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Sample records for omeprazole

  1. Omeprazole

    MedlinePlus

    ... ulcers caused by a certain type of bacteria (H. pylori). Nonprescription (over-the-counter) omeprazole is used ... day when used with other medications to eliminate H. pylori, or up to three times a day ...

  2. Omeprazole and dry mouth.

    PubMed

    Teare, J P; Spedding, C; Whitehead, M W; Greenfield, S M; Challacombe, S J; Thompson, R P

    1995-03-01

    Omeprazole causes irreversible inhibition of the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase enzyme, leading to a marked reduction in both acid secretion and volume of gastric juice. Reported side-effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, constipation, and headache. We report the development of dry mouth during omeprazole therapy. We have identified six patients taking omeprazole for more than 6 weeks who complained of a dry mouth. Salivary production was measured as whole salivary flow produced over a 10-min period spat into a collecting vessel and as 5% citric acid-stimulated parotid salivary flow collected with a Lashley cup device placed over the parotid duct. Flow rates were evaluated both during and after cessation of treatment. Saliva produced was then cultured for microbes. Four of the six had subnormal parotid or whole salivary flow rates on treatment that recovered after stopping treatment. The increase after treatment was marked in four. Significant amounts of Candida albicans grew from the saliva of the three patients with the lowest salivary flows; one saliva also grew Staphylococcus aureus. Salivary flow is reduced in some patients treated with omeprazole, returning to normal after cessation of treatment. This reduction may predispose to opportunistic infection, particularly in the edentulous.

  3. Occupational contact allergy to omeprazole and ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Herrera-Mozo, Inmaculada; Sanz-Gallen, Pere; Martí-Amengual, Gabriel

    2017-05-16

    Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibition and ranitidine is an H2 histamine receptor antagonist widely used in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflex disease, peptic ulcer disease, Zollinger-Ellison syndrome and as a protector of the gastric mucosae. We report a case of occupational contact allergy to omeprazole and ranitidine. A 48-year-old man, with no pre-existing history of atopy or lifestyle factors. He neither had any medical history of consumption of drugs such as ranitidine and omeprazole. He worked for 19 months in the pharmaceutical company that manufactured ranitidine base. He presented rash in the face and eczema on the dorsum of the hands with itching. The study by prick tests with ranitidine gave negative response. Patch testing with ranitidine base and ranitidine hydrochloride gave positive response. A month later, when the patient was asymptomatic he returned to the pharmaceutical company, being switched from this previous job to the reactor manufacturing omeprazole. A few days after that, he presented erythematous eruptions involving face and neck with itching. Prick tests, path tests and in vitro laboratories studies with omeprazole gave positives. In this case the patient presented hypersensitivity type I at omeprazole and hypersensitivity type IV at omeprazole and ranitidine. Our aportation indicates the importance of careful analysis of the occupational exposure histories of patients with the suspected type I or type IV hypersensitivity to allergens, to determine whether work exposure is the cause. Med Pr 2017;68(3):433-435. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  4. Omeprazole decreases magnesium transport across Caco-2 monolayers

    PubMed Central

    Thongon, Narongrit; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To elucidate the effect and underlying mechanisms of omeprazole action on Mg2+ transport across the intestinal epithelium. METHODS: Caco-2 monolayers were cultured in various dose omeprazole-containing media for 14 or 21 d before being inserted into a modified Ussing chamber apparatus to investigate the bi-directional Mg2+ transport and electrical parameters. Paracellular permeability of the monolayer was also observed by the dilution potential technique and a cation permeability study. An Arrhenius plot was performed to elucidate the activation energy of passive Mg2+ transport across the Caco-2 monolayers. RESULTS: Both apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical passive Mg2+ fluxes of omeprazole-treated epithelium were decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Omeprazole also decreased the paracellular cation selectivity and changed the paracellular selective permeability profile of Caco-2 epithelium to Li+, Na+, K+, Rb+, and Cs+ from series VII to series VI of the Eisenman sequence. The Arrhenius plot revealed the higher activation energy for passive Mg2+ transport in omeprazole-treated epithelium than that of control epithelium, indicating that omeprazole affected the paracellular channel of Caco-2 epithelium in such a way that Mg2+ movement was impeded. CONCLUSION: Omeprazole decreased paracellular cation permeability and increased the activation energy for passive Mg2+ transport of Caco-2 monolayers that led to the suppression of passive Mg2+ absorption. PMID:21472124

  5. Omeprazole decreases magnesium transport across Caco-2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Thongon, Narongrit; Krishnamra, Nateetip

    2011-03-28

    To elucidate the effect and underlying mechanisms of omeprazole action on Mg(2+) transport across the intestinal epithelium. Caco-2 monolayers were cultured in various dose omeprazole-containing media for 14 or 21 d before being inserted into a modified Ussing chamber apparatus to investigate the bi-directional Mg(2+) transport and electrical parameters. Paracellular permeability of the monolayer was also observed by the dilution potential technique and a cation permeability study. An Arrhenius plot was performed to elucidate the activation energy of passive Mg(2+) transport across the Caco-2 monolayers. Both apical to basolateral and basolateral to apical passive Mg(2+) fluxes of omeprazole-treated epithelium were decreased in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Omeprazole also decreased the paracellular cation selectivity and changed the paracellular selective permeability profile of Caco-2 epithelium to Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+) from series VII to series VI of the Eisenman sequence. The Arrhenius plot revealed the higher activation energy for passive Mg(2+) transport in omeprazole-treated epithelium than that of control epithelium, indicating that omeprazole affected the paracellular channel of Caco-2 epithelium in such a way that Mg(2+) movement was impeded. Omeprazole decreased paracellular cation permeability and increased the activation energy for passive Mg(2+) transport of Caco-2 monolayers that led to the suppression of passive Mg(2+) absorption.

  6. Biliary excretion of intravenous (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Lind, T.; Andersson, T.; Skanberg, I.O.

    1987-11-01

    We have studied the biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole in humans. The study was performed in eight healthy subjects and the technique used was based on multiple marker dilution principles with double-lumen tubes placed in both the stomach and intestine. The results obtained show a 16% biliary excretion of (/sup 14/C) omeprazole. These data suggest a minimal spillover of omeprazole from the gastric mucosa into the gastric lumen in humans. The results also agree with previous data of the fecal recovery of radiolabeled omeprazole that suggest that the fecal excretion of intravenous omeprazole in humans is entirely accounted formore » by biliary excretion.« less

  7. Efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Higuera-de-la-Tijera, Fátima

    2018-03-14

    Proton pump inhibitors are the most effective medical therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their onset of action may be slow. To assess the available literature regarding the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate in gastroesophageal reflux patients. A systematic review was conducted. A systematic literature search starting from 2000. Reviewed manuscripts concerning the effectiveness of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate treatment in gastroesophageal reflux disease were reviewed and the data were extracted. Data were subsequently analyzed with descriptive statistics. This review included information of four studies. Two trials compared the efficacy of omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate versus omeprazole. One study compared the efficacy of once-daily morning or nighttime dosing. And another study compared omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate/alginate versus omeprazole. In total, there was no difference between omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate and omeprazole. However, there is a trend towards more sustained response and a greater proportion of patients with sustained total relief by 30 minutes with omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate. Omeprazole/sodium bicarbonate therapy is not more effective than omeprazole in the treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease. However, data obtained suggest that it can have a more sustained response and sustained total relief.

  8. 'Poppy seeds' in stomach aspirates: is oral omeprazole extemporaneous dispersion bioavailable?

    PubMed

    Tuleu, Catherine; Arenas-Lopez, Sara; Robinson, Chris; McCarthy, David; Paget, Richard I J; Tibby, Shane; Taylor, Kevin M G

    2008-07-01

    We report the appearance of 'poppy seed'-like structures found in the aspirated stomach contents and faeces of a 3-month-old infant receiving an omeprazole liquid via nasogastric tube, prepared by dispersing an omeprazole tablet (10 mg MUPS(R)) in water. Electron microscopy and mass spectroscopy indicated that these particles were hollow, dark purple coloured spheres comprising undissolved omeprazole and its degradation products. These observations suggest rapid degradation of omeprazole in the acid stomach contents, with compromised absorption of active drug. Consequently, dispersion of omeprazole in water may be an inappropriate formulation in this setting.

  9. Aspirin and Omeprazole

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of aspirin and omeprazole is used to reduce the risk of stroke or heart attack in patients who have had or ... risk of developing a stomach ulcer when taking aspirin. Aspirin is in a class of medications called ...

  10. Duodenal bacterial overgrowth during treatment in outpatients with omeprazole.

    PubMed Central

    Fried, M; Siegrist, H; Frei, R; Froehlich, F; Duroux, P; Thorens, J; Blum, A; Bille, J; Gonvers, J J; Gyr, K

    1994-01-01

    The extent of duodenal bacterial overgrowth during the pronounced inhibition of acid secretion that occurs with omeprazole treatment is unknown. The bacterial content of duodenal juice of patients treated with omeprazole was therefore examined in a controlled prospective study. Duodenal juice was obtained under sterile conditions during diagnostic upper endoscopy. Aspirates were plated quantitatively for anaerobic and aerobic organisms. Twenty five outpatients with peptic ulcer disease were investigated after a 5.7 (0.5) weeks (mean (SEM)) treatment course with 20 mg (nine patients) or 40 mg (16 patients). The control group consisted of 15 outpatients referred for diagnostic endoscopy without prior antisecretory treatment. No patient in the control group had duodenal bacterial overgrowth. In the omeprazole group bacterial overgrowth (> or = 10(5) cfu/ml) was found in 14 (56%) patients (p = 0.0003). The number of bacteria (log10) in duodenal juice in patients treated with omeprazole was distinctly higher (median 5.7; range < 2-8.7) when compared with the control group (median < 2; range < 2-5.0; p = 0.0004). As well as orally derived bacteria, faecal type bacteria were found in seven of 14 and anaerobic bacteria in three of 14 patients. Bacterial overgrowth was similar with the two doses of omeprazole. These results indicate that duodenal bacterial overgrowth of both oral and faecal type bacteria occurs often in ambulatory patients treated with omeprazole. Further studies are needed to determine the clinical significance of these findings, particularly in high risk groups during long term treatment with omeprazole. PMID:8307444

  11. Acid Inhibitory Effect of a Combination of Omeprazole and Sodium Bicarbonate (CDFR0209) Compared With Delayed-Release Omeprazole 40 mg Alone in Healthy Adult Male Subjects.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyu-Nam; Yang, Sung-Won; Kim, Hyunil; Kwak, Seong Shin; Kim, Young-Sang; Cho, Doo-Yeoun

    2018-01-01

    CDFR0209, a combination of an immediate-release formulation of omeprazole 40 mg and sodium bicarbonate 1100 mg, has been developed to treat acid-related disorders. We compared the acid inhibitory effects of CDFR0209 and delayed-release omeprazole (omeprazole-DR, Losec 40 mg) after repeated dosing in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy adult male subjects. In this 2-period crossover study, 30 subjects were randomized to CDFR0209 or omeprazole-DR daily for 7 days. An ambulatory continuous 24-hour intragastric pH recording was performed at baseline and on days 1 and 7 of each administration period. Integrated gastric acidity was calculated from time-weighted average hydrogen ion concentrations at each hour of the 24-hour record. An analysis of variance model was used to test the pharmacodynamic equivalence of CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR, using the natural logarithmic transformation of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity for the 24-hour interval after the seventh dose of each omeprazole formulation. The geometric least-squares mean ratios (CDFR0209/omeprazole-DR) of the percent decrease from baseline in integrated gastric acidity was 0.98 (90%CI, 0.93-1.07). Both CDFR0209 and omeprazole-DR are equally effective in decreasing integrated gastric acidity at steady state. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  12. Failure of nasogastric omeprazole suspension in pediatric intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Haizlip, Julie A; Lugo, Ralph A; Cash, Jared J; Vernon, Donald D

    2005-03-01

    To determine the efficacy of nasogastric administration of omeprazole suspension in raising the gastric pH >4 in critically ill pediatric patients and to determine the most appropriate dosing regimen for this indication. Open-label pharmacodynamic study. Twenty-six bed tertiary-care pediatric intensive care unit. Mechanically ventilated children aged 1-18 yrs with an additional risk factor for stress ulcer formation. Continuous gastric pH monitoring was performed during administration and dose titration of omeprazole suspension to achieve the goal of gastric pH >4 for greater than 75% of the dosing interval. Data were collected from 18 patients. Subjects were categorized based on the pharmacologic response to nasogastric administration of 1 mg/kg omeprazole suspension (maximum 20 mg) as rapid (n = 9), late (n = 5), and nonresponders (n = 4). Rapid responders required 0.72 mg/kg per day omeprazole suspension to achieve adequate gastric pH elevation for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Late responders required 1.58 mg/kg per day. Nonresponders did not achieve adequate elevation of gastric pH for stress ulcer prophylaxis. Nasogastric administration of omeprazole suspension has variable efficacy in critically ill pediatric patients. Half of the studied subjects either required significant dose titrations to achieve gastric acid suppression or did not respond to nasogastric administration of omeprazole suspension.

  13. Omeprazole preferentially inhibits the metabolism of (+)-(S)-citalopram in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Adriana; Coelho, Eduardo B; Sampaio, Stefânia A; Lanchote, Vera L

    2010-07-01

    Citalopram (CITA) pharmacokinetics are enantioselective in healthy volunteers and the metabolism of (+)-(S)-CITA to (+)-(S)-DCITA is dependent on CYP2C19. Omeprazole is a potent CYP2C19 inhibitor. This study indicates that omeprazole induces a loss of enantioselectivity in the CITA pharmacokinetics because of the selective inhibition of (+)-(S)-CITA metabolism. The study assessed the influence of omeprazole on the kinetic disposition of the (+)-(S)-citalopram (CITA) and (-)-(R)-CITA enantiomers in healthy volunteers. In a cross-over study, healthy volunteers (n = 9) phenotyped as extensive metabolizers of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 and with an oral midazolam clearance ranging from 10.9 to 149.3 ml min(-1) kg(-1) received a single dose of racemic CITA (20 mg orally) in combination or not with omeprazole (20 mg day(-1) for 18 days). Serial blood samples were collected up to 240 h after CITA administration. CITA and demethylcitalopram (DCITA) enantiomers were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel OD-R column. The kinetic disposition of CITA was enantioselective in the absence of treatment with omeprazole, with the observation of a greater proportion of plasma (-)-(R)-CITA [AUC S:R ratio of 0.53 (95% CI 0.41, 0.66) for CITA and 1.08 (95% CI 0.80, 1.76) for DCITA] than (+)-(S)-CITA. Racemic CITA administration to healthy volunteers in combination with omeprazole showed a loss of enantioselectivity in CITA pharmacokinetics with an increase of approximately 120% in plasma (+)-(S)-CITA concentrations [AUC S:R ratio of 0.95 (95% CI 0.72, 1.10) for CITA and 0.95 (95% CI 0.44, 1.72) for DCITA]. The administration of multiple doses of omeprazole preferentially inhibited (+)-(S)-CITA metabolism in healthy volunteers. Although omeprazole increased plasma concentrations of (+)-(S)-CITA by approximately 120%, it is difficult to evaluate the clinical outcome because the range of plasma CITA concentrations related to maximum efficacy and minimum risk of adverse effects has not been

  14. Omeprazole Attenuates Hyperoxic Injury in H441 Cells via Aryl hydrocarbon Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Shivanna, Binoy; Chu, Chun; Welty, Stephen E.; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2014-01-01

    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in premature infants. Earlier we observed that aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-deficient mice are more susceptible to hyperoxic lung injury than AhR-sufficient mice, and this phenomenon was associated with a lack of expression of cytochrome P450 1A enzymes. Omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, used in humans with gastric acid related disorders, activates AhR in hepatocytes in vitro. However, the effects of omeprazole on AhR activation in the lungs and its impact on hyperoxia-induced ROS generation and inflammation are unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that omeprazole attenuates hyperoxia-induced cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in the human lung derived H441 cells via AhR activation. Experimental groups included cells transfected with AhR small interfering RNA (siRNA). Hyperoxia resulted in significant increases in cytotoxicity, ROS generation, and MCP-1 production, which were significantly attenuated with the functional activation of AhR by omeprazole. The protective effects of omeprazole on cytotoxicity, ROS production, and MCP-1 production were lost in H441 cells whose AhR gene was silenced by AhR siRNA. These findings support the hypothesis that omeprazole protects against hyperoxic injury in vitro via AhR activation that is associated with decreased ROS generation and expression of MCP-1. PMID:21906671

  15. Inactivation by omeprazole of the carnitine transporter (OCTN2) reconstituted in liposomes.

    PubMed

    Pochini, Lorena; Scalise, Mariafrancesca; Indiveri, Cesare

    2009-05-15

    The effect of omeprazole on the carnitine (OCTN2) transporter reconstituted in liposomes has been studied. Omeprazole externally added to the proteoliposomes, inhibited the carnitine/carnitine antiport catalysed by the reconstituted transporter. The inhibition was partially reversed by DTE indicating that it was caused by the covalent reaction of omeprazole with Cys residue(s) of the transporter. Similar results were found with intact brush border vesicles. The residual inhibition of the transport in the presence of DTE, indicated the occurrence of an alternative inhibition mechanism of non-covalent nature. The IC(50) of the two inhibition modes derived from dose-response curves, were 5.7 microM and 20.4 microM, respectively. Kinetic studies of the inhibition showed that in the absence of DTE omeprazole behaved as non-competitive inhibitor. On the contrary, in the presence of DTE competitive inhibition was found. The K(i) of the transporter for the inhibitor was 5.2 microM or 14.6 microM in the absence or presence of DTE, i.e., under condition of covalent (non-competitive) or non-covalent (competitive) interaction of the inhibitor with the transporter. The presence of the substrate during the incubation of the omeprazole (in the absence of DTE) with the proteoliposomes facilitated the covalent reaction of the pharmacological compound with the transporter. Omeprazole did not inhibit when present in the internal proteoliposomal compartment, indicating that the inhibition was specifically due to interaction with external site(s) of the protein. The pharmacological compound was not transported by the reconstituted transporter. The possible in vivo implications of the interaction of omeprazole with the transporter are discussed.

  16. Omeprazole preferentially inhibits the metabolism of (+)-(S)-citalopram in healthy volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Adriana; Coelho, Eduardo B; Sampaio, Stefânia A; Lanchote, Vera L

    2010-01-01

    AIM The study assessed the influence of omeprazole on the kinetic disposition of the (+)-(S)-citalopram (CITA) and (−)-(R)-CITA enantiomers in healthy volunteers. METHODS In a cross-over study, healthy volunteers (n = 9) phenotyped as extensive metabolizers of CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 and with an oral midazolam clearance ranging from 10.9 to 149.3 ml min−1 kg−1 received a single dose of racemic CITA (20 mg orally) in combination or not with omeprazole (20 mg day−1 for 18 days). Serial blood samples were collected up to 240 h after CITA administration. CITA and demethylcitalopram (DCITA) enantiomers were analyzed by LC-MS/MS using a Chiralcel® OD-R column. RESULTS The kinetic disposition of CITA was enantioselective in the absence of treatment with omeprazole, with the observation of a greater proportion of plasma (−)-(R)-CITA [AUC S : R ratio of 0.53 (95% CI 0.41, 0.66) for CITA and 1.08 (95% CI 0.80, 1.76) for DCITA] than (+)-(S)-CITA. Racemic CITA administration to healthy volunteers in combination with omeprazole showed a loss of enantioselectivity in CITA pharmacokinetics with an increase of approximately 120% in plasma (+)-(S)-CITA concentrations [AUC S : R ratio of 0.95 (95% CI 0.72, 1.10) for CITA and 0.95 (95% CI 0.44, 1.72) for DCITA]. CONCLUSIONS The administration of multiple doses of omeprazole preferentially inhibited (+)-(S)-CITA metabolism in healthy volunteers. Although omeprazole increased plasma concentrations of (+)-(S)-CITA by approximately 120%, it is difficult to evaluate the clinical outcome because the range of plasma CITA concentrations related to maximum efficacy and minimum risk of adverse effects has not been established. PMID:20642546

  17. Omeprazole hydroxylation is inhibited by a single dose of moclobemide in homozygotic EM genotype for CYP2C19

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Yang, Byung-Hwan; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2002-01-01

    Aims The pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and its metabolites in healthy subjects were evaluated to determine if a single dose of moclobemide inhibited CYP2C19 activity. Methods Sixteen volunteers, of whom eight were extensive metabolizers (EM) and eight were poor metabolizers for CYP2C19, participated in two studies. Venous blood samples were collected for 24 h after oral ingestion of 40 mg omeprazole with or without 300 mg moclobemide coadministration. The pharmacokinetic change of omeprazole, omeprazole sulphone and 5-hydroxyomeprazole concentrations were assessed to test for an interaction between omeprazole and moclobemide. Results The coadministration of moclobemide in EMs approximately doubled the mean AUC (from 1834 to 3760 ng ml−1 h) and Cmax (from 987 to 1649 ng ml−1) of omeprazole, and increased the AUC of omeprazole sulphone without changing AUC ratio of omeprazole to omeprazole sulphone. Moclobemide coadministration more than doubled the AUC ratio of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomeprazole (from 2.5 to 5.3) in EMs, too. There was a significant decrease in Cmax and AUC of 5-hydroxyomeprazole in PMs but no significant changes were seen in the results for omeprazole and omeprazole sulphone AUCs. Conclusions A single dose of moclobemide resulted in significant suppression of CYP2C19 activity in EMs. We conclude that physicians prescribing moclobemide should pay attention to its pharmacokinetic interactions even on the first day of coadministration with CYP2C19 substrates. PMID:11966672

  18. Omeprazole hydroxylation is inhibited by a single dose of moclobemide in homozygotic EM genotype for CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Cho, Joo-Youn; Yu, Kyung-Sang; Jang, In-Jin; Yang, Byung-Hwan; Shin, Sang-Goo; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2002-04-01

    The pharmacokinetics of omeprazole and its metabolites in healthy subjects were evaluated to determine if a single dose of moclobemide inhibited CYP2C19 activity. Sixteen volunteers, of whom eight were extensive metabolizers (EM) and eight were poor metabolizers for CYP2C19, participated in two studies. Venous blood samples were collected for 24 h after oral ingestion of 40 mg omeprazole with or without 300 mg moclobemide coadministration. The pharmacokinetic change of omeprazole, omeprazole sulphone and 5-hydroxyomeprazole concentrations were assessed to test for an interaction between omeprazole and moclobemide. The coadministration of moclobemide in EMs approximately doubled the mean AUC (from 1834 to 3760 ng ml(-1) h) and C(max) (from 987 to 1649 ng ml(-1)) of omeprazole, and increased the AUC of omeprazole sulphone without changing AUC ratio of omeprazole to omeprazole sulphone. Moclobemide coadministration more than doubled the AUC ratio of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomeprazole (from 2.5 to 5.3) in EMs, too. There was a significant decrease in Cmax and AUC of 5-hydroxyomeprazole in PMs but no significant changes were seen in the results for omeprazole and omeprazole sulphone AUCs. A single dose of moclobemide resulted in significant suppression of CYP2C19 activity in EMs. We conclude that physicians prescribing moclobemide should pay attention to its pharmacokinetic interactions even on the first day of coadministration with CYP2C19 substrates.

