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Sample records for om tysk sprog

  1. Two Papers on "Fag(sprog)lig Kommunikation" (Language for Specific Purposes). ROLIG-papir 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henriksen, Carol

    Two papers on "fag(sprog)lig Kommunikation"--languages for special purposes (LSP)--are presented. The first paper, in Danish, presents an alternative to the current structuralist oriented approach to the analysis of LSP as a kind of language in its own right and of texts written in this special kind of language. The approach is based on a more…

  2. Autonomic changes during "OM" meditation.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R

    1995-10-01

    The autonomic and respiratory variables were studied in seven experienced meditators (with experience ranging from 5 to 20 years). Each subject was studied in two types of sessions--meditation (with a period of mental chanting of "OM") and control (with a period of non-targetted thinking). The meditators showed a statistically significant reduction in heart rate during meditation compared to the control period (paired 't' test). During both types of sessions there was a comparable increase in the cutaneous peripheral vascular resistance. Keeping in mind similar results of other authors, this was interpreted as a sign of increased mental alertness, even while being physiologically relaxed (as shown by the reduced heart rate).

  3. OM300 Direction Drilling Module

    DOE Data Explorer

    MacGugan, Doug

    2013-08-22

    OM300 – Geothermal Direction Drilling Navigation Tool: Design and produce a prototype directional drilling navigation tool capable of high temperature operation in geothermal drilling Accuracies of 0.1° Inclination and Tool Face, 0.5° Azimuth Environmental Ruggedness typical of existing oil/gas drilling Multiple Selectable Sensor Ranges High accuracy for navigation, low bandwidth High G-range & bandwidth for Stick-Slip and Chirp detection Selectable serial data communications Reduce cost of drilling in high temperature Geothermal reservoirs Innovative aspects of project Honeywell MEMS* Vibrating Beam Accelerometers (VBA) APS Flux-gate Magnetometers Honeywell Silicon-On-Insulator (SOI) High-temperature electronics Rugged High-temperature capable package and assembly process

  4. On-Orbit Propulsion OMS/RCS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.

    2001-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Space Shuttle's On-Orbit Propulsion systems: the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and the Reaction Control System (RCS). The functions of each of the systems is described, and the diagrams of the systems are presented. The OMS/RCS thruster is detailed and a trade study comparison of non-toxic propellants is presented.

  5. The O&M Personnel Shortage and University Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William R.; Joffee, Elga

    1993-01-01

    Measures taken during the 1980s to increase the number of orientation and mobility (O&M) specialists to work with persons with visual impairments were evaluated, by means of a telephone survey of 15 university O&M programs. Survey findings indicated that efforts to address critical shortages in O&M personnel have been effective. (DB)

  6. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an employee received a reduced age O/M before the effective date of a DIB O/M, the PIA amount for the DIB O/M...

  7. OM-VPE grown materials for high efficiency solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saxena, R.; Cooper, B., III; Ludowise, M.; Borden, P.; Gregory, P.

    1980-01-01

    Organometallic sources are available for all the III-V elements and a variety of dopants; thus it is possible to use the technique to grow a wide variety of semiconductor compounds. AlGaAsSb and AlGaInAs alloys for multijunction monolithic solar cells were grown by OM-VPE. While the effort concentrated on terrestrial applications, the success of OM-VPE grown GaAs/AlGaAs concentrator solar cells (23% at 400 suns) demonstrates that OM-VPE is suitable for growing high efficiency solar cells in large quantities for space applications. In addition, OM-VPE offers the potential for substantial cost reduction of photovoltaic devices with scale up and automation and due to high process yield from reproducible, uniform epitaxial growths with excellent surface morphology.

  8. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... operation and maintenance (O&M) costs. (a) General. All new, amended, and renewed contracts shall provide for payment of O&M costs as specified in this section. (b) Amount of O&M costs a district must pay...

  9. 20 CFR 229.52 - Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. 229.52 Section 229.52 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS... Minimum Rate § 229.52 Age reduction when a reduced age O/M is effective before DIB O/M. If an...

  10. OM Code Requirements For MOVs -- OMN-1 and Appendix III

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin G. DeWall

    2011-08-01

    The purpose or scope of the ASME OM Code is to establish the requirements for pre-service and in-service testing of nuclear power plant components to assess their operational readiness. For MOVs this includes those that perform a specific function in shutting down a reactor to the safe shutdown condition, maintaining the safe shutdown condition, and mitigating the consequences of an accident. This paper will present a brief history of industry and regulatory activities related to MOVs and the development of Code requirements to address weaknesses in earlier versions of the OM Code. The paper will discuss the MOV requirements contained in the 2009 version of ASME OM Code, specifically Mandatory Appendix III and OMN-1, Revision 1.

  11. Space Shuttle OMS engine valve technology. [Orbital Maneuvering System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    Valve technology program to determine shutoff valve concepts suitable for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) engine of the Space Shuttle. The tradeoff studies selected the electric torque motor operated dual poppet and ball valves as the most desirable valve concepts for the OMS Engine Shutoff Valve. A prototype of one of these concepts was built and subjected to a design verification program. A number of unique features were designed to include the required contamination insensitivity, operating fluid compatibility, decontamination capability, minimum maintenance requirement and long service life capability.

  12. Activities of the O&M committee history & future perspectives

    SciTech Connect

    Poulis, D.S.

    1996-12-01

    This paper gives an overview of the Committee on Operation and Maintenance of Nuclear Power Plants, hereafter referred to as the O&M Committee, formed in June 1975 when the American National Standard Institute`s Committee on Reactor Plants and their Maintenance was disbanded. The O&M Committee`s history, structure, current focus and future perspectives will be presented. The purpose of this paper is to give information to industry and the public of the Committee`s on-going effort to make accurate and timely responses to the needs of the nuclear industry.

  13. Recapitulation of the ovum mutant (Om) phenotype and loss of Om locus polarity in cloned mouse embryos.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shaorong; Wu, Guangming; Han, Zhiming; de la Casa-Esperón, Elena; Sapienza, Carmen; Latham, Keith E

    2005-02-01

    The ovum mutant (Om) locus in mice affects early interactions between sperm and egg that in turn affect viability of embryos beyond the morula stage. Crosses of DDK females to males of many other inbred strains are 95% lethal around the morula stage, whereas reciprocal crosses are fully viable. Available data indicate that the early lethality is the result of an interaction between a factor in the ooplasm and the paternal genome. In this study, we examined whether this lethal interaction would likewise occur in cloned embryos produced by somatic cell nuclear transfer. We find that the Om effect is recapitulated but that the parental origin effect at the Om locus is no longer evident in cloned embryos.

  14. New directions and challenges for the O&M committee

    SciTech Connect

    Pelletier, J.P.

    1996-12-01

    In the second half of the decade of the nineties, the imperative of finding new ways to improve efficiency while maintaining safety is taking on a new urgency. The looming deregulation of the electric industry and the expected competition in the power production business fuels this urgency. The recently completed ASME research in the area of Risk-Based Inservice Testing offers the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Committee an opportunity to meet this challenge. This opportunity, however, offers its own challenges. New ways of thinking about inservice testing and new technical skills will be needed to successfully incorporate this technology into Code documents. It will not be adequate to rely solely on incorporation of risk-based methods into the Code to meet this challenge. A thorough self assessment of what O&M does, how it is done, and the value added will help assure that the directions which are pursued do, indeed, meet the challenge ahead.

  15. EDITORIAL: Selected Papers from OMS'07, the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2008-06-01

    OMS'07 was the 2nd Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society (EOS) on Optical Microsystems (OMS). It was organized by the EOS in the frame of its international topical meeting activity, and after the success of the inaugural meeting was once again held in Italy, 30 September to 3 October 2007, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. The local organizing committee was composed of researchers from `La Sapienza' University in Rome and the National Council of Research (CNR) in Naples, Italy. A selected group of leading scientists in the field formed the international scientific committee. The conference was fully dedicated to the most recent advancements carried out in the field of optical microsystems. More then 150 scientists coming from five continents attended the conference and more than 100 papers were presented, organized into the following sessions: Photonic cystals and metamaterials Optofluidic microsystems and devices Optical microsystems and devices New characterization methods for materials and devices Application of optical systems Optical sources and photodetectors Optical resonators Nonlinear optic devices Micro-optical devices. Four keynote lecturers were invited for the Plenary sessions: Federico Capasso, Harvard University, USA; Bahram Javidi, University of Connecticut, USA (Distinguished Lecturer, Emeritus of LEOS--IEEE Society); Demetri Psaltis, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland; Ammon Yariv, California Institute of Technology, USA. Furthermore, 21 invited speakers opened each session of the conference with their talks. In addition a special session was organized to celebrate eighty years of the Isituto Nazionale di Ottica Applicata (INOA) of CNR. The special invited speaker for this session was Professor Theodor W Hänsch (Nobel Prize in Physics, 2005), who gave a lecture entitled `What can we do with optical frequency combs?' In this special issue of Journal of Optics A: Pure and Applied Optics, a selection of the most interesting

  16. The Oms66 (p66) protein is a Borrelia burgdorferi porin.

    PubMed Central

    Skare, J T; Mirzabekov, T A; Shang, E S; Blanco, D R; Erdjument-Bromage, H; Bunikis, J; Bergström, S; Tempst, P; Kagan, B L; Miller, J N; Lovett, M A

    1997-01-01

    In this study we report the purification and characterization of a 66-kDa protein, designated Oms66, for outer membrane-spanning 66-kDa protein, that functions as a porin in the outer membrane (OM) of Borrelia burgdorferi. Oms66 was purified by fast-performance liquid chromatography and exhibited an average single-channel conductance of 9.62 +/- 0.37 nS in 1 M KCl, as evidenced by 581 individual insertional events in planar lipid bilayers. Electrophysiological characterization indicated that Oms66 was virtually nonselective between cations and anions and exhibited voltage-dependent closure with multiple substates. The amino acid sequence of tryptic peptides derived from purified Oms66 was identical to the deduced amino acid sequence of p66, a previously described surface-exposed protein of B. burgdorferi. Purified Oms66 was recognized by antiserum specific for p66 and serum from rabbits immune to challenge with virulent B. burgdorferi, indicating that p66 and Oms66 were identical proteins and that Oms66/p66 is an immunogenic protein in infected rabbits. In a methodology that reduces liposomal trapping and nonspecific interactions, native Oms66 was incorporated into liposomes, confirming that Oms66 is an outer membrane-spanning protein. Proteoliposomes containing Oms66 exhibited porin activity nearly identical to that of native, purified Oms66, indicating that reconstituted Oms66 retained native conformation. The use of proteoliposomes reconstituted with Oms66 and other Oms proteins provides an experimental system for determinating the relationship between conformation, protection, and biological function of these molecules. PMID:9284133

  17. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, Jonathan (Technical Monitor); Tolls, Volker

    2004-01-01

    The optical modulation spectrometer (OMS) is a novel, highly efficient, low mass backend for heterodyne receiver systems. Current and future heterodyne receiver systems operating at frequencies up to a few THz require broadband spectrometer backends to achieve spectral resolutions of R approximately 10(exp 5) to 10(exp 6) to carry out many important astronomical investigations. Among these are observations of broad emission and absorption lines from extra-galactic objects at high redshifts, spectral line surveys, and observations of planetary atmospheres. Many of these lines are pressure or velocity broadened with either large half-widths or line wings extending over several GHz. Current backend systems can cover the needed bandwidth only by combining the output of several spectrometers, each with typically up to 1 GHz bandwidth, or by combining several frequency-shifted spectra taken with a single spectrometer. An ultra-wideband optical modulation spectrometer with 10 - 40 GHz bandwidth will enable broadband ob- servations without the limitations and disadvantages of hybrid spectrometers. Spectrometers like the OMS will be important for both ground-based observatories and future space missions like the Single Aperture Far-Infrared Telescope (SAFIR) which might carry IR/submm array heterodyne receiver systems requiring a spectrometer for each array pixel. Small size, low mass and small power consumption are extremely important for space missions. This report summarizes the specifications developed for the OMS and lists already identified commercial parts. The report starts with a review of the principle of operation, then describes the most important components and their specifications which were derived from theory, and finishes with a conclusion and outlook.

  18. Acides gras oméga-3 et dyslexie

    PubMed Central

    Zelcer, Michal; Goldman, Ran D.

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question À la lumière de la hausse du nombre d’enfants d’âge scolaire ayant reçu un diagnostic de dyslexie, quel est le rôle des suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 dans la prise en charge de cette affection? Réponse La dyslexie est le trouble d’apprentissage le plus répandu et elle est connue pour ses causes multifactorielles. De récentes données probantes pointent vers une corrélation entre le métabolisme défectueux des acides gras polyinsaturés et les troubles de neurodéveloppement, tels que la dyslexie. Bien que l’administration de suppléments d’acides gras oméga-3 aux enfants dyslexiques ait fait l’objet d’études, les données probantes sont limitées. Les critères diagnostiques homogènes de dyslexie, les mesures objectives de carence en acides gras et la surveillance étroite de l’apport alimentaire ne sont que quelques-uns des facteurs pouvant améliorer la qualité de la recherche dans ce domaine.

  19. O&M Best Practices - A Guide to Achieving Operational Efficiency (Release 2.0)

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Pugh, Ray; Melendez, Aldo P.; Hunt, W. D.

    2004-07-31

    This guide, sponsored by DOE's Federal Energy Management Program, highlights operations and maintenance (O&M) programs targeting energy efficiency that are estimated to save 5% to 20% on energy bills without a significant capital investment. The purpose of this guide is to provide the federal O&M energy manager and practitioner with useful information about O&M management, technologies, energy efficiency and cost-reduction approaches.

  20. 20 CFR 229.68 - Reduction of DIB O/M.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reduction of DIB O/M. 229.68 Section 229.68..., State, or Local Law or Plan § 229.68 Reduction of DIB O/M. A reduction for entitlement to worker's compensation or a public disability benefit is applied after the DIB O/M is reduced for age and the...

  1. CSF neurofilament light chain is elevated in OMS (decreasing with immunotherapy) and other pediatric neuroinflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Pranzatelli, Michael R; Tate, Elizabeth D; McGee, Nathan R; Verhulst, Steven J

    2014-01-15

    Using a panel of seven brain cell-specific biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), pediatric opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) (n=234) was compared to pediatric non-inflammatory neurological controls (n=84) and other inflammatory neurological disorders (OIND) (n=44). Only CSF NFL was elevated in untreated OMS versus controls (+83%). It was 87% higher in OIND than in OMS. On combination treatment with front-loaded ACTH, IVIg, rituximab, median CSF NFL decreased by 60% to control levels. These biochemical data suggest neuronal/axonal injury in some children with OMS without indicators of astrogliosis, and reduction on sufficient immunotherapy.

  2. The OMS3 JGrass-NewAge Environmental Modelling System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Formetta, G.; David, O.; Rigon, R.

    2012-12-01

    The need for integrated analysis, and the multiplicity of possible goals in analyses that require hydro-biophysical modelling, necessitates more than ever the capability of composing modelling solutions with parts of known quality, which are transparent to users and consist of reusable model components. Moreover, modern hydrological modelling requires interaction with GIS tools to allow visualizations and the data-processing necessary to synthesise knowledge from high volumes of inputs and outputs data. Last but not least, doing science that is reproducible has requirements that go beyond the computational issues to embrace the possibility to inspection the tools, and easy compare modelling solutions by third party groups. The JGrass-NewAge system was born in order to satisfy these requirements. It is based on the geographic information system uDig-JGrass, and is composed of two parts: (i) the system of visualization of the data and of the results based on uDig; (ii) the modelling components. The latter are implemented as OMS3 components which can be connected or excluded at runtime, according to the needs and works seamlessly inside the uDig Spatial Toolbox. The system is based on a hillslope-link geometrical partition of the landscape, thus the basic unit, where the water budget is evaluated, is the hillslope, and each one of them drains into a single associated link rather than cells or pixels. To this conceptual partition corresponds an implementation of informatics that uses vectorial features for channels, and raster data for hillslopes. The mass budget for each hillslope can be performed in two ways: according to a modification of Duffy dynamical model of hillslope runoff or according to HyMod lumped model. Differently from traditional rainfall-runoff models where the discharge is usually given at the outlet of a catchment, the discharge is evaluated in each link of the river network according to a procedure presented in Cuencas model. The system includes

  3. Owner-controlled insurance programs: Reducing O&M costs

    SciTech Connect

    Charette, M.; Brady, N.

    1994-02-01

    The economic recession, increased competition from nonutility generators, and escalating Workers` Compensation costs are forcing electric utilities to reexamine how they finance the cost of risk. In addition to managed care programs, larger deductibles, and aggressive safety campaigns, utility risk and insurance executives are turning more than ever to Owner-Controlled Insurance Programs (OCIPs) to lower operation and maintenance (O&M) expenses. While electric utilities long have used OCIPs to control insurance costs during generating station and office building construction, this approach is now being employed for other projects. In the last few years, utilities have expanded the use of OCIPs to include scrubber installation, plant retrofit, and, more recently, for ongoing contract and maintenance work at operating fossil and nuclear plants. These OCIPs are also known as {open_quotes}gate{close_quotes} or {open_quotes}maintenance{close_quotes} wrap-ups.

  4. Variations in the OM/OC ratio of urban organic aerosol next to a major roadway.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven G; Lee, Taehyoung; Roberts, Paul T; Collett, Jeffrey L

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the organic matter/organic carbon (OM/OC) ratio in ambient particulate matter (PM) is critical to achieve mass closure in routine PM measurements, to assess the sources of and the degree of chemical processing organic aerosol particles have undergone, and to relate ambient pollutant concentrations to health effects. Of particular interest is how the OM/OC ratio varies in the urban environment, where strong spatial and temporal gradients in source emissions are common. We provide results of near-roadway high-time-resolution PM1 OM concentration and OM/OC ratio observations during January 2008 at Fyfe Elementary School in Las Vegas, NV, 18 m from the U.S. 95 freeway soundwall, measured with an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-AMS). The average OM/OC ratio was 1.54 (+/- 0.20 standard deviation), typical of environments with a low amount of secondary aerosol formation. The 2-min average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.17 and 2.67, and daily average OM/OC ratios varied between 1.44 and 1.73. The ratios were highest during periods of low OM concentrations and generally low during periods of high OM concentrations. OM/OC ratios were low (1.52 +/- 0.14, on average) during the morning rush hour (average OM = 2.4 microg/m3), when vehicular emissions dominate this near-road measurement site. The ratios were slightly lower (1.46 +/- 0.10) in the evening (average OM = 6.3 microg/m3), when a combination of vehicular and fresh residential biomass burning emissions was typically present during times with temperature inversions. The hourly averaged OM/OC ratio peaked at 1.66 at midday. OM concentrations were similar regardless of whether the monitoring site was downwind or upwind of the adjacent freeway throughout the day, though they were higher during stagnant conditions (wind speed < 0.5 m/sec). The OM/OC ratio generally varied more with time of day than with wind direction and speed. PMID:24558705

  5. Farming Systems Modeling Using the Object Modeling System (OMS): Overview, Applications, and Future Plans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Development of the Object Modeling System (OMS) modeling framework represents a comprehensive partnership between the USDA ARS/NRCS, USGS, and university collaborators. OMS helps streamline the development of integrated farming system models for current and future model delivery using a component-or...

  6. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... than the O&M costs allocated to the district in that year then that positive difference at the time of... this section. The positive difference would be factored into the contract rate for the remainder of...

  7. Facilitating Successful Outdoor O&M Instruction of Multihandicapped Blind Travelers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ehresman, Paul

    1994-01-01

    An orientation and mobility (O&M) instructor presents a case study of a blind 14 year old with mild cognitive deficits and emotional and behavioral problems. The case study demonstrates the importance of individualizing the O&M curriculum, including changing the usual sequence of instruction. (DB)

  8. Potential of front-face fluorescence to monitor OM reduction in drinking water during potabilization process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacotte, Pierre

    2014-05-01

    Elimination of OM in drinking water represents a great challenge for municipalities and technical actors to ensure that it can be safely used for consumption purposes. Indeed, current indicators such as Total Organic Carbon (TOC), turbidity or UV-Absorbance at 254 nm (UVA254) enable only non-specific overview of the amount of organic residuals in water. Fluorescence EEMs are a potent tool for discrimination and deep analysis of OM detailed composition and behaviour. It has been shown that several forms of OM co-exist in raw water, and come from various origins (bacteria, humic compounds…). Potabilization operation is composed of different steps that aim at decreasing all forms of OM using chemical as well as physical methods (ozone oxidation, filtration on activated carbon or sand, flocculation etc.). Unfortunately, it has been observed that reduction of OM during this process was not identical for all the forms, and the process showed a particular lack of efficiency during raining periods. 130 samples of water at various stages of potabilization were analyzed using home-made compact fluorometer, an apparatus composed of UV excitation LEDs. Using chemometrical treatment of spectral data, we put into highlight 5 different forms of OM that were identified according to litterature data. We evidenced the critical steps of the purification on OM reduction, as well as the relative content of each form from raw to product water. In particular, we showed that two forms were less reduced than the other three, so that progressive enrichment of total OM in the former was observed throughout the process. Moreover, a study was carried out in order to establish calibration models over conventional analyses using the spectral information. Highly satisfying models were thus obtained over TOC, turbidity and UVA254, with average RMSEC values of 13%, 7% and 16% respectively. These results demonstrate the potential of the fluorescence analyzer to simultaneously predict three major

  9. Capability and flight record of the versatile space shuttle OMS engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judd, D. Craig

    The development contract for Aerojet's Orbital Manuevering Subsystem (OMS) engine was awarded in February 1974. This paper provides a description of the OMS subcomponents along with a summary of the OMS development program and subsequent flight record. The major subcomponents include the platelet injector, regeneratively cooled chamber, radiation cooled nozzle extension, bipropellant valve, thrust mount, gimbal actuator assembly, and propellant feedlines. The OMS engine underwent an extensive development program between 1974 and 1978 that included approximately 3680 tests performed on 21 separate engines on components for a total duration of more than 19,000 seconds. This was followed with qualification testing of two engines with another 521 tests and 18,504 seconds of hot fire testing. The Space Shuttle system has completed 45 orbital flights with the OMS engines having fired a total of 356 times with a cumulative duration of 38,094 seconds. In all cases, the OMS engine has performed as required because of its maturity, simplicity, and built-in redundancy. Also described are the results of studies performed to increase the performance of the OMS engine either by using LOX/hydrocarbon propellants or by converting to a pump fed system to increase chamber pressure and area ratio.

  10. Wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM degradation rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bird, J. A.; Hatton, P. J.; Filley, T. R.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Gormley, M.; Dastmalchi, K.; Stark, R. E.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    Surprisingly little is known about how shifts in tree species composition and increased forest fire frequency and intensity will affect one of the most stable pools of soil organic matter, i.e. the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or char). In a previous study, we showed that wood source and pyrolysis temperature interact to control PyOM structure and potential reactivity for two tree species common in high-latitude forests, jack pine (JP) and red maple (RM). Here, we investigate whether these differences affect PyOM turnover by examining the fates of 13C/15N-enriched JP wood and PyOM pyrolyzed at 300 (JP300) and 450 °C (JP450) and RM pyrolyzed at 450 °C (RM450). The substrates were applied 1-3 cm below the O/A interface of a well-drained Spodosol in a long-term forest fire study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station (Pellston, MI, USA). 13C-CO2effluxes from the first 996 days of decay showed a significant wood source by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM field mineralisation rates, with RM450 mineralising twice faster than JP450 during the first 90 days. Increasing pyrolysis temperature substantially decreased field mineralization rates during the first 996 days, with mineralisation rates 24 and 80 times slower for JP300 and JP450 compared with JP wood. After 1 year, (i) bacterial groups were large sinks for PyOM-derived C as pyrolysis temperature increased and as substrate use efficiency decreased; (ii) potential phenol oxidase and net peroxidase activities were unaffected by the PyOM addition, although net peroxidase activities measured tended to lesser for soils amended with JP450 and RM450; and (iii) Collembola detritivores appeared less likely to be found for soils amended with JP450 and RM450. PyOM-derived C and N recoveries did not differ after 1 year; we will present 3-y recovery data. Our results suggest that the composition of angiosperms (e.g. RM) and gymnosperms (e.g. JP) in high-latitude forests is an underappreciated but

  11. Spectroscopic Investigation of O-,M-, and P-Cyanostyrenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Joseph A.; Knezz, Stephanie N.; McMahon, Robert J.; Zwier, Timothy S.

    2014-06-01

    The atmosphere of Titan contains nitrogen, methane, and a rich mixture of more complex hydrocarbons and nitriles produced by photochemical processing. Data from the 2005 Cassini-Huygens mission suggests that among the more complex compounds are substituted benzenes that are themselves precursors to large polymeric tholins. Nitriles are particularly prevalent in Titan's atmosphere due to the dominance of N2 in the atmosphere. The cyanostyrenes are of particular interest, in part because they have the same molecular formula (C9H7N) as quinoline, a prototypical heteroaromatic, and therefore could engage in photochemical isomerization to form this molecule of significant pre-biotic relevance. As a first step in understanding the pathways leading to heteroaromatics, we have studied the isotope-selective spectroscopy of o-,m-, and p-cyanostyrene under jet-cooled conditions relevant to Titan's atmosphere. In this talk, the excitation and emission spectra for the three isomers will be presented. Using a combination of resonant two-photon ionization, LIF excitation, and dispersed fluorescence spectroscopies, the vibronic spectroscopy of the three isomers were recorded and compared. The meta isomer has two conformational isomers, which have been distinguished and studied using hole-burning methods. The talk will compare and contrast the UV spectral signatures of the set of structural and conformational isomers of the cyanostyrenes, using the ethynylstyrene counterparts as points of comparison. Sebree, J. A.; Kidwell, N. M.; Selby, T. M.; Amberger, B. K.; McMahon, R. J.; Zwier, T. S., Photochemistry of Benzylallene: Ring-Closing Reactions to Form Naphthalene. Journal of the American Chemical Society 2012, 134 (2), 1153-1163. Selby, T. M.; Clarkson, J. R.; Mitchell, D.; Fitzpatrick, J. A. J.; Lee, H. D.; Pratt, D. W.; Zwier, T. S., Isomer-Specific Spectroscopy and Conformational Isomerization Energetics of o-, m-, and p-Ethynylstyrenes. The Journal of Physical Chemistry A 2005

  12. Theoretical study of substitution effect in superalkali OM3 (M = Li, Na, K)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Jing; Li, Ying; Wu, Di; Wu, Zhi-Jian

    2013-06-01

    A class of superalkalies OM3 (M = Li, Na, K) and their corresponding cations OM3+ were theoretically investigated. The OM3 molecules possess very low adiabatic ionization potentials (AIPs) of 2.842-3.558 eV at the CCSD(T)/6-311+G(3df) level. It was found that the ionization potentials of OM3 depend on the nature of the peripheral ligand atom and can be efficiently decreased upon replacing the M atom with the more electropositive one. Such superalkalies characterized by lower ionization potentials add candidates to the research on superatoms and can be used in the synthesis of new nontraditional salts where strong reducers are involved.

  13. A Best Practice for Developing Availability Guarantee Language in Photovoltaic (PV) O&M Agreements.

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John

    2015-11-01

    This document outlines the foundation for developing language that can be utilized in an Equipment Availability Guarantee, typically included in an O&M services agreement between a PV system or plant owner and an O&M services provider, or operator. Many of the current PV O&M service agreement Availability Guarantees are based on contracts used for traditional power generation, which create challenges for owners and operators due to the variable nature of grid-tied photovoltaic generating technologies. This report documents language used in early PV availability guarantees and presents best practices and equations that can be used to more openly communicate how the reliability of the PV system and plant equipment can be expressed in an availability guarantee. This work will improve the bankability of PV systems by providing greater transparency into the equipment reliability state to all parties involved in an O&M services contract.

  14. Neuro-cognitive aspects of "OM" sound/syllable perception: A functional neuroimaging study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Uttam; Guleria, Anupam; Khetrapal, Chunni Lal

    2015-01-01

    The sound "OM" is believed to bring mental peace and calm. The cortical activation associated with listening to sound "OM" in contrast to similar non-meaningful sound (TOM) and listening to a meaningful Hindi word (AAM) has been investigated using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The behaviour interleaved gradient technique was employed in order to avoid interference of scanner noise. The results reveal that listening to "OM" sound in contrast to the meaningful Hindi word condition activates areas of bilateral cerebellum, left middle frontal gyrus (dorsolateral middle frontal/BA 9), right precuneus (BA 5) and right supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Listening to "OM" sound in contrast to "non-meaningful" sound condition leads to cortical activation in bilateral middle frontal (BA9), right middle temporal (BA37), right angular gyrus (BA 40), right SMG and right superior middle frontal gyrus (BA 8). The conjunction analysis reveals that the common neural regions activated in listening to "OM" sound during both conditions are middle frontal (left dorsolateral middle frontal cortex) and right SMG. The results correspond to the fact that listening to "OM" sound recruits neural systems implicated in emotional empathy. PMID:24845107

  15. Remarkable promotion effect of trace sulfation on OMS-2 nanorod catalysts for the catalytic combustion of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Changbin; He, Hong

    2015-09-01

    OMS-2 nanorod catalysts were synthesized by a hydrothermal redox reaction method using MnSO4 (OMS-2-SO4) and Mn(CH3COO)2 (OMS-2-AC) as precursors. SO4(2-)-doped OMS-2-AC catalysts with different SO4(2-) concentrations were prepared next by adding (NH4)2SO4 solution into OMS-2-AC samples to investigate the effect of the anion SO4(2-) on the OMS-2-AC catalyst. All catalysts were then tested for the catalytic oxidation of ethanol. The OMS-2-SO4 catalyst synthesized demonstrated much better activity than OMS-2-AC. The SO4(2-) doping greatly influenced the activity of the OMS-2-AC catalyst, with a dramatic promotion of activity for suitable concentration of SO4(2-) (SO4/catalyst=0.5% W/W). The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), NH3-TPD and H2-TPR techniques. The results showed that the presence of a suitable amount of SO4(2-) species in the OMS-2-AC catalyst could decrease the Mn-O bond strength and also enhance the lattice oxygen and acid site concentrations, which then effectively promoted the catalytic activity of OMS-2-AC toward ethanol oxidation. Thus it was confirmed that the better catalytic performance of OMS-2-SO4 compared to OMS-2-AC is due to the presence of some residual SO4(2-) species in OMS-2-SO4 samples. PMID:26354694

  16. Contribution of effluent organic matter (EfOM) to ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: isolation, characterization, and fouling effect of EfOM fractions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing; Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2014-11-15

    EfOM has been regarded as a major organic foulant resulting in UF membrane fouling in wastewater reclamation. To investigate fouling potential of different EfOM fractions, the present study isolated EfOM into hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), colloids, hydrophobic acids (HPO-A), transphilic neutrals and acids (TPI), and hydrophilics (HPI), and tested their fouling effect in both salt solution and pure water during ultrafiltration (UF). Major functional groups and chemical structure of the isolates were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis. The influence of the isolation process on the properties of EfOM fractions was minor because the raw and reconstituted secondary effluents were found similar with respect to UV absorbance, molecular size distribution, and fluorescence character. In membrane filtration tests, unified membrane fouling index (UMFI) and hydraulic resistance were used to quantify irreversible fouling potential of different water samples. Results show that under similar DOC level in feed water, colloids present much more irreversible fouling than other fractions. The fouling effect of the isolates is related to their size, chemical properties, and solution chemistry. Further investigations have identified that the interaction between colloids and other fractions also influences the performance of colloids in fouling phenomena.

  17. Contribution of effluent organic matter (EfOM) to ultrafiltration (UF) membrane fouling: isolation, characterization, and fouling effect of EfOM fractions.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xing; Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Croué, Jean-Philippe

    2014-11-15

    EfOM has been regarded as a major organic foulant resulting in UF membrane fouling in wastewater reclamation. To investigate fouling potential of different EfOM fractions, the present study isolated EfOM into hydrophobic neutrals (HPO-N), colloids, hydrophobic acids (HPO-A), transphilic neutrals and acids (TPI), and hydrophilics (HPI), and tested their fouling effect in both salt solution and pure water during ultrafiltration (UF). Major functional groups and chemical structure of the isolates were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and solid-state carbon nuclear magnetic resonance ((13)C NMR) analysis. The influence of the isolation process on the properties of EfOM fractions was minor because the raw and reconstituted secondary effluents were found similar with respect to UV absorbance, molecular size distribution, and fluorescence character. In membrane filtration tests, unified membrane fouling index (UMFI) and hydraulic resistance were used to quantify irreversible fouling potential of different water samples. Results show that under similar DOC level in feed water, colloids present much more irreversible fouling than other fractions. The fouling effect of the isolates is related to their size, chemical properties, and solution chemistry. Further investigations have identified that the interaction between colloids and other fractions also influences the performance of colloids in fouling phenomena. PMID:25173435

  18. Droplet infiltration and OM composition of intact soil structural surfaces for studying mass exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Martin, ,, Dr.; Gerke, PD Horst H., ,, Dr.; Godow, Sophie Ch.; Ellerbrock, PD Ruth H., ,, Dr.

    2014-05-01

    During rapid percolation through macropores with local nonequilibrium conditions water and solute mass exchange with the porous matrix and sorption of reactive components is both taken place at the surface of preferential flow paths. Aggregate surfaces can be coated by illuviated clayey particles and biopores covered by plant residues or earthworm casts. By controlling wettability and sorption properties, the organic matter (OM) of surface coatings may also affect the transport properties of structured soils. Composition of OM in wall coatings was found spatially distributed at the mm-scale; thus, it remained unclear if water absorption by the soil matrix (i.e., mass exchange) was affected by locally-distributed OM. For samples with intact aggregate surfaces and biopore walls taken at clay-illuvial subsoil horizon of Luvisols developed from Loess and glacial till, the mm-scale spatial distribution of OM composition was measured using diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFT). Spectra were analysed with respect to alkyl and carboxyl functional groups in OM to obtain an estimate for its potential wettability. The infiltration dynamic of water droplets was evaluated using contact angle measurements and droplet penetration time. The potential wettability of OM differed for coatings and burrow walls and was generally lower for the Loess-derived than for the till-derived samples. The droplet infiltration times were significantly lower only for the Loess Luvisol samples. The results suggest that mass exchange between flow path and matrix can be affected by OM composition of structural surfaces among other factors such as texture, moisture, and chemical status (pH).

  19. Significant issues and changes for ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, part 1, ASME OMc code-1994, and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, inservice testing of pressure relief devices in light water reactor power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Seniuk, P.J.

    1996-12-01

    This paper identifies significant changes to the ANSI/ASME OM-1 1981, Part 1, and ASME Omc Code-1994 and ASME OM Code-1995, Appendix I, {open_quotes}Inservice Testing of Pressure Relief Devices in Light-Water Reactor Power Plants{close_quotes}. The paper describes changes to different Code editions and presents insights into the direction of the code committee and selected topics to be considered by the ASME O&M Working Group on pressure relief devices. These topics include scope issues, thermal relief valve issues, as-found and as-left set-pressure determinations, exclusions from testing, and cold setpoint bench testing. The purpose of this paper is to describe some significant issues being addressed by the O&M Working Group on Pressure Relief Devices (OM-1). The writer is currently the chair of OM-1 and the statements expressed herein represents his personal opinion.

  20. Temperature & wood source control PyOM turnover in a Northern American forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, Pierre-Joseph; Le Moine, James; Auclerc, Apolline; Gormley, Mark; Filley, Tim R.; Nadelhoffer, Knute J.; Bird, Jeff. A.

    2016-04-01

    Surprisingly little is known about how pyrolysis temperature and wood source affect the stability of forest-fire derived pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM). Here, we show that wood source and temperature affect in situ mineralization rates of PyOM in soils for two co-occurring gymnosperm (jack pine; JP [Pinus banksiana]) and angiosperm (red maple; RM [Acer rubrum])¬ species from North American boreal-temperate ecotones. We assess the effect of pyrolysis temperature on PyOM fates by following the decay of 13C/15N-enriched JP wood (JPwood) and PyOM produced at 300 °C (JP300) and 450 °C (JP450); and assess the effect of PyOM wood source by comparing fates of JP450 and RM450. JPwood mineralized 18× faster than JP300 and 44× faster than JP450 after 2.8y. RM450 mineralized initially faster than JP450 during the first ~2y, but became equivalent afterwards (1.1±0.2% of CO¬2 losses after 2.8y). Modeled turnover times suggest that this can be attributed to ~1% of fast-cycling PyOM (<3y). Slower-cycling pools are 12× faster for JPwood (13±5y) than for JP300 (157±28y) and 55× faster than for JP450 (700±229y). Modeled turnover times of the slow-cycling pools were equivalent for JP450 and RM450. The priming effect was positive for JPwood (0.10±0.05), neutral for JP300 (-0.02±0.04), and negative for JP450 (-0.15±0.03) and RM50 (-0.59±0.03). DOC losses were minimal compared with CO2 losses (DOC:CO2 ratio ≤0.005), but followed the same patterns: JPwood 6× greater than that of JP300 and 39× greater compared with JP450. After 1y, C recoveries were lower for JPwood than for PyOM, with no influence of pyrolysis temperature or wood source (yet); N recoveries did not differ. PLFA-(13)C data reveal that (i) treatments have similar microbial communities after 1y, (ii) JPwood is preferentially utilized by fungi, and (iii) bacteria increasingly utilize PyOM as pyrolysis temperature increases. Estimated carbon use efficiency decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature

  1. O/M RATIO MEASUREMENT IN PURE AND MIXED OXIDE FULES - WHERE ARE WE NOW?

    SciTech Connect

    J. RUBIN; ET AL

    2000-12-01

    The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio is one of the most critical parameters of nuclear fuel fabrication, and its measurement is closely monitored for manufacturing process control and to ensure the service behavior of the final product. Thermogravimetry is the most widely used method, the procedure for which has remained largely unchanged since its development some thirty years ago. It was not clear to us, however, that this method is still the optimum one in light of advances in instrumentation, and in the current regulatory environment, particularly with regard to waste management and disposal. As part of the MOX fuel fabrication program at Los Alamos, we conducted a comprehensive review of methods for O/M measurements in UO{sub 2}, PuO{sub 2} and mixed oxide fuels for thermal reactors. A concerted effort was made to access information not available in the open literature. We identified approximately thirty five experimental methods that (a) have been developed with the intent of measuring O/M, (b) provided O/M indirectly by suitable reduction of the measured data, or (c) could provide O/M data with suitable data reduction or when combined with other methods. We will discuss the relative strengths and weaknesses of these methods in their application to current routine and small-lot production environment.

  2. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices – Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  3. Solar PV O&M Standards and Best Practices - Existing Gaps and Improvement Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Klise, Geoffrey Taylor; Balfour, John R.; Keating, T. J.

    2014-11-01

    As greater numbers of photovoltaic (PV) systems are being installed, operations & maintenance (O&M) activities will need to be performed to ensure the PV system is operating as designed over its useful lifetime. To mitigate risks to PV system availability and performance, standardized procedures for O&M activities are needed to ensure high reliability and long-term system bankability. Efforts are just getting underway to address the need for standard O&M procedures as PV gains a larger share of U.S. generation capacity. Due to the existing landscape of how and where PV is installed, including distributed generation from small and medium PV systems, as well as large, centralized utility-scale PV, O&M activities will require different levels of expertise and reporting, making standards even more important. This report summarizes recent efforts made by solar industry stakeholders to identify the existing standards and best practices applied to solar PV O&M activities, and determine the gaps that have yet to be, or are currently being addressed by industry.

  4. Effects of the Bacterial Extract OM-85 on Phagocyte Functions and the Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Baladi, S.; Kantengwa, S.; Donati, Y. R. A.; Polla, B. S.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of the bacterial extract OM-85 on the respiratory burst, intracellular calcium and the stress response have been investigated in human peripheral blood monocytes from normal donors. Activation of the respiratory burst during bacterial phagocytosis has been previously associated with heat shock/stress proteins synthesis. Whereas OM-85 stimulated superoxide production and increased Ca2+ mobilization, it fared to induce synthesis of classical HSPs. The lack of stress protein induction was observed even in the presence of iron which potentiates both oxidative injury and stress protein induction during bacterial phagocytosis. However OM-85 induced a 75–78 kDa protein, which is likely to be a glucose regulated protein (GRP78), and enhanced intracellular expression of interleukin-lβ precursor. PMID:18472933

  5. Distinct effects of Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) on gp130 binding cytokines

    PubMed Central

    Roth, M; Block, L

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) is known to support respiratory tract resistance to bacterial infections. In vivo and in vitro studies in animals and humans have shown that the action of the drug is based on the modulation of the host immune response, and it has been found to upregulate interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-2, IL-6, and IL-8. These immunomodulatory effects of the compound may explain its stimulation on T helper cells and natural killer cells. Following earlier findings that OM-85 BV induces the synthesis of IL-6, a study was undertaken to investigate its possible effect on other gp130 binding cytokines including IL-11, IL-12, leukaemia inhibitory factor (LIF), oncostatin M (OSM), and ciliary neutrophil factor (CNTF). Its modulation of the corresponding receptors of the above mentioned cytokines and of the signal transducer gp130 in human pulmonary fibroblasts and peripheral blood lymphocytes was also studied.
METHODS—Transcription of cytokines was assessed by Northern blot analysis. Secretion of cytokines was analysed using commercially available enzyme linked immunosorbent assay kits. Cytokine receptors and gp130 proteins were determined by Western blot analysis.
RESULTS—OM-85 BV increased the expression of IL-11 in human lung fibroblasts, but not in lymphocytes, in a dose and time dependent manner by maximal fivefold within 20 hours. The compound inhibited serum induced IL-12 expression in peripheral blood lymphocytes but did not induce OSM, LIF, or CNTF at any concentration. In lung fibroblasts the expression of the IL-6 receptor was enhanced fourfold at a concentration of 10 µg/ml OM-85 BV while that of the IL-11 receptor was not altered. In peripheral blood lymphocytes LIF receptor α expression was downregulated in the presence of 10 µg/ml OM-85 BV. At a concentration of 10 µg/ml OM-85 BV enhanced gp130 gene transcription fivefold and increased gp130 protein accumulation in cell membranes by 2.5times

  6. Non-Toxic Orbiter Maneuvering System (OMS) and Reaction Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurlbert, Eric A.; Nicholson, Leonard S. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    NASA is pursuing the technology and advanced development of a non-toxic (NT) orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and reaction control system (RCS) for shuttle upgrades, RLV, and reusable first stages. The primary objectives of the shuttle upgrades program are improved safety, improved reliability, reduced operations time and cost, improved performance or capabilities, and commonality with future space exploration needs. Non-Toxic OMS/RCS offers advantages in each of these categories. A non-toxic OMS/RCS eliminates the ground hazards and the flight safety hazards of the toxic and corrosive propellants. The cost savings for ground operations are over $24M per year for 7 flights, and the savings increase with increasing flight rate up to $44M per year. The OMS/RCS serial processing time is reduced from 65 days to 13 days. The payload capability can be increased up to 5100 Ibms. The non-toxic OMS/RCS also provides improved space station reboost capability up to 20 nautical miles over the current toxic system of 14 nautical miles. A NT OMS/RCS represents a clear advancement in the SOA over MMH/NTO. Liquid oxygen and ethanol are clean burning, high-density propellants that provide a high degree of commonality with other spacecraft subsystems including life support, power, and thermal control, and with future human exploration and development of space missions. The simple and reliable pressure-fed design uses sub-cooled liquid oxygen at 250 to 350 psia, which allows a propellant to remain cryogenic for longer periods of time. The key technologies are thermal insulation and conditioning techniques are used to maintain the sub-cooling. Phase I successfully defined the system architecture, designed an integrated OMS/RCS propellant tank, analyzed the feed system, built and tested the 870 lbf RCS thrusters, and tested the 6000 lbf OMS engine. Phase 11 is currently being planned for the development and test of full-scale prototype of the system in 1999 and 2000

  7. A double blind multicentre study of OM-8980 and auranofin in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed Central

    Vischer, T L

    1988-01-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of the immunomodulator OM-8980 in rheumatoid arthritis was compared with that of auranofin, an oral gold salt, in a double blind, randomised multicentre study lasting six months. Seventy patients were treated with auranofin and 75 with OM-8980. The patients of both groups improved significantly at three and six months for all the clinical parameters observed: Ritchie index, number of swollen joints, morning stiffness, pain, grip strength, intake of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. No serious side effects were observed in either group. The patients receiving auranofin had more adverse reactions, mainly affecting the gastrointestinal system. PMID:3041924

  8. Fe(II)-catalyzed Transformation of OM-ferrihydrite Complexes: Impacts on C Dynamics and As Oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.

    2015-12-01

    Aqueous Fe(II) is known to catalyze the abiotic transformation of ferrihydrite to more stable Fe minerals. While ferrihydrite within most natural environments contains high contents of adsorbed or coprecipitated organic matter (OM), little is known regarding the impact of OM on Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of ferrihydrite and its consequences for C and metal(oid) dynamics. In this study, we investigated the impacts of adsorbed and coprecipitated OM on the extent and the secondary mineral profiles of Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation and subsequent C dynamics and As(III) oxidation. The effects of OM types (dissolved organic matter (DOM) vs. polysaccharides) were also compared. Regardless of OM types, both adsorbed and coprecipitated OM resulted in a linear decrease in ferrihydrite transformation with increasing C/Fe ratios. At similar C/Fe ratios, a greater degree of ferrihydrite transformation was observed for the presence of EPS than DOM. Regardless of OM types, the difference in the Fe(II)-catalyzed ferrihydrite was small between adsorbed and coprecipitated OM. DOM impeded goethite and magnetite formation and stimulated lepidocrocite formation, whereas EPS did not alter the secondary Fe minerals formed from transformation of ferrihydrite and goethite was the major secondary Fe minerals in the presence of EPS. Adsorption of As(III) impeded goethite formation and increased the formation of lepidocrcote. The solid-phase C content remained unchanged after reaction, suggesting that OM remains associated with Fe minerals following ferrihydrite transformation to more stable Fe minerals. However, C desorbability by H2PO4- from the resulting Fe minerals following reaction was enhanced implying that Fe(II)-catalyzed transformation of ferrihydrite may decrease the stability of OM in natural environments under moderately reducing conditions. In addition, regardless of DOM or EPS, the presence of OM decreased the degree of As(III) oxidation following Fe

  9. Music Education through Popular Music Festivals: A Study of the "OM Music Festival" in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snell, Karen

    2005-01-01

    Most people think of the teaching and learning of music as taking place in formal, institutional contexts like schools and universities. This study looks at the transmission of music teaching and learning that takes place in a more informal, musical environment, namely at a "popular music festival." In particular, it discusses the OM music…

  10. Bacterial extract OM-85 BV protects mice against experimental chronic rhinosinusitis

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yanli; Yuan, Tiejun; Li, Xuechang; Yang, Shuqin; Zhang, Fanping; Shi, Li

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the therapeutic effects of OM-85 BV as an adjunctive treatment on experimental chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) in mice. Methodology: Female BALB/c mice aged 8-12 weeks were sensitized and administrated by intranasal Aspergillus fumigatis (AF) three times per week for 1 week, 3 weeks, 2 months and 3 months (n = 10 each time point). The mice were randomly and equally assigned to four groups: normal control group, model group, OM-85-BV plus amoxicillin group, and isolated amoxicillin group. Inflammatory changes were determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining. The expression levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 1, SOCS3, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon (IFN)-γ in samples were assessed by using real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blotting. Results: There were significantly inflammatory and structural changes between the model and other groups. Compared to the model group, the mRNA expression levels of SOCS1, SOCS3, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly decreased in OM-85-BV plus amoxicillin group and isolated amoxicillin group, along with the protein levels. Conclusion: The bacterial extract OM-85 BV is a low-cost alternatively adjunctive drug to treat CRS with simple oral administration, good safety, and few side effects. PMID:26261565

  11. Controlling O&M Costs of Advanced SMRs using Prognostics and Enhanced Risk Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Hirt, Evelyn H.; Coles, Garill A.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Wood, Richard T.

    2014-02-25

    Advanced small modular reactors (AdvSMRs) can contribute to safe, sustainable, and carbon-neutral energy production. The economics of small reactors (including AdvSMRs) will be impacted by the reduced economy-of-scale savings when compared to traditional light water reactors. The most significant controllable element of the day-to-day costs involves operations and maintenance (O&M). Enhancing affordability of AdvSMRs through technologies that help control O&M costs will be critical to ensuring their practicality for wider deployment.A significant component of O&M costs is the management and mitigation of degradation of components due to their impact on planning maintenance activities and staffing levels. Technologies that help characterize real-time risk of failure of key components are important in this context. Given the possibility of frequently changing AdvSMR plant configurations, approaches are needed to integrate three elements – advanced plant configuration information, equipment condition information, and risk monitors – to provide a measure of risk that is customized for each AdvSMR unit and support real-time decisions on O&M. This article describes an overview of ongoing research into diagnostics/prognostics and enhanced predictive risk monitors (ERM) for this purpose.

  12. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.23 Recovery of... allocates to irrigation; (2) If in the year the amendment is executed, the district's contract rate was...

  13. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.23 Recovery of... allocates to irrigation; (2) If in the year the amendment is executed, the district's contract rate was...

  14. 43 CFR 426.23 - Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M) costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Recovery of operation and maintenance (O&M... RECLAMATION, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ACREAGE LIMITATION RULES AND REGULATIONS § 426.23 Recovery of... allocates to irrigation; (2) If in the year the amendment is executed, the district's contract rate was...

  15. Ortho-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate (OMS-33) as a residual spray for control of anopheline mosquitos

    PubMed Central

    Wright, James W.; Fritz, Roy F.; Hocking, Kay S.; Babione, Robert; Gratz, Norman G.; Pal, Rajindar; Stiles, Alan R.; Vandekar, Milutin

    1969-01-01

    More than 1300 compounds have so far been included in the WHO Programme for Evaluating and Testing New Insecticides, which is designed to disclose compounds that may satisfactorily replace those to which insect vectors of disease have become resistant. The authors describe the successful passage of o-isopropoxyphenyl methylcarbamate (OMS-33) through the first 6 stages of the 7-stage programme that has been established for compounds intended for use against anopheline mosquitos and conclude that this product is suitable for testing in the final stage—large-scale epidemiological evaluation. In operational field trials (at 2 g/m2) OMS-33 has been shown capable of controlling Anopheles stephensi (in Iran), An. gambiae and An. funestus (in Nigeria) for 3-4 months, An. albimanus (in El Salvador) for 2-4 months and An. dthali (in Iran) for 2½ months. It has an airborne effect by which anophelines are killed for a considerable time after OMS-33 has been sprayed, even though they do not make contact with a sprayed surface; this quality would appear advantageous in areas where anophelines enter houses and bite man but do not rest long enough on sprayed surfaces to acquire a lethal dose of insecticide or where significant outdoor biting occurs. The observance of simple safety precautions protects occupants of sprayed houses, spraymen and others from danger. Chemical studies have indicated that commercially produced water-dispersible powders of OMS-33 are stable under field conditions of storage and use. PMID:5306320

  16. Development of a New O&M Clinical Competency Evaluation Tool and Examination of Validity and Reliability Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this study was to create an evaluation tool that would be the new standard for evaluating clinical competencies of interns in the field of orientation and mobility (O&M). Using results from previous research in this area, specific competency skills were identified and the O&M Clinical Competency Evaluation Matrix (CCEM) was developed.…

  17. Selective Activation of Human Dendritic Cells by OM-85 through a NF-kB and MAPK Dependent Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Scutera, Sara; Somma, Paolo; Salvi, Valentina; Musso, Tiziana; Tabbia, Giuseppe; Bardessono, Marco; Pasquali, Christian; Mantovani, Alberto; Sozzani, Silvano; Bosisio, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    OM-85 (Broncho-Vaxom®, Broncho-Munal®, Ommunal®, Paxoral®, Vaxoral®), a product made of the water soluble fractions of 21 inactivated bacterial strain patterns responsible for respiratory tract infections, is used for the prevention of recurrent upper respiratory tract infections and acute exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients. OM-85 is able to potentiate both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms responsible for OM-85 activation are still largely unknown. Purpose of this study was to investigate the impact of OM-85 stimulation on human dendritic cell functions. We show that OM-85 selectively induced NF-kB and MAPK activation in human DC with no detectable action on the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) pathway. As a consequence, chemokines (i.e. CXCL8, CXCL6, CCL3, CCL20, CCL22) and B-cell activating cytokines (i.e. IL-6, BAFF and IL-10) were strongly upregulated. OM-85 also synergized with the action of classical pro-inflammatory stimuli used at suboptimal concentrations. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COPD, a pathological condition often associated with altered PRR expression pattern, fully retained the capability to respond to OM-85. These results provide new insights on the molecular mechanisms of OM-85 activation of the immune response and strengthen the rational for its use in clinical settings. PMID:24386121

  18. Extracellular secretion of the Borrelia burgdorferi Oms28 porin and Bgp, a glycosaminoglycan binding protein.

    PubMed

    Cluss, Robert G; Silverman, Damon A; Stafford, Thomas R

    2004-11-01

    Borrelia burgdorferi, the Lyme disease pathogen, cycles between its Ixodes tick vector and vertebrate hosts, adapting to vastly different biochemical environments. Spirochete gene expression as a function of temperature, pH, growth phase, and host milieu is well studied, and recent work suggests that regulatory networks are involved. Here, we examine the release of Borrelia burgdorferi strain B31 proteins into conditioned medium. Spirochetes intrinsically radiolabeled at concentrations ranging from 10(7) to 10(9) cells per ml secreted Oms28, a previously characterized outer membrane porin, into RPMI medium. As determined by immunoblotting, this secretion was not associated with outer membrane blebs or cytoplasmic contamination. A similar profile of secreted proteins was obtained for spirochetes radiolabeled in mixtures of RPMI medium and serum-free Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK II) medium. Proteomic liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of tryptic fragments derived from strain B31 culture supernatants confirmed the identity of the 28-kDa species as Oms28 and revealed a 26-kDa protein as 5'-methylthioadenosine/S-adenosylhomocysteine nucleosidase (Pfs-2), previously described as Bgp, a glycosaminoglycan-binding protein. The release of Oms28 into the culture medium is more selective when the spirochetes are in logarithmic phase of growth compared to organisms obtained from stationary phase. As determined by immunoblotting, stationary-phase spirochetes released OspA, OspB, and flagellin. Oms28 secreted by strains B31, HB19, and N40 was also recovered by radioimmunoprecipitation. This is the first report of B. burgdorferi protein secretion into the extracellular environment. The possible roles of Oms28 and Bgp in the host-pathogen interaction are considered.

  19. Prevention of respiratory tract infections with bacterial lysate OM-85 bronchomunal in children and adults: a state of the art

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a leading cause of morbidity and also represent a cause of death in some parts of the world. The treatment of RTIs implies a continuous search for stronger therapies and represents an economical burden for health services and society. In this context the prevention of infections is absolutely required. The use of bacterial lysates as immuno-modulators to boost immunological response is widely debated. Aim of this review is to summarize the main clinical studies on the effect of the bacterial lysate OM-85 in treating RTIs in susceptible subjects - namely children and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-affected adults. Results from clinical trials and recent systematic reviews are reported. The results show that mean number of RTIs decreases upon treatment with OM-85, as measured by frequency of exacerbations or number of antibiotic courses. Data from systematic reviews indicated that OM-85 is particularly beneficial in children at high risk of RTIs. In COPD-affected adults, clinical studies showed that treatment with OM-85 reduced exacerbations, although systematic reviews did not legitimate the protective effect of OM-85 toward COPD as significant. The use of OM-85 could be efficacious in reducing exacerbation frequency of RTIs in children and adults at risk. However further high-quality studies are needed to better explain the mechanism of action and confirm the beneficial results of OM85. PMID:23692890

  20. Top Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Efficiency Opportunities at DoD/Army Sites - A Guide for O&M/Energy Managers and Practitioners

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, Gregory P.; Dean, Jesse D.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2007-05-25

    This report, sponsored the Army's Energy Engineering Analysis Program, provides the Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Energy manager and practitioner with useful information about the top O&M opportunities consistently found across the DoD/Army sector. The target is to help the DoD/Army sector develop a well-structured and organized O&M program.

  1. OM-X®, Fermented Vegetables Extract Suppresses Antigen-Stimulated Degranulation in Rat Basophilic Leukemia RBL-2H3 Cells and Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis Reaction in Mice.

    PubMed

    Itoh, Tomohiro; Miyake, Yasuyoshi; Kasashima, Takuya; Shimomiya, Yoshie; Nakamura, Yuki; Ando, Masashi; Tsukamasa, Yasuyuki; Takahata, Muneaki

    2015-09-01

    OM-X® is a hand-made and naturally manufactured probiotic supplement. This fermented food product is made from vegetables, fruits, seaweeds and mushrooms, using 12 strains of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. OM-X® is also known to have beneficial health properties, and some of its components show effects on antigen (Ag)-stimulated degranulation activity, indicating that OM-X® may be useful in the treatment of allergy responses and symptoms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of OM-X® on Ag-stimulated degranulation in rat basophilic leukemia RBL-2H3 cells, clarified the underlying mechanisms, and determined the active compounds in OM-X® for suppression of degranulation. Treatment with OM-X® gradually suppressed Ag-stimulated degranulation throughout the maturation period. OM-X® also gradually produced melanoidins by lactic acid bacterial fermentation during the maturation process. There was a high correlation between the suppression levels of Ag-stimulated degranulation and the browning of OM-X®. Furthermore, the inhibition of Ag-stimulated degranulation by OM-X® was found to be partially due to the direct inactivation of NADPH oxidase. To elucidate the in vivo effects of OM- X®, type I allergy model mice were orally administered with OM-X®, and the passive cutaneous anaphylaxis (PCA) reaction was measured. OM-X® intake remarkably suppressed the PCA reaction. Taken together, our findings suggest that OMX® could be a beneficial food to ameliorate allergic reactions.

  2. Four years of immunization with OM-85 BV to prevent respiratory infections in HIV+ patients

    PubMed Central

    Capetti, Amedeo; Cossu, Maria Vittoria; Carenzi, Laura; Rizzardini, Giuliano

    2013-01-01

    We report an interventional, non-randomized experience of OM-85 BV immunization in a group of 104 HIV-infected subjects presenting recurrent seasonal respiratory bacterial infections. We compared the number of respiratory events, the use of antibiotics and the cost related to antibiotics before (2005–2006) and after (2008–2011) the introduction of such intervention. The year 2007 was excluded from the analysis since half of the patients were immunized in that year in an exploratory approach. Respiratory infections dropped in all groups but in subjects with recurrent otitis, leading to a reduction in the use of antibiotics. This is the first report of the effect of OM-85 BV in vivo in HIV-infected subjects. PMID:23792443

  3. Epitaxial thin film GaAs solar cells using OM-CVD techniques. [Organometallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Wang, K. L.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A new approach has been initiated at JPL to fabricate thin-film, high efficiency GaAs solar cells on low-cost, single-crystal Si substrates having a thin CVD interlayer of Ge to minimize the lattice and thermal expansion mismatch. For initial experiments, n(+)/p GaAs cells were grown by OM-CVD on single-crystal GaAs and Ge wafers. Details of the growths and performance results will be presented. Subsequently, a combined epitaxial structure of OM-CVD GaAs on a strongly adherent Ge interlayer on (100) Si was grown. This is the first report of the successful growth of this composite structure. Low module costs projected by JPL SAMICS methodology calculations and the potential for 400-600W/kg space solar arrays will be discussed.

  4. Columbia: The first five flights entry heating data series. Volume 2: The OMS Pod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.

    1983-01-01

    Entry heating flight data and wind tunnel data on the OMS Pod are presented for the first five flights of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. The heating rate data are presented in terms of normalized film heat transfer coefficients as a function of angle-of-attack, Mach number, and normal shock Reynolds number. The surface heating rates and temperatures were obtained via the JSC NONLIN/INVERSE computer program. Time history plots of the surface heating rates and temperatures are also presented.

  5. Study on optics integrated manufacture technology based on Windows DNA-OM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Min; Yang, Li; Wang, Yong-jan

    2006-02-01

    As the shortcoming and insufficiency of CNC systems applied in optics manufacturing, a design and application based on Windows DNA-OM is presented. After introducing the prime principles and logic structures of Windows DNA-OM, a specific solution of optics integrated manufacture based on this framework is discussed in detail. In this solution, the OPC(OLE for Process Control) technology based on COM(Component Object Model) of Microsoft company is used for CNC equipment in the workshop, and this could provide a general interface for communication of hetero-structure CNC equipment of workshop and so all hetero-structure CNC can be accessed in a simple way. The experience and knowledge of optic manufacturing is stored and integrated in Windows DNA-OM Data part, this data part can guide optics manufacture. By completing this data part, an optics manufacture expert system can be realized. Then the prime characteristics of the integrated manufacture system are given. Finally this system is proved to has a good flexibility and opening, ease realizing, low cost and high feasibility.

  6. Determining the Spatial and Seasonal Variability in OM/OC Ratios across the U.S. Using Multiple Regression

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) network are used to estimate organic mass to organic carbon (OM/OC) ratios across the United States by extending previously published multiple regression techniques. Our new methodology addresses com...

  7. OM14 is a mitochondrial receptor for cytosolic ribosomes that supports co-translational import into mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    Lesnik, Chen; Cohen, Yifat; Atir-Lande, Avigail; Schuldiner, Maya; Arava, Yoav

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that import of proteins into mitochondria can occur after their complete synthesis by cytosolic ribosomes. Recently, an additional model was revived, proposing that some proteins are imported co-translationally. This model entails association of ribosomes with the mitochondrial outer membrane, shown to be mediated through the ribosome-associated chaperone nascent chain-associated complex (NAC). However, the mitochondrial receptor of this complex is unknown. Here, we identify the Saccharomyces cerevisiae outer membrane protein OM14 as a receptor for NAC. OM14Δ mitochondria have significantly lower amounts of associated NAC and ribosomes, and ribosomes from NAC[Δ] cells have reduced levels of associated OM14. Importantly, mitochondrial import assays reveal a significant decrease in import efficiency into OM14Δ mitochondria, and OM14-dependent import necessitates NAC. Our results identify OM14 as the first mitochondrial receptor for ribosome-associated NAC and reveal its importance for import. These results provide a strong support for an additional, co-translational mode of import into mitochondria. PMID:25487825

  8. OM14 is a mitochondrial receptor for cytosolic ribosomes that supports co-translational import into mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Lesnik, Chen; Cohen, Yifat; Atir-Lande, Avigail; Schuldiner, Maya; Arava, Yoav

    2014-12-09

    It is well established that import of proteins into mitochondria can occur after their complete synthesis by cytosolic ribosomes. Recently, an additional model was revived, proposing that some proteins are imported co-translationally. This model entails association of ribosomes with the mitochondrial outer membrane, shown to be mediated through the ribosome-associated chaperone nascent chain-associated complex (NAC). However, the mitochondrial receptor of this complex is unknown. Here, we identify the Saccharomyces cerevisiae outer membrane protein OM14 as a receptor for NAC. OM14Δ mitochondria have significantly lower amounts of associated NAC and ribosomes, and ribosomes from NAC[Δ] cells have reduced levels of associated OM14. Importantly, mitochondrial import assays reveal a significant decrease in import efficiency into OM14Δ mitochondria, and OM14-dependent import necessitates NAC. Our results identify OM14 as the first mitochondrial receptor for ribosome-associated NAC and reveal its importance for import. These results provide a strong support for an additional, co-translational mode of import into mitochondria.

  9. OM-FBA: Integrate Transcriptomics Data with Flux Balance Analysis to Decipher the Cell Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Weihua; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Constraint-based metabolic modeling such as flux balance analysis (FBA) has been widely used to simulate cell metabolism. Thanks to its simplicity and flexibility, numerous algorithms have been developed based on FBA and successfully predicted the phenotypes of various biological systems. However, their phenotype predictions may not always be accurate in FBA because of using the objective function that is assumed for cell metabolism. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a novel computational framework, namely omFBA, to integrate multi-omics data (e.g. transcriptomics) into FBA to obtain omics-guided objective functions with high accuracy. In general, we first collected transcriptomics data and phenotype data from published database (e.g. GEO database) for different microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then developed a “Phenotype Match” algorithm to derive an objective function for FBA that could lead to the most accurate estimation of the known phenotype (e.g. ethanol yield). The derived objective function was next correlated with the transcriptomics data via regression analysis to generate the omics-guided objective function, which was next used to accurately simulate cell metabolism at unknown conditions. We have applied omFBA in studying sugar metabolism of S. cerevisiae and found that the ethanol yield could be accurately predicted in most of the cases tested (>80%) by using transcriptomics data alone, and revealed valuable metabolic insights such as the dynamics of flux ratios. Overall, omFBA presents a novel platform to potentially integrate multi-omics data simultaneously and could be incorporated with other FBA-derived tools by replacing the arbitrary objective function with the omics-guided objective functions. PMID:27100883

  10. A Xhosa language translation of the CORE-OM using South African university student samples.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Megan M; Young, Charles

    2016-10-01

    The translation of well established psychometric tools from English into Xhosa may assist in improving access to psychological services for Xhosa speakers. The aim of this study was to translate the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM), a measure of general distress and dysfunction developed in the UK, into Xhosa for use at South African university student counselling centres. The CORE-OM and embedded CORE-10 were translated into Xhosa using a five-stage translation design. This design included (a) forward-translation, (b) back-translation, (c) committee approach, (d) qualitative piloting, and (e) quantitative piloting on South African university students. Clinical and general samples were drawn from English-medium South African universities. Clinical samples were generated from university student counselling centres. General student samples were generated through random stratified cluster sampling of full-time university students. Qualitative feedback from the translation process and results from quantitative piloting of the 34-item CORE-OM English and Xhosa versions supported the reduction of the scale to 10 items. This reduced scale is referred to as the South African CORE-10 (SA CORE-10). A measurement and structural model of the SA CORE-10 English version was developed and cross-validated using an English-speaking university student sample. Equivalence of this model with the SA CORE-10 Xhosa version was investigated using a first-language Xhosa-speaking university sample. Partial measurement equivalence was achieved at the metric level. The resultant SA CORE-10 Xhosa and English versions provide core measures of distress and dysfunction. Additional, culture- and language-specific domains could be added to increase sensitivity and specificity.

  11. OM-FBA: Integrate Transcriptomics Data with Flux Balance Analysis to Decipher the Cell Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Guo, Weihua; Feng, Xueyang

    2016-01-01

    Constraint-based metabolic modeling such as flux balance analysis (FBA) has been widely used to simulate cell metabolism. Thanks to its simplicity and flexibility, numerous algorithms have been developed based on FBA and successfully predicted the phenotypes of various biological systems. However, their phenotype predictions may not always be accurate in FBA because of using the objective function that is assumed for cell metabolism. To overcome this challenge, we have developed a novel computational framework, namely omFBA, to integrate multi-omics data (e.g. transcriptomics) into FBA to obtain omics-guided objective functions with high accuracy. In general, we first collected transcriptomics data and phenotype data from published database (e.g. GEO database) for different microorganisms such as Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We then developed a "Phenotype Match" algorithm to derive an objective function for FBA that could lead to the most accurate estimation of the known phenotype (e.g. ethanol yield). The derived objective function was next correlated with the transcriptomics data via regression analysis to generate the omics-guided objective function, which was next used to accurately simulate cell metabolism at unknown conditions. We have applied omFBA in studying sugar metabolism of S. cerevisiae and found that the ethanol yield could be accurately predicted in most of the cases tested (>80%) by using transcriptomics data alone, and revealed valuable metabolic insights such as the dynamics of flux ratios. Overall, omFBA presents a novel platform to potentially integrate multi-omics data simultaneously and could be incorporated with other FBA-derived tools by replacing the arbitrary objective function with the omics-guided objective functions. PMID:27100883

  12. Summary of LO2/Ethanol OMS/RCS Technology and Advanced Development 99-2744

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, Leslie A.; Hurlbert, Eric A.

