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Sample records for olympic games traffic

  1. [Modeling the vehicle pollution in the urban streets before and during the Beijing Olympic Games traffic control period].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ting; Xie, Shao-dong

    2010-03-01

    In order to investigate the vehicle pollution situation in the streets in Beijing and the abatement during the Olympic Games, the OSPM model was applied to calculate the concentrations of PM10, CO, NO2 and O3 inside the urban streets of Beijing before and during the Olympic traffic controlling period in July, 2008. The modeled concentrations before the traffic control are 146 micog/m3, 3.83 mg/m3, 114.4 microg/m3 and 4.71 x 10(-1), while after the traffic control are 112 microg/m3, 3.16 mg/m3, 102.4 microg/m3 and 5.31 x 10(-9) , with the reduction rates of 23.4%, 20.5%, 10.5% and -12.5%, respectively. The research on these concentration changes and the daily variations of the pollutants reveals: the concentration of PM10 is most influenced by the traffic control; the concentration of CO presents the most similar daily variation with the traffic flow; the reduction of NO2 concentration is limited, indicating the influence of other factors other than the traffic emission; the concentration of O3 increases after the traffic control, which means the traffic management measures can not abate the O3 pollution in the street. Furthermore, the comparison between the calculation results in different types of street canyons reveals that the fleet composition and street geometry impact the concentration changes. In a word, the vehicle pollution inside the streets of Beijing before the traffic control is relatively serious, as the concentrations of PM10, CO and NO2, all approach or exceed the Grade II National Air Quality Standard; the traffic control measures take effect in reducing the primary pollutants, but the secondary pollutants may increase after the traffic control.

  2. Traffic-related air pollution modeling during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games: the effects of an odd-even day traffic restriction scheme.

    PubMed

    Cai, Hao; Xie, Shaodong

    2011-04-15

    An integrated urban air quality modeling system was applied to assess the effects of a short-term odd-even day traffic restriction scheme (TRS) on traffic-related air pollution in the urban area of Beijing (UAB) before, during and after the 2008 Olympic Games. Using traffic flow data retrieved from an on-line traffic monitoring system, concentration levels of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th Ring Roads (RR) and Linkage Roads (LRs), the main roads distributed around the UAB, were predicted for the pre- (10th-19th, July), during- (20th July-20th September) and post-TRS (21st-30th, September) periods. A widely used statistical framework for model evaluation was adopted, the dependences of model performance on time-of-the-day and on wind direction were investigated, and the model predictions turned out reasonably satisfactory. Results showed that daily average concentrations on the 2nd, 3rd, 4th RR and LRs decreased significantly during the TRS period, by about 35.8, 38.5, 34.9 and 35.6% for CO, about 38.7, 31.8, 44.0 and 34.7% for PM(10), about 30.3, 31.9, 32.3 and 33.9% for NO(2), and about 36.7, 33.0, 33.4 and 34.7% for O(3), respectively, compared with the pre-TRS period. Hourly average concentrations were also reduced significantly, particularly for the morning and evening peaks for CO and PM(10), for the evening peak for NO(2), and for the afternoon peak for O(3). Consequently, both the daily and hourly concentration level of CO, PM(10), NO(2) and O(3) conformed to the China National Ambient Air Quality Standards Grade II during the Games. In addition, notable reduction of concentration levels was achieved in different regions of Beijing, with the traffic-related air pollution in the downwind northern and western areas relieved most significantly. The TRS policy was therefore effective in alleviating traffic-related air pollution and improving short-term air quality in Beijing during the Games.

  3. Olympic Education and Beyond: Olympism and Value Legacies from the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatziefstathiou, Dikaia

    2012-01-01

    This article starts with a discussion on the links between Olympism and education as presented in the early years of the modern Olympic Movement and the ideological vision of its founder, Baron Pierre de Coubertin. Questions about whether that vision can remain as an ideological platform for the Olympic and Paralympic Games are debated in the…

  4. Zika and Rio Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Shadgan, Babak; Pakravan, Amir; Zaeimkohan, Hamid; Shahpar, Farhad Moradi; Khodaee, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne virus that is mainly transmitted via a bite from a female mosquito of the Aedes species. However, ZIKV can be transmitted sexually or via blood. Due to the recent ZIKV outbreak in South and Central America, many national and international organizations are concerned about the safety of athletes, coaches, staff, and spectators during the Olympic and Paralympic Games. Infected individuals are generally asymptomatic or have mild symptoms. However, ZIKV infection can potentially cause serious complications such as Guillain-Barre syndrome and congenital defects. Preferred diagnosis is based on real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction from blood and urine. Currently, there is no treatment or immunization available for ZIKV infection, and disease control is limited to preventing mosquito bites.

  5. Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games event study, 1996. Final report, July 1996--August 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Amodei, R.; Bard, E.; Brong, B.; Cahoon, F.; Jasper, K.

    1998-11-01

    The Atlanta metropolitan region was the location of one of the most ambitious Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS) deployments in the United States. This deployment included several individual projects--a Central Transportation Management Center (TMC), six Traffic Control Centers (TCCs), one Transit Information Center (TIC), The Travel Information Showcase (TIS), and the extension of the Metropolitan Atlanta Rapid Transit Authority (MARTA) Rail network and the new high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) lanes on I-85 and I-75. The 1996 Atlanta Centennial Olympic Games and Paralympic Games created a focus for these projects. All of these systems were to be brought on-line in time for the Olympic Games. This report presents the findings of the 1996 Olympic and Paralympic Games Events Study--a compilation of findings of system performance, the benefits realized, and the lessons learned during their operations over the event period. The study assessed the performance of the various Travel Demand Management (TDM) plans employed for Olympic Games traffic management.

  6. De Coubertin's Olympism and the Laugh of Michel Foucault: Crisis Discourse and the Olympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Seth

    2012-01-01

    De Coubertin developed the sport philosophy of Olympism and the Olympic Games as a response to social and political crisis to promote peace, fair play, and the development of Christian masculinity. The purpose of this paper is to examine how crisis discourse functions as an important shaper of contemporary understandings of Olympism and how…

  7. The Promotion of the Youth Olympic Games: A Greek Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Kantzidou, Eleni D.; Bellar, David; Peterson, Jeffrey; Gilreath, Erin; Surber, Karin

    2011-01-01

    One of the International Olympic Committee's (IOC) objectives is to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of adolescents who have become increasingly overweight and inactive. In an effort to accomplish this objective, the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) were created, and the inaugural event was held in the summer of 2010. The…

  8. Review of "Education Olympics 2008: The Games in Review"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fierros, Edward G.; Kornhaber, Mindy

    2008-01-01

    This review examines the recently released Thomas P. Fordham Institute report, "Education Olympics: The Games in Review." Published just after the completion of the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics, Education Olympics strategically parallels the international competition by awarding gold, silver and bronze medals to top performing countries based on…

  9. Air pollution, athletic health and performance at the Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Ken

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to briefly review air pollution and its effects on athletes' health and performance and to examine air quality (AQ) at specific Olympic Summer Games between 1964 and 2008. It will focus on any attempts made by the cities hosting these Olympics to improve AQ for the Games and if undertaken, how successful these were. The author had a medical role at five of the seven Olympic Games that will be examined and hence has personal experiences. Information was obtained from the readily accessible official reports of the Olympic Games, relevant published papers and books and the internet. For each of these seven Olympic Games, monitoring AQ was far below current acceptable standards and for the majority, minimal or no data on major pollutants was available. From what can be ascertained, at these Games, AQ varied but was less than optimal in most if not all. Nevertheless, there were few reported or known unfavorable effects on the health of Olympic athletes. To date, there have been few reported consequences of sub-optimal AQ at Olympic Games. The focus on AQ at Olympic Games has gradually increased over the past five decades and is expected to continue into the future.

  10. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory

    PubMed Central

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E.; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R.

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers’ interactions. PMID:27855176

  11. Traffic Games: Modeling Freeway Traffic with Game Theory.

    PubMed

    Cortés-Berrueco, Luis E; Gershenson, Carlos; Stephens, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    We apply game theory to a vehicular traffic model to study the effect of driver strategies on traffic flow. The resulting model inherits the realistic dynamics achieved by a two-lane traffic model and aims to incorporate phenomena caused by driver-driver interactions. To achieve this goal, a game-theoretic description of driver interaction was developed. This game-theoretic formalization allows one to model different lane-changing behaviors and to keep track of mobility performance. We simulate the evolution of cooperation, traffic flow, and mobility performance for different modeled behaviors. The analysis of these results indicates a mobility optimization process achieved by drivers' interactions.

  12. Analysing Olympic Games through dominance networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calzada-Infante, Laura; Lozano, Sebastián

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this paper is to assess the results/performance of countries in the Olympic Games, taking into account their size and resources. A complex network analysis approach is proposed. The first step is to build the dominance network, which is a weighted directed graph in which nodes represent the participating nations and the arc length between any two nations measures the weighted difference in the number of medals won by both countries. An arc from a country to another b exists only if the latter has won more medals than the former and, in addition, it is smaller in population and in terms of GDP. In other words, an arc between two nodes exists if the origin nation performs worse than the destination when, given the population and GDP of both countries, it should have performed better (or at least equally). This dominance network has transitive links and a layered structure and, apart from being visualized, it can be characterized using different complex network measures. The results of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games are used to illustrate the proposed approach.

  13. Providing cultural care behind the spotlight at the Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Morse, Janice M; Clark, Lauren; Haynes, Tracii; Noji, Ariko

    2015-03-01

    The Olympic Games constitutes the world's largest sporting event. Nurses play an important, but poorly discussed, role in emergency care, routine clinical care and preventive care for athletes from many cultures as well as an enormous influx of spectators. In this article, we discuss five important considerations when preparing nurses to provide safe care for Olympians: elite athletes as a cultural group; caring for the Olympic family; disaster preparedness and security; infection control; and principles of transcultural nursing. Because of the nature of the sports and types of injuries and the effects of climate, these challenges differ somewhat between the summer and winter Olympics. Nevertheless, the Olympic games provide a tremendous opportunity to experience transcultural nursing and to highlight how nurses play a significant role in the care of the athletes, the Olympic family, and the spectators.

  14. Foot and ankle injuries during the Athens 2004 Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Badekas, Thanos; Papadakis, Stamatios A; Vergados, Nikolaos; Galanakos, Spyros P; Siapkara, Angeliki; Forgrave, Mike; Romansky, Nick; Mirones, Steven; Trnka, Hans-Jeorg; Delmi, Marino

    2009-01-01

    Background Major, rare and complex incidents can occur at any mass-gathering sporting event and team medical staff should be appropriately prepared for these. One such event, the Athens Olympic Games in 2004, presented a significant sporting and medical challenge. This study concerns an epidemiological analysis of foot and ankle injuries during the Games. Methods An observational, epidemiological survey was used to analyse injuries in all sport tournaments (men's and women's) over the period of the Games. Results A total of 624 injuries (525 soft tissue injuries and 99 bony injuries) were reported. The most frequent diagnoses were contusions, sprains, fractures, dislocations and lacerations. Significantly more injuries in male (58%) versus female athletes (42%) were recorded. The incidence, diagnosis and cause of injuries differed substantially between the team sports. Conclusion Our experience from the Athens Olympic Games will inform the development of public health surveillance systems for future Olympic Games, as well as other similar mass events. PMID:19361341

  15. The toxic torch of the modern Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Prendergast, Heather M; Bannen, Todd; Erickson, Timothy B; Honore, Kierre R

    2003-03-01

    One of the most enduring symbols of the Olympics is the torch or flame, an icon of peace and sportsmanship that has its roots in Ancient Greece. According to the Creed of the Olympics: "The important thing in the Games is not winning, but taking part. The essential thing is not conquering. but fighting well." The modern Olympic Games (1896-2000) have been heavy laden with controversy, as athletes have abused performance enhancing drugs to thrust themselves into the limelight in search of gold. It was not until 1967 that the International Olympic Medical Commission began banning drugs. Full-scale drug testing was instituted in 1972.: Retrospective review of modern summer and winter Olympics Game sources (1896-2002) was done for documentation of drug abuse, drug-related overdoses, and positive drug screens. Data were collected for the type of drug documented. the athlete's name, their country of origin, and Olympic event. Seventy cases were identified. The most common class of agents were steroids (29), followed by stimulants (22), diuretics (7), beta-2 agonists (2), and beta blockers (1). Alcohol and marijuana, while not historically prohibited, have been outlawed by several individual sport federations. Toxicities of these 2 agents were most likely under-reported. Countries of origin of individual athletes included Bulgaria (7), USA (7), Sweden (4), Spain (4), Japan (2), Poland (2), Greece (2), Canada (2), Hungary (2), Russia (2), Austria (2), and Great Britain, Norway, Romania, Armenian, and Latvian, each with 1. The most common Olympic events in which drug abuse was documented were weightlifting (25), trackand field (12), skiing (5), wrestling (5), volleyball (3), modern pentathlon (3), cycling (2), swimming (2), gymnastics (1), and rowing (1). As athletic pressures and financial gains of the Olympic Games heighten, more toxicities are likely to occur despite attempts at restricting performance-enhancing drugs.

  16. The Promotion and Perception of the Youth Olympic Games: A Korean Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judge, Lawrence W.; Lee, Don; Surber, Karin; Bellar, David; Petersen, Jeffrey; Ivan, Emese; Kim, Hyeon Jung

    2013-01-01

    The Youth Olympic Games (YOG) was launched in part to reignite interest in Olympic sports in the midst of a generation of increasingly overweight and inactive adolescents. But since the initial announcement of the YOG by the International Olympic Committee in 2007, this new third addition to the Olympic family of events has provoked response from…

  17. The impact of transportation control measures on emission reductions during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yu; Wu, Ye; Yang, Liu; Fu, Lixin; He, Kebin; Wang, Shuxiao; Hao, Jiming; Chen, Jinchuan; Li, Chunyan

    2010-01-01

    Traffic congestion and air pollution were two major challenges for the planners of the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing. The Beijing municipal government implemented a package of temporary transportation control measures during the event. In this paper, we report the results of a recent research project that investigated the effects of these measures on urban motor vehicle emissions in Beijing. Bottom-up methodology has been used to develop grid-based emission inventories with micro-scale vehicle activities and speed-dependent emission factors. The urban traffic emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO x) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 μm or less (PM 10) during the 2008 Olympics were reduced by 55.5%, 56.8%, 45.7% and 51.6%, respectively, as compared to the grid-based emission inventory before the Olympics. Emission intensity was derived from curbside air quality monitoring at the North 4th Ring Road site, located about 7 km from the National Stadium. Comparison between the emission intensity before and during the 2008 Olympics shows a reduction of 44.5% and 49.0% in daily CO and NO x emission from motor vehicles. The results suggest that reasonable traffic system improvement strategies along with vehicle technology improvements can contribute to controlling total motor vehicle emissions in Beijing after the Olympic Games.

  18. The Olympic Games Philosophy: Cooperative Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lucas, John

    1980-01-01

    The Olympic Idea--an acquired educational cooperative-competitive attitude toward sport--is an important concept for athletes. This ideal can and must transcend nationalistic zeal, ideological struggles, and the omnipresent profit motive. (Author/RJG)

  19. Dietary supplementation patterns of Korean olympic athletes participating in the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jongkyu; Kang, Seung-ki; Jung, Han-sang; Chun, Yoon-suck; Trilk, Jennifer; Jung, Seung Ho

    2011-04-01

    Athletes report frequent use of various dietary supplements (DSs). However, no study has examined DS use and antidoping knowledge in Korean Olympians. The objectives of this study were to obtain information about Korean Olympians' DS use during the training period for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games and immediately before their Olympic events, to obtain DS-intake reasons and DS providers, and to obtain information on athletes' doping education, knowledge, and educators. Korean Olympians completed 2 questionnaires 1 wk before the opening and within 1 wk after the closing of the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympic Games. Results showed that 79% of male and 82% of female Olympians take more than 1 DS during the training period and that vitamins and Oriental supplements are the 2 top-ranked DSs. Reasons for DS use were to improve recovery ability (66%) and muscle performance (22%), and sources of obtaining DSs were parents (36%) and coaches (35%). Furthermore, 79% of Korean Olympians reported receiving regular education on antidoping regulations from Olympic-sponsored education classes (64%) and coaches (15%). In conclusion, this study was the first to examine DS use and antidoping-related information in Korean Olympians. Because some herbal products contain substances banned by the World Anti-Doping Agency, athletes should be cautious in using mixed Oriental supplements.

  20. Education Olympics 2008: The Games in Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Amy; Palmieri, Stafford; Winkler, Amber

    2008-01-01

    This report has a simple aim: to present results from international assessments so readers can judge for themselves how American students stack up globally. It's intended to be a stand-alone supplement to the "Education Olympics" web event held between August 8th and August 22nd, 2008 (see edolympics.net). It shows how the U.S. has…

  1. The Fair-weather Electric Field Near the Bird's Nest During the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qie, X.; Fang, G.; Liu, D.; Wang, D.; Jiang, R.; Williams, E.

    2008-12-01

    Under the action of a constant current density from the global electrical circuit, the fair weather electric field will vary inversely with the electrical conductivity of the air. The reduction of small ion concentration in polluted conditions is expected to reduce the conductivity and enhance the electric field. The traffic control measures and the reduced power plant emissions aimed at cleaner air during the 2008 Beijing Olympics provide a unique opportunity for investigating this scientific issue. The Earth's electric field has been continuously monitored with an electric field meter near the Bird's Nest, The National Stadium, since May 2008, about three months before the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The electric field meter is located about 1.5 km southwest from the Bird's Nest. The diurnal variation of the fair-weather electric field is studied during the entire observation period. The fair-weather electric field during the Olympics Games from 8 to 24, August, when clean air was consistently observed, was compared with that before the pollution control measures became effective. A different diurnal variation and intensity was found during these two scenarios. These preliminary results are significant in understanding the effect of aerosols on fair-weather atmospheric electricity.

  2. Impact of air pollution control measures and weather conditions on asthma during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Wang, Wen; Wang, Jizhi; Zhang, Xiaoling; Lin, Weili; Yang, Yuanqin

    2011-07-01

    The alternative transportation strategy implemented during the 2008 Summer Olympic Games in Beijing provided an opportunity to study the impact of the control measures and weather conditions on air quality and asthma morbidity. An ecological study compared the 41 days of the Olympic Games (8 August-17 September 2008) to a baseline period (1-30 June). Also, in order to emphasize the impact of weather conditions on air quality, a pollution linking meteorological index (Plam) was introduced to represent the air pollution meteorological condition. Our study showed that the average number of outpatient visits for asthma was 12.5 per day at baseline and 7.3 per day during the Olympics-a 41.6% overall decrease. Compared with the baseline, the Games were associated with a significant reduction in asthma visits (RR 0.58, 95%CI: 0.52-0.65). At 16.5 visits per day, asthma visits were also significantly higher, during the pre-Olympic period (RR 1.32, 95% CI: 1.15-1.52). The study also showed that the RR of asthma events on a given day, as well as the average daily peak ozone concentration during the preceding 48-72 h, increased at cumulative ozone concentrations of 70 to 100 ppb and 100 ppb or more compared with ozone concentrations of less than 70 ppb (P < 0.05). We concluded that along with "good" weather conditions, efforts to reduce traffic congestion in Beijing during the Olympic Games were associated with a prolonged reduction in air pollution and significantly lower rates of adult asthma events. These data provide support for efforts to reduce air pollution and improve health via reductions in motor vehicle traffic.

  3. Traveling to Canada for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heggie, Travis W

    2009-07-01

    The 21st Winter Olympic Games will be held in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada from February 12 to 28, 2010. Following the Winter Olympic Games, the Winter Paralympic Games will be held from March 12 to 21, 2010. There will be 86 winter sporting events hosted in Vancouver with 5500 athletes staying in two Olympic Villages. Another 2800 members of the media, 25,000 volunteers, and 1 million spectators are expected in attendance. This paper reviews health and safety issues for all travelers to Canada for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic Games with a specific focus on pre-travel planning, road and transportation safety in British Columbia, natural and environmental hazards, Olympic medical facilities, safety and security, and infectious disease.

  4. Medical Learning from the Special Olympics World Games 2015.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Aaron L; Woodward, Thad; Harrison, Levi; Simon, Lauren; Rodriquez, Janet

    2016-01-01

    The Special Olympics World Games (SOWG) were held in Los Angeles, CA, during the summer of 2015. Medical care for 26 sporting events spread over six major venues across the city was provided to more than 6,000 athletes and 3,000 delegates from 170 countries. Education on care for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities and athletes with additional medical issues was provided in addition to the usual sports medicine care. This required coordination between major medical providers as well as law enforcement, fire rescue, transportation, public health, and the organizers of the games. This article reviews the planning, training, and outcomes of the medical care and the Healthy Athletes program for the SOWG 2015.

  5. Smoke Rings: Towards a Comprehensive Tobacco Free Policy for the Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley; Fooks, Gary; Wander, Nathaniel; Fang, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Background The tobacco industry has long sought affiliation with major sporting events, including the Olympic Games, for marketing, advertising and promotion purposes. Since 1988, each Olympic Games has adopted a tobacco-free policy. Limited study of the effectiveness of the smoke-free policy has been undertaken to date, with none examining the tobacco industry’s involvement with the Olympics or use of the Olympic brand. Methods and Findings A comparison of the contents of Olympic tobacco-free policies from 1988 to 2014 was carried out by searching the websites of the IOC and host NOCs. The specific tobacco control measures adopted for each Games were compiled and compared with measures recommended by the WHO Tobacco Free Sports Initiative and Article 13 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC). This was supported by semi-structured interviews of key informants involved with the adoption of tobacco-free policies for selected games. To understand the industry’s interests in the Olympics, the Legacy Tobacco Documents Library (http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu) was systematically searched between June 2013 and August 2014. Company websites, secondary sources and media reports were also searched to triangulate the above data sources. This paper finds that, while most direct associations between tobacco and the Olympics have been prohibited since 1988, a variety of indirect associations undermine the Olympic tobacco-free policy. This is due to variation in the scope of tobacco-free policies, limited jurisdiction and continued efforts by the industry to be associated with Olympic ideals. Conclusions The paper concludes that, compatible with the IOC’s commitment to promoting healthy lifestyles, a comprehensive tobacco-free policy with standardized and binding measures should be adopted by the International Olympic Committee and all national Olympic committees. PMID:26252397

  6. Erythropoietin concentrations and isoforms in urine of anonymous Olympic athletes during the Nagano Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Berglund, B; Wide, L

    2002-12-01

    The ordinary doping control urine samples of 36 anonymous participants (cross-country skiers, biathlon athletes, and curling athletes) of the 1998 Nagano Olympic Games were analyzed for erythropoietin and erythropoietin isoforms. The urine erythropoietin concentration (IU/l) was determined with a competitive radioimmunoassay method and the isoforms were studied by electrophoresis and given as milli albumin mobility units (mAMU). Erythropoietin was detectable in 23 out of 36 specimens (64%). The biathlon and curling athletes had similar urine concentration of erythropoietin. The group of 16 cross-country skiers had significantly (P < 0.05) increased urine concentration of erythropoietin as compared to curling athletes and four of them had urine erythropoietin concentrations between 3.6 and 5.1 IU/l. The electrophoretic mobility of erythropoietin was determined in all eight samples with urine concentration of erythropoietin of more than 2 (range 2.1-5.1) IU/l. No single urine specimen with a median erythropoietin electrophoretic mobility below the cut-off level of 670 mAMU (indicative of doping with recombinant erythropoietin) was registered. Erythropoietin in urine was detected in 71% and the isoforms of Epo characterized in 29% of the anonymous Olympic endurance athletes. The urine concentration of erythropoietin in the biathlon and curling athletes were similar to those of non-athletes. The group of cross-country skiers had higher levels of erythropoietin in urine. These higher levels of urine erythropoietin in cross-country skiers are partly due to more concentrated urine specimens.

  7. National Nutritional Programs for the 2012 London Olympic Games: a systematic approach by three different countries.

    PubMed

    Burke, Louise M; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni

    2013-01-01

    Preparing a national team for success at major sporting competitions such as the Olympic Games has become a systematic and multi-faceted activity. Sports nutrition contributes to this success via strategic nutritional interventions that optimize the outcomes from both the training process and the competitive event. This review summarizes the National Nutrition Programs involved with the 2012 London Olympic Games preparation of the Australian, British and American sports systems from the viewpoints of three key agencies: the Australian Institute of Sport, the English Institute of Sport and the United States Olympic Committee. Aspects include development of a nutrition network involving appropriately qualified sports dietitians/nutritionists within a multi-disciplinary team, recognition of continual updates in sports nutrition knowledge, and a systematic approach to service delivery, education and research within the athlete's daily training environment. Issues of clinical nutrition support must often be integrated into the performance nutrition matrix. Food service plays an important role in the achievement of nutrition goals during the Olympic Games, both through the efforts of the Athlete Dining Hall and catering activities of the host Olympic Games Organizing Committees as well as adjunct facilities often provided by National Olympic Committees for their own athletes.

  8. Residents' Perceived Social-Economic Impact of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Mark; Chen, Li; Lei, Ouyang; Malone, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This study was designed to examine whether the Olympic Games was a catalyst for changes to Beijing residents' quality of life based on social-economic perspectives and how these changes affected their continuous support for the Games. Residents who lived in Beijing 18 months or longer were invited to participate in this survey research (N = 412)…

  9. Discriminatory power of water polo game-related statistics at the 2008 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Yolanda; Saavedra, Jose M; Mansilla, Mirella; Tella, Victor

    2011-02-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to compare water polo game-related statistics by context (winning and losing teams) and sex (men and women), and (2) to identify characteristics discriminating the performances for each sex. The game-related statistics of the 64 matches (44 men's and 20 women's) played in the final phase of the Olympic Games held in Beijing in 2008 were analysed. Unpaired t-tests compared winners and losers and men and women, and confidence intervals and effect sizes of the differences were calculated. The results were subjected to a discriminant analysis to identify the differentiating game-related statistics of the winning and losing teams. The results showed the differences between winning and losing men's teams to be in both defence and offence, whereas in women's teams they were only in offence. In men's games, passing (assists), aggressive play (exclusions), centre position effectiveness (centre shots), and goalkeeper defence (goalkeeper-blocked 5-m shots) predominated, whereas in women's games the play was more dynamic (possessions). The variable that most discriminated performance in men was goalkeeper-blocked shots, and in women shooting effectiveness (shots). These results should help coaches when planning training and competition.

  10. Medium-Range Air Quality Forecast During the Beijing Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J.; Wang, Z.; Luo, L.; Wu, Q.

    2008-12-01

    Prior to the XXIX Olympiad in Beijing, air quality was a major concern for many athletes and visitors to the Games. In response to the need for enhanced air quality forecasts, we explored and tested the capability of medium-range air quality forecasting in a multimodel ensemble system. The system consists of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model with Chemistry module (WRF-Chem), the Fifth-Generation NCAR/PennState Mesoscale Model (MM5), and the Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System (NAQPMS) developed at the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP). Both MM5 and NAQPMS have been in operational use to produce short-term air quality forecasts. WRFChem is the major addition to the multimodel system. Forced with the forecast from the NCEP Global Ensemble Forecast System (GENS) at the lateral boundary, the multimodel system makes ensemble air quality forecasts out to 16 days with emission scenarios that reflect measures for the Olympics, including the closing down of factories around the city and beyond, a traffic control program that reduced the number of automobiles around the city by about half and elimination of all construction activities. Analyses of two forecasts are presented in this study. They were made on 5 August 2008 and 8 August 2008, both covering the entire Olympic period. Each forecast consists of three ensemble members that were produced with the same regional model but were forced by the control and two 'extremes' of the GENS forecast. The two extreme members were hand-picked to represent the best and worst case scenarios. The forecasts are evaluated with observations taken during the Olympic Games that include satellite observations, in-situ meteorological stations, LIDAR and air quality observations at the IAP tower site, 1 km away from the 'Bird Nest'. The analyses show good model skill in the first 3 days and generally satisfactory after 96 hours, with a successful forecast of potential pollution episode on 20 August 2008. The challenge

  11. [Catering for client groups during the XXII Olympic winter games and XI Paralympic winter games of 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Gus'kov, A S; Ivanov, G E; Chikina, L V; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaya, T V; Balaeva, M I; Vechernyaya, L S; Vechernyaya, E A; Bozhko, I I; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A; Tushina, O V; Manin, E A; Taran, T V

    2016-01-01

    The problems of catering control various client groups during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi is one of the priorities of the sanitary and epidemiological welfare of the population during mass events. The data on the order of nutrition of guests and participants of the games, control of food items, sanitary and microbiological monitoring of drinking water, food raw materials and products are presented. It is noted that the ongoing supervisory activities contributed to the sanitary and epidemiological well-being during the Games. The purpose of this study was to lighting modern achievements in the field of nutrition and food microbiology in the period of the Olympic Games and the determination of their value to the further improvement and use at when conducting mass gatherings.

  12. [Zika Virus - Impact on the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Warnke, K; Paul, J

    2016-08-01

    There is an ongoing discussion in the media about the Zika virus and the question of whether or not athletes and visitors will be at risk of an infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro in 2016. According to an assessment published on 31 May 2016 by the IOC and the WHO, participants and visitors have no reason to panic. However, increasing public pressure has caused the WHO to re-evaluate the current situation, and further recommendations will likely be given before the Olympic Games start. The current facts are as follows: 1) The Olympic Summer Games will be held during the winter months in Brazil, when the appearance of mosquitoes is expected to be low. 2) Extensive use of insecticides every 6 to 8 weeks in Rio de Janeiro and all Olympic venues has almost eradicated the mosquito population. 3) Individual protection of athletes, trainers and visitors is crucial (wearing appropriate clothing with skin coverage, sleeping under mosquito nets, using contact insecticides for clothing and mosquito nets, and applying insect repellents on a regular basis). 4) Pregnant women should avoid travelling to any country with current Zika virus activity. In sum, the risk to incur a Zika virus infection during the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro will likely be comparable to the risk in other countries where cases of Zika virus infections are registered.

  13. The eco-origins, actions and demonstration roles of Beijing Green Olympic Game.

    PubMed

    Wang, R S

    2001-10-01

    The 29th Olympic Game will be held in Beijing in 2008. It will be a green game to promote sustainable development of men, cities and regions through ecological development advocating "man and nature be in one". "Eco" here means a process, a driving force, an action, a culture and a kind of vitality leading to sustainable development. It is a mechanism embodying the Olympic spirit of competition, cooperation and self-reliance. The paper explained the ecological significance, connotation and objectives of Beijing Green Olympic Game. Ten major ecological heritages of Beijing have been investigated including ecologically sound landscape, culture, transportation, physical exercise, health care, sanitation, food, family relationship, agriculture, and human ecological totality. To preserve or restore the above mentioned old tradition, a green Olympic action plan has been made out in Beijing initiated by NGOs, supported by entrepreneurs and coordinated by government agencies. Four kinds of eco-engineering have been planned for blue sky, clean water, green land and eco-city development. The demonstration role of Beijing Green Olympic Game to developing regions and countries is also discussed.

  14. Proscribed drugs at the Olympic Games: permitted use and misuse (doping) by athletes.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Ken

    2012-06-01

    Athletes have always sought to outperform their competitors and regrettably some have resorted to misuse of drugs or doping to achieve this. Stimulants were taken by the first Olympic athletes to be disqualified in 1972. Although undetectable until 1975, from the 1950s androgenic anabolic steroids were administered for increased strength and power followed in the 1990s by erythropoietin for enhanced endurance. Both are highly effective doping agents. As analytical science validated improved techniques to identify these drugs, Olympic athletes, including many medallists were caught and disqualified. When the International Olympic Committee (IOC) prohibited beta blockers (beneficial in shooting), diuretics (assist weight classified athletes) and glucocorticosteroids, some athletes with genuine medical conditions were denied legitimate medical therapy. To overcome this, in 1992 the IOC introduced a system known now as Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE). This paper discusses Olympic athletes who have been known to dope at past Games and some medical indications and pitfalls in the TUE process.

  15. Universality, limits and predictability of gold-medal performances at the olympic games.

    PubMed

    Radicchi, Filippo

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the Games held in ancient Greece, modern Olympics represent the world's largest pageant of athletic skill and competitive spirit. Performances of athletes at the Olympic Games mirror, since 1896, human potentialities in sports, and thus provide an optimal source of information for studying the evolution of sport achievements and predicting the limits that athletes can reach. Unfortunately, the models introduced so far for the description of athlete performances at the Olympics are either sophisticated or unrealistic, and more importantly, do not provide a unified theory for sport performances. Here, we address this issue by showing that relative performance improvements of medal winners at the Olympics are normally distributed, implying that the evolution of performance values can be described in good approximation as an exponential approach to an a priori unknown limiting performance value. This law holds for all specialties in athletics-including running, jumping, and throwing-and swimming. We present a self-consistent method, based on normality hypothesis testing, able to predict limiting performance values in all specialties. We further quantify the most likely years in which athletes will breach challenging performance walls in running, jumping, throwing, and swimming events, as well as the probability that new world records will be established at the next edition of the Olympic Games.

  16. The State, Citizenship Education, and International Events in a Global Age: The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Wing-Wah

    2010-01-01

    With reference to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, this article shows how the Chinese state continues to be a key actor in defining citizenship and citizenship education by promoting nationalism and nation-specific elements of citizenship education while linking its people to an increasingly interconnected world. In particular, this study examines…

  17. Ideologies in the Thematic Slogans of the 1984-2012 Olympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuihua, Wu; Lingling, Liu

    2014-01-01

    This paper spotlights the twelve slogans of the Olympic Games in order to critically analyze the ideologies underlying the discourse. By taking the principles of critical discourse analysis (CDA) and Halliday's (1994) systemic-functional grammar (SFG) as analytical tools, the paper endeavours to reveal the ideology that predominates in the ruling…

  18. Designing a Virtual Olympic Games Framework by Using Simulation in Web 2.0 Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoilescu, Dorian

    2013-01-01

    Instructional simulation had major difficulties in the past for offering limited possibilities in practice and learning. This article proposes a link between instructional simulation and Web 2.0 technologies. More exactly, I present the design of the Virtual Olympic Games Framework (VOGF), as a significant demonstration of how interactivity in…

  19. Validation of the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS): Evidence from Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Jennifer Y.; Cheung, Siu-Yin; King, Carina C.; Lam, Eddie T. C.

    2016-01-01

    There have been extensive studies of local residents' perception and reaction to the impacts of mega events. However, there is limited empirical research on the social impacts that shape foreign attitudes toward the host country. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate the Olympic Games Attitude Scale (OGAS) to examine viewers'…

  20. Newspaper Coverage of Women's Sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-01-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly under-reported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French,…

  1. Newspaper coverage of women's sports during the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games: Belgium, Denmark, France, and Italy.

    PubMed

    Capranica, Laura; Minganti, Carlo; Billat, Veronique; Hanghoj, Signe; Piacentini, Maria Francesca; Cumps, Elke; Meeusen, Romain

    2005-06-01

    In general, women are well represented among sport participants and sport audiences but not in the media. Data show that women's sport is greatly underreported and trivialized in newspapers. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to measure press coverage during the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in the largest circulating Belgian, Danish, French, and Italian daily newspapers by: (a) number of articles, (b) size, (c) page placement, (d) accompanyingphotographs, and (e) photograph size. For each sport covered, the athletes' nationality and the gender were recorded. Compared to the 1996 Atlanta Games, there was an increase of 326 female athletes (+4 %), and women competed in 25 sports and 132 events (44 %) of the total 300 events. Although only 29.3 % of the articles and 38 % of photos were on women 's sports, the newspaper coverage was similar to the distribution of participating athletes and events. No significant gender differences were found with respect to article size, page placement, accompanying photographs, or photograph size. The most covered sport was track and field, independent of national achievement. Other sports received different coverage in relation to national expectations, achievement, and participation. In conclusion, there was a trend to overcome gender inequities in media coverage during the Olympic Games, which may be due to the International Olympic Committee's actions to promote increased participation of women in sport activities and to publicize their achievements. Moreover, during the Olympic Games, a nationalistic fervor might affect the equality of gender coverage.

  2. Italian Women's Television Coverage and Audience during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio; D'Artibale, Emanuele; Cortis, Cristina; Casella, Rita; Camilleri, Enrica; Pesce, Caterina

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the amount of Italian television coverage dedicated to men's and women's sport and the number of male and female viewers during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. AUDITEL-AGB Nielsen Media Research Italia provided the TV airtime data for the sport events broadcast, which were classified into three categories: men-only,…

  3. In the Zone--Bringing Science to the Olympic Games for Students in 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holmes, Leah; Atkinson, Melissa; Schofield, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    The Wellcome Trust is running a national engagement and education initiative inspired by the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. "In the Zone" involves sending practical science kits to every UK school and college. Here, we discuss the development of the school activities and how the feedback from pilot schools helped to shape the…

  4. Quantifying the air pollutants emission reduction during the 2008 Olympic games in Beijing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhao, Meng; Xing, Jia; Wu, Ye; Zhou, Yu; Lei, Yu; He, Kebin; Fu, Lixin; Hao, Jiming

    2010-04-01

    Air quality was a vital concern for the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008. To strictly control air pollutant emissions and ensure good air quality for the Games, Beijing municipal government announced an "Air Quality Guarantee Plan for the 29th Olympics in Beijing". In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the guarantee plan, this study analyzed the air pollutant emission reductions during the 29th Olympiad in Beijing. In June 2008, daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were 103.9 t, 428.5 t, 362.7 t, and 890.0 t, respectively. During the Olympic Games, the daily emissions of SO(2), NO(X), PM(10), and NMVOC in Beijing were reduced to 61.6 t, 229.1 t, 164.3 t, and 381.8 t -41%, 47%, 55%, and 57% lower than June 2008 emission levels. Closing facilities producing construction materials reduced the sector's SO(2) emissions by 85%. Emission control measures for mobile sources, including high-emitting vehicle restrictions, government vehicle use controls, and alternate day driving rules for Beijing's 3.3 million private cars, reduced mobile source NO(X) and NMVOC by 46% and 57%, respectively. Prohibitions on building construction reduced the sector's PM(10) emissions by approximately 90% or total PM(10) by 35%. NMVOC reductions came mainly from mobile source and fugitive emission reductions. Based on the emission inventories developed in this study, the CMAQ model was used to simulate Beijing's ambient air quality during the Olympic Games. The model results accurately reflect the environmental monitoring data providing evidence that the emission inventories in this study are reasonably accurate and quantitatively reflect the emission changes attributable to air pollution control measures taken during the 29th Olympic Games in 2008.

  5. Sex work and the public health impacts of the 2010 Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Deering, Kathleen N; Chettiar, Jill; Chan, Keith; Taylor, Matthew; Montaner, Julio SG; Shannon, Kate

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The authors examined the impact of exposure to the 2010 Winter Olympics time period on outcomes measuring disruption of local sex work environments in Vancouver, Canada. Methods The authors conducted a before-and-after study, using multivariable logistic regression, to assess the relationship between exposure to the Olympics period (19 January–14 March 2010) versus the post-Olympics period (1 April–1 July 2010) and outcomes. Results This study included 207 youth (14+ years) and adult sex workers (SWs) (Olympics: n=107; post-Olympics: n=100). SWs in the two periods were statistically similar, with an overall median age of 33 years (IQR: 28–40), and 106 (51.2%) of indigenous ancestry or ethnic minority. In separate multivariable logistic regression models, the Olympics period remained statistically significantly associated with perceived heightened police harassment of SWs without arrest (adjusted ORs (AOR): 3.95, 95% CIs 1.92 to 8.14), decreased availability of clients (AOR: 1.97, 95% CIs 1.11 to 3.48) and increased difficulty meeting clients due to road closures/construction (AOR: 7.68, 95% CIs 2.46 to 23.98). There were no significantly increased odds in perceived reports of new (0.999), youth (0.536) or trafficked SWs (zero reports) in the Olympic period. Conclusions To reduce potential adverse public health impacts of enhanced police harassment and displacement of local sex work markets, results suggest that evidence-based public health strategies need to be adopted for host cities of future events (eg, the London 2012 Olympic Games), such as the removal of criminal sanctions targeting sex work and the piloting and rigorous evaluation of safer indoor work spaces. PMID:22436199

  6. Anti-doping analyses at the Sochi Olympic and Paralympic Games 2014.

    PubMed

    Sobolevsky, Tim; Krotov, Grigory; Dikunets, Marina; Nikitina, Maria; Mochalova, Elena; Rodchenkov, Grigory

    2014-01-01

    The laboratory anti-doping services during XXII Winter Olympic and XI Paralympic games in Sochi in 2014 were provided by a satellite laboratory facility located within the strictly secured Olympic Park. This laboratory, established and operated by the personnel of Antidoping Center, Moscow, has been authorized by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) to conduct doping control analyses. The 4-floor building accommodated the most advanced analytical instrumentation and became a place of attraction for more than 50 Russian specialists and 25 foreign experts, including independent observers. In total, 2134 urine and 479 blood samples were delivered to the laboratory and analyzed during the Olympic Games (OG), and 403 urine and 108 blood samples - during the Paralympic Games (PG). The number of erythropoietin tests requested in urine was 946 and 166 at the OG and PG, respectively. Though included in the test distribution plan, a growth hormone analysis was cancelled by the Organizing Committee just before the Games. Several adverse analytical findings have been reported including pseudoephedrine (1 case), methylhexaneamine (4 cases), trimetazidine (1 case), dehydrochloromethyltestosterone (1 case), clostebol (1 case), and a designer stimulant N-ethyl-1-phenylbutan-2-amine (1 case).

  7. Motivation and satisfaction among polyclinic volunteers at the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Reeser, J; Berg, R; Rhea, D; Willick, S

    2005-01-01

    Background: The Olympic and Paralympic Games rely heavily on volunteers to provide many essential services, including medical care of athletes. Objective: This preliminary investigation sought to characterise the motivational influences and factors responsible for the satisfaction of Olympic and Paralympic healthcare volunteers. Methods: The 2002 Winter Games polyclinic healthcare volunteers were asked to complete a questionnaire designed to elicit information about their motives for volunteering and the factors that contributed to their satisfaction with their volunteer experience. Results: There was no significant difference in the motivation or satisfaction summary scores based on event worked. There was a strong positive correlation between motivation and satisfaction. Physician respondents had a lower mean motivation score than did non-physician volunteers. Conclusions: There were no significant motivational differences between Olympic and Paralympic volunteers, but there were several differences noted between physician and non-physician volunteers. The 2002 polyclinic volunteers appear to have been motivated by a complex process best described as "enlightened self interest," and all were generally well satisfied with their experience. These results may assist organisers of future Games in selecting appropriately motivated volunteer personnel and creating rewarding work environments for them. PMID:15793078

  8. Torino 2006. XX Olympic and IX Paralympic Winter Games: the ENT experience

    PubMed Central

    Succo, G; Crosetti, E; Mattiazzo, A; Riontino, E; Massazza, G

    2008-01-01

    Summary A total of 27 competition days, more than 3000 athletes, over 10,000 components of the Olympic family, 3,500 workers, 2,500 volunteers, an overall business of more than 2 billion Euros. These, in a nutshell, are just a few of the data concerning the XX Olympic and the IX Paralympic Winter Games, Torino, Italy, 2006. Such a huge event, obviously required a meticulously organized medical service to cope with the healthcare of the athletes, official workers and the Olympic family, distributed over a geographic area of approximately 80 km in diameter. An ENT service was organized within the medical service, which was divided between 3 Polyclinics, in which 12 ENT Specialists were on duty. The present report gives an account of the final data concerning the service involved, together with a description of the approach used in the actual organization, with a view to providing useful information for colleagues who will be called upon, for a similar service, in future Olympic Winter Games. The ENT healthcare offered was confirmed to be proportional to the requirements, both from a qualitative and quantitative point of view. All the ENT specialists involved, reported having gained an immense store of human experience from having lived the Olympic atmosphere as a volunteer exerting one’s own profession. The facilities available in the Polyclinics, which were at a considerable distance from the Hospital, were found to be more than adequate with respect to the pathological conditions and service requested, particularly in 17% of the cases which would otherwise have been sent to a Hospital Outpatient Unit at least 80 km away. PMID:18646571

  9. Olympic and Paralympic Games: The Impact of Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This report is published as part of Universities Week 2012. It includes research by Podium, the further and higher education unit for London 2012, about the level of engagement that universities have had in the 2012 Games. It demonstrates the diverse contribution that universities are making to the Games, their overall impact on the UK sports…

  10. Combined Ground and Space-Based Measurements of Air Quality during the London Olympic Games 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graves, R. R.; Leigh, R. J.; Singh Anand, J.; McNally, M.; Lawrence, J.; Remedios, J.; Monks, P. S.

    2012-12-01

    During July and August 2012 the Summer Olympic Games were held in London. During this period, unusually high levels of traffic and visitors to the city were expected, it is important to understand the effect this had on the air quality in London during this period. To this end three novel CityScan instruments were installed in London from the 20th July though to the end of September; affording the unique opportunity to monitor the spatial and vertical structure of nitrogen dioxide within the boundary layer in unprecedented detail. The deployment was included as part of the large NERC funded ClearfLo project (Clean Air for London) involving many other institutions and complementary measurement techniques. CityScan is a Hemispherical Scanning Imaging Differential Optical Absorption Spectrometer (HSI-DOAS) which is has been optimised to measure concentrations of nitrogen dioxide. CityScan has a 95° field of view (FOV) between the zenith and 5° below the horizon. Across this FOV there are 128 resolved elements which are measured concurrently, the spectrometer is rotated azimuthally 1° per second providing full hemispherical coverage every 6 minutes. CityScan measures concentrations of nitrogen dioxide over specific lines of sight and due to the extensive field of view of the instrument this produces measurements which are representative over city-wide scales. Nitrogen dioxide is an important air pollutant which is produced in all combustion processes and can reduce lung function; especially in sensitised individuals. These instruments aim to bridge the gap in spatial scales between point source measurements of air quality and satellite measurements of air quality offering additional information on emissions, transport and the chemistry of nitrogen dioxide. More information regarding the CityScan technique can be found at http://www.leos.le.ac.uk/aq/index.html. The first of the three CityScan instruments was located in North Kensington, the second in Soho and third

  11. Variations and sources of ambient formaldehyde for the 2008 Beijing Olympic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Shao, Min; Lu, Sihua; Chang, Chih-Chung; Dasgupta, Purnendu K.

    2010-07-01

    As the host city of the 2008 Olympic games, Beijing implemented a series of air pollution control measures before and during the Olympic games. Ambient formaldehyde (HCHO) concentrations were measured using a fluorometric instrument based on a diffusion scrubber and the Hantzsch reaction; hydrocarbons were simultaneously measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Meteorological parameters, CO, O 3, and NO 2 concentrations were measured by standard commercial instrumentation. In four separate periods: (a) before the vehicle plate number control (3-19 July); (b) during the Olympic Games (8-24 August); (c) during the Paralympic Games (6-17 September) and (d) after the vehicle control was ceased (21-28 September), the average HCHO mixing ratios were 7.31 ± 2.67 ppbv, 5.54 ± 2.41 ppbv, 8.72 ± 2.48 ppbv, and 6.42 ± 2.79 ppbv, while the total non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) measured were 30.41 ± 18.08 ppbv, 18.12 ± 9.38 ppbv, 30.50 ± 13.37 ppbv, and 33.33 ± 15.85 ppbv, respectively. Both HCHO and NMHC levels were the lowest during the Olympic games, and increased again during the Paralympic games even with the same vehicle control measures operative. Similar diurnal HCHO and O 3 patterns indicated that photo-oxidation of NMHCs may be the major source of HCHO. The diurnal profile of total NMHCs was very similar to that of NO 2 and CO: morning and evening peaks appeared in rush hours, indicating even after strict vehicle control, automobile emission may still be the dominant source of the HCHO precursors. The contributions of HCHO, alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics to OH loss rates were also calculated. HCHO contributed 22 ± 3% to the total VOCs and 24 ± 1% to the total OH loss rate. HCHO was not only important in term of abundance, but also important in chemical reactivity in the air.