  19. The aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligand omeprazole inhibits breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Jin, Un-Ho; Lee, Syng-Ook; Pfent, Catherine; Safe, Stephen

    2014-07-09

    Patients with ER-negative breast tumors are among the most difficult to treat and exhibit low survival rates due, in part, to metastasis from the breast to various distal sites. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligands show promise as antimetastatic drugs for estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast cancer. Triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with eight AHR-active pharmaceuticals including 4-hydroxtamoxifen, flutamide leflunomide, mexiletine, nimodipine, omeprazole, sulindac and tranilast, and the effects of these compounds on cell proliferation (MTT assay) and cell migration (Boyden chamber assay) were examined. The role of the AHR in mediating inhibition of MDA-MB-231 cell invasion was investigated by RNA interference (RNAi) and knockdown of AHR or cotreatment with AHR agonists. Lung metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells was evaluated in mice administered cells by tail vein injection and prometastatic gene expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. We showed that only the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole decreased MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell invasion in vitro. Omeprazole also significantly decreased MDA-MB-231 cancer cell metastasis to the lung in a mouse model (tail vein injection), and in vitro studies showed that omeprazole decreased expression of at least two prometastatic genes, namely matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and C-X-C chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Results of RNA interference studies confirmed that omeprazole-mediated downregulation of CXCR4 (but not MMP-9) was AHR-dependent. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that omeprazole recruited the AHR to regions in the CXCR4 promoter that contain dioxin response elements (DREs) and this was accompanied by the loss of pol II on the promoter and decreased expression of CXCR4. AHR-active pharmaceuticals such as omeprazole that decrease breast cancer cell invasion and metastasis may have important clinical applications for late stage breast cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Comparison between the effect of omeprazole and rabeprazole on the antiplatelet action of clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Siriswangvat, Suksiri; Sansanayudh, Nakarin; Nathisuwan, Surakit; Panomvana, Duangchit

    2010-10-01

    Emerging data suggests that several proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), including omeprazole, might interfere with the antiplatelet action of clopidogrel. However, there is a lack of data for rabeprazole. This study aimed to investigate and compare the impact of omeprazole and rabeprazole on the antiplatelet action of clopidogrel among patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). A prospective, randomized, open-labeled study was conducted among 87 CAD patients receiving clopidogrel and aspirin. Forty three and 44 patients were randomized to receive omeprazole 20 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg once daily, respectively, for at least 2 weeks. Adenosine 5-diphosphate 20 µmol/L-induced platelet aggregation was performed before and after PPIs treatment. Mean maximal platelet aggregation (MPA) before and after PPIs treatment of both groups were compared. At baseline, there were no significant differences in the mean MPA between the omeprazole and rabeprazole groups (40.68 ± 18.82% vs 36.42 ± 21.39%; P=0.326). After a 2-week treatment with PPIs, the mean MPA in both groups significantly increased from baseline and there were no differences between the omeprazole and rabeprazole groups (55.73 ± 19.66% vs 48.46 ± 18.80%; P=0.141). Both omeprazole and rabeprazole decreased the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel. Use of these agents resulted in a similar degree of interference on clopidogrel's action, as measured by ADP-induced platelet aggregation. 

  1. Effect of low-dose omeprazole (20 mg daily) on the pharmacokinetics of multiple-dose atazanavir with ritonavir in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Li; Persson, Anna; Mahnke, Lisa; Eley, Timothy; Li, Tong; Xu, Xiaohui; Agarwala, Sangeeta; Dragone, Jeffrey; Bertz, Richard

    2011-03-01

    Atazanavir, a potent protease inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), exhibits pH-dependent solubility. Previous studies have indicated that coadministration with omeprazole 40 mg once daily significantly decreased atazanavir exposure by approximately 75%. Concomitant use of omeprazole and atazanavir is currently not recommended. This study investigated a clinically effective, low dose of omeprazole (20 mg daily) on atazanavir pharmacokinetics in 56 healthy volunteers given atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 and 400/100 mg once daily. All atazanavir/ritonavir plus omeprazole combinations resulted in atazanavir area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and trough concentrations (C(min)) comparable to or exceeding those observed with atazanavir 400 mg without omeprazole. Compared with atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg without omeprazole, atazanavir/ritonavir 300/100 mg plus omeprazole reduced atazanavir AUC and C(min) by 42% and 46%, respectively. Increasing the atazanavir/ritonavir dose to 400/100 mg attenuated the effect of omeprazole, resulting in approximately 30% lower atazanavir C(min), with all individual C(min) values exceeded by greater than 10-fold the population mean protein binding-adjusted EC(90) against wild-type HIV. The effect of omeprazole on atazanavir/ritonavir 400/100 mg was similar whether given 1 hour prior to atazanavir/ritonavir or separated by 12 hours. No unexpected adverse events were noted. This study found that omeprazole 20 mg once daily has significantly less profound effects on atazanavir pharmacokinetics than previously observed with omeprazole 40 mg.

  2. Effect of omeprazole on intragastric bacterial counts, nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds.

    PubMed Central

    Verdu, E; Viani, F; Armstrong, D; Fraser, R; Siegrist, H H; Pignatelli, B; Idström, J P; Cederberg, C; Blum, A L; Fried, M

    1994-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that profound inhibition of gastric acid secretion may increase exposure to potentially carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds. The aim of this study was to find out if the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (20 mg daily) is associated with increased concentrations of potentially carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds in gastric juice. The volume of gastric contents, number of bacteria, and concentrations of nitrates, nitrites, and N-nitroso compounds was determined in gastric aspirates obtained after an overnight fast in 14 healthy volunteers (7M:7F) after one week of treatment with placebo, and one and two weeks' treatment with omeprazole. Median bacterial concentrations were 1.0 x 10(4) (range 5.0 x 10(3)-5.0 x 10(6)) colony forming units (CFU)/ml after one weeks' treatment with placebo and increased significantly to 4.0 x 10(5) (0-3.3 x 10(7)) CFU/ml after two weeks' treatment with omeprazole (p < 0.05). A similar increase was seen in the concentration of nitrate reducing bacteria. There was no difference in the volume of gastric aspirates after treatment with omeprazole when compared with placebo (65 (29-155) ml v 42 (19-194) ml). The concentration of N-nitroso compounds was 0.13 (0-1.0) mumol/l after two weeks of omeprazole, which was not significantly different from that seen with placebo (0.15 (0-0.61) mumol/l). There was also no increase in the concentrations of nitrates or nitrites. It is concluded that omeprazole (20 mg once daily) for two weeks in healthy volunteers is associated with gastric bacterial proliferation but does not increase concentrations of N-nitroso compounds. PMID:8174980

  3. Prediction of Relative In Vivo Metabolite Exposure from In Vitro Data Using Two Model Drugs: Dextromethorphan and Omeprazole

    PubMed Central

    Lutz, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    Metabolites can have pharmacological or toxicological effects, inhibit metabolic enzymes, and be used as probes of drug-drug interactions or specific cytochrome P450 (P450) phenotypes. Thus, better understanding and prediction methods are needed to characterize metabolite exposures in vivo. This study aimed to test whether in vitro data could be used to predict and rationalize in vivo metabolite exposures using two model drugs and P450 probes: dextromethorphan and omeprazole with their primary metabolites dextrorphan, 5-hydroxyomeprazole (5OH-omeprazole), and omeprazole sulfone. Relative metabolite exposures were predicted using metabolite formation and elimination clearances. For dextrorphan, the formation clearances of dextrorphan glucuronide and 3-hydroxymorphinan from dextrorphan in human liver microsomes were used to predict metabolite (dextrorphan) clearance. For 5OH-omeprazole and omeprazole sulfone, the depletion rates of the metabolites in human hepatocytes were used to predict metabolite clearance. Dextrorphan/dextromethorphan in vivo metabolite/parent area under the plasma concentration versus time curve ratio (AUCm/AUCp) was overpredicted by 2.1-fold, whereas 5OH-omeprazole/omeprazole and omeprazole sulfone/omeprazole were predicted within 0.75- and 1.1-fold, respectively. The effect of inhibition or induction of the metabolite's formation and elimination on the AUCm/AUCp ratio was simulated. The simulations showed that unless metabolite clearance pathways are characterized, interpretation of the metabolic ratios is exceedingly difficult. This study shows that relative in vivo metabolite exposure can be predicted from in vitro data and characterization of secondary metabolism of probe metabolites is critical for interpretation of phenotypic data. PMID:22010218

  4. Pharmacokinetics of lacosamide and omeprazole coadministration in healthy volunteers: results from a phase I, randomized, crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Cawello, Willi; Mueller-Voessing, Christa; Fichtner, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The antiepileptic drug lacosamide has a low potential for drug-drug interactions, but is a substrate and moderate inhibitor of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme CYP2C19. This phase I, randomized, open-label, two-way crossover trial evaluated the pharmacokinetic effects of lacosamide and omeprazole coadministration. Healthy, White, male volunteers (n = 36) who were not poor metabolizers of CYP2C19 were randomized to treatment A (single-dose 40 mg omeprazole on days 1 and 8 together with 6 days of multiple-dose lacosamide [200-600 mg/day] on days 3-8) and treatment B (single doses of 300 mg lacosamide on days 1 and 8 with 7 days of 40 mg/day omeprazole on days 3-9) in pseudorandom order, separated by a ≥ 7-day washout period. Area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) and peak concentration (C(max)) were the primary pharmacokinetic parameters measured for lacosamide or omeprazole administered alone (reference) or in combination (test). Bioequivalence was determined if the 90 % confidence interval (CI) of the ratio (test/reference) fell within the acceptance range of 0.8-1.25. The point estimates (90 % CI) of the ratio of omeprazole + lacosamide coadministered versus omeprazole alone for AUC (1.098 [0.996-1.209]) and C(max) (1.105 [0.979-1.247]) fell within the acceptance range for bioequivalence. The point estimates (90 % CI) of the ratio of lacosamide + omeprazole coadministration versus lacosamide alone also fell within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (AUC 1.133 [1.102-1.165]); C(max) 0.996 (0.947-1.047). Steady-state lacosamide did not influence omeprazole single-dose pharmacokinetics, and multiple-dose omeprazole did not influence lacosamide single-dose pharmacokinetics.

  5. Identification of two main urinary metabolites of (/sup 14/C)omeprazole in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Renberg, L.; Simonsson, R.; Hoffmann, K.J.

    1989-01-01

    The excretion and metabolism of (/sup 14/C)omeprazole given orally as a suspension was studied in 10 healthy male subjects. An average of 79% of the dose was recovered in the urine in 96 hr, with most of the radioactivity (76% of dose) being eliminated in the first 24 hr. Pooled urine (0-2 hr) from five subjects, containing about 47% of the dose, was analyzed by reverse phase gradient elution LC with radioisotope detection. Omeprazole was completely metabolized to at least six metabolites. The two major metabolites were extensively purified by LC and their structures were determined by MS with derivatizationmore » and use of stable isotopes, 1H NMR, and comparison with synthetic references. They were formed by hydroxylation of a methyl group in the pyridine ring, followed by further oxidation of the alcohol to the corresponding carboxylic acid. Both metabolites retained the sulfoxide group of omeprazole, rendering them as unstable as the parent compound at pH less than 7. They accounted for approximately 28% (hydroxyomeprazole) and 23% (omeprazole acid) of the amount excreted in the 0-2-hr collection interval. Based on in vitro studies with the synthetic metabolites in isolated gastric glands, it is unlikely that M1 and M2 will contribute to the pharmacological effect of omeprazole in humans.« less

  6. Distinct effects of omeprazole and rabeprazole on the tacrolimus blood concentration in a kidney transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazushige; Yano, Ikuko; Fukuhara, Yuga; Katsura, Toshiya; Takahashi, Takeshi; Ito, Noriyuki; Yamamoto, Shingo; Ogawa, Osamu; Inui, Ken-ichi

    2007-12-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs, e.g. omeprazole and rabeprazole) are often administered to transplant patients as a treatment or prophylaxis for ulcers after surgery. Since tacrolimus and PPIs share the CYP3A4 system for metabolism, pharmacokinetic interactions are anticipated when they are administered simultaneously. We present a Japanese male patient who underwent a living-donor kidney transplantation having received tacrolimus, mycophenolate mofetil, and prednisolone for immunosuppression. The concentration/dose (C/D) ratio for tacrolimus was markedly higher during the period of treatment with omeprazole than ranitidine or rabeprazole. The results of liver functional tests were within the normal range during the use of these three antacid drugs. Since the higher C/D ratio for tacrolimus when omeprazole was being administered did not result from a decrease in the elimination of tacrolimus due to hepatic dysfunction, drug interaction between omeprazole and tacrolimus was strongly suspected. The present case indicates that rabeprazole can be used safely in place of omeprazole in kidney transplant recipients receiving tacrolimus.

  7. Omeprazole and PGC-formulated heparin binding epidermal growth factor normalizes fasting blood glucose and suppresses insulitis in multiple low dose streptozotocin diabetes model.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Gerardo M; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Banerjee, Aryamitra A; Landolfi, Jennifer A; Lyubimov, Alexander V; Bolotin, Elijah M

    2013-11-01

    Our objective was to develop novel nanocarriers (protected graft copolymer, PGC) that improve the stability of heparin binding EGF (HBEGF) and gastrin and then to use PGC-formulated HBEGF (PGC-HBEGF) and Omeprazole (+/- PGC-gastrin) for normalizing fasting blood glucose (FBG) and improving islet function in diabetic mice. HBEGF, PGC-HBEGF, Omeprazole, Omeprazole + PGC-HBEGF, Omeprazole + PGC-gastrin + PGC-HBEGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF) + gastrin were tested in multiple low dose streptozotocin diabetic mice. Omeprazole + PGC-HBEGF normalized FBG and is better than EGF + gastrin at improving islet function and decreasing insulitis. Groups treated with Omeprazole, Omeprazole + PGC-HBEGF, or EGF + gastrin have significantly improved islet function versus saline control. All animals that received PGC-HBEGF had significantly reduced islet insulitis versus saline control. Non-FBG was lower for Omeprazole + PGC-gastrin + PGC-HBEGF but Omeprazole + PGC-HBEGF alone showed better FBG and glucose tolerance. Omeprazole + PGC-HBEGF provides a sustained exposure to both EGFRA and gastrin, improves islet function, and decreases insulitis in multiple low dose streptozotocin diabetic mice. Although HBEGF or EGF elevates non-FBG, it facilitates a reduction of insulitis and, in the presence of Omeprazole, provides normalization of FBG at the end of treatment. The study demonstrates Omeprazole and PGC-HBEGF is a viable treatment for diabetes.

  8. The effect of ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel on the CYP2C19-mediated metabolism of omeprazole in healthy female subjects

    PubMed Central

    Palovaara, Sanna; Tybring, Gunnel; Laine, Kari

    2003-01-01

    Aims To study the effect of an oral contraceptive (OC) formulation containing ethinyloestradiol and levonorgestrel (LNG) (combination OC) or LNG alone on the CYP2C19-mediated hydroxylation of omeprazole in healthy females. Methods This was an open crossover study with three phases. In phase one, 10 healthy females received a single 40-mg dose of omeprazole. Thereafter the subjects received in a random order either 40 µg ethinyloestradiol and 75 µg LNG or 60 µg LNG alone once daily for 10 days. On day 10, 1 h after the last OC dose, subjects received a single 40-mg oral dose of omeprazole. The plasma concentrations of omeprazole, 5′-hydroxyomeprazole and omeprazole sulphone were determined for up to 8 h. Results The use of combination OC increased the area under the curve (AUC) of omeprazole by 38% [95% confidence interval (CI) − 3.8, 80; P = 0.040] and caused a 48% increase (95% CI 28, 68) in the AUC ratio of omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole. LNG alone did not effect the 5′-hydroxylation of omeprazole. Neither of the OC preparations seemed to have an inhibitory effect on the formation of omeprazole sulphone by CYP3A4. Conclusions Oral contraceptives containing ethinyloestradiol but not those containing only LNG decrease CYP2C19 activity. PMID:12895199

  9. Omeprazole and PGC-formulated heparin binding epidermal growth factor normalizes fasting blood glucose and suppresses insulitis in multiple low dose streptozotocin diabetes model

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Gerardo M.; Nishimoto-Ashfield, Akiko; Banerjee, Aryamitra A.; Landolfi, Jennifer A.; Lyubimov, Alexander V.; Bolotin, Elijah M.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to develop novel nanocarriers (protected graft copolymer, PGC) that improve the stability of heparin binding EGF (HBEGF) and gastrin and then to use PGC-formulated HBEGF (PGC-HBEGF) and Omeprazole (+/− PGC-gastrin) for normalizing fasting blood glucose (FBG) and improving islet function in diabetic mice. Method HBEGF, PGC-HBEGF, Omeprazole, Omeprazole+PGC-HBEGF, Omeprazole+PGC-gastrin+PGC-HBEGF and epidermal growth factor (EGF)+gastrin were tested in multiple low dose streptozotocin diabetic mice. Results Omeprazole+PGC-HBEGF normalized FBG and is better than EGF+gastrin at improving islet function and decreasing insulitis. Groups treated with Omeprazole, Omeprazole+PGC-HBEGF, or EGF+gastrin have significantly improved islet function versus saline control. All animals that received PGC-HBEGF had significantly reduced islet insulitis versus saline control. Non-FBG was lower for Omeprazole+PGC-gastrin+PGC-HBEGF but Omeprazole+PGC-HBEGF alone showed better FBG and glucose tolerance. Conclusions Omeprazole+PGC-HBEGF provides a sustained exposure to both EGFRA and gastrin, improves islet function, and decreases insulitis in multiple low dose streptozotocin diabetic mice. Although HBEGF or EGF elevates non-FBG, it facilitates a reduction of insulitis and, in the presence of Omeprazole, provides normalization of FBG at the end of treatment. The study demonstrates Omeprazole and PGC-HBEGF is a viable treatment for diabetes. PMID:23793991

  10. Re-evaluation of the regulation of omeprazole in racehorses: An evidence-based approach.

    PubMed

    Viljanto, M; Hillyer, L; Hincks, P; Pearce, C; Paine, S W

    2018-06-01

    Medication control and doping control have been established in horse racing to ensure the integrity of the sport and the welfare of the horses. This ensures that horses do not compete under the influence of any drugs, including omeprazole, a therapeutic medication used to treat equine gastric ulcer syndrome. In this study, pharmacokinetic data were produced in equine plasma and urine following an oral administration of 4 mg/kg of generic buffered formulation of omeprazole to six Thoroughbred horses in five daily doses to determine an appropriate screening limit and detection time in equine plasma and to assess whether the current detection time of 72 hr in equine urine would be applicable when an alternative omeprazole product is administered. C max of 436-2,432 ng/ml and AUC 0-tau of 1,476-4,371 ng hr ml -1 were obtained for plasma and indicated, in conjunction with other published oral omeprazole studies, that an appropriate plasma screening limit would be 500 pg/ml with a detection time of 48 hr. Urine analysis showed that omeprazole could be detected for up to 25 hr above the previously established urine screening limit of 500 pg/ml and thus indicated that the detection time advice could be potentially reduced from 72 to 48 hr to allow more comprehensive treatment of gastric lesions. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Omeprazole suppressed plasma magnesium level and duodenal magnesium absorption in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Thongon, Narongrit; Penguy, Jirawat; Kulwong, Sasikan; Khongmueang, Kanyanat; Thongma, Matthana

    2016-11-01

    Hypomagnesemia is the most concerned side effect of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in chronic users. However, the mechanism of PPIs-induced systemic Mg 2+ deficit is currently unclear. The present study aimed to elucidate the direct effect of short-term and long-term PPIs administrations on whole body Mg 2+ homeostasis and duodenal Mg 2+ absorption in rats. Mg 2+ homeostasis was studied by determining the serum Mg 2+ level, urine and fecal Mg 2+ excretions, and bone and muscle Mg 2+ contents. Duodenal Mg 2+ absorption as well as paracellular charge selectivity were studied. Our result showed that gastric and duodenal pH markedly increased in omeprazole-treated rats. Omeprazole significantly suppressed plasma Mg 2+ level, urinary Mg 2+ excretion, and bone and muscle Mg 2+ content. Thus, omeprazole induced systemic Mg 2+ deficiency. By using Ussing chamber techniques, it was shown that omeprazole markedly suppressed duodenal Mg 2+ channel-driven and Mg 2+ channel-independent Mg 2+ absorptions and cation selectivity. Inhibitors of mucosal HCO 3 - secretion significantly increased duodenal Mg 2+ absorption in omeprazole-treated rats. We therefore hypothesized that secreted HCO 3 - in duodenum decreased luminal proton, this impeded duodenal Mg 2+ absorption. Higher plasma total 25-OH vitamin D, diuresis, and urine PO 4 3- were also demonstrated in hypomagnesemic rats. As a compensatory mechanism for systemic Mg 2+ deficiency, the expressions of duodenal transient receptor potential melastatin 6 (TRPM6), cyclin M4 (CNNM4), claudin (Cldn)-2, Cldn-7, Cldn-12, and Cldn-15 proteins were enhanced in omeprazole-treated rats. Our findings support the potential role of duodenum on the regulation of Mg 2+ homeostasis.

  12. Comparison of aloe vera and omeprazole in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bush, J; van den Boom, R; Franklin, S

    2018-01-01

    Anecdotally, aloe vera is used to treat gastric ulceration, although no studies have yet investigated its efficacy in horses. To test the hypothesis that aloe vera would be noninferior to omeprazole in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome. Randomised, blinded clinical trial. Forty horses with grade ≥2 lesions of the squamous and/or glandular mucosa were randomly assigned to one of two groups. Horses received either aloe vera inner leaf gel (17.6 mg/kg bwt) b.i.d. or omeprazole (4 mg/kg bwt) s.i.d. for approximately 28 days, after which a repeat gastroscopic examination was performed to determine disease resolution. Horses with persistent lesions were offered a further 28 days of treatment with omeprazole (4 mg/kg bwt s.i.d.) and were re-examined on completion of treatment. Efficacy analyses were based on 39 horses that completed the trial. Equine squamous gastric disease (ESGD) was observed in 38 horses; improvement and healing rates in these horses were 56% and 17%, respectively, in the aloe vera group, and 85% and 75%, respectively, in the omeprazole group. Healing was less likely to occur in horses with prolonged gastric emptying. Equine glandular gastric disease (EGGD) was less common than ESGD (n = 14) and numbers were too small to perform meaningful statistical analyses. The hypothesis that aloe vera would be noninferior to omeprazole was not supported. No placebo control group was included. Limited numbers preclude any comment on the efficacy of aloe vera in the treatment of EGGD. Treatment with aloe vera was inferior to treatment with omeprazole. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Herbal medicine yin zhi huang induces CYP3A4-mediated sulfoxidation and CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lan; Wang, Guo; Wang, Lian-Sheng; Chen, Yao; Zhang, Wei; Huang, Yuan-Fei; Huang, Rui-Xue; Hu, Dong-Li; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Hong-Hao

    2007-10-01

    To explore the potential interactions between yin zhi huang (YZH) and omeprazole, a substrate of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Eighteen healthy volunteers, including 6 CYP2C19*1/*1, 6 CYP2C19*1/*2 or *3 and 6 CYP2C19*2/*2 were enrolled in a 2-phase, randomized, crossover clinical trial. In each phase, the volunteers received either placebo or 10 mL YZH oral liquid, 3 times daily for 14 d. Then all the patients took a 20 mg omeprazole capsule orally. Blood samples were collected up to 12 h after omeprazole administration. Plasma concentrations of omeprazole and its metabolites were quantified by HPLC with UV detection. After 14 d of treatment of YZH, plasma omeprazole significantly decreased and those of omeprazole sulfone and 5-hydroxyomeprazole significantly increased. The ratios of the area under the plasma concentration-time curves from time 0 to infinity (AUC(0-infinity) of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomprazole and those of omeprazole to omeprazole sulfone decreased by 64.80%+/-12.51% (P=0.001) and 63.31%+/-18.45% (P=0.004) in CYP2C19*1/*1, 57.98%+/-14.80% (P=0.002) and 54.87%+/-18.42% (P=0.003) in CYP2C19*1/*2 or *3, and 37.74%+/-16.07% (P=0.004) and 45.16%+/-15.54% (P=0.003) in CYP2C19*2/*2, respectively. The decrease of the AUC(0-infinity) ratio of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomprazole in CYP2C19*1/*1 and CYP2C19*1/*2 or *3 was greater than those in CYP2C19*2/*2 (P=0.047 and P=0.009). YZH induces both CYP3A4-catalyzed sulfoxidation and CYP2C19-dependent hydroxylation of omeprazole leading to decreases in plasma omeprazole concentrations.