    1999-01-01

    NASA is pursuing non-toxic propellant technologies applicable to RLV and Space Shuttle orbital maneuvering system (OMS) and reaction control system (RCS). The primary objectives of making advancements in an OMS/RCS system are improved safety, reliability, and reduced operations and maintenance cost, while meeting basic operational and performance requirements. An OMS/RCS has a high degree of direct interaction with the vehicle and crew and requires subsystem and components that are compatible with integration into the vehicle with regard to external mold-line, power, and thermal control. In July 1997, a Phase I effort for the technology and advanced development of an upgrade of the space shuttle was conducted to define the system architecture, propellant tank, feed system, RCS thrusters, and OMS engine. Phase I of the project ran from July 1997 to October 1998. Phase II is currently being planned for the development and test of full-scale prototype of the system in 1999 and 2000. The choice of pressure-fed liquid oxygen (LO2) and ethanol is the result of numerous trade studies conducted from 1980 to 1996. Liquid oxygen and ethanol are clean burning, high-density propellants that provide a high degree of commonality with other spacecraft subsystems including life support, power, and thermal control, and with future human exploration and development of space missions. The key to this pressure-fed system is the use of subcooled liquid oxygen at 350 psia. In this approach, there is 80 degrees R of subcooling, which means that boil-off will not occur until the temperature has risen 80 R. The sub-cooling results naturally from loading propellants at 163 R, which is the saturation temperature at 14.7 psia, and then pressurizing to 350 psia on the launch pad. Thermal insulation and conditioning techniques are then used to limit the LO2 temperature to 185 R maximum, and maintain the sub-cooling. The other key is the wide temperature range of ethanol, -173 F to +300 F, which

  13. Alterations in auditory middle latency evoked potentials during meditation on a meaningful symbol--"Om".

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Nagarathna, R; Nagendra, H R; Desiraju, T

    1994-05-01

    Middle latency auditory evoked potentials were recorded in 18 male volunteers with ages between 25 and 45 years, 9 of whom had more than 10 years of experience in "Om" meditation (senior subjects), whereas the other 9 had no meditation experience (naive subjects). Both groups were studied in two types of sessions. (1) Before, during, and after 20 minutes of mentally repeating "one" (control session), and (2) a similar session, though with 20 minutes of mentally chanting "Om" (meditation session). The senior subjects showed a statistically significant (paired t-test) increase in the peak amplitude of Na wave (the maximum negative peak between 14 and 18 ms) during meditation, while the same subjects showed a statistically significant reduction in the Na wave peak amplitude during control sessions. In contrast, the naive subjects had a significant decrease in the Na wave peak amplitude during meditation sessions and a nonsignificant trend of reduction during control sessions, as well. This difference between senior and naive subjects was significant (two-way ANOVA). There were no significant changes in short latency wave V or Pa wave (the positive peak between the Na wave and 35 ms). The changes in the Na wave suggest that both mediation on a meaningful symbol, and mental repetition of a neutral word cause neural changes at the same level (possibly diencephalic). However, the change could be in opposite directions, and this difference could be correlated with differences in the duration of experience in meditation between senior and naive subjects.

  14. Oms1 associates with cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediates to stabilize newly synthesized Cox1

    PubMed Central

    Bareth, Bettina; Nikolov, Miroslav; Lorenzi, Isotta; Hildenbeutel, Markus; Mick, David U.; Helbig, Christin; Urlaub, Henning; Ott, Martin; Rehling, Peter; Dennerlein, Sven

    2016-01-01

    The mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase assembles in the inner membrane from subunits of dual genetic origin. The assembly process of the enzyme is initiated by membrane insertion of the mitochondria-encoded Cox1 subunit. During complex maturation, transient assembly intermediates, consisting of structural subunits and specialized chaperone-like assembly factors, are formed. In addition, cofactors such as heme and copper have to be inserted into the nascent complex. To regulate the assembly process, the availability of Cox1 is under control of a regulatory feedback cycle in which translation of COX1 mRNA is stalled when assembly intermediates of Cox1 accumulate through inactivation of the translational activator Mss51. Here we isolate a cytochrome c oxidase assembly intermediate in preparatory scale from coa1Δ mutant cells, using Mss51 as bait. We demonstrate that at this stage of assembly, the complex has not yet incorporated the heme a cofactors. Using quantitative mass spectrometry, we define the protein composition of the assembly intermediate and unexpectedly identify the putative methyltransferase Oms1 as a constituent. Our analyses show that Oms1 participates in cytochrome c oxidase assembly by stabilizing newly synthesized Cox1. PMID:27030670

  15. Code cases for implementing risk-based inservice testing in the ASME OM code

    SciTech Connect

    Rowley, C.W.

    1996-12-01

    Historically inservice testing has been reasonably effective, but quite costly. Recent applications of plant PRAs to the scope of the IST program have demonstrated that of the 30 pumps and 500 valves in the typical plant IST program, less than half of the pumps and ten percent of the valves are risk significant. The way the ASME plans to tackle this overly-conservative scope for IST components is to use the PRA and plant expert panels to create a two tier IST component categorization scheme. The PRA provides the quantitative risk information and the plant expert panel blends the quantitative and deterministic information to place the IST component into one of two categories: More Safety Significant Component (MSSC) or Less Safety Significant Component (LSSC). With all the pumps and valves in the IST program placed in MSSC or LSSC categories, two different testing strategies will be applied. The testing strategies will be unique for the type of component, such as centrifugal pump, positive displacement pump, MOV, AOV, SOV, SRV, PORV, HOV, CV, and MV. A series of OM Code Cases are being developed to capture this process for a plant to use. One Code Case will be for Component Importance Ranking. The remaining Code Cases will develop the MSSC and LSSC testing strategy for type of component. These Code Cases are planned for publication in early 1997. Later, after some industry application of the Code Cases, the alternative Code Case requirements will gravitate to the ASME OM Code as appendices.

  16. Obesity-resistant S5B rats showed great cocaine conditioned place preference than the obesity-prone OM rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Wang, G.; Thanos, P.K..; Kim, R.; Cho, J.; Michaelides, M.; Anderson, B.J.; Primeaux, S.D.; Bray, G.A.; Wang, G.-J.; Robinson, J.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-12-01

    Dopamine (DA) and the DA D2 receptor (D2R) are involved in the rewarding and conditioned responses to food and drug rewards. Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are genetically prone and S5B/P rats are genetically resistant to obesity when fed a high-fat diet. We hypothesized that the differential sensitivity of these two rat strains to natural rewards may also be reflected in sensitivity to drugs of abuse. Therefore, we tested whether OM and S5B/P rats showed a differential preference to cocaine using conditioned place preference (CPP). To also evaluate whether there is specific involvement of the D2R in this differential conditioning sensitivity, we then tested whether the D2R agonist bromocriptine (BC) would differentially affect the effects of cocaine in the two strains. OM and S5B/P rats were conditioned with cocaine (5 or 10 mg/kg) in one chamber and saline in another for 8 days. Rats were then tested for cocaine preference. The effects of BC (0.5, 1, 5, 10, 20 mg/kg) on cocaine preference were then assessed in subsequent test sessions. OM rats did not show a significant preference for the cocaine-paired chamber on test day. Only the S5B/P rats showed cocaine CPP. Later treatment with only the highest dose of BC resulted in reduced cocaine CPP in S5B/P rats when treated with 5 mg/kg cocaine and in OM rats treated with 10 mg/kg cocaine. Our results indicated that obesity-resistant S5B rats showed greater cocaine CPP than the obesity-prone OM rats. These findings do not support a theory of common vulnerability for reinforcer preferences (food and cocaine). However, they show that BC reduced cocaine conditioning effects supporting at least a partial regulatory role of D2R in conditioned responses to drugs.

  17. Genome Sequence of Oenococcus oeni OM27, the First Fully Assembled Genome of a Strain Isolated from an Italian Wine

    PubMed Central

    Lamontanara, Antonella; Orrù, Luigi; Cattivelli, Luigi; Russo, Pasquale; Capozzi, Vittorio

    2014-01-01

    Oenococcus oeni OM27 is a strain selected from “Nero di Troia” wine undergoing spontaneous malolactic fermentation. “Nero di Troia” is a wine made from “Uva di Troia” grapes, an autochthonous black grape variety from the Apulian region (south of Italy). In this paper we present a 1.78-Mb assembly of the O. oeni OM27 genome, the first fully assembled genome of an O. oeni strain from an Italian wine. PMID:24994801

  18. Negative Birefringence in the Higher Homologs of the 5O.m Series of Liquid Crystals.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Debanjan; Alapati, Parameswara Rao; Bhattacharjee, Ayon

    2016-07-14

    A detailed study of the different parameters of the higher homologs of the 5O.m (m = 14, 16) series of liquid-crystalline compounds is reported. These are interdigitated compounds with unsymmetrical alkyl chain length. The compounds have a unique nature, unlike the other members of the nO.m series. The molecular structure reported in this article is not purely uniaxial; it has a bending tendency. In this article, we report that both the compounds exhibit negative birefringence. For the optical study, the refractive indices, ne and no, of the sample are measured by the thin-prism technique, using a He-Ne laser beam of wavelength 633 nm. A four-parameter model was used for fitting the experimental results. From the experimentally measured refractive indices, it is possible to compare different parameters with those of the theoretical models. PMID:27267484

  19. An engineering evaluation of the Space Shuttle OMS engine after 5 orbital flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    David, D.

    1983-01-01

    Design features, performances on the first five flights, and condition of the Shuttle OMS engines are summarized. The engines were designed to provide a vacuum-fed 6000 lb of thrust and a 310 sec specific impulse, fueled by a combination of N2O4 and monomethylhydrazine (MMH) at a mixture ratio of 1.65. The design lifetime is 1000 starts and 15 hr of cumulative firing duration. The engine assembly is throat gimballed and features yaw actuators. No degradation of the hot components was observed during the first five flights, and the injector pattern maintained a uniform, enduring level of performance. An increase in the take-off loads have led to enhancing the wall thickness in the nozzle in affected areas. The engine is concluded to be performing to design specifications and is considered an operational system.

  20. Clinical Benefits of Memantine Treatment for Alzheimer's Disease in the Okayama Memantine Study II (OMS II).

    PubMed

    Matsuzono, Kosuke; Yamashita, Toru; Ohta, Yasuyuki; Hishikawa, Nozomi; Koike, Makoto; Sato, Kota; Kono, Syoichiro; Deguchi, Kentaro; Nakano, Yumiko; Abe, Koji

    2015-01-01

    The clinical benefits of memantine, depending on the baseline cognitive and affective conditions in real world dementia clinics, have not been completely examined. We performed the "Okayama Memantine Study II (OMS II)" to retrospectively evaluate the clinical effects of memantine monotherapy (n = 38) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients using seven batteries to assess dementia at the baseline, at 3, 6, and 12 months. Additionally, we divided 163 AD patients treated with memantine into two subgroups depending on the baseline cognitive score of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE): the MMSE <15 group (n = 36) and the baseline MMSE ≥15 group (n = 127). We also analyzed 71 AD patients based on the baseline behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) severity using Abe's BPSD score (ABS). Memantine monotherapy maintained cognitive functions until 6 months of treatment, but showed a decrease at 12 months ( *p <  0.05 versus baseline). However, memantine monotherapy greatly improved BPSD symptoms until 12 months ( *p <  0.05,  **p <  0.01) and maintained other affective functions as well as the activity of daily living. Memantine treatment showed similar effects, regardless of the baseline cognitive functions, but showed better effects on ABS for higher baseline cognitive functions. Memantine treatment greatly improved ABS depending on baseline BPSD severity. Our present OMS II showed that memantine monotherapy improved BPSD until 12 months. The higher baseline cognitive subgroup (MMSE ≥15) and the worse baseline BPSD subgroup were expected to show better effects with memantine.

  1. Immuno EM-OM correlative microscopy in solution by atmospheric scanning electron microscopy (ASEM).

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Yuusuke; Ebihara, Tatsuhiko; Nishiyama, Hidetoshi; Suga, Mitsuo; Sato, Chikara

    2012-11-01

    In the atmospheric scanning electron microscope (ASEM), an inverted SEM observes the wet sample from beneath an open dish while an optical microscope (OM) observes it from above. The disposable dish with a silicon nitride (SiN) film window can hold a few milliliters of culture medium, and allows various types of cells to be cultured in a stable environment. The use of this system for in situ correlative OM/SEM immuno-microscopy is explored, the efficiency of the required dual-tagged labeling assessed and the imaging capabilities of the ASEM documented. We have visualized the cytoskeletons formed by actin and tubulin, the chaperone PDI that catalyses native disulfide bond formation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the calcium sensor STIM1 that is integrated in ER membranes, using established cell lines. In particular, a dynamic string-like gathering of STIM1 was observed on the ER in Jurkat T cells in response to Ca(2+) store depletion. We have also visualized filamentous actin (F-actin) and tubulin in the growth cones of primary-culture neurons as well as in synapses. Further, radially running actin fibers were shown to partly colocalize with concentric bands of the Ca(2+) signaling component Homer1c in the lamellipodia of neuron primary culture growth cones. After synapse formation, neurite configurations were drastically rearranged; a button structure with a fine F-actin frame faces a spine with a different F-actin framework. Based on this work, ASEM correlative microscopy promises to allow the dynamics of various protein complexes to be investigated in the near future. PMID:22959994

  2. Exploring ligand recognition, selectivity and dynamics of TPR domains of chloroplast Toc64 and mitochondria Om64 from Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Panigrahi, Rashmi; Whelan, James; Vrielink, Alice

    2014-06-01

    The study aims to gain insight into the mode of ligand recognition by tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) domains of chloroplast translocon at the outer envelope of chloroplast (Toc64) and mitochondrial Om64, two paralogous proteins that mediate import of proteins into chloroplast and mitochondria, respectively. Chaperone proteins associate with precursor proteins in the cytosol to maintain them in a translocation competent conformation and are recognized by Toc64 and Om64 that are located on the outer membrane of the target organelle. Heat shock proteins (Hsp70) and Hsp90 are two chaperones, which are known to play import roles in protein import. The C-termini of these chaperones are known to interact with the TPR domain of chloroplast Toc64 and mitochondrial Om64 in Arabidopsis thaliana (At). Using a molecular dynamics approach and binding energy calculations, we identify important residues involved in the interactions. Our findings suggest that the TPR domain from AtToc64 has higher affinity towards C-terminal residues of Hsp70. The interaction occurs as the terminal helices move towards each other enclosing the cradle on interaction of AtHsp70 with the TPR domain. In contrast, the TPR domain from AtOm64 does not discriminate between the C-termini of Hsp70 and Hsp90. These binding affinities are discussed with respect to our knowledge of protein targeting and specificity of protein import into endosymbiotic organelles in plant cells.

  3. Comparison of ozone and HO· induced conversion of effluent organic matter (EfOM) using ozonation and UV/H2O2 treatment.

    PubMed

    Audenaert, W T M; Vandierendonck, D; Van Hulle, S W H; Nopens, I

    2013-05-01

    This study experimentally examined the impact of oxidation on the properties of effluent organic matter (EfOM) using two different oxidation techniques: ozonation and UV/H2O2 treatment. Multiple surrogates for EfOM related to its spectral properties, molecular size, concentration, polarity and biodegradability were used to study the oxidant induced conversions. Spectral calculations as differential absorbance spectra (DAS) and absorbance slope index (ASI) were applied for the first time to describe EfOM oxidation and proved to be useful to unravel differences in working mechanism between ozone and hydroxyl radical (HO) induced transformation of EfOM. Effluent ozonation inherently led to significant HO production as a result of electron transfers between ozone and electron rich moieties of EfOM. HO production increased as function of ozone dose and was strongly correlated to UV absorption at 254 nm (UV254). During the UV moderated process, pseudo steady-state behaviour of the HO concentration was observed. Ozone decomposition was extremely sensitive to EfOM reactivity. Most likely, the degree of dissociation of EfOM controlled its reactivity towards ozone. The pH effect was quantified by calculating the pseudo-first order decay constant for ozone as function of reaction time and pH. Treatment with both processes led to more oxygen rich, less hydrophobic and more biodegradable EfOM.

  4. Structure and composition of Fe-OM co-precipitates that form in soil-derived solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Schröder, Christian; Wieczorek, Arkadiusz K.; Händel, Matthias; Ritschel, Thomas; Totsche, Kai U.

    2015-11-01

    Iron oxides represent a substantial fraction of secondary minerals and particularly affect the reactive properties of natural systems in which they formed, e.g. in soils and sediments. Yet, it is still obscure how transient conditions in the solution will affect the properties of in situ precipitated Fe oxides. Transient compositions, i.e. compositions that change with time, arise due to predominant non-equilibrium states in natural systems, e.g. between liquid and solid phases in soils. In this study, we characterize Fe-OM co-precipitates that formed in pH-neutral exfiltrates from anoxic topsoils under transient conditions. We applied soil column outflow experiments, in which Fe2+ was discharged with the effluent from anoxic soil and subsequently oxidized in the effluent due to contact with air. Our study features three novel aspects being unconsidered so far: (i) the transient composition of soil-derived solutions, (ii) that pedogenic Fe oxides instead of Fe salts serve as major source for Fe2+ in soil solution and (iii) the presence of exclusively soil-derived organic and inorganic compounds during precipitation. The experiments were carried out with two topsoil materials that differed in composition, texture and land use. Derived from Mössbauer spectroscopy, broad distributions in quadrupole splittings (0-2 mm s-1) and magnetic hyperfine fields (35-53 T) indicated the presence of low-crystalline ferrihydrite and even lower crystalline Fe phases in all Fe-OM co-precipitates. There was no unequivocal evidence for other Fe oxides, i.e. lepidocrocite and (nano)goethite. The Fe-OM co-precipitates contained inorganic (P, sulfate, silicate, Al, As) and organic compounds (proteins, polysaccharides), which were concurrently discharged from the soils. Their content in the Fe-OM co-precipitates was controlled by their respective concentration in the soil-derived solution. On a molar basis, OC and Fe were the main components in the Fe-OM co-precipitates (OC/Fe ratio = 0

  5. EDITORIAL: Special section: Selected papers from OMS'05, the 1st Topical Meeting of the European Optical Society on Optical Microsystems (OMS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rendina, Ivo; Fazio, Eugenio; Ferraro, Pietro

    2006-07-01

    OMS'05 is the first international conference wholly dedicated to optical microsystems. It was organized by the European Optical Society (EOS) in the frame of its international topical meeting activity and was held in Italy, September 2005, amidst the wonderful scenery of the Island of Capri. A possible definition of an optical microsystem is a complex system, able to perform one or more sensing and actuation functions, where optical devices are integrated in a smart way with electronic, mechanical and sensing components by taking advantage of the progress in micro- and nano-technologies. The increasing interest in this field arises from the expected applications that would significantly improve the quality of life. The list of possibilities offered by the optical microsystem enabling technologies is very long and seems to increase day by day. We are not only thinking about the next generation of optical telecommunication networks and computers, but also about low-cost, compact microsystems for environmental monitoring, in order to improve safety in the avionic and automotive fields, medical diagnostics and proteomic/genomic studies, or just finding general applications in several industrial fields. The goal of the conference was to involve scientists and young researchers from the main public and private laboratories, giving them the opportunity to present new scientific results and compare their know-how in the exciting and emerging field of optical microsystems. We believe that we succeeded in this. More than 200 scientists from all over the world attended the conference. We had more than 100 oral presentations and approximately 20 from the keynote lectures and invited speeches. It was an opportunity to define the most recent progress carried out in the field and to outline the possible road-map leading to the expected results in the industrial and social fields. We strongly believe that research and technology are closely interconnected at present and cannot

  6. Effect of Increased Immunosuppression on Developmental Outcome of Opsoclonus Myoclonus Syndrome (OMS).

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Wendy G; Wooten, Amelia A; O'Neil, Sharon H; Rodriguez, Jenny G; Cruz, Rosa E; Wittern, Rachael

    2015-07-01

    Opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome (OMS) produces long-term cognitive, behavioral, and motor deficits. Objective was to see if more aggressive treatment improved outcome. Assessment included opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome rating, developmental/cognitive and motor assessment, and adaptive behavior. Fourteen subjects completed testing. Nine had neuroblastoma. Onset was at 10 to 35 months; onset to diagnosis: 2 days to 14 months, and onset to first treatment: 5 days to 15 months. Initial treatment was corticotropin (12), oral steroids (3), plus intravenous immunoglobulin in all. Ten received rituximab, 5 cyclophosphamide. Age at testing ranged from 2.5 to 10.3 years. Adaptive Behavior Score (11 subjects), mean 93.5; estimated Intelligence Quotient/Developmental Quotient mean 93.5; Motor: mean 92.8. Residual opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome symptoms at the time of the evaluation were generally minor; opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome scores ranged from 0 to 6. Comparison to previously reported opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome subjects showed improved outcomes: Adaptive behavior, cognitive and motor scores were significantly higher (P < .001) in new subjects. Outcomes have improved with more aggressive immunosuppression, with most opsoclonus myoclonus syndrome survivors now functioning at or near normal.

  7. Recording of auditory middle latency evoked potentials during the practice of meditation with the syllable 'OM'.

    PubMed

    Telles, S; Desiraju, T

    1993-10-01

    Middle latency auditory evoked potentials were examined in 7 proficient subjects during the practice of meditation on the syllable 'OM', to determine whether these potentials would differ significantly from those recorded during the baseline state without practicing mediation. Similar records were also obtained in 7 'naive' subjects, matched for age, before and during a control period which involved sitting with eyes closed, and with no special instructions for focusing their thoughts. There was considerable inter-subject variability in the different components. However, during meditation there was a small but significant reduction in the peak latency of the Nb wave (the maximum negativity occurring between 35 and 65 msec). This reduction was observed consistently during the 3 repeat sessions of each subject, while the 'naive' subjects did not show this change. These results suggest that the inter-subject variability of middle latency auditory evoked potentials precludes using them as the method of choice for assessing the effects of meditation. The small but consistent decrease in the Nb wave peak latency, indicates that the middle latency auditory evoked potentials do change with meditation. However, the variability of the potentials may mask subtle changes.

  8. Modeling and simulation of offshore wind farm O&M processes

    SciTech Connect

    Joschko, Philip; Widok, Andi H.; Appel, Susanne; Greiner, Saskia; Albers, Henning; Page, Bernd

    2015-04-15

    This paper describes a holistic approach to operation and maintenance (O&M) processes in the domain of offshore wind farm power generation. The acquisition and process visualization is followed by a risk analysis of all relevant processes. Hereafter, a tool was designed, which is able to model the defined processes in a BPMN 2.0 notation, as well as connect and simulate them. Furthermore, the notation was enriched with new elements, representing other relevant factors that were, to date, only displayable with much higher effort. In that regard a variety of more complex situations were integrated, such as for example new process interactions depending on different weather influences, in which case a stochastic weather generator was combined with the business simulation or other wind farm aspects important to the smooth running of the offshore wind farms. In addition, the choices for different methodologies, such as the simulation framework or the business process notation will be presented and elaborated depending on the impact they had on the development of the approach and the software solution. - Highlights: • Analysis of operation and maintenance processes of offshore wind farms • Process modeling with BPMN 2.0 • Domain-specific simulation tool.

  9. Advantages and limitations of OM, SEM, TEM and AFM in the study of ancient decorated pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arenas-Alatorre, J.; Silva-Velazquez, Y.; Alva Medina, A.; Rivera, M.

    2010-03-01

    This paper presents results from the study of two fragments of pre-Hispanic pottery, decorated with red pigment, using Optical Microscopy (OM), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM). Capabilities and limitations of these techniques in the analysis of archaeological material are highlighted with special emphasis on TEM, AFM and MFM due to their contribution in the study of the pigment layer at micro and nano scale. The analyzed samples come from the archaeological sites of El Tajin and Xochicalco, both in Mexico. Results of conventional TEM and HRTEM analysis of the red pigment showed nanometric Fe2O3 particles in both samples but different particle shape and size distributions: specimen from El Tajin presented irregular particles between 50-100 nm while that from Xochicalco exhibited semispherical shapes in the 3-25 nm range. AFM images showed the topography of the pigments, which are related to the texture of their surface and thus to the production process. Finally, MFM showed different contrast regions suggesting the presence of ferromagnetic elements forming clusters and domain orientations on the color layer.

  10. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  11. Size-controlled synthesis and formation mechanism of manganese oxide OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qin; Cheng, Xiaodi; Qiu, Guohong; Liu, Fan; Feng, Xionghan

    2016-05-01

    This study presents a simplified approach for size-controlled synthesis of manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanowires using potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and different inorganic acids (HCl, HNO3, and H2SO4) under reflux conditions. The morphology and nanostructure of the synthesized products are characterized by X-ray diffraction, Ar adsorption, and electron microscopy analysis, in order to elucidate the controlling effects of acid concentration and type as well as the formation mechanism of OMS-2 nanowires. The concentration of inorganic acid is a crucial factor controlling the phase of the synthesized products. OMS-2 nanowires are obtained with HCl at the concentration ≥0.96 mol/L or with HNO3 and H2SO4 at the concentrations ≥0.72 mol/L. Differently, the type of inorganic acid effectively determines the particle size of OMS-2 nanowires. When the acid is changed from HCl to HNO3 and H2SO4 in the reflux system, the average length of OMS-2 declines significantly by 60-70% (1104-442 and 339 nm), with minor decreased in the average width (43-39 and 34 nm). The formation of OMS-2 nanowires under reflux conditions with KMnO4 and inorganic acids involves a two-step process, i.e., the initial formation of layered manganese oxides, and subsequent transformation to OMS-2 via a dissolution-recrystallization process under acidic conditions. The proposed reflux route provides an alternative approach for synthesizing OMS-2 nanowires as well as other porous nano-crystalline OMS materials.

  12. Badania Ekologiczne Ryzyka Zachorowań Na Kleszczowe Zapalenie Mózgu W Polsce-Omówienie Metody

    PubMed Central

    Stefanoff, Paweł; Staszewska, Ewa; Ustrnul, Zbigniew; Rogalska, Justyna; Łankiewicz, Aleksandra; Rosińska, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    W pracy omówiono metodologię aktualnie prowadzonych badań ekologicznych kleszczowego zapalenia mózgu (kzm) na terenie Polski. W celu oceny wpływu zróżnicowanych czynników środowiskowych, klimatycznych oraz społecznych na występowanie kzm w różnych regionach Polski zostanie przeprowadzona wieloczynnikoica analiza statystyczna na poziomie gmin dla lat 1999-2006. PMID:22320045

  13. Atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, modulates basal and UV-induced gene expressions in human skin in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shin, Mi Hee; Park, Raeeun; Nojima, Hideo; Kim, Hyung-Chel; Kim, Yeon Kyung; Chung, Jin Ho

    2013-01-01

    Recently, there has been much effort to find effective ingredients which can prevent or retard cutaneous skin aging after topical or systemic use. Here, we investigated the effects of the atomic hydrogen surrounded by water molecules, H(H2O)m, on acute UV-induced responses and as well as skin aging. Interestingly, we observed that H(H2O)m application to human skin prevented UV-induced erythema and DNA damage. And H(H2O)m significantly prevented UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2, IL-6 and IL-1β mRNA expressions in human skin in vivo. We found that H(H2O)m prevented UV-induced ROS generation and inhibited UV-induced MMP-1, COX-2 and IL-6 expressions, and UV-induced JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation in HaCaT cells. Next, we investigated the effects of H(H2O)m on intrinsically aged or photoaged skin of elderly subjects. In intrinsically aged skin, H(H2O)m application significantly reduced constitutive expressions of MMP-1, IL-6, and IL-1β mRNA. Additionally, H(H2O)m significantly increased procollagen mRNA and also decreased MMP-1 and IL-6 mRNA expressions in photoaged facial skin. These results demonstrated that local application of H(H2O)m may prevent UV-induced skin inflammation and can modulate intrinsic skin aging and photoaging processes. Therefore, we suggest that modifying the atmospheric gas environment within a room may be a new way to regulate skin functions or skin aging.

  14. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    PubMed

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future. PMID:27266893

  15. Induction of interleukin 6 and interleukin 8 expression by Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) via C-Fos/serum responsive element.

    PubMed Central

    Keul, R.; Roth, M.; Papakonstantinou, E.; Nauck, M.; Perruchoud, A. P.; Block, L. H.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) increases the resistance of the respiratory tract to bacterial infections by modulating host immune responses. The compound increases serum IgG levels but decreases IgE levels in patients suffering from chronic bronchitis or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It increases concentrations of gamma-interferon (IFN-gamma), IgA, and interleukin (IL)-2 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of patients with bronchitis. Treatment with OM-85 BV increases the number of T helper and natural killer cells. In this study the effects of OM-85 BV on transcription of cytokines is investigated in human lung fibroblasts. METHODS: Transcription and synthesis of IL-6 and IL-8 were assessed in cultured primary human lung fibroblasts using standard methods of Northern blot analysis for the level of mRNAs and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for proteins. RESULTS: Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85 BV) at different concentrations induced transcription of IL-6 and IL-8. The effect of the drug on transcription of IL-6 and IL-8 genes correlated with secretion of the proteins into cell supernatants. OM-85 BV-dependent expression of the interleukin genes involved C-Fos/serum responsive element (C-Fos/SRE). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that the various immunopharmacological activities of OM-85 BV that have been described in clinical studies may be explained by its ability to induce expression of IL-6 and IL-8. Images PMID:8711646

  16. Acute effects of 3G mobile phone radiations on frontal haemodynamics during a cognitive task in teenagers and possible protective value of Om chanting.

    PubMed

    Bhargav, Hemant; N K, Manjunath; Varambally, Shivarama; Mooventhan, A; Bista, Suman; Singh, Deepeshwar; Chhabra, Harleen; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; T M, Srinivasan; H R, Nagendra

    2016-06-01

    Mobile phone induced electromagnetic field (MPEMF) as well as chanting of Vedic mantra 'OM' has been shown to affect cognition and brain haemodynamics, but findings are still inconclusive. Twenty right-handed healthy teenagers (eight males and 12 females) in the age range of 18.25 ± 0.44 years were randomly divided into four groups: (1) MPONOM (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'OM' chanting); (2) MPOFOM (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'OM' chanting); (3) MPONSS (mobile phone 'ON' followed by 'SS' chanting); and (4) MPOFSS (mobile phone 'OFF' followed by 'SS' chanting). Brain haemodynamics during Stroop task were recorded using a 64-channel fNIRS device at three points of time: (1) baseline, (2) after 30 min of MPON/OF exposure, and (3) after 5 min of OM/SS chanting. RM-ANOVA was applied to perform within- and between-group comparisons, respectively. Between-group analysis revealed that total scores on incongruent Stroop task were significantly better after OM as compared to SS chanting (MPOFOM vs MPOFSS), pre-frontal activation was significantly lesser after OM as compared to SS chanting in channel 13. There was no significant difference between MPON and MPOF conditions for Stroop performance, as well as brain haemodynamics. These findings need confirmation through a larger trial in future.

  17. Millimetre-scale spatial distribution of stable OM components at intact preferential flow path surfaces in the B-horizon of two Luvisols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Martin; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.

    2015-04-01

    In structured soils, the interaction of percolating water and reactive solutes with the soil matrix is often restricted to surfaces of preferential flow paths. In the subsoil horizons of Luvisols, surfaces of biopores and aggregates can be enriched in clay and organic matter (OM). These coatings not only contribute to the OM stabilization in subsoil horizons but the OM composition of the coatings also determines the bio-physico-chemical surface properties which are relevant during rapid solute transport. Using a combined approach of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode (DRIFT) and pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS), the OM composition of standardized (i.e., diluted and ground) samples separated from soil aggregate coatings was found to be enriched in chemically stable OM components. However, it remained unclear if these results could be verified for intact samples. The objective of this study was to analyse the mm-scale distribution of stable OM components at intact structural surfaces of two Luvisols based on DRIFT mapping and correlations between DRIFT spectra and Py-FI mass spectra. Samples were manually separated from the outermost surfaces of earthworm burrows, coated and uncoated cracks, root channels, and pinhole fillings of the B-horizons of Luvisols developed from loess and glacial till. The DRIFT spectra of these undiluted and particle-intact samples were interpreted by the help of Py-FIMS data to identify spectral regions representative of functional groups of chemically stable (i.e., recalcitrant) OM components. The DRIFT mapping technique was applied to determine OM functional group data (i.e., C=C and C=O signals) from stable OM components at the intact structural surface types in mm-scale transects and grids. The DRIFT signal intensities from C=O and C=C bonds in the infrared range of wave number 1688 … 1565 cm-1 were related to highly stable, chemically recalcitrant OM components, examined by Py

  18. Linking wood source and charring temperature to the stability and biological reactivity of PyOM in a temperate forest soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Christy; Filley, Timothy; Hatton, Pierre Joseph; Nadelhoffer, Knute; Stark, Ruth; Bird, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Fire is a major mediator of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycling in forests, releasing significant quantities of greenhouse gases, soot, and aerosols while simultaneously depositing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) onto forest soil. The condensed aromatic structure of PyOM imparts a resistance to weathering and decay and potentially promotes soil C stabilization and sequestration. This resistance however, is largely dependent upon the physiochemical characteristics of source material and production temperature. Few studies have been able to determine the stability and reactivity of well-characterized PyOM in field or laboratory decay studies. To address this, we added highly 13C-enriched red maple (RM) or jack pine (JP) pyrolyzed at 200, 300, 450 or 600°C to a low C, near-surface soil (0.5%; 0-20 cm-depth) at 60% water holding capacity and 11% of native soil C. We then incubated the samples in the dark at 25°C for 6 months. The results of 13CO2 evolution measurements indicated that both pyrolysis temperature and wood species played a significant role in PyOM mineralization. PyOM mineralization rates decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for either species. RM mineralization rates were consistently greater (~5 to ~25%) than for JP <600°C during the first 17 days, but declined after this time point with the exception of RM PyOM 300°C and 450°C, which had higher mineralization rates than JP throughout the entire incubation period. These observations of relative reactivity were consistent with our detailed spectroscopic, elemental, and stable isotope analysis of the PyOM samples across this pyrolysis gradient, which shows significant physicochemical changes happening more readily for JP (~300°C) than for RM (450°C). These results highlight how differences in PyOM physiochemical characteristics linked to wood species thermal transformation thresholds may be predictors in determining the relative stability of PyOM in soil.

  19. The new Mercedes-Benz OM 904 LA light heavy-duty diesel engine for class 6 trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Schittler, M.; Bergmann, H.; Flathmann, K.

    1996-09-01

    As part of a comprehensive strategic product initiative the most important commercial vehicle manufacturer--Mercedes-Benz AG--is step by step renewing its entire product range. This primarily refers to the heart of the vehicles--the engine. After the OM 457 LA, which was developed together with DDC for the special American market demands and which is produced and sold in the US by DDC under the label Series 55, has had its premiere in Freightliner`s Century Class, the OM 904 LA will now follow in the light commercial vehicle class. This engine has a completely new concept of a direct-injection, highly sophisticated turbocharged four-cylinder in-line engine with air-to-air intercooler, whose main characteristics can be outlined by the terms multi-valve technology, high-pressure injection via unit pumps and electronic engine control. This small engine has several interesting features, which--up to now--were only known from class 8 engines. In addition to fulfilling increased customer demands with regard to long service life, easy maintenance, reliability and economy, great attention was paid during the design of the engine to not only fulfill the global regulations, but also account for sufficient potential to comply with further aggravations to be expected. The most important design features and the attained engine ratings are indicated and explained in detail.

  20. Transmission-ratio distortion through F{sub 1} females at chromosome 11 loci linked to Om in the mouse DDK syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Villena, F.P.M. de; Naumova, A.K.; Smith, M.; Verner, A.

    1996-04-01

    We determined the genotypes of >200 offspring that are survivors of matings between female reciprocal F{sub 1} hybrids (between the DDK and C57BL/6J inbred mouse strains) and C57BL/6J males at markers linked to the Ovum mutant (Om) locus on chromosome 11. In contrast to the expectations of our previous genetic model to explain the {open_quotes}DDK syndrome,{close_quotes} the genotypes of these offspring do not reflect preferential survival of individuals that receive C57BL/6J alleles from the F{sub 1} females in the region of chromosome 11 to which the Om locus has been mapped. In face, we observe significant transmission-ratio distortion in favor of DDK alleles in this region. These results are also in contrast to the expectation of Wakasugi`s genetic model for the inheritance of Om, in which he proposed equal transmission of DDK and non-DDK alleles from F{sub 1} females. We propose that the results of these experiments may be explained by reduced expression of the maternal DDK Om allele or expression of the maternal DDK Om allele in only a portion of the ova of F{sub 1} females. 23 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. New insights into the structure of Om Ali-Thelepte basin, central Tunisia, inferred from gravity data: Hydrogeological implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harchi, Mongi; Gabtni, Hakim; El Mejri, Hatem; Dassi, Lassaad; Mammou, Abdallah Ben

    2016-08-01

    This work presents new results from gravity data analyses and interpretation within the Om Ali-Thelepte (OAT) basin, central Tunisia. It focuses on the hydrogeological implication, using several qualitative and quantitative techniques such as horizontal gradient, upward continuation and Euler deconvolution on boreholes log data, seismic reflection data and electrical conductivity measurements. The structures highlighted using the filtering techniques suggest that the Miocene aquifer of OAT basin is cut by four major fault systems that trend E-W, NE-SW, NW-SE and NNE-SSW. In addition, a NW-SE gravity model established shows the geometry of the Miocene sandstone reservoir and the Upper Cretaceous limestone rocks. Moreover, the superimposition of the electrical conductivity and the structural maps indicates that the low conductivity values of sampled water from boreholes are located around main faults.

  2. Infant formula with galacto-oligosaccharides (OM55N) stimulates the growth of indigenous bifidobacteria in healthy term infants.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, T; Tajima, S; Hara, T; Yahagi, K; Ogawa, E; Kodama, H

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was to investigate whether an infant formula supplemented with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS; OM55N) was able to stimulate the growth of indigenous bifidobacteria and to establish microbiota similar to that of breastfed infants. A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed using 35 healthy term infants (31-54 days of age; 42±6 days) to determine whether infant formula with 0.3 g/dl GOS (OM55N) stimulated the growth of bifidobacteria in the infants' guts. At the trial onset and 2 weeks after, the infants' faecal samples were examined for microbiota composition (bacterial abundance and α-diversity) and faecal characteristics. Among the 35 infants, 5 were withdrawn and 8 were excluded from the final evaluation before breaking the blinding since the indigenous bifidobacteria were not detected at the trial onset. After 2 weeks, the abundance of Bifidobacteriaceae was significantly increased in the GOS feeding group compared to the control (+11.6±24.1% vs -3.9±13.0%; P=0.043). The Shannon index, which accounts for both abundance and evenness of the present species, was significantly decreased with GOS supplementation (-0.1±0.4 vs +0.4±0.4; P=0.014). Faecal characteristics such as pH and organic acids were similar in both groups, with no statistical differences. No adverse side effects related to the formula consumption were reported. Although the concentration of GOS was relatively low, the infant formula with GOS increased the abundance of bifidobacteria and resulted in a reduced α-diversity of the microbiota.

  3. N/om, Change, and Social Work: A Recursive Frame Analysis of the Transformative Rituals of the Ju/'hoan Bushmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeney, Hillary; Keeney, Bradford

    2013-01-01

    The Ju/'hoan Bushman origin myth is depicted as a contextual frame for their healing and transformative ways. Using Recursive Frame Analysis, these performances are shown to be an enactment of the border crossing between First and Second Creation, that is, pre-linguistic and linguistic domains of experience. Here n/om, or the presumed creative…

  4. The CORE-OM Intake Norms of Students Attending a South African University Counseling Service: A Comparison with UK Counseling Service Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Charles

    2009-01-01

    This paper provides CORE-OM intake norms for a South African university counseling service, and compares these to the United Kingdom counseling service data reported by Connell, Barkham and Mellor-Clark (2007). The South African norms are very similar to the United Kingdom norms, with no statistical differences in the total or domain scores. There…

  5. Ultra-Wideband Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) Development: Study of the Optical Setup of a Wide-Band Optical Modulation Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolls, Volker; Stringfellow, Guy (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to advance the design of the optical setup for a wide-band Optical Modulation Spectrometer (OMS) for use with astronomical heterodyne receiver systems. This report describes the progress of this investigation achieved from March until December 2001.

  6. To investigate the prevention of OM-85 on bronchiectasis exacerbations (iPROBE) in Chinese patients: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis is characterized by the irreversible dilatation of the medium-sized bronchi as a result of airway injury from recurrent or chronic inflammation and lower respiratory tract infections. Bronchiectasis airways are commonly colonized with bacterial species. Infections of the airways play important role in bronchiectasis exacerbations. The non-specific prevention of recurrent airway infections by immunostimulating agents has gained growing interest. OM-85, consisting of extracts of eight kinds of bacteria important in respiratory infections, could support the respiratory tract resistance to the pathogens. OM-85 has been shown to be a benefit by decreasing the risk of acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in several perspective clinical trials. Exacerbation of bronchiectasis substantially contributes to a more rapid decline in lung function, reduced quality of life, and healthcare costs. In this context, we plan to conduct a clinical trial to investigate the PReventive effect of OM-85 on Bronchiectasis Exacerbation in Chinese patients (iPROBE). Methods/Design This study is designed as a prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. A total of 244 patients with bronchiectasis, who have had at least one exacerbation of bronchiectasis in the previous year, will be included. The subjects will randomly receive two courses of 7 mg of OM-85 or a matching placebo. The treatment dose of OM-85 will be one daily capsule taken orally for 10 days each month for 3 consecutive months at the beginning of the study, followed by 3 months of no drug. This schedule will repeat until the patient has been seen for one year. Discussion We will investigate whether long-term treatment with an oral immunostimulant (OM-85) could decrease exacerbations of bronchiectasis over a one-year period. We will also assess other relevant outcomes, including the rate of event-based exacerbation, lung

  7. The radiosensitizing effect of immunoadjuvant OM-174 requires cooperation between immune and tumor cells through interferon-gamma and inducible nitric oxide synthase

    SciTech Connect

    Ridder, Mark de . E-mail: Mark.De.Ridder@vub.ac.be; Verovski, Valeri N.; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Berge, Dirk L. van den; Monsaert, Christinne; Law, Kalun; Storme, Guy A.

    2006-12-01

    Purpose: To explore whether antitumor immunoadjuvant OM-174 can stimulate immune cells to produce interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}) and thereby radiosensitize tumor cells. Methods and Materials: Splenocytes from BALB/c mice were stimulated by OM-174 at plasma-achievable concentrations (0.03-3 {mu}g/mL), and afterward analyzed for the expression and secretion of IFN-{gamma} by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. Stimulated splenocytes were used as a source of IFN-{gamma} to radiosensitize hypoxic EMT-6 tumor cells through the cytokine-inducible isoform of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). Results: OM-174 activated the production of IFN-{gamma} at high levels that reached 70 ng/mL in normoxia (21% oxygen) and 27 ng/mL in tumor-relevant hypoxia (1% oxygen). This caused up to 2.1-fold radiosensitization of EMT-6 tumor cells, which was associated with the iNOS-mediated production of the radiosensitizing molecule nitric oxide, as confirmed by accumulation of its oxidative metabolite nitrite, Western blot analysis, and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Both iNOS activation and radiosensitization were counteracted by neutralizing antibodies against IFN-{gamma}. The same mechanism of radiosensitization through the IFN-{gamma} secretion pathway was identified for IL-12 + IL-18, which are known to mediate IFN-{gamma} responses. Hypoxia displayed a dual effect on the immune-tumor cell interaction, by downregulating the expression of the IFN-{gamma} gene while upregulating iNOS at transcriptional level. Conclusion: Immunoadjuvant OM-174 is an efficient radiosensitizer of tumor cells through activation of the IFN-{gamma} secretion pathway in immune cells. This finding indicates a rationale for combining immunostimulatory and radiosensitizing strategies and extends the potential therapeutic applications of OM-174.

  8. Growth of InSb and InAs(1-x)Sb(x) by OM-CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiang, P. K.; Bedair, S. M.

    1984-01-01

    Organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OM-CVD) growth of InSb and InAs(1-x)Sb(x) has been obtained using triethylindium (TEI), trimethylantimony (TMS), and arsine (AsH3) on (100) GaAs, (100) InSb, and (111)-B InSb substrates. InSb with excellent morphology was achieved on both (100) InSb and (111)-B InSb substrates. The measured electron mobility at 300 K of undoped InSb grown on (100) GaAs semi-insulating substrates was 40,000 sq cm/V-s at a carrier concentration of ND-NA = 2.0 x 10 to the 16th per cu cm. Carrier concentration of ND-NA = 1.2 x 10 to the 15th per cu cm has been measured at 77 K. InAs(1-x)Sb(x) (x = 0.07-0.75) with mirror-like surfaces have been grown on (100) InSb and InAs substrates. This composition range of x between 0.55 and 0.75 (Eg = 0.1 eV) has been successfully achieved for the first time. Solid composition variations as a function of growth temperature and InSb substrate orientations are also discussed.

  9. Metroplex Optimization Model Expansion and Analysis: The Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherry, Lance; Ferguson, John; Hoffman, Karla; Donohue, George; Beradino, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This report describes the Airline Fleet, Route, and Schedule Optimization Model (AFRS-OM) that is designed to provide insights into airline decision-making with regards to markets served, schedule of flights on these markets, the type of aircraft assigned to each scheduled flight, load factors, airfares, and airline profits. The main inputs to the model are hedged fuel prices, airport capacity limits, and candidate markets. Embedded in the model are aircraft performance and associated cost factors, and willingness-to-pay (i.e. demand vs. airfare curves). Case studies demonstrate the application of the model for analysis of the effects of increased capacity and changes in operating costs (e.g. fuel prices). Although there are differences between airports (due to differences in the magnitude of travel demand and sensitivity to airfare), the system is more sensitive to changes in fuel prices than capacity. Further, the benefits of modernization in the form of increased capacity could be undermined by increases in hedged fuel prices

  10. Proteome and Membrane Fatty Acid Analyses on Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 Grown under Chemolithoautotrophic and Heterotrophic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Debarati; Kumar, Ranjit; Nanduri, Bindu; French, Todd; Pendarvis, Ken; Brown, Ashli; Lawrence, Mark L.; Burgess, Shane C.

    2011-01-01

    Oligotropha carboxidovorans OM5 T. (DSM 1227, ATCC 49405) is a chemolithoautotrophic bacterium able to utilize CO and H2 to derive energy for fixation of CO2. Thus, it is capable of growth using syngas, which is a mixture of varying amounts of CO and H2 generated by organic waste gasification. O. carboxidovorans is capable also of heterotrophic growth in standard bacteriologic media. Here we characterize how the O. carboxidovorans proteome adapts to different lifestyles of chemolithoautotrophy and heterotrophy. Fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown with acetate or with syngas showed that the bacterium changes membrane fatty acid composition. Quantitative shotgun proteomic analysis of O. carboxidovorans grown in the presence of acetate and syngas showed production of proteins encoded on the megaplasmid for assimilating CO and H2 as well as proteins encoded on the chromosome that might have contributed to fatty acid and acetate metabolism. We found that adaptation to chemolithoautotrophic growth involved adaptations in cell envelope, oxidative homeostasis, and metabolic pathways such as glyoxylate shunt and amino acid/cofactor biosynthetic enzymes. PMID:21386900

  11. Robust and tunable 16.375Gb/s dual-band optical OFDM transmissions over directly modulated VCSEL-based 200m OM2 MMFs.

    PubMed

    Deng, M L; Jiang, N; Duan, X; Giddings, R P; Yi, X W; Cao, B Y; Mansoor, S; Qiu, K; Tang, J M

    2015-01-12

    Utilizing low-cost, 2.2GHz modulation bandwidth, uncooled and standalone directly modulated VCSEL (DM-VCSEL)-based real-time dual-band optical OFDM (OOFDM) transmitters, aggregated 16.375Gb/s transmissions of OOFDM signals having bandwidths approximately 3.8 times higher than the VCSEL manufacturer-specified modulation bandwidths, are experimentally demonstrated, for the first time, over 200m OM2 MMF links based on intensity modulation and direct detection. The aggregated signal transmission capacities of the aforementioned links vary by just 8% for various OM2 MMFs ranging from 100m to 500m, and by just 10% over a 1GHz passband carrier frequency detuning range. Such dual-band OOFDM adaptability-induced excellent performance robustness and large passband frequency tunability can significantly relax the requirements on VCSEL modulation bandwidth for achieving specific transmission performances for cost-sensitive application scenarios such as data centers. PMID:25835683

  12. The factor structure and psychometric properties of the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation – Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) in Norwegian clinical and non-clinical samples

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation - Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) is a 34-item instrument developed to monitor clinically significant change in out-patients. The CORE-OM covers four domains: well-being, problems/symptoms, functioning and risk, and sums up in two total scores: the mean of All items, and the mean of All non-risk items. The aim of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Norwegian translation of the CORE-OM. Methods A clinical sample of 527 out-patients from North Norwegian specialist psychiatric services, and a non-clinical sample of 464 persons were obtained. The non-clinical sample was a convenience sample consisting of friends and family of health personnel, and of students of medicine and clinical psychology. Students also reported psychological stress. Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was employed in half the clinical sample. Confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses modelling the theoretical sub-domains were performed in the remaining half of the clinical sample. Internal consistency, means, and gender and age differences were studied by comparing the clinical and non-clinical samples. Stability, effect of language (Norwegian versus English), and of psychological stress was studied in the sub-sample of students. Finally, cut-off scores were calculated, and distributions of scores were compared between clinical and non-clinical samples, and between students reporting stress or no stress. Results The results indicate that the CORE-OM both measures general (g) psychological distress and sub-domains, of which risk of harm separates most clearly from the g factor. Internal consistency, stability and cut-off scores compared well with the original English version. No, or only negligible, language effects were found. Gender differences were only found for the well-being domain in the non-clinical sample and for the risk domain in the clinical sample. Current patient status explained differences between clinical and non

  13. Novel synthesis of manganese and vanadium mixed oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2) as an efficient and selective catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols in liquid phase

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, Vahid Soleimani, Shima

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: Oxidation of various alcohols is studied in the liquid phase over new composite mixed oxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2) catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP). The activity of V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/OMS-2 samples was considerably increased with respect to OMS-2 catalyst and these samples are found to be suitable for the selective oxidation of alcohols. - Highlights: • V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 with different V/Mn molar ratios prepared by the impregnation method. • Oxidation of alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst. • V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst had excellent activity for alcohol oxidation. • Benzyl alcohol oxidation using excess TBHP followed a pseudo-first order kinetic. • The selected catalyst was reused without significant loss of activity. - Abstract: This work reports the synthesis and characterization of mixed oxide vanadium–manganese V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 at various V/Mn molar ratios and prepared by the impregnation method. Characterization of these new composite materials was made by elemental analysis, BET, XRD, FT-IR, SEM and TEM techniques. Results of these analyses showed that vanadium impregnated samples contained mixed phases of cryptomelane and crystalline V{sub 2}O{sub 5} species. Oxidation of various alcohols was studied in the liquid phase over the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst using tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP) and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} as the oxidant. Activity of the V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 samples was increased considerably with respect to K-OMS-2 catalyst due to the interaction of manganese oxide and V{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The kinetic of benzyl alcohol oxidation using excess TBHP over V{sub 2}O{sub 5}/K-OMS-2 catalyst was investigated at different temperatures and a pseudo-first order reaction was determined with respect to benzyl alcohol. The effects of reaction time, oxidant/alcohol molar ratio, reaction temperature, solvents, catalyst recycling potential and

  14. A study on the reactivity characteristics of dissolved effluent organic matter (EfOM) from municipal wastewater treatment plant during ozonation.

    PubMed

    Jin, Pengkang; Jin, Xin; Bjerkelund, Viggo A; Østerhus, Stein W; Wang, Xiaochang C; Yang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    The reactivity of dissolved effluent organic matter (EfOM) in the process of ozonation was examined. Under different ozone dosages (0.42 ± 0.09, 0.98 ± 0.11 and 2.24 ± 0.17 mgO3/mg DOC), the EfOM before and after ozonation could be classified into four fractions according to their hydrophobicities. By ozonation, the hydrophobic fractions, especially hydrophobic acid (HOA) and hydrophobic neutral (HON), were found to undergo a process of transformation into hydrophilic fractions (HI), of which the HOA were first transformed into HON, and then the majority of the HON fraction was later converted to HI by further ozonation. It was noticeable that after ozonation, the fluorescence intensity in the humic-like and protein-like regions decreased as indicated by the excitation and emission matrix (EEM) spectra for the hydrophobic fractions. By coupling the EEM spectra with the molecular size analysis using high performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC), the difference between the characteristic distributions of the humic-like and protein-like fluorophores were further revealed. It could thus be extrapolated that ozone might have preferentially reacted with the protein-like hydrophobic fraction with molecular weight (MW) less than 100 kDa. Moreover, by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis, it was identified that with increasing ozone dosage (from 0 to 2.24 ± 0.17 mgO3/mg DOC), the aromaticity of HON decreased dramatically, while aliphatics and ketones increased especially at the low ozone dose (0.42 ± 0.09 mgO3/mg DOC). Of the EfOM fractions, the HON fraction would have a higher content of electron enriched aromatics which could preferentially react with ozone rather than the HOA fraction. PMID:26575473

  15. Comprehensive Genomic Analyses of the OM43 Clade, Including a Novel Species from the Red Sea, Indicate Ecotype Differentiation among Marine Methylotrophs

    PubMed Central

    Jimenez-Infante, Francy; Ngugi, David Kamanda; Vinu, Manikandan; Alam, Intikhab; Kamau, Allan Anthony; Blom, Jochen; Bajic, Vladimir B.

    2015-01-01

    The OM43 clade within the family Methylophilaceae of Betaproteobacteria represents a group of methylotrophs that play important roles in the metabolism of C1 compounds in marine environments and other aquatic environments around the globe. Using dilution-to-extinction cultivation techniques, we successfully isolated a novel species of this clade (here designated MBRS-H7) from the ultraoligotrophic open ocean waters of the central Red Sea. Phylogenomic analyses indicate that MBRS-H7 is a novel species that forms a distinct cluster together with isolate KB13 from Hawaii (Hawaii-Red Sea [H-RS] cluster) that is separate from the cluster represented by strain HTCC2181 (from the Oregon coast). Phylogenetic analyses using the robust 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer revealed a potential ecotype separation of the marine OM43 clade members, which was further confirmed by metagenomic fragment recruitment analyses that showed trends of higher abundance in low-chlorophyll and/or high-temperature provinces for the H-RS cluster but a preference for colder, highly productive waters for the HTCC2181 cluster. This potential environmentally driven niche differentiation is also reflected in the metabolic gene inventories, which in the case of the H-RS cluster include those conferring resistance to high levels of UV irradiation, temperature, and salinity. Interestingly, we also found different energy conservation modules between these OM43 subclades, namely, the existence of the NADH:quinone oxidoreductase complex I (NUO) system in the H-RS cluster and the nonhomologous NADH:quinone oxidoreductase (NQR) system in the HTCC2181 cluster, which might have implications for their overall energetic yields. PMID:26655752

  16. OM85-BV Induced the Productions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α via TLR4- and TLR2-Mediated ERK1/2/NF-κB Pathway in RAW264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luan, Hong; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Le; Wang, Chuanxiao; Zhang, Miao; Xu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Huan; Li, Xing'ai; Xu, Qing; He, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Broncho-Vaxom (OM85-BV) is an extract mixture from 8 strains of Gram+ and Gram− bacteria and plays an important role in anti-infection immune response by regulating macrophage activity and cytokine productions. However, the mechanism by which OM85-BV enhances the cytokine expression is still obscure. In this study, we evaluated the effects of OM85-BV on the productions of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. Exposure of RAW264.7 cells to 100 μg/mL OM85-BV upregulated the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α at the mRNA and protein levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. In addition, OM85-BV induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) phosphorylation. Pretreatment with U0126 or Bay11-7082, respectively, could decrease IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α productions induced by OM85-BV. Application of Toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 or TLR2 small-interfering RNA (siRNA) into RAW264.7 cells could inhibit the productions of cytokines and ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation induced by OM85-BV. Consistent with this, downregulating either myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) or TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) gene with MyD88-siRNA or TRAM-siRNA separately could reduce the productions of cytokines and ERK1/2 and NF-κB phosphorylation induced by OM85-BV. Our study demonstrated that the productions of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α induced by OM85-BV in RAW264.7 cells were through TLR4 and TLR2 signaling pathway-mediated activation of ERK1/2 and NF-κB. PMID:24605772

  17. Alum sludge-based constructed wetland system for enhanced removal of P and OM from wastewater: concept, design and performance analysis.

    PubMed

    Babatunde, A O; Zhao, Y Q; Zhao, X H

    2010-08-01

    The concept, design and performance analysis of a four-stage novel constructed wetland system (CWs) capable of enhanced and simultaneous removal of phosphorus (P) and organic matter (OM) from wastewaters is described. Alum sludge, a largely available by-product of drinking water facilities using aluminium salts as coagulant was used as the media. Under a hydraulic loading rate of 1.27 m(3)/m(2) d and a range of organic loading rate of 279.4-774.7 g-BOD(5)/m(2)d and 361.1-1028.7 g-COD/m(2)d, average removal efficiencies (mean+/-SD) of 90.6+/-7.5% for BOD(5) and 71.8+/-10.2% for COD were achieved, respectively. P removal was exceptional with average removal efficiency of 97.6+/-1.9% achieved for soluble reactive P at a mean influent concentration of 21.0+/-2.9 mg/l. Overall, the system holds great promise as a novel CWs for simultaneous removal of P and OM, and at the same time, it transforms alum sludge from a waste into a useful material. PMID:20363122

  18. Photodetachment, photofragmentation, and fragment autodetachment of [O2n(H2O)m]- clusters: Core-anion structures and fragment energy partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebbert, Daniel J.; Sanov, Andrei

    2009-09-01

    Building on the past studies of the O2n- and O2-(H2O)m cluster anion series, we assess the effect of the strong hydration interactions on the oxygen-core clusters using photoelectron imaging and photofragment mass spectroscopy of [O2n(H2O)m]- (n =1-4, m =0-3) at 355 nm. The results show that both pure-oxygen and hydrated clusters with n ≥2 form an O4- core anion, indicated in the past work on the pure-oxygen clusters. All clusters studied can be therefore described in terms of O4-(H2O)m(O2)n-2 structures, although the O4- core may be strongly perturbed by hydration in some of these clusters. Fragmentation of these clusters yields predominantly O2- and O2-(H2O)l (l

  19. Recessive loci Pps-1 and OM differentially regulate PISTILLATA-1 and APETALA3-1 expression for sepal and petal development in Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sharad K; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Dhawan, Om P; Shasany, Ajit K

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of PISTILLATA (PI) and APETALA (AP) transcription factors in the development of floral organs has previously been elucidated but little is known about their upstream regulation. In this investigation, two novel mutants generated in Papaver somniferum were analyzed--one with partially petaloid sepals and another having sepaloid petals. Progeny from reciprocal crosses of respective mutant parent genotypes showed a good fit to the monogenic Mendelian inheritance model, indicating that the mutant traits are likely controlled by the single, recessive nuclear genes named "Pps-1" and "OM" in the partially petaloid sepal and sepaloid petal phenotypes, respectively. Both paralogs of PISTILLATA (PapsPI-1 and PapsPI-3) were obtained from the sepals and petals of P. somniferum. Ectopic expression of PapsPI-1 in tobacco resulted in a partially petaloid sepal phenotype at a low frequency. Upregulation of PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 in the petal and the petal part of partially petaloid sepal mutant and down-regulation of the same in sepaloid petal mutant indicates a differential pattern of regulation for flowering-related genes in various whorls. Similarly, it was found that the recessive mutation OM in sepaloid petal mutant downregulates PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 transcripts. The recessive nature of the mutations was confirmed by the segregation ratios obtained in this analysis.

  20. Recessive loci Pps-1 and OM differentially regulate PISTILLATA-1 and APETALA3-1 expression for sepal and petal development in Papaver somniferum.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sharad K; Shukla, Ashutosh K; Dhawan, Om P; Shasany, Ajit K

    2014-01-01

    The involvement of PISTILLATA (PI) and APETALA (AP) transcription factors in the development of floral organs has previously been elucidated but little is known about their upstream regulation. In this investigation, two novel mutants generated in Papaver somniferum were analyzed--one with partially petaloid sepals and another having sepaloid petals. Progeny from reciprocal crosses of respective mutant parent genotypes showed a good fit to the monogenic Mendelian inheritance model, indicating that the mutant traits are likely controlled by the single, recessive nuclear genes named "Pps-1" and "OM" in the partially petaloid sepal and sepaloid petal phenotypes, respectively. Both paralogs of PISTILLATA (PapsPI-1 and PapsPI-3) were obtained from the sepals and petals of P. somniferum. Ectopic expression of PapsPI-1 in tobacco resulted in a partially petaloid sepal phenotype at a low frequency. Upregulation of PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 in the petal and the petal part of partially petaloid sepal mutant and down-regulation of the same in sepaloid petal mutant indicates a differential pattern of regulation for flowering-related genes in various whorls. Similarly, it was found that the recessive mutation OM in sepaloid petal mutant downregulates PapsPI-1 and PapsAP3-1 transcripts. The recessive nature of the mutations was confirmed by the segregation ratios obtained in this analysis. PMID:24979593

  1. Experimental immunization with anti-rheumatic bacterial extract OM-89 induces T cell responses to heat shock protein (hsp)60 and hsp70; modulation of peripheral immunological tolerance as its possible mode of action in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

    PubMed Central

    BLOEMENDAL, A; VAN DER ZEE, R; RUTTEN, V P M G; VAN KOOTEN, P J S; FARINE, J C; VAN EDEN, W

    1997-01-01

    OM-89 is a bacterial (Escherichia coli) extract used for oral administration in the treatment of RA. Given the evidence that immunity to bacterial heat shock antigens plays a critical role in the immunomodulation of arthritis and possibly inflammation in general, the purpose of the present studies was to evaluate the presence and immunogenicity of hsp in OM-89. Furthermore, we studied the effects of OM-89 in an experimental arthritis, where hsp are known to have a critical significance in disease development. In rats immunization with OM-89 was found to lead to proliferative T cell responses to hsp60 and hsp70 of both E. coli and mycobacterial origin. Conversely, immunization with hsp antigens was also found to induce T cell reactivity specific for OM-89. Based on this and the antigen specificity analysis of specific T cell lines, hsp70 (DnaK) turned out to be one of the major immunogenic constituents of OM-89. Parenteral immunization with OM-89 was found to reduce resistance to adjuvant arthritis (AA), whereas oral administration was found to protect against AA. Given the arthritis-inhibitory effect of oral OM-89 in AA, it is possible that peripheral tolerance is induced at the level of regulatory T cells with specificity for hsp. This may also constitute a mode of action for OM-89 as an arthritis-suppressive oral drug. PMID:9353151

  2. Prospective, randomized comparison of OM-85 BV and a prophylactic antibiotic in children with recurrent infections and immunoglobulin A and/or G subclass deficiency☆

    PubMed Central

    Genel, Ferah; Kutukculer, Necil

    2003-01-01

    Background Patients with immunoglobulin (Ig)A and/or IgG subclass deficiency may be asymptomatic or may have recurrent, mainly respiratory infections. Objective This study compared the clinical efficacy and tolerability of prophylactic therapy with either the oral immunomodulator bacterial extract OM-85 BV or benzathine penicillin G (BPG) in the prevention of recurrent infections in symptomatic patients. Methods In this 26-month, prospective, randomized study conducted at the Department of Pediatric Immunology, Ege University (Izmir, Turkey), children aged 1 to 12 years with recurrent infections and IgA and/or IgG subclass deficiency were enrolled. After an initial 12-month control period, patients were randomized to receive OM-85 BV or BPG. OM-85 BV (3.5-mg capsule) was given once daily for the first 10 days of each month for the first 3 months of the study. IM injections of BPG were given at a dose of 1.2 million units (for patients with body weight > 27 kg) or at a half-dose (for patients with body weight ≤27 kg) every 3 weeks for 12 months. In nonresponders (ie, those who continued to have recurrent infections at 12-month follow-up), IV immunoglobulin (IVIG) replacement therapy at 400 mg/kg body weight was given every 4 weeks for an additional 12 months. The results of IVIG therapy were assessed by the authors using clinical observation. Adverse effects and adverse drug reactions were documented by the authors for each vaccine, prophylactic therapy, and IVIG. Results A total of 91 children (56 boys, 35 girls; mean [SD] age at the start of the control period, 46.4 [31.0] months) were enrolled. Of these, 44 were randomized to the OM-85 BV group and 47 to the BPG group. The year before prophylactic therapy, the mean (SD) number of reported infections was 10.7 (3.6) and the mean (SD) number of antibiotic courses was 9.7 (3.6) (OM-85 BV group: mean [SD] number of reported infections, 10.5 [3.3]; mean (SD) number of antibiotic courses, 9.3 [3.3]; BPG group: mean

  3. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  4. Orientational order parameter, S, in N-(p-n-ethoxy benzylidene)-p-n-alkoxy anilines, 2O.Om LC compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sastry, P. S.; Srinivasu, Ch.; Pardhasaradhi, P.; Pisipati, V. G. K. M.

    2016-01-01

    The orientational order parameter, S, is estimated in N-(p-n-ethoxy benzylidene)-p-n-alkoxy anilines, 2O.Om liquid crystalline (LC) compounds with alkoxy chain number, m = 3, 4, and 6-10 using four different methods. The methods employed are (1) from birefringence, ? where ne and no are extraordinary and ordinary refractive indices, (2) from effective geometry parameter, αg, where α = no/ne, (3) from the Haller approximation (1 - T/TNIβ where β is obtained from method (1), and (4) the Maier and Saupe method from density. In the four methods proposed no field is chosen to explain the nematic liquid crystal and provides the S values obtained are identical to one another except in the case of 2O.O9 compound where the S values are higher when compared to the others. All the methods are explained in detail.

  5. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|’hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae)

    PubMed Central

    Chaboo, Caroline S.; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K.; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San (“Bushmen”) arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called ‘click languages’ in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|’hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|’hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|’hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes. PMID:27006594

  6. Beetle and plant arrow poisons of the Ju|'hoan and Hai||om San peoples of Namibia (Insecta, Coleoptera, Chrysomelidae; Plantae, Anacardiaceae, Apocynaceae, Burseraceae).

    PubMed

    Chaboo, Caroline S; Biesele, Megan; Hitchcock, Robert K; Weeks, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The use of archery to hunt appears relatively late in human history. It is poorly understood but the application of poisons to arrows to increase lethality must have occurred shortly after developing bow hunting methods; these early multi-stage transitions represent cognitive shifts in human evolution. This paper is a synthesis of widely-scattered literature in anthropology, entomology, and chemistry, dealing with San ("Bushmen") arrow poisons. The term San (or Khoisan) covers many indigenous groups using so-called 'click languages' in southern Africa. Beetles are used for arrow poison by at least eight San groups and one non-San group. Fieldwork and interviews with Ju|'hoan and Hai||om hunters in Namibia revealed major differences in the nature and preparation of arrow poisons, bow and arrow construction, and poison antidote. Ju|'hoan hunters use leaf-beetle larvae of Diamphidia Gerstaecker and Polyclada Chevrolat (Chrysomelidae: Galerucinae: Alticini) collected from soil around the host plants Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Engl. and Commiphora angolensis Engl. (Burseracaeae). In the Nyae Nyae area of Namibia, Ju|'hoan hunters use larvae of Diamphidia nigroornata Ståhl. Larvae and adults live above-ground on the plants and eat leaves, but the San collect the underground cocoons to extract the mature larvae. Larval hemolymph is mixed with saliva and applied to arrows. Hai||om hunters boil the milky plant sap of Adenium bohemianum Schinz (Apocynaceae) to reduce it to a thick paste that is applied to their arrows. The socio-cultural, historical, and ecological contexts of the various San groups may determine differences in the sources and preparation of poisons, bow and arrow technology, hunting behaviors, poison potency, and perhaps antidotes.

  7. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-01

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process.

  8. Actinide Oxidation State and O/M Ratio in Hypostoichiometric Uranium-Plutonium-Americium U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x Mixed Oxides.