  12. Global University Rankings: The "Olympic Games" of Higher Education?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yudkevich, Maria; Altbach, Philip G.; Rumbley, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Global university rankings are often thought of as games, defined by roles and rules that universities must play in order to confirm their legitimacy and gain visibility as actors in the global academic market. While some countries are well represented at the top of rankings charts, others are just joining the race and testing out different…

  13. Game Analysis of Olympic, World and European Championships in Men's Handball.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Murat

    2012-12-01

    The development of men's handball was analyzed using data from the Olympic, World and European Championships held within the last eight years. The most obvious change, especially within these last nine tournaments, was that men's handball was played more dynamically and rapidly, both in attack and defense, especially by European teams. The first aim of this study was to conduct a technical analysis of current handball and to determine factors related to success in this sport discipline. The second aim was to compare the data of European Championships with other tournaments, considering the success of European teams in Men's World Handball. The technical variables used to compare the tournaments included: the average number of attacks, the efficiency of attacks, the efficiency of goal throws, fast break goals per game, the efficiency of fast breaks, the efficiency of the goalkeeper, saves by the goalkeeper per game, number of turnovers per game, and the efficiency of position throws (wing, pivot, back court, break-through, fast break, and 7-meter). This technical analysis used cumulative statistics from the European Handball Federation and International Handball Federation. ANOVA revealed significant differences between the first eight teams in the European Championships and their counterparts in the other two tournaments (Olympics and World Championships) in terms of several technical variables. The results showed that the efficiency of fast break, pivot position and back court players affected the ranking in favor of the European teams in significant international tournaments.

  14. [Using modern information technology in the practice of the sanitary-epidemiological surveiliance during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Popova, A Yu; Kuzkin, B P; Demina, Yu V; Dubyansky, V M; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaya, O V; Shayakhmetov, O Kh; Semenko, O V; Nazarenko, Yu V; Agapitov, D S; Mezentsev, V M; Kharchenko, T V; Efremenko, D V; Oroby, V G; Klindukhov, V P; Grechanaya, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Tesheva, S Ch; Rafeenko, G K

    2015-01-01

    To improve the sanitary and epidemiological surveillance at the Olympic Games has developed a system of GIS for monitoring objects and situations in the region of Sochi. The system is based on software package ArcGIS, version 10.2 server, with Web-java.lang. Object, Web-server Apach, and software developed in language java. During th execution of the tasks are solved: the stratification of the region of the Olympic Games for the private and aggregate epidemiological risk OCI various eti- ologies, ranking epidemiologically important facilities for the sanitary and hygienic conditions, monitoring of infectious diseases (in real time according to the preliminary diagnosis). GIS monitoring has shown its effectiveness: Information received from various sources, but focused on one portal. Information was available in real time all the specialists involved in ensuring epidemiological well-being and use at work during the Olympic Games in Sochi.

  15. Emission controls versus meteorological conditions in determining aerosol concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, M.; Wang, Y.

    2011-06-01

    A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on 8-24 August 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the observed variation of aerosol concentrations. Consistent with observations, modeled concentrations of aerosol species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, total particulate matter) in Beijing were decreased by 30-50 % during the Olympic period compared to the other periods in July and August in 2008 and the same period in 2007. Model results indicate that emission controls were effective in reducing the aerosol concentrations by comparing simulations with and without emission controls. However, our analysis suggests that meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction and precipitation) are at least as important as emission controls in producing the low aerosol concentrations appearing during the Olympic period. Transport from the regions surrounding Beijing determines the temporal variation of aerosol concentrations in Beijing. Based on the budget analysis, we suggest that to improve the air quality over Beijing, emission control strategy should focus on the regional scale instead of the local scale.

  16. Emission controls versus meteorological conditions in determining aerosol concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Y.; Liu, X.; Zhao, C.; Zhang, M.

    2011-12-01

    A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on 8-24 August 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the observed variation of aerosol concentrations. Consistent with observations, modeled concentrations of aerosol species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, total particulate matter) in Beijing were decreased by 30-50% during the Olympic period compared to the other periods in July and August in 2008 and the same period in 2007. Model results indicate that emission controls were effective in reducing the aerosol concentrations by comparing simulations with and without emission controls. In addition to emission controls, our analysis suggests that meteorological conditions (e.g. wind direction and precipitation) were also important in producing the low aerosol concentrations appearing during the Olympic period. Transport from the regions surrounding Beijing determined the daily variation of aerosol concentrations in Beijing. Based on the budget analysis, we suggest that to improve the air quality over Beijing, emission control strategy should focus on the regional scale instead of the local scale.

  17. Emission Controls Versus Meteorological Conditions in Determining Aerosol Concentrations in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yi; Liu, Xiaohong; Zhao, Chun; Zhang, Meigen

    2011-12-12

    A series of emission control measures were undertaken in Beijing and the adjacent provinces in China during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games on August 8th-24th, 2008. This provides a unique opportunity for investigating the effectiveness of emission controls on air pollution in Beijing. We conducted a series of numerical experiments over East Asia for the period of July to September 2008 using a coupled meteorology-chemistry model (WRF-Chem). Model can generally reproduce the observed variation of aerosol concentrations. Consistent with observations, modeled concentrations of aerosol species (sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, black carbon, organic carbon, total particulate matter) in Beijing were decreased by 30-50% during the Olympic period compared to the other periods in July and August in 2008 and the same period in 2007. Model results indicate that emission controls were effective in reducing the aerosol concentrations by comparing simulations with and without emission controls. However, our analysis suggests that meteorological conditions (e.g., wind direction and precipitation) are at least as important as emission controls in producing the low aerosol concentrations appearing during the Olympic period. Transport from the regions surrounding Beijing determines the temporal variation of aerosol concentrations in Beijing. Based on the budget analysis, we suggest that emission control strategy should focus on the regional scale instead of the local scale to improve the air quality over Beijing.

  18. A Serious Game for Traffic Accident Investigators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binsubaih, Ahmed; Maddock, Steve; Romano, Daniela

    2006-01-01

    In Dubai, traffic accidents kill one person every 37 hours and injure one person every 3 hours. Novice traffic accident investigators in the Dubai police force are expected to "learn by doing" in this intense environment. Currently, they use no alternative to the real world in order to practice. This paper argues for the use of an…

  19. [Improving prevention activities of infectious diseases during preparation and holding of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Bragina, I V; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, Iu V; Grechanaia, T V; Nikolaevich, P N; Balaeva, M I; Tesheva, S Ch; Biriukov, V A; Kulichenko, A N; Vasilenko, N F; Maletskaia, O V; Manin, E A; Orobeĭ, V G

    2015-01-01

    The article presents data on the implementation of a set of preventive activities to ensure sanitation and epidemiological welfare during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi. The importance of monitoring and evaluation of epidemiological risk, as the basis of formation of preventive measures is noticed. The questions of specific, and nonspecific prevention of infectious diseases, especially the work done during the pre-Olympic period are considered. The importance of specifically developed regulatory basis, and health education are emphasized. The conclusion about the effectiveness of the measures taken, which led to a significant reduction of infectious diseases in the region is made.

  20. Swimming performance changes during the final 3 weeks of training leading to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Mujika, I; Padilla, S; Pyne, D

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the magnitude of the swimming performance change during the final 3 weeks of training (F3T) leading to the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. Olympic swimmers who took part in the same event or events at the Telstra 2000 Grand Prix Series in Melbourne, Australia, (26 - 27 August 2000), and 21 - 28 d later at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games (16 - 23 September 2000) were included in this analysis. A total of 99 performances (50 male, 49 female) were analysed. The overall performance improvement between pre- and post-F3T conditions for all swimmers was 2.18 +/- 1.50 % (p < 0.0001), (range - 1.14 % to 6.02 %). A total of 91 of the 99 analysed performances were faster after the F3T and only 8 were slower. The percentage improvement with F3T was significantly higher (P < 0.01) in males (2.57 +/- 1.45 %) than in females (1.78 +/- 1.45 %). In conclusion, the pre-Olympic F3T elicited a significant performance improvement of 2.57 % for male and 1.78 % for female swimmers at the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. The magnitude was similar for all competition events, and was achieved by swimmers from different countries and performance levels. These data provide a quantitative framework for coaches and swimmers to set realistic performance goals based on individual performance levels before the final training phase leading to important competitions.

  1. Preparedness for the Rio 2016 Olympic Games: hospital treatment capacity in georeferenced areas.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Carolina Figueiredo; Osorio-de-Castro, Claudia Garcia Serpa; Shoaf, Kimberley Irene; Silva, Raulino Sabino da; Miranda, Elaine Silva

    2016-08-01

    Recently, Brazil has hosted mass events with recognized international relevance. The 2014 FIFA World Cup was held in 12 Brazilian state capitals and health sector preparedness drew on the history of other World Cups and Brazil's own experience with the 2013 FIFA Confederations Cup. The current article aims to analyze the treatment capacity of hospital facilities in georeferenced areas for sports events in the 2016 Olympic Games in the city of Rio de Janeiro, based on a model built drawing on references from the literature. Source of data were Brazilian health databases and the Rio 2016 website. Sports venues for the Olympic Games and surrounding hospitals in a 10km radius were located by geoprocessing and designated a "health area" referring to the probable inflow of persons to be treated in case of hospital referral. Six different factors were used to calculate needs for surge and one was used to calculate needs in case of disasters (20/1,000). Hospital treatment capacity is defined by the coincidence of beds and life support equipment, namely the number of cardiac monitors (electrocardiographs) and ventilators in each hospital unit. Maracanã followed by the Olympic Stadium (Engenhão) and the Sambódromo would have the highest single demand for hospitalizations (1,572, 1,200 and 600, respectively). Hospital treatment capacity proved capable of accommodating surges, but insufficient in cases of mass casualties. In mass events most treatments involve easy clinical management, it is expected that the current capacity will not have negative consequences for participants.

  2. 2016 Rio Olympic Games: Can the schedule of events compromise athletes' performance?

    PubMed

    Rosa, João Paulo P; Rodrigues, Dayane F; Silva, Andressa; de Moura Simim, Mário Antônio; Costa, Varley T; Noce, Franco; de Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-01-01

    The organizing committee of the 2016 Rio Olympic Games recently announced that some of the preliminary and final competitions will be held at night. The present article discusses the potential harmful effects of these late-night competitions on sleep, circadian rhythms and athletic performance during the Olympic Games. Specifically, night-time competition could lead to injury and may compromise an athlete's decision-making, attentional, physiological and other processes. Consequently, these impacts could negatively affect the performance of athletes and their teams. Thus, it is suggested that technical commissions take special care when creating strategies to minimize harm to the athletes by considering factors such as light exposure, melatonin intake, sleep hygiene and scheduled naps, and training at local competition time. Furthermore, it is necessary for specialists in chronobiology and sleep to engage with members of the national teams to develop an activity schedule for physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparation that accounts for circadian rhythms, thereby creating the best possible environment for the athletes to achieve their ideal performance.

  3. Effect of Exposure to Special Olympic Games on Attitudes of Volunteers towards Inclusion of People with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Chunxiao; Wang, Chee Keng John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to examine the effect of volunteering for Special Olympics Games (SOG) on the attitudes of volunteers towards inclusion of people with intellectual disabilities. Method: A repeated measures design with 3-week follow-up was used. There were 100 volunteers recruited for the study and 90 of them completed the…

  4. 1000 Years of the Olympic Games: Treasures of Ancient Greece--Digital Reconstruction at the Home of the Gods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenderdine, Sarah

    This paper results from a recently completed project that augmented an exhibition at the Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, entitled "1000 Years of the Olympic Games: Treasures of Ancient Greece" (July 18-November 18, 2000). This Exhibition offered an opportunity to supplement the traditional visitor experience with the introduction of…

  5. Italian women's television coverage and audience during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Capranica, Laura; Tessitore, Antonio; D, Artibale Emanuele; Cortis, Cristina; Casella, Rita; Camilleri, Enrica; Pesce, Caterina

    2008-03-01

    This study aimed at determining the amount of Italian television coverage dedicated to men's and women's sport and the number of male and female viewers during the 2004 Summer Olympic Games. AUDITEL-AGB Nielsen Media Research Italia provided the TV airtime data for the sport events broadcast, which were classified into three categories: men-only, women-only, and mixed-gender. The viewer sample was divided by age and gender and included three audience parameters: mean audience, share, and appreciation index. The last item is calculated from the program duration, audience permanence, and the share related to programs broadcast by other Italian channels. In particular, the appreciation index was used to investigate the relationship between (a) the viewer's and sport participants' gender and (b) the effect of Italian participation and expectations for sport achievement. The data showed that Italian male athletes outnumbered their female counterparts. Women's sport was allotted significantly less airtime than men's sport, but this imbalance was not proportional to the gender difference in the overall athletes' participation in the Games. Although the female audience represented 45% of the total, a significantly higher male mean audience and share were found. On the other hand, the appreciation of men's and women's sport events was balanced after equating for differences in media coverage. Moreover sport achievement might have a positive effect on the trend toward equality of gender coverage, indicating that a global multisport event such as the Olympic Games is central to communicating a national image and identity independently of the athletes' gender.

  6. "Offering Something Back to Society?" Learning Disability, Ethnicity and Sporting Legacy: Hosting the Special Olympics GB Summer Games in Leicester, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, John; Carter, Neil

    2014-01-01

    In 2009 the city of Leicester hosted the Special Olympics Great Britain National Summer Games. Around 2500 athletes with learning disabilities competed in 21 sports. This article argues that this sporting mega-event had important potential legacy consequences for the hosts, the governing body --Special Olympics Great Britain (SOGB)--and also for…

  7. Changes in the Game Characteristics of a Badminton Match: A Longitudinal Study through the Olympic Game Finals Analysis in Men’s Singles

    PubMed Central

    Laffaye, Guillaume; Phomsoupha, Michael; Dor, Frédéric

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analyze, through a longitudinal study, the Olympic Badminton Men’s singles finals from the Barcelona Games (1992) to the London Games (2012) to assess some changes of the Badminton game characteristics. Six Olympic finals have been analyzed based on the official video of the Olympic Games (OG) through the temporal structure and with a notational approach. In total, 537 rallies and 5537 strokes have been analyzed. The results show a change in the game’s temporal structure: a significant difference in the rally time, rest time and number of shots per rally (all p<0.0001; 0.09 < η2 < 0.16). Moreover, the shot frequency shows a 34.0% increase (p<0.000001; η2 = 0.17), whereas the work density revealed a 58.2% decrease (from 78% to 30.8%) as well as the effective playing time (-34.5% from 34.7±1.4% to 22.7±1.4%). This argues for an increase in the intensity of the game and a necessity for the player to use a longer resting time to recover. Lastly, the strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced mistakes did not show any differences throughout the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear. This results impact on the way the training of Badminton players should be designed, especially in the temporal structure and intensity. Key points Badminton game has become faster, with an important increase in the shot frequency (+34%) The effective playing time has decreased between first to last Olympic Games (-34.5%) The strokes distribution and the percentage of unforced and forced errors show no differences through the OG analysis, except for the use of the clear PMID:26335338

  8. Imitation dynamics in a game of traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paissan, Gabriel; Abramson, Guillermo

    2013-04-01

    We study a model of traffic where drivers adopt different behavioral strategies. These can be cooperative or defective according to a driver abiding or not by a traffic rule. Drivers can change their strategy by imitating the majority, with a rule that depends on the strategies with which they have interacted. These interactions occur at intersections, where vehicles pay a temporal cost according to their strategy. We analyze the conditions under which different strategy compositions represent an advantage in the system velocity. We found that the cooperators' mean speed is higher than the defectors' even when the vehicle density is large. However, defectors can obtain benefits in their mean speed when they are a minority in an essentially cooperative population. The presence of a core of educated drivers, who persist firmly in a cooperative behavior, optimizes the speed in the system, especially for intermediate values of vehicular density and higher temporal costs.

  9. Managing the effects of the weather on the Equestrian Events of the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Jeffcott, Leo; Leung, Wing-Mo; Riggs, Christopher

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a 3 year project to investigate and manage the effects of the local weather conditions on horses competing in the 2008 Olympic Games. The first part of the investigation involved estimating the expected heat load on horses during competition and suggesting measures to ensure their safety based on data collected from dedicated weather monitoring at both Olympic venues during August 2006, 2007 and 2008. The aim of the second part was to establish a reliable system of point forecasting to monitor and predict inclement weather that might affect the competitions. This involved setting up automatic monitoring systems and exploiting numerical weather prediction models. The monitoring and predicting capabilities were tested by running two 'virtual' or simulated cross country competitions in 2006 and 2007. They were further trialled with live horses during the Test Event in August 2007, when a rapid cooling system for horses using shade tents, misting fans and iced water was refined. The results of both parts yielded valuable information which was used to establish a protocol to ensure that horses would not become heat stressed or subjected to dangerous weather conditions. Despite some very high temperatures and humidity, a number of storms and two serious tropical cyclones, there were no disruptions to the competition schedule and no serious injuries or heat stress to the horses throughout the 2008 Equestrian Events.

  10. Zika virus infection during the Olympic Games in Rio: A fear or an actual risk?

    PubMed

    Díaz-Menéndez, M; Trigo, E; de la Calle-Prieto, F; Arsuaga, M

    2017-04-01

    The recent outbreak of Zika virus infection in Brazil has aroused considerable media interest due to its association with neurological malformations in children born from mothers infected by the virus and to its association with Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. This relationship has led to the World Health Organisation declaring the current epidemic as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern". Controversy also emerged on the advisability of delaying or changing the location of the Olympic and Paralympic Games, which were held in August at various locations in Brazil. In this article, we review the available evidence on the risk of Zika and dengue virus infection in individuals who travel to endemic countries, especially for multitudinous events.

  11. [FEATURES OF THE ORGANIZATION OF SANITARY-EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SURVEILLANCE DURING THE PERIOD OF PREPARATION AND HOSTING OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI IN 2014].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Popova, A Iu; Kuzkin, B P; Guskova, A S; Ivanov, G E; Pakskina, N D; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Balaeva, M I; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Tesheva, S Ch; Daragan, Iu G; Parkhomenko, V V; Rafeenko, G K; Kulichenko, A N; Manin, E A; Maletskaia, O V; Vasilenko, N F; Efremenko, D V; Orobeĭ, V G; Eldinova, V E; Pilikova, O M; Malaĭ, V I; Iunicheva, Iu V

    2015-01-01

    In the paper there are presented the basic principles of the organization of activities for the assurance ofthe sanitary- epidemiological welfare in the period ofpreparation and hosting of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort City of Sochi. There are considered features of the organization ofepidemiological surveillance in the pre-Olympic period, the period of the games and the state of the morbidity rate in the region after the Olympics. There are presented data on certain directions of the work of organs and institutions of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights Protection and Human Welfare on the disease control of the event.

  12. [Modern methods application of genotyping of infectious diseases pathogens in the context of operational work of specialized anti-epidemic team during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games].

    PubMed

    Kuzkin, B P; Kulichenko, A N; Volynkina, A S; Efremenko, D V; Kuznetsova, I V; Kotenev, E S; Lyamkin, G I; Kartsev, N N; Klindukhov, V P

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers the experience of genotyping and sequencing technologies in laboratories of specialized anti-epidemic team (SAET) during the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The work carried out during the pre-Olympic period on performance of readiness by SAET for these studies is analyzed. The results of genotyping strains of pathogens during the Olympic Games are presented. A conclusion about the effectiveness of the use of molecular genetic techniques in terms of SAET is made.

  13. Prediction versus reality: the use of mathematical models to predict elite performance in swimming and athletics at the olympic games.

    PubMed

    Heazlewood, Timothy

    2006-01-01

    A number of studies have attempted to predict future Olympic performances in athletics and swimming based on trends displayed in previous Olympic Games. Some have utilised linear models to plot and predict change, whereas others have utilised multiple curve estimation methods based on inverse, sigmoidal, quadratic, cubic, compound, logistic, growth and exponential functions. The non linear models displayed closer fits to the actual data and were used to predict performance changes 10's, 100's and 1000's of years into the future. Some models predicted that in some events male and female times and distances would crossover and females would eventually display superior performance to males. Predictions using mathematical models based on pre-1996 athletics and pre-1998 swimming performances were evaluated based on how closely they predicted sprints and jumps, and freestyle swimming performances for both male and females at the 2000 and 2004 Olympic Games. The analyses revealed predictions were closer for the shorter swimming events where men's 50m and women's 50m and 100m actual times were almost identical to predicted times. For both men and women, as the swim distances increased the accuracy of the predictive model decreased, where predicted times were 4.5-7% faster than actual times achieved. The real trends in some events currently displaying performance declines were not foreseen by the mathematical models, which predicted consistent improvements across all athletic and swimming events selected for in this study. Key PointsPrediction of future Olympic performance based on previous performance trends.Application of non-linear mathematical equations resulting in better fitting models.Application of mathematical predictive models to the Olympic sports of athletics and swimming.Accuracy of mathematical models in predicting sprint events in running and swimming.A research approach to predict future Olympic performance and set future performance standards that could be

  14. Impact of emission control on regional air quality: an observational study of air pollutants before, during and after the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shulan; Gao, Jian; Zhang, Yuechong; Zhang, Jingqiao; Cha, Fahe; Wang, Tao; Ren, Chun; Wang, Wenxing

    2014-01-01

    An observational study on trace gases and PM2.5 was conducted at three sites in and around Beijing, during the Olympic season from 2007 to 2009. Air quality improved significantly during the Olympic Games due to the special emission control measures. However, concentrations of the primary pollutants and PM were found to have risen significantly after the Games. Although the major O3 precursors (NO(x) and VOCs) were well controlled during the Olympic season, O3 was still found to be the highest in 2008, based on the data of ground-based observation. All this information suggests that while control of regional emissions for the Beijing Olympic Games did improved the air quality in Beijing, more efforts will be needed for the continuous improvement of regional air quality, especially for significant reductions of O3 and fine particulate pollution, and not only in Beijing, but also in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region.

  15. The Impact of Weather Forecasts of Various Lead Times on Snowmaking Decisions Made for the 2010 Vancouver Olympic Winter Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Chris

    2014-01-01

    The Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics were held from 12 to 28 February 2010, and the Paralympic events followed 2 weeks later. During the Games, the weather posed a grave threat to the viability of one venue and created significant complications for the event schedule at others. Forecasts of weather with lead times ranging from minutes to days helped organizers minimize disruptions to sporting events and helped ensure all medal events were successfully completed. Of comparable importance, however, were the scenarios and forecasts of probable weather for the winter in advance of the Games. Forecasts of mild conditions at the time of the Games helped the Games' organizers mitigate what would have been very serious potential consequences for at least one venue. Snowmaking was one strategy employed well in advance of the Games to prepare for the expected conditions. This short study will focus on how operational decisions were made by the Games' organizers on the basis of both climatological and snowmaking forecasts during the pre-Games winter. An attempt will be made to quantify, economically, the value of some of the snowmaking forecasts made for the Games' operators. The results obtained indicate that although the economic value of the snowmaking forecast was difficult to determine, the Games' organizers valued the forecast information greatly. This suggests that further development of probabilistic forecasts for applications like pre-Games snowmaking would be worthwhile.

  16. Photochemical production of ozone in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. C.-K.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, P.-H.; Liu, S. C.; Zhu, T.

    2011-06-01

    As a part of the CAREBeijing-2008 campaign, observations of O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and NOy), CO, and hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at the air quality observatory of the Peking University in Beijing, China during August 2008, including the period of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. The measurements were compared to those of the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the air pollution control measures, which were conducted for improving the air quality in Beijing during the Olympics. The results indicate that significant reduction in the emissions of primary air pollutants had been achieved; the monthly averages of NOx, NOy, CO, and NMHCs reduced by 42.2, 56.5, 27.8, and 49.7 %, respectively. In contrast to the primary pollutants, the averaged mixing ratio of O3 increased by 42.2 %. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the ambient levels of total oxidants (Ox=O3+NO2+1.5NOz) and NOz reduced by 21.3 and 77.4 %, respectively. The contradictions between O3 and Ox were further examined in two case studies. Ozone production rates of 30-70 ppbv hr-1 and OPEx of ~8 mole mole-1 were observed on a clear-sky day in spite of the reduced levels of precursors. In that case, it was found that the concentrations of O3 increased with the increasing NO2/NO ratio, whereas the NOz concentrations leveled off when NO2/NO>8. Consequently, the ratio of O3 to NOz increased to above 10, indicating the shift from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive regime. However, in the other case, it was found that the O3 production was inhibited significantly due to substantial reduction in the ambient levels of NMHCs. According to the observations, it was suggested that the O3/Ox production rates in Beijing should have been reduced for the reduction in the emissions of precursors during the Olympic period; however, the nighttime O3 levels were increased for decline in the NO-O3 titration, and the midday O3 peak levels were elevated for the shift in the photochemical regime

  17. Photochemical production of ozone in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. C.-K.; Tsai, C.-Y.; Chang, C.-C.; Lin, P.-H.; Liu, S. C.; Zhu, T.

    2011-09-01

    As a part of the CAREBeijing-2008 campaign, observations of O3, oxides of nitrogen (NOx and NOy), CO, and hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were carried out at the air quality observatory of the Peking University in Beijing, China during August 2008, including the period of the 29th Summer Olympic Games. The measurements were compared with those of the CAREBeijing-2006 campaign to evaluate the effectiveness of the air pollution control measures, which were conducted for improving the air quality in Beijing during the Olympics. The results indicate that significant reduction in the emissions of primary air pollutants had been achieved; the monthly averaged mixing ratios of NOx, NOy, CO, and NMHCs decreased by 42.2, 56.5, 27.8, and 49.7 %, respectively. In contrast to the primary pollutants, the averaged mixing ratio of O3 increased by 42.2 %. Nevertheless, it was revealed that the ambient levels of total oxidant (Ox = O3+NO2+1.5 NOz) and NOz were reduced by 21.3 and 77.4 %, respectively. The contradictions between O3 and Ox were further examined in two case studies. Ozone production rates of 30-70 ppbv h-1 and OPEx of ~8 mole mole-1 were observed on a clear-sky day in spite of the reduced levels of precursors. In that case, it was found that the mixing ratio of O3 increased with the increasing NO2/NO ratio, whereas the NOz mixing ratio leveled off when NO2/NO>8. Consequently, the ratio of O3 to NOz increased to above 10, indicating the shift from VOC-sensitive regime to NOx-sensitive regime. However, in the other case, it was found that the O3 production was inhibited significantly due to substantial reduction in the NMHCs. According to the observations, it was suggested that the O3 and/or Ox production rates in Beijing should have been reduced as a result of the reduction in the emissions of precursors during the Olympic period. However, the nighttime O3 levels increased due to a decline in the NO-O3 titration, and the midday O3 peak levels were elevated because of the shift in

  18. Very-short range forecasting system for 2018 Pyeonchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Ji-Eun; Park, Kyungjeen; Kim, Minyou; Kim, Changhwan; Joo, Sangwon

    2016-04-01

    The 23rd Olympic Winter and the 13th Paralympic Winter Games will be held in Pyeongchang, Republic of Korea respectively from 9 to 25 February 2018 and from 9 to 18 February 2018. The Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) and the National Institute for Meteorological Science (NIMS) have the responsibility to provide weather information for the management of the Games and the safety of the public. NIMS will carry out a Forecast Demonstration Project (FDP) and a Research and Development Project (RDP) which will be called ICE-POP 2018. These projects will focus on intensive observation campaigns to understand severe winter weathers over the Pyeongchang region, and the research results from the RDP will be used to improve the accuracy of nowcasting and very short-range forecast systems during the Games. To support these projects, NIMS developed Very-short range Data Assimilation and Prediction System (VDAPS), which is run in real time with 1 hour cycling interval and up to 12 hour forecasts. The domain is covering Korean Peninsular and surrounding seas with 1.5km horizontal resolution. AWS, windprofiler, buoy, sonde, aircraft, scatwinds, and radar radial winds are assimilated by 3DVAR on 3km resolution inner domain. The rain rate is converted into latent heat and initialized via nudging. The visibility data are also assimilated with the addition of aerosol control variable. The experiments results show the improvement in rainfall over south sea of Korean peninsula. In order to reduce excessive rainfalls during first 2 hours due to the reduced cycling interval, the data assimilation algorithm is optimized.

  19. The epidemiology of illness and injury at the alpine venues during the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Allen, Todd L; Jolley, Scott J; Cooley, Vernon J; Winn, Robert T; Harrison, Jeffery D; Price, Richard R; Rich, J Charles

    2006-02-01

    The Emergency Medicine literature has described levels of medical care for mass gatherings in the United States, including for the Los Angeles 1984 Summer and Calgary 1988 Winter Olympic Games. However, there are limited data to describe the type and number of illness or injury that may occur during mass gatherings in an alpine winter environment. To describe the epidemiology of illness and injury seen among spectators at the alpine and snowboarding venues during the Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympic Games, we conducted a retrospective review of the Salt Lake City 2002 Olympic Medical Care database for all patient encounters during the operational period of the Games at the alpine and snowboarding venues. The three venues included were: Deer Valley Resort (DVR), Park City Mountain Resort (PCM), and Snowbasin Resort (SBA). Each venue had a medical clinic located on site for spectators and another for athletes. Physicians, nurses, emergency medical technicians, and therapists staffed the clinics. The database was created by Inter-mountain Health Care (IHC) in conjunction with Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympic staff and consisted of descriptive reports of all patient encounters from all venues including demographic, epidemiology, and outcome information. IHC maintains the database, and was the sole medical provider for the Games. Each venue had at least 6 days of competition events. Over the 19 days of the Olympiad, a total of 410,160 spectators and 3,961 competitive athletes attended the three venues. There were 841 spectators evaluated and treated at the venue clinics, and mobile medical staff treated 262 spectators. The top five spectator clinic diagnostic categories were: sprain/strain (n=108), miscellaneous trauma (n=103), respiratory (n=88), miscellaneous medical (n=69), and digestive (n=52). Fifty spectators required transport to a hospital for additional care: 27 required transfer by ground ambulance and the remainder were transported by private vehicle. The

  20. The Olympic dentist.

    PubMed

    2008-10-11

    As the immediate excitement of an amazing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics in Beijing for team GB subsides, some are already looking towards the 2012 games. Dentist and medical team consultant for the 2012 games Dr Tony Clough has recently returned from the Beijing Olympics, where he got involved prematurely with this year's athletes, as Jonica Love discovered.

  1. Biogenic isoprene and implications for oxidant levels in Beijing during the 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C.-C.; Shao, M.; Chou, C. C. K.; Liu, S.-C.; Wang, J.-L.; Lee, K.-Z.; Lai, C.-H.; Zhu, T.; Lin, P.-H.

    2013-10-01

    As the host of the 2008 Summer Olympic Games, Beijing implemented a series of stringent, short-term air quality control measures to reduce the emissions of anthropogenic air pollutants. Large reductions in the daily average concentrations of primary pollutants, e.g., non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) of approximately 50% were observed at the air quality observatory of Peking University. Nevertheless, high levels of ozone were present during the control period. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced, the meteorological conditions in summer, including high temperature and light flux, are conducive to the production of large amounts of biogenic isoprene, which is extremely reactive. The diurnal pattern of isoprene showed daily maximum mixing ratios of 0.83 ppbv at noon and a minimum at night, reflecting its primarily biogenic properties. Using the ratio of isoprene to vehicle exhaust tracers, approximately 92% of the daytime isoprene was estimated from biogenic sources, and only 8% was attributed to vehicular emissions. In terms of OH reactivity and the ozone formation potential (OFP), biogenic isoprene with its midday surge can contribute approximately 20% of the total OFPs and 40-50% of the total OH reactivities of the 65 measured NMHCs during the midday hours. The discrepancy between decreased precursor levels and the observed high ozone was most likely caused by a combination of many factors. The changes in the partition among the components of oxidation products (O3, NO2 and NOz) and the contribution of air pollutants from regional sources outside Beijing should be two primary reasons. Furthermore, the influences of biogenic isoprene as well as the non-linearity of O3-VOC-NOx chemistry are other major concerns that can reduce the effectiveness of the control measures for decreasing ozone formation. Although anthropogenic precursors were greatly reduced during the Olympic Games, sufficient biogenic isoprene and moderate NOx

  2. [Observation on atmospheric pollution in Xianghe during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yue-Peng; Wang, Yue-Si; Hu, Bo; Liu, Quan; Wang, Ying-Hong; Nan, Wei-Dong

    2010-01-01

    There is a concern that much of the atmospheric pollution experienced in Beijing is regional in nature and not attributable to local sources. The objective of this study is to examine the contribution of sources outside Beijing to atmospheric pollution levels during Beijing 2008 Olympic Games. The observations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 were conducted from June 1 to September 30, 2008 in Xianghe, a rural site about 70 km southeast of Beijing. Sources and transportation of atmospheric pollution during the experiment were discussed with surface meteorology data and backward trajectories calculated using HYSPLIT model. The results showed that the daily average maximum (mean +/- standard deviation) concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5, and PM10 during observation reached 84.4(13.4 +/- 15.2), 43.3 (15.9 +/- 9.1), 230 (82 +/- 38), 184 (76 +/- 42) and 248 (113 +/- 52) microg x m(-3), respectively. In particular, during the pollution episodes from July 20 to August 12, the hourly average concentration of O3 exceeded the National Ambient Air Quality Standard II for 46 h (9%), and the daily average concentration of PM10 exceeded the Standard for 11 d (46%); PM2.5 exceeded the US EPA Standard for 18 d (75%). The daily average concentrations of SO2, NO(x), O3, PM2.5 and PM10 decreased from 27.7, 18.6, 96, 90, 127 microg x m(-3) in June-July to 5.8, 13.2, 80, 60, 106 microg x m(-3) during Olympic Games (August-September), respectively. The typical diurnal variations of NO(x), PM2.5 and PM10 were similar, peaking at 07:00 and 20:00, while the maximum of O3 occurred between 14:00 to 16:00 local time. The findings also suggested that the atmospheric pollution in Xianghe is related to local emission, regional transport as well as the meteorological conditions. Northerly wind and precipitation are favorable for diffusion and wet deposition of pollutants, while sustained south flows make the atmospheric pollution more serious. The lead-lag correlation analysis during the

  3. Infectious diseases prioritisation for event-based surveillance at the European Union level for the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Economopoulou, A; Kinross, P; Domanovic, D; Coulombier, D

    2014-04-17

    In 2012, London hosted the Olympic and Paralympic Games (the Games), with events occurring throughout the United Kingdom (UK) between 27 July and 9 September 2012. Public health surveillance was performed by the Health Protection Agency (HPA). Collaboration between the HPA and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) was established for the detection and assessment of significant infectious disease events (SIDEs) occurring outside the UK during the time of the Games. Additionally, ECDC undertook an internal prioritisation exercise to facilitate ECDC’s decisions on which SIDEs should have preferentially enhanced monitoring through epidemic intelligence activities for detection and reporting in daily surveillance in the European Union (EU). A team of ECDC experts evaluated potential public health risks to the Games, selecting and prioritising SIDEs for event-based surveillance with regard to their potential for importation to the Games, occurrence during the Games or export to the EU/European Economic Area from the Games. The team opted for a multilevel approach including comprehensive disease selection, development and use of a qualitative matrix scoring system and a Delphi method for disease prioritisation. The experts selected 71 infectious diseases to enter the prioritisation exercise of which 27 were considered as priority for epidemic intelligence activities by ECDC for the EU for the Games.

  4. What can medical educators learn from the Rio 2016 Olympic games?

    PubMed

    Church, Helen; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah; Patel, Rakesh; Sandars, John

    2017-02-28

    Medical Educators face an ongoing challenge in optimizing preparedness for practice for newly qualified doctors. Junior doctors have highlighted specific areas in which they do not feel adequately equipped to undertake their duties, including managing the acutely unwell patient. In these highly stressful, time-critical scenarios it might be assumed that a lack of knowledge underpins these feelings of apprehension from junior medics; however, having studied, trained and passed examinations to demonstrate such knowledge, perhaps other factors should be considered. The recent Olympic Games in Rio demonstrated the impact of sport psychology techniques in allowing athletes to achieve their optimum performance in the face of adversity. The use of mental and behavioral strategies to control feelings of anxiety and low self-efficacy are pivotal for athletes to deliver their best performance under extreme pressure. We consider whether such techniques could improve the preparedness of the newest recruits to the healthcare system, and the impact this could have on patient care. Finally, suggestions for potential research directions within this area are offered to stimulate interest amongst the research community.

  5. Rapid deployment of an electronic disease surveillance system in the state of Utah for the 2002 Olympic Winter Games.

    PubMed

    Gesteland, Per H; Wagner, Michael M; Chapman, Wendy W; Espino, Jeremy U; Tsui, Fu-Chiang; Gardner, Reed M; Rolfs, Robert T; Dato, Virginia; James, Brent C; Haug, Peter J

    2002-01-01

    The key to minimizing the effects of an intentionally caused disease outbreak is early detection of the attack and rapid identification of the affected individuals. The Bush administration's leadership in advocating for biosurveillance systems capable of monitoring for bioterrorism attacks suggests that we should move quickly to establish a nationwide early warning biosurveillance system as a defense against this threat. The spirit of collaboration and unity inspired by the events of 9-11 and the 2002 Olympic Winter Games in Salt Lake City provided the opportunity to demonstrate how a prototypic biosurveillance system could be rapidly deployed. In seven weeks we were able to implement an automated, real-time disease outbreak detection system in the State of Utah and monitored 80,684 acute care visits occurring during a 28-day period spanning the Olympics. No trends of immediate public health concern were identified.

  6. Impacts of Emission Reduction Scenarios on Regional Climate and Local Air Quality for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Smith, J. A.; Wang, Z.; Fast, J. D.; Chapman, E. G.; Wu, Q.; Baeck, M.; Michel, A. P.; Yeung, J.; Gustafson, W. I.

    2009-05-01

    Beijing implemented a long term emission reduction program in 2001 when it won the bid to host the 2008 Summer Olympic Games. During the summer of 2008 Beijing increased its emission reduction effort by integrating short term strategies such as temporally shutting down factories, freezing constructions, and automobile control. Taking advantage of emission reduction measures, numerical simulation experiments are being carried out with the Weather Research and Forecasting model with chemistry module (WRF-Chem) to examine aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions in the Beijing metropolitan region during the period of the 2008 Olympic Games. Analyses of TRMM 3B42V6 and MODIS Terra L3C5 datasets show that August 2008 was a period of above average precipitation and below average aerosol loadings, relative to observations during the past 10 years. This study is based on numerical simulations with two emission scenarios, business as usual scenario and reduced emission scenario, to examine the impacts of emission reduction measures on regional climate and local air quality in the Beijing metropolitan region, as well as the role of cloud and precipitation processes in controlling the regional distribution of aerosols. Both of the high- resolution emission inventories were developed by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, China, to represent the effects of emission reduction policies for the Olympic period. Intercomparisons with in-situ measurements are used to assess the capability for modeling aerosol-cloud-precipitation interactions on a regional scale. Analyses center on assessing "microphysical" and "stability" hypotheses linking aerosols to cloud and precipitation processes and examining the relative roles of precipitation processes, regional transport processes and emission reduction scenarios in producing the favorable air quality conditions during the Olympic period.

  7. A healthy anniversary? Exploring narratives of health in media coverage of the 1968 and 2008 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Safai, Parissa

    2011-01-01

    Researchers are increasingly examining the tenuous relationship between participation in high performance sport and health, and yet IOC-sanctioned and popular discourse around the Olympics remains replete with references to the supposed healthfulness of the Games. Using the 1968 Mexico City Games and the 2008 Bejing Games as bookends, this paper explores national and international media coverage of athletic performance in relation to health and well-being. Three central narratives emerged: (1) pain, perseverance, and the pervasiveness of the "culture of risk" in high performance sport; (2) the performance imperative in the face of the challenges and anxieties of the environment; and (3) the presence and emerging sophistication of sports sciences/scientists in determining health.

  8. [Principle directions for the creation and organization of the system of sanitary-epidemiological safety during the preparations for the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games 2014 in Sochi].

    PubMed

    Onishchenko, G G; Bragina, I V; Ezhlova, E B; Demina, V P; Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Aksenova, O I; Ivanov, G E; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T B; Kulichenko, A N; Maletskaia, O V; Manin, E A; Parkhomenko, V V; Kulichenko, O A

    2015-01-01

    The paper generalizes the experience of formation of protection system against biological threats and ensuring sanitary and epidemiological welfare during preparation for the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in Sochi. The basic steps for creating this system, since 2007, participation and role of Rospotrebnadzor in this process are shown. The paper deals with such questions as the governmental and administrative structures with federal agencies interaction, development of a regulatory framework governing the safety system of the Olympic Games, development of algorithms of information exchange and management decisions, biological safety in developing infrastructure in Sochi.

  9. Changes in sex difference in swimming speed in finalists at FINA World Championships and the Olympic Games from 1992 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study investigated swimming speeds and sex differences of finalists competing at the Olympic Games (i.e. 624 female and 672 male athletes) and FINA World Championships (i.e. 990 women and 1008 men) between 1992 and 2013. Methods Linear, non-linear and multi-level regression models were used to investigate changes in swimming speeds and sex differences for champions and finalists. Results Regarding finalists in FINA World Championships and Olympic Games, swimming speed increased linearly in both women and men in all disciplines and race distances. Male world champions’ swimming speed remained stable in 200 m butterfly, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Considering women, swimming speed remained unchanged in 50 m and 400 m freestyle. In the Olympic Games, swimming speed of male champions remained unchanged in 200 m breaststroke, 50 m, 400 m, 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle. Female Olympic champions’ swimming speed remained stable in 100 m and 200 m backstroke, 100 m butterfly, 200 m individual medley, 50 m and 200 m freestyle. Evaluating sex differences between finalists in FINA World Championships, results showed a linear decrease in 100 m breaststroke and 200 m butterfly and a non-linear increase in 100 m backstroke. In finals at the Olympic Games, the sex difference decreased linearly for 100 m backstroke, 400 m and 800 m freestyle. However, a linear increase for 200 m butterfly can be reported. Considering Olympic and world champions, the sex difference remained stable in all disciplines and race distances. Conclusion Swimming speed of the finalists at the Olympic Games and FINA World Championships increased linearly. The top annual female swimmers increased swimming speed rather at longer race distances (i.e. 800 m and 1,500 m freestyle, 200 m butterfly, and 400 m individual medley), whereas the top annual male swimmers increased it rather at shorter race distances (i.e. 100 m and 200 m freestyle, 100 m butterfly

  10. Antidoping control in Brazil: history, current situation, and prospects for the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Santos, Marcos Antonio Pereira dos; Silva, Alexandre Sérgio; Ribeiro, Sergio Luiz Galan; Santos, Azenildo Moura

    2014-07-01

    Brazil will soon host two major sporting events: the 2014 World Cup and the 2016 Summer Olympic Games. Given the importance of antidoping control during these competitions, it is important that the scientific community receive a status update on antidoping control in Brazil. In this brief communication, the authors present the status of antidoping control in Brazil from an historical perspective, both the benefits and difficulties to be faced by antidoping control during these events, and the legacy resulting from the efficacy of the drug testing performed during these competitions.

  11. NOx emission estimates during the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, J.; van der A, R. J.; Mijling, B.; Levelt, P. F.; Hao, N.

    2015-08-01

    The Nanjing Government applied temporary environmental regulations to guarantee good air quality during the Youth Olympic Games (YOG) in 2014. We study the effect of those regulations by applying the emission estimate algorithm DECSO (Daily Emission estimates Constrained by Satellite Observations) to measurements of the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). We improved DECSO by updating the chemical transport model CHIMERE from v2006 to v2013 and by adding an Observation minus Forecast (OmF) criterion to filter outlying satellite retrievals due to high aerosol concentrations. The comparison of model results with both ground and satellite observations indicates that CHIMERE v2013 is better performing than CHIMERE v2006. After filtering the satellite observations with high aerosol loads that were leading to large OmF values, unrealistic jumps in the emission estimates are removed. Despite the cloudy conditions during the YOG we could still see a decrease of tropospheric NO2 column concentrations of about 32 % in the OMI observations when compared to the average NO2 columns from 2005 to 2012. The results of the improved DECSO algorithm for NOx emissions show a reduction of at least 25 % during the YOG period and afterwards. This indicates that air quality regulations taken by the local government have an effect in reducing NOx emissions. The algorithm is also able to detect an emission reduction of 10 % during the Chinese Spring Festival. This study demonstrates the capacity of the DECSO algorithm to capture the change of NOx emissions on a monthly scale. We also show that the observed NO2 columns and the derived emissions show different patterns that provide complimentary information. For example, the Nanjing smog episode in December 2013 led to a strong increase in NO2 concentrations without an increase in NOx emissions. Furthermore, DECSO gives us important information on the non-trivial seasonal relation between NOx emissions and NO2 concentrations on a local scale.

  12. The Little Known Olympic Sports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jessup, Harvey M., Ed.

    This document is a collection of articles on Olympic events, particularly those that are not as well publicized as some others. Each article was written by an acknowledged expert in the particular field. The introductory article, "The Olympic Story," covers the history of Olympic Games from their origin in Greece to the present. The…

  13. A new surveillance system for undiagnosed serious infectious illness for the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Heinsbroek, E; Said, B; Kirkbride, H

    2012-08-02

    A new surveillance system was developed to detect possible new or emerging infections presenting as undiagnosed serious infectious illness (USII) for use during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Designated clinicians in sentinel adult and paediatric intensive care units (ICU/ PICUs) reported USII using an online reporting tool or provided a weekly nil notification. Reported cases were investigated for epidemiological links. A pilot study was undertaken for six months between January and July 2011 to evaluate the feasibility and acceptability of the system. In this six-month period, 5 adults and 13 children were reported by six participating units (3 ICUs, 3 PICUs). Of these 18 patients, 12 were reported within four days after admission to an ICU/PICU. Nine patients were subsequently diagnosed and were thus excluded from the surveillance. Therefore, only nine cases of USII were reported. No clustering was identified.On the basis of the pilot study, we conclude that the system is able to detect cases of USII and is feasible and acceptable to users. USII surveillance has been extended to a total of 19 sentinel units in London and the south-east of England during the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  14. Change of the age and performance of swimmers across World Championships and Olympic Games finals from 1992 to 2013 - a cross-sectional data analysis.

    PubMed

    König, Stefan; Valeri, Fabio; Wild, Stefanie; Rosemann, Thomas; Rüst, Christoph Alexander; Knechtle, Beat

    2014-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to investigate the changes in the age and in swimming performance of finalists in World Championships (1994-2013) and Olympic Games (1992-2012) competing in all events/races (stroke and distance). Data of 3,295 performances from 1,615 women and 1,680 men were analysed using correlation analyses and magnitudes of effect sizes. In the World Championships, the age of the finalists increased for all strokes and distances with exception of 200 m backstroke in women, and 400 m freestyle and 200 m breaststroke in men where the age of the finalists decreased. The magnitudes of the effects were small to very large (mean ± SD 2.8 ± 2.7), but extremely large (13.38) for 1,500 m freestyle in women. In the Olympic Games, the age of the finalists increased for all strokes and distances with exception of 800 m freestyle in women and 400 m individual medley in men. The magnitudes of the effects were small to very large (mean ± SD 4.1 ± 7.1), but extremely large for 50 m freestyle in women (10.5) and 200 m butterfly in men (38.0). Swimming performance increased across years in both women and men for all strokes and distances in both the World Championships and the Olympic Games. The magnitudes of the effects were all extremely large in World Championships (mean ± SD 20.1 ± 8.4) and Olympic Games (mean ± SD 52.1 ± 47.6); especially for 100 m and 200 m breaststroke (198) in women in the Olympic Games. To summarize, in the last ~20 years the age of the finalists increased in both the World Championships and the Olympic Games with some minor exceptions (200 m backstroke in women, 400 m freestyle and 200 m breaststroke in men in World Championships and 800 m freestyle in women and 400 m individual medley in men in Olympic Games) and performance of the finalists improved.