  14. Investigating the presence of omeprazole in waters by liquid chromatography coupled to low and high resolution mass spectrometry: degradation experiments.

    PubMed

    Boix, C; Ibáñez, M; Sancho, J V; Niessen, W M A; Hernández, F

    2013-10-01

    Omeprazole is one of the most consumed pharmaceuticals around the world. However, this compound is scarcely detected in urban wastewater and surface water. The absence of this pharmaceutical in the aquatic ecosystem might be due to its degradation in wastewater treatment plants, as well as in receiving water. In this work, different laboratory-controlled degradation experiments have been carried out on surface water in order to elucidate generated omeprazole transformation products (TPs). Surface water spiked with omeprazole was subjected to hydrolysis, photo-degradation under both sunlight and ultraviolet radiation and chlorination. Analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) permitted identification of up to 17 omeprazole TPs. In a subsequent step, the TPs identified were sought in surface water and urban wastewater by LC-QTOF MS and by LC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole. The parent omeprazole was not detected in any of the samples, but four TPs were found in several water samples. The most frequently detected compound was OTP 5 (omeprazole sulfide), which might be a reasonable candidate to be included in monitoring programs rather than the parent omeprazole. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of repeated injection and continuous infusion of omeprazole and ranitidine on intragastric pH over 72 hours.

    PubMed

    Netzer, P; Gaia, C; Sandoz, M; Huluk, T; Gut, A; Halter, F; Hüsler, J; Inauen, W

    1999-02-01

    In healthy subjects and patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, ranitidine and omeprazole, given parenterally, achieve high intragastric pH values on the first day of therapy. However, data on the antisecretory effect beyond the first 24 h is scanty. In addition, the superiority of either infusion or injection of omeprazole remains unproven. Thus, we have compared the antisecretory effect of high dose omeprazole and ranitidine infusion and injection over the critical first 72 h. A total of 34 healthy volunteers were randomized into a double-blind crossover 72 h intragastric pH-metry study (data compared: median pH, percentage of time with pH >4 and pH >6). Omeprazole-infusion: initial bolus of 80 mg + 8 mg/h; omeprazole-injection: initial bolus of 80 mg + 40 mg/6 h; Ranitidine-infusion: initial bolus of 50 mg + 0.25 mg/kg/h; ranitidine-injection: 100 mg/6 h. Omeprazole-infusion versus ranitidine-infusion: on day 1: median pH 6.1 vs 5.1 (p = 0.01) and 95% vs 70% was pH >4 (p < 0.01); on day 2: median pH 6.2 vs 3.2 (p < 0.01); and 100% vs 38% was pH >4 (p < 0.01); on day 3: median pH 6.3 vs 2.7 (p < 0.01); 100% vs 26% was pH >4 (p < 0.01). Injections of both drugs were significantly less effective than the infusions on day 1. Thereafter, omeprazole injection was almost as effective as omeprazole infusion, whereas ranitidine injection and infusion were equally effective. Our study shows, for the first time, that omeprazole infusion was significantly superior to all other regimens by having a high median pH >6 on each day. The tolerance effect of ranitidine, however, led to a rapid loss of antisecretory activity on days 2 and 3, rendering it inappropriate for situations in which high intragastric pH-levels appear to be essential.

  16. Investigation of the in vivo activity of CYP3A in Brazilian volunteers: comparison of midazolam and omeprazole as drug markers.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Adriana; Coelho, Eduardo B; Moussa, Soraia A P; Lanchote, Vera L

    2008-09-01

    This study compares midazolam with omeprazole as marker drugs for the evaluation of CYP3A activity in nine healthy self-reported white Brazilian volunteers. Omeprazole was also used to evaluate the CYP2C19 phenotype. The volunteers received p.o. 20 mg omeprazole, and blood samples were collected 3.5 h after drug administration. After a washout period of 10 days, the volunteers received p.o. 15 mg midazolam maleate, and serial blood samples were collected up to 6 h after administration of the drug. CYP2C19 was genotyped for the allelic variants CYP2C19*1, CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3, and CYP2C19*17. Analysis of omeprazole, hydroxyomeprazole, omeprazole sulfone, and midazolam in plasma was carried out by LC-MS/MS. The volunteers genotyped as CYP2C19*1*17, CYP2C19*17*17, CYP2C19*1*1 (n = 8), or CYP2C19*17*2 (n = 1) presented a median hydroxylation index (omeprazole/hydroxyomeprazole) of 1.35, indicating that all of them were extensive metabolizers of CYP2C19. The volunteers (n = 9) presented a 0.12 log of the omeprazole/sulfone ratio and a median oral clearance of midazolam of 17.89 ml min(-1) kg(-1), suggesting normal CYP3A activity. Orthogonal regression analysis between midazolam clearance and log of the plasma concentrations of the omeprazole/omeprazole sulfone ratio (R = -0.7544, P < 0.05) suggests that both midazolam and omeprazole can be used as markers of CYP3A activity in the population investigated.

  17. Omeprazole, a specific inhibitor of gastric (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase, is a H/sup +/-activated oxidizing agent of sulfhydryl groups

    SciTech Connect

    Im, W.B.; Sih, J.C.; Blakeman, D.P.

    1985-04-25

    Omeprazole (5-methoxy-2-(((4-methoxy-3,5- dimethylpyridinyl)methyl)sulfinyl)-1H-benzimidazole) appeared to inhibit gastric (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase by oxidizing its essential sulfhydryl groups, since the gastric ATPase inactivated by the drug in vivo or in vitro recovered its K+-dependent ATP hydrolyzing activity upon incubation with mercaptoethanol. Biological reducing agents like cysteine or glutathione, however, were unable to reverse the inhibitory effect of omeprazole. Moreover, acidic environments enhanced the potency of omeprazole. The chemical reactivity of omeprazole with mercaptans is also consistent with the biological action of omeprazole. The N-sulfenylated compound reacted at neutral pH with another stoichiometric amount of ethyl mercaptan to produce omeprazole sulfide quantitatively. Themore » gastric polypeptides of 100 kilodaltons representing (H/sup +/-K/sup +/)-ATPase in the rat gastric mucosa or isolated hog gastric membranes were covalently labeled with (/sup 14/C)omeprazole. The radioactive label bound to the ATPase, however, could not be displaced by mercaptoethanol under the identical conditions where the ATPase activity was fully restored. These observations suggest that the essential sulfhydryl groups which reacted with omeprazole did not form a stable covalent bond with the drug, but rather that they further reacted with adjacent sulfhydryl groups to form disulfides which could be reduced by mercaptoethanol.« less

  18. Differential Effects of Omeprazole and Lansoprazole Enantiomers on Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor in Human Hepatocytes and Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Novotna, Aneta; Srovnalova, Alzbeta; Svecarova, Michaela; Korhonova, Martina; Bartonkova, Iveta; Dvorak, Zdenek

    2014-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole contain chiral sulfur atom and they are administered as a racemate, i.e. equimolar mixture of S- and R-enantiomers. The enantiopure drugs esomeprazole and dexlansoprazole have been developed and introduced to clinical practice due to their improved clinical and therapeutic properties. Since omeprazole and lansoprazole are activators of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and inducers of CYP1A genes, we examined their enantiospecific effects on AhR-CYP1A pathway in human cancer cells and primary human hepatocytes. We performed gene reporter assays for transcriptional activity of AhR, RT-PCR analyses for CYP1A1/2 mRNAs, western blots for CYP1A1/2 proteins and EROD assay for CYP1A1/2 catalytic activity. Lansoprazole and omeprazole enantiomers displayed differential effects on AhR-CYP1A1/2 pathway. In general, S-enantiomers were stronger activators of AhR and inducers of CYP1A genes as compared to R-enantiomers in lower concentrations, i.e. 1–10 µM for lansoprazole and 10–100 µM for omeprazole. In contrast, R-enantiomers were stronger AhR activators and CYP1A inducers than S-enantiomers in higher concentrations, i.e. 100 µM for lansoprazole and 250 µM for omeprazole. In conclusion, we provide the first evidence of enantiospecific effects of omeprazole and lansoprazole on AhR signaling pathway. PMID:24887303

  19. Symptom relief in patients with reflux esophagitis: comparative study of omeprazole, lansoprazole, and rabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Kyoichi; Hashimoto, Tomoyuki; Hamamoto, Naoharu; Hirakawa, Kazuya; Niigaki, Masatoshi; Miyake, Tatsuya; Taniura, Hiroyuki; Ono, Masahiro; Kaji, Takekazu; Suetsugu, Hiroshi; Yagi, Junko; Komazawa, Yoshinori; Mihara, Takafumi; Katsube, Tomoko; Fujishiro, Hirofumi; Shizuku, Toshihiro; Hattori, Shuzo; Yamamoto, Shun; Kinoshita, Yoshikazu

    2003-12-01

    Rabeprazole has a faster onset of antisecretory activity than omeprazole and lansoprazole. The aim of the present study was to clarify whether there is any difference in the speed of symptom relief in patients with reflux esophagitis following the administration of these three proton pump inhibitors (PPI). Eighty-five patients with erosive reflux esophagitis were randomized to receive 8 weeks of 20 mg of omeprazole (n = 30), 30 mg of lansoprazole (n = 25), or 20 mg of rabeprazole (n = 30) once a morning. Daily changes in heartburn and acid reflux symptoms in the first 7 days of administration were assessed using a six-point scale (0: none, 1: mild, 2: mild-moderate, 3: moderate, 4: moderate-severe, 5: severe). The mean heartburn score in patients administered rabeprazole decreased more rapidly than those given the other PPI. Complete heartburn remission also occurred more rapidly in patients administered rabeprazole (compared with omeprazole: P = 0.035, compared with lansoprazole: P = 0.038 by log-rank test). No differences were seen in the rate of endoscopic healing of reflux esophagitis at 8 weeks between the three treatment regimens. Rabeprazole may be more effective than omeprazole and lansoprazole for the rapid relief of heartburn symptoms in patients with reflux esophagitis.

  20. The effect of orally administered ranitidine and once-daily or twice-daily orally administered omeprazole on intragastric pH in cats.

    PubMed

    Šutalo, S; Ruetten, M; Hartnack, S; Reusch, C E; Kook, P H

    2015-01-01

    Gastric acid suppressants frequently are used in cats with acid-related gastric disorders. However, it is not known if these drugs effectively increase intragastric pH in cats. To examine the effects of PO administered ranitidine and omeprazole on intragastric pH in cats and to compare the efficacy of once-daily versus twice-daily dosage regimens for omeprazole. Eight domestic shorthair cats. Using a randomized 4-way cross-over design, cats were given enteric-coated omeprazole granules (1.1-1.3 mg/kg q24h and q12h), ranitidine (1.5-2.3 mg/kg q12h), and placebo. Intragastric pH was monitored continuously for 96 hours using the Bravo(™) system, starting on day 4 of treatment, followed by a median washout period of 12 days. Mean percentage of time pH was ≥3 and ≥4 was compared among groups using repeated measures ANOVA. Mean ± SD percentage of time intragastric pH was ≥3 and ≥4 was 67.0 ± 24.0% and 54.6 ± 26.4% for twice-daily omeprazole, 24.4 ± 22.8% and 16.8 ± 19.3% for once-daily omeprazole, 16.5 ± 9.0% and 9.6 ± 5.9% for ranitidine, and 9.4 ± 8.0% and 7.0 ± 6.6% for placebo administration. Twice-daily omeprazole treatment significantly increased intragastric pH, whereas pH after once-daily omeprazole and ranitidine treatments did not differ from that of placebo-treated cats. Only twice-daily PO administered omeprazole significantly suppressed gastric acidity in healthy cats, whereas once-daily omeprazole and standard dosages of ranitidine were not effective acid suppressants in cats. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  1. Prophylactic therapy with omeprazole for prevention of equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) in horses in active training: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Mason, L V; Moroney, J R; Mason, R J

    2018-04-17

    Guidelines regarding the impact and value of prophylaxis or maintenance therapy in equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) are not well-established or defined. The merits and the magnitude of effects of prophylaxis for spontaneous or recurrent squamous gastric ulceration in horses in training are uncertain. To pool data from randomised controlled trials (RCTs) to eliminate reporting bias and evaluate the efficacy of prophylactic omeprazole in the prevention of EGUS in training horses, and secondarily to compare prophylactic dosages of omeprazole. Meta-analysis. This meta-analysis was conducted according to the recommendations of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. A systematic literature search identified RCTs comparing omeprazole prophylaxis with sham in prevention of EGUS. Data were analysed using the Mantel-Haenszel test method to calculate risk ratio (RR) or mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Primary outcome was efficacy of prophylaxis. Secondary outcome was endoscopic severity of ulceration. The influence of study characteristics on the outcomes was examined by subgroup analyses. In preventing gastric ulcer occurrence, omeprazole prophylaxis was superior to sham in training horses (7 trials, 566 horses, RR 0.28, 95% CI 0.18-0.43; 23.4% in omeprazole prophylaxis vs. 77.2% in sham; high quality evidence). Prevalence of ulceration was 75.3 and 87.2% in the sham arms of the 1 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg omeprazole groups, respectively. Severity scores were significantly lower for omeprazole vs. sham (mean difference [MD] -1.05; 95% CI -1.35 to -0.69). Subgroup analyses comparing prophylactic omeprazole dosages resulted in a mean difference of -0.94 and -1.60 for the 1 and 2 mg/kg groups, respectively. Studies showed heterogeneity with regard to prophylactic dose. Omeprazole prophylaxis in active training horses significantly reduces gastric ulceration compared with no prophylaxis (sham) with the

  2. Effect of single dose of omeprazole on the gastrointestinal peptide response to food.

    PubMed

    Allen, J M; Adrian, T E; Webster, J; Howe, A; Bloom, S R

    1984-02-01

    The gastrointestinal peptide response to food was assessed in 6 healthy subjects following oral administration of 40 mg omeprazole. There was a small but statistically significant increase in basal plasma gastrin six hours after the dose of omeprazole, but the post-prandial plasma gastrin was not significantly increased. There was no significant effect on basal or post-prandial levels of somatostatin, insulin, pancreatic glucagon, enteroglucagon, gastric inhibitory polypeptide, pancreatic polypeptide, motilin, neurotensin, cholecystokinin, secretin, vasoactive intestinal peptide and gastrin-releasing peptide or blood glucose concentration.

  3. Omeprazole. A review of its use in Helicobacter pylori infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and peptic ulcers induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Langtry, H D; Wilde, M I

    1998-09-01

    Omeprazole is a well studied proton pump inhibitor that reduces gastric acid secretion. This review examines its use in Helicobacter pylori infection, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) with or without oesophagitis and gastrointestinal damage caused by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Optimal omeprazole regimens for anti-H. pylori therapy are those that administer the drug at a dosage of 40 mg/day (in 1 or 2 divided doses) for 7, 10 or 14 days in combination with 2 antibacterial agents. As a component of 3-drug regimens in direct comparative studies, omeprazole was at least as effective as lansoprazole, pantoprazole, bismuth compounds and ranitidine. However, a meta-analysis suggests that triple therapies with omeprazole are more effective than comparable regimens containing ranitidine, lansoprazole or bismuth. Omeprazole also appears to be successful in triple therapy regimens used in children with H. pylori infection. In patients with acute GORD with oesophagitis, omeprazole is at least as effective as lansoprazole or pantoprazole in promoting healing, and superior to ranitidine, cimetidine or cisapride in oesophagitis healing and symptom relief. Omeprazole was similar to lansoprazole and superior to ranitidine in preventing oesophagitis relapse in patients with all grades of oesophagitis, but may be superior to lansoprazole or pantoprazole in patients with more severe disease. More patients with symptomatic GORD without oesophagitis experienced symptom relief after short term treatment with omeprazole than with ranitidine, cisapride or placebo, and symptoms were more readily prevented by omeprazole than by cimetidine or placebo. Omeprazole was effective in healing and relieving symptoms of reflux oesophagitis in children with oesophagitis refractory to histamine H2 receptor antagonists. Omeprazole is superior to placebo in preventing NSAID-induced gastrointestinal damage in patients who must continue to take NSAIDs. It is also similar to

  4. Drug Interaction Between Clopidogrel and Ranitidine or Omeprazole in Stable Coronary Artery Disease: A Double-Blind, Double Dummy, Randomized Study.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Remo Holanda de Mendonça; Giugliano, Robert Patrick; Strunz, Celia Maria Cassaro; Filho, Cyrillo Cavalheiro; Ramires, José Antonio Franchini; Filho, Roberto Kalil; Neto, Pedro Alves Lemos; Pereira, Alexandre Costa; Rocha, Tânia Rúbia; Freire, Beatriz Tonon; D'Amico, Elbio Antonio; Nicolau, José Carlos

    2016-08-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are often prescribed to patients receiving dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). However, this class of medication, especially omeprazole, has been associated with a reduction in clopidogrel efficacy, leading many clinicians to substitute omeprazole with ranitidine. Our objective was to compare the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel before and after the addition of omeprazole or ranitidine. We measured platelet aggregability at baseline and after 1 week of clopidogrel 75 mg daily. Subjects were then randomized in a double-blinded, double-dummy fashion to omeprazole 20 mg twice daily (bid) or ranitidine 150 mg bid. We repeated aggregability tests after 1 additional week, using VerifyNow P2Y12™ (Accumetrics; San Diego, CA, USA), depicting aggregability as percent inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA). We enrolled 41 patients in the omeprazole group and 44 in the ranitidine group. IPA was significantly decreased after the addition of omeprazole to clopidogrel (from 26.3 ± 32.9 to 17.4 ± 33.1 %; p = 0.025), with no statistical significant changes observed in the ranitidine group (from 32.6 ± 28.9 to 30.1 ± 31.3 %; p = 0.310). The comparison of IPA in both groups at the end of the follow-up showed a trend toward significance (p = 0.07, 95 % confidence interval [CI] -1.19 to 26.59); after excluding homozygous patients for 2C19*2 genotype, the comparison of IPA between the groups reached statistical significance (32.7 ± 30.8 vs. 17.7 ± 33.4 %, respectively, for ranitidine and omeprazole groups; p = 0.04). Unlike omeprazole, ranitidine did not influence platelet aggregability response to clopidogrel. NCT01896557.

  5. A review of omeprazole use in the treatment of acid-related disorders in children.

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, A E; Walters, J K; Katona, B G; Souney, P E; Levine, D

    2001-05-01

    Acid peptic disease is a common problem, with a similar prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in adults and children. The presentation of GERD in infants and children varies from crying, irritability, or sleep disturbance to feeding difficulties, vomiting, or rumination. Helicobacter pylori (HP)-related diseases and gastric and duodenal ulcers are much more common in adults than in children, who are more likely to have gastritis or duodenitis. However, because HP infection is most likely acquired in childhood, treatment of children with endoscopically documented active HP disease may minimize the potential risk for peptic ulcer or gastric cancer in adulthood, although this is yet to be proved. Omeprazole has been shown to be effective in the treatment of acid-related diseases. This paper reviews the literature on the use and administration of omeprazole for the treatment of GERD, peptic ulcer disease, HP infection, and other acid-related conditions in children. Studies were identified through searches of MEDLINE and Science Citation Index for the period 1986 to November 2000, and from the reference lists of identified articles. The search terms used included omeprazole, proton pump inhibitor (PPI), children, pediatrics, routes of administration, GERD, HP infection, esophagitis, and administration. In addition, the manufacturer of omeprazole was asked for relevant unpublished information. Marketed and extemporaneous formulations of omeprazole have been administered to children aged 2 months to 18 years for the treatment of erosive esophagitis, gastric ulcer, duodenal ulcer, HP infection, and related conditions at dosages of 5 to 80 mg/d (0.2-3.5 mg/kg/d) for periods ranging from 14 days to 36 months with a low incidence of adverse effects. The initial dose most consistently reported to heal esophagitis and provide relief of symptoms of GERD appears to be 1 mg/kg per day. In uncontrolled clinical trials and case reports to date, omeprazole has been

  6. Gaviscon® vs. omeprazole in symptomatic treatment of moderate gastroesophageal reflux. a direct comparative randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Medical management of GERD mainly uses proton pump inhibitors. Alginates also have proven efficacy. The aim of this trial was to compare short-term efficacy of an alginate (Gaviscon®, 4 × 10 mL/day) and omeprazole (20 mg/day) on GERD symptoms in general practice. Methods A 14-day multicentre randomised double-blind double-dummy non-inferiority trial compared Gaviscon® (4 × 10 mL/day) and omeprazole (20 mg/day) in patients with 2-6 day heartburn episodes weekly without alarm signals. The primary outcome was the mean time to onset of the first 24-h heartburn-free period after initial dosing. Secondary outcomes were the proportion of patients without heartburn by D7, pain relief by D7, and reduction in pain intensity by D7 and D14. Results 278 patients were recruited; 120 were included in the Gaviscon® group and 121 in the omeprazole group for the per protocol non-inferiority analysis. The mean time to onset of the first 24-h heartburn-free period after initial dosing was 2.0 (± 2.2) days for Gaviscon® and 2.0 (± 2.3) days for omeprazole (p = 0.93); mean intergroup difference was 0.01 ± 1.55 days (95% CI = -0.41 to 0.43): i.e., less than the lower limit of the 95% CI of -0.5 days predetermined to demonstrate non-inferiority. The mean number of heartburn-free days by D7 was significantly greater in the omeprazole group: 3.7 ± 2.3 days vs. 3.1 ± 2.1 (p = 0.02). On D7, overall quality of pain relief was slightly in favour of omeprazole (p = 0.049). There was no significant difference in the reduction in pain intensity between groups by D7 (p = 0.11) or D14 (p = 0.08). Tolerance and safety were good and comparable in both groups. Conclusion Gaviscon® was non-inferior to omeprazole in achieving a 24-h heartburn-free period in moderate episodic heartburn, and is a relevant effective alternative treatment in moderate GERD in primary care. Trial registration ISRCTN62203233. PMID:22361121

  7. Quality of omeprazole purchased via the Internet and personally imported into Japan: comparison with products sampled in other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Sofiqur; Yoshida, Naoko; Sugiura, Sakura; Tsuboi, Hirohito; Keila, Tep; Kiet, Heng Bun; Zin, Theingi; Tanimoto, Tsuyoshi; Kimura, Kazuko

    2018-03-01

    To evaluate the quality of omeprazole personally imported into Japan via the Internet and to compare the quality of these samples with previously collected samples from two other Asian countries. The samples were evaluated by observation, authenticity investigation and pharmacopoeial quality analysis. Quality comparison of some selected samples was carried out by dissolution profiling, Raman spectroscopy and principle component analysis (PCA). Observation of the Internet sites and samples revealed some discrepancies including the delivery of a wrong sample and the selling of omeprazole without a prescription, although it is a prescription medicine. Among the 28 samples analysed, all passed the identification test, 26 (93%) passed the quantity and content uniformity tests and all passed the dissolution test. Dissolution profiling confirmed that all the personally imported omeprazole samples remained intact in the acid medium. On the other hand, six samples from two of the same manufacturers, previously collected during surveys in Cambodia and Myanmar, frequently showed premature omeprazole release in acid. Raman spectroscopy and PCA showed significant variation between omeprazole formulations in personally imported samples and the samples from Cambodia and Myanmar. Our results indicate that the pharmaceutical quality of omeprazole purchased through the Internet was sufficient, as determined by pharmacopeial tests. However, omeprazole formulations distributed in different market segments by the same manufacturers were of diverse quality. Measures are needed to ensure consistent quality of products and to prevent entry of substandard products into the legitimate supply chain. © 2018 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Darunavir Boosted with Ritonavir and Omeprazole or Ranitidine in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Negative Healthy Volunteers▿

    PubMed Central

    Sekar, Vanitha J.; Lefebvre, Eric; De Paepe, Els; De Marez, Tine; De Pauw, Martine; Parys, Wim; Hoetelmans, Richard M. W.

