buchalla, W; Attin, T; Roth, P; Hellwig, E
The effect of two different concentrations of olive oil emulsions on development of artificial caries-like dentin lesions under severe demineralizing conditions was investigated. Bovine dentin samples (n = 180) were ground flat, polished, divided into four groups, and subjected to three demineralization cycles per day. Samples were stored in one of the following solutions for 5 min prior to demineralization in a buffer solution (pH 5): Group 1: 50% oil emulsion (olive oil and distilled water); group 2: 5% oil emulsion; group 3: distilled water; and group 4: 1,500 ppm sodium fluoride. Daily up to 9 days, lesion depth (ld) and mineral loss (deltaZ) were determined by means of microradiography and analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey's studentized range test (p < or = 0.05). Lesion depth increased with time for all groups. Mineral loss increased in groups 1-3. A small but significant decrease in mineral loss was observed following treatment with lipid emulsions as compared to treatment with distilled water, but fluoride treatment was considerably more effective. Mean mineral loss (means +/- SD in vol% x microm) averaged over the study period was 4,368 +/- 1,599, 4,536 +/- 1,823, 4,849 +/- 1,798, and 789 +/- 177 for group 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Ratio (deltaZ/ld) remained constant around 30 vol% for groups 1-3, but decreased for group 4. In conclusion, externally provided lipids have the potential to reduce dentin demineralization in vitro.
García, J M; Yousfi, K; Mateos, R; Olmo, M; Cert, A
Olives (Olea europaea) of the Manzanilla and Verdial varieties, harvested at the green mature stage of ripening, were heated at 30, 40, 45, and 50 degrees C during 24 h and at 40 degrees C during 24, 48, and 72 h, respectively. Just after treatments, oils were physically extracted from the olives. Olive heating promotes a reduction of oil bitterness in direct relationship to the time and temperature used. Fruit heating at < or =40 degrees C during 24 h did not produce significant changes of acidity, UV absorption, peroxide index, panel test score, or oxidative stability of the obtained oils. Both longer treatments at 40 degrees C and heating at >40 degrees C yielded oils with less oxidative stability. Oils obtained from olives heated at > or =40 degrees C showed higher concentrations of chlorophylls and carotenes. For each olive variety, a good correlation between oil bitterness and content of hydroxytyrosol secoiridoid derivatives was found.
Berlioz, Benoit; Cordella, Christophe; Cavalli, Jean-François; Lizzani-Cuvelier, Louisette; Loiseau, André-Michel; Fernandez, Xavier
Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) -gas chromatography using flame ionization detection and multivariate analysis were applied to the study of the specificity of protected designation of origin (PDO) virgin olive oils produced in a southern French region (Alpes-Maritimes) based on their volatile compounds. A total of 35 PDO olive oils from Nice, 6 commercial oils, and 12 other French PDO olive oils were analyzed. Recorded data were subjected to principal component analysis (PCA) and soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). The method developed here was able to perfectly distinguish different qualities of olive oils. Representative samples from each class obtained by chemometric treatment were analyzed by HS-SPME and GC-MS. PCA and SIMCA of chromatographic data were related to sensory analysis and led to a better understanding of the chemical features and observed sensory effects of olive oils.
Kamvissis, Vassilis N; Barbounis, Emmanouil G; Megoulas, Nikolaos C; Koupparis, Michael A
The Oxitester method, a novel, simple, and fast photometric method for the evaluation of the antioxidant capacity of olive oils, was validated and compared to the official oil stability index (Rancimat) method. The Oxitester method appeared to be a good alternative to the Rancimat method with adequate correlation for a wide range of virgin olive oil samples, including extrissima virgin olive oils (correlation coefficient 0.88), and extra virgin olive oils of increased acidity (free fatty acids >0.45%, correlation coefficient 0.89). Other quality factors (flavor, free fatty acids content, specific absorbance at 270 and 232 nm, peroxide value, and content of oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids) were also measured and correlated to the antioxidant capacity values of the Oxitester and Rancimat methods. The Oxitester method, in contrast to the Rancimat method, was indicative of the flavor characteristics of the olive oils and the content of linolenic acid.
Mota, Ana Henriques; Silva, Catarina Oliveira; Nicolai, Marisa; Baby, André; Palma, Lídia; Rijo, Patrícia; Ascensão, Lia; Reis, Catarina Pinto
Currently, the innovative skin research is focused on the development of novel topical formulations loaded with natural functional actives. The health benefits of olive oil are unsurpassed and many others are revealed as research studies allow the understanding of its unlimited properties. Olive oil has a protective toning effect on skin, but it is not transported effectively into its layers. Aiming the development of a cosmetic formulation for skin photoprotection and hydration, we have prepared and characterized macro-sized particles, made of a hydrogel polymer, loaded with olive oil. Alginate beads were uniform in shape, with minimal oil leakage, offering interesting prospects for encapsulation of lipophilic and poorly stable molecules, like olive oil. In vitro photoprotection and in vivo tolerance tests were in favor of this application. Thus, this study suggests that the incorporation of the olive oil-loaded particles into a cream formulation provides strong moisturizing properties and a photoprotective potential, when applied to healthy subjects.
Tekaya, Meriem; Mechri, Beligh; Bchir, Amani; Attia, Faouzi; Cheheb, Hechmi; Daassa, Mohamed; Hammami, Mohamed
This work was conducted to determine the effects of two nutrient-based fertilisers on the general physicochemical characteristics (including free fatty acid content, peroxide value and UV spectrophotometric characteristics), fatty acid profile, total phenols, o-diphenols and phytosterol composition of olive oil. Foliar applications were carried out in two successive years and included four treatments: TC (control, without foliar nutrition), T1 (rich in nitrogen, applied at the start of vegetation, 10 days later and 20 days later), T2 (rich in boron, magnesium, sulfur and manganese, applied at the beginning of flowering and 10 days later) and T3 (T1+T2). At the end of the experiment (after 2 years), oils were extracted and analysed. No effect was found on either general physicochemical characteristics or fatty acid composition. Foliar fertilisation caused a significant decrease in both polyphenol and o-diphenol contents. Total sterol content was unaffected by foliar fertilisation. However, the phytosterol composition of the oil, particularly its β-sitosterol level, was markedly improved after foliar nutrient application. Principal component analysis of the phytosterol composition showed discrimination between the control oil and the oils from T1, T2 and T3 treatments. The results of this study extend the current knowledge of such cross-talk between plant nutrition and quality of oil. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Pérez, Ana G; Luaces, Pilar; Ríos, José J; García, José M; Sanz, Carlos
The effect of hot-water treatments of olive fruits before processing on the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma was investigated by quantifying the variation within the major classes of volatile compounds. Data showed that hot-water treatments gave rise to changes in the volatile aroma profile of virgin olive oil from the three olive cultivars under study, Manzanilla, Picual, and Verdial. Different effects by thermal treatments were observed according to cultivar. In general, these changes are mainly due to a decrease in the contents of C(6) aldehydes and C(5) compounds. Contents of C(6) alcohols and esters remained constant or decreased slightly when the temperature of the treatment was increased. Thus, heat treatments seemed to promote a partial deactivation of the lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase enzyme system, whereas other enzymatic activities, within the lipoxygenase pathway, such as alcohol dehydrogenase and alcohol acyltransferase, remained apparently unaffected as a consequence of heat treatments.
Uğurlu, Mehmet; Kula, Ibrahim
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) generated by the olive oil extracting industry is a major pollutant, because of its high organic load and phytotoxic and antibacterial phenolic compounds which resist biological degradation. Mediterranean countries are mostly affected by this serious environmental problem since they are responsible for 95% of the worldwide olive-oil production. There are many methods used for OMW treatment, such as adsorption, electro coagulation, electro-oxidation, biological degradation, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), chemical coagulation, flocculation, filtration, lagoons of evaporation and burning systems, etc. Currently, there is no such economical and easy solution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of decolourization and removal of phenol, lignin, TOC and TIC in OMW by UV/H2O2 (AOPs). The operating parameters, such as hydrogen peroxide dosage, times, pH, effect of UV and natural sunlight were determined to find the suitable operating conditions for the best removal. Moreover, there is no study reported in the literature related to the use of OMW was obtained from an olive-oil producing plant (Muğla area of Turkey) which uses a modern production process. No chemical additives are used during olive oil production. This study was realised by using two different UV sources, while taking the time and energy consumption into consideration. These two sources were mercury lamps and natural sunlight. Before starting AOPs experiments, one litre of OMW was treated by adding lime until a pH of 7.00. Then, 100 ml was taken from each sample, and 1 to 10 ml of a 30% H2O2 (Riedel-deHaen) solution was added. These solutions in closed vessels were laid in the natural sunlight for a week and their compositions and colour changes were analysed daily by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. At the end of the one-week period, they were treated with lime. In this study, the effect of changes in the initial pH, times and H2O2 concentrations on removal was
Miró-Casas, E; Covas, M-I; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Marrugat, J; de la Torre, R
To investigate the absorption of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol from moderate and sustained doses of virgin olive oil consumption. The study also aimed to investigate whether these phenolic compounds could be used as biomarkers of virgin olive oil intake. Ingestion of a single dose of virgin olive oil (50 ml). Thereafter, for a week, participants followed their usual diet which included 25 ml/day of the same virgin olive oil as the source of raw fat. Unitat de Recerca en Farmacologia. Institut Municipal d'Investigació Mèdica (IMIM). Seven healthy volunteers. An increase in 24 h urine of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol, after both a single-dose ingestion (50 ml) and short-term consumption (one week, 25 ml/day) of virgin olive oil (P<0.05) was observed. Urinary recoveries for tyrosol were similar after a single dose and after sustained doses of virgin olive oil. Mean recovery values for hydroxytyrosol after sustained doses were 1.5-fold those obtained after a single 50 ml dose. Tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol are absorbed from realistic doses of virgin olive oil. With regard to the dose-effect relationship, 24 h urinary tyrosol seems to be a better biomarker of sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil consumption than hydroxytyrosol.
Vázquez-Araújo, L; Adhikari, K; Chambers, E; Chambers, D H; Carbonell-Barrachina, A A
A cross-cultural study was conducted with Spanish and US consumers to gain an insight into the preferred characteristics of olive oils in both countries. Six commercial olive oils (four samples from Spain and two samples from the US) were analyzed by a highly trained panel (descriptive analysis) and also by two consumers' groups (100 consumers from Spain and 100 from the US). Demographic, acceptability, and Just-About-Right data were collected to study the preferences of both groups, and the relationships with descriptive data were explored to determine the drivers of like/dislike. The Spanish extra virgin olive oils and the imported US extra virgin olive oil were characterized by having bitter, pungent, and more green notes, and were preferred by the Spanish consumers. The US consumers liked the bland Spanish refined olive oil, and the Californian olive oil that was characterized by fruity, floral, and sweet notes. The results showed that the Spanish consumers were more aware about olive oil quality in general than their US counterparts, maybe because of a higher usage of the product in Spain. The present study provides essential data which might help producers in designing and promoting olive oils matching US consumers' requirements, an emerging market for this Mediterranean product.
Evteeva, N M
Kinetics of spending double bonds of tocotherol and accumulation of peroxides during oxidation of olive and sunflower oils were investigated. Date on spending double bonds during oxidation of commercial oils were measured for the first time.
Avni, Sharon; Ezove, Nirit; Hanani, Hilla; Yadid, Itamar; Karpovsky, Michal; Hayby, Hilla; Gover, Ofer; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty; Danay, Ofer
Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe) of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus). Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate. PMID:28718825
Avni, Sharon; Ezove, Nirit; Hanani, Hilla; Yadid, Itamar; Karpovsky, Michal; Hayby, Hilla; Gover, Ofer; Hadar, Yitzhak; Schwartz, Betty; Danay, Ofer
Mushroom polysaccharides are edible polymers that have numerous reported biological functions; the most common effects are attributed to β-glucans. In recent years, it became apparent that the less abundant α-glucans also possess potent effects in various health conditions. Here we explore several Pleurotus species for their total, β and α-glucan content. Pleurotus eryngii was found to have the highest total glucan concentrations and the highest α-glucans proportion. We also found that the stalks (stipe) of the fruit body contained higher glucan content then the caps (pileus). Since mushrooms respond markedly to changes in environmental and growth conditions, we developed cultivation methods aiming to increase the levels of α and β-glucans. Using olive mill solid waste (OMSW) from three-phase olive mills in the cultivation substrate. We were able to enrich the levels mainly of α-glucans. Maximal total glucan concentrations were enhanced up to twice when the growth substrate contained 80% of OMSW compared to no OMSW. Taking together this study demonstrate that Pleurotus eryngii can serve as a potential rich source of glucans for nutritional and medicinal applications and that glucan content in mushroom fruiting bodies can be further enriched by applying OMSW into the cultivation substrate.
... COMMISSION Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries AGENCY...-537, Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. DATES... commercial olive oil industry in the United States and major supplier countries, including production of...
Agustin, Melissa B; Sengpracha, Waya P; Phutdhawong, Weerachai
Electrocoagulation (EC) is an electrochemical technique which has been employed in the treatment of various kinds of wastewater. In this work the potential use of EC for the treatment of palm oil mill effluent (POME) was investigated. In a laboratory scale, POME from a factory site in Chumporn Province (Thailand) was subjected to EC using aluminum as electrodes and sodium chloride as supporting electrolyte. Results show that EC can reduce the turbidity, acidity, COD, and BOD of the POME as well as some of its heavy metal contents. Phenolic compounds are also removed from the effluent. Recovery techniques were employed in the coagulated fraction and the recovered compounds was analysed for antioxidant activity by DPPH method. The isolate was found to have a moderate antioxidant activity. From this investigation, it can be concluded that EC is an efficient method for the treatment of POME.
Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...
Background: Exposure to ambient particulate matter (PM) induces endothelial dysfunction, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Olive oil (OO) and fish oil (FO) supplements have beneficial effects on endothelial function. Objective: In this study we evaluated the efficacy of...
Eid, Ahmad M. M.; Baie, Saringat Haji; Arafat, Osama
Nanoemulsion is a type of emulsion that consists of fine oil-in-water dispersions, with the droplets covering the size range of 20-200 nm. It can be achieved through emulsification process. One of the processes is through low energy emulsification method. Olive oil was chosen in this study due to its efficiency in treating skin problem. Olive oil nanophase gel (NPG) formulations were performed through various ratios of olive oil, sucrose laurate and glycerin. The particle sizes and stability of the prepared olive oil nanophase gel were evaluated and the optimal formulation was then selected for the development of olive oil nanoemulsion. This study proved that the composition of oil and surfactant play an important roles in influencing the nanophase gel droplet size. Nanophase gels containing olive oil in the concentration of 50 and 60 % show good stability at 4 °C and room temperature while it was less stable at 40 °C. Olive oil nanophase gels in the concentration of 50 % and 60 % with sucrose laurate 25 % in each formulation were good candidates to prepare nanoemulsion because they have the suitable droplets size and Polydispersing Index (PDI) when compared to other formulations. A mixture of NPG 50 % and water in the ratio of 40:60 and NPG 60 % and water in the ratio of 33.3:66.7 were used to produce nanoemulsions containing 20 % of oil with negative values of zeta potential (>60) which indicate the good stability of the nanoemulsions.
Tripoli, Elisa; Giammanco, Marco; Tabacchi, Garden; Di Majo, Danila; Giammanco, Santo; La Guardia, Maurizio
The Mediterranean diet is rich in vegetables, cereals, fruit, fish, milk, wine and olive oil and has salutary biological functions. Epidemiological studies have shown a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular diseases and certain kinds of cancer in the Mediterranean area. Olive oil is the main source of fat, and the Mediterranean diet's healthy effects can in particular be attributed not only to the high relationship between unsaturated and saturated fatty acids in olive oil but also to the antioxidant property of its phenolic compounds. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, which give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste, have powerful antioxidant activity both in vivo and in vitro. The present review focuses on recent works analysing the relationship between the structure of olive oil polyphenolic compounds and their antioxidant activity. These compounds' possible beneficial effects are due to their antioxidant activity, which is related to the development of atherosclerosis and cancer, and to anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial activity.
Jabeur, Hazem; Drira, Malika; Rebai, Ahmed; Bouaziz, Mohamed
This work has been performed to ascertain that extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO) is free of adulteration. For this purpose, refined pomace olive oils (RPOOs) are commonly used for extra-virgin olive oil adulteration and repassed olive oils (ROOs) are used for lampante olive oil (LOO) fraudulent operation. Indeed, fatty acid ethyl esters could be used as a parameter for the detection of EVOO fraud with 2% RPOO. The addition of >10% RPOO to EVOO would be detected by the amount of erythrodiol, uvaol, waxes, and aliphatic alcohols. Moreover, the use of stigmasta-3,5-diene content proved to be effective in EVOO adulteration even at a low level (with 1% RPOO). For the detection of adulteration of LOO with >5% ROO, the sum of erythrodiol, uvaol, and the waxes and esters can be considered as good markers of purity. Using linear discriminant analysis can identify the most discriminant variable that allows a faster and cheaper evaluation of extra-virgin olive oil adulteration by measuring only these variables.
Chih, HuiJun; James, Anthony P; Jayasena, Vijay; Dhaliwal, Satvinder S
The total phenolic compounds of olive oil exert antiradical activity at cellular level and can prevent cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome and cancer. Increased awareness of its health benefits has increased the consumption of olive oil around the world. An alternative processing technique effective in increasing the amount of oil extracted while maintaining the oil quality is needed to meet the rising global demand for olive oil. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period significantly increased the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity by 46.23, 120.27 and 31.48% respectively. While there was no significant effect on the acidity, the peroxide value was significantly reduced by 63.85%. The organoleptic characteristics of the olive oil extracted with citric acid were also comparable to those of the control. Addition of 0.3 g mL(-1) citric acid (i.e. 30% w/v) at 1:1000 (v/w) to olive paste followed by a 30 min malaxation period in a Blixer(®) 4.0 blender is the most promising extraction technique to improve the oil recovery, concentration of total phenolic compounds and antiradical activity of the extracted olive oil without compromising other quality parameters. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.
Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P
The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils.
López-Díez, E Consuelo; Bianchi, Giorgio; Goodacre, Royston
The authentication of extra virgin olive oil and its adulteration with lower-priced oils are serious problems in the olive oil industry. In addition to the obvious effect on producer profits, adulteration can also cause severe health and safety problems. A number of techniques, including chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, have recently been employed to assess the purity of olive oils. In this study Raman spectroscopy together with multivariate and evolutionary computational-based methods have been employed to assess the ability of Raman spectroscopy to discriminate between chemically very closely related oils. Additionally, the levels of hazelnut oils used to adulterate extra virgin olive oil were successfully quantified using partial least squares and genetic programming.
Linares, Araceli; Manuel Caba, Juan; Ligero, Francisco; de la Rubia, Teresa; Martínez, José
Semisolid olive-mill residues, pine chips, and mixtures of both residues contain phytotoxic components capable of inhibiting germination and vegetative growth in plants. Solid-state cultures of Phanerochate flavido-alba on pine chips or mixtures of both residues reduce these phytotoxic effects in fermented substrates. The phenol and lipid contents in cultures detoxified by this fungus also decreases.