    PubMed

    Vauchy, Romain; Belin, Renaud C; Robisson, Anne-Charlotte; Lebreton, Florent; Aufore, Laurence; Scheinost, Andreas C; Martin, Philippe M

    2016-03-01

    Innovative americium-bearing uranium-plutonium mixed oxides U1-yPuyO2-x are envisioned as nuclear fuel for sodium-cooled fast neutron reactors (SFRs). The oxygen-to-metal (O/M) ratio, directly related to the oxidation state of cations, affects many of the fuel properties. Thus, a thorough knowledge of its variation with the sintering conditions is essential. The aim of this work is to follow the oxidation state of uranium, plutonium, and americium, and so the O/M ratio, in U0.750Pu0.246Am0.004O2-x samples sintered for 4 h at 2023 K in various Ar + 5% H2 + z vpm H2O (z = ∼ 15, ∼ 90, and ∼ 200) gas mixtures. The O/M ratios were determined by gravimetry, XAS, and XRD and evidenced a partial oxidation of the samples at room temperature. Finally, by comparing XANES and EXAFS results to that of a previous study, we demonstrate that the presence of uranium does not influence the interactions between americium and plutonium and that the differences in the O/M ratio between the investigated conditions is controlled by the reduction of plutonium. We also discuss the role of the homogeneity of cation distribution, as determined by EPMA, on the mechanisms involved in the reduction process. PMID:26907589

  9. Oral colonization and cariogenicity of Streptococcus gordonii in specific pathogen-free TAN:SPFOM(OM)BR rats consuming starch or sucrose diets.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, J M; Baranowski, L K; Rogers, J D; Haase, E M; Scannapieco, F A

    2001-04-01

    The significance of Streptococcus gordonii in dental caries is undefined, as is that of other alpha-amylase-binding bacteria (ABB) commonly found in the mouth. To clarify the ecological and cariological roles of S. gordonii our specific pathogen-free Osborne-Mendel rats, TAN:SPFOM(OM)BR, were fed either diet 2000 (containing 56% confectioner's sugar, most of which is sucrose) or diet 2000CS (containing 56% cornstarch, in lieu of confectioner's sugar) and inoculated with S. gordonii strains. Uninoculated rats were free of both indigenous mutans streptococci (MS) and ABB, including S. gordonii, as shown by culture on mitis salivarius and blood agars of swabs and sonicates of dentitions after weanlings had consumed these diets for 26 days. ABB were detected by radiochemical assay using [125I]-amylase reactive to alpha-amylase-binding protein characteristic of the surface of S. gordonii and other ABB. No ABB were detected (detection limit < 1 colony-forming units in 10(6) colony-forming units). Thus the TAN:SPFOM(OM)BR colony presents a 'clean animal model' for subsequent study. Consequently, S. gordonii strains Challis or G9B were used to inoculate weanling rat groups consuming either the high-sucrose diet 2000 or the cornstarch diet 2000CS. Two additional groups fed each of these diets remained unioculated. Recoveries of inoculants were tested 12 and 26 days later by oral swabs and sonication of the molars of one hemimandible of each animal, respectively. Uninoculated animals were reconfirmed to be free of ABB and mutans streptococci, but inoculated ones eating diet 2000CS had S. gordonii recoveries of 1-10% or, if eating diet 2000, 10-30% of total colony-farming units in sonicates. There were no statistically significant differences among the inoculated and uninoculated animal groups' caries scores when they ate the cornstarch diet. Lesion scores for sucrose-eating rats were, however, from 2.4-5.1-fold higher than for cornstarch-eating rats, P < 0.001, and were

  10. Mixotrophic growth of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria is carbon-starvation independent and correlates with the type of carbon source and oxygen availability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Populations of aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophic bacteria in marine environments are dominated by members of the Roseobacter lineage within the Alphaproteobacteria and the OM60/NOR5 clade of gammaproteobacteria. A wealth of information exists about the regulation of pigment production and mixotrophic growth in various members of the Roseobacter clade, but a detailed knowledge about aerobic bacteriochlorophyll a-containing gammaproteobacteria is still limited to one strain of the species Congregibacter litoralis. Results The production of photosynthetic pigments and light-dependent mixotrophic growth was analysed in Luminiphilus syltensis DSM 22749T, Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344T and Pseudohaliea rubra DSM 19751T, representing three taxonomically diverse strains of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade. In these strains the expression of a photosynthetic apparatus depended mainly on the type of carbon source and availability of oxygen. The effect of illumination on pigment expression varied significantly between strains. In contrast to Chromatocurvus halotolerans, pigment production in Luminiphilus syltensis and Pseudohaliea rubra was repressed by light of moderate intensities, probably indicating a higher sensitivity to light-induced oxidative stress. The efficiency of using light for mixotrophic growth did not correlate with the cellular level of photosynthetic pigments, but depended mainly on the type of metabolized substrate with malate being the optimal carbon source in most cases. Conclusions Oligotrophic growth conditions or carbon limitation were not required for light-dependent mixotrophic growth in members of the OM60/NOR5 clade. The ability of using light as energy source and the fine tuning of photosynthesis gene expression depended mainly on the type of carbon source and oxygen availability, which indicates that the regulation of pigment production is controlled by the cellular

  11. What Are the Omh^2 (z1, z2) and Om (z1, z2) Diagnostics Telling us in Light of H(z) Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaogang; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The two-point diagnostics Om(z i , z j ) and Omh 2(z i , z j ) have been introduced as an interesting tool for testing the validity of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Recently, Sahni et al. combined two independent measurements of H(z) from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data with the value of the Hubble constant H 0, and used the second of these diagnostics to test the ΛCDM (a constant equation-of-state parameter for dark energy) model. Their result indicated a considerable tension between observations and predictions of the ΛCDM model. Since reliable data concerning the expansion rates of the universe at different redshifts H(z) are crucial for the successful application of this method, we investigate both two-point diagnostics on the most comprehensive set of N = 36 measurements of H(z) from BAOs and the differential ages (DAs) of passively evolving galaxies. We discuss the uncertainties of the two-point diagnostics and find that they are strongly non-Gaussian and follow the patterns deeply rooted in their very construction. Therefore we propose that non-parametric median statistics is the most appropriate way of treating this problem. Our results support the claims that ΛCDM is in tension with H(z) data according to the two-point diagnostics developed by Shafieloo, Sahni, and Starobinsky. However, other alternatives to the ΛCDM model, such as the wCDM or Chevalier-Polarski-Linder models, perform even worse. We also note that there are serious systematic differences between the BAO and DA methods that ought to be better understood before H(z) measurements can compete with other probes methods.

  12. Structural Health and Prognostics Management for Offshore Wind Turbines: Sensitivity Analysis of Rotor Fault and Blade Damage with O&M Cost Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Myrent, Noah J.; Barrett, Natalie C.; Adams, Douglas E.; Griffith, Daniel Todd

    2014-07-01

    Operations and maintenance costs for offshore wind plants are significantly higher than the current costs for land-based (onshore) wind plants. One way to reduce these costs would be to implement a structural health and prognostic management (SHPM) system as part of a condition based maintenance paradigm with smart load management and utilize a state-based cost model to assess the economics associated with use of the SHPM system. To facilitate the development of such a system a multi-scale modeling and simulation approach developed in prior work is used to identify how the underlying physics of the system are affected by the presence of damage and faults, and how these changes manifest themselves in the operational response of a full turbine. This methodology was used to investigate two case studies: (1) the effects of rotor imbalance due to pitch error (aerodynamic imbalance) and mass imbalance and (2) disbond of the shear web; both on a 5-MW offshore wind turbine in the present report. Sensitivity analyses were carried out for the detection strategies of rotor imbalance and shear web disbond developed in prior work by evaluating the robustness of key measurement parameters in the presence of varying wind speeds, horizontal shear, and turbulence. Detection strategies were refined for these fault mechanisms and probabilities of detection were calculated. For all three fault mechanisms, the probability of detection was 96% or higher for the optimized wind speed ranges of the laminar, 30% horizontal shear, and 60% horizontal shear wind profiles. The revised cost model provided insight into the estimated savings in operations and maintenance costs as they relate to the characteristics of the SHPM system. The integration of the health monitoring information and O&M cost versus damage/fault severity information provides the initial steps to identify processes to reduce operations and maintenance costs for an offshore wind farm while increasing turbine availability

  13. What Are the Omh^2 (z1, z2) and Om (z1, z2) Diagnostics Telling us in Light of H(z) Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Xiaogang; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Cao, Shuo; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2016-07-01

    The two-point diagnostics Om(z i , z j ) and Omh 2(z i , z j ) have been introduced as an interesting tool for testing the validity of the Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) model. Recently, Sahni et al. combined two independent measurements of H(z) from baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) data with the value of the Hubble constant H 0, and used the second of these diagnostics to test the ΛCDM (a constant equation-of-state parameter for dark energy) model. Their result indicated a considerable tension between observations and predictions of the ΛCDM model. Since reliable data concerning the expansion rates of the universe at different redshifts H(z) are crucial for the successful application of this method, we investigate both two-point diagnostics on the most comprehensive set of N = 36 measurements of H(z) from BAOs and the differential ages (DAs) of passively evolving galaxies. We discuss the uncertainties of the two-point diagnostics and find that they are strongly non-Gaussian and follow the patterns deeply rooted in their very construction. Therefore we propose that non-parametric median statistics is the most appropriate way of treating this problem. Our results support the claims that ΛCDM is in tension with H(z) data according to the two-point diagnostics developed by Shafieloo, Sahni, and Starobinsky. However, other alternatives to the ΛCDM model, such as the wCDM or Chevalier–Polarski–Linder models, perform even worse. We also note that there are serious systematic differences between the BAO and DA methods that ought to be better understood before H(z) measurements can compete with other probes methods.

  14. Glacial-interglacial changes in H218O, HDO and deuterium excess - results from the fully coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM Earth system model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M.; Haese, B.; Xu, X.; Zhang, X.; Butzin, M.; Lohmann, G.

    2016-02-01

    In this study we present the first results of a new isotope-enabled general circulation model set-up. The model consists of the fully coupled ECHAM5/MPI-OM atmosphere-ocean model, enhanced by the JSBACH interactive land surface scheme and an explicit hydrological discharge scheme to close the global water budget. Stable water isotopes H218O and HDO have been incorporated into all relevant model components. Results of two equilibrium simulations under pre-industrial and Last Glacial Maximum conditions are analysed and compared to observational data and paleoclimate records for evaluating the model's performance in simulating spatial and temporal variations in the isotopic composition of the Earth's water cycle. For the pre-industrial climate, many aspects of the simulation results of meteoric waters are in good to very good agreement with both observations and earlier atmosphere-only simulations. The model is capable of adequately simulating the large spread in the isotopic composition of precipitation between low and high latitudes. A comparison to available ocean data also shows a good model-data agreement; however, a strong bias of overly depleted ocean surface waters is detected for the Arctic region. Simulation results under Last Glacial Maximum boundary conditions also fit to the wealth of available isotope records from polar ice cores, speleothems, as well as marine calcite data. Data-model evaluation of the isotopic composition in precipitation reveals a good match of the model results and indicates that the temporal glacial-interglacial isotope-temperature relation was substantially lower than the present spatial gradient for most mid- to high-latitudinal regions. As compared to older atmosphere-only simulations, a remarkable improvement is achieved for the modelling of the deuterium excess signal in Antarctic ice cores. Our simulation results indicate that cool sub-tropical and mid-latitudinal sea surface temperatures are key for this progress. A recently

  15. La contribución de los Centros Colaboradores de la OMS/OPS en los avances de la promoción de la salud en América Latina.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hiram V; Mantilla Uribe, Blanca P; Contreras Rengifo, Adolfo; Westphal, Marcia F; Mendes, Rosilda

    2016-09-01

    Los "Centros Colaboradores" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) son instituciones designadas para prestar apoyo estratégico en el desarrollo de los objetivos y la ejecución de las actividades de la OMS, y para generar capacidad institucional en países y regiones. En las Américas existen ocho Centros Colaboradores directamente relacionados a la promoción de la salud. Cuatro centros se ubican en Norteamérica y los otros cuatro en América Latina. El propósito de este artículo es describir los Centros Colaboradores de la Región de América Latina. Los centros han sido importantes en el desarrollo de la agenda de promoción de la salud de la región, la consolidación de la estrategia de entornos saludables y el fortalecimiento de las redes académicas y profesionales de promoción de la salud.

  16. Space Shuttle AFRSI OMS pod environment test using model 81-0 test fixture in the Ames Research Center 9x7-foot supersonic wind tunnel (OS-314A/B/C)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collette, J. G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A test was conducted in the NASA/Ames Research Center 9x7-foot Supersonic Wind Tunnel to help resolve an anomaly that developed during the STS-6 orbiter flight wherein sections of the Advanced Flexible Reusable Surface Insulation (AFRSI) covering the OMS pods suffered some damage. A one-third scale two-dimensional shell structure model of an OMS pod cross-section was employed to support the test articles. These consisted of 15 AFRSI blanket panels form-fitted over the shell structures for exposure to simulated flight conditions. Of six baseline blankets, two were treated with special surface coatings. Two other panels were configured with AFRSI sections removed from the OV099 orbiter vehicle after the STS-6 flight. Seven additional specimens incorporated alternative designs and repairs. Following a series of surface pressure calibration runs, the specimens were exposed to simulated ascent and entry dynamic pressure profiles. Entry conditions included the use of a vortex generator to evaluate the effect of shed vortices on the AFRSI located in the area of concern.

  17. La contribución de los Centros Colaboradores de la OMS/OPS en los avances de la promoción de la salud en América Latina.

    PubMed

    Arroyo, Hiram V; Mantilla Uribe, Blanca P; Contreras Rengifo, Adolfo; Westphal, Marcia F; Mendes, Rosilda

    2016-09-01

    Los "Centros Colaboradores" de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) son instituciones designadas para prestar apoyo estratégico en el desarrollo de los objetivos y la ejecución de las actividades de la OMS, y para generar capacidad institucional en países y regiones. En las Américas existen ocho Centros Colaboradores directamente relacionados a la promoción de la salud. Cuatro centros se ubican en Norteamérica y los otros cuatro en América Latina. El propósito de este artículo es describir los Centros Colaboradores de la Región de América Latina. Los centros han sido importantes en el desarrollo de la agenda de promoción de la salud de la región, la consolidación de la estrategia de entornos saludables y el fortalecimiento de las redes académicas y profesionales de promoción de la salud. PMID:25795656

  18. Taxonomy and evolution of bacteriochlorophyll a-containing members of the OM60/NOR5 clade of marine gammaproteobacteria: description of Luminiphilus syltensis gen. nov., sp. nov., reclassification of Haliea rubra as Pseudohaliea rubra gen. nov., comb. nov., and emendation of Chromatocurvus halotolerans

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aerobic gammaproteobacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade are widespread in saline environments and of ecological importance in several marine ecosystems, especially the euphotic zone of coastal areas. Within this group a close relationship between aerobic anoxygenic photoheterotrophs and non-phototrophic members has been found. Results Several strains of aerobic red-pigmented bacteria affiliated to the OM60/NOR5 clade were obtained from tidal flat sediment samples at the island of Sylt (North Sea, Germany). Two of the novel isolates, Rap1red and Ivo14T, were chosen for an analysis in detail. Strain Rap1red shared a 16S rRNA sequence identity of 99% with the type strain of Congregibacter litoralis and was genome-sequenced to reveal the extent of genetic microheterogeneity among closely related strains within this clade. In addition, a draft genome sequence was obtained from the isolate Ivo14T, which belongs to the environmental important NOR5-1 lineage that contains so far no cultured representative with a comprehensive description. Strain Ivo14T was characterized using a polyphasic approach and compared with other red-pigmented members of the OM60/NOR5 clade, including Congregibacter litoralis DSM 17192T, Haliea rubra DSM 19751T and Chromatocurvus halotolerans DSM 23344T. All analyzed strains contained bacteriochlorophyll a and spirilloxanthin as photosynthetic pigments. Besides a detailed phenotypic characterization including physiological and chemotaxonomic traits, sequence information based on protein-coding genes and a comparison of draft genome data sets were used to identify possible features characteristic for distinct taxa within this clade. Conclusions Comparative sequence analyses of the pufLM genes of genome-sequenced representatives of the OM60/NOR5 clade indicated that the photosynthetic apparatus of these species was derived from a common ancestor and not acquired by multiple horizontal gene transfer from phylogenetically distant

  19. Solving the O&M Equation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flach, Robert; Dorgan, Chad B.

    2003-01-01

    Concerning the issue of molds and indoor air quality in school buildings, addresses the importance of planning and design for building operations and maintenance, the effects of indoor air quality, and ongoing documentation and training. (EV)

  20. Uprated OMS engine for upper stage propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, William C.

    1986-01-01

    The results of a pre-development component demonstration program on the use of a gas generator-driven turbopump that increases the Space Shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) operating pressure are given. Tests and analysis confirm the the capability of the concept to meet or exceed performance and life requirements. Storable propellant upper stage concepts are also discussed.

  1. Final Technical Report: Mercury Release from Organic Matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Nagy, Kathryn L.

    2015-08-18

    Chemical reactions between mercury, a neurotoxin, and sulfur, an essential nutrient, in the environment control to a large extent the distribution and amount of mercury available for uptake by living organisms. The largest reservoir of sulfur in soils is in living, decaying, and dissolved natural organic matter. The decaying and dissolved organic matter can also coat the surfaces of minerals in the soil. Mercury (as a divalent cation) can bind to the sulfur species in the organic matter as well as to the bare mineral surfaces, but the extent of binding and release of this mercury is not well understood. The goals of the research were to investigate fundamental relationships among mercury, natural organic matter, and selected minerals to better understand specifically the fate and transport of mercury in contaminated soils downstream from the Y-12 plant along East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee, and more generally in any contaminated soil. The research focused on (1) experiments to quantify the uptake and release of mercury from two clay minerals in the soil, kaolinite and vermiculite, in the presence and absence of dissolved organic matter; (2) release of mercury from cinnabar under oxic and anoxic conditions; (3) characterization of the forms of mercury in the soil using synchrotron X-ray absorption spectroscopic techniques; and, (4) determination of molecular forms of mercury in the presence of natural organic matter. We also leveraged funding from the National Science Foundation to (5) evaluate published approaches for determining sulfur speciation in natural organic matter by fitting X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra obtained at the sulfur K-edge and apply optimized fitting schemes to new measurements of sulfur speciation in a suite of dissolved organic matter samples from the International Humic Substances Society. Lastly, in collaboration with researchers at the University of Colorado and the U.S. Geological Survey in Boulder, Colorado, (6) we investigated the biogeochemical controls on the release of mercury in simulated flooding experiments using loose soils and intact soil cores from East Fork Poplar Creek.

  2. Final technical report; Mercury Release from Organic matter (OM) and OM-Coated Mineral Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Aiken, George

    2014-10-02

    This document is the final technical report for a project designed to address fundamental processes controlling the release of mercury from flood plain soils associated with East Fork Poplar Creek, Tennessee near the U.S. Department of Energy Oak Ridge facility. The report summarizes the activities, findings, presentations, and publications resulting from an award to the U.S. Geological that were part of a larger overall effort including Kathy Nagy (University of Illinois, Chicago, Ill) and Joseph Ryan (University of Colorado, Boulder, CO). The specific charge for the U.S.G.S. portion of the study was to provide analytical support for the larger group effort (Nagy and Ryan), especially with regard to analyses of Hg and dissolved organic matter, and to provide information about the release of mercury from the floodplain soils.

  3. Comment on “An alternative plate tectonic model for the Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Palaeotethyan evolution of Southeast Asia (Northern Thailand-Burma)” by O.M. Ferrari, C. Hochard & G.M. Stampfli, Tectonophysics 451, 346-365 (doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.065)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metcalfe, I.

    2009-06-01

    Ferrari et al. [Ferrari, O.M., Hochard, C., Stampfli, G.M., 2008. An alternative plate tectonic model for the Palaeozoic-Early Mesozoic Palaeotethyan evolution of Southeast Asia (Northern Thailand-Burma). Tectonophysics 451, 346-365. doi:10.1016/j.tecto.2007.11.065.] redefine the "Shan-Thai" terrane in Thailand as a Cathaysian Indochina-derived terrane when this has traditionally been defined and used as a Gondwana-derived continental block, hence introducing unnecessary confusion. In their definition of "Shan-Thai", they also inappropriately combine oceanic suture zone rocks (the Palaeo-Tethys Inthanon suture) and continental arc rocks (Sukhothai Island Arc system). The Mai Yuam Fault, identified by Ferrari et al. (2008) as the Palaeo-Tethys suture, is in fact a Cenozoic fault and the Palaeo-Tethys suture zone is represented by the Inthanon Suture zone in Thailand which is equivalent to the previously recognised Inthanon zone. The concept of derivation of "Orang Laut" terranes from South China-Indochina by back-arc spreading is innovative but the proposed Permo-Triassic back-arc along the Song Da/Song Ma zone in Vietnam is less convincing. There is little evidence to support the proposed southwards subduction of Palaeo-Tethys beneath eastern Gondwana in the Permian.

  4. An accurate and efficient computational protocol for obtaining the complete basis set limits of the binding energies of water clusters at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory: Application to (H2O)m, m = 2-6, 8, 11, 16, and 17.

    PubMed

    Miliordos, Evangelos; Xantheas, Sotiris S

    2015-06-21

    We report MP2 and Coupled Cluster Singles, Doubles, and perturbative Triples [CCSD(T)] binding energies with basis sets up to pentuple zeta quality for the (H2O)m=2-6,8 water clusters. Our best CCSD(T)/Complete Basis Set (CBS) estimates are -4.99 ± 0.04 kcal/mol (dimer), -15.8 ± 0.1 kcal/mol (trimer), -27.4 ± 0.1 kcal/mol (tetramer), -35.9 ± 0.3 kcal/mol (pentamer), -46.2 ± 0.3 kcal/mol (prism hexamer), -45.9 ± 0.3 kcal/mol (cage hexamer), -45.4 ± 0.3 kcal/mol (book hexamer), -44.3 ± 0.3 kcal/mol (ring hexamer), -73.0 ± 0.5 kcal/mol (D2d octamer), and -72.9 ± 0.5 kcal/mol (S4 octamer). We have found that the percentage of both the uncorrected (De) and basis set superposition error-corrected (De (CP)) binding energies recovered with respect to the CBS limit falls into a narrow range on either sides of the CBS limit for each basis set for all clusters. In addition, this range decreases upon increasing the basis set. Relatively accurate estimates (within <0.5%) of the CBS limits can be obtained when using the "23, 13" (for the AVDZ set) or the "12, 12" (for the AVTZ, AVQZ, and AV5Z sets) mixing ratio between De and De (CP). These mixing rations are determined via a least-mean-squares approach from a dataset that encompasses clusters of various sizes. Based on those findings, we propose an accurate and efficient computational protocol that can be presently used to estimate accurate binding energies of water clusters containing up to 30 molecules (for CCSD(T)) and up to 100 molecules (for MP2).

  5. Robert Seymour Bridges om: Poet, physician and philosopher

    PubMed Central

    James, Theodore

    1994-01-01

    There has not been an English poet more interested in prosody nor physician more taken to medicine for its human contact, nor philosopher who lived closer to the tenets of his belief, than Robert Bridges (1844–1930). ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:8207726

  6. Space shuttle OMS helium regulator design and development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.; Kelly, T. L.; Lynch, R.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis, design, fabrication and design verification testing was conducted on the technological feasiblity of the helium pressurization regulator for the space shuttle orbital maneuvering system application. A prototype regulator was fabricated which was a single-stage design featuring the most reliable and lowest cost concept. A tradeoff study on regulator concepts indicated that a single-stage regulator with a lever arm between the valve and the actuator section would offer significant weight savings. Damping concepts were tested to determine the amount of damping required to restrict actuator travel during vibration. Component design parameters such as spring rates, effective area, contamination cutting, and damping were determined by test prior to regulator final assembly. The unit was subjected to performance testing at widely ranging flow rates, temperatures, inlet pressures, and random vibration levels. A test plan for propellant compatibility and extended life tests is included.

  7. Uprated OMS Engine Status-Sea Level Testing Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertolino, J. D.; Boyd, W. C.

    1990-01-01

    The current Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Engine (OME) is pressure fed, utilizing storable propellants. Performance uprating of this engine, through the use of a gas generator driven turbopump to increase operating pressure, is being pursued by the NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC). Component level design, fabrication, and test activities for this engine system have been on-going since 1984. More recently, a complete engine designated the Integrated Component Test Bed (ICTB), was tested at sea level conditions by Aerojet. A description of the test hardware and results of the sea level test program are presented. These results, which include the test condition operating envelope and projected performance at altitude conditions, confirm the capability of the selected Uprated OME (UOME) configuration to meet or exceed performance and operational requirements. Engine flexibility, demonstrated through testing at two different operational mixture ratios, along with a summary of projected Space Shuttle performance enhancements using the UOME, are discussed. Planned future activities, including ICTB tests at simulated altitude conditions, and recommendations for further engine development, are also discussed.

  8. Quasi-three-coordinate iron and cobalt terphenoxide complexes {Ar(iPr8)OM(μ-O)}2 (Ar(iPr8) = C6H-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-(i)Pr3)2-3,5-(i)Pr2; M = Fe or Co) with M(III)2(μ-O)2 core structures and the peroxide dimer of 2-oxepinoxy relevant to benzene oxidation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Pei; Lei, Hao; Ni, Chengbao; Guo, Jing-Dong; Kamali, Saeed; Fettinger, James C; Grandjean, Fernande; Long, Gary J; Nagase, Shigeru; Power, Philip P

    2015-09-21

    The bis(μ-oxo) dimeric complexes {Ar(iPr8)OM(μ-O)}2 (Ar(iPr8) = C6H-2,6-(C6H2-2,4,6-(i)Pr3)2-3,5-(i)Pr2; M = Fe (1), Co (2)) were prepared by oxidation of the M(I) half-sandwich complexes {Ar(iPr8)M(η(6)-arene)} (arene = benzene or toluene). Iron species 1 was prepared by reacting {Ar(iPr8)Fe(η(6)-benzene)} with N2O or O2, and cobalt species 2 was prepared by reacting {Ar(iPr8)Co(η(6)-toluene)} with O2. Both 1 and 2 were characterized by X-ray crystallography, UV-vis spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and, in the case of 1, Mössbauer spectroscopy. The solid-state structures of both compounds reveal unique M2(μ-O)2 (M = Fe (1), Co(2)) cores with formally three-coordinate metal ions. The Fe···Fe separation in 1 bears a resemblance to that in the Fe2(μ-O)2 diamond core proposed for the methane monooxygenase intermediate Q. The structural differences between 1 and 2 are reflected in rather differing magnetic behavior. Compound 2 is thermally unstable, and its decomposition at room temperature resulted in the oxidation of the Ar(iPr8) ligand via oxygen insertion and addition to the central aryl ring of the terphenyl ligand to produce the 5,5'-peroxy-bis[4,6-(i)Pr2-3,7-bis(2,4,6-(i)Pr3-phenyl)oxepin-2(5H)-one] (3). The structure of the oxidized terphenyl species is closely related to that of a key intermediate proposed for the oxidation of benzene. PMID:26331405

  9. 40-in. OMS Kevlar(Registered Trademark) COPV S/N 007 Stress Rupture Test NDE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saulsberry, Regor; Greene, Nate; Forth, Scott; Leifeste, Mark; Gallus, Tim; Yoder, Tommy; Keddy, Chris; Mandaras, Eric; Wincheski, Buzz; Williams, Philip; Russell, Richard; Eldridge, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    The presentation examines pretest nondestructive evaluation (NDE), including external/internal visual inspection, raman spectroscopy, laser shearography, and laser profilometry; real-time NDE including eddy current, acoustic emission (AE), and real-time portable raman spectroscopy; and AE application to carbon/epoxy composite overwrapped pressure vessels.

  10. Tre Indlaeg om "Interlanguage Pragmatics" (Three Critiques of "Interlanguage Pragmatics"). ROLIG Papir No. 55.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preisler, Bent, Ed.

    The three papers presented here are critiques to a Doctoral Dissertation defense titled "Interlanguage Pragmatics: Requests, Complaints, and Apologies." The responses are written by the "disputants" or members of the candidate's dissertation review committee. The first paper, "Den empiriske undersogelse i 'Interlanguage Pragmatics'" (The Empirical…

  11. Developing Erosion Prediction Modeling Technology Using the Object Modeling System (OMS): Viability and Challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current challenges in soil erosion research have created demand for integrated, flexible, and easily parameterized sediment transport models. Most of the existing monolithic erosion models (e.g., WEPP and WEPS) are not modular, thus modifications require considerable time, effort, and expense. In th...

  12. Actuation and system design and evaluation OMS engine shutoff valve, Volume 1. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, V. B.

    1975-01-01

    A technology program was conducted to identify and verify the optimum valve and actuation system concept for the Space Shuttle Orbit Maneuvering System engine. Of major importance to the valve and actuation system selection was the ten-year, 100-mission, 10,000-cycle life requirement, while maintaining high reliability, low leakage, and low weight. Valve and actuation system concepts were comparatively evaluated against past valve failure reports and potential failure modes due to the shuttle mission profile to aid in the selection of the most optimum concept for design, manufacture and verification testing. Two valve concepts were considered during the preliminary design stage; i.e., the moving seat and lifting ball. Two actuation systems were manufactured and tested. Test results demonstrate the viability of a lifting ball concept as well as the applicability of an ac motor actuation system to best meet the requirements of the shuttle mission.

  13. Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and O&M, Annual Progress Report 2007-2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Sellman, Jake; Perugini, Carol

    2009-02-20

    The Duck Valley Reservoirs Fish Stocking and Operations and Maintenance Project (DV Fisheries) is an ongoing resident fish program that serves to partially mitigate the loss of anadromous fish that resulted from downstream construction of the federal hydropower system. The project's goals are to enhance subsistence fishing and educational opportunities for Tribal members of the Shoshone-Paiute Tribes and provide fishing opportunities for non-Tribal members. In addition to stocking rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Mountain View (MVR), Lake Billy Shaw (LBS), and Sheep Creek Reservoirs (SCR), the program is also designed to: maintain healthy aquatic conditions for fish growth and survival, provide superior facilities with wilderness qualities to attract non-Tribal angler use, and offer clear, consistent communication with the Tribal community about this project as well as outreach and education within the region and the local community. Tasks for this performance period fall into three categories: operations and maintenance, monitoring and evaluation, and public outreach. Operation and maintenance of the three reservoirs include maintaining fences, roads, dams and all reservoir structures, feeder canals, water troughs, stock ponds, educational signs, vehicles, equipment, and restroom facilities. Monitoring and evaluation activities include creel, gillnet, wildlife, and bird surveys, water quality and reservoir structures monitoring, native vegetation planting, photo point documentation, and control of encroaching exotic vegetation. Public outreach activities include providing environmental education to school children, providing fishing reports to local newspapers and vendors, updating the website, hosting community environmental events, and fielding numerous phone calls from anglers. The reservoir monitoring program focuses on water quality and fishery success. Sheep Creek Reservoir and Lake Billy Shaw had less than productive trout growth due to water quality issues including dissolved oxygen and/or turbidity. Regardless, angler fishing experience was the highest at Lake Billy Shaw. Trout in Mountain View Reservoir were in the best condition of the three reservoirs and anglers reported very good fishing there. Water quality (specifically dissolved oxygen and temperature) remain the main limiting factors in the fisheries, particularly in late August to early September.

  14. Landscape Unbounded: Space, Place, and Orientation in [palatal click]Akhoe Hai//om and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widlok, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Even before it became a common place to assume that "the Eskimo have a hundred words for snow" the languages of hunting and gathering people have played an important role in debates about linguistic relativity concerning geographical ontologies. Evidence from languages of hunter-gatherers has been used in radical relativist challenges to the…

  15. Domain specific languages for modeling and simulation: use case OMS3

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A domain-specific language (DSL) is usually a concise, declarative language that strongly emphasizes a particular problem domain. DSL methods and implementations in general are widely prototyped and applied in academia for creating elegant ways to express properties, relationships, and behavior of r...

  16. OMS engine shutoff valve and actuation system design and evaluation. [for space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wichmann, H.

    1974-01-01

    Shutoff valve and actuation system concepts that are most suitable for the Orbital Maneuvering Systems engine application were determined. Emphasis was placed on the ten year and 100 mission life requirement, propellant and propellant residue compatibility and weight. It was found that poppet or ball valves utilizing electric or electropneumatic actuation were most applicable. Preliminary design layouts of a number of valve and actuation concepts were prepared and analyzed to make the optimum concept selection. Pneumatic actuation systems were required to feature their own pneumatic supply so that for the quad redundant valve, it was necessary to include two pneumatic supply systems, one for each of the series legs of the quad redundant package. The requirement for the pneumatic package placed heavy reliability, weight, and maintenance penalties upon electropneumatic actuation systems. The two valve and actuation systems concepts selected featured electric torque motor operation and a poppet as well as a ball valve concept with a retractable seal.

  17. The persistent contributions of RNA to eukaryotic gen(om)e architecture and cellular function.

    PubMed

    Brosius, Jürgen

    2014-12-01

    Currently, the best scenario for earliest forms of life is based on RNA molecules as they have the proven ability to catalyze enzymatic reactions and harbor genetic information. Evolutionary principles valid today become apparent in such models already. Furthermore, many features of eukaryotic genome architecture might have their origins in an RNA or RNA/protein (RNP) world, including the onset of a further transition, when DNA replaced RNA as the genetic bookkeeper of the cell. Chromosome maintenance, splicing, and regulatory function via RNA may be deeply rooted in the RNA/RNP worlds. Mostly in eukaryotes, conversion from RNA to DNA is still ongoing, which greatly impacts the plasticity of extant genomes. Raw material for novel genes encoding protein or RNA, or parts of genes including regulatory elements that selection can act on, continues to enter the evolutionary lottery. PMID:25081515

  18. Allochthonous carbon hypothesis for bulk OM and n-alkane PETM carbon isotope discrepancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baczynski, A. A.; McInerney, F. A.; Wing, S. L.; Kraus, M. J.; Fricke, H. C.

    2011-12-01

    The Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), a period of abrupt, transient, and large-scale global warming fueled by a large release of isotopically light carbon, is a relevant analogue for episodes of rapid global warming and recovery. The PETM is recorded in pedogenic carbonate, bulk organic matter, and n-alkanes as a prominent negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in paleosols exposed in the Bighorn Basin, WY. Here we present a composite stable carbon isotope record from n-alkanes and dispersed soil organic δ13C records from five individual sections that span the PETM in the southeastern Bighorn Basin. Four sections are from a 10km transect in the Cabin Fork area and one section was collected at Sand Creek Divide. These five new dispersed organic carbon (DOC) isotope records are compared to the previously published Polecat Bench (Magioncalda et al. 2004) and Honeycombs (Yans et al. 2006) isotope records. The high-resolution n-alkane curve shows an abrupt, negative shift in δ13C values, an extended CIE body, and a rapid recovery to more positive δ13C values. Although the five DOC records show similarly abrupt negative shifts in δ13C values, the DOC CIEs are compressed, smaller in magnitude, and return to more positive δ13C values more gradually relative to the n-alkane record. Moreover, the stratigraphic thickness of the body of the excursion and the pattern of the recovery phase are not consistent among the five DOC records. We modeled predicted DOC δ13C values from the n-alkane record by applying enrichment factors based on modern plants to the n-alkane δ13C values. The anomaly, difference between the expected and observed DOC δ13C values, was calculated for the PETM records and compared to weight percent carbon and grain size. There is no correlation between pre- and post-PETM anomaly values and grain size or weight percent carbon. PETM anomaly values, however, do trend with both grain size and weight percent carbon. The largest PETM anomaly values correspond to the highest grain sizes and lowest weight percent carbon. We hypothesize that the difference between the n-alkane and DOC δ13C records is due to contamination of the DOC δ13C signal by weathering of older, refractory Jurassic-Cretaceous carbon. According to this hypothesis, before and after the CIE the difference in the isotopic composition of autochthonous (Cenozoic) and allochthonous (Jurassic-Cretaceous) organic matter would have been small because C3 plants in the Jurassic-Cretaceous and pre- and post-PETM had relatively similar values. Thus, the ratio of autochthonous: allochthonous organic matter would be uncorrelated with isotopic composition. During the CIE, the isotopic composition of autochthonous organic carbon decreased dramatically. Therefore, autochthonous and allochthonous carbon pools were isotopically distinct and a correlation between weight percent carbon and isotopic composition is expected: the lower the weight percent carbon, the higher the proportion of allochthonous carbon, the larger the anomaly.

  19. Assessing O&M Practices at Federal Facilities - What do the ESET Data Tell Us

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W. D.

    2006-09-13

    In late 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Energy Saving Expert Teams (ESET) conducted assessments at 28 Federal sites. These assessments were directed by President Bush in a memorandum to Federal agencies in response to projected natural gas shortages resulting from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The primary focus of the ESET assessments was to identify low-cost and no-cost (operations and maintenance-oriented) energy efficiency measures that the sites could quickly and easily adopt to relieve the expected supply shortfall, while also realizing significant energy and cost savings. The assessments successfully identified large potential natural gas savings opportunities available at low-cost/no-cost through energy efficiency measures such as boiler tune-ups, repair of steam and condensate leaks, repair of missing and/or damaged insulation, adjusting temperature and setback setpoints, and modifying equipment operating schedules. Because these savings opportunities were largely anticipated, the issue now becomes one of helping facility managers more easily identify and address these opportunities as they arise.

  20. Assessing O&M Practices at Federal Facilities - What do the ESET Data Tell Us

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W. D.

    2008-02-22

    In late 2005, the Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) Energy Saving Expert Teams (ESET) conducted assessments at 28 Federal sites. These assessments were directed by President Bush in a memorandum to Federal agencies in response to projected natural gas shortages resulting from Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. The primary focus of the ESET assessments was to identify low-cost and no-cost (operations and maintenance-oriented) energy efficiency measures that the sites could quickly and easily adopt to relieve the expected supply shortfall, while also realizing significant energy and cost savings. The assessments successfully identified large potential natural gas savings opportunities available at low-cost/no-cost through energy efficiency measures such as boiler tune-ups, repair of steam and condensate leaks, repair of missing and/or damaged insulation, adjusting temperature and setback setpoints, and modifying equipment operating schedules. Because these savings opportunities were largely anticipated, the issue now becomes one of helping facility managers more easily identify and address these opportunities as they arise.

  1. A Review of Instructional Software Packages for OR/MS and P/OM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsiotras, George D.

    1988-01-01

    Presents a review of microcomputer-based software packages that have been designed for Operations Research, Management Science, and Production and Operations Management. Listed for each package are price for student use, minimum system requirements needed to run the package, and maximum capability constraints. (PK)

  2. Space Shuttle Orbital Maneuvering Subsystem (OMS) Engine Propellant Leakage Ball-Valve Shaft Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lueders, Kathy; Buntain, Nick; Fries, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Evidence of propellant leakage across ball-valve shaft seals has been noted during the disassembly of five flight engines and one test engine at the NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, White Sands Test Facility. Based on data collected during the disassembly of these five engines, the consequences of propellant leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals can be divided into four primary areas of concern: Damage to the ball-valve pinion shafts, damage to sleeved bearings inside the ball-valve and actuator assemblies, degradation of the synthetic rubber o-rings used in the actuator assemblies, and corrosion and degradation to the interior of the actuator assemblies. The exact time at which leakage across the ball-valve shaft seals occurs has not been determined, however, the leakage most likely occurs during engine firings when, depending on the specification used, ball-valve cavity pressures range as high as 453 to 550 psia. This potential pressure range for the ball-valve cavities greatly exceeds the acceptance leakage test pressure of 332 psia. Since redesign and replacement of the ball-valve shaft seals is unlikely, the near term solution to prevent damage that occurs from shaft-seal leakage is to implement a routine overhaul and maintenance program for engines in the fleet. Recommended repair, verification, and possible preventative maintenance measures are discussed in the paper.

  3. Field Results from Application of the Outdoor-Air/Economizer Diagnostician for Commissioning and O&M

    SciTech Connect

    Pratt, Robert G.; Katipamula, Srinivas; Brambley, Michael R.; Blanc, Steven L.

    2000-05-31

    This paper presents results of field testing an automated diagnostician for outdoor-air-supply and economizer systems that can be used for commissioning purposes. The fundamental capabilities of the tool are described and key results of its application on six air handlers in a large hotel building are discussed. Ancillary issues pertinent to the development and application of such tools are also presented.

  4. Space shuttle auxiliary propulsion system design study. Phase C and E report: Storable propellants, RCS/OMS/APU integration study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anglim, D. D.; Bruns, A. E.; Perryman, D. C.; Wieland, D. L.

    1972-01-01

    Auxiliary propulsion concepts for application to the space shuttle are compared. Both monopropellant and bipropellant earth storable reaction control systems were evaluated. The fundamental concepts evaluated were: (1) monopropellant and bipropellant systems installed integrally within the vehicle, (2) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and wing tip pods, and (3) fuel systems installed modularly in nose and fuselage pods. Numerous design variations within these three concepts were evaluated. The system design analysis and methods for implementing each of the concepts are reported.

  5. 78 FR 9961 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NASDAQ OMS BX, Inc.; Notice of Filing and Immediate Effectiveness...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... posting Protected Quotations within the meaning of Regulation NMS (i.e. ``dark venues'' or ``dark pools... seek to execute on BX or on dark pools without executing on another exchange. Members may seek to....00- $10.01, and BX, DarkVenueA and ARCA each offer 100 shares at $10.01, a BDRK order to buy...

  6. Investigation on corrosion stratigraphy and morphology in some Iron Age bronze alloys vessels by OM, XRD and SEM-EDS methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oudbashi, Omid; Hasanpour, Ata; Davami, Parviz

    2016-04-01

    The recently study of the corrosion in some bronze artefacts from the Sangtarashan Iron Age site, western Iran, was established to identify corrosion morphology and mechanism in these objects. The corrosion layers in 22 samples were studied by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction methods. The results showed that a thin corrosion crust has formed on the surface of bronzes with a triple-layer structure, including two internal and one external corrosion layers. The formation of these layers is due to copper leaching from the bronze surface. The internal corrosion part has been a compact, tin-rich corrosion/oxidation product (noble patina) with some evidences from original metallurgical aspects of the bronze as well as a very thin layer beneath the tin-rich layer. External corrosion products have been identified as basic copper carbonates, malachite and azurite. Based on the results, the corrosion morphology in the Sangtarashan Iron Age bronzes is due to long-term burial in an appropriate environment in a moderately corrosive soil. Although it is the first time to investigate Iron Age bronzes from Iran, this corrosion morphology is partially similar to type I corrosion morphology observed in archaeological bronze objects; nevertheless, some deviations are visible in comparison with previously established patterns.

  7. ométrie et dynamique sur les surfaces algébriques réelles [Geometry and dynamics on real algebraic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLin, Kristie S.

    The study of fluid-rock interactions provides insight into subsurface geologic processes, such as diagenesis, hydrothermal alteration and metamorphism. Understanding and predicting these interactions also helps us assess the geologic impact of hydrocarbon recovery and geothermal production and injection. Therefore, the study of fluid-rock interactions has both geologic and economic impact. At the Dixie Valley geothermal field, NV, precipitated calcite and aragonite within a production well trapped boiling fluids in fluid inclusions. The trapped gases were analyzed and shown to be compositionally different than those sampled at the well head. The inclusions trapped a greater ratio of light gases CH 4 and H2 to CO2 than those sampled at the well head. This result indicates that the fluid inclusions trapped the initial steam fraction during boiling. Declining performance of injection wells at the Coso and Salton Sea geothermal fields, CA, were found to result from mineral deposition in the near-wellbore environment during fluid injection. At Coso, opal-A and minor calcite scale mineral precipitates were found in cuttings from wells drilled near previously operating injection wells. At the Salton Sea, cuttings from a deepened injection well contained banded barite, fluorite, amorphous silica, and minor anhydrite scales. Mineral precipitation was modeled and predicted with the non-isothermal reactive transport modeling code TOUGHREACT. Geochemical simulations were also performed to predict the consequences of injecting H2SO 4 modified fluid for mitigating silica precipitation at Coso using TOUGHREACT. The models predict that silica precipitation will be reduced significantly by maintaining pH of 5 or less. This can be accommodated in the models by reducing the kinetic rate constant for silica precipitation. TOUGHREACT simulations also predict that corundum proppants will be chemically stable under geothermal conditions. The formation of talc in the outer aureole of the Alta Stock does not define a regular isogradic surface, unlike isograds in the inner aureole. Examination of mineral and fluid stabilities in the H2O-CO 2-NaCl system shows that several fluid evolution scenarios, including fluid immiscibility, may produce the observed talc heterogeneity.

  8. Diffusion of oxygen interstitials in UO2+x using kinetic Monte Carlo simulations: Role of O/M ratio and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behera, Rakesh K.; Watanabe, Taku; Andersson, David A.; Uberuaga, Blas P.; Deo, Chaitanya S.

    2016-04-01

    Oxygen interstitials in UO2+x significantly affect the thermophysical properties and microstructural evolution of the oxide nuclear fuel. In hyperstoichiometric Urania (UO2+x), these oxygen interstitials form different types of defect clusters, which have different migration behavior. In this study we have used kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) to evaluate diffusivities of oxygen interstitials accounting for mono- and di-interstitial clusters. Our results indicate that the predicted diffusivities increase significantly at higher non-stoichiometry (x > 0.01) for di-interstitial clusters compared to a mono-interstitial only model. The diffusivities calculated at higher temperatures compare better with experimental values than at lower temperatures (< 973 K). We have discussed the resulting activation energies achieved for diffusion with all the mono- and di-interstitial models. We have carefully performed sensitivity analysis to estimate the effect of input di-interstitial binding energies on the predicted diffusivities and activation energies. While this article only discusses mono- and di-interstitials in evaluating oxygen diffusion response in UO2+x, future improvements to the model will primarily focus on including energetic definitions of larger stable interstitial clusters reported in the literature. The addition of larger clusters to the kMC model is expected to improve the comparison of oxygen transport in UO2+x with experiment.

  9. THE ANAEROBIC BIODEGRADATION OF O-,M- AND P-CRESOL BY SULFATE-REDUCING BACTERIAL ENRICHMENT CULTURES OBTAINED FROM A SHALLOW ANOXIC AQUIFER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sulfate-reducing bacterial enrichments were obtained from a shallow anoxic aquifer for their ability to metabolize either o-, m-, orp-cresol. GC/MS and simultaneous adaptation experiments suggested that the anaerobic decomposition of p-cresol proceeds ...

  10. Folketinksbeslutning om en reform af de grundlaeggende skole uddanelser, 30 maj 1969 (Parliamentary Resolution of 30 May 1969 Concerning Reform of Basic School Education).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1971

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a Danish parliamentary resolution requesting the Government to work out plans to introduce a bill for the continued development of the Folkeskole (elementary/lower secondary school) and other basic educational programs. The Folkeskole should be organized as a ten-year…

  11. ométrie et cinématique post-oligocène des failles d'Aix et de la moyenne Durance (Provence, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guignard, Pierre; Bellier, Olivier; Chardon, Dominique

    2005-02-01

    The southern termination of the left-lateral 'Moyenne Durance' Fault (FMD) consists in several segments, some being connected to WSW-trending south-verging reverse faults. To the south, the Aix fault is reactivated in a post-Oligocene strike-slip movement showing that these two faults might belong to the same system. This system seems to transfer, in turn, slip to the east-trending, south-verging Trévaresse reverse fault, allowing southward propagation of the Alpine deformation front in western Provence. Fault kinematics analysis shows lateral stress field change between the two faults. Strike-slip stress state is characterized by an average N150°E trending σ1 near the FMD termination, whilst strike-slip and reverse faulting stress states show north-trending σ to the south. To cite this article: P. Guignard et al., C. R. Geoscience 337 (2005).

  12. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieve K-OMS-2 as catalyst in post plasma-catalysis for trichloroethylene degradation in humid air.

    PubMed

    Nguyen Dinh, M T; Giraudon, J-M; Vandenbroucke, A M; Morent, R; De Geyter, N; Lamonier, J-F

    2016-08-15

    The total oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) in air at low relative humidity (RH=10%) in the presence of CO2 (520ppmv) was investigated in function of energy density using an atmospheric pressure negative DC luminescent glow discharge combined with a cryptomelane catalyst positioned downstream of the plasma reactor at a temperature of 150°C. When using Non-Thermal Plasma (NTP) alone, it is found a low COx (x=1-2) yield in agreement with the detection of gaseous polychlorinated by-products in the outlet stream as well as ozone which is an harmful pollutant. Introduction of cryptomelane enhanced trichloroethylene removal, totally inhibited plasma ozone formation and increased significantly the COx yield. The improved performances of the hybrid system were mainly ascribed to the total destruction of plasma generated ozone on cryptomelane surface to produce active oxygen species. Consequently these active oxygen species greatly enhanced the abatement of the plasma non-reacted TCE and completely destroyed the hazardous plasma generated polychlorinated intermediates. The facile redox of Mn species associated with oxygen vacancies and mobility as well as the textural properties of the catalyst might also contribute as a whole to the efficiency of the process. PMID:27107238

  13. Establishing the archaeo-metallurgic ornamentation process of an axe from the bronze age by OM, SEM-EDX, and micro-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Sandu, Ioan Gabriel; Tencariu, Felix-Adrian; Vornicu, Diana-Măriuca; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Vornicu, Andreea; Vasilache, Viorica; Sandu, Ion

    2014-11-01

    Our article presents the results of the analyses we performed by corroborating the Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Xray Analysis and micro Fourier Transformed InfraRed Analysis techniques to identify the archaeo-metallurgic casting and ornamentation procedure of a decorated disk-butted axe, which was discovered recently east of the Carpathian mountains, in the Moldavian Plateau. There are few known axes of that type found (A1, according to the usual typologies), as they are specific to the Middle Bronze Age period west of the Carpathians-the Wietenberg, Suciu de Sus, and Otomani-Füzesabony cultures. The experimental data on the item under study revealed the fact that after casting it in molds made from porous silicone-based stone, the object was coated with a thin layer, by immersing it in a lightly fusible tin alloy, whose main alloy component was copper and arsenic and iron as secondary components. After refining the shiny white layer, they applied a beautiful decoration pattern made by incision and engraving. This battle axe was an indication of higher status, such items usually being owned by community leaders. This important fact proves that the ancient metallurgic craftsmen were able to elaborate and manufacture various alloys from which they made beautiful objects and it also offers a new insight into the social and symbolic function of certain antique bronze items.

  14. Urchin-like cobalt incorporated manganese oxide OMS-2 hollow spheres: Synthesis, characterization and catalytic degradation of RhB dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Khalid Abdelazez Mohamed; Li, Buyi; Tan, Bien; Huang, Kaixun

    2013-01-01

    Urchin-like KxCoyMn8-yO16 hollow spheres assembled from nanoplate building blocks were successfully fabricated via a one-pot hydrothermal route using cobalt acetate and potassium permanganate as raw material. The products were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometer, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) measurement. The thermal stability and surface areas of cobalt ion in the manganese sites of KMn8O16 structures were clearly evidenced by TGA and N2 adsorption-desorption isotherms curves. Based on time depended experiment results, a possible formation mechanism for this structures was proposed. The catalytic degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) on KxCoyMn8-yO16 materials has, therefore been dependent for the molar precursor ratio and specific surface area of the as-fabricated products. UV-vis, LC-MS and barium hydroxide methods were utilized to monitor the temporal course of the catalytic reaction.

  15. Establishing the archaeo-metallurgic ornamentation process of an axe from the bronze age by OM, SEM-EDX, and micro-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Sandu, Ioan Gabriel; Tencariu, Felix-Adrian; Vornicu, Diana-Măriuca; Sandu, Andrei Victor; Vornicu, Andreea; Vasilache, Viorica; Sandu, Ion

    2014-11-01

    Our article presents the results of the analyses we performed by corroborating the Optical Microscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Xray Analysis and micro Fourier Transformed InfraRed Analysis techniques to identify the archaeo-metallurgic casting and ornamentation procedure of a decorated disk-butted axe, which was discovered recently east of the Carpathian mountains, in the Moldavian Plateau. There are few known axes of that type found (A1, according to the usual typologies), as they are specific to the Middle Bronze Age period west of the Carpathians-the Wietenberg, Suciu de Sus, and Otomani-Füzesabony cultures. The experimental data on the item under study revealed the fact that after casting it in molds made from porous silicone-based stone, the object was coated with a thin layer, by immersing it in a lightly fusible tin alloy, whose main alloy component was copper and arsenic and iron as secondary components. After refining the shiny white layer, they applied a beautiful decoration pattern made by incision and engraving. This battle axe was an indication of higher status, such items usually being owned by community leaders. This important fact proves that the ancient metallurgic craftsmen were able to elaborate and manufacture various alloys from which they made beautiful objects and it also offers a new insight into the social and symbolic function of certain antique bronze items. PMID:25092177

  16. 77 FR 41399 - EC&R O&M, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-13

    ... facilitate electronic service, persons with Internet access who will eFile a document and/or be listed as a... proceeding are accessible in the Commission's eLibrary system by clicking on the appropriate link in the above list. They are also available for review in the Commission's Public Reference Room in...

  17. I think therefore I om: cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect, and hope.

    PubMed

    Sears, Sharon; Kraus, Sue

    2009-06-01

    This study examined cognitive distortions and coping styles as potential mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, negative affect, positive affect, and hope in college students. Our pre- and postintervention design had four conditions: control, brief meditation focused on attention, brief meditation focused on loving kindness, and longer meditation combining both attentional and loving kindness aspects of mindfulness. Each group met weekly over the course of a semester. Longer combined meditation significantly reduced anxiety and negative affect and increased hope. Changes in cognitive distortions mediated intervention effects for anxiety, negative affect, and hope. Further research is needed to determine differential effects of types of meditation.

  18. Find a Surgeon

    MedlinePlus

    ... need to know. Anesthesia: Part 1 Safety and Comfort in the OMS Office Introduction and History of Dental Anesthesia Anesthesia: Part 2 Safety and Comfort in the OMS Office OMS Education and Training ...

  19. Relevans og intention. To analyser af en massemedietekst om okonomisk politik. ROLIG-papir 33 (Relevance and Intention. Two Analyses of a Mass Media Text on Economic Politics. ROLIG-paper 33).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heltoft, Lars; Geist, Uwe

    The three papers in this publication analyze a newspaper article on "economic politics," or more specifically, the devaluing of the Danish kroner. The papers all examine some linguistic or structural feature of the language used in writing the article. Specific focus is on relevance theory and relevance in the article, the use of text analysis in…

  20. Results of investigations with an 0.015-scale model (49-0) of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle 140A/B configuration with modified OMS pods and elevons in the AEDC VKF tunnel B (0A79)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esparza, V.; Lindsay, A. I.

    1975-01-01

    Aerodynamic data obtained from wind tunnel tests of an 0.015-scale space shuttle vehicle Orbiter model of a 140A/B configuration with modified orbital manuevering system pods and elevons are documented. Force data was obtained at various control surface settings and Reynolds numbers in the angle of attack range of 15 deg to 45 deg and at angles of sideslip of -5 deg to +5 deg. Control surface variables included elevon, rudder, speed brake, and body flap configurations.

  1. ométrie et cinématique des chevauchements varisques du Nord-Est du Massif armoricain (France)Geometry and kinematics of Variscan thrusts in the northeastern Armorican Massif (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butaeye, Damien; Laville, Edgard; Le Gall, Jean

    2001-02-01

    Variscan structures of the northeastern Armorican massif consist of folds induced by south-verging thrust faults. This thin-skinned process is controlled by a major décollement that would be expected at the base of the Brioverian flysch. So, the northeastern Armorican domain can be integrated to the tectonic model admitted at the Variscan Orogenesis scale.

  2. Disposition et géométrie des plis de l'Atlas centro-méridional de Tunisie: découpage et cisaillement en lanières tectoniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutib, Lahcen; Zargouni, Fouad

    1998-02-01

    In the southern-central Atlas of Tunisia, the anticlines megastructures show a fold bundle organisation; frequently arranged on right relay and in elementary scale, they show torsion and simple or multiple virgations. This geometrical evolution indicates a cutting up on tectonic strips on dextral shears; limited by two great corridors of dextral strike-slip faults: N90 of Kasserine and N120-130 of Gafsa.

  3. A Whole Community Approach to Otitis Media--Reducing Its Incidence and Effects. Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwan, David

    Otitis media (OM) is an inflammation of the middle ear that is prevalent in childhood. OM can result in hearing loss, which interferes with learning. In Australia, indigenous children experience OM more often than other populations. Because teachers lack knowledge of OM and its effects on learning, affected children are often mislabeled as problem…

  4. Pesticide adsorption in relation to soil properties and soil type distribution in regional scale.

    PubMed

    Kodešová, Radka; Kočárek, Martin; Kodeš, Vít; Drábek, Ondřej; Kozák, Josef; Hejtmánková, Kateřina

    2011-02-15

    Study was focused on the evaluation of pesticide adsorption in soils, as one of the parameters, which are necessary to know when assessing possible groundwater contamination caused by pesticides commonly used in agriculture. Batch sorption tests were performed for 11 selected pesticides and 13 representative soils. The Freundlich equations were used to describe adsorption isotherms. Multiple-linear regressions were used to predict the Freundlich adsorption coefficients from measured soil properties. Resulting functions and a soil map of the Czech Republic were used to generate maps of the coefficient distribution. The multiple linear regressions showed that the K(F) coefficient depended on: (a) combination of OM (organic matter content), pH(KCl) and CEC (cation exchange capacity), or OM, SCS (sorption complex saturation) and salinity (terbuthylazine), (b) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM, SCS and salinity (prometryne), (c) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM and ρ(z) (metribuzin), (d) combination of OM, CEC and clay content, or clay content, CEC and salinity (hexazinone), (e) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM and SCS (metolachlor), (f) OM or combination of OM and CaCO(3) (chlorotoluron), (g) OM (azoxystrobin), (h) combination of OM and pH(KCl) (trifluralin), (i) combination of OM and clay content (fipronil), (j) combination of OM and pH(KCl), or OM, pH(KCl) and CaCO(3) (thiacloprid), (k) combination of OM, pH(KCl) and CEC, or sand content, pH(KCl) and salinity (chlormequat chloride).

  5. Sorptive stabilization of organic matter by amorphous Al hydroxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, M. P. W.; Scheel, T.; Mikutta, R.; van Hees, P.; Kaiser, K.; Kalbitz, K.

    2010-03-01

    Amorphous Al hydroxides (am-Al(OH) 3) strongly sorb and by this means likely protect dissolved organic matter (OM) against microbial decay in soils. We carried out batch sorption experiments (pH 4.5; 40 mg organic C L -1) with OM extracted from organic horizons under a Norway spruce and a European beech forest. The stabilization of OM by sorption was analyzed by comparing the CO 2 mineralized during the incubation of sorbed and non-sorbed OM. The mineralization of OM was evaluated based in terms of (i) the availability of the am-Al(OH) 3, thus surface OM loadings, (ii) spectral properties of OM, and (iii) the presence of phosphate as a competitor for OM. This was done by varying the solid-to-solution ratio (SSR = 0.02-1.2 g L -1) during sorption. At low SSRs, hence limited am-Al(OH) 3 availability, only small portions of dissolved OM were sorbed; for OM from Oa horizons, the mineralization of the sorbed fraction exceeded that of the original dissolved OM. The likely reason is competition with phosphate for sorption sites favouring the formation of weak mineral-organic bindings and the surface accumulation of N-rich, less aromatic and less complex OM. This small fraction controlled the mineralization of sorbed OM even at higher SSRs. At higher SSRs, i.e., with am-Al(OH) 3 more available, competition of phosphate decreased and aromatic compounds were sorbed selectively, which resulted in pronounced resistance of sorbed OM against decay. The combined OC mineralization of sorbed and non-sorbed OM was 12-65% less than that of the original DOM. Sorbed OM contributed only little to the overall OC mineralization. Stabilization of OC increased in direct proportion to am-Al(OH) 3 availability, despite constant aromatic C (˜30%). The strong stabilization at higher mineral availability is primarily governed by strong Al-OM bonds formed under less competitive conditions. Due to these strong bonds and the resulting strong stabilization, the surface loading, a proxy for the

  6. Reduction of ferrihydrite with adsorbed and coprecipitated organic matter: microbial reduction by Geobacter bremensis vs. abiotic reduction by Na-dithionite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusterhues, K.; Hädrich, A.; Neidhardt, J.; Küsel, K.; Keller, T. F.; Jandt, K. D.; Totsche, K. U.

    2014-04-01

    Ferrihydrite (Fh) is a widespread poorly crystalline Fe oxide which becomes easily coated by natural organic matter (OM) in the environment. This mineral-bound OM entirely changes the mineral surface properties and therefore the reactivity of the original mineral. Here, we investigated the reactivity of 2-line Fh, Fh with adsorbed OM and Fh coprecipitated with OM towards microbial and abiotic reduction of Fe(III). As a surrogate for dissolved soil OM we used a water extract of a Podzol forest floor. Fh-OM associations with different OM-loadings were reduced either by Geobacter bremensis or abiotically by Na-dithionite. Both types of experiments showed decreasing initial Fe reduction rates and decreasing degrees of reduction with increasing amounts of mineral-bound OM. At similar OM-loadings, coprecipitated Fhs were more reactive than Fhs with adsorbed OM. The difference can be explained by the smaller crystal size and poor crystallinity of such coprecipitates. At small OM loadings this led to even faster Fe reduction rates than found for pure Fh. The amount of mineral-bound OM also affected the formation of secondary minerals: goethite was only found after reduction of OM-free Fh and siderite was only detected when Fhs with relatively low amounts of mineral-bound OM were reduced. We conclude that direct contact of G. bremensis to the Fe oxide mineral surface was inhibited when blocked by OM. Consequently, mineral-bound OM shall be taken into account besides Fe(II) accumulation as a further widespread mechanism to slow down reductive dissolution.

  7. Vestibular Dysfunction in Preschool Children with a History of Otitis Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denning, Jennifer; Mayberry, Wanda

    1987-01-01

    Thirty-five preschoolers, assigned to otitis media (OM) or no OM groups, were administered the Southern California Postrotary Nystagmus Test and the Miller Assessment for Preschoolers (MAP). Children with a history of OM had significantly decreased scores on the Stepping and Vertical Writing MAP tests, indicating vestibulospinal dysfunction. (SK)

  8. Use of Outcome Measurement by Paediatric AHPs in Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harron, Anita; Titterington, Jill

    2016-01-01

    Background: Professional standards advocate routine use of outcome measurement (OM) in the practice of allied health professionals (AHPs). Historically, OM has focused on impairment and its immediate constraints on activity, while current policy encourages the development and addition of impact-based OM. There appears to be an assumption at this…

  9. Generating a Spanish Affective Dictionary with Supervised Learning Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bermudez-Gonzalez, Daniel; Miranda-Jiménez, Sabino; García-Moreno, Raúl-Ulises; Calderón-Nepamuceno, Dora

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, machine learning techniques are being used in several Natural Language Processing (NLP) tasks such as Opinion Mining (OM). OM is used to analyse and determine the affective orientation of texts. Usually, OM approaches use affective dictionaries in order to conduct sentiment analysis. These lexicons are labeled manually with affective…

  10. Controversial Issues in Orientation and Mobility: Then and Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Everett W.; Jacobson, William H.

    1985-01-01

    A review of issues in orientation and mobility (0M) considers controversies in: (1) OM systems (use of short cane vs. long cane, dog guide vs. cane, electronic travel aids); (2) OM personnel preparation (such as bachelor's vs. master's level training); and (3) direct services (such as one-to-one vs. group OM lessons). (CL)

  11. Operations Management Teaching: Establishing Content and Relevance to Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Desmond; Hill, Alex; Brown, Steve; Aktas, Emel; Kuula, Markku

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the relevance to industry's needs of operations management (OM) teaching in higher education, by researching the content of OM modules delivered by UK academics and comparing the results of this research with the views of business practitioners having had first-hand experience of OM teaching on MBA programmes. To determine…

  12. Operations and maintenance philosophy

    SciTech Connect

    DUNCAN, G.P.

    1999-10-28

    This Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Philosophy document is intended to establish a future O&M vision, with an increased focus on minimizing worker exposure, ensuring uninterrupted retrieval operations, and minimizing operation life-cycle cost. It is intended that this document would incorporate O&M lessons learned into on-going and future project upgrades.

  13. Comparison of Methods of Short-term Rainfield Nowcasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pegram, Geoff; Seed, Alan; Sinclair, Scott

    Forecasting rainfields, represented by radar images, in real time is useful for buying time for flash-flood warning. An alternative to the purely statistical forecast of the images, with average and field advection, is to use a space-time model of the images to introduce some structure and parsimony to the forecasting process. Two space-time models of rainfields are used here to forecast rainfields into the future: S-PROG, a model based on a fractal description of the rainfield which was used with success at the Sydney Olympics and SBM (the String of Beads Model developed in South Africa) based on filtered Gaussian fields, (both models in Time Series mode) are compared using data sets from both countries. The statistical tests devised and the outcome of the comparisons will be reported at the Assembly.

  14. Linking Pyrogenic Organic Matter Reactivity in Soil to its Charring Temperature and Wood Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filley, T. R.; Gibson, C. D.; Hatton, P. J.; Dastmalchi, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R. E.; Bird, J.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the link between the chemical and structural properties of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) and its subsequent reactivity in soil is critical to predict how future increases in forest fire frequency and intensity will affect C and N cycling. Herein, we present results from a laboratory incubation that investigated the effects of wood species and charring temperature on the decomposition of PyOM and native soil organic carbon (SOC) dynamics in a sandy soil from a northern temperate forest (University of Michigan Biological Station, Pellston, MI, USA). PyOM was produced from highly 13C/15N-labeled red maple (RM; Acer rubrum) and jack pine (JP; Pinus banksania) at 0 (native wood), 200, 300, 450 and 600 °C. PyOM amendments to soil were at 11 % total soil C. After 3 months of this ongoing incubation, 13CO2 evolution indicates that both pyrolysis temperature and species played a significant role in PyOM and native SOC mineralization. For both species, PyOM-C mineralization decreased with increasing temperature and PyOM ≥200 °C additions decreased SOC mineralization relative to controls.. In addition, PyOM-C mineralization of RM-derived PyOM was enhanced relative to JP-derived PyOM at temperatures <600 °C. Soils with added RM-derived PyOM exhibited significantly lower SOC mineralization at 300 and 450 °C than from JP-derived PyOM additions. These results highlighting interactive temperature and species effects are consistent with our detailed spectroscopic, elemental and isotope analysis of the PyOM samples across this pyrolysis gradient, which shows significant physicochemical changes at 300 °C for JP and between 300 and 450 °C for RM. Efforts will be made in this paper to link PyOM structural and chemical properties to the PyOM and native SOC turnover rates.

  15. Characterization of three novel beta-defensin antimicrobial peptides in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Casadei, Elisa; Wang, Tiehui; Zou, Jun; González Vecino, Jose L; Wadsworth, Simon; Secombes, Christopher J

    2009-10-01

    An initial bioinformatics investigation followed by cloning and sequencing analysis, has led to the identification of three novel members (omDB-2, omDB-3, omBD-4) of the beta-defensin family in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The contiguous sequences could be translated to give predicted peptides of 62 (omDB-2), 63 (omDB-3) and 68 (omDB-4) amino acids (aa) in length, with mature peptides of 43 (omDB-2), 39 (omDB-3) and 42 (omDB-4) aa, with no obvious proregion present. Analysis of the gene organization found that all three new genes contained three exons divided by two introns, as seen in defensin genes of other fish species. Constitutive expression of all the trout defensins was detected by RT-PCR in a wide range of mucosal and systemic tissues from healthy fish, with omDB-3 and omDB-4 showing the highest expression levels. Following bacterial challenge in vivo, the defensin genes were induced at the three mucosal sites examined (skin, gill, gut), with levels of omDB-2 and omDB-3 increased some 16-fold in gut and gill respectively. Using polyinosinic polycytosinic RNA (polyI:C) as a viral mimic, all of the four trout beta-defensin genes were induced in head kidney primary leucocyte cultures at 4h post-stimulation, with omDB-1 and omDB-3 particularly highly expressed. These data suggest that beta-defensins are likely an important component of the innate defences of fish, and reveal an added level of antimicrobial peptide complexity in fish to that known previously. PMID:19709750

  16. The glycan keratan sulfate in inner ear crystals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fermin, C. D.; Martin, D. S.; Li, Y. T.; Li, S. C.