    2007-01-01

    Darunavir (DRV; TMC114; Prezista) is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor used in combination with low-dose ritonavir (RTV) (DRV/r) as a pharmacokinetic enhancer. Protease inhibitor absorption may be decreased during coadministration of drugs that limit stomach acid secretion and increase gastric pH. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ranitidine and omeprazole on the plasma pharmacokinetics of DRV and RTV in HIV-negative healthy volunteers. Sixteen volunteers completed the study and received DRV/r, DRV/r plus ranitidine, and DRV/r plus omeprazole, in three separate sessions. Treatment was given for 4 days with an additional morning dose on day 5, and regimens were separated by a washout period of 7 days. Samples were taken over a 12-h period on day 5 for the assessment of DRV and RTV plasma concentrations. Pharmacokinetic parameters assessed included DRV area under the curve, maximum plasma concentration, and trough plasma concentration. The least-squares mean ratios and 90% confidence intervals are reported with treatment of DRV/r alone as a reference. Compared with DRV/r alone, no significant changes in DRV pharmacokinetic parameters were observed during coadministration of DRV/r and either ranitidine or omeprazole. Treatment regimens were generally well tolerated, and no serious adverse events were reported. In conclusion, coadministration of DRV/r and ranitidine or omeprazole was well tolerated by the volunteers. Ranitidine and omeprazole did not have a significant influence on DRV pharmacokinetics. No dose adjustments are required when DRV/r is coadministered with omeprazole or ranitidine. PMID:17210768

  9. Pyruvate Decarboxylase, the Target for Omeprazole in Metronidazole-Resistant and Iron-Restricted Tritrichomonas foetus

    PubMed Central

    Sutak, Róbert; Tachezy, Jan; Kulda, Jaroslav; Hrdý, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    The substituted benzimidazole omeprazole, used for the treatment of human peptic ulcer disease, inhibits the growth of the metronidazole-resistant bovine pathogen Tritrichomonas foetus in vitro (MIC at which the growth of parasite cultures is inhibited by 50%, 22 μg/ml [63 μM]). The antitrichomonad activity appears to be due to the inhibition of pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), which is the key enzyme responsible for ethanol production and which is strongly upregulated in metronidazole-resistant trichomonads. PDC was purified to homogeneity from the cytosol of metronidazole-resistant strain. The tetrameric enzyme of 60-kDa subunits is inhibited by omeprazole (50% inhibitory concentration, 16 μg/ml). Metronidazole-susceptible T. foetus, which expresses very little PDC, is only slightly affected. Omeprazole has the same inhibitory effect on T. foetus cells grown under iron-limited conditions. Similarly to metronidazole-resistant cells, T. foetus cells grown under iron-limited conditions have nonfunctional hydrogenosomal metabolism and rely on cytosolic PDC-mediated ethanol fermentation. PMID:15155220

  10. Effect of intravenous ranitidine and omeprazole on intestinal absorption of water, sodium, and macronutrients in patients with intestinal resection

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, P; Staun, M; Tjellesen, L; Mortensen, P

    1998-01-01

    Background—H2 receptor blockers and proton pump inhibitors reduce intestinal output in patients with short bowel syndrome. 
Aims—To evaluate the effect of intravenous omeprazole and ranitidine on water, electrolyte, macronutrient, and energy absorption in patients with intestinal resection. 
Methods—Thirteen patients with a faecal weight above 1.5 kg/day (range 1.7-5.7 kg/day and a median small bowel length of 100cm were studied. Omeprazole 40 mg twice daily or ranitidine 150mg twice daily were administered for five days in a randomised, double blind, crossover design followed by a three day control period with no treatment. Two patients with a segment of colon in continuation were excluded from analysis which, however, had no influence on the results. 
Results—Omeprazole increased median intestinal wet weight absorption compared with no treatment and ranitidine (p<0.03). The effect of ranitidine was not significant. Four patients with faecal volumes below 2.6 kg/day did not respond to omeprazole; in two absorption increased by 0.5-1 kg/day; and in five absorption increased by 1−2 kg/day. Absorption of sodium, calcium, magnesium, nitrogen, carbohydrate, fat, and total energy was unchanged. Four high responders continued on omeprazole for 12-15 months, but none could be weaned from parenteral nutrition. 
Conclusion—Omeprazole increased water absorption in patients with faecal output above 2.50 kg/day. The effect varied significantly and was greater in patients with a high output, but did not allow parenteral nutrition to be discontinued. Absorption of energy, macronutrients, electrolytes, and divalent cations was not improved. The effect of ranitidine was not significant, possibly because the dose was too low. 

 Keywords: short bowel syndrome; human; diarrhoea; ranitidine; omeprazole PMID:9824602

  11. A pharmacokinetic study of etravirine (TMC125) co-administered with ranitidine and omeprazole in HIV–negative volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Schöller-Gyüre, Monika; Kakuda, Thomas N; De Smedt, Goedele; Vanaken, Hilde; Bouche, Marie-Paule; Peeters, Monika; Woodfall, Brian; Hoetelmans, Richard M W

    2008-01-01

    Aims Etravirine is a next-generation non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with activity against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant HIV. Proton pump inhibitors and H2-antagonists are frequently used in the HIV-negative-infected population, and drug–drug interactions have been described with other antiretrovirals. This study evaluated the effect of steady-state omeprazole and ranitidine on the pharmacokinetics of a single dose of etravirine. Methods In an open-label, randomized, one-way, three-period crossover trial, HIV-negative volunteers randomly received a single dose of 100 mg etravirine alone (treatment A); 11 days of 150 mg ranitidine b.i.d. (treatment B); and 11 days of 40 mg omeprazole q.d. (treatment C). A single dose of 100 mg etravirine was co-administered on day 8 of sessions 2 and 3. Each session was separated by a 14-day wash-out. Results Nineteen volunteers (seven female) participated. When a single dose of etravirine was administered in the presence of steady-state ranitidine, etravirine least squares means ratios (90% confidence interval) for AUClast and Cmax were 0.86 (0.76, 0.97) and 0.94 (0.75, 1.17), respectively, compared with administration of etravirine alone. When administered with steady-state omeprazole, these values were 1.41 (1.22, 1.62) and 1.17 (0.96, 1.43), respectively. Co-administration of a single dose of etravirine and ranitidine or omeprazole was generally safe and well tolerated. Conclusions Ranitidine slightly decreased etravirine exposure, whereas omeprazole increased it by approximately 41%. The increased exposure of etravirine when co-administered with omeprazole is attributed to CYP2C19 inhibition. Considering the favourable safety profile of etravirine, these changes are not clinically relevant. Etravirine can be co-administered with proton pump inhibitors and H2 antagonists without dose adjustments. PMID:18492125

  12. To Flavor or Not to Flavor Extemporaneous Omeprazole Liquid.

    PubMed

    Chuong, Monica C; Taglieri, Catherine A; Kerr, Stephen G

    2017-01-01

    Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor used to treat the symptoms of gastro esophageal reflux disease, ulcers, excess stomach acid, infection with Helicobacter pylori, and to control the gastric side effects of various drugs. The approved dosage forms in the U.S. are powder in compounding kits, delayed-release granules for oral suspension, oral delayed-release tablets, and oral delayed-release capsules. An extemporaneously compounded unsweetened oral liquid method, published in the International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, was found to be commonly used by pharmacists. This project investigated the robustness of the compendium omeprazole high-performance liquid chromatographic assay in evaluating an oral liquid made from commercial delayed-release pellets, the potency of extemporaneously compounded solutions having a 1.125% v/v flavored versus unflavored samples stored at controlled cold temperatures at different time points, and examining the absorption spectrum of the flavoring agent. As part of the study, stability-indication testing was also conducted. The studies indicate that the chromatographic area under the plasma concentration-time curve of both study groups remained over 90% of the label claim during the follow-up period. The flavor did not significantly impact the pH of the oral liquid. This study further identified (1) an increase in resilient foam formation in the flavored liquid, potentially hindering dosing accuracy, (2) omeprazole is oxidized easily by 3% hydrogen peroxide, and (3) flavoring agent absorbs in an ultraviolet visible spectroscopy spectral range often used in assay detectors for quantification of drug molecules, and could interfere with assay protocols of the same. Copyright© by International Journal of Pharmaceutical Compounding, Inc.

  13. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and gastroprotection with proton pump inhibitors: a focus on ketoprofen/omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Gigante, Antonio; Tagarro, Ignacio

    2012-04-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are among the most commonly prescribed agents for rheumatic disorders such as osteoarthritis (OA), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Despite the known association between NSAID use and gastropathy, however, only around one-third of patients at risk of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal toxicity receive adequate gastroprotection, and as many as 44% of these patients are non-adherent. We review the co-prescription of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) for the prevention of NSAID-induced gastropathy, with a particular focus on the first fixed-dose NSAID/PPI formulation: ketoprofen/omeprazole modified-release capsules. The ketoprofen/omeprazole fixed-dose combination is available in doses of 100 mg/20 mg, 150 mg/20 mg or 200 mg/20 mg as a single capsule for once-daily administration. Ketoprofen monotherapy has been shown to be generally equivalent to other NSAIDs when used in the treatment of OA. In RA, ketoprofen has demonstrated equivalent efficacy to diclofenac, indometacin, piroxicam, aceclofenac, phenylbutazone, naproxen and flurbiprofen. Studies comparing ketoprofen with ibuprofen and sulindac in patients with RA have, in general, favoured ketoprofen. Studies in AS have generally reported similar efficacy between ketoprofen and phenylbutazone and pirprofen. Prophylaxis with omeprazole is effective for the prevention of gastroduodenal ulcers, maintenance of remission and alleviation of dyspeptic symptoms in NSAID recipients. Omeprazole is well tolerated, and adverse events are generally gastrointestinal in nature. The fixed-dose combination of ketoprofen and omeprazole has demonstrated bioequivalence to the respective monotherapies. The incidence of digestive symptoms and the need for dose reduction was reported to be lower with the combination than with its components. Ketoprofen/omeprazole modified-release capsules are the first fixed-dose NSAID/PPI formulation to be approved. This formulation

  14. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of two omeprazole formulations on stomach pH and gastric ulcer scores.

    PubMed

    Raidal, S L; Andrews, F M; Nielsen, S G; Trope, G

    2017-11-01

    Limited data are available on the relative pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of different omeprazole formulations. To compare pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic effects of a novel omeprazole formulation against a currently registered product. Masked 2 period, 2 treatment crossover. Twelve clinically healthy horses were studied over two 6-day treatment periods. Horses were randomly assigned to receive a novel omeprazole paste (Ulcershield: ULS) or a currently registered reference omeprazole product (OMO). Gastric pH was measured continuously for 10 h on the day prior to commencing treatment (Day -1) and after 6 days of oral treatment (Day 5) using in situ antimony pH probes within an indwelling nasogastric tube. Plasma pharmacokinetics were determined on Days 0 and 6. Treatment significantly (P<0.005) increased gastric pH on Day 5, compared to results obtained prior to treatment (Day -1) and there was no significant difference between products (P = 0.773). Similarly, comparison of median hourly gastric pH (P = 0.593), mean gastric pH (P = 0.154), percentage time pH<4 (P = 0.259) and area under the time-gastric pH response curve (P = 0.734) did not discriminate between products. Both treatments resulted in significantly lower gastric ulcer severity scores (both P = 0.004), with no difference between treatments (P = 0.688). Comparison of mean log area under time-plasma concentration curves demonstrated that, although the lower limit of the 90% confidence interval was within the -20% limit for bioequivalence, the upper limit was exceeded, suggesting that the test product could have greater bioavailability than the reference product. The small sample size, large interhorse plasma omeprazole concentrations, and low bioavailability of omeprazole impacted the sensitivity of the bioequivalence analysis. ULS matched or slightly exceeded OMO plasma concentrations. Both products resulted in equivalent increases in gastric pH, gastric pH profiles and decrease in gastric

  15. Rabeprazole is equivalent to omeprazole in the treatment of erosive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. A randomised, double-blind, comparative study of rabeprazole and omeprazole 20 mg in acute treatment of reflux oesophagitis, followed by a maintenance open-label, low-dose therapy with rabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Pace, F; Annese, V; Prada, A; Zambelli, A; Casalini, S; Nardini, P; Bianchi Porro, G

    2005-10-01

    Previous studies have shown similar effects of rabeprazole and omeprazole, when used at the same dose in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. However, such studies have been conducted as superiority studies but interpreted as equivalence ones. To properly assess the comparative efficacy of rabeprazole and omeprazole in inducing complete endoscopic healing and symptom relief in patients with reflux oesophagitis. Patients (n=560) with Savary-Miller grade I-III reflux oesophagitis were randomised in a double-blind, double-dummy fashion to rabeprazole or omeprazole 20 mg once daily for 4-8 weeks. Then, patients endoscopically healed and symptomatically relieved were openly maintained with rabeprazole 10 mg or 2x10 mg once daily (in the event of clinical and/or endoscopic relapse) for a maximum of 48 weeks. After 4-8 weeks of treatment, healing (primary end-point) was observed in 228/233 (97.9%) patients in the rabeprazole group and in 231/237 (97.5%) in the omeprazole one (equivalence effect demonstrated by p<0.0001 at Blackwelder test and an upper confidence limit at 97.5% of 0.023). However, rabeprazole was faster in inducing heartburn relief than omeprazole (2.8+/-0.2 versus 4.7+/-0.5 days of therapy to reach the first day with satisfactory heartburn relief, p=0.0045 at log-rank test). In the maintenance phase, 15.2% of patients had an endoscopic and/or clinical relapse. Rabeprazole is equivalent to omeprazole in healing reflux oesophagitis, but shows a faster activity on reflux symptoms in the early treatment phase.

  16. Pharmacokinetic evaluations of the co-administrations of vandetanib and metformin, digoxin, midazolam, omeprazole or ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Susanne; Read, Jessica; Oliver, Stuart; Steinberg, Mark; Li, Yan; Lisbon, Eleanor; Mathews, David; Leese, Philip T; Martin, Paul

    2014-09-01

    Vandetanib is a selective inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and rearranged during transfection (RET) signalling, indicated for the treatment of medullary thyroid cancer. We investigated potential drug-drug interactions between vandetanib and metformin [organic cation transporter 2 (OCT2) substrate; NCT01551615]; digoxin [P-glycoprotein (P-gp) substrate; NCT01561781]; midazolam [cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 substrate; NCT01544140]; omeprazole (proton pump inhibitor) or ranitidine (histamine H2-receptor antagonist; both NCT01539655). Four open-label, phase I studies were conducted in healthy volunteers: n = 14 (metformin), n = 14 (digoxin), n = 17 (midazolam), n = 16 (omeprazole), n = 18 (ranitidine). Three of these comprised the following regimens: metformin 1000 mg ± vandetanib 800 mg, midazolam 7.5 mg ± vandetanib 800 mg, or digoxin 0.25 mg ± vandetanib 300 mg. The randomized study comprised vandetanib 300 mg alone and then either (i) omeprazole 40 mg (days 1-4), and omeprazole + vandetanib (day 5); or (ii) ranitidine 150 mg (day 1), and ranitidine + vandetanib (day 2). The primary objective assessed metformin, digoxin, midazolam and vandetanib pharmacokinetics. Vandetanib + metformin increased metformin area under the plasma concentration-time curve from zero to infinity (AUC0-∞) and maximum observed plasma concentration (Cmax) by 74 and 50 %, respectively, and decreased the geometric mean metformin renal clearance (CLR) by 52 % versus metformin alone. Vandetanib + digoxin increased digoxin area under the concentration-time curve from zero to the last quantifiable concentration (AUC0-last) and Cmax by 23 and 29 %, respectively, versus digoxin alone, with only a 9 % decrease in CLR. Vandetanib had no effect on midazolam exposure. Vandetanib exposure was unchanged during co-administration with omeprazole/ranitidine. Treatment combinations were generally

  17. A pilot study comparing the effect of orally administered esomeprazole and omeprazole on gastric fluid pH in horses.

    PubMed

    Huxford, K E; Dart, A J; Perkins, N R; Bell, R; Jeffcott, L B

    2017-11-01

    AIMS To compare the efficacy of an enteric coated esomeprazole paste with an enteric coated omeprazole paste to increase gastric pH after oral administration in horses. METHODS Nine adult Standardbred horses were randomly assigned to three groups, each containing three horses, for a study comprising three phases of 10 days, with an 18-day washout period between each phase. In each phase, three horses received either 0.5 mg/kg esomeprazole, 1 mg/kg omeprazole or a placebo, as an oral paste, once daily for 10 days (Days 0-9). Over the course of study all horses received all three treatments. Gastric fluid samples were collected using a gastroscope on Days 1, 3, 5, 8 and 10, with food and water withheld for 16 hours prior to collection of samples. The pH of all samples was measured immediately after collection. RESULTS Mean pH (3.38; SD 1.75) of the gastric fluid samples in the horses that received the placebo was lower than in the horses that received esomeprazole (6.28; SD 1.75) or omeprazole (6.13; SD 1.75) (p<0.001). There was no difference in the mean pH between horses receiving esomeprazole and those receiving omeprazole (p=0.56). CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Under these study conditions, esomeprazole paste was equally as effective as omeprazole paste in increasing gastric pH in horses. Enteric coated esomeprazole, may be a therapeutic alternative to omeprazole for the prevention of gastric ulcers in horses.

  18. Meta-analysis of the efficacy of lansoprazole and omeprazole for the treatment of H.pylori-associated duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Yi; Ye, Yutong; Liang, Desen; Guo, Chao; Li, Lijie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To conduct a systematic evaluation of the efficacy of lansoprazole and omeprazole for the treatment of Helicobacter pylori-associated duodenal ulcer. Methods: Online databases, including CHKD, VIP, China Info, the National Digital Library of China, Google Scholar, PubMed, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, and Wiley Online Library were searched for related studies. The quality of the studies was evaluated in accordance with the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions, and relevant information was extracted from them. The studies were subjected to meta-analysis using RevMan5.3 software, and qualitative analysis was performed for studies, in which the data could not be merged. Results: A total of nine randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included, all of which presented the possibility of bias. Meta-analysis showed no significant differences between patients treated with lansoprazole combinations and omeprazole combinations in terms of DU healing rate (RR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.99~1.09, P = 0.93). There were significant differences between those treated by lansoprazole combination and omeprazole combination in terms of HP eradication rate (RR = 1.09, 95% CI = 1.01~1.18, P = 0.04), and there was no serious adverse reaction during the treatment process for both lansoprazole and omeprazole. Conclusion: Lansoprazole and omeprazole exhibit similar efficacy in the treatment of Helicobacter pylori associated duodenal ulcers. PMID:26823965

  19. Omeprazole does not change the oral bioavailability or pharmacokinetics of vinpocetine in rats.

    PubMed

    Sozański, Tomasz; Magdalan, Jan; Trocha, Małgorzata; Szumny, Antoni; Merwid-Ląd, Anna; Słupski, Wojciech; Karaźniewicz-Łada, Marta; Kiełbowicz, Grzegorz; Ksiądzyna, Dorota; Szeląg, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies proved that food strongly enhanced the bioavailability of vinpocetine. Food may change the pharmacokinetics of a drug by affecting various factors, including gastrointestinal pH. However, the influence of proton pump inhibitor-induced pH alterations on vinpocetine pharmacokinetics is not known. The aim was to evaluate the influence of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of oral vinpocetine. One group of male Wistar rats received single oral doses of vinpocetine (2 mg/kg - regimen V). In the second group, omeprazole (10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally for 5 days before vinpocetine administration (regimen OV). For analysis of vinpocetine pharmacokinetics, blood samples were obtained before and 0.25, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 10 and 12 h after vinpocetine administration. Vinpocetine concentrations were measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mean values of AUC(0-t), AUC(0-inf) and C(max) in regimen V were very similar to respective values in regimen OV. The mean T(max) in both regimens was estimated for 1.5 h. There were no statistically significant differences between both regimens. In conclusion, omeprazole did not affect the pharmacokinetic profile of vinpocetine.

  20. Effects of omeprazole or cola beverage on the pharmacokinetics of oral DA-8159, a new erectogenic, in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo H; Bae, Soo K; Kwon, Jong W; Kim, Won B; Lee, Myung G

    2005-12-01

    The changes in pharmacokinetics of DA-8159 by omeprazole with respect to inhibition of CYP3A1/2 in rats were evaluated. After oral administration of DA-8159 at dose of 30 mg/kg to rats pretreated with oral omeprazole at 30 mg/kg for 1 week, the total area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to time infinity (AUC) of DA-8159 was significantly greater (37.5% increase) than that in control rats. This could be due to inhibition of metabolism of DA-8159 by inhibition of CYP3A1/2 by omeprazole. The AUC(DA-8164 (a metabolite of DA-8159))/AUC(DA-8159) ratio was also smaller (32.4% decrease) with omeprazole. After oral administration of DA-8159 at a dose of 30 mg/kg to rats without or with cola beverage, the pharmacokinetic parameters of DA-8159 and DA-8164 were not significantly different between two groups of rats. This suggested that cola beverage did not have any considerable effects on CYP3A1/2 in rats.