Piscopo, Amalia; De Bruno, Alessandra; Zappia, Angela; Ventre, Carmine; Poiana, Marco
This data article contains complementary results related to the paper "Characterization of monovarietal olive oils obtained from mills of Calabria region (Southern Italy)" (Piscopo et al., 2016) . Data was obtained by capillary-column gas chromatography, analyzing sterols and triterpene dialcohols and ethyl esters in the composition of Carolea olive oils. They were produced in different areas of Calabria region (Southern Italy), named: the Sibari׳s plateau (SP), the Valley of Sant׳ Eufemia (VSE), the Tyrrhenian southern area (TSA), the Ionian southern coast (ISC) and the Ionian area of Catanzaro (IAC). Specifically the characterized samples were 24 in the SP; 43 in the VSE; 15 in the TSA; 30 in the ISC, and 34 in the IAC, for a total amount of 146 olive oils. The differences in some compositional characteristics denoted the effect of the environmental and could be considered to improve the local productions. The compilation of this data provides a resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of this data could be found in the research article noted above.
Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Figueiredo-González, María; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Salvador, María Desamparados; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Fregapane, Giuseppe
Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food—as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)—due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices). The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases) and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed. PMID:28335517
Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; Figueiredo-González, María; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Simal-Gándara, Jesús; Salvador, María Desamparados; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Fregapane, Giuseppe
Virgin olive oil, the main fat of the Mediterranean diet, is per se considered as a functional food-as stated by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA)-due to its content in healthy compounds. The daily intake of endogenous bioactive phenolics from virgin olive oil is variable due to the influence of multiple agronomic and technological factors. Thus, a good strategy to ensure an optimal intake of polyphenols through habitual diet would be to produce enriched virgin olive oil with well-known bioactive polyphenols. Different sources of natural biological active substances can be potentially used to enrich virgin olive oil (e.g., raw materials derived from the same olive tree, mainly olive leaves and pomaces, and/or other compounds from plants and vegetables, mainly herbs and spices). The development of these functional olive oils may help in prevention of chronic diseases (such as cardiovascular diseases, immune frailty, ageing disorders and degenerative diseases) and improving the quality of life for many consumers reducing health care costs. In the present review, the most relevant scientific information related to the development of enriched virgin olive oil and their positive human health effects has been collected and discussed.
Pérez-Jiménez, Marga; Besnard, Guillaume; Dorado, Gabriel; Hernandez, Pilar
Olive oil traceability remains a challenge nowadays. DNA analysis is the preferred approach to an effective varietal identification, without any environmental influence. Specifically, olive organelle genomics is the most promising approach for setting up a suitable set of markers as they would not interfere with the pollinator variety DNA traces. Unfortunately, plastid DNA (cpDNA) variation of the cultivated olive has been reported to be low. This feature could be a limitation for the use of cpDNA polymorphisms in forensic analyses or oil traceability, but rare cpDNA haplotypes may be useful as they can help to efficiently discriminate some varieties. Recently, the sequencing of olive plastid genomes has allowed the generation of novel markers. In this study, the performance of cpDNA markers on olive oil matrices, and their applicability on commercial Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) oils were assessed. By using a combination of nine plastid loci (including multi-state microsatellites and short indels), it is possible to fingerprint six haplotypes (in 17 Spanish olive varieties), which can discriminate high-value commercialized cultivars with PDO. In particular, a rare haplotype was detected in genotypes used to produce a regional high-value commercial oil. We conclude that plastid haplotypes can help oil traceability in commercial PDO oils and set up an experimental methodology suitable for organelle polymorphism detection in the complex olive oil matrices. PMID:23950947
Perestrelo, R; Silva, C; Silva, P; Câmara, J S
The global volatile profile of commercial virgin olive oils and flavoured olive oils with aromatic/medicinal plants, was established using liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) and headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-qMS). More than 60 volatile organic compounds (VOCs belonging to different groups were identified using both methods. Olive oils volatile profile was slightly influenced by maceration process, which occurred at room temperature (20±2°C) for 15days. The predominant differences were observed in terpenoids group, since some of them were only identified in the flavoured olive oils, while others showed an increase with the maceration process. VOCs mass transfer from plants to olive oils could explain the observed results. Principal components analysis (PCA) applied to LLME/GC-qMS data allowed to distinguish the olive oils. The flavoured oils would increase the use of olive oil among consumers as consequence of the improvement of its aromatic profile and healthy properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Issaoui, Manel; Flamini, Guido; Souid, Sondess; Bendini, Alessandra; Barbieri, Sara; Gharbi, Ines; Toschi, Tullia Gallina; Cioni, Pier Luigi; Hammami, Mohamed
With the aim to expand the olive oil market to a larger number of consumers who are not familiar with the sensory characteristics of virgin olive oil, the use of novel products known as "flavored olive oils", obtained by adding different kind of spices and aromatic herbs, is spreading in many countries. In order to test consumer acceptability of this type of product, in a country (Tunisia) in which virgin olive oil is regularly consumed, flavored olive oils were prepared by adding aromatic extracts of thyme, oregano, a mix of herbs (used as pizza seasoning), rosemary, and basil to a monovarietal Chemlali virgin olive oil and a consumer test on 206 subjects was performed. Selected quality parameters (free acidity, peroxide number, oxidative stability, specific absorption at K232 nm and K270 nm) were also measured and no significant variations were detected. Slight differences were found concerning the content of minor compounds (chlorophylls, carotenoids and total phenols). On the other hand, notable differences were seen in the profiles of volatile compounds, which appeared to be responsible for the observed variability in consumer acceptance. Although the unflavored oil was more appreciated than the flavored ones, among the latter, thyme flavored olive oil was the most appreciated.
Korifi, R; Plard, J; Le Dréau, Y; Rébufa, C; Rutledge, D N; Dupuy, N
Lipid oxidation during olive oil storage induces changes in the metabolite content of the oil, which can be measured using so-called quality indices. High values indicate poor quality oils that should be labeled accordingly or removed from the market. Based on quality indices measured over two years for two olive oils, the AComDim method was used to highlight the influence of five factors (olive oil type, oxygen, light, temperature and storage time) on oxidative stability during storage. To identify the significant factors, two full factorial experimental designs were built, each containing four of the five factors examined. The results showed that all five factors, as well as some two-factor interactions, were significant. Phenols and hydroperoxides were identified as being the most sensitive to these factors, and potential markers for the ageing of olive oil.
Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel
The most abundant phenolic compounds in olive oils are the phenethyl alcohols hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. An optimized method to quantify the total concentration of these substances in olive oils has been described. It consists of the acid hydrolysis of the aglycons and the extraction of phenethyl alcohols with a 2 M HCl solution. Recovery of the phenethyl alcohols from oils was very high (<1% remained in the extracted oils), and the limits of quantification (LOQ) were 0.8 and 1.4 mg/kg for hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, respectively. Precision values, both intraday and interday, remained below 3% for both compounds. The final optimized method allowed for the analysis of several types of commercial olive oils to evaluate their hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol contents. The results show that this method is simple, robust, and reliable for a routine analysis of the total concentration of these substances in olive oils.
Burian, C.; Brezmes, J.; Correig, X.; Martinelli, E.; Di Natale, C.
Olive oil adulteration is often complicated and more than one test is necessary to determine olive oil authenticity. In particular, detection of hazelnut oil in admixtures has been difficult to confirm due to the similarity of the two oils. In this work a method to identify the olive oil adulteration is presented based on GC-MS analysis coupled with data analysis techniques and a feature selection step.
Nakhostin-Roohi, Babak; Khoshkhahesh, Faegheh; Bohlooli, Shahab
Objective: The main purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of virgin olive oil phonophoresis on female athletes' anterior knee pain (AKP). Materials and Methods: A double blinded randomized clinical trial was conducted. Ninety-three female athletes suffering from AKP voluntarily participated in this study. Patients were randomly assigned into olive oil (n=31), piroxicam (n=31) or base gel phonophoresis (n=31) groups. At the baseline visit, the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) questionnaire was filled by subjects who were then treated with olive oil, piroxicam or pure phonophoresis for 12 sessions. After 6 and 12 sessions of physiotherapy, subjects filled the questionnaire again. Main outcomes were significant improvement in pain, stiffness, physical function, and total WOMAC scores. Results: Although, there was a significant reduction in symptoms of AKP at the end of the therapy in all groups (p<0.05), but in olive oil group, this improvement was seen after 6 sessions of treatment (p<0.001). A significant difference between olive oil group and piroxicam and/or phonophoresis group was observed after 6 sessions of therapy (p<0.05). Conclusion: It could be proposed that phonophoresis with virgin olive oil is as effective as piroxicam gel on lowering WOMAC scores of AKP in female athletes and also has several beneficial properties including faster effect and shorter duration of therapy. The exact mechanism of beneficial action of virgin olive oil on AKP is not clear and requires further studies. PMID:27761423
Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Arnal, Carmen; Navarro, María A; Osada, Jesús
As olive oil is the main source of calories in the Mediterranean diet, a great deal of research has been devoted to characterizing its role in atherosclerosis. Virgin olive oil is an oily matrix that contains hydrocarbons, mainly squalene; triterpenes such as uvaol, erythrodiol, oleanolic, and maslinic acid; phytosterols; and a wide range of phenolic compounds comprising simple phenols, flavonoids, secoiridoids, and lignans. In this review, we analyze the studies dealing with atherosclerosis and olive oil in several species. A protective role of virgin olive oil against atherosclerosis has been shown in ApoE-deficient mice and hamsters. In the former animal, sex, dose, and dietary cholesterol are modulators of the outcome. Contradictory findings have been reported for rabbits, a circumstance that could be due to the profusion of experimental designs, differing in terms of doses and animal strains, as well as sources of olive oils. This role has yet to be fully validated in humans. Minor components of olive oil have been shown to be involved in atherosclerosis protection. Nevertheless, evidence of the potential of isolated compounds or the right combination of them to achieve the antiatherosclerotic effect of virgin olive oil is inconclusive and will undoubtedly require further experimental support.
Lou-Bonafonte, José M; Fitó, Montse; Covas, María-Isabel; Farràs, Marta; Osada, Jesús
The low incidence of cardiovascular disease in countries bordering the Mediterranean basin, where olive oil is the main source of dietary fat, and the negative association between this disease with high density lipoproteins has stimulated interest. This review summarizes the current knowledge gathered from human and animal studies regarding olive oil and high density lipoproteins. Cumulative evidence suggests that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and its main apolipoprotein A1, may be increased by consuming olive oil when compared with carbohydrate and low fat diets in humans. Conflicting results have been found in many studies when olive oil diets were compared with other sources of fat. The role of virgin olive oil minor components on its protective effect has been demonstrated by a growing number of studies although its exact mechanism remains to be elucidated. Dietary amount of olive oil, use of virgin olive oil, cholesterol intake, and physiopathological states such as genetic background, sex, age, obesity or fatty liver are variables that may offset those effects. Further studies in this field in humans and in animal models are warranted due to the complexity of HDL particles.
Bennett, Samantha M; Hayes, John E
Chemesthetic sensations elicited by ibuprofen, extra-virgin olive oil, and capsaicin were compared to quantify perceptual differences between known agonists of TRPA1 and TRPV1. Extra virgin olive oil contains a phenolic compound, oleocanthal, which is thought to share unique chemesthetic qualities with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, ibuprofen. Pilot work suggested participants had difficulty distinguishing between multiple chemesthetic subqualities (e.g., burn, sting, itch, tickle, etc.) in a multiattribute rating task. Here, we assessed overall irritation via direct scaling, and a check all that apply task was used to collect information about chemesthetic subqualities over time. Replicated ratings were collected at discrete intervals using the generalized labeled magnitude scale to generate time-intensity curves; maximum intensity (Imax) and area under the curve were extracted for each participant. Intensity responses varied substantially across participants, and within a participant, the relationship was strongest between ibuprofen and olive oil. However, there were also positive, albeit weaker, correlations between capsaicin and ibuprofen and capsaicin and olive oil. The correlation found between olive oil and capsaicin may suggest the presence of unknown TRPV1 agonists in olive oil. This view was also supported by the qualitative data: capsaicin was described most often as burning and warm/hot, whereas ibuprofen was numbing and tickling. Olive oil shared characteristics with both capsaicin (warm/hot) and ibuprofen (tickle).
Giacintucci, Veronica; Di Mattia, Carla; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Neri, Lilia; Pittia, Paola
The effect of olive oil phenolic content and pattern on the physical properties and stability of olive oil mayonnaise-like emulsions has been investigated. Mayonnaises were formulated with either naturally phenolic-rich extra virgin olive oils or purified olive oil artificially enriched with a phenolic-rich olive extract and pure oleuropein. Mayonnaises were characterized by droplet size distribution, microstructure, textural properties and flow behaviour. The addition of phenolic extracts significantly affected the dispersion degree of the corresponding mayonnaise-like emulsions, their microstructure and physical stability especially in the systems prepared with purified olive oil treated with pure oleuropein and the highest olive phenolic extract concentration. The viscosity and back-extrusion analyses evidenced that the systems characterized by a relatively high content of phenolics, either natural or by addition, presented lower yield stress and viscosity indices and were easier to deform and to break. This study confirms the main role of olive phenolic compounds, and in particular that of oleuropein, in the dispersion state, and physical properties of emulsions with main effects on their quality and stability. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Delgado-Moreno, L; Nogales, R; Romero, E
Biobeds systems containing soil, peat and straw (SPS) are used worldwide to eliminate pesticide point-source contamination, but implantation is difficult when peat and/or straw are not available. Novel biobeds composed of soil, olive pruning and wet olive mill cake (SCPr) or its vermicompost (SVPr) were assayed at pilot scale for its use in olive grove areas. Their removal efficiency for five pesticides applied at high concentration was compared with the biobed with SPS. The effect of a grass layer on the efficiency of these biobeds was also evaluated. Pesticides were retained mainly in the upper layer. In non-planted biobeds with SCPr and SVPr, pesticides dissipation was higher than in SPS, except for diuron. In the biobed with SVPr, with the highest pesticide dissipation capacity, the removed amount of dimethoate, imidacloprid, tebuconazole, diuron and oxyfluorfen was 100, 80, 73, 75 and 50%, respectively. The grass layer enhanced dehydrogenase and diphenol-oxidase activities, modified the pesticides dissipation kinetics and favored the pesticide downward movement. One metabolite of imidacloprid, 3 of oxyfluorfen and 4 of diuron were identified by GC-MS. These novel biobeds represent an alternative to the traditional one and a contribution to promote a circular economy for the olive-oil production. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rinaldi, S; Barbanera, M; Lascaro, E
The cradle to grave carbon footprint (CF) and energy footprint (EF) analysis of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) produced in the Province of Perugia (Umbria, Italy) is assessed. In this study, olive orchard cultivation, EVOO extraction, bottling, packaging, storage at -18°C and distribution in the main importing countries were studied from a life cycle assessment perspective, with the main objective of identifying the processes with the largest environmental impacts. The selected functional unit was 1L of EVOO, packaged for distribution. Inventory data was gathered mainly through both direct communication using questionnaires and direct measurements. To determine the CF the ISO/TS 14067:2013 was followed while the EF was evaluated according to ISO standards 14040 and 14044. Results showed that the most impacting process is the distribution, mainly due to the choice of employing air transport. The main other hot spots identified were the olive orchard fertilization, EVOO freezing during its storage at the olive mill factory and the manufacture of glass bottles. Suggested improvement opportunities included shifts in the EVOO transportation policy, the introduction of lighter glass bottles in the bottling process, the use of cooling agent with lower global warming potential and the employment of biodiesel in the farming machineries.
Ayed, L; Assas, N; Sayadi, S; Hamdi, M
Decolourization of black olive mill wastewaters (OMW) by depolymerization of phenolic compounds by Geotrichum candidum. Our results show that G. candidum is able to grow on black OMW supplemented with carbon source and nitrogen. The Geotrichum growth decreased the pH and induced a 49% of colour removal when the black OMW was supplemented with glycerol and diammonium tartrate (20 mm ammonium). An improvement of 10% of colour removal was observed when the culture was supplemented with veratryl alcohol. The decolourization was inhibited with glutamate as nitrogen source. Our results suggest the potential use of G. candidum in black OMW decolourization and support the concept that lignin peroxidase (LiP) of G. candidum is involved in the depolymerization of phenolic compounds. This is the first report of LiP production by G. candidum on OMW.
Hamdi, M. Universite de Provence, Marseille )
The anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) were studied in batch anaerobic digestion experiments. Anaerobic digestion of OMW or the supernatant of its centrifugation, the methane production was achieved at up to 5-15% (V/V) dilution corresponding to only 5-20 g/L COD. The washed suspended solids of OMW were toxic at up to 80 g/L COD; however, the kinetic of biodegradability of OMW or the supernatant was faster than for suspended solids, which are constituted mealy of cellulose and lignin. The darkly colored polyphenols induce the problem of biodegradation of OMW, whereas the long chain fatty acids (LCFA), tannins and simple phenolic compounds are responsible for its toxicity for methanogenic bacteria. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Moya Ramírez, Ignacio; Altmajer Vaz, Deisi; Banat, Ibrahim M; Marchant, Roger; Jurado Alameda, Encarnación; García Román, Miguel
The aim of this work was to demonstrate the effectiveness of hydrolysis pretreatment of olive mill (OMW) waste before use as a carbon source in biosurfactant production by fermentation. Three hydrolysis methods were assessed: enzymatic hydrolysis, acid pretreatment plus enzymatic hydrolysis, and acid hydrolysis. Fermentation was carried out using two bacterial species: Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus subtilis. Our results showed that the enzymatic hydrolysis was the best pretreatment, yielding up to 29.5 and 13.7mg/L of rhamnolipids and surfactins respectively. Glucose did not show significant differences in comparison to enzymatically hydrolysed OMW. At the best conditions found rhamnolipids and surfactins reached concentrations of 299 and 26.5mg/L; values considerably higher than those obtained with non-hydrolysed OMW. In addition, enzymatic pretreatment seemed to partially reduce the inhibitory effects of OMW on surfactin production. Therefore, enzymatic hydrolysis proved to effectively increase the productivity of these biosurfactants using OMW as the sole carbon source.
Paraskeva, C A; Papadakis, V G; Kanellopoulou, D G; Koutsoukos, P G; Angelopoulos, K C
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) produced from small units scattered in rural areas of Southern Europe is a major source of pollution of surface and subsurface water. In the present work, a treatment scheme based on physical separation methods is presented. The investigation was carried out using a pilot-plant unit equipped with ultrafiltration, nanofiltration, and reverse osmosis membranes. Approximately 80% of the total volume of wastewater treated by the membrane units was sufficiently cleaned to meet the standards for irrigation water. The concentrated fractions collected in the treatment concentrates were characterized by high organic load and high content of phenolic compounds. The concentrates were tested in hydroponic systems to examine their toxicity towards undesired herbs. The calculations of the cost of the overall process showed that fixed and operational costs could be recovered from the exploitation of OMW byproducts as water for irrigation and/or as bioherbicides.