    1995-01-01

    The otoconial matrix (OM) of chicks (Gallus domesticus) inner ear was analyzed. Histochemically the OM was reacted with phosphotungstic acid (PTA) and immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibody antikeratan sulfate (antiKS). The OM was digested with the enzyme endo-beta-galactosidase (E beta Galase) or separated by 1D and 2D gel electrophoresis. PTA which reacts with glycoproteins precipitated the OM, suggesting that the OM contains glycoproteins. A central core in each crystal had no PTA staining, suggesting that the core lacked glycoproteins. Anti KS antibody stained the OM with increased density in older embryos as determined by color thresholding. E beta Galase, which cleaves the lactosamine repeating units in KS, decreased the immunostain by 30% in the OM and by 20% in the cartilage. The OM from the utricle, saccule and macula lagena contained similar molecular weight bands. Five dense bands in the OM were less dense in tissue and blood controls, suggesting that such bands are enriched in the OM. Isoelectric focusing of the OM showed a negatively charged high molecular weight smear not present in blood and faint in tissue controls. The high affinity of the OM for the cationic PTA stain, the strong immunohistochemical reaction of the OM with anti KS antibody and high molecular weight negative smear in 2D gels taken together suggest that: a) the OM contains large amounts of glycoproteins and glycans, one of which is keratan sulfate, because its immuno stain with antiKS antibody was decreased by the enzyme E beta Galase, b) the utricle, saccule and macula lagena may have similar composition, and c) the concentration of KS may increase gradually until complete mineralization of the OM is reached.

  17. Understanding Oriental Medicine Using a Systems Approach

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jong Yeol; Pham, Duong Duc

    2011-01-01

    Two international meetings, the International Physiome Symposium 2008 and the Workshop on Systems Biology (SB) and Oriental Medicine (OM), were held to discuss the most appropriate scientific tools to research OM. Participants agreed that since OM is holistic medicine it needs a systems approach such as SB. However, SB itself is still a long way from identifying the high-level organization processes in the biological system that might correlate with concepts in OM. As such, a modest goal of launching a project to examine the problems of translation and interpretation of OM concepts would be the first step. PMID:19403789

  18. Controlling cell-material interactions with polymer nanocomposites by use of surface modifying additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poole-Warren, L. A.; Farrugia, B.; Fong, N.; Hume, E.; Simmons, A.

    2008-11-01

    Polymer nanocomposites (NC) are fabricated by incorporating well dispersed nanoscale particles within a polymer matrix. This study focuses on elastomeric polyurethane (PU) based nanocomposites, containing organically modified silicates (OMS), as bioactive materials. Nanocomposites incorporating chlorhexidine diacetate as an organic modifier (OM) were demonstrated to be antibacterial with a dose dependence related to both the silicate loading and the loading of OM. When the non-antibacterial OM dodecylamine was used, both cell and platelet adhesion were decreased on the nanocomposite surface. These results suggest that OM is released from the polymer and can impact on cell behaviour at the interface. Nanocomposites have potential use as bioactive materials in a range of biomedical applications.

  19. Protection of organic carbon in soil microaggregates occurs via restructuring of aggregate porosity and filling of pores with accumulating organic matter.

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J. F.; Ilavsky, J.; Jastrow, J. D.; Mayer, L. M.; Perfect, E.; Zhuang, J.; Biosciences Division; Univ. of Tennessee; Univ. of Maine

    2008-10-01

    We examined relationships between the pore structure of microaggregates and the protection of organic matter (OM) within that structure. By using ultra-small angle X-ray scattering (USAXS) before and after combustion of microaggregates at 350 degrees C, we took advantage of differences in X-ray scattering contrast among soil minerals, OM, and air to evaluate the distribution of the total- and OM-filled porosity within microaggregates (53-250 {mu}m in diameter). Systematic changes in microaggregate structure were observed for long-term field manipulations of land use (a chronosequence of tallgrass prairie restorations) and agricultural management (conventional tillage versus no-till at two levels of nitrogen fertilization). Our results imply that OM preservation arose from the evolution of the architectural system of microaggregates during their formation and stabilization. Soils and treatments with increasing OM in microaggregates were associated with encapsulation of colloidal OM by minerals, thereby creating protected OM-filled pores at the submicron scale within the microaggregate structure. For example, in the prairie chronosequence, microaggregates from the cultivated soil had the lowest concentration of OM, but 75% of the OM that had survived cultivation was in OM-filled pores. Following restoration, the concentration of OM in microaggregates increased rapidly, but the proportion of OM in OM-filled pores declined initially and then increased over time until 90% of the OM was in OM-filled pores. OM totally encapsulated within the pore structure can create spatial and kinetic constraints on microbial access to and degradation of OM. Encapsulation of OM increases the capacity for its protection relative to sorption on mineral surfaces, and comparison of its extent among treatments suggests important feedback loops. The use of USAXS, which has not previously been applied to the study of soil aggregate structures and the distribution of OM within those structures

  20. Randomized, controlled trial efficacy of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against otitis media among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Katherine L; David, Angeline B; Chandran, Aruna; Moulton, Lawrence H; Reid, Raymond; Weatherholtz, Robert; Santosham, Mathuram

    2008-01-01

    We report the phase III trial efficacy of 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine against clinical and culture proven otitis media (OM) among Navajo and White Mountain Apache infants. Efficacy was -0.4% (95% CI: -19.4 to 15.6) for clinically-diagnosed OM, 5.1% (95% CI: -51.5 to 40.6) for severe OM, and 64% (95% CI: -34% to 90%) for vaccine serotype pneumococcal OM suggesting that this vaccine is efficacious for pneumococcal OM in this high risk population. PMID:18162944

  1. Effects of mineral characteristics on the content and stability of organic matter fractions sequentially separated from seven topsoils under temperate deciduous forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaiser, Michael; Zederer, Dan P.; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Sommer, Michael; Ludwig, Bernard

    2015-04-01

    Mineral topsoils under forest possess high organic carbon (OC) contents and are therefore of large importance for the terrestrial C cycle. However, less is known about the mechanisms controlling the preservation of organic matter (OM) against microbial decomposition in mineral topsoils under temperate deciduous forest. We took samples from the uppermost mineral topsoil horizon (0 to 5 cm) of seven sites under mature deciduous forest in Germany showing OC contents between 69 and 164 g kg-1. The study sites showed a wide range in mineral characteristics supposed to be important for OM protection against microbial attack. At first we removed the organic particles and the water-extractable OM assumed to be less associated with the mineral phase from the soil samples. Thereafter, we sequentially separated the Na-pyrophosphate extractable organic matter (OM(PY) supposed to be indicative for OM bound via cation mediated interactions in soil and the OM remaining in the extraction residue supposed to be indicative for OM occluded in stable micro-aggregates. The OM(PY) and OM(ER) fractions were quantified and analyzed by 14C and FTIR measurements. The OC remaining in the extraction residues accounted for 38 to 59% of the bulk soil OC suggesting a much larger relevance of OM(ER) for the OM dynamic in the analyzed soils than with OM(PY) that accounted for 1.6 to 7.5% of the bulk soil OC. Regression analyses indicated an increase in the stability of OM(PY) with the content of Na-pyrophosphate soluble Mg and the soil pH. Therefore, we assume the turnover of OM(PY) in the studied forest mineral surface soils to be influenced by cation mediated interactions between organic molecules such as cross-linking. We detected an increase in the stability of OM(ER) with the contents of clay and oxalate soluble Al that were shown to be involved in the formation of aggregates smaller than 20 µm. Therefore, we assume an occlusion in highly stable micro-aggregates to be important for the

  2. Analyse de la variabilité de taille et de forme de l'extrémité distale de l'humérus chez les grands singes africains par la morphométrie géométrique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacon, Anne-Marie

    1999-11-01

    The variability of the humeral distal extremity, in inferior view, of three African hominoids, Pan paniscus, Pan troglodytes and Gorilla gorilla, was analysed using Procrustes methods in order to determine the effect of size on the morphology of the joint. The humeral contour was defined by 28 variables (14 landmarks in a two-dimensional space). A PCA analysis was made on superimposed coordinates. The results show that the intraspecific variation emphasized in Pan and Gorilla is highly size-dependent (axes 1 and 2). Pan paniscus is distinguished from Pan troglodytes by minor differences in the projection of both epicondyles (axis 3).

  3. The chemical ecology of soil organic matter molecular constituents.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Myrna J; Simpson, André J

    2012-06-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) contains vast stores of carbon, and directly supports microbial, plant, and animal life by retaining essential nutrients and water in the soil. Soil OM plays important roles in biological, chemical, and physical processes within the soil, and arguably plays a major role in maintaining long-term ecological stability in a changing world. Despite its importance, there is a great deal still unknown about soil OM chemical ecology. The development of sophisticated analytical methods have reshaped our understanding of soil OM composition, which is now believed to be comprised of plant and microbial products at various stages of decomposition. The methods also have recently been applied to study environmental change in various settings and have provided unique insight with respect to soil OM chemical ecology. The goal of this review is to highlight the methods used to characterize soil OM structure, source, and degradation that have enabled precise observations of OM and associated ecological shifts. Although the chemistry of soil OM is important in its overall fate in ecosystems, the studies conducted to date suggest that ecological function is not defined by soil OM chemistry alone. The long-standing questions regarding soil OM stability and recalcitrance will likely be answered when several molecular methods are used in tandem to closely examine structure, source, age, degradation stage, and interactions of specific OM components in soil.

  4. Implementation of the Orbital Maneuvering Systems Engine and Thrust Vector Control for the European Service Module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millard, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The European Space Agency (ESA) has entered into a partnership with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to develop and provide the Service Module (SM) for the Orion Multipurpose Crew Vehicle (MPCV) Program. The European Service Module (ESM) will provide main engine thrust by utilizing the Space Shuttle Program Orbital Maneuvering System Engine (OMS-E). Thrust Vector Control (TVC) of the OMS-E will be provided by the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) TVC, also used during the Space Shuttle Program. NASA will be providing the OMS-E and OMS TVC to ESA as Government Furnished Equipment (GFE) to integrate into the ESM. This presentation will describe the OMS-E and OMS TVC and discuss the implementation of the hardware for the ESM.

  5. Omeprazole does not Potentiate Acute Oxygen Toxicity in Fetal Human Pulmonary Microvascular Endothelial Cells Exposed to Hyperoxia

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ananddeep; Zhang, Shaojie; Moorthy, Bhagavatula; Shivanna, Binoy

    2015-01-01

    Hyperoxia contributes to the pathogenesis of broncho-pulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which is a developmental lung disease of premature infants that is characterized by an interruption of lung alveolar and pulmonary vascular development. Omeprazole (OM) is a proton pump inhibitor that is used to treat humans with gastric acid related disorders. Earlier we observed that OM-mediated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation attenuates acute hyperoxic lung injury in adult mice and oxygen toxicity in adult human lung cells. However, our later studies in newborn mice demonstrated that OM potentiates hyperoxia-induced developmental lung injury. Whether OM exerts a similar toxicity in primary human fetal lung cells is unknown. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that OM potentiates hyperoxia-induced cytotoxicity and ROS generation in the human fetal lung derived primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC). OM activated AhR as evident by a dose-dependent increase in cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1 mRNA levels in OM-treated cells. Furthermore, OM at a concentration of 100 μM (OM 100) increased NADP(H) quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) expression. Surprisingly, hyperoxia decreased rather than increase the NQO1 protein levels in OM 100-treated cells. Exposure to hyperoxia increased cytotoxicity and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. Interestingly, OM 100-treated cells exposed to air had increased H2O2 levels. However, hyperoxia did not further augment H2O2 levels in OM 100-treated cells. Additionally, hyperoxia-mediated oxygen toxicity was similar in both vehicle- and OM-treated cells. These findings contradict our hypothesis and support the hypothesis that OM does not potentiate acute hyperoxic injury in HPMEC in vitro. PMID:26779382

  6. White-rot fungal response to fresh and photolytically-weathered pyrogenic organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. D.; Berry, T. D.; Wang, R.; Bird, J. A.; Filley, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) is the product of the incomplete combustion of biomass. A better understanding of the microbial-mediated degradation of PyOM is critical to assess its role in soil C sequestration and to serve as an agricultural amendment. Recent studies have shown that PyOM additions can prime native soil C but results have been inconsistent, with studies reporting no effect, an increase, or decrease in C mineralization. This study investigated the ability of saprotrophic white-rot fungus, Trametes versicolor, to decompose an unaltered 'fresh' PyOM and a photo-oxidized PyOM. In addition, we measured PyOM-induced priming effects on the mineralization of malt extract agar media (MEA). Enriched (13C) Pinus banksiana-derived PyOM, produced at 450oC under N2, was added fresh and after 4 weeks exposure to 254 nm light to MEA. Vials containing the various types of media were then monitored for CO2 evolution and oxidative enzyme activity. We found that MEA C respired was stimulated (positive priming) by photolyzed PyOM and was inhibited with fresh PyOM addition (negative priming) relative to controls. Vetryl alcohol addition, a laccase production stimulant, resulted in less activity in the presence of PyOM compared with a control, indicating PyOM may disrupt enzyme induction processes. Loss of PyOM-13CO2 was 0.2% (× 0.001) for fresh PyOM and 1.2% (×0.001) for photolyzed PyOM C during 10 weeks averaged across media treatments. While MEA C mineralization decreased after fresh PyOM addition, both oxidative (laccase and manganese peroxidase) and hydrolytic (β glucosidase) enzyme production increased with fresh PyOM in the absence of veratryl alcohol. However, there was a decrease in its presence. These results suggest that the physiological response of this common wood decay fungus to PyOM is complex and responsive to enzymatic triggers but that PyOM itself can act to promote or suppress overall litter or soil decay by fungi.

  7. The fate of terrestrial organic matter in two Scottish sea lochs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loh, P. S.; Reeves, A. D.; Harvey, S. M.; Overnell, J.; Miller, A. E. J.

    2008-02-01

    Sea lochs are zones of rapid organic matter (OM) turnover. Most of this OM is of allochthonous origin, being introduced into the lochs via freshwater input. In this study the behaviour of terrestrially derived OM was elucidated using a combination of parameters which indicate OM diagenesis in the near surface sediments from two Scottish sea lochs, Loch Creran and Loch Etive. Alkaline CuO oxidation was used to determine lignin phenols which serve as biomarkers for terrestrial OM in sediments. Stable carbon isotope, total carbon and nitrogen and total OM (including the labile and refractory fractions) compositions were also determined. Lignin materials in the lochs were generally highly degraded and undergo little degradation further seaward. The vanillic acid to vanillin ratio, (Ad/Al)v in the lochs ranged from 0.52 to 2.69. However, there was a fraction of relatively fresh, land-derived OM, still undergoing degradation adding to the carbon cycling in the lochs, as indicated by the Rp values (ratio of refractory to total OM) and OC/N ratios in the surface sediments. The hydrological and hydrodynamic regimes in Loch Creran result in several phenomena such as the transportation of terrestrial debris via hydrodynamic sorting processes and the promotion of surface sediment diagenesis by bioturbation. Frequent water renewal results in better water circulation and oxygenation which facilitate OM decomposition. In Loch Etive the less frequent renewal gives rise to a more constant OM diagenesis along the loch.

  8. Influence of Coprecipitated Organic Matter on Fe2+(aq) -Catalyzed Transformation of Ferrihydrite: Implications for Carbon Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chunmei; Kukkadapu, Ravi K.; Sparks, Donald L.

    2015-08-10

    The poorly crystalline Fe(III) hydroxide ferrihydrite is an important sink for organic matter (OM), nutrients and contaminants in soils and sediments. Aqueous Fe(II) is known to catalyze the transformation of ferrihydrite to more crystalline and thus less reactive phases. While coprecipitation of OM with ferrihydrite could be a common process in many environments due to changes in pH, redox potential or ionic strength, little is known about the impacts of coprecipitated OM on Fe(II)-catalyzed ferrihydrite transformation and its consequences for C dynamics. Accordingly, we explored the extent and pathways of Fe(II)-induced transformation of OM-ferrihydrite coprecipitates and subsequent C mobility. Mössbauer spectroscopic results indicated that the coprecipitated OM within ferrihydrite weakened the inter-particle magnetic interactions and decreased average particle size. The coprecipitated OM resulted in diminished Fe(II)-induced ferrihydrite transformation and thus preservation of ferrihydrite. The secondary mineral profiles upon Fe(II) reaction with ferrihydrite were a function of OM content and Fe(II) concentration. At low Fe(II) levels, OM completely inhibited goethite formation and stimulated lepidocrocite formation. At high Fe(II) levels, whereas goethite was formed in the presence of OM, OM reduced the amount of goethite and magnetite formation and increased the formation of lepidocrcocite. The solid-phase C content remained unchanged after reaction, while OM desorpability by H2PO4- was enhanced following reaction of OM-ferrihydrites with aqueous Fe(II). These findings provide insights into the reactivity of natural ferrihydrite containing OM in soils and sediments and the subsequent impact on mineral evolution and C dynamics.

  9. Linking charring temperature and wood source to the structure and degradation rates of pyrogenic organic matter in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatton, P.; Dastmalchi, K.; Chatterjee, S.; Auclerc, A.; Le Moine, J.; Filley, T. R.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R.; Bird, J. A.

    2013-12-01

    Fire is a major controller of forest C cycling by releasing CO2 to the atmosphere and by contributing pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM or biochar) to soils. Recent studies have shown that much of fire-derived PyOM may turn over in soils at century time scales. Two likely controllers of the chemical structure of PyOM and its resulting decay rate are pyrolysis temperature and the source biomass. However, we know little of how these two factors determine the chemical structure and bioreactivity of the resulting PyOM. To gain further insight into controls on the structure and fate of PyOM, we examined two species of dual-labeled (13C/15N), wood-based PyOM (Pinus banksiana and Acer rubrum) made with 5 pyrolysis temperatures (0, 200, 300, 450, 600 °C) using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance, isotopic and elemental composition (C, H, O, and N), and differential scanning calorimetry. In addition, we are investigating the fate of a subset of these PyOM materials applied to forest soils in a long-term field study located at the University of Michigan Biological Station in Pellston, MI, USA. We will present data of the loss of PyOM C as CO2 and DOC during the first year in situ. We found complementary lines of evidence for a facile removal of cellulose and hemicellulose and a progressive alteration of nitrogenous moieties across the charring gradient for wood-derived PyOM of both tree species as temperature was increased from 0 to 600 °C. Our NMR results show a significant species by pyrolysis temperature interaction on PyOM chemical structure with considerably less condensation for Acer- than Pinus-derived PyOM at 300 °C. In the first year after addition to soil, Acer-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C mineralized faster than Pinus-derived PyOM pyrolyzed at 450 °C. Increasing pyrolysis temperatures for Pinus-derived PyOM also resulted in slower CO2 mineralization rates during the first year of field decay. These results relate pyrolysis temperature to the resulting PyOM

  10. Distribution of Organic Matter in Nano- and Micropores of Soil Microaggregates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, J. F.; Ilavsky, J.; Mayer, L. M.; Jastrow, J. D.; Perfect, E.; Zhuang, J.

    2004-12-01

    The processes underlying the sequestration of organic matter (OM) in soil microaggregates are being studied using ultra-small small angle x-ray scattering (USAXS) and nitrogen adsorption to evaluate the pore size distribution of the total- and OM-filled porosity within microaggregates. Soil microaggregates (50 to 250 um) are particularly crucial to long-term sequestration because they protect C against decomposition, resulting in much longer residence times. Systematic changes in the pore-size distribution of OM were evaluated at two long-term field manipulations: a chronosequence of tallgrass prairie restoration (Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA; Mollisol) and a 30-year comparison of till/no-till cultivation at two levels of N inputs (University of Kentucky, USA; Alfasol). The soil OM levels increased over time after restoration of cultivated soils to a prairie, and with decreased tillage and increased fertilizer inputs. The distribution of pores in microaggregates was measured in microaggregates before and after the OM was removed by combustion at 350oC. The total porosity was determined using data from the combusted, OM-free microaggregates. The distribution of the OM within the pores was determined by USAXS from differences in the porosity estimates for the combusted and intact samples. USAXS advantages include a very wide range of length scales measured (1 nm to 5 um) and not requiring connectivity of the pores to a probe molecule. The USAXS data reflect differences in the composition and density of pores, OM and minerals. There is a strong change in x-ray contrast when an entirely OM-filled void is cleared by combustion, compared to the case when a coating of OM in an air-filled pore is removed. This latter property was exploited to evaluate the protection of OM residing in pores with reduced access of microbes or microbial exoenzymes. The conversion of a cultivated soil to a prairie results in restructuring of the OM distribution, with new OM migrating to

  11. Submicron structures provide preferential spots for carbon and nitrogen sequestration in soils

    PubMed Central

    Vogel, Cordula; Mueller, Carsten W.; Höschen, Carmen; Buegger, Franz; Heister, Katja; Schulz, Stefanie; Schloter, Michael; Kögel-Knabner, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The sequestration of carbon and nitrogen by clay-sized particles in soils is well established, and clay content or mineral surface area has been used to estimate the sequestration potential of soils. Here, via incubation of a sieved (<2 mm) topsoil with labelled litter, we find that only some of the clay-sized surfaces bind organic matter (OM). Surprisingly, <19% of the visible mineral areas show an OM attachment. OM is preferentially associated with organo-mineral clusters with rough surfaces. By combining nano-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry and isotopic tracing, we distinguish between new labelled and pre-existing OM and show that new OM is preferentially attached to already present organo-mineral clusters. These results, which provide evidence that only a limited proportion of the clay-sized surfaces contribute to OM sequestration, revolutionize our view of carbon sequestration in soils and the widely used carbon saturation estimates. PMID:24399306

  12. Influence of green waste, biowaste and paper-cardboard initial ratios on organic matter transformations during composting.

    PubMed

    Francou, Cédric; Linères, Monique; Derenne, Sylvie; Villio-Poitrenaud, Maelenn Le; Houot, Sabine

    2008-12-01

    The influence of green waste, biowaste and paper-cardboard proportions in initial mixtures on organic matter (OM) evolution during composting in pilot-scale reactors was studied using respirometric procedure, humic substance extraction, crude fiber analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The stabilisation of OM during composting resulted from the degradation of easily biodegradable organic fraction as cellulose and hemicellulose, the relative increase of resistant compounds as lignin, the microbial synthesis of resistant biomolecules, and from humification processes. Little stabilisation of green waste OM during composting was observed, in relation with their large lignin content. With moderate contents of paper-cardboard in initial mixtures (20-40%), cellulose proportion remained favorable to fast OM stabilisation. Larger proportions of paper-cardboard (more than 50%) affected OM stabilisation, probably due to a lack of nitrogen. The influence of biowastes only appeared at the very beginning of composting, because of their large proportions of easily biodegradable OM. PMID:18550366

  13. Fiber Bragg grating writing technique for multimode optical fibers providing stimulation of few-mode effects in measurement systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdine, Anton V.; Vasilets, Alexander A.; Burdin, Vladimir A.; Morozov, Oleg G.; Nureev, Ilnur I.; Kuznetzov, Artem A.; Faskhutdinov, Lenar M.; Kafarova, Anastasia M.; Minaeva, Alina Y.; Sevruk, Nikita L.

    2016-03-01

    This work is concerned with fiber Bragg grating (FBG) writing technique developed for graded-index multimode optical fibers applied in measurement systems based on a few-mode effects. We present some results of experimental approbation of proposed technique with Bragg wavelength 1310 and 1550 nm on samples of graded-index multimode optical fibers 50/125 of both new-generations Cat. OM2+/OM3 and old Cat. OM2 with preliminary measured refractive index profiles. While the first group fibers of Cat. OM2+/OM3 was characterized by almost ideal smooth graded refractive index profile and some fiber profile samples of this group contains thin central peak, the second fiber group profiles of Cat. OM2 differ by great central core defects representing dip or thick peak. Results of described FBG spectral response measurements under excitation of laser pigtailed by single-mode fiber are represented.

  14. Mouse models for human otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Trune, Dennis R.; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2010-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) remains the most common childhood disease and its annual costs exceed $5 billion. Its potential for permanent hearing impairment also emphasizes the need to better understand and manage this disease. The pathogenesis of OM is multifactorial and includes infectious pathogens, anatomy, immunologic status, genetic predisposition, and environment. Recent progress in mouse model development is helping to elucidate the respective roles of these factors and to significantly contribute toward efforts of OM prevention and control. Genetic predisposition is recognized as an important factor in OM and increasing numbers of mouse models are helping to uncover the potential genetic bases for human OM. Furthermore, the completion of the mouse genome sequence has offered a powerful set of tools for investigating gene function and is generating a rich resource of mouse mutants for studying the genetic factors underlying OM. PMID:19272362

  15. Impact of pyrogenic organic matter decomposition and induced priming effect on soil C budget.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrini, Bernardo; Abiven, Samuel

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) results from the incomplete combustion of biomass and may contribute to constitute an important fraction of soil C in forest and agricultural soils, in the form of charcoal (produced by wildfires) or biochar (anthropogenic). Although many evidences exist on the long mean residence time of PyOM there is still a large uncertainty on PyOM loss processes and rate and on possible induced priming effect on non-PyOM. Therefore determining PyOM mineralization rate, loss processes and possible induced priming effect on soil organic matter decomposition are key issues to understand the impact of PyOM on the carbon (C) cycle. We investigated the impact of PyOM on soil C budget by combining results from three independent studies: (i) a field study to investigate PyOM mineralization rate and the relative importance of PyOM loss processes, (ii) a PyOM and soil incubation experiment to correlate C and N mineralization rates, (iii) a review of the priming effect induced by PyOM on soil organic C. We employed 13C labelled pinewood-derived PyOM for the field experiment and 13C labelled ryegrass-derived PyOM in the incubation experiment to trace PyOM losses. In the field experiment it was observed that: (i) Pyrolysis process reduced pinewood decomposition by a factor of 60, (ii) leaching and translocation of fresh PyOM along the soil profile were negligible compared to losses as CO2. In the incubation experiment we found that ryegrass induced a two phase priming effect on native soil organic matter, with a positive priming effect followed by a negative priming effect phase, we also found that ryegrass-derived PyOM decomposition was much slower than pinewood one. The different decomposition rate results probably from the different aromaticity of the two PyOM together with the different set-up of the two experiments. Both the incubation experiment and the meta-analysis revealed that PyOM may induce a two-phase priming effect on native soil organic matter

  16. A storm in a shelf sea: Variation in phosphorus distribution and organic matter stoichiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Clare E.; Mahaffey, Claire; Wolff, George A.; Sharples, Jonathan

    2014-12-01

    Organic matter (OM) plays an important role in productive shelf seas and their contribution to global carbon (C) and nutrient cycles. We investigated the impact of storm mixing on OM dynamics in the seasonally stratified Celtic Sea. After the storm, OM production was decoupled from consumption in the euphotic layer. Over the 15 day study, dissolved OM (DOM) became phosphorus (P) rich relative to C, whereas particulate OM (POM) became P-deplete relative to C. Upward diapycnal phosphate fluxes were accompanied by reciprocal downward mixing of dissolved organic P (DOP) and particulate P (PPhos). Transfer of DOP and PPhos below the thermocline accounts for 22% and 26%, respectively, of the upward phosphate flux. Given the changes in stoichiometry of POM and DOM after the storm, the form in which OM is transferred below the thermocline has important implications for the efficiency of elemental transfer, impacting C cycling and storage in the ocean.

  17. Tillage, crop rotation, and organic amendment effect on changes in soil organic matter.

    PubMed

    Rickman, R; Douglas, C; Albrecht, S; Berc, J

    2002-01-01

    Carbon sequestration in agricultural soils is controlled by the balance of added organic residues and microbial oxidation of both residues and native organic matter (OM) as moderated by management and tillage. The PC-based model CQESTR predicts decomposition of residues, organic amendments and soil OM, based on cropping practices. CQESTR uses RUSLE (Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation) crop rotation and management practice, crop production, and operation databases. These data are supplemented with residue nitrogen and soil OM, bulk density, and layer thickness. CQESTR was calibrated with soil carbon data from 70-year-long experiments at the Research Center at Pendleton, OR. The calibrated model provides estimates with a 95% confidence interval of 0.33% OM. Validation at 11 independent sites resulted in a matching of observed with calculated OM with a 95% confidence interval of 0.55% OM. A 12th site, with a history of severe erosion, provided a poor match.

  18. Redox Effects on Organic Matter Storage in Coastal Sediments During the Holocene: A Biomarker/Proxy Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianchi, Thomas S.; Schreiner, Kathryn M.; Smith, Richard W.; Burdige, David J.; Woodard, Stella; Conley, Daniel J.

    2016-06-01

    Coastal margins play a significant role in the burial of organic matter (OM) on Earth. These margins vary considerably with respect to their efficiency in OM burial and to the amounts and periodicity of their OM delivery, depending in large part on whether they are passive or active margins. In the context of global warming, these coastal regions are expected to experience higher water temperatures, changes in riverine inputs of OM, and sea level rise. Low-oxygen conditions continue to expand around the globe in estuarine regions (i.e., hypoxic zones) and shelf regions (i.e., oxygen minimum zones), which will impact the amounts and sources of OM stored in these regions. In this review, we explore how these changes are impacting the storage of OM and the preservation of sedimentary biomarkers, used as proxies to reconstruct environmental change, in coastal margins.

  19. A Technosol as archives of organic matter related to past industrial activities.

    PubMed

    Huot, Hermine; Faure, Pierre; Biache, Coralie; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Morel, Jean Louis

    2014-07-15

    To better understand formation, functioning and evolution of a Technosol developing on a former settling pond of iron industry under forest cover, organic matter (OM) of layers along the soil profile was investigated. Spectroscopic and molecular analyses of extractable OM gave information on OM origin and state of preservation. In the surface layer, OM fingerprints indicated fresh input from vegetation while they revealed well preserved anthropogenic compounds related to industrial processes in deeper layers. OM variability and distribution according to the layers recorded deposition cycles of industrial effluents into the pond. Thus, the Technosol can be considered as archives of past industrial activities. The preservation of anthropogenic OM could be connected with mineralogy, high metal contents and particular physical properties of the Technosol.

  20. Soil organic matter composition along a slope in an erosion-affected arable landscape in North East Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth, H.; Gerke, Horst, H.; Deumlich, Detlef

    2016-04-01

    In hummocky landscapes, soil erosion is forming truncated profiles at steep slope positions and colluvial soils in topographic depressions thereby affecting soil organic carbon (SOC) storage. However, the knowledge on the spatial distribution and composition of differently stable organic matter (OM) fractions in arable landscapes is still limited. Here, amount and composition of OM from top- and subsoil horizons at eroded, colluvic, and non -eroded slope positions were compared. The horizons were from a Luvisol at plateau (LV), an eroded Luvisol (eLV) at mid slope (6%slope gradient), a calcaric Regosol (caRG) at steep slope (13%), and a colluvic Regosol (coRG) at hollow position. Water soluble (OM-W) and pyrophosphate soluble (OM-PY) fractions were extracted sequentially. Soil samples, OM fractions, and extraction residues were analyzed with transmission Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The soluble fractions were 3% of SOC for OM-W and 15% of SOC for OM-PY. For topsoil samples, extract ion rates were independent of slope position. The highest intensities of both, C-H (alkyl groups) and C=O (carboxyl groups) absorption band, were found in FTIR spectra of OM-PY from top and subsoil horizons at the steep slope position (caRG). The C-H/C=O ratio in OM-PY decreased with increasing contents of oxalate soluble Fe and Al oxides from steep slope (0.25 for caRG-Ap) towards plateau, and hollow position (0.09 for coRG-Ap) except for the Bt -horizons. This relation is reflecting that the down slope-deposited Ap material, which is higher in poorly crystalline Fe an d Al oxides, consists of relatively stable OM. This OM is enriched in C=O groups that are known for their interaction with soil minerals. These OM-mineral interactions may help explaining C storage in arable soil landscapes.

  1. Observation of Optical Bistability and Multi-Stability in the Dielecrtric Slab Doped with a Quantum well Waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasehi, R.

    2016-08-01

    The optical bistability (OB) and multi-stability (OM) behavior in a dielectric slab medium doped with semiconductor quantum well nanostructure has been discussed by employing the spin coherence effect. It is shown that, by changing the relative phase of applied fields the bistable behavior switches from OB to OM or vice versa in a dielectric medium. The effect of the frequency detuning of laser fields on the OB and OM behavior are also discussed in this paper.

  2. Examining the presence and determinants of operational momentum in childhood.

    PubMed

    Knops, André; Zitzmann, Steffen; McCrink, Koleen

    2013-01-01

    The operational momentum (OM) effect describes a systematic bias in estimating the outcomes of simple addition and subtraction problems. Outcomes of addition problems are overestimated while outcomes of subtraction problems are underestimated. The origin of OM remains debated. First, a flawed uncompression of numerical information during the course of mental arithmetic is supposed to cause OM due to linear arithmetic operations on a compressed magnitude code. Second, attentional shifts along the mental number line are thought to cause OM. A third hypothesis explains OM in 9-month olds by a cognitive heuristic of accepting more (less) than the original operand in addition (subtraction) problems. The current study attempts to disentangle these alternatives and systematically examines potential determinants of OM, such as reading fluency which has been found to modulate numerical-spatial associations. A group of 32 6- and 7-year-old children was tested in non-symbolic addition and subtraction problems, in which they had to choose the correct outcome from an array of several possible outcomes. Reading capacity was assessed for half of the children while attentional measures were assessed in the other half. Thirty-two adults were tested with the identical paradigm to validate its potential of revealing OM. Children (and adults) were readily able to solve the problems. We replicated previous findings of OM in the adults group. Using a Bayesian framework we observed an inverse OM effect in children, i.e., larger overestimations for subtraction compared to addition. A significant correlation between children's level of attentional control and their propensity to exhibit OM was observed. The observed pattern of results, in particular the inverse OM in children is hard to reconcile with the previously proposed theoretical frameworks. The observed link between OM and the attentional system might be interpreted as evidence partially supporting the attentional shift hypothesis

  3. Carbon losses from pyrolysed and original wood in a forest soil under natural and increased N deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maestrini, B.; Abiven, S.; Singh, N.; Bird, J.; Torn, M. S.; Schmidt, M. W. I.

    2014-09-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) plays an important role as a stable carbon (C) sink in the soils of terrestrial ecosystems. However, uncertainties remain about in situ turnover rates of fire-derived PyOM in soil, the main processes leading to PyOM-C and nitrogen (N) losses from the soil, and the role of N availability on PyOM cycling in soils. We measured PyOM and native soil organic carbon losses from the soil as carbon dioxide and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) using additions of highly 13C-labelled PyOM (2.03 atom %) and its precursor pinewood during 1 year in a temperate forest soil. The field experiment was carried out under ambient and increased mineral N deposition (+60 kg N-NH4NO3 ha-1 year-1). The results showed that after 1 year: (1) 0.5% of PyOM-C and 22% of wood-C were mineralized as CO2, leading to an estimated turnover time of 191 and 4 years, respectively; (2) the quantity of PyOM and wood lost as dissolved organic carbon was negligible (0.0004 ± 0.0003% and 0.022 ± 0.007% of applied-C, respectively); and (3) N additions decreased cumulative PyOM mineralization by 43%, but did not affect cumulative wood mineralization and did not affect the loss of DOC from PyOM or wood. We conclude that mineralization to CO2 was the main process leading to PyOM losses during the first year of mineralization in a forest soil, and that N addition can decrease PyOM-C cycling, while added N showed no effect on wood C cycling.

  4. Linking lithology and land use to sources of dissolved and particulate organic matter in headwaters of a temperate, passive-margin river system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longworth, B. E.; Petsch, S. T.; Raymond, P. A.; Bauer, J. E.

    2007-09-01

    A number of rivers have been found to transport highly aged organic matter [OM]; however, the sources of this aged material remain a matter of debate. One potential source may be erosion and weathering of headwater lithologies rich in ancient sedimentary OM. In this study, waters, suspended particulates, streambed sediments, rocks and soils from fourteen small headwater watersheds of a mid-size, temperate, passive margin river were sampled and characterized by Δ 14C, δ 13C, and POC/TPN ratios to identify sources of particulate and dissolved OM delivered to the river mainstem. These headwater sites encompass a range in lithology (OM-rich shales, OM-lean carbonate/mudstone facies, and OM-free crystalline rocks) and land use types (forested and agricultural), and allow investigation of the influence of agriculture and bedrock types on stream OM characteristics. Streams draining large areas of both agricultural land use and OM-rich lithology contain particulate OM [POM] that is more 14C-depleted than streams draining forested, shale-free watersheds. However, this is not sufficient to account for the significantly lower Δ 14C-POC measured in the river mainstem. Dissolved OM [DOM] Δ 14C are in all cases enriched compared to POM from the same stream, but are otherwise highly variable and unrelated to either land use or lithology. POC/TPN ratios were likewise highly variable. POC and DOC δ 13C signatures were similar across all watersheds. Based on isotope mass balance, 14C-free fossil OM sources contribute 0-12% of total stream POM. Although these results do not unequivocally separate the influences of land use and lithology, watershed coverage by shale and agriculture are both important controls on stream Δ 14C-POC. Thus export of aged, particle-associated OM may be a feature of river systems along both passive and active continental margins.

  5. Spectrometric characterization of effluent organic matter of a sequencing batch reactor operated at three sludge retention times.

    PubMed

    Esparza-Soto, M; Núñez-Hernández, S; Fall, C

    2011-12-01

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM) from activated sludge systems is composed primarily of influent refractory compounds, residual degradable substrate, intermediate products and soluble microbial products (SMPs). Depending on operational conditions (hydraulic and sludge retention time (SRT)), the quantity and quality of EfOM significantly changes. The main objective of this research was to quantify and characterize the EfOM of a lab-scale activated sludge sequencing batch reactor (SBR), which was operated at three SRTs and fed glucose, an easily biodegradable substrate. EfOM was followed with two direct-quantification methods (chemical oxygen demand (COD) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC)), three spectrometric methods (ultraviolet absorbance at 254 nm (UVA(254)), excitation-emission matrix (EEM) fluorescence and parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC)) and three organic matter (OM) indices (specific UVA(254) (SUVA), SUVA-COD, COD/DOC ratio). The significant increment of UVA(254) and OM indices after treatment indicated an accumulation of refractory high-molecular-weight humic-like compounds in the EfOM, which demonstrated that EfOM was composed mainly by SMPs and not glucose. On the other hand, as the SRT increased, the amount of EfOM decreased, but SUVA, SUVA-COD and fluorescence intensity increased; these trends indicated the accumulation of SMPs of increased molecular weight and aromaticity. Increasing SRT in the SBRs reduced the amount of EfOM, but increased its aromaticity and reactivity. Visual analysis of EfOM EEMs showed two protein- and one humic-like peak, which were attributed to SMPs generated within the SBRs. PARAFAC determined that a two-component model best represented EfOM EEMs. The two-components from PARAFAC were mathematically correlated to the visually identified protein- and humic-like SMPs peaks.

  6. A New Oidiodendron maius Strain Isolated from Rhododendron fortunei and its Effects on Nitrogen Uptake and Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chunying; Pan, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R. fortunei after inoculation, indicating that the roots were well colonized by Om19. In a second experiment, fresh and dry weight of R. fortunei 2 months after Om19 inoculation were greater than uninoculated plants, and the total nitrogen absorbed by plants inoculated with Om19 was greater than the uninoculated controls. qRT-PCR analysis of five genes related to N uptake and metabolism (two nitrate transporters, an ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) showed that these genes were highly upregulated with twofold to ninefold greater expression in plants inoculated with Om19 compared to uninoculated plants. In the third experiment, Om19 was inoculated into the peat-based substrate for growing Formosa azalea (Rhododendron indica 'Formosa'). 'Formosa' azalea plants grown in the inoculated substrate had larger canopies and root systems compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that Om19 could be an important microbial tool for improving production of Rhododendron plants.

  7. A thorough QTc study demonstrates that olmesartan medoxomil does not prolong the QTc interval

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Nobuko; O'Reilly, Terry E.; Lee, James

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Two studies (ROADMAP and ORIENT) evaluating the renoprotective effects of olmesartan medoxomil (OM) in patients with type 2 diabetes suggested OM is associated with increased cardiovascular mortality. We conducted a thorough QTc study to evaluate the effects of OM on cardiac repolarization. A randomized, double‐blind, phase 1 study was conducted per E14 Guidance to assess the effects of single doses of OM therapeutic dose (40 mg), OM supratherapeutic dose (160 mg), placebo, or moxifloxacin (MOXI; 400 mg) on QTc in 56 healthy subjects. The primary endpoint was the baseline‐adjusted, placebo‐corrected QTc interval using Fridericia's formula (ΔΔQTcF) for OM and MOXI. Assay sensitivity was concluded if lower limit of 1‐sided 95%CI > 5 milliseconds of ΔΔQTcF for MOXI. No threshold pharmacologic effect for OM was concluded if upper limit of 1‐sided 95%CI <10 milliseconds for ΔΔQTcF at any timepoint. Pharmacokinetics, ECGs, and safety were assessed. Assay sensitivity was demonstrated. The largest upper limit of the 1‐sided 95%CI for ΔΔQTcF was <5 milliseconds for OM. No clinically significant changes were observed in ECGs. Pharmacokinetics and safety profile were consistent with previous data. Therapeutic and supratherapeutic OM doses had no clinically significant effect on cardiac repolarization and were well tolerated. PMID:26239632

  8. Orbital maneuvering subsystem functional path analysis for performance monitoring fault detection and annunciation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keesler, E. L.

    1974-01-01

    The functional paths of the Orbital Maneuver Subsystem (OMS) is defined. The operational flight instrumentation required for performance monitoring, fault detection, and annunciation is described. The OMS is a pressure fed rocket engine propulsion subsystem. One complete OMS shares each of the two auxiliary propulsion subsystem pods with a reaction control subsystem. Each OMS is composed of a pressurization system, a propellant tanking system, and a gimbaled rocket engine. The design, development, and operation of the system are explained. Diagrams of the system are provided.

  9. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between DDK and C57BL/6J inbred strains in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Song, Gen Di; Song, Jia Sheng; Ren, Shi Hao; Li, Chun Li; Zheng, Zhen Yu; Zhao, Wei Dong

    2016-06-01

    A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains. This embryonic mortality exhibited an aggravated trend with increasing background genes of other strains. These results indicated that some modifier genes of Om were present in other strains. In the present study, a population of N₂2 (Om/+) females from the backcrosses between C57BL/6J (B6) and F₁ (B6♀ × DDK♂) was used to map potential modifier genes of Om. Quantitative trait locus showed that a major locus, namely Amom1 (aggravate modifier gene of Om 1), was located at the middle part of chromosome 9 in mice. The Amom1 could increase the expressivity of Om gene, thereby aggravating embryonic lethality when heterozygous (Om/+) females mated with males of B6 strain. Further, the 1.5 LOD-drop analysis indicated that the confidence interval was between 37.54 and 44.46 cM, ~6.92 cM. Amom1 is the first modifier gene of Om in the B6 background.

  10. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM.

  11. Triplet photochemistry of effluent and natural organic matter in whole water and isolates from effluent-receiving rivers.

    PubMed

    Bodhipaksha, Laleen C; Sharpless, Charles M; Chin, Yu-Ping; Sander, Michael; Langston, William K; MacKay, Allison A

    2015-03-17

    Effluent organic matter (EfOM), contained in treated municipal wastewater, differs in composition from naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM). The presence of EfOM may thus alter the photochemical production of reactive intermediates in rivers that receive measurable contributions of treated municipal wastewater. Quantum yield coefficients for excited triplet-state OM (3OM*) and apparent quantum yields for singlet oxygen (1O2) were measured for both whole water samples and OM isolated by solid phase extraction from whole water samples collected upstream and downstream of municipal wastewater treatment plant discharges in three rivers receiving differing effluent contributions: Hockanum R., CT (22% (v/v) effluent flow), E. Fork Little Miami R., OH (11%), and Pomperaug R., CT (6%). While only small differences in production of these reactive intermediates were observed between upstream and downstream whole water samples collected from the same river, yields of 3OM* and 1O2 varied by 30-50% between the rivers. Apparent quantum yields of 1O2 followed similar trends to those of 3OM*, consistent with 3OM* as a precursor to 1O2 formation. Higher 3OM* reactivity was observed for whole water samples than for OM isolates of the same water, suggesting differential recoveries of photoreactive moieties by solid phase extraction. 3OM* and 1O2 yields increased with increasing E2/E3 ratio (A254 nm divided by A365 nm) and decreased with increasing electron donating capacities of the samples, thus exhibiting trends also observed for reference humic and fulvic acid isolates. Mixing experiments with EfOM and DOM isolates showed evidence of quenching of triplet DOM by EfOM when measured yields were compared to theoretical yields. Together, the results suggest that effluent contributions of up to 25% (v/v) to river systems have a negligible influence on photochemical production of 3OM* and 1O2 apparently because of quenching of triplet DOM by EfOM. Furthermore, the results

  12. Polymorphisms of Immunity Genes and Susceptibility to Otitis Media in Children

    PubMed Central

    Nokso-Koivisto, Johanna; Chonmaitree, Tasnee; Jennings, Kristofer; Matalon, Reuben; Block, Stan; Patel, Janak A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute otitis media (OM) is a common disease which often develops through complex interactions between the host, the pathogen and environmental factors. We studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes involved in innate and adaptive immunity, and other host and environmental factors for their role in OM. Methods Using Sequenom Massarray platform, 21 SNPs were studied in 653 children from prospective (n = 202) and retrospective (n = 451) cohorts. Data were analyzed for the relationship between SNPs and upper respiratory infection (URI) frequency, risk of acute OM during URI episodes, and proneness to recurrent OM. Results Increased risk for OM proneness was associated with CX3CR1 (Thr280Met) SNP and with a jointly interactive group of IL-10 (−1082) SNP, IL-1β (−511) wild type genotype and white race. Family history of OM proneness independently increased the risk for frequent URIs, OM occurrence during URI, and OM proneness. Additionally, IL-1β (−31) SNP was associated with increased risk for frequent URIs, but IL-10 (−592), IL-1β (−511), IL-5 (−746) and IL-8 (−251) SNPs were associated with decreased risk of URI. Conclusion IL-1β (−31), CX3CR1 (Thr280Met), IL-10 (−1082) and IL-1β (−511) SNPs were associated with increased risk for frequent URIs or OM proneness. PMID:24718616

  13. Locating a modifier gene of Ovum mutant through crosses between DDK and C57BL/6J inbred strains in mice.

    PubMed

    Tan, Jing; Song, Gen Di; Song, Jia Sheng; Ren, Shi Hao; Li, Chun Li; Zheng, Zhen Yu; Zhao, Wei Dong

    2016-06-01

    A striking infertile phenotype has been discovered in the DDK strain of mouse. The DDK females are usually infertile when crossed with males of other inbred strains, whereas DDK males exhibit normal fertility in reciprocal crosses. This phenomenon is caused by mutation in the ovum (Om) locus on chromosome 11 and known as the DDK syndrome. Previously, some research groups reported that the embryonic mortality deviated from the semilethal rate in backcrosses between heterozygous (Om/+) females and males of other strains. This embryonic mortality exhibited an aggravated trend with increasing background genes of other strains. These results indicated that some modifier genes of Om were present in other strains. In the present study, a population of N₂2 (Om/+) females from the backcrosses between C57BL/6J (B6) and F₁ (B6♀ × DDK♂) was used to map potential modifier genes of Om. Quantitative trait locus showed that a major locus, namely Amom1 (aggravate modifier gene of Om 1), was located at the middle part of chromosome 9 in mice. The Amom1 could increase the expressivity of Om gene, thereby aggravating embryonic lethality when heterozygous (Om/+) females mated with males of B6 strain. Further, the 1.5 LOD-drop analysis indicated that the confidence interval was between 37.54 and 44.46 cM, ~6.92 cM. Amom1 is the first modifier gene of Om in the B6 background. PMID:27350672

  14. Investigation of organic matter entrapped during calcite growth by a multi-method approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chalmin, E.; Perrette, Y.; Fanget, B.; Drysdale, R.

    2012-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) entrapped in calcite is regularly used for environmental studies; however, incorporation mechanisms and types of interaction remain poorly understood. This study used a new methodology to investigate interactions between OM and the calcite matrix during crystallization processes using humic acid entrapment. A multi-method approach confirmed that OM is both adsorbed onto the calcite surface and incorporated into the calcite lattice during crystallization. Our results also confirm the log-linear correlation between fluorescence intensity and calcite matrix OM concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) showed that OM in colloidal conformation is adsorbed onto the calcite surface as a result of the structure of the OH stretching band. Based on synchrotron analysis (XRF and XANES), we also developed a new method in which sulfur is used as a tracer for entrapped humic acid and for locating the OM electrostatically adsorbed onto the calcite surface. Changes in the sulfur environment, determined using XANES, indicated partitioning during calcite crystallization due to the effect of the matrix on OM incorporation. Desorption experiments revealed the stability of the OM atomic structure and the layered nature of that structure. These results have allowed us to devise a general model of OM incorporation into calcite.

  15. Changes in cytokine and nitric oxide secretion by rat alveolar macrophages after oral administration of bacterial extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Broug-Holub, E; Persoons, J H; Schornagel, K; Kraal, G

    1995-01-01

    Oral administration of the bacterial immunomodulator Broncho-Vaxom (OM-85), a lysate of eight bacteria strains commonly causing respiratory disease, has been shown to enhance the host defence of the respiratory tract. In this study we examined the effect of orally administered (in vivo) OM-85 on stimulus-induced cytokine and nitric oxide secretion by rat alveolar macrophages in vitro. The results show that alveolar macrophages isolated from OM-85-treated rats secreted significantly more nitric oxide, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-1 beta upon in vitro stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), whereas, in contrast, LPS-induced IL-6 secretion was significantly lower. The observed effects of in vivo OM-85 treatment on stimulus-induced cytokine secretion in vitro are not due to a direct effect of OM-85 on the cells, because in vitro incubation of alveolar macrophages with OM-85 did not result in altered activity, nor did direct intratracheal instillation of OM-85 in the lungs of rats result in altered alveolar macrophage activity in vitro. It is hypothesized that oral administration of OM-85 leads to priming of alveolar macrophages in such a way that immune responses are non-specifically enhanced upon stimulation. The therapeutic action of OM-85 may therefore result from an enhanced clearance of infectious bacteria from the respiratory tract due to increased alveolar macrophage activity. PMID:7648713

  16. Mouse models as a tool to unravel the genetic basis for human otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Qing Yin; Hardisty-Hughes, Rachel; Brown, Steve D.M.

    2010-01-01

    The pathogenesis of otitis media (OM) is multifactorial and includes infection, anatomical factors, immunologic status, genetic predisposition, and environmental factors. OM remains the most common cause of hearing impairment in childhood. Genetic predisposition is increasingly recognized as an important factor. The completion of the mouse genome sequence has offered a powerful basket of tools for investigating gene function and can expect to generate a rich resource of mouse mutants for the elucidation of genetic factors underlying OM. We review the literature and discuss recent progresses in developing mouse models and using mouse models to uncover the genetic basis for human OM. PMID:16917982

  17. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs. PMID:26806914

  18. Protozoa enhance foraging efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi for mineral nitrogen from organic matter in soil to the benefit of host plants.

    PubMed

    Koller, Robert; Rodriguez, Alia; Robin, Christophe; Scheu, Stefan; Bonkowski, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Dead organic matter (OM) is a major source of nitrogen (N) for plants. The majority of plants support N uptake by symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. Mineralization of N is regulated by microfauna, in particular, protozoa grazing on bacteria. We hypothesized that AM fungi and protozoa interactively facilitate plant N nutrition from OM. In soil systems consisting of an OM patch and a root compartment, plant N uptake and consequences for plant carbon (C) allocation were investigated using stable isotopes. Protozoa mobilized N by consuming bacteria, and the mobilized N was translocated via AM fungi to the host plant. The presence of protozoa in both the OM and root compartment stimulated photosynthesis and the translocation of C from the host plant via AM fungi into the OM patch. This stimulated microbial activity in the OM patch, plant N uptake from OM and doubled plant growth. The results indicate that protozoa increase plant growth by both mobilization of N from OM and by protozoa-root interactions, resulting in increased C allocation to roots and into the rhizosphere, thereby increasing plant nutrient exploitation. Hence, mycorrhizal plants need to interact with protozoa to fully exploit N resources from OM. PMID:23534902

  19. Opsoclonus-myoclonus and anti-Hu positive limbic encephalitis in a patient with neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Morales La Madrid, Andres; Rubin, Charles M; Kohrman, Michael; Pytel, Peter; Cohn, Susan L

    2012-03-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is seen in 2-3% of children with neuroblastoma and is believed to be caused by an autoimmune process elicited by the tumor. Although long-term neurologic sequelae are common in children with OMS, limbic encephalitis has not previously been reported. We report a child who developed limbic encephalitis associated with anti-Hu antibodies, 6 years after her initial diagnosis of neuroblastoma and OMS. This case demonstrates that patients with neuroblastoma and OMS are at risk for developing new paraneoplastic symptoms years after their original diagnosis and emphasizes the need for careful long-term follow-up.

  20. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs.

  1. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches

    PubMed Central

    Hunting, Ellard R.; Vonk, J. Arie; Musters, C.J.M.; Kraak, Michiel H.S.; Vijver, Martina G.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  2. Effect of effluent organic matter on the adsorption of perfluorinated compounds onto activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jing; Lv, Lu; Lan, Pei; Zhang, Shujuan; Pan, Bingcai; Zhang, Weiming

    2012-07-30

    Effect of effluent organic matter (EfOM) on the adsorption of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) onto powdered activated carbon (PAC) was quantitatively investigated at environmentally relevant concentration levels. The adsorption of both perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) onto PAC followed pseudo-second order kinetics and fitted the Freundlich model well under the given conditions. Intraparticle diffusion was found to be the rate-controlling step in the PFC adsorption process onto PAC in the absence and presence of EfOM. The presence of EfOM, either in PFC-EfOM simultaneous adsorption onto fresh PAC or in PFC adsorption onto EfOM-preloaded PAC, significantly reduced the adsorption capacities and sorption rates of PFCs. The pH of zero point of charge was found to be 7.5 for fresh PAC and 4.2 for EfOM-preloaded PAC, suggesting that the adsorbed EfOM imparted a negative charge on PAC surface. The effect of molecular weight distribution of EfOM on the adsorption of PFCs was investigated with two EfOM fractions obtained by ultrafiltration. The low-molecular-weight compounds (<1kDa) were found to be the major contributors to the significant reduction in PFC adsorption capacity, while large-molecular-weight compounds (>30kDa) had much less effect on PFC adsorption capacity. PMID:22609392

  3. The Economic Burden of Otitis Media in Korea, 2012: A Nationally Representative Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Park, So-Youn

    2016-01-01

    Background. Otitis media (OM) is a common communicable disease that is associated with a substantial economic burden. However, no Korean studies have evaluated OM-related trends after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. Purpose. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and economic burden of OM in Korea using nationally representative data. Methods. The burden of OM was estimated nationally representative data such as national health insurance claims data from 2012, based on the prevalence approach and the societal perspective. Results. In 2012, 1,788,303 patients visited medical institutions for treatment of OM, and the prevalence and burden of OM were 3.5% and 497.35 million US dollars, respectively. Patients who were 0–9 years old accounted for 59.7% of the cases and 55.2% of the total cost. Among adults, the total and perpatient costs were highest among 50–59-year-old adults. Direct medical costs and outpatient costs accounted for large proportions of the total cost (86.3% and 88.3%, resp.). Conclusion. The economic burden of OM decreased after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. However, OM is still associated with a relatively large burden, especially among adults, and interventions are needed to reduce the burden of OM in this population. PMID:27703971

  4. Effects of agricultural practices on organic matter degradation in ditches.

    PubMed

    Hunting, Ellard R; Vonk, J Arie; Musters, C J M; Kraak, Michiel H S; Vijver, Martina G

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural practices can result in differences in organic matter (OM) and agricultural chemical inputs in adjacent ditches, but its indirect effects on OM composition and its inherent consequences for ecosystem functioning remain uncertain. This study determined the effect of agricultural practices (dairy farm grasslands and hyacinth bulb fields) on OM degradation by microorganisms and invertebrates with a consumption and food preference experiment in the field and in the laboratory using natural OM collected from the field. Freshly cut grass and hyacinths were also offered to control for OM composition and large- and small mesh-sizes were used to distinguish microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption. Results show that OM decomposition by microorganisms and consumption by invertebrates was similar throughout the study area, but that OM collected from ditches adjacent grasslands and freshly cut grass and hyacinths were preferred over OM collected from ditches adjacent to a hyacinth bulb field. In the case of OM collected from ditches adjacent hyacinth bulb fields, both microbial decomposition and invertebrate consumption were strongly retarded, likely resulting from sorption and accumulation of pesticides. This outcome illustrates that differences in agricultural practices can, in addition to direct detrimental effects on aquatic organisms, indirectly alter the functioning of adjacent aquatic ecosystems. PMID:26892243

  5. Association between vitamin D and development of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hong-Bo; Tai, Xu-Hui; Sang, Yue-Hong; Jia, Jian-Ping; Xu, Zhen-Ming; Cui, Xiao-Feng; Dai, Song

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Nutrients related to serum vitamin D level were previously shown to be significantly associated with the risk of many chronic diseases. This study aimed to assess potential relationships between serum vitamin D level and otitis media (OM) risk. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched till Aug 18, 2015 for studies of quantitative OM risk estimates in relation to serum vitamin D level. The odds ratio and weighted mean difference, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs), were used to measure the relationship between serum vitamin D level and OM risk. Results: Of the 89 articles identified by database search, 5 studies reported data of 16,689 individuals were included in our meta-analysis. We noted participants with OM was associated with lower level of plasma vitamin D when compared with patients without OM (weighted mean difference −5.67; 95% CI −8.08 to −3.26, P < 0.001). Furthermore, as compared with control group, serum vitamin D level was not associated with the risk of OM (odds ratio 0.80, 95% CI 0.47–1.38, P = 0.425). Subgroup analyses suggested that participants with acute OM might associate with lower serum vitamin D level. Conclusions: Plasma vitamin D level might play an important role on the progression of acute OM, whereas no significant impact in patients with chronic OM. PMID:27749530

  6. Anticonvulsant activity, neural tube defect induction, mutagenicity and pharmacokinetics of a new potent antiepileptic drug, N-methoxy-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane carboxamide.

    PubMed

    Sobol, Eyal; Yagen, Boris; Lamb, John G; White, H Steve; Wlodarczyk, Bogdan J; Finnell, Richard H; Bialer, Meir

    2007-01-01

    N-methoxy-2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropane carboxamide (OM-TMCD) is a methoxyamide derivative of a cyclopropyl analogue of valproic acid (VPA). The structural considerations used in the design of OM-TMCD were aimed to enhance OM-TMCD anticonvulsant potency (compared to VPA) and to prevent VPA's two life-threatening side effects, i.e., induction of neural tube defects (NTDs) and hepatotoxicity. Following i.p. administration to rats OM-TMCD demonstrated a broad spectrum of anticonvulsant activity and showed better potency than VPA in the maximal electroshock seizure and subcutaneous pentylenetetrazole tests as well as in the hippocampal kindling model. OM-TMCD was inactive in the mouse 6-Hz test at 100 mg/kg dose. Teratogenicity studies performed in a SWV/Fnn-mouse model for VPA-induced-exencephaly showed that on the equimolar basis OM-TMCD possesses the same fetal toxicity and ability to induce NTDs as VPA, but since OM-TMCD is a much more potent anticonvulsant its activity/exencephaly formation ratio appears to be much more beneficial than that of VPA. OM-TMCD was found to be non-mutagenic and non-pro-mutagenic in the Ames test. It showed a beneficial pharmacokinetic profile in rats, having a high oral bioavailability of 75% and satisfactory values of clearance and volume of distribution. These results support further studies to fully characterize the therapeutic potential of OM-TMCD.

  7. Soil cultivation for enhanced wastewater infiltration in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Itamar; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2012-11-01

    SummarySoil aquifer treatment is often employed as a tertiary treatment component of reclamation proceeding of wastewater for irrigation in agriculture. Reductions in infiltration rates due to increase in water repellency have been reported to be associated with organic matter (OM) accumulation in the soil (mainly in the top soil layer) as a result of treated wastewater (TWW) infiltration. Our aim was to reduce OM content in soils extensively loaded with TWW. Four model infiltration ponds were built to simulate large infiltration basins: three for TWW infiltration using different application regimes, and the fourth for freshwater (FW) infiltration (control). We examined changes in OM content, hydraulic conductivity (HC) and water repellency in these model ponds as a result of soil plowing. In field experiment, four soil-plowing events were performed. Reduced OM content and water repellency, and increased HC were found in all TWW-applied ponds following each soil plowing. These changes were attributed to OM burial in deeper soil layers elimination of the continuity of the OM based crust, and surface exposure of soil with low OM content. An overall reduction in OM content was found at the end of the experiment in all soil layers as a consequence of plowing. No changes in OM content, water repellency or HC were found in the FW-applied pond as a result of soil plowing.

  8. 18F-FDG PET/CT Brain Imaging on a Patient With Paraneoplastic Opsoclonus-Myoclonus Syndrome Arising out of a Mature Cystic Teratoma.

    PubMed

    Na, Chang Ju; Jeong, Young Jin; Lim, Seok Tae; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong

    2016-02-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is an involuntary multidirectional eye movement accompanied by myoclonic jerks and a subtype of paraneoplastic neurological syndromes. Clinical features of OMS include opsoclonus with myoclonic jerks and cerebellar ataxia. Although there have been a few studies on brain FDG PET in paraneoplastic neurological syndrome associated with some kinds of malignancies such as lung and gastric cancer, brain FDG PET of patients with OMS caused by a mature cystic teratoma has not been reported. Here, we described a case of brain FDG PET/CT studies performed in a woman with OMS provoked from a mature cystic teratoma.

  9. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated.We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: "CAM" in conjunction with "OM" and "children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies.The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications.The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM.

  10. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-02-01

    Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated.We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: "CAM" in conjunction with "OM" and "children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies.The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications.The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  11. Biogeochemistry of mineral-organic associations across a long-term mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr), Hawaiian Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikutta, Robert; Schaumann, Gabriele E.; Gildemeister, Daniela; Bonneville, Steeve; Kramer, Marc G.; Chorover, Jon; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Guggenberger, Georg

    2009-04-01

    Organic matter (OM) in mineral-organic associations (MOAs) represents a large fraction of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems which is considered stable against biodegradation. To assess the role of MOAs in carbon cycling, there is a need to better understand (i) the time-dependent biogeochemical evolution of MOAs in soil, (ii) the effect of the mineral composition on the physico-chemical properties of attached OM, and (iii) the resulting consequences for the stabilization of OM. We studied the development of MOAs across a mineralogical soil gradient (0.3-4100 kyr) at the Hawaiian Islands that derived from basaltic tephra under comparable climatic and hydrological regimes. Mineral-organic associations were characterized using biomarker analyses of OM with chemolytic methods (lignin phenols, non-cellulosic carbohydrates) and wet chemical extractions, surface area/porosity measurements (N 2 at 77 K and CO 2 at 273 K), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that in the initial weathering stage (0.3 kyr), MOAs are mainly composed of primary, low-surface area minerals (olivine, pyroxene, feldspar) with small amounts of attached OM and lignin phenols but a large contribution of microbial-derived carbohydrates. As high-surface area, poorly crystalline (PC) minerals increase in abundance during the second weathering stage (20-400 kyr), the content of mineral-associated OM increased sharply, up to 290 mg C/g MOA, with lignin phenols being favored over carbohydrates in the association with minerals. In the third and final weathering stage (1400-4100 kyr), metastable PC phases transformed into well crystalline secondary Fe and Al (hydr)oxides and kaolin minerals that were associated with less OM overall, and depleted in both lignin and carbohydrate as a fraction of total OM. XPS, the N 2 pore volume data and OM-mineral volumetric ratios suggest that, in contrast to the

  12. Amount of organic matter required to induce sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding is affected by soil nitrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Marschner, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) with sulfuric material can be remediated through microbial sulfate reduction stimulated by adding organic matter (OM) and increasing the soil pH to >4.5, but the effectiveness of this treatment is influenced by soil properties. Two experiments were conducted using ASS with sulfuric material. In the first experiment with four ASS, OM (finely ground mature wheat straw) was added at 2-6% (w/w) and the pH adjusted to 5.5. After 36 weeks under flooded conditions, the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) and pore water pH were greater in all treatments with added OM than in the control without OM addition. The RIS concentration increased with OM addition rate. The increase in RIS concentration between 4% and 6% OM was significant but smaller than that between 2% and 4%, suggesting other factors limited sulfate reduction. In the second experiment, the effect of nitrate addition on sulfate reduction at different OM addition rates was investigated in one ASS. Organic matter was added at 2 and 4% and nitrate at 0, 100, and 200 mg nitrate-N kg(-1). After 2 weeks under flooded conditions, soil pH and the concentration of FeS measured as acid volatile sulfur (AVS) were lower with nitrate added at both OM addition rates. At a given nitrate addition rate, pH and AVS concentration were higher at 4% OM than at 2%. It can be concluded that sulfate reduction in ASS at pH 5.5 can be limited by low OM availability and high nitrate concentrations. Further, the inhibitory effect of nitrate can be overcome by high OM addition rates. PMID:25600239

  13. The clinical relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Backes, James; Anzalone, Deborah; Hilleman, Daniel; Catini, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®). At approved doses, all formulations substantially reduce triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein levels. DHA-containing formulations may also increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, this is not accompanied by increased non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to provide a better indication of cardiovascular risk in this patient population. Proposed mechanisms of action of OM3FAs include inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity, decreased hepatic lipogenesis, and increased hepatic β-oxidation. OM3CA bioavailability (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable concentration) is up to 4-fold greater than that of OM3FA ethyl esters, and unlike ethyl esters, the absorption of OM3CA is not dependent on pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All three formulations are well tolerated (the most common adverse events are gastrointestinal) and demonstrate a lack of drug-drug interactions with other lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins and fibrates. OM3FAs appear to be an effective treatment option for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia. PMID:27444154

  14. Amount of organic matter required to induce sulfate reduction in sulfuric material after re-flooding is affected by soil nitrate concentration.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chaolei; Mosley, Luke M; Fitzpatrick, Rob; Marschner, Petra

    2015-03-15

    Acid sulfate soils (ASS) with sulfuric material can be remediated through microbial sulfate reduction stimulated by adding organic matter (OM) and increasing the soil pH to >4.5, but the effectiveness of this treatment is influenced by soil properties. Two experiments were conducted using ASS with sulfuric material. In the first experiment with four ASS, OM (finely ground mature wheat straw) was added at 2-6% (w/w) and the pH adjusted to 5.5. After 36 weeks under flooded conditions, the concentration of reduced inorganic sulfur (RIS) and pore water pH were greater in all treatments with added OM than in the control without OM addition. The RIS concentration increased with OM addition rate. The increase in RIS concentration between 4% and 6% OM was significant but smaller than that between 2% and 4%, suggesting other factors limited sulfate reduction. In the second experiment, the effect of nitrate addition on sulfate reduction at different OM addition rates was investigated in one ASS. Organic matter was added at 2 and 4% and nitrate at 0, 100, and 200 mg nitrate-N kg(-1). After 2 weeks under flooded conditions, soil pH and the concentration of FeS measured as acid volatile sulfur (AVS) were lower with nitrate added at both OM addition rates. At a given nitrate addition rate, pH and AVS concentration were higher at 4% OM than at 2%. It can be concluded that sulfate reduction in ASS at pH 5.5 can be limited by low OM availability and high nitrate concentrations. Further, the inhibitory effect of nitrate can be overcome by high OM addition rates.

  15. The clinical relevance of omega-3 fatty acids in the management of hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Backes, James; Anzalone, Deborah; Hilleman, Daniel; Catini, Julia

    2016-07-22

    Hypertriglyceridemia (triglycerides > 150 mg/dL) affects ~25 % of the United States (US) population and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL) is also a risk factor for pancreatitis. Three omega-3 fatty acid (OM3FA) prescription formulations are approved in the US for the treatment of adults with severe hypertriglyceridemia: (1) OM3FA ethyl esters (OM3EE), a mixture of OM3FA ethyl esters, primarily eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (Lovaza®, Omtryg™, and generics); (2) icosapent ethyl (IPE), EPA ethyl esters (Vascepa®); and (3) omega-3 carboxylic acids (OM3CA), a mixture of OM3FAs in free fatty acid form, primarily EPA, DHA, and docosapentaenoic acid (Epanova®). At approved doses, all formulations substantially reduce triglyceride and very-low-density lipoprotein levels. DHA-containing formulations may also increase low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. However, this is not accompanied by increased non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, which is thought to provide a better indication of cardiovascular risk in this patient population. Proposed mechanisms of action of OM3FAs include inhibition of diacylglycerol acyltransferase, increased plasma lipoprotein lipase activity, decreased hepatic lipogenesis, and increased hepatic β-oxidation. OM3CA bioavailability (area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to the last measurable concentration) is up to 4-fold greater than that of OM3FA ethyl esters, and unlike ethyl esters, the absorption of OM3CA is not dependent on pancreatic lipase hydrolysis. All three formulations are well tolerated (the most common adverse events are gastrointestinal) and demonstrate a lack of drug-drug interactions with other lipid-lowering drugs, such as statins and fibrates. OM3FAs appear to be an effective treatment option for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  16. Biochemical resistance of pyrogenic organic matter in fire-affected mineral soils of Southern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knicker, H.; González Vila, F. J.; Clemente Salas, L.