  1. Omeprazole- and Esomeprazole-associated Hypomagnesaemia: Data Mining of the Public Version of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Takao; Sakaeda, Toshiyuki; Kadoyama, Kaori; Okuno, Yasushi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Case reports showing that proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole and esomeprazole, can cause hypomagnesaemia have been accumulating since 2006. In this study, the reports submitted to the Adverse Event Reporting System (AERS) of the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) were evaluated to assess omeprazole and esomeprazole in terms of susceptibility to hypomagnesaemia. Methods: After a revision of arbitrary drug names and the deletion of duplicated submissions, the reports involving omeprazole and esomeprazole were analyzed. Standardized official pharmacovigilance tools were used for the quantitative detection of a signal, i.e., an association between a drug and an adverse drug event, including the proportional reporting ratio, the reporting odds ratio, the information component given by a Bayesian confidence propagation neural network, and the empirical Bayes geometric mean. Results: A total of 22,017,956 co-occurrences were found in 1,644,220 reports from 2004 to 2009, where a co-occurrence was a pair of a drug and an adverse drug event. In total, 818 and 743 adverse drug events were listed as omeprazole- and esomeprazole-associated, with hypomagnesaemia ranking 85th and 135th, respectively. Although both PPIs were associated with hypomagnesaemia, the statistical metrics suggested that the association was more noteworthy for omeprazole. Conclusion: The data obtained in this study do not provide sufficient evidence to recommend systematic monitoring of magnesium levels in plasma, but chronic exposure to a PPI can lead to severe hypomagnesaemia. PMID:22745572

  2. Using omeprazole to link the components of the post-prandial alkaline tide in the spiny dogfish, Squalus acanthias.

    PubMed

    Wood, Chris M; Schultz, Aaron G; Munger, R Stephen; Walsh, Patrick J

    2009-03-01

    After a meal, dogfish exhibit a metabolic alkalosis in the bloodstream and a marked excretion of basic equivalents across the gills to the external seawater. We used the H(+), K(+)-ATPase pump inhibitor omeprazole to determine whether these post-prandial alkaline tide events were linked to secretion of H(+) (accompanied by Cl(-)) in the stomach. Sharks were fitted with indwelling stomach tubes for pretreatment with omeprazole (five doses of 5 mg omeprazole per kilogram over 48 h) or comparable volumes of vehicle (saline containing 2% DMSO) and for sampling of gastric chyme. Fish were then fed an involuntary meal by means of the stomach tube consisting of minced flatfish muscle (2% of body mass) suspended in saline (4% of body mass total volume). Omeprazole pre-treatment delayed the post-prandial acidification of the gastric chyme, slowed the rise in Cl(-) concentration of the chyme and altered the patterns of other ions, indicating inhibition of H(+) and accompanying Cl(-) secretion. Omeprazole also greatly attenuated the rise in arterial pH and bicarbonate concentrations and reduced the net excretion of basic equivalents to the water by 56% over 48 h. Arterial blood CO(2) pressure (Pa(CO(2))) and plasma ions were not substantially altered. These results indicate that elevated gastric H(+) secretion (as HCl) in the digestive process is the major cause of the systemic metabolic alkalosis and the accompanying rise in base excretion across the gills that constitute the alkaline tide in the dogfish.

  3. A randomized controlled study comparing omeprazole and cimetidine for the prophylaxis of stress-related upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo-lin; Li, Bing; Zhang, Xiang; Fei, Zhou; Hu, Shi-jie; Lin, Wei; Gao, Da-kuan; Zhang, Li

    2013-01-01

    Patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) are at high risk for severe stress-related upper gastrointestinal (UGI) bleeding, which is predictive of higher mortality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of omeprazole and cimetidine compared with a placebo in the prevention and management of stress-related UGI bleeding in patients with ICH. In a single-center, randomized, placebo-controlled study, 184 surgically treated patients with CT-proven ICH within 72 hours of ictus and negative results for gastric occult blood testing were included. Of these patients, 165 who were qualified upon further evaluation were randomized into 3 groups: 58 patients received 40 mg intravenous omeprazole every 12 hours, 54 patients received 300 mg intravenous cimetidine every 6 hours, and 53 patients received a placebo. Patients whose gastric occult blood tests were positive at admission (n = 70) and during/after the prophylaxis procedure (n = 48) were treated with high-dose omeprazole at 80 mg bolus plus 8 mg/hr infusion for 3 days, followed by 40 mg intravenous omeprazole every 12 hours for 7 days. Of the 165 assessable patients, stress-related UGI bleeding occurred in 9 (15.5%) in the omeprazole group compared with 15 patients (27.8%) in the cimetidine group and 24 patients (45.3%) in the placebo group (p = 0.003). The occurrence of UGI bleeding was significantly related to death (p = 0.022). Nosocomial pneumonia occurred in 14 patients (24.1%) receiving omeprazole, 12 (22.2%) receiving cimetidine, and 8 (15.1%) receiving placebo (p > 0.05). In patients with UGI bleeding in which high-dose omeprazole was initiated, UGI bleeding arrested within the first 3 days in 103 patients (87.3%). Omeprazole significantly reduced the morbidity of stress-related UGI bleeding in patients with ICH due to its effective prophylactic effect without increasing the risk of nosocomial pneumonia, but it did not reduce the 1-month mortality or ICU stay. Further evaluation of high

  4. No influence of the CYP2C19-selective inhibitor omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of the dopamine receptor agonist rotigotine.

    PubMed

    Elshoff, Jan-Peer; Cawello, Willi; Andreas, Jens-Otto; Braun, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Rotigotine, a non-ergolinic dopamine receptor agonist administered transdermally via a patch, is metabolized by several cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) isoenzymes, including CYP2C19. This open-label, multiple-dose study evaluated the effect of omeprazole, a competitive inhibitor of CYP2C19, on the pharmacokinetics of rotigotine and its metabolites under steady-state conditions in healthy male subjects (of the extensive metabolizer phenotype, CYP2C19). Subjects received rotigotine 2 mg/24 hours on days 1-3, 4 mg/24 hours on days 4-12, and omeprazole 40 mg once daily on days 7-12 immediately after patch application. Blood and urine samples were collected on days 6 and 12 to evaluate rotigotine pharmacokinetic parameters alone and in the presence of omeprazole. Data from 37 subjects were available for pharmacokinetic analysis. Point estimates (90% confidence intervals, CI) for the ratios of AUC(0-24)SS and Cmax,SS of unconjugated rotigotine for the comparison rotigotine + omeprazole:rotigotine alone were close to 1 (0.9853 [0.9024, 1.0757] for AUC(0-24)SS and 1.0613 [0.9723, 1.1585] for Cmax,SS ) with 90% CIs within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.80, 1.25). Selective inhibition of CYP2C19 by omeprazole did not alter the steady-state pharmacokinetic profile of rotigotine or its metabolites. Thus, rotigotine dose adjustment is not required in patients receiving omeprazole, or other CYP2C19 inhibitors. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  5. Disposition of the anti-ulcer medications ranitidine, cimetidine, and omeprazole following administration of multiple doses to exercised Thoroughbred horses.

    PubMed

    Knych, H K; Stanley, S D; Arthur, R M; McKemie, D S

    2017-01-01

    The use of anti-ulcer medications, such as cimetidine, ranitidine, and omeprazole, is common in performance horses. The use of these drugs is regulated in performance horses, and as such a withdrawal time is necessary prior to competition to avoid a medication violation. To the authors' knowledge, there are no reports in the literature describing repeated oral administrations of these drugs in the horse to determine a regulatory threshold and related withdrawal time recommendations. Therefore, the objective of the current study was to describe the disposition and elimination pharmacokinetics of these anti-ulcer medications following oral administration to provide data upon which appropriate regulatory recommendations can be established. Nine exercised Thoroughbred horses were administered 20 mg/kg BID of cimetidine or 8 mg/kg BID of ranitidine, both for seven doses or 2.28 g of omeprazole SID for four doses. Blood samples were collected, serum drug concentrations were determined, and elimination pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated. The serum elimination half-life was 7.05 ± 1.02, 7.43 ± 0.851 and 3.94 ± 1.04 h for cimetidine, ranitidine, and omeprazole, respectively. Serum cimetidine and ranitidine concentrations were above the LOQ and omeprazole and omeprazole sulfide below the LOQ in all horses studied upon termination of sample collection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Prevalence of Gastroesophageal Reflux in Cats During Anesthesia and Effect of Omeprazole on Gastric pH.

    PubMed

    Garcia, R S; Belafsky, P C; Della Maggiore, A; Osborn, J M; Pypendop, B H; Pierce, T; Walker, V J; Fulton, A; Marks, S L

    2017-05-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) is poorly characterized in anesthetized cats, but can cause aspiration pneumonia, esophagitis, and esophageal stricture formation. To determine whether pre-anesthetic orally administered omeprazole increases gastric and esophageal pH and increases serum gastrin concentrations in anesthetized cats, and to determine the prevalence of GER using combined multichannel impedance and pH monitoring. Twenty-seven healthy cats undergoing elective dental procedures. Prospective, double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized clinical trial. Cats were randomized to receive 2 PO doses of omeprazole (1.45-2.20 mg/kg) or an empty gelatin capsule placebo 18-24 hours and 4 hours before anesthetic induction. Blood for measurement of serum gastrin concentration was collected during anesthetic induction. An esophageal pH/impedance catheter was utilized to continuously measure esophageal pH and detect GER throughout anesthesia. Mean gastric pH in the cats that received omeprazole was 7.2 ± 0.4 (range, 6.6-7.8) and was significantly higher than the pH in cats that received the placebo 2.8 ± 1.0 (range, 1.3-4.1; P < .001). Omeprazole administration was not associated with a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration (P = .616). Nine of 27 cats (33.3%) had ≥1 episode of GER during anesthesia. Pre-anesthetic administration of 2 PO doses of omeprazole at a dosage of 1.45-2.20 mg/kg in cats was associated with a significant increase in gastric and esophageal pH within 24 hours, but was not associated with a significant increase in serum gastrin concentration. Prevalence of reflux events in cats during anesthesia was similar to that of dogs during anesthesia. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  7. Comparison between tocotrienol and omeprazole on gastric growth factors in stress-exposed rats.

    PubMed

    Nur Azlina, Mohd Fahami; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad; Chua, Kien Hui; Kamisah, Yusof

    2017-08-28

    To investigate and compare the effects of tocotrienol and omeprazole on gastric growth factors in rats exposed to water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS). Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats. The two control groups were administered vitamin-free palm oil (vehicle) and the two treatment groups were given omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg) by oral gavage. After 28 d of treatment, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to WIRS one time for 3.5 h. Gastric lesions were measured and gastric tissues were obtained to measure vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), epidermal growth factor (EGF), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), and transforming growth factor-alpha (TGF-α) mRNA expression. Rats exposed to WIRS for 3.5 h demonstrated the presence of considerable ulcers in the form of gastric erosion. The lesion index in the stressed control (S) group was increased ( P < 0.001) compared to the tocotrienol treated and omeprazole treated groups. Stress led to a decrease in gastric VEGF ( P < 0.001), bFGF ( P < 0.001) and TGF-α ( P < 0.001) mRNA levels and caused an increase in EGF mRNA ( P < 0.001) that was statistically significant compared to the non-stressed control group. Although both treatment agents exerted similar ulcer reducing ability, only treatment with tocotrienol led to increased expression of VEGF ( P = 0.008), bFGF ( P = 0.001) and TGF-α ( P = 0.002) mRNA. Tocotrienol provides gastroprotective effects in WIRS-induced ulcers. Compared to omeprazole, tocotrienol exerts a similar protective effect, albeit through multiple mechanisms of protection, particularly through up-regulation of growth factors that assist in repair of gastric tissue injuries.

  8. Clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) interaction: separate intake and a non-omeprazole PPI the solution?

    PubMed

    Kenngott, S; Olze, R; Kollmer, M; Bottheim, H; Laner, A; Holinski-Feder, E; Gross, M

    2010-05-18

    Dual therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is recommended by most guidelines. However, there are warnings against combining PPIs with clopidogrel because of their interactions with cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 (CYP2C19). The effects of the combined or separate intake of 20 mg of omeprazole and 75 mg of clopidogrel on the clopidogrel-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation were measured in four healthy subjects whose CYP2C19 exon sequences were determined. The effects of co-therapy with 10 mg of rabeprazole were also examined. Two subjects showed the wild-type CYP2C19 sequence. The concurrent intake of omeprazole had no effect on clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition in these subjects. Two subjects were heterozygous for the *2 allele, with predicted reduced CYP2C19 activity. One of them was a clopidogrel non-responder. In the second heterozygous subject, omeprazole co-therapy reduced the clopidogrel anti-platelet effect when taken simultaneously or separately. However, the simultaneous intake of rabeprazole did not reduce the clopidogrel effect. The clopidogrel-PPI interaction does not seem to be a PPI class effect. Rabeprazole did not affect the clopidogrel effect in a subject with a clear omeprazole-clopidogrel interaction. The separate intake of PPI and clopidogrel may not be sufficient to prevent their interaction.

  9. The Effect of Omeprazole Usage on the Viability of Random Pattern Skin Flaps in Rats.

    PubMed

    Şen, Hilmi; Oruç, Melike; Işik, Veysel Murat; Sadiç, Murat; Sayar, Hamide; Çitil, Rana; Korkmaz, Meliha; Koçer, Uğur

    2017-06-01

    Necrosis of random pattern flaps caused by inadequate blood flow, especially in the distal part of the flap is one of the biggest challenges in reconstructive surgery. Various agents have been used to prevent flap ischemia. In this study, we used omeprazole, which is a potent inhibitor of gastric acidity to increase flap viability. In this study, 35 Wistar-Albino type rats which were divided into 5 equal groups were used. Random-pattern dorsal skin flaps were raised in all groups at seventh day of the study. Group 1 was accepted as control group, and the rats in this group was only given distilled water intraperitoneally for 14 days. Group 2 and group 3 received 10 and 40 mg/kg omeprazole daily for 14 days, respectively. Group 4 and group 5 were given distilled water for the first 7 days and then after the operations they received 10 and 40 mg/kg omeprazole daily for 7 days, respectively. Survival rates of the flaps were examined seventh day after elevation of the flaps by digital imaging and scintigraphy. After assessment of the amount of necrosis, number of vascular structures were counted histopathologically. Percentage of flap necrosis was found to be less in all omeprazole received groups. On digital imaging, percentages of flap necrosis in the study groups were statistically significantly lower than that of the control group (P < 0.001), but there was no significant difference between the study groups (P > 0.05).In the histopathologic specimens, it was detected that the mean number of vessels in proximal (a) and distal (c) portions of the flap in the study groups showed a significant increase when compared with the control group (P < 0.01 for groups 2, 4 and 5, and P < 0.05 for group 3). In conclusion, possible clinical usage of medications increasing gastrin during flap surgeries can be thought as a positive contributor. In this sense, this study showed that parenteral administration of omeprazole in skin flap surgery increases flap viability possibly by

  10. Clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) interaction: separate intake and a non-omeprazole PPI the solution?

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Dual therapy with aspirin and clopidogrel increases the risk of gastrointestinal bleeding. Therefore, co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is recommended by most guidelines. However, there are warnings against combining PPIs with clopidogrel because of their interactions with cytochrome P450 isoenzyme 2C19 (CYP2C19). Methods The effects of the combined or separate intake of 20 mg of omeprazole and 75 mg of clopidogrel on the clopidogrel-induced inhibition of platelet aggregation were measured in four healthy subjects whose CYP2C19 exon sequences were determined. The effects of co-therapy with 10 mg of rabeprazole were also examined. Results Two subjects showed the wild-type CYP2C19 sequence. The concurrent intake of omeprazole had no effect on clopidogrel-induced platelet inhibition in these subjects. Two subjects were heterozygous for the *2 allele, with predicted reduced CYP2C19 activity. One of them was a clopidogrel non-responder. In the second heterozygous subject, omeprazole co-therapy reduced the clopidogrel anti-platelet effect when taken simultaneously or separately. However, the simultaneous intake of rabeprazole did not reduce the clopidogrel effect. Conclusion The clopidogrel-PPI interaction does not seem to be a PPI class effect. Rabeprazole did not affect the clopidogrel effect in a subject with a clear omeprazole-clopidogrel interaction. The separate intake of PPI and clopidogrel may not be sufficient to prevent their interaction. PMID:20562062

  11. Effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of moclobemide according to the genetic polymorphism of CYP2C19.

    PubMed

    Yu, K S; Yim, D S; Cho, J Y; Park, S S; Park, J Y; Lee, K H; Jang, I J; Yi, S Y; Bae, K S; Shin, S G

    2001-04-01

    Moclobemide, an antidepressant with selective monoamine oxidase-A inhibitory action, is known to be metabolized by CYP2C19 and is also reported to be an inhibitor of CYP2C19, CYP2D6, and CYP1A2. To confirm the involvement of CYP2C19, we performed a pharmacokinetic interaction study. The effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of moclobemide was studied in 16 healthy volunteers. The volunteer group comprised 8 extensive metabolizers and 8 poor metabolizers of CYP2C19, which was confirmed by genotyping. Subjects were randomly allocated into two sequence groups, and a single-blind, placebo-controlled, two-period crossover study was performed. In study I, a placebo was orally administered for 7 days. On the eighth morning, 300 mg of moclobemide and 40 mg of placebo were coadministered with 200 mL of water, and a pharmacokinetic study was performed. During study II, 40 mg of omeprazole was given each morning instead of placebo, and pharmacokinetic studies were performed on the first and eighth day with 300 mg of moclobemide coadministration. The inhibition of moclobemide metabolism was significant in extensive metabolizers even after a single dose of omeprazole. After daily administration of omeprazole for 1 week, the pharmacokinetic parameters of moclobemide and its metabolites in extensive metabolizers changed to values similar to those in poor metabolizers. In poor metabolizers, no remarkable changes in the pharmacokinetic parameters were observed. Our results show that CYP2C19 is an important enzyme in the elimination of moclobemide and that it is extensively inhibited by omeprazole in extensive metabolizers, but not in poor metabolizers.

  12. Drug-drug interaction of microdose and regular-dose omeprazole with a CYP2C19 inhibitor and inducer.

    PubMed

    Park, Gab-Jin; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-Su; Han, Seunghoon; Park, Min-Ho; Shin, Seok-Ho; Shin, Young G; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2017-01-01

    A microdose drug-drug interaction (DDI) study may be a valuable tool for anticipating drug interaction at therapeutic doses. This study aimed to compare the magnitude of DDIs at microdoses and regular doses to explore the applicability of a microdose DDI study. Six healthy male volunteer subjects were enrolled into each DDI study of omeprazole (victim) and known perpetrators: fluconazole (inhibitor) and rifampin (inducer). For both studies, the microdose (100 μg, cold compound) and the regular dose (20 mg) of omeprazole were given at days 0 and 1, respectively. On days 2-9, the inhibitor or inducer was given daily, and the microdose and regular dose of omeprazole were repeated at days 8 and 9, respectively. Full omeprazole pharmacokinetic samplings were performed at days 0, 1, 8, and 9 of both studies for noncompartmental analysis. The magnitude of the DDI, the geometric mean ratios (with perpetrator/omeprazole only) of maximum concentration (C max ) and area under the curve to the last measurement (AUC t ) of the microdose and the regular dose were compared. The geometric mean ratios in the inhibition study were: 2.17 (micro) and 2.68 (regular) for C max , and 4.07 (micro), 4.33 (regular) for AUC t . For the induction study, they were 0.26 (micro) and 0.21 (regular) for C max , and 0.16 (micro) and 0.15 (regular) for AUC t . There were no significant statistical differences in the magnitudes of DDIs between microdose and regular-dose conditions, regardless of induction or inhibition. Our results may be used as partial evidence that microdose DDI studies may replace regular-dose studies, or at least be used for DDI-screening purposes.

  13. Effects of omeprazole in improving concurrent chemoradiotherapy efficacy in rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin-Liang; Liu, Min; Yang, Qing; Lin, Shi-Yong; Shan, Hong-Bo; Wang, Hui-Yun; Xu, Guo-Liang

    2017-04-14

    To explore the effects of omeprazole on chemoradiotherapy efficacy and tumor recurrence in rectal cancer. The medical data of 125 rectal cancer patients who received the same neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (CRT) followed by surgery were retrospectively collected. Patients who received omeprazole (OME) orally at a dose of 20 mg at least once daily for six days and/or intravenously at 40 mg a day were recognized as eligible OME users (EOU). Otherwise, patients were regarded as non-eligible OME users (non-EOU). Moreover, a preferred OME dose cut-off of 200 mg on tumor recurrence was obtained by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Patients were divided into two groups: the effective OME group (EOG, OME ≥ 200 mg) and the non-effective OME group (non-EOG, OME < 200 mg). The good response rate of CRT efficacy (50.8%) in EOU was significantly increased compared with non-EOU (30.6%) ( P = 0.02). The recurrence rate in the EOG was 10.3%, which was significantly lower compared with 31.3% in non-EOG ( P = 0.025). The good response rate of CRT efficacy in EOG was 55.2%, which was obviously higher compared with 36.5% in non-EOG, with a significant difference ( P = 0.072). Multivariate Cox analysis demonstrated that OME (non-EOG and EOG) was an independent and significant impact factor for DFS ( P = 0.048, HR = 0.30, 95%CI: 0.09-0.99). When applied as an adjuvant drug in cancer treatment for relieving common side effects of chemotherapy, omeprazole has a synergetic effect in improving CRT efficacy and decreasing rectal cancer recurrence.

  14. A Prospective, Placebo-Controlled Pilot Evaluation of the Effect of Omeprazole on Serum Calcium, Magnesium, Cobalamin, Gastrin Concentrations, and Bone in Cats.