Roila, Rossana; Branciari, Raffaella; Ortenzi, Roberta; Urbani, Stefania; Servili, Maurizio; Valiani, Andrea
Olive mill wastewater polyphenol extract was tested for antimicrobial activity against 64 strains of Pseudomonas fluorescens responsible for mozzarella discolouration. The extract showed a minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)50 value of 5 mg/mL and a MIC90 value of 7 mg/mL. The MBC50 and MBC90 values corresponded to 6 and 8 mg/mL, respectively. The MIC concentration (7 mg/mL) was demonstrated to have a bacteriostatic effect while maintaining the bacterial concentration on the levels of the inoculum for 48 hours. The 3/2 MIC concentration was responsible for four logs CFU/mL depletion in colony count after 24 h. As the extract concentration decreased from MIC value, no inhibitory effects were recorded. PMID:27800450
Sampedro, I; D'Annibale, A; Ocampo, J A; Stazi, S R; García-Romera, I
The present study investigated the ability of the non-pathogenic fungus Fusarium lateritium to either degrade or modify aromatic substances in olive-mill dry residue (DOR) and to reduce its phytotoxicity. The 80% reduction of ethylacetate extractable phenols in DOR colonized by the fungus for 20 weeks appeared to be due to polymerization reactions of phenol molecules as suggested by mass-balance ultrafiltration and size-exclusion chromatography experiments. Several lignin-modifying oxidases, including laccase, Mn-peroxidase and Mn-inhibited peroxidase were detected in F. lateritium solid-state cultures. Tests performed with tomato seedlings in soils containing 6% (w/w) sterilized non-inoculated DOR showed that the waste was highly phytotoxic. By contract, F. lateritium growth on DOR for 20 weeks led to a complete removal of the waste toxicity and to a higher shoot dry weight of tomato plants than that obtained in the absence of DOR.
Boukchina, R; Choi, E; Kim, S; Yu, Y B; Cheung, Y J
This study was conducted to evaluate the treatability of OMW (olive mill wastewater) with sewage and sewage sludge, which could supplement nutrients and microbes required for OMW treatment and reduce its possible toxicity. The amount of OMW added to an aeration tank was based on the loading difference between the designed and actual COD loads, while the amount added to anaerobic digestion for energy recovery was determined by CH4 production. The COD removal efficiencies were 70-85% for both systems. Compost of OMW with dried sewage sludge also showed a similar temperature profile without OMW addition. This strongly suggested that OMW can be treated at a sewage plant without pretreatment and the treated effluent can be reused in irrigation for an arid region.
Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza
Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia. The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. The results showed that the first five groups' mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials.
Boland-Nazar, Najmeh Sadat; Eslamirad, Zahra; Sarmadian, Hossein; Ghasemikhah, Reza
Background Giardia lamblia is a common intestinal parasite that has been reported all over the world. Objectives This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil on the cyst of G. lamblia. Methods The olive oil was ozonized based on international standards and confirmed by the world health organization (WHO) at various times in a generator. The ozone concentration of olive oil was adjusted at 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 mg/g based on ozone absorption. Giardia lamblia cysts were isolated from heavily infected stool samples and the sucrose gradient flotation technique. Five groups of triple tubes containing Giardia cysts were exposed to olive oil with 32, 64, 96, 128, 160 ozone concentrations, and the sixth and seventh groups were exposed to non-ozonized olive oil and normal saline, respectively. The tubes were placed at room temperature, and every four hours, the mortality of the Giardia cysts was assessed. Results The results showed that the first five groups’ mortality rate of Giardia cysts reached 100% in 100 hours. An increasing concentration of ozone in olive oil leads to an increase in the mortality rate of Giardia cysts. The results showed a significant difference in the mean time of the mortality in all the groups (P ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, the higher fatality effect of ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil (Ozonized Olive Oil = OZO) was proved in comparison with metronidazole in vitro. Conclusions We concluded that ozonized organic extra-virgin olive oil was a growth inhibitor of Giardia cysts, and concerning its compatibility with a biological system, it is recommended for further clinical trials. PMID:28138377
Cayuela, M L; Millner, P D; Meyer, S L F; Roig, A
The phytotoxic and antimicrobial properties of olive mill wastes have been widely investigated and demonstrated over the past decade. However, their potential utilization as biodegradable pesticides against plant pathogens is still poorly understood. In this study, a series of laboratory bioassays was designed to test the inhibitory effects of sterile water extracts of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) and TPOMW composts with different degrees of stabilization on several different plant pathogens. Fungicidal properties of TPOMW extracts, assayed in a microwell assay format, showed that the growth of Phytophthora capsici was consistently and strongly inhibited by all TPOMW extracts diluted 1:10 (w:v). In contrast, suppression of Pythium ultimum and Botrytis cinerea by the extracts was not as strong and depended on the specific TPOMW sample. Mature compost inhibited P. capsici and B. cinerea at dilutions as great as 1:50, w:v. Neither TPOMW nor TPOMW compost extracts were able to inhibit the growth of the basidiomycete root rot agent Rhizoctonia solani. In addition, studies were conducted on the allelopathic effects of TPOMW extracts on seed germination of four highly invasive and globally distributed weeds (Amaranthus retroflexus, Solanum nigrum, Chenopodium album and Sorghum halepense). Both the TPOMW and immature TPOMW compost extracts substantially inhibited germination of A. retroflexus and S. nigrum, whereas mature composts extracts only partially reduced the germination of S. nigrum. Finally, TPOMW extracts strongly inhibited egg hatch and second-stage juvenile (J2) motility of the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. However, only higher concentrations of stage-one and stage-two TPOMW compost extracts exerted a suppressive effect on both J2 motility and on egg hatch. The study shows the high potential of naturally occurring chemicals present in TPOMW and TPOMW composts that should be further investigated as bio-pesticides for their use in sustainable
Cayuela, M L; Millner, P; Slovin, J; Roig, A
Two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) is considered the main problem confronting the modern oil extraction and processing industry. Composting has been recently proposed as a suitable method to treat TPOMW so that it is suitable for use in agriculture. In the work reported here, the Lemna gibba bioassay was tested to assess the toxicity of TPOMW before and during the composting process. The method was compared with the Lepidium sativum bioassay and with other chemical maturity indices traditionally reported in the literature. The L. gibba test proved to be a simple, sensitive, and accurate method to evaluate toxicity before and during the composting of TPOMW. Plant growth response was measured by two methods: counting the number of fronds (leaves) and measuring total frond area (TFA) with image analysis software. Compared to the counting of fronds (L. gibba) or seeds (L. sativum), the use of area-measuring software permitted a very rapid, unbiased and easy way of analysing the toxicity of TPOMW before and during composting. Although the accuracy of the frond count method was similar to the traditional cress seed test, data analysis showed that the TFA measurement method was statistically more accurate (significantly lower variance) than the frond count approach. Highly significant correlations were found between TFA and some important maturation indices commonly reported in literature indicating that the L. gibba bioassay can be a useful tool to determine the degree of maturity of TPOMW composts.
Hanafi, F; Belaoufi, A; Mountadar, M; Assobhei, O
In order to exploit the fertilizer value of olive oil mill wastewaters (OMW), a novel method has been developed for its treatment. OMW effluents were pre-treated first by electrocoagulation using aluminum electrode and then by a biological process using a selected strain of Aspergillus niger van Tieghem. The effect of treatments was assessed through COD removal, reduction of total phenols, and decrease of phytotoxicity using durum wheat (Triticum durum) seeds. This sequential treatment scheme was capable of reducing concentration of organics, phenolics and phytotoxicity. The goal of this investigation was achieved, the phytotoxicity was completely removed and the germination index was 106% of OMW after sequential treatment. It can be concluded that the sequential process of OMW treatment might serve for the production of a fertilizer which is able to improve the growth of plants. These results are encouraging in the context of developing a low-budget technology for the effective management of OMW. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Amaral-Silva, Nuno; Martins, Rui C; Castro-Silva, Sérgio; Quinta-Ferreira, Rosa M
A complete industrial treatment system (involving the integration of coagulation/flocculation and Fenton processes) to depurate real wastewaters coming from two-phase olive oil production mills has been studied. The experimental results indicated that at the end of this combined strategy, involving a primary physical separation stage followed by Fenton's chemical oxidation, chemical oxygen demand (COD) is reduced up to 90% and total polyphenols' concentration is decreased up to 92%. The treated stream biodegradability (BOD5/COD) reached 0.52 and the Total Suspended Solids (TSSs) and Total Dissolved Solids (TDSs) decreased up to 95% and 69%, respectively. Fenton's procedure was optimized bearing in mind the pH adjustment step, different procedures for hydrogen peroxide addition and the use of coagulants instead of the chemical precipitation (by raising pH) to promote iron sludge settling. Our results demonstrated that pH (3.0 ± 0.1) control during the oxidation reaction improves the oxidation efficiency. Moreover, the final NaOH addition is essential to a better sludge formation and consequent precipitation of the residual iron removing also some organic matter.
Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Uceda, M
The effect of high-power ultrasound on olive paste, on laboratory thermo-mixing operations for virgin olive oil extraction, has been studied. Direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn (105 W cm(-2) and 24 kHz) and indirect sonication with an ultrasound-cleaning bath (150 W and 25 kHz) were applied and their effects compared with the conventional thermal treatment. A quick-heating of olive paste, from ambient (12-20 degrees C) to optimal temperature conditions (28-30 degrees C), and an oil extractability improvement were observed when applying sonication. Better extractability was obtained by direct sonication for high moisture olives (>50%) whereas indirect sonication gave greater extractability for low moisture olive fruits (<50%). Optimal application of ultrasound was achieved with direct sonication for 4 min at the beginning of paste malaxation and with indirect sonication during the malaxation time. Effect of high-power ultrasound on oil quality parameters and nutritional and sensory characteristics were studied. Changes in quality parameters (free acidity value, peroxide value, K270 and K232) were not found, however significant effects on the levels of bitterness, polyphenols, tocopherols (vitamin E), chlorophyll and carotenoids were observed. Oils from sonicated pastes showed lower bitterness and higher content of tocopherols, chlorophylls and carotenoids. Related to sensory characteristics, off-flavour volatiles were not detected in oils from sonication treatments. Total peak areas of volatiles and the ratio hexanal/E-2-hexenal, as determined by SPME analysis, were lower than non-sonicated reference oils; sensory evaluation by panel test showed higher intensity of positive attributes and lesser of negative characteristics than those untreated.
Sacchi, Raffaele; Paduano, Antonello; Savarese, Maria; Vitaglione, Paola; Fogliano, Vincenzo
The aim of this chapter is to provide a brief overview of the recent results of studies on extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and its interactions with other food ingredients during cooking, to highlight basic molecular aspects of the "magic" of EVOO and its role in Mediterranean gastronomy. The use of raw EVOO added to foods after cooking (or as a salad oil) is the best way to express the original flavour and to maximize the intake of natural antioxidants and compounds related to positive effects on human health (hypotensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancerogenic, among others). EVOO, however, also exhibits its protective properties during/after cooking. Different chemical interactions between biophenolic compounds and other food ingredients (water, milk proteins, carotenoids of tomato, omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in canned-in-oil fish and meat or fish proteins) occur. Even during cooking, EVOO exhibits strong antioxidant properties and influences the overall flavour of cooked foods. The physical (partitioning, emulsion) and chemical (hydrolysis, covalent binding, antioxidant properties) phenomena occurring during cooking of EVOO are discussed with emphasis on the changes in the sensory (bitterness and fruity flavour) and nutritional qualities of some traditional Mediterranean foods. In particular, tomato-oil interactions during cooking, fish canning in EVOO, meat marinated in EVOO before cooking and roasting and frying in EVOO are examined. The interactions between EVOO antioxidants and flavours with milk proteins are also briefly discussed.
Cicerale, S; Lucas, L J; Keast, R S J
The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of chronic degenerative diseases and higher life expectancy. These health benefits have been partially attributed to the dietary consumption of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) by Mediterranean populations, and more specifically the phenolic compounds naturally present in EVOO. Studies involving humans and animals (in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have potentially beneficial biological effects resulting from their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the biological activities of specific olive oil phenolic compounds together with information on their concentration in EVOO, bioavailability and stability over time.
Background It is unknown whether individuals at high cardiovascular risk sustain a benefit in cardiovascular disease from increased olive oil consumption. The aim was to assess the association between total olive oil intake, its varieties (extra virgin and common olive oil) and the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality in a Mediterranean population at high cardiovascular risk. Methods We included 7,216 men and women at high cardiovascular risk, aged 55 to 80 years, from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) study, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, clinical trial. Participants were randomized to one of three interventions: Mediterranean Diets supplemented with nuts or extra-virgin olive oil, or a control low-fat diet. The present analysis was conducted as an observational prospective cohort study. The median follow-up was 4.8 years. Cardiovascular disease (stroke, myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death) and mortality were ascertained by medical records and National Death Index. Olive oil consumption was evaluated with validated food frequency questionnaires. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards and generalized estimating equations were used to assess the association between baseline and yearly repeated measurements of olive oil intake, cardiovascular disease and mortality. Results During follow-up, 277 cardiovascular events and 323 deaths occurred. Participants in the highest energy-adjusted tertile of baseline total olive oil and extra-virgin olive oil consumption had 35% (HR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.47 to 0.89) and 39% (HR: 0.61; 95% CI: 0.44 to 0.85) cardiovascular disease risk reduction, respectively, compared to the reference. Higher baseline total olive oil consumption was associated with 48% (HR: 0.52; 95% CI: 0.29 to 0.93) reduced risk of cardiovascular mortality. For each 10 g/d increase in extra-virgin olive oil consumption, cardiovascular disease and mortality risk decreased by 10% and 7%, respectively. No significant
Attya, Mohamed; Russo, Anna; Perri, Enzo; Sindona, Giovanni
The role of lipase to catalyze hydrolysis and transesterification of triacylglycerols (TAGs) was evaluated in model systems as well as in virgin olive oil. Tandem mass spectrometry was applied in the identification of modified TAGs, ionized by electrospray, formed during the incubation of selected TAGs with mono and di carboxylic acids. The oligomerization of TAGs was observed in authentic olive oil samples and verified in model systems under catalysis exerted by lipase, whose presence in olive oil was already documented. The hydrolytic pathways taken under enzymatic treatment is balanced by the formation of TAG oligomers that should not alter the nutritional value of the aliment. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Wu, Jingzhu; Dong, Jingjing; Dong, Wenfei; Chen, Yan; Liu, Cuiling
A classification method of support vector machines with linear kernel was employed to authenticate genuine olive oil based on near-infrared spectroscopy. There were three types of adulteration of olive oil experimented in the study. The adulterated oil was respectively soybean oil, rapeseed oil and the mixture of soybean and rapeseed oil. The average recognition rate of second experiment was more than 90% and that of the third experiment was reach to 100%. The results showed the method had good performance in classifying genuine olive oil and the adulteration with small variation range of adulterated concentration and it was a promising and rapid technique for the detection of oil adulteration and fraud in the food industry.
Parvini, Farshid; Sicardo, M Dolores; Hosseini-Mazinani, Mehdi; Martinez-Rivas, Jose M; Hernandez, M Luisa
The specific contribution of different stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD) genes to the oleic acid content in olive (Olea europaea) fruit has been studied. Towards that end, we isolated three distinct cDNA clones encoding three SAD isoforms from olive (cv. Picual), as revealed by sequence analysis. The expression levels of olive SAD genes were determined in different tissues from Picual and Arbequina cultivars, including developing mesocarp and seed, together with the unsaturated fatty acid content. Lipid and gene expression analysis indicate that OeSAD2 seems to be the main gene contributing to the oleic acid content of the olive fruit and, therefore, of the virgin olive oil. This conclusion was confirmed when the study was extended to Hojiblanca, Picudo and Manzanilla cultivars. Furthermore, our data indicate that the olive microsomal oleate desaturase gene OeFAD2-2, but not OeSAD2, is responsible for the linoleic acid content in the virgin olive oil.
Gómez-Coca, R B; Moreda, W; Pérez-Camino, M C
The scientific work on the authenticity and quality of olive oil is an ever-growing area. Olive oil genuineness is not only valuable for the producers, but also for the consumers who expect an actual correspondence between the products they purchase and the information on the packaging labels. Sometimes oil's rejection by consumers is just a matter of taste, sometimes is a more objective question. Low quality olive oils with weak organoleptic defects are the targets of illegal blends that can be detected by determining the content of fatty acid alkyl esters (FAAEs). In this line we have established a relationship between the FAAEs concentration of olive oils and their sensory classification. Besides, a connection between the presence of large quantities of FAAEs and fermentative organoleptic defects has been proven.
Raieta, Katia; Muccillo, Livio; Colantuoni, Vittorio
Extra virgin olive oil production has a worldwide economic impact. The use of this brand, however, is of great concern to Institutions and private industries because of the increasing number of fraud and adulteration attempts to the market products. Here, we present a novel, reliable and not expensive method for extracting the DNA from commercial virgin and extra virgin olive oils. The DNA is stable overtime and amenable for molecular analyses; in fact, by carrying out simple sequence repeats (SSRs) markers analysis, we characterise the genetic profile of monovarietal olive oils. By comparing the oil-derived pattern with that of the corresponding tree, we can unambiguously identify four cultivars from Samnium, a region of Southern Italy, and distinguish them from reference and more widely used varieties. Through a parentage statistical analysis, we also identify the putative pollinators, establishing an unprecedented and powerful tool for olive oil traceability. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ouzounidou, G; Asfi, M; Sotirakis, N; Papadopoulou, P; Gaitis, F
We have studied the changes in the physiology and nutritional quality of Lycopersicon esculentum exposed to olive mill wastewater (OMW) with regard to cultivation in sand and soil. Tomato plant performance decreased with increasing concentration of OMW to both substrates. Root was more sensitive to OMW than the upper parts of the plants, grown either in sand or in soil for 10 days and 3 months, respectively, probably due to the direct OMW toxicity on roots as compared to other parts. Significant restriction on uptake and translocation of nutrients (K, Na, Fe, Ca and Mg) under OMW application was found. The decrease in the photochemical efficiency of PSII photochemistry in the light adapted state and the big decrease in photochemical quenching, indicate that OMW resulted in diminished reoxidation of Q(A)(-) and started to inactivate the reaction centers of PSII. The OMW supply on soil and sand, resulted in leaf water stress and lesser water use efficiency. Plants treated with high OMW concentration, produced fewer but bigger tomatoes as compared to plants treated with lower OMW concentration. Generally, fruit yield and nutritional value was inhibited under OMW application.
García-González, Diego L; Tena, Noelia; Aparicio, Ramón
New cultivars with greater adaptability to modern irrigated (super-) high-density orchards and producing good sensory quality oils are highly demanded by an olive oil industry in continuous change. This work analyzes olive oil sensory quality, in terms of phenols and volatiles that are responsible for virgin olive oil flavor, for three cultivars: Picual, which is used for >15% of world olive oil production; Arbequina, which is cultivated worldwide; and the new progeny Sikitita, which is derived from the other two. The availability of data at three different levels of ripeness allowed quantifying the genetic and olive maturity effects on the oil composition by means of the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Phenols and volatiles varied greatly both with genotype and, to a lesser extent, with olive maturity. With regard to the phenol profile, the crossbred cultivar Sikitita showed a higher degree of similarity with the Arbequina variety. The volatile composition of var. Sikitita, however, varies significantly from that of Arbequina, in the first stages of the olive ripeness, and becomes more similar to that of Picual as the level of ripeness increases.