  15. Terrorism and the Olympics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-05-02

    Resources • In-Transit • Infrastructure • Intelligence • International Entry • Legal Issues • Military Affairs • Paralympics • Private Security...affect the general public’s safety and general welfare during the 2002 Winter Olympic and Paralympic games. A threat carried out that disrupts critical...infrastructure before, during or after the 2002 Winter Olympic and/or Paralympic Games will impact Utah and the nation! The old question…is it a matter

  16. Sensitivity analysis of surface ozone to emission controls in Beijing and its neighboring area during the 2008 Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yi; Zhang, Meigen

    2012-01-01

    The regional air quality modeling system RAMS (regional atmospheric modeling system)-CMAQ (community multi-scale air quality modeling system) is applied to analyze temporal and spatial variations in surface ozone concentration over Beijing and its surrounding region from July to October 2008. Comparison of simulated and observed meteorological elements and concentration of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ozone at one urban site and three rural sites during Olympic Games show that model can generally reproduce the main observed feature of wind, temperature and ozone, but NOx concentration is overestimated. Although ozone concentration decreased during Olympics, high ozone episodes occurred on 24 July and 24 August with concentration of 360 and 245 microg/m3 at Aoyuncun site, respectively. The analysis of sensitive test, with and without emission controls, shows that emission controls could reduce ozone concentration in the afternoon when ozone concentration was highest but increase it at night and in the morning. The evolution of the weather system during the ozone episodes (24 July and 24 August) indicates that hot and dry air and a stable weak pressure field intensified the production of ozone and allowed it to accumulate. Process analysis at the urban site and rural site shows that under favorable weather condition on 24 August, horizontal transport was the main contributor of the rural place and the pollution from the higher layer would be transported to the surface layer. On 24 July, as the wind velocity was smaller, the impact of transport on the rural place was not obvious.

  17. Oral health and impact on performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Olympic Games: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Needleman, I; Ashley, P; Petrie, A; Fortune, F; Turner, W; Jones, J; Niggli, J; Engebretsen, L; Budgett, R; Donos, N; Clough, T; Porter, S

    2013-01-01

    Background Oral health is important both for well-being and successful elite sporting performance. Reports from Olympic Games have found significant treatment needs; however, few studies have examined oral health directly. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health, the determinants of oral health and the effect of oral health on well-being, training and performance of athletes participating in the London 2012 Games. Methods Cross-sectional study at the dental clinic within the Polyclinic in the athletes’ village. Following informed consent, a standardised history, clinical examination and brief questionnaire were conducted. Results 302 athletes from 25 sports were recruited with data available for 278. The majority of athletes were from Africa, the Americas and Europe. Overall, the results demonstrated high levels of poor oral health including dental caries (55% athletes), dental erosion (45% athletes) and periodontal disease (gingivitis 76% athletes, periodontitis 15% athletes). More than 40% of athletes were ‘bothered’ by their oral health with 28% reporting an impact on quality of life and 18% on training and performance. Nearly half of the participants had not undergone a dental examination or hygiene care in the previous year. Conclusions The oral health of athletes attending the dental clinic of the London 2012 Games was poor with a resulting substantial negative impact on well-being, training and performance. As oral health is an important element of overall health and well-being, health promotion and disease prevention interventions are urgently required to optimise athletic performance. PMID:24068332

  18. [ORGANIZATION OF THE QUALITY CONTROL OF PLACEMENT AND ACCOMMODATION OF PARTICIPANTS ATTENDANTS AND GUESTS OF THE XXII OLYMPIC WINTER GAMES AND XI PARALYMPIC WINTER GAMES OF 2014 IN THE RESORT CITY OF SOCHI].

    PubMed

    Gorskiĭ, A A; Gus'kov, A S; Pochtareva, E S; Klindukhov, V P; Nikolaevich, P N; Grechanaia, T V; Vechemyaia, E A; Biriukov, V A; Bozhko, I I; Kulichenko, A N; Taran, T V; Zaĭtsev, A A; Tushina, O V

    2015-01-01

    There is presented the analysis of activities of the Federal Service for Supervision of Consumer Rights protection and Human Welfare to ensure adequate conditions of accommodation of the participants, attendants and guests of the XXII Olympic Winter Games and XI Paralympic Winter Games of 2014 in the Resort city of Sochi according to regulated requirements. There were detected ways of the strengthening the supervision for the quality of the accommodation during mass sports activities for the assurance of the rights for consumers.

  19. Sex equity in French newspaper photographs: A content analysis of 2012 Olympic Games by L'Equipe.

    PubMed

    Delorme, Nicolas; Testard, Nadège

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine sex equity in the photographic coverage of the London 2012 Olympic Games by a French sports daily newspaper. A sample of 1073 photographs was collected and analysed. A content analysis was carried out focusing on the number of photographs, the space they cover, their location and position, the type and colour of shot and the sport they depict. A significant under-representation of female athletes' photographs was found. However, contrary to most of previous research in this field, the other quantitative and qualitative variables do not show any differences. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation between the number of photographs for each sport and the number of French medals was found (for women, for men and for the whole sample), suggesting that the photographic coverage of this event is mainly based on the success of French athletes independently of their sex.

  20. Research on the acid rain under the short-term environment control measures of the Youth Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Qing, W.; Chen, Y.; Peng, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Northern China emits the most part of acid pollution of the whole nation but turns out to be in a light acid precipitation extent. Research shows that it is the carbonate particles from dust that neutralize the acid in the rainfall. Construction in southern China becomes more and more active so that alkaline dusts from construction are receiving an increasing attention. Nanjing hosts the Youth Olympic Games in 2015 and implements a strict plan to control the emission of construction dust. Thus, The Youth Olympic Games provides a good opportunity to analyze the neutralization of alkaline dusts emitted from construction in Nanjing. Experiment is conducted by collecting the total of rainfall events from June to September in 2015, besides, TSP (total suspended particles) before and after each rainfall events is collected due to find the collaboration with rainfall. Ca2+,Mg2+,K+,Na+,Sr2+,F-,Cl-,SO42-,NO3- concentrations in rain water and water soluble fraction of TSP are analyzed using ICP-OES and ICS in Nanjing University. Results showed that Ca2+and SO42- makes the major part of total ions, indicating the fact that Nanjing is suffering from a severe acid rainfall and alkaline dusts which mainly consist of Ca2+ neutralize a large number of acid particles. pH of rainfall has a good correlation with the flux of TSP. pH of rainfall keeps falling as the YOG plan starts and picking up after the YOG, which indicates that the declination of artificial alkaline dust in TSP reduces the neutralization on the acid rainfall.

  1. Video games and adolescents' intentions to take risks in traffic.

    PubMed

    Beullens, Kathleen; Roe, Keith; Van den Bulck, Jan

    2008-07-01

    In a sample of 2193 adolescents the impact of racing games and drive'em up games on the intention to engage in risky driving was examined. The results indicated that playing video games is a small predictor of attitudes (standardized total effect of .171), which in turn, predict fun riding intentions (R(2) = .555).

  2. Arboviral and other illnesses in travellers returning from Brazil, June 2013 to May 2016: implications for the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Gautret, Philippe; Mockenhaupt, Frank; Grobusch, Martin P; Rothe, Camilla; von Sonnenburg, Frank; van Genderen, Perry J; Chappuis, Francois; Asgeirsson, Hilmir; Caumes, Eric; Bottieau, Emmanuel; Malvy, Denis; Lopez-Vélez, Rogelio; Jensenius, Mogens; Larsen, Carsten Schade; Castelli, Francesco; Rapp, Christophe; Field, Vanessa; Molina, Israel; Gkrania-Klotsas, Effrossyni; Florescu, Simin; Lalloo, David; Schlagenhauf, Patricia

    2016-07-07

    We evaluated EuroTravNet (a GeoSentinel subnetwork) data from June 2013 to May 2016 on 508 ill travellers returning from Brazil, to inform a risk analysis for Europeans visiting the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Few dengue fever cases (n = 3) and no cases of chikungunya were documented during the 2013-15 Brazilian winter months, August and September, the period when the Games will be held. The main diagnoses were dermatological (37%), gastrointestinal (30%), febrile systemic illness (29%) and respiratory (11%).

  3. Standardized inspections of food premises during the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: descriptive analysis and risk factors for unsatisfactory results.

    PubMed

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Varzakas, Theodoros; Arvanitoyannis, Ioannis; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2008-08-01

    Standardized inspections of food premises are part of environmental health systems implemented worldwide. The food safety strategy for the 2004 Olympic Games included standardized inspections to ensure uniformity and consistency of procedures and effective electronic management of data. Inspections were carried out by 196 inspectors in the five Olympic cities: Athens, Thessalonica, Volos, Iraklio, and Patra. From January 2003 to September 2004, a total of 1,249 food premises were inspected. An unsatisfactory inspection result (C grade) was received by 347 (27.8%) food premises, a relatively satisfactory result (B grade) was received by 332 (26.6%), and a satisfactory result (A grade) was received by 570 (45.6%). About 16% of inspected premises did not hold a valid permit. Unsatisfactory inspection results were more frequent for premises located in the two largest Greek cities in comparison with the other smaller cities (relative risk = 1.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.36 to 2.80). Based on logistic regression analysis, unsatisfactory inspection results were positively associated with food premises that were not located on a ground floor (odds ratio [OR] = 2.56, 95% CI = 1.39 to 4.73) and negatively associated with application of hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) principles (OR = 0.27, 95% CI = 0.10 to 0.71). Food hygiene education through formal training programs should be encouraged to improve compliance of food premises. Food premises located on hotel floors and serving buffet meals are at higher risk for unsatisfactory conditions. Businesses that implemented a HACCP system within their operations to ensure food safety operated under more hygienic conditions. Future inspections by Public Health Authorities should involve elements of audit after the legislation for the application of HACCP principles.

  4. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games

    PubMed Central

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-01-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016). PMID:27304097

  5. Zika is not a reason for missing the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro: response to the open letter of Dr Attaran and colleagues to Dr Margaret Chan, Director - General, WHO, on the Zika threat to the Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Codeço, Claudia; Villela, Daniel; Gomes, Marcelo F; Bastos, Leonardo; Cruz, Oswaldo; Struchiner, Claudio; Carvalho, Luis Max; Coelho, Flavio

    2016-06-01

    Attaran and colleagues in an open letter to WHO expressed their concern about the upcoming Olympic and Paralympic Games in Rio de Janeiro and the threat posed by the Zika epidemic (Attaran 2016). We agree that Zika virus is of great public health concern and much remains to be known about this disease. Care should be taken to reduce the risk of infection, especially to pregnant women. However, we argue that this is not sufficient reason for changing the original plans for the Games, in particular because of the time of the year when they will take place. The present article outlines several scientific results related to Zika and mosquito-borne infectious diseases dynamics that we believe ratify the current position of WHO in not endorsing the postponing or relocation of the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (WHO 2016).

  6. How might the London 2012 Olympics influence health and the determinants of health? Local newspaper analysis of pre-Games pathways and impacts

    PubMed Central

    Selvanayagam, Marinie; Thompson, Claire; Taylor, Stephanie J C; Cummins, Steven; Bourke, Liam

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To conduct a content analysis of pre-Games local media coverage of the potential impact on health and the determinants of health in Newham, the site of the Olympic Park. Design Local newspaper content analysis. Setting Olympic park host site of the London Borough of Newham. Outcome measures Media coverage of employment, physical activity and well-being. Results Three hundred and 51 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included in the analysis. The overwhelming majority of the articles took a positive perspective on the Olympic Games being hosted in Newham with less than 10% (32/351) addressing potential adverse effects. The frequency of articles reporting on both employment and well-being increased significantly over time (p=0.002 and p=0.006, respectively). A non-significant increasing trend was observed for physical activity (p=0.146). New employment opportunities and the promotion of physical activity in young people were the pathways most frequently reported in the local media. However, much less attention is devoted to understanding the uncertainties about how much of these new opportunities will directly improve the determinants of health in the Newham population. Conclusions Pre-Games reporting on the impact on health and the determinants of health increased over time in the London Borough of Newham, and is overwhelmingly positive. However, specific uncertainties around the true nature of its impact on local employment and physical activity were articulated. Further evaluation of the tangible impacts on population health, and the determinants of health and health inequalities from the London 2012 Olympics, is required. PMID:23151394

  7. Stennis hosts 2010 Special Olympics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    B.J. Matherne, 27, of Gulfport, scores a soccer goal during one of the 2010 Special Olympic games at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center on March 27. Stennis serves as an annual host for the special needs event. Each year, local, regional and national Special Olympics events are hosted in more than 150 countries for persons with special needs. An international Special Olympics competition is held every two years.

  8. American Women: Early Pursuit for Olympic Laurels.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch, Paula

    Women were not considered in preliminary discussions concerning the events, designation of participants, competitive attire, and problems relating to amateurism in the first Olympic games. Golf was the first sport in which women participated in the Olympics, and the first woman to achieve Olympic recognition for the United States did so by winning…

  9. Our Olympic Heritage. Potpourri 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahl, Marilyn, Ed.

    Devoted to Greek and Roman mythic contributions to culture and developed to tie in with the 1984 Olympic Games in California, this pamphlet includes exams, discussion topics, vocabulary, and other teaching ideas on the Olympic heritage. Most of the exercises were written by Nathan Reed Mathis, former president of Southland Council of Teachers of…

  10. Premature seizure of traffic flow due to the introduction of evolutionary games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perc, Matjaz

    2007-01-01

    We study the impact of evolutionary games on the flow of traffic. Since traffic participants do not always conform to the imposed rules, the introduction of games, i.e. set of strategies defining the behavioural pattern of agents on the road, appears justified. With this motivation, and the fact that individuals can change their strategy in the course of time, the evolutionary prisoner's dilemma game is introduced between neighbouring agents, enabling them to choose between cooperation and defection. Mutual cooperation enables forwarding to both agents for one step, while the defector is able to advance two steps when facing a cooperator, whereby the latter is forced to go one step backwards. Two defectors end up in a halt until the next iteration. Irrespective of their strategy, however, agents can move only if the road ahead is free. Jumps are never allowed. We show that this simple and plausible supplementation of the discrete cellular automaton Biham Middleton Levine (BML) model induces a traffic flow seizure by a substantially lower initial density of cars as in the absence of evolutionary games. The phenomenon is explained by studying the one-dimensional variant of the BML model with different advancement steps on the circular ring. In view of the proposed explanation, findings are generalized also to other types of games, such is the snowdrift game, and some statistical properties of gridlock formation in the presence of evolutionary rules are outlined. Our findings suggest that 'bending the law' results in a premature occurrence of traffic jams and thus unnecessarily burdens the transportation system.

  11. Availability, functionality, and use of seat belts in Beijing taxis prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Fleiter, Judy J; Gao, Liping; Qiu, Chen; Shi, Kan

    2009-03-01

    Use of driver seat belts and availability and functionality of passenger seat belts in a convenience sample of 231 Beijing taxis were examined in the months prior to the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. Driver and front passenger seat belt use was mandated in China from 2004 to help address the growing public health crisis of road trauma. Results from observations made by in-vehicle passengers revealed that 21.2% of drivers were correctly wearing a belt, approximately half were not, and one third were using the belt in a non-functional way. Over 3/4 of this sample of taxi drivers were unrestrained while working. The percentage of functionally available belts was higher for front than rear passengers (88.3% and 22.9%, respectively). This low rate of belt availability in rear seats calls into question the preparedness of the fleet to cater for the safety needs of foreign visitors to China, particularly those from countries with high levels of restraint use. Factors influencing the use/misuse of seat belts in China remain largely unexplored. Results of this pilot study support further investigations of barriers to using injury prevention mechanisms such as seat belts in less motorised countries.

  12. [Sports Injuries and Illnesses of the German National Team during the 2016 Olympic Summer Games in Rio de Janeiro].

    PubMed

    Grim, Casper; Hotfiel, Thilo; Engelhardt, Martin; Plewinski, Syndey; Spahl, Olav; Wolfarth, Bernd

    2017-01-01

    Background This article aims to survey and describe the injuries and illnesses of the German Team during the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. Methods Through an electronic documentation system, injuries and illnesses requiring treatment were recorded and evaluated. An injury or illness was defined as any physical symptom that required medical attention and impaired participation in training and/or competition. The classification distinguished between type of injury (acute or overload), region and type of illness (infections, skin, allergy, etc.). Results A total of 808 treatments were performed on the German team during Rio 2016. Out of 283 musculoskeletal-related treatments, 160 were performed on the lower limb. 70 treatments addressed back problems. 164 treatments were performed due to upper respiratory tract infections. When extrapolated to 1000 athletes, 617 treatments were required due to illness while 672 treatments addressed musculoskeletal problems. The number of treatments for injuries and illness is almost identical. In addition to less severe problems, the following serious injuries occurred: lethal traumatic brain injury, acute thigh compartment syndrome, ACL tear with a medial meniscal lesion and antero-lateral instability, isolated ACL tear, stress fracture of the base of the third metatarsal bone, acute lateral ankle instability, AC joint dislocation, and infected bursa prepatellaris.

  13. Evaluation of food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic Games: the opinion of sports nutrition experts.

    PubMed

    Pelly, Fiona; Meyer, Nanna L; Pearce, Jeni; Burkhart, Sarah J; Burke, Louise M

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the food provision and nutrition support at the London 2012 Olympic (OG) and Paralympic Games (PG) from the perspective of sports nutrition experts attending the event. Participants (n = 15) were asked to complete an online survey and rate on a Likert scale menu qualities, food safety, sustainability practices, nutrition labeling, and provision for cultural needs, dietary regimes and specific situations. Open-ended responses were incorporated to explore expert opinion and areas for improvement. Participants rated their overall experience of the food provision as 7.6 out of 10 (range 5 to 10), with the majority (n = 11) rating it greater than 7. The variety, accessibility, presentation, temperature, and freshness of menu items rated as average to good. A below average rating was received for recovery food and beverages, provision of food for traveling to other venues, taking suitable snacks out of the dining hall and provision of food at other venues. However, the variety and accessibility of choices for Ramadan, and provision of post-competition food were rated highly. A number of comments were received about the lack of gluten free and lower energy/fat items. The inclusion of allergens on nutrition labeling was considered more important than nutrient content. While dietetic review of the menu in advance of the OG and PG is clearly a valuable process that has resulted in improvements in the food supply, there are still areas that need to be addressed that are currently not implemented during the event.

  14. The impact of iterated games on traffic flow at noncontrolled intersections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chao; Jia, Ning

    2015-05-01

    Intersections without signal control widely exist in urban road networks. This paper studied the traffic flow in a noncontrolled intersection within an iterated game framework. We assume drivers have learning ability and can repetitively adjust their strategies (to give way or to rush through) in the intersection according to memories. A cellular automata model is applied to investigate the characteristics of the traffic flow. Numerical experiments indicate two main findings. First, the traffic flow experiences a "volcano-shaped" fundamental diagram with three different phases. Second, most drivers choose to give way in the intersection, but the aggressive drivers cannot be completely eliminated, which is coincident with field observations. Analysis are also given out to explain the observed phenomena. These findings allow deeper insight of the real-world bottleneck traffic flow.

  15. Game theory model of traffic participants within amber time at signalized intersection.

    PubMed

    Qi, Weiwei; Wen, Huiying; Fu, Chuanyun; Song, Mo

    2014-01-01

    The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy.

  16. Game Theory Model of Traffic Participants within Amber Time at Signalized Intersection

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Weiwei; Wen, Huiying; Fu, Chuanyun; Song, Mo

    2014-01-01

    The traffic light scheme is composed of red, green, and amber lights, and it has been defined clearly for the traffic access of red and green lights; however, the definition of that for the amber light is indistinct, which leads to the appearance of uncertainty factors and serious traffic conflicts during the amber light. At present, the traffic administrations are faced with the decision of whether to forbid passing or not during the amber light in the cities of China. On one hand, it will go against the purpose of setting amber lights if forbidding passing; on the other hand, it may lead to a mess of traffic flow running if not. And meanwhile the drivers are faced with the decision of passing the intersection or stopping during the amber light as well. So the decision-making behavior of traffic administrations and drivers can be converted into a double game model. And through quantification of their earnings in different choice conditions, the optimum decision-making plan under specific conditions could be solved via the Nash equilibrium solution concept. Thus the results will provide a basis for the formulation of the traffic management strategy. PMID:25580108

  17. Creating a gold medal Olympic and Paralympics health care team: a satisfaction survey of the mobile medical unit/polyclinic team training for the Vancouver 2010 winter games

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The mobile medical unit/polyclinic (MMU/PC) was an essential part of the medical services to support ill or injured Olympic or Paralympics family during the 2010 Olympic and Paralympics winter games. The objective of this study was to survey the satisfaction of the clinical staff that completed the training programs prior to deployment to the MMU. Methods Medical personnel who participated in at least one of the four training programs, including (1) week-end sessions; (2) web-based modules; (3) just-in-time training; and (4) daily simulation exercises were invited to participate in a web-based survey and comment on their level of satisfaction with training program. Results A total of 64 (out of 94 who were invited) physicians, nurses and respiratory therapists completed the survey. All participants reported favorably that the MMU/PC training positively impacted their knowledge, skills and team functions while deployed at the MMU/PC during the 2010 Olympic Games. However, components of the training program were valued differently depending on clinical job title, years of experience, and prior experience in large scale events. Respondents with little or no experience working in large scale events (45%) rated daily simulations as the most valuable component of the training program for strengthening competencies and knowledge in clinical skills for working in large scale events. Conclusion The multi-phase MMU/PC training was found to be beneficial for preparing the medical team for the 2010 Winter Games. In particular this survey demonstrates the effectiveness of simulation training programs on teamwork competencies in ad hoc groups. PMID:24225074

  18. Matrix Game Methodology - Support to V2010 Olympic Marine Security Planners

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-01

    protection de la sécurité portuaire et de la force, et qui a été jugé particulièrement efficace pour traiter des problèmes dans des environnements ...their internal planning activities), specifically focusing on organizational boundaries and jurisdictional issues. Though they were run at the same...based on all three Matrix Games were presented at the 27th International Symposium on Military Operational Research (27 ISMOR) in September 2010. This

  19. Game Theoretic, Multi-agent Approach to Network Traffic Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-16

    algorithm for solving zero-sum II-EFG was developed by Zinkevich [62]. The counter-factual regret minimization (CFR) was used for creating a poker ...of the algorithm requires traversing whole game tree in each of the iteration and it took two weeks to compute competitive Poker strategy. A more...not likely to be positive. The main reason why CFR algorithm has been successful in solving Poker is that a player in Poker has relatively small

  20. Whole-Genome Sequencing of Measles Virus Genotypes H1 and D8 During Outbreaks of Infection Following the 2010 Olympic Winter Games Reveals Viral Transmission Routes.

    PubMed

    Gardy, Jennifer L; Naus, Monika; Amlani, Ashraf; Chung, Walter; Kim, Hochan; Tan, Malcolm; Severini, Alberto; Krajden, Mel; Puddicombe, David; Sahni, Vanita; Hayden, Althea S; Gustafson, Reka; Henry, Bonnie; Tang, Patrick

    2015-11-15

    We used whole-genome sequencing to investigate a dual-genotype outbreak of measles occurring after the XXI Olympic Winter Games in Vancouver, Canada. By sequencing 27 complete genomes from H1 and D8 genotype measles viruses isolated from outbreak cases, we estimated the virus mutation rate, determined that person-to-person transmission is typically associated with 0 mutations between isolates, and established that a single introduction of H1 virus led to the expansion of the outbreak beyond Vancouver. This is the largest measles genomics project to date, revealing novel aspects of measles virus genetics and providing new insights into transmission of this reemerging viral pathogen.

  1. Dilemma game structure observed in traffic flow at a 2-to-1 lane junction.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Atsuo; Tanimoto, Jun; Hagishima, Aya; Sagara, Hiroki

    2009-03-01

    Using a cellular automaton traffic model based on the stochastic optimal velocity model with appropriate assumptions for both incoming and outgoing vehicle boundaries, the so-called bottleneck issue on a lane-closing section was investigated in terms of game theory. In the system, two classified driver agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always driving in the first lane and D agents (defective strategy) trying to drive in a lower-density lane whether the first or the second lane. In high-density flow, D agents' interruption into the first lane from the second just before the lane-closing section creates a heavier traffic jam, which reduces social efficiency. This particular event can be described with a prisoner's dilemma game structure.

  2. Projected Zika Virus Importation and Subsequent Ongoing Transmission after Travel to the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games - Country-Specific Assessment, July 2016.

    PubMed

    Grills, Ardath; Morrison, Stephanie; Nelson, Bradley; Miniota, Jennifer; Watts, Alexander; Cetron, Martin S

    2016-07-22

    Zika virus belongs to the genus Flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae; it is transmitted to humans primarily through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito (e.g., Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus) (1). Zika virus has been identified as a cause of congenital microcephaly and other serious brain defects (2). As of June 30, 2016, CDC had issued travel notices for 49 countries and U.S. territories across much of the Western hemisphere (3), including Brazil, where the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games (Games of the XXXI Olympiad, also known as Rio 2016; Games) will be hosted in Rio de Janeiro in August and September 2016. During the Games, mosquito-borne Zika virus transmission is expected to be low because August and September are winter months in Brazil, when cooler and drier weather typically reduces mosquito populations (4). CDC conducted a risk assessment to predict those countries susceptible to ongoing Zika virus transmission resulting from introduction by a single traveler to the Games. Whereas all countries are at risk for travel-associated importation of Zika virus, CDC estimated that 19 countries currently not reporting Zika outbreaks have the environmental conditions and population susceptibility to sustain mosquito-borne transmission of Zika virus if a case were imported from infection at the Games. For 15 of these 19 countries, travel to Rio de Janeiro during the Games is not estimated to increase substantially the level of risk above that incurred by the usual aviation travel baseline for these countries. The remaining four countries, Chad, Djibouti, Eritrea, and Yemen, are unique in that they do not have a substantial number of travelers to any country with local Zika virus transmission, except for anticipated travel to the Games. These four countries will be represented by a projected, combined total of 19 athletes (plus a projected delegation of about 60 persons), a tiny fraction of the 350,000-500,000 visitors expected at the Games.* Overall

  3. Using public health scenarios to predict the utility of a national syndromic surveillance programme during the 2012 London Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Morbey, R A; Elliot, A J; Charlett, A; Ibbotson, S; Verlander, N Q; Leach, S; Hall, I; Barrass, I; Catchpole, M; McCloskey, B; Said, B; Walsh, A; Pebody, R; Smith, G E

    2014-05-01

    During 2012 real-time syndromic surveillance formed a key part of the daily public health surveillance for the London Olympic and Paralympic Games. It was vital that these systems were evaluated prior to the Games; in particular what types and scales of incidents could and could not be detected. Different public health scenarios were created covering a range of potential incidents that the Health Protection Agency would require syndromic surveillance to rapidly detect and monitor. For the scenarios considered it is now possible to determine what is likely to be detectable and how incidents are likely to present using the different syndromic systems. Small localized incidents involving food poisoning are most likely to be detected the next day via emergency department surveillance, while a new strain of influenza is more likely to be detected via GP or telephone helpline surveillance, several weeks after the first seed case is introduced.

  4. Source apportionment of size-fractionated particles during the 2013 Asian Youth Games and the 2014 Youth Olympic Games in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Pulong; Wang, Tijian; Lu, Xiaobo; Yu, Yiyong; Kasoar, Matthew; Xie, Min; Zhuang, Bingliang

    2017-02-01

    In this study, samples of size-fractionated particulate matter were collected continuously using a 9-size interval cascade impactor at an urban site in Nanjing, before, during and after the Asian Youth Games (AYG), from July to September of 2013, and the Youth Olympic Games (YOG), from July to September of 2014. First, elemental concentrations, water-soluble ions including Cl(-), NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+), K(+), Na(+) and Ca(2+), organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were analysed. Then, the source apportionment of the fine and coarse particulate matter was carried out using the chemical mass balance (CMB) model. The average PM10 concentrations were 90.4±20.0μg/m(3) during the 2013 AYG and 70.6±25.3μg/m(3) during the 2014 YOG. For PM2.1, the average concentrations were 50.0±12.8μg/m(3) in 2013 and 34.6±17.0μg/m(3) in 2014. Investigations showed that the average concentrations of particles declined significantly from 2013 to 2014, and concentrations were at the lowest levels during the events. Results indicated that OC, EC, sulfate and crustal elements have significant monthly and size-based variations. The major components, including crustal elements, water-soluble ions and carbonaceous aerosol accounted for 75.3-91.9% of the total particulate mass concentrations during the sampling periods. Fugitive dust, coal combustion dust, iron dust, construction dust, soil dust, vehicle exhaust, secondary aerosols and sea salt have been classified as the main emissions in Nanjing. The source apportionment results indicate that the emissions from fugitive dust, which was the most abundance emission source during the 2013 AYG, contributed to 23.0% of the total particle mass. However, fugitive dust decreased to 6.2% of the total particle mass during the 2014 YOG. Construction dust (14.7% versus 7.8% for the AYG and the YOG, respectively) and secondary sulfate aerosol (9.3% versus 8.0% for the AYG and the YOG, respectively) showed the same trend as fugitive dust

  5. Games for Traffic Education: An Experimental Study of a Game-Based Driving Simulator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Backlund, Per; Engstrom, Henrik; Johannesson, Mikael; Lebram, Mikael

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the authors report on the construction and evaluation of a game-based driving simulator using a real car as a joystick. The simulator is constructed from off-the-shelf hardware and the simulation runs on open-source software. The feasibility of the simulator as a learning tool has been experimentally evaluated. Results are…

  6. Relations between BMI, body mass and height, and sports competence among participants of the 2010 Winter Olympic Games: does sport metabolic demand differentiate?

    PubMed

    Stanula, Arkadiusz; Roczniok, Robert; Gabryś, Tomasz; Szmatlan-Gabryś, Urszula; Maszczyk, Adam; Pietraszewski, Przemysław

    2013-12-01

    This study characterizes the athletes participating in the 2010 Winter Olympic Games in terms of body height, body mass and BMI. The studied sample consisted of athletes in the top 20 places of each of 14 sports disciplines (1460 cases). Data on the athletes' age, height, body mass, and sports specialization were obtained from the Olympic Games' official website and from the International Ski Federation. The sampled athletes were grouped according to the predominant type of energy metabolism during competition. The anaerobic-glycolytic disciplines, such as cross-country sprint, figure skating, short track, and speed skating (500, 1000 and 1500 m), were found to have the youngest female athletes: 25.0 yr. (SD = 4.7). In the endurance sports (aerobic and aerobic-anaerobic), the female athletes were the oldest, being respectively 28.6 yr. (SD = 4.9) and 28.1 yr. (SD = 4.5) old. In the speed disciplines (anaerobic-alactic), the female athletes were the tallest (M = 172 cm; SD = 8.3). The male athletes in the anaerobic-alactic sports were the tallest (M = 181.8 cm, SD = 6.7) and those in the anaerobic-glycolytic sports were the shortest (M = 179.2 cm, SD = 6.7). The large differences in body mass among the groups of athletes, which appear to be related to the predominant type of metabolism during competition, show that this parameter is partly correlated with the level of sports competence, but only in disciplines where the athletes need larger muscle mass. The largest average values of BMI were found for males and females in the anaerobic-alactic group.

  7. Concentration and Photochemistry of PAHs, NPAHs, and OPAHs and Toxicity of PM2.5 during the Beijing Olympic Games

    PubMed Central

    WANG, WENTAO; JARIYASOPIT, NARUMOL; SCHRLAU, JILL; JIA, YULING; TAO, SHU; YU, TIAN-WEI; DASHWOOD, RODERICK H.; ZHANG, WEI; WANG, XUEJUN; SIMONICH, STACI L. MASSEY

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric particulate matter with diameter <2.5 um (PM2.5) was collected at Peking University (PKU) in Beijing, China before, during, and after the 2008 Olympics and analyzed for black carbon (BC), organic carbon (OC), lower molecular weight (MW<300) and MW302 Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs), nitrated PAHs (NPAHs) and oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs). In addition, the direct and indirect acting mutagenicity of the PM2.5 and the potential for DNA damage to human lung cells were also measured. Significant reductions in BC (45%), OC (31%), MW< 300 PAH (26% – 73%), MW 302 PAH (22% – 77%), NPAH (15% – 68%) and OPAH (25% – 53%) concentrations were measured during the source control and Olympic Olympic period. However, the mutagenicity of the PM2.5 was significantly reduced only during the Olympic period. The PAH, NPAH, and OPAH composition of the PM2.5 was similar throughout the study, suggesting similar sources during the different periods. During the source control period, the parent PAH concentrations were correlated with NO, CO, and SO2 concentrations, indicating that these PAHs were associated with both local and regional emissions. However, the NPAH and OPAH concentrations were only correlated with the NO concentrations, indicating that the NPAH and OPAH were primarily associated with local emissions. The relatively high 2-nitrofluoranthene/1-nitropyrene ratio (25 – 46) and 2-nitrofluoranthene/2-nitropyrene ratio (3.4 – 4.8), suggested a predominance of photochemical formation of NPAHs through OH-radical-initiated reactions in the atmosphere. On average, the ΣNPAH and ΣOPAH concentrations were 8% of the parent PAH concentrations, while the direct-acting mutagenicity (due to the NPAH and OPAH) was 200% higher than the indirect-acting mutagenicity (due to the PAH). This suggests that NPAH and OPAH make up a significant portion of the overall mutagenicity of PM2.5 in Beijing. PMID:21766847

  8. Analysis of a long-term measurement of air pollutants (2007-2011) in North China Plain (NCP); Impact of emission reduction during the Beijing Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ruiguang; Tang, Guiqian; Wang, Yuesi; Tie, Xuexi

    2016-09-01

    Five years measurements were used to evaluate the effect of emission controls on the changes of air pollutants in Beijing and its surroundings in the NCP during 2008 Olympic Games (2008OG). The major challenge of this study was to filter out the effect of variability of meteorological conditions, when compared the air pollutants during the game to non-game period. We used four-year (2007, 2009-2011) average as the Non-2008OG to smooth the temporal variability caused by meteorological parameters. To study the spatial variability and regional transport, 6 sites (urban, rural, a mega city, a heavy industrial city, and a remote site) were selected. The result showed that the annually meteorological variability was significantly reduced. Such as, in BJ the differences between 2008OG and 5-years averaged values were 2.7% for relative humidity and 0.6% for wind speed. As a result, the anomaly of air pollutants between 2008OG and Non-2008OG can largely attribute to the emission control. The comparison showed that the major pollutants (PM10, PM2.5, NO, NOx) at the 6 sites in 2008OG were consistently lowered. For example, PM2.5 in BJ decreased from 75 to 45 μg/m(3) (40% reduction). However, the emission controls had minor effect on O3 concentrations (1% reduction). In contrast, the O3 precursor (NOx) reduced from 19.7 to 13.2 ppb (33% reduction). The in-sensitivity between NOx and O3 suggested that the O3 formation was under VOCs control condition in NCP, showing that strong VOC emission control is needed in order to significantly reduce O3 concentration in the region.

  9. Massachusetts Special Olympics Poly Hockey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrissey, Jim

    Poly Hockey is featured in this manual of instructions for coaches and teachers to use with mentally retarded boys and girls of all ages and ability levels. It is noted that the sport has been supported by the Board of Directors of the Special Olympics and has been used in Massachusetts for over 7 years. Explained is use of the game indoors, and…

  10. The Microbial Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest; Stacy, Apollo; Whiteley, Marvin; Steel, Bradley C.; Delalez, Nicolas J.; Nord, Ashley L.; Berry, Richard M.; Armitage, Judith P.; Kamoun, Sophien; Hogenhout, Saskia; Diggle, Stephen P.; Gurney, James; Pollitt, Eric J. G.; Boetius, Antje; Cary, S. Craig

    2014-01-01

    Every four years, the Olympic Games plays host to competitors who have built on their natural talent by training for many years to become the best in their chosen discipline. Similar spirit and endeavour can be found throughout the microbial world, in which every day is a competition to survive and thrive. Microorganisms are trained through evolution to become the fittest and the best adapted to a particular environmental niche or lifestyle, and to innovate when the ‘rules of the game’ are changed by alterations to their natural habitats. In this Essay, we honour the best competitors in the microbial world by inviting them to take part in the inaugural Microbial Olympics. PMID:22796885

  11. Health and Safety Issues for Travelers Attending the World Cup and Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil, 2014 to 2016

    PubMed Central

    Gaines, Joanna; Sotir, Mark J.; Cunningham, Timothy J.; Harvey, Kira A.; Virginia Lee, C.; Stoney, Rhett J.; Gershman, Mark D.; Brunette, Gary W.; Kozarsky, Phyllis E.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Travelers from around the globe will attend the 2014 Fédération Internationale de Football Association (FIFA) World Cup and the 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games in Brazil. Travelers to these mass gathering events may be exposed to a range of health risks, including a variety of infectious diseases. Most travelers who become ill will present to their primary care physicians, and thus it is important that clinicians are aware of the risks their patients encountered. OBJECTIVE To highlight health and safety concerns for people traveling to these events in Brazil so that health care practitioners can better prepare travelers before they travel and more effectively diagnose and treat travelers after they return. EVIDENCE REVIEW We reviewed both peer-reviewed and gray literature to identify health outcomes associated with travel to Brazil and mass gatherings. Thirteen specific infectious diseases are described in terms of signs, symptoms, and treatment. Relevant safety and security concerns are also discussed. FINDINGS Travelers to Brazil for mass gathering events face unique health risks associated with their travel. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Travelers should consult a health care practitioner 4 to 6 weeks before travel to Brazil and seek up-to-date information regarding their specific itineraries. For the most up-to-date information, health care practitioners can visit the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Travelers’ Health website (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel) or review CDC’s Yellow Book online (http://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/page/yellowbook-home-2014). PMID:24887552

  12. Special Olympics Brings New Hope and Prospect to China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendel, Tim

    2008-01-01

    More than 7,000 athletes from 165 nations came to Shanghai to participate in the 2007 World Summer Games. The event marked only the second time that Special Olympics World Games have been held in East Asia and the first time for World Summer Games. Chinese President Hu Jintao pledged that the Summer Games would be a key part of his domestic…

  13. Analytical progresses of the International Olympic Committee and World Anti-Doping Agency Olympic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Costas; Saugy, Martial; Giraud, Sylvain; Robinson, Neil; Alsayrafi, Mohammed

    2012-07-01

    The Summer Olympic Games constitute the biggest concentration of human sports and activities in a particular place and time since 776 BCE, when the written history of the Olympic Games in Olympia began. Summer and Winter Olympic anti-doping laboratories, accredited by the International Olympic Committee in the past and the World Anti-Doping Agency in the present times, acquire worldwide interest to apply all new analytical advancements in the fight against doping in sports, hoping that this major human event will not become dirty by association with this negative phenomenon. This article summarizes the new analytical progresses, technologies and knowledge used by the Olympic laboratories, which for the vast majority of them are, eventually, incorporated into routine anti-doping analysis.

  14. Air Quality Measurements from Satellites during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Gleason, J.; Krotkov, N.; Gille, J.; Pickering, K.; Livesey, N.

    2009-05-01

    In preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic games in August and September 2008 in Beijing, China, the Chinese government imposed strict controls on industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic in and around the city and vicinity before and during the events to improve the air quality for the competitors and visitors. To test the efficacy of these measures, we used satellite data from NASA's Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) over Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic and Paralympic period. The satellite instruments recorded significant reductions in nitrogen dioxide of up to 50%, up to 10% in tropospheric column ozone, 20-40% in boundary layer sulfur dioxide, and 10-20% reductions in carbon monoxide concentrations below 700 hPa.

  15. Neural network system for traffic flow management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Elibiary, Khalid J.; Petersson, L. E. Rickard

    1992-09-01

    Atlanta will be the home of several special events during the next five years ranging from the 1996 Olympics to the 1994 Super Bowl. When combined with the existing special events (Braves, Falcons, and Hawks games, concerts, festivals, etc.), the need to effectively manage traffic flow from surface streets to interstate highways is apparent. This paper describes a system for traffic event response and management for intelligent navigation utilizing signals (TERMINUS) developed at Georgia Tech for adaptively managing special event traffic flows in the Atlanta, Georgia area. TERMINUS (the original name given Atlanta, Georgia based upon its role as a rail line terminating center) is an intelligent surface street signal control system designed to manage traffic flow in Metro Atlanta. The system consists of three components. The first is a traffic simulation of the downtown Atlanta area around Fulton County Stadium that models the flow of traffic when a stadium event lets out. Parameters for the surrounding area include modeling for events during various times of day (such as rush hour). The second component is a computer graphics interface with the simulation that shows the traffic flows achieved based upon intelligent control system execution. The final component is the intelligent control system that manages surface street light signals based upon feedback from control sensors that dynamically adapt the intelligent controller's decision making process. The intelligent controller is a neural network model that allows TERMINUS to control the configuration of surface street signals to optimize the flow of traffic away from special events.

  16. Assimilation and High Resolution Forecasts of Surface and Near Surface Conditions for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernier, Natacha B.; Bélair, Stéphane; Bilodeau, Bernard; Tong, Linying

    2014-01-01

    A dynamical model was experimentally implemented to provide high resolution forecasts at points of interests in the 2010 Vancouver Olympics and Paralympics Region. In a first experiment, GEM-Surf, the near surface and land surface modeling system, is driven by operational atmospheric forecasts and used to refine the surface forecasts according to local surface conditions such as elevation and vegetation type. In this simple form, temperature and snow depth forecasts are improved mainly as a result of the better representation of real elevation. In a second experiment, screen level observations and operational atmospheric forecasts are blended to drive a continuous cycle of near surface and land surface hindcasts. Hindcasts of the previous day conditions are then regarded as today's optimized initial conditions. Hence, in this experiment, given observations are available, observation driven hindcasts continuously ensure that daily forecasts are issued from improved initial conditions. GEM-Surf forecasts obtained from improved short-range hindcasts produced using these better conditions result in improved snow depth forecasts. In a third experiment, assimilation of snow depth data is applied to further optimize GEM-Surf's initial conditions, in addition to the use of blended observations and forecasts for forcing. Results show that snow depth and summer temperature forecasts are further improved by the addition of snow depth data assimilation.

  17. [Pollution Level and Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals in Atmospheric PM₂.₅ in Nanjing Before and After the Youth Olympic Games].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Heng; Zhou, Zi-qiang; Zhao, Hai-yan; Xiong, Zheng-qin

    2016-01-15

    The influence of human activities on the atmospheric environment has attracted people's attention. This study reported the dynamic changes in PM₂.₅ concentration, its heavy metal compositions and health risk assessment from April to September, 2014 in Nanjing when the Youth Olympic Games ( YOG) was held. The results showed that the mass levels of PM₂.₅ ranged from 26.39 to 80.31 µg · m⁻³ from April to September. The mass levels of PM₂.₅ met the level II standard of ambient air quality in China (24 h average concentration, 75 µg · m⁻³) in months of April, May and July while met the level I standard (24 h average concentration, 35 µg · m⁻³) in August during the YOG. The average mass concentration of PM₂.₅ reached 76.14 µg · m⁻¹ after the YOG, showing resilience of air pollution. The variations of heavy metals were not consistent with each other throughout the observation period. Principal component analysis indicated that emission sources significantly affected the variations of PM₂.₅ and its heavy metals. PM₂.₅ and all of the heavy metals decreased to their minimum values during the YOG, indicating the effectiveness of those temporary measures for reducing atmospheric pollutant before and during the YOG. The health risks of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in PM₂.₅ via breathing and dermal contact exposure were all within the acceptable ranges, but potential carcinogenic risk existed for Cr in PM₂.₅. There was potential non-carcinogenic health risk for adult males via breathing of Mn and greater non-carcinogenic health risk for children via dermal contact exposures to all these 6 heavy metals.

  18. Sulfur isotopic fractionation and source appointment of PM2.5 in Nanjing region around the second session of the Youth Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Zhaobing; Shi, Lei; Chen, Shanli; Jiang, Wenjuan; Wei, Ying; Rui, Maoling; Zeng, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34S) of PM2.5 in Nanjing region were determined in order to evaluate sulfur sources of PM2.5 around the second session of the Youth Olympic Games (YOG). Meanwhile, δ34S values from different potential sources of PM2.5, such as coal combustion, vehicle exhaust, and straw burning, were synchronously measured for the first time. The results showed that PM2.5 concentrations and δ34S values were much lower during the YOG (2 August to 11 September 2014) compared to those before (6 July to 1 August 2014) and after (15 September to 20 September 2014) the YOG. δ34S values of PM2.5 were generally located in a small range of 3.5‰ to 4.6‰, suggesting a stable sulfur sources in Nanjing region around the YOG. Combining with δ34S values of potential sources and SO2, ion concentrations of PM2.5 and MODIS fire spot photos, we inferred that sulfur in PM2.5 was mainly from direct emission of coal combustion and vehicle exhaust as well as the secondary sulfate from SO2 oxidation in the atmosphere. Besides, biologic sulfur release might make a contribution to sulfur content in PM2.5. High [NO3-]/[SO42 -] ratio of PM2.5 indicated that vehicle exhaust emission was predominant over coal combustion during the YOG. In addition, we studied sulfur isotopic fractionation coefficients during SO2 oxidation to sulfate in PM2.5 and found the contribution ratio (51.3%) of SO2 homogeneous oxidation was slightly higher than that (48.7%) of SO2 heterogeneous oxidation around the YOG.

  19. Disrupting the Rhetoric of the Rings: A Critique of Olympic Idealism in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohe, Geoffery Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Beijing olympics prompted educationalists to develop new curriculum resources. These resources focus on the socio-cultural elements of the games, olympism and olympic values, the moral and ethical aspects of sport and select geographical, historical and social dimensions of traditional and contemporary Chinese culture. Typically produced as…

  20. Job Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerweck, Debra R.; Chauza, Phyllis J.

    This document consists of materials on Hiawatha (Kansas) High School's 1993 Job Olympics, a competition for high school students with disabilities. The materials are those included in a packet for student participants. A cover/information sheet details eligibility, entry deadline, date and place of competition, opening ceremonies, events, and a…

  1. Residence Halls for the Olympics--and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Allen

    1996-01-01

    The Georgia Institute of Technology received some funding from the Olympic 1996 Summer Games to add 2,800 new beds and renovate 4,600 existing beds to meet the needs of Olympic athletes and future students. The housing department used market research to find out what facilities students preferred. (MLF)

  2. Go for the Gold by Utilizing the Olympics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Adam

    2012-01-01

    This article suggests ways to incorporate legal issues related to the Olympic Games into a business law or legal environment course. As demonstrated in previous issues of this journal and elsewhere, material related to sports law can serve as an engaging supplement to traditional legal subjects. Topics that can be related to the Olympics include…

  3. The Olympic Spirit: A Worldwide Connection, Volume III, 1994-95 Curriculum Guide. Olympic Day in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games, GA.

    This curriculum guide focuses on cultural awareness for students in grades K-8 through studying participants in the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta. The program explores the cultures of 20 countries through the eyes of an Olympic athlete. Volume 3 consists of two parts. Part 1 has five chapters with learning activities; those chapters include: (1)…

  4. The Olympic Spirit: A Worldwide Connection, Volume II, 1993-94 Curriculum Guide. Olympic Day in the Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlanta Committee for the Olympic Games, GA.