    2012-04-01

    Incorporated into the soil, naturally formed pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) is considered as highly recalcitrant, but direct estimation of PyOM decomposition rates are scarce. With this aim in mind, we subjected organic matter (OM) of fire-affected and unaffected soils to biochemical degradation under laboratory conditions and monitored CO2 production over a period of seven months. The soils derived from fire affected and unaffected areas of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar and the Doñana National Park, Southern Spain. Virtual fractionation of the solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the fire affected soils into fire-unaffected soil organic matter (SOM) and PyOM yielded charcoal C contributions of 30 to 50% to the total organic C (Corg) of the sample derived from the Aznalcóllar region. Fitting the respiration data with a double exponential decay model revealed a fast carbon flush during the first three weeks of the experiment. Solid-state 13C NMR spectroscopy evidenced the contribution of aromatic moieties of the PyOM to this initial carbon release and to the biosynthesis of new microbial biomass. The input of PyOM resulted in an increase of the mean residence time (MRT) of the slow OM pool of the soil by a factor of 3 to 4 to approximately 40 years which rises doubts rises doubts about the presumed big influence of PyOM as an additional C-sink in soils. On the other hand, although being small the difference in turnover rates is evident and has some major implication with respect to long-term alteration of the chemical composition of OM in fire-affected soils. Based on the obtained results and the analysis of PyOM in other soil systems, a conceptual model is presented which can explain the different behavior of PyOM under different soil conditions.

  17. Fluorescence Spectroscopic Investigation of Tillage, Cropping Management, and Nitrogen Application Effects on Stable and Water-Extractable Organic Matter

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic matter (OM) controls many important soil ecosystem processes. Stable (humic and fulvic) and water-extractable OM was obtained from soils in a nine-year tillage, cropping management, and nitrogen application study and characterized for its composition using multi-dimensional fluorescence spec...

  18. Complementary and Alternative Medicine Treatment Options for Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Marom, Tal; Marchisio, Paola; Tamir, Sharon Ovnat; Torretta, Sara; Gavriel, Haim; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Otitis media (OM) has numerous presentations in children. Together with conventional medical therapies aimed to prevent and/or treat OM, a rising number of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) treatment options can be offered. Since OM is common in children, parents may ask healthcare professionals about possible CAM therapies. Many physicians feel that their knowledge is limited regarding these therapies, and that they desire some information. Therefore, we conducted a literature review of CAM therapies for OM, taking into account that many of these treatments, their validity and efficacy and have not been scientifically demonstrated. We performed a search in MEDLINE (accessed via PubMed) using the following terms: “CAM” in conjunction with “OM” and “children. Retrieved publications regarding treatment of OM in children which included these terms included randomized controlled trials, prospective/retrospective studies, and case studies. The following CAM options for OM treatment in children were considered: acupuncture, homeopathy, herbal medicine/phytotherapy, osteopathy, chiropractic, xylitol, ear candling, vitamin D supplement, and systemic and topical probiotics. We reviewed each treatment and described the level of scientific evidence of the relevant publications. The therapeutic approaches commonly associated with CAM are usually conservative, and do not include drugs or surgery. Currently, CAM is not considered by physicians a potential treatment of OM, as there is limited supporting evidence. Further studies are warranted in order to evaluate the potential value of CAM therapies for OM. PMID:26871802

  19. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM.

  20. Orientation and Mobility in Australia and New Zealand: Situational Analysis and Census

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deverell, Lil; Scott, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    The orientation and mobility (O&M) profession is well established in Australia and New Zealand. This paper gives a situational analysis of O&M in these countries, including a brief history, an overview of professional training and current activity, and data gained from two censuses of the profession undertaken in 2002 and 2011. Social…

  1. Rationale and Development of a General Population Well-Being Measure: Psychometric Status of the GP-CORE in a Student Sample

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Alice; Barkham, Michael; Evans, Chris; Connell, Janice; Audin, Kerry

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents the rationale, development, and psychometric status of a non-clinical self-report measure for the general population (GP) ? including students ? derived from the Clinical Outcomes in Routine Evaluation-Outcome Measure (CORE-OM) and hence termed the GP-CORE. In contrast to the CORE-OM, the GP-CORE does not comprise items…

  2. A Peptidomimetic Antibiotic Targets Outer Membrane Proteins and Disrupts Selectively the Outer Membrane in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Urfer, Matthias; Bogdanovic, Jasmina; Lo Monte, Fabio; Moehle, Kerstin; Zerbe, Katja; Omasits, Ulrich; Ahrens, Christian H; Pessi, Gabriella; Eberl, Leo; Robinson, John A

    2016-01-22

    Increasing antibacterial resistance presents a major challenge in antibiotic discovery. One attractive target in Gram-negative bacteria is the unique asymmetric outer membrane (OM), which acts as a permeability barrier that protects the cell from external stresses, such as the presence of antibiotics. We describe a novel β-hairpin macrocyclic peptide JB-95 with potent antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli. This peptide exhibits no cellular lytic activity, but electron microscopy and fluorescence studies reveal an ability to selectively disrupt the OM but not the inner membrane of E. coli. The selective targeting of the OM probably occurs through interactions of JB-95 with selected β-barrel OM proteins, including BamA and LptD as shown by photolabeling experiments. Membrane proteomic studies reveal rapid depletion of many β-barrel OM proteins from JB-95-treated E. coli, consistent with induction of a membrane stress response and/or direct inhibition of the Bam folding machine. The results suggest that lethal disruption of the OM by JB-95 occurs through a novel mechanism of action at key interaction sites within clusters of β-barrel proteins in the OM. These findings open new avenues for developing antibiotics that specifically target β-barrel proteins and the integrity of the Gram-negative OM. PMID:26627837

  3. Outer-membrane translocation of bulky small molecules by passive diffusion

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Bert; Prathyusha Bhamidimarri, Satya; Dahyabhai Prajapati, Jigneshkumar; Kleinekathöfer, Ulrich; Winterhalter, Mathias

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of gram-negative bacteria forms a protective layer around the cell that serves as a permeability barrier to prevent unrestricted access of noxious substances. The permeability barrier of the OM results partly from the limited pore diameters of OM diffusion channels. As a consequence, there is an “OM size-exclusion limit,” and the uptake of bulky molecules with molecular masses of more than ∼600 Da is thought to be mediated by TonB-dependent, active transporters. Intriguingly, the OM protein CymA from Klebsiella oxytoca does not depend on TonB but nevertheless mediates efficient OM passage of cyclodextrins with diameters of up to ∼15 Å. Here we show, by using X-ray crystallography, molecular dynamics simulations, and single-channel electrophysiology, that CymA forms a monomeric 14-stranded β-barrel with a large pore that is occluded on the periplasmic side by the N-terminal 15 residues of the protein. Representing a previously unidentified paradigm in OM transport, CymA mediates the passive diffusion of bulky molecules via an elegant transport mechanism in which a mobile element formed by the N terminus acts as a ligand-expelled gate to preserve the permeability barrier of the OM. PMID:26015567

  4. A Study of Online Misrepresentation, Self-Disclosure, Cyber-Relationship Motives, and Loneliness among Teenagers in Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chiao Ling; Yang, Shu Ching

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between online misrepresentation (OM), self-disclosure (SD), cyber-relationship motives (CRM), and loneliness in teenagers. A survey was conducted using a sample of 608 Taiwanese teenagers (13 to 18 years of age). The instruments used include scales of loneliness, OM, and SD in real…

  5. Transforming a Traditional Personnel Preparation Program in Orientation and Mobility into an Online Program at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, William H.

    2005-01-01

    The University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) has offered a personnel preparation program in orientation and mobility (O&M) since 1975. Since that time, nearly 400 individuals from the United States and numerous foreign countries have either received degrees or have become eligible for national U.S. certification in O&M. However, it became…

  6. An Innovative Model for Training Orientation and Mobility Assistants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, W. R.

    1993-01-01

    A model was developed to prepare specialists in orientation and mobility (O&M) who work with people with visual impairments, with the specialists in turn training and supervising O&M assistants. The project developed curriculum guidelines, training methods, a national workshop, and regional seminars. (DB)

  7. Development of the Orientation and Mobility Certification Examination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiener, William R.; Siffermann, Eileen

    2000-01-01

    This article addresses the development of an orientation and mobility (O&M) certification examination by Division Nine of the Association for Education and Rehabilitation of the Blind and Visually Impaired. It describes the collection of data that establishes the relative importance of the competencies necessary for O&M. (Contains eight…

  8. OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL FOR ELECTROSTATIC PRECIPITATORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The manual focuses on the operation and maintenance (O/M) of typical electrostatic precipitators (ESPs). It summarizes available information on theory and design in sufficient detail to provide a basic background O/M portions of the manual. Although O/M-related air pollution prob...

  9. Orientation and Mobility Services for Persons with Visual Impairments: South African Orientation and Mobility Practitioners' Eye View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maguvhe, Mbulaheni O.; Dzapasi, Alphonce; Sabeya, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Orientation and mobility (O&M) practice is important because the population of persons with visual impairments is large enough to warrant planned action on measures to help them acquire independence and sustain their livelihoods. Most O&M practitioners in South Africa are full-time employees in non-governmental organizations. The few who work in…

  10. EVALUATION OF THE IMPLEMENTATION OF OPERATIONS AND MAINTENANCE PROGRAMS IN NEW JERSEY SCHOOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) required all schools to develop and implement an asbestos management plan (AMP). The key component of the AMP is the operations and maintenance (O&M) program. A study was conducted to evaluate the implementation of O&M programs a...

  11. A Seamless Approach to Transitioning Cane Skills from the Diagonal to the Two-Point Touch Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, William M.

    2012-01-01

    The profession of orientation and mobility (O&M) is replete with literature describing specific cane techniques, strategies for teaching O&M to specific populations and age groups, rationales, and appropriate settings. These strategies and techniques are also addressed in many university preparation programs. In this article, the author discusses…

  12. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform

    PubMed Central

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R.; DeLisa, Matthew P.; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  13. EnergySmart Schools Tips: Retrofitting, Operating, and Maintaining Existing Buildings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Combining preventative operations and maintenance (O&M) with strategic retrofitting of building systems improves a school's energy performance. For schools with limited resources and experience, "quick wins" in O&M and retrofitting provide a valuable starting point to energy management. As a next step, strategically prioritizing long- and…

  14. Vertical Integration: Results from a Cross-Course Student Collaboration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sloan, Thomas; Lewis, David

    2011-01-01

    The authors report the results of a cross-class project involving sophomore-level students in an Operations Analysis (OA) class with junior-level students in an Operations Management (OM) class. The students formed virtual teams and developed a simulation model of a call center. The OM students provided the management expertise, while the OA…

  15. [Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qiannan mountainous region].

    PubMed

    Wu, De-Chuan; Luo, Hong-Xiang; Song, Ze-Min; Guo, Guang-Dong; Chen, Yong-An; Li, Yu-Xiang; Jiang, Yu-Ping; Li, Zhang-Hai

    2014-06-01

    Spatial variability and management zone of soil major nutrients in tobacco fields in Qian-nan mountainous region were analyzed using geostatistics and fuzzy c-mean algorithm. Results indicated that the level of soil organic matter (OM) was moderate, and alkalytic nitrogen (AN), available phosphorus (AP) and available potassium (AK) were rich according to tobacco soil nutrient classification standards. Coefficients of variation (CV) of OM, AN, AP and AK were moderate. Contents of OM, AN, AP and AK fitted log-normal distributions. Correlation analysis showed moderate correlations between OM and AN, AP and AK. OM and AN were best described by Gaussian semivariogram models, while AP and AK were described by exponential models. The four nutrients displayed moderate spatial autocorrelation. There were significant differences among lag distances of four soil nutrients. OM, AN, AP and AK in the majority of studied regions varied at moderate to very rich levels, and deficiencies of OM, AN, AP and AK only accounted for 0.93%, 0.53%, 0.24% and 7.91% of the total studied region, respectively. Based on the results, the studied region was divided into two management zones (MZ), namely MZ1 and MZ2, accounting for 69. 8% and 30. 2% of the studied region respectively. The soil levels of OM, AN, AP and AK in MZ1 were significantly lower than those in MZ2 (P < 0.01).

  16. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  17. Diagnostic Drawing Series: Research with Older People Diagnosed with Organic Mental Syndromes and Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Couch, Janet Beaujon

    1994-01-01

    Used standardized three-picture art interview, Diagnostic Drawing Series (DDS), with older people. Collected artwork from 24 patients diagnosed with Organic Mental Syndromes and Disorders (OMS/D). Structural qualities found in art were identified using DDS. Observations of these qualities may aid in early diagnosis of OMS/D and help educate…

  18. Office of Management Services 1989 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Research Libraries, Washington, DC. Office of Management Studies.

    Designed to serve both as an activity report on Office of Management Services (OMS) progress during 1989 and a catalog of OMS services and products, this annual report focuses on the management of human and technical resources in a scholarly environment. Programs and services are reported in four sections: (1) Applied Research and Development (the…

  19. Integrating Sustainable Development into Operations Management Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fredriksson, Peter; Persson, Magnus

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: It is widely acknowledged that aspects of sustainable development (SD) should be integrated into higher level operations management (OM) education. The aim of the paper is to outline the experiences gained at Chalmers University of Technology in Sweden from integrating aspects of SD into OM courses. Design/methodology/approach: The paper…

  20. Ornamental Marine Species Culture in the Coral Triangle: Seahorse Demonstration Project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Susan L.; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R. Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O.; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species (`OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse ( Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS.

  1. Sonographic measurement of the normal suprascapular nerve and omohyoid muscle.

    PubMed

    Battaglia, Patrick J; Haun, Daniel W; Dooley, Kathy; Kettner, Norman W

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain normative ultrasonography (US) data on the suprascapular nerve (SSN) and omohyoid muscle (OM) in the lateral cervical region. The SSN and OM are known to be related throughout the nerve's course, yet little imaging data exists on these structures at areas more proximal than the suprascapular foramen. US data from a convenience sample of 33 asymptomatic subjects between 21 and 42 years of age were collected. Cross sectional area (CSA) of the SSN, distances from the OM to the SSN, and long-axis diameter of the OM at three reference points were obtained. The mean CSA of the SSN at both its origin and over the first rib was 1.9 mm2 and at the distal clavicle was 2.0 mm2. The mean distance of the OM to the SSN at these locations was 7.6 mm, 4.2 mm and 2.8 mm respectively. The mean long axis diameter of the OM was 2.4 mm at the SSN origin, 3.4 mm at the first rib, and 4.1 mm at the distal clavicle. We present US data from asymptomatic subjects on the SSN and OM. Our results show that the SSN nerve CSA is consistent throughout the nerves proximal course. Furthermore, the OM and SSN tend to approximate as they course distally. Future studies with larger samples will better characterize the normal sonoanatomy of these structures between genders and across different ages.

  2. Terahertz otoscope and potential for diagnosing otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Young Bin; Moon, In-Seok; Bark, Hyeon Sang; Kim, Sang Hoon; Park, Dong Woo; Noh, Sam Kyu; Huh, Yong-Min; Suh, Jin-Seok; Oh, Seung Jae; Jeon, Tae-In

    2016-01-01

    We designed and fabricated a novel terahertz (THz) otoscope to help physicians to diagnose otitis media (OM) with both THz diagnostics and conventional optical diagnostics. We verified the potential of this tool for diagnosing OM using mouse skin tissue and a human tympanic membrane samples prior to clinical application. PMID:27446647

  3. Contribution of Allochthonous Carbon Subsidies to the Minho Estuary Lower Food Web

    EPA Science Inventory

    To study the contribution of autochthonous and allochthonous organic matter (OM) sources fuelling the lower food web in Minho River estuary (N-Portugal, Europe), we characterized the carbon (?13C) and nitrogen (?15N) stable isotope ratios of zooplankton and their potential OM sou...

  4. Quantification of Organic Porosity and Water Accessibility in Marcellus Shale Using Neutron Scattering

    DOE PAGES

    Gu, Xin; Mildner, David F. R.; Cole, David R.; Rother, Gernot; Slingerland, Rudy; Brantley, Susan L.

    2016-04-28

    Pores within organic matter (OM) are a significant contributor to the total pore system in gas shales. These pores contribute most of the storage capacity in gas shales. Here we present a novel approach to characterize the OM pore structure (including the porosity, specific surface area, pore size distribution, and water accessibility) in Marcellus shale. By using ultrasmall and small-angle neutron scattering, and by exploiting the contrast matching of the shale matrix with suitable mixtures of deuterated and protonated water, both total and water-accessible porosity were measured on centimeter-sized samples from two boreholes from the nanometer to micrometer scale withmore » good statistical coverage. Samples were also measured after combustion at 450 °C. Analysis of scattering data from these procedures allowed quantification of OM porosity and water accessibility. OM hosts 24–47% of the total porosity for both organic-rich and -poor samples. This porosity occupies as much as 29% of the OM volume. In contrast to the current paradigm in the literature that OM porosity is organophilic and therefore not likely to contain water, our results demonstrate that OM pores with widths >20 nm exhibit the characteristics of water accessibility. In conclusion, our approach reveals the complex structure and wetting behavior of the OM porosity at scales that are hard to interrogate using other techniques.« less

  5. Ornamental marine species culture in the coral triangle: seahorse demonstration project in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Williams, Susan L; Janetski, Noel; Abbott, Jessica; Blankenhorn, Sven; Cheng, Brian; Crafton, R Eliot; Hameed, Sarah O; Rapi, Saipul; Trockel, Dale

    2014-12-01

    Ornamental marine species ('OMS') provide valuable income for developing nations in the Indo-Pacific Coral Triangle, from which most of the specimens are exported. OMS culture can help diversify livelihoods in the region, in support of management and conservation efforts to reduce destructive fishing and collection practices that threaten coral reef and seagrass ecosystems. Adoption of OMS culture depends on demonstrating its success as a livelihood, yet few studies of OMS culture exist in the region. We present a case study of a land-based culture project for an endangered seahorse (Hippocampus barbouri) in the Spermonde Islands, Sulawesi, Indonesia. The business model demonstrated that culturing can increase family income by seven times. A Strengths Weaknesses Opportunities Threats (SWOT) analysis indicated good collaboration among diverse stakeholders and opportunities for culturing non-endangered species and for offshoot projects, but complicated permitting was an issue as were threats of market flooding and production declines. The OMS international market is strong, Indonesian exporters expressed great interest in cultured product, and Indonesia is the largest exporting country for H. barbouri. Yet, a comparison of Indonesia ornamental marine fish exports to fish abundance in a single local market indicated that OMS culture cannot replace fishing livelihoods. Nevertheless, seahorse and other OMS culture can play a role in management and conservation by supplementing and diversifying the fishing and collecting livelihoods in the developing nations that provide the majority of the global OMS. PMID:25082298

  6. Outsourcing: It's Not Just about Money Anymore.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keown, Cheryl

    1999-01-01

    Presents survey data from college and university business officers on the growing popularity of outsourcing traditional in-house services. Overviews are presented on outsourcing operations and maintenance (O/M) and planning and construction (P/C). Regional analyses by region, type, size, and role of O/M and P/C services outsourcing are provided.…

  7. Role of polarity fractions of effluent organic matter in binding and toxicity of silver and copper.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jisu; Shim, Taeyong; Hur, Jin; Jung, Jinho

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluates the effect of the physicochemical properties of effluent organic matter (EfOM) from industrial and sewage wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) on the binding and toxicity of Ag and Cu. EfOM was isolated into hydrophobic, transphilic, and hydrophilic fractions depending on its polarity, and was characterized by elemental, specific ultraviolet absorbance, and fluorescence excitation-emission matrix analyses. Our results suggest that the EfOM consists of microbially derived non-humic substances that have lower aromaticity than the Suwannee River natural organic matter (SR-NOM). The Freundlich model was better at explaining the binding of Ag and Cu onto both SR-NOM and EfOM than the Langmuir model. In particular, the hydrophilic fractions of sewage EfOM showed higher binding capacities and affinities for Ag and Cu than the corresponding hydrophobic fractions, resulting in better reduction of the acute toxicity of Ag and Cu towards Daphnia magna. However, in the case of both SR-NOM and industrial EfOM, the hydrophobic fractions were more efficient at reducing metal toxicity. These findings suggest that the EfOM has different physicochemical properties compared with NOM and that the binding and toxicity of heavy metals are largely dependent on the polarity fractions of EfOM. PMID:27318731

  8. Evaluation of the Implementation of Operations and Maintenance Programs in New Jersey Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kominsky, John R.; Freyberg, Ronald W.; Gerber, Donald R.; Centifonti, Gary J.

    All schools are required to develop and implement an asbestos management plan (AMP). The key component of this plan is each school's operations and maintenance (O&M) program. This report outlines the importance of such programs. It describes an O&M program as an administrative framework that prescribes specific activities and work procedures to…

  9. A Molecularly Complete Planar Bacterial Outer Membrane Platform.

    PubMed

    Hsia, Chih-Yun; Chen, Linxiao; Singh, Rohit R; DeLisa, Matthew P; Daniel, Susan

    2016-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a barrier containing membrane proteins and liposaccharides that fulfill crucial functions for Gram-negative bacteria. With the advent of drug-resistant bacteria, it is necessary to understand the functional role of this membrane and its constituents to enable novel drug designs. Here we report a simple method to form an OM-like supported bilayer (OM-SB), which incorporates native lipids and membrane proteins of gram-negative bacteria from outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). We characterize the formation of OM-SBs using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and fluorescence microscopy. We show that the orientation of proteins in the OM-SB matches the native bacterial membrane, preserving the characteristic asymmetry of these membranes. As a demonstration of the utility of the OM-SB platform, we quantitatively measure antibiotic interactions between OM-SBs and polymyxin B, a cationic peptide used to treat Gram-negative infections. This data enriches understanding of the antibacterial mechanism of polymyxin B, including disruption kinetics and changes in membrane mechanical properties. Combining OM-SBs with microfluidics will enable higher throughput screening of antibiotics. With a broader view, we envision that a molecularly complete membrane-scaffold could be useful for cell-free applications employing engineered membrane proteins in bacterial membranes for myriad technological purposes. PMID:27600663

  10. Determination of organic matter and organic matter to organic carbon ratios by infrared spectroscopy with application to selected sites in the IMPROVE network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruthenburg, Travis C.; Perlin, Pesach C.; Liu, Victor; McDade, Charles E.; Dillner, Ann M.

    2014-04-01

    Mass of ambient particulate organic matter (OM) is often estimated by multiplying the organic carbon (OC) mass by a fixed factor that typically ranges from 1.4 to 1.8. In this paper, we develop a non-destructive, mid-infrared spectroscopic (MIR) technique to measure OM in PM2.5 collected on PTFE filters (commonly called “teflon” filters). MIR techniques measure absorption by functional groups within organic molecules; that is, carbon atoms bonded to oxygen (O) or hydrogen (H), O bonded to H and other elements bonded together in organic molecules that comprise OM. We developed laboratory standards of atmospherically relevant organic compounds as the basis for calibrating the MIR absorption to the moles of functional groups. A multivariate regression technique was used to develop calibrations for quantifying alkane CH, alcohol OH, carboxylic acid OH, and carbonyl, which likely comprise the bulk of OM in most ambient samples. OM is estimated as the sum of masses attributed to these functional groups. The precision of the OM measurement is 6.9 μg (relative precision is 7%) and the minimum detection limit is 4.8 μg, corresponding to an ambient concentrations of 0.21 μg m-3 and 0.15 μg m-3 respectively, for the sampling protocol used here. The method was employed to estimate OM, OC (estimated as the sum of the mass of carbon in the alkane CH and carbonyl functional groups) and OM/OC from one year of routinely collected filters at seven Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE) sites. In the IMPROVE network, OC is measured using a thermal optical method and OM is estimated for regional haze tracking simply as 1.8 × OC. Using the MIR technique on one year of samples from 7 IMPROVE sites, the median OM/OC ratio was 1.69 with the 10th and 90th percentiles of 1.46 and 2.01. Phoenix, AZ had the lowest annual-median value of 1.56 and Mesa Verde, CO had the highest of 1.83. For more than half of the sites, the lowest monthly-median OM/OC ratio

  11. Development and evaluation of alginate-chitosan gastric floating beads loading with oxymatrine solid dispersion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanhua; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Chengming; Yang, Jianhong; Hou, Yanhui; Wang, Wenping

    2016-01-01

    Oxymatrine (OM) can be metabolized to matrine in gastrointestinal ileocecal valve after oral administration, which affects pharmacological activity and reduce bioavailability of OM. A type of multiple-unit alginate-chitosan (Alg-Cs) floating beads was prepared by the ionotropic gelation method for gastroretention delivery of OM. A solid dispersion technique was applied and incorporated into beads to enhance the OM encapsulation efficiency (EE) and sustain the drug release. The surface morphology and internal hollow structure of beads were evaluated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The developed Alg-Cs beads were spherical in shape with hollow internal structure and had particle size of 3.49 ± 0.09 mm and 1.33 ± 0.09 mm for wet and dried beads. Over 84% of the optimized OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads were able to continuously float over the simulated gastric fluid for 12 h in vitro. The OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads showed drug EE of 67.07%, which was much higher than that of beads loading with pure OM. Compared with the immediate release of OM capsules and pure OM-loaded beads, the release of OM from solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs beads was in a sustained-release manner for 12 h. Prolonged gastric retention time of over 8.5 h was achieved for OM solid dispersion-loaded Alg-Cs floating beads in healthy rabbit in in vivo floating ability evaluated by X-ray imaging. The developed Alg-Cs beads loading with OM solid dispersion displayed excellent performance features characterized by excellent gastric floating ability, high drug EE and sustained-release pattern. The study illustrated the potential use of Alg-Cs floating beads combined with the solid dispersion technique for prolonging gastric retention and sustaining release of OM, which could provide a promising drug delivery system for gastric-specific delivery of OM for bioavailability enhancement.

  12. Investigating organic matter in Fanno Creek, Oregon, Part 3 of 3: identifying and quantifying sources of organic matter to an urban stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goldman, Jami H.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Keith, Mackenzie K.; Sobieszczyk, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The sources, transport, and characteristics of organic matter (OM) in Fanno Creek, an urban stream in northwest Oregon, were assessed and quantified using: (1) optical instruments to calculate transported loads of dissolved, particulate, and total organic carbon, (2) fluorescence spectroscopy and stable isotope ratios (δ13C, δ15N) to elucidate sources and chemical properties of OM throughout the basin, and (3) synoptic sampling to investigate seasonal and hydrologic variations in the characteristics and quantity of OM. Results from this study indicate that of the roughly 324 (±2.9%) metric tons (tonnes, t) of organic carbon exported from the basin during March 2012 to March 2013, most of the OM in Fanno Creek was dissolved (72%) and was present year-round at concentrations exceeding 3–4 milligrams of carbon per liter, whereas particulate carbon typically was mobilized and transported only by higher-flow conditions. The isotopic and fluorescence characteristics of Fanno Creek OM indicate that the carbon originates primarily from terrestrial inputs, most likely riparian vegetative biomass that enters the stream via litterfall and overland transport and then travels through the system episodically as a result of hydrologic processes. The amount of OM exported from the Fanno Creek drainage over the course of a year in this study is consistent with previous estimates of annual riparian litterfall in or near the creek. Although the creek channel is actively eroding, most bank material has too little OM for that to be a dominant source of OM to the stream. Fluorescence data revealed that the OM contains primarily humic and fulvic-like components that become less aromatic as the OM moves downstream. The most significant seasonal variation was associated with OM transported in the first storms of the autumn season (fall flush). That material was characteristically different, with a larger fraction of microbially derived OM that probably resulted from an accumulation of

  13. The Impact of Organo-Mineral Complexation on Mineral Weathering in the Soil Zone: Column Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, F.; Dever, S.; Yoo, K.; Imhoff, P. T.; Michael, H. A.

    2015-12-01

    While it is well known that organo-mineral complexes can protect organic matter (OM) from degradation, its impact on soil mineral weathering is not clear. Strong evidence has shown that the adsorption of OM to mineral surface accelerates the dissolution of some minerals, but these observations are limited to bench-scale experiments that focus on specific OM and minerals. In this study, soil samples prepared from an undisturbed forest site were used to determine mineral weathering rates under differing OM sorption on minerals. Soil samples from two depths, 0-6cm and 84-100cm, were chosen to represent different soil OM content and soil mineralogy. Soil OM was removed stepwise by heating samples to 350℃ for different durations (0-6cm: 100% removed, ~50% removed, and no removal; 84-100cm: 100% removed and no removal). Pretreated soil samples were subjected to flow-through, saturated column experiments using 0.01M LiCl and 5%CO2/95%air gas saturated (pH = 4.5) influent solution. Each column treatment was run in duplicate under a constant flow rate (Darcy velocity ≈ 8cm/hr). All columns reached a steady state after 600~700 pore volumes at which effluent pH, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and element concentrations were constant. At the 95% significance level, the DOC from OM-present columns was significantly higher, as expected. Correspondingly, effluent pH was lower in higher OM content columns. The chemical denudation rates were calculated from the effluent concentrations of the elements of interest. For the soil columns from both depths, silicon (Si) leaching rate showed that dissolution of silicate minerals was 2-3 times higher in OM-removed columns, suggesting that organo-mineral complexes suppress mineral dissolution. The N2-BET specific surface area (SSA) measurement also showed that the removal of OM increased SSA, which supported the idea that OM adsorption had decreased mineral exposure and thus decreased mineral dissolution. The leaching rates of some

  14. Transformation and stabilization of pyrogenic organic matter in a temperate forest field experiment.

    PubMed

    Singh, Nimisha; Abiven, Samuel; Maestrini, Bernardo; Bird, Jeffrey A; Torn, Margaret S; Schmidt, Michael W I

    2014-05-01

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) decomposes on centennial timescale in soils, but the processes regulating its decay are poorly understood. We conducted one of the first studies of PyOM and wood decomposition in a temperate forest using isotopically labeled organic substrate, and quantified microbial incorporation and physico-chemical transformations of PyOM in situ. Stable-isotope (¹³C and ¹⁵N) enriched PyOM and its precursor wood were added to the soil at 2 cm depth at ambient (N0) and increased (N+) levels of nitrogen fertilization. The carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) of added PyOM or wood were tracked through soil to 15 cm depth, in physically separated soil density fractions and in benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCA) molecular markers. After 10 months in situ, more PyOM-derived C (>99% of initial 13C-PyOM) and N (90% of initial ¹⁵N-PyOM) was recovered than wood derived C (48% of 13C-wood) and N(89% under N0 and 48% under N+). PyOM-C and wood-C migrated at the rate of 126 mm yr ⁻¹ with 3-4% of PyOMC and 4-8% of wood-C recovered below the application depth. Most PyOM C was recovered in the free light fraction(fLF) (74%), with 20% in aggregate-occluded and 6% in mineral associated fractions – fractions that typically have much slower turnover times. In contrast, wood C was recovered mainly in occluded (33%) or dense fraction (27%).PyOM addition induced loss of native C from soil (priming effect), particularly in fLF (13%). The total BPCA-C content did not change but after 10 months the degree of aromatic condensation of PyOM decreased, as determined by relative contribution of benzene hexa-carboxylic acid (B6CA) to the total BPCA C. Soil microbial biomass assimilated 6-10% of C from the wood, while PyOM contributions was negligible (0.14–0.18%). The addition of N had no effect on the dynamics of PyOM while limited effect on wood. PMID:25544969

  15. Disentangling controls on mineral-stabilized soil organic matter using a slurry incubation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavallee, J. M.; Cotrufo, M. F.; Paul, E. A.; Conant, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    Mineral-stabilized organic matter (OM) is the largest and oldest pool of soil carbon and nitrogen. Mineral stabilization limits OM availability to soil microbes, preventing its decomposition and prolonging its turnover. Thus, understanding controls on the decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM is key to understanding soil carbon and nitrogen dynamics. The very slow turnover of mineral-stabilized OM makes it challenging to study in a typical incubation, and as a result, many potential controls (temperature, OM chemistry, and mineralogy) on its turnover remain unclear. We aimed to better understand controls on decomposition of mineral-stabilized OM by employing a slurry incubation technique, which speeds up microbial processing of OM by maximizing OM accessibility to microbes. In a slurry incubation, we expect that any OM that is not stabilized on mineral surfaces will be available for decomposition and will be converted to CO2. Using this technique, we studied the interactive effects of incubation temperature, plant material type (aboveground vs. belowground), and soil fraction (silt vs. clay) on CO2 efflux and OM stabilization. We separated silt-sized and clay-sized fractions from an agricultural soil, added aboveground or belowground plant material to each, and incubated them at 15°C, 25°C and 35°C. The added plant material was isotopically labeled (13C and 15N), which allowed us to trace it through the system and distinguish between the responses of the new (derived from the plant material) and old (derived from what was already present in the silt and clay) OM to warming. We measured CO2 efflux and 13CO2 efflux throughout the incubation. We performed one short-term harvest at day 6 and one final harvest at day 60. Initial results show higher cumulative CO2 efflux at warmer temperatures regardless of plant material type or soil fraction. A larger fraction of that CO2 came from OM that was initially present in the silt and clay, rather than from the plant

  16. Sensitivity to the satiating effects of Exendin 4 is decreased in obesity-prone Osborne-Mendel rats compared to obesity-resistant S5B/Pl rats

    PubMed Central

    Primeaux, Stefany D.; Barnes, Maria J.; Braymer, H. Douglas; Bray, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats are prone to obesity when fed a high fat diet, while S5B/Pl (S5B) rats are resistant to diet-induced obesity when fed the same diet. OM rats have a decreased satiation response to fatty acids infused in the gastrointestinal tract, compared to S5B rats. One possible explanation is that OM rats are less sensitive to the satiating hormone, glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). GLP-1 is produced in the small intestine and is released in response to a meal. The current experiments examined the role of GLP-1 in OM and S5B rats. Methods Experiment 1 examined preproglucagon mRNA expression in the ileum of OM and S5B rats fed a high fat (55% kcal) or low fat (10% kcal) diet. Experiment 2 investigated the effects of a 2h high fat meal following a 24h fast in OM and S5B rats on circulating GLP-1 (active) levels. Experiment 3 examined the effects of Exendin-4 (GLP-1 receptor agonist) administration on the intake of a high fat or a low fat diet in OM and S5B rats. Results Preproglucagon mRNA levels were increased in the ileum of OM rats compared to S5B rats and were increased by high fat diet in OM and S5B rats. OM and S5B rats exhibited a similar meal-initiated increase in circulating GLP-1 (active) levels. Exendin-4 dose-dependently decreased food intake to a greater extent in S5B rats, compared to OM rats. The intake of low fat diet, compared to the intake of high fat diet, was more sensitive to the effects of Exendin-4 in these strains. Conclusions These results suggest that though OM and S5B rats have similar preproglucagon mRNA expression in the ileum and circulating GLP-1 levels, OM rats are less sensitive to the satiating effects of GLP-1. Therefore, dysregulation of the GLP-1 system may be a mechanism through which OM rats overeat and gain weight. PMID:20404826

  17. Effects of aeration rate on degradation process of oil palm empty fruit bunch with kinetic-dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of different aeration rates on the organic matter (OM) degradation during the active phase of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)-rabbit manure co-composting process under constant forced-aeration system has been studied. Four different aeration rates, 0.13 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.49 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) and 0.74 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) were applied. 0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) provided enough oxygen level (10%) for the rest of composting period, showing 40.5% of OM reduction that is better than other aeration rates. A dynamic mathematical model describing OM degradation, based on the ratio between OM content and initial OM content with correction functions of moisture content, free air space, oxygen and temperature has been proposed.

  18. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Theory, Implementation, and Parameters

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core–valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets. PMID:26771204

  19. Mucin Production and Mucous Cell Metaplasia in Otitis Media

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Jizhen; Caye-Thomasen, Per; Tono, Tetsuya; Zhang, Quan-An; Nakamura, Yoshihisa; Feng, Ling; Huang, Jianmin; Ye, Shengnan; Hu, Xiaohua; Kerschner, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) with mucoid effusion, characterized by mucous cell metaplasia/hyperplasia in the middle ear cleft and thick fluid accumulation in the middle ear cavity, is a subtype of OM which frequently leads to chronic OM in young children. Multiple factors are involved in the developmental process of OM with mucoid effusion, especially disorders of mucin production resulting from middle ear bacterial infection and Eustachian tube dysfunction. In this review, we will focus on several aspects of this disorder by analyzing the cellular and molecular events such as mucin production and mucous cell differentiation in the middle ear mucosa with OM. In addition, infectious agents, mucin production triggers, and relevant signaling pathways will be discussed. PMID:22685463

  20. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Theory, Implementation, and Parameters.

    PubMed

    Dral, Pavlo O; Wu, Xin; Spörkel, Lasse; Koslowski, Axel; Weber, Wolfgang; Steiger, Rainer; Scholten, Mirjam; Thiel, Walter

    2016-03-01

    Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core-valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets.

  1. NMR spectroscopic study of the carbon and nitrogen dynamics of grass-derived pyrogenic organic material during 2.3 years of incubation in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilscher, André; Knicker, Heike

    2010-05-01

    Incomplete combustion of vegetation results in pyrogenic organic material (PyOM) which occurs ubiquitously in soils and sediments. To understand the C sequestration potential of PyOM in environmental systems knowledge is required about the respective degradation and humification mechanisms and the stability of the different chemical PyOM structures. The present study focuses on the microbial recalcitrance of PyOM on molecular scale. Therefore, microcosms incubation experiments were performed using PyOM produced from highly isotopically enriched 13C and 15N rye grass (Lolium perenne) at 350°C under oxic conditions for one (1M) and four minutes (4M). Solid-state CPMAS 13C and 15N NMR studies were accomplished to obtain insights into the involved humification mechanisms at different stages the PyOM degradation. In total up to 38% of the bulk PyOM C was mineralised during the 28 months of incubation. The O/N-alkyl C and alkyl C residues which survived the charring process were effectively decomposed. At the end of the incubation up to 73% and 57% of the initial O/N-alkyl C and alkyl C amount were mineralised or converted to other C groups, respectively. The total aryl C group recovery of the PyOM decreased significantly during the 28 months of incubation (P ≤ 0.001). After 20 months of incubation between 26% and 40% of the initial aryl C amount was lost. For this group, relative short half time periods in the range of 3.0 and 3.8 years were obtained. The observed loss of aromatic C structures may be attributed to two simultaneous processes, the mineralisation to CO2 and the conversion to other C groups by partial oxidation. The presence of a readily decomposable co-substrate showed no significant changes in the degradation pattern of the different PyOM, possibly because decomposable sources were already available in the starting PyOM. Most of the organic bound N of the fresh PyOM was assignable to heterocyclic aromatic compounds such as pyrrole and indole

  2. Omeprazole Alleviates Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom-Induced Acute Nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lianmei; Zhang, Hongbing; Li, Chunying; Yi, Yan; Liu, Jing; Zhao, Yong; Tian, Jingzhuo; Zhang, Yushi; Wei, Xiaolu; Gao, Yue; Liang, Aihua

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is a member of the Aristolochiaceae family and is a well-known cause of aristolochic acid (AA) nephropathy. In this study, we investigated the potential of omeprazole (OM) to alleviate AMK-induced nephrotoxicity. We found that OM reduced mouse mortality caused by AMK and attenuated AMK-induced acute nephrotoxicity in rats. OM enhanced hepatic Cyp 1a1/2 and renal Cyp 1a1 expression in rats, as well as CYP 1A1 expression in human renal tubular epithelial cells (HKCs). HKCs with ectopic CYP 1A1 expression were more tolerant to AA than the control cells. Therefore, OM may alleviate AMK-mediated acute nephrotoxicity through induction of CYP 1A1. We suggest that the coadministration of OM might be beneficial for reducing of AA-induced nephrotoxicity. PMID:27716846

  3. A synthetic triacylated pseudo-dipeptide molecule promotes Th1/TReg immune responses and enhances tolerance induction via the sublingual route.

    PubMed

    Mascarell, Laurent; Van Overtvelt, Laurence; Lombardi, Vincent; Razafindratsita, Alain; Moussu, Hélène; Horiot, Stéphane; Chabre, Henri; Limal, David; Moutel, Stéphane; Bauer, Jacques; Chiavaroli, Carlo; Moingeon, Philippe

    2007-12-21

    In this study, we tested two triacylated pseudo-dipeptidic molecules, OM-197-MP-AC and OM-294-BA-MP as candidate adjuvants for allergy vaccines. Both molecules induce human dendritic cell (h-DC) maturation and polarize naïve T cells toward the Th1 type with IFNgamma production. Only OM-294-BA-MP induces IL10 gene expression both in monocyte-derived DCs and CD4+ naïve T cells. Sublingual administration of OM-294-BA-MP plus the antigen enhances tolerance induction in BALB/c mice with established asthma to ovalbumin with an impact on both airways hyperresponsiveness and lung inflammation. Given its Th1/Treg polarizing properties, OM-294-BA-MP is a valid candidate for sublingual allergy vaccines.

  4. Effects of aeration rate on degradation process of oil palm empty fruit bunch with kinetic-dynamic modeling.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmad Tarmezee; Mokhtar, Mohd Noriznan; Baharuddin, Azhari Samsu; Sulaiman, Alawi

    2014-10-01

    The effect of different aeration rates on the organic matter (OM) degradation during the active phase of oil palm empty fruit bunch (EFB)-rabbit manure co-composting process under constant forced-aeration system has been studied. Four different aeration rates, 0.13 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1),0.49 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) and 0.74 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) were applied. 0.26 L min(-1) kg(DM)(-1) provided enough oxygen level (10%) for the rest of composting period, showing 40.5% of OM reduction that is better than other aeration rates. A dynamic mathematical model describing OM degradation, based on the ratio between OM content and initial OM content with correction functions of moisture content, free air space, oxygen and temperature has been proposed. PMID:25079208

  5. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering system failure detection and identification software requirements (uncontrolled)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Damario, L. A.; Vullo, J. P.

    1976-01-01

    Candidate designs and their software implementation are presented for the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) Failure Detection and Identification (FDI) algorithms in the Redundance Management (RM) module of the Space Shuttle Guidance, Navigation, and Control (GN&C) software. The OMS engine FDI algorithm monitors OMS engine thrust performance, and the OMS actuator FDI algorithm monitors OMS gimbal actuator performance. The software functional requirements of the algorithms are described along with the objective of each algorithm. A list of the assumptions which have governed its design, input/output requirements, a functional description of the algorithm (including a functional block diagram), and input interface requirements are given. The HAL (the language of the space shuttle flight computer) software formulation of the algorithms is considered including structured flowcharts of the procedures, estimates of flight computer core storage and CPU time, and processing requirements. A glossary of the symbols used to define the software requirements and formulations is included.

  6. Semiempirical Quantum-Chemical Orthogonalization-Corrected Methods: Theory, Implementation, and Parameters.

    PubMed

    Dral, Pavlo O; Wu, Xin; Spörkel, Lasse; Koslowski, Axel; Weber, Wolfgang; Steiger, Rainer; Scholten, Mirjam; Thiel, Walter

    2016-03-01

    Semiempirical orthogonalization-corrected methods (OM1, OM2, and OM3) go beyond the standard MNDO model by explicitly including additional interactions into the Fock matrix in an approximate manner (Pauli repulsion, penetration effects, and core-valence interactions), which yields systematic improvements both for ground-state and excited-state properties. In this Article, we describe the underlying theoretical formalism of the OMx methods and their implementation in full detail, and we report all relevant OMx parameters for hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, and fluorine. For a standard set of mostly organic molecules commonly used in semiempirical method development, the OMx results are found to be superior to those from standard MNDO-type methods. Parametrized Grimme-type dispersion corrections can be added to OM2 and OM3 energies to provide a realistic treatment of noncovalent interaction energies, as demonstrated for the complexes in the S22 and S66×8 test sets. PMID:26771204

  7. Human Olfactory Mucosa Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Promote Survival, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Ayala-Grosso, Carlos; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda

    2012-01-01

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors. OM-MSCs share phenotypic and functional properties with bone marrow (BM) MSCs, which constitute fundamental components of the hematopoietic niche. In this work, we investigated whether human OM-MSCs may promote the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). For this purpose, human bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-cultured with OM-MSCs in the absence of exogenous cytokines. At different intervals, nonadherent cells (NACs) were harvested from BMC/OM-MSC co-cultures, and examined for the expression of blood cell markers by flow cytometry. OM-MSCs supported the survival (cell viability >90%) and proliferation of BMCs, after 54 days of co-culture. At 20 days of co-culture, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses showed a high percentage (73%) of cells expressing the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, and the presence of cells of myeloid origin, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. Likewise, T (CD3), B (CD19), and NK (CD56/CD16) cells were detected in the NAC fraction. Colony-forming unit–granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors and CD34+ cells were found, at 43 days of co-culture. Reverse transcriptase–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that OM-MSCs constitutively express early and late-acting hematopoietic cytokines (i.e., stem cell factor [SCF] and granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). These results constitute the first evidence that OM-MSCs may provide an in vitro microenvironment for HSCs. The capacity of OM-MSCs to support the survival and differentiation of HSCs may be related with the capacity of OM-MSCs to produce hematopoietic cytokines. PMID:22471939

  8. Rapid organic matter sulfurization in sinking particles from the Cariaco Basin water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, Morgan Reed; Sessions, Alex L.; Adkins, Jess F.; Thunell, Robert C.

    2016-10-01

    Organic matter (OM) burial in marine sediments is a potentially important control on global climate and the long-term redox state of the earth's surface. Still, we have only a limited understanding of the processes that stabilize OM and facilitate its preservation in the geologic record. Abiotic reactions with (poly)sulfides can enhance the preservation potential of OM, but for this process to be significant it needs to compete with OM remineralization, the majority of which occurs before sinking particles reach the sea floor. Here we investigate whether OM sulfurization occurs within sinking particles in the Cariaco Basin, a modern sulfidic marine environment with high rates of OM burial. Proto-kerogen in sinking particles is frequently more sulfur-rich and 34S-depleted than expectations for biomass, with a composition that is difficult to explain by mixing with resuspended or terrigenous material. Instead, it appears that sulfur is being incorporated into OM on a timescale of days in sinking particles. The flux of this abiogenic organic S from particles is equivalent to approximately two-thirds of the total amount of proto-kerogen S at 10 cm depth in underlying sediments (ODP Core 1002B); after 6000 years of more gradual sulfurization reactions, potential water column sources are still equivalent to nearly half of the total proto-kerogen S in Cariaco sediments. Water column sulfurization is most extensive during periods of upwelling and high primary productivity and appears to involve elemental S, possibly via polysulfides. This process has the potential to deliver large amounts of OM to the sediments by making it less available for remineralization, generating OM-rich deposits. It represents a potentially dynamic sink in the global carbon cycle that can respond to changes in environmental conditions, including the size and intensity of O2-depleted environments. Water column OM sulfurization could also have played a more significant role in the carbon cycle

  9. Stability of Ferrihydrite and Organic Matter in Ferrihydrite-Organic Matter Associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eusterhues, K.; Totsche, K. U.

    2015-12-01

    Iron oxides can bind particularly large amounts of organic matter (OM) and seem to be an important control on OM storage in many soils. To better understand the interactions between Fe oxides and OM, we produced ferrihydrite-OM associations by adsorption and coprecipitation in laboratory experiments. Because ferrihydrites are often formed in OM-rich solutions, we assume that coprecipitation is a common process in nature. In contrast to adsorption on pre-existing ferrihydrite surfaces, coprecipitation involves adsorption, occlusion (physical entrapment of OM), formation of Fe-OM complexes, and poisoning of ferrihydrite growth. The reactivity of coprecipitates may therefore differ from ferriydrites with adsorbed OM. Incubation experiments with an inoculum extracted from a Podzol forest-floor were carried out to quantify the mineralization of the adsorbed and coprecipitated organic matter. These experiments showed that the association with ferrihydrite stabilized the associated organic matter, but that differences in the degradability of adsorbed and coprecipitated organic matter were small. We therefore conclude that coprecipitation does not lead to a significant formation of microbial inaccessible organic matter domains. Microbial reduction experiments were performed using Geobacter bremensis. We observed that increasing amounts of associated OM led to decreasing initial reaction rates and a decreasing degree of dissolution. Reduction of coprecipitated ferrihydrites was faster than reduction of ferrihydrites with adsorbed OM. Our data demonstrate that the association with ferrihydrite can effectively stabilize labile polysaccharides. Vice versa, these polysaccharides may protect ferrihydrite from reduction by Geobacter-like bacteria. However, a challenge for future studies will be to link formation and degradation of mineral-organic associations to natural porous systems, that is, to the complex interplay of mass transport and microbial distribution in the

  10. The leptospiral outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Haake, David A; Zückert, Wolfram R

    2015-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) is the front line of leptospiral interactions with their environment and the mammalian host. Unlike most invasive spirochetes, pathogenic leptospires must be able to survive in both free-living and host-adapted states. As organisms move from one set of environmental conditions to another, the OM must cope with a series of conflicting challenges. For example, the OM must be porous enough to allow nutrient uptake, yet robust enough to defend the cell against noxious substances. In the host, the OM presents a surface decorated with adhesins and receptors for attaching to, and acquiring, desirable host molecules such as the complement regulator, Factor H.Factor H. On the other hand, the OM must enable leptospires to evade detection by the host's immune system on their way from sites of invasion through the bloodstream to the protected niche of the proximal tubule. The picture that is emerging of the leptospiral OM is that, while it shares many of the characteristics of the OMs of spirochetes and Gram-negative bacteria, it is also unique and different in ways that make it of general interest to microbiologists. For example, unlike most other pathogenic spirochetes, the leptospiral OM is rich in lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Leptospiral LPS is similar to that of Gram-negative bacteria but has a number of unique structural features that may explain why it is not recognized by the LPS-specific Toll-like receptor 4 of humans. As in other spirochetes, lipoproteins are major components of the leptospiral OM, though their roles are poorly understood. The functions of transmembrane outer membrane proteins (OMPs) in many cases are better understood, thanks to homologies with their Gram-negative counterparts and the emergence of improved genetic techniques. This chapter will review recent discoveries involving the leptospiral OM and its role in leptospiral physiology and pathogenesis.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness analysis of Recovery Management Checkups (RMC) for adults with chronic substance use disorders: evidence from a four-year randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    McCollister, Kathryn E.; French, Michael T.; Freitas, Derek M.; Dennis, Michael L.; Scott, Christy K.; Funk, Rodney R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims This study performs the first cost-effectiveness analysis (CEA) of Recovery Management Checkups (RMC) for adults with chronic substance use disorders. Design Cost-effectiveness analysis of a randomized clinical trial of RMC. Participants were randomly assigned to a control condition of outcome monitoring (OM-only) or the experimental condition OM-plus-RMC, with quarterly follow-up for four years. Setting Participants were recruited from the largest central intake unit for substance abuse treatment in Chicago, Illinois, USA. Participants 446 participants who were 38 years old on average, 54 percent male, and predominantly African American (85%). Measurements Data on the quarterly cost per participant come from a previous study of OM and RMC intervention costs. Effectiveness is measured as the number of days of abstinence and number of substance-use-related problems. Findings Over the four-year trial, OM-plus-RMC cost on average $2,184 more than OM-only (p<0.01). Participants in OM-plus-RMC averaged 1,026 days abstinent and had 89 substance-use-related problems. OM-only averaged 932 days abstinent and reported 126 substance-use-related problems. Mean differences for both effectiveness measures were statistically significant (p<0.01). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio for OM-plus-RMC was $23.38 per day abstinent and $59.51 per reduced substance-related problem. When additional costs to society were factored into the analysis, OM-plus-RMC was less costly and more effective than OM-only. Conclusions Recovery Management Checkups are a cost-effective and potentially cost-saving strategy for promoting abstinence and reducing substance-use-related problems among chronic substance users. PMID:23961833

  12. Prevalence and characteristics of gastroesophageal reflux in children with otitis media in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Abtahi, Seyed Hamidreza; Kazerooni, Azadeh; Brejis, Nezamodin; Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Saneian, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Background: Otitis media (OM) is the most common cause of childhood hearing loss and reason to visit the pediatrician. Furthermore, gastroesophageal reflux (GER) has been associated with a variety of upper aerodigestive tract symptoms or diseases, such as sinusitis, laryngitis, and otits. The objective of the present study was to determine the frequency of GER in children, aged 3 months to 7 years, with OM. Materials and Methods: This retrospective case-control study was conducted on 50 children with OM and 50 healthy children. Presence of GER as the main variables was diagnosed by clinical examination in all studied children using the questionnaires with 2 age-stratified versions of the pediatric GER disease symptoms for children 2 years old and younger, and children 3–7 years old. Results: The prevalence of GER in children with OM and controls was 58% and 22% respectively (P = 0.0005). The frequency of irritability, congestion, and feeding complex in children with OM were significantly more than in control groups. Among children with recurrent acute OM (AOM), and chronic serous OM (CSOM) the prevalence of GER was significantly more than controls (61.1%, vs. 22% for AOM, P = 0.004, and 72.7% vs. 22%, P= 0.003). In children with AOM, regurgitation, vomiting, irritability and congestion were significantly higher than controls included. In children with CSOM, regurgitation, vomiting, and congestion were significantly higher than controls. Conclusion: Results show a significant association between GER and OM, AOM and CSOM in children with OM compares to healthy children. This shows that looking for GER in children with OM may help improving treatments outcomes. PMID:27274496

  13. Linking Intra-Aggregate Pore Size Distribution with Organic Matter Decomposition Status, Evidence from FTIR and X-Ray Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toosi, E. R.; Quigley, M.; Kravchenko, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    It has been reported that conversion of intensively cultivated lands to less disturbed systems enhances soil OM storage capacity, primarily through OM stabilization in macroaggregates. We hypothesized that the potential for OM stabilization inside macro-aggregates is influenced by presence and abundance of intra-aggregate pores. Pores determine microbial access to OM and regulate diffusion of solution/gases within aggregates which drives microbial functioning. We investigated the influence of longterm disturbance intensity on soil OM composition and its relation to pore size distribution within macroaggregates. We used quantitative FTIR to determine OM decomposition status and X-ray micro-tomography to assess pore size distribution in macroaggregates as affected by management and landuse. Macroaggregates 4-6 mm in size where selected from topsoil under long term conventional tillage (CT), cover-crop (CC), and native succession vegetation (NS) treatments at Kellogg Biological Station, Michigan. Comparison of main soil OM functional groups suggested that with increasing disturbance intensity, the proportion of aromatic and carboxylic/carbohydrates associated compounds increased and it was concomitant with a decrease in the proportion of aliphatic associated compounds and lignin derivatives. Further, FTIR-based decomposition indices revealed that overall decomposition status of macroaggregates followed the pattern of CT > CC ≈ NS. X-ray micro-tomography findings suggested that greater OM decomposition within the macroaggregates was associated with i) greater percent of pores >13 micron in size within the aggregates, as well as ii) greater proportion of small to medium pores (13-110 micron). The results develop previous findings, suggesting that shift in landuse or management indirectly affects soil OM stabilization through alteration of pore size distribution within macroaggregates that itself, is coupled with OM decomposition status.

  14. DRIFT spectroscopic study of diagenetic organic-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingli; Cai, Jingong; Song, Guoqi; Ji, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Thermo diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy was used to study the diagenetic organic-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China. The results indicated that aliphatic organic matter (OM) represented the most prominent organic functional groups in the spectra, with two CH2 stretching vibrations at approximately 2926 cm-1 and 2852 cm-1. The peak areas of these vibrations correlated well with the amount of total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the OM evolution may be represented by the variation in CH2 with depth. Infrared spectra obtained from samples that were heated to 105 °C, 250 °C and 550 °C suggest that the aliphatic OM consists of two fractions: combined OM and free OM. The former was more stable between 250 °C and 550 °C. This phenomenon was correlated with the H2O stretching vibration near 3300 cm-1, indicating that this OM was bonded to the clay via H2O bridges. The location of the broad H2O stretching band gradually shifted with depth from 3298 cm-1 to a higher wavenumber of 3305 cm-1, whereas the corresponding bending band shifted rapidly from 1640 cm-1 to 1605 cm-1, indicating a weakening of the hydrogen bond and a decrease in the combined OM fraction. The correlation between the diagenetic smectite illitization and the decrease in the amount of combined OM leads to the conclusion that the smectite illitization may be a driving force for the OM desorption. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the thermo-DRIFT approach for exploring diagenetic OM-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks.

  15. DRIFT spectroscopic study of diagenetic organic-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingli; Cai, Jingong; Song, Guoqi; Ji, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Thermo diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy was used to study the diagenetic organic-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China. The results indicated that aliphatic organic matter (OM) represented the most prominent organic functional groups in the spectra, with two CH2 stretching vibrations at approximately 2926 cm(-1) and 2852 cm(-1). The peak areas of these vibrations correlated well with the amount of total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the OM evolution may be represented by the variation in CH2 with depth. Infrared spectra obtained from samples that were heated to 105 °C, 250 °C and 550 °C suggest that the aliphatic OM consists of two fractions: combined OM and free OM. The former was more stable between 250 °C and 550 °C. This phenomenon was correlated with the H2O stretching vibration near 3300 cm(-1), indicating that this OM was bonded to the clay via H2O bridges. The location of the broad H2O stretching band gradually shifted with depth from 3298 cm(-1) to a higher wavenumber of 3305 cm(-1), whereas the corresponding bending band shifted rapidly from 1640 cm(-1) to 1605 cm(-1), indicating a weakening of the hydrogen bond and a decrease in the combined OM fraction. The correlation between the diagenetic smectite illitization and the decrease in the amount of combined OM leads to the conclusion that the smectite illitization may be a driving force for the OM desorption. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the thermo-DRIFT approach for exploring diagenetic OM-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks.

  16. DRIFT spectroscopic study of diagenetic organic-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks.

    PubMed

    Li, Yingli; Cai, Jingong; Song, Guoqi; Ji, Junfeng

    2015-09-01

    Thermo diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy was used to study the diagenetic organic-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks from the Dongying Depression, Bohai Bay Basin, China. The results indicated that aliphatic organic matter (OM) represented the most prominent organic functional groups in the spectra, with two CH2 stretching vibrations at approximately 2926 cm(-1) and 2852 cm(-1). The peak areas of these vibrations correlated well with the amount of total organic carbon (TOC), indicating that the OM evolution may be represented by the variation in CH2 with depth. Infrared spectra obtained from samples that were heated to 105 °C, 250 °C and 550 °C suggest that the aliphatic OM consists of two fractions: combined OM and free OM. The former was more stable between 250 °C and 550 °C. This phenomenon was correlated with the H2O stretching vibration near 3300 cm(-1), indicating that this OM was bonded to the clay via H2O bridges. The location of the broad H2O stretching band gradually shifted with depth from 3298 cm(-1) to a higher wavenumber of 3305 cm(-1), whereas the corresponding bending band shifted rapidly from 1640 cm(-1) to 1605 cm(-1), indicating a weakening of the hydrogen bond and a decrease in the combined OM fraction. The correlation between the diagenetic smectite illitization and the decrease in the amount of combined OM leads to the conclusion that the smectite illitization may be a driving force for the OM desorption. This study demonstrates the usefulness of the thermo-DRIFT approach for exploring diagenetic OM-clay interactions in argillaceous source rocks. PMID:25879983

  17. Impact of the conversion of mangroves into aquaculture ponds on the sedimentary organic matter composition in a tidal flat estuary (Hainan Island, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Hongyan; Wu, Ying; Unger, Daniela; Du, Jinzhou; Herbeck, Lucia S.; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    A sediment core was collected from an estuarine tidal mudflat off a mangrove area to study the impact of land-use change on sedimentary organic matter (OM) in Hainan Island, South China. Bulk properties (organic carbon (OC%), total nitrogen (TN%), stable organic carbon isotopes (δ13Corg) and stable nitrogen isotopes (δ15N)) as well as biomarkers (amino acids (AA) and lignin phenols) were used to trace the sources of OM. The average value of OC% was 0.63±0.07% and TN% was 0.054±0.006%. The molar ratio of organic carbon and total nitrogen (C/N ratio) was 11-17 and the δ13Corg values ranged from -23‰ to -25‰, which suggested a mixture of aquatic OM and terrigenous OM. The ratio of AA to lignin phenols (AA/lignin) also confirmed that aquatic OM must be considered as an important source of OM. Lower C/N and elevated δ15N in the upper core was caused by the increased OM input from aquaculture ponds and/or sewage during recent decades. The higher degree of lignin phenol degradation and its relatively lower concentrations in the upper sediment core suggests reduced input of OM from fresh mangrove plant tissue. A three end-member model based on δ13Corg and δ15N quantified the contribution of OM from each source (i.e., mangrove plants, marine phytoplankton and aquaculture ponds). The results showed that the input from aquaculture increased from <5% in pre-1970 period to around 30% during the past 40 years, and the contribution from mangrove forest decreased from >30% to around 5%, accordingly. This finding is consistent with the land-use change in the study area over the past decades. Our results suggested that because of the degradation of mangrove forests and increase of aquaculture, more anthropogenic OM would be transported to the coastal sea.

  18. Ovarian Ecdysteroidogenesis in Both Immature and Mature Stages of an Acari, Ornithodoros moubata

    PubMed Central

    Ogihara, Mari Horigane; Hikiba, Juri; Suzuki, Yutaka; Taylor, DeMar; Kataoka, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Ecdysteroidogenesis is essential for arthropod development and reproduction. Although the importance of ecdysteroids has been demonstrated, there is little information on the sites and enzymes for synthesis of ecdysteroids from Chelicerates. Ecdysteroid functions have been well studied in the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata, making this species an excellent candidate for elucidating ecdysteroidogenesis in Chelicerates. Results showed that O. moubata has at least two ecdysteroidogenic enzymes, Spook (OmSpo) and Shade (OmShd). RNAi showed both enzymes were required for ecdysteroidogenesis. Enzymatic assays demonstrated OmShd has the conserved functions of ecdysone 20-hydroxylase. OmSpo showed specific expression in the ovaries of final nymphal and adult stages, indicating O. moubata utilizes the ovary as an ecdysteroidogenic tissue instead of specific tissues as seen in other arthropods. On the other hand, OmShd expression was observed in various tissues including the midgut, indicating functional ecdysteroids can be produced in these tissues. In nymphal stages, expression of both OmSpo and OmShd peaked before molting corresponding with high ecdysteroid titers in the hemolymph. In fed adult females, OmSpo expression peaked at 8–10 days after engorgement, while OmShd expression peaked immediately after engorgement. Mated females showed more frequent surges of OmShd than virgin females. These results indicate that the regulation of synthesis of ecdysteroids differs in nymphs and adult females, and mating modifies adult female ecdysteroidogenesis. This is the first report to focus on synthesis of ecdysteroids in ticks and provides essential knowledge for understanding the evolution of ecdysteroidogenesis in arthropods. PMID:25915939

  19. Oral mucositis in pediatric patients undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: clinical outcomes in a context of specialized oral care using low-level laser therapy.

    PubMed

    Eduardo, Fernanda de Paula; Bezinelli, Leticia Mello; de Carvalho, Danielle Lima Corrêa; Lopes, Roberta Marques da Graça; Fernandes, Juliana Folloni; Brumatti, Melina; Vince, Carolina Sgaroni Camargo; de Azambuja, Alessandra Milani Prandini; Vogel, Cristina; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Correa, Luciana

    2015-05-01

    OM is a painful inflammatory condition of the oral mucosa, derived from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiotherapy. High OM severity is frequently present in HSCT pediatric patients, who exhibit multiple painful ulcers that limit their mastication and swallowing, leading to poor nutritional status. Few studies have demonstrated OM clinical outcomes in young patients undergoing HSCT. Feasibility of oral care and LLLT on OM prophylaxis and treatment is also poorly discussed. The aim of this study was to describe a specialized oral care protocol that included LLLT for pediatric patients undergoing transplantation and to demonstrate the clinical outcomes after OM prevention and treatment. Data from OM-related morbidity were collected from 51 HSCT pediatric patients treated daily with LLLT, followed by standard oral care protocols. All the patients, even infants and young children, accepted the daily oral care and LLLT well. The majority (80.0%) only exhibited erythema in the oral mucosa, and the maximum OM degree was WHO II. Patients who had undergone autologous and HLA-haploidentical transplants showed OM with the lowest severity. The frequency of total body irradiation and methotrexate prescriptions was higher in adolescents when compared with infants (p = 0.044), and adolescents also exhibited OM more severely than infants and young children. We found that good clinical outcomes were obtained using this therapy, mainly in regard to the control of OM severity and pain reduction in the oral cavity. Specialized oral care, including LLLT, is feasible and affordable for HSCT pediatric patients, although some adaptation in the patient's oral hygiene routine must be adopted with help from parents/companions and clinical staff.

  20. Human olfactory mucosa multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells promote survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Solano, Dylana; Wittig, Olga; Ayala-Grosso, Carlos; Pieruzzini, Rosalinda; Cardier, Jose E

    2012-11-20

    Multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from the human olfactory mucosa (OM) are cells that have been proposed as a niche for neural progenitors. OM-MSCs share phenotypic and functional properties with bone marrow (BM) MSCs, which constitute fundamental components of the hematopoietic niche. In this work, we investigated whether human OM-MSCs may promote the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). For this purpose, human bone marrow cells (BMCs) were co-cultured with OM-MSCs in the absence of exogenous cytokines. At different intervals, nonadherent cells (NACs) were harvested from BMC/OM-MSC co-cultures, and examined for the expression of blood cell markers by flow cytometry. OM-MSCs supported the survival (cell viability >90%) and proliferation of BMCs, after 54 days of co-culture. At 20 days of co-culture, flow cytometric and microscopic analyses showed a high percentage (73%) of cells expressing the pan-leukocyte marker CD45, and the presence of cells of myeloid origin, including polymorphonuclear leukocytes, monocytes, basophils, eosinophils, erythroid cells, and megakaryocytes. Likewise, T (CD3), B (CD19), and NK (CD56/CD16) cells were detected in the NAC fraction. Colony-forming unit-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM) progenitors and CD34(+) cells were found, at 43 days of co-culture. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) studies showed that OM-MSCs constitutively express early and late-acting hematopoietic cytokines (i.e., stem cell factor [SCF] and granulocyte- macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]). These results constitute the first evidence that OM-MSCs may provide an in vitro microenvironment for HSCs. The capacity of OM-MSCs to support the survival and differentiation of HSCs may be related with the capacity of OM-MSCs to produce hematopoietic cytokines.

  1. Clinical, biochemical and histological study of the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy on oral mucositis induced by 5-fluorouracil in hamsters.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Érika de Paula da; Campos, Luana; Pereira, Filipi da Silva; Magliano, Gabriela Campos; Benites, Bernar Monteiro; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Ballester, Rafael Yagüe; Simões, Alyne

    2015-06-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating side effect of chemotherapy, which can be relieved by phototherapy. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) may be used for the treatment of OM, when infection is present. However, there are no studies showing that aPDT affects tissue repair process when used in the treatment of lesions caused by OM. This work aims to evaluate the effect of aPDT in healing OM induced by 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU). Two hundred forty-five hamsters were divided into two groups, control (C) and experimental, which were subdivided into 4 subgroups (Ch, ChP, ChL, aPDT). C group received only the vehicle of chemotherapy and anesthesia, whereas all animals of the experimental groups received anesthesia and chemotherapy agent 5-FU to induce OM. Ch group received no OM treatment; ChP group received an application of methylene blue (MB) 0.01%; ChL received irradiation with low-power-laser (LPL-660 nm/120 J /cm(2)/40 mW/4.4 J per point); and aPDT received MB and LPL irradiation. OM Clinical severity were daily assessed by a blinded examiner. The animals were sacrificed after 5, 7 and 10 days of experiment and their oral mucosa were removed for biochemical (enzymatic activity of SOD and catalase) and histological analyzes (light microscopy). After statistical analysis was performed, results showed that aPDT reduced the severity of OM on the tenth day of the experiment, when compared to the initial OM score (p < 0.05), as well as increased keratinization with organized collagen deposition in the lamina propria. In conclusion, aPDT can be safely used in animals with infected OM because it does not affect lesion-repairing processes. PMID:25612464

  2. A Dynamic and Spatial Scaling Approach to Advection Forecasting.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seed, A. W.