Dias, Luís G; Fernandes, Andreia; Veloso, Ana C A; Machado, Adélio A S C; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M
Label authentication of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is of great importance. A novel approach based on a potentiometric electronic tongue is proposed to classify oils obtained from single olive cultivars (Portuguese cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural, Verdeal Transmontana; Spanish cvs. Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Picual). A meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm was applied to select the most informative sets of sensors to establish predictive linear discriminant models. Olive oils were correctly classified according to olive cultivar (sensitivities greater than 97%) and each Spanish olive oil was satisfactorily discriminated from the Portuguese ones with the exception of cv. Arbequina (sensitivities from 61% to 98%). Also, the discriminant ability was related to the polar compounds contents of olive oils and so, indirectly, with organoleptic properties like bitterness, astringency or pungency. Therefore the proposed E-tongue can be foreseen as a useful auxiliary tool for trained sensory panels for the classification of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Albillos, Silvia M; Ortega, Natividad
The traceability of olive oil is an unresolved issue that remains a challenge. In this field, DNA-based techniques are very powerful tools for discrimination that are less negatively influenced by environmental conditions than other techniques. More specifically, quantitative real time PCR (qPCR) achieves a high degree of sensitivity, although the DNA that it can directly isolate from these oils presents drawbacks. Our study reports the analysis of eight systems, in order to determine their suitability for olive detection in oil and oil-derived foodstuffs. The eight systems were analyzed on the basis of their sensitivity and specificity in the qPCR assay, their relative sensitivity to olive DNA detection and DNA mixtures, their sensitivity and specificity to olive in vegetable oils and the detection of olive in commercial products. The results show that the PetN-PsbM system, designed in this study, is a suitable and reliable technique in relation to olive oil and olive ingredients in both food authentication and food safety processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kalua, Curtis M; Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D
'Frantoio' olive fruits were stored at low temperature (4 +/- 2 degrees C) for 3 weeks to investigate the effect of postharvest fruit storage on virgin olive oil quality. Volatile compounds and phenolic compounds explained the changes in sensory quality that could not be explained with quality indices (FFA, PV, K232, and K270). Increases in concentrations of ( E)-2-hexenal and hexanal corresponded to positive sensory quality, whereas increases in ( E)-2-hexenol and (+)-acetoxypinoresinol were associated with negative sensory quality. Volatile and phenolic compounds were also indicative of the period of low-temperature fruit storage. Oleuropein and ligstroside derivatives in olive oil decreased with respect to storage time, and their significant ( p < 0.05) change corresponded to changes in bitterness and pungency. ( Z)-2-Penten-1-ol increased during low-temperature fruit storage, whereas 2-pentylfuran decreased. Changes in volatile compounds, phenolic compounds, quality indices, and sensory notes indicated that virgin olive oil quality was lost within the first week of low-temperature fruit storage and regained at 2 weeks. This research suggests that low-temperature olive fruit storage may be beneficial, with a possibility of increasing oil yield and moderating the sensory quality of virgin olive oils. This study demonstrates that deeper insights into virgin olive oil quality changes during low-temperature fruit storage may be gained by studying volatile and phenolic compounds in addition to quality indices and physical appearance of the fruit.
Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio
The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.
Cougnard-Grégoire, Audrey; Merle, Bénédicte M. J.; Korobelnik, Jean-François; Rougier, Marie-Bénédicte; Delyfer, Marie-Noëlle; Le Goff, Mélanie; Samieri, Cécilia; Dartigues, Jean-François; Delcourt, Cécile
Background Olive oil provides a mixture of lipids and antioxidant nutrients which may help preventing age-related diseases such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD). However, little is known about the associations between olive oil consumption and the risk of AMD. Objective To examine associations between olive oil use and AMD prevalence in elderly subjects. Methods Alienor (Antioxydants, Lipides Essentiels, Nutrition et maladies OculaiRes) is a population-based study on eye diseases performed in elderly residents of Bordeaux (France). In 1999–2000, frequencies of consumption of main categories of dietary fats used were collected. In 2006–2088, AMD was graded from non mydriatic retinal photographs into three exclusive stages: no AMD, early AMD, and late AMD. Two categories of preferred dietary fat used (olive oil, n-3 rich oils, n-6 rich oils, mixed oils, butter and margarine) were defined: “no use” and “regular use” (using fat for spreading and/or cooking and/or dressing). Associations of AMD with each fat use were estimated using Generalized Estimating Equation logistic regressions models. Results Our study included 654 subjects (1269 eyes) with complete data (n = 268 eyes with early AMD and n = 56 with late AMD). After adjustment for potential confounders, regular use of olive oil was significantly associated with a decreased risk of late AMD (odds ratio [OR] = 0.44, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.21;0.91). In contrast, regular use of olive oil was not significantly associated with early AMD (OR = 0.84, 95%CI: 0.59;1.21). No associations were found between regular consumption of n-3 rich oils, n-6 rich oils, mixed oils, butter and margarine and AMD, whatever the stage. Conclusions This study suggests a protective effect of olive oil consumption for late AMD in this elderly community-dwelling population. Characterization of the mediating nutrients deserves further research. PMID:27467382
Mari, Eleonora; Guerrini, Simona; Granchi, Lisa; Vincenzini, Massimo
The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of yeast populations during different olive oil extraction processes, carried out in three consecutive years in Tuscany (Italy), by analysing crushed pastes, kneaded pastes, oil from decanter and pomaces. The results showed yeast concentrations ranging between 10(3) and 10(5) CFU/g or per mL. Seventeen dominant yeast species were identified by random amplified polymorphic DNA with primer M13 and their identification was confirmed by restriction fragments length polymorphism of ribosomal internal transcribed spacer and sequencing rRNA genes. The isolation frequencies of each species in the collected samples pointed out that the occurrence of the various yeast species in olive oil extraction process was dependent not only on the yeasts contaminating the olives but also on the yeasts colonizing the plant for oil extraction. In fact, eleven dominant yeast species were detected from the washed olives, but only three of them were also found in oil samples at significant isolation frequency. On the contrary, the most abundant species in oil samples, Yamadazyma terventina, did not occur in washed olive samples. These findings suggest a phenomenon of contamination of the plant for oil extraction that selects some yeast species that could affect the quality of olive oil.
The formulation of an antioxidant/atherosclerosis hypothesis stimulated experimental and epidemiological studies on the possible role of micronutrients, including olive oil phenolics, in the protection from cardiovascular disease observed in the Mediterranean area. This article prospectively summarises our current knowledge of olive phenolics, underscore our gaps in information, and brings forward areas that are, as yet, to be explored.
Al-Seeni, Madeha N; El Rabey, Haddad A; Zamzami, Mazin A; Alnefayee, Abeer M
Liver disease is the major cause of serious health problem leading to morbidity and mortality worldwide and the problem has increased in search for hepatotherapeutic agents from plants. The present study was designed to compare the probable hepatoprotective activity of olive oil and N. sativa oil on CCl4 induced liver damage in male rats. Forty males of a new model of albino rats (Wistar strain) (175-205 g) were divided into four groups. The 1st Group (G1) was the negative control group, the remaining rats were injected with CCl4 (1 ml/kg body weight) with equal amount of olive oil on the 1st and 4th day of every week for 4 weeks. The 2nd group (G2) was the positive control, the 3rd group (G3) and the fourth group (G4) were treated orally with N. sativa oil and olive oils using stomach tube. The positive control group showed an increase in hepatic enzymes, total bilirubin, creatinine, uric acid, lipid peroxide total cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein, very low density lipoproteins, interleukin-6, and a decrease in antioxidant enzymes, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, a decrease in total protein and albumin an when compared with negative control group. Histology of the CCl4 treated group revealed inflammation and damage of liver cells. Treating the hepatotoxic rats with olive oil and N. sativa oil showed a significant improvement in all biochemical tests compared with the positive CCl4 control group. In addition, the liver tissues of olive oil treated group showed mild improvement in inflammatory infiltration and in N. sativa oil treated group showed normal hepatocytes with no evidence of inflammation. This study revealed that olive oil and N. sativa oil have a protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Nigella sativa oil was more effective than olive oil.
Veloso, Ana C A; Silva, Lucas M; Rodrigues, Nuno; Rebello, Ligia P G; Dias, Luís G; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M
The capability of perceiving olive oils sensory defects and intensities plays a key role on olive oils quality grade classification since olive oils can only be classified as extra-virgin if no defect can be perceived by a human trained sensory panel. Otherwise, olive oils may be classified as virgin or lampante depending on the median intensity of the defect predominantly perceived and on the physicochemical levels. However, sensory analysis is time-consuming and requires an official sensory panel, which can only evaluate a low number of samples per day. In this work, the potential use of an electronic tongue as a taste sensor device to identify the defect predominantly perceived in olive oils was evaluated. The potentiometric profiles recorded showed that intra- and inter-day signal drifts could be neglected (i.e., relative standard deviations lower than 25%), being not statistically significant the effect of the analysis day on the overall recorded E-tongue sensor fingerprints (P-value = 0.5715, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test), which significantly differ according to the olive oils' sensory defect (P-value = 0.0084, for multivariate analysis of variance using Pillai's trace test). Thus, a linear discriminant model based on 19 potentiometric signal sensors, selected by the simulated annealing algorithm, could be established to correctly predict the olive oil main sensory defect (fusty, rancid, wet-wood or winey-vinegary) with average sensitivity of 75 ± 3% and specificity of 73 ± 4% (repeated K-fold cross-validation variant: 4 folds×10 repeats). Similarly, a linear discriminant model, based on 24 selected sensors, correctly classified 92 ± 3% of the olive oils as virgin or lampante, being an average specificity of 93 ± 3% achieved. The overall satisfactory predictive performances strengthen the feasibility of the developed taste sensor device as a complementary methodology for olive oils' defects analysis and subsequent
Arlorio, M; Coisson, J D; Bordiga, M; Travaglia, F; Garino, C; Zuidmeer, L; Van Ree, R; Giuffrida, M G; Conti, A; Martelli, A
According to European Union Regulation EC 1531/2001, olive oil labelled as "extra-virgin" should be cold-pressed and contain no refined oil or oil from other oleaginous seeds or nuts. Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with hazelnut oil (HAO) is a serious concern both for oil suppliers and consumers. The high degree of similarity between the two fats complicates the detection of low percentages of HAO in EVOO. Many analytical approaches have been developed in recent years to trace HAO in EVOO, principally based on chromatographic analyses, differential scanning calorimetry or nuclear magnetic resonance. In addition adulteration of EVOO with HAO may introduce hazelnut-derived allergens. The aim of this work was to analyse the protein and allergen content of EVOO intentionally spiked with raw cold-pressed HAO or solvent-extracted HAO. SDS-PAGE analysis confirmed the presence of hazelnut proteins in solvent-extracted HAO with molecular masses ranging 10-60 kDa. In contrast, cold-pressed HAO showed no traces of protein. In spiked EVOO, solvent-extracted HAO was still detectable at a 1% contamination level. Several bands on SDS-PAGE migrated at apparent molecular masses coinciding with known allergens, such as Cor a 1 (approximately 17 kDa), Cor a 2 (approximately 14 kDa), Cor a 8 (approximately 12 kDa), oleosin (approximately 17 kDa) and Cor a 9 (approximately 60 kDa). MALDI-TOF MS analysis confirmed the presence of two oleosin isoforms and of Cor a 9. Immunoblotting demonstrated that an allergic patient with known reactivity to Cor a 1 and Cor a 2 recognized a 17-kDa band in solvent-extracted HAO. In conclusion, we have shown that adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with solvent-extracted hazelnut oil can be traced by simple SDS-PAGE analysis, and that adulteration introduces a potential risk for hazelnut allergic patients.
Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara
Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.
Di Serio, Maria Gabriella; Giansante, Lucia; Di Loreto, Giuseppina; Faberi, Angelo; Ricchetti, Lorenzo; Di Giacinto, Luciana
The quality and genuineness of extra-virgin olive oils (EVOOs) were assessed following the methods and parameters of EU Commission Regulation N° 2568/91/EEC and subsequent modifications, which also set specific limits for fatty-acid ethyl esters (FAEEs). This study included a subset of EVOOs from among 399 samples analysed as part of a monitoring study for FAEEs in EVOOs. The subset was subjected to statistical evaluation to quantify the relationships between FAEE content and sensory defects associated with fermentation: fusty/muddy sediment, musty/humid/earthy, and winey/vinegary. The use of multiple regression analysis demonstrates that FAEE content can be inferred as a function of the intensity of organoleptic defects for samples with high alkyl esters content. The intensity of the rancid defect negatively influences the accuracy of this model, because of underestimation of the fermentation defects that are also present. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kouveli, A.; Tzetzis, D.; Kyratsis, P.
Packaging is one of the most important elements that characterize product design. It does not only refer to the appearance of the product, that creates the first impression to the user, but it is a whole communication code. This has been identified by the enterprises involved and their competition is high. Nowadays, the most successful of them pay a great deal of attention on every day's trends concerning packaging design and try to apply these trends upon their own designs. The present paper describes the packaging design in today's industries and the existing trends. It will therefore reveal what makes a package design successful, from the company's perspective and how the company studies such factors in order to achieve the best result. Those factors and the research results are applied on the olive oil packaging industry, producing a final packaging design solution.
Tsantila, Nektaria; Karantonis, Haralabos C.; Perrea, Despina N.; Theocharis, Stamatios E.; Iliopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Antonopoulou, Smaragdi; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.
Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL) extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL) extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C). All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL. PMID:18253466
Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Uncu, Ayse Ozgur; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami
The aim of this study was to compare the performance of a DNA-barcode assay with fatty acid profile analysis to authenticate the botanical origin of olive oil. To achieve this aim, we performed a PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) approach on olive oil: seed oil blends using the plastid trnL (UAA) intron barcode. In parallel to genomic analysis, we subjected the samples to gas chromatography analysis of fatty acid composition. While the PCR-CE assay proved equally efficient as gas chromatography analysis in detecting adulteration with soybean, palm, rapeseed, sunflower, sesame, cottonseed and peanut oils, it was superior to the widely utilized analytical chemistry approach in revealing the adulterant species and detecting small quantities of corn and safflower oils in olive oil. Moreover, the DNA-based test correctly identified all tested olive oil: hazelnut oil blends whereas it was not feasible to detect hazelnut oil adulteration through fatty acid profile analysis. Thus, the present research has shown the feasibility of a PCR-CE barcode assay to detect adulteration in olive oil.
Lamy, Sylvie Ouanouki, Amira; Béliveau, Richard; Desrosiers, Richard R.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) triggers crucial signaling processes that regulate tumor angiogenesis and, therefore, represents an attractive target for the development of novel anticancer therapeutics. Several epidemiological studies have confirmed that abundant consumption of foods from plant origin is associated with reduced risk of developing cancers. In the Mediterranean basin, the consumption of extra virgin olive oil is an important constituent of the diet. Compared to other vegetable oils, the presence of several phenolic antioxidants in olive oil is believed to prevent the occurrence of a variety of pathological processes, such as cancer. While the strong antioxidant potential of these molecules is well characterized, their antiangiogenic activities remain unknown. The aim of this study is to investigate whether tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (HT), taxifolin (Tax), oleuropein (OL) and oleic acid (OA), five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil, can affect in vitro angiogenesis. We found that HT, Tax and OA were the most potent angiogenesis inhibitors through their inhibitory effect on specific autophosphorylation sites of VEGFR-2 (Tyr951, Tyr1059, Tyr1175 and Tyr1214) leading to the inhibition of endothelial cell (EC) signaling. Inhibition of VEGFR-2 by these olive oil compounds significantly reduced VEGF-induced EC proliferation and migration as well as their morphogenic differentiation into capillary-like tubular structures in Matrigel. Our study demonstrates that HT, Tax and OA are novel and potent inhibitors of the VEGFR-2 signaling pathway. These findings emphasize the chemopreventive properties of olive oil and highlight the importance of nutrition in cancer prevention. - Highlights: • We investigated five compounds contained in extra virgin olive oil on angiogenesis. • Hydroxytyrosol, taxifolin and oleic acid are the best angiogenesis inhibitors. • Olive oil compounds affect endothelial cell functions essential for
Keren, Yonatan; Borisover, Mikhail; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Diehl, Dörte; Tamimi, Nisreen; Bukhanovsky, Nadezhda
Sorption interactions with soils are well known to control the environmental fate of multiple organic compounds including pesticides. Pesticide-soil interactions may be affected by organic amendments or organic matter (OM)-containing wastewater brought to the field. Specifically, land spreading of olive mill wastewater (OMW), occurring intentionally or not, may also influence pesticide-soil interactions. The effects of the OMW disposed in the field on soil properties, including their ability to interact with pesticides, become of great interest due to the increasing demand for olive oil and a constant growth of world oil production. This paper summarizes some recent findings related to the effect of prior OMW land application on the ability of soils to interact with the organic compounds including pesticides, diuron and simazine. The major findings are as following: (1) bringing OMW to the field increases the potential of soils to sorb non-ionized pesticides; (2) this sorption increase may not be related solely to the increase in soil organic carbon content but it can reflect also the changes in the soil sorption mechanisms; (3) increased pesticide interactions with OMW-affected soils may become irreversible, due, assumedly, to the swelling of some components of the OMW-treated soil; (4) enhanced pesticide-soil interactions mitigate with the time passed after the OMW application, however, in the case of diuron, the remaining effect could be envisioned at least 600 days after the normal OMW application; (5) the enhancement effect of OMW application on soil sorption may increase with soil depth, in the 0-10 cm interval; (6) at higher pesticide (diuron) concentrations, larger extents of sorption enhancement, following the prior OMW-soil interactions, may be expected; (7) disposal of OMW in the field may be seasonal-dependent, and, in the case studied, it led to more distinct impacts on sorption when carried out in spring and winter, as compared with summer. It appears
Guillén, Natalia; Acín, Sergio; Navarro, María A; Surra, Joaquín Carlos; Arnal, Carmen; Lou-Bonafonte, José Manuel; Muniesa, Pedro; Martínez-Gracia, María Victoria; Osada, Jesús
The low incidence of cardiovascular disease in countries bordering the Mediterranean basin, where olive oil is the main source of dietary fat, has stimulated interest in the chemical composition of olive oil and in the production of other oils enriched with its minor components. This review summarizes what has been learned about the effects of different olive oil preparations on the development of atherosclerosis and about the prognostic value of associated plasma variables in the disease from experiments on genetically modified mice that spontaneously develop atherosclerosis. The limitations of this animal model associated with its morphological and physiological differences with humans are minimized by the similarity of the two genomes and by the potential for increased understanding attainable, given that the dietary interventions reported here would have taken 400 years to achieve in humans. As observed in traditional Mediterranean populations, it has been confirmed that extra virgin olive oil is beneficial when consumed judiciously and in a diet that is low in cholesterol due to the relative scarcity of animal products. Furthermore, the use of genomic techniques has led to the identification of new markers of response to olive oil. In conclusion, multidisciplinary research into extra virgin olive oil is expanding our knowledge of the substance's biological properties.