    This curriculum guide focuses on cultural awareness for students in grades K-8 through studying participants in the 1996 Olympic Games in Atlanta (Georgia). The program explores the cultures of 20 countries through the eyes of an Olympic athlete. Volume 2 consists of two parts. Part 1 has five chapters with learning activities; those chapters…

  5. Ensuring and promoting food safety during the 2008 Beijing Olympics.

    PubMed

    Moy, Gerald G; Han, Fanfan; Chen, Junshi

    2010-08-01

    In preparation for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games, Chinese authorities undertook a range of measures to strengthen food safety along the entire food supply continuum from production to consumption to protect the large number of athletes and spectators anticipated. In addition, food safety promotion campaigns targeting Olympic visitors as well as Beijing residents were carried out. Based on an assessment of various indicators, these efforts were successful in reducing the risk of foodborne disease during the Beijing Olympics and promoting safer food for Beijing residents. The food safety experiences of the 2008 Beijing Olympics might be usefully applied to major sporting events and mass gatherings in the future.

  6. Seasonal dynamics of coarse atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 μm and 80 μm in Beijing and the impact of 2008 Olympic Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norra, Stefan; Yu, Yang; Dietze, Volker; Schleicher, Nina; Fricker, Mathieu; Kaminski, Uwe; Chen, Yuan; Stüben, Doris; Cen, Kuang

    2016-01-01

    Beijing is well known as a megacity facing severe atmospheric pollution problems. One very important kind of pollution is the high amount of particles in Beijing's atmosphere. Numerous studies investigated the dynamics of fine particles smaller 10 μm. Less information is available on the coarse particle fraction larger 10 μm, although geogenic dusts, which often are composed by those coarser particles, frequently affect the air quality in Beijing. Therefore, systematic sampling and analysis of size fractionated particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm was performed in Beijing from April 2005 till October 2009. Atmospheric particles were collected in the North-West of Beijing using a cost-effective passive sampling method called Sigma-2. Altogether, 200 weeks could be analysed and assessed. Concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric coarse particles were determined by automated microscopic single particle analysis. Seasonal variability of the total mass of different size fractions was identified as follows: spring > winter > autumn > summer. High concentrations of transparent mineral particles indicate the activity of geogenic sources in spring and winter time, due to asian dust events and resuspension of soil from local bare land during dry and windy periods. The percentage of opaque particle components differs seasonally with relatively high values in winter, confirming combustion of fossil fuels for heating purposes as a predominant pollution source in this season. The influence of meteorological conditions on concentrations and size distribution of atmospheric particulate matter between 2.5 and 80 μm is demonstrated for the whole sampling period. Lowest pollution by coarse aerosols occurred during the period of the 2008 Olympic Summer Games. A general trend of decreasing total coarse particle mass concentrations was observed. Due to frequently observed high total coarse particle mass concentrations of several 100 μg·m-³ it is strongly recommended

  7. Satellite observations of changes in air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Douglass, A. R.; Gleason, J. F.; Krotkov, N. A.; Gille, J. C.; Pickering, K. E.; Livesey, N.

    2009-09-01

    For the August-September 2008 Olympic and the Paralympic Games held in Beijing, China, strict controls on pollutant emissions and motor vehicle traffic were imposed on Beijing and neighboring provinces to the South to improve the air quality in and around the city. Satellite measurements over Beijing between July and September showed 43% reductions of tropospheric column nitrogen dioxide, compared to the past three years. When neighboring provinces to the south are included in our analyses, satellite measurements show boundary layer sulfur dioxide reductions of 13% and carbon monoxide reductions of 12% at 700 hPa. Thus, based on satellites observations alone, noticeable reductions in these pollutant tracers were measured during both games.

  8. Exploring an Olympic "Legacy": Sport Participation in Canada before and after the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics.

    PubMed

    Perks, Thomas

    2015-11-01

    Guided by the notion of a trickle-down effect, the present study examines whether sport participation in Canada increased following the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. Comparing rates of sport participation prior to and following the Games using nationally representative data, the results suggest that the Olympics had almost no impact on sport participation in Canada, although there does appear to be a modest "bounce" in sport participation in the Vancouver area immediately following the Vancouver Games. As such, if the trickle-down effect did occur, the analysis suggests that the effect was locally situated, short-lived, and small.

  9. Analytical progresses of the World Anti-Doping Agency Olympic laboratories: a 2016 update from London to Rio.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadou, Ioanna; Voss, Sven; Lyris, Emmanouil; Aljaber, Amina; Alsayrafi, Mohammed; Georgakopoulos, Costas

    2016-11-01

    The 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, the biggest event in human sports, was held in Rio de Janeiro with more than 10,500 athletes from 206 countries over the world competing for the highest of sports honors, an Olympic medal. With the hope that the Olympic ideal accompanies all aspects of the XXXI Olympiad, WADA accredited antidoping laboratories use the spearhead of analytical technology as a powerful tool in the fight against doping. This review summarizes the main analytical developments applied in antidoping testing methodology combined with the main amendments on the WADA regulations regarding analytical testing starting from the 2012 London Olympics until the 2016 Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro.

  10. 2016 Summer Olympic Games Site

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-12-30

    ... Maryland. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science Data Center, Hampton, Virginia. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.   Image Credit: ...

  11. Support of Helicopter 'Free Flight' Operations in the 1996 Olympics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branstetter, James R.; Cooper, Eric G.

    1996-01-01

    The microcosm of activity surrounding the 1996 Olympic Games provided researchers an opportunity for demonstrating state-of-the art technology in the first large-scale deployment of a prototype digital communication/navigation/surveillance system in a confined environment. At the same time it provided an ideal opportunity for transportation officials to showcase the merits of an integrated transportation system in meeting the operational needs to transport time sensitive goods and provide public safety services under real-world conditions. Five aeronautical CNS functions using a digital datalink system were chosen for operational flight testing onboard 91 aircraft, most of them helicopters, participating in the Atlanta Short-Haul Transportation System. These included: GPS-based Automatic Dependent Surveillance, Cockpit Display of Traffic Information, Controller-Pilot Communications, Graphical Weather Information (uplink), and Automated Electronic Pilot Reporting (downlink). Atlanta provided the first opportunity to demonstrate, in an actual operating environment, key datalink functions which would enhance flight safety and situational awareness for the pilot and supplement conventional air traffic control. The knowledge gained from such a large-scale deployment will help system designers in development of a national infrastructure where aircraft would have the ability to navigate autonomously.

  12. Astronaut Andy Thomas holds facsimile Olympic torch like one to fly on STS-101

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Astronaut Andy Thomas holds a facsimile of the Olympic torch that is being carried on Space Shuttle Atlantis during mission STS- 101. Thomas is from Australia, which is the site of the 2000 Olympics. He coordinated the effort to have the torch added to the manifest so that it would truly circle the Earth in the spirit of the worldwide sporting event. The Sydney Olympic Torch Relay will arrive in Australia on June 8. The games begin Sept. 1.

  13. A Cognitive Game Theoretic Analysis of Conflict Alerts in Air Traffic Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erev, Ido; Gopher, Daniel; Remington, Roger

    1999-01-01

    The current research was motivated by the recommendation made by a joint Government/Industry committee to introduce a new traffic control system, referred to as the Free Flight. This system is designed to use recent new technology to facilitate efficient and safe air transportation. We addressed one of the major difficulties that arise in the design of this and similar multi-agent systems: the adaptive (and slippery) nature of human agents. To facilitate a safe and efficient design of this multi-agent system, designers have to rely on assessments of the expected behavior of the different agents under various scenarios. Whereas the behavior of the computerized agents is predictable, the behavior of the human agents (including air traffic controllers and pilots) is not. Experimental and empirical observations suggest that human agents are likely to adjust their behavior to the design of the system. To see the difficulty that the adaptive nature of human agents creates assume that a good approximation of the way operators currently behave is available. Given this information an optimal design can be performed. The problem arises as the human operator will learn to adjust their behavior to the new system. Following this adjustment process the assumptions made by the designer concerning the operators behavior will no longer be accurate and the system might reach a suboptimal state. In extreme situations these potential suboptimal states might involve unnecessary risk. That is, the fact that operators learn in an adaptive fashion does not imply that the system will become safer as they gain experience. At least in the context of Safety dilemmas, experience can lead to a pareto deficient risk taking behavior.

  14. Beyond the "High-Tech" Suits: Predicting 2012 Olympic Swim Performances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brammer, Chris L.; Stager, Joel M.; Tanner, Dave A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the authors in this study was to predict the mean swim time of the top eight swimmers in swim events at the 2012 Olympic Games based upon prior Olympic performances from 1972 through 2008. Using the mean top eight time across all years, a best fit power curve [time = a x year[superscript b

  15. Evaluation of Community-Based Health Promotion Programs for Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marks, Beth; Sisirak, Jasmina; Heller, Tamar; Wagner, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Health screenings conducted during Special Olympics competitions and games have consistently shown that a significant number of athletes with intellectual disabilities (IDs) were overweight or obese, and surveys have indicated that athletes need more fitness training than they receive from their sport practices. In 2002, Special Olympics initiated…

  16. Has the London 2012 Olympic Inspire Programme Inspired a Generation? A Realist View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girginov, Vassil

    2016-01-01

    The organisers of the 2012 London Olympics have endeavoured explicitly to use the Games to inspire a generation. This is nothing short of putting the main claim of Olympism to the test, but surprisingly the Inspire project has received virtually no scholarly scrutiny. Using an educationally-informed view of inspiration, this paper interrogates the…

  17. Physics Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan M.

    Academics, not athletics, were the game in the 1988 International Physics Olympiad held in Bad Ischl, Austria, June 23 to July 1. AGU was one of about 20 principal sponsoring organizations that helped send 135 students from 27 countries to compete; the American Institute of Physics was another. The U.S. team brought home three of the 22 silver medals for 12th, 17th, 26th, 79th, and 90th places.The 20 members ot the U.S. Physics Olympiad Team attended a week-long training camp at the University of Maryland, College Park. University professors, high school teachers, and physicists from private industry coached the students through intensive problem solving, laboratory investigation, and testing. Students heard guest lecturers and constantly supplied one another with problem challenges for practice.

  18. Physiological Changes in Elite Male Distance Runners Training for Olympic Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, D. E.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Nine elite male distance runners were evaluated by comprehensive periodic monitoring of selected blood chemistry variables, percent body fat and lean body mass, and cardiopulmonary performance as they prepared for the 1984 Olympic Summer Games. Results are discussed. (MT)

  19. Analyses of the dynamics of changes between individual men's events in front crawl during the XIX Olympic Games in Beijing 2008.

    PubMed

    Kucia-Czyszczoń, Katarzyna; Dybińska, Ewa; Bieniek, Paweł; Ambroży, Tadeusz

    2014-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to analyze tactical solutions used by swimmers, the finalists of the 19th Beijing Olympics in 2008, in individual front crawl events at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m. Observations were carried out on 7 swimmers, the Beijing Olympics medalists competing in front crawl individual events. Detailed analyses were run on: 1) Sports results obtained by the finalists at distances of 50, 100 and 200 m front crawl; 2) block time; 3) results of each 50 m lap time (100 and 200) called split times except 50 m front crawl (there is no split time in 50 m); and 4) the mean swimming speed (V) on individual laps of the analyzed races. To determine the correlation between the response time, the time of individual laps, and the final time of the analyzed front crawl races, Pearson's linear correlation coefficient r was obtained. As a result of detailed analyses of the test material it is believed that not only tactics for an individual race is important, but equally significant is to elaborate the strategy for the whole event and to prepare the swimmer to compete in the system of heats, semifinals and finals. However, some of the following tactical objectives can be formulated: sprinters (a distance of 50 and 100 m front crawl) should start at maximum speed, according to their abilities, and try to maintain that speed until the end of the race; middle-distance swimmers (200 m front crawl) should adopt the most optimal tactical solutions characterized by increasing speed in the second half of the distance.

  20. Management of environmental health issues for the 2004 Athens Olympic Games: is enhanced integrated environmental health surveillance needed in every day routine operation?

    PubMed Central

    Hadjichristodoulou, Christos; Mouchtouri, Varvara; Vaitsi, Vasiliki; Kapoula, Christina; Vousoureli, Anastasia; Kalivitis, Isidiros; Chervoni, Julia; Papastergiou, Panagiotis; Vasilogiannakopoulos, Antonios; Daniilidis, Vasilis D; Kremastinou, Jenny

    2006-01-01

    Background Management of environmental health issues is an integral part of public health systems. An active integrated environmental health surveillance and response system was developed for the Athens Olympics to monitor and prevent exposure to environmental hazards. The potential for permanent implementation of the program was examined. Methods The environmental health surveillance and response system included standardization, computerization and electronic transmission of data concerning environmental inspections of 17 site categories (restaurants, swimming pools etc) of public health interest, drinking and recreational water examinations and suggested corrective actions. The Olympic Planning Unit integrated and centrally managed data from 13 public health agencies, recommended, supervised and coordinated prompt corrective actions. Methods used to test the effectiveness of the program were the assessment of water quality test and inspection results trends over time using linear regression and epidemiological surveillance findings. Results Between January 2003 and September the 30th, 2004, 196 inspectors conducted 8562 inspections, collected 5024 water samples and recommended 17 027 corrective actions. In 10 cruise ships used as floating hotels inspectors conducted 10 full inspections, 2 re-inspections, and 27 follow-up inspections. Unsatisfactory inspection results (r = 0.44, p < 0.0001) and positive water quality tests (r = 0.39, p < 0.001) presented an overall decrease trend over time. In August, 2003, an outbreak of salmonellosis was linked to a hotel restaurant which accommodated athletes during a test event. Conclusion Lessons learned for future events include timely implementation and installation of communication processes, and rapid and coordinated response to unsatisfactory inspection results. Routine national programs need to adopt enhanced environmental health surveillance aimed at public health decision-making, but with a different perspective. PMID

  1. Eclipses and the Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, K. D.; Yau, K. K.

    2000-12-01

    Like returns of Halley's comet the Olympic games occur periodically, though not as regularly in antiquity. Dates were also imprecise due to the chaotic calendars in use. Reported sightings of comets and eclipses can be used with game dates to help fix ancient events. However some reported darkening of the sun, e.g., after Julius Caesar's murder in 44 BC, was due to volcanic eruptions. A red comet, visible in daylight, first appeared during the games that year. It was also seen from China and Korea (Pang, Sciences 31, 30). Phlegon's ``Olympiads" (2nd century) says that Christ's crucifixion was in the 4th year of the 202nd Olympiad (AD 29-33), when a total solar eclipse occurred in the 6th hour. Only the Nov. 24, AD 29 eclipse over Asia Minor can match that, and Joel's prophecy (Acts 2, 14-21) that ``the sun will be turned to darkness and moon to blood." However it conflicts with ``the first day of Passover," as recorded by Mathew, Mark and Luke, i.e., full moon in early spring. Humphreys and Waddington (Nature 306, 743) have suggested meteorological darkening and the April 3, AD 33 lunar eclipse instead. Schaefer has questioned the eclipse's visibility from Jerusalem (31.46N, 35.14E). The six computations he cited gave dissimilar answers due to the imprecise rates of the secular lunar acceleration, and lengthening of the day used (Q.Jl.R.astr.Soc. 31, 53). Lunar laser ranging has since fixed the former at -26"/cen2. Analysis of ancient Chinese solar eclipse records, e.g., the April 21, 899 BC and April 4, AD 368 ``double dawns" over Zheng, has given us a delta T (in sec) = 30t2, where t is centuries before 1800 (Pang, Yau and Chou, in ``Dynamics of Ice Age Earth: A Modern Perspective," 1998). Our computations show that the moon rose over Jerusalem, with 1/3 still in the umbra and the rest in penumbra. Holdover meteorological darkening with long absorption air mass could have help reddened the moon also. Finally the first ``eclipse season" (the Aug. 21 lunar, and

  2. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population’s perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind ‘Health Legacies’ that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region’s population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games. PMID:26064832

  3. Olympic Health Legacy; Essentials for Lasting Development of Host City.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Hee; Kim, Jung Moon

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of the Olympic Games should be to contribute to the social development by leaving behind economic, cultural and environmental legacies to the hosting region. While tangible examples such as venues are often recognized as representative legacies of the Olympics, intangible aspects such as the environment, culture, policy and human resources have been gaining in importance. The Olympic Games, at its most fundamental level, is a sporting event. Sports not only is closely related to the physical health, but is also instrumental to fostering mental health through inspiration. One of the most important sports legacies was the general change in the population's perception on sports and physical activities; due to such change, people were able to enjoy sports as part of healthy and active everyday life and benefit physically. However, compared to tangible legacies such as the facilities, social legacies such as the general health and their planning, execution and achievements are hard to monitor. Therefore, for the Olympics to leave behind socio-cultural legacies that contribute to the development of the hosting region, there must be a thorough business plan that takes into account region-specific purpose, and is divided into stages such as before, during and after the Games. Should the 2018 Winter Olympic Games hope to create continuing contribution to its hosting region, it must leave behind 'Health Legacies' that will enhance the happiness of the hosting region's population. To this end, establishment of region-specific purpose and systematic promotion of business via detailed analysis of precedents are a must. This article aim to review the health legacy endeavors of past host cities and suggest the appropriate forms of health legacy of 2018 Pyeongchang Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games.

  4. A profile of the Youth Olympic Taekwondo Athlete.

    PubMed

    Kazemi, Mohsen; De Ciantis, Marco G; Rahman, Alima

    2013-12-01

    Our study aims to identify trends in anthropomorphic attributes and competitive strategies of successful (medalists) versus non medalist young Olympic Taekwondo competitors by gender in terms of body mass, body-mass index (BMI) and fighting technique at the Youth Olympic Games 2010. Results were then compared to adult Taekwondo Olympic athletes in 2000, 2004 and 2008. Data on 96 Taekwondo athletes were obtained from the official Youth Olympic website. A LOGIT analysis was performed on the following six independent variables: height, body mass, body mass index, gender, techniques used to score, and warnings obtained during a match. The study did find some differences between winners and non-winners for males and female, although none of the differences were statistically significant. Consequently, training personnel may enhance winning potential of Taekwondo competitors by focusing on offensive versus defensive techniques and improving the quality of punching.

  5. Rapid Spread of Zika Virus in The Americas--Implications for Public Health Preparedness for Mass Gatherings at the 2016 Brazil Olympic Games.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Eskild; Wilson, Mary E; Touch, Sok; McCloskey, Brian; Mwaba, Peter; Bates, Matthew; Dar, Osman; Mattes, Frank; Kidd, Mike; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Azhar, Esam I; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2016-03-01

    Mass gatherings at major international sporting events put millions of international travelers and local host-country residents at risk of acquiring infectious diseases, including locally endemic infectious diseases. The mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently aroused global attention due to its rapid spread since its first detection in May 2015 in Brazil to 22 other countries and other territories in the Americas. The ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, has also been associated with a significant rise in the number of babies born with microcephaly and neurological disorders, and has been declared a 'Global Emergency by the World Health Organization. This explosive spread of ZIKV in Brazil poses challenges for public health preparedness and surveillance for the Olympics and Paralympics which are due to be held in Rio De Janeiro in August, 2016. We review the epidemiology and clinical features of the current ZIKV outbreak in Brazil, highlight knowledge gaps, and review the public health implications of the current ZIKV outbreak in the Americas. We highlight the urgent need for a coordinated collaborative response for prevention and spread of infectious diseases with epidemic potential at mass gatherings events.

  6. Debunking Olympic Sized Myths: Government Investment in Olympism in the Context of Terror and the Risk Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pringle, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The significant cost of hosting the London 2012 Olympics is justified, in part, by claims that the games will inspire greater social cohesion, promote peace and encourage the public adoption of active healthy lifestyles. This critical review paper examines these justifications and finds them wanting. The first section provides a socio-historic…

  7. The Beijing Olympics: Political Impact and Implications for Soft Power Politics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    success. Japan , South Korea, and the Soviet Union all used the Games as a way to celebrate their achievements. Each of these country’s Games, however...the Games under a Japanese name since Korea was still occupied by Japan .3 The most dramatic moments of the Seoul Games, however, happened before the...Republic of China, West Germany, and Japan .5 The success of the 3 International Olympic Committee

  8. Rhetoric and Realities of London 2012 Olympic Education and Participation "Legacies": Voices from the Core and Periphery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kohe, Geoffery Z.; Bowen-Jones, Will

    2016-01-01

    A legacy emphasis was one of the fundamental pillars of the London 2012 Olympic Games. The notion of an Olympic legacy was predicated on assumptions that the event's value would not purely derive from the sporting spectacle, but rather from the "success" of enduring effects met out in London and across the country. For physical education…

  9. Olympic Education and Olympism: Still Colonizing Children's Minds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lenskyj, Helen Jefferson

    2012-01-01

    The terms "Olympic education" and "Olympism" encompass a variety of educational initiatives aimed at children and youth in school and community settings, in addition to courses taught under the heading of Olympic Studies in college and university institutions. In this article, a critical analysis of these initiatives is…

  10. Evaluating the Implementation of an Olympic Education Program in Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grammatikopoulos, Vasilios; Tsigilis, Nikolaos; Koustelios, Athanasios; Theodorakis, Yannis

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an instrument for evaluating how an education program has been implemented. Such evaluation can provide insight into the effectiveness of a program. Examined here was the Olympic Education Program used in Greek schools since 2000. In it, students learn the history of the Olympic games and the importance of exercise for health along with the principles and values of sports and volunteerism. The evaluation instrument underlying this study addressed the following six factors: `facilities', `administration', `educational material', `student-teacher relationships', `educational procedures', and `training'. Results indicate that the instrument, while adequate for assessing effectiveness, should be combined with advanced statistical methods.

  11. A Profile Of Olympic Taekwondo Competitors

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Mohsen; Waalen, Judith; Morgan, Christopher; White, Anthony R.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the profile of the Olympic champions and the other competitors who were involved in the Games. The information on each of the athletes was obtained from the “Official Site of the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games, www.olympics.com/eng/sports/TK ”and included weight category, weight, height, age, points obtained, warnings, deduction point, defensive/offensive kicks and punches. One hundred and two athletes competed (54 males and 48 females) in the Games. The mean average age and BMI (Body Mass Index) of 16 male winners was 24.4 ± 3.3 years and 21.9 ± 2.4 respectively compared to 25.2 ± 4.3 years and 22.8 ± 3.3 for the 38 male non-winners. The mean average age and BMI of the 16 female winners was 23.1 ± 3.9 years and 20.8 ± 2.3 respectively compared to 24.9 ± 4.7 years and 21.3 ± 2.7 for the 32 female non-winners. For all four types of athletes, offensive kicks accounted for at least 52% of the techniques to score a point. Ninety-eight percent of all techniques used to score were kicks. Although not statistically significant, winners overall tended to be younger in age and taller with slightly lower BMI than their weight category average. Taking into account the literature cited in this article, future studies should be designed to examine the relationship between performance and functional variables such as muscle power, muscle endurance, reaction time and aerobic capacity. Key Points Winners tended to be younger in age and taller with slightly lower BMI than their weight category average. An offensive technique was used to score slightly more often than a defensive one. Overall, 98% of all techniques used to score were kicks. PMID:24357983

  12. The Unique OMI HCHO/NO2 Feature During the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics: Implications for Ozone Production Sensitivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witte, J. C.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Retscher, C.

    2010-01-01

    In preparation of the Beijing Summer Olympic and Paralympics Games, strict controls were imposed between July and September 2008 on motor vehicle traffic and industrial emissions to improve air quality for the competitors. We assessed chemical sensitivity of ozone production to these controls using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2), where their ratio serves as a proxy for the sensitivity. During the emission controls, HCHO/NO2 increased and indicated a NOx-limited regime, in contrast to the same period in the preceding three years when the ratio indicates volatile organic carbon (VOC)-limited and mixed NOx-VOC-limited regimes. After the emission controls were lifted, observed NO2 and HCHO/NO2 returned to their previous values. The 2005-2008 OMI record shows that this transition in regimes was unique as ozone production in Beijing was rarely NOx-limited. OMI measured summertime increases in HCHO of around 13% in 2008 compared to prior years, the same time period during which MODIS vegetation indices increased. The OMI HCHO increase may be due to higher biogenic emissions of HCHO precursors, associated with Beijing's greening initiative for the Olympics. However, NO2 and HCHO were also found to be well-correlated during the summer months. This indicates an anthropogenic VOC contribution from vehicle emissions to OMI HCHO and is a plausible explanation for the relative HCHO minimum observed in August 2008, concurrent with a minimum in traffic emissions. We calculated positive trends in 2005-2008 OMI HCHO and NO2 of about +1 x 10(exp 14) Molec/ square M-2 and +3 x 10(exp 13) molec CM-2 per month, respectively. The positive trend in NO2 may be an indicator of increasing vehicular traffic since 2005, while the positive trend in HCHO may be due to a combined increase in anthropogenic and biogenic emissions since 2005.

  13. The unique OMI HCHO/NO 2 feature during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: Implications for ozone production sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Duncan, B. N.; Douglass, A. R.; Kurosu, T. P.; Chance, K.; Retscher, C.

    2011-06-01

    In preparation of the Beijing Summer Olympic and Paralympics Games, strict emission control measures (ECMs) were imposed between July and September 2008 on motor vehicle traffic and industrial emissions to improve air quality. We estimated changes in the chemical sensitivity of ozone production to these ECMs using Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) column measurements of formaldehyde (HCHO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), where their ratio serves as a proxy for the sensitivity. During the ECMs, OMI NO 2 significantly decreased, subsequently increasing the HCHO/NO 2. For the first half of the ECM time period, the ratios maintained values greater than two indicating that ozone production became primarily NO x-limited. In contrast, ozone production was predominantly volatile organic compound (VOC)-limited or mixed VOC-NO x-limited during the same period in the preceding three years. After the ECMs were lifted, NO 2 and HCHO/NO 2 returned to their previous values. The 2005-2008 OMI record shows that this transition to a predominantly NO x-limited regime during the ECMs was unique. Meteorological factors likely explain the variability in HCHO/NO 2, particularly the transition to a mixed NO x-VOC-limitation in mid-August during the Olympics, where ozone production became sensitive to both NO x and VOCs until the end of the ECMs. The mixed VOC-NO x-limited regime observed during the Paralympics is also unique because previous years show that Beijing in September is predominantly VOC-limited. Beijing's large-scale tree-planting program was expected to increase levels of biogenic VOCs, but this is not supported by OMI HCHO data. However, MODIS vegetation indices show a small increase in vegetation cover from 2003 leading up to the Games in 2008. After the Games, however, there was a downturn in the indices (2009 and 2010) to levels similar to 2006.

  14. Olympic preparation in Brazilian judo athletes: description and perceived relevance of training practices.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Emerson; Takito, Monica Y

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the training routines used by judo athletes and their perception concerning the relevance, effort made, concentration needed, and pleasure obtained during the training sessions conducted 6 months before their Olympic participation and to compare with medal winners and other competitors in these aspects. Sixty-one Olympic Brazilian judo athletes (men = 39; women = 22), representing 66.3% of all Brazilian participants in this Olympic sport (from 1964 to 2008), including 10 medal winners (9 men and 1 woman) answered a questionnaire concerning their training routines. Mann-Whitney and Student's t-test for independent samples were used. Judo medalists and nonmedalists in the Olympic Games did not differ in: (a) the age when they started to practice and to compete in judo, (b) the age when they competed in the Olympic Games, (c) hours of training per week and per training session and the number of training sessions per day in their preparation for this event, (d) frequency and time spent for performing judo-specific and general exercises and their perceived relevance, effort, pleasure, and concentration for these activities performed during the preparation for the Olympic Games. The only differences found were the groundwork (ne-waza) randori practice, which was less frequently performed by medal winners, and perceived relevance attributed to this activity, which was considered less relevant by the medal winners compared with nonmedal winners. Thus, judo Olympic medal winners and nonmedalists did not differ in many training aspects in the final phase of their preparation to the Olympic Games.

  15. Increase in the age of Olympic swimmers in modern times.

    PubMed

    Mazzilli, Facundo

    2016-11-25

    Mazzilli, F. Increase in the age of Olympic swimmers in modern times. Anecdotal data suggest an increase in the age of Olympic swimmers, but scientific studies in this regard are scarce, despite the importance for coaches of the confirmation of this increase in different styles. To ascertain the reality of this increase, the present study focused on the analysis of the data contained in the reports of the Internal Olympic Games Association, covering different events and styles throughout the history of the Games. Starting with the 1908 Games, a total of 806 swimmers (436 men and 370 women) were included in the study. Of them 137 men and 135 women had won two or more medals. Plots of the age of the swimmer at the time a gold, silver or bronze medal was granted versus year of competition elicited statistical significant increases in 3 events in men and 9 events in women. Interestingly, significant increases were regularly observed in the styles introduced in the sixties and a kind of V-shaped distribution was observed in some of the long established competitions, namely in the 100, 400 and 1500 m freestyle in men, where the point of inflexion seems to occur around 1960. Overall there is a continuing increase in the age of swimmers of ages over 24 years old mirrored by a decrease of those below 20 years and this is accompanied by the increased presence of swimmers that have won medals in 2 or 3 different Games.

  16. Haselwood Library, Olympic College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Design Cost Data, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Showcases the open-book design of a 36,000-square-foot library and media center for Olympic College in Bremerton, Washington. Discusses the architectural design requirments and need to phase construction, as well as costs and project history. Includes floor plan, general description, photos, and a list of manufacturers and suppliers used for the…

  17. Isaac Newton Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Carol

    2001-01-01

    Presents the Isaac Newton Olympics in which students complete a hands-on activity at seven stations and evaluate what they have learned in the activity and how it is related to real life. Includes both student and teacher instructions for three of the activities. (YDS)

  18. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W. M.; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J.

    2016-01-01

    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the “Olympic legacy” following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields. PMID:28032040

  19. The Olympic legacy: Journal metrics in sports medicine and dentistry.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Joel; Walker, Tom W M; Miller, Stuart; Cobb, Alistair; Thomas, Steven J

    2016-01-01

    Systematic analysis of integral aspects within sport enables improvement in performance. One key aspect is the management and prevention of injuries. Bibliometrics is a systematic method for evaluating research output. It may be expected that the quantity and quality of sports injury research over time may strongly correlate with the timing of the Olympic games. This study was conducted to determine the effect of the Olympic legacy on academic sports medicine and evidence to prevent injuries of the face and teeth. A literature search within the PubMed database was undertaken to identify the quantity of literature published annually between 1996 and 2015 in the fields of sports injuries and injury prevention. The top 5 journals publishing in each field were then identified and the change in their impact factor (IF) was investigated. It was seen that, since 1996, there has been an overall increase in the quantity of literature published regarding sports injuries and prevention of sports injuries of 209% and 217%, respectively. Publications regarding facial injuries and dental injuries within sport show an increase of 114% and 71%, respectively. There was an increase in IF since 2000 in almost every journal investigated. A strong, positive correlation is seen among journals publishing on the prevention of sports injuries, showing a median IF increase of 2.8198. No statistical significance was found between Olympic years and the number of publications. Hence, there has been a gradual increase in both the quality and quantity of publications regarding sports injuries since 1996. However, there appears to be no immediate added effect of the "Olympic legacy" following each Olympic games on the quantity or quality of publications in these fields.

  20. Timing for Athletics at the Olympic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Steve

    2012-01-01

    Video photography of races is now routinely used in international running events to provide automatic recording of the position within each race achieved by the athletes, as well as the time taken in order to check whether records have been broken. This article describes how several cameras provide the evidence that is collated using computers and…

  1. LHC Olympics: Advanced Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, Kyle; Larkoski, Andrew; Gray, Amanda; Ventura, Dan; Walsh, Jon; Schabinger, Rob

    2006-05-01

    The LHC Olympics is a series of workshop aimed at encouraging theorists and experimentalists to prepare for the soon-to-be-online Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. One aspect of the LHC Olympics program consists of the study of simulated data sets which represent various possible new physics signals as they would be seen in LHC detectors. Through this exercise, LHC Olympians learn the phenomenology of possible new physics models and gain experience in analyzing LHC data. Additionally, the LHC Olympics encourages discussion between theorists and experimentalists, and through this collaboration new techniques could be developed. The University of Washington LHC Olympics group consists of several first-year graduate and senior undergraduate students, in both theoretical and experimental particle physics. Presented here is a discussion of some of the more advanced techniques used and the recent results of one such LHC Olympics study.

  2. The Games of the Gods.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andronicos, Manolis

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the cultural and philosophical influences that resulted in the establishment of the Olympic Games in ancient Greece. Examines the ancient Greek ideals of health, beauty, and intellect. Includes a table listing the dates of added competitions (boxing, pentathlon) to the contest. (MJP)

  3. Chinese Attitudes towards Varieties of English: A Pre-Olympic Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Wei; Wang, Yu; Case, Rod E.

    2010-01-01

    This study reports on findings of an investigation into Chinese students' attitudes towards varieties of English before the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. One hundred and eight college students in mainland China evaluated six English speeches by two American English speakers, two British English speakers, and two Chinese English speakers for social…

  4. We Killed Them: Trials and Tribulations of a Special Olympic Basketball Team.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ron

    1980-01-01

    The coach of a basketball team recounts the experiences encountered by his team in the California Special Olympics Basketball Tournament. Three days in the team's life are traced from the time the team boards the plane to Los Angeles, through initial defeat, to victory in the fourth game and winning third place medals. (SB)

  5. Injuries and medical issues in synchronized Olympic sports.

    PubMed

    Mountjoy, Margo

    2009-01-01

    Spectators of the Olympic Games can enjoy a wide variety of sports, including strength, team, timed, endurance, and artistic sports. In the Olympic program, there are two synchronized events: synchronized diving and synchronized swimming. The precision of the synchronization of the athlete's movements and skills is an added feature of entertainment. Synchronized athletes have additional training requirements to perfect the synchronization of their skills. The physical demands on the athlete from the repetition of training required for the perfection of synchronization result in injuries unique to these sports. Although both traumatic and overuse injuries occur, overuse injuries are more common. As these disciplines are artistic, judged sports, these athletes also are susceptible to eating disorders and the female athlete triad. This article reviews the training regimen of these athletes and outlines the injuries and health concerns that are common in the synchronized sports.

  6. Sport and exercise medicine and the Olympic health legacy

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    London 2012 is the first Olympic and Paralympic Games to explicitly try and develop socioeconomic legacies for which success indicators are specified - the highest profile of which was to deliver a health legacy by getting two million more people more active by 2012. This editorial highlights how specialists in Sport and Exercise Medicine can contribute towards increasing physical activity participation in the UK, as well as how the National Centre for Sport and Exercise Medicine might be a useful vehicle for delivering an Olympic health legacy. Key challenges are also discussed such as acquisition of funding to support new physical activity initiatives, appropriate allocation of resources, and how to assess the impact of legacy initiatives. PMID:22813079

  7. Olympic Scoring of English Compositions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Follman, John; Panther, Edward

    1974-01-01

    Examines empirically the efficacy of utilizing Olympic diving and gymnastic scoring systems for grading graduate students' English compositions. Results indicated that such scoring rules do not produce ratings different in reliability or in level from conventional letter grades. (ED)

  8. Olympic sports and transsexuals.

    PubMed

    Gooren, Louis J

    2008-05-01

    Sex segregation in competitive sports is regarded as fair. Before puberty boys and girls do not differ in height, muscle and bone mass. Testosterone (T) exposure during puberty leads to an ultimate average greater height in men of 12-15 cm, longer and larger bones and muscle mass and strength and higher hemoglobin levels. Postpubertal androgen ablation reverses, at least in part, previous anabolic effects of T on muscle, bone mineral density and hemoglobin but the long bones remain longer and wider. T administration dose dependently increases muscle mass and maximal voluntary strength. Therefore, exogenous androgens, being performance enhancing drugs, are banned for all athletes. An issue is the participation in competitive sports of people with errors of sexual differentiation and particularly transsexuals who have been sex-reassigned. In view of the effects of T, a clear demarcation is whether sex reassignment has taken place before or after hormonal puberty. Pubertal effects of T are in part reversible but there is no reliable evidence as to its completeness. The International Olympic Committee (IOC) has taken an inevitably arbitrary decision with regard to participation of sex-reassigned transsexuals in elite sports: sex reassignment must have taken place at least two years earlier, hormone treatment must be appropriate for the reassigned sex and the reassigned sex must be legally recognized. The IOC policy is not binding for other organizations.

  9. Identifying MMORPG Bots: A Traffic Analysis Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuan-Ta; Jiang, Jhih-Wei; Huang, Polly; Chu, Hao-Hua; Lei, Chin-Laung; Chen, Wen-Chin

    2008-12-01

    Massively multiplayer online role playing games (MMORPGs) have become extremely popular among network gamers. Despite their success, one of MMORPG's greatest challenges is the increasing use of game bots, that is, autoplaying game clients. The use of game bots is considered unsportsmanlike and is therefore forbidden. To keep games in order, game police, played by actual human players, often patrol game zones and question suspicious players. This practice, however, is labor-intensive and ineffective. To address this problem, we analyze the traffic generated by human players versus game bots and propose general solutions to identify game bots. Taking Ragnarok Online as our subject, we study the traffic generated by human players and game bots. We find that their traffic is distinguishable by 1) the regularity in the release time of client commands, 2) the trend and magnitude of traffic burstiness in multiple time scales, and 3) the sensitivity to different network conditions. Based on these findings, we propose four strategies and two ensemble schemes to identify bots. Finally, we discuss the robustness of the proposed methods against countermeasures of bot developers, and consider a number of possible ways to manage the increasingly serious bot problem.

  10. Relationship between world-ranking and Olympic performance of swimmers.

    PubMed

    Trewin, Cassie B; Hopkins, William G; Pyne, David B

    2004-04-01

    Coaches believe world-ranking lists are a reliable tool for predicting international swimming performance. To examine the relationship between world-ranking and Olympic performance, we modelled world-ranking time and best time from the 2000 Olympic Games for 407 top-50 world-ranked swimmers. Analysis of log-transformed times yielded within-athlete and between-athlete coefficients of variation (CV) and percent changes in performance from world-rankings to Olympics. Variations and performance progressions were compared across sex, stroke, distance, nation and medal status. The within-athlete coefficient of variation of performance for all swimmers was 0.8% (95% confidence limits: 0.7 to 0.9%). Females were slightly less consistent, although not substantially different to males (ratio of female/male within-athlete CV: 1.1; 95% confidence limits: 1.0 to 1.2) and had a wider range of talent (ratio of female/male between-athlete CV: 1.2; 95% confidence limits: 1.1 to 1.4). Swimmers from Australia (AUS) were more consistent than those from the United States (USA) and other nations (OTHER) (ratio of within-athlete CV, USA/AUS: 1.5; 95% confidence limits: 1.0 to 2.2; OTHER/ AUS: 1.6; 95% confidence limits: 1.2 to 2.1). Most Olympic medallists (87%) had a top-10 world-ranking. Overall performance time at the Olympics was slower than world-ranking time by 0.3% (95% confidence limits: 0.2 to 0.4%), medallists improved by 0.6% (95% confidence limits: 0.4 to 0.9%) and non-medallists swam 0.6% slower (95% confidence limits: 0.5 to 0.7%). We conclude that a top-10 ranked swimmer who can improve performance time by 0.6%, equivalent to 0.13 s in the men's 50-m freestyle, will substantially increase their chance of an Olympic medal (the difference between first and fourth place).

  11. Progression and variability of competitive performance of Olympic swimmers.

    PubMed

    Pyne, David; Trewin, Cassie; Hopkins, William

    2004-07-01

    Estimates of progression and variability of athletic performance in competitions are useful for researchers and practitioners interested in factors that affect performance. We used repeated-measures mixed modelling to analyse 676 official race times of 26 US and 25 Australian Olympic swimmers in the 12-month period leading up to the 2000 Olympic Games. Progression was expressed as percent changes in mean performance; variability was expressed as the coefficient of variation in performance of an individual swimmer between races. Within competitions, both nations showed similar improvements in mean time from heats through finals (overall 1.2%; 95% confidence limits 1.1 to 1.3%). Mean competition time also improved over 12 months by a similar amount in both nations (0.9%; 95% confidence limits 0.6 to 1.2%). The US swimmers showed a greater improvement between the finals (a difference of 0.5%; 95% confidence limits -0.2 to 1.1%), which paralleled changes in the medal haul of the two nations. The coefficient of variation in performance time for a swimmer between races was 0.60% (95% confidence limits 0.56 to 0.65%) within a competition and 0.80% (95% confidence limits 0.73 to 0.86%) between competitions. Our results show that: (a) to stay in contention for a medal, an Olympic swimmer should improve his or her performance by approximately 1% within a competition and by approximately 1% within the year leading up to the Olympics; (b) an additional enhancement of approximately 0.4% (one-half the between-competition variability) would substantially increase the swimmer's chances of a medal.

  12. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  13. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  14. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics.

    PubMed

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m(3), 27.1±15.7 μg/m(3) and 2.3±1.0 μg/m(3), respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  15. Human rights and the Beijing Olympics: imagined global community and the transnational public sphere.

    PubMed

    Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    The Olympic Games are increasingly used by non-governmental organizations to demand transnational forms of accountability from public authorities. This article assesses the effectiveness of transnational public opinion surrounding the Beijing 2008 Olympics, when the pressure of Western public opinion was exerted upon the government of the world's most populous non-Western nation to improve its human rights record. Utilizing the concepts of 'imagined global community' and 'transnational public sphere', it finds that the Olympic Games had helped to call into existence a transnational public that ran up against the obstacle posed by the incomplete formation of supra-national forms of governance. The International Olympic Committee, a non-governmental organization, was a weak substitute. Because of the strong desire of Chinese people to take part in transnational deliberations, the article concludes with optimism about the potential of transnational public spheres that include Chinese people to develop toward more effective forms of transnational governance. But the IOC must strengthen the voice of its non-Western members, and Western interlocutors, including the media, must accept their share of the responsibility for creating the conditions for egalitarian dialogue.

  16. Exercise Tiger: assessing the BCM impact of the 2012 Olympics on Canary Wharf.

    PubMed

    Evett, Jonathan

    2011-02-01

    In this paper, collective corporate resilience is studied to see how a culture of sharing information and planning may assist other business communities to prepare for future events. The London 2012 Summer Olympic Games will see huge opportunity for businesses in London, and across Europe, but not without cost. Canary Wharf lies in the heart of London's Docklands and less than three miles from the Olympic Park at Stratford. Purpose-built as a business district, it accommodates a working population of 95,000 people, is home to some of the world's leading brands and has a vibrant retail complex of over 200 shops, bars and restaurants. This business community is preparing for every aspect of the Olympics and, in particular, the disruption the Games will bring. As a private estate, the community resilience approach fostered here is both better defined and finite in terms of those it includes as a result. Preparing together with joint exercises, forums and open communications in a network of trusted partners is yielding collective benefits and lending a stronger voice in the call for more information from official agencies. This paper outlines the benefits of collective planning and reports on the success of Canary Wharf's annual estate-wide business continuity exercise - the first major collective Olympics planning exercise in London.

  17. Physiological assessment of Olympic windsurfers.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzis, Ioannis; De Vito, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Olympic boardsailing is a very demanding endurance sport activity. The main reason for this phenomenon is ascribable to the fact that elite windsurfers use pumping for propulsion during sailing. Pumping is a manoeuvre in which the athlete pulls the sail rhythmically so that it acts as a wing, thus providing the board with additional forward motion especially in light and moderate wind conditions. It has been demonstrated, by using portable metabolimeters, that Olympic boardsailing (Mistral board and the current Olympic board the Neil Pryde RS:X) entails high energy and cardiorespiratory requirements. In elite Olympic board-sailors, by measuring energy costs and cardiorespiratory responses, it was found that (in wind velocity conditions ranging between 4 and 15 m s(-1)) pumping, compared to non-pumping sailing, induced a significant increase in oxygen uptake (VO₂) and heart rate (HR) demands (from 19.2 to 48.4 ml min(-1) kg(-1) and from 110 to 165 beats min(-1), respectively). In general, across studies the aerobic demand, recorded on various windsurf boards (expressed as% VO₂max), was greater than 75%, whilst HR values were greater than 85% of HRmax during actual racing conditions. In conclusion, Olympic class windsurfing can be considered as a high-intensity endurance type of sport that is comparable to other aerobic sporting activities such as rowing. Sail pumping is the crucial factor determining this high intensity of aerobic demand. Moreover, the fact that a typical regatta includes many races over several days implies that particular attention must be paid to the training strategy and the nutritional requirement of this discipline.

  18. Population Muscle Strength Predicts Olympic Medal Tallies: Evidence from 20 Countries in the PURE Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Leong, Darryl P.; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2017-01-01

    Background National sporting achievement at the Olympic Games is important for national pride and prestige, and to promote participation in sport. Summer Olympic Games medal tallies have been associated with national wealth, and also social development and healthcare expenditure. It is uncertain however, how these socioeconomic factors translate into Olympic success. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the relationship between population muscle strength and Olympic medal tallies. Methods and Results This study of handgrip strength represents a cross-sectional analysis of the Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology (PURE) study, which is an ongoing population cohort study of individuals from high-, middle-, and low-income countries. Within participating countries, households from both urban and rural communities were invited to participate using a sampling strategy intended to yield a sample that was representative of the community. Households were eligible if at least one member was aged 35–70 years and if they intended living at the same address for a further four years. A total of 152,610 participants from these households, located in 21 countries, were included in this analysis. Handgrip strength was measured using a Jamar dynanometer. Olympic medal tallies were made over the five most recent Summer Games. There was a significant positive association between national population grip strength (GS) and medal tally that persisted after adjustment for sex, age, height, average daily caloric intake and GDP (total and per capita). For every 1kg increase in population GS, the medal tally increased by 36% (95% CI 13–65%, p = 0.001) after adjustment. Among countries that won at least one medal over the four most recent Summer Olympic Games, there was a close linear relationship between adjusted GS and the natural logarithm of the per capita medal tally (adjusted r = 0.74, p = 0.002). Conclusions Population muscle strength may be an important determinant

  19. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    PubMed

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  20. Sequential effects in Olympic synchronized diving scores

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    When judging performances in a sequence, the current score is often influenced by the preceding score. Where athletes are perceived to be similar, a judgement is assimilated towards the previous one. However, if judges focus on the differences between the two athletes, this will result in a contrasting influence on their scores. Here, I investigate sequential effects during synchronized diving events at the 2012 and 2016 Olympic Games. Although previous research found assimilation in scores of gymnasts, the current data showed contrast effects—current scores benefited from following a poor performance but were at a disadvantage if they followed a high-scoring performance. One explanation may be that the processes involved in judging synchronized pairs results in a focus on the differences between athletes, producing a contrast effect across dives. That the specific direction of this sequential bias may depend on the particular sport has implications for how judges might approach their roles in a context-dependent manner, as well as how such biases should be addressed. PMID:28280583

  1. Optimizing Olympic Education: A Comprehensive Approach to Understanding and Teaching the Philosophy of Olympism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teetzel, Sarah Jane

    2012-01-01

    Through an examination and clarification of the philosophy of Olympism, this paper analyses the appropriateness of using Olympism as a mechanism of teaching values and intercultural respect through sport to students. From a review of the literature on Olympism, three themes emerged as common to most conceptions: 1) fairness, 2) equality, and 3)…

  2. Realizing User-Relevant Conceptual Model for the Ski Jump Venue of the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teakles, Andrew; Mo, Ruping; Dierking, Carl F.; Emond, Chris; Smith, Trevor; McLennan, Neil; Joe, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    As was the case for most other Olympic competitions, providing weather guidance for the ski jump and Nordic combined events involved its own set of unique challenges. The extent of these challenges was brought to light before the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics during a series of outflow wind events in the 2008/2009 winter season. The interactions with the race officials during the difficult race conditions brought on by the outflows provided a new perspective on the service delivery requirements for the upcoming Olympic Games. In particular, the turbulent nature of the winds and its impact on the ski jump practice events that season highlighted the need of race officials for nowcasting advice at very short time scales (from 2 min to 1 h) and forecast products tailored to their decision-making process. These realizations resulted in last minute modifications to the monitoring strategy leading up to the Olympic Games and required forecasters' conceptual models for flow within the Callaghan Valley to be downscaled further to reflect the evolution of turbulence at the ski jump site. The SNOW-V10 (Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010) team provided support for these efforts by supplying diagnostic case analyses of important events using numerical weather data and by enhancing the real-time monitoring capabilities at the ski jump venue.