    PubMed

    Gould, E; Clements, C; Reed, A; Giori, L; Steiner, J M; Lidbury, J A; Suchodolski, J S; Brand, M; Moyers, T; Emery, L; Tolbert, M K

    2016-05-01

    Chronic proton pump inhibitor administration has been associated with electrolyte and cobalamin deficiency, disrupted bone homeostasis, hypergastrinemia, and rebound acid hypersecretion in humans. It is unknown if this occurs in cats. Prolonged oral omeprazole results in altered bone mineral density or content, serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations in healthy cats. Six healthy adult DSH cats. In a within subjects, before and after design, cats received placebo followed by omeprazole (0.83-1.6 mg/kg PO q12h) for 60 days each. Analysis of serum calcium, magnesium, cobalamin, and gastrin concentrations was performed on days 0, 30, and 60. Bone density and content were evaluated on days 0 and 60 of each intervention. Continuous data were analyzed using a two-way ANOVA (α = 0.006). On day 60 of omeprazole administration, continuous intragastric pH monitoring was performed in 2 cats to evaluate the effects of abrupt withdrawal of omeprazole. No significant changes were detected between treatments for any variables, except serum gastrin, which was significantly higher during omeprazole treatment in comparison to placebo (P = 0.002). Evidence of gastric hyperacidity was seen in both cats in which intragastric pH monitoring was performed following cessation of omeprazole. Although further studies with larger populations of cats will be needed to draw any definitive conclusions, these preliminary results suggest that prolonged PPI treatment results in hypergastrinemia and abrupt PPI withdrawal might result in RAH in cats. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  15. Drug–drug interaction of microdose and regular-dose omeprazole with a CYP2C19 inhibitor and inducer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Gab-jin; Bae, Soo Hyeon; Park, Wan-Su; Han, Seunghoon; Park, Min-Ho; Shin, Seok-Ho; Shin, Young G; Yim, Dong-Seok

    2017-01-01

    Purpose A microdose drug–drug interaction (DDI) study may be a valuable tool for anticipating drug interaction at therapeutic doses. This study aimed to compare the magnitude of DDIs at microdoses and regular doses to explore the applicability of a microdose DDI study. Patients and methods Six healthy male volunteer subjects were enrolled into each DDI study of omeprazole (victim) and known perpetrators: fluconazole (inhibitor) and rifampin (inducer). For both studies, the microdose (100 μg, cold compound) and the regular dose (20 mg) of omeprazole were given at days 0 and 1, respectively. On days 2–9, the inhibitor or inducer was given daily, and the microdose and regular dose of omeprazole were repeated at days 8 and 9, respectively. Full omeprazole pharmacokinetic samplings were performed at days 0, 1, 8, and 9 of both studies for noncompartmental analysis. Results The magnitude of the DDI, the geometric mean ratios (with perpetrator/omeprazole only) of maximum concentration (Cmax) and area under the curve to the last measurement (AUCt) of the microdose and the regular dose were compared. The geometric mean ratios in the inhibition study were: 2.17 (micro) and 2.68 (regular) for Cmax, and 4.07 (micro), 4.33 (regular) for AUCt. For the induction study, they were 0.26 (micro) and 0.21 (regular) for Cmax, and 0.16 (micro) and 0.15 (regular) for AUCt. There were no significant statistical differences in the magnitudes of DDIs between microdose and regular-dose conditions, regardless of induction or inhibition. Conclusion Our results may be used as partial evidence that microdose DDI studies may replace regular-dose studies, or at least be used for DDI-screening purposes. PMID:28408803

  16. Endoscopic analysis of gastric ulcer after one week's treatment with omeprazole and rabeprazole in relation to CYP2C19 genotype.

    PubMed

    Ando, Takashi; Ishikawa, Takeshi; Kokura, Satoshi; Naito, Yuji; Yoshida, Norimasa; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

    2008-04-01

    In Japanese healthy CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers, rabeprazole 10 mg shows a faster onset of action and stronger inhibition of acid secretion than does omeprazole 20 mg on the first 3 days of administration. We evaluated gastric ulcer improvement after 1 week's treatment with rabeprazole or omeprazole in relation to CYP2C19 polymorphism. A 6-mm rubber disc was placed temporarily at the side of the ulcer for measurement of the ulcer area. The improvement ratios of ulcer area in homozygous extensive metabolizers (homoEMs), heterozygous extensive metabolizers (heteroEMs) and poor metabolizers (PMs) treated with rabeprazole 10 mg were 60.8, 65.0 and 55.3%, respectively, and these values are not significantly different. Corresponding values with omeprazole 20 mg were 46.3, 61.7 and 63.2%, respectively, and the value of homoEMs was significantly smaller than that of heteroEMs. The improvement ratios with rabeprazole in homoEMs and heteroEMs were significantly greater than that with omeprazole in homoEMs.

  17. Cost-effectiveness analysis of high-dose omeprazole infusion as adjuvant therapy to endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kenneth K C; You, Joyce H S; Wong, Ian C K; Kwong, Sunny K S; Lau, James Y W; Chan, Thomas Y K; Lau, Joseph T F; Leung, Wilson Y S; Sung, Joseph J Y; Chung, Sydney S C

    2003-02-01

    Intravenous administration of proton pump inhibitors after endoscopic treatment of bleeding peptic ulcers has been shown to decrease the rate of recurrent bleeding and the need for subsequent surgery. Yet there is a relative lack of formal assessment of this practice. The aim of this study was to examine the cost-effectiveness of this therapy by using standard pharmacoeconomic methods. The present study was performed in conjunction with a randomized controlled clinical trial that included 232 patients who received either omeprazole (80 mg intravenous bolus followed by infusion at 8 mg/hour for 72 hours) or placebo after hemostasis was achieved endoscopically. A cost-effectiveness analysis was performed to evaluate the different outcomes of the trial. All related direct medical costs were identified from patient records. Cost-effectiveness ratios were calculated. Analysis by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test showed that the direct medical cost in the omeprazole group was lower than that for the placebo group. Cost-effectiveness ratios for omeprazole and placebo groups were, respectively, HK$ 28,764 (US$ 3688) and HK$ 36,992 (US$ 4743) in averting one episode of recurrent bleeding in one patient after initial hemostasis was achieved endoscopically. Intravenous administration of high-dose omeprazole appears to be a cost-effective therapy in reducing the recurrence of bleeding and need for surgery in patients with active bleeding ulcer after initial hemostasis is obtained endoscopically.

  18. Dose-Finding Study of Omeprazole on Gastric pH in Neonates with Gastro-Esophageal Acid Reflux Using a Bayesian Sequential Approach.

    PubMed

    Kaguelidou, Florentia; Alberti, Corinne; Biran, Valerie; Bourdon, Olivier; Farnoux, Caroline; Zohar, Sarah; Jacqz-Aigrain, Evelyne

    2016-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are frequently administered on clinical symptoms in neonates but benefit remains controversial. Clinical trials validating omeprazole dosage in neonates are limited. The objective of this trial was to determine the minimum effective dose (MED) of omeprazole to treat pathological acid reflux in neonates using reflux index as surrogate marker. Double blind dose-finding trial with continual reassessment method of individual dose administration using a Bayesian approach, aiming to select drug dose as close as possible to the predefined target level of efficacy (with a credibility interval of 95%). Neonatal Intensive Care unit of the Robert Debré University Hospital in Paris, France. Neonates with a postmenstrual age ≥ 35 weeks and a pathologic 24-hour intra-esophageal pH monitoring defined by a reflux index ≥ 5% over 24 hours were considered for participation. Recruitment was stratified to 3 groups according to gestational age at birth. Five preselected doses of oral omeprazole from 1 to 3 mg/kg/day. Primary outcome, measured at 35 weeks postmenstrual age or more, was a reflux index <5% during the 24-h pH monitoring registered 72±24 hours after omeprazole initiation. Fifty-four neonates with a reflux index ranging from 5.06 to 27.7% were included. Median age was 37.5 days and median postmenstrual age was 36 weeks. In neonates born at less than 32 weeks of GA (n = 30), the MED was 2.5mg/kg/day with an estimated mean posterior probability of success of 97.7% (95% credibility interval: 90.3-99.7%). The MED was 1mg/kg/day for neonates born at more than 32 GA (n = 24). Omeprazole is extensively prescribed on clinical symptoms but efficacy is not demonstrated while safety concerns do exist. When treatment is required, the daily dose needs to be validated in preterm and term neonates. Optimal doses of omeprazole to increase gastric pH and decrease reflux index below 5% over 24 hours, determined using an adaptive Bayesian design differ among

  19. Controlling on-demand gastric acidity in obese subjects: a randomized, controlled trial comparing a single dose of 20 mg rabeprazole and 20 mg omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Belhocine, Kafia; Vavasseur, Fabienne; Volteau, Christelle; Flet, Laurent; Touchefeu, Yann; Bruley des Varannes, Stanislas

    2014-07-15

    Obesity is associated with a risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The pharmacodynamic efficacy of proton pump inhibitors has not been specifically evaluated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the antisecretory response to a single oral dose of 20 mg rabeprazole, 20 mg omeprazole and placebo in obese subjects. Gastric pH was monitored for 24 hours on three separate occasions in eighteen H. pylori-negative, asymptomatic obese subjects. Subjects were given omeprazole, rabeprazole or placebo in a randomized order and in a double-blind fashion. The main analysis criterion was 24-h percent of time post dose with intragastric pH above 3; secondary criteria were percentage of time above pH 4, median pH, [H+] concentrations and nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). Results were analyzed using linear mixed models and Wilks test comparing variances. 24-h median [IQ] percentages of time with gastric pH above 3 and 4 were higher with rabeprazole than omeprazole (46 [37-55] vs. 30 [15-55] %, 9 [5-11] % for placebo) but the differences did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.11 and 0.24, respectively). Median acid concentrations were significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole and placebo (22 [14-53] vs. 54 [19-130] and 95 [73-170] mmoles/l, p < 0.01) for all periods. The number of NAB was significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole (median 1 [1,2] vs. 2 [1-3], p = 0.04). Variances of 24-h data (pH above 3 and 4, median pH, [H+] concentrations) were significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole (p < 0.0001). In asymptomatic obese subjects the gastric antisecretory response to a single dose of rabeprazole and omeprazole was strong and not significantly different between drugs despite a significantly more homogeneous response with rabeprazole. ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01136317.

  20. Comparison of the efficacy of rabeprazole 10 mg and omeprazole 20 mg for the healing rapidity of peptic ulcer diseases.

    PubMed

    Ji, Sangwon; Kim, Hyun Soo; Kim, Jae Woo; Jee, Myeong Kwan; Park, Kwang Wha; Uh, Young; Lee, Dong Ki; Song, Jae Suk; Baik, Soon Koo; Kwon, Sang Ok

    2006-09-01

    Rabeprazole has been known to inhibit H(+)/K(+)-ATPase more rapidly than omeprazole, the prototype proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The aim of this study was to demonstrate equivalence between low-dose rabeprazole 10 mg and omeprazole 20 mg for the healing rapidity of active peptic ulcer and for improvement of symptoms. Also, the effect of CYP2C19 genotypes on ulcer healing rapidity was investigated. A total of 112 patients with active peptic ulcer were randomized to receive either rabeprazole 10 mg q.d. or omeprazole 20 mg q.d. for 6 weeks. The remaining ratios (%) and complete healing of the ulcer were determined by endoscopy at 1 week and 6 weeks of treatment. The severity of ulcer pain was also investigated during treatment. CYP2C19 genotype was determined by the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. The remaining ratio of peptic ulcers after 1 week and the complete healing rate after 6 weeks in the rabeprazole versus omeprazole group were 45.5% versus 50.3% (P = 0.475) and 80.6% versus 87.0% (P = 0.423), respectively. CYP2C19 genotypes had no effect on the remaining ratio of peptic ulcers after 1 week and the healing rate of peptic ulcers after 6 weeks in both groups. The proportions of patients with symptom improvement or resolution were comparable between the two groups. Low-dose rabeprazole 10 mg has a similar efficacy for the healing rapidity of active peptic ulcer disease and symptom improvement compared with standard-dose omeprazole 20 mg.

  1. Effects of rabeprazole, lansoprazole and omeprazole on intragastric pH in CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers.

    PubMed

    Saitoh, T; Fukushima, Y; Otsuka, H; Hirakawa, J; Mori, H; Asano, T; Ishikawa, T; Katsube, T; Ogawa, K; Ohkawa, S

    2002-10-01

    To investigate the inhibitory effects on gastric acid secretion of three proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole, using a three-way crossover design in healthy Helicobacter pylori-negative,S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylase (CYP2C19) homo- and hetero-extensive metabolizers. Eight healthy Japanese male volunteers were enrolled. After the administration of rabeprazole (10 mg/day), lansoprazole (30 mg/day) or omeprazole (20 mg/day), intragastric pH monitoring was commenced from 24 h before the first proton pump inhibitor dose, and continued for days 1-3 after proton pump inhibitor administration. The pH electrode was used for 48 h and changed just before pH monitoring on day 2. For the administration of 10 mg/day rabeprazole, the mean ratios of the 24-h pH > or = 3 holding time were 5.7 +/- 1.1%,13.6 +/- 2.2%, 35.3 +/- 2.7% and 62.8 +/- 3.1% for the pre-treatment day and days 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The same ratios for lansoprazole (30 mg/day) were 5.7 +/- 0.7%, 7.4 +/- 1.5%, 13.6 +/- 3.4% and 26.6 +/- 4.9%; the same ratios for 20 mg/day omeprazole were 5.9 +/- 0.9%, 6.1 +/- 1.2%, 11.4 +/- 2.8% and 16.4 +/- 4.6%. The mean ratio of the 24-h pH > or = 3 holding time of days 1-3 increased significantly compared to the pre-treatment day (P < 0.01) with the administration of rabeprazole and lansoprazole. The magnitude of inhibition of gastric acid secretion after rabeprazole administration was stronger than that after lansoprazole. A significant elevation of the mean ratio of the 24-h pH > or = 3 holding time was demonstrated on days 2 and 3 with omeprazole (P < 0.01). In H. pylori-negative CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers, rabeprazole (10 mg/day) shows a faster onset of rising intragastric pH and a stronger inhibition of gastric acid secretion than do lansoprazole (30 mg/day) or omeprazole (20 mg/day).

  2. Effects of omeprazole treatment on nucleoside transporter expression and adenosine uptake in rat gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Redzic, Zoran B; Hasan, Fuad A; Al-Sarraf, Hameed

    2009-05-01

    Increased adenosine concentration inhibits gastric acid secretion in rat via adenosine A1 and A2A receptors, whereas achlorhydria suppresses A1 and A2A receptor gene expression. This study aimed to examine the effects of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria on the expression and functional activity of nucleoside transporters in rat gastric mucosa. Wistar rats were treated for either 1 or 3 days with 0.4 mmol/kg omeprazole via gavage; controls were treated with vehicle. The expression of nucleoside transporters at the transcript level was explored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assays; the functional activity of nucleoside transporters in gastric mucosa was explored by observing [3H]adenosine uptake in vitro. Gastric mucosa expressed rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT) 1 and 2, and rat concentrative nucleoside transporter (rCNT) 1, 2, and 3 at the transcript level, and the estimated values for the threshold cycles for target amplification (Ct) were 31.5 +/- 2, 28.5 +/- 2.1, 32.9 +/- 2.2, 29.1 +/- 2, and 28.9 +/- 2.5, respectively (n = 3 or 4). The Ct value for rat beta-actin was 21.9 +/- 1.8 (n = 4). In vitro uptake of [3H]adenosine by gastric mucosa samples consisted of Na+-dependent and Na+-independent components. One-day omeprazole treatment caused no change in nucleoside transporter mRNA levels or in [3H]adenosine uptake. Three-day omeprazole treatments, however, led to a 12-fold and 17-fold increase in rENT2 and rCNT1 mRNA levels, respectively. Samples taken after 3 days of treatment also took up significantly more [3H]adenosine than did samples from the corresponding control. In conclusion, the possible modification of nucleoside transport activities by changes in intraluminal acidity may have significance as part of a purinergic regulatory feedback mechanism in the control of gastric acid secretion.

  3. Gastric acid control with esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole: a five-way crossover study.

    PubMed

    Miner, Philip; Katz, Philip O; Chen, Yusong; Sostek, Mark

    2003-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors owe their clinical efficacy to their ability to suppress gastric acid production. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare intragastric pH following standard doses of esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. This randomized, open-label, comparative five-way crossover study evaluated the 24-h intragastric pH profile of oral esomeprazole 40 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg, and rabeprazole 20 mg once daily in 34 Helicobacter pylori-negative patients aged 18-60 yr with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Patients were randomly assigned to one of five treatment sequences and study drug was taken on 5 consecutive mornings 30 minutes prior to a standardized breakfast. A washout period of at least 10 days separated each treatment phase. Thirty-four patients provided evaluable data for all five comparators. The mean number of hours of evaluable pH data was > or =23.75 hours. On day 5, intragastric pH was maintained above 4.0 for a mean of 14.0 h with esomeprazole, 12.1 h with rabeprazole, 11.8 h with omeprazole, 11.5 h with lansoprazole, and 10.1 h with pantoprazole (p < or = 0.001 for differences between esomeprazole and all other comparators). Esomeprazole also provided a significantly higher percentage of patients with an intragastric pH greater than 4.0 for more than 12 h relative to the other proton pump inhibitors (p < 0.05). The frequency of adverse events was similar between treatment groups. Esomeprazole at the standard dose of 40 mg once daily provided more effective control of gastric acid at steady state than standard doses of lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole in patients with symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease.

  4. Effects of 5 years of treatment with rabeprazole or omeprazole on the gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Rindi, Guido; Fiocca, Roberto; Morocutti, Anna; Jacobs, Adam; Miller, Neil; Thjodleifsson, Bjarni

    2005-05-01

    Prolonged gastric acid suppression leads to hypergastrinaemia, which promotes hyperplasia of the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cells of the oxyntic mucosa. The objective was to determine the effects of 5 years of treatment with rabeprazole or omeprazole on the gastric mucosa. Two hundred and forty-three patients received rabeprazole (20 mg or 10 mg) or omeprazole (20 mg) once daily for up to 5 years, for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease and 51% completed the whole 5 year period. Gastric biopsy specimens were taken and examined for gastritis, Helicobacter pylori infection, and ECL cell status. H. pylori infection in the gastric corpus was more common than in the antrum, and remained constant, whereas antral H. pylori infection became less common as the study progressed. H. pylori infection was a highly significant predictor of higher gastritis scores, which were similar among the three treatment groups. ECL cell hyperplasia occurred in a minority of patients, and was associated with serum gastrin concentrations. No ECL cell dysplasia or tumours were observed. There were no significant differences among the treatment groups in gastritis or ECL cell hyperplasia grades. This study has confirmed the link between ECL cell hyperplasia and elevated serum gastrin concentrations, but has found no evidence that this progresses to high grades of hyperplasia during 5 years of treatment with rabeprazole or omeprazole.

  5. Trazodone and Omeprazole Interaction causing Frequent Second-Degree Mobitz Type 1 Atrioventricular (AV) Block (Wenckebach Phenomenon) and Syncope: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Akinseye, Oluwaseun A.; Alfishawy, Mostafa; Radparvar, Farshid; Bakshi, Sanjiv

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Male, 54 Final Diagnosis: Trazodone and omeprazole interaction causing second-degree Mobitz type 1 AV block and syncope Symptoms: Syncope Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Trazodone and omeprazole withheld Specialty: Cardiology Objective: Unexpected drug reaction Background: This case report highlights serious cardiovascular adverse effects with a conventional dose of trazodone as a result of its potential interaction with omeprazole. Case Report: A 54-year-old man who was a former smoker, with dyslipidemia, coronary artery disease, and anxiety disorder developed lightheadedness and syncope the morning of admission. He was taking trazodone 50 mg daily, omeprazole 20 mg daily, and simvastatin 20 mg at bedtime. He doubled the dose of trazodone 50 mg on the night prior to presentation to calm his anxiety. An electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm at 60 beats per minute and second-degree Mobitz type 1 atrioventricular (AV) block with 5:4 AV conduction. Results of basic metabolic panel, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and chest radiograph were normal. A transthoracic echocardiogram revealed aortic valve sclerosis. We tested for Lyme disease given his history of hunting in the woods 8 months prior to presentation, but the titer was negative. Trazodone and omeprazole were discontinued. By the 3rd day of medication discontinuation, all symptoms had resolved and the frequency of second-degree AV Mobitz type 1 AV block had decreased to once per hour. Conclusions: Due diligence and meticulous attention to detail needs to be exercised to uncover drug interactions as potential causes of lethal and nonlethal patient symptomatology, as in this case of syncope caused by concomitant use of trazodone and a widely prescribed medication, omeprazole. PMID:26017199

  6. Affinity capillary electrophoresis and fluorescence spectroscopy for studying enantioselective interactions between omeprazole enantiomer and human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yujing; Hong, Tingting; Chen, Xueping; Ji, Yibing

    2017-05-01

    Baseline separation of omeprazole (OME) enantiomers was achieved by affinity capillary electrophoresis (ACE), using human serum albumin (HSA) as the chiral selector. The influence of several experimental variables such as HSA concentration, the type and content of organic modifiers, applied voltage and running buffer concentration on the separation was evaluated. The binding of esomeprazole (S-omeprazole, S-OME) and its R-enantiomer (R-omeprazole, R-OME) to HSA under simulated physiological conditions was studied by ACE and fluorescence spectroscopy which was considered as a reference method. ACE studies demonstrated that the binding constants of the two enantiomers and HSA were 3.18 × 10 3 M -1 and 5.36 × 10 3 M -1 , respectively. The binding properties including the fluorescence quenching mechanisms, binding constants, binding sites and the number of binding sites were obtained by fluorescence spectroscopy. Though the ACE method could not get enough data when compared with the fluorescence spectrum method, the separation and binding studies of chiral drugs could be achieved simultaneously via this method. This study is of great significance for the investigation and clinical application of chiral drugs. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. [Comparison of Helicobacter pylori eradication rate according to different PPI-based triple therapy--omeprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole and lansoprazole--].

    PubMed

    Keum, Bora; Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Se Yune; Kim, Jeong Min; Choung, Rok Son; Yim, Hyung Joon; Jeen, Yoon Tae; Lee, Hong Sik; Chun, Hoon Jai; Um, Soon Ho; Choi, Jai Hyun; Kim, Chang Duck; Ryu, Ho Sang; Hyun, Jin Hai

    2005-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is an important cause of various gastrointestinal diseases. H. pylori eradication is essential for the cure and prevention of associated diseases. Nowdays, proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapy is the standard eradication regimen. The aims of this study were to compare the H. pylori eradication rate of different PPI-based triple therapies and to find out the factors influencing the eradication rate. From May 2002 through February 2004, H. pylori infected patients were treated with the eradication regimen based on one of the four PPIs (omeprazole, rabeprazole, esomeprazole and lansoprazole) for 1 or 2 weeks. After two weeks, drug compliance, adverse effects, and smoking history during the eradication therapy were obtained. The follow-up H. pylori test was performed 4 weeks after the completion of therapy. The data were analyzed by Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression analysis. Overall eradication rate was 83.5%. There was no significant difference in eradication rate among four PPIs (p=0.379). Odds ratio (OR) for omeprazole and rabeprazole was 1.15 (95% CI 0.50-2.68); for omeprazole and esomeprazole, OR 1.63 (95% CI 0.68-3.89); and for omeprazole and lansoprazole, OR 1.13 (95% CI 0.50-2.56). Smoking habit, site of ulcer, and the duration of therapy affected the eradication rate significantly. The efficacy of four different PPIs for H. pylori eradication is similar to each other. Smoking, site of ulcer, and the duration of treatment have significant effects on eradication rates.