Hung, Wei-Ching; Peng, Guan-Jhih; Tsai, Wen-Ju; Chang, Mei-Hua; Liao, Chia-Ding; Tseng, Su-Hsiang; Kao, Ya-Min; Wang, Der-Yuan; Cheng, Hwei-Fang
The adulteration of olive oil is an important issue around the world. This paper reports an indirect method by which to identify 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD) esters in olive oils. Following sample preparation, the samples were spiked with 1,2-bis-palmitoyl-3-chloropropanediol standard for analysis using gas chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry. The total recovery ranged from 102.8% to 105.5%, the coefficient of variation ranged from 1.1% to 10.1%, and the limit of quantification was 0.125 mg/kg. The content of 3-MCPD esters in samples of refined olive oil (0.97-20.53 mg/kg) exceeded those of extra virgin olive oil (non-detected to 0.24 mg/kg). These results indicate that the oil refining process increased the content of 3-MCPD esters, which means that they could be used as a target compound for the differentiation of extra virgin olive oil from refined olive oil in order to prevent adulteration.
Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; García-Ríos, Antonio; Delgado-Lista, Javier; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco; López-Miranda, José
After decades of epidemiological, clinical and experimental research, it has become clear that consumption of Mediterranean dietary patterns rich in olive oil has a profound influence on health outcomes, including obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus. Traditionally, many beneficial properties associated with this oil have been ascribed to its high oleic acid content. Olive oil, however, is a functional food that, besides having high-monounsaturated (MUFA) content, contains other minor components with biological properties. In this line, phenolic compounds have shown antioxidant and antiinflammatory properties, prevent lipoperoxidation, induce favorable changes of lipid profile, improve endothelial function, and disclose antithrombotic properties. Research into the pharmacological properties of the minor components of olive oil is very active and could lead to the formulation of functional food and nutraceuticals. Although more data are mandatory the Mediterranean diet rich in olive oil does not contribute to obesity and appears to be a useful tool in the lifestyle management of the MetS. Moreover there is good scientific support for MUFA diets, especially those based on olive oil, as an alternative approach to low-fat diets for the medical nutritional therapy in diabetes. The objective of this review is to present evidence illustrating the relationship between Mediterranean diet, olive oil and metabolic diseases, including obesity, MetS and diabetes mellitus and to discuss potential mechanisms by which this food can help in disease prevention and treatment.
A yearly spraying of olive mill wastewater on agricultural soil over six successive years: impact of different application rates on olive production, phenolic compounds, phytotoxicity and microbial counts.
Magdich, Salwa; Jarboui, Raja; Rouina, Béchir Ben; Boukhris, Makki; Ammar, Emna
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) spraying effects onto olive-tree fields were investigated. Three OMW levels (50, 100 and 200 m(3)ha(-1)year(-1)) were applied over six successive years. Olive-crop yields, phenolic compounds progress, phytotoxicity and microbial counts were studied at different soil depths. Olive yield showed improvements with OMW level applied. Soil polyphenolic content increased progressively in relation to OMW levels in all the investigated layers. However, no significant difference was noted in lowest treatment rate compared to the control field. In the soil upper-layers (0-40 cm), five phenolic compounds were identified over six consecutive years of OMW-spraying. In all the soil-layers, the radish germination index exceeded 85%. However, tomato germination test values decreased with the applied OMW amount. For all treatments, microbial counts increased with OMW quantities and spraying frequency. Matrix correlation showed a strong relationship between soil polyphenol content and microorganisms, and a negative one to tomato germination index.
Pedersen, A; Baumstark, M W; Marckmann, P; Gylling, H; Sandström, B
We investigated the effect of olive oil, rapeseed oil, and sunflower oil on blood lipids and lipoproteins including number and lipid composition of lipoprotein subclasses. Eighteen young, healthy men participated in a double-blinded randomized cross-over study (3-week intervention period) with 50 g of oil per 10 MJ incorporated into a constant diet. Plasma cholesterol, triacylglycerol, apolipoprotein B, and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate density lipoprotein (IDL), and low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were 10;-20% higher after consumption of the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets [analysis of variance (ANOVA), P < 0.05]. The size of IDL, VLDL, and LDL subfractions did not differ between the diets, whereas a significantly higher number (apolipoprotein B concentration) and lipid content of the larger and medium-sized LDL subfractions were observed after the olive oil diet compared with the rapeseed oil and sunflower oil diets (ANOVA, P < 0.05). Total HDL cholesterol concentration did not differ significantly, but HDL(2a) cholesterol was higher after olive oil and rapeseed oil compared with sunflower oil (ANOVA, P < 0.05).In conclusion, rapeseed oil and sunflower oil had more favorable effects on blood lipids and plasma apolipoproteins as well as on the number and lipid content of LDL subfractions compared with olive oil. Some of the differences may be attributed to differences in the squalene and phytosterol contents of the oils.
Romo-Muñoz, Rodrigo Alejandro; Cabas-Monje, Juan Hernán; Garrido-Henrríquez, Héctor Manuel; Gil, José María
In relatively unknown products, consumers use prices as a quality reference. Under such circumstances, the utility function can be non-negative for a specific price range and generate an inverted U-shaped function. The extra virgin olive oil market in Chile is a good example. Although domestic production and consumption have increased significantly in the last few years, consumer knowledge of this product is still limited. The objective of this study was to analyze Chilean consumer preferences and willingness to pay for extra virgin olive oil attributes. Consumers were segmented taking into account purchasing frequency. A Random Parameter Logit model was estimated for preference heterogeneity. Results indicate that the utility function is nonlinear allowing us to differentiate between two regimes. In the first regime, olive oil behaves as a conspicuous good, that is, higher utility is assigned to higher prices and consumers prefer foreign products in smaller containers. Under the second regime, Chilean olive oil in larger containers is preferred.
Mohamed, Ibrahim O
The main goal of the present research is to restructure olive oil triacylglycerol (TAG) using enzymatic acidolysis reaction to produce structured lipids that is close to cocoa butter in terms of TAG structure and melting characteristics. Lipase-catalyzed acidolysis of refined olive oil with a mixture of palmitic-stearic acids at different substrate ratios was performed in an agitated batch reactor maintained at constant temperature and agitation speed. The reaction attained steady-state conversion in about 5 h with an overall conversion of 92.6 % for the olive oil major triacylglycerol 1-palmitoy-2,3-dioleoyl glycerol (POO). The five major TAGs of the structured lipids produced with substrate mass ratio of 1:3 (olive oil/palmitic-stearic fatty acid mixture) were close to that of the cocoa butter with melting temperature between 32.6 and 37.7 °C. The proposed kinetics model used fits the experimental data very well.
Morrone, Lucia; Pupillo, Sabrina; Neri, Luisa; Bertazza, Giampaolo; Magli, Massimiliano; Rotondi, Annalisa
In this study, two types of crusher, hammer and blade, were used to produce olive oils from cv. Correggiolo olives at four stages of ripeness, to analyse the effect of these two factors on oil quality indices (free acidity, peroxide value, UV absorption), on phenolic compounds content and sensory profiles. Differences in chemical and sensory data were analysed by two-way ANOVA. Ripeness exerted a stronger influence than the crushing equipment on quality indices, phenolic content and sensory evaluation; moreover the statistical significance of interaction between the factors considered suggests that they are intertwined. Differences in the texture of olive pastes obtained by squashing and crushing were clearly evident at the first stage of ripeness via observation with a scanning electron microscope. The stronger mechanical action of the hammer crusher also produced smaller pit fragments compared to the blade crusher, as shown by particle size analysis of the kernels fragments. Knowledge about the interaction between ripening and crushing will allow olive oil producers to pursue a product of the quality most suitable for a particular type of consumer. For example, bitterness and pungency, characters recently connected with health effects because sensory markers of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) polyphenols, do not have a great sensory appeal for most consumers; however, there is a niche of gourmet estimators interested in these peculiar flavours and ready to pay a premium price for them. The producer will be able to customise the EVOO by modulating its chemical and sensory characteristics, especially the phenolic fraction, thus addressing the needs of consumers with different tastes. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.
Piccinonna, Sara; Ragone, Rosa; Stocchero, Matteo; Del Coco, Laura; De Pascali, Sandra Angelica; Schena, Francesco Paolo; Fanizzi, Francesco Paolo
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is emerging as a powerful technique in olive oil fingerprinting, but its analytical robustness has to be proved. Here, we report a comparative study between two laboratories on olive oil (1)H NMR fingerprinting, aiming to demonstrate the robustness of NMR-based metabolomics in generating comparable data sets for cultivar classification. Sample preparation and data acquisition were performed independently in two laboratories, equipped with different resolution spectrometers (400 and 500 MHz), using two identical sets of mono-varietal olive oils. Partial Least Squares (PLS)-based techniques were applied to compare the data sets produced by the two laboratories. Despite differences in spectrum baseline, and in intensity and shape of peaks, the amount of shared information was significant (almost 70%) and related to cultivar (same metabolites discriminated between cultivars). In conclusion, regardless of the variability due to operator and machine, the data sets from the two participating units were comparable for the purpose of classification.
Japón-Luján, R; Luque de Castro, M D
A liquid-liquid extraction method to enrich edible oils--olive, sunflower, and soy oils--with phenols from olive leaf extracts is proposed. After microwave assistance to remove the phenols from three varieties of olive leaves, concentrations in the extracts between 12921 and 5173 mg/L of oleuropein, between 488 and 192 mg/L of apigenin-7-glucoside, between 444 and 219 mg/L of luteolin-7-glucoside, and between 501 and 213 mg/L of verbascoside were obtained, which clearly depended on the target variety. After optimization of the liquid-liquid extraction step, the concentrations in oils were 442, 162, and 164 mg/L of oleuropein, respectively, which were also enriched in apigenin-7-glucoside (between 8 and 15 mg/L, depending of the oil), lutelin-7-glucoside (between 11 and 12 mg/L), and verbascoside (between 11 and 13 mg/L). The oil-extract distribution factor of these compounds was also calculated for all olive leaf varieties and edible oils using different extracts concentrations and also different oil-extract volume ratios. Thus, a door is open to enrichment of any oil with olive phenols at preset concentrations using extracts preconcentrated as required and taking into account the distribution factor of the target compounds between the oil and the extracts.
Biel, Sara; Mesa, Maria-Dolores; de la Torre, Rafael; Espejo, Juan-Antonio; Fernández-Navarro, Jose-Ramón; Fitó, Montserrat; Sánchez-Rodriguez, Estefanía; Rosa, Carmen; Marchal, Rosa; Alche, Juan de Dios; Expósito, Manuela; Brenes, Manuel; Gandul, Beatriz; Calleja, Miguel Angel; Covas, María-Isabel
Virgin olive oil, a recognized healthy food, cannot be consumed in great quantities. We aim to assess in humans whether an optimized virgin olive oil with high phenolic content (OVOO, 429 mg/Kg) and a functional one (FOO), both rich in phenolic compounds (429 mg/Kg) and triterpenic acids (389 mg/kg), could provide health benefits additional to those supplied a by a standard virgin olive oil (VOO). A randomized, double-blind, crossover, controlled study will be conducted. Healthy volunteers (aged 20 to 50) will be randomized into one of three groups of daily raw olive oil consumption: VOO, OVOO, and FOO (30 mL/d). Olive oils will be administered over 3-week periods preceded by 2-week washout ones. The main outcomes will be markers of lipid and DNA oxidation, inflammation, and vascular damage. A bioavailability and dose-response study will be nested within this sustained- consumption one. It will be made up of 18 volunteers and be performed at two stages after a single dose of each olive oil. Endothelial function and nitric oxide will be assessed at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h after olive oil single dose ingestion. For the first time the NUTRAOLEUM Study will provide first level evidence on the health benefits in vivo in humans of olive oil triterpenes (oleanolic and maslinic acid) in addition to their bioavailability and disposition. The Trial has been registered in ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02520739 .
Bao, Lei; Trucksess, Mary W; White, Kevin D
Edible oils are consumed directly, and used as ingredients in food, soaps, and skin products. However, oils such as olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil could be contaminated with aflatoxins, which are detrimental to human and animal health. A method using immunoaffinity column cleanup with RPLC separation and fluorescence detection (FLD) for determination of aflatoxins (AF) B1, B2, G1, and G2 in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil was developed and validated. Test samples were extracted with methanol-water (55 + 45, v/v). After shaking and centrifuging, the lower layer was filtered, diluted with water, and filtered through glass microfiber filter paper. The filtrate was then passed through an immunoaffinity column, and the toxins were eluted with methanol. The toxins were then subjected to RPLC/FLD analysis after postcolumn UV photochemical derivatization. The accuracy and repeatability characteristics of the method were determined. Recoveries of AFB1 spiked at levels from 1.0 to 10.0 microg/kg in olive oil, peanut oil, and sesame oil ranged from 82.9 to 98.6%. RSDs ranged from 0.6 to 8.9%. HorRat values were < 0.2 for all of the matrixes tested. Recoveries of AF spiked at levels from 2.0 to 20.0 microg/kg ranged from 87.7 to 102.2%. RSDs ranged from 1.3 to 12.6%. HorRat values were < 0.4 for all of the matrixes tested. LC/MS/MS with multiple-reaction monitoring was used to confirm the identities of aflatoxins in a naturally contaminated peanut oil.
Agiomyrgianaki, Alexia; Petrakis, Panos V; Dais, Photis
NMR spectroscopy was employed for the detection of adulteration of refined olive oil with refined hazelnut oil. Fatty acids and iodine number were determined by (1)H NMR, whereas (31)P NMR was used for the quantification of minor compounds including phenolic compounds, diacylglycerols, sterols, and free fatty acids (free acidity). Classification of the refined oils based on their fatty acids content and the concentration of their minor compounds was achieved by using the forward stepwise canonical discriminant analysis (CDA) and the classification binary trees (CBTs). Both methods provided good discrimination between the refined hazelnut and olive oils. Different admixtures of refined olive oils with refined hazelnut oils were prepared and analyzed by (1)H NMR and (31)P NMR spectroscopy. Subsequent application of CDA to the NMR data allowed the detection of the presence of refined hazelnut oils in refined olive oils at percentages higher than 5%. Application of the non-linear classification method of the binary trees offered better possibilities of measuring adulteration of the refined olive oils at a lower limit of detection than that obtained by the CDA method. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K
The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive.
Namayandeh, Seyedeh Mahdieh; Kaseb, Fatemeh; Lesan, Soheila
The study on natural substances especially, dietary components such as liquid oils affecting cholesterol can be important for therapeutic propose. Sesame seeds with various biomedical actions can be control the hypercholesterolemia. On the other hand, olive oil has a wide range of therapeutic effect on lipid profile in human. The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare lipid profile changes after olive and sesame oils consumption in hypercholesterolemia. This study was a clinical randomized trial that was performed via parallel design on 48 patients. The patients were randomly allocated in to two groups: A: olive oil and B: sesame oil. After 1 month prescription of Step I National Cholesterol Education Program diet, patients consumed 4 table spoons aprox. 60 g) of refined olive or sesame oil daily as an exchange of other oils, for 1 month. Lipid profiles The P < 0.05 was considered as significant difference. Out of 48 patients, 24 (50%) were men. The mean age was 41.7 ± 8.3 years. The mean of total cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), cholesterol, and high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, before oil consumption was 224.5 ± 22, 256 ± 132, 132.6 ± 9, and 44.5 ± 11 mg/dl. After olive oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C, weight, waist and BMI were decreased and HDL-C was increased. After sesame oil consumption cholesterol, TG, LDL-C were significantly decreased. Weight, waist were decreased and HDL-C was increased (P > 0.05). Sesame oil had equivalent effect on lipid profile in comparison olive oil and lipid profile improvement was better in sesame oil in LDL-C and TG.
López-Varela, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J; Pérez-Granados, A M; Cuesta, C
The present study examines whether the consumption of a moderately altered olive oil influenced body weight gain and food efficiency ratio of pregnant rats as well as placental and fetal development. Olive oil used for frying 15 times undergoes a relatively slight alteration involving a statistically significant increase in polar content (9.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil vs 2.0+/-0.1 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.001). The methyl ester content also increased (5.1+/-0.8 mg/100 mg oil vs 1.8+/-0.5 mg/100 mg oil; p < 0.02), while the linoleic acid and oleic acid contents decreased significantly (6.2+/-0.6% oil vs 7.2+/-0.2% oil and 75.8+/-0.6% vs 78.9+/-0.2%, respectively, both p < 0.05). Wistar rats were divided into four groups, two of which included pregnant rats (P1 and P2) and the other two, non-pregnant rats (NP1 and NP2). Groups NP1 and P1 received a diet containing 15% of fat as unused olive oil, while groups NP2 and P2 were fed a diet with a fat content of 15% as the olive oil used in 15 fryings. Pregnancy increased food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio (P1 vs NP1, and P2 vs NP1), while consumption of the used olive oil diet with respect to the unused oil diet did not alter food intake, body weight, weight gain and food efficiency ratio, placental weight, fetal weight and the number of fetuses in P2 rats with respect to P1 ones. These results suggest that in pregnant rats consumption of olive oil with a moderate level of alteration, as the only dietary fat source, exerts no detrimental effects on the mother weight gain or conceptus development.
Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Bose, Nayana; Jackson-Davis, Armitra; Boateng, Judith; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup
A short distance standoff Raman technique is demonstrated for detecting economically motivated adulteration (EMA) in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). Using a portable Raman spectrometer operating with a 785 nm laser and a 2-in. refracting telescope, adulteration of olive oil with grapeseed oil and canola oil is detected between 1% and 100% at a minimum concentration of 2.5% from a distance of 15 cm and at a minimum concentration of 5% from a distance of 1 m. The technique involves correlating the intensity ratios of prominent Raman bands of edible oils at 1254, 1657, and 1441 cm(-1) to the degree of adulteration. As a novel variation in the data analysis technique, integrated intensities over a spectral range of 100 cm(-1) around the Raman line were used, making it possible to increase the sensitivity of the technique. The technique is demonstrated by detecting adulteration of EVOO with grapeseed and canola oils at 0-100%. Due to the potential of this technique for making measurements from a convenient distance, the short distance standoff Raman technique has the promise to be used for routine applications in food industry such as identifying food items and monitoring EMA at various checkpoints in the food supply chain and storage facilities.
Giannoutsou, E P; Katsifas, E A; Geli, A; Karagouni, A D
Two-phase olive-mill waste, the so-called "ecological", has been treated with a Paecilomyces variotii isolate in solid state fermentation experiments. The growth of the microorganism was estimated by measuring the production of carbon dioxide, using gas chromatography. A 46% increase of the protein content was achieved at the fermented product, after molasses addition at the initial mixture. The amino acid profile of the produced protein, as far as the essential amino acids are concerned, was significantly improved, resulting in a product that has the potential to be used as animal feed. Furthermore, it contains lysine, one of the essential amino acids that did not exist at the original product and is produced during fermentation. This is the first report on solid state fermentation of the two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) as a substrate, using a Paecilomyces variotii strain.
Farley, Carlton; Kassu, Aschalew; Mills, Jonathan; Kenney, Brianna; Ruffin, Paul; Sharma, Anup
Pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) is mixed with cheaper edible oils and samples are kept inside clear glass containers, while a 785nm Raman system is used to take measurements as Raman probe is placed against glass container. Several types of oils at various concentrations of adulteration are used. Ratios of peak intensities are used to analyze raw data, which allows for quick, easy, and accurate analysis. While conventional Raman measurements of EVOO may take as long as 2 minutes, all measurements reported here are for integration times of 15s. It is found that adulteration of EVOO with cheaper oils is detectable at concentrations as low as 5% for all oils used in this study.