  3. Assessment of the impact of the London Olympics 2012 on selected non-genitourinary medicine clinic sexual health services.

    PubMed

    Hartley, A; Foster, R; Brook, M G; Cassell, J A; Mercer, C H; Coyne, K; Hughes, G; Crook, P

    2015-04-01

    With minimal information on sexual health provision during mass-gathering events, our aim was to describe the use of sexual health, contraceptive, sex worker and sexual assault services during the London 2012 Olympics. We analysed data from five sources. One contraceptive service provider reported a 10% increase in attendance during the main Games, while emergency contraception prescriptions rose during the main Olympics, compared to the week before, but were similar or lower than at the beginning and end of the summer period. A health telephone advice line reported a 16% fall in sexual health-related calls during the main Olympics, but a 33% increase subsequently. London sexual assault referral centres reported that 1.8% of sexual assaults were Olympics-linked. A service for sex workers reported that 16% started working in the sex industry and 7% moved to London to work during the Olympics. Fifty-eight per cent and 45% of sex workers reported fewer clients and an increase in police crack-downs, respectively. Our results show a change in activity across these services during the 2012 summer, which may be associated with the Olympics. Our data are a guide to other services when anticipating changes in service activity and planning staffing for mass-gathering events.

  4. The racing-game effect: why do video racing games increase risk-taking inclinations?

    PubMed

    Fischer, Peter; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Morton, Thomas; Kastenmüller, Andreas; Postmes, Tom; Frey, Dieter; Kubitzki, Jörg; Odenwälder, Jörg

    2009-10-01

    The present studies investigated why video racing games increase players' risk-taking inclinations. Four studies reveal that playing video racing games increases risk taking in a subsequent simulated road traffic situation, as well as risk-promoting cognitions and emotions, blood pressure, sensation seeking, and attitudes toward reckless driving. Study 1 ruled out the role of experimental demand in creating such effects. Studies 2 and 3 showed that the effect of playing video racing games on risk taking was partially mediated by changes in self-perceptions as a reckless driver. These effects were evident only when the individual played racing games that reward traffic violations rather than racing games that do not reward traffic violations (Study 3) and when the individual was an active player of such games rather than a passive observer (Study 4). In sum, the results underline the potential negative impact of racing games on traffic safety.

  5. Traffic and emission simulation in China based on statistical methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Huan; He, Kebin; Barth, Matthew

    2011-02-01

    To better understand how the traffic control can affect vehicle emissions, a novel TRaffic And Vehicle Emission Linkage (TRAVEL) approach was developed based on local traffic activity and emission data. This approach consists of a two-stage mapping from general traffic information to traffic flow patterns, and then to the aggregated emission rates. 39 traffic flow patterns and corresponding emission rates for light-duty and heavy-duty vehicles considering emission standards classification are generated. As a case study, vehicle activity and emissions during the Beijing Olympics were simulated and compared to BAU scenario. Approximately 42-65% of the gaseous pollutants and 24% of the particle pollutants from cars, taxies and buses were reduced. These results are validated by traffic and air quality monitoring data during the Olympics, as well as other emission inventory studies. This approach improves the ability to fast predict emission variation from traffic control measurements in several typical Chinese cities. Comments related to application of this approach with both advantages and limitations are included.

  6. Verification Games: Crowd-Sourced Formal Verification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    Formal Verification the verification tools developed by the Programming Languages and Software Engineering group were improved. A series of games...were developed by the Center for Game Science: Pipe Jam, Traffic Jam, Flow Jam and Paradox. Verification tools and games were integrated to verify...N/A i Contents List of Figures 1. SUMMARY .............................................................................................. 1 2

  7. The Special Olympics: Sporting or Social Event?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Carolyn; McDonald, Meghan L.

    2008-01-01

    Storey (2008), in his eloquent and timely critique of the Special Olympics and his call to close it down, focuses on the failure of the Special Olympics to achieve the goal of social integration and sustained social interaction among people with intellectual disabilities and their peers without a disability label. The authors wholeheartedly agree…

  8. Olympism as Education: Analysing the Learning Experiences of Elite Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, D.; Barker-Ruchti, N.; Rynne, S. B.; Lee, J.

    2012-01-01

    Olympic athletes are potentially the most visible exponents of Olympic values. How athletes learn values, however, has not captured the attention of those responsible for Olympic documentation or pedagogues. This paper examines how aspects of Olympism became relevant for three former Olympians during their athletic careers. Interview material…

  9. An Introduction to the LHC Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkoski, Andrew; Armour, Kyle; Gray, Amanda; Ventura, Dan; Walsh, Jon; Schabinger, Rob

    2006-05-01

    The LHC Olympics is a series of workshop aimed at encouraging theorists and experimentalists to prepare for the soon-to-be-online Large Hadron Collider in Geneva, Switzerland. One aspect of the LHC Olympics program consists of the study of simulated data sets which represent various possible new physics signals as they would be seen in LHC detectors. Through this exercise, LHC Olympians learn the phenomenology of possible new physics models and gain experience in analyzing LHC data. Additionally, the LHC Olympics encourages discussion between theorists and experimentalists, and through this collaboration new techniques could be developed. The University of Washington LHC Olympics group consists of several first-year graduate and senior undergraduate students, in both theoretical and experimental particle physics. Presented here is an introduction to how such an LHC Olympics study is done. Various basic analysis tools and techniques are discussed.

  10. Morphological characteristics of Olympic sprint canoe and kayak paddlers.

    PubMed

    Ackland, T R; Ong, K B; Kerr, D A; Ridge, B

    2003-09-01

    Canoe and kayak paddlers (n = 50 M & 20 F) who competed in the sprint events at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney were measured on a battery of 38 anthropometry dimensions prior to competition. The ensuing analysis aimed to identify common physical characteristics that provide these elite paddlers with a competitive advantage. This study demonstrated that participants in Olympic sprint paddling events can be considered homogeneous in shape and physical size; male and female paddlers have SAMs of 1.1 and 1.0 respectively. Compared to other athlete groups, the variance in stature and body mass of paddlers is generally low. Whilst sprint paddlers are not athletes with extreme proportionality profiles, they do possess unique characteristics not commonly observed in the general population. These include a lean body composition (Phantom z-scores for skinfolds range from -1.5 to -2.5 for most sites) with proportionally large upper body girths (z-scores > +1.0 for arm and chest girths), and narrow hips (for males). The morphology of elite paddlers appears to have altered during the past 25 years toward a more compact, robust physique. This trend is especially noticeable for the female competitors.

  11. Strategies for improving performance in long duration events: Olympic distance triathlon.

    PubMed

    Hausswirth, Christophe; Brisswalter, Jeanick

    2008-01-01

    This review focuses on strategic aspects that may affect performance in a long-duration Olympic event, the Olympic distance triathlon. Given the variety of races during the Olympic Games triathlon, strategic aspects include improving technological features as well as energetics factors affecting overall triathlon performance. During the last decade, many studies have attempted to identify factors reducing the metabolic load associated (or not) with the development of fatigue process by analysing the relationship between metabolic and biomechanical factors with exercise duration. To date, a consensus exists about the benefit of adopting a drafting position during the swimming or the cycling part of the triathlon. Other potential strategic factors, such as the production of power output or the selection of cadence during the cycling or the running leg, are likely to affect the overall triathlon performance. Within this approach, pacing strategies are observed by elite athletes who swim or cycle in a sheltered position, inducing several changes of pace, intensity or stochastic shifts in the amplitude of the physiological responses. The analysis of these parameters appears to arouse some experimental and practical interest from researchers and coachers, especially for long-distance Olympic events.

  12. Can the London 2012 Olympics ‘inspire a generation’ to do more physical or sporting activities? An overview of systematic reviews

    PubMed Central

    Mahtani, Kamal Ram; Protheroe, Joanne; Slight, Sarah Patricia; Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos Piva; Blakeman, Thomas; Barton, Christopher A; Brijnath, Bianca; Roberts, Nia

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine if there is an increased participation in physical or sporting activities following an Olympic or Paralympic games. Design Overview of systematic reviews. Methods We searched the Medline, Embase, Cochrane, DARE, SportDISCUS and Web of Knowledge databases. In addition, we searched for ‘grey literature’ in Google, Google scholar and on the International Olympic Committee websites. We restricted our search to those reviews published in English. We used the AMSTAR tool to assess the methodological quality of those systematic reviews included. Primary and secondary outcome measures The primary outcome was evidence for an increased participation in physical or sporting activities. Secondary outcomes included public perceptions of sport during and after an Olympic games, barriers to increased sports participation and any other non-sporting health benefits. Results Our systematic search revealed 844 citations, of which only two matched our inclusion criteria. The quality of these two reviews was assessed by three independent reviewers as ‘good’ using the AMSTAR tool for quality appraisal. Both reviews reported little evidence of an increased uptake of sporting activity following an Olympic Games event. Other effects on health, for example, changes in hospital admissions, suicide rates and drug use, were cited although there was insufficient evidence to see an overall effect. Conclusion There is a paucity of evidence to support the notion that hosting an Olympic games leads to an increased participation in physical or sporting activities for host countries. We also found little evidence to suggest other health benefits. We conclude that the true success of these and future games should be evaluated by high-quality, evidence-based studies that have been commissioned before, during and following the completion of the event. Only then can the true success and legacy of the games be established. PMID:23299112

  13. Amphibians of Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Amphibians evolved from fishes about 360 million years ago and were the first vertebrates adapted to life on land. The word amphibian means "double life." It refers to the life history of many amphibians, which spend part of their life in water and part on land. There are three major groups of amphibians: salamanders, frogs, and toads, and caecilians. Salamanders, frogs, and toads can be found in Olympic National Park (ONP), but caecilians live only in tropical regions. Many amphibians are generalist predators, eating almost any prey they can fit into their mouths.

  14. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Xie, X. X.; Han, Y. Q.; Li, Y.

    2009-11-01

    China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used a versatile mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's Fourth Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (S(PM1)), black carbon (BC), and benzene, toluene, the sum of ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX). During the Olympics (8-23 August, 2008), on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly, by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1, compared with the pre-control period (before 20 July). Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September), with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for S(PM1), relative to the control period. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively) on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship found between BC and S(PM1) and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs). Additionally, BC and S(PM1) showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were identified in measurements conducted on 6 August in an area southwest of Beijing. The ratio of benzene to toluene, a good indicator of traffic emissions, shifted suddenly from about 0

  15. Use of a mobile laboratory to evaluate changes in on-road air pollutants during the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Zhu, T.; Zheng, J.; Zhang, R. Y.; Zhang, S. Q.; Xie, X. X.; Han, Y. Q.; Li, Y.

    2009-06-01

    China implemented systematic air pollution control measures during the 2008 Beijing Summer Olympics and Paralympics to improve air quality. This study used an innovative mobile laboratory to conduct in situ monitoring of on-road air pollutants along Beijing's 4th Ring Road on 31 selected days before, during, and after the Olympics air pollution control period. A suite of instruments with response times of less than 30 s was used to measure temporal and spatial variations in traffic-related air pollutants, including NOx, CO, PM1.0 surface area (SPM1), black carbon (BC), and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and m-, p-, and o-xylene (BTEX). During the Olympics (8-23 August 2008), on-road air pollutant concentrations decreased significantly by up to 54% for CO, 41% for NOx, 70% for SO2, 66% for BTEX, 12% for BC, and 18% for SPM1 compared to the pre-control period (before 20 July). Concentrations increased again after the control period ended (after 20 September), with average increases of 33% for CO, 42% for NOx, 60% for SO2, 40% for BTEX, 26% for BC, and 37% for SPM1. Variations in pollutants concentrations were correlated with changes in traffic speed and the number and types of vehicles on the road. Throughout the measurement periods, the concentrations of NOx, CO, and BTEX varied markedly with the numbers of light- and medium-duty vehicles (LDVs and MDVs, respectively) on the road. Only after 8 August was a noticeable relationship between BC and SPM1 and the number of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) found. Additionally, BC and SPM1 showed a strong correlation with SO2 before the Olympics, indicating possible industrial sources from local emissions as well as regional transport activities in the Beijing area. Such factors were identified in measurements conducted on 6 August in an area southwest of Beijing. The ratio of benzene to toluene, a good indicator of traffic emissions, shifted suddenly from about 0.26 before the Olympics to approximately 0.48 after the Olympics

  16. Social dilemma structure hidden behind traffic flow with route selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Nakamura, Kousuke

    2016-10-01

    Several traffic flows contain social dilemma structures. Herein, we explored a route-selection problem using a cellular automaton simulation dovetailed with evolutionary game theory. In our model, two classes of driver-agents coexist: D agents (defective strategy), which refer to traffic information for route selection to move fast, and C agents (cooperative strategy), which are insensitive to information and less inclined to move fast. Although no evidence suggests that the social dilemma structure in low density causes vehicles to move freely and that in high density causes traffic jams, we found a structure that corresponds to an n-person (multiplayer) Chicken (n-Chicken) game if the provided traffic information is inappropriate. If appropriate traffic information is given to the agents, the n-Chicken game can be solved. The information delivered to vehicles is crucial for easing the social dilemma due to urban traffic congestion when developing technologies to support the intelligent transportation system (ITS).

  17. Public attitudes toward people with intellectual disabilities after viewing Olympic or Paralympic performance.

    PubMed

    Ferrara, Kate; Burns, Jan; Mills, Hayley

    2015-01-01

    Despite some changes to the way that people with intellectual disabilities (ID) are viewed in society, negative attitudes prevail. One of the aspirations of the 2012 Paralympic games was to influence the public's attitudes toward people with disabilities. The aim of this study was to investigate whether stimuli depicting people with ID performing at Paralympic level of competition change attitudes toward ID. A mixed randomized comparison design was employed comparing 2 groups: those who viewed Paralympic-level ID sport footage and information and those who viewed Olympic footage and information. One hundred fourteen students, mean age 25 yr, were administered measures of implicit (subconscious) attitudes toward disability and explicit (belief-based) attitudes toward ID. Implicit attitudes significantly changed in a positive direction for both groups. The findings provide evidence that both Paralympic (ID) and Olympic media coverage may have at least a short-term effect on attitudes toward people with disabilities.

  18. Olympics: Questions & Answers on the Major Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbon, Alan

    This book presents background information on the major Olympic events with a question-answer format. Events considered include track and field, swimming, diving, boxing, weightlifting, the equestrian events, and gymnastics. Line drawings illustrate the text. (MM)

  19. The Olympics and harm reduction?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The current anti-doping policy (‘war on doping’) resembles the ‘war on drugs’ in several aspects, including a zero-tolerance approach, ideology encroaching on human rights and public health principles, high cost using public money for repression and control, and attempts to shape internationally harmonized legal frameworks to attain its aim. Furthermore, even if for different reasons, both wars seem not to be able to attain their objectives, and possibly lead to more harm to society than they can prevent. The Olympic buzz is mounting and we can expect multiple headlines in the media on doping and anti-doping stories related to this event. In this article we describe current anti-doping policy, reflect on its multiple unplanned consequences, and end with a discussion, if lessons learned from harm reduction experiences in the illicit drugs field could be applied to anti-doping. PMID:22788912

  20. Psychological Characteristics of Canadian Olympic and Non-Olympic Freestyle Wrestlers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rushall, Brent S.; Garvie, Gordon

    Thirty-eight Olympic wrestling team aspirants were evaluated using the Behavioral Inventories for Athletes. The selected Olympic Freestyle Team was compared to nonsuccessful participants. The responses to each question were assessed. When more than one-half of the subjects answered in an extreme response category, it was deemed a notable…

  1. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Mestech's X-15 "Eye in the Sky," a traffic monitoring system, incorporates NASA imaging and robotic vision technology. A camera or "sensor box" is mounted in a housing. The sensor detects vehicles approaching an intersection and sends the information to a computer, which controls the traffic light according to the traffic rate. Jet Propulsion Laboratory technical support packages aided in the company's development of the system. The X-15's "smart highway" can also be used to count vehicles on a highway and compute the number in each lane and their speeds, important information for freeway control engineers. Additional applications are in airport and railroad operations. The system is intended to replace loop-type traffic detectors.

  2. Classification of Automated Search Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buehrer, Greg; Stokes, Jack W.; Chellapilla, Kumar; Platt, John C.

    As web search providers seek to improve both relevance and response times, they are challenged by the ever-increasing tax of automated search query traffic. Third party systems interact with search engines for a variety of reasons, such as monitoring a web site’s rank, augmenting online games, or possibly to maliciously alter click-through rates. In this paper, we investigate automated traffic (sometimes referred to as bot traffic) in the query stream of a large search engine provider. We define automated traffic as any search query not generated by a human in real time. We first provide examples of different categories of query logs generated by automated means. We then develop many different features that distinguish between queries generated by people searching for information, and those generated by automated processes. We categorize these features into two classes, either an interpretation of the physical model of human interactions, or as behavioral patterns of automated interactions. Using the these detection features, we next classify the query stream using multiple binary classifiers. In addition, a multiclass classifier is then developed to identify subclasses of both normal and automated traffic. An active learning algorithm is used to suggest which user sessions to label to improve the accuracy of the multiclass classifier, while also seeking to discover new classes of automated traffic. Performance analysis are then provided. Finally, the multiclass classifier is used to predict the subclass distribution for the search query stream.

  3. Olympic preparation of a world-class female triathlete.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo

    2014-07-01

    Detailed accounts of the training programs followed by today's elite triathletes are lacking in the sport-science literature. This study reports on the training program of a world-class female triathlete preparing to compete in the London 2012 Olympic Games. Over 50 wk, she performed 796 sessions (303 swim, 194 bike, 254 run, 45 strength training), ie, 16 ± 4 sessions/wk (mean ± SD). Swim, bike, and run training volumes were, respectively, 1230 km (25 ± 8 km/wk), 427 h (9 ± 3 h/wk), and 250 h (5 ± 2 h/wk). Training tasks were categorized and prescribed based on heart-rate values and/or speeds and power outputs associated with different blood lactate concentrations. Training performed at intensities below her individual lactate threshold (ILT), between the ILT and the onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA), and above the OBLA for swim were 74% ± 6%, 16% ± 2%, 10% ± 2%; bike 88% ± 3%, 10% ± 1%, 2.1% ± 0.2%; and run 85% ± 2%, 8.0% ± 0.3%, 6.7% ± 0.3%. Training organization was adapted to the busy competition calendar (18 events, of which 8 were Olympic-distance triathlons) and continuously responded to emerging information. Training volumes were 35-80% higher than those previously reported for elite male and female triathletes, but training intensity and tapering strategies successfully followed recommended best practice for endurance athletes. This triathlete placed 7th in London 2012, and her world ranking improved from 14th to 8th at the end of 2012.

  4. State Traffic Data: Traffic Safety Facts, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Statistics and Analysis (NHTSA), Washington, DC.

    This brief provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents delineated by state. A map details the 2001 traffic fatalities by state and the percent change from 2000. Data tables include: (1) traffic fatalities and fatality rates, 2001; (2) traffic fatalities and percent change, 1975-2001; (3) alcohol involvement in fatal traffic crashes,…

  5. A resolution commemorating the 2010 Special Olympics USA National Games.

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Johanns, Mike [R-NE

    2010-07-15

    07/20/2010 Resolution agreed to in Senate without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (text: CR S6037) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Route prediction model of infectious diseases for 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Eungyeong; Lee, Seok; Byun, Young Tae; Kim, Jae Hun; Lee, Hyuk-jae; Lee, Taikjin

    2014-03-01

    There are many types of respiratory infectious diseases caused by germs, virus, mycetes and parasites. Researchers recently have tried to develop mathematical models to predict the epidemic of infectious diseases. However, with the development of ground transportation system in modern society, the spread of infectious diseases became faster and more complicated in terms of the speed and the pathways. The route of infectious diseases during Vancouver Olympics was predicted based on the Susceptible-Infectious-Recovered (SIR) model. In this model only the air traffic as an essential factor for the intercity migration of infectious diseases was involved. Here, we propose a multi-city transmission model to predict the infection route during 2018 Winter Olympics in Korea based on the pre-existing SIR model. Various types of transportation system such as a train, a car, a bus, and an airplane for the interpersonal contact in both inter- and intra-city are considered. Simulation is performed with assumptions and scenarios based on realistic factors including demographic, transportation and diseases data in Korea. Finally, we analyze an economic profit and loss caused by the variation of the number of tourists during the Olympics.

  7. The bid, the lead-up, the event and the legacy: global cultural politics and hosting the Olympics.

    PubMed

    Rowe, David

    2012-06-01

    Hosting mega sport events, especially the Olympics, demands an extensive engagement with global civil society given the voluntary, highly mediated exposure of host cities and nations to the world. The philosophy of Olympism requires ethical authority in demonstrating 'fitness' to host the Games, so demanding intensive strategic image management. Offensive and defensive mobilization of image-dependent 'species of power' in the field of sport (in a Bourdieusian sense) in conducting 'wars of position and movement' (following Gramsci) within global civil society are, then, crucial features of competitive manoeuvres around staging major sport events. The main empirical focus of this article is on the case of the Sydney 2000 ('Millennial') Games, in illustrating the socio-political dynamics of bidding and hosting in the context of a major civil societal matter of concern - Australia's continuing failure to achieve reconciliation with, and equality for, its indigenous peoples. Ironically, though, it was in the domain of human rights that Sydney had an advantage over its closest competitor in the 1993 bidding process - China. The strategies deployed to secure the consent of Australian Aborigines to the Games are addressed in analysing the means by which the Sydney 2000 Games avoided major disruption and international criticism. A second, briefer case analysis is then presented of the disputation concerning Beijing's successful bid for the 2008 Olympics, which saw them influentially described by one (US) political activist as the 'Genocide Games' and the subject of international protests surrounding the Torch Relay. It is concluded that the contrasting levels of public, mediated discord in these two Olympiads in which human rights were key issues related, significantly though not exclusively, to the Chinese authorities' difficulties in 'winning consent' through strategic incorporation of the most conspicuous, non-state oppositional forces within Western-dominated global

  8. Effects of Beijing Olympics control measures on reducing reactive hydrocarbon species.

    PubMed

    Min, Shao; Bin, Wang; Sihua, Lu; Bin, Yuan; Ming, Wang

    2011-01-15

    Stringent air-quality control measures were implemented for the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games. This large-scale manmade experiment provided an opportunity to evaluate the effectiveness of measures to reduce the reactivity of hydrocarbons (HCs) from emission sources, which is important for ground-level ozone abatement. Photochemical initial concentrations (PICs), i.e., the levels of HCs from sources before undergoing chemical reactions, were calculated from ambient measurements. PICs obtained using the ratio method for HCs and the sequential reaction model for alkyl nitrates were in good agreement. Propene, 1-butene, iso-butene, trans-2-butene, cis-2-butene, trans-2-pentene, and m,p-xylene were identified as key reactive species in terms of their photochemical consumptions and correspondent ozone formation potentials (OFPs). During the Olympics and Paralympics, the PICs of these seven species were reduced by 27-66%, contributing 20% to the reduction in total PICs and 60% to the reduction in total OFP compared with June levels. Source apportionments from the chemical mass balance model indicated that gasoline vehicle exhaust was the predominant contributor to the key reactive species (45-78%). Reductions of gasoline vehicle exhaust during the Olympics and Paralympics explained 53-77% and 59-68% of the reductions in PICs of the key reactive HCs and total OFP, respectively.

  9. Estimated Reduction in Cancer Risk due to PAH Exposures If Source Control Measures during the 2008 Beijing Olympics Were Sustained

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Yuling; Stone, Dave; Wang, Wentao; Schrlau, Jill; Tao, Shu; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2011-01-01

    Background The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games provided a unique case study to investigate the effect of source control measures on the reduction in air pollution, and associated inhalation cancer risk, in a Chinese megacity. Objectives We measured 17 carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and estimated the lifetime excess inhalation cancer risk during different periods of the Beijing Olympic Games, to assess the effectiveness of source control measures in reducing PAH-induced inhalation cancer risks. Methods PAH concentrations were measured in samples of particulate matter ≤ 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) collected during the Beijing Olympic Games, and the associated inhalation cancer risks were estimated using a point-estimate approach based on relative potency factors. Results We estimated the number of lifetime excess cancer cases due to exposure to the 17 carcinogenic PAHs [12 priority pollutant PAHs and five high-molecular-weight (302 Da) PAHs (MW 302 PAHs)] to range from 6.5 to 518 per million people for the source control period concentrations and from 12.2 to 964 per million people for the nonsource control period concentrations. This would correspond to a 46% reduction in estimated inhalation cancer risk due to source control measures, if these measures were sustained over time. Benzo[b]fluoranthene, dibenz[a,h]anthracene, benzo[a]pyrene, and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene were the most carcinogenic PAH species evaluated. Total excess inhalation cancer risk would be underestimated by 23% if we did not include the five MW 302 PAHs in the risk calculation. Conclusions Source control measures, such as those imposed during the 2008 Beijing Olympics, can significantly reduce the inhalation cancer risk associated with PAH exposure in Chinese megacities similar to Beijing. MW 302 PAHs are a significant contributor to the estimated overall inhalation cancer risk. PMID:21632310

  10. Influence of drivers ability in a discrete vehicular traffic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burini, D.; de Lillo, S.; Fioriti, G.

    A vehicular traffic model is presented, based on the so-called Kinetic Theory of Active Particles. Vehicles are characterized by a lattice of discrete speeds and by the driving ability of the drivers. The evolution of the system is modeled through nonlinear interactions, whose output is described by stochastic games. The results of numerical simulations are consistent with experimental measurements of traffic flow.

  11. Comparison of game-related statistics in men's international championships between winning and losing teams according to margin of victory.

    PubMed

    Saavedra, Jose M; Escalantel, Yolanda; Madera, Joaquin; Mansilla, Mirella; García-Hermoso, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to compare water polo game-related statistics by game outcome (winning and losing teams) and margins of victory (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games), and (ii) to identify characteristics that mark the differences in performances for each group of margin of victory. The game-related statistics of the 308 men's matches played in seven International Championships (Olympic Games, World and European Championships) were analysed. A cluster analysis established three groups (close games, unbalanced games, and very unbalanced games) according to the margin of victory. Differences between game outcomes (winning or losing teams) and margins of victory (close, unbalanced, and very unbalanced games) were determined using the chi-squared statistic, also calculating the effect sizes of the differences. A discriminant analysis was then performed applying the sample-splitting method according to game outcome (winning and losing teams) by margin of victory. It was found that the game-related statistics differentiate the winning from the losing teams in each final score group, with 7 (offensive and defensive) variables differentiating winners from losers in close games, 16 in unbalanced games, and 11 in very unbalanced games. In all three types of game, the game-related statistics were shown to discriminate performance (85% or more), with two variables being discriminatory by game outcome (winning or losing teams) in all three cases: shots and goalkeeper-blocked shots.

  12. Peak Expiratory Flow, Breath Rate and Blood Pressure in Adults with Changes in Particulate Matter Air Pollution during the Beijing Olympics: A Panel Study

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Lina; Deng, Furong; Tian, Lili; Li, Yanli; Swanson, Mya; Ying, Jingjing; Browne, Richard W; Rittenhouse-Olson, Kate; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Zhang, Zuo-Feng; Bonner, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This study aims to examine whether changes in short-term exposures to particulate matter are associated with changes in lung function, breath rate, and blood pressure among healthy adults and whether smoking status modifies the association. Methods We took advantage of the artificially controlled changes in air pollution levels that occurred during the 2008 Olympic Games in Beijing, China and conducted a panel study of 201 Beijing residents. Data were collected before, during, and after the Olympics, respectively. Linear mixed-effects models and generalized estimating equation models were used to compare measurements of peak expiratory flow, breath rate, blood pressure across the three time points. Results The mean values of peak expiratory flow were 346.0 L/min, 399.3 L/min, and 364.1 L/min over the three study periods. Peak expiratory flow levels increased in 78% of the participants when comparing the during- and pre- Olympics time points, while peak expiratory flow levels decreased in 80% of participants for the post- and during-Olympic periods comparison. In subgroup analyses comparing the during -Olympic to pre-Olympic time points, we found a larger percentage change in peak expiratory flow (+17%) among female, younger and non-smoking participants than among male, elderly and smoking participants (+12%). The percentage of participants with a fast breath rate (>20/min) changed from 9.7%, to 4.9%, to 30.1% among females, and from 7.9%, to 2.6%, to 27.3% among males over the three time points respectively. The changes on blood pressure over the three study periods were not very clear, although there is an increase in diastolic pressure and a decrease in pulse pressure among males during the games. Conclusions The results suggest that exposure to different air pollution levels has significant effects on respiratory function. Smoking, age and gender appear to modify participants’ biological response to changes in air quality. PMID:24906062

  13. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alexander

    A philosophical analysis of play and games is undertaken in this paper. Playful gaming, which is shown to be a synthesis of play and games, is utilized as a category for undertaking the examination of play and games. The significance of playful gaming to education is demonstrated through analyses of Plato's, Dewey's, Sartre's, and Marcuse's…

  14. Olympic Values Education: Evolution of a Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Deanna L.

    2012-01-01

    Guided by the twentieth century hermeneutic idea that application co-determines understanding, this paper explores the conversations between theory and application that evolved during the implementation of three Olympic-related curriculum projects. Each of these projects was informed by specific fields of then-current educational theory, and…

  15. Student Outcomes Study. Olympic College Program Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, A. Bud; Keeler, Laura

    A follow-up study was conducted of students who had attended Olympic College (OC), in Washington, in fall 1990. A questionnaire was sent to a stratified random sample of 647 students, 3 years after their 1990 enrollment. A total of 390 responses were received for a 60.3% response rate. Respondents were divided into the following four groups, based…

  16. Sports Medicine Concerns in Special Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Low, Leslie J.; Sherrill, Claudine

    1988-01-01

    The article provides information on medical problems (including seizures, nutrition, atlantoaxia instability, and congenital heart disorders), and guidelines for training (including weight management, acclimation, heat related problems, and warm-up) for volunteers working with mentally retarded participants in Special Olympics. (DB)

  17. Mississippi Special Olympics: Special Events Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinze, Toni; Cooper, Walter E.

    Provided in the manual are organizational guidelines and suggested activities for a Special Evants segment of the Mississippi Special Olympics Program to encourage participation by low motor functioning, multihandicapped, mentally retarded persons. Information is provided concerning objectives, organizational set-up, guidelines, communication…

  18. Olympic Information in the SPORT Database.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belna, Alison M.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Profiles the SPORT database, produced by Sport Information Resource Centre, Ottawa, Ontario, which provides extensive coverage of individual sports including practice, training and equipment, recreation, sports medicine, physical education, sport facilities, and international sport history. Olympic coverage in SPORT, sports sciences, online…

  19. The Winter Olympics--On Ice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Barbara G.

    1998-01-01

    Describes several science activities designed around the upcoming Winter Olympics ice skating events which demonstrate the scientific principles behind the sport. Students learn that increasing the pressure on ice will lead to the ice melting, the principle involved in the spinning swing, and the technology of skates and skating outfits. (PVD)

  20. Gender Verification of Female Olympic Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, Barry D.; Genel, Myron; Robinowitz, Carolyn B.; Turner, Patricia L.; Woods, Gary L.

    2002-01-01

    Gender verification of female athletes has long been criticized by geneticists, endocrinologists, and others in the medical community. Recently, the International Olympic Committee's Athletic Commission called for discontinuation of mandatory laboratory-based gender verification of female athletes. This article discusses normal sexual…

  1. Advanced Treatment Monitoring for Olympic-Level Athletes Using Unsupervised Modeling Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Siedlik, Jacob A.; Bergeron, Charles; Cooper, Michael; Emmons, Russell; Moreau, William; Nabhan, Dustin; Gallagher, Philip; Vardiman, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Context Analysis of injury and illness data collected at large international competitions provides the US Olympic Committee and the national governing bodies for each sport with information to best prepare for future competitions. Research in which authors have evaluated medical contacts to provide the expected level of medical care and sports medicine services at international competitions is limited. Objective To analyze the medical-contact data for athletes, staff, and coaches who participated in the 2011 Pan American Games in Guadalajara, Mexico, using unsupervised modeling techniques to identify underlying treatment patterns. Design Descriptive epidemiology study. Setting Pan American Games. Patients or Other Participants A total of 618 US athletes (337 males, 281 females) participated in the 2011 Pan American Games. Main Outcome Measure(s) Medical data were recorded from the injury-evaluation and injury-treatment forms used by clinicians assigned to the central US Olympic Committee Sport Medicine Clinic and satellite locations during the operational 17-day period of the 2011 Pan American Games. We used principal components analysis and agglomerative clustering algorithms to identify and define grouped modalities. Lift statistics were calculated for within-cluster subgroups. Results Principal component analyses identified 3 components, accounting for 72.3% of the variability in datasets. Plots of the principal components showed that individual contacts focused on 4 treatment clusters: massage, paired manipulation and mobilization, soft tissue therapy, and general medical. Conclusions Unsupervised modeling techniques were useful for visualizing complex treatment data and provided insights for improved treatment modeling in athletes. Given its ability to detect clinically relevant treatment pairings in large datasets, unsupervised modeling should be considered a feasible option for future analyses of medical-contact data from international competitions. PMID

  2. Traffic Monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Intelligent Vision Systems, Inc. (InVision) needed image acquisition technology that was reliable in bad weather for its TDS-200 Traffic Detection System. InVision researchers used information from NASA Tech Briefs and assistance from Johnson Space Center to finish the system. The NASA technology used was developed for Earth-observing imaging satellites: charge coupled devices, in which silicon chips convert light directly into electronic or digital images. The TDS-200 consists of sensors mounted above traffic on poles or span wires, enabling two sensors to view an intersection; a "swing and sway" feature to compensate for movement of the sensors; a combination of electronic shutter and gain control; and sensor output to an image digital signal processor, still frame video and optionally live video.

  3. The Road to Rio: Medical and Scientific Perspectives on the 2016 Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Blauwet, Cheri; Lexell, Jan; Derman, Wayne; Idrisova, Guzel; Kissick, James; Stomphorst, Jaap; Wosornu, Yetsa Tuakli; Van de Vliet, Peter; Webborn, Nick

    2016-08-01

    In August and September of this year, the world will turn its attention to Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, for the 2016 Summer Olympic and Paralympic Games. Of interest to physiatrists, the Paralympic Games will take place from September 7 to 18, with an estimated total of 4 billion viewers. In the United States, for the first time in history, the Summer Games will be broadcast over a total of 66 hours on NBCUniversal. The Paralympic Games represent the pinnacle of elite sport for athletes with disabilities while also changing perceptions around the importance of grassroots sport and physical activity opportunities for the disability community more broadly.

  4. Differential games.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varaiya, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    General discussion of the theory of differential games with two players and zero sum. Games starting at a fixed initial state and ending at a fixed final time are analyzed. Strategies for the games are defined. The existence of saddle values and saddle points is considered. A stochastic version of a differential game is used to examine the synthesis problem.

  5. Verification of an ENSO-Based Long-Range Prediction of Anomalous Weather Conditions During the Vancouver 2010 Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Ruping; Joe, Paul I.; Doyle, Chris; Whitfield, Paul H.

    2014-01-01

    A brief review of the anomalous weather conditions during the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympic and Paralympic Games and the efforts to predict these anomalies based on some preceding El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signals are presented. It is shown that the Olympic Games were held under extraordinarily warm conditions in February 2010, with monthly mean temperature anomalies of +2.2 °C in Vancouver and +2.8 °C in Whistler, ranking respectively as the highest and the second highest in the past 30 years (1981-2010). The warm conditions continued, but became less anomalous, in March 2010 for the Paralympic Games. While the precipitation amounts in the area remained near normal through this winter, the lack of snow due to warm conditions created numerous media headlines and practical problems for the alpine competitions. A statistical model was developed on the premise that February and March temperatures in the Vancouver area could be predicted using an ENSO signal with considerable lead time. This model successfully predicted the warmer-than-normal, lower-snowfall conditions for the Vancouver 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics.

  6. Games in Geography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walford, Rex

    Six games designed for classroom use are described in this book: 1) Shopping Game; 2) Bus Service Game; 3) North Sea Gas Game; 4) Railway Pioneers Game; 5) Development Game; and 6) Export Drive Game. The description of each game comprises a separate chapter, and includes information about the general aims of the game, how the various game elements…

  7. Disaster Preparedness: Lessons from the 2002 Salt Lake City Olympics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heaps, Richard A.

    Between February 7 and February 24, 2002, Utah and Salt Lake City hosted the Winter Olympics. Due to the bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta and the emotional fallout that resulted, it was recommended that the Utah Psychological Association and Utah Red Cross plan for such an occurrence and organize a coordinated Disaster Mental Health…

  8. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  9. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  10. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  11. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  12. 36 CFR 7.28 - Olympic National Park.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Olympic National Park. 7.28 Section 7.28 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.28 Olympic National Park. (a) Fishing—(1)...

  13. Combat games

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ardema, M. D.; Heymann, M.; Rajan, N.

    1985-01-01

    A mathematical formulation is proposed of a combat game between two opponents with offensive capabilities and offensive objective is proposed. Resolution of the combat involves solving two differential games with state constraints. Depending on the game dynamics and parameters, the combat can terminate in one of four ways: the first player wins; the second player wins; a draw (neither wins); or joint capture. In the first two cases, the optimal strategies of the two players are determined from suitable zero-sum games, whereas in the latter two the relevant games are nonzero-sum. Further, to avoid certain technical difficulties, the concept of a delta-combat game is introduced.

  14. Tribute to Dr Jacques Rogge: muscle activity and fatigue during hiking in Olympic dinghy sailing.

    PubMed

    Bourgois, Jan G; Dumortier, Jasmien; Callewaert, Margot; Celie, Bert; Capelli, Carlo; Sjøgaard, Gisela; De Clercq, Dirk; Boone, Jan

    2017-03-19

    'A tribute to Dr J. Rogge' aims to systematically review muscle activity and muscle fatigue during sustained submaximal quasi-isometric knee extension exercise (hiking) related to Olympic dinghy sailing as a tribute to Dr Rogge's merits in the world of sports. Dr Jacques Rogge is not only the former President of the International Olympic Committee, he was also an orthopaedic surgeon and a keen sailor, competing at three Olympic Games. In 1972, in fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master in Sports Medicine, he was the first who studied a sailors' muscle activity by means of invasive needle electromyography (EMG) during a specific sailing technique (hiking) on a self-constructed sailing ergometer. Hiking is a bilateral and multi-joint submaximal quasi-isometric movement which dinghy sailors use to optimize boat speed and to prevent the boat from capsizing. Large stresses are generated in the anterior muscles that cross the knee and hip joint, mainly employing the quadriceps at an intensity of 30-40% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), sometimes exceeding 100% MVC. Better sailing level is partially determined by a lower rate of neuromuscular fatigue during hiking and for ≈60% predicted by a higher maximal isometric quadriceps strength. Although useful in exercise testing, prediction of hiking endurance capacity based on the changes in surface EMG in thigh and trunk muscles during a hiking maintenance task is not reliable. This could probably be explained by the varying exercise intensity and joint angles, and the great number of muscles and joints involved in hiking.

  15. Shorthand Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dostal, June

    1973-01-01

    Games can be used to stimulate interest and to make learning shorthand fun. Suggested games include these: geographic shorthand rummy, shorthand concentration, shorthand baseball geography, shorthand geography spelldown, shorthand password, and shorthand hangman's bluff. (SC)

  16. Jamitons: Phantom Traffic Jams

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowszun, Jorj

    2013-01-01

    Traffic on motorways can slow down for no apparent reason. Sudden changes in speed by one or two drivers can create a chain reaction that causes a traffic jam for the vehicles that are following. This kind of phantom traffic jam is called a "jamiton" and the article discusses some of the ways in which traffic engineers produce…

  17. Physical activity levels of economically disadvantaged women living in the Olympic city of Rio de Janeiro.

    PubMed

    de Sousa-Mast, Fabiana R; Reis, Arianne C; Sperandei, Sandro; Gurgel, Luilma A; Vieira, Marcelo C; Pühse, Uwe

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the physical activity patterns of women living in a low-income community located in close proximity to the 2016 Rio de Janeiro Olympic Park. Data (N = 140) were collected in June and July 2012 using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Findings indicated that the majority (54.8%) of participants reported high levels of physical activity. The domains that contributed the most to this pattern were occupational and household physical activity. Significantly, 88.1% of participants reported low physical activity levels during their leisure-time. In the transport-related domain, participants were relatively more active, but more than half of them (57%) spent less than 600 MET-minutes/week in this domain. The results highlighted the discrepancies between different physical activity domains. In addition, the findings also suggested that low-income women in our study engaged little in physical activity during their leisure time. Therefore, the proposed commitments found in the Rio de Janeiro Candidature File to host the 2016 Olympic Games to increase sport/physical activity participation within low-income communities in Rio de Janeiro need to be implemented effectively if this physical activity behavior during self-directed time is to be changed.

  18. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zirui; Davis Iv, Henry Hap; Wolff, Annemarie; Northoff, Georg

    2017-01-01

    Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n = 30). Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1-35). Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers' motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits.

  19. Thalamo-Sensorimotor Functional Connectivity Correlates with World Ranking of Olympic, Elite, and High Performance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Annemarie

    2017-01-01

    Brain plasticity studies have shown functional reorganization in participants with outstanding motor expertise. Little is known about neural plasticity associated with exceptionally long motor training or of its predictive value for motor performance excellence. The present study utilised resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) in a unique sample of world-class athletes: Olympic, elite, and internationally ranked swimmers (n = 30). Their world ranking ranged from 1st to 250th: each had prepared for participation in the Olympic Games. Combining rs-fMRI graph-theoretical and seed-based functional connectivity analyses, it was discovered that the thalamus has its strongest connections with the sensorimotor network in elite swimmers with the highest world rankings (career best rank: 1–35). Strikingly, thalamo-sensorimotor functional connections were highly correlated with the swimmers' motor performance excellence, that is, accounting for 41% of the individual variance in best world ranking. Our findings shed light on neural correlates of long-term athletic performance involving thalamo-sensorimotor functional circuits. PMID:28261504

  20. Playful Gaming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makedon, Alex

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of playful gaming (an idea not expressed fully by either term alone) and uses it as an analytical tool to study the playfulness of games in the context of several social phenomena; i.e., social change, socialization, utopian systems, and educational gaming. An extensive reference list is provided. (MBR)

  1. Winter Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarbuth, Lawson, Comp.

    Educators may find activities for indoor and outdoor winter programs in the games of the traditional Eskimo. These games are dominated by few-step operations and low level structural organization. For the most part they are quickly organized, begun, terminated, and ready to be recommenced. All types of games can be found, including quiet ones,…

  2. Game Face

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Jill

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses "Game Face: Life Lessons Across the Curriculum", a teaching kit that challenges assumptions and builds confidence. Game Face, which is derived from a book and art exhibition, "Game Face: What Does a Female Athlete Look Like?", uses layered and powerful images of women and girls participating in sports to teach…

  3. Ludwig Guttmann (1899-1980), Stoke Mandeville Hospital and the Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Silver, John R

    2012-08-01

    On 27 July 2012 London is hosting the Olympic and the Paralympic Games. The Olympic Games will be attended by 17,000 athletes to be followed by the Paralympic Games with 4200 athletes from 150 countries, participating in 20 different sports. This multicultural event has grown in the last 60 years from a small competition between British and Dutch athletes on the lawns of Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Buckinghamshire. The Paralympic Movement was born out of the vision of Sir Ludwig Guttmann. Before World War II, most paraplegic patients died. Guttmann came to Stoke Mandeville Hospital in 1944 and instituted the modern treatment of spinal injuries which kept paraplegic patients alive. While exercise is an essential part of rehabilitation, developing strength and agility, and a paraplegic patient can only participate in competitive sport when he or she is fully rehabilitated so the sports movement grew out of the successful treatment of paraplegic patients.

  4. Determinants of olympic fencing performance and implications for strength and conditioning training.

    PubMed

    Turner, Anthony; James, Nic; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Greenhalgh, Andy; Moody, Jeremy; Fulcher, David; Mias, Eduard; Kilduff, Liam

    2014-10-01

    Fencing is one of only a few sports that have featured at every modern Olympic games. Despite this, there is still much the sport science team does not know regarding competition demands and athlete physical characteristics. This review aims to undertake an analysis of the current literature to identify what is known, and questions that must be answered to optimize athlete support in this context. In summary, fencing is an explosive sport requiring energy production predominately from anaerobic sources. Lunging and change-of-direction speed seem vital to performance, and strength and power qualities underpin this. In the elimination rounds, fencers are likely to accumulate high levels of blood lactate, and so high-intensity interval training is recommended to reduce the intolerance to and the accumulation of hydrogen ions. Injury data report the hamstrings as a muscle group that should be strengthened and address imbalances caused by continuous fencing in an asymmetrical stance.

  5. Imaging of plantar fascia and Achilles injuries undertaken at the London 2012 Olympics.

    PubMed

    Elias, David A; Carne, Andrew; Bethapudi, Sarath; Engebretsen, Lars; Budgett, Richard; O'Connor, Philip

    2013-12-01

    Plantar fascia and distal Achilles injuries are common in elite athletes. Acute athletic injuries of the plantar fascia include acute plantar fasciopathy and partial or complete tears. Underlying most acute injuries is a background of underlying chronic plantar fasciopathy. Injuries may affect the central or less commonly lateral portions of the fascia and acute tears are generally proximal. Athletic Achilles injuries may occur at the mid tendon or the distal insertion, and there may be an underlying chronic tendinopathy. Acute or chronic paratendinopathy may occur as a separate entity or combined with Achilles injury. In this article, the spectrum of athletic injuries of the plantar fascia and Achilles is described, illustrated by imaging findings from the London 2012 Olympic games.

  6. Game theory.

    PubMed

    Dufwenberg, Martin

    2011-03-01

    Game theory is a toolkit for examining situations where decision makers influence each other. I discuss the nature of game-theoretic analysis, the history of game theory, why game theory is useful for understanding human psychology, and why game theory has played a key role in the recent explosion of interest in the field of behavioral economics. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 167-173 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.119 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website.

  7. Video games.

    PubMed

    Funk, Jeanne B

    2005-06-01

    The video game industry insists that it is doing everything possible to provide information about the content of games so that parents can make informed choices; however, surveys indicate that ratings may not reflect consumer views of the nature of the content. This article describes some of the currently popular video games, as well as developments that are on the horizon, and discusses the status of research on the positive and negative impacts of playing video games. Recommendations are made to help parents ensure that children play games that are consistent with their values.

  8. Access for all: the rise of the Paralympic Games.

    PubMed

    Gold, John R; Gold, Margaret M

    2007-05-01

    The Paralympic, or Parallel, Games for athletes with disabilities have played a major role over the past half century in changing attitudes towards disability and accelerating the agenda for inclusion. This article charts their development from small beginnings as a competition for disabled ex-servicemen and women in England founded shortly after the Second World War to the present day ambulatory international festival of Summer and Winter Games organized in conjunction with the Olympic Games. The Paralympic Games trace their origins to the work of Dr (later Sir) Ludwig Guttmann at the National Spinal Injuries Unit at Stoke Mandeville Hospital in Buckinghamshire who used sport as an integral part of the treatment of paraplegic patients. A sports competition was held at the hospital to coincide with the Opening Ceremony of the London Games in July 1948. This became an annual event attracting the first international participation in 1952, after which it became the International Stoke Mandeville Games. From 1960 onwards attempts were made to hold every fourth Games in the Olympic host city. Despite initial success in staging the 1960 Games in Rome and the 1964 Games in Tokyo, subsequent host cities refused to host the competitions and alternative locations were found where a package of official support, finance and suitable venues could be assembled. In 1976, the scope of the Games was widened to accept other disabilities. From 1988 onwards, a process of convergence took place that saw the Paralympics brought into the central arena of the Olympics, both literally and figuratively. In the process they have embraced new sports, have encompassed a wider range of disabilities, and helped give credence to the belief that access to sport is available to all. The Paralympics also underline the change from sport as therapeutic competition to that of elite events that carry intrinsic prestige, with growing rivalry over medal tables. For the future, however, questions remain as

  9. No lasting legacy: no change in reporting of women's sports in the British print media with the London 2012 Olympics and Paralympics

    PubMed Central

    Packer, C.; Geh, D.J.; Goulden, O.W.; Jordan, A.M.; Withers, G.K.; Wagstaff, A.J.; Bellwood, R.A.; Binmore, C.L.; Webster, C.L.