  8. Oesophageal lumen pH in yearling horses and effects of management and administration of omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Wilson, C S; Brookes, V J; Hughes, K J; Trope, G D; Ip, H; Gunn, A J

    2017-05-01

    In human subjects, arytenoid chondritis can be caused by chemical trauma of mucosa attributable to gastro-oesophageal reflux. Although a similar process may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of arytenoid chondritis in horses, the oesophageal lumen pH in this species is poorly understood. To determine if gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs in horses by characterising oesophageal lumen pH. Blinded, randomised, placebo-controlled, crossover, experimental study. Luminal oesophageal pH in six yearling horses was recorded over four 24 h periods using an ambulatory pH recorder attached to a catheter with two electrodes (proximal and distal) inserted into the oesophagus. Recordings of pH were made during three management protocols. Initially, horses grazed in a paddock (Protocol A). Horses were then moved to stables to simulate sale preparation of Thoroughbred yearlings, and were given either omeprazole (Protocol B) or placebo paste (Protocol C) orally once per day. Protocol A was repeated for each horse (after a 13 day washout period) between Protocols B and C. Summary statistics described pH range and frequency of pH changes. Associations with predictor variables were investigated using linear mixed-effects models. Data are presented as the mean ± s.d. Oesophageal lumen pH ranged from 4.90 to 9.70 (7.36 ± 0.27 and 7.18 ± 0.24 for the proximal and distal electrodes, respectively) and varied frequently (1.2 ± 0.9 changes/min and 0.8 ± 0.8 changes/min for the proximal and distal electrodes, respectively). Oesophageal lumen pH was associated with time since concentrate feeding, activity and time of day, but not with treatment of omeprazole. A small number of horses were used and measurement periods were limited. Gastro-oesophageal reflux occurs in clinically normal yearling horses. Although omeprazole had no detectable effect, oesophageal lumen pH recorded during this study did not fall within the therapeutic range of omeprazole. © 2016 EVJ Ltd.

  9. Effect of gastric pH on erlotinib pharmacokinetics in healthy individuals: omeprazole and ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Kletzl, Heidemarie; Giraudon, Mylene; Ducray, Patricia Sanwald; Abt, Markus; Hamilton, Marta; Lum, Bert L

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of coadministration of acid-reducing agents on the pharmacokinetic exposure of orally administered epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib, a drug that displays pH-dependent solubility. Two studies were conducted, the first with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole and the second with the H2-receptor antagonist ranitidine. Twenty-four healthy male and female volunteers were enrolled in each study. Erlotinib was administered as a single oral 150 mg dose on day 1. After the washout a subsequent study period evaluated 150 mg erlotinib administered with the acid-reducing agent. Omeprazole (40 mg once daily) was given on days 11-14, concomitantly with erlotinib on day 15, and for two additional days (days 16-17). In the ranitidine study, on day 13, participants were randomized to either concomitant dosing (treatment B) or staggered administration (treatment C) of erlotinib and ranitidine and crossed over to the other treatment starting on day 27. For treatment B, ranitidine (300 mg once daily) was administered in the morning for 5 days, 2 h before erlotinib. For treatment C, ranitidine was administered as a divided dose (150 mg twice daily) for 5 days, with erlotinib given 10 h after the previous evening dose and 2 h before the next ranitidine morning dose. Plasma samples were obtained for determination of the concentrations of erlotinib and its metabolite OSI-420, following each erlotinib dose. All participants were monitored for safety and tolerability. The geometric mean ratios of AUC0-∞ and Cmax for erlotinib and AUC0-last and Cmax for OSI-420 were substantially decreased when erlotinib was dosed with omeprazole. The estimated mean ratio (90% confidence interval) for erlotinib was 0.54 (0.49-0.59) for AUC0-∞ and 0.39 (0.32-0.48) for Cmax. For OSI-420, the estimated mean ratio was 0.42 (0.37-0.48) for AUC0-last and 0.31 (0.24-0.41) for Cmax. AUC0-∞ and Cmax for erlotinib were substantially decreased

  10. Effectiveness differences of ranitidine and omeprazole in prevention of stress ulcer and its effect on pneumonia occurrence and outcome of acute stroke patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batubara, C. A.; Ritarwan, K.; Rambe, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Stress ulcer is one ofacute stroke complications. Giving ranitidine or omeprazole may prevent stress ulcer, but may increase the occurrence of pneumonia. Thus, it will affect the outcome of acute stroke. The method was experimental with a randomized control-group pretest - posttest design. This study divided the subjects into two groups, ranitidine 300mg and omeprazole 20mg group.We observed the patients whether stress ulcer or pneumonia occurred during hospitalization. Then, we measured the outcome by the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scaleand modified Rankin Scale. There were 32 subjects in this study. Only 1 (3.1%) subject suffered stress ulcer, and 3 (3.1%) suffered pneumonia in ranitidine group. Moreover, 2 (6.2%) subjects suffered pneumonia in omeprazole group. The differences were not significant between the two groups (p = 0.31 and p = 0.54). There was no significant effect and difference effect on the administration of both medications to the outcome at day 14. These results indicate that ranitidine and omeprazole have anequal effectiveness in the prevention of stress ulcer and also have equal effect on the occurrence of pneumonia, and both have no effect on the outcome of acute stroke patients.

  11. The comparison of extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous pantoprazole on the gastric pH of critically ill-patients.

    PubMed

    Dabiri, Yasamin; Fahimi, Fanak; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Stress-related mucosal disease occurs in many critically ill-patients within 24 h of admission. Proton pump inhibitor therapy has been documented to produce more potent inhibition of gastric acid secretion than histamine 2 receptor antagonists. This study aimed to compare extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous (IV) pantoprazole on the gastric pH in intensive care unit patients. This was a randomized single-blind-study. Patients of ≥ 16 years of age with a nasogastric tube, who required mechanical ventilation for ≥ 48 h, were eligible for inclusion. The excluded patients were those with active gastrointestinal bleeding, known allergy to omeprazole and pantoprazole and those intolerant to the nasogastric tube. Fifty-six patients were randomized to treatment with omeprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day), pantoprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day) and IV pantoprazole (40 mg every day) for up to 14 days. Gastric aspirates were sampled before and 1-2.5 h after the drug administration for the pH measurement using an external pH meter. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0). In this study, 56 critically ill-patients (39 male, 17 female, mean age: 61.5 ± 15.65 years) were followed for the control of the gastric pH. On each of the 14 trial days the mean of the gastric pH alteration was significantly higher in omeprazole and pantoprazole suspension-treated patients than in IV pantoprazole-treated patients (P < 0.001). Omeprazole and pantoprazole oral suspension are more effective than IV pantoprazole in increasing the gastric pH.

  12. The comparison of extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous pantoprazole on the gastric pH of critically ill-patients

    PubMed Central

    Dabiri, Yasamin; Fahimi, Fanak; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Background: Stress-related mucosal disease occurs in many critically ill-patients within 24 h of admission. Proton pump inhibitor therapy has been documented to produce more potent inhibition of gastric acid secretion than histamine 2 receptor antagonists. This study aimed to compare extemporaneous preparations of omeprazole, pantoprazole oral suspension and intravenous (IV) pantoprazole on the gastric pH in intensive care unit patients. Materials and Methods: This was a randomized single-blind-study. Patients of ≥ 16 years of age with a nasogastric tube, who required mechanical ventilation for ≥ 48 h, were eligible for inclusion. The excluded patients were those with active gastrointestinal bleeding, known allergy to omeprazole and pantoprazole and those intolerant to the nasogastric tube. Fifty-six patients were randomized to treatment with omeprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day), pantoprazole suspension 2 mg/ml (40 mg every day) and IV pantoprazole (40 mg every day) for up to 14 days. Gastric aspirates were sampled before and 1-2.5 h after the drug administration for the pH measurement using an external pH meter. Data were analyzed using SPSS (version 21.0). Results: In this study, 56 critically ill-patients (39 male, 17 female, mean age: 61.5 ± 15.65 years) were followed for the control of the gastric pH. On each of the 14 trial days the mean of the gastric pH alteration was significantly higher in omeprazole and pantoprazole suspension-treated patients than in IV pantoprazole-treated patients (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Omeprazole and pantoprazole oral suspension are more effective than IV pantoprazole in increasing the gastric pH. PMID:25624646

  13. A phase 1 randomized study evaluating the effect of omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of a novel 5-hydroxytryptamine receptor 4 agonist, revexepride (SSP-002358), in healthy adults

    PubMed Central

    Pierce, David; Corcoran, Mary; Velinova, Maria; Hossack, Stuart; Hoppenbrouwers, Mieke; Martin, Patrick

    2015-01-01

    Background About 30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease continue to experience symptoms despite treatment with proton pump inhibitors. The 5-hydroxytryptamine 4 receptor agonist revexepride (SSP-002358) is a novel prokinetic that stimulates gastrointestinal motility, which has been suggested as a continued cause of symptoms in these patients. The aim of this study was to assess whether revexepride pharmacokinetics were affected by co-administration of omeprazole, in preparation for a proof-of-concept evaluation of revexepride added to proton pump inhibitor treatment. Methods In this phase 1, open-label, randomized, two-period crossover study, healthy adults aged 18–55 years were given a single dose of revexepride 1 mg or revexepride 1 mg + omeprazole 40 mg. Pharmacokinetic parameters were assessed for up to 48 hours after administration of the investigational product. Adverse events, clinical chemistry and hematology parameters, electrocardiograms, and vital signs were monitored. Results In total, 42 participants were enrolled and 40 completed the study. The median age was 24 years (18–54 years), 55% were women and 93% were white. The pharmacokinetic parameters of revexepride were similar without or with omeprazole co-administration. The mean area under the plasma concentration–time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞) was 23.3 ng · h/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 6.33 ng · h/mL) versus 24.6 ng · h/mL (SD: 6.31 ng · h/mL), and maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax) were 3.89 ng/mL (SD: 1.30 ng/mL) and 4.12 ng/mL (SD: 1.29 ng/mL) in participants without and with omeprazole, respectively. For AUC0–∞ and Cmax, the 90% confidence intervals for the ratios of geometric least-squares means (with:without omeprazole) were fully contained within the pre-defined equivalence limits of 0.80–1.25. Mean apparent terminal phase half-life was 9.95 hours (SD: 2.06 hours) without omeprazole, and 11.0 hours (SD: 3.25 hours) with omeprazole. Conclusion

  14. Controlling on-demand gastric acidity in obese subjects: a randomized, controlled trial comparing a single dose of 20 mg rabeprazole and 20 mg omeprazole

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity is associated with a risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The pharmacodynamic efficacy of proton pump inhibitors has not been specifically evaluated in obese subjects. The aim of this study was to compare the antisecretory response to a single oral dose of 20 mg rabeprazole, 20 mg omeprazole and placebo in obese subjects. Methods Gastric pH was monitored for 24 hours on three separate occasions in eighteen H. pylori-negative, asymptomatic obese subjects. Subjects were given omeprazole, rabeprazole or placebo in a randomized order and in a double-blind fashion. The main analysis criterion was 24-h percent of time post dose with intragastric pH above 3; secondary criteria were percentage of time above pH 4, median pH, [H+] concentrations and nocturnal acid breakthrough (NAB). Results were analyzed using linear mixed models and Wilks test comparing variances. Results 24-h median [IQ] percentages of time with gastric pH above 3 and 4 were higher with rabeprazole than omeprazole (46 [37–55] vs. 30 [15–55] %, 9 [5-11] % for placebo) but the differences did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.11 and 0.24, respectively). Median acid concentrations were significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole and placebo (22 [14–53] vs. 54 [19–130] and 95 [73–170] mmoles/l, p < 0.01) for all periods. The number of NAB was significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole (median 1 [1,2] vs. 2 [1-3], p = 0.04). Variances of 24-h data (pH above 3 and 4, median pH, [H+] concentrations) were significantly lower with rabeprazole than with omeprazole (p < 0.0001). Conclusions In asymptomatic obese subjects the gastric antisecretory response to a single dose of rabeprazole and omeprazole was strong and not significantly different between drugs despite a significantly more homogeneous response with rabeprazole. Trial registration ClinicalTrial.gov: NCT01136317 PMID:25027286

  15. Looking for the interactions between omeprazole and amoxicillin in a disordered phase. An experimental and theoretical study.

    PubMed

    Russo, Marcos G; Sancho, Matias I; Silva, Lorena M A; Baldoni, Hector A; Venancio, Tiago; Ellena, Javier; Narda, Griselda E

    2016-03-05

    In this paper, co-grinding mixtures of omeprazole-amoxicillin trihydrate (CGM samples) and omeprazole-anhydrous amoxicillin (CGMa samples) at 3:7, 1:1 and 7:3 molar ratios, respectively, were studied with the aim of obtaining a co-amorphous system and determining the potential intermolecular interactions. These systems were fully characterized by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), FT-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (PXRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and solid state Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (ssNMR). The co-grinding process was not useful to get a co-amorphous system but it led to obtaining the 1:1 CGMa disordered phase. Moreover, in this system both FTIR and ssNMR analysis strongly suggest intermolecular interactions between the sulfoxide group of omeprazole and the primary amine of amoxicillin anhydrous. The solubility measurements were performed in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) to prove the effect of the co-grinding process. Complementarily, we carried out density functional theory calculations (DFT) followed by quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) and natural bond orbital (NBO) analyses in order to shed some light on the principles that guide the possible formation of heterodimers at the molecular level, which are supported by spectroscopic experimental findings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. The anti-secretory and anti-ulcer activities of esomeprazole in comparison with omeprazole in the stomach of rats and rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bastaki, Salim M A; Chandranath, Irwin S; Singh, Jaipaul

    2008-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are widely used to treat hyperacid secretion and stomach ulcers. The study investigated the anti-secretory and anti-ulcer effects of esomeprazole, the S-isomer of omeprazole on dimaprit, histamine and dibutyryl adenosine 3, 5 cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP)-evoked gastric acid secretion, acidified ethanol (AE) and indomethacin (INDO)-induced haemorrhagic lesions and on prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) level in the rat in vivo and rabbit in vitro preparations. The effect of omeprazole was also investigated for comparison. Dimaprit-induced acid secretion was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by both PPIs in a dose-dependent manner. In the isolated rabbit gastric glands, both PPIs elicited marked reductions in histamine- and dbcAMP-evoked acid secretion with similar potency. The lesions induced by either AE or INDO were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced in the presence of either esomeprazole or omeprazole compared to control values. Increasing doses of esomeprazole before AE treatment resulted in a marked degree of cytoprotection and an elevation in the concentration of bound PGE2 in the stomach tissue homogenate. The results show that esomeprazole and omeprazole were equally effective against gastric haemorrhagic lesions induced by either AE or INDO and in inhibiting dimaprit-, dbcAMP- and histamine-induced gastric acid secretion in the rat and rabbit stomach both in vivo and in vitro. The gastro-protective effect of esomeprazole was found to be proportional to the bound PGE2 levels in the glandular area of the stomach.

  17. Enantioseparation of omeprazole--effect of different packing particle size on productivity.

    PubMed

    Enmark, Martin; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Forssén, Patrik; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2012-06-01

    Enantiomeric separation of omeprazole has been extensively studied regarding both product analysis and preparation using several different chiral stationary phases. In this study, the preparative chiral separation of omeprazole is optimized for productivity using three different columns packed with amylose tris (3,5-dimethyl phenyl carbamate) coated macroporous silica (5, 10 and 25 μm) with a maximum allowed pressure drop ranging from 50 to 400 bar. This pressure range both covers low pressure process systems (50-100 bar) and investigates the potential for allowing higher pressure limits in preparative applications in a future. The process optimization clearly show that the larger 25 μm packing material show higher productivity at low pressure drops whereas with increasing pressure drops the smaller packing materials have substantially higher productivity. Interestingly, at all pressure drops, the smaller packing material result in lower solvent consumption (L solvent/kg product); the higher the accepted pressure drop, the larger the gain in reduced solvent consumption. The experimental adsorption isotherms were not identical for the different packing material sizes; therefore all calculations were recalculated and reevaluated assuming identical adsorption isotherms (with the 10 μm isotherm as reference) which confirmed the trends regarding productivity and solvent consumption. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. [Effect of drug interaction between clopidogrel and omeprazole in hospital readmision of patients by a recurrent acute coronary syndrome: a case-control study].

    PubMed

    Amariles, Pedro; Holguín, Héctor; Angulo, Nancy Yaneth; Betancourth, Piedad Maria; Ceballos, Mauricio

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of drug interaction between omeprazol and clopidogrel in hospital readmission of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Case-control study. University Clinic LeonXIII, Medellin, Colombia. We selected from a prevalent population, between 2009-2010, use of clopidogrel patients on an outpatient basis (less than one year and more than 30days), and hospital stay for ACS or the presence of a previous ACS. A case-patient was defined as one who had a recurrence of ACS and a patient-control is defined as one that no recurrence of ACS. Both groups used ambulatory prior clopidogrel due to ACS. As defined risk factor the joint use of omeprazole and clopidogrel outpatients. During the study, 1680patients clopidogrel formulated. This group identified 50cases readmitted with ACS and 76controls. No statistically significant association was found between use of clopidogrel-omeprazole and increased risk of hospital readmission for ACS (OR: 1.05; 95%CI: 0.516-2.152; P=.8851). In this small group of patients with previous SCA, the simultaneous use of clopidogrel with omeprazole does not increase the risk of a readmission by recurrence of this type of coronary event. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative study of omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and esomeprazole for symptom relief in patients with reflux esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Ri-Nan

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To clarify whether there is any difference in the symptom relief in patients with reflux esophagitis following the administration of four Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). METHODS: Two hundred and seventy-four patients with erosive reflux esophagitis were randomized to receive 8 wk of 20 mg omeprazole (n = 68), 30 mg of lansoprazole (n = 69), 40 mg of pantoprazole (n = 69), 40 mg of esomeprazole (n = 68) once a day in the morning. Daily changes in heartburn and acid reflux symptoms in the first 7 d of administration were assessed using a six-point scale (0: none; 1: mild; 2: mild-moderate; 3: moderate; 4: moderate-severe; 5: severe). RESULTS: The mean heartburn score in patients treated with esomeprazole more rapidly decreased than those receiving other PPI. Complete resolution of heartburn was also more rapid in patients treated with esomeprazole for 5 d compared with omeprazole (P = 0.0018, P = 0.0098, P = 0.0027, P = 0.0137, P = 0.0069, respectively), lansoprazole (P = 0.0020, P = 0.0046, P = 0.0037, P = 0.0016, P = 0.0076, respectively), and pantoprazole (P = 0.0006, P = 0.0005, P = 0.0009, P = 0.0031, P = 0.0119, respectively). There were no significant differences between the four groups in the rate of endoscopic healing of reflux esophagitis at week 8. CONCLUSION: Esomeprazole may be more effective than omeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole for the rapid relief of heartburn symptoms and acid reflux symptoms in patients with reflux esophagitis. PMID:19248200

  20. Efficacy of primed infusions with high dose ranitidine and omeprazole to maintain high intragastric pH in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding: a prospective randomised controlled study.

    PubMed Central

    Labenz, J; Peitz, U; Leusing, C; Tillenburg, B; Blum, A L; Börsch, G

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In healthy subjects, continuous infusions of high dose ranitidine and omeprazole produce high intragastric pH values. AIM: To test the hypothesis that both drugs also maintain high intragastric pH values in patients with bleeding ulcers. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In two parallel studies, 20 patients with bleeding duodenal ulcers and 20 patients with bleeding gastric ulcers were randomly assigned to receive either ranitidine (0.25 mg/kg/hour after a bolus of 50 mg) or omeprazole (8 mg/hour after a bolus of 80 mg) for 24 hours. Intragastric pH was continuously recorded with a glass electrode placed 5 cm below the cardia. RESULTS: Both drugs rapidly raised the intragastric pH above 6. During the second 12 hour period, however, the percentage of time spent below a pH of 6 was 0.15% with omeprazole and 20.1% with ranitidine (p = 0.0015) in patients with duodenal ulcer; in patients with gastric ulcer it was 0.1% with omeprazole and 46.1% with ranitidine (p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Primed infusions of omeprazole after a bolus produced consistently high intragastric pH values in patients with bleeding peptic ulcers, whereas primed infusions with ranitidine were less effective during the second half of a 24 hour treatment course. This loss of effectiveness may be due to tolerance. PMID:9155573

  1. Electrochemical incineration of omeprazole in neutral aqueous medium using a platinum or boron-doped diamond anode: degradation kinetics and oxidation products.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Eliane Bezerra; Garcia-Segura, Sergi; Centellas, Francesc; Brillas, Enric

    2013-04-01

    The electrochemical incineration of omeprazole, a widely prescribed gastrointestinal drug which is detected in natural waters, has been studied in a phosphate buffer of pH 7.0 by anodic oxidation with electrogenerated H(2)O(2) (AO-H(2)O(2)) operating at constant current density (j). The experiments were carried out in a cell equipped with either a Pt or a boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode and an air-diffusion cathode to continuously produce H(2)O(2). In these systems, organics are mainly oxidized by hydroxyl radicals formed at the Pt or BDD surface from water oxidation. A partial total organic carbon (TOC) abatement close to 78% for omeprazole was achieved by AO-H(2)O(2) with a BDD anode after consumption of 18 Ah L(-1) at 100 mA cm(-2), whereas the alternative use of Pt did not allow mineralizing the drug. However, the drug was totally removed using both anodes, although it decayed more rapidly using BDD. In this latter system, increasing j accelerated the degradation process, but lowering the mineralization current efficiency. Greater drug content also enhanced the degradation rate with higher mineralization degree and current efficiency. The kinetics for omeprazole decay always followed a pseudo-first-order reaction and its rate constant increased with increasing j and with decreasing its concentration. Seven heteroaromatic intermediates and four hydroxylated derivatives were detected by LC-MS, while nine short-linear carboxylic acids were identified and quantified by ion-exclusion HPLC. These acids were largely accumulated using Pt and rapidly removed using BDD, thus explaining the partial mineralization of omeprazole achieved by AO-H(2)O(2) with the latter anode. The release of inorganic ions such as NO(3)(-), NH(4)(+) and SO(4)(2-) was followed by ionic chromatography. A plausible reaction sequence for omeprazole mineralization involving all intermediates detected is proposed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis of omeprazole analogues and evaluation of these as potential inhibitors of the multidrug efflux pump NorA of Staphylococcus aureus.