Ayadi, M A; Grati-Kamoun, N; Attia, H
Objectives of this work were studying physico-chemical change and heat stability of olive oils flavoured by selected Tunisian aromatic plants. Flavoured olive oils were prepared by maceration of fresh plant materials (rosemary, lavender, sage, menthe, basil, lemon and thyme) with olive oil at a 5% w/w level for 15 days. A sensorial evaluation was applied to select more appreciate flavoured olive oils by consumers. An oxidative procedure was applied to test the stability of selected flavoured olive oils: oils samples were kept in glass bottles and heated at 60 and 130 degrees C during 55 days and 6h, respectively. The resistance to oxidation of these selected flavoured oils was compared to a control samples by measuring PV, K232 and K270 values and change in chlorophyll, carotenes and polyphénols contents. Obtained results show that addition of aromatic plants causes a slight increase in free acidity and viscosity of aromatised olive oils. L*, b* and a* values show that addition of thyme cause a great change in olive oil colours. Heat stability results shows that from selected aromatic plants, rosemary was effectiveness against oxidation followed by thyme and lemon. However, olive oil flavoured with basil exhibit a similar behaviour versus thermal oxidation then the natural olive oil.
Gigliotti, Giovanni; Massaccesi, Luisa; Federici, Ermanno; Fidati, Laura; Nasini, Luigi; Proietti, Primo
The disposal of olive mill wastes represents a problem of environmental relevance particularly in the Mediterranean countries where olive oil is mostly produced. Among the several valorisation and recycling methods proposed, interesting for its operational simplicity and convenience is land spreading, either directly or after composting. However, the agriculture use of the water-saturated husk produced by the new two-phase oil extraction systems may be hampered by its consistency and its high content of phenolic compounds, which may finally lead to phytotoxicity. Humid husk may indeed modify the dynamic of soil organic matter (SOM) and the structure and function of microbial communities. On the other hand, organic amendments are known to positively affect SOM fractions, particularly by increasing the concentration and quality of dissolved organic matter (DOM), which may eventually lead to an increase in microbial activity. The aim of this work was to investigate, during a 90-day field trial, the modifications in soil DOM composition and the effects on the soil microbiota induced by a humid husk, obtained from a new generation two-phase oil extraction plant, spread in an olive orchard either as a fresh amendment or after a composting process. With respect to the control, the soil amended with either fresh or composted husk showed an increase in water extractable organic carbon (WEOC). Interestingly, while during the first 30 days the soil amended with the composted husk showed a WEOC content higher than the one amended with the fresh husk, after that time only in the latter the WEOC remained significantly higher than in the control. The total content of phenolic compounds showed a similar trend, with the only difference that their concentration in the soil amended with both treatments remained higher than the control for the entire trial. Similarly, both treatments induced an increase in soil reducing sugars, with an higher effect observed in the soil amended with
Fernández-Ávila, C; Montes, R; Castellote, A I; Chisaguano, A M; Fitó, M; Covas, M I; Muñoz-Aguallo, D; Nyyssönen, K; Zunft, H J; López-Sabater, M C
In recent years it has been confirmed that the consumption of olive oil prevents the oxidation of biomolecules owing to its monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and phenolic content. The main objective of the study was to develop an ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) method for the determination of phenolic compounds in human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) samples. At the same time, the influence of olive oil consumption on the phenolic metabolite levels was evaluated in a European population. The participants were 51 healthy men, aged 20-60. They were randomized to two consecutive intervention periods with the administration of raw olive oil with low and high polyphenolic content. The UHPLC-MS/MS analytical method has been validated for hydroxytyrosol and homovanillic acid in terms of linearity (r(2) = 0.99 and 1.00), repeatability (5.7 and 6.5%) reproducibility (6.2 and 7%), recovery (98 to 97%), limits of detection (1.7 to 1.8 ppb) and quantification (5.8 and 6.3 ppb).The levels of the studied metabolites increased significantly after high polyphenolic content virgin olive oil ingestion (p <0.05) compared with lowpolyphenolic content olive oil. Virgin olive oil consumption increases the levels of phenolic metabolites in HDL and thus provides human HDL with more efficient antioxidant protection.
Martín-Peláez, Sandra; Covas, María Isabel; Fitó, Montserrat; Kušar, Anita; Pravst, Igor
The Mediterranean diet and consumption of olive oil have been connected in several studies with longevity and a reduced risk of morbidity and mortality. Lifestyle, such as regular physical activity, a healthy diet, and the existing social cohesion in Southern European countries have been recognised as candidate protective factors that may explain the Mediterranean Paradox. Along with some other characteristics of the Mediterranean diet, the use of olive oil as the main source of fat is common in Southern European countries. The benefits of consuming olive oil have been known since antiquity and were traditionally attributed to its high content in oleic acid. However, it is now well established that these effects must also be attributed to the phenolic fraction of olive oil with its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-microbial activities. The mechanisms of these activities are varied and probably interconnected. For some activities of olive oil phenolic compounds, the evidence is already strong enough to enable the legal use of health claims on foods. This review discusses the health effects of olive oil phenols along with the possibilities of communicating these effects on food labels.
Chehade, Ali; Bitar, Ahmad El; Kadri, Aline; Choueiri, Elia; Nabbout, Rania; Youssef, Hiyam; Smeha, Maha; Awada, Ali; Chami, Ziad Al; Dubla, Eustachio; Trani, Antonio; Mondelli, Donato; Famiani, Franco
Very little information is available on the characteristics of the Lebanese olive germplasm. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the fruit and oil characteristics of the main Lebanese olive varieties (Aayrouni, Abou chawkeh, Baladi, Del and Soury) from two successive crop seasons (2010-2011). All of the genotypes had medium-high oil content in the fruit, indicating their suitability for oil production; Aayrouni had particularly high values. The variety Abou chawkeh also had a high pulp/pit ratio, which is a very desirable trait in table olives. For all the varieties the values of free fatty acids, peroxide values, absorbances in ultraviolet, fatty acid composition, sterol content and composition and erythrodiol + uvaol content of the oils were within the requirements of the International Olive Council's Trade Standard for extra virgin olive oil. The only exception was for the values of Δ-7-stigmastenol in 2011 in Soury and, especially, in Baladi, which were higher than 0.5%. In some cases, stearic and arachidic acids fluctuated around the maximum values allowed. The findings of this study provide a first picture of the main characteristics of olives and oils currently produced in Lebanon. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.
Jail, A; Boukhoubza, F; Nejmeddine, A; Duarte, J C; Sayadi, S; Hassani, L
Olive oil mill wastewater (OMW) is generally recognized as an environmentally troublesome by-product of the olive oil industry as its disposal without any treatment is known to cause serious environmental problems. However, this effluent has a high fertilizing power and constitutes, with urban wastewater, an important low-cost source. Biological treatment of OMW, with a process combining an aerobic reactor, 'Jet-Loop', and waste stabilization ponds, was investigated for possible agricultural reuse. The focus of the present study was to evaluate the contribution and the complementarity of the two systems in the total OMW treatment. Bio-treatment was performed using a 100-litre Jet-Loop reactor working volume achieving a chemical oxygen demand (COD) and phenolic compounds maximum removal rate of 72% and 68%, respectively, at a hydraulic retention time of 10 days. Co-treatment of OMW and domestic wastewater in waste stabilization ponds, with a hydraulic retention time of 22 days, reached a global removal rate of 66% for COD while no trace of phenolic compounds was detected on this level during the entire treatment period. Dynamics of faecal coliforms in stabilization ponds showed a total removal rate of 99.9% (3 logarithmic units (Log.U)). Preliminary results of agronomic tests on the ray-grass have evaluated the fertilizing effect of the final effluent resulting from the co-treatment.
Jarboui, Raja; Chtourou, Mohamed; Azri, Chafai; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna
The physico-chemical and microbiological characterizations of olive mill wastewater sludge (OMWS) were investigated in five OMW evaporation ponds of the open-pond system in Sfax (Tunisia), during the olive oil production period in 2004. Time-dependent changes in both physico-chemical parameters and the microbiota were investigated. Mathematical models and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to establish the correlations between the studied parameters. During the effluent time-dependent changes in the ponds, the result of OMWS analysis showed an increase of sludge index (SI), ash content, total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), ethyl acetate extractive (EAE) and total phosphorus (Total P), as well as microbial flora especially the yeasts and moulds. The SI, TS, VS and Total P changes with time fit a simple linear equation, while EAE, phenols and NH(4)(+) fit a second-degree polynomial model. The PCA analysis exhibited three correlated groups. The first group included temperature, ash content, evaporation, SI, TS, VS, Total P, EAE, yeasts and moulds. The second group was made by bacteria and moisture; and the third group by NH(4)(+), oil and phenol. Such modelling might be of help in the prediction of OMW changes in natural evaporation ponds.
Morales-Sillero, Ana; Pérez, Ana G; Casanova, Laura; García, José M
The suitability of the cold storage (2°C) of fruit to maintain the quality of 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' and 'Manzanilla Cacereña' intended for virgin olive oil extraction was investigated. This temperature was effective in keeping the best commercial category of oil quality in both manually harvested olives and in mechanically harvested 'Manzanilla Cacereña' fruits for 11days. Mechanical harvesting induced significant decreases in oxidative stability and in the main phenolic compounds contents in the oils during cold storage and, only initially, in the total volatiles, regardless of the cultivar considered. However, the contents of volatile esters, associated to fruity flavor, were always higher in the oils from mechanically harvested fruits. 'Manzanilla de Sevilla' oils exhibited higher total volatiles during fruit cold storage, regardless of the harvesting system used. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Giannakas, A; Patsaoura, A; Barkoula, N-M; Ladavos, A
In the current study a novel reflux-solution blending method is being followed with the introduction of small ethanol volumes into chitosan acetic acid aquatic solution in order to incorporate olive oil and corn oil in chitosan and its organoclay nanocomposites. Ethanol enables the direct interaction of chitosan with oils and results in effective plasticization of chitosan/oil films with remarkable increase of the strain at break from 8% of chitosan and chitosan/oil aquatic samples to app. 22% for chitosan/oil ethanol samples. Compared with olive oil, corn oil is less effective as plasticizer (max strain at break app. 14%). Addition of oils is beneficial for water sorption, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability response of the obtained films. Barrier properties are further improved after the use of OrgMMT, however OrgMMT results in significant reduction of strain at break of all oil containing samples (app. 8%) acting as stress concentrator upon deformation.
Jiménez-Carvelo, Ana M; González-Casado, Antonio; Pérez-Castaño, Estefanía; Cuadros-Rodríguez, Luis
A new analytical method for the differentiation of olive oil from other vegetable oils using reversed-phase LC and applying chemometric techniques was developed. A 3 cm short column was used to obtain the chromatographic fingerprint of the methyl-transesterified fraction of each vegetable oil. The chromatographic analysis took only 4 min. The multivariate classification methods used were k-nearest neighbors, partial least-squares (PLS) discriminant analysis, one-class PLS, support vector machine classification, and soft independent modeling of class analogies. The discrimination of olive oil from other vegetable edible oils was evaluated by several classification quality metrics. Several strategies for the classification of the olive oil were used: one input-class, two input-class, and pseudo two input-class.
Aviani, I; Laor, Y; Medina, Sh; Krassnovsky, A; Raviv, M
Successful co-composting of solid and liquid olive mill wastes (OMW) and obtaining a product of horticultural value may increase the viability of this recycling approach. Two composting cycles were performed, in which olive mill solid wastes (OMSW) were used to form five mixtures, wetted either with fresh water or with olive mill wastewater (OMWW). Up to approximately 0.3m(3) of OMWW could be applied to each m(3) of the raw materials without negatively affecting the chemical, physical and horticultural properties of the resulted composts. A growing media composed of perlite amended with 25-33% OMW-composts showed higher suppressiveness against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis as compared to equivalent perlite:peat moss mixtures. The yields of tomato plants grown in peat moss amended with 20% (v:v) of OMW-composts were not significantly different than plants grown in unamended peat. The viability of co-composting as a treatment approach for OMWW is discussed in the context of management aspects and the horticultural value of the final product.
Gómez-Coca, Raquel B.; Cruz-Hidalgo, Rosario; Fernandes, Gabriel D.; Pérez-Camino, María del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao
This work provides a short and easy protocol that allows the analysis of both methanol and ethanol in the static headspace of olive oil. The procedure avoids any kind of sample pre-treatment beyond that of heating the oil to allow a maximum volatile concentration in the headspace of the vials. The method's LOD is 0.55 mg kg−1 and its LOQ is 0.59 mg kg−1. Advantages of this method are:•Simultaneous determination of methanol and ethanol (the pre-existing Spanish specification UNE-EN 14110 only analyses methanol).•No need of equipment modifications (standard split injectors work perfectly). Use of a highly polar capillary GC column, leading in most cases to chromatograms in which only three dominant peaks are present – methanol, ethanol, and propanol (that is extremely positive for easy interpretation of results).•Use of an internal standard (1-propanol) to determine the concentration of the analytes, reducing the presence of error sources. PMID:26150954
13C NMR spectroscopy was applied to detect the adulteration of olive oils with hazelnut oil. Considering that the linolenate chain and the squalene hydrocarbon were absent in hazelnut oil, unlike olive oil, a 13C NMR spectroscopy method was developed to measure in addition to the triglyceride normal chains (i.e., saturated, oleate, and linoleate chains), the resonances of the linolenate chain and of squalene hydrocarbon. Acyl chain and squalene resonances highly discriminated olive oil samples by cultivars. Nevertheless, the "hazelnut oil percentage factor" prevailed over the "cultivar factor," thus correctly classifying 86% of the authentic and adulterated olive oil samples according to the hazelnut oil percentages. In particular, 85.7, 73.7, and 100.0% of the authentic olive oil samples, and the samples adulterated with 5 and 20% of hazelnut oil, were correctly classified through cross-validation.
Gila, Abraham M; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Beltrán, Gabriel; Jiménez, Antonio
This work was aimed to study the clarification efficiency of natural decantation in settling tank on virgin olive oil obtained from a two-ways continuous process. For this purpose, the impurities content of the virgin olive oil were monitored during settling process in settling tank at two different depths. Efficiency of purging system was determined for two days. The experiments were performed at industrial scale during three crop years. During the first minutes of settling was observed an ascent of the smaller organic particles of the oil. Then, most of the virgin olive oil impurities were settled at 300 min, independently of the initial content of virgin olive oil. Finally, oil decantation showed slower rate. Higher clarification values were obtained for those decanter oils with higher impurities content, achieving clarification percentages between of 62.69 and 95.91% at 48 h of settling. The highest settling efficiency was observed for those decanter oils with initial higher impurities content. The purging system used in the settling tanks was not able to remove the most of settled impurities since a considerable amount of the impurities remained in the tank after 48 h, between 13.6 and 71.41% for the studied oils. In the tank purges was observed important oil losses. Therefore, decantation was not an efficient system for oil clarification since its settling capacity varied depending on the initial impurities content and due to the settled impurities can not be removed fully by purging system.
Tavakoli, Javad; Estakhr, Parviz; Jelyani, Aniseh Zarei
The present study was carried out to investigate the improvement of oxidative stability of refined olive oil using various concentrations of unsaponifiable matters extracted from Pistacia khinjuk fruit oil (UFO). For further elucidation of UFO antioxidative power, tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was used in an olive oil sample, too. Oxidative stability of olive oil samples without and with different levels of UFO (50, 100, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 ppm) and TBHQ (100 ppm) were studied via evaluation of conjugated diene value, carbonyl value, oil/oxidative stability index, acid value and total tocopherol (TT) contents through 8 h thermal process at 170 °C. Results obtained by oxidative stability assays revealed that the highest antioxidative activity of olive oil was obtained by 100 ppm of UFO, followed using 100, 250, 500, 750, and 1000 ppm of UFO and 100 ppm TBHQ, respectively. Evaluation of the relationship between oxidative stability indexes and TT changes indicated a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.9718) between mean relative resistance to oxidation and relative resistance to TT reduction during thermal process. By promotion of relative resistance to TT reduction, olive oil samples' relative resistance to oxidation was enhanced exponentially; implying importance of TT in promotion of oxidative stability of edible oils. The results obtained in this study showed that UFO has higher antioxidative activity compared to TBHQ; thus UFO can be considered as a natural antioxidant with ideal antioxidative activity.
Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J
Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.
El Hajjouji, H; Fakharedine, N; Ait Baddi, G; Winterton, P; Bailly, J R; Revel, J C; Hafidi, M
Liquid waste from olive oil mills was digested following inoculation with soil microorganisms and fractionated through various grades of gel. The fractionation showed the range of sizes of the molecules in the waste. In addition, the disappearance of the low molecular weight fraction, which is retained by the gel, and the increase of the high molecular weight fraction, which is excluded by the gel, during the last stages of the microbial treatment, indicates polymerisation of the low-molecular-weight subunits. Characterization of the fractions by UV-visible and FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the increase in their degree of polymerisation during the treatment. This is paralleled by a reduction in the amount of aliphatic components and a concomitant increase in aromatic structures.