    2015-01-01

    Background The proportion of media sports coverage devoted to women is reported at between 1 and 6%. Our survey examines and compares reporting patterns before and after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. Methods We collected data on sports coverage in six national newspapers on 3 weekend days in February and March 2012, and in February 2013; ∼5 months before the opening of the 2012 Olympic Games and 5 months after the closing of the Paralympic Games. Results In 2012, 39 of 876 articles in national newspapers (4.5%) related to women's sports, compared with 22 of 755 (2.9%) in 2013; a non-significant reduction in coverage [difference 1.54%, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.28 to 3.36). In 2012, 24 of 647 pictures (3.7%) related to women's activities, compared with 10 of 738 (1.4%) in 2013; a significant reduction in coverage (difference 2.35%; 95% CI 0.68–4.03). The median area per article was significantly greater for men in both years. Conclusions We found a continuing bias towards men's sport in the media analysed and no evidence of improvement either before or after the 2012 Olympics and Paralympics. Increased support of women's sport in the print media could benefit individuals and influence the health of the population. PMID:24618182

  10. Did the Olympics need more drugs? a doctor's reflection on providing medical care during Op OLYMPICS.

    PubMed

    Monteiro de Barros, James; Ross, D A

    2014-09-01

    This paper examines some of the medical problems arising from the successful deployment of Defence Medical Services personnel to Op OLYMPICS (mid-June 2012-September 2012). It does not aim to be all encompassing in its scope, but focuses on the most pressing issues affecting a junior military doctor's ability to work effectively under field conditions. This will entail a discussion about whether in a deployment such as Op OLYMPICS medical care should be based upon offering solely primary healthcare in medical centres or using Role 1 medical treatment facilities, which include primary healthcare and pre-hospital emergency care. The main recommendations arising from the deployment are: clinicians should deploy with a minimum of basic emergency drugs and equipment; a medical facility treating a large population at risk for a prolonged period should have a broad stock of medications available on site; and medical risk assessments must be performed on all Reservists during mobilisation.

  11. Development of a Junior High School Module in Alcohol Education and Traffic Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Columbia Univ., New York, NY. Teachers College.

    Five 45-minute teaching units for junior high school students on alcohol education and traffic safety are presented. Lesson I examines alcohol as a drug. Activities include a question-answer survey, a film, and a game. Assignments are a "find the word" game and an evaluation of an advertisement for an alcoholic beverage. Lesson II considers…

  12. Adapting to climate change at Olympic National Forest and Olympic National Park

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halofsky, Jessica E.; Peterson, David L.; O'Halloran, Kathy A.; Hoffman, Catherine H.

    2011-01-01

    Climate change presents a major challenge to natural resource managers both because of the magnitude of potential effects of climate change on ecosystem structure, processes, and function, and because of the uncertainty associated with those potential ecological effects. Concrete ways to adapt to climate change are needed to help natural resource managers take the first steps to incorporate climate change into management and take advantage of opportunities to counteract the negative effects of climate change. We began a climate change adaptation case study at Olympic National Forest (ONF) in partnership with Olympic National Park (ONP) to determine how to adapt management of federal lands on the Olympic Peninsula, Washington, to climate change. The case study began in the summer of 2008 and continued for 1½ years. The case study process involved science-based sensitivity assessments, review of management activities and constraints, and adaptation workshops in each of four focus areas (hydrology and roads, fish, vegetation, and wildlife). The process produced adaptation options for ONF and ONP, and illustrated the utility of place-based vulnerability assessment and science-management workshops in adapting to climate change. The case study process provides an example for other national forests, national parks, and natural resource agencies of how federal land management units can collaborate in the initial stages of climate change adaptation. Many of the ideas generated through this process can potentially be applied in other locations and in other agencies

  13. Hemoglobin values: comparative survey of the 1976 Canadian Olympic team.

    PubMed Central

    Clement, D. B.; Asmundson, R. C.; Medhurst, C. W.

    1977-01-01

    In view of the role of hemoglobin in oxygen transport, the hemoglobin concentration in whole blood may indicate readiness for maximal physical performance. Hemoglobin concentrations were determined in members of the 1976 Canadian Olympic team and compared with those of the 1975 Canadian general population and with published data for the 1968 Australian and Dutch Olympic teams. The mean hemoglobin concentrations of the 123 male and 64 female Canadian Olympic athletes were 14.7 +/- 1.0 and 12.9 +/- 0.7 g/dL, respectively. Both male and female Canadian Olympic athletes had significantly lower (P less than 0.01) values than the other three groups. The suboptimal hemoglobin concentrations may be related to inadequate dietary intake of protein and iron. PMID:902207

  14. An Observational Study Using English Syndromic Surveillance Data Collected During the 2012 London Olympics - What did Syndromic Surveillance Show and What Can We Learn for Future Mass-gathering Events?

    PubMed

    Todkill, Dan; Hughes, Helen E; Elliot, Alex J; Morbey, Roger A; Edeghere, Obaghe; Harcourt, Sally; Hughes, Tom; Endericks, Tina; McCloskey, Brian; Catchpole, Mike; Ibbotson, Sue; Smith, Gillian

    2016-12-01

    Introduction In preparation for the London 2012 Olympic Games, existing syndromic surveillance systems operating in England were expanded to include daily general practitioner (GP) out-of-hours (OOH) contacts and emergency department (ED) attendances at sentinel sites (the GP OOH and ED syndromic surveillance systems: GPOOHS and EDSSS). Hypothesis/Problem The further development of syndromic surveillance systems in time for the London 2012 Olympic Games provided a unique opportunity to investigate the impact of a large mass-gathering event on public health and health services as monitored in near real-time by syndromic surveillance of GP OOH contacts and ED attendances. This can, in turn, aid the planning of future events.

  15. Olympic Fisher Reintroduction Project: Progress report 2008-2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jeffrey C. Lewis,; Patti J. Happe,; Jenkins, Kurt J.; Manson, David J.

    2012-01-01

    This progress report summarizes the final year of activities of Phase I of the Olympic fisher restoration project. The intent of the Olympic fisher reintroduction project is to reestablish a self-sustaining population of fishers on the Olympic Peninsula. To achieve this goal, the Olympic fisher reintroduction project released 90 fishers within Olympic National Park from 2008 to 2010. The reintroduction of fishers to the Olympic Peninsula was designed as an adaptive management project, including the monitoring of released fishers as a means to (1) evaluate reintroduction success, (2) investigate key biological and ecological traits of fishers, and (3) inform future reintroduction, monitoring, and research efforts. This report summarizes reintroduction activities and preliminary research and monitoring results completed through December 2011. The report is non-interpretational in nature. Although we report the status of movement, survival, and home range components of the research, we have not completed final analyses and interpretation of research results. Much of the data collected during the monitoring and research project will be analyzed and interpreted in the doctoral dissertation being developed by Jeff Lewis; the completion of this dissertation is anticipated prior to April 2013. We anticipate that this work, and analyses of other data collected during the project, will result in several peer-reviewed scientific publications in ecological and conservation journals, which collectively will comprise the final reporting of work summarized here. These publications will include papers addressing post-release movements, survival, resource selection, food habits, and age determination of fishers.

  16. Olympic and world sport: making transnational society?

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the special issue of the British Journal of Sociology on the subject of the transnational aspects of Olympic and world sport. The special issue is underpinned by the perspective that because sport provides a space for the forging of transnational connections and global consciousness, it is increasingly significant within contemporary processes of globalization and the making of transnational society. In this article, we examine in turn eight social scientific themes or problems that are prominent within the special issue: globalization, glocalization, neo-liberal ideologies and policies, transnational society, securitization, global civil society, transnational/global public sphere, and fantasy/imagination. We conclude by highlighting five 'circles' of future research inquiry within world sport that should be explored by social scientists.

  17. Unsteady Sail Dynamics in Olympic Class Sailboats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williamson, Charles; Schutt, Riley

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady sailing techniques have evolved in competitive sailboat fleets, in cases where the relative weight of the sailor is sufficient to impart unsteady motions to the boat and sails. We will discuss three types of motion that are used by athletes to propel their boats on an Olympic race course faster than using the wind alone. In all of our cases, body weight movements induce unsteady sail motion, increasing driving force and speed through the water. In this research, we explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and a 6-GoPro camera array. We shall briefly discuss "sail flicking", whereby the helmsman periodically rolls the sail into the apparent wind, at an angle which is distinct from classical heave (in our case, the oscillations are not normal to the apparent flow). We also demonstrate "roll tacking", where there are considerable advantages to rolling the boat during such a maneuver, especially in light wind. In both of the above examples from on-the-water studies, corresponding experiments using a towing tank exhibit increases in the driving force, associated with the formation of strong vortex pairs into the flow. Finally, we focus on a technique known as "S-curving" in the case where the boat sails downwind. In contrast to the previous cases, it is drag force rather than lift force that the sailor is trying to maximise as the boat follows a zig-zag trajectory. The augmented apparent wind strength due to the oscillatory sail motion, and the growth of strong synchronised low-pressure wake vortices on the low-pressure side of the sail, contribute to the increase in driving force, and velocity-made-good downwind.

  18. Inuit Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keewatin Regional Education Authority, Rankin Inlet (Northwest Territories).

    The purpose of this publication is to record the traditional games played by the Inuit and to preserve a unique form of sports and recreation found in northern Canada. Written in English and Inupiaq, this manual contains descriptions of games played throughout the Arctic with special emphasis on the Keewatin Region, suggestions for teaching Inuit…

  19. Game Time!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marek, Edmund; Howell, Beverly

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a classic playground game called "Sharks and Fishes" to introduce second- to fourth-grade students to the concept of "predation," or the relationships between a predator and its prey. By incorporating the game in a learning cycle on predation, students not only learn about predation in a memorable way, but they…

  20. Stochastic games

    PubMed Central

    Solan, Eilon; Vieille, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    In 1953, Lloyd Shapley contributed his paper “Stochastic games” to PNAS. In this paper, he defined the model of stochastic games, which were the first general dynamic model of a game to be defined, and proved that it admits a stationary equilibrium. In this Perspective, we summarize the historical context and the impact of Shapley’s contribution. PMID:26556883

  1. Epistemic Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaffer, David Williamson

    2005-01-01

    In an article in this issue of "Innovate", Jim Gee asks the question "What would a state of the art instructional video game look like?" Based on the game "Full Spectrum Warrior", he concludes that one model is "to pick [a] domain of authentic professionalism well, intelligently select the skills and knowledge to…

  2. Fun & Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Amy; Kohl, Julie

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses how math skills, teamwork and higher-level thinking come together when students create strategic board games. In this article, the authors provide a glimpse of what it was like to be part of "To the Sun!," a game designed by students in the fifth-grade class at Olive Martin School in Lake Villa, IL. Students combined a math…

  3. Game On!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deubel, Patricia

    2006-01-01

    This article describes digital game-based learning (DGBL), the uniting of educational content with computer or online games, that holds the potential for a wealth of educational applications, if managed properly. DGBL motivates by virtue of being fun. It is versatile, can be used to teach almost any subject or skill, and, when used correctly, is…

  4. Noble Gas Proxy Evidence Of Holocene Climate Fluctuations In The Elwha Watershed, Olympic Mountains, Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    Paleotempertures retrieved from the groundwater archives in the largest watershed (≈800 km2) in the Olympic Mountains suggest asynchronous Olympic Peninsula climate responses during the Everson interstade period after the last continental glacial maximum. Dissolved noble gases fr...

  5. Game Over?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harteveld, Casper

    This level marks the ending of the book. After comparing the game design process to a children's book about designing a butterfly, it goes into how a balance is found when designing a game. To explain this, an analogy is made with the concept of Yin and Yang. This level further deals with the “so what” and “who cares” question of the Triadic Game Design (TGD) approach. It is concluded that it can be used as an “analytical lens,” “application tool,” or “puzzle frame” in the field of games. But to have a real impact on the actual practice, it is needed that people are familiar with the idea of TGD. Since game design is (generally) collaborative, it would be beneficial that more than one person knows about it. For this reason, a game-based workshop has been developed that can be employed at the beginning of a project. Besides making sure that a project runs smoothly during the design, considerations should also be made about what happens if the game is finished. From the observations of the “life after the design” it becomes clear that this is certainly an issue that should not be neglected. The main message of this level concerns, however, that although this book is “game over,” it is everything but “over” for the design and research of games. To bring the field to “the next level,” structural approaches are needed and TGD is one of them. With the insights of this approach in mind, people can start to “dance.” Because it takes two to tango, but it takes three to design a game with a meaningful purpose.

  6. Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10): a World Weather Research Programme Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaac, G. A.; Joe, P. I.; Mailhot, J.; Bailey, M.; Bélair, S.; Boudala, F. S.; Brugman, M.; Campos, E.; Carpenter, R. L.; Crawford, R. W.; Cober, S. G.; Denis, B.; Doyle, C.; Reeves, H. D.; Gultepe, I.; Haiden, T.; Heckman, I.; Huang, L. X.; Milbrandt, J. A.; Mo, R.; Rasmussen, R. M.; Smith, T.; Stewart, R. E.; Wang, D.; Wilson, L. J.

    2014-01-01

    A World Weather Research Programme (WWRP) project entitled the Science of Nowcasting Olympic Weather for Vancouver 2010 (SNOW-V10) was developed to be associated with the Vancouver 2010 Olympic and Paralympic Winter Games conducted between 12 February and 21 March 2010. The SNOW-V10 international team augmented the instrumentation associated with the Winter Games and several new numerical weather forecasting and nowcasting models were added. Both the additional observational and model data were available to the forecasters in real time. This was an excellent opportunity to demonstrate existing capability in nowcasting and to develop better techniques for short term (0-6 h) nowcasts of winter weather in complex terrain. Better techniques to forecast visibility, low cloud, wind gusts, precipitation rate and type were evaluated. The weather during the games was exceptionally variable with many periods of low visibility, low ceilings and precipitation in the form of both snow and rain. The data collected should improve our understanding of many physical phenomena such as the diabatic effects due to melting snow, wind flow around and over terrain, diurnal flow reversal in valleys associated with daytime heating, and precipitation reductions and increases due to local terrain. Many studies related to these phenomena are described in the Special Issue on SNOW-V10 for which this paper was written. Numerical weather prediction and nowcast models have been evaluated against the unique observational data set now available. It is anticipated that the data set and the knowledge learned as a result of SNOW-V10 will become a resource for other World Meteorological Organization member states who are interested in improving forecasts of winter weather.

  7. A 20-yr longitudinal study of Olympic oarsmen.

    PubMed

    Hagerman, F C; Fielding, R A; Fiatarone, M A; Gault, J A; Kirkendall, D T; Ragg, K E; Evans, W J

    1996-09-01

    Nine 1972 silver-medalist oarsmen were studied before the Olympic Games and 10 and 20 yr later. Peak power, metabolic responses, and heart rate were recorded during rowing ergometry; blood lactate was measured following exercise. The skinfold equation yielded percent body fat. The average change (multiple analysis of variance) among measurements from 1972 to 1992 was 37.5 +/- 3% (P < 0.01). Average changes between 1972 and 1982 and between 1982 and 1992 were similar, 17 and 18%, respectively (P < 0.01). The most significant change between 1972 and 1992 was decreased peak blood lactate (106%). Decreases in peak power, VE, and VO2 (ml.kg-1.min-1) were all similar, approximately 40%, and were significant. Body fat increased (from 12.3 to 15.6%), and absolute VO2 and relative VO2 (lean body mass) decreased 30% (P < 0.01). Only body weight, heart rate, and O2 pulse showed smaller changes, but these changes were still significant (P < 0.05). Relative peak VO2 decreased from 65.5 to 46.8 ml.kg-1.min-1 from 1972 to 1992 and at a rate of 10%.decade-1. The most significant changes between 1972 and 1982 were increases in percent body fat (from 12.3 to 16.3%) and decreases in VO2 values (P < 0.01). There was less change in body fat between 1982 and 1992, but lactate significantly decreased (P < 0.01), as did peak power and absolute and relative VO2 and VE. Although fitness levels in former elite oarsmen decreased each decade, these declines were somewhat arrested by regular aerobic training. Body fat increased and metabolic capacity decreased rapidly during the first decade, whereas anaerobic capacity decreased more significantly in the second decade. Anaerobic capacity diminished at a significantly greater rate than aerobic capacity, probably as a result of the aging process and emphasis on aerobic training in post-competitive years.

  8. Educational treasures in Radiology: The Radiology Olympics - striving for gold in Radiology education.

    PubMed

    Talanow, Roland

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on Radiology Olympics (www.RadiologyOlympics.com) - a collaboration with the international Radiology community for Radiology education, Radiolopolis (www.Radiolopolis.com). The Radiology Olympics honour the movers and shakers in Radiology education and offer an easy to use platform for educating medical professionals based on Radiology cases.

  9. Determination of Career Planning Profiles of Turkish Athletes Who Are Ranked in the Olympics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulya, Bingol; Cemal, Gundogdu; Sukru, Bingol

    2012-01-01

    This study researched in the level of career planning of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics during the time they were active in sports and after they retired. This study which aimed to determine the career planning efficiency of Turkish athletes ranked in the Olympics based on the viewpoints of the athletes holding Olympic degree is scanning…

  10. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olympic Coast National Marine... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. O, App. A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922—Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point Latitude Longitude 1 47°07′45″...

  11. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olympic Coast National Marine... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. O, App. A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922—Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point Latitude Longitude 1 47°07′45″...

  12. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olympic Coast National Marine... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. O, App. A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922—Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point Latitude Longitude 1 47°07′45″...

  13. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olympic Coast National Marine... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. O, App. A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922—Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point Latitude Longitude 1 47°07′45″...

  14. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart O of... - Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olympic Coast National Marine... Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Pt. 922, Subpt. O, App. A Appendix A to Subpart O of Part 922—Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Boundary Coordinates Point Latitude Longitude 1 47°07′45″...

  15. Colluding with the Enemy?: Nationalism and Depictions of "Aboriginality" in Canadian Olympic Moments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adese, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    The 1976 Montreal Summer Olympic closing ceremony, the 1988 Calgary Winter Olympic opening ceremony, and the 2010 Winter Olympic opening ceremony in Vancouver each placed Indigenous peoples at the heart of its expressions of regional, provincial, and Canadian national identity in one form or another. Why is it that organizing committees view…

  16. Influence of Game Evolution and the Phase of Competition on Temporal Game Structure in High-Level Table Tennis Tournaments

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Jorge Vieira de Mello; Barbieri, Fabio Augusto; Miyagi, Willian; Malta, Elvis de Souza

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aims of this study were: a) to investigate the game temporal structure in high-level table tennis competitions; b) to verify the influence of game evolution in international competitions from 2009 to 2012 (World Table Tennis Championships and the Olympic Games) on game temporal structure; c) to compare game temporal structure according to the phase of competition. Comparisons between the three international tournaments demonstrated that rally duration decreased significantly (p < 0.05) during the analyzed period (2009-2012), while the rest time increased (p < 0.05) from 2009 to 2011, but decreased (p < 0.05) from 2011 to 2012. In the competition phase analysis, it was found that rally duration decreased (p < 0.05) in the quarterfinals in relation to the semifinals and finals, while the rest time increased (p < 0.05) from the quarterfinals to semifinals and finals. Based on our findings and previous literature, we concluded that the performance level, game evolution and the competition phase influenced the game temporal structure of table tennis, considering longer rest periods adopted by elite athletes in relation to non-elite athletes, the reduction in rally duration and an increase in rest time over the 2009-2012 period and through the competition phases (quarterfinals to finals). PMID:28210338

  17. Medical and Orthopaedic Conditions in Special Olympics Athletes

    PubMed Central

    2001-01-01

    Objective: Many Special Olympics athletes experience hypokinetic diseases and comorbid conditions that may predispose them to serious injuries during physical activity. A clear understanding of these conditions and diseases may assist health care professionals in preventing further distress and managing the injuries sustained by these athletes. Such diseases and conditions include overweight and obesity, diabetes, vision problems, seizure disorders, and Down syndrome, which is often associated with atlantoaxial instability. Data Sources: MEDLINE, SPORT Discus, and Special Olympics information sources for the years 1990–2000 using the key terms Special Olympics, mental retardation, comorbidity, Down syndrome, hypokinetic diseases, and physical activity were searched. Data Synthesis: A basic review of hypokinetic diseases and comorbid conditions prepares health care professionals for working with people with mental retardation. Conclusions and Recommendations: Health care volunteers at Special Olympics events treat athletes with mental retardation who may also have some of the comorbid conditions and hypokinetic diseases observed commonly in this population. Moreover, many of these conditions and diseases are typical in athletes without mental retardation. Athletic trainers should be familiar with these conditions and diseases but should review the unique conditions and prescription medications commonly found in the Special Olympics population before providing medical services for these athletes. PMID:16404438

  18. [Analysis of particle size characteristics of road sediments in Beijing Olympic Park].

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-yan; Shi, An-bang; Qu, Yang-sheng; Yue, Jing-lin

    2014-09-01

    Particle size analysis of road sediment collected in October and November in Beijing Olympic Park indicates that most of the sediments are 76-830 μm; the grain size of the sediments in the area of large population flow is mainly coarse but the grain size in the area of large traffic volume is fine relatively while most of the sediments are <300 p.m. Moreover, sediments of size range <300 μm can be easily accumulated on the road with moderate traffic density. The results demonstrate that the effect of pedestrian flow on the composition of the particles is unobvious and the main influences are the traffic density, extensive construction. With the length of dry period increasing, the content of sediments of size range >300 μm decreases and the content of sediments of size range < 150 μm increases, however, the change of the content of sediments of size range 150-300 μm is not obvious. The results indicate that the effectiveness of the road sediment removal depends on the length of dry period, and the accumulation of different size particles varies differently under the different dry days. Compared with the stone road, surface particles can accumulate on the asphalt road more easily as the accumulation of particles is affected by the road material significantly. Therefore, to reduce the urban surface water pollution, it is necessary to improve the design of park road such as using the stone road, which can decrease the roughness of the road.

  19. Examining mortality risk and rate of ageing among Polish Olympic athletes: a survival follow-up from 1924 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yuhui; Gajewski, Antoni; Poznańska, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Population-based studies have shown that an active lifestyle reduces mortality risk. Therefore, it has been a longstanding belief that individuals who engage in frequent exercise will experience a slower rate of ageing. It is uncertain whether this widely-accepted assumption holds for intense wear-and-tear. Here, using the 88 years survival follow-up data of Polish Olympic athletes, we report for the first time on whether frequent exercise alters the rate of ageing. Design Longitudinal survival data of male elite Polish athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from year 1924 to 2010 were used. Deaths occurring before the end of World War II were excluded for reliable estimates. Setting and participants Recruited male elite athletes N=1273 were preassigned to two categorical birth cohorts—Cohort I 1890–1919; Cohort II 1920–1959—and a parametric frailty survival analysis was conducted. An event-history analysis was also conducted to adjust for medical improvements from year 1920 onwards: Cohort II. Results Our findings suggest (1) in Cohort I, for every threefold reduction in mortality risk, the rate of ageing decelerates by 1%; (2) socioeconomic transitions and interventions contribute to a reduction in mortality risk of 29% for the general population and 50% for Olympic athletes; (3) an optimum benefit gained for reducing the rate of ageing from competitive sports (Cohort I 0.086 (95% CI 0.047 to 0.157) and Cohort II 0.085 (95% CI 0.050 to 0.144)). Conclusions This study further suggests that intensive physical training during youth should be considered as a factor to improve ageing and mortality risk parameters. PMID:27091824

  20. Night Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Paul

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how to control sports facility outdoor lighting during night games. Different lighting techniques are explored for keeping lighting inside the stadium and not disturb the surrounding community. (GR)

  1. The physics of traffic and regional development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helbing, Dirk; Nagel, Kai

    2004-05-01

    This contribution summarizes and explains various principles from physics which are used for the simulation of traffic flows in large street networks, the modelling of destination, transport mode, and route choice, or the simulation of urban growth and regional development. The methods stem from many-particle physics, from kinetic gas theory, or fluid dynamics. They involve energy and entropy considerations, transfer the law of gravity, apply cellular automata and require methods from evolutionary game theory. In this way, one can determine interaction forces among driver-vehicle units, reproduce breakdowns of traffic including features of synchronized congested flow, or understand changing usage patterns of alternative roads. One can also describe daily activity patterns based on decision models, simulate migration streams and model urban growth as a particular kind of aggregation process.

  2. Satellite Air Quality Monitoring Before, During and After the Beijing 2008 Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Krotkov, N. A.; Pickering, K. E.; Streets, D. G.; Gleason, J. F.; Gille, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In 2001, Beijing, China was awarded the hosting rights to the 2008 Olympic and Paralympic Games. Since then, the government has gradually implemented pollution emission control strategies to improve Beijing's air quality in preparation for both games. Long-term industrial and short-term vehicle emission controls have also been enforced upwind of Beijing's neighboring provinces to the south and west. This region is characterized by numerous heavy-polluting industries whose emissions are typically transported towards Beijing, significantly impacting the city's air quality. We examine the efficacy of these emission control measures on tropospheric NO2, SO2, and CO pollution using satellite data from Aura's Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra's Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) from 2004 to the present. During both games, held in August and September 2008, OMI and MOPITT measured significant decreases in all three tracer gases compared to the past three years: NO2 (-43%), SO2 (-13%), and CO (-12%). This decrease in CO and SO2 over northeastern China continues through 2009, reflecting the longer-term nature of emission controls on heavily polluting industries. The global recession is also a likely contributor, as factories have shut down or slowed production due to the decrease in demand for manufactured goods. The tropospheric NO2 column over Beijing returned to typical monthly mean values when controls on vehicle emissions were lifted by the end of September 2008. However, we observe a slight NO2 decrease at the beginning of 2009 relative to 2008 suggesting a decrease in the contribution of industrial emissions of NOx to the overall NO2 column.

  3. Game Animals of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game animals typical of Colorado. Discussions in both English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game animals, individual game species, and introduced species of game animals. (RE)

  4. Donor Tag Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Games > Donor Tag Game Printable Version Donor Tag Game This feature requires version 6 or later of ... LGBTQ+ Donors Blood Donor Community Real Stories SleevesUp Games Facebook Avatars and Badges Banners eCards Enter your ...

  5. Imitation games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Junji; Kaneko, Kunihiko

    1994-08-01

    Mutual-imitation games among artificial birds are studied. By employing a variety of mappings and game rules, the evolution to the edge between chaos and windows is confirmed. Some other general features are observed, including punctuated equilibria, and successive alternations of dominant species with temporal complexity. It is also shown that diversity of species is drastically enhanced if the songs are represented by discrete symbols.

  6. Bluetooth wireless monitoring, diagnosis and calibration interface for control system of fuel cell bus in Olympic demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Jianfeng; Lin, Xinfan; Xu, Liangfei; Li, Jianqiu; Ouyang, Minggao

    With the worldwide deterioration of the natural environment and the fossil fuel crisis, the possible commercialization of fuel cell vehicles has become a hot topic. In July 2008, Beijing started a clean public transportation plan for the 29th Olympic games. Three fuel cell city buses and 497 other low-emission vehicles are now serving the Olympic core area and Beijing urban areas. The fuel cell buses will operate along a fixed bus line for 1 year as a public demonstration of green energy vehicles. Due to the specialized nature of fuel cell engines and electrified power-train systems, measurement, monitoring and calibration devices are indispensable. Based on the latest Bluetooth wireless technology, a novel Bluetooth universal data interface was developed for the control system of the fuel cell city bus. On this platform, a series of wireless portable control auxiliary systems have been implemented, including wireless calibration, a monitoring system and an in-system programming platform, all of which are ensuring normal operation of the fuel cell buses used in the demonstration.

  7. Trafficability and workability of soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Trafficability and workability are soil capabilities supporting operations of agricultural machinery. Trafficability is a soil's capability to support agricultural traffic without degrading soils and ecosystems. Workability is a soil capability supporting tillage. Agriculture is associated with mech...

  8. Visualization of Traffic Accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Jie; Shen, Yuzhong; Khattak, Asad

    2010-01-01

    Traffic accidents have tremendous impact on society. Annually approximately 6.4 million vehicle accidents are reported by police in the US and nearly half of them result in catastrophic injuries. Visualizations of traffic accidents using geographic information systems (GIS) greatly facilitate handling and analysis of traffic accidents in many aspects. Environmental Systems Research Institute (ESRI), Inc. is the world leader in GIS research and development. ArcGIS, a software package developed by ESRI, has the capabilities to display events associated with a road network, such as accident locations, and pavement quality. But when event locations related to a road network are processed, the existing algorithm used by ArcGIS does not utilize all the information related to the routes of the road network and produces erroneous visualization results of event locations. This software bug causes serious problems for applications in which accurate location information is critical for emergency responses, such as traffic accidents. This paper aims to address this problem and proposes an improved method that utilizes all relevant information of traffic accidents, namely, route number, direction, and mile post, and extracts correct event locations for accurate traffic accident visualization and analysis. The proposed method generates a new shape file for traffic accidents and displays them on top of the existing road network in ArcGIS. Visualization of traffic accidents along Hampton Roads Bridge Tunnel is included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  9. The Traffic Light Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2014-01-01

    Traffic lights are an important part of the transportation infrastructure, regulating traffic flow and maintaining safety when crossing busy streets. When they go awry or become nonfunctional, a great deal of havoc and danger can be present. During power outages, the street lights go out all over the affected area. It would be good to be able to…

  10. Fatal chest injury with lung evisceration during athletic games in ancient Greece.

    PubMed

    Menenakos, Evangelos; Alexakis, Nicholas; Leandros, Emmanuel; Laskaratos, Gerasimos; Nikiteas, Nikolaos; Bramis, John; Fingerhut, Abe

    2005-10-01

    The "Olympic idealism" that dominates modern athletic culture is a myth. The true aims of the athletes in ancient Greece were rewards and life-long appointments to various positions in the military or the city administration. Competitions in the athletic games included, among others, wrestling, boxing, and pangration (a combination of wrestling and boxing). Occasionally, these games resulted in severe trauma or death. Two cases of extreme violence resulting in fatal chest trauma are presented and commented on from both surgical and social points of view.

  11. Chemical composition and size distribution of airborne particulate matters in Beijing during the 2008 Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xingru; Wang, Lili; Wang, Yuesi; Wen, Tianxue; Yang, Yongjie; Zhao, Yanan; Wang, Yingfeng

    2012-04-01

    Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected daily in Beijing from 1 Jun. to 20 Sep. during the Beijing Olympic Games in 2008 to investigate aerosol concentrations, particle size distributions, and sources as well as the effects of pollution control measures on the chemical compositions (including Water-soluble ions, trace elements, elemental carbon (EC), and organic carbon (OC)) in aerosols of different sizes. Water-soluble ions, EC, OC, and trace elements accounted for 45.0%, 1.6%, 14.7%, and 11.4% of the total particle mass (PM), respectively. Approximately 56%, 56%, 30%, 71% and 55% of the PM, water-soluble ions, trace elements, EC and OC, respectively, were associated with particles smaller than 2.1 μm. Sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium were the dominant ions, which together accounted for approximately 77% of total water-soluble ions. The crustal elements accounted for the majority of the trace elements present. Different sources showed different mass size distributions. Anthropogenic source compounds, such as sulfate, nitrate, ammonium, OC, EC, and toxic elements, were mainly present in fine mode aerosols, whereas crustal elements, such as Al, Fe, Ca, Mg and Ba, primarily occurred in the coarse mode. SO42- and NH4+ concentrations were strongly correlated (r2 = 0.90, slope = 1.63) in the fine mode, thereby indicating that SO42- was mainly present as (NH4)2SO4; in contrast, a weak correlation between SO42- and NH4+ (r2 = 0.18, slope = 0.54) was observed in the coarse mode, indicating that SO42- was associated with other ions. Similarly, SO42- and NO3- exhibited a stronger correlation in the fine mode than in the coarse mode, indicating that SO42- and NO3- were formed via the same in-cloud processes in fine particles. The OC/EC ratio and the correlations between EC and OC concentrations showed that the sources of carbonaceous species were secondary organic carbon from fine particles and the long-range transport of coarse carbonaceous particles from biomass

  12. At the Intersection of Networks and Highly Interactive Online Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armitage, Grenville

    The game industry continues to evolves its techniques for extracting the most realistic 'immersion' experience for players given the vagaries on best-effort Internet service. A key challenge for service providers is understanding the characteristics of traffic imposed on networks by games, and their service quality requirements. Interactive online games are particularly susceptible to the side effects of other non-interactive (or delay- and loss-tolerant) traffic sharing next- generation access links. This creates challenges out toward the edges, where high-speed home LANs squeeze through broadband consumer access links to reach the Internet. In this chapter we identify a range of research work exploring many issues associated with the intersection of highly interactive games and the Internet, and hopefully stimulate some further thinking along these lines.

  13. Multimedia traffic monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Sayegh, Osamah A.; Dashti, Ali E.

    2000-10-01

    Increasing congestion on roads and highways, and the problems associated with conventional traffic monitoring systems have generated an interest in new traffic surveillance systems, such as video image processing. These systems are expected to be more effective and more economical than conventional surveillance systems. In this paper, we describe the design of a traffic surveillance system, called Multimedia traffic Monitoring System. The system is based on a client/server model, with the following main modules: 1) video image capture module (VICM), 2) video image processing module (VIPM), and 3) database module (DBM). The VICM is used to capture the live feed from a digital camera. Depending on the mode of operation, VICM either: 1) sends the video images directly to the VIPM (on the same processing node), or 2) compresses the video images and sends them to the VIPM and/or the DBM on separate processing node(s). The main contribution of this paper is the design of a traffic monitoring system that uses image processing (VIPM) to estimate traffic flow. In the current implementation, VIPM estimates the number of vehicles per kilometer, while using 9 image sequences (at a rate of 4 frames per second). The VIPM algorithm generates a virtual grid and superimposes it on a part of the traffic scene. Motion and vehicle detection operators are carried out within each cell in the grid. Vehicle count is concluded based on the nine images of a sequence. The system is tested against a manual count of more than 40 image sequences (total of more than 365 traffic images) of various traffic situations. The results show that the system is able to determine the traffic flow with a precision of 1.5 vehicles per kilometer.

  14. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  15. Community health and nutrition screening for Special Olympics athletes.

    PubMed

    Cotugna, Nancy; Vickery, Connie E

    2003-12-01

    Since 1961, Special Olympics has provided sports training and athletic competition for people with mental retardation. A recent addition to these Olympics has been the Healthy Athletes Program, designed to help the athletes improve their health and fitness, leading to enhanced sports experiences and well being. Original health services included dental and eye screening. In 2002, Special Olympics Delaware piloted a Wellness Park to add nutrition, blood pressure, and flexibility screening. Faculty from a university's health college trained discipline-specific students to conduct the screenings. Thirty nutrition and dietetics students measured height, weight, waist circumference, and calculated body mass index (BMI) for the athletes. Figures and risk-assessments were recorded on a "health report card." Two hundred ten athletes attended the nutrition screening. Ages ranged from 8 to 63 years; 81 percent males and 19 percent females. According to BMI standards, 32 percent of the athletes were overweight; 17 percent were obese. Twenty-five percent of adult males and 73 percent of adult females had a high risk waist circumference. Athletes at high risk for obesity-related diseases were referred to their primary physician for follow up. Nutrition education handouts included a simplified Food Guide Pyramid, tips for healthy eating in restaurants, 5 A Day information, and healthful hydration guides. Approximately 1,250 athletes participate in Special Olympics Delaware each year, providing a great opportunity to do some much needed health screening and improve access to health care for this often neglected population.

  16. Ice Skating: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Special Olympics, Inc., Washington, DC.

    One of seven booklets on Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Programs, this guide presents teaching suggestions for ice skating coaches working with mentally retarded persons. An overview section introduces the sport and considers ideas for effective teaching. Goals, objectives, and benefits are considered along with information on…

  17. Animal Olympics: Trading Spring Fever for Field Day Fun.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1985-01-01

    Outlines activities of Animal Olympics Day held each spring by Staten Island Zoo. Events blend recreation and education into opportunities for children to "think and act like animals." A turtle obstacle course, human-sized nest building, and smelling to recognize items are examples of contests. Includes suggestions for starting similar…

  18. Participation Patterns in an Urban Special Olympics Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillespie, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Special Olympics is the largest competitive sports organisation in the world for athletes with intellectual disabilities. The organisation has attempted to make adjustments to its programmes in order to stay relevant to participants. However, minimal investigation relative to participation patterns and demographics of athletes are available. Given…

  19. Cross Country Skiing: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    The last of five booklets on specific sports instruction in Special Olympics presents information on teaching cross country skiing to mentally retarded persons. The approach uses goals, short term objectives, task analyzed activities, assessments and teaching suggestions for individualizing and integrating the sports skills instruction with other…

  20. Olympic Education as a Factor of Socialization of Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Varfolomeeva, Zoya S.; Surinov, Ilya A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is theoretical substantiation and experimental confirmation of importance of the Olympic education as a socialization factor of the preschoolers. To address the study issues, theoretical methods of analysis, generalization and systematization as well as personal and activity approaches were applied. The older preschoolers…

  1. Developing the Social Skills of Young Adult Special Olympics Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Melissa G. F.; Dummer, Gail M.; Smeltzer, Ashley; Denton, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine if young adult Special Olympics participants could develop, generalize, and maintain target social skills (eye contact, contributing relevant information, and turn taking) as a result of a 14-week Social Skills and Sports (S[superscript 3]) Program that combined classroom instruction with soccer…

  2. Swimming & Diving: Special Olympics Sports Skills Instructional Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph P. Kennedy, Jr. Foundation, Washington, DC.

    One of five parts of the Special Olympics' Sports Skills Instructional Program, the booklet addresses ways to teach swimming and diving to mentally retarded students. Short term objectives of the program encompass warmup, basic swimming and diving skills, safety, and good sportsmanship. The long term goal focuses on acquisition of basic skills,…

  3. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  4. Volunteer Motivations at a National Special Olympics Event

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28…

  5. Nutrition Needs Assessment of Young Special Olympics Participants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, Jennifer C.; Temple, Viviene A.; Anholt, Jane P.; Gaul, Catherine A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with intellectual disability (ID) are at increased risk for obesity and nutrition-related health concerns, yet there is a paucity of data describing their nutrition status. The purpose of this study was to evaluate nutritional challenges of young participants (2-10 years of age) enrolled in Special Olympics Canada (SOC)…

  6. Paralympic Legacy: Exploring the Impact of the Games on the Perceptions of Young People With Disabilities.

    PubMed

    Coates, Janine; Vickerman, Philip B

    2016-10-01

    The London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games aimed to deliver a legacy to citizens of the United Kingdom, which included inspiring a generation of young people to participate in sport. This study aimed to understand the legacy of the Paralympic Games for children with disabilities. Eight adolescents (11-16 yr) with physical disabilities were interviewed about their perceptions of the Paralympic Games. Thematic analysis found 3 key themes that further our understanding of the Paralympic legacy. These were Paralympians as role models, changing perceptions of disability, and the motivating nature of the Paralympics. Findings demonstrate that the Games were inspirational for children with disabilities, improving their self-perceptions. This is discussed in relation to previous literature, and core recommendations are made.

  7. Games, Game-Playing and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avedon, Elliott M.

    1982-01-01

    Game-playing has become a more generalized phenomenon than ever, entering into public recreation, school programs, and commercial promotional efforts. Games require competitive interaction between two or more individuals, making game-playing useful in clinical therapy and opening games to technological innovation. The latest such innovation is the…

  8. Serious Games: Video Games for Good?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanford, Kathy; Starr, Lisa J.; Merkel, Liz; Bonsor Kurki, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    As video games become a ubiquitous part of today's culture internationally, as educators and parents we need to turn our attention to how video games are being understood and used in informal and formal settings. Serious games have developed as a genre of video games marketed for educating youth about a range of world issues. At face value this…

  9. Athletic Trainers' Beliefs Toward Working With Special Olympics Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Conatser, Phillip; Naugle, Keith; Tillman, Mark; Stopka, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Context: Certified athletic trainers (ATs) are often the first health care providers to treat injured athletes. However, few researchers have studied ATs' beliefs concerning working with Special Olympics athletes. Objectives: To examine ATs' beliefs toward working with Special Olympics athletes by using the theory of planned behavior model and to examine the influence of moderator variables. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Athletic Trainers' Beliefs Toward Special Olympics Athletes survey instruments were mailed to 147 directors of Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs–accredited athletic training education programs (ATEPDs) in 43 states and 120 cities. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred twenty ATEPDs (44 women, 76 men). Main Outcome Measure(s): We used stepwise multiple regression analysis to determine whether attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention and to determine which moderator variables predicted attitude toward the behavior, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control. Pearson product moment correlations were used to determine ATEPDs' beliefs about how competent they felt working with Special Olympics athletes and whether they were currently working with these athletes. Results: We found that subjective norm, attitude toward the behavior, and perceived behavioral control predicted intention (R  =  0.697, R2  =  0.486, F3,112  =  35.3, P < .001) and that intention predicted ATEPDs' actual behaviors (R  =  0.503, R2  =  0.253, F1,118  =  39.995, P < .001). Moderator variables that predicted attitude toward the behavior included more years of experience working with Special Olympics athletes, completion of 1 or more courses in adapted physical activity, ATEPDs' competence, completion of 1 or more special education courses, and sex (R  =  0.589, R2  =  0.347, F5,111  =  11.780, P < .001). Moderator variables that

  10. A resolution commemorating the success of Team USA in the past 25 Olympic Games and supporting Team USA in the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2012-07-26

    07/26/2012 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S5626-5627; text as passed Senate: CR S5626-5627; text of measure as introduced: CR S5493-5494) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  11. The Olympic Movement's Strategy for the Integration of the Concept of Olympic Education into the Education System: The French Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnin, Eric

    2012-01-01

    For Pierre de Coubertin, Olympism was a tool which could serve to educate young people, employing a twofold approach, both sporting and intellectual. This ambitious programme involved a balance between mind and body, as his famous statement, "Mens fervida in corpore lacertoso" (a passionate mind in a well-trained body), demonstrates.…

  12. Math Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorenzi, Natalie

    2012-01-01

    Math games bring out kids' natural love of numbers. Yet in the waning days of school, students can't wait for that final bell to ring. Each summer, most students lose about two months of mathematical computation skills. So how do teachers keep their students focused on math up till the end? Before sending them off for the summer, get them hooked…

  13. Got Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lum, Lydia

    2007-01-01

    Around the country, disabled sports are often treated like second-class siblings to their able-bodied counterparts, largely because the latter bring in prestigious tournaments and bowl games, lucrative TV contracts and national exposure for top athletes and coaches. Because disabled people are so sparsely distributed in the general population, it…

  14. Shell Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atkinson, Bill

    1982-01-01

    The author critiques the program design and educational aspects of the Shell Games, a program developed by Apple Computer, Inc., which can be used by the teacher to design objective tests for adaptation to specific assessment needs. (For related articles, see EC 142 959-962.) (Author)

  15. Dangerous drivers foster social dilemma structures hidden behind a traffic flow with lane changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Fujiki, Takuya; Wang, Zhen; Hagishima, Aya; Ikegaya, Naoki

    2014-11-01

    Motivated by the fact that there are quite a few ill-mannered drivers who disregard traffic rules concerning lane-changing and maximum speed, we investigated an interesting question: whether or not social dilemma structures can be formed from a frequent dangerous lane-changing attitude in a typical traffic flow without any explicit bottlenecks. In our model system, two classes of driver-agents coexist: C agents (cooperative strategy) always keep to traffic regulations with respect to lane-changing and speed, while D agents (defective strategy) disregard them to move ahead. In relatively high-density flows, such as the metastable and high-density phases, we found structures that correspond to either n-person Prisoner's Dilemma (n-PD) games or to quasi-PD games. In these situations, existing ill-mannered drivers create heavy traffic jams that reduce social efficiency.

  16. Air Traffic Network Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    The high level requirement of the Air Traffic Network (ATN) project is to provide a mechanism for evaluating the impact of router scheduling modifications on a networks efficiency, without implementing the modifications in the live network.

  17. Business Games Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Robert G.; Gray, Clifford F.

    The aim of this handbook is to provide training directors and all others interested in business games with an organized listing and description of business games and their sources; and to provide a source of sufficient data to help them select games for a particular purpose. The games are categorized as general purpose games, used in management…

  18. Physiological and sport-specific skill response of olympic youth soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Vanderford, M Lydia; Meyers, Michael C; Skelly, William A; Stewart, C Craig; Hamilton, Karyn L

    2004-05-01

    Although many studies have been focused on soccer athletes, no comprehensive studies have been conducted on adolescent soccer athletes in the United States. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to quantify the physiological and sport-specific skill characteristics of Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) soccer athletes by age group and game experience. Following written, informed consent, 59 male athletes (age = 14.6 +/- 2.0 years; wt = 60.5 +/- 1.4 kg; ht = 172.4 +/- 1.2 cm) completed a battery of tests to determine aerobic power (VO(2)max), heart rate (HR(max)), ventilation (VE(max)), respiratory exchange ratio (RER), anaerobic threshold (AT), blood pressure (BP(rest/max)), anaerobic power/capacity [peak power (PP), mean power (MP), total work output (TWO), fatigue index (FI)], leg power [vertical squat jump (VJS), countermovement jump (VJC)], body composition [percent body fat (%BF), lean body mass (LBM)], joint range of motion (trunk, back, hip, knee, and ankle), and agility/sport-specific skills (T-test, line drill test, juggling test, Johnson wall volley, and modified-Zelenka circuit). Factor analyses with subsequent multivariate analyses of variance (MANOVAs) indicated significant main effects across age (p = 0.0001) but not by game experience (p = 0.82). Older athletes exhibited greater height, weight, LBM, VE(max), Time(max), PP, TWO, and VSJ values than younger athletes. Although not significant, there were differences with increasing age in the agility tests (T-test, wall volley, and juggling test). In conclusion, improvements in anaerobic power, agility, and sport-specific skill should be addressed at this developmental level of competition.

  19. Assessing change in health professions volunteers' perceptions after participating in Special Olympics healthy athlete events.

    PubMed

    Freudenthal, Jacqueline J; Boyd, Linda D; Tivis, Rick

    2010-09-01

    This study assessed perceptions of health professions student and faculty volunteers who participated with athletes at the 2009 Special Olympics World Winter Games in Healthy Athlete venues. The volunteers' perceptions and expectations of the abilities of intellectually disabled athletes were measured by administering pre-event and post-event questionnaires consisting of demographic questions and the Prognostic Belief Scale (PBS). Invitations to participate in the study were sent to 165 students and faculty members; of those, eighty (48.5 percent response rate) responded to the pre-event questionnaire, and sixty-seven (40.6 percent response rate) responded to the post-event questionnaire. Of the eighty respondents to the pre-event questionnaire, fifty-five (68.7 percent) also completed the post-event questionnaire. The ANOVA comparing pre- and post-event PBS scores between groups found a trend towards higher scores among the volunteers, but analysis did not demonstrate a significant effect in either group (p=.68) or the interaction of group by time (p=.46). Despite the findings from the PBS, participants' statements suggest the experience had an impact on their perceptions and expectations. Although not statistically significant, this study found a positive trend pre- to post-event in the volunteers' perceptions of the abilities of athletes with intellectual disabilities. In addition to didactic and clinical education, volunteer experiences may enhance care providers' knowledge, skill, and confidence levels for treating clients with intellectual disabilities.