    2003-03-01

    Quantitative nowcasts of rainfall are frequently based on the advection of rain fields observed by weather radar. Spectral Prognosis (S-PROG) is an advection-based nowcasting system that uses the observations that rain fields commonly exhibit both spatial and dynamic scaling properties, that is, the lifetime of a feature in the field is dependent on the scale of the feature (large features evolve more slowly than small features), and that features at all scales between the outer and inner observed scales are present in the field. The logarithm of the radar reflectivity field is disaggregated into a set or cascade of fields, in which each field in the set (or level in the cascade) represents the features of the original field over a limited range of scales. The Lagrangian temporal evolution of each level in the cascade is modeled using a simple autoregressive (lag 2) model, which automatically causes the forecast field to become smooth as the structures at the various scales evolve through their life cycles, or can be used to generate conditional simulations if the noise term is included. This paper describes the model and presents preliminary results.

  3. Sources and distribution of terrigenous organic matter delivered by the Atchafalaya River to sediments in the northern Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Elizabeth S.; Goñi, Miguel A.

    2003-07-01

    Suspended sediments (SS) from the Atchafalaya River (AR) and the Mississippi River and surficial sediment samples from seven shallow cross-shelf transects west of the AR in the northern Gulf of Mexico were examined using elemental (%OC, C/N), isotopic (δ 13C, Δ 14C), and terrigenous biomarker analyses. The organic matter (OM) delivered by the AR is isotopically enriched (˜-24.5‰) and relatively degraded, suggesting that soil-derived OM with a C4 signature is the predominant OM source for these SS. The shelf sediments display OC values that generally decrease seaward within each transect and westward, parallel to the coastline. A strong terrigenous C/N (29) signal is observed in sediments deposited close to the mouth of the river, but values along the remainder of the shelf fall within a narrow range (8-13), with no apparent offshore trends. Depleted stable carbon isotope (δ 13C) values typical of C3 plant debris (-27‰) are found near the river mouth and become more enriched (-22 to -21‰) offshore. The spatial distribution of lignin in shelf sediments mirrors that of OC, with high lignin yields found inshore relative to that found offshore (water depth > 10 m). The isotopic and biomarker data indicate that at least two types of terrigenous OM are deposited within the study area. Relatively undegraded, C3 plant debris is deposited close to the mouth of the AR, whereas more degraded, isotopically enriched, soil-derived OM appears to be deposited along the remainder of the shelf. An important input from marine carbon is found at the stations offshore from the 10-m isobath. Quantification of the terrigenous component of sedimentary OM is complicated by the heterogeneous composition of the terrigenous end-member. A three-end-member mixing model is therefore required to more accurately evaluate the sources of OM deposited in the study area. The results of the mixing calculation indicate that terrigenous OM (soil-derived OM and vascular plant debris) accounts for

  4. Secretome of Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem Cell, a Multiple Potential Stem Cell.

    PubMed

    Ge, Lite; Jiang, Miao; Duan, Da; Wang, Zijun; Qi, Linyu; Teng, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Ping; He, Xijing; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nasal olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) have the ability to promote regeneration in the nervous system in vivo. Moreover, with view to the potential for clinical application, OM-MSCs have the advantage of being easily accessible from patients and transplantable in an autologous manner, thus eliminating immune rejection and contentious ethical issues. So far, most studies have been focused on the role of OM-MSCs in central nervous system replacement. However, the secreted proteomics of OM-MSCs have not been reported yet. Here, proteins secreted by OM-MSCs cultured in serum-free conditions were separated on SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS. As a result, a total of 274 secreted proteins were identified. These molecules are known to be important in neurotrophy, angiogenesis, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and inflammation which were highly correlated with the repair of central nervous system. The proteomic profiling of the OM-MSCs secretome might provide new insights into their nature in the neural recovery. However, proteomic analysis for clinical biomarkers of OM-MSCs needs to be further studied. PMID:26949398

  5. Fatty acid content, health and risk indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts of milk from organic and conventional farming systems in tropical south-eastern Mexico.

    PubMed

    Delgadillo-Puga, Claudia; Sánchez-Muñoz, Bernardo; Nahed-Toral, José; Cuchillo-Hilario, Mario; Díaz-Martínez, Margarita; Solis-Zabaleta, Roman; Reyes-Hernández, Aurora; Castillo-Domíguez, Rosa Maria

    2014-06-01

    Organic agriculture and livestock farming is claimed to promote animal welfare and can offer animal products with better hygienic-sanitary quality, based on principles of health, ecology, fairness, and care. However, no clear advantages of organic milk (OM) versus conventional milk (CM) from tropical conditions are available. The aims of the study were to determine fatty acid profile, health-promoting (HPI) and thrombogenic (TI) indices, physicochemical composition, and somatic cell counts (SCC) of OM and CM in tropical south-eastern Mexico. Female cross-breed cows (400-600 kg) were employed. CM had larger values of saturated fatty acids (SFA) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) (63.6 %; 4.57 %) than OM (61.48 %; 4.22 %), while OM resulted in a larger value of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (34.3 %) than CM (31.7 %). HPI and TI showed that OM was more favorable than CM. Milk production and physicochemical composition (PC) as well as density had no significant difference, while SCC was significantly lower in OM than in CM on a monthly basis. These results showed that OM promotes a healthful and balanced diet, and is already produced by sustainable ecologic technologies employing traditional agrosilvopastoral management, which is more environmentally friendly and promotes ecological resilience.

  6. Spectroscopic characterisation of dissolved organic matter changes in drinking water treatment: From PARAFAC analysis to online monitoring wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Shutova, Yulia; Baker, Andy; Bridgeman, John; Henderson, Rita K

    2014-05-01

    Organic matter (OM) causes many problems in drinking water treatment. It is difficult to monitor OM concentrations and character during treatment processes due to its complexity. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a promising tool for online monitoring. In this study, a unique dataset of fluorescence excitation emission matrixes (EEMs) (n = 867) was collected from all treatment stages of five drinking water treatment plants (WTPs) situated in diverse locations from subtropical to temperate climate. The WTPs incorporated various water sources, treatment processes and OM removal efficiencies (DOC removal 0%-68%). Despite these differences, four common fluorescence PARAFAC components were identified for characterisation of OM concentration and treatability. Moreover, fluorescence component ratios showed site-specific statistically significant correlations with OM removal, which contrasted with correlations between specific UV absorbance at 254 nm (SUVA) and OM removal that were not statistically significant. This indicates that use of fluorescence spectroscopy may be a more robust alternative for predicting DOC removal than UV spectroscopy. Based on the identified fluorescence components, four optical locations were selected in order to move towards single wavelength online OM monitoring.

  7. Otitis media induced by peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PGPS) in TLR2-deficient (Tlr2−/−) mice for developing drug therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Zheng, Tihua; Sang, Lu; Apisa, Luke; Zhao, Hongchun; Fu, Fenghua; Wang, Qingzhu; Wang, Yanfei; Zheng, Qing Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling can regulate the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM). However, the precise role of TLR2 signaling in OM has not been clarified due to the lack of an optimal animal model. Peptidoglycan-polysaccharide (PGPS) of the bacterial cell wall can induce inflammation by activating the TLR2 signaling. This study aimed at examining the pathogenic characteristics of OM induced by PGPS in Tlr2−/− mice, and the potential therapeutic effect of Sodium aescinate (SA) in this model. Methods Wild-type (WT) and Tlr2−/− mice were inoculated with streptococcal PGPS into their middle ears (MEs) and treated intravenously with vehicle or SA daily beginning at 3 days prior to PGPS for 6 consecutive days. The pathologic changes of individual mice were evaluated longitudinally. Results In comparison with WT mice, Tlr2−/− mice were susceptible to PGPS-induced OM. Tlr2−/− mice displayed greater hearing loss, tympanic membrane damage, ME mucosal thickening, longer inflammation state, cilia and goblet cell loss. SA-treatment decreased neutrophil infiltration, modulated TLR2-related gene expression and improved ciliary organization. Conclusions PGPS induced a relatively stable OM in Tlr2−/− mice, providing a new model for OM research. Treatment with SA mitigated the pathogenic damage in the ME and may be valuable for intervention of OM. PMID:26296608

  8. Improved enrichment and proteomic identification of outer membrane proteins from a Gram-negative bacterium: focus on Caulobacter crescentus.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yuan; Johnson, Helen M; Bazemore-Walker, Carthene R

    2012-01-01

    Efforts to characterize proteins found in the outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria have been steadily increasing due to the promise of expanding our understanding of fundamental bacterial processes such as cell adhesion or cell wall biogenesis as well as the promise of finding potential vaccine- or drug-targets for virulent bacteria. We have developed a mass spectrometry-compatible experimental strategy that resulted in increased coverage of the OM proteome of a model organism, Caulobacter crescentus. The specificity of the OM enrichment step was improved by using detergent solubilization of the protein pellet, low-density cell culture conditions, and a surface-layer deficient cell line. Additionally, efficient gel-assisted digestion, high-resolution RP/RP-MS/MS, and rigorous bioinformatic analysis led to the identification of 234 proteins using strict identification criteria (≥ two unique peptides per protein; peptide false discovery rate <2%). Eighty-four of the detected proteins were predicted to localize to the OM or extracellular space. These results represent ~70% coverage of the predicted OM/extracellular proteome of C. crescentus. This analytical approach, which considers important experimental variables not previously explored in published OM protein studies, can be applied to other OM proteomic endeavors "as is" or with slight modification and should improve the large-scale study of this especially challenging subproteome.

  9. A comparison of the endotoxin biosynthesis and protein oxidation pathways in the biogenesis of the outer membrane of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis

    PubMed Central

    Piek, Susannah; Kahler, Charlene M.

    2012-01-01

    The Gram-negative bacterial cell envelope consists of an inner membrane (IM) that surrounds the cytoplasm and an asymmetrical outer-membrane (OM) that forms a protective barrier to the external environment. The OM consists of lipopolysaccahride (LPS), phospholipids, outer membrane proteins (OMPs), and lipoproteins. Oxidative protein folding mediated by periplasmic oxidoreductases is required for the biogenesis of the protein components, mainly constituents of virulence determinants such as pili, flagella, and toxins, of the Gram-negative OM. Recently, periplasmic oxidoreductases have been implicated in LPS biogenesis of Escherichia coli and Neisseria meningitidis. Differences in OM biogenesis, in particular the transport pathways for endotoxin to the OM, the composition and role of the protein oxidation, and isomerization pathways and the regulatory networks that control them have been found in these two Gram-negative species suggesting that although form and function of the OM is conserved, the pathways required for the biosynthesis of the OM and the regulatory circuits that control them have evolved to suit the lifestyle of each organism. PMID:23267440

  10. Additional Information for E-Area Vault Performance Assessment, Appendix I `Suspect Soil Performance` - Results of Modeling the Effects of Organic Matter on the Mobility of Radionuclides as it Relates to the Disposal of Wood Products in E-Area Slit Trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.; Myers, J.L.

    1996-04-24

    Numerous laboratory and field studies have shown that the chemical form (i.e., speciation) of many metals and radionuclides is affected by the presence of naturally occurring organic matter (OM) and its degradation products. The effects of OM (e.g., wood products) on the speciation and, therefore, the mobility of Am, Bk, Cf, Cm, Cs, Ni, NpO{sub 2}, Rb, Sr. UO{sub 2}, and Zr were estimated through use of geochemical and groundwater flow modeling. Due to the complex mixture nature of naturally occurring OM, the OM system was simplified through use of surrogate compounds (citric acid and ethylenedinitrilotetraacetic acid (EDTA)) to estimate effects of OM on radionuclide mobility. Using this approach, OM was found to have no effect on the inventory limits for Cs, NpO{sub 2}, Rb and Zr. The inventory limits for the isotopes of Am, Bk, Cf, Cm, Ni, Pd, PuO{sub 2}, Sr, and UO{sub 2} calculated in the presence of OM decreased over a range of 26 percent for U-233 to 48 percent for Pu-240. The information in this report will be included in the next revision of the E-Area Vaults Performance Assessment.

  11. Transfer representation learning for medical image analysis.

    PubMed

    Chuen-Kai Shie; Chung-Hisang Chuang; Chun-Nan Chou; Meng-Hsi Wu; Chang, Edward Y

    2015-08-01

    There are two major challenges to overcome when developing a classifier to perform automatic disease diagnosis. First, the amount of labeled medical data is typically very limited, and a classifier cannot be effectively trained to attain high disease-detection accuracy. Second, medical domain knowledge is required to identify representative features in data for detecting a target disease. Most computer scientists and statisticians do not have such domain knowledge. In this work, we show that employing transfer learning can remedy both problems. We use Otitis Media (OM) to conduct our case study. Instead of using domain knowledge to extract features from labeled OM images, we construct features based on a dataset entirely OM-irrelevant. More specifically, we first learn a codebook in an unsupervised way from 15 million images collected from ImageNet. The codebook gives us what the encoders consider being the fundamental elements of those 15 million images. We then encode OM images using the codebook and obtain a weighting vector for each OM image. Using the resulting weighting vectors as the feature vectors of the OM images, we employ a traditional supervised learning algorithm to train an OM classifier. The achieved detection accuracy is 88.5% (89.63% in sensitivity and 86.9% in specificity), markedly higher than all previous attempts, which relied on domain experts to help extract features.

  12. The Chief Role of Frontal Operational Module of the Brain Default Mode Network in the Potential Recovery of Consciousness from the Vegetative State: A Preliminary Comparison of Three Case Reports

    PubMed Central

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that complex subjective sense of self is linked to the brain default-mode network (DMN). Recent discovery of heterogeneity between distinct subnets (or operational modules - OMs) of the DMN leads to a reconceptualization of its role for the experiential sense of self. Considering the recent proposition that the frontal DMN OM is responsible for the first-person perspective and the sense of agency, while the posterior DMN OMs are linked to the continuity of ‘I’ experience (including autobiographical memories) through embodiment and localization within bodily space, we have tested in this study the hypothesis that heterogeneity in the operational synchrony strength within the frontal DMN OM among patients who are in a vegetative state (VS) could inform about a stable self-consciousness recovery later in the course of disease (up to six years post-injury). Using EEG operational synchrony analysis we have demonstrated that among the three OMs of the DMN only the frontal OM showed important heterogeneity in VS patients as a function of later stable clinical outcome. We also found that the frontal DMN OM was characterized by the process of active uncoupling (stronger in persistent VS) of operations performed by the involved neuronal assemblies. PMID:27347264

  13. [Protein-protein interactions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 with their intermediate redox partners cytochromes b5].

    PubMed

    Gnedenko, O V; Ivanov, A S; Iablokov, E O; Usanov, S A; Mukha, D V; Sergeev, G V; Kuzikov, A V; Moskaleva, N E; Bulko, T V; Shumiantseva, V V; Archakov, A I

    2014-01-01

    Molecular interactions between proteins redox partners (cytochromes P450 3A4, 3A5 and cytochrome b5) within the monooxygenase system, which is known to be involved in drug biotransformation, were investigated. Human cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) form complexes with various cytochromes b5: the microsomal (b5mc) and mitochondrial (b5om) forms of this protein, as well as with 2 "chimeric" proteins, b5(om-mc), b5(mc-om). Kinetic constants and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was only observed upon their interactions with cytochrome b5om. Electroanalytical characteristics of electrodes with immobilized hemoproteins were obtained. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, b5mc, b5om, b5(om-mc), and b5(mc-om) immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435 - -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cytochrome b5mc was shown to be capable of stimulating the electrocatalytic activity of CYP3A4 to testosterone.

  14. [Protein-protein interactions of cytochromes P450 3A4 and 3A5 with their intermediate redox partners cytochromes b5].

    PubMed

    Gnedenko, O V; Ivanov, A S; Yablokov, E O; Usanov, S A; Mukha, D V; Sergeev, G V; Kuzikov, A V; Bulko, T V; Moskaleva, N E; Shumyantseva, V V; Archakov, A I

    2015-01-01

    Molecular interactions between proteins redox partners (cytochromes Р450 3А4, 3А5 and cytochrome b5) within the monooxygenase system, which is known to be involved in drug biotransformation, were investigated. Human cytochromes Р450 3А4 and 3А5 (CYP3A4 and CYP3A5) form complexes with various cytochromes b5: the microsomal (b5mc) and mitochondrial (b5om) forms of this protein, as well as with 2 "chimeric" proteins, b5(om-mc), b5(mc-om). Kinetic constants and equilibrium dissociation constants were determined by the SPR biosensor. Essential distinction between CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 was only observed upon their interactions with cytochrome b5om. Electroanalytical characteristics of electrodes with immobilized hemoproteins were obtained. The electrochemical analysis of CYP3A4, CYP3A5, b5mc, b5om, b5(om-mc), and b5(mc-om) immobilized on screen printed graphite electrodes modified with membranous matrix revealed that these proteins have very close reduction potentials -0.435  -0.350 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). Cytochrome b5mc was shown to be capable of stimulating the electrocatalytic activity of CYP3A4 in the presence of its substrate testosterone.

  15. N-acetyl cysteine for prevention of oral mucositis in hematopoietic SCT: a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moslehi, A; Taghizadeh-Ghehi, M; Gholami, K; Hadjibabaie, M; Jahangard-Rafsanjani, Z; Sarayani, A; Javadi, M; Esfandbod, M; Ghavamzadeh, A

    2014-06-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a complication of high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) which is frequently observed in hematopoietic SCT settings. Antioxidant agents have been proposed to prevent OM and therefore N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) could have an important role. In the present study, we conducted a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study to evaluate the NAC effect on OM incidence and severity, and also glutathione peroxidase-1 activity. Leukemia patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic SCT preceded by HDC were recruited into the study and received either NAC (100 mg/kg/day) (n=38) or placebo (n=42) from the starting day of HDC until day +15 after transplantation. OM was evaluated daily for 21 days after transplantation according to World Health Organization oral toxicity scale. The incidence of severe OM (grades 3-4) was significantly lower in the NAC group (23.7% vs 45.3%, P=0.04). Moreover, the mean duration of OM was significantly shorter in the intervention group (6.24(2.96) vs 8.12(3.97) days, P=0.02). The glutathione peroxidase-1 activity was also significantly higher in the NAC group seven days after transplantation (3.38(2.19) vs 2.41(1.70) ng/mL, P=0.003). It is concluded that parenteral NAC is effective in reducing the incidence of severe cases and the total duration of OM. PMID:24614837

  16. Molecular cloning and functional analysis of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing protein 1 in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ju Hye; Kim, Hyun; Kim, Yu Jin; Cho, Ju Hyun

    2016-04-01

    NOD1 has important roles in innate immunity as sensor of microbial components derived from bacterial peptidoglycan. In this study, we identified genes encoding components of the NOD1 signaling pathway, including NOD1 (OmNOD1) and RIP2 (OmRIP2) from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and investigated whether OmNOD1 has immunomodulating activity in a rainbow trout hepatoma cell line RTH-149 treated with NOD1-specific ligand (iE-DAP). The deduced amino acid sequence of OmNOD1 contained conserved CARD, NOD and LRR domains. Loss-of-function and gain-of-function experiments indicated that OmNOD1 is involved in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Silencing of OmNOD1 in RTH-149 cells treated with iE-DAP decreased the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α. Conversely, overexpression of OmNOD1 resulted in up-regulation of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α expression. In addition, RIP2 inhibitor (gefitinib) significantly decreased the expression of these pro-inflammatory cytokines induced by iE-DAP in RTH-149 cells. These findings highlight the important role of NOD1 signaling pathway in fish in eliciting innate immune response.

  17. Characterization and comparison of adipose tissue-derived cells from human subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Mito; Matsubara, Yoshinori; Lin, Konghua; Sugimachi, Keizou; Furue, Masutaka

    2009-10-01

    Different fat depots contribute differently to disease and function. These differences may be due to the regional variation in cell types and inherent properties of fat cell progenitors. To address the differences of cell types in the adipose tissue from different depots, the phenotypes of freshly isolated adipose tissue-derived cells (ATDCs) from subcutaneous (SC) and omental (OM) adipose tissues were compared using flow cytometry. Our results showed that CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(+) population, containing vascular smooth muscle cells and pericytes, was specifically defined in the SC adipose tissue while no such population was observed in OM adipose tissue. On the other hand, CD31(-)CD34(+)CD45(-)CD90(-)CD105(-)CD146(-) population, which is an undefined cell population, were found solely in OM adipose tissue. Overall, the SC adipose tissue contained more ATDCs than OM adipose tissue, while OM adipose tissue contained more blood-derived cells. Regarding to the inherent properties of fat cell progenitors from the two depots, adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) from SC had higher capacity to differentiate into both adipogenic and osteogenic lineages than those from OM, regardless of that the proliferation rates of ADSCs from both depots were similar. The higher differentiation capacity of ADSCs from SC adipose tissue suggests that SC tissue is more suitable cell source for regenerative medicine than OM adipose tissue.

  18. Human carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a bioactivating hydrolase of olmesartan medoxomil in liver and intestine.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-04-16

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys(132) of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  19. Urbanised beaches of the Ligurian coastal area (NW Mediterranean): a classification based on organic-matter characteristics and hydrolytic enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Misic, Cristina; Covazzi Harriague, Anabella

    2013-01-01

    The beaches of Liguria have been intensively affected by human activities for over a century, transforming nearly the entire coastline from natural to urbanised and significantly upsetting beach ecological properties. The present study aims to investigate 9 Ligurian beaches characterised by different degree of urbanisation, to test if and to what extent the organic-matter (OM) recycling processes can be linked to the human activity. Swash zone sediment, sampled during the spring-summer-autumn period, when the anthropogenic influence is at its maximum due to tourism, was analysed for OM features and recycling processes. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that huge amounts of detrital OM accumulated in the more urbanised sites, where the anthropogenic influence was at its peak, deriving from higher inhabitant number and density, from the presence of crowded roads very near to the swash zone and sewage treatment plants. The presence of torrent outlets on the beaches provided further OM accumulation. Lipids, carbohydrates and degraded autotrophic pigments were the OM fractions mainly responsible of the differentiation, and rather constant, high labile phosphorus contents were found in the more urbanised sites. The high activity values of the hydrolytic enzymes indicate the response of the microbial system to the OM accumulation in the urban sites. However, a decoupling of the trends of some enzymatic activities (namely glucosidase and lipase) and their target OM was observed in the highly urbanised conditions.

  20. Size- and composition-dependent toxicity of synthetic and soil-derived Fe oxide colloids for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Höss, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Andreas; Meyer, Carolin; Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal iron oxides (FeOx) are increasingly released to the environment due to their use in environmental remediation and biomedical applications, potentially harming living organisms. Size and composition could affect the bioavailability and toxicity of such colloids. Therefore, we investigated the toxicity of selected FeOx with variable aggregate size and variably composed FeOx-associated organic matter (OM) toward the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ferrihydrite colloids containing citrate were taken up by C. elegans with the food and accumulated inside their body. The toxicity of ferrihydrite, goethite, and akaganeite was dependent on aggregate size and specific surface area, with EC50 values for reproduction ranging from 4 to 29 mg Fe L(-1). Experiments with mutant strains lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod-2) showed oxidative stress for two FeOx and Fe(3+)-ions, however, revealed that it was not the predominant mechanism of toxicity. The OM composition determined the toxicity of mixed OM-FeOx phases on C. elegans. FeOx associated with humic acids or citrate were less toxic than OM-free FeOx. In contrast, soil-derived ferrihydrite, containing proteins and polysaccharides from mobile OM, was even more toxic than OM-free Fh of similar aggregate size. Consequently, the careful choice of the type of FeOx and the type of associated OM may help in reducing the ecological risks if actively applied to the subsurface.

  1. The Chief Role of Frontal Operational Module of the Brain Default Mode Network in the Potential Recovery of Consciousness from the Vegetative State: A Preliminary Comparison of Three Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Fingelkurts, Alexander A; Fingelkurts, Andrew A; Bagnato, Sergio; Boccagni, Cristina; Galardi, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    It has been argued that complex subjective sense of self is linked to the brain default-mode network (DMN). Recent discovery of heterogeneity between distinct subnets (or operational modules - OMs) of the DMN leads to a reconceptualization of its role for the experiential sense of self. Considering the recent proposition that the frontal DMN OM is responsible for the first-person perspective and the sense of agency, while the posterior DMN OMs are linked to the continuity of 'I' experience (including autobiographical memories) through embodiment and localization within bodily space, we have tested in this study the hypothesis that heterogeneity in the operational synchrony strength within the frontal DMN OM among patients who are in a vegetative state (VS) could inform about a stable self-consciousness recovery later in the course of disease (up to six years post-injury). Using EEG operational synchrony analysis we have demonstrated that among the three OMs of the DMN only the frontal OM showed important heterogeneity in VS patients as a function of later stable clinical outcome. We also found that the frontal DMN OM was characterized by the process of active uncoupling (stronger in persistent VS) of operations performed by the involved neuronal assemblies. PMID:27347264

  2. Consequence of oxidant to monomer ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole thin film deposited by oxidation polymerization technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jatratkar, Aviraj A.; Yadav, Jyotiprakash B.; Kamat, Sandip V.; Patil, Vaishali S.; Mahadik, D. B.; Barshilia, Harish C.; Puri, Vijaya; Puri, R. K.

    2015-05-01

    This paper reports the effect of oxidant to monomer (O/M) ratio on optical and structural properties of Polypyrrole (PPy) thin film deposited by chemical oxidation polymerization technique. Noticeable changes have observed in the properties of PPy thin films with O/M ratio. Cauliflower structure have been observed in FE-SEM images, wherein grain size is observed to decrease with increase in O/M ratio. AFM results are in good agreement with FE-SEM results. From FTIR spectra it is found that, PPy is in highly oxidized form at low O/M ratio but oxidation decreased with increase in O/M ratio. Also C-C stretching vibrations of PPy ring is decreased whereas C=C stretching is increased with ratio. Absorption peak around 450 nm corresponds to π-π* transition and around 800 nm for polarons and bipolarons. The intensity of such peaks confirms the conductivity of PPy, which is observed maximum at low O/M ratio and found to decrease with increase in ratio. Optical band gap (BG) is found to increase from 2.07 eV to 2.11 eV with increase in the O/M ratio.

  3. A framework for the identification of reusable processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vries, Marné; Gerber, Aurona; van der Merwe, Alta

    2013-11-01

    A significant challenge that faces IT management is that of aligning the IT infrastructure of an enterprise with its business goals and practices, also called business-IT alignment. A particular business-IT alignment approach, the foundation for execution approach, was well-accepted by practitioners due to a novel construct, called the operating model (OM). The OM supports business-IT alignment by directing the coherent and consistent design of business and IT components. Even though the OM is a popular construct, our previous research detected the need to enhance the OM, since the OM does not specify methods to identify opportunities for data sharing and process reuse in an enterprise. In this article, we address one of the identified deficiencies in the OM. We present a process reuse identification framework (PRIF) that could be used to enhance the OM in identifying process reuse opportunities in an enterprise. We applied design research to develop PRIF as an artefact, where the development process of PRIF was facilitated by means of the business-IT alignment model (BIAM). We demonstrate the use of the PRIF as well as report on the results of evaluating PRIF in terms of its usefulness and ease-of-use, using experimentation and a questionnaire.

  4. Two secreted cystatins of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata: differential expression pattern and inhibitory specificity.

    PubMed

    Grunclová, Lenka; Horn, Martin; Vancová, Marie; Sojka, Daniel; Franta, Zdenek; Mares, Michael; Kopácek, Petr

    2006-12-01

    Two genes coding for cysteine peptidase inhibitors of the cystatin family (Om-cystatin 1 and 2) were isolated from a gut-specific cDNA library of the soft tick Ornithodoros moubata. Both cystatins were clearly down-regulated after a blood meal. Om-cystatin 1 is mainly expressed in the tick gut, while Om-cystatin 2 mRNA was also found in other tick tissues. Authentic Om-cystatin 2 was significantly more abundant than Om-cystatin 1 in the gut contents of fasting ticks and was associated with hemosome-derived residual bodies accumulated in the gut lumen. Om-cystatin 2 was also expressed by type 2 secretory cells in the salivary glands of unfed ticks. The inhibitory specificity of recombinant Om-cystatins 1 and 2 was tested with mammalian cysteine peptidases, as well as endogenous cysteine peptidases present in the tick gut. Both cystatins efficiently inhibited papain-like peptidases, including cathepsin B and H, but differed significantly in their affinity towards cathepsin C and failed to block asparaginyl endopeptidase. Our results suggest that the secreted cystatin isoinhibitors are involved in the regulation of multiple proteolytic targets in the tick digestive system and tick-host interaction.

  5. Distribution and sources of organic matter in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, M. S.; Naidu, S. A.; Subbaiah, Ch. V.; Sarma, V. V. S. S.; Reddy, N. P. C.

    2013-12-01

    sources and distribution of organic matter (OM) in surface sediments of the eastern continental margin of India, including the region influenced by river discharge, were investigated using content, molar C:N ratios and stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen. Despite relatively high water column integrated chlorophyll-a concentrations were found in the continental shelf than the slope; however, the lower sediment organic carbon (SOC) was found in the former than the latter region suggesting that in situ production did not play significant role on preservation of SOC in the coastal Bay of Bengal. The broad range of δ13C of SOC (-23.2 to -16.7‰) suggests that OM is a broad mixture of terrestrial and marine OM. Relative contributions from terrestrial C3 and C4 plants and marine sources are quantified as 34%, 23%, and 43%, respectively, indicating that dominant source of allochthonous OM (~57%) in the coastal Bay of Bengal. Relatively higher contribution of OM from C4 plants was found in the sediments at off river Krishna indicating that this region received detritus of agricultural crops such as jowar, bajra, and sugar cane, which are dominant in its drainage basin, during SW monsoon. This study revealed that relatively high OM preserved in the slope than shelf region along the coastal Bay of Bengal and the composition of OM is primarily controlled by the type of agricultural crops and vegetation in the drainage basin of the river.

  6. Carbon Mineralizability Determines Interactive Effects on Mineralization of Pyrogenic Organic Matter and Soil Organic Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Whitman, Thea L.; Zhu, Zihua; Lehmann, Johannes C.

    2014-10-31

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) is a critical and active pool in the global C cycle, and the addition of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) has been shown to change SOC cycling, increasing or decreasing mineralization rates (often referred to as priming). We adjusted the amount of easily mineralizable C in the soil, through 1-day and 6-month pre-incubations, and in PyOM made from maple wood at 350°C, through extraction. We investigated the impact of these adjustments on C mineralization interactions, excluding pH and nutrient effects and minimizing physical effects. We found short-term increases (+20-30%) in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions in the soil pre-incubated for 6 months. Over the longer term, both the 6-month and 1-day pre-incubated soils experienced net ~10% decreases in SOC mineralization with PyOM additions. This was possibly due to stabilization of SOC on PyOM surfaces, suggested by nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. Additionally, the duration of pre-incubation affected priming interactions, indicating that there may be no optimal pre-incubation time for SOC mineralization studies. We show conclusively that relative mineralizability of SOC in relation to PyOM-24 C is an important determinant of the effect of PyOM additions on SOC mineralization.

  7. Size- and composition-dependent toxicity of synthetic and soil-derived Fe oxide colloids for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Höss, Sebastian; Fritzsche, Andreas; Meyer, Carolin; Bosch, Julian; Meckenstock, Rainer U; Totsche, Kai Uwe

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal iron oxides (FeOx) are increasingly released to the environment due to their use in environmental remediation and biomedical applications, potentially harming living organisms. Size and composition could affect the bioavailability and toxicity of such colloids. Therefore, we investigated the toxicity of selected FeOx with variable aggregate size and variably composed FeOx-associated organic matter (OM) toward the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. Ferrihydrite colloids containing citrate were taken up by C. elegans with the food and accumulated inside their body. The toxicity of ferrihydrite, goethite, and akaganeite was dependent on aggregate size and specific surface area, with EC50 values for reproduction ranging from 4 to 29 mg Fe L(-1). Experiments with mutant strains lacking mitochondrial superoxide dismutase (sod-2) showed oxidative stress for two FeOx and Fe(3+)-ions, however, revealed that it was not the predominant mechanism of toxicity. The OM composition determined the toxicity of mixed OM-FeOx phases on C. elegans. FeOx associated with humic acids or citrate were less toxic than OM-free FeOx. In contrast, soil-derived ferrihydrite, containing proteins and polysaccharides from mobile OM, was even more toxic than OM-free Fh of similar aggregate size. Consequently, the careful choice of the type of FeOx and the type of associated OM may help in reducing the ecological risks if actively applied to the subsurface. PMID:25438192

  8. Final Report on the Operation and Maintenance Improvement Program for Concentrating Solar Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen Gilbert E.; Kearney, David W.; Kolb, Gregory J.

    1999-06-01

    This report describes the results of a six-year, $6.3 million project to reduce operation and maintenance (O&M) costs at power plants employing concentrating solar power (CSP) technology. Sandia National Laboratories teamed with KJC Operating Company to implement the O&M Improvement Program. O&M technologies developed during the course of the program were demonstrated at the 150-MW Kramer Junction solar power park located in Boron, California. Improvements were made in the following areas: (a) efficiency of solar energy collection, (b) O&M information management, (c) reliability of solar field flow loop hardware, (d) plant operating strategy, and (e) cost reduction associated with environmental issues. A 37% reduction in annual O&M costs was achieved. Based on the lessons learned, an optimum solar- field O&M plan for future CSP plants is presented. Parabolic trough solar technology is employed at Kramer Junction. However, many of the O&M improvements described in the report are also applicable to CSP plants based on solar power tower or dish/engine concepts.

  9. Selecting Rehabilitation Outcome Measures for People with Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Potter, Kirsten; Allen, Diane D.; Bennett, Susan E.; Brandfass, Kathi G.; Widener, Gail L.; Yorke, Amy M.

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-known benefits of using standardized outcome measures (OMs) in clinical practice, a variety of barriers interfere with their use. In particular, rehabilitation therapists lack sufficient knowledge in selecting appropriate OMs. The challenge is compounded when working with people with multiple sclerosis (MS) owing to heterogeneity of the patient population and symptom variability in individual patients. To help overcome these barriers, the American Physical Therapy Association appointed the Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Measures Task Force to review and make evidence-based recommendations for OM use in clinical practice, education, and research specific to people with MS. Sixty-three OMs were reviewed based on their clinical utility, psychometric properties, and a consensus evaluation of the appropriateness of use for people with MS. We sought to illustrate use of the recommendations for two cases. The first case involves a 43-year-old man with new-onset problems after an exacerbation. The second case pertains to an outpatient clinic interested in assessing the effectiveness of their MS rehabilitation program. For each case, clinicians identified areas that were important to assess and various factors deemed important for OM selection. Criteria were established and used to assist in OM selection. In both cases, the described processes narrowed the selection of OMs and assisted with choosing the most appropriate ones. The recommendations, in addition to the processes described in these two cases, can be used by clinicians in any setting working with patients with MS across the disability spectrum. PMID:26300704

  10. Role of innate immunity in the pathogenesis of otitis media

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Rahul; Kodiyan, Joyson; Gerring, Robert; Mathee, Kalai; Li, Jian-Dong; Grati, M’hamed; Liu, Xue Zhong

    2015-01-01

    Summary Otitis media (OM) is a public health problem in both developed and developing countries. It is the leading cause of hearing loss and represents a significant healthcare burden. In some cases, acute OM progresses to chronic suppurative OM (CSOM), characterized by effusion and discharge, despite antimicrobial therapy. The emergence of antibiotic resistance and potential ototoxicity of antibiotics has created an urgent need to design non-conventional therapeutic strategies against OM based on modern insights into its pathophysiology. In this article, we review the role of innate immunity as it pertains to OM and discuss recent advances in understanding the role of innate immune cells in protecting the middle ear. We also discuss the mechanisms utilized by pathogens to subvert innate immunity and thereby overcome defensive responses. A better knowledge about bacterial virulence and host resistance promises to reveal novel targets to design effective treatment strategies against OM. The identification and characterization of small natural compounds that can boost innate immunity may provide new avenues for the treatment of OM. There is also a need to design novel methods for targeted delivery of these compounds into the middle ear, allowing higher therapeutic doses and minimizing systemic side effects. PMID:25447732

  11. Application of Green Tea Catechin for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dedifferentiated Fat Cells in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Kaida, Koji; Honda, Yoshitomo; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Masahiro; Baba, Shunsuke

    2015-11-25

    Despite advances in stem cell biology, there are few effective techniques to promote the osteogenic differentiation of human primary dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. We attempted to investigate whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main component of green tea catechin, facilitates early osteogenic differentiation and mineralization on DFAT cells in vitro. DFAT cells were treated with EGCG (1.25-10 μM) in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex) for 12 days (hereafter two osteogenic media were designated as OM(Dex) and OM). Supplementation of 1.25 μM EGCG to both the media effectively increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1 (COL1A1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and also increased proliferation and mineralization. Compared to OM(Dex) with EGCG, OM with EGCG induced earlier expression for COL1A1 and RUNX2 at day 1 and higher mineralization level at day 12. OM(Dex) with 10 μM EGCG remarkably hampered the proliferation of the DFAT cells. These results suggest that OM(without Dex) with EGCG might be a preferable medium to promote proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation of DFAT cells. Our findings provide an insight for the combinatory use of EGCG and DFAT cells for bone regeneration and stem cell-based therapy.

  12. Efficient Filtration of Effluent Organic Matter by Polycation-Clay Composite Sorbents: Effect of Polycation Configuration on Pharmaceutical Removal.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Itamar A; Mishael, Yael G

    2016-08-01

    Hybrid polycation-clay composites, based on methylated poly vinylpyridinium, were optimized as sorbents for secondary effluent organic matter (EfOM) including emerging micropollutants. Composite structure was tuned by solution ionic strength and characterized by zeta potential, FTIR, X-ray diffraction, and thermal gravimetric analyses. An increase in ionic strength induced a transition from a train to a loops and tails configuration, accompanied by greater polycation adsorption. Composite charge reversal (zeta potential -18 to 45 mV) increased the adsorption of EfOM and humic acid (HA), moderately and sharply, respectively, suggesting electrostatic and also nonspecific interactions with EfOM. Filtration of EfOM by columns of positively charged composites was superior to that of granular activated carbon (GAC). The overall removal of EfOM was most efficient by the composite with a train configuration. Whereas a composite with a loops and tails configuration was beneficial for the removal of the anionic micropollutants diclofenac, gemfibrozil and ibuprofen from EfOM. These new findings suggest that the loops and tails may offer unique binding sites for small micropollutants which are overseen by the bulk EfOM. Furthermore, they may explain our previous observations that in the presence of dissolved organic matter, micropollutant filtration by GAC columns was reduced, while their filtration by composite columns remained high. PMID:27397603

  13. The role of nutrient loading and eutrophication in estuarine ecology.

    PubMed Central

    Pinckney, J L; Paerl, H W; Tester, P; Richardson, T L

    2001-01-01

    Eutrophication is a process that can be defined as an increase in the rate of supply of organic matter (OM) to an ecosystem. We provide a general overview of the major features driving estuarine eutrophication and outline some of the consequences of that process. The main chemical constituent of OM is carbon (C), and therefore rates of eutrophication are expressed in units of C per area per unit time. OM occurs in both particulate and dissolved forms. Allochthonous OM originates outside the estuary, whereas autochthonous OM is generated within the system, mostly by primary producers or by benthic regeneration of OM. The supply rates of limiting nutrients regulate phytoplankton productivity that contributes to inputs of autochthonous OM. The trophic status of an estuary is often based on eutrophication rates and can be categorized as oligotrophic (<100 g C m(-2) y(-1), mesotrophic (100-300 g C m(-2) y(-1), eutrophic (300-500 g C m(-2) y(-1), or hypertrophic (>500 g C m(-2) y(-1). Ecosystem responses to eutrophication depend on both export rates (flushing, microbially mediated losses through respiration, and denitrification) and recycling/regeneration rates within the estuary. The mitigation of the effects of eutrophication involves the regulation of inorganic nutrient (primarily N and P) inputs into receiving waters. Appropriately scaled and parameterized nutrient and hydrologic controls are the only realistic options for controlling phytoplankton blooms, algal toxicity, and other symptoms of eutrophication in estuarine ecosystems. PMID:11677178

  14. Effect of class IV laser therapy on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis: a clinical and experimental study.

    PubMed

    Ottaviani, Giulia; Gobbo, Margherita; Sturnega, Mauro; Martinelli, Valentina; Mano, Miguel; Zanconati, Fabrizio; Bussani, Rossana; Perinetti, Giuseppe; Long, Carlin S; Di Lenarda, Roberto; Giacca, Mauro; Biasotto, Matteo; Zacchigna, Serena

    2013-12-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is a serious and acute side effect in patients with cancer who receive chemotherapy or radiotherapy, often leading to the suspension of therapy and a need for opioid analgesic and enteral/parenteral nutrition, with an effect on patient survival. Among the various interventions proposed in OM management, laser therapy is becoming a recommended treatment option but has limitations due to its heterogeneous laser parameters. Here, we report on our successful clinical experience on the use of class IV laser therapy to treat OM induced by different chemotherapy regimens. To shed light on the mechanisms of action of laser therapy in improving OM resolution, we have developed an animal model of chemotherapy-induced OM, in which we compare the efficacy of the standard low-power laser therapy protocol with an innovative protocol, defined as high-power laser therapy. We show that high-power laser therapy is more effective than low-power laser therapy in improving OM lesion healing, reducing the inflammatory burden, and preserving tissue integrity. In addition, high-power laser therapy has been particularly effective in promoting the formation of new arterioles within the granulation tissue. Our results provide important insights into the mechanism of action of biostimulating laser therapy on OM in vivo and pave a way for clinical experimentation with the use of high-power laser therapy.

  15. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment. PMID:25015731

  16. Clinico-Mycological Study of Dermatophyte Toenail Onychomycosis in New Delhi, India

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Pravesh; Singal, Archana; Pandhi, Deepika; Das, Shukla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: There is a constant need to define the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of onychomycosis (OM) for optimal management strategies. Objectives: To define the epidemiological and mycological characteristics of patients with dermatophyte toenail OM in a tertiary care hospital. Materials and Methods: Hundred consecutive patients of KOH and culture-positive dermatophyte toenail OM were subjected to detailed history, clinical examination and investigations. Results: Maximum number of patients (40%) belonged to 31-45 years age group and there was a male preponderance (M:F = 6.7:1). The mean duration of disease was 54 months. Thirty-three patients had fingernail involvement in addition to the toenail OM and 37% had co-existent cutaneous dermatophyte infection. Discoloration was the most common symptom (98%). Ninety-four (94%) patients had distal lateral subungual onychomycosis (DSLO) while two had superficial onychomycosis (SO) and only one had proximal superficial onychomycosis (PSO). Trichophyton interdigitale was the most common etiological agent (61%) followed by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton verrucosum. Conclusions: Toenail OM is more common in males. DSLO was the most common clinical variant and T. interdigitale the most common etiological fungus responsible for toenail OM in our region. The importance of early diagnosis and treatment is highlighted as long-standing toenail OM predisposes to fingernail onychomycosis and recurrent tinea pedis. PMID:25814703

  17. Human Carboxymethylenebutenolidase as a Bioactivating Hydrolase of Olmesartan Medoxomil in Liver and Intestine

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Tomoko; Fujimori, Izumi; Kato, Mitsunori; Noji-Sakikawa, Chisa; Saito, Motoko; Yoshigae, Yasushi; Kubota, Kazuishi; Kurihara, Atsushi; Izumi, Takashi; Ikeda, Toshihiko; Okazaki, Osamu

    2010-01-01

    Olmesartan medoxomil (OM) is a prodrug type angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist widely prescribed as an antihypertensive agent. Herein, we describe the identification and characterization of the OM bioactivating enzyme that hydrolyzes the prodrug and converts to its pharmacologically active metabolite olmesartan in human liver and intestine. The protein was purified from human liver cytosol by successive column chromatography and was identified by mass spectrometry to be a carboxymethylenebutenolidase (CMBL) homolog. Human CMBL, whose endogenous function has still not been reported, is a human homolog of Pseudomonas dienelactone hydrolase involved in the bacterial halocatechol degradation pathway. The ubiquitous expression of human CMBL gene transcript in various tissues was observed. The recombinant human CMBL expressed in mammalian cells was clearly shown to activate OM. By comparing the enzyme kinetics and chemical inhibition properties between the recombinant protein and human tissue preparations, CMBL was demonstrated to be the primary OM bioactivating enzyme in the liver and intestine. The recombinant CMBL also converted other prodrugs having the same ester structure as OM, faropenem medoxomil and lenampicillin, to their active metabolites. CMBL exhibited a unique sensitivity to chemical inhibitors, thus, being distinguishable from other known esterases. Site-directed mutagenesis on the putative active residue Cys132 of the recombinant CMBL caused a drastic reduction of the OM-hydrolyzing activity. We report for the first time that CMBL serves as a key enzyme in the bioactivation of OM, hydrolyzing the ester bond of the prodrug type xenobiotics. PMID:20177059

  18. The impact of oral herpes simplex virus infection and candidiasis on chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis among patients with hematological malignancies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-K; Hou, H-A; Chow, J-M; Chen, Y-C; Hsueh, P-R; Tien, H-F

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influences of oral candidiasis and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) infections in chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis (OM). The medical records of 424 consecutive patients with hematological malignancies who had received chemotherapy at a medical center in Taiwan from January 2006 to November 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. The results of swab cultures of fungus and HSV-1 for OM were correlated with associated clinical features. Younger age, myeloid malignancies, and disease status other than complete remission before chemotherapy were significantly correlated with the development of OM. Risks of fever (p < 0.001) and bacteremia were higher in patients with OM. Among 467 episodes of OM with both swab cultures available, 221 were non-infection (47.3%) and 246 were related to either fungal infections, HSV-1 infections, or both (52.7%); of the 246 episodes, 102 were associated with fungal infections alone (21.8%), 98 with HSV-1 infections alone (21%), and 46 with both infections (9.9%). Patients who had received antifungal agents prior to OM occurrence tended to have HSV-1 infection (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that Candida albicans and HSV-1 play an important role in chemotherapy-induced OM in patients with hematological malignancies.

  19. The Crystal Structure of OprG from Pseudomonas aeruginosa a Potential Channel for Transport of Hydrophobic Molecules across the Outer Membrane

    SciTech Connect

    D Touw; D Patel; b van den Berg

    2011-12-31

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides a barrier to the passage of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the cell. The OM has embedded proteins that serve important functions in signal transduction and in the transport of molecules into the periplasm. The OmpW family of OM proteins, of which P. aeruginosa OprG is a member, is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. The biological functions of OprG and other OmpW family members are still unclear. The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria provides a barrier to the passage of hydrophobic and hydrophilic compounds into the cell. The OM has embedded proteins that serve important functions in signal transduction and in the transport of molecules into the periplasm. The OmpW family of OM proteins, of which P. aeruginosa OprG is a member, is widespread in Gram-negative bacteria. The biological functions of OprG and other OmpW family members are still unclear. The crystal structure, together with recent biochemical data, suggests that OprG and other OmpW family members form channels that mediate the diffusion of small hydrophobic molecules across the OM by a lateral diffusion mechanism similar to that of E. coli FadL.

  20. Application of Green Tea Catechin for Inducing the Osteogenic Differentiation of Human Dedifferentiated Fat Cells in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Kaida, Koji; Honda, Yoshitomo; Hashimoto, Yoshiya; Tanaka, Masahiro; Baba, Shunsuke

    2015-01-01

    Despite advances in stem cell biology, there are few effective techniques to promote the osteogenic differentiation of human primary dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells. We attempted to investigate whether epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), the main component of green tea catechin, facilitates early osteogenic differentiation and mineralization on DFAT cells in vitro. DFAT cells were treated with EGCG (1.25–10 μM) in osteogenic medium (OM) with or without 100 nM dexamethasone (Dex) for 12 days (hereafter two osteogenic media were designated as OM(Dex) and OM). Supplementation of 1.25 μM EGCG to both the media effectively increased the mRNA expression of collagen 1 (COL1A1) and runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) and also increased proliferation and mineralization. Compared to OM(Dex) with EGCG, OM with EGCG induced earlier expression for COL1A1 and RUNX2 at day 1 and higher mineralization level at day 12. OM(Dex) with 10 μM EGCG remarkably hampered the proliferation of the DFAT cells. These results suggest that OM(without Dex) with EGCG might be a preferable medium to promote proliferation and to induce osteoblast differentiation of DFAT cells. Our findings provide an insight for the combinatory use of EGCG and DFAT cells for bone regeneration and stem cell-based therapy. PMID:26602917

  1. Secretome of Olfactory Mucosa Mesenchymal Stem Cell, a Multiple Potential Stem Cell

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Lite; Duan, Da; Wang, Zijun; Qi, Linyu; Teng, Xiaohua; Zhao, Zhenyu; Wang, Lei; Zhuo, Yi; Chen, Ping; He, Xijing; Lu, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Nasal olfactory mucosa mesenchymal stem cells (OM-MSCs) have the ability to promote regeneration in the nervous system in vivo. Moreover, with view to the potential for clinical application, OM-MSCs have the advantage of being easily accessible from patients and transplantable in an autologous manner, thus eliminating immune rejection and contentious ethical issues. So far, most studies have been focused on the role of OM-MSCs in central nervous system replacement. However, the secreted proteomics of OM-MSCs have not been reported yet. Here, proteins secreted by OM-MSCs cultured in serum-free conditions were separated on SDS-PAGE and identified by LC-MS/MS. As a result, a total of 274 secreted proteins were identified. These molecules are known to be important in neurotrophy, angiogenesis, cell growth, differentiation, and apoptosis, and inflammation which were highly correlated with the repair of central nervous system. The proteomic profiling of the OM-MSCs secretome might provide new insights into their nature in the neural recovery. However, proteomic analysis for clinical biomarkers of OM-MSCs needs to be further studied. PMID:26949398

  2. Effects of effluent organic matter characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter and selected pharmaceutically active compounds during managed aquifer recharge: Column study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeng, Sung Kyu; Sharma, Saroj K.; Abel, Chol D. T.; Magic-Knezev, Aleksandra; Song, Kyung-Guen; Amy, Gary L.

    2012-10-01

    Soil column experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of effluent organic matter (EfOM) characteristics on the removal of bulk organic matter (OM) and pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) during managed aquifer recharge (MAR) treatment processes. The fate of bulk OM and PhACs during an MAR is important to assess post-treatment requirements. Biodegradable OM from EfOM, originating from biological wastewater treatment, was effectively removed during soil passage. Based on a fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (F-EEM) analysis of wastewater effluent-dominated (WWE-dom) surface water (SW), protein-like substances, i.e., biopolymers, were removed more favorably than fluorescent humic-like substances under oxic compared to anoxic conditions. However, there was no preferential removal of biopolymers or humic substances, determined as dissolved organic carbon (DOC) observed via liquid chromatography with online organic carbon detection (LC-OCD) analysis. Most of the selected PhACs exhibited removal efficiencies of greater than 90% in both SW and WWE-dom SW. However, the removal efficiencies of bezafibrate, diclofenac and gemfibrozil were relatively low in WWE-dom SW, which contained more biodegradable OM than did SW (copiotrophic metabolism). Based on this study, low biodegradable fractions such as humic substances in MR may have enhanced the degradation of diclofenac, gemfibrozil and bezafibrate by inducing an oligotrophic microbial community via long term starvation. Both carbamazepine and clofibric acid showed persistent behaviors and were not influenced by EfOM.

  3. Adverse Event Management of Oral Mucositis in Patients with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Seiler, Sabine; Kosse, Jens; Loibl, Sibylle; Jackisch, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Summary Oral mucositis (OM) is a clinically important and frequent adverse event (AE) associated with cancer treatment with conventional chemotherapy as well as new targeted agents. Incidence and severity of OM vary from treatment to treatment and from patient to patient. The pathogenesis of chemotherapy-induced OM can be divided into 5 phases. OM induced by targeted therapies differs among other things in appearance, course, concomitant AEs and toxicity, and thus could be perceived as an entity distinct from chemotherapy-induced OM with an innate pathogenic mechanism. OM has a severe impact on a patient's quality of life (QoL) by causing complications such as pain and discomfort. Even more important are associated restrictions in nutrition and hydration. Thus, the efficacy of cancer therapy might be impaired due to the necessity of dose delays and dose reductions. Numerous preventive and therapeutic approaches have been evaluated, but currently no single agent has changed the standard of care in preventing and treating OM. Thus, the current management has evolved from clinical experience rather than clinical evidence. This article will review the AE ‘OM’ induced by breast cancer treatment with chemotherapy and targeted agents in order to provide practical guidance for management and prevention. PMID:25404881

  4. Supportive Management of Mucositis and Metabolic Derangements in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bonomi, Marcelo; Batt, Katharine

    2015-01-01

    Oral mucositis (OM) is among the most undesirable, painful, and expensive toxicities of cytotoxic cancer therapy, and is disheartening for patients and frustrating for caregivers. Accurate assessment of the incidence of OM has been elusive, but accumulating data suggests that reported OM frequency is significantly less than its actual occurrence. It has been suggested that over 90% of head and neck cancer (HNC) patients receiving radiotherapy (RT) with concurrent cisplatin experience severe OM with symptoms of extreme pain, mucosal ulceration and consequent limitations in swallowing and achieving adequate nutritional intake. This panoply of symptoms inevitably impacts a patients’ quality of life and their willingness to continue treatment. In spite of all the advances made in understanding the pathophysiology of OM, there is still no prophylactic therapy with proven efficacy. Strategies to limit the extent of OM and to manage its symptomatology include basic oral care, supportive medications, nutritional support and targeting aggressive treatments to high-risk patients. This review focuses on OM recognition, preventive measurements, and symptom-management strategies. PMID:26404378

  5. Analytical characterization of contaminated soils from former manufactured gas plants

    SciTech Connect

    Haeseler, F. |; Blanchet, D.; Vandecasteele, J.P.; Druelle, V.; Werner, P. |

    1999-03-15

    Detailed analytical characterization of the organic matter (OM) of aged polluted soils from five former manufactured gas plants (MGP) and of two coal tars was completed. It was aimed at obtaining information relevant to the physicochemical state of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) pollutants and to their in-situ evolution in time. Overall characterization of total OM (essentially polluting OM) was carried out directly on soil samples with or without prior extraction with solvent. It involved a technique of pyrolysis/oxidation coupled to flame ionization/thermal conductivity detection. Extracts in solvent were fractionated by liquid chromatography into saturated hydrocarbons, PAH, and resins, the first two fractions being further characterized by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The compositions of OM of soils were found to be very similar. A total of 28% of organic carbon, including all PAH, was extractable by solvent. The compositions of coal tars were qualitatively similar to those of OM of MGP soils but with a higher proportion (48%) of total extractable OM and of PAH, in particular lower PAH. Contamination of MGP soils appeared essentially as coal tar having undergone natural attenuation. The constant association of PAH with heavy OM in MGP soils is important with respect to the mobility and bioaccessibility of these pollutants.

  6. Effects of soil organic matter content on cadmium toxicity in Eisenia fetida: implications for the use of biomarkers and standard toxicity tests.

    PubMed

    Irizar, A; Rodríguez, M P; Izquierdo, A; Cancio, I; Marigómez, I; Soto, M

    2015-01-01

    Bioavailability is affected by soil physicochemical characteristics such as pH and organic matter (OM) content. In addition, OM constitutes the energy source of Eisenia fetida, a well established model species for soil toxicity assessment. The present work aimed at assessing the effects of changes in OM content on the toxicity of Cd in E. fetida through the measurement of neutral red uptake (NRU) and mortality, growth, and reproduction (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development [OECD] Nos. 207 and 222). Complementarily, metallothionein (MT) and catalase transcription levels were measured. To decrease variability inherent to natural soils, artificial soils (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 1984) with different OM content (6, 10, and 14%) and spiked with Cd solutions at increasing concentrations were used. Low OM in soil decreased soil ingestion and Cd bioaccumulation but also increased Cd toxicity causing lower NRU of coelomocytes, 100 % mortality, and stronger reproduction impairment, probably due to the lack of energy to maintain protection mechanisms (production of MT).Cd bioaccumulation did not reflect toxicity, and OM played a pivotal role in Cd toxicity. Thus, OM content should be taken into account when using E. fetida in in vivo exposures for soil health assessment.

  7. Effects of octahedral molecular sieve on treatment performance, microbial metabolism, and microbial community in expanded granular sludge bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Xu, Aihua; Xia, Dongsheng; Yu, Yang; Chen, Guo; Meyer, Melissa; Zhao, Dongye; Huang, Ching-Hua; Wu, Qihang; Fu, Jie

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated the effects of synthesized octahedral molecular sieve (OMS-2) nanoparticles on the anaerobic microbial community in a model digester, expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) reactor. The addition of OMS-2 (0.025 g/L) in the EGSB reactors resulted in an enhanced operational performance, i.e., COD removal and biogas production increased by 4% and 11% respectively, and effluent volatile fatty acid (VFA) decreased by 11% relative to the control group. The Biolog EcoPlate™ test was employed to investigate microbial metabolism in the EGSB reactors. Results showed that OMS-2 not only increased the microbial metabolic level but also significantly changed the community level physiological profiling of the microorganisms. The Illumina MiSeq high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene indicated OMS-2 enhanced the microbial diversity and altered the community structure. The largest bacterial genus Lactococcus, a lactic acid bacterium, reduced from 29.3% to 20.4% by abundance in the presence of 0.25 g/L OMS-2, which may be conducive to decreasing the VFA production and increasing the microbial diversity. OMS-2 also increased the quantities of acetogenic bacteria and Archaea, and promoted the acetogenesis and methanogenesis. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy illustrated that Mn(IV)/Mn(III) with high redox potential in OMS-2 were reduced to Mn(II) in the EGSB reactors; this in turn affected the microbial community. PMID:26397455

  8. Seasonal pathways of organic matter within the Avilés submarine canyon: Food web implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero-Romero, Sonia; Molina-Ramírez, Axayacatl; Höfer, Juan; Duineveld, Gerard; Rumín-Caparrós, Aitor; Sanchez-Vidal, Anna; Canals, Miquel; Acuña, José Luis

    2016-11-01

    The transport and fate of organic matter (OM) sources within the Avilés submarine canyon (Cantabrian Sea, Southern Bay of Biscay) were studied using carbon and nitrogen stable isotope ratios. The isotopic composition of settling particles and deep bottom sediments closely resembled that of surface particulate OM, and there were no marked differences in the isotopic composition of settling particles inside and outside of the AC. This indicates that the Avilés Canyon (AC) receives inputs of sinking OM mostly from the upper water column and less through advective near-bottom down-canyon transport. Sinking OM fluxes are of marine and terrestrial origin in proportions which vary seasonally. Analysis of δ13C in the canyon fauna indicates a dependence on OM mainly produced by marine phytoplankton. A tight coupling of isotopic signatures between pelagic organisms and benthic suspension feeders reflects an active biological vertical transport of OM from the surface to the deep-sea. The food web presented seasonal variations in the trophic niche width and the amplitude of the primary carbon sources, reflecting seasonality in the availability of fresh particulate OM. Those seasonal changes are larger for benthic organisms of lower trophic levels.

  9. Efficacy of a Solution Composed by Verbascoside, Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and Sodium Hyaluronate in the Treatment of Chemotherapy-induced Oral Mucositis in Children With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Bardellini, Elena; Amadori, Francesca; Schumacher, Richard Fabian; D'Ippolito, Carmelita; Porta, Fulvio; Majorana, Alessandra

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a solution composed by verbascoside, polyvinylpyrrolidone, and sodium hyaluronate (Mucosyte) in the treatment of chemotherapy-induced oral mucositi (OM). Patients between 5 and 18 years receiving chemotherapy for acute lymphoblastic leukemia and with OM grade 1 or 2 were randomized in group A (treated with Mucosyte, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d) and group B (treated with placebo, ie, an inert water-based solution, 3 mouthwashes/d per 8 d). The OM scoring was performed at day 1 (diagnosis of OM-T0), after 3 days of treatment (T1), and at day 8 (T2). Pain was evaluated through the visual analog scale with the same timing of OM measurement. A total of 56 patients were included (28 patients per group). Group A experienced a statistically significant decline of OM at T2 (P=0.0038); a statistically significant difference in pain reduction between 2 groups both at T1 and at T2 (P<0.005) was observed. The use of Mucosyte mouthwashes in children with chemotherapy-induced OM may be recommended as supportive therapy. PMID:27571124

  10. GWAS of 972 autologous stem cell recipients with multiple myeloma identifies 11 genetic variants associated with chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Elizabeth Ann; Lee, Jeannette Y.; Erickson, Stephen W.; Sanathkumar, Naveen; Raj, Vinay R.; Zhou, Daohong; McKelvey, Kent D.; Apewokin, Senu; Stephens, Owen; Enderlin, Carol A.; Vangsted, Annette Juul; Reed, Patty J.; Anaissie, Elias J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose High-dose chemotherapy and autologous stem cell transplant (ASCT) to treat multiple myeloma (MM) and other cancers carries the risk of oral mucositis (OM) with sequelae including impaired nutritional and fluid intake, pain, and infectious complications. As a result of these problems, cancer treatment may have to be interrupted or delayed. In this study we looked beyond OM's known risk factors of renal function and melphalan dose with a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to evaluate whether genetic variants in conjunction with clinical risk factors influence predisposition for OM. Methods Genotyping was performed using Illumina HumanOmnil-Quad vl.O BeadChip and further assessed for data quality. We tested 892,589 germline single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for association with OM among 972 Caucasian patients treated with high-dose melphalan and ASCT in Total Therapy clinical trials (TT2, TT3, TT4) for newly diagnosed MM. Statistical analyses included t tests, stepwise regression modeling, and logistic regression modeling to find baseline clinical factors and genotypes associated with OM. Results We found that 353 (36.3 %) patients had grades 2–4 OM. Type of treatment protocol, baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate, and melphalan dose along with baseline serum albumin and female gender predicted 43.6 % of grades 2–4 OM cases. Eleven SNPs located in or near matrix metalloproteinase 13, JPH3, DHRS7C, CEP192, CPEB1/LINC00692, FBN2, ALDH1A1, and DMRTA1/FLJ35282 were associated with grades 2–4 OM. The addition of these SNPs increased sensitivity in detecting grades 2–1 OM cases to 52 %. Conclusions These SNPs may be important for their roles in inflammatory pathways, epithelial healing, and chemotherapy detoxification. PMID:25218607

  11. A New Oidiodendron maius Strain Isolated from Rhododendron fortunei and its Effects on Nitrogen Uptake and Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chunying; Pan, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R. fortunei after inoculation, indicating that the roots were well colonized by Om19. In a second experiment, fresh and dry weight of R. fortunei 2 months after Om19 inoculation were greater than uninoculated plants, and the total nitrogen absorbed by plants inoculated with Om19 was greater than the uninoculated controls. qRT-PCR analysis of five genes related to N uptake and metabolism (two nitrate transporters, an ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) showed that these genes were highly upregulated with twofold to ninefold greater expression in plants inoculated with Om19 compared to uninoculated plants. In the third experiment, Om19 was inoculated into the peat-based substrate for growing Formosa azalea (Rhododendron indica ‘Formosa’). ‘Formosa’ azalea plants grown in the inoculated substrate had larger canopies and root systems compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that Om19 could be an important microbial tool for improving production of Rhododendron plants.

  12. Annual burning of a tallgrass prairie inhibits C and N cycling in soil, increasing recalcitrant pyrogenic organic matter storage while reducing N availability.

    PubMed

    Soong, Jennifer L; Cotrufo, M Francesca

    2015-06-01

    Grassland ecosystems store an estimated 30% of the world's total soil C and are frequently disturbed by wildfires or fire management. Aboveground litter decomposition is one of the main processes that form soil organic matter (SOM). However, during a fire biomass is removed or partially combusted and litter inputs to the soil are substituted with inputs of pyrogenic organic matter (py-OM). Py-OM accounts for a more recalcitrant plant input to SOM than fresh litter, and the historical frequency of burning may alter C and N retention of both fresh litter and py-OM inputs to the soil. We compared the fate of these two forms of plant material by incubating (13) C- and (15) N-labeled Andropogon gerardii litter and py-OM at both an annually burned and an infrequently burned tallgrass prairie site for 11 months. We traced litter and py-OM C and N into uncomplexed and organo-mineral SOM fractions and CO2 fluxes and determined how fire history affects the fate of these two forms of aboveground biomass. Evidence from CO2 fluxes and SOM C:N ratios indicates that the litter was microbially transformed during decomposition while, besides an initial labile fraction, py-OM added to SOM largely untransformed by soil microbes. Additionally, at the N-limited annually burned site, litter N was tightly conserved. Together, these results demonstrate how, although py-OM may contribute to C and N sequestration in the soil due to its resistance to microbial degradation, a long history of annual removal of fresh litter and input of py-OM infers N limitation due to the inhibition of microbial decomposition of aboveground plant inputs to the soil. These results provide new insight into how fire may impact plant inputs to the soil, and the effects of py-OM on SOM formation and ecosystem C and N cycling. PMID:25487951

  13. A New Oidiodendron maius Strain Isolated from Rhododendron fortunei and its Effects on Nitrogen Uptake and Plant Growth

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chunying; Pan, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R. fortunei after inoculation, indicating that the roots were well colonized by Om19. In a second experiment, fresh and dry weight of R. fortunei 2 months after Om19 inoculation were greater than uninoculated plants, and the total nitrogen absorbed by plants inoculated with Om19 was greater than the uninoculated controls. qRT-PCR analysis of five genes related to N uptake and metabolism (two nitrate transporters, an ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) showed that these genes were highly upregulated with twofold to ninefold greater expression in plants inoculated with Om19 compared to uninoculated plants. In the third experiment, Om19 was inoculated into the peat-based substrate for growing Formosa azalea (Rhododendron indica ‘Formosa’). ‘Formosa’ azalea plants grown in the inoculated substrate had larger canopies and root systems compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that Om19 could be an important microbial tool for improving production of Rhododendron plants. PMID:27602030

  14. Microbially-mediated transformation and mobilization of soil Fe-organic associations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poggenburg, Christine; Mikutta, Robert; Schippers, Axel; Dohrmann, Reiner; Kaufhold, Stephan; Guggenberger, Georg

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (OM) has been proposed to be stabilized in the long term via sorption to iron((oxy)hydr)oxides under aerobic conditions. However, in an anaerobic environment, Fe-organic associations may be subject to microbial reduction and mobilization, which counteract the suggested stabilizing effect of Fe compounds. Desorption of OM can result in its microbial decomposition causing the emission of greenhouse gases (CO2, CH4, N2O) or release of associated contaminants into the soil solution and groundwater. While the reductive dissolution of pure iron((oxy)hydr)oxides by dissimilatory FeIII reducing bacteria is well established, little is known about the influence of natural OM on microbially mediated mobilization of Fe-organic associations. Therefore, this study aims to elucidate the effect of adsorbed OM on microbial FeIII reduction of Fe-organic associations with regard to (i) the composition of OM, (ii) the carbon loading, and (iii) surface coverage and/or pore blockage by adsorbed OM. Mineral-organic associations with varying carbon contents were synthesized using several iron((oxy)hydr)oxides (Goethite, Lepidocrocite, Ferrihydrite, Hematite, Magnetite) and OM of different origin (dissolved OM extracted from the Oa horizon of a Podzol and Oi horizon of a Cambisol, extracellular polymeric substance extracted from Bacillus subtilis). Incubation experiments under anaerobic conditions were conducted for 16 days using two different strains of dissimilatory FeIII reducing bacteria (Shewanella putrefaciens, Geobacter metallireducens). At five sampling points in time the solution phase was analyzed for pH, Fetotal, and FeII. The initial mineral-organic associations and post-incubation phase were characterized by N2 gas adsorption, FTIR, XRD, and XPS. The results indicate that the composition of OM and carbon loading significantly influence the rate and extend of microbial reduction of Fe-organic associations depending on the type of microbial strain and iron

  15. A New Oidiodendron maius Strain Isolated from Rhododendron fortunei and its Effects on Nitrogen Uptake and Plant Growth.