Alonso-Rebollo, Alba; Ramos-Gómez, Sonia; Busto, María D; Ortega, Natividad
The applicability of qPCR in olive-oil authentication depends on the DNA obtained from the oils and the amplification primers. Therefore, four olive-specific amplification systems based on the trnL gene were designed (A-, B-, C- and D-trnL systems). The qPCR conditions, primer concentration and annealing temperature, were optimized. The systems were tested for efficiency and sensitivity to select the most suitable for olive oil authentication. The selected system (D-trnL) demonstrated specificity toward olive in contrast to other oleaginous species (canola, soybean, sunflower, maize, peanut and coconut) and showed high sensitivity in a broad linear dynamic range (LOD and LOQ: 500ng - 0.0625pg). This qPCR system enabled detection, with high sensitivity and specificity, of olive DNA isolated from oils processed in different ways, establishing it as an efficient method for the authentication of olive oil regardless of its category. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zullo, B A; Cioccia, G; Ciafardini, G
The olive oil microbiota, mainly composed of yeasts, is associated with the suspended fraction of freshly produced olive oils. Some olive oil yeasts are considered useful as they are able to hydrolyse the bitter tasting secoiridoid compound of the oil, whereas others are considered harmful as they can damage the quality of the oil. Present research demonstrated the influence of some yeast strains belonging to Candida adriatica, Candida diddensiae and Candida wickerhamii species on the olive oil sensory characteristics during its storage. All the tested yeasts survived in the inoculated extra virgin olive oil and, after four months of storage, the suspended yeast cells recovered from the olive oil varied between 50% and 80% of the initial total yeasts, according to their sedimentation capacity. The mean of five analytical indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K232, K270 and ΔK) were quite similar and about 60% of the treated samples analysed after four months of storage, on the basis of these indices, were still classed as extra virgin. Completely different results were obtained from the analyses of volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds according to the yeast used. In the samples of oil treated with C. adriatica and C. wickerhamii, instead of some strains of C. diddensiae, a lower concentration of C6 volatile carbonyl compounds and polyphenols, responsible for positive oil attributes, were found. The sensory attributes of the treated olive oils varied according to the composition of the volatile and non volatile carbonyl compounds produced with the treatments. "Muddy-sediment", "rancid" or both defects were found in olive oil samples treated with C. adriatica DAPES 1933, C. wickerhamii DAPES 1885 and C. diddensiae DAPES 1912 and 1913 strains, whereas olive oil samples treated with C. diddensiae DAPES 1918 and 1922 after four months of storage were defect-free, and still categorized as extra virgin, according to the requirements of both chemical
Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Hruby, Adela; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B
Background: Olive oil has been shown to improve various cardiometabolic risk factors. However, to our knowledge, the association between olive oil intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has never been evaluated in the US population. Objective: We aimed to examine the association between olive oil intake and incident T2D. Design: We followed 59,930 women aged 37–65 y from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and 85,157 women aged 26–45 y from the NHS II who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaires, and data were updated every 4 y. Incident cases of T2D were identified through self-report and confirmed by supplementary questionnaires. Results: After 22 y of follow-up, we documented 5738 and 3914 incident cases of T2D in the NHS and NHS II, respectively. With the use of Cox regression models with repeated measurements of diet and multivariate adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary factors, the pooled HR (95% CI) of T2D in those who consumed >1 tablespoon (>8 g) of total olive oil per day compared with those who never consumed olive oil was 0.90 (0.82, 0.99). The corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 0.95 (0.87, 1.04) for salad dressing olive oil and 0.85 (0.74, 0.98) for olive oil added to food or bread. We estimated that substituting olive oil (8 g/d) for stick margarine, butter, or mayonnaise was associated with 5%, 8%, and 15% lower risk of T2D, respectively, in the pooled analysis of both cohorts. Conclusions: Our results suggest that higher olive oil intake is associated with modestly lower risk of T2D in women and that hypothetically substituting other types of fats and salad dressings (stick margarine, butter, and mayonnaise) with olive oil is inversely associated with T2D. PMID:26156740
Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Hruby, Adela; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Martínez-González, Miguel A; Sun, Qi; Willett, Walter C; Hu, Frank B
Olive oil has been shown to improve various cardiometabolic risk factors. However, to our knowledge, the association between olive oil intake and type 2 diabetes (T2D) has never been evaluated in the US population. We aimed to examine the association between olive oil intake and incident T2D. We followed 59,930 women aged 37-65 y from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and 85,157 women aged 26-45 y from the NHS II who were free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer at baseline. Diet was assessed by validated food-frequency questionnaires, and data were updated every 4 y. Incident cases of T2D were identified through self-report and confirmed by supplementary questionnaires. After 22 y of follow-up, we documented 5738 and 3914 incident cases of T2D in the NHS and NHS II, respectively. With the use of Cox regression models with repeated measurements of diet and multivariate adjustment for major lifestyle and dietary factors, the pooled HR (95% CI) of T2D in those who consumed >1 tablespoon (>8 g) of total olive oil per day compared with those who never consumed olive oil was 0.90 (0.82, 0.99). The corresponding HRs (95% CIs) were 0.95 (0.87, 1.04) for salad dressing olive oil and 0.85 (0.74, 0.98) for olive oil added to food or bread. We estimated that substituting olive oil (8 g/d) for stick margarine, butter, or mayonnaise was associated with 5%, 8%, and 15% lower risk of T2D, respectively, in the pooled analysis of both cohorts. Our results suggest that higher olive oil intake is associated with modestly lower risk of T2D in women and that hypothetically substituting other types of fats and salad dressings (stick margarine, butter, and mayonnaise) with olive oil is inversely associated with T2D. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.
Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad
Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if
Camin, Federica; Bontempo, Luana; Ziller, Luca; Piangiolino, Cristiana; Morchio, Gianni
Squalene and its hydrogenated derivate squalane are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetic fields. The two compounds are mainly produced from the liver oil of deep sea sharks and from olive oil distillates. Squalene and squalane from shark cost less than the same compounds derived from olive oil, and the use of these shark-derived compounds is unethical in cosmetic formulations. In this work we investigate whether (13)C/(12)C and (2)H/(1)H ratios can distinguish olive oil from shark squalene/squalane and can detect the presence of shark derivates in olive oil based products. The (13)C/(12)C ratios (expressed as delta(13)C values) of bulk samples and of pure compounds measured using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) were significantly lower in authentic olive oil squalene/squalane (N: 13; -28.4 +/- 0.5 per thousand; -28.3 +/- 0.8 per thousand) than in shark squalene/squalane samples (N: 15; -20.5 +/- 0.7 per thousand; -20.4 +/- 0.6 per thousand). By defining delta(13)C threshold values of -27.4 per thousand and -26.6 per thousand for olive oil bulk and pure squalene/squalane, respectively, illegal addition of shark products can be identified starting from a minimum of 10%. (2)H/(1)H analysis is not useful for distinguishing the two different origins. Delta(13)C analysis is proposed as a suitable tool for detecting the authenticity of commercial olive oil squalene and squalane samples, using IRMS interfaced to an elemental analyser if the purity is higher than 80% and IRMS interfaced to a gas chromatography/combustion system for samples with lower purity, including solutions of squalane extracted from cosmetic products. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Terés, S; Barceló-Coblijn, G; Benet, M; Alvarez, R; Bressani, R; Halver, J E; Escribá, P V
Numerous studies have shown that high olive oil intake reduces blood pressure (BP). These positive effects of olive oil have frequently been ascribed to its minor components, such as alpha-tocopherol, polyphenols, and other phenolic compounds that are not present in other oils. However, in this study we demonstrate that the hypotensive effect of olive oil is caused by its high oleic acid (OA) content (approximately 70-80%). We propose that olive oil intake increases OA levels in membranes, which regulates membrane lipid structure (H(II) phase propensity) in such a way as to control G protein-mediated signaling, causing a reduction in BP. This effect is in part caused by its regulatory action on G protein-associated cascades that regulate adenylyl cyclase and phospholipase C. In turn, the OA analogues, elaidic and stearic acids, had no hypotensive activity, indicating that the molecular mechanisms that link membrane lipid structure and BP regulation are very specific. Similarly, soybean oil (with low OA content) did not reduce BP. This study demonstrates that olive oil induces its hypotensive effects through the action of OA.
Yousfi, Khaled; Weiland, Carlos M; García, José M
Storage at 3 and 18 °C of 'Arbequina' olives (Olea europaea L.) cultivated in hedgerows and harvested manually or mechanically (wine grape harvester) was tested. Fruit characteristics and oil quality were monitored. Mechanical harvesting caused internal fruit damage that induced its rapid softening and decay, but also facilitated obtaining higher amounts of oil, which suffered a rapid deterioration during fruit storage. This oil presented lower tocopherol and phenol contents and lower oxidative stability than the oil extracted from manually harvested olives, but showed similar fatty acid composition. Cold storage (3 °C) delayed all of these deterioration processes. It allowed maintaining the best commercial level of quality ("extra") in the oil from mechanically harvested olives for 10 days. This cold storage could be considered as an alternative to the increase in machinery for processing the growing olive production, due to both hedgerow cultivation and mechanized harvesting.
Essid, Kamel; Chtourou, Manef; Trabelsi, Mahmoud; Frikha, Mohamed Hédi
This study elucidate the modification on oxidative and thermal stability of acid olive oils during the neutralization step. The neutralization of an acidified olive oil, chosen as model, was carried out by substituting lime (calcium hydroxide) for soda (sodium hydroxide) as the neutralizing agent. Resulting olive oil preserved almost 95% of their alpha-tocopherol content and had higher temperatures of thermal decomposition than oils neutralized with soda. Oils neutralized with lime had better oxidative stability since the losses of their natural antioxidants, particularly tocopherols, were very limited. The neutralization with soda was accompanied by a passage of epoxides and hydroperoxides (products of first stage of oxidation) to alpha, beta-unsaturated aldehydes and ketones (products of second stage of oxidation). These purposes were confirmed by thermal spectrophotometric analyses and the increase of the carbonyl value after neutralization.
Hodaifa, Gassan; MartínezNieto, Leopoldo; Lozano, Juan L; Sánchez, Sebastián
Mixing of refined olive-pomace oil with virgin olive oil is a fraud that has been tried often. Normally, the tests that detected the fraud were determinations of wax esters, erythrodiol+uvaol, and stigmastadienes contents. The most common is the determination of wax esters content (extra virgin olive oil is very poor in wax esters, usually less than 100 mg/kg). In this work, the variations of individual wax esters (C40, C42, C44, and C46), with different degrees of unsaturation content, and total wax esters were studied when extra virgin olive oil and refined pomace-olive oil were mixed. The following mixtures were prepared: extra virgin olive oil plus 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 15, 18, 25, 35, 45, 50, and 80% of refined olive-pomace oil. In all cases, individual and total wax ester content variation was linear with increasing percentage of refined olive-pomace oil in the mixture. The variation of the total wax esters content can be adjusted according to the equation: Total wax esters, mg/kg = 14.3 x (% refined olive-pomace oil) + 83.9.
Achak, M; Mandi, L; Ouazzani, N
The aim of this work was to examine the performance of a sand filter in treating modern olive mill (OMW) effluents after dilution with domestic wastewater on a one-to-one basis. The experimental pilot consisted of a column of opaque PVC, and the sand filter was filled with 50 cm of sand and 10 cm of gravel in the top and the bottom of the filter. The alimentation (4 cm/day) was done sequentially following a 1 day wet/3 days dry cycle. The OMW effluent was very acidic with a pH of 4.12, and had high concentrations of phenolic compounds (7.2g/L) and total chemical oxygen demand (65 g/L). The percolation of the diluted OMW through the sand filters caused an increase in pH from 4.84 to 8.25 and a 90% removal of total suspended solids. The sand filter treatment also led to important reductions in organic matter (90% of total COD, 83% of dissolved COD and 92% of phenolic compounds) and nutrients (91% of Kjeldahl-nitrogen, 97% of ammonia-nitrogen, 99% of nitrate-nitrogen and 99% of phosphates). The flow rate became very low indicating clogging of the sand pores after 10 weeks. HPLC analysis of the diluted OMW before and after passage through the sand filter showed an important reduction in the toxic monomeric compounds after the treatment.
Athanasoulia, E; Melidis, P; Aivasidis, A
Co-digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS) with agro-industrial organic wastewaters is a technology that is increasingly being applied in order to produce increased gas yield from the biomass. In this study, the effect of olive mill wastewater (OMW) on the performance of a cascade of two anaerobic continuous stirred tank (CSTR) reactors treating thickened WAS at mesophilic conditions was investigated. The objectives of this work were (a) to evaluate the use of OMW as a co-substrate to improve biogas production, (b) to determine the optimum hydraulic retention time that provides an optimised biodegradation rate or methane production, and (c) to study the system stability after OMW addition in sewage sludge. The biogas production rate at steady state conditions reached 0.73, 0.63, 0.56 and 0.46 l(biogas)/l(reactor)/d for hydraulic retention times (HRTs) of 12.3, 14, 16.4 and 19.7 d. The average removal of soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD) ranged between 64 and 72% for organic loading rates between 0.49 and 0.75 g sCOD/l/d. Reduction in the volatile suspended solids ranged between 27 and 30%. In terms of biogas selectivity, values of 0.6 l(biogas)/g tCOD removed and 1.1 l(biogas)/g TVS removed were measured.
Amor, Carlos; Lucas, Marco S; García, Juan; Dominguez, Joaquín R; De Heredia, J Beltrán; Peres, José A
This work presents the application of Fenton's reagent process combined with anaerobic digestion to treat an olive mill wastewater (OMW). Firstly, OMW was pre-treated by chemical oxidation in a batch reactor with Fenton's reagent, using a fixed H2O2/COD ratio of 0.20, pH = 3.5 and a H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15:1. This advanced oxidation treatment allowed reaching reductions of 17.6 and 82.5% of chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total polyphenols (TP), respectively. Secondly, OMW treatment by anaerobic digestion was performed using previously adapted microorganisms immobilized in Sepiolite. These biological tests were carried out varying the substrate concentration supplied to the reactor and COD conversions from 52 to 74% were obtained. Afterwards, Fenton's reagent followed by anaerobic digestion was applied to OMW treatment. This combined process presented a significant improvement on organic load removal, reaching COD degradations from 64 to 88%. Beyond the pollutant load removal, it was also monitored the yield of methane generated throughout anaerobic experiments. The methane produced ranged from 281 cm(3) to 322 cm(3) of CH4/g COD removed. Additionally, a methane generation kinetic study was performed using the Monod Model. The application of this model allowed observing a kinetic constant increase of the combined process (kFN = 0.036 h(-1)) when compared to the single anaerobic process (kF = 0.017 h(-1)).
Tsiknia, Myrto; Tzanakakis, Vasileios A; Oikonomidis, Dimitris; Paranychianakis, Nikolaos V; Nikolaidis, Nikolaos P
This study investigated the cycling of C and N following application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) at various rates (0, 42, 84, and 168 m(3)/ha). OMW stimulated respiration rate throughout the study period, but an increase in soil organic matter was observed only at the highest rate. Soil phenol content decreased rapidly within 2 weeks following application but neither phenol oxidase and peroxidase activity nor laccase gene copies could explain this response. Soil NH4 (+)-N content increased in response to OMW application rate, while an opposite trend observed for NO3 (-)-N, which attributed to immobilization. This decrease was in accordance with amoA gene copies of archaeal and bacterial ammonia oxidizers in the first days following OMW application. Afterwards, although amoA gene copies and potential nitrification rates recovered to values similar to or higher than those in the non-treated soils, NO3 (-)-N content did not change among the treatments. A corresponding increase in denitrifying gene copies (nirK, nirS, nosZ) during that period indicates that denitrification, stimulated by OMW application rate, was responsible for this effect; a hypothesis consistent with the decrease in total Kjeldahl nitrogen content late in the season. The findings suggest that land application of OMW is a promising practice for OMW management, even at rates approaching the soil water holding capacity.
Kavvadias, V; Elaiopoulos, K; Theocharopoulos, Sid; Soupios, P
The disposal of olive mill wastewaters (OMW) in shallow and unprotected evaporation ponds is a common, low-cost management practice, followed in Mediterranean countries. So far, the fate of potential soil pollutants in areas located near evaporation ponds is not adequately documented. This study investigates the extent in which the long-term disposal of OMW in evaporation ponds can affect the soil properties of the area located outside the evaporation pond and assesses the fate of the pollution loads of OMW. Four soil profiles situated outside and around the down slope side of the disposal area were excavated. The results showed considerable changes in concentration of soil phenols at the down-site soil profiles, due to the subsurface transport of the OMW. In addition, excessive concentrations of NH4(+), PO4(3-) and phenols were recorded in liquid samples taken from inside at the bottom of the soil profiles. It is concluded that unprotected evaporation ponds located in light texture soils pose a serious threat to favour soil and water pollution.
Poerschmann, J; Weiner, B; Baskyr, I
Organic components in olive mill wastewater (OMW) were analyzed by exhaustive solvent extraction of the lyophilisate followed by pre-chromatographic derivatization techniques and GC/MS-analysis of the extracts. Simple biophenols including tyrosol (Tyr), hydroxytyrosol (OH-Tyr) and homovanillic alcohol as well as complex biophenols including decarbomethoxy ligostride aglycon and decarbomethoxy oleuropein aglycon proved most abundant analytes. Hydroxylated benzoic and cinnamic acids are less abundant, which may indicate a humification process to have occurred. The pattern of organic components obtained from native OMW was compared with that obtained from hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of the waste product. Former results provided strong evidence that HTC of OMW at 220°C for 14h results in an almost complete hydrolysis of complex aglycons. However, simple biophenols were not decomposed on hydrothermal treatment any further. Phenol and benzenediols as well as low molecular weight organic acids proved most abundant analytes which were generated due to HTC. Similarly to aglycons, lipids including most abundant acylglycerines and less abundant wax esters were subjected almost quantitatively to hydrolysis under hydrothermal conditions. Fatty acids (FAs) released from lipids were further decomposed. The pathways of volatile analytes in both native OMW and aqueous HTC solutions were studied by solventless headspace-Solid Phase Micro Extraction. Basically, a wide array low molecular alcohols and ketones occurring in native OMW survived the HTC process.
Lucas, Marco S; Beltrán-Heredia, J; Sanchez-Martin, J; Garcia, Juan; Peres, José A
The present work describes the application of a Fenton's reagent pretreatment combined with an aerobic biological process to remove the olive mill wastewater (OMW) pollutant load. Wastewater treatment was monitored by means of global parameters directly related to the concentration of organic compounds in OMW effluents: chemical oxygen demand (COD) and total phenolic content (TP). The biologic treatment itself allowed conversions from 67 to 83% of COD and 55 to 61% of TP. In the Fenton's reagent process a fixed H2O2/COD ratio of 0.20, a pH = 3.5 and a H2O2/Fe(2+) molar ratio of 15 were defined as optimal conditions to treat the OMW. For an initial COD load of 92.5 g/L(-1)) the Fenton reagent-biologic combined process allowed a global removal of 80.7% COD and 93.7% TP. A kinetic study was performed resorting to the Grau model. The application of this model allowed observing an increase in the kinetic constant of the combined process (kFB = 24.7 g/L(-1) day) when compared to the single aerobic process (kB = 19.4 g/L(-1) day).
Angelino, Donato; Gennari, Lorenzo; Blasa, Manuela; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Esposto, Sonia; Servili, Maurizio; Ninfali, Paolino
The isolation and identification of a phytocomplex from olive mill waste waters (OMWW) was achieved. The isolated phytocomplex is made up of the following three phenolic compounds: hydroxytyrosol (3,4-DHPEA), tyrosol (p-HPEA) and the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, linked with (3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)ethanol (3,4-DHPEA-EDA). The purification of this phytocomplex was reached by partial dehydration of the OMWW, followed by liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate and middle pressure liquid chromatography (MPLC) on a Sephadex LH-20 column. The phytocomplex accounted for 6% of the total phenolic content of the OMWW. The phytocomplex and individual compounds were tested for antioxidant capacity by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) method. The ORAC phytocomplex produced 10,000 ORAC units/g dry weight, whereas the cellular antioxidant activity, measured by the cellular antioxidant activity in red blood cell (CAA-RBC) method, demonstrated that the phytocomplex and all of the components are able to permeate the cell membrane thus exhibiting antioxidant activity inside the red blood cells. Our phytocomplex could be employed in the formulation of fortified foods and nutraceuticals, with the goal to obtain substantial health protective effects due to the suitable combination of the component molecules.
Badawy, M I; El Gohary, F; Ghaly, M Y; Ali, M E M
Olive mills wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic content and refractory compounds. In this study, an advanced technology for the treatment of the recalcitrant contaminants of OMW has been investigated. The technique used was either photo-Fenton as homogeneous photocatalytic oxidation or UV/semi-conductor catalyst (such as TiO(2), ZrO(2) and FAZA) as heterogeneous photocatalytic oxidation for treatment of OMW. For both the processes, the effect of irradiation time, amounts of photocatalysts and semi-conductors, and initial concentration of hydrogen peroxide has been studied. At the optimum conditions, photo-Fenton process achieved COD, TOC, lignin (total phenolic compounds) and total suspended solids (TSSs) removal values of 87%, 84%, 97.44% and 98.31%, respectively. The corresponding values for UV/TiO(2) were 68.8%, 67.3%, 40.19% and 48.9%, respectively, after 80 min irradiation time. The biodegradability expressed by BOD(5)/COD ratio for treated wastewater was ranged from 0.66 to 0.8 compared to 0.19 for raw wastewater indicating enhancement of biodegradation.