  20. Equipment set-up among Olympic sprint and slalom kayak paddlers.

    PubMed

    Ong, K B; Ackland, T R; Hume, P A; Ridge, B; Broad, E; Kerr, D A

    2005-01-01

    The anthropometry and equipment set-up for sprint (31 male; 11 female) and slalom (12 male; 12 female) kayak paddlers who competed at the 2000 Olympic Games in Sydney were measured in the 15 day period before competition. This paper provides normative data for equipment set-up in these sports, as well as information about differences in rigging and paddle dimensions between sprint and slalom kayak paddlers. These differences were consistent for both male and female athletes, with sprint paddlers seated higher and using longer paddles with longer, though narrower, blades (p < 0.0001). Among male sprint paddlers, only minor differences in equipment set-up were found between competitors ranked in the top 10 places compared to the rest of the field. Considering all male paddlers initially, then sprint paddlers alone, significant (p < 0.01) regression equations were developed for the prediction of foot bar distance (r2 = 0.482 and 0.589 respectively) and hand grip distance (r2 = 0.400 and 0.541 respectively). The process of fine tuning equipment set-up often requires hours of practice with subjective feedback from the athlete. The normative data presented in this paper should assist coaches with this process as their athletes evolve toward their individual optimum set-up.

  1. Air pollution source apportionment before, during, and after the 2008 Beijing Olympics and association of sources to aldehydes and biomarkers of blood coagulation, pulmonary and systemic inflammation, and oxidative stress in healthy young adults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent A.

    Based on principal component analysis (PCA) of air pollution data collected during the Summer Olympic Games held in Beijing, China during 2008, the five source types of air pollution identified -- natural soil/road dust, vehicle and industrial combustion, vegetative burning, oil combustion, and secondary formation, were all distinctly lower during the Olympics. This was particularly true for vehicle and industrial combustion and oil combustion, and during the main games period between the opening and closing ceremonies. The reduction in secondary formation was reflective of a reduction in nitrogen oxides, but this also contributed to increased ozone concentrations during the Olympic period. Among three toxic aldehydes measured in Beijing during the same time period, only acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Accordingly, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion, and with several pollutants emitted mainly from primary sources. In contrast, formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the Olympic air pollution control period; accordingly both were significantly correlated with ozone and with the secondary formation source type. These findings indicate primary sources may dominate for acetaldehyde while secondary sources may dominate for formaldehyde and acrolein. Biomarkers for pulmonary inflammation (exhaled breath condensate (EBC) pH, exhaled nitric oxide, and EBC nitrite) and hemostasis and blood coagulation (vWF and sCD62p) were most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion, oil combustion, and vegetative burning. The systemic inflammation biomarker 8-OHdG was most consistently associated with vehicle and industrial combustion. In contrast, the associations between the biomarkers and the aldehydes were generally not significant or in the hypothesized direction, although

  2. Blood Type Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  3. Physics of Traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreckenberg, Michael

    2002-03-01

    In the past decade the investigation of the complex behaviour of traffic dynamics became an active field of (interdisciplinary) research. On the one hand this is due to a fastly growing availability of 'experimental' data from measurements with various kinds of sensors, on the other hand due to an enormous improvement of the modelling techniques from statistical physics. This has led to the identification of several new phases of traffic flow and the characterization of the corresponding phase transitions between them. Nowadays many of the occurring dynamical phenomena are understood quite well although a complete understanding, especially of the interrelation between the models on the different scales (micro-, meso-, macroscopic), is still missing. Whereas earlier attempts tried to describe traffic flow in a hydrodynamical formulation the current microscopic models are able to take into not only the physically correct motion of single cars but also certain aspects of the driver's behaviour. It turns out that the simple car following theories cannot explain the complex structures found, e.g., in synchronized traffic, a new state found only recently. Here a more detailed analysis is necessary which goes far beyond the pure modelling of the motion of the cars in analogy to granular media (grains of sand, pills, corn, etc.). The detailed knowledge of traffic dynamics not of purely scientific interest but also absolutely necessary for practical applications. With the help of online data from measurements of flows and speeds it is possible to construct a complete picture of the actual traffic state with real time simulations. As a very efficient model ansatz cellular automata have been shown to be a reasonable compromise between simulation speed and descripiton accuracy. Beyond the reproduction of the actual state a reliable traffic forecast should be possible although the driver's reaction on the forecast still remains unclear.

  4. Computer Games and Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobias, Sigmund, Ed.; Fletcher, J. D., Ed.

    2011-01-01

    There is intense interest in computer games. A total of 65 percent of all American households play computer games, and sales of such games increased 22.9 percent last year. The average amount of game playing time was found to be 13.2 hours per week. The popularity and market success of games is evident from both the increased earnings from games,…

  5. Is Olympic inspiration associated with fitness and physical activity in English schoolchildren? A repeated cross-sectional comparison before and 18 months after London 2012

    PubMed Central

    Sandercock, Gavin R H; Beedie, Chris; Mann, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To compare cardiovascular fitness and physical activity of schoolchildren 18 months after London 2012 according to Olympic ‘inspiration’. Design A cross-sectional comparison between groups of schoolchildren categorised according to self-reported Olympic inspiration and a repeated cross-sectional comparison using data collected pre-2012. Setting Schools within a 50 km radius of the Olympic Park, Stratford, London. Participants 931 students (10.0–15.9-year-olds) attending 6 schools assessed in 2013 and 2014 (18 (range: 14–20) months after London 2012) and 733 students from the same schools assessed in 2008–2009 (42 (range: 38–46) months before London 2012). Primary outcome measures Self-reported Olympic inspiration; cardiorespiratory fitness ( mL/kg/min) assessed using the 20 m shuttle-run and self-reported physical activity. Secondary outcomes measures Differences in before and after London 2012. Results 53% of children reported being inspired to try new sports or activities. Compared with those not inspired by the Games, was higher in boys (d=0.43) and girls (d=0.27), who continued to participate in activities at 18(14–20) months. This 45% of sample was also more physically active (boys, d=0.23; girls, d=0.38) than those not or only briefly inspired to participate in activities (boys, d=0.24; girls, d=0.21). Compared with pre-2012 values, was lower post-2012 in boys (d=0.37) and in girls (d=0.38). Conclusions High levels of inspiration to participate in new activities reported following London 2012 and positive associations with fitness are encouraging. We cannot discount the possibility that inspired participants may have already been fitter and more active pre-2012. These associations must be interpreted in the context of the significant declines in fitness shown by our repeated cross-sectional comparison. Olympic host countries should employ longitudinal monitoring using objectively measured fitness and physical activity to

  6. Sparky's Firehouse (Games)

    MedlinePlus

    Parents Educators MENU Home Videos Games & Apps Activities Sparky Firetrucks Parents Educators Firetrucks Videos Games Sparky Apps Activities The name and image of Sparky are registered trademarks ...

  7. Virginia's traffic management system

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.; Marber, S. )

    1992-07-01

    This paper reports that Northern Virginia, like most other urban areas, faces the challenge of moving more and more vehicles on roads that are already overloaded. Traffic in Northern Virginia is continually increasing, but the development surrounding Interstate 395, 495, and 66 makes little room available for roadway expansion. Even if land were unlimited, the strict requirement of the Clean Air Act make building roads difficult. This paper reports that ensuring the most efficient use of the interstate highways is the goal of the Virginia Department of Transportation's (VDOT's) traffic management system (TMS). TMS is a computerized highway surveillance and control system that monitors 30 interstate miles on I-395, I-495, and I-66. The system helps squeeze the most use from these interstates by detecting and helping clear accidents or disabled vehicles and by smoothing traffic flow. TMS spots and helps clear an average of two incidents a day and prevents accidents caused by erratic traffic flow from ramps onto the main line. For motorists, these TMS functions translate into decreased travel time, vehicle operating costs, and air pollution. VDOT's TMS is the foundation for the intelligent vehicle-highway systems of tomorrow. It employs several elements that work together to improve traffic flow.

  8. Traffic camera system development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Toshi

    1997-04-01

    The intelligent transportation system has generated a strong need for the development of intelligent camera systems to meet the requirements of sophisticated applications, such as electronic toll collection (ETC), traffic violation detection and automatic parking lot control. In order to achieve the highest levels of accuracy in detection, these cameras must have high speed electronic shutters, high resolution, high frame rate, and communication capabilities. A progressive scan interline transfer CCD camera, with its high speed electronic shutter and resolution capabilities, provides the basic functions to meet the requirements of a traffic camera system. Unlike most industrial video imaging applications, traffic cameras must deal with harsh environmental conditions and an extremely wide range of light. Optical character recognition is a critical function of a modern traffic camera system, with detection and accuracy heavily dependent on the camera function. In order to operate under demanding conditions, communication and functional optimization is implemented to control cameras from a roadside computer. The camera operates with a shutter speed faster than 1/2000 sec. to capture highway traffic both day and night. Consequently camera gain, pedestal level, shutter speed and gamma functions are controlled by a look-up table containing various parameters based on environmental conditions, particularly lighting. Lighting conditions are studied carefully, to focus only on the critical license plate surface. A unique light sensor permits accurate reading under a variety of conditions, such as a sunny day, evening, twilight, storms, etc. These camera systems are being deployed successfully in major ETC projects throughout the world.

  9. LHC Olympics Workshop and String Phenomenology 2006 Conference

    SciTech Connect

    David Gross

    2006-10-01

    This is the final report of the organizers of the String Phenomenolgy program of which the LHC Olympics and the String Phenomenolgy conference were a part. In addition, it includes the list of talks from our website which comprise the online proceedings. The KITP no longer publishes conferences proceedings but rather makes recordings and visuals of all talks available on its website at www.kitp.ucsb.edu Program talks are available at http://online.kitp.ucsb.edu/online/strings06/ Conference talks are are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/strings_c06/ and LHC Olympics talks are at http://online.itp.ucsb.edu/online/lhco_c06/. These talks constitute the proceedings of these meetings.

  10. The timing of fluid intake during an Olympic distance triathlon.

    PubMed

    McMurray, Robert G; Williams, David K; Battaglini, Claudio L

    2006-12-01

    Seven highly trained male triathletes, aged 18 to 35 years, were tested during two simulated Olympic distance triathlons to determine whether run performance was enhanced when consuming 177 ml of water at 8, 16, 24, and 32 kilometers (Early Trials) compared to consumption at 10, 20, 30, and 40 kilometers (Late Trials), during the cycling segment of the triathlon. Swim times for 1500 m were similar between trials; 40-km cycling times were approximately 10 s faster during the Late Trials; however, 10-km run times were faster during the Early Trials (P < 0.02). No significant differences between run trials were found for the rating of perceived exertion, oxygen uptake, heart rate, and change in urine specific gravity. It was concluded that the consumption of fluids earlier in the cycle phase of the Olympic distance triathlon benefits the run and overall performance time.

  11. Talent identification and promotion programmes of Olympic athletes.

    PubMed

    Vaeyens, Roel; Güllich, Arne; Warr, Chelsea R; Philippaerts, Renaat

    2009-11-01

    The start of a new Olympic cycle offers a fresh chance for individuals and nations to excel at the highest level in sport. Most countries attempt to develop systematic structures to identify gifted athletes and to promote their development in a certain sport. However, forecasting years in advance the next generation of sporting experts and stimulating their development remains problematic. In this article, we discuss issues related to the identification and preparation of Olympic athletes. We provide field-based data suggesting that an earlier onset and a higher volume of discipline-specific training and competition, and an extended involvement in institutional talent promotion programmes, during adolescence need not necessarily be associated with greater success in senior international elite sport. Next, we consider some of the promising methods that have been (recently) presented in the literature and applied in the field. Finally, implications for talent identification and promotion and directions for future research are highlighted.

  12. China’s Economy and the Beijing Olympics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-08-06

    Administration, China received nearly 132 million “ inbound tourists” — including over 26 million “foreigners” in 2007.16 China’s domestic tourism has grown...same level as last year.17 Just like the case of Lillehammer, Beijing hotels built in anticipation of a surge in tourism are experiencing...see Jon Tiegland, “Mega-events and Impacts on Tourism ; the Predictions and Realities of the Lillehammer Olympics,” Impact Assessment and Project

  13. What if Other Species Could Compete in the Olympics?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Georgie

    2012-01-01

    To date, the fastest Olympic sprinter is Usain Bolt, who ran 200 m in 19.19 seconds. Would any other animal species on the planet have a chance of beating this man in a race? Children find this kind of question intriguing, and introducing a topic like this is a great way to make biology and mathematics fun. It provides a more practical application…

  14. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Nie, W.; Gao, J.; Xue, L. K.; Gao, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Qiu, J.; Poon, C. N.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Wang, S. L.; Ding, A. J.; Chai, F. H.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2010-08-01

    This paper presents the first results of the measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and outside Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. The official air pollution index near the Olympic Stadium and the data from our nearby site revealed an obvious association between air quality and meteorology and different responses of secondary and primary pollutants to the control measures. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an urban site dropped by 25% and 20-45% in the first two weeks after full control was put in place, but the levels of ozone, sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased by 16%, 64%, 37%, respectively, compared to the period prior to the full control; wind data and back trajectories indicated the contribution of regional pollution from the North China Plain. Air quality (for both primary and secondary pollutants) improved significantly during the Games, which were also associated with the changes in weather conditions (prolonged rainfall, decreased temperature, and more frequent air masses from clean regions). A comparison of the ozone data at three sites on eight ozone-pollution days, when the air masses were from the southeast-south-southwest sector, showed that regional pollution sources contributed >34-88% to the peak ozone concentrations at the urban site in Beijing. Regional sources also contributed significantly to the CO concentrations in urban Beijing. Ozone production efficiencies at two sites were low (~3 ppbv/ppbv), indicating that ozone formation was being controlled by VOCs. Compared with data collected in 2005 at a downwind site, the concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), total sulfur (SO2+PM2.5 sulfate), carbon monoxide (CO), reactive aromatics (toluene and xylenes) sharply decreased (by 8-64%) in 2008, but no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of PM2.5, fine sulfate, total odd reactive nitrogen (NOy), and longer

  15. Urinary Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Metabolites as Biomarkers of Exposure to Traffic-Emitted Pollutants

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Rich, David Q.; Huang, Wei; Lin, Wan-Ting; Hu, Min; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim)

    2015-01-01

    1-nitro-pyrene has been considered a compound specific to diesel combustion emission, while 1- and 2-nitro-napthalene are mainly produced through photochemical conversion of naphthalene released to the atmosphere. Metabolites of these compounds may serve as biomarkers of exposure to traffic related pollutants. We collected urine samples from 111 healthy and nonsmoking subjects within (i.e., during the Beijing Olympics) and outside (i.e., before and after the Olympics) a traffic control regime to improve Beijing’s air quality. Urines were analyzed for the sum of 1&2-amino-naphthalene (metabolites of 1- and 2-nitro-naphthalene) and 1-amino-pyrene (a metabolite of 1-nitro-pyrene), using an HPLC-fluorescence method. Within the same time periods, PM2.5 mass and constituents were measured, including elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate, PAHs, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particle number concentrations. The associations between the urinary metabolites and air pollutants were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to during-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene decreased by 23% (p=0.066) and 16% (p=0.049), respectively, while there was no change in 1-amino-pyrene (2% increase, p=0.892). From during- to post-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene, 1-amino-pyrene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene concentrations increased by 26% (p=0.441), 37% (p=0.355), and 3% (p=0.868), respectively. Furthermore, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene were associated with traffic related pollutants in a similar lag pattern. 1-amino-pyrene was associated more strongly with diesel combustion products (e.g. PN and elemental carbon) and not affected by season. Time-lag analyses indicate strongest/largest associations occurred 24–72 hours following exposure. 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene can be used as a biomarker of exposure to general vehicle-emitted pollutants. More data are needed to confirm 1-amino-pyrene as a

  16. Urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon metabolites as biomarkers of exposure to traffic-emitted pollutants.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Kipen, Howard; Rich, David Q; Huang, Wei; Lin, Wan-Ting; Hu, Min; Zhang, Junfeng Jim

    2015-12-01

    1-Nitro-pyrene has been considered a compound specific to diesel combustion emission, while 1- and 2-nitro-napthalene are mainly produced through photochemical conversion of naphthalene released to the atmosphere. Metabolites of these compounds may serve as biomarkers of exposure to traffic related pollutants. We collected urine samples from 111 healthy and non-smoking subjects within (i.e., during the Beijing Olympics) and outside (i.e., before and after the Olympics) a traffic control regime to improve Beijing's air quality. Urines were analyzed for the sum of 1&2-amino-naphthalene (metabolites of 1- and 2-nitro-naphthalene) and 1-amino-pyrene (a metabolite of 1-nitro-pyrene), using an HPLC-fluorescence method. Within the same time periods, PM2.5 mass and constituents were measured, including elemental carbon, sulfate, nitrate, PAHs, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, ozone, and particle number concentrations. The associations between the urinary metabolites and air pollutants were analyzed using linear mixed-effects models. From the pre- to during-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene decreased by 23% (p=0.066) and 16% (p=0.049), respectively, while there was no change in 1-amino-pyrene (2% increase, p=0.892). From during- to post-Olympic period, 1&2-amino-naphthalene, 1-amino-pyrene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene concentrations increased by 26% (p=0.441), 37% (p=0.355), and 3% (p=0.868), respectively. Furthermore, 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene were associated with traffic related pollutants in a similar lag pattern. 1-amino-pyrene was associated more strongly with diesel combustion products (e.g. PN and elemental carbon) and not affected by season. Time-lag analyses indicate strongest/largest associations occurred 24-72h following exposure. 1&2-amino-naphthalene and 1-hydroxy-pyrene can be used as a biomarker of exposure to general vehicle-emitted pollutants. More data are needed to confirm 1-amino-pyrene as a biomarker

  17. Emergent traffic jams

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Paczuski, M. |

    1995-04-01

    We study a single-lane traffic model that is based on human driving behavior. The outflow from a traffic jam self-organizes to a critical state of maximum throughput. Small perturbations of the outflow far downstream create emergent traffic jams with a power law distribution {ital P}({ital t}){similar_to}{ital t}{sup {minus}3/2} of lifetimes {ital t}. On varying the vehicle density in a closed system, this critical state separates lamellar and jammed regimes and exhibits 1/{ital f} noise in the power spectrum. Using random walk arguments, in conjunction with a cascade equation, we develop a phenomenological theory that predicts the critical exponents for this transition and explains the self-organizing behavior. These predictions are consistent with all of our numerical results.

  18. Fleet Arctic Operations Game: Game Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    By: Director: CDR Christopher Gray Designer : Prof. Leif Bergey Analyst: Prof. Walter A. Berbrick Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No...7 II. GAME DESIGN & RESEARCH...METHODOLOGY ......................................................................... 9 Discussion of Game Design

  19. Generalized Deterministic Traffic Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuks, Henryk; Boccara, Nino

    We study a family of deterministic models for highway traffic flow which generalize cellular automaton rule 184. This family is parameterized by the speed limit m and another parameter k that represents a "degree of aggressiveness" in driving, strictly related to the distance between two consecutive cars. We compare two driving strategies with identical maximum throughput: "conservative" driving with high speed limit and "aggressive" driving with low speed limit. Those two strategies are evaluated in terms of accident probability. We also discuss fundamental diagrams of generalized traffic rules and examine limitations of maximum achievable throughput. Possible modifications of the model are considered.

  20. Nowcasting in the FROST-2014 Sochi Olympic project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bica, Benedikt; Wang, Yong; Joe, Paul; Isaac, George; Kiktev, Dmitry; Bocharnikov, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    FROST (Forecast and Research: the Olympic Sochi Testbed) 2014 is a WMO WWRP international project aimed at development, implementation, and demonstration of capabilities of short-range numerical weather prediction and nowcasting technologies for mountainous terrain in winter season. Sharp weather contrasts and high spatial and temporal variability are typical for the region of the Sochi-2014 Olympics. Steep mountainous terrain and an intricate mixture of maritime sub-tropical and Alpine environments make weather forecasting in this region extremely challenging. Goals of the FROST-2014 project: • To develop a comprehensive information resource of Alpine winter weather observations; • To improve and exploit: o Nowcasting systems of high impact weather phenomena (precipitation type and intensity, snow levels, visibility, wind speed, direction and gusts) in complex terrain; o High-resolution deterministic and ensemble mesoscale forecasts in winter complex terrain environment; • To improve the understanding of physics of high impact weather phenomena in the region; • To deliver forecasts (Nowcasts) to Olympic weather forecasters and decision makers and assess benefits of forecast improvement. 46 Automatic Meteorological Stations (AMS) were installed in the Olympic region by Roshydromet, by owners of sport venues and by the Megafon corporation, provider of mobile communication services. The time resolution of AMS observations does not exceed 10 minutes. For a subset of the stations it is even equal to 1 min. Data flow from the new dual polarization Doppler weather radar WRM200 in Sochi was organized at the end of 2012. Temperature/humidity and wind profilers and two Micro Rain Radars (MRR) will supplement the network. Nowcasting potential of NWP models participating in the project (COSMO, GEM, WRF, AROME, HARMONIE) is to be assessed for direct and post-processed (e.g. Kalman filter, 1-D model, MOS) model forecasts. Besides the meso-scale models, the specialized

  1. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index

    MedlinePlus

    ... death in the United States. 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index January 2014 607 14th Street, NW, Suite ... org | 202-638-5944 Title 2013 Traffic Safety Culture Index (January 2014) About the Sponsor AAA Foundation ...

  2. Mobile Game for Learning Bacteriology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sugimura, Ryo; Kawazu, Sotaro; Tamari, Hiroki; Watanabe, Kodai; Nishimura, Yohei; Oguma, Toshiki; Watanabe, Katsushiro; Kaneko, Kosuke; Okada, Yoshihiro; Yoshida, Motofumi; Takano, Shigeru; Inoue, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    This paper treats serious games. Recently, one of the game genres called serious game has become popular, which has other purposes besides enjoyments like education, training and so on. Especially, learning games of the serious games seem very attractive for the age of video games so that the authors developed a mobile game for learning…

  3. Communication Games in Print.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneiderman, Ellen

    1990-01-01

    This article presents a rationale and ways to use communication games in written form to entice deaf children to try new forms of language. It emphasizes the importance of using communicative teaching methods and considering students' communicative adequacy rather than form. Games include picture/object matching games and bingo/lotto games. (JDD)

  4. Game Birds of Colorado.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Div. of Wildlife, Denver.

    This booklet is intended to familiarize the reader with game birds typical of Colorado. Discussions in English and Spanish are presented. Discussions cover the management of game birds, individual game bird species, and endangered species of birds related to game birds. (RE)

  5. Learning with Calculator Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frahm, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Educational games provide a fun introduction to new material and a review of mathematical algorithms. Specifically, games can be designed to assist students in developing mathematical skills as an incidental consequence of the game-playing process. The programs presented in this article are adaptations of board games or television shows that…

  6. Environmental Games and Simulations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckman, Tom, Comp.

    This publication consists of a lengthy list of environmental games (35) on the market today, their source and purchase price. Included is a description of the major changes the types of games have undergone. The first group of games resembled closely ordinary board games with success dependent on skill and/or chance rather than understanding of…

  7. Games for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gee, James Paul

    2013-01-01

    Today there is a great deal of interest in and a lot of hype about using video games in schools. Video games are a new silver bullet. Games can create good learning because they teach in powerful ways. The theory behind game-based learning is not really new, but a traditional and well-tested approach to deep and effective learning, often…

  8. 40 CFR 81.187 - Olympic-Northwest Washington Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...: Clallam County, Grays Harbor County, Island County, Jefferson County, Mason County, Pacific County, San... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Olympic-Northwest Washington... Designation of Air Quality Control Regions § 81.187 Olympic-Northwest Washington Intrastate Air...

  9. Educating Copacabana: A Critical Analysis of the "Second Half", an Olympic Education Program of Rio 2016

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knijnik, Jorge; Tavares, Otavio

    2012-01-01

    The Second Half Program (SHP) is an educational sports program running in Brazil. It began in 2003 and was one of the Olympic educational proposals described in the Rio 2016 Olympics bid. Using sport as a tool, the SHP aims to deliver moral education and to promote citizenship in order to counteract "social exclusion" and "social…

  10. 75 FR 36346 - Olympic National Forest; Title II Resource Advisory Committee Meeting Advisory

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Olympic National Forest; Title II Resource Advisory Committee Meeting Advisory AGENCY: Olympic National... project proposals and provide recommendations for Title II projects to be funded by the Secure...

  11. Human Integration through Olympism Education: A Pragmatic Engagement of Youths in a War-Torn Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nanayakkara, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    This paper delineates the findings of a mixed methods study that investigated how Olympism education could strengthen competencies of human integration through delivery of physical, social, and critical literacy and conflict resolution literacy. The study introduced a curriculum model integrating Olympism values and conflict resolution strategies…

  12. PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and light extinction before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; He, Kebin; Li, Chengcai; Yang, Fumo; Zhao, Qing; Ma, Yongliang; Cheng, Yuan; Ouyang, Wenjuan; Chen, Gangcai

    2013-11-01

    contrast of air quality and visibility before and during the 2008 Beijing Olympic Games provides a rare opportunity to investigate the links between PM2.5 mass, chemical composition, and light extinction in this megacity. Twenty-four hour integrated PM2.5 samples were collected, and light scattering coefficients and the concentrations of black carbon were measured at urban Beijing for this purpose during a measurement campaign from 1 July to 20 September 2008, which was classed into four stages according to the levels of emission control measures. Daily PM2.5 concentrations ranged from 15.9 to 156.7 µg m-3 with an average of 66.0 ± 35.1 µg m-3. The average PM2.5 mass during the Olympics decreased by 49% from the second stage (20 July to 7 August), mainly due to the reduction of secondary inorganic aerosols (i.e., sulfate, nitrate, and ammonium (SNA)). The counterintuitive increase of PM2.5 mass (by 27% on average) during the second stage with two most serious haze episodes, although more rigorous emission control measures were in place, compared to the first stage (1-19 July), was mainly explained by the unfavorable meteorology and input of sulfate aerosols. A daily PM2.5 mass threshold of 50 µg m-3 was extracted for frequent haze occurrence. The extinction fractions of SNA and organic material were each approximately 30% during the 20% best visibility days but changed to 81.7% and 8.4%, respectively, during the 20% worst visibility days. The results indicated that the role of SNA was magnified in haze formation during the 2008 summer in Beijing.

  13. Alcohol and Traffic Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickman, Frances Baker, Ed.

    1988-01-01

    Seven papers discuss current issues and applied social research concerning alcohol traffic safety. Prevention, policy input, methodology, planning strategies, anti-drinking/driving programs, social-programmatic orientations of Mothers Against Drunk Driving, Kansas Driving Under the Influence Law, New Jersey Driving While Impaired Programs,…

  14. Surface Traffic Management Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, Yoo Chul

    2012-01-01

    This presentation discusses an overview of the surface traffic management research conducted by NASA Ames. The concept and human-in-the-loop simulation of the Spot and Runway Departure Advisor (SARDA), an integrated decision support tool for the tower controllers and airline ramp operators, is also discussed.

  15. The Classroom Traffic Jam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Arthur W.

    1977-01-01

    The importance of energy conservation is developed in this simulation. Children draw an automobile and then are asked to drive it through the classroom roadways. When a traffic jam results, students offer ways to eliminate it. The importance of mass transportation and car pools is stressed by the teacher. (MA)

  16. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Pedestrians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Data tables include: (1) trends in pedestrian and total traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (2) pedestrians killed and injured, by age group, 2001; (3) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (4) pedestrian fatalities, by time of day and day of week,…

  17. Pedestrians. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on U.S. traffic accidents involving pedestrians. Data tables include: (1) trends in pedestrian and total traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (2) pedestrians killed and injured, by age group, 2000; (3) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (4) pedestrian fatalities, by time of day and day of week,…

  18. Traffic Safety Facts, 2001: Pedalcylists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on traffic accidents involving U.S. bicyclists. Data include: (1) trends in pedalcyclist and total traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (2) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1991-2001; (3) pedalcyclists killed and injured, and fatality and injury rates, by age and sex, 2000 [2001 population data by age group…

  19. Pedalcylists. Traffic Safety Facts, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This document provides statistical information on traffic accidents involving U.S. bicyclists. Data include: (1) trends in pedalcyclist and total traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (2) non-occupant traffic fatalities, 1990-2000; (3) pedalcyclists killed and injured, and fatality and injury rates, by age and sex, 2000; and (4) pedalcyclist traffic…

  20. The Uses of Teaching Games in Game Theory Classes and Some Experimental Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shubik, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the use of lightly controlled games, primarily in classes in game theory. Considers the value of such games from the viewpoint of both teaching and experimentation and discusses context; control; pros and cons of games in teaching; experimental games; and games in class, including cooperative game theory. (Author/LRW)

  1. The effects of a three-year integrated Olympic education programme on adolescents' prosocial behaviours.

    PubMed

    Sukys, Saulius; Majauskiene, Daiva; Dumciene, Audrone

    2017-04-01

    The concept of Olympic education and its use of moral education to shape the development of personality have received insufficient empirical support. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an integrated Olympic education programme on the development of prosocial behaviour in adolescents. A natural experimental research design was applied in this study. The pre-test sample included 411 adolescents (aged 13-14) who were randomly selected from schools that had begun to apply an integrated Olympic education programme, along with 430 adolescents from schools without an Olympic education programme. The post-test sample included 381 students from schools implementing the Olympic education programme and 402 students from schools without an Olympic education programme. The revised prosocial tendencies measure was administered to the participants at pre- and post-test time points to assess changes in prosocial behaviour and specifically on six types of prosocial behaviour: public, anonymous, dire, emotional, compliant, and altruistic. The analyses showed significant improvements in prosocial behaviour in adolescents from schools that had implemented an integrated Olympic education programme. Changes in prosocial behaviour following the implementation of an integrated Olympic education programme were observed for the compliant, altruistic, and dire types of prosocial behaviour. In conclusion, these findings suggest that an integrated Olympic education programme effectively encourages prosocial behaviour in adolescents. This study expands our understanding of the efficiency of implementing an Olympic education programme in schools. We suggest that future research should investigate the behavioural changes in students of different ages from perspective of both teachers and students.

  2. Influence of the details of topography on weather forecast - evaluation of HARMONIE experiments in the Sochi Olympics domain over the Caucasian mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rontu, Laura; Wastl, Clemens; Niemela, Sami

    2016-02-01

    New fine-resolution surface elevation data was implemented into HARMONIE-AROME-SURFEX Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) system. The grid-scale mean orography, used as a basis of the model's terrain-following vertical coordinate, as well as variables for suggested new parametrizations of radiation and momentum fluxes were derived. Validation against the surface observations from the Sochi Winter Olympic Games 2014, provided by the WMO FROST-2014 program at the Caucasian mountains, showed minor degradation of the of then screen-level temperature forecast when only the source orography was updated. Implementation of the orographic radiation parametrizations allowed to alleviate the degradation of scores. Detailed sensitivity studies, done by using three-dimensional and single-column experiments, showed that substantial and physically realistic changes in the downwelling short- and longwave radiation fluxes took place locally. However, their influence on the the simulated screen-level temperature remained small. Comparison of the simulated and observed radiation fluxes would offer a reliable alternative for validation of NWP models. Unfortunately, surface-level radiation observations were not made during the Sochi Olympics.

  3. Analysis of Governance and Management (GM) Approach Agility During the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-01

    interaction entre divers ministères, organisations et acteurs. Afin de composer avec efficacité et efficience avec ces entreprises complexes, le groupe...on pourrait faire l’essai de ses concepts au cours d’exercices en campagne et (ou) d’expériences contrôlées simulant une entreprise complexe. ii...divers ministères, organisations et acteurs. Afin de composer avec efficacité et efficience avec ces entreprises complexes, le groupe

  4. Medical planning for very large events: Special Olympics World Games Los Angeles 2015.

    PubMed

    Vasquez, Marissa S; Fong, Michael K; Patel, Leena J; Kurose, Brian; Tierney, John; Gardner, Imani; Yazdani-Arazi, Arash; Su, John K

    2015-01-01

    Mass gathering events that involve special populations have challenges that require unique medical planning. The key to a successful mass event is in the preparation, planning, and communication. Concerns in communication such as language barriers, age of participants, and intellectual disability should be addressed early in the planning. In the event of a mass casualty disaster, there should be a clear chain of command and escalation policy. The primary concern of the sports medicine team is to ensure safety for the participation of an athlete. The risk of injury to an athlete varies depending on the event and venue. The sporting venue may require special consideration for access to athletes, crowd control, and ingress/egress of medical personnel and transports. In order to ensure safety and efficient care, it is paramount to have the necessary medical planning and preparedness to manage a large-scale sporting event.

  5. Athletes in Motion: Training for the Olympic Games with Mind and Body: Two Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungerleider, Steven

    Two case studies illustrate the Fine-Tuning Effect and its benefit to participants in athletic competition. The Fine-Tuning Effect is the sharpening of psychological processes that enable physical skills to be expressed in a maximum fashion. Such techniques as muscle relaxation, visual imagery, guided fantasy, autogenic training, and meditation…

  6. NOx Emission Reduction and its Effects on Ozone during the 2008 Olympic Games

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Qing; Wang, Yuhang; Zhao, Chun; Liu, Zhen; Gustafson, William I.; Shao, Min

    2011-07-15

    We applied a daily-assimilated inversion method to estimate NOx (NO+NO2) emissions for June-September 2007 and 2008 on the basis of the Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) observations of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and model simulations using the Regional chEmistry and trAnsport Model (REAM). Over urban Beijing, rural Beijing, and the Huabei Plain, OMI column NO2 reductions are approximately 45%, 33%, and 14%, respectively, while the corresponding anthropogenic NOx emission reductions are only 28%, 24%, and 6%, during the full emission control period (July 20 – Sep 20, 2008). The emission reduction began in early July and was in full force by July 20, corresponding to the scheduled implementation of emission controls over Beijing. The emissions did not appear to recover after the emission control period. Meteorological change from summer 2007 to 2008 is the main factor contributing to the column NO2 decreases not accounted for by the emission reduction. Model simulations suggest that the effect of emission reduction on ozone concentrations over Beijing is relatively minor using a standard VOC emission inventory in China. With an adjustment of the model emissions to reflect in situ observations of VOCs in Beijing, the model simulation suggests a larger effect of the emission reduction.

  7. Road Traffic Noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beckenbauer, Thomas

    Road traffic is the most interfering noise source in developed countries. According to a publication of the European Union (EU) at the end of the twentieth century [1], about 40% of the population in 15 EU member states is exposed to road traffic noise at mean levels exceeding 55 dB(A). Nearly 80 million people, 20% of the population, are exposed to levels exceeding 65 dB(A) during daytime and more than 30% of the population is exposed to levels exceeding 55 dB(A) during night time. Such high noise levels cause health risks and social disorders (aggressiveness, protest, and helplessness), interference of communication and disturbance of sleep; the long- and short-term consequences cause adverse cardiovascular effects, detrimental hormonal responses (stress hormones), and possible disturbance of the human metabolism (nutrition) and the immune system. Even performance at work and school could be impaired.

  8. Career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers: benchmarks for talent development.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sian V; Vandenbogaerde, Tom J; Hopkins, William G

    2014-01-01

    The age-related progression of elite athletes to their career-best performances can provide benchmarks for talent development. The purpose of this study was to model career performance trajectories of Olympic swimmers to develop these benchmarks. We searched the Web for annual best times of swimmers who were top 16 in pool events at the 2008 or 2012 Olympics, from each swimmer's earliest available competitive performance through to 2012. There were 6959 times in the 13 events for each sex, for 683 swimmers, with 10 ± 3 performances per swimmer (mean ± s). Progression to peak performance was tracked with individual quadratic trajectories derived using a mixed linear model that included adjustments for better performance in Olympic years and for the use of full-body polyurethane swimsuits in 2009. Analysis of residuals revealed appropriate fit of quadratic trends to the data. The trajectories provided estimates of age of peak performance and the duration of the age window of trivial improvement and decline around the peak. Men achieved peak performance later than women (24.2 ± 2.1 vs. 22.5 ± 2.4 years), while peak performance occurred at later ages for the shorter distances for both sexes (∼1.5-2.0 years between sprint and distance-event groups). Men and women had a similar duration in the peak-performance window (2.6 ± 1.5 years) and similar progressions to peak performance over four years (2.4 ± 1.2%) and eight years (9.5 ± 4.8%). These data provide performance targets for swimmers aiming to achieve elite-level performance.

  9. Explaining How to Play Real-Time Strategy Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metoyer, Ronald; Stumpf, Simone; Neumann, Christoph; Dodge, Jonathan; Cao, Jill; Schnabel, Aaron

    Real-time strategy games share many aspects with real situations in domains such as battle planning, air traffic control, and emergency response team management which makes them appealing test-beds for Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning. End user annotations could help to provide supplemental information for learning algorithms, especially when training data is sparse. This paper presents a formative study to uncover how experienced users explain game play in real-time strategy games. We report the results of our analysis of explanations and discuss their characteristics that could support the design of systems for use by experienced real-time strategy game users in specifying or annotating strategy-oriented behavior.

  10. Physics of Traffic Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, L. C.

    2015-03-01

    The Texas A&M Transportation Institute estimated that traffic congestion cost the United States 121 billion in 2011 (the latest data available). The cost is due to wasted time and fuel. In addition to accidents and road construction, factors contributing to congestion include large demand, instability of high-density free flow and selfish behavior of drivers, which produces self-organized traffic bottlenecks. Extensive data collected on instrumented highways in various countries have led to a better understanding of traffic dynamics. From these measurements, Boris Kerner and colleagues developed a new theory called three-phase theory. They identified three major phases of flow observed in the data: free flow, synchronous flow and wide moving jams. The intermediate phase is called synchronous because vehicles in different lanes tend to have similar velocities. This congested phase, characterized by lower velocities yet modestly high throughput, frequently occurs near on-ramps and lane reductions. At present there are only two widely used methods of congestion mitigation: ramp metering and the display of current travel-time information to drivers. To find more effective methods to reduce congestion, researchers perform large-scale simulations using models based on the new theories. An algorithm has been proposed to realize Wardrop equilibria with real-time route information. Such equilibria have equal travel time on alternative routes between a given origin and destination. An active area of current research is the dynamics of connected vehicles, which communicate wirelessly with other vehicles and the surrounding infrastructure. These systems show great promise for improving traffic flow and safety.

  11. A case study of an iron-deficient female Olympic 1500-m runner.

    PubMed

    Pedlar, Charles R; Whyte, Gregory P; Burden, Richard; Moore, Brian; Horgan, Gill; Pollock, Noel

    2013-11-01

    This case study examines the impact of low serum ferritin (sFe) on physiological assessment measures and performance in a young female 1500-m runner undertaking approximately 95-130 km/wk training. The study spans 4 race seasons and an Olympic Games. During this period, 25 venous blood samples were analyzed for sFe and hemoglobin (Hb); running economy, VO(2max), and lactate threshold were measured on 6 occasions separated by 8-10 mo. Training was carefully monitored including 65 monitored treadmill training runs (targeting an intensity associated with the onset of blood lactate accumulation) using blood lactate and heart rate. Performances at competitive track events were recorded. All data were compared longitudinally. Mean sFe was 24.5 ± 7.6 μg/L (range 10-47), appearing to be in gradual decline with the exception of 2 data points (37 and 47 μg/L) after parenteral iron injections before championships, when the lowest values tended to occur, coinciding with peak training volumes. Each season, 1500-m performance improved, from 4:12.8 in year 1 to 4:03.5 in year 4. VO(2max) (69.8 ± 2.0 mL · kg(-1) · min(-1)) and running economy (%VO(2max) at a fixed speed of 16 km/h; max 87.8%, min 80.3%) were stable across time and lactate threshold improved (from 14 to 15.5 km/h). Evidence of anemia (Hb <12 g/dL) was absent. These unique data demonstrate that in 1 endurance athlete, performance can continue to improve despite an apparent iron deficiency. Raising training volume may have caused increased iron utilization; however, the effect of this on performance is unknown. Iron injections were effective in raising sFe in the short term but did not appear to affect the long-term pattern.

  12. Kinematic measures and stroke rate variability in elite female 200-m swimmers in the four swimming techniques: Athens 2004 Olympic semi-finalists and French National 2004 Championship semi-finalists.

    PubMed

    Hellard, P; Dekerle, J; Avalos, M; Caudal, N; Knopp, M; Hausswirth, C

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess stroke rate variability in elite female swimmers (200-m events, all four techniques) by comparing the semi-finalists at the Athens 2004 Olympic Games (n = 64) and semi-finalists at the French National 2004 Championship (n = 64). Since swimming speed (V) is the product of stroke rate (SR) and stroke length (SL), these three variables and the coefficient of variation of stroke rate (CV(SR)) of the first and second 100 m were determined (V1, V2; SR1, SR2; SL1, SL2; CV(SR)1, CV(SR)2) and differences between the two parts of the events were calculated (DeltaV; DeltaSR; DeltaSL; DeltaCV(SR)). When the results for the four 200-m events were analysed together, SR1, SR2, SL1, and SL2 were higher (alpha = 0.05, P< 0.001) and DeltaV, DeltaSR, and DeltaCV(SR) were lower (P< 0.01) in the Olympic group than in the National group. The Olympic-standard swimmers exhibited faster backstrokes and longer freestyle strokes (P < 0.05). Both CV(SR)1 and CV(SR)2 were lower for freestyle and backstroke races in the Olympic group than in the National group (P < 0.001). Our results suggest that stroke rate variability is dependent on an interaction between the biomechanical requisites of the task (techniques) and the standard of the swimmer.

  13. Benefits of mitigated ambient air quality due to transportation control on childhood asthma hospitalization during the 2002 summer Asian games in Busan, Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Tae; Son, Ji-Young; Cho, Yong-Sung

    2007-08-01

    The objective of this study is to see whether there were any health benefits of mitigated air pollution concentration due to reduced traffic flow during a citywide intervention for the 2002 Summer Asian Games. Relative risks of hospitalization for childhood asthma during the post-Asian Game period compared with the baseline period were estimated using a time-series analysis of the generalized additive Poisson model. Fourteen consecutive days of traffic volume control in Busan during the Games reduced all regulated air pollutant levels by 1-25%. The estimated relative risk of hospitalization during the post-Games period over the baseline period was 0.73 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.49, 1.11). We observed that this reduced air pollution was unique in 2002 when the traffic volume reduction program was applied during the Games period. This empirical data provides epidemiologic evidence of the health benefits resulting from environmental interventions to reduce ambient air pollution.

  14. The Easiest Lights Out Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torrence, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The game "Lights Out" and its mathematical predecessor, the sigma-plus game, has inspired an extensive mathematical literature. In this paper, the original game and a borderless version played on a torus are considered. We define an easy game to be one in which pushing the buttons that are originally lit solves the game. Easy games are classified…

  15. Animations, games, and virtual reality for the Jing-Hang Grand Canal.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenzhi; Zhang, Mingmin; Pan, Zhigeng; Liu, Gengdai; Shen, Huaqing; Chen, Shengnan; Liu, Yong

    2010-01-01

    Digital heritage, an effective method to preserve and present natural and cultural heritage, is engaging many heritage preservation specialists and computer scientists. In particular, computer graphics researchers have become involved, and digital heritage has employed many CG techniques. For example, Daniel Pletinckx and his colleagues employed VR in a real museum at Ename, Belgium, and Zhigeng Pan and his colleagues applied it to construct a virtual Olympics museum. Soo-Chang Pei and his colleagues focused on restoring ancient Chinese paintings. Here, we describe how we've applied animations, computer games, and VR to China's famous Jing-Hang Grand Canal.

  16. Exploring Unsteady Sail Propulsion in Olympic Class Sailboats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutt, Riley; Williamson, C. H. K.

    2014-11-01

    Unsteady sailing techniques, defined as ``flicking,'' ``roll-tacking'' and ``roll-gybing'' are used by athletes to propel their boats on an Olympic race course faster than using the wind alone. Body weight movements induce unsteady sail motion, increasing driving force and enhancing maneuvering performance. In this research, we explore the dynamics of an Olympic class Laser sailboat equipped with a GPS, IMU, wind sensor, and camera array. The velocity heading of a sailing boat is oriented at an apparent wind angle to the flow. In contrast to classic flapping propulsion, the heaving of the sail section (induced by the sailor's body movement) is not perpendicular to the sail's motion through the air. This leads to an ``exotic heave,'' with components parallel and perpendicular to the incident flow. The characteristic motion is recreated in a towing tank where the vortex structures generated by a representative 2-D sail section are observed, along with a measurement of thrust and lift forces. When combined with turning maneuvers, these heaving sail motions can lead to significant increases in velocity made good, a critical variable used when assessing racing performance.

  17. Effects of tourists on behavior and demography of Olympic marmots.

    PubMed

    Griffin, Suzanne C; Valois, Tanguy; Taper, Mark L; Scott Mills, L

    2007-08-01

    If changes in animal behavior resulting from direct human disturbance negatively affect the persistence of a given species or population, then these behavioral changes must necessarily lead to reduced demographic performance. We tested for the effects of human disturbance on Olympic marmots (Marmota olympus), a large ground-dwelling squirrel that has disappeared from several areas where recreation levels are high. We assessed the degree to which antipredator and foraging behavior and demographic rates (survival and reproduction) differed between sites with high recreation levels (high use) and those with little or no recreation (low use). Compared with the marmots at low-use sites, marmots at high-use sites displayed significantly reduced responses to human approach, which could be construed as successful accommodation of disturbance or as a decrease in predator awareness. The marmots at high-use sites also looked up more often while foraging, which suggests an increased wariness. Marmots at both types of sites had comparable reproductive and survival rates and were in similar body condition. Until now, the supposition that marmots can adjust their behavior to avoid negative demographic consequences when confronted with heavy tourism has been based on potentially ambiguous behavioral data. Our results support this hypothesis in the case of Olympic marmots and demonstrate the importance of considering demographic data when evaluating the impacts of recreation on animal populations.

  18. Stinging Insect Matching Game

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Kids ▸ Stinging Insect Matching Game Share | Stinging Insect Matching Game Stinging insects can ruin summer fun for those who are ... the difference between the different kinds of stinging insects in order to keep your summer safe and ...

  19. Polymorphic Evolutionary Games.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Michael A

    2016-06-07

    In this paper, I present an analytical framework for polymorphic evolutionary games suitable for explicitly modeling evolutionary processes in diploid populations with sexual reproduction. The principal aspect of the proposed approach is adding diploid genetics cum sexual recombination to a traditional evolutionary game, and switching from phenotypes to haplotypes as the new game׳s pure strategies. Here, the relevant pure strategy׳s payoffs derived by summing the payoffs of all the phenotypes capable of producing gametes containing that particular haplotype weighted by the pertinent probabilities. The resulting game is structurally identical to the familiar Evolutionary Games with non-linear pure strategy payoffs (Hofbauer and Sigmund, 1998. Cambridge University Press), and can be analyzed in terms of an established analytical framework for such games. And these results can be translated into the terms of genotypic, and whence, phenotypic evolutionary stability pertinent to the original game.

  20. Near real-time traffic routing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, Chaowei (Inventor); Cao, Ying (Inventor); Xie, Jibo (Inventor); Zhou, Bin (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A near real-time physical transportation network routing system comprising: a traffic simulation computing grid and a dynamic traffic routing service computing grid. The traffic simulator produces traffic network travel time predictions for a physical transportation network using a traffic simulation model and common input data. The physical transportation network is divided into a multiple sections. Each section has a primary zone and a buffer zone. The traffic simulation computing grid includes multiple of traffic simulation computing nodes. The common input data includes static network characteristics, an origin-destination data table, dynamic traffic information data and historical traffic data. The dynamic traffic routing service computing grid includes multiple dynamic traffic routing computing nodes and generates traffic route(s) using the traffic network travel time predictions.

  1. Economical Video Monitoring of Traffic

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, B. C.; Paine, G.; Rubenstein, L. D.; Parham, O. Bruce, Jr.; Graves, W.; Bradley, C.