    PubMed

    Wei, Xiangying; Chen, Jianjun; Zhang, Chunying; Pan, Dongming

    2016-01-01

    A new mycorrhizal fungal strain was isolated from hair roots of Rhododendron fortunei Lindl. grown in Huading Forest Park, Zhejiang Province, China. Morphological characterization and internal transcribed spacer rDNA analysis suggested that it belongs to Oidiodendron maius Barron, and we designated it as strain Om19. Methods for culturing Om19 were established, and the ability of Om19 to form mycorrhizae on R. fortunei was evaluated in a peat-based substrate. Microscopic observations showed hyaline hyphae on the surface of hair roots and crowded hyphal complexes (hyphal coils) inside root cortical cells of R. fortunei after inoculation, indicating that the roots were well colonized by Om19. In a second experiment, fresh and dry weight of R. fortunei 2 months after Om19 inoculation were greater than uninoculated plants, and the total nitrogen absorbed by plants inoculated with Om19 was greater than the uninoculated controls. qRT-PCR analysis of five genes related to N uptake and metabolism (two nitrate transporters, an ammonium transporter, glutamine synthetase, and glutamate synthase) showed that these genes were highly upregulated with twofold to ninefold greater expression in plants inoculated with Om19 compared to uninoculated plants. In the third experiment, Om19 was inoculated into the peat-based substrate for growing Formosa azalea (Rhododendron indica 'Formosa'). 'Formosa' azalea plants grown in the inoculated substrate had larger canopies and root systems compared to uninoculated plants. Our results show that Om19 could be an important microbial tool for improving production of Rhododendron plants. PMID:27602030

  16. Polar and non-polar organic aerosols from large-scale agricultural-waste burning emissions in Northern India: Implications to organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio.

    PubMed

    Rajput, Prashant; Sarin, M M

    2014-05-01

    This study focuses on characteristics of organic aerosols (polar and non-polar) and total organic mass-to-organic carbon ratio (OM/OC) from post-harvest agricultural-waste (paddy- and wheat-residue) burning emissions in Northern India. Aerosol samples from an upwind location (Patiala: 30.2°N, 76.3°E) in the Indo-Gangetic Plain were analyzed for non-polar and polar fractions of organic carbon (OC1 and OC2) and their respective mass (OM1 and OM2). On average, polar organic aerosols (OM2) contribute nearly 85% of the total organic mass (OM) from the paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. The water-soluble-OC (WSOC) to OC2 ratio, within the analytical uncertainty, is close to 1 from both paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions. However, temporal variability and relatively low WSOC/OC2 ratio (Av: 0.67±0.06) is attributed to high moisture content and poor combustion efficiency during paddy-residue burning, indicating significant contribution (∼30%) of aromatic carbon to OC2. The OM/OC ratio for non-polar (OM1/OC1∼1.2) and polar organic aerosols (OM2/OC2∼2.2), hitherto unknown for open agricultural-waste burning emissions, is documented in this study. The total OM/OC ratio is nearly identical, 1.9±0.2 and 1.8±0.2, from paddy- and wheat-residue burning emissions.

  17. Enhanced infiltration regime for treated-wastewater purification in soil aquifer treatment (SAT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nadav, Itamar; Arye, Gilboa; Tarchitzky, Jorge; Chen, Yona

    2012-02-01

    SummaryUtilization of treated wastewater (TWW) for agriculture is a widely accepted practice in regions suffering from freshwater (FW) shortages. Soil aquifer treatment is often employed for wastewater purification in regions with sandy soil. Infiltration rates of water through the soil can decrease as a result organic matter (OM) accumulation and the consequential water repellency. We examined several infiltration regimes with the aim of achieving lower levels of OM accumulation, reduced water repellency and increased infiltration rate in the topsoil layer of the infiltration basin. OM accumulation in the topsoil layer was found to be the main factor adversely affecting soil permeability. In measurements performed in the infiltration basins of the Tel Aviv wastewater-purification facility over a 1-year period, infiltration rates were found to differ with season, being low in the winter and high in the summer. Similar observations were made on small model infiltration ponds established to simulate the large basins. Several water-application regimes were tested for enhancement of the infiltration rates. Rapid application of TWW was the most efficient method in terms of reducing OM accumulation and water repellency in the topsoil layer. Low-rate, and spraying of TWW over the soil using sprinklers produced the highest OM accumulation and consequently, higher water repellency. Low-rate, single outlet application—the conventional infiltration method employed in the commercial infiltration basins—exhibited moderate OM accumulation and water repellency. Neither water repellency nor OM accumulation were observed in the FW-application regime. Accumulation of OM originating from the percolating TWW, at the topsoil layer was identified as dominating infiltration rate at the infiltration basins. Reduction of OM content by the means proposed and evaluated in this experiment can drastically increase infiltration rates.

  18. Influence of wood source and temperature on pyrogenic organic matter-induced priming effect in a high-latitude forest soil.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Christy; Filley, Timothy; Hatton, Pierre Joseph; Nadelhoffer, Knute; Stark, Ruth; Bird, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    The relationship between wood source and pyrolysis temperature on pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) induced priming effects (PE) are poorly understood. There are currently no studies utilizing isotopically labelled substrates to discretely assess PyOM and native soil carbon (NSC) reactivity in field or laboratory decay studies at loading rates relevant to natural systems. To address this knowledge gap, we investigated the interactive effects of wood species (red maple and jack pine) and pyrolysis temperature (200, 300, 450 and 600°C) on native soil C (NSC) in a sandy, temperate North American forest soil. We hypothesized that wood source and pyrolysis temperature would shape PyOM-induced PE with the greatest effects expected in the lower temperature PyOM and wood. To test this, highly 13C enriched (~ 3 atom %) jack pine (JP) or red maple (RM) wood precursor or wood-derived PyOM was added to a low carbon soil (0.5%) at 11% of NSC, then incubated in the dark at 60% water holding capacity and 25°C for 6 months. Periodic measurements of 13CO2 indicated that both pyrolysis temperature and species played a significant role in PyOM and NSC mineralization. The mineralization of RM PyOM was ~25% higher than JP at temperatures < 600°C from day 1 to 3 and ~5% from day 3 to 17. Additionally, soils in contact with RM PyOM exhibited positive priming (increased NSC mineralization) from days 1 to 3 followed by negative priming (decreased NSC mineralization)for the remainder of the incubation (days 3- 180). For both species, 300° C represented a thermal transition point resulting in significantly negative NSC priming and distinct chemical alterations that were most evident in jack pine. These results highlight how differences in PyOM physiochemical characteristics linked to a species thermal transformation threshold may be a predictor in determining microbial response and biological reactivity in soil.

  19. Stable isotopic analysis of pyrogenic organic matter in soils by liquid chromatography-isotope-ratio mass spectrometry of benzene polycarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Yarnes, Christopher; Santos, Fernanda; Singh, Nimisha; Abiven, Samuel; Schmidt, Michael W I; Bird, Jeffrey A

    2011-12-30

    Pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM), the incomplete combustion product of organic materials, is considered stable in soils and represents a potentially important terrestrial sink for atmospheric carbon dioxide. One well-established method of measuring PyOM in the environment is as benzene polycarboxylic acids (BPCAs), a compound-specific method, which allows both qualitative and quantitative estimation of PyOM. Until now, stable isotope measurement of PyOM carbon involved measurement of the trimethylsilyl (TMS) or methyl (Me) polycarboxylic acid derivatives by gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-C-IRMS). However, BPCA derivatives can contain as much as 150% derivative carbon, necessitating post-analysis correction for the accurate measurement of δ¹³C values, leading to increased measurement error. Here, we describe a method for δ¹³C isotope ratio measurement and quantification of BPCAs from soil-derived PyOM, based on ion-exchange chromatography (IEC-IRMS). The reproducibility of the δ¹³C measurement of individual BPCAs by IEC-IRMS was better than 0.35‰ (1σ). The δ¹³C-BPCA analysis of PyOM in soils, including at natural and artificially enriched ¹³C-abundance, produced accurate and precise δ¹³C measurements. Analysis of samples that differed in δ¹³C by as much as 900‰ revealed carryover of <1‰ between samples. The weighted sum of individual δ¹³C-BPCA measurements was correlated with previous isotopic measurements of whole PyOM, providing complementary information for bulk isotopic measurements. We discuss potential applications of δ¹³C-BPCA measurements, including the study of turnover rates of PyOM in soils and the partitioning of PyOM sources based on photosynthetic pathways. PMID:22468329

  20. Analyzing fertilizer-induced dynamics of soluble organic matter composition in soils from long-term field experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, Ruth; Gerke, Horst, H.

    2016-04-01

    Fertilization and soil management can affect soil organic matter. However, it is unclear how amount and composition of SOM will be changed by mineral and organic fertilization. The objective of this study was to test the applicability of infrared spectroscopy for analyzing management-induced impacts on OM composition. Ap horizon samples were collected from the long term-field experiments at Bad Lauchstädt (loam), Groß Kreutz and Müncheberg (loamy sand) of plots fertilized with farmyard manure (FYM), farmyard manure plus mineral nitrogen (FYM+N), and mineral nitrogen only (N), and an unfertilized Control plot. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to analyze SOM, hot water soluble (OM-HW) and sodium pyrophosphate soluble (OM-PY) organic matter fractions. The OM composition was evaluated in terms of the ratio between absorption band intensities in FTIR. The soluble OM fractions of FYM had larger C=O/C-O-C ratios as compared to N and Control. While the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of OM-PY from FYM plots was larger, it was smaller for the N plots as compared to that of the Control at all sites. The results allowed identifying fertilization-induced long-term dynamics in (i) the OM composition and (ii) the CEC and the potential wettability of SOM and OM fractions. The OM-PY fraction could be used to identify and characterize the long-term changes in organic matter composition. For a more quantitative analysis, however, more replicate samples and a seasonal differentiation would be required to separate between shorter- and longer-term changes.

  1. Composition of organic matter in earthworm casts depending on litter quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellerbrock, R. H.; Gerke, H. H.; Schrader, S.; Leue, M.

    2009-04-01

    Earthworms contribute to decomposition and stabilization of organic matter (OM) in soil. The digestion during intestinal passage inside worms may lead to a change in the composition of OM. It is largely unknown if and how the type of litter the earthworm is feeding on is affecting the OM composition in the casts. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is used to determine the hydrophobic CH- (A) and the hydrophilic CO- (B) functional groups in OM. The objective was to compare the A/B- ratios of litter samples with that of (i) the corresponding casts of the primary decomposer Lumbricus terrestris and (ii) the water contact angles of ground cast samples and at intact cast surfaces. Litter from 10 different plant species including leaves of birch, beech, oak, spruce, pear, mustard and wheat straw (3 replicates) was offered separately to L. terrestris in microcosms containing a Luvisol soil. The OM composition of litter and that of casts, collected from the soil surface after 4-weeks was analyzed with FTIR (DRIFT technique). The A/B ratio of casts was generally increased as compared to that of the soil. For most litter types, the A/B ratio of cast was relatively similar except for casts from birch (Betula pendula) and pear (Pyrus communis) where the OM show a 3-times higher A/B ratio as compared to wheat (Triticum aestivum) or beech (Fagus sylvatica) casts. The higher A/B ratios seem to be related to the relative higher C/N ratios in the casts from Betula pendula and Pyrus communis feeding experiments. The results indicate that digestion of litter by the worm may change OM composition. The assumption that earthworm casts may enrich hydrophobic OM components could be verified only partly. However particulate and soluble OM fractions in the earthworm casts could have contributed to such differentiation.

  2. A Geostatistical Approach to Watershed Sources of Aged Riverine Organic Matter to the Hudson-Mohawk River System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longworth, B. E.; Petsch, S. T.; Raymond, P. A.; Bauer, J. E.

    2006-12-01

    A number of rivers transport highly-aged (~103 to 104 yrs B.P.) particulate organic matter (POM), however, the sources of this material remain a matter of debate. Weathering, erosion and transport of streambed and interfluve material export terrestrial organic matter (OM) to streams, and this terrestrial OM is the primary POM constituent in most fast-flowing, shaded headwater systems. The age and composition of exported POM should therefore reflect the abundance and distribution of OM sources within the watershed. Here, we examine the relationship between watershed carbon sources and streamwater POM using Δ14C and C:N ratios of suspended particulates, streambed sediments and watershed materials in fourteen small headwater watersheds of the Hudson River, an intermediate sized, temperate, passive margin river in the northeastern USA. These sites vary widely in lithology (OM-rich shales, OM-lean carbonate/siltstone facies, and OM-free crystalline rocks), land use types (forested and agricultural), and morphology (slope, elevation and aspect). Using GIS-based statistical modeling, we developed predictors of POM export based on these watershed factors. Regression analysis using mapped distributions of watershed OM of differing radiocarbon and elemental compositions as predictors of POM composition reveal that both OM-rich watershed lithologies and agricultural land use are strong predictors of aged riverine OM, but does not allow definitive separation of these two sources. In addition, a simple isotope mass balance approach further demonstrates that while erosion and transport of watershed materials can account for the source of aged POM in headwater systems, additional sources or processes are required to explain the depleted Δ14C of POM in the Hudson and Mohawk mainstems.

  3. Arctic organic aerosol measurements show particles from mixed combustion in spring haze and from frost flowers in winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaw, P. M.; Russell, L. M.; Jefferson, A.; Quinn, P. K.

    2010-05-01

    Submicron atmospheric aerosol particles were collected between 1 March 2008 and 1 March 2009 at Barrow, Alaska, to characterize the organic mass (OM) in the Arctic aerosol. Organic functional group concentrations and trace metals were measured with FTIR on submicron particles collected on Teflon filters. The OM varied from 0.07 μg m-3 in summer to 0.43 μg m-3 in winter, and 0.35 μg m-3 in spring, showing a transition in OM composition between spring and winter. Most of the OM in spring could be attributed to anthropogenic sources, consisting primarily of alkane and carboxylic acid functional groups and correlated to elemental tracers of industrial pollution, biomass burning, and shipping emissions. PMF analysis associated OM with two factors, a Mixed Combustion factor (MCF) and an Ocean-derived factor (ODF). Back trajectory analysis revealed that the highest fractions of the MCF were associated with air masses that had originated from northeastern Asia and the shipping lanes south of the Bering Straits. The ODF consisted of organic hydroxyl groups and correlated with organic and inorganic seawater components. The ODF accounted for more than 55% of OM in winter when the sampled air masses originated along the coastal and lake regions of the Northwest Territories of Canada. Frost flowers with organic-salt coatings that arise by brine rejection during sea ice formation may account for this large source of carbohydrate-like OM during the ice-covered winter season. While the anthropogenic sources contributed more than 0.3 μg m-3 of the springtime haze OM, ocean-derived particles provided comparable OM sources in winter.

  4. River organic matter shapes microbial communities in the sediment of the Rhône prodelta

    PubMed Central

    Fagervold, Sonja K; Bourgeois, Solveig; Pruski, Audrey M; Charles, François; Kerhervé, Philippe; Vétion, Gilles; Galand, Pierre E

    2014-01-01

    Microbial-driven organic matter (OM) degradation is a cornerstone of benthic community functioning, but little is known about the relation between OM and community composition. Here we use Rhône prodelta sediments to test the hypothesis that OM quality and source are fundamental structuring factors for bacterial communities in benthic environments. Sampling was performed on four occasions corresponding to contrasting river-flow regimes, and bacterial communities from seven different depths were analyzed by pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The sediment matrix was characterized using over 20 environmental variables including bulk parameters (for example, total nitrogen, carbon, OM, porosity and particle size), as well as parameters describing the OM quality and source (for example, pigments, total lipids and amino acids and δ13C), and molecular-level biomarkers like fatty acids. Our results show that the variance of the microbial community was best explained by δ13C values, indicative of the OM source, and the proportion of saturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, describing OM lability. These parameters were traced back to seasonal differences in the river flow, delivering OM of different quality and origin, and were directly associated with several frequent bacterial operational taxonomic units. However, the contextual parameters, which explained at most 17% of the variance, were not always the key for understanding the community assembly. Co-occurrence and phylogenetic diversity analysis indicated that bacteria–bacteria interactions were also significant. In conclusion, the drivers structuring the microbial community changed with time but remain closely linked with the river OM input. PMID:24858780

  5. Control of aragonite deposition in colonial corals by intra-skeletal macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Falini, Giuseppe; Reggi, Michela; Fermani, Simona; Sparla, Francesca; Goffredo, Stefano; Dubinsky, Zvy; Levi, Oren; Dauphin, Yannicke; Cuif, Jean-Pierre

    2013-08-01

    Scleractinian coral skeletons are composed mainly of aragonite in which a small percentage of organic matrix (OM) molecules is entrapped. It is well known that in corals the mineral deposition occurs in a biological confined nucleation site, but it is still unclear to what extent the calcification is controlled by OM molecules. Hence, the shape, size and organization of skeletal crystals from the fiber level through the colony architecture, were also attributed to factors as diverse as nucleation site mineral supersaturation and environmental factors in the habitat. In this work the OMs were extracted from the skeleton of three colonial corals, Acropora digitifera, Lophelia pertusa and Montipora caliculata. A. digitifera has a higher calcification rate than the other two species. OM molecules were characterized and their CaCO3 mineralization activity was evaluated by experiments of overgrowth on coral skeletons and of precipitation from solutions containing OM soluble and insoluble fractions and magnesium ions. The precipitates were characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The results showed that the OM molecules of the three coral share similar features, but differ from those associated with mollusk shells. However, A. digitifera OM shows peculiarities from those from L. pertusa and M. caliculata. The CaCO3 overgrowth and precipitation experiments confirm the singularity of A. digitifera OM molecules as mineralizers. Moreover, their comparison indicates that only specific molecules are involved in the polymorphism control and suggests that when the whole extracted materials are used the OM's main effect is on the control of particles' shape and morphology. PMID:23669627

  6. Early-onset podocyte injury and glomerular sclerosis in osborne-mendel rats.

    PubMed

    Yasuno, Kyohei; Ishihara, Shoko; Saito, Rio; Ishikawa, Makoto; Kato, Takashi; Kobayashi, Ryosuke; Baba, Tomoshige; Kawano, Kazuya; Ogihara, Kikumi; Kamiie, Junichi; Shirota, Kinji

    2010-10-01

    Progressive glomerular injury associated with early-onset proteinuria was investigated in male Osborne-Mendel (OM) rats aged 5 to 20 weeks. Age-matched male Fischer 344 (F344) rats were used for comparison. OM rats developed mild hypertension and selective proteinuria (albuminuria) from 5 weeks of age, and non-selective proteinuria from 7 weeks of age. Light microscopy of OM kidney revealed hyaline droplets in the podocyte at 5 weeks of age and vacuolation of podocytes and adhesion of the capillary loop to the Bowman's capsule at 7 weeks of age. Segmental glomerulosclerosis developed in OM rats from 15 weeks of age, and global sclerosis appeared at 20 weeks of age. Desmin, a marker of podocye injury, was expressed in podocytes from 10 weeks of age, and the intensity of expression increased with age. Ultrastructurally, damage to podocytes such as effacement of foot processes, decreasing number of filtration slits, and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton were observed from 5 weeks of age in OM rat. Glomerular volume in OM rats increased with age and was consistently higher than in age-matched F344 rats. The number of WT-1-positive podocytes and vimentin-positive podocyte area were lower in OM rats and decreased with age. These findings suggest that glomerulonephropathy in male OM rats is associated with glomerular hypertrophy, progressive podocytopathy, and a reduction in podocyte number and area. Renal injury in OM rats was associated with development of early-onset proteinuria and was more progressive than in age-matched F344 rats.

  7. Compact triple coupled quantum well system for electrical/optical control of optical bi/multistability.

    PubMed

    Sattari, Hamed; Sahrai, Mostafa; Ebadollahi-Bakhtevar, Solmaz

    2015-03-20

    Optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) are investigated in a triple coupled quantum wells system inside a semiconductor cavity sandwiched by distributed Bragg reflector mirrors. By proper manipulation of the optical and electrical parameters, the behaviors of OB and OM can be efficiently controlled. We show that, by tuning the tunneling rates between the quantum wells, the threshold and hysteresis cycle of OB and OM can be engineered. The effect of the incoherent pump field as well as the cooperation parameter on creation of OB is also discussed. PMID:25968535

  8. Lateral redistribution of dissolved vs. complexed organic matter with soil erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stacy, E.; Meding, S. M.; Hunsaker, C. T.; Johnson, D. W.; Hart, S. C.; Berhe, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    Erosion can alter the principal mechanisms of organic matter storage and persistence. The influence of soil erosion on the global carbon (C) cycle is the result of three ecologically relevant factors: (1) changes in molecular composition of the organic matter (OM); (2) physical protection of OM within aggregates and pores; and (3) organomineral associations of OM with soil minerals through chelation and/or cation-bridging. Previous research has shown that prevalent OM stabilization mechanisms vary by landform position, where long-residence times of OM were associated with aggregation and cation-bridging in eroding positions, while OM in low-lying depositional areas was protected through burial and association with metal oxides. However, it is still unclear how OM stabilization mechanisms shift with extended transport from the source watershed. We addressed this issue by comparing soil from slope transects with sediment captured after it was transported from watersheds in the southern Sierra National Forest. Using a sequential extraction procedure, we separated organic particles (OP) and OM fractions that were water-extractable (free), aggregate-protected, or bonded to mineral surfaces through cation bridging to assess differences in stabilization mechanisms between landform positions and sediment. While the C:N ratio is consistent between years and watersheds, absolute C and N concentrations vary more in sediments than in the soils. Confirming previous work, there was little difference in free OP fraction between landform positions. However we found that this free OP fraction was often enriched in the sediment samples over the soils from the source watershed; the intensity of this signal differed by year. In addition, organomineral bonding also differed between sediments and soils. Of the five major polyvalent ions (Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, and Al) that we measured in liquid extracts, calcium and iron were more closely correlated to C concentrations in sediments than in

  9. Acquisition/expulsion system for earth orbital propulsion system study. Volume 2: Cryogenic design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Detailed designs were made for three earth orbital propulsion systems; (1) the space shuttle (integrated) OMS/RCS, (2) the space shuttle (dedicated) OMS (LO2), and (3) the space tug. The preferred designs from the integrated OMS/RCS were used as the basis for the flight test article design. A plan was prepared that outlines the steps, cost, and schedule required to complete the development of the prototype DSL tank and feedline (LH2 and LO2) systems. Ground testing of a subscale model using LH2 verified the expulsion characteristics of the preferred DSL designs.

  10. Development of a 3D VHR seismic reflection system for lacustrine settings - a case study in Lake Geneva, Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheidhauer, M.; Dupuy, D.; Marillier, F.; Beres, M.

    2003-04-01

    For better understanding of geologic processes in complex lacustrine settings, detailed information on geologic features is required. In many cases, the 3D seismic method may be the only appropriate approach. The aim of this work is to develop an efficient very high-resolution 3D seismic reflection system for lake studies. In Lake Geneva, Switzerland, near the city of Lausanne, past high-resolution investigations revealed a complex fault zone, which was subsequently chosen for testing our new system of three 24-channel streamers and integrated differential GPS (dGPS) positioning. A survey, carried out in 9 days in August 2001, covered an area of 1500^om x 675^om and comprised 180 CMP lines sailed perpendicular to the fault strike always updip, since otherwise the asymmetric system would result in different stacks for opposite directions. Accurate navigation and shot spacing of 5^om is achieved with a specially developed navigation and shot-triggering software that uses differential GPS onboard and a reference base close to the lake shore. Hydrophone positions could be accurately (<^o0.5^om) calculated with the aid of three additional dGPS antennas mounted on rafts attached to the streamer tails. Towed at a distance of only 75^om behind the vessel, they allowed determination of possible feathering due to cross-line currents or small course variations. The multi-streamer system uses two retractable booms deployed on each side of the boat and rest on floats. They separate the two outer streamers from the one in the center by a distance of 7.5^om. Combined with a receiver spacing of 2.5^om, the bin dimension of the 3D data becomes 3.75^om in cross-line and 1.25^om in inline direction. Potential aliasing problems from steep reflectors up to 30^o within the fault zone motivated the use of a 15/15 cu. in. double-chamber bubble-canceling Mini G.I. air gun (operated at 80^obars and 1^om depth). Although its frequencies do not exceed 650^o Hz, it combines a penetration of

  11. Rituximab for treatment of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Burke, Michael J; Cohn, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome that occurs in 2%-3% of patients with neuroblastoma. The cause of this syndrome is believed to be immune mediated, but the exact mechanism still remains unclear. There is an urgent need to improve our current strategies for treating patients with OMS, as many patients have significant long-term neurologic deficits and behavior disorders with current treatment approaches. Therapies that have shown to improve symptoms in these patients have ranged from ACTH and corticosteroids, to intravenous gammaglobulin and plasmapheresis. We report our experience with Rituximab in a patient with neuroblastoma and OMS.

  12. The stability of Pyrogenic Organic Matter is dependent upon its wood source and charring temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, C. D.; Filley, T. R.; Bird, J.; Nadelhoffer, K. J.; Stark, R. E.; Hatton, P. J.

    2015-12-01

    Fire is a major mediator of carbon (C) cycling in forests and can result in the formation of pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM). The biological reactivity of PyOM is largely dependent upon the physiochemical characteristics of source material and production temperature. As a result, PyOM can persist up to centennial time scales after deposition while simultaneously enhancing or suppressing the mineralization of native soil C (NSC). To investigate the interactive effects of PyOM source and production temperature on NSC, we added 13C-enriched red maple (RM) or jack pine (JP) pyrolyzed at 200, 300, 450 or 600°C to a low C (0.5%;), near-surface soil (0-20 cm-depth) at 60% water holding capacity and 11% of native soil C and then incubated the samples in the dark at 25⁰C for 6 months. We found that PyOM mineralization rates decreased with increasing pyrolysis temperature for either species while NSC mineralization was suppressed across all treatments with the largest decrease observed in JP 300⁰C. RM mineralization rates were consistently greater (˜5 to ˜25%) than for JP <600⁰C during the first 17 days. Mean residence time (MRT) of PyOM-C was significantly higher in PyOM >300°C resulting in MRT of ~300 - 550 y compared to 8-30 y in lower temperature PyOM (0-300 °C). RM exhibited significantly lower MRT in 300°C PyOM than JP corresponding to differences observed in PyOM and NSC mineralization rates. The modelled active and slow pools of PyOM-C mineralized decreased with increasing combustion temperature. JP 300°C had a 20% smaller active pool when compared to RM suggesting that for both species, 300⁰C - 450⁰C represented a thermal transition point which was most evident in jack pine. These results highlight how differences in PyOM physiochemical characteristics linked to a species thermal transformation threshold may be a predictor in determining its biological reactivity in soil.

  13. Isolation of dimethyl sulfone-degrading microorganisms and application to odorless degradation of dimethyl sulfoxide.

    PubMed

    Kino, Kuniki; Murakami-Nitta, Takako; Oishi, Masashi; Ishiguro, Seiji; Kirimura, Kohtaro

    2004-01-01

    With the objective of developing an odorless biodegradation process for dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), Hyphomicrobium sp. WU-OM3 was isolated. During the cultivation of strain WU-OM3 cells with 20 mM dimethyl sulfone (DMSO2) as the sole carbon source, DMSO2 was completely consumed within 48 h and sulfate ion accumulated in the culture broth. Methanesulfonate was also detected as an intermediate of DMSO2 degradation. By combining the DMSO-oxidizing microorganism and strain WU-OM3 cells, 0.64 mM (50 mg/l) DMSO was degraded to sulfate ion with 80% molar conversion ratio. PMID:16233595

  14. Forage intake and digestion by cattle grazing midgrass prairie rangeland or sideoats grama/sweetclover pasture.

    PubMed

    Gunter, S A; McCollum, F T; Gillen, R L; Krysl, L J

    1993-12-01

    In mid-May, beef cattle fitted with esophageal (four steers/pasture) or ruminal and duodenal cannulas (six heifers/pasture; 274 +/- 6 kg BW +/- SE) grazed midgrass prairie (excellent range condition; PRAIRIE) or a seeded mixture of sideoats grama (48% of pasture DM) and sweetclover (6% of pasture DM; Bouteloua curtipendula [Michx.] Torr./Melilotus officinalis [L.] Lam.; PASTURE). Masticate NDF, ADF, and in vitro OM disappearance did not differ (P > .11) between forage types (average = 66.6, 36.1, and 58.8% of OM). Only N differed (P = .02) between PRAIRIE (2.1) and PASTURE (2.4% of OM). Extents of in situ OM and N disappearance were greater (P < .05) and rate of N disappearance between 12 and 36 h was slower (P < .10) from PRAIRIE than from PASTURE masticate. Based on in situ data, the ruminally degraded N: ruminally degraded OM (grams/kilogram) ratio differed (P < .05) between PRAIRIE (22) and PASTURE (25). Ruminal ammonia N concentration (milligrams/deciliter) was less (P = .02) for PRAIRIE (2.8) than for PASTURE (3.8). Forage OM intake and fecal OM output did not differ (P > .72; average = 8,207 and 3,380 g/d), but duodenal OM flow tended (P = .13) to be greater (PRAIRIE = 4,892, PASTURE = 5,170 g/d) in cattle grazing PASTURE. Apparent and true ruminal OM digestion did not differ between forage types (P > .18; average = 38.3 and 48.5%). Nitrogen intake, nonammonia N, and forage N flow at the duodenum were greater (P < .04) for PASTURE (198 vs 171, 242 vs 210, and 162 vs 135 g/d) than for PRAIRIE. Microbial N flow (average = 78 g/d) and microbial efficiency (average = 20 g of microbial N/kg of OM truly fermented) did not differ (P > .25) between forage types. Apparent and true ruminal N digestion did not differ (P > .65; average = -26.6 and 19.3%) between forage types. Flow of nonammonia N was in excess relative to digestible OM intake; hence, digestible OM intake seemed to be first-limiting for performance by cattle grazing either forage type.

  15. The Discovery of Quinoxaline-Based Metathesis Catalysts from Synthesis of Grazoprevir (MK-5172).

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J; Kong, Jongrock; Chung, Cheol K; Brunskill, Andrew; Campeau, Louis-Charles; McLaughlin, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Olefin metathesis (OM) is a reliable and practical synthetic methodology for challenging carbon-carbon bond formations. While existing catalysts can effect many of these transformations, the synthesis and development of new catalysts is essential to increase the application breadth of OM and to achieve improved catalyst activity. The unexpected initial discovery of a novel olefin metathesis catalyst derived from synthetic efforts toward the HCV therapeutic agent grazoprevir (MK-5172) is described. This initial finding has evolved into a class of tunable, shelf-stable ruthenium OM catalysts that are easily prepared and exhibit unique catalytic activity.

  16. Development of a Space Station Operations Management System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandli, A. E.; Mccandless, W. T.

    1988-01-01

    To enhance the productivity of operations aboard the Space Station, a means must be provided to augment, and frequently to supplant, human effort in support of mission operations and management, both on the ground and onboard. The Operations Management System (OMS), under development at the Johnson Space Center, is one such means. OMS comprises the tools and procedures to facilitate automation of station monitoring, control, and mission planning tasks. OMS mechanizes, and hence rationalizes, execution of tasks traditionally performed by mission planners, the mission control center team, onboard System Management software, and the flight crew.

  17. Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla: A Report of Unusual Pediatric Case

    PubMed Central

    Mohan Das, Usha; Manjunath, V; Manoj Bavle, Radhika; Sudhakar, M; Kumar, Nanda; Srinath, Srinath

    2011-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a rare and locally benign neoplasm of high aggressive behavior found exclusively in the jaws. OM commonly occurs in the second and third decade, its quite rare to find in maxilla that to invading the maxillary sinus completely. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. The radiographic features are variable, and the diagnosis is therefore not easy. This article presents a case of OM of maxilla in a 13-year-old boy, which was previously diagnosed as fibrosseous lesion with the help of CT.

  18. OPTICAL MICROVARIABILITY IN QUASARS: SPECTRAL VARIABILITY

    SciTech Connect

    RamIrez, A.; Dultzin, D.; De Diego, J. A. E-mail: deborah@astroscu.unam.m

    2010-05-01

    We present a method that we developed to discern where the optical microvariability (OM) in quasars originates: in the accretion disk (related to thermal processes) or in the jet (related to non-thermal processes). Analyzing nearly simultaneous observations in three different optical bands of continuum emission, we are able to determine the origin of several isolated OM events. In particular, our method indicates that from nine events reported by RamIrez et al., three of them are consistent with a thermal origin, three with non-thermal, and three cannot be discerned. The implications for the emission models of OM are briefly discussed.

  19. Nanoscale octahedral molecular sieves: Syntheses, characterization, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia

    The major part of this research consists of studies on novel synthesis methods, characterization, and catalytic applications of nanoscale manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves. The second part involves studies of new applications of bulk porous molecular sieve and layered materials (MSLM), zeolites, and inorganic powder materials for diminishing wound bleeding. Manganese oxide octahedral molecular sieves (OMS) are very important microporous materials. They have been used widely as bulk materials in catalysis, separations, chemical sensors, and batteries, due to their unique tunnel structures and useful properties. Novel methods have been developed to synthesize novel nanoscale octahedral molecular sieve manganese oxides (OMS) and metal-substituted OMS materials in order to modify their physical and chemical properties and to improve their catalytic applications. Different synthetic routes were investigated to find better, faster, and cheaper pathways to produce nanoscale or metal-substituted OMS materials. In the synthetic study of nanosize OMS materials, a combination of sol-gel synthesis and hydrothermal reaction was used to prepare pure crystalline nanofibrous todorokite-type (OMS-1) and cryptomelane-typed (OMS-2) manganese oxides using four alkali cations (Li+, K+, Na +, Rb+) and NH4+ cations. In the synthesis study of nanoscale and metal-substituted OMS materials, a combination of sol-gel synthesis and solid-state reaction was used to prepare transition metal-substituted OMS-2 nanorods, nanoneedles, and nanowires. Preparative parameters of syntheses, such as cation templates, heating temperature and time, were investigated in these syntheses of OMS-1 and OMS-2 materials. The catalytic activities of the novel synthetic nanoscale OMS materials has been evaluated on green oxidation of alcohols and toluene and were found to be much higher than their correspondent bulk materials. New applications of bulk manganese oxide molecular sieve and layered materials

  20. Cytokine polymorphisms predict the frequency of otitis media as a complication of rhinovirus and RSV infections in children.

    PubMed

    Alper, Cuneyt M; Winther, Birgit; Hendley, J Owen; Doyle, William J

    2009-02-01

    Previous studies suggested that the otitis media (OM) complication rate of viral upper respiratory infection (vURI) is conditioned by genes affecting cytokine production. Two hundred and thirty children (114 male; 187 White, 25 Black; aged 1-9.3 years, average=3.6+/-1.6 years) were prospectively followed over the typical cold season for cold-like illness and OM. Nasopharyngeal secretion samples collected during cold-like illness and OM were assayed for upper respiratory viruses and buccal samples were assayed for TNFalpha (-308), IL-10(-1082, -819, -592), IL-6 (-174) and IFN-gamma (+874) polymorphisms. Logistic regression was used to identify genotypes that predict OM coincident with RSV and rhinovirus (RV) infection. Of the 157 children with RV detection (79 male; 132 White, 13 Black, 12 Other; aged 3.6+/-1.5 years), simple logistic regression identified age (B= -0.34, Z= -2.8, P<0.01, OR=0.71), IL-6 (B= -0.76, Z= -3.3, P<0.01, OR=0.47) and IL-10 (B=0.49, Z=2.0, P=0.05, OR=1.6) as significant predictors of OM coincidence. A more complex logistic regression model for RV detection that included selected OM risk factors identified these factors as well as the TNFalpha genotype, OM history, breastfeeding history and daily environment as significant predictors of OM coincidence. Of the 43 children with RSV detection (21 male; 35 White, 5 Black, 3 Other, aged 3.9+/-1.7 years), logistic regression identified IL-10 (B=1.05, Z=2.0, P=0.05, OR=2.9) as a significant predictor of OM coincidence. New OM episodes coincident with evidence of RSV and RV infection were significantly more frequent in children with high production IL-10 phenotypes. The low production IL-6 and high production TNFalpha phenotypes also contributed to OM risk during RV detection. Cytokine polymorphisms may be one of an expectedly large number of genetic factors contributing to the known heritability of OM.

  1. A rapid method for concentrating sedimentary organic matter for vitrinite reflectance analysis.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, C.E.

    1982-01-01

    The tecnique discussed in this paper utilizes crushing, high-speed blending, and ultrasonic treatment to mechanically disaggregate rock and release the sedimentary organic matter (OM) in a suitable heavy liquid. This new method can provide freeze-dried concentrated OM in approximately 8 to 24 hours (longer time is necessary for removing carbonate). Under optimal conditions, it is possible to concentrate the OM and prepare a hardened epoxy microscope slide in about 24 hours. Subsequent grinding, polishing, and drying allows microscopic examination of the organic concentrate the next day.-from Author

  2. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a graphene structure under external magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raheli, Ali; Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.

    2016-02-01

    We investigate the behavior of optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) based on quantum coherence in a Landau-quantized graphene structure. Such a tunable four-level system is driven coherently by two coherent fields and an incoherent pumping field inside the unidirectional ring cavity. The influence of system parameters on the threshold of the onset of OB and OM is studied. It is found that one can efficiently control the OB/OM threshold intensity and the hysteresis loop by using the system parameters. The results obtained may be used in real experiments for the development of new types of nanoelectronic devices for realizing an all-optical switching process.

  3. The Discovery of Quinoxaline-Based Metathesis Catalysts from Synthesis of Grazoprevir (MK-5172).

    PubMed

    Williams, Michael J; Kong, Jongrock; Chung, Cheol K; Brunskill, Andrew; Campeau, Louis-Charles; McLaughlin, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Olefin metathesis (OM) is a reliable and practical synthetic methodology for challenging carbon-carbon bond formations. While existing catalysts can effect many of these transformations, the synthesis and development of new catalysts is essential to increase the application breadth of OM and to achieve improved catalyst activity. The unexpected initial discovery of a novel olefin metathesis catalyst derived from synthetic efforts toward the HCV therapeutic agent grazoprevir (MK-5172) is described. This initial finding has evolved into a class of tunable, shelf-stable ruthenium OM catalysts that are easily prepared and exhibit unique catalytic activity. PMID:27123552

  4. The optical modules of the phase-2 of the NEMO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Leonora, E.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anzalone, A.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Barbato, F.; Bersani, A.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Bonori, M.; Bouhadef, B.; Bozza, C.; Cacopardo, G.; Capone, A.; Caruso, F.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Costa, M.; D'Amico, A.; De Asmundis, R.; De Bonis, G.; De Rosa, G.; De Vita, R.; Distefano, C.; Fermani, P.; Flaminio, V.; Fusco, L. A.; Garufi, F.; Giordano, V.; Giovanetti, G.; Grella, G.; Grimaldi, A.; Habel, R.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovsky, V.; Lattuada, D.; Leotta, G.; Lonardo, A.; Longhitano, F.; Lo Presti, D.; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Maugeri, F.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Minutoli, S.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pappalardo, V.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Pugliatti, C.; Pulvirenti, S.; Raffaelli, F.; Raia, G.; Randazzo, N.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Russo, A.; Russo, G. V.; Sapienza, P.; Sciliberto, D.; Sedita, M.; Sgura, I.; Shirokov, E.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Sollima, C.; Spina, M.; Spurio, M.; Stefani, F.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.

    2013-07-01

    A 13-inch Optical Module (OM) containing a large-area (10-inch) photomultiplier was designed as part of Phase-2 of the NEMO project. An intense R&D activity on the photomultipliers, the voltage supply boards, the optical coupling as well as the study of the influences of the Earth's magnetic field has driven the choice of each single component of the OM. Following a well-established production procedure, 32 OMs were assembled and their functionality tested. The design, the testing and the production phases are thoroughly described in this paper.

  5. Making a beta barrel: Assembly of Outer Membrane Proteins in Gram negative bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Rigel, Nathan W.; Silhavy, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram negative bacteria is an essential organelle that serves as a selective permeability barrier by keeping toxic compounds out of the cell while allowing vital nutrients in. How the OM and its constituent lipid and protein components are assembled remains an area of active research. In this review, we describe our current understanding of how outer membrane proteins (OMPs) are delivered to and then assembled in the OM of the model Gram-negative organism Escherichia coli. PMID:22221898

  6. Report of a Rare Case of an Odontogenic Myxoma of the Maxilla and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, SM; Gupta, AA; Swetha, P; Moon, NJ; Singh, S; Singh, A

    2014-01-01

    Odontogenic myxoma (OM) is a mesenchymal tissue benign neoplasia, being relatively rare which is almost exclusively seen in tooth-bearing areas. OM commonly occurs in the 2nd and 3rd decade and the mandible is involved more commonly than the maxilla. The lesion often grows without symptoms and presents as a painless swelling. Radiographically, the myxoma appears as a unilocular or multilocular radiolucency. This article presents a rare case of OM occurring in the maxilla of a 28-year-old female patient with a brief review of the literature. PMID:25031907

  7. Organic metamorphism in the California petroleum basins; Chapter B, Insights from extractable bitumen and saturated hydrocarbons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Price, Leigh C.

    2000-01-01

    Seventy-five shales from the Los Angeles, Ventura, and Southern San Joaquin Valley Basins were extracted and analyzed. Samples were chosen on the basis of ROCK-EVAL analyses of a much larger sample base. The samples ranged in burial temperatures from 40 ? to 220 ? C, and contained hydrogen-poor to hydrogen-rich organic matter (OM), based on OM visual typing and a correlation of elemental kerogen hydrogen to carbon ratios with ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices. By extractable bitumen measurements, rocks with hydrogen- poor OM in the Los Angeles Basin began mainstage hydrocarbon (HC) generation by 90 ? C. The HC concentrations maximized by 165 ? C, and beyond 165 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all began decreasing to low values reached by 220 ? C, where HC generation was largely complete. Rocks with hydrogen-poor OM in the Southern San Joaquin Valley Basin commenced mainstage HC generation at 135 ? C and HC concentrations maximized by 180 ? C. Above 180 ? C, HC and bitumen concentrations and ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices all decreased to low values reached by 214 ? C, again the process of HC generation being largely complete. In both cases, bell-shaped HC-generation curves were present versus depth (burial temperature). Mainstage HC generation had not yet begun in Ventura Basin rocks with hydrogen-poor OM by 140 ? C. The apparent lower temperature for initiation of mainstage generation in the Los Angeles Basin is attributed to very recent cooling in that basin from meteoric-water flow. Thus, HC generation there most probably occurred at higher burial temperatures. In contrast, mainstage HC generation, and all aspects of organic metamorphism, were strongly suppressed in rocks with hydrogen-rich OM at temperatures as high as 198 ? C. For example, shales from the Wilmington field (Los Angeles Basin) from 180 ? to 198 ? C retained ROCK-EVAL hydrogen indices of 550- 700 and had saturated-HC coefficients of only 4-15 mg/g organic carbon. The rocks

  8. American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... CONTINUING EDUCATION SUBSTANCE ABUSE AND MENTAL HEALTH SERVICES ADMINISTRATION CONTINUING EDUCATION CE ON DEMAND SELF-STUDY PROGRAMS LOOKING FOR SOMETHING SPECIFIC? OMS ACTION NETWORK POSITION STATEMENTS DENTAL STUDENTS CORPORATE SUPPORT SUPPLIER MARKETPLACE ...

  9. SUMMARY REPORT: SMALL COMMUNITY WATER AND WASTE- WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This summary report presents information on the unique needs of small communities facing new water and wastewater treatment requirements. t contains three main sections: technology overviews (each presents a process description, O&M requirements, technology limitations, and finan...

  10. Influenza A virus--induced acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Buchman, C A; Doyle, W J; Skoner, D P; Post, J C; Alper, C M; Seroky, J T; Anderson, K; Preston, R A; Hayden, F G; Fireman, P

    1995-11-01

    To better understand the significance of viral upper respiratory tract infections in the pathogenesis of acute otitis media (OM), 27 adults underwent intranasal inoculation with influenza A virus. Monitoring consisted of antibody titer determination, tympanometry, and otoscopy. Microbiologic analysis consisted of cultures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based detection for influenza A virus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis. All subjects became infected with the challenge virus. By day 4, 16 (59%) developed middle ear pressures of -100 mm H2O or below and 4 (25%) of them developed OM. One subject (4%) developed purulent OM requiring myringotomy for pain relief. Middle ear effusion cultures were negative. PCR analysis of that subject's middle ear effusion and nasal washes were positive for influenza A virus and S. pneumoniae. These findings support a causal role for viral upper respiratory tract infections in the pathogenesis of OM, possibly mediated by middle ear underpressures and viral and bacterial middle ear infection.

  11. Normabweichungen im Zeitungsdeutsch Ostbelgiens (Deviations from the Standard in the Newspaper German of East Belgium)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelde, Peter H.

    1974-01-01

    Concludes that the German used in the east Belgium newspaper differs fr om standard High German. Proceeds to list these differences in the areas of lexicology, semantics and stylistics, morphology and syntax, orthography e tc. (Text is in German.) (DS)

  12. Dissolution of Arsenic Minerals Mediated by Dissimilatory Arsenate Reducing Bacteria: Estimation of the Physiological Potential for Arsenic Mobilization

    PubMed Central

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes. PMID:24724102

  13. The presequence pathway is involved in protein sorting to the mitochondrial outer membrane.

    PubMed

    Wenz, Lena-Sophie; Opaliński, Lukasz; Schuler, Max-Hinderk; Ellenrieder, Lars; Ieva, Raffaele; Böttinger, Lena; Qiu, Jian; van der Laan, Martin; Wiedemann, Nils; Guiard, Bernard; Pfanner, Nikolaus; Becker, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    The mitochondrial outer membrane contains integral α-helical and β-barrel proteins that are imported from the cytosol. The machineries importing β-barrel proteins have been identified, however, different views exist on the import of α-helical proteins. It has been reported that the biogenesis of Om45, the most abundant signal-anchored protein, does not depend on proteinaceous components, but involves direct insertion into the outer membrane. We show that import of Om45 occurs via the translocase of the outer membrane and the presequence translocase of the inner membrane. Assembly of Om45 in the outer membrane involves the MIM machinery. Om45 thus follows a new mitochondrial biogenesis pathway that uses elements of the presequence import pathway to direct a protein to the outer membrane.

  14. 20 CFR 229.51 - Adjustment of age reduction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SOCIAL SECURITY OVERALL MINIMUM GUARANTEE Computation of the Overall Minimum Rate § 229.51 Adjustment of... entitlement to a spouse O/M benefit ends for any reason; (3) Months in which a spouse has in her care...

  15. 12 CFR 602.8 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... in writing and addressed to the Director, Office of Management Services (OMS), Farm Credit Administration. You may send it: (1) By mail to 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102-5090; (2)...

  16. 12 CFR 602.8 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... in writing and addressed to the Director, Office of Management Services (OMS), Farm Credit Administration. You may send it: (1) By mail to 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102-5090; (2)...

  17. Controllable optical bistability and multistability in a slab defected with monolayer graphene nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solookinejad, Gh.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, the optical bistability (OB) and optical multistability (OM) properties of weak probe light in a defect dielectric medium doped by four-level graphene nanostructure is theoretically discussed. The double dark resonance can arise by linear polarized control laser fields which consist of linear left and right circularly polarized light. We show that by adjusting the Rabi-frequencies of control fields, frequency detuning of bichromatic electric fields, the intensity threshold and hysteric curves of OB and OM can be manipulated. Moreover, the thickness of the slab is considered as a controllable parameter which can impact the OB and OM behaviors of weak probe light in a defect slab. We find that the transition from OB to OM or vice versa can be possible by adjusting the thickness of the slab. Our results may provide some new application on Nano-scale devices in future all-optical communication and quantum information technologies.

  18. Childhood opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Blaes, Franz; Dharmalingam, Backialakshmi

    2016-06-01

    Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a rare and primarily immune-mediated disease in children and adults. The main symptoms include opsoclonus, myoclonus and ataxia. In children, the symptoms also include irritability, and, over a long-term course, learning and behavioural disturbances. OMS can be idiopathic, parainfectious or occur as a paraneoplastic (tumour-associated) syndrome. Paraneoplastic OMS in children is almost exclusively associated with neuroblastoma, whereas in adults, small cell lung cancer and breast cancer are the main underlying tumours. An autoimmune pathophysiology is suspected because childhood OMS patients have functionally active autoantibodies, proinflammatory changes in the cytokine network and immunotherapy responses. Children appear to respond regularly to immunosuppressive treatment. However, although the neurological symptoms show a good response, most children continue to show neuropsychological disturbances.

  19. Clinical responses to rituximab in a case of neuroblastoma with refractory opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome.

    PubMed

    Alavi, Samin; Kord Valeshabad, Ali; Moradveisi, Borhan; Aminasnafi, Ali; Arzanian, Mohammad Taghi

    2012-01-01

    Opsoclonus myoclonus ataxia syndrome (OMS) is a rare neurologic syndrome. In a high proportion of children, it is associated with neuroblastoma. The etiology of this condition is thought to be immune mediated. In children, immunotherapy with conventional treatments such as corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, and even antiepileptic drugs has been tried. Recently rituximab has been used safely for refractory OMS in children with neuroblastoma. Our patient was a 3.5-year-old girl referred for ataxia and dancing eye movements starting since 1.5 years ago. She was diagnosed with neuroblastoma on imaging studies on admission. The OMS was refractory to surgical resection, chemotherapy, corticosteroids, and intravenous immunoglobulin. Patient received rituximab simultaneously with chemotherapy. The total severity score decreased by 61.1% after rituximab. Patient's ataxia markedly improved that she was able to walk independently after 6 months. Our case confirmed the clinical efficacy and safety of rituximab in a refractory case of OMS.

  20. Unseen players shape benthic competition on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has shown that hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic matter (OM) from algae disrupts the function of the coral holobiont and promotes the invasion of opportunistic pathogens, leading to coral morbidity and mortality. Here we refer to these dynamics as the (3)DAM [dissolved organic matter (DOM), direct contact, disease, algae and microbes] model. There is considerable complexity in coral-algae interactions; turf algae and macroalgae promote heterotrophic microbial overgrowth of coral, macroalgae also directly harm the corals via hydrophobic OM, whereas crustose coralline algae generally encourage benign microbial communities. In addition, complex flow patterns transport OM and pathogens from algae to downstream corals, and direct algal contact enhances their delivery. These invisible players (microbes, viruses, and OM) are important drivers of coral reefs because they have non-linear responses to disturbances and are the first to change in response to perturbations, providing near real-time trajectories for a coral reef, a vital metric for conservation and restoration.

  1. 12 CFR 602.8 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... in writing and addressed to the Director, Office of Management Services (OMS), Farm Credit Administration. You may send it: (1) By mail to 1501 Farm Credit Drive, McLean, Virginia 22102-5090; (2)...

  2. 7 CFR 654.40 - Responsibility for operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... necessary, the sponsor(s) will provide the O&M and adopt standards for Federal grant property (34 CFR part... Watershed Protection § 654.40 Responsibility for operation and maintenance. (a) Non-Federal lands. The...

  3. 7 CFR 654.40 - Responsibility for operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... necessary, the sponsor(s) will provide the O&M and adopt standards for Federal grant property (34 CFR part... Watershed Protection § 654.40 Responsibility for operation and maintenance. (a) Non-Federal lands. The...

  4. 7 CFR 654.40 - Responsibility for operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... necessary, the sponsor(s) will provide the O&M and adopt standards for Federal grant property (34 CFR part... Watershed Protection § 654.40 Responsibility for operation and maintenance. (a) Non-Federal lands. The...

  5. 7 CFR 654.40 - Responsibility for operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... necessary, the sponsor(s) will provide the O&M and adopt standards for Federal grant property (34 CFR part... Watershed Protection § 654.40 Responsibility for operation and maintenance. (a) Non-Federal lands. The...

  6. 7 CFR 654.40 - Responsibility for operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... necessary, the sponsor(s) will provide the O&M and adopt standards for Federal grant property (34 CFR part... Watershed Protection § 654.40 Responsibility for operation and maintenance. (a) Non-Federal lands. The...

  7. 7 CFR 654.15 - Operation and maintenance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... installed as set forth in the watershed or RC&D measure plan. (d) Compliance with the time frames and O&M... the schedule for withdrawal of water in water impounding structures as specified in the watershed...

  8. The design and proof of correctness of a fault-tolerant circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bevier, William R.; Young, William D.

    1990-01-01

    The flowing achievements are presented in view graph form: (1) a formal statement of interactive consistency conditions in the Boyer-Moore logic; (2) a formal statement of the oral messages (OM) algorithm in the Boyer-Moore logic; (3) a mechanically checked proof that OM satisfies the interactive consistency conditions; (4) a mechanically checked proof of the optimality result--no algorithm can tolerate fewer faults than OM yet still achieve interactive consistency; (5) the use of OM in a functional specification for a fault-tolerant device; (6) a formal description of the design of the device; (7) a mechanically checked proof that the device design satisfies the specification; and (8) an implementation of the design in programmable logic arrays.

  9. Phylogenomic analysis supports the ancestral presence of LPS-outer membranes in the Firmicutes.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Luisa Cs; Poppleton, Daniel; Klingl, Andreas; Criscuolo, Alexis; Dupuy, Bruno; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Beloin, Christophe; Gribaldo, Simonetta

    2016-01-01

    One of the major unanswered questions in evolutionary biology is when and how the transition between diderm (two membranes) and monoderm (one membrane) cell envelopes occurred in Bacteria. The Negativicutes and the Halanaerobiales belong to the classically monoderm Firmicutes, but possess outer membranes with lipopolysaccharide (LPS-OM). Here, we show that they form two phylogenetically distinct lineages, each close to different monoderm relatives. In contrast, their core LPS biosynthesis enzymes were inherited vertically, as in the majority of bacterial phyla. Finally, annotation of key OM systems in the Halanaerobiales and the Negativicutes shows a puzzling combination of monoderm and diderm features. Together, these results support the hypothesis that the LPS-OMs of Negativicutes and Halanaerobiales are remnants of an ancient diderm cell envelope that was present in the ancestor of the Firmicutes, and that the monoderm phenotype in this phylum is a derived character that arose multiple times independently through OM loss. PMID:27580370

  10. ENHANCED ORGANIC MATTER REMINERALIZATION AND NUTRIENT TURNOVER BY POPULATIONS OF BURROWING SHRIMP IN YAQUINA BAY, OR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Burrowing, or thalassinid, shrimp structure large areas of intertidal habitat of Pacific Northwest estuaries. This field study utilized a combination of anoxic incubations, porewater dialysis peepers, and benthic chambers to quantify the role of burrowing shrimp species on OM dec...

  11. Innate Immunity: Orchestrating Inflammation and Resolution of Otitis Media.

    PubMed

    Kurabi, Arwa; Pak, Kwang; Ryan, Allen F; Wasserman, Stephen I

    2016-01-01

    Otitis media (OM) is a common disease in young children, accounting for more office visits and surgeries than any other pediatric condition. It is associated with an estimated cost of five billion dollars annually in the USA. Moreover, chronic and recurrent middle ear (ME) disease leads to hearing loss during critical periods of language acquisition and learning leading to delays in reaching developmental milestones and risking permanent damage to the ME and inner ear in severe cases. Therefore, research to understand the disease pathogenesis and identify new therapeutics is important. Although OM is a multifactorial disease, targeting the molecular mechanisms that drive inflammation and OM resolution is critical. In this review, we discuss the current evidence suggesting that innate immune receptors and effectors play key roles in OM by mediating both the ME inflammatory responses and recovery. PMID:26732809

  12. Lipopolysaccharide transport to the cell surface: periplasmic transport and assembly into the outer membrane.

    PubMed

    May, Janine M; Sherman, David J; Simpson, Brent W; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2015-10-01

    Gram-negative bacteria possess an outer membrane (OM) containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Proper assembly of the OM not only prevents certain antibiotics from entering the cell, but also allows others to be pumped out. To assemble this barrier, the seven-protein lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) system extracts LPS from the outer leaflet of the inner membrane (IM), transports it across the periplasm and inserts it selectively into the outer leaflet of the OM. As LPS is important, if not essential, in most Gram-negative bacteria, the LPS biosynthesis and biogenesis pathways are attractive targets in the development of new classes of antibiotics. The accompanying paper (Simpson BW, May JM, Sherman DJ, Kahne D, Ruiz N. 2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370, 20150029. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0029)) reviewed the biosynthesis of LPS and its extraction from the IM. This paper will trace its journey across the periplasm and insertion into the OM.

  13. 40 CFR 63.1506 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... OM&M plan. (3) Operate each furnace using dross and salt flux as the sole feedstock. (j) Rotary dross... that: (i) The level of molten metal remains above the top of the passage between the sidewell...

  14. 40 CFR 63.1506 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... OM&M plan. (3) Operate each furnace using dross and salt flux as the sole feedstock. (j) Rotary dross... that: (i) The level of molten metal remains above the top of the passage between the sidewell...

  15. 40 CFR 63.1506 - Operating requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in accordance with the OM&M plan. (3) Operate each furnace using dross and salt flux as the sole... performance test. (6) Operate each sidewell furnace such that: (i) The level of molten metal remains above...

  16. Onychocytic carcinoma: a new entity.

    PubMed

    Perrin, Christophe; Langbein, Lutz; Ambrossetti, Damien; Erfan, Nouran; Schweizer, Jürgen; Michiels, Jean-François

    2013-08-01

    We have recently described a new nail tumor known as onychocytic matricoma. Herein, we describe its malignant counterpart. Clinically, the tumor simulates onychomatricoma (OM). Histologically, this in situ malignant epithelial tumor exhibits a distinct picture of onychocytic differentiation with signs of both nail matrical differentiation and nail plate differentiation. We have proposed the name onychocytic carcinoma for this singular adnexal neoplasm. Given the peculiar thickening of the nail plate observed in OM, onychocytic matricoma, and onychocytic carcinoma, the clinical individualization of a new type of nail band pattern could be proposed. It presents as an acquired localized (monodactylous) longitudinal pachyonychia. Such longitudinal pachyonychia allow the recognition of the matrical nail tumor, which has a limited etiological spectrum. Xantholeucopachyonychia suggests mainly OM and rarely onychocytic carcinoma. Pachymelanonychia suggests onychocytic matricoma and rarely pigmented OM or onychocytic carcinoma. PMID:23518638

  17. Motion of the otolithic membrane in the bullfrog sacculus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meenderink, Sebastiaan W. F.; Bozovic, Dolores

    2015-12-01

    Accessory structures that overlie the sensory epithelia of the various inner ear organs play an important role in the transduction of mechanical perturbations by the underlying hair cells. It imposes a load (mass, offset in position) on individual hair bundles and is the medium that mechanically couples multiple hair bundles. Also, it may provide a preferred directionality of motion across the macula. In this manuscript, we present results on the mechanical properties of the otolithic membrane (OM) from the American bullfrog sacculus. Experiments were performed in which the motion of the OM, in response to a mechanical stimulus, was determined over an extended 2-D area. We find that the OM moves in phase with the stimulus, preferentially in the same direction as the applied stimulus. The decay in response amplitude is consistent with the OM being a homogeneous elastic material.

  18. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2016-01-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefit the industry at-large.

  19. Influenza virus induces bacterial and nonbacterial otitis media.

    PubMed

    Short, Kirsty R; Diavatopoulos, Dimitri A; Thornton, Ruth; Pedersen, John; Strugnell, Richard A; Wise, Andrew K; Reading, Patrick C; Wijburg, Odilia L

    2011-12-15

    Otitis media (OM) is one of the most common childhood diseases. OM can arise when a viral infection enables bacteria to disseminate from the nasopharynx to the middle ear. Here, we provide the first infant murine model for disease. Mice coinfected with Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza virus had high bacterial load in the middle ear, middle ear inflammation, and hearing loss. In contrast, mice colonized with S. pneumoniae alone had significantly less bacteria in the ear, minimal hearing loss, and no inflammation. Of interest, infection with influenza virus alone also caused some middle ear inflammation and hearing loss. Overall, this study provides a clinically relevant and easily accessible animal model to study the pathogenesis and prevention of OM. Moreover, we provide, to our knowledge, the first evidence that influenza virus alone causes middle ear inflammation in infant mice. This inflammation may then play an important role in the development of bacterial OM.

  20. FEMP Focus - Spring 2004

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-29

    Features information about Measurement and Verification (M&V) of Energy Savings, Energy Rate Escalation calculator, Landfill Gas-to-Energy Project, Natural Gas Markets, GSA develops new O&M contract, and more for federal agencies.

  1. Dissolution of arsenic minerals mediated by dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria: estimation of the physiological potential for arsenic mobilization.

    PubMed

    Lukasz, Drewniak; Liwia, Rajpert; Aleksandra, Mantur; Aleksandra, Sklodowska

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was characterization of the isolated dissimilatory arsenate reducing bacteria in the context of their potential for arsenic removal from primary arsenic minerals through reductive dissolution. Four strains, Shewanella sp. OM1, Pseudomonas sp. OM2, Aeromonas sp. OM4, and Serratia sp. OM17, capable of anaerobic growth with As (V) reduction, were isolated from microbial mats from an ancient gold mine. All of the isolated strains: (i) produced siderophores that promote dissolution of minerals, (ii) were resistant to dissolved arsenic compounds, (iii) were able to use the dissolved arsenates as the terminal electron acceptor, and (iii) were able to use copper minerals containing arsenic minerals (e.g., enargite) as a respiratory substrate. Based on the results obtained in this study, we postulate that arsenic can be released from some As-bearing polymetallic minerals (such as copper ore concentrates or middlings) under reductive conditions by dissimilatory arsenate reducers in indirect processes.

  2. A Study of the Oscillation Marks' Characteristics of Continuously Cast Incoloy Alloy 825 Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleem, Saud; Vynnycky, Michael; Fredriksson, Hasse

    2016-08-01

    A comprehensive experimental study of oscillation mark (OM) formation and its characteristics during the solidification of Incoloy alloy 825 in the continuous casting of blooms is investigated by plant trials and metallographic study. The experiments involved two heats with the same casting and mold conditions and sampling at different locations across the strand. The metallographic study combined macro/micro-examinations of OMs and segregation analysis of Cr, Mn, Mo, Ni, and Si by microprobe analysis. The results show that OMs have widely different characteristics, such as mark type, depth, segregation, and accompanying microstructure. Furthermore, the mark pitch can vary considerably even for the similar casting conditions, leading to different conditions for the marks' formation in relation to the mold's cyclic movement. Finally, a mechanism for the OM formation is discussed and proposed. Possible solutions for minimizing the observed defects by optimizing the mold conditions are suggested.

  3. Neurocognitive disorder

    MedlinePlus

    Organic mental disorder (OMS); Organic brain syndrome ... Beck BJ, Tompkins KJ. Mental disorders due to another medical condition. In: Stern TA, Fava M, Wilens TE, Rosenbaum JF, eds. Massachusetts General Hospital Comprehensive Clinical ...

  4. Budgeting for Solar PV Plant Operations & Maintenance: Practices and Pricing.

    SciTech Connect

    Enbar, Nadav; Weng, Dean; Klise, Geoffrey Taylor

    2015-12-01

    With rising grid interconnections of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems, greater attention is being trained on lifecycle performance, reliability, and project economics. Expected to meet production thresholds over a 20-30 year timeframe, PV plants require a steady diet of operations and maintenance (O&M) oversight to meet contractual terms. However, industry best practices are only just beginning to emerge, and O&M budgets—given the arrangement of the solar project value chain—appear to vary widely. Based on insights from in-depth interviews and survey research, this paper presents an overview of the utility-scale PV O&M budgeting process along with guiding rationales, before detailing perspectives on current plant upkeep activities and price points largely in the U.S. It concludes by pondering potential opportunities for improving upon existing O&M budgeting approaches in ways that can benefi t the industry at-large.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide transport to the cell surface: periplasmic transport and assembly into the outer membrane

    PubMed Central

    May, Janine M.; Sherman, David J.; Simpson, Brent W.; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Gram-negative bacteria possess an outer membrane (OM) containing lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Proper assembly of the OM not only prevents certain antibiotics from entering the cell, but also allows others to be pumped out. To assemble this barrier, the seven-protein lipopolysaccharide transport (Lpt) system extracts LPS from the outer leaflet of the inner membrane (IM), transports it across the periplasm and inserts it selectively into the outer leaflet of the OM. As LPS is important, if not essential, in most Gram-negative bacteria, the LPS biosynthesis and biogenesis pathways are attractive targets in the development of new classes of antibiotics. The accompanying paper (Simpson BW, May JM, Sherman DJ, Kahne D, Ruiz N. 2015 Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B 370, 20150029. (doi:10.1098/rstb.2015.0029)) reviewed the biosynthesis of LPS and its extraction from the IM. This paper will trace its journey across the periplasm and insertion into the OM. PMID:26370939

  6. Unseen players shape benthic competition on coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Barott, Katie L; Rohwer, Forest L

    2012-12-01

    Recent work has shown that hydrophilic and hydrophobic organic matter (OM) from algae disrupts the function of the coral holobiont and promotes the invasion of opportunistic pathogens, leading to coral morbidity and mortality. Here we refer to these dynamics as the (3)DAM [dissolved organic matter (DOM), direct contact, disease, algae and microbes] model. There is considerable complexity in coral-algae interactions; turf algae and macroalgae promote heterotrophic microbial overgrowth of coral, macroalgae also directly harm the corals via hydrophobic OM, whereas crustose coralline algae generally encourage benign microbial communities. In addition, complex flow patterns transport OM and pathogens from algae to downstream corals, and direct algal contact enhances their delivery. These invisible players (microbes, viruses, and OM) are important drivers of coral reefs because they have non-linear responses to disturbances and are the first to change in response to perturbations, providing near real-time trajectories for a coral reef, a vital metric for conservation and restoration. PMID:22944243

  7. 1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHURCH LOOKING SOUTH. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED BY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW OF CHURCH LOOKING SOUTH. BUILDING CONSTRUCTED BY EAST EUROPEAN IMMIGRANTS OM 1915-16. - Saints Peter & Paul Orthodox Church, North Jefferson & Sherman Streets, Mount Union, Huntingdon County, PA

  8. Sources and Distribution of Organic Matter in Sediments of the Louisiana Continental Shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Both riverine and marine sources of organic matter (OM) contribute to sediment organic pools, and either source can contribute significantly to sediment accumulation, burial, and remineralization rates on river dominated continental shelf systems. For the Louisiana continental sh...

  9. 40 CFR 98.277 - Records that must be retained.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... solids combusted (whether based on T650 om-05 Solids Content of Black Liquor, TAPPI (incorporated by... pulping liquor carbon content for each chemical recovery combustion unit at a sulfite or semichemical...

  10. The Lipopolysaccharide Export Pathway in Escherichia coli: Structure, Organization and Regulated Assembly of the Lpt Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Polissi, Alessandra; Sperandeo, Paola

    2014-01-01

    The bacterial outer membrane (OM) is a peculiar biological structure with a unique composition that contributes significantly to the fitness of Gram-negative bacteria in hostile environments. OM components are all synthesized in the cytosol and must, then, be transported efficiently across three compartments to the cell surface. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a unique glycolipid that paves the outer leaflet of the OM. Transport of this complex molecule poses several problems to the cells due to its amphipatic nature. In this review, the multiprotein machinery devoted to LPS transport to the OM is discussed together with the challenges associated with this process and the solutions that cells have evolved to address the problem of LPS biogenesis. PMID:24549203

  11. A High-Speed Optical Modem Communication System for CORK Seafloor Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farr, N.; Tivey, M.; Ware, J.; Pontbriand, C.; Pelletier, L. P.