Stoyanova, Elitza; Lundaa, Tserennyam; Bochmann, Günther; Fuchs, Werner
Two-stage anaerobic digestion (AD) of two-phase olive mill solid waste (OMSW) was applied for reducing the inhibiting factors by optimizing the acidification stage. Single-stage AD and co-fermentation with chicken manure were conducted coinstantaneous for direct comparison. Degradation of the polyphenols up to 61% was observed during the methanogenic stage. Nevertheless the concentration of phenolic substances was still high; the two-stage fermentation remained stable at OLR 1.5 kgVS/m³day. The buffer capacity of the system was twice as high, compared to the one-stage fermentation, without additives. The two-stage AD was a combined process - thermophilic first stage and mesophilic second stage, which pointed out to be the most profitable for AD of OMSW for the reduced hydraulic retention time (HRT) from 230 to 150 days, and three times faster than the single-stage and the co-fermentation start-up of the fermentation. The optimal HRT and incubation temperature for the first stage were determined to four days and 55°C. The performance of the two-stage AD concerning the stability of the process was followed by the co-digestion of OMSW with chicken manure as a nitrogen-rich co-substrate, which makes them viable options for waste disposal with concomitant energy recovery.
Abu Tayeh, Hiba; Levy-Shalev, Odelia; Azaizeh, Hassan; Dosoretz, Carlos G
The hydrothermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste amended with 0.6M organic acids was studied at temperatures between 100 and 170°C. Acetic and formic acids which are endogenous intermediates of hemiacetyl splitting at subcritical conditions were tested. Formic acid, with smaller molecular size and lower pKa, was found to be more effective than acetic in the entire range of temperatures tested. Yield of enzymatic hydrolysis was significantly enhanced (>2 folds) at temperatures above 140°C. Concentration of aldehyde byproducts in the medium increased with temperature and pressure and addition of organic acids, however, the highest concentration detected (ca 1g/L) did not surpass values reported as inhibitory of sugars fermentation to ethanol by either yeast or bacteria. Aldehyde production was more affected by temperature than by acid addition. Concluding, addition of formic acid to hydrothermal pretreatment at relatively mild temperatures (140-170°C) and pressure (10-13 atm) improved saccharification yield while saving energy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias
Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds.
Fernandes, L R; Gomes, A C; Lopes, A; Albuquerque, A; Simões, R M
Biogas production has been the main route used to exploit olive mill wastewater (OMW), after pretreatment and/or in combination with other effluents, but more recently the production of chemicals and biopolymers by biotechnological routes has deserved increasing attention by the scientific community. The present paper aims to explore the potential of fresh OMW as a source of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biogas. The time profile of VFAs production and the corresponding sugar consumption was followed by high-performance liquid chromatography, in batch anaerobic assays. The experimental results have revealed the very high potential of the OMW for the production of VFAs, mainly due to the high sugar concentration in the effluent (37.8 g/L) and its complete conversion into VFAs, in a time period of 2-3 days. The most abundant VFAs were acetic (48-50%), n-butanoic (12-27%), iso-pentanoic (12-14%) and propanoic (5-13%). The ratio of VFA containing even and odd carbon chains increased with the reduction in the initial chemical oxygen demand concentration of the samples used in the experiments. The conversion of the VFAs to biogas was inhibited at concentrations of 3.5 g/L of VFAs.
Chaves-López, Clemencia; Serio, Annalisa; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Martuscelli, Maria; Scarpone, Emidio; Paparella, Antonello
Biopreservation using polyphenols represents an alternative to chemical molecules for improving food safety. In this work, we evaluated the antifungal activity of polyphenols extracted from olive mill wastewater (OMWWP) to reduce or eliminate the growth of undesired fungi on the surface of dry fermented sausages. Antagonism against Penicillium expansum DSMZ 1282, Penicillium verrucosum DSMZ 12639, Penicillium nalgiovense MS01, Aspergillus ochraceus DSMZ 63304, Cladosporium cladosporioides MS12, and Eurotium amstelodami MS10 was evident at 1.25% OMWWP in vitro, whereas in situ application of 2.5% OMWWP strongly reduced undesired household fungal species such as C. cladosporioides, Penicillium aurantiogriseum, Penicillium commune, and Eurotium amstelodami, while a moderate antagonistic activity towards P. nalgiovense and Penicillium chrysogenum was observed at the same concentration. OMWWP at the concentrations used in this study demonstrated species-dependent antifungal activity by inhibiting both fungal growth and spore germination. Therefore, OMWWP can be regarded as a potential alternative to synthetic antifungal compounds to preserve the product from both oxidation and undesired fungi, without changing the sensory characteristics.
Kourmentza, C; Ntaikou, I; Lyberatos, G; Kornaros, M
The present study aimed at investigating the ability of bacteria isolated from an enriched mixed culture to produce polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) and examining the effect of nitrogen and dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation on PHAs production, by using both synthetic and olive mill wastewater (OMW). PHAs production was performed through batch experiments using both the enriched culture and the isolated strains (belonging to the genus of Pseudomonas) aiming to compare PHAs accumulation capacity, yields and rates. The use of enriched culture and synthetic wastewater under nitrogen limitation resulted in the highest PHA accumulation, i.e. 64.4%gPHAs/g of cell dry mass (CDM). However, when OMW was used, PHAs accumulation significantly decreased, i.e. 8.8%gPHAs/g CDM. The same trend was followed by the isolated strains, nevertheless, their ability to synthesize PHAs was lower. Although, dual nitrogen-oxygen limitation generally slowed down PHAs biosynthesis, in certain strains PHAs production was positively affected. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Cicci, A; Stoller, M; Bravi, M
Olive milling produces huge amounts of wastewater (OMWW) characterized by an extremely high organic load. Its polyphenols content is a hindrance to conventional biological treatment and to using it as growing medium for common microbial biomasses. The practice to dump it on soil is in conflict with the latest EU directives about waste management. OMWW can be effectively and efficiently treated by means of membrane technology to a fraction of the initial volume, but membrane processing concentrates still require treatment. Reversing the overall cost balance of membrane processing and subsequent treatment requires valorizing the concentrates through their reuse, as well as ensuring long-term service of the membrane system through effective wastewater pretreatment and sustainable, fouling-controlling, membrane operation conduite. Aim of this work is to reuse and valorize the ultra- and nanofiltration membrane concentrates as media for biomass production of microalgae and cyanobacteria. Scenedesmus dimorphus and Arthrospira platensis, usable as a food, feed, nutraceutical component or feedstock for biofuels, were selected for this investigation. Microalgal growth was experimentally determined and related to the composition of the concentrate-based media and to the irradiance distribution within the photobioreactor volume to decouple light limitation and medium chemical composition effects.
Hmid, Amine; Al Chami, Ziad; Sillen, Wouter; De Vocht, Alain; Vangronsveld, Jaco
The potential use of biochar from olive mill waste for in situ remediation of metal contaminated soils was evaluated. Biochar was mixed with metal contaminated soil originating from the vicinity of an old zinc smelter. Soil-biochar mixtures were equilibrated for 30 and 90 days. At these time points, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals were determined, and effects of the biochar amendment on soil toxicity were investigated using plants, bacteria, and earthworms. Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) growth, metal content, antioxidative enzymes activities, and soluble protein contents were determined. Furthermore, effects on soil microbial communities (activity, diversity, richness) were examined using Biolog ECOplates. After 120 days of soil-biochar equilibration, effects on weight and reproduction of Eisenia foetida were evaluated. With increasing biochar application rate and equilibration period, Ca(NO3)2 exchangeable metals decreased, and growth of bean plants improved; leaf metal contents reduced, the activities of antioxidative stress enzymes decreased, and soluble protein contents increased. Soil microbial activity, richness, and diversity were augmented. Earthworm mortality lowered, and their growth and reproduction showed increasing trends.
Jarboui, Raja; Sellami, Fatma; Kharroubi, Adel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna
The aim of this work was to study the natural biodegradation of the stored olive mill wastewater (OMW) in ponds and the infiltration as well as the impact on soil of the effluent in the evaporation pond used for the storage over the past eight years. For this, two approaches were considered. First, a laboratory-scale column was used for the infiltration of OMW through soil (clay and sand) to predict the effect of the clayey soil in reducing OMW pollution. Second, the ponds including the effluent annually stored and having this clayey structure were investigated. At the laboratory-scale, a modification of OMW contents was noticed, with the elimination of 95% of total suspended solids (TSS), 60% of chemical oxygen demand (COD), 40% of total organic carbon (TOC), 50% of total P, 50% of phenols and 40% of minerals (K+, Mg++ and Na+). The experimented soil was able to restrain the considerable effects of OMW pollution. In the ponds, the granulometric characteristics, the physico-chemical and the biological parameters of the soil profile from the contaminated pond were compared to those of a control soil, located near the contaminated pond. Property modifications of the contaminated soil were noted, especially pH, electrical conductivity, COD and microflora. These changes can be explained by the infiltration of OMW constituents, which were noticed in the soil layers, especially phenolic compounds that have a negative effect on the ground water.
Ochando Pulido, Javier Miguel; Martínez Férez, Antonio
In the present paper, a thin-film composite polymeric nanofiltration (NF) membrane is examined for the tertiary treatment of secondary-treated two-phase olive mill wastewater, in substitution of the reverse osmosis membrane used in previous work by the Authors. Overcoming the deleterious fouling phenomena persistently encountered in membrane processes managing wastewater streams was indeed pursued. Setting the adequate parameters of the operating variables - that is, operating at ambient temperature upon a net pressure equal to 13 bar (Pc), tangential crossflow in the order of 2.55 m s(-1) to attain enough turbulence over the membrane, and above the point of zero charge (pH > 5.8) of the membrane - ensured high steady-state permeate productivity (59.6 L h(-1) m(-2)), also economically sustainable in time owed to minimization of the fouling-build up rate (0.91 h(-1)). Moreover, these conditions also provided high feed recovery (90%) and significant rejection efficiencies for the electroconductivity (58.1%) and organic matter (76.1%). This led to a purified permeate stream exiting the NF membrane operation exhibiting average EC and COD values equal to 1.4 mS cm(-1) and 45 mg L(-1). This permits complying with the water quality parameters established by different regulations for discharge public waterways and irrigation purposes.
Rodríguez-Lucena, Patricia; Hernández, Diana; Hernández-Apaolaza, Lourdes; Lucena, Juan J
Micronutrient deficiencies in plants may be treated using metal complexes. A modified two-phase olive mill waste (OMWm) was characterized using FTIR spectroscopy. A study was also made of micronutrient (Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu) complexation and the stability of complexes. An evaluation was then made of the effectiveness of Fe(III)OMWm to supply Fe to soybean (Glycine max. cv Stine 0480) chlorotic plants through nutrient solution and foliar application. The OMWm presented structural similarities with the fulvic fraction of raw OMW containing abundant phenolic-hydroxyl and carboxyl groups able to form complexes. The OMWm could complex Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu, although the stabilities of the complexes under agronomic conditions were low. In dealing with Fe chlorosis, Fe(III)-OMWm improved the Fe nutritional status of soybean chlorotic plants when applied to the nutrient solution, while only regreening of leaves was observed in foliar applications. Hence, OMWm complexes constitute a promising eco-compatible and cheap alternative to synthetic chelates in dealing with micronutrient deficiencies when applied foliarly or to the nutrient solution, although further research is necessary to improve the stability and effectiveness of the complexes.
Gonçalves, M R; Costa, J C; Marques, I P; Alves, M M
Strategies are proposed for the anaerobic treatment of lipid and phenolic-rich effluents, specifically the raw olive mill wastewater (OMW). Two reactors were operated under OMW influent concentrations from 5 to 48 g COD L(-1) and Hydraulic Retention Time between 10 and 5 days. An intermittent feeding was applied whenever the reactors showed a severe decay in the methane yield. This strategy improved the mineralization of oleate and palmitate, which were the main accumulated Long-Chain Fatty Acids (LCFA), and also promoted the removal of resilient phenolic compounds, reaching remarkable removal efficiencies of 60% and 81% for two parallel reactors at the end of a feed-less period. A maximum biogas production of 1.4m(3)m(-3)d(-1) at an Organic Loading Rate of 4.8 kg COD m(-3)d(-1) was obtained. Patterns of individual LCFA oxidation during the OMW anaerobic digestion are presented and discussed for the first time. The supplementation of a nitrogen source boosted immediately the methane yield from 21 and 18 to 76 and 93% in both reactors. The typical problems of sludge flotation and washout during the anaerobic treatment of this oily wastewater were overcome by biomass retention, according to the Inverted Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (IASB) reactor concepts. This work demonstrates that it is possible to avoid a previous detoxification step by implementing adequate operational strategies to the anaerobic treatment of OMW.
Jarboui, Raja; Hadrich, Bilel; Gharsallah, Néji; Ammar, Emna
The study of the isotherms desorption of olive mill wastewater (OMW) was investigated to describe its water activity under different saturated environments. The microbial biodegradation of OMW during its storage in 5 evaporation ponds located in Agareb (Sfax-Tunisia) was carried out during the oil-harvesting year held 105 days in 2004. Gravimetric static method using saturated salt solutions was used and OMW as placed at 30 degrees C and under different water activities ranging from 0.11 to 0.90. Eight models were taken from the literature to describe experimental desorption isotherms. During storage, the evolution of physico-chemical parameters including pH, temperature, evaporation, humidity, total phosphorus, chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD) and phenols and three microbiological flora (aerobic mesophilic bacteria, yeasts and moulds) were considered. At 30 degrees C, when relative humidity increased in the experimented ponds of 69, 84 and 90%, the evaporation speed decreased from 1.24 x 10(-5) to 5 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1), from 6 x 10(-5) to 7 x 10(-6) cm(3) s(-1) and from 5 x 10(-6) to 1.1 x 10(-7) cm(3) s(-1) respectively. The desorption isotherm exhibited a sigmoidal curve corresponding to type II, typical of many organic material. The GAB and Peleg models gave the best fit for describing the relationship between the equilibrium moisture content and water activity in OMW (R (2) = 0.998). During the storage period, the analysis showed an increase of all the physico-chemical parameters studied, except phenols and total phosphorus concentrations. The microbiological study showed the predominance of yeasts and moulds and the decrease of bacteria population after 75 days reflecting both effect of recalcitrant compounds and the water activity on microbial growth.
Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette
The present narrative review compares evidence from experimental, epidemiological and clinical studies of the health benefits of rapeseed oil (RO) (known as canola oil) and olive oil (OO) in order to assess whether rapeseed oil is suitable as a sustainable alternative to OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet in countries where olive trees do not grow. From epidemiological studies, the evidence for cardiovascular protection afforded by extra-virgin OO is 'convincing', and for cancers 'limited-suggestive', especially oestrogen receptor-negative breast cancer, but more studies are required in relation to cognitive impairment. Evidence for RO is limited to short-term studies on the biomarkers of risk factors for CVD. Any benefits of RO are likely to be due to α-linolenic acid; however, it is prone to oxidation during frying. We conclude that due to a lack of evidence from observational or intervention studies indicating that RO has comparable health benefits to extra-virgin OO, RO cannot currently be recommended as a suitable substitute for extra-virgin OO as part of a Mediterranean-style diet.
Van Durme, Jim; Vandamme, Jeroen
In recent years adulteration of pure extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with other types of vegetable oils has become an important issue. In this study, non-thermal plasma (NTP) is investigated as an innovative preparative analytical technique enabling classification of adulterated olive oil from an ascertained authentic batch of olive oil in a more sensitive manner. Non-thermal plasma discharges are a source of highly oxidative species such as singlet oxygen, and atomic oxygen. It was assumed that NTP-induced oxidation triggers unique lipid oxidation mechanisms depending on the specific composition of the oil matrix and minor constituents. In this work EVOO samples were adulterated with sunflower oil (1-3%) and submitted to NTP treatment. Results showed that while untreated samples could not be classified from the authentic olive oil reference, NTP treatments of 60min (Ar/O2 0.1%) on the oil batches resulted in the formation of a unique set of secondary volatile lipid oxidation products enabling classification of adulterated oil samples.
Alburquerque, José Antonio; Gonzálvez, José; García, Diego; Cegarra, Juan
Olive-mill wastes and by-products from the edible olive oil industry contain a high non-stabilised organic load, including organic acids, phenolic compounds and fats with antimicrobial and phytotoxic properties, which make them unsuitable for direct agricultural application. The most abundant olive-mill by-product in Spain is "alperujo" (AL), a solid material with a lack of consistency and low porosity due to its high water content and small particle size, which can be suitably composted by adding bulking agents. Six piles were prepared by mixing AL with cotton waste, grape stalk, olive leaf and fresh cow bedding, then successively composted, five of them managed by forced ventilation assisted by mechanical turning and the sixth only turned. After monitoring the process, the relationship between the germination index (GI) and the presence of some potentially phytotoxic compounds, as well as several maturity and stability indices, was assessed. As composting advanced, the GI increased and both the fat and water-soluble phenol contents decreased, indicating a gradual detoxification as the composts matured. The values of the maturity and stability indices were frequently different from the values reported for other composts.
Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo
The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed.
Fourati, Radhia; Scopa, Antonio; Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Ben Abdallah, Ferjani; Terzano, Roberto; Gattullo, Concetta Eliana; Allegretta, Ignazio; Galgano, Fernanda; Caruso, Marisa Carmela; Sofo, Adriano
This study was carried out in two olive orchards (Olea europaea L., cv. Chemlali) located in a polluted area near a fertilizers factory and in a control unpolluted site, managed with similar cultivation techniques. The aim was to investigate the physiological and biochemical responses of polluted plants (PP), exposed to atmospheric metal contamination (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Pb) as compared to control plants (CP). Leaves, roots and fruits of PP showed a depression of their non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidant defences and a disruption of their hormonal homeostasis. The anomalous physiological status of PP was also demonstrated by the lower values of pigments in leaves and fruits, as compared to CP. Atmospheric metals negatively affected olive oil chemical and sensory quality. However, despite metal deposition on fruit surfaces, the accumulation of potentially toxic metals in olive oil was negligible. Considering that olive oil is an important food product worldwide and that many productive olive orchards are exposed to several sources of pollution, this work could contribute to clarify the effects of atmospheric metal pollution on olive oil quality and its potential toxicity for humans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rigacci, Stefania; Stefani, Massimo
The increasing interest in the Mediterranean diet hinges on its healthy and anti-ageing properties. The composition of fatty acids, vitamins and polyphenols in olive oil, a key component of this diet, is considered a key feature of its healthy properties. Therefore, it is of significance that the Rod of Asclepius lying on a world map surrounded by olive tree branches has been chosen by the World Health Organization as a symbol of both peace and well-being. This review travels through most of the current and past research, recapitulating the biochemical and physiological correlations of the beneficial properties of olive tree (Olea europaea) polyphenols and their derivatives found in olive oil. The factors influencing the content and beneficial properties of olive oil polyphenols will also be taken into account together with their bioavailability. Finally, the data on the clinical and epidemiological relevance of olive oil and its polyphenols for longevity and against age- and lifestyle-associated pathologies such as cancer, cardiovascular, metabolic and neurodegenerative diseases are reviewed. PMID:27258251