    1986-01-01

    Data compression allows video signals to be transmitted economically on telephone circuits. Telephone lines transmit television signals to remote traffic-control center. Lines also carry command signals from center to TV camera and compressor at highway site. Video system with television cameras positioned at critical points on highways allows traffic controllers to determine visually, almost immediately, exact cause of traffic-flow disruption; e.g., accidents, breakdowns, or spills, almost immediately. Controllers can then dispatch appropriate emergency services and alert motorists to minimize traffic backups.

  2. An intelligent traffic controller

    SciTech Connect

    Kagolanu, K.; Fink, R.; Smartt, H.; Powell, R.; Larsen, E.

    1995-12-01

    A controller with advanced control logic can significantly improve traffic flows at intersections. In this vein, this paper explores fuzzy rules and algorithms to improve the intersection operation by rationalizing phase changes and green times. The fuzzy logic for control is enhanced by the exploration of neural networks for families of membership functions and for ideal cost functions. The concepts of fuzzy logic control are carried forth into the controller architecture. Finally, the architecture and the modules are discussed. In essence, the control logic and architecture of an intelligent controller are explored.

  3. Gaming Gains Respect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Will

    2012-01-01

    The idea of learning through games isn't necessarily new. In fact, over the past decade, researchers have been espousing the use of games to help both children and adults learn. But it's only been recently that games have begun to make serious inroads into classrooms. As the world becomes more and more driven by mobile apps and tablet…

  4. The Ultimate Flag Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Kenny; Sutton, Nancy

    This paper describes six Ultimate Flag Games which offer a change from traditional games and sports that are usually geared toward athletically inclined students. These new games, aimed at middle school through college students, allow for success from the least-skilled through the most athletically talented students. Players are ability grouped…

  5. Inventing Music Education Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ghere, David; Amram, Fred M. B.

    2007-01-01

    The first British patent describing an educational game designed for musical "amusement and instruction" was granted in 1801 to Ann Young of Edinburgh, Scotland. The authors' discovery of Young's game box has prompted an examination of the nature and purpose of the six games she designed. Ann Young's patent is discussed in the context of…

  6. The Acid Rain Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rakow, Steven J.; Glenn, Allen

    1982-01-01

    Provides rationale for and description of an acid rain game (designed for two players), a problem-solving model for elementary students. Although complete instructions are provided, including a copy of the game board, the game is also available for Apple II microcomputers. Information for the computer program is available from the author.…

  7. Online Strategy Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dye, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    A strategy game is an online interactive game that requires thinking in order to be played at its best and whose winning strategy is not obvious. Provides information on strategy games that are written in Java or JavaScript and freely available on the web. (KHR)

  8. The Merchandising Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koeninger, Jimmy G.

    The decision-making game is built on a model which adheres to the economic principles of supply and demand. Game participants are faced with the task of generating profit in a simulated competitive situation. The game provides the opportunity for participants to gain a greater understanding of: (1) the relationship between income and costs and…

  9. Playing the Cell Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madrazo, Gerry M., Jr.; Wood, Carol A.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the use of games to facilitate learning scientific concepts and principles. Describes the Cell Game, which simulates plant and animal cells; the Energy Quest, which requires players to buy property that generates largest amounts of electricity; the Blood Flow Game, which illustrates circulation of blood through the human body. (CS)

  10. Reputations and Games

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-04

    4/09 14ONR MURI Review Payoffs in Repeated Games (Economics) Player i plays game at each time instant. At time t receives payoff fi(t). Discounted...payoff to player i : (1-d) Σ dt fi(t) (Also possible to consider average payoff per game if limit exists… but discounted makes more sense usually.) 11

  11. Brain Games for Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberg, Jackie

    2001-01-01

    Presents games for caregivers to use with infants to enhance brain development. Includes games that develop trust and security, language skills, and fine motor skills, as well as games that are fun or stimulate vision. Includes videotape references for parents and caregivers. (KB)

  12. Simulation Games in Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boocock, Sarane S., Ed.; Schild, E.O., Ed.

    Simulation games serve many functions, but the important one to educators is that they present the student player with a real-life situation allowing him to use his knowledge and abilities while discovering decision-making skills for himself. To provide a basic reference on simulation gaming, essays on various aspects of games were collected from…

  13. Assessing Game Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaydos, Matthew; Harris, Shannon; Squire, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    Player responses to a brief survey gauging their understanding of content after playing an educational game, "Virulent," are presented. Response accuracy was higher for picture-based questions than text-based questions, despite the presentation of both within the game. Given that games may present educational content in multiple ways…

  14. Stay Teen: Games

    MedlinePlus

    ... by You are here Home » Games and Quizzes Games and Quizzes Facebook Twitter Tumblr Shares · 53 quiz ... Year’s Relationship Resolution Be? Shares · 6 Comments · 0 game Block Party Shares · 34 Comments · 0 quiz Should ...

  15. Games, Logic and Giftedness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Paul A.; Penner, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Gaming (the use of formal games for specific academic purposes) is a method for teaching formal thinking processes that is particularly suited to the gifted student. Various games can be used to develop deductive reasoning, the concept of subsets, inductive reasoning, and attention to detail. (Author/SW)

  16. Kids and Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKnight, Regis Q.; McBride, Susan

    1980-01-01

    States that more use should be made of simulation games in elementary school social studies classrooms because pupils enjoy games and can learn a lot from playing them. Describes a simulation game which is modeled on the function of a zoning board. Objectives and evaluation are discussed. (DB)

  17. Educational Games for Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noemí, Peña-Miguel; Máximo, Sedano Hoyuelos

    2014-01-01

    The introduction of new technologies in society has created a need for interactive contents that can make the most of the potential that technological advances offer. Serious games as educational games are such content: they can be defined as video games or interactive applications whose main purpose is to provide not only entertainment but also…

  18. Energy parity games.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Krishnendu; Doyen, Laurent

    2012-11-02

    Energy parity games are infinite two-player turn-based games played on weighted graphs. The objective of the game combines a (qualitative) parity condition with the (quantitative) requirement that the sum of the weights (i.e., the level of energy in the game) must remain positive. Beside their own interest in the design and synthesis of resource-constrained omega-regular specifications, energy parity games provide one of the simplest model of games with combined qualitative and quantitative objectives. Our main results are as follows: (a) exponential memory is sufficient and may be necessary for winning strategies in energy parity games; (b) the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games can be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP; and (c) we give an algorithm to solve energy parity by reduction to energy games. We also show that the problem of deciding the winner in energy parity games is logspace-equivalent to the problem of deciding the winner in mean-payoff parity games, which can thus be solved in NP [Formula: see text] coNP. As a consequence we also obtain a conceptually simple algorithm to solve mean-payoff parity games.

  19. Getting into the Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Henry

    2005-01-01

    Statistics reveal that students spend more time on electronic games than on any other recreational activity and 32% admit to playing them during class. The gaming revolution contains lessons for teachers, and understanding the pedagogical potential of computer and video games and developing curriculum that supports the educational use of…

  20. Games for Health, 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    for Families of Returning Veterans Using Emotionally Responsive Avatars Ron Goldman, Kognito, Inc. Games for Shoppers : Brainstorming Play at...Nutrition Education with Online Game Experiences Sally Schmidt & Jori Clarke, Circle1Network Camp Eatapita: A Nutrition Game for Young Kids Steve

  1. Game Literacy, Gaming Cultures and Media Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Partington, Anthony

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an overview of how the popular "3-Cs" model (creative, critical and cultural) for literacy and media literacy can be applied to the study of computer games in the English and Media classroom. Focusing on the development of an existing computer games course that encompasses many opportunities for critical activity…

  2. Large scale traffic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Nagel, K.; Barrett, C.L. |; Rickert, M. |

    1997-04-01

    Large scale microscopic (i.e. vehicle-based) traffic simulations pose high demands on computational speed in at least two application areas: (i) real-time traffic forecasting, and (ii) long-term planning applications (where repeated {open_quotes}looping{close_quotes} between the microsimulation and the simulated planning of individual person`s behavior is necessary). As a rough number, a real-time simulation of an area such as Los Angeles (ca. 1 million travellers) will need a computational speed of much higher than 1 million {open_quotes}particle{close_quotes} (= vehicle) updates per second. This paper reviews how this problem is approached in different projects and how these approaches are dependent both on the specific questions and on the prospective user community. The approaches reach from highly parallel and vectorizable, single-bit implementations on parallel supercomputers for Statistical Physics questions, via more realistic implementations on coupled workstations, to more complicated driving dynamics implemented again on parallel supercomputers. 45 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  3. 77 FR 16813 - Availability of Seat for Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    .... ADDRESSES: Application kits may be obtained from Norma Klein, Olympic Coast National Marine Sanctuary, 115 East Railroad Ave., Suite 301, Port Angeles, WA 98362 ( norma.klein@noaa.gov ). Completed...

  4. Science ExpOlympics: An Outreach Program of Competitive and Noncompetitive Events for High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, Fred J.

    1997-04-01

    Austin Peay State University's biennial Science ExpOlympics involves competitive events, activities and demonstrations, and a science bowl competition for regional high school students. The purpose of the APSU Science ExpOlympics is threefold: to show all of the attending high school students that the sciences can be fun and interesting, to challenge those high school students who are already interested in the sciences, and to promote APSU as a potential university for graduating high school students. More than 2000 high school students have attended the Science ExpOlympics program since its inception in 1983. The Science ExpOlympics program has been jointly sponsored by the Biology, Chemistry, Geography and Geology, Industrial Technology, Mathematics and Computer Sciences, Physics, and Psychology departments. A list of departments and the events that each has provided is shown below.

  5. The influenza A (H1N1-2009) experience at the inaugural Asian Youth Games Singapore 2009: mass gathering during a developing pandemic.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hoon Chin; Cutter, Jeffery; Lim, Weng Kee; Ee, Adrian; Wong, Yoong Cheong; Tay, Boon Keng

    2010-06-01

    From 29 June to 7 July 2009, Singapore hosted the inaugural Asian Youth Games (AYG), which brought 1210 athletes and 810 officials from 43 participating countries. On 11 June, just 1 week before the Games Village Medical Centre started operations, the World Health Organization officially declared a global H1N1 2009 pandemic. Working in close partnership with the Olympic Council of Asia Medical Commission, Singapore AYG Organising Committee and other government agencies, the AYG Medical Services Committee was successful in preventing the local transmission of H1N1, which would have been a threat to the games, as it could have led to the cancellation of these games. This article describes the experience and valuable lessons learnt from managing a sports-related mass gathering during the developing pandemic.

  6. The pharmacology game.

    PubMed

    Batscha, Catherine

    2002-09-01

    This article gives instructions for designing a visually attractive, entertaining, faculty-led computer game for pharmacology review in a nursing education program. The game uses Microsoft PowerPoint, a presentation program that is inexpensive, easy to master, and widely available. Instructions for using Visual Basic for Applications to customize the game are included to allow tracking questions asked and the score of groups playing the game. The game can be easily adapted to material by specific nursing programs with access to PowerPoint.

  7. First Video Game

    ScienceCinema

    Takacs, Peter

    2016-07-12

    More than fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the electronic tennis game with separate controllers that connected to an analog computer and used an oscilloscope for a screen. The game's creator, William Higinbotham, was a physicist who lobbied for nuclear nonproliferation as the first chair of the Federation of American Scientists.

  8. First Video Game

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, Peter

    2008-10-21

    More than fifty years ago, before either arcades or home video games, visitors waited in line at Brookhaven National Laboratory to play Tennis for Two, an electronic tennis game that is unquestionably a forerunner of the modern video game. Two people played the electronic tennis game with separate controllers that connected to an analog computer and used an oscilloscope for a screen. The game's creator, William Higinbotham, was a physicist who lobbied for nuclear nonproliferation as the first chair of the Federation of American Scientists.

  9. Zika virus: Epidemiology, current phobia and preparedness for upcoming mass gatherings, with examples from World Olympics and Pilgrimage

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe Zika Virus (ZIKV) epidemiology, current phobia, and the required preparedness for its prevention during the upcoming Mass Gathering (MG) events. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, WHO, CDC, Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), Google, and Cochrane library were extensively searched for ZIKV. Articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant articles were utilized. Results: ZIKV is an emerging Flavivirus which was first isolated from Uganda in 1947. It is transmitted mainly through bite of Aedes mosquitoes. Sexual, perinatal and blood-borne transmissions are implicated. ZIKV is incriminated to cause microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. The spiky spread of ZIKV and its epidemic potential are especially problematic in countries which host big MGs with endogenous ZIKV circulation. This put millions of international travelers and local inhabitants at risk of acquiring ZIKV, especially in absence of vaccine until now. Brazil Olympic and Paralympics Games, and Muslims Hajj in Saudi Arabia are important upcoming MGs. Regarding Brazil, swiftly epidemic of ZIKV causes phobia and provokes claims and counter-claims about possible postponing or cancellation of such events. Recommendations: Intensifying ZIKV epidemiological surveillance (sentinel, syndromic, environmental, laboratory and electronic), and conduction of educational programs are required. Controlling Aedes vector (chemically & biologically) is essential. Multidisciplinary cooperation is required to win the war against ZIKV. PMID:27648063

  10. TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION. (BUSINESS TECHNOLOGY).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Community Colleges, Raleigh.

    THE PREEMPLOYMENT, 6-QUARTER CURRICULUM IS FOR USE IN TECHNICAL INSTITUTES AND COMMUNITY COLLEGES. ITS PURPOSE IS TO PROVIDE TRAINING IN NEW TECHNIQUES AND UNDERSTANDING OF THE LATEST STATE AND FEDERAL REGULATIONS APPLICABLE TO TRAFFIC AND TRANSPORTATION. GRADUATES OF THIS CURRICULUM MAY SEEK CAREER OPPORTUNITIES AS TRAFFIC REPRESENTATIVES, CLAIMS…

  11. Probabilistic description of traffic flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahnke, R.; Kaupužs, J.; Lubashevsky, I.

    2005-03-01

    A stochastic description of traffic flow, called probabilistic traffic flow theory, is developed. The general master equation is applied to relatively simple models to describe the formation and dissolution of traffic congestions. Our approach is mainly based on spatially homogeneous systems like periodically closed circular rings without on- and off-ramps. We consider a stochastic one-step process of growth or shrinkage of a car cluster (jam). As generalization we discuss the coexistence of several car clusters of different sizes. The basic problem is to find a physically motivated ansatz for the transition rates of the attachment and detachment of individual cars to a car cluster consistent with the empirical observations in real traffic. The emphasis is put on the analogy with first-order phase transitions and nucleation phenomena in physical systems like supersaturated vapour. The results are summarized in the flux-density relation, the so-called fundamental diagram of traffic flow, and compared with empirical data. Different regimes of traffic flow are discussed: free flow, congested mode as stop-and-go regime, and heavy viscous traffic. The traffic breakdown is studied based on the master equation as well as the Fokker-Planck approximation to calculate mean first passage times or escape rates. Generalizations are developed to allow for on-ramp effects. The calculated flux-density relation and characteristic breakdown times coincide with empirical data measured on highways. Finally, a brief summary of the stochastic cellular automata approach is given.

  12. Traffic Calming: A Social Issue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crouse, David W.

    2004-01-01

    Substantial urban growth fueled by a strong economy often results in heavy traffic thus making streets less hospitable. Traffic calming is one response to the pervasiveness of the automobile. The issues concern built environments and involve multiple actors reflecting different interests. The issues are rarely technical and involve combinations of…

  13. Games and Game Settings for the Preschool Child.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liedtke, Werner; Stott, Gwen

    1979-01-01

    Describes and illustrates games and game settings used in two observational projects dealing with game play by young children. One project presented games encouraging use of strategies; the other provided game equipment and invited the children to invent their own rules and playing procedures. (DS)

  14. Basic model for traffic interweave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Ding-wei

    2015-09-01

    We propose a three-parameter traffic model. The system consists of a loop with two junctions. The three parameters control the inflow, the outflow (from the junctions,) and the interweave (in the loop.) The dynamics is deterministic. The boundary conditions are stochastic. We present preliminary results for a complete phase diagram and all possible phase transitions. We observe four distinct traffic phases: free flow, congestion, bottleneck, and gridlock. The proposed model is able to present economically a clear perspective to these four different phases. Free flow and congestion are caused by the traffic conditions in the junctions. Both bottleneck and gridlock are caused by the traffic interweave in the loop. Instead of directly related to conventional congestion, gridlock can be taken as an extreme limit of bottleneck. This model can be useful to clarify the characteristics of traffic phases. This model can also be extended for practical applications.

  15. Photonics approach to traffic signs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; CzyŻewski, Adam; Rymsza, Barbara; Kornalewski, Leszek; Kryszczyński, Tadeusz; Mikucki, Jerzy; Wikliński, Piotr; Daszkiewicz, Marek; Malasek, Jacek

    2016-12-01

    The automotive industry has been always a driving force for all economies. Despite of its beneficial meaning to every society it brings also many issues including wide area of road safety. The latter has been enforced by the increasing number of cars and the dynamic development of the traffic as a whole. Road signs and traffic lights are crucial in context of good traffic arrangement and its fluency. Traffic designers are used to treat horizontal road signs independently of vertical signs. However, modern light sources and growing flexibility in shaping optical systems create opportunity to design more advanced and smart solutions. In this paper we present an innovative, multidisciplinary approach that consists in tight interdependence of different traffic signals. We describe new optical systems together with their influence on the perception of the road user. The analysis includes maintenance and visibility in different weather conditions. A special attention has been focused on intersections of complex geometry.

  16. Volunteer motivations at a National Special Olympics event.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Selina; Engelhorn, Rich

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the motivations for people to volunteer with the management and execution of major sporting events is important for the recruitment and retention of the volunteers. This research investigated volunteer motivations at the first National Special Olympics held in Ames, Iowa, USA in July 2006. A total of 289 participants completed the 28 item Special Event Volunteer Motivation Scale. The top motivations related to the purposive incentives of wanting to help make the event a success and to do something good for the community. Factor analysis revealed a five-factor model, with the altruistic factor (purposive) being the most important. A MANCOVA was also used to compare subjects using both gender and experience as independent variables. Small but significant differences in motivation were observed.

  17. Simultaneous drag and flow measurements of Olympic skeleton athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moon, Yae Eun; Digiulio, David; Peters, Steve; Wei, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    The Olympic sport of skeleton involves an athlete riding a small sled face first down a bobsled track at speeds up to 130 km/hr. In these races, the difference between gold and missing the medal stand altogether can be hundredths of a second per run. As such, reducing aerodynamic drag through proper body positioning is of first order importance. To better study the flow behavior and to improve the performance of the athletes, we constructed a static force balance system on a mock section of a bobsled track. Athlete and the sled are placed on the force balance system which is positioned at the exit of an open loop wind tunnel. Simultaneous drag force and DPIV velocity field measurements were made along with video recordings of body position to aid the athletes in determining their optimal aerodynamic body position.

  18. Apatite at Olympic Dam, South Australia: A petrogenetic tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krneta, Sasha; Ciobanu, Cristiana L.; Cook, Nigel J.; Ehrig, Kathy; Kontonikas-Charos, Alkis

    2016-10-01

    The > 10,000 million tonne Olympic Dam Cu-Au-U-Ag deposit, (eastern Gawler Craton, South Australia) is one of the largest orebodies in the World. The deposit is hosted within the Olympic Dam Breccia Complex, placed at the centre of, and resulting from multiple brecciation and Fe-metasomatism of the Roxby Downs Granite (RDG). The latter is part of a larger batholith emplaced at 1.6 Ga. Apatite petrography and chemistry were studied in non-mineralised RDG and coeval granitoids and dolerites, as well as in mineralised RDG from deep (> 2 km) and distal (2.7 km to NE) locations. In both latter cases, although the mineralisation corresponds to the same, early chalcopyrite-pyrite-magnetite ± hematite stage identified in the outer and deeper zones of the deposit itself, the character of granite alteration differs: sericite-chlorite alteration with all feldspar replaced in the deep location; and red-stained K-feldspar on top of prevailing albitization in the distal location. Close-to end-member fluorapatite is a key accessory mineral in all igneous rocks and a common product of early hydrothermal alteration within mineralised granite. Variations in habit, morphology and textures correlate with chemical trends expressed as evolving Cl/F ratios, and concentrations of REE + Y (hereafter REY), Sr, Mn, S, Si and Na. Magmatic apatite is unzoned in the dolerite but features core to REY-enriched rim zonation in the granitoids. Increases in Cl- and Sr-contents correlate with rock basicity. Calculation of Cl in the vapour phase relative to melt at the apatite saturation temperature for zoned apatite in the RDG shows higher values for grains with inclusion-rich cores associated with mafic enclaves, concordant with assimilation of exotic material during magma crystallisation. Hydrothermal alteration of magmatic apatite is most varied in the dolerite where interaction with fluids is expressed as subtle changes in Cl- versus F- and REY-enrichment, and most importantly, S-enrichment in

  19. Virtualized Traffic: reconstructing traffic flows from discrete spatiotemporal data.

    PubMed

    Sewall, Jason; van den Berg, Jur; Lin, Ming C; Manocha, Dinesh

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel concept, Virtualized Traffic, to reconstruct and visualize continuous traffic flows from discrete spatiotemporal data provided by traffic sensors or generated artificially to enhance a sense of immersion in a dynamic virtual world. Given the positions of each car at two recorded locations on a highway and the corresponding time instances, our approach can reconstruct the traffic flows (i.e., the dynamic motions of multiple cars over time) between the two locations along the highway for immersive visualization of virtual cities or other environments. Our algorithm is applicable to high-density traffic on highways with an arbitrary number of lanes and takes into account the geometric, kinematic, and dynamic constraints on the cars. Our method reconstructs the car motion that automatically minimizes the number of lane changes, respects safety distance to other cars, and computes the acceleration necessary to obtain a smooth traffic flow subject to the given constraints. Furthermore, our framework can process a continuous stream of input data in real time, enabling the users to view virtualized traffic events in a virtual world as they occur. We demonstrate our reconstruction technique with both synthetic and real-world input.

  20. Traffic information computing platform for big data

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Zongtao Li, Ying Zheng, Xibin Liu, Yan Dai, Jiting Kang, Jun

    2014-10-06

    Big data environment create data conditions for improving the quality of traffic information service. The target of this article is to construct a traffic information computing platform for big data environment. Through in-depth analysis the connotation and technology characteristics of big data and traffic information service, a distributed traffic atomic information computing platform architecture is proposed. Under the big data environment, this type of traffic atomic information computing architecture helps to guarantee the traffic safety and efficient operation, more intelligent and personalized traffic information service can be used for the traffic information users.

  1. Gaming in Early Childhood Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trueblood, Cecil R.; Yawkey, Thomas Daniels

    This article discusses how developmental and behaviorist learning theories can be used to create educational games. The Piagetian rationale for the use of games is examined and three benefits of gaming are identified: (1) games are related to intellectual, socio-emotional, and motor learning in young children, (2) gaming requires aspects of…

  2. Sex, Lies and Video Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kearney, Paul; Pivec, Maja

    2007-01-01

    Sex and violence in video games is a social issue that confronts us all, especially as many commercial games are now being introduced for game-based learning in schools, and as such this paper polls teenage players about the rules their parents and teachers may or may not have, and surveys the gaming community, ie, game developers to parents, to…

  3. Using Commercial Games to Design Teacher-Made Games for the Mathematics Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBride, John W.; Lamb, Charles E.

    1991-01-01

    The use of commercial games to design and construct games to drill specific mathematics skills is discussed. Game types discussed include card games and board games. Two game boards adapted from "Chutes and Ladders" and "Battleship" are provided. (CW)

  4. A resolution commemorating the success of Team USA in the past 22 Olympic Winter Games and supporting Team USA in the 2014 Olympic Winter Games and Paralympic Winter Games.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Klobuchar, Amy [D-MN

    2014-02-06

    02/06/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S834; text as passed Senate: CR S826) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Fluctuations in Urban Traffic Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu-Dong; Li, Li; Zhang, Yi; Hu, Jian-Ming; Jin, Xue-Xiang

    Urban traffic network is a typical complex system, in which movements of tremendous microscopic traffic participants (pedestrians, bicyclists and vehicles) form complicated spatial and temporal dynamics. We collected flow volumes data on the time-dependent activity of a typical urban traffic network, finding that the coupling between the average flux and the fluctuation on individual links obeys a certain scaling law, with a wide variety of scaling exponents between 1/2 and 1. These scaling phenomena can explain the interaction between the nodes' internal dynamics (i.e. queuing at intersections, car-following in driving) and changes in the external (network-wide) traffic demand (i.e. the every day increase of traffic amount during peak hours and shocking caused by traffic accidents), allowing us to further understand the mechanisms governing the transportation system's collective behavior. Multiscaling and hotspot features are observed in the traffic flow data as well. But the reason why the separated internal dynamics are comparable to the external dynamics in magnitude is still unclear and needs further investigations.

  6. TrafficGen Architecture Document

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-01-01

    v 1. Overview of TrafficGen Application 1 2. Modules 2 3. User Interface 3 3.1 Top-Level MVC Classes 3 3.1.1 TrafficGenView 3 3.1.2...release; distribution unlimited. 3 A key design concept in use here is the model-view-controller ( MVC ) pattern. In general, the MVC design pattern...and easier to manage. MVC facilitates reuse by reducing and formalizing coupling between model components and the user interface. The same TrafficGen

  7. 78 FR 15738 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  8. 77 FR 59641 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-28

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  9. 76 FR 8375 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-14

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  10. 77 FR 43110 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  11. 77 FR 45371 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-31

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  12. 75 FR 55823 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-14

    ... approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  13. 76 FR 33341 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-08

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  14. 75 FR 61511 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming... approved Tribal-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian...

  15. 76 FR 52968 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-24

    ... Approved Tribal--State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of Gaming...-State compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands....

  16. 78 FR 11221 - Indian Gaming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-15

    ... Approved Tribal-State Class III Gaming Compact. SUMMARY: This notice publishes an extension of the gaming... compacts for the purpose of engaging in Class III gaming activities on Indian lands. This amendment...

  17. Combinatorial optimization games

    SciTech Connect

    Deng, X.; Ibaraki, Toshihide; Nagamochi, Hiroshi

    1997-06-01

    We introduce a general integer programming formulation for a class of combinatorial optimization games, which immediately allows us to improve the algorithmic result for finding amputations in the core (an important solution concept in cooperative game theory) of the network flow game on simple networks by Kalai and Zemel. An interesting result is a general theorem that the core for this class of games is nonempty if and only if a related linear program has an integer optimal solution. We study the properties for this mathematical condition to hold for several interesting problems, and apply them to resolve algorithmic and complexity issues for their cores along the line as put forward in: decide whether the core is empty; if the core is empty, find an imputation in the core; given an imputation x, test whether x is in the core. We also explore the properties of totally balanced games in this succinct formulation of cooperative games.

  18. The effect of traffic tickets on road traffic crashes.

    PubMed

    Factor, Roni

    2014-03-01

    Road traffic crashes are globally a leading cause of death. The current study tests the effect of traffic tickets issued to drivers on subsequent crashes, using a unique dataset that overcomes some shortcomings of previous studies. The study takes advantage of a national longitudinal dataset at the individual level that merges Israeli census data with data on traffic tickets issued by the police and official data on involvement in road traffic crashes over seven years. The results show that the estimated probability of involvement in a subsequent fatal or severe crash was more than eleven times higher for drivers with six traffic tickets per year compared to those with one ticket per year, while controlling for various confounders. However, the majority of fatal and severe crashes involved the larger population of drivers who received up to one ticket on average per year. The current findings indicate that reducing traffic violations may contribute significantly to crash and injury reduction. In addition, mass random enforcement programs may be more effective in reducing fatal and severe crashes than targeting high-risk recidivist drivers.

  19. Predictive Game Theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolpert, David H.

    2005-01-01

    Probability theory governs the outcome of a game; there is a distribution over mixed strat.'s, not a single "equilibrium". To predict a single mixed strategy must use our loss function (external to the game's players. Provides a quantification of any strategy's rationality. Prove rationality falls as cost of computation rises (for players who have not previously interacted). All extends to games with varying numbers of players.

  20. The Game of Hex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Paul

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the game of Hex, including its history, strategies and problems. Like all good games, the rules are very simple. Hex is played on a diamond shaped board made up of hexagons. It can be of any size, but an 11x11 board makes for a good game. Two opposite sides of the diamond are labelled "red," the other two…

  1. A resolution congratulating the athletes from the United States who participated in the 2014 Olympic Winter Games as members of the United States Olympic Team.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Thune, John [R-SD

    2014-03-11

    03/11/2014 Submitted in the Senate, considered, and agreed to without amendment and with a preamble by Unanimous Consent. (consideration: CR S1527-1528; text as passed Senate: CR S1522) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed SenateHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Healthy Gaming – Video Game Design to promote Health

    PubMed Central

    Brox, E.; Fernandez-Luque, L.; Tøllefsen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background There is an increasing interest in health games including simulation tools, games for specific conditions, persuasive games to promote a healthy life style or exergames where physical exercise is used to control the game. Objective The objective of the article is to review current literature about available health games and the impact related to game design principles as well as some educational theory aspects. Methods Literature from the big databases and known sites with games for health has been searched to find articles about games for health purposes. The focus has been on educational games, persuasive games and exergames as well as articles describing game design principles. Results The medical objectives can either be a part of the game theme (intrinsic) or be totally dispatched (extrinsic), and particularly persuasive games seem to use extrinsic game design. Peer support is important, but there is only limited research on multiplayer health games. Evaluation of health games can be both medical and technical, and the focus will depend on the game purpose. Conclusion There is still not enough evidence to conclude which design principles work for what purposes since most of the literature in health serious games does not specify design methodologies, but it seems that extrinsic methods work in persuasion. However, when designing health care games it is important to define both the target group and main objective, and then design a game accordingly using sound game design principles, but also utilizing design elements to enhance learning and persuasion. A collaboration with health professionals from an early design stage is necessary both to ensure that the content is valid and to have the game validated from a clinical viewpoint. Patients need to be involved, especially to improve usability. More research should be done on social aspects in health games, both related to learning and persuasion. PMID:23616865

  3. Air quality during the 2008 Beijing Olympics: secondary pollutants and regional impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, T.; Nie, W.; Gao, J.; Xue, L. K.; Gao, X. M.; Wang, X. F.; Qiu, J.; Poon, C. N.; Meinardi, S.; Blake, D.; Ding, A. J.; Chai, F. H.; Zhang, Q. Z.; Wang, W. X.

    2010-05-01

    This paper presents the first results of the atmospheric measurements of trace gases and aerosols at three surface sites in and around Beijing before and during the 2008 Olympics. We focus on secondary pollutants including ozone, fine sulfate and nitrate, and the contribution of regional sources in summer 2008. The results reveal different responses of secondary pollutants to the control measures from primary pollutants. Ambient concentrations of vehicle-related nitrogen oxides (NOx) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) at an urban site dropped by 25% and 20-45% in the first two weeks after full control was put in place, but the levels of ozone, sulfate and nitrate in PM2.5 increased by 16%, 64%, 37%, respectively, compared to the period prior to the full control; wind data and back trajectories indicated the contribution of regional pollution from the North China Plain. Air quality (for both primary and secondary pollutants) improved significantly during the Games, which were also associated with the changes in weather conditions (prolonged rainfall, decreased temperature, and more frequent air masses from clean regions). A comparison of the ozone data at three sites on eight ozone-pollution days, when the air masses were from the southeast-south-southwest sector, showed that regional pollution sources contributed 34%-88% to the peak ozone concentrations in urban Beijing. Ozone production efficiencies at two sites were low (~3 ppbv/ppbv), indicating that ozone formation was being controlled by VOCs. Compared with data collected in 2005 at a downwind site, the concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide (SO2), total sulfur (SO2+PM2.5 sulfate), carbon monoxide (CO), reactive aromatics (toluene and xylenes) sharply decreased (by 8-64%) in 2008, but no significant changes were observed for the concentrations of PM2.5, fine sulfate, total odd reactive nitrogen (NOy), and longer lived alkanes and benzene. We suggest that these results indicate the success of the government

  4. Extraversion in Games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Lankveld, Giel; Schreurs, Sonny; Spronck, Pieter; van den Herik, Jaap

    The behavior of a human player in a game expresses the personality of that player. Personality is an important characteristic for modeling the player's profile. In our research we use the five factor model of personality, in which extraversion is a notable factor. Extraversion is the human tendency of being sensitive to rewards. This often results in humans seeking socially rewarding situations. Extraversion plays a prominent part in the in-game behavior of a player. The in-game behavior can be decomposed in 20 different in-game elements.

  5. Game Theoretic Models of Competition and Upgrade Investments in Communication Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Shuang

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of this dissertation, we study the competition among network service providers in a parallel-link network with the presence of elastic user demand that diminishes both with higher prices and congestion. First we analyze a game where providers strategically price their service for single class of traffic. Later we analyze a game…

  6. 14 CFR 25 - Traffic and Capacity Elements

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Traffic and Capacity Elements Section 25... Traffic Reporting Requirements Section 25 Traffic and Capacity Elements General Instructions. (a) All prescribed reporting for traffic and capacity elements shall conform with the data compilation standards...

  7. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or... interfere with the normal flow of traffic....

  8. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or... interfere with the normal flow of traffic....

  9. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or... interfere with the normal flow of traffic....

  10. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or... interfere with the normal flow of traffic....

  11. 36 CFR 4.13 - Obstructing traffic.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Obstructing traffic. 4.13... VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.13 Obstructing traffic. The following are prohibited: (a) Stopping or... interfere with the normal flow of traffic....

  12. AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Top Deadly Mistakes Made by Teen Drivers -- AAA AAA: Road debris causes avoidable crashes, deaths Save the ... Analyst Associate Researcher Program Coordinator Stay Tuned New AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety website coming Fall 2017 ...

  13. Road traffic injuries: a stocktaking.

    PubMed

    Mohan, Dinesh

    2008-08-01

    Once we accept that road traffic injury control is a public health problem, and that we have an ethical responsibility to arrange for the safety of individuals, then it follows that health and medical professionals have to assume responsibility for participating in efforts to control this pandemic. Over 1.2 million people die of road traffic crashes annually. Road traffic injuries are among the second to the sixth leading causes of death in the age groups 15-60 years in all countries around the world. Control of road traffic injuries is going to require very special efforts as patterns are different in high- and lower-income countries, and while some countermeasures are applicable internationally, others will need further research and innovation. We will need to focus on the safety of pedestrians, bicyclists and motorcyclists, speed control, and prevention of driving under the influence of alcohol.

  14. Kinetic model of network traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoniou, I.; Ivanov, V. V.; Kalinovsky, Yu. L.

    2002-05-01

    We present the first results on the application of the Prigogine-Herman kinetic approach (Kinetic Theory of Vehicular Traffic, American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., New York, 1971) to the network traffic. We discuss the solution of the kinetic equation for homogeneous time-independent situations and for the desired speed distribution function, obtained from traffic measurements analysis. For the log-normal desired speed distribution function the solution clearly shows two modes corresponding to individual flow patterns (low-concentration mode) and to collective flow patterns (traffic jam mode). For low-concentration situations we found almost linear dependence of the information flow versus the concentration and that the higher the average speed the lower the concentration at which the optimum flow takes place. When approaching the critical concentration there are no essential differences in the flow for different desired average speeds, whereas for the individual flow regions there are dramatic differences.

  15. The Effects of a Special Olympics Unified Sports Soccer Training Program on Anthropometry, Physical Fitness and Skilled Performance in Special Olympics Soccer Athletes and Non-Disabled Partners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baran, Funda; Aktop, Abdurrahman; Ozer, Dilara; Nalbant, Sibel; Aglamis, Ece; Barak, Sharon; Hutzler, Yeshayahu

    2013-01-01

    The study investigated the effects of a Special Olympics (SO) Unified Sport (UNS) soccer program on anthropometry, physical fitness and soccer skills of male youth athletes with and without intellectual disabilities (ID) who participated in a training group (TRG) and in a comparison group (CG) without specific training. Youth with ID (WID) were…

  16. Real-Time Traffic Signal Control for Optimization of Traffic Jam Probability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Cheng-You; Shin, Ji-Sun; Miyazaki, Michio; Lee, Hee-Hyol

    Real-time traffic signal control is an integral part of urban traffic control system. It can control traffic signals online according to variation of traffic flow. In this paper, we propose a new method for the real-time traffic signal control system. The system uses a Cellular Automaton model and a Bayesian Network model to predict probabilistic distributions of standing vehicles, and uses a Particle Swarm Optimization method to calculate optimal traffic signals. A simulation based on real traffic data was carried out to show the effectiveness of the proposed real-time traffic signal control system CAPSOBN using a micro traffic simulator.

  17. Fully automated urban traffic system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dobrotin, B. M.; Hansen, G. R.; Peng, T. K. C.; Rennels, D. A.

    1977-01-01

    The replacement of the driver with an automatic system which could perform the functions of guiding and routing a vehicle with a human's capability of responding to changing traffic demands was discussed. The problem was divided into four technological areas; guidance, routing, computing, and communications. It was determined that the latter three areas being developed independent of any need for fully automated urban traffic. A guidance system that would meet system requirements was not being developed but was technically feasible.

  18. The Olympic Heritage Year: Sequel to the Shakespeare Year 1983/84--A Rich Resource for Cross-Curricular Coordination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bob

    1983-01-01

    The "Olympic Heritage" year in California provides an excellent opportunity to motivate students to examine their heritage from ancient Greece and to advance cross-curricular coordination. The very successful 1981-82 "Shakespeare Year" program can be used as a model. A proposed Olympic project is described. (RM)

  19. Many roads lead to Rome--developmental paths to Olympic gold in men's field hockey.

    PubMed

    Güllich, Arne

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the developmental sporting activities of the Olympic Champions 2012 in men's field hockey. The volume of organised practice/training and non-organised sporting leisure play in both field hockey and other sports through childhood, adolescence and adulthood was examined and compared between the Olympic Champions and (1) current national class players and (2) international medallists of one decade earlier. Analyses revealed that the Olympic Champions performed moderate volumes of organised field hockey practice/training throughout their career and attained their first international senior medal after accumulating 4393 ± 1389 practice/training hours, but they engaged in extensive other sporting activities during childhood and youth. It took them 18 ± 3 years of involvement to attain an international medal and they had engaged for 22 ± 3 years when winning the Olympic gold medal. The Olympic Champions did not differ from national class players in the amount of hockey-specific practice/training, but in greater amounts of organised involvement in other sports and later specialisation. They differed from the international medallists of one decade earlier in less increase of organised hockey-specific practice/training during adulthood and a longer period of involvement until attaining their first international medal. The sporting activities were characterised by sizeable interindividual variation within each subsample. The findings are reflected against the deliberate practice and Developmental Model of Sports Participation (DMSP) frameworks and are discussed with reference to the concept of long-term sustainability.

  20. Sports injuries and ill-health episodes in the Cali 2013 World Games

    PubMed Central

    Llinás, Paulo José; Serrano, Rafael Fernando; Quintero Barrera, Laureano; Quiceno Noguera, Juan Carlos; Martinez Cano, Juan Pablo

    2016-01-01

    Background The World Games is a multisport event, second in importance only to the Olympic Games. Systematic surveillance of injuries and ill-health episodes is an essential part of modern integral healthcare given to athletes. Aim To describe and analyse injuries and ill-health episodes affecting competitors during the Cali World Games 2013. Methods This is a cross-sectional study of injuries and ill-health episodes suffered by competing athletes. Entries to the registry were systematically recorded by official doctors and medical staff at the Games, and included attention to emergencies at the sport venues and data of reports received from health facilities around the city. Results In all, 2824 athletes, 1216 women and 1608 men, participated in the 2013 Cali World Games. There were 88 injuries and 29 ill-health episodes, for an overall incidence of 31.2 injuries and 10.3 ill-health episodes per 1000 athletes, over an 11 day period. The highest incidence of sport associated injuries affected jiu-jitsu athletes. Hands were the most common site of injury. Injury rates for men and women were 35.5 and 25.5/1000 athletes, respectively, (RR=1.41, 95% CI 0.90 to 2.19, p=0.066). National delegations with less than 25 athletes suffered more injuries compared to larger delegations, with 40.9 vs 29.2 injuries per 1000 athletes (RR 1.4, 95% CI 0.85 to 2.30, p=0.12). The gastrointestinal system was the most affected by illness. The sport where most competitors suffered ill-health episodes was softball. The rate of ill-health episodes in women was 15/1000, and for men 6.8/1000 athletes (RR=2.16, 95% CI 1.03 to 4.56, p=0.038). Conclusions 3.1% of the athletes had sport-related injuries, and 1% had at least one episode of ill health. These are low numbers compared to other multisport events such as the Olympic Games. Men had a higher incidence of injuries, and women a higher incidence of episodes of ill health. Future World Games should improve data-collection strategies and

  1. Effect of traffic rule breaking behavior on pedestrian counterflow in a channel with a partition line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. F.; Song, W. G.

    2007-08-01

    In this paper a partition line is used in the counterflow system to present the default (conventional) traffic rule: pedestrians prefer to walk on a certain side on the road during movement, e.g., the right-hand side in China or the left-hand side in Japan. Based on the counterflow model of Takimoto (model A), we introduced two modified models, i.e., model B and C, to study the effects of a partition line in the consideration of people who do not obey the default traffic rule. Model B represents that factor in time scale, while model C in space scale. In model B, there are pedestrians who cross the partition line but choose not to obey the default traffic rule with a probability pnor , while in model C, if a pedestrian crosses the partition line and goes away from it further than a certain nonobeying-rule threshold distance dt , he will not obey the traffic rule. It is found that the behavior of traffic rule breaking influences much the counterflow when it is at the choking flow state rather than at the free moving or stopped state. Furthermore, it is shown that the default traffic rule is not always positive to the counterflow in all situations. It depends on the game result of these two opposite sides: to use the channel width as much as possible and to avoid the interference from the other group as far as possible.

  2. ACTIVITIES: Graphs and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsch, Christian R.

    1975-01-01

    Using a set of worksheets, students will discover and apply Euler's formula regarding connected planar graphs and play and analyze the game of Sprouts. One sheet leads to the discovery of Euler's formula; another concerns traversability of a graph; another gives an example and a game involving these ideas. (Author/KM)

  3. Mixed Reality Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marty, Jean-Charles; Carron, Thibault; Pernelle, Philippe; Talbot, Stéphane; Houzet, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    The authors' research work deals with the development of new game-based learning (gbl) environments. They think that the way of acquiring knowledge during a learning session is similar to following an adventure in a role-playing game and they apply the metaphor of exploring a virtual world, where each student embarks on a quest in order to collect…

  4. The Guppy Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blattner, Margaret; Hug, Barbara; Watson, Patrick; Korol, Donna

    2012-01-01

    Adaptation, interactions between species and their environments, and change over time are fundamental principles in biology. They represent aspects of two of the big ideas in science: evolution and natural selection. To help students understand these ideas, the authors developed the "Guppy Game." In this article, they describe the game and how…

  5. Gaming and Gamification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, Melissa

    2013-01-01

    The New Media Consortium's "Horizon Report" for higher education cites games and gamification with a time-to-adoption of two to three years. The use of digital games is almost ubiquitous in social media and is swiftly gaining popularity in other industries as well. Many in higher education have embraced gamification due to its…

  6. The Clean Air Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avalone-King, Deborah

    2000-01-01

    Introduces the Clean Air game which teaches about air quality and its vital importance for life. Introduces students to air pollutants, health of people and environment, and possible actions individuals can take to prevent air pollution. Includes directions for the game. (YDS)

  7. Gaming in Technology Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Aaron C.; Ernst, Jeremy V.

    2009-01-01

    The authors have devoted a considerable amount of time evaluating the role that gaming and game development plays in the form of curricula integration and as a future career focus for students interested in this field. From the research conducted through the completed National Science Foundation (NSF) project, VisTE: Visualization in Technology…

  8. Game Theory .net.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shor, Mikhael

    2003-01-01

    States making game theory relevant and accessible to students is challenging. Describes the primary goal of GameTheory.net is to provide interactive teaching tools. Indicates the site strives to unite educators from economics, political and computer science, and ecology by providing a repository of lecture notes and tests for courses using…

  9. Games on Sustainable Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Dennis L.; Van der Waals, Barbara

    This booklet contains a collection of educational games that can be used by teachers to convey ideas and create discussion related to environmental protection and sustainable development. The games accommodate participants of all ages and require little preparation by the teacher, up to 30-40 players with only one operator, minimal materials (many…

  10. Games People Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VerBruggen, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Today's video games aren't even a little bit like the ones that came out a few decades ago. Not only has the underlying technology dramatically improved, but the medium has matured remarkably in the years since "Pong" and "Space Invaders." ruled the arcades. The artistic promise of video games has yet to be fulfilled. The current state of the…

  11. Cournot and Bertrand Games.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckman, Steven R.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a series of matrix choice games that illustrate for students the concepts of monopoly, shared monopoly, Cournot, Bertrand, and Stackelberg behavior given either perfect complements or perfect substitutes. Suggests that the use of the games also allows for student dialogue about international trade and price wars. (JEH)

  12. Educational Card Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, D. R.; Munro, E.

    2009-01-01

    A number of years have passed since the development of the "Voyager: Satellites" educational card game reported in "Physics Education" in 2003. Since then, a large number of copies of the game have been produced and distributed across the UK, to a warm reception from both pupils and teachers. This article reports on some of the…

  13. Games and childhood obesity

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Videogames can be used to help children change their obesity-related diet and physical activity behaviors. A review of the relevant literature in this special issue of the Games for Health Journal indicated that video games did influence children's adiposity, but only among children who were alread...

  14. Police Patrol Game Kit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Todd, Ed.

    A packet of game materials, designed to help young people better understand what the law is, what the police officer's duties are, and what pressures and fears the police officers experience daily, is presented. The game, designed for a group of 20 to 35 students, contains: Teacher's Manual, Attitude Survey Master, Observer Evaluation Master,…

  15. Great Games That Disappeared

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rauschenbach, James; Swartz, Daniel R.

    2016-01-01

    Sometimes through a single person's efforts, a new and innovative game is developed and promoted locally. Occasionally, circumstances cause these games to remain on a local level without being adopted by mainstream physical educators and physical activity professionals. Unfortunately, some educators tend to stick to what they know and teach…

  16. Social Interactions and Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uz, Cigdem; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2015-01-01

    Digital games have become popular due to great technological improvements in recent years. They have been increasingly transformed from co-located experiences into multi-played, socially oriented platforms (Herodotou, 2009). Multi-User Online Games provide the opportunity to create a social environment for friendships and strengthen the…

  17. The Frozen Price Game

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alden, Lori

    2003-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the educational frozen price game she developed to teach the basic economic principle of price allocation. In addition to demonstrating the advantages of price allocation, the game also illustrates such concepts as opportunity costs, cost benefit comparisons, and the trade-off between efficiency and equity.…

  18. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  19. Games Learners Will Play

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyce, Byrl N.; And Others

    1971-01-01

    Clark Abt's book Serious Games" describes how games can enable children (and adults) to learn the abstract concepts that are required to deal with a world that is becoming increasingly complex. His book is here reviewed by three members of the University of Connecticut's Center for Real Estate and Urban Economics Studies. (Author)

  20. Avatars in Analytical Gaming

    SciTech Connect

    Cowell, Andrew J.; Cowell, Amanda K.

    2009-08-29

    This paper discusses the design and use of anthropomorphic computer characters as nonplayer characters (NPC’s) within analytical games. These new environments allow avatars to play a central role in supporting training and education goals instead of planning the supporting cast role. This new ‘science’ of gaming, driven by high-powered but inexpensive computers, dedicated graphics processors and realistic game engines, enables game developers to create learning and training opportunities on par with expensive real-world training scenarios. However, there needs to be care and attention placed on how avatars are represented and thus perceived. A taxonomy of non-verbal behavior is presented and its application to analytical gaming discussed.