    2014-12-01

    High-speed communications underwater is an increasing requirement for data intensive seafloor sensors. Acoustic modems provide dependable long-range communications underwater, but data rates are limited to <57Kbps. Free-water optical modems (OMs) offer high data rate, 10Mbps communications over a range of 200 m - a distance for ROVs, AUVs or wire-lowered packages to communicate without the need to directly plug-in or retrieve the instrument. Over the past 4 years, we have demonstrated the functionality and utility of OM technology using a CORK borehole observatory as a test case. A CORK represents all of the basic components required for a seafloor observatory: a stable environment for long-term continuous measurements of earth and ocean phenomena, access to a unique environment below the seafloor and a standard communication interface. The CORK-OM features a high-bandwidth, low-latency optical system based on LED emitters and PMT receivers and an acoustic command and control system. OM tests established a communication link from 20 to 200 meters range at rates of 1, 5 and 10 Mbps with no bit errors. The seafloor OM was plugged into the CORK's existing underwater wet mateable connector and provided additional power to the CORK to boost the data rate to 1 Hz from the normal 1 minute sample period. To communicate with the seafloor CORK-OM, a number of different modalities were used. One method was an OM mounted to a CTD frame on a lowered wire from a ship with an SDSL link over the conducting wire. Other methods utilized OMs mounted to both ROV Jason and submersible Alvin. We deployed OMs at two CORKs in 2012 in the northeast pacific at sites 857D and 1025C. The CORKs were visited in 2013 by a vessel of opportunity to download data and were put into sleep mode. The CORKs were revisited in 2014, woken up and successfully interrogated for data. ALVIN retrieved the CORK-OMs for corrosion, biofouling and battery performance assessment. We also performed tests of a next

  12. Quality and Distribution of Frozen Organic Matter (Old, Deep, Fossil Carbon) in Siberian Permafrost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirrmeister, Lutz; Strauss, Jens; Wetterich, Sebastian; Grosse, Guido; Overduin, Pier Paul

    2013-04-01

    Permafrost deposits constitute a large organic carbon (OC) pool vulnerable to degradation and potential carbon release due to global warming. Permafrost sections along coastal and river bank exposures and subsea cores in northeastern Siberia were studied for organic matter (OM) characteristics and ice content. OM stored in Quaternary permafrost grew, accumulated, froze, partly decomposed, and refroze under different periglacial environments, reflected in specific biogeochemical and cryolithological features. For the studied individual strata (Saalian ice-rich deposits, Pre-Eemian floodplain, Eemian lake deposits, Early to Middle Weichselian fluvial deposits, Middle Weichselian Yedoma, Late Weichselian Yedoma , Taberites, Holocene cover, Holocene thermokarst, Holocene thermoerosional valley and submerged lagoon and fluvial deposits) OM accumulation, preservation, and distribution are strongly linked to a broad variety of paleoenvironmental factors and specific surface and subsurface conditions before inclusion of OM into the permafrost. OM in permafrost includes twigs, leaves, peat, grass roots, plant detritus, and particulate and dissolved OM. The vertical distribution of total OC (TOC) in exposures varies from 0.1 wt % of the dry sediment in fluvial deposits to 45 wt % in Holocene peats. High TOC, high C/N, and low d13C reflect less decomposed OM accumulated under wet, anaerobic soil conditions characteristic of interglacial and interstadial periods. Glacial and stadial periods are characterized by less variable, low TOC, low C/N, and high d13C values indicating stable environments with reduced bioproductivity and stronger OM decomposition under dryer, aerobic soil conditions. Based on TOC data and updated information on bulk densities, we estimate average OC inventories for different stratigraphic units in northeastern Siberia, ranging from 7 kg C/m³ for Early Weichselian fluvial deposits, to 33 kg C/m³ for Middle Weichselian Yedoma deposits, to 75 kg C/m³ for

  13. Incidence of Otitis Media in a Contemporary Danish National Birth Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Todberg, Tanja; Koch, Anders; Andersson, Mikael; Olsen, Sjurdur F.; Lous, Jørgen; Homøe, Preben

    2014-01-01

    Objectives In recent years welfare in Denmark has increased which might be expected to reduce otitis media (OM) incidence. We examined the age-specific incidence of OM in a nation-wide cohort of children aged 0–7 years born in 1996–2003 (Danish National Birth Cohort, DNBC). Only selection was ability to understand and speak Danish. Methods Information of OM and ventilation tubes (VT) was collected through three maternal interviews at 6-month, 18-month and 7-years of age and based on this age-specific and cumulative incidence of OM was calculated. As different numbers of the total population answered the different interviews, the calculations are done with different denominators. The information in DNBC was validated against two population based registries containing information of VT insertions. Results Cumulative incidence of OM at 7 years was 60.6% (31,982/52,755). For children with OM, 16.2% (7143/44194) had their first OM episodes between 0–6 months of age, 44.3% (19579/44194) between 7–18 months, and 39.5% (17472/44194) between 19 months and 7 years. Four or more OM episodes before 7 years were reported by 39.5% (12620/31982) and by 64.0% (2482/3881) of those who had their OM debut between 0–6 months; by 48.2% (4998/10378) with debut between 7–18 months; and by 28.7% (4996/17344) with debut between 19 months and 7 years. These figures are essentially unchanged from earlier figures from Denmark. VT insertion at least once was reported by 26,1% in the 7-year interview. Assuming recordings in the Danish National Patient Registry to be gold standard, maternal self-reportings in DNBC of insertion of VT showed high sensitivity (96.4%), specificity (98.2%), and positive (94.8%) and negative predictive values (98.8%). Conclusion OM affects nearly 2/3 of preschool children in Denmark despite reduction in known OM risk factors. PMID:25545891

  14. Organic matter composition at intact biopore and crack surfaces of Luvisol B-horizons analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy and Pyrolysis-Field Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leue, Martin; Eckhardt, Kai-Uwe; Ellerbrock, Ruth H.; Gerke, Horst H.; Leinweber, Peter

    2015-04-01

    In the B-horizons of Luvisols, surfaces of biopores and aggregates can be enriched in clay and organic matter (OM), relative to the bulk of the soil matrix. The OM composition of these coatings determines their bio-physico-chemical properties and is relevant for transport and transformation processes but is largely unknown at the molecular scale. The objective of this study was an extended characterization of the OM composition at intact biopore and aggregate surfaces. Specifically, we aimed to improve the interpretation of data obtained with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in diffuse reflectance mode (DRIFT) by combining the signals from DRIFT spectra with data from pyrolysis-field ionization mass spectrometry (Py-FIMS) as a more detailed molecular-scale analysis. Samples were manually separated from the outermost surfaces of earthworm burrows, coated and uncoated cracks, root channels, and pinhole fillings of the B-horizons of Luvisols developed from loess and glacial till. The OM at earthworm burrow walls was characterized by a mix of chemically labile aliphatic C-rich and more stable lignin and alkylaromatic compounds whereas the OM of coated cracks and pinholes was dominated by relatively stable heterocylic N and nitriles, and high-molecular aromatic compounds (benzonitrile and naphthalene). This more recalcitrant OM likely originated from the combustion of biomass and, in case of the till-derived Luvisol, from diesel exhausts. The OM composition of pore walls reflected the differences between biopores (i.e., topsoil and plant residual, worm activity) and cracks (i.e., solutes and colloids, rapid percolation). The information of Py-FI mass spectra enabled the assignment of OM functional groups also from spectral regions of overlapping DRIFT signal intensities to specific OM compound classes. In particular, bands from C=O and C=C bonds in the infrared range of wave number 1688 … 1565 cm-1 were related to highly stable, chemically recalcitrant OM

  15. Bioturbation of three endogeic earthworms - A. caliginosa, A. chlorotica and A. icterica - depending on organic matter location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Couteulx, Alexis; Wolf, Cédric; Pérès, Guénola; Hallaire, Vincent

    2015-04-01

    Earthworms alter soil structure through their bioturbation activity: the creation of burrow paths and the production of casts in their burrows or at soil surface. Thus, they may alter some soil functionnal properties (e.g. hydraulic conductivity) and ecosystem services. In cultivated fields, earthworms are a key structuring process and play a major role in the maintenance, the improvement and even the degradation of soil structure. However, bioturbation patterns of the different endogeic species are still not precisely known. This study aims at describing the burrowing and casting activity of three endogeic earthworm species with two different organic matter (OM) locations. Cylindrical microcosms (15 cm high) were set up with a silt-loam soil and 0.6 per cent of dry grass leaves was added at two locations: mixed with soil or dropped at its surface; three endogeic species were studied in monospecific microcosms: Allolobophora chlorotica, Allolobophora icterica and Aporrectodea caliginosa. Microcosms were kept for 60 days at 12°C. They were then stripped centimeter by centimeter and, on each layer the bioturbated area, number of bioturbated areas (= objects), blocking cast area (casts that prevent earthworms from passing), non-blocking cast area and the angles of burrow paths were assessed. In this study, the rate of non-blocking cast is stable whatever the species and the OM location. Regardless of the species, there are fewer objects but a greater percentage of blocking cast with mixed OM than with surface OM. Only A. chlorotica and A. caliginosa have a greater bioturbated area with mixed OM than with surface OM. With OM at soil surface: A. icterica has a higher bioturbated area and generates more objects than A. caliginosa, which has a higher bioturbated area and generates more objects than A. chlorotica. Interestingly, there are very few differences between the three species with mixed OM. The bioturbation activity of earthworms is also affected by depth: the

  16. Spatial variation of sediment mineralization supports differential CO2 emissions from a tropical hydroelectric reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Simone J.; Vidal, Luciana O.; Mendonça, Raquel F.; Tranvik, Lars J.; Sobek, Sebastian; Fábio, Roland

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of organic matter (OM) from terrestrial ecosystems are buried as sediments in inland waters. It is still unclear to what extent this OM constitutes a sink of carbon, and how much of it is returned to the atmosphere upon mineralization to carbon dioxide (CO2). The construction of reservoirs affects the carbon cycle by increasing OM sedimentation at the regional scale. In this study we determine the OM mineralization in the sediment of three zones (river, transition, and dam) of a tropical hydroelectric reservoir in Brazil as well as identify the composition of the carbon pool available for mineralization. We measured sediment organic carbon mineralization rates and related them to the composition of the OM, bacterial abundance and pCO2 of the surface water of the reservoir. Terrestrial OM was an important substrate for the mineralization. In the river and transition zones most of the OM was allochthonous (56 and 48%, respectively) while the dam zone had the lowest allochthonous contribution (7%). The highest mineralization rates were found in the transition zone (154.80 ± 33.50 mg C m-2 d-1) and the lowest in the dam (51.60 ± 26.80 mg C m-2 d-1). Moreover, mineralization rates were significantly related to bacterial abundance (r2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) and pCO2 in the surface water of the reservoir (r2 = 0.73, p < 0.001). The results indicate that allochthonous OM has different contributions to sediment mineralization in the three zones of the reservoir. Further, the sediment mineralization, mediated by heterotrophic bacteria metabolism, significantly contributes to CO2 supersaturation in the water column, resulting in higher pCO2 in the river and transition zones in comparison with the dam zone, affecting greenhouse gas emission estimations from hydroelectric reservoirs. PMID:23641239

  17. Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova): a review of its use in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

    PubMed

    Blair, Hannah A; Dhillon, Sohita

    2014-10-01

    Omega-3 carboxylic acids (Epanova) [OM3-CA] is the first free fatty acid form of long-chain marine omega-3 fatty acids (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid being the most abundant) to be approved by the US FDA as an adjunct to diet to lower triglyceride levels in patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia (≥ 500 mg/dL). Oral OM3-CA has greater bioavailability than ethyl ester forms of omega-3 and, unlike omega-3 acid ethyl esters, does not require co-ingestion of a high-fat meal, as it does not need pancreatic enzyme activity for absorption. In the 12-week EpanoVa fOr Lowering Very high triglyceridEs (EVOLVE) trial, OM3-CA 2 or 4 g/day significantly reduced serum triglyceride levels relative to placebo. Other lipid parameters, including non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C), total cholesterol, and very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C) levels, were also reduced significantly with OM3-CA relative to placebo. Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were increased significantly with OM3-CA relative to placebo; however, these increases were not accompanied by increases in the circulating concentrations of non-HDL-C, VLDL-C, or apolipoprotein B. OM3-CA was generally well tolerated in this study, with most adverse events being of mild or moderate severity. Although additional comparative data are needed to position OM3-CA with respect to other formulations of omega-3 fatty acids, current evidence suggests that OM3-CA is a useful addition to the treatment options available for patients with severe hypertriglyceridemia.

  18. Major Sources of Organic Matter in a Complex Coral Reef Lagoon: Identification from Isotopic Signatures (δ13C and δ15N).

    PubMed

    Briand, Marine J; Bonnet, Xavier; Goiran, Claire; Guillou, Gaël; Letourneur, Yves

    2015-01-01

    A wide investigation was conducted into the main organic matter (OM) sources supporting coral reef trophic networks in the lagoon of New Caledonia. Sampling included different reef locations (fringing, intermediate and barrier reef), different associated ecosystems (mangroves and seagrass beds) and rivers. In total, 30 taxa of macrophytes, plus pools of particulate and sedimentary OM (POM and SOM) were sampled. Isotopic signatures (C and N) of each OM sources was characterized and the composition of OM pools assessed. In addition, spatial and seasonal variations of reef OM sources were examined. Mangroves isotopic signatures were the most C-depleted (-30.17 ± 0.41 ‰) and seagrass signatures were the most C-enriched (-4.36 ± 0.72 ‰). Trichodesmium spp. had the most N-depleted signatures (-0.14 ± 0.03 ‰) whereas mangroves had the most N-enriched signatures (6.47 ± 0.41 ‰). The composition of POM and SOM varied along a coast-to-barrier reef gradient. River POM and marine POM contributed equally to coastal POM, whereas marine POM represented 90% of the POM on barrier reefs, compared to 10% river POM. The relative importance of river POM, marine POM and mangroves to the SOM pool decreased from fringing to barrier reefs. Conversely, the relative importance of seagrass, Trichodesmium spp. and macroalgae increased along this gradient. Overall, spatial fluctuations in POM and SOM were much greater than in primary producers. Seasonal fluctuations were low for all OM sources. Our results demonstrated that a large variety of OM sources sustain coral reefs, varying in their origin, composition and role and suggest that δ13C was a more useful fingerprint than δ15N in this endeavour. This study also suggested substantial OM exchanges and trophic connections between coral reefs and surrounding ecosystems. Finally, the importance of accounting for environmental characteristics at small temporal and spatial scales before drawing general patterns is highlighted. PMID

  19. Omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids enhance the protective effect of levetiracetam against seizures, cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative DNA damage in young kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Shaikh, Ibrahim A; Khateeb, Masood M; Habeeb, Shafiuddin M

    2015-08-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV) is a unique, effective, relatively safe antiepileptic drug that preferentially interacts with synaptic vesicle protein 2A (SV2A). This study aimed to explore the effect of combined treatment of LEV with omega 3 (OM3) on cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative stress and DNA damage induced by seizures in the PTZ-kindled young rat model. Cognitive functions, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and DNA damage were assessed in PTZ-kindled young rats pretreated with single and combined treatment of LEV (30mg/kg, i.p.) and OM3 (200mg/kg, p.o.). Pretreatment with LEV and OM3 at the tested doses significantly attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and decreased cognitive impairment in both passive avoidance and elevated plus maze tests in the PTZ-kindled rats. Moreover, the increase in hippocampal glutamate, malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, as well as the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and GSH-peroxidase and superoxide dismutase activities induced by PTZ kindling, significantly decreased. These effects were higher with combined treatment of LEV with OM3 and significantly more than the observed effects of single LEV or OM3. In conclusion, the combined treatment of LEV with OM3 is more effective in seizure control and alleviating the cognitive impairment induced by PTZ kindling in the young rat model, the effects that result from the decrease in hippocampal oxidative stress and DNA damage which can be attributed to the antioxidant properties of both LEV and OM3. These results may be promising for the use of LEV and OM3 combination in the treatment of epileptic children.

  20. MxMn8O16 (M = Ag or K) as promising cathode materials for secondary Mg based batteries: The role of the cation M

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Jianping; Takeuchi, Esther S.; Altug S. Poyraz; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Marschilok, Amy C.

    2016-02-15

    Here, AgxMn8O16 (Ag-OMS-2) and KxMn8O16 (K-OMS-2) were investigated as high voltage cathode materials for Mg based batteries. Both MxMn8O16 materials delivered high initial capacities (>180 mA h g–1), and KxMn8O16 showed high cycle stability with a reversible capacity of >170 mA h g–1 after 20 cycles.

  1. Formation of Anthropogenic and Biogenic Secondary Organic Aerosol at Bakersfield, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, S.; Russell, L. M.; Day, D. A.; Zhao, Y.; Goldstein, A. H.; Weber, R.

    2011-12-01

    The source and chemistry of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) are major challenges remaining unresolved in the atmospheric science. To address this uncertainty, measurements were conducted at the Bakersfield (California, US) supersite during the CALNEX campaign in May and June of 2010. The submicron organic mass (OM), a major component of PM1 (65%), accounted for 70% of the OM in PM2.5. A majority of this submicron OM (80-90%) was composed of SOA, which is a mixture of components formed from anthropogenic and biogenic origins. These SOA components were distinguished and consistently identified from the factor analysis applied on the independent Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and High Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometry measurements. The SOA formed from motor vehicular emissions dominated the OM (65%). This SOA was likely composed of oxidation products from alkane (alkane SOA; 41% of the OM) and PAH (PAH SOA; 24% of the OM) compound classes. The alkane SOA tightly tracked the ozone mixing ratios, suggesting that this component was likely formed via the ozone-driven oxidation processes. The PAH SOA was likely formed by OH radical oxidation, consistent with the good correlation of the PAH SOA to sulfate, which is a surrogate for gas-phase OH oxidation under dry conditions. The petroleum operation SOA, a nearly missing component in the source inventory of PM2.5 in San Joaquin Valley, accounted for 14% of the OM. While the anthropogenic SOA components were formed during the daytime, the biogenic SOA (10-13% of the OM) was likely the product of NO3 radical oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, which transported from the nearby mountain regions to the sampling site at night. The mass concentration of the SOA components could help improve the source inventory estimation of San Joaquin Valley, and the formation pathways of distinct SOA components were suggested in this work.

  2. Properties of Fe-organic matter associations via coprecipitation versus adsorption.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunmei; Dynes, James J; Wang, Jian; Sparks, Donald L

    2014-12-01

    The association of organic matter (OM) with minerals is recognized as the most important stabilization mechanism for soil organic matter. This study compared the properties of Fe-OM complexes formed from adsorption (reaction of OM to postsynthesis ferrihydrite) versus coprecipitation (formation of Fe solids in the presence of OM). Coprecipitates and adsorption complexes were synthesized using dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracts from a forest little layer at varying molar C/Fe ratios of 0.3-25.0. Sample properties were studied by N2 gas adsorption, XRD, FTIR, Fe EXAFS, and STXM-NEXAFS techniques. Coprecipitation resulted in much higher maximum C contents (∼130 mg g(-1) C difference) in the solid products than adsorption, which may be related to the formation of precipitated insoluble Fe(III)-organic complexes at high C/Fe ratios in the coprecipitates as revealed by Fe EXAFS analysis. Coprecipitation led to a complete blockage of mineral surface sites and pores with ≥177 mg g(-1) C and molar C/Fe ratios ≥2.8 in the solid products. FTIR and STXM-NEXAFS showed that the coprecipitated OM was similar in composition to the adsorbed OM. An enrichment of aromatic C was observed at low C/Fe ratios. Association of carboxyl functional groups with Fe was shown with FTIR and STXM-NEXAFS analysis. STXM-NEXAFS analysis showed a continuous C distribution on minerals. Desorption of the coprecipitated OM was less than that of the adsorbed OM at comparable C/Fe ratios. These results are helpful to understand C and Fe cycling in the natural environments with periodically fluctuating redox conditions, where coprecipitation can occur.

  3. Salt Marsh and Phytoplankton Bloom Influences on the Composition and Metabolism of Organic Matter in a Temperate Estuary, Delaware, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. T.; Voynova, Y. G.; Ullman, W. J.; Sikes, E. L.; Aufdenkampe, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Low oxygen levels within the Murderkill Estuary, DE, are largely driven by organic matter (OM) metabolism and chemical oxygen demand within the fringing salt marshes. To assess how the connectivity to and inundation of salt marshes impact OM quality and cycling within the Estuary, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) data were used to characterize both dissolved and particulate OM pools. Parallel Factor Analysis (PARAFAC) identified five fluorophores that illustrated greater tidal variation in the particulate (POM) than dissolved (DOM) OM pools. The terrestrial-wetland and marine OM sources were statistically separated using the fluorophores in conjunction with the elemental composition and isotopic signature of particulates, as well as dissolved water chemistry (e.g. salinity, dissolved nitrogen, carbon, silica, and phosphorus). DOM pools in the Murderkill and leaving the marsh are dominated by soil humics, while POM pools have greater contributions of protein-rich sources and are generally are less processed. Tidal survey results point to the salt marshes as a sink of fine particulates, in particular protein rich OM, and a source of coarse particulates and DOM dominated by humic substances. Results from dark 24-hour bioassays suggest that coarse and fine POM pools are larger drivers of oxygen consumption than DOM pools. Correlations between community respiration rates during ebb tide, water chemistry, and OM fractions suggest that biological oxygen demand in the Murderkill is driven, in part, by the metabolism of protein-rich, phytoplankton from Delaware Bay. Thus, while the bulk of oxygen drawdown occurs within the salt marshes, in-stream metabolism appears to be driven by marine OM pools.

  4. In vitro fermentation of cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin using fecal inoculum from cats, dogs, horses, humans, and pigs and ruminal fluid from cattle.

    PubMed

    Sunvold, G D; Hussein, H S; Fahey, G C; Merchen, N R; Reinhart, G A

    1995-12-01

    We evaluated the influence of gastrointestinal tract microflora from several species on fiber fermentation characteristics in vitro. Selected fibrous substrates (cellulose, beet pulp, citrus pulp, and citrus pectin) were incubated for 6, 12, 24, and 48 h with ruminal fluid from cattle or feces from dogs, cats, pigs, horses, or humans. When data were pooled across all substrates and fermentation times, OM disappearance (29.4%) and acetate, propionate, butyrate, and total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production (1.09, .41, .12, and 1.61 mmol/g of OM, respectively) were lowest (P < .05), and lactate production (.23 mmol/g of OM) was greatest (P < .05) for horse fecal microflora compared with samples from the other species. The greatest (P < .05) acetate production resulted when substrates were fermented by cat fecal microflora (2.38 mmol/g of OM). The greatest (P < .05) propionate productions resulted from pig fecal and cattle ruminal microflora (.88 and .83 mmol/g of OM, respectively), and the greatest (P < .05) butyrate productions resulted from human and pig fecal microflora (.39 and .40 mmol/g of OM, respectively). Total SCFA production was greatest (P < .05) for cat fecal microflora (3.38 mmol/g of OM). When data were pooled across the species, substrate OM disappearance and SCFA production ranked from least to greatest in the following order: cellulose < beet pulp < citrus pulp < citrus pectin. The fermentability of different fibrous substrates by fecal or ruminal microflora from various species seems to be dependent not only on the fermentative activity of the microbial population but on other factors as well, perhaps lag time and rate of digesta passage.

  5. Contribution of bacterial cells to lacustrine organic matter based on amino sugars and D-amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carstens, Dörte; Köllner, Krista E.; Bürgmann, Helmut; Wehrli, Bernhard; Schubert, Carsten J.

    2012-07-01

    Amino sugars (ASs), D-amino acids (D-AAs), and bacterial cell counts were measured in two Swiss lakes to study the contribution of bacterial cells to organic matter (OM) and the fate of ASs and bacterial amino biomarkers during OM degradation. Concentrations of individual ASs (glucosamine, galactosamine, muramic acid, and mannosamine) in the particulate and total OM pools were analyzed in water-column profiles of Lake Brienz (oligotrophic and oxic throughout the entire water column) and Lake Zug (eutrophic, stratified, and permanently anoxic below 170 m) in spring and in fall. Generally, carbon-normalized AS concentrations decreased with water depth, indicating the preferential decomposition of ASs. For Lake Brienz the relative loss of particulate ASs was higher than in Lake Zug, suggesting enhanced AS turnover in an oligotrophic environment. AS ratio changes in the water column revealed a replacement of plankton biomass with OM from heterotrophic microorganisms with increasing water depth. Similar to the ASs, highest carbon normalized D-AA concentrations were found in the upper water column with decreasing concentrations with depth and an increase close to the sediments. In Lake Zug, an increase in the percentage of D-AAs also showed the involvement of bacteria in OM degradation. Estimations of OM derived from bacterial cells using cell counts and the bacterial biomarkers muramic acid and D-AAs gave similar results. For Lake Brienz 0.2-14% of the organic carbon pool originated from bacterial cells, compared to only 0.1-5% in Lake Zug. Based on our estimates, muramic acid appeared primarily associated with bacterial biomass and not with refractory bacterial necromass. Our study underscores that bacteria are not only important drivers of OM degradation in lacustrine systems, they also represent a significant source of OM themselves, especially in oligotrophic lakes.

  6. Biomimetic zinc oxide replica with structural color using butterfly (Ideopsis similis) wings as templates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wang; Zhang, Di; Fan, Tongxiang; Ding, Jian; Gu, Jiajun; Guo, Qixin; Ogawa, Hiroshi

    2006-09-01

    Nano-structured colorful zinc oxide (ZnO) replicas were produced using the wings of the Ideopsis similis butterfly as templates. The ZnO replicas we obtained exhibit iridescence, which was clearly observed under an optical microscope (OM). Field emission scanning electron microscope analysis shows that all the microstructure details are maintained faithfully in the ZnO replica. A computer model was established to simulate the diffraction spectral results, which agreed well with the OM images.

  7. Tectonic and climate control of oil shale deposition in the Upper Cretaceous Qingshankou Formation (Songliao Basin, NE China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Jianliang; Liu, Zhaojun; Bechtel, Achim; Strobl, Susanne A. I.; Sun, Pingchang

    2013-09-01

    Oil shales were deposited in the Songliao Basin (NE China) during the Upper Cretaceous period, representing excellent hydrocarbon source rocks. High organic matter (OM) contents, a predominance of type-I kerogen, and a low maturity of OM in the oil shales are indicated by bulk geochemical parameters and biomarker data. A major contribution of aquatic organisms and minor inputs from terrigenous land plants to OM input are indicated by n-alkane distribution patterns, composition of steroids, and organic macerals. Strongly reducing bottom water conditions during the deposition of the oil shale sequences are indicated by low pristane/phytane ratios, high C14-aryl-isoprenoid contents, homohopane distribution patterns, and high V/Ni ratios. Enhanced salinity stratification with mesosaline and alkaline bottom waters during deposition of the oil shales are indicated by high gammacerane index values, low MTTC ratios, high β-carotene contents, low TOC/S ratios, and high Sr/Ba ratios. The stratified water column with anoxic conditions in the bottom water enhanced preservation of OM. Moderate input of detrital minerals during the deposition of the oil shale sequences is reflected by titanium concentrations. In this study, environmental conditions in the paleo-lake leading to OM accumulation in the sediments are related to sequence stratigraphy governed by climate and tectonics. The first Member of the Qingshankou Formation (K2qn1) in the Songliao Basin, containing the oil shale sequence, encompasses a third-order sequence that can be divided into three system tracts (transgressive system tract—TST, highstand system tract—HST, and regressive system tract—RST). Enrichment of OM changed from low values during TST-I to high-moderate values during TST-II/III and HST-I/II. Low OM enrichment occurs during RST-I and RST-II. Therefore, the highest enrichment of OM in the sediments is related to stages of mid-late TST and early HST.

  8. Why is Mineral-Associated Organic Matter Enriched in 15N? Evidence from Grazed Pasture Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baisden, W. T.; Wells, N. S.; Mudge, P. L.; Clough, T. J.; Schipper, L. A.; Ghani, A.; Stevenson, B.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout the scientific literature, measurements across soil depth and density fractions suggest that, with few exceptions, mineral-associated organic matter (OM) has higher δ15N than non-mineral-associated OM. This implies that the δ15N difference between N inputs and mineral-stabilized OM may characterize the microbial processes involved in stabilization and mineral association. Yet current understanding of observed N isotope fractionation in terrestrial ecosystems suggests the large isotope effects are expressed during inorganic N transformations from NH4 to gaseous loss pathways of NH3 volatilization and denitrification. How can the relative importance of N isotope fractionation during OM stabilization versus loss pathways be resolved? We recently examined N isofluxes when a temporary nitrogen excess is created by urine deposition in a New Zealand dairy pasture. We found that the N isotopic composition of volatilized NH3, and NO3 available for leaching or denitrification could not be linked back to the added N using Rayleigh distillation models. Instead, the results imply that the added N was immobilized, and the N available for losses was increasingly derived from mineralization of organic matter during the course of the experiment. These results are consistent with recent evidence of enhanced OM mineralization in urine patches, understanding of N isotope mass balances and long-standing evidence that gross mineralization and immobilization fluxes greatly exceed net mineralization and nitrification, except at very high N saturation. These results suggest that where 15N enrichment occurs due to fractionating loss pathways, the isotope effects are primarily transmitted to immobilized N, forming 15N enriched stabilized OM. This further explains earlier findings that the δ15N of soil OM represents an integrated indicator of losses, reflecting the intensity and duration of pastoral agriculture. We suggest that development of an indicator based on δ15N in

  9. Lignin as an indicator of the sedimentation conditions on the Arctic shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyantsev, A. S.; Romankevich, E. A.; Peresypkin, V. I.; Belyaev, N. A.; Semiletov, I. P.; Bratskaya, S. Yu.; Vetrov, A. A.; Sergienko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    It is shown for the first time that the proportion of lignin in shelf deposits may range from 1/3 to the total concentration of organic carbon. The distribution of wood residues and lignin in the studied sedimentary formation is very uneven, which reflects the dynamic flux environment of sedimentation and OM supply. The calculated molecular indexes showed that most of the OM in deposits underwent insignificant diagenetic alterations.

  10. Annual Demographic Data for Migrant Family Housing Centers: 1980 Harvest Season.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trabing, Mark R.

    The Office of Migrant Services' (OMS) summary presents demographic data on the 2,500 migrant families in 25 housing centers in 14 California counties in 1980. The typical migrant family in an OMS center is shown to be a Mexican family of 4, with 2 parents between the ages of 18 and 44, who have completed 2 to 6 years of school, and have 2 to 3…

  11. Role of the Omp25/Omp31 Family in Outer Membrane Properties and Virulence of Brucella ovis▿

    PubMed Central

    Caro-Hernández, Paola; Fernández-Lago, Luis; de Miguel, María-Jesús; Martín-Martín, Ana I.; Cloeckaert, Axel; Grilló, María-Jesús; Vizcaíno, Nieves

    2007-01-01

    The genes coding for the five outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of the Omp25/Omp31 family expected to be located in the outer membrane (OM) of rough virulent Brucella ovis PA were inactivated to evaluate their role in virulence and OM properties. The OM properties of the mutant strains and of the mutants complemented with the corresponding wild-type genes were analyzed, in comparison with the parental strain and rough B. abortus RB51, in several tests: (i) binding of anti-Omp25 and anti-Omp31 monoclonal antibodies, (ii) autoagglutination of bacterial suspensions, and (iii) assessment of susceptibility to polymyxin B, sodium deoxycholate, hydrogen peroxide, and nonimmune ram serum. A tight balance of the members of the Omp25/Omp31 family was seen to be essential for the stability of the B. ovis OM, and important differences between the OMs of B. ovis PA and B. abortus RB51 rough strains were observed. Regarding virulence, the absence of Omp25d and Omp22 from the OM of B. ovis PA led to a drastic reduction in spleen colonization in mice. While the greater susceptibility of the Δomp22 mutant to nonimmune serum and its difficulty in surviving in the stationary phase might be on the basis of its dramatic attenuation, no defects in the OM able to explain the attenuation of the Δomp25d mutant were found, especially considering that the fully virulent Δomp25c mutant displayed more important OM defects. Accordingly, Omp25d, and perhaps Omp22, could be directly involved in the penetration and/or survival of B. ovis inside host cells. This aspect, together with the role of Omp25d and Omp22 in the virulence both of B. ovis in rams and of other Brucella species, should be thoroughly evaluated in future studies. PMID:17562767

  12. Stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of organic matrix from coral skeleton

    PubMed Central

    Muscatine, Leonard; Goiran, Claire; Land, Lynton; Jaubert, Jean; Cuif, Jean-Pierre; Allemand, Denis

    2005-01-01

    The evolutionary success of reef-building corals in nutrient-poor tropical waters is attributed to endosymbiotic dinoflagellates. The algae release photosynthetic products to the coral animal cells, augment nutrient flux, and enhance the rate of coral calcification. Natural abundance of stable isotopes (δ13C and δ18O) provides answers to modern and paleobiological questions about the effect of photosymbiosis on sources of carbon and oxygen in coral skeletal calcium carbonate. Here we compare 17 species of symbiotic and nonsymbiotic corals to determine whether evidence for photosymbiosis appears in stable isotopes (δ13C and δ15N) of an organic skeletal compartment, the coral skeletal organic matrix (OM). Mean OM δ13C in symbiotic and nonsymbiotic corals was similar (-26.08‰ vs. -24.31‰), but mean OM δ15N was significantly depleted in 15N in the former (4.09‰) relative to the latter (12.28‰), indicating an effect of the algae on OM synthesis and revealing OM δ15N as a proxy for photosymbiosis. To answer an important paleobiological question about the origin of photosymbiosis in reef-building corals, we applied this proxy test to a fossil coral (Pachythecalis major) from the Triassic (240 million years ago) in which OM is preserved. Mean OM δ15N was 4.66‰, suggesting that P. major was photosymbiotic. The results show that symbiotic algae augment coral calcification by contributing to the synthesis of skeletal OM and that they may have done so as early as the Triassic. PMID:15671164

  13. Effect of crab bioturbation on organic matter processing in South West Atlantic intertidal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanjul, Eugenia; Escapa, Mauricio; Montemayor, Diana; Addino, Mariana; Alvarez, María Fernanda; Grela, María A.; Iribarne, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    Organic matter (OM) remineralization plays a key role in controlling the biogeochemistry of marine sediments. Through their burrowing activities, bioturbating macrofauna not only induces physical, chemical and biological modifications, which can affect microbial communities responsible for organic matter remineralization, but it could also directly affect the distribution and bioavailability of sedimentary organic matter. Through in situ experiments manipulating crab and burrow density in intertidal soft-bottoms, we assessed if crab-bioturbation affects benthic metabolism, and the amount, distribution, and bioavailability of sedimentary OM. Crab-bioturbation enhanced overall benthic metabolism and benthic flux of dissolved OM toward the water column at both mudflat and saltmarsh zones. Moreover, our results revealed that bioturbation also changes the quality, bioavailability and distribution of sedimentary OM in mudflats and saltmarshes. Overall, bioturbation enhanced the proportion of labile organic carbon of bioturbated sediments and homogenized the sediment column in terms of their proportion of labile organic carbon. However, crabs also generated biogenic structures (e.g., mounds) that could promote spatial heterogeneity of high nutritional-value OM. Bioturbation-induced changes on benthic metabolism and on OM availability would result in a reduction of the storage capacity of carbon in our intertidal systems. Previous works indicated that crab-burrows trap detritus and OM-rich sediments. Our results suggest that detritus are efficiently remineralized at bioturbated sediment, and finally they are quickly exported to the water column as CO2 and DOC. Thus, crabs are modifying the OM processing at intertidal soft bottoms, and the ways in which carbon is exported to coastal waters.

  14. Development of a non-invasive murine infection model for acute otitis media.

    PubMed

    Stol, K; van Selm, S; van den Berg, S; Bootsma, H J; Blokx, W A M; Graamans, K; Tonnaer, E L G M; Hermans, P W M

    2009-12-01

    Otitis media (OM) is one of the most frequent diseases in childhood, and Streptococcus pneumoniae is among the main causative bacterial agents. Since current experimental models used to study the bacterial pathogenesis of OM have several limitations, such as the invasiveness of the experimental procedures, we developed a non-invasive murine OM model. In our model, adapted from a previously developed rat OM model, a pressure cabin is used in which a 40 kPa pressure increase is applied to translocate pneumococci from the nasopharyngeal cavity into both mouse middle ears. Wild-type pneumococci were found to persist in the middle ear cavity for 144 h after infection, with a maximum bacterial load at 96 h. Inflammation was confirmed at 96 and 144 h post-infection by IL-1beta and TNF-alpha cytokine analysis and histopathology. Subsequently, we investigated the contribution of two surface-associated pneumococcal proteins, the streptococcal lipoprotein rotamase A (SlrA) and the putative proteinase maturation protein A (PpmA), to experimental OM in our model. Pneumococci lacking the slrA gene, but not those lacking the ppmA gene, were significantly reduced in virulence in the OM model. Importantly, pneumococci lacking both genes were significantly more attenuated than the DeltaslrA single mutant. This additive effect suggests that SlrA and PpmA exert complementary functions during experimental OM. In conclusion, we have developed a highly reproducible and non-invasive murine infection model for pneumococcal OM using a pressure cabin, which is very suitable to study pneumococcal pathogenesis and virulence in vivo.

  15. Deletion of the complement C5a receptor alleviates the severity of acute pneumococcal otitis media following influenza A virus infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Tong, Hua Hua; Lambert, Garrett; Li, Yong Xing; Thurman, Joshua M; Stahl, Gregory L; Douthitt, Kelsey; Clancy, Caitlin; He, Yujuan; Bowman, Andrew S

    2014-01-01

    There is considerable evidence that influenza A virus (IAV) promotes adherence, colonization, and superinfection by S. pneumoniae (Spn) and contributes to the pathogenesis of otitis media (OM). The complement system is a critical innate immune defense against both pathogens. To assess the role of the complement system in the host defense and the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection, we employed a well-established transtympanically-induced mouse model of acute pneumococcal OM. We found that antecedent IAV infection enhanced the severity of acute pneumococcal OM. Mice deficient in complement C1qa (C1qa-/-) or factor B (Bf -/-) exhibited delayed viral and bacterial clearance from the middle ear and developed significant mucosal damage in the eustachian tube and middle ear. This indicates that both the classical and alternative complement pathways are critical for the oto-immune defense against acute pneumococcal OM following influenza infection. We also found that Spn increased complement activation following IAV infection. This was characterized by sustained increased levels of anaphylatoxins C3a and C5a in serum and middle ear lavage samples. In contrast, mice deficient in the complement C5a receptor (C5aR) demonstrated enhanced bacterial clearance and reduced severity of OM. Our data support the concept that C5a-C5aR interactions play a significant role in the pathogenesis of acute pneumococcal OM following IAV infection. It is possible that targeting the C5a-C5aR axis might prove useful in attenuating acute pneumococcal OM in patients with influenza infection.

  16. Major Sources of Organic Matter in a Complex Coral Reef Lagoon: Identification from Isotopic Signatures (δ13C and δ15N)

    PubMed Central

    Briand, Marine J.; Bonnet, Xavier; Goiran, Claire; Guillou, Gaël; Letourneur, Yves

    2015-01-01

    A wide investigation was conducted into the main organic matter (OM) sources supporting coral reef trophic networks in the lagoon of New Caledonia. Sampling included different reef locations (fringing, intermediate and barrier reef), different associated ecosystems (mangroves and seagrass beds) and rivers. In total, 30 taxa of macrophytes, plus pools of particulate and sedimentary OM (POM and SOM) were sampled. Isotopic signatures (C and N) of each OM sources was characterized and the composition of OM pools assessed. In addition, spatial and seasonal variations of reef OM sources were examined. Mangroves isotopic signatures were the most C-depleted (-30.17 ± 0.41 ‰) and seagrass signatures were the most C-enriched (-4.36 ± 0.72 ‰). Trichodesmium spp. had the most N-depleted signatures (-0.14 ± 0.03 ‰) whereas mangroves had the most N-enriched signatures (6.47 ± 0.41 ‰). The composition of POM and SOM varied along a coast-to-barrier reef gradient. River POM and marine POM contributed equally to coastal POM, whereas marine POM represented 90% of the POM on barrier reefs, compared to 10% river POM. The relative importance of river POM, marine POM and mangroves to the SOM pool decreased from fringing to barrier reefs. Conversely, the relative importance of seagrass, Trichodesmium spp. and macroalgae increased along this gradient. Overall, spatial fluctuations in POM and SOM were much greater than in primary producers. Seasonal fluctuations were low for all OM sources. Our results demonstrated that a large variety of OM sources sustain coral reefs, varying in their origin, composition and role and suggest that δ13C was a more useful fingerprint than δ15N in this endeavour. This study also suggested substantial OM exchanges and trophic connections between coral reefs and surrounding ecosystems. Finally, the importance of accounting for environmental characteristics at small temporal and spatial scales before drawing general patterns is highlighted. PMID

  17. Amphiphilic block-graft copolymer templates for organized mesoporous TiO2 films in dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Jung Yup; Lee, Chang Soo; Lee, Jung Min; Ahn, Joonmo; Cho, Hyung Hee; Kim, Jong Hak

    2016-01-01

    Amphiphilic block-graft copolymers composed of poly(styrene-b-butadiene-b-styrene) (SBS) backbone and poly(oxyethylene methacrylate) (POEM) side chains are synthesized and combined with hydrophilically preformed TiO2 (Pre-TiO2), which works as a structural binder as well as titania source. This results in the formation of crack free, 6-μm-thick, organized mesoporous TiO2 (OM-TiO2) films via one-step doctor-blading based on self-assembly of SBS-g-POEM as well as preferential interaction of POEM chains with Pre-TiO2. SBS-g-POEM with different numbers of ethylene oxide repeating units, SBS-g-POEM(500) and SBS-g-POEM(950), are used to form OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The efficiencies of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with a quasi-solid-state polymer electrolyte reach 5.7% and 5.8% at 100 mW/cm2 for OM-TiO2(500) and OM-TiO2(950), respectively. The surface area of OM-TiO2(950) was greater than that of OM-TiO2(500) but the light reflectance was lower in the former, which is responsible for similar efficiency. Both DSSCs exhibit much higher efficiency than one (4.8%) with randomly-organized particulate TiO2 (Ran-TiO2), which is attributed to the higher dye loading, reduced charge recombination and improved pore infiltration of OM-TiO2. When utilizing poly((1-(4-ethenylphenyl)methyl)-3-butyl-imidazolium iodide) (PEBII) and mesoporous TiO2 spheres as the solid electrolyte and the scattering layer, the efficiency increases up to 7.5%, one of the highest values for N719-based solid-state DSSCs.

  18. The role of microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing micro-organisms in producing banded iron formations.

    PubMed

    Chan, C S; Emerson, D; Luther, G W

    2016-09-01

    Despite the historical and economic significance of banded iron formations (BIFs), we have yet to resolve the formation mechanisms. On modern Earth, neutrophilic microaerophilic Fe-oxidizing micro-organisms (FeOM) produce copious amounts of Fe oxyhydroxides, leading us to wonder whether similar organisms played a role in producing BIFs. To evaluate this, we review the current knowledge of modern microaerophilic FeOM in the context of BIF paleoenvironmental studies. In modern environments wherever Fe(II) and O2 co-exist, microaerophilic FeOM proliferate. These organisms grow in a variety of environments, including the marine water column redoxcline, which is where BIF precursor minerals likely formed. FeOM can grow across a range of O2 concentrations, measured as low as 2 μm to date, although lower concentrations have not been tested. While some extant FeOM can tolerate high O2 concentrations, many FeOM appear to prefer and thrive at low O2 concentrations (~3-25 μm). These are similar to the estimated dissolved O2 concentrations in the few hundred million years prior to the 'Great Oxidation Event' (GOE). We compare biotic and abiotic Fe oxidation kinetics in the presence of varying levels of O2 and show that microaerophilic FeOM contribute substantially to Fe oxidation, at rates fast enough to account for BIF deposition. Based on this synthesis, we propose that microaerophilic FeOM were capable of playing a significant role in depositing the largest, most well-known BIFs associated with the GOE, as well as afterward when global O2 levels increased. PMID:27392195

  19. Combustion performance and heat transfer characterization of LOX/hydrocarbon type propellants. Task 3: Data dump

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, S. W.

    1982-01-01

    A preliminary characterization of Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS) and Reaction Control System (RCS) engine point designs over a range of thrust and chamber pressure for several hydrocarbon fuels is reported. OMS and RCS engine point designs were established in two phases comprising baseline and parametric designs. Interface pressures, performance and operating parameters, combustion chamber cooling and turboprop requirements, component weights and envelopes, and propellant conditioning requirements for liquid to vapor phase engine operation are defined.

  20. Heterogeneity of soil organic matter composition and its fate across ecosystem boundaries, or does it all come out in the wash?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin-Spiotta, E.; Berhe, A. A.; Barnes, R.

    2015-12-01

    A grand challenge in our understanding of the global carbon cycle is the vulnerability of large organic carbon pools at the land-water interface to changes in climate and to landscape disturbance. The expectation that terrestrial organic matter (OM) should be dominated by lignified (aromatic) plant-derived material or nitrogen-poor, complex soil OM with old radiocarbon ages has contributed to predictions of low bioavailability or chemical recalcitrance for terrigenous OM. Recent shifts in our understanding of the source of OM in soils and the mechanisms contributing to its persistence or loss have refocused attention on environmental parameters influencing the fate of OM and its role as a source of C to the atmosphere. On land, climate, soil mineralogy, topography, drainage, vegetation, disturbance (e.g., fire) and human land use influence the quantity and biochemical composition of organic matter accumulating in soils and available for lateral transfer to aquatic systems in dissolved or particulate form. Growing research indicates that local site conditions and disturbance history are important for predicting the response of soil OM to environmental change, often more so than OM chemical composition, contradicting traditional models that tie reactivity to structure. Soils are a large source of C entering waterways, yet how much landscape heterogeneity within the watershed matters for understanding the fate of C downstream is unknown: does all this heterogeneity come out in the wash? Here we follow up on recent discussions about environmental controls on the composition and age of OM in soil, what type and age of C is mobilized during landscape disturbance, and how its source on land can help predict its fate downstream. To further improve understanding of how landscape alterations affect transfers from land to water and fill some of the gaps in the global C cycle, we identify areas of research where collaborations between aquatic and terrestrial scientists would

  1. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  2. Highly Selective Adsorption of Ethylene over Ethane in a MOF Featuring the Combination of Open Metal Site and -Complexation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yiming; Li, Baiyan; Wu, Zili; Ma, Shengqian

    2015-01-09

    The introduction of the combination of open metal site (OMS) and -complexation into MOF has led to very high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivity at 318K, as illustrated in the context of MIL-101-Cr-SO3Ag. The interactions with ethylene from both OMS and -complexation in MIL-101-Cr-SO3Ag have been investigated by in situ IR spectroscopic studies and computational calculations, which suggest -complexation contributes dominantly to the high ethylene/ethane adsorption selectivity.

  3. Organic Matter Sulfurization in the Cariaco Water Column Revealed by High-Sensitivity and Compound-Specific d34S Analyses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raven, M. R.; Sessions, A. L.; Adkins, J. F.; Thunell, R.

    2015-12-01

    Organic matter burial in marine sediments is a major process in the global carbon cycle, and enhanced organic matter burial is often associated with periods of global climatic and ecological change. Still, we have only a limited understanding of the processes that drive enhanced OM burial during oxygen-deficient conditions. Abiotic OM sulfurization has the potential to enhance the preservation of OM, but for this process to be significant it must compete with heterotrophic remineralization, most of which occurs before sinking particles reach the sea floor. We investigate the sources of sulfur to sinking particles in a modern marine basin using samples from the CARIACO fixed sediment trap time-series, applying recently developed methods for d34S analysis of small (≥20 nmol) sulfur pools and individual volatile organosulfur compounds. Relative to expectations for planktonic biomass, we find that sinking particles are both sulfur-rich and 34S-depleted. Higher apparent fluxes of 34S-depleted organic sulfur are associated with high OM export from the surface ocean, low terrestrial inputs, and high concentrations of both elemental S and the dominant non-polar organosulfur compound, C20 thiophene. We conclude that OM sulfurization is occurring in particles sinking through the Cariaco water column on timescales of days or less. Depending on the frequency of high OM export events, we estimate that this rapid sulfurization delivers roughly half of the total organic S present at 5 cm depth in underlying sediments. Accordingly, many OM-rich deposits in the geologic record may represent the products of water column sulfurization. This process provides a strong mechanistic feedback between oxygen deficiency and OM preservation.

  4. Monitoring internal load parameters during simulated and official basketball matches.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Alexandre; McGuigan, Michael R; Arruda, Ademir F s; Freitas, Camila G; Aoki, Marcelo S

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the internal load responses (session rating of perceived exertion [RPE] and salivary cortisol) between simulated and official matches (SM and OM). Ten professional basketball players participated in 2 OMs and 2 SMs during the competition season. Subjects provided saliva samples 30 minutes before the prematch warm-up (PRE) and 10 minutes after the end of the match. Session RPE (CR-10 scale) was assessed 30 minutes after each match. The results from the 2-way analysis of variance showed significant differences for post-OM salivary cortisol as compared with pre-OM values (p < 0.05). No changes were observed for cortisol during the SM. Before the OM, a significant difference in salivary cortisol was observed as compared with pre-SM values (p < 0.05). Moreover, the OM session RPE was significantly greater than that of SM. There was a significant correlation between session RPE and cortisol changes (r = 0.75). In summary, the results of this study showed a greater magnitude of cortisol and session RPE responses after OM as compared with that after SM confirming the hypothesis that a real competition generates a greater stress response than a simulated condition does. The anticipatory effect was also observed in the OM. In addition, the results indicate that session RPE seems to be a viable tool in monitoring internal loads, and the results are useful in providing a better understanding of internal loads imposed by basketball training and competitions. The precise monitoring of these responses might help the coaches to plan appropriate loads maximizing recovery and performance.

  5. Doxepin for Radiation Therapy-Induced Mucositis Pain in the Treatment of Oral Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Jayakrishnan, Ritujith; Chang, Kenneth; Ugurluer, Gamze; Miller, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Radiotherapy (RT), an integral part of the oncologic treatment for patients with head and neck cancer, can cause adverse side effects such as oral mucositis (OM). Pain from OM can impact a patient’s quality of life and interrupt RT treatment schedules, which decreases the probability for achieving cancer cure. Conventionally, RT-induced OM pain is treated with analgesics and/or mouthwash rinses. Doxepin, a traditional tricyclic antidepressant with analgesic and anesthetic properties when applied topically to the mucosa, has been shown to lower OM pain in multiple single-arm trials (Epstein et al.) and more recently, in a placebo-controlled crossover study (Leenstra and Miller et al.). Currently, a placebo-controlled study (Sio and Miller et al.) using doxepin for esophagitis pain caused by RT to the thorax is underway. Doxepin will also be further compared with magic mouthwash and a placebo solution in a three-arm trial (Miller and Sio et al.) with head and neck cancer patients with OM pain caused by RT. Doxepin may represent a new standard for treating RT-induced OM pain in the future. PMID:26779314

  6. A comparative study of the hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity of activated sludge and membrane bioreactor wastewater effluents.

    PubMed

    Grant, Jacque-Ann; Hofmann, Ron

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the hydroxyl radical scavenging characteristics of wastewater from five membrane bioreactor (MBR) and five activated sludge (AS) systems. The average values of the characteristics of both wastewater types was found to be significantly different at a 90% confidence interval in terms UV absorbance at 254 nm, alkalinity, and biopolymer concentration. Effluent organic matter (EfOM), with an average kOH,EfOM of (2.75 ± 1.04) × 10(8) M(-1)s(-1), was identified as the primary hydroxyl scavenger contributing to >70% of the background scavenging in all cases, except when nitrite exceeded 0.3 mg NO(2)(-)-N/L. The average scavenging capacity, EfOM scavenging capacity, and the EfOM reaction rate constant of the AS wastewaters exceeded that of the MBR. However, due to the small sample size (n = 5) and considerable variability in scavenging characteristics among the MBR wastewaters, the difference in EfOM reactivity between the two wastewaters was not statistically significant at a 90% confidence interval. Nevertheless, these preliminary findings suggest the possibility that MBR wastewaters may be more amenable to treatment by advanced oxidation. A plausible explanation is that MBRs were observed to reject biopolymers, and a strong correlation was observed between EfOM scavenging capacity and biopolymer concentration.

  7. Four cases of orthostatic myoclonus.

    PubMed

    Aldaajani, Z; Chang, F C F; Kim, S D; Mahant, N; Fung, V S C

    2016-07-01

    Orthostatic unsteadiness (unsteadiness on standing) is a relatively common symptom and can have neurological or non-neurological causes. Glass et al. have recently described a syndrome presenting with unsteadiness or leg jerking during standing or gait initiation difficulty which they have termed orthostatic myoclonus (OM). OM is a disabling syndrome but potentially treatable. It may develop on the background of neurodegenerative disease; other causes include pro-myoclonic drugs such as tricyclic antidepressants. In order to increase awareness of this syndrome, we report four patients with electrophysiologically confirmed OM who were referred to the movement disorder unit for lower limb tremor studies. All four patients presented with unsteadiness on standing. There were no signs suggestive of neurodegenerative disease and three of the patients had a provisional diagnosis of orthostatic tremor. The diagnosis of OM was supported by a surface electromyography showing 9-16Hz, non-rhythmic muscle bursts with burst duration of 50-100ms during standing. OM is unrecognised by many physicians as a cause of orthostatic intolerance. The most common syndrome with which OM may be confused is orthostatic tremor. A correct diagnosis is important as it may respond to treatment with clonazepam, gabapentin or piracetam. PMID:26916904

  8. Oncostatin M in the anti-inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, A; Wallace, P

    2001-01-01

    Oncostatin M (OM) is a pleiotropic cytokine of the interleukin 6 family, whose in vivo properties and physiological function remain in dispute and poorly defined. These in vivo studies strongly suggest that OM is anabolic, promoting wound healing and bone formation, and anti-inflammatory. In models of inflammation OM is produced late in the cytokine response and protects from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced toxicities, promoting the re-establishment of homoeostasis by cooperating with proinflammatory cytokines and acute phase molecules to alter and attenuate the inflammatory response. Administration of OM inhibited bacterial LPS-induced production of tumour necrosis factor α and septic lethality in a dose dependent manner. Consistent with these findings, in animal models of chronic inflammatory disease OM potently suppressed inflammation and tissue destruction in murine models of rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. T cell function and antibody production were not impaired by OM treatment. Taken together, these data indicate that the activities of this cytokine in vivo are anti-inflammatory without concordant immunosuppression.

 PMID:11890661

  9. Characterisation of organic matter associated with groundwater arsenic in reducing aquifers of southwestern Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Al Lawati, Wafa M; Jean, Jiin-Shuh; Kulp, Thomas R; Lee, Ming-Kuo; Polya, David A; Liu, Chia-Chuan; van Dongen, Bart E

    2013-11-15

    Arsenic (As) in groundwaters extensively used by people across the world constitutes a serious public health threat. The importance of organic matter (OM) as an electron donor in microbially-mediated reduction of As(V) or Fe(III)-bearing As-host minerals leading to mobilisation of solid-phase arsenic is widely recognised. Notwithstanding this, there are few studies characterising OM in such aquifers and, in particular, there is a dearth of data from the classic arsenic bearing aquifers in southwestern Taiwan. Organic geochemical analyses of sediments from a known groundwater arsenic hot-spot in southwestern Taiwan revealed contributions of thermally mature and plant derived origin, consistent with OM sources in all other Asian groundwater aquifer sediments analysed to date, indicating comparable sources and routes of OM transfer. The combined results of amended As(V) reduction assays with the organic geochemical analysis revealed that the microbiological process of dissimilatory As(V) reduction is active in this aquifer, but it is not controlled by a specific source of analysed OM. These indicate that (i) part of the OM that was considered to be less bio-available could still be used as an electron donor or (ii) other electron donors, not analysed in present study, could be controlling the rate of As release.

  10. Microwave-assisted synthesis of porous chitosan-modified montmorillonite-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Kar, Sumanta; Kaur, Tejinder; Thirugnanam, A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a porous chitosan-organically modified montmorillonite-hydroxyapatite (CS-OM-HA) composite scaffold was developed by combining microwave irradiation and gas foaming method. Hydroxyapatite (HA) particles of size ∼ 65 nm were synthesized and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy. The prepared composite scaffolds were characterized using ATR-FTIR, XRD, mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies. The synergistic effect of HA and OM on the mechanical and in vitro biological properties (swelling, degradation, protein adsorption and bioactivity) of the composite scaffolds were evaluated. Swelling, degradation, mechanical property, bioactivity and protein adsorption studies of CS-OM-HA composite scaffolds have shown desirable results in comparison with the pure CS and CS-OM composite scaffolds. CS-OM-HA composite scaffolds were also found to be non-cytotoxic to MG 63 osteoblast cell lines. From the study, it can be concluded that the novel CS-OM-HA composite scaffold with improved mechanical and in vitro biological properties has wide potential in non-load bearing bone tissue engineering applications.

  11. Determine ISS Soyuz Orbital Module Ballistic Limits for Steel Projectiles Hypervelocity Impact Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, Frankel

    2013-01-01

    A new orbital debris environment model (ORDEM 3.0) defines the density distribution of the debris environment in terms of the fraction of debris that are low-density (plastic), medium-density (aluminum) or high-density (steel) particles. This hypervelocity impact (HVI) program focused on assessing ballistic limits (BLs) for steel projectiles impacting the enhanced Soyuz Orbital Module (OM) micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) shield configuration. The ballistic limit was defined as the projectile size on the threshold of failure of the OM pressure shell as a function of impact speeds and angle. The enhanced OM shield configuration was first introduced with Soyuz 30S (launched in May 2012) to improve the MMOD protection of Soyuz vehicles docked to the International Space Station (ISS). This test program provides HVI data on U.S. materials similar in composition and density to the Russian materials for the enhanced Soyuz OM shield configuration of the vehicle. Data from this test program was used to update ballistic limit equations used in Soyuz OM penetration risk assessments. The objective of this hypervelocity impact test program was to determine the ballistic limit particle size for 440C stainless steel spherical projectiles on the Soyuz OM shielding at several impact conditions (velocity and angle combinations). This test report was prepared by NASA-JSC/ HVIT, upon completion of tests.

  12. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in large doses attenuate seizures, cognitive impairment, and hippocampal oxidative DNA damage in young kindled rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Wahab, Basel A; Al-Qahtani, Jobran M; El-Safty, Samy A

    2015-01-01

    Omega-3 (OM3) dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids have promising seizure-protective effects, as well as enhancing effects of cognitive development and memory-related learning. This study aimed to explore the effect of large doses of OM3 on cognitive impairment and hippocampal oxidative DNA damage produced by seizures in epileptic children using a PTZ-kindled young rat model. Cognitive functions, biomarkers of oxidative stress, and DNA damage were assessed in PTZ-kindled young rats (30 mg/kg, i.p. once every other day for 13 injections) pretreated with OM3 (200-500 mg/kg, p.o.). Pretreatment with OM3 at the tested doses significantly attenuated PTZ-induced seizures and decreased cognitive impairment in both passive avoidance and elevated plus maze tests in the PTZ-kindled rats. Moreover, OM3 significantly attenuated the increase in hippocampal malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) levels, as well as the decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH) levels and GSH-peroxidase activity induced by PTZ kindling, in a dose-related manner. Relatively large dose levels of OM3 (200-500 mg/kg) effectively attenuated seizures and their associated cognitive deficits, and reduced oxidative stress and hippocampal DNA damage in PTZ-kindled young rats.

  13. Structural insights into cardiolipin transfer from the Inner membrane to the outer membrane by PbgA in Gram-negative bacteria.

    PubMed

    Dong, Haohao; Zhang, Zhengyu; Tang, Xiaodi; Huang, Shihai; Li, Huanyu; Peng, Bo; Dong, Changjiang

    2016-01-01

    The outer membrane (OM) of Gram-negative bacteria is a unique asymmetric lipid bilayer in which the outer leaflet is composed of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the inner leaflet is formed by glycerophospholipid (GPL). The OM plays a fundamental role in protecting Gram-negative bacteria from harsh environments and toxic compounds. The transport and assembly pathways for phospholipids of bacterial OM are unknown. Cardiolipin (CL) plays an important role in OM biogenesis and pathogenesis, and the inner membrane (IM) protein PbgA, containing five transmembrane domains and a globular domain in periplasm has been recently identified as a CL transporter from the IM to the OM with an unknown mechanism. Here we present the first two crystal structures of soluble periplasmic globular domain of PbgA from S. typhimurium and E. coli, which revealed that the globular domains of PbgA resemble the structures of the arylsulfatase protein family and contains a novel core hydrophobic pocket that may be responsible for binding and transporting CLs. Our structural and functional studies shed an important light on the mechanism of CL transport in Gram-negative bacteria from the IM to the OM, which offers great potential for the development of novel antibiotics against multi-drug resistant bacterial infections. PMID:27487745

  14. Dynamic and Regression Modeling of Ocean Variability in the Tide-Gauge Record at Seasonal and Longer Periods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Emma M.; Ponte, Rui M.; Davis, James L.

    2007-01-01

    Comparison of monthly mean tide-gauge time series to corresponding model time series based on a static inverted barometer (IB) for pressure-driven fluctuations and a ocean general circulation model (OM) reveals that the combined model successfully reproduces seasonal and interannual changes in relative sea level at many stations. Removal of the OM and IB from the tide-gauge record produces residual time series with a mean global variance reduction of 53%. The OM is mis-scaled for certain regions, and 68% of the residual time series contain a significant seasonal variability after removal of the OM and IB from the tide-gauge data. Including OM admittance parameters and seasonal coefficients in a regression model for each station, with IB also removed, produces residual time series with mean global variance reduction of 71%. Examination of the regional improvement in variance caused by scaling the OM, including seasonal terms, or both, indicates weakness in the model at predicting sea-level variation for constricted ocean regions. The model is particularly effective at reproducing sea-level variation for stations in North America, Europe, and Japan. The RMS residual for many stations in these areas is 25-35 mm. The production of "cleaner" tide-gauge time series, with oceanographic variability removed, is important for future analysis of nonsecular and regionally differing sea-level variations. Understanding the ocean model's strengths and weaknesses will allow for future improvements of the model.

  15. Ophthalmoplegic migraine: A critical analysis and a new proposal

    PubMed Central

    Chakravarty, Ambar; Mukherjee, Angshuman

    2012-01-01

    The nosology, classification and pathophysiology of ophthalmoplegic migraine (OM) remains complex and debatable. A recently proposed classification of OM leaves several caveats. A critical analysis of all reported cases of OM (1993–2010) has been made incorporating the authors’ own experience to arrive at a simple, unambiguous and easy to use diagnostic criteria and classification of OM. Between 2005 and 2010, 18 adult cases of OM had been seen whose clinical details are summarized. Most had sixth nerve palsies associated with migraine-like headaches lasting more than 4 days. Other possibilities were carefully excluded. All subjects responded to corticosteroids favorably. We prefer using the term ophthalmoplegia with migraine-like headache (OMLH) rather than OM. We classify OMLH as a migraine subtype (1.7) and into two groups—childhood-onset type (where third nerve palsies and nerve enhancement are common) and adult-onset type (where sixth nerve palsies are more common and nerve enhancement unusual). This clinico-radiological classification does not in any way hint at any difference in pathophysiology between the two groups. PMID:23024560

  16. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zeglin, Lydia H.; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher F.; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (< 0.2%C). When normalized by OM levels, post-eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance.

  17. Organic matter quantity and source affects microbial community structure and function following volcanic eruption on Kasatochi Island, Alaska.

    PubMed

    Zeglin, Lydia H; Wang, Bronwen; Waythomas, Christopher; Rainey, Frederick; Talbot, Sandra L

    2016-01-01

    In August 2008, Kasatochi volcano erupted and buried a small island in pyroclastic deposits and fine ash; since then, microbes, plants and birds have begun to re-colonize the initially sterile surface. Five years post-eruption, bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) copy numbers and extracellular enzyme activity (EEA) potentials were one to two orders of magnitude greater in pyroclastic materials with organic matter (OM) inputs relative to those without, despite minimal accumulation of OM (< 0.2%C). When normalized by OM levels, post-eruptive surfaces with OM inputs had the highest β-glucosidase, phosphatase, NAGase and cellobiohydrolase activities, and had microbial population sizes approaching those in reference soils. In contrast, the strongest factor determining bacterial community composition was the dominance of plants versus birds as OM input vectors. Although soil pH ranged from 3.9 to 7.0, and %C ranged 100×, differentiation between plant- and bird-associated microbial communities suggested that cell dispersal or nutrient availability are more likely drivers of assembly than pH or OM content. This study exemplifies the complex relationship between microbial cell dispersal, soil geochemistry, and microbial structure and function; and illustrates the potential for soil microbiota to be resilient to disturbance. PMID:26032670

  18. Optomechanical coupling in phoxonic–plasmonic slab cavities with periodic metal strips

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Tzy-Rong; Huang, Yin-Chen; Hsu, Jin-Chen

    2015-05-07

    We theoretically investigate the optomechanical (OM) coupling of submicron cavities formed in one-dimensional phoxonic–plasmonic slabs. The phoxonic–plasmonic slabs are structured by depositing periodic Ag strips onto the top surfaces of dielectric GaAs slabs to produce dual band gaps for both electromagnetic and acoustic waves, thereby inducing the coupling of surface plasmons with photons for tailoring the OM coupling. We quantify the OM coupling by calculating the temporal modulation of the optical resonance wavelength with the acoustic phonon-induced photoelastic (PE) and moving-boundary (MB) effects. We also consider the appearance of a uniform Ag layer on the bottom surface of the slabs to modulate the photonic–plasmonic coupling. The results show that the PE and MB effects can be constructive or destructive in the overall OM coupling, and their magnitudes depend not only on the quality factors of the resonant modes but also on the mode area, mode overlap, and individual symmetries of the photonic–phononic mode pairs. Lowering the mode area could be effective for enhancing the OM coupling of subwavelength photons and phonons. This study introduces possible engineering applications to achieve enhanced interaction between photons and phonons in nanoscale OM devices.

  19. Influence of bulking agents on organic matter evolution during sewage sludge composting; consequences on compost organic matter stability and N availability.

    PubMed

    Doublet, J; Francou, C; Poitrenaud, M; Houot, S

    2011-01-01

    The influence of bulking agents on organic matter (OM) stability and nitrogen (N) availability in sludge composts was investigated. Seven mixtures were composted over a 12-week period in 170 L-reactors using the same sludge with different bulking agent mixtures. The OM evolution was characterised by carbon (C) and N mass balances in biochemical fractions. The evolution of OM stability and N potential availability were measured during soil incubations. The type of bulking agent had little influence on the intensity of OM stabilisation and the N availability in final composts. However, they influenced the time to reach similar OM stability and the biochemical evolution of OM. Depending on their ligno-cellulosic characteristics and a careful control of aeration, initial mixtures with high C:N ratio and rather biodegradable carbonaceous materials could favour the organisation of initially present mineral N or easily mineralisable sludge N and therefore limit NH3 volatilisation responsible for the low compost N availability measured. PMID:20855193

  20. Sulfate reduction controlled by organic matter availability in deep sediment cores from the saline, alkaline Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Glombitza, Clemens; Stockhecke, Mona; Schubert, Carsten J; Vetter, Alexandra; Kallmeyer, Jens

    2013-01-01

    As part of the International Continental Drilling Program deep lake drilling project PaleoVan, we investigated sulfate reduction (SR) in deep sediment cores of the saline, alkaline (salinity 21.4‰, alkalinity 155 m mEq(-1), pH 9.81) Lake Van, Turkey. The cores were retrieved in the Northern Basin (NB) and at Ahlat Ridge (AR) and reached a maximum depth of 220 m. Additionally, 65-75 cm long gravity cores were taken at both sites. SR rates (SRR) were low (≤22 nmol cm(-3) day(-1)) compared to lakes with higher salinity and alkalinity, indicating that salinity and alkalinity are not limiting SR in Lake Van. Both sites differ significantly in rates and depth distribution of SR. In NB, SRR are up to 10 times higher than at AR. SR could be detected down to 19 mblf (meters below lake floor) at NB and down to 13 mblf at AR. Although SRR were lower at AR than at NB, organic matter (OM) concentrations were higher. In contrast, dissolved OM in the pore water at AR contained more macromolecular OM and less low molecular weight OM. We thus suggest, that OM content alone cannot be used to infer microbial activity at Lake Van but that quality of OM has an important impact as well. These differences suggest that biogeochemical processes in lacustrine sediments are reacting very sensitively to small variations in geological, physical, or chemical parameters over relatively short distances. PMID:23908647