    PubMed

    Vidaillac, Céline; Guillon, Jean; Arpin, Corinne; Forfar-Bares, Isabelle; Ba, Boubakar B; Grellet, Jean; Moreau, Stéphane; Caignard, Daniel-Henri; Jarry, Christian; Quentin, Claudine

    2007-03-01

    A series of 11 pyrrolo[1,2-a]quinoxaline derivatives, 1a to 1k, sharing structural analogies with omeprazole, a eukaryotic efflux pump inhibitor (EPI) used as an antiulcer agent, was synthesized. Their inhibitory effect was evaluated using Staphylococcus aureus strain SA-1199B overexpressing NorA. By determinations of the MIC of norfloxacin in the presence of these EPIs devoid of intrinsic antibacterial activity and used at 128 microg/ml, and by the checkerboard method, compound 1e (MIC decrease, 16-fold; fractional inhibitory concentration index [SigmaFIC], 0.18) appeared to be more active than compounds 1b to 1d, reserpine, and omeprazole (MIC decrease, eightfold; SigmaFIC, 0.31), followed by compounds 1a and 1f (MIC decrease, fourfold; SigmaFIC, 0.37) and 1g to 1k (MIC decrease, twofold; SigmaFIC, 0.50 to 0.56). By time-kill curves combining norfloxacin (1/4 MIC) and the most efficient EPIs (128 microg/ml), compound 1e persistently restored the bactericidal activity of norfloxacin (inoculum reduction, 3 log(10) CFU/ml at 8 and 24 h), compound 1f led to a delayed but progressive decrease in the number of viable cells, and compounds 1b to 1d and omeprazole acted synergistically (inoculum reduction, 3 log(10) CFU/ml at 8 h but further regrowth), while compound 1a and reserpine slightly enhanced norfloxacin activity. The bacterial uptake of norfloxacin monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography confirmed that compounds 1a to 1f increased antibiotic accumulation, as did reserpine and omeprazole. Since these EPIs did not disturb the Deltapsi and DeltapH, they might directly interact with the pump. A structure-activity relationships study identified the benzimidazole nucleus of omeprazole as the main structural element involved in efflux pump inhibition and highlighted the critical role of the chlorine substituents in the stability and efficiency of compounds 1e to 1f. However, further pharmacomodulation is required to obtain therapeutically applicable

  3. The Effect of Food or Omeprazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Osimertinib in Patients With Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer and in Healthy Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Vishwanathan, Karthick; Dickinson, Paul A; Bui, Khanh; Cassier, Philippe A; Greystoke, Alastair; Lisbon, Eleanor; Moreno, Victor; So, Karen; Thomas, Karen; Weilert, Doris; Yap, Timothy A; Plummer, Ruth

    2018-04-01

    Two phase 1, open-label studies assessed the impact of food or gastric pH modification (omeprazole) on the exposure and safety/tolerability of osimertinib and its metabolites. The food effect study was an open-label, 2-period crossover study in patients with advanced non-small-cell lung cancer, randomized into 2 treatment sequences: single-dose osimertinib 80 mg in a fed then fasted state or fasted then fed. The gastric pH study was an open-label, 2-period fixed sequence study assessing the effect of omeprazole on osimertinib exposure in healthy male volunteers. In period 1, volunteers received omeprazole 40 mg (days 1-4), then omeprazole 40 mg plus osimertinib 80 mg (day 5). In period 2, volunteers received osimertinib 80 mg alone (single dose). Blood samples were collected at prespecified time points for pharmacokinetic analyses. Safety/tolerability was also assessed. In the food effect study 38 patients were randomized to fed/fasted (n = 18) or fasted/fed (n = 20) sequences with all patients completing treatment. Coadministration with food did not affect osimertinib exposure (geometric least-squares mean ratios [90% confidence intervals]: 106.05% [94.82%, 118.60%] [area under the plasma concentration time curve from zero to 72 hours] and 92.75% [81.40%, 105.68%] [maximum plasma concentration]). In the gastric pH study (n = 68 received treatment, n = 47 completed the study), coadministration with omeprazole did not affect osimertinib exposure (geometric least-squares mean ratios 106.66% [100.26%, 113.46%] [area under the concentration-time curve], 101.65% [94.65%, 109.16%] [peak concentration]). Osimertinib was well tolerated in both studies. Osimertinib may be administered without regard to food. Dose restriction is not required in patients whose gastric pH may be altered by concomitant agents or medical conditions. ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02224053, NCT02163733. © 2017, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  4. Omeprazole induces heme oxygenase-1 in fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells via hydrogen peroxide-independent Nrf2 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, Ananddeep; Zhang, Shaojie; Shrestha, Amrit

    Omeprazole (OM) is an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonist and a proton pump inhibitor that is used to treat humans with gastric acid related disorders. Recently, we showed that OM induces NAD (P) H quinone oxidoreductase-1 (NQO1) via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)-dependent mechanism. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is another cytoprotective and antioxidant enzyme that is regulated by Nrf2. Whether OM induces HO-1 in fetal human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that OM will induce HO-1 expression via Nrf2 in HPMEC. OM induced HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in a dose-dependent manner.more » siRNA-mediated knockdown of AhR failed to abrogate, whereas knockdown of Nrf2 abrogated HO-1 induction by OM. To identify the underlying molecular mechanisms, we determined the effects of OM on cellular hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) levels since oxidative stress mediated by the latter is known to activate Nrf2. Interestingly, the concentration at which OM induced HO-1 also increased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels. Furthermore, H{sub 2}O{sub 2} independently augmented HO-1 expression. Although N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly decreased H{sub 2}O{sub 2} levels in OM-treated cells, we observed that OM further increased HO-1 mRNA and protein expression in NAC-pretreated compared to vehicle-pretreated cells, suggesting that OM induces HO-1 via H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-independent mechanisms. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OM transcriptionally induces HO-1 via AhR - and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} - independent, but Nrf2 - dependent mechanisms. These results have important implications for human disorders where Nrf2 and HO-1 play a beneficial role. - Highlights: • Omeprazole induces HO-1 in human fetal lung cells. • AhR deficiency fails to abrogate omeprazole-mediated induction of HO-1. • Nrf2 knockdown abrogates omeprazole-mediated HO-1 induction in human lung cells. • Hydrogen peroxide depletion

  5. Effect of rabeprazole and omeprazole on the onset of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease symptom relief during the first seven days of treatment.

    PubMed

    Bytzer, Peter; Morocutti, Anna; Kennerly, Peter; Ravic, Miroslav; Miller, Neil

    2006-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) symptoms have a significant impact on patients' well-being. Onset of symptom relief is therefore an important consideration in GORD treatment. The primary objective was to compare the efficacy of rabeprazole (20 mg) and omeprazole (20 mg) regarding onset of heartburn control during the first 7 days of treatment in patients with erosive oesophagitis. Secondary objectives included maintenance of sustained heartburn control, control of other GORD symptoms (e.g. acid regurgitation, epigastric pain, dysphagia), effect on quality of life, patient satisfaction with treatment, and adverse events. In this multicentre, randomized, parallel-group, double-blind, comparative study, performed in Europe and Iceland, patients with endoscopically confirmed erosive oesophagitis were randomized to receive once-daily treatment with rabeprazole 20 mg (n=358) or omeprazole 20 mg (n=359) for 7 days. Symptoms were recorded (scored on a 5-point Likert scale) twice daily by the patients on their diary cards. Median time to reach heartburn control was 1.5 days for both the rabeprazole and omeprazole groups (p<0.43). The results were similar between treatments for other study parameters. Both treatments were well tolerated. Unlike previous studies, no significant differences were found between treatments with rabeprazole (20 mg) and omeprazole (20 mg) in this study. Further studies are needed to evaluate the potential benefit of fast-acting proton-pump inhibitors, such as rabeprazole, with respect to onset of symptom control in erosive GORD.

  6. A Phase 1 Pharmacokinetic Study of Cysteamine Bitartrate Delayed-Release Capsules Following Oral Administration with Orange Juice, Water, or Omeprazole in Cystinosis.

    PubMed

    Armas, Danielle; Holt, Robert J; Confer, Nils F; Checani, Gregg C; Obaidi, Mohammad; Xie, Yuli; Brannagan, Meg

    2018-02-01

    Cystinosis is a rare, metabolic, autosomal recessive, genetic lysosomal storage disorder characterized by an accumulation of cystine in various organs and tissues. Cysteamine bitartrate (CB) is a cystine-depleting aminothiol agent approved in the United States and Europe in immediate-release and delayed-release (DR) formulations for the treatment of nephropathic cystinosis in children and adults. It is recommended that CBDR be administered with fruit juice (except grapefruit juice) for maximum absorption. Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor that inhibits gastric acid secretion and, theoretically, may cause the premature release of cysteamine by increasing intragastric pH, thereby affecting the PK of CBDR. This open-label, three-period, randomized study in healthy adult subjects was designed primarily to compare the pharmacokinetics of CBDR capsules after a single oral dose administered with orange juice, water, or multiple oral doses of omeprazole with water at steady state. A total of 32 subjects were randomly assigned to receive study agents in one of two treatment sequences. All subjects completed the study and baseline characteristics of the overall population and the two treatment sequence populations were similar. Peak mean plasma cysteamine concentrations following co-administration of CBDR capsules with orange juice (1892 ng/mL) were higher compared with co-administration with water (1663 ng/mL) or omeprazole 20 mg and water (1712 ng/mL). Mean time to peak plasma concentration was shorter with omeprazole co-administration (2.5 h) compared with orange juice (3.5 h) or water (3.0 h). Statistical comparisons between treatment groups indicated that exposure as assessed by AUC 0-t , AUC 0-∞ , and C max were all within the 80-125% bioequivalence ranges for all comparisons. All treatments were generally well tolerated. Overall, the pharmacokinetics of cysteamine bitartrate DR capsules are not significantly impacted by co-administration with orange juice

  7. Long term omeprazole therapy for reflux esophagitis: Follow-up in serum gastrin levels, EC cell hyperplasia and neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pankaj; Indaram, Anant; Greenberg, Ronald; Visvalingam, Vernu; Bank, Simmy

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the long-term safety of omeprazole in patients of gastroesophageal reflux disease resistant to treatment with H2 receptor antagonist. METHODS: We prospectively followed 33 patients on omeprazole therapy for severe erosive esophagitis for 5-8 years, with periodic gastrin levels, H. pylori infection, gastric biopsies for incidence of ECL cell hyperplasia, carcinoids, gastric atrophy and neoplasia. A total 185 patient follow-up years and 137 gastric biopsies were done. RESULTS: Among the 33 patients, 36% reached their peak gastrin levels in an average of 8 mo to one year, then drifted Down slowly over 1-2 year period to just above their baseline level, 24% of the patients had a peak gastrin level above 400 ng·L-1 and one patient had a peak level above 1000 ng·L-1. One patient had a mild ECL cell hyperplasia which was self-limiting and did not show any dysplastic changes. Eighteen percent of patients were positive for H. pylori infection. The gastric biopsies did not show gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia or neoplastic changes. CONCLUSION: In a series of 33 patients followed for 5-8 years on omeprazole therapy for severe reflux esophagitis, we did not observe any evidence of significant ECL cell hyperplasia, gastric atrophy, intestinal metaplasia, dysplasia or neoplastic changes. PMID:11819697

  8. Effects of omeprazole and ritonavir on absorption and elimination of the hepatitis C virus NS5A inhibitor GSK2336805 in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Adkison, Kimberly K; Jones, Lori S; Lou, Yu; Gan, Jianjun; Wilfret, David A

    2014-09-01

    This Phase I, randomized, open-label study evaluated the gastric pH-altering effects of omeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, and the CYP3A enzyme/P-glycoprotein (Pgp)-inhibitory effects of ritonavir, an HIV protease inhibitor, on the pharmacokinetics and safety of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) non-structural protein 5A (NS5A) inhibitor GSK2336805 in healthy male and female subjects. Co-administration of GSK2336805 60 mg with omeprazole decreased GSK2336805 plasma AUC(0-∞) by 10% and Cmax by 18%; no marked effect was observed on t½ . Co-administration of GSK2336805 30 mg with ritonavir increased GSK2336805 plasma AUC(0-∞) by 52%, Cmax by 43%, and t½ by 40%; CL/F was decreased by 34%. All adverse events were minor in intensity. The gastric acid-suppressive effect of omeprazole had minimal impact on the extent and rate of GSK2336805 absorption in vivo; therefore, GSK2336805 may be co-administered with omeprazole without concern about lower GSK2336805 exposures and compromised antiviral efficacy. The modest increases in AUC and Cmax following co-administration of GSK2336805 plus ritonavir suggest that GSK2336805 when given concomitantly with a single CYP3A/Pgp inhibiting drug will not likely require dose adjustment. Final dose recommendation will be based on GSK2336805 efficacy and safety profiles from Phase III trials in HCV-infected patients. © 2014, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  9. A randomized open trial for comparison of proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole versus rabeprazole, in dual therapy for Helicobacter pylori infection in relation to CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Miyoshi, M; Mizuno, M; Ishiki, K; Nagahara, Y; Maga, T; Torigoe, T; Nasu, J; Okada, H; Yokota, K; Oguma, K; Tsuji, T

    2001-07-01

    The genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 has been shown to influence the efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy with a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) and amoxicillin (so-called dual therapy). Omeprazole, a widely used PPI, and rabeprazole, a new PPI, are metabolized in different pathways in terms of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms. In this study, we compared the efficacy of omeprazole and rabeprazole in a 2-week dual therapy in relation to CYP2C19 polymorphism. One hundred and ninety-nine patients with peptic ulcer disease were randomly assigned to receive one of the following regimens: 500 mg t.i.d. amoxicillin together with either 20 mg b.i.d. omeprazole or 10 mg b.i.d rabeprazole. The eradication of H. pylori was evaluated by using a bacterial culture and a [(13)C]-urea breath test at 1--2 months after completion of treatment. Cytochrome P4502C19 polymorphism was analyzed by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. Intention-to-treat-based cure rates for the omeprazole or rabeprazole regimens were 66.3% (95% CI, 56--75) and 62.4% (95% CI, 52--71), respectively, without significant difference. Cytochrome P4502C19 genetic polymorphism did not influence the cure rates in either of these regimens. We analyzed various factors associated with treatment failure (PPI, CYP2C19 genotype, and smoking habit) by using multiple logistic regression; smoking was the only significant independent factor for treatment failure. Omeprazole and rabeprazole were equally effective in combination with amoxicillin in eradicating H. pylori, irrespective of the PPI used (omeprazole or rabeprazole) and CYP2C19 genetic polymorphism. Smoking significantly decreased the cure rate of H. pylori infection in the dual therapy.

  10. Omeprazole induces NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 via aryl hydrocarbon receptor-independent mechanisms: Role of the transcription factor nuclear factor erythroid 2–related factor 2

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2015-11-13

    Activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transcriptionally induces phase I (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A1) and phase II (NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) detoxifying enzymes. The effects of the classical and nonclassical AhR ligands on phase I and II enzymes are well studied in human hepatocytes. Additionally, we observed that the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (OM), transcriptionally induces CYP1A1 in the human adenocarcinoma cell line, H441 cells via AhR. Whether OM activates AhR and induces the phase II enzyme, NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1), in fetal primary human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (HPMEC) is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis thatmore » OM will induce NQO1 in HPMEC via the AhR. The concentrations of OM used in our experiments did not result in cytotoxicity. OM activated AhR as evident by increased CYP1A1 mRNA expression. However, contrary to our hypothesis, OM increased NQO1 mRNA and protein via an AhR-independent mechanism as AhR knockdown failed to abrogate OM-mediated increase in NQO1 expression. Interestingly, OM activated Nrf2 as evident by increased phosphoNrf2 (S40) expression in OM-treated compared to vehicle-treated cells. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown abrogated OM-mediated increase in NQO1 expression. In conclusion, we provide evidence that OM induces NQO1 via AhR-independent, but Nrf2-dependent mechanisms. - Highlights: • We investigated whether omeprazole induces NQO1 in human fetal lung cells. • Omeprazole induces the phase II enzyme, NQO1, in human fetal lung cells. • AhR deficiency fails to abrogate omeprazole-mediated induction of NQO1. • Omeprazole increases phosphoNrf2 (S40) protein expression in human fetal lung cells. • Nrf2 knockdown abrogates the induction of NQO1 by omeprazole in human lung cells.« less

  11. Simultaneous pharmacokinetics evaluation of human cytochrome P450 probes, caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam, in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus).

    PubMed

    Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Utoh, Masahiro; Toda, Akiko; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    1. Pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes (caffeine, racemic warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam) composite, after single intravenous and oral administrations at doses of 0.20 and 1.0 mg kg(-1), respectively, to four male common marmosets were investigated. 2. The plasma concentrations of caffeine and warfarin decreased slowly in a monophasic manner but those of omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam decreased extensively after intravenous and oral administrations, in a manner that approximated those as reported for pharmacokinetics in humans. 3. Bioavailabilities were ∼100% for caffeine and warfarin, but <25% for omeprazole and metoprolol. Bioavailability of midazolam was 4% in marmosets, presumably because of contribution of marmoset P450 3A4 expressed in small intestine and liver, with a high catalytic efficiency for midazolam 1'-hydroxylation as evident in the recombinant system. 4. These results suggest that common marmosets, despite their rapid clearance of some human P450 probe substrates, could be an experimental model for humans and that marmoset P450s have functional characteristics that differ from those of human and/or cynomolgus monkey P450s in some aspects, indicating their importance in modeling in P450-dependent drug metabolism studies in marmosets and of further studies.

  12. Comparing omeprazole with fluoxetine for treatment of patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy who failed once daily proton pump inhibitors: double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ostovaneh, M R; Saeidi, B; Hajifathalian, K; Farrokhi-Khajeh-Pasha, Y; Fotouhi, A; Mirbagheri, S S; Emami, H; Barzin, G; Mirbagheri, S A

    2014-05-01

    Patients with heartburn but without esophageal erosion respond less well to proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). There is a growing body of evidence implicating the role of psychological comorbidities in producing reflux symptoms. Pain modulators improve symptoms in patients with other functional gastrointestinal disorders. We aimed to compare the efficacy of fluoxetine with omeprazole and placebo to achieve symptomatic relief in patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy who failed once daily PPIs. Endoscopy-negative patients with heartburn who failed once daily PPIs were randomly allocated to receive 6 weeks treatment of fluoxetine, omeprazole, or placebo. Random allocation was stratified according to ambulatory pH monitoring study. Percentage of heartburn-free days and symptom severity was assessed. Sixty patients with abnormal and 84 patients with normal pH test were randomized. Subjects receiving fluoxetine experienced more improvement in percentage of heartburn-free days (median 35.7, IQR 21.4-57.1) than those on omeprazole (median 7.14, IQR 0-50, p < 0.001) or placebo (median 7.14, IQR 0-33.6, p < 0.001). In normal pH subgroup, fluoxetine was superior to both omeprazole and placebo regarding percentage of heartburn-free days (median improvement, 57.1, IQR 35.7-57.1 vs 13.9, IQR, 0-45.6 and 7.14, 0-23.8, respectively, p < 0.001), but no significant difference was observed between medications in abnormal pH subgroup. Fluoxetine was superior to omeprazole for improving the symptoms of patients with heartburn and normal endoscopy who failed once daily PPIs. The superiority of fluoxetine was mostly attributed to those with normal esophageal pH rather than those with abnormal pH (ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01269788). © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. A Case-Control Study of Esomeprazole Plus Rebamipide vs. Omeprazole Plus Rebamipide on Post-ESD Gastric Ulcers.

    PubMed

    Bunno, Maki; Gouda, Kyosuke; Yamahara, Kunihiro; Kawaguchi, Masanori

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is useful for treating gastric tumors. Several trials have shown the efficacy of 4 or 8 weeks of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) administration for post-ESD ulcers. However, if the size of the post-ESD ulcer is larger than predicted, PPI administration alone might not be sufficient for the ulcer to heal within 4 weeks. There is no report about the efficacy of post-ESD gastric ulcers by esomeprazole. We examined retrospectively the efficacy of a combination therapy of esomeprazole plus rebamipide, a mucosal-protective antiulcer drug, on the acceleration of post-ESD ulcer healing comparing with omeprazole plus rebamipide. We reviewed the medical records of patients who underwent ESD for gastric neoplasia. We conducted a case-control study to compare the healing rates within 4 weeks effected by esomeprazole plus rebamipide (group E) and omeprazole plus rebamipide (group O). The sizes of the artificial ulcers were divided into normal-sized or large-sized. The baseline characteristics did not differ significantly between the two groups except age and sex. Stage S1 disease was observed in 27.6% and 38.7% of patients after 4 weeks of treatment in the group E and O, respectively. In large-sized artificial ulcers, the healing rate of stage S1 in group E is significantly higher than that in group O in 4 weeks.(25% VS 0%:P = 0.02). The safety and efficacy profiles of esomeprazole plus rebamipide and omeprazole and rebamipide are similar for the treatment of ESD-induced ulcers. In large-sized ulcers, esomeprazole plus rebamipide promotes ulcer healing.

  14. A multicentre randomised trial to compare the efficacy of omeprazole versus rabeprazole in early symptom relief in patients with reflux esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Nagahara, Akihito; Suzuki, Tsuyoshi; Nagata, Naoyoshi; Sugai, Nozomu; Takeuchi, Yoshiaki; Sakurai, Kouichi; Miyamoto, Masaki; Inoue, Kazuhiko; Akiyama, Junichi; Mabe, Katsuhiro; Konuma, Ichiro; Kamada, Tomoari; Haruma, Ken

    2014-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are affected by cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) polymorphisms. This study compared the effect of two PPIs on early symptom relief in Japanese patients with reflux esophagitis, classified by the CYP2C19 phenotype. Patients with reflux esophagitis were randomised to treatment with omeprazole 20 mg or rabeprazole 10 mg once daily. The CYP2C19 phenotype [homozygous extensive metaboliser (homoEM), heterozygous extensive metaboliser (heteroEM) or poor metaboliser (PM)] of each patient was determined. The primary efficacy endpoint was early, sufficient (Global Overall Symptom scale score 1 or 2), sustained (maintained for ≥7 days) reflux symptom relief. Of the 199 patients included in this analysis, the proportion achieving sufficient, sustained reflux symptom relief was higher with omeprazole than with rabeprazole on day 1 (35.6 vs. 22.4%; p = 0.041) and day 2 (43.6 vs. 28.6%; p = 0.028); there was no significant difference between the two groups on days 3-7. Among patients with the CYP2C19 PM phenotype, sufficient, sustained reflux symptom relief was higher with omeprazole than with rabeprazole on days 4-7 (62.5-66.9 vs. 31.6%; p ≤ 0.03); differences were not significant on days 1-3, or among those with the homoEM or heteroEM phenotypes on days 1-7. In Japanese patients with reflux esophagitis, omeprazole 20 mg is more effective than rabeprazole 10 mg at achieving early, sufficient, sustained reflux symptom relief in individuals with the CYP2C19 PM phenotype, and is similarly effective to rabeprazole 10 mg in those with heteroEM or homoEM phenotypes.

  15. Twice-daily dosing of esomeprazole effectively inhibits acid secretion in CYP2C19 rapid metabolisers compared with twice-daily omeprazole, rabeprazole or lansoprazole.

    PubMed

    Sahara, S; Sugimoto, M; Uotani, T; Ichikawa, H; Yamade, M; Iwaizumi, M; Yamada, T; Osawa, S; Sugimoto, K; Umemura, K; Miyajima, H; Furuta, T

    2013-11-01

    Twice-daily dosing of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) is used to treat Helicobacter pylori or acid-related diseases, such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) refractory to standard dose of a PPI. Genetic polymorphisms of CYP2C19 are involved to different extents in the metabolism of four kinds of PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole) available in Japan. To compare acid-inhibitory effects of the four PPIs dosed twice daily in relation to CYP2C19 genotype. We performed 24-h pH monitoring studies on Day 7 of PPI treatment for 40 Japanese H. pylori-negative volunteers [15 CYP2C19 rapid metabolisers (RMs), 15 intermediate metabolisers (IMs) and 10 poor metabolisers (PMs)] using a randomised four-way crossover design: omeprazole 20 mg, esomeprazole 20 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg and rabeprazole 10 mg twice daily. Although median pH values with esomeprazole, omeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole were 5.7 (3.5-7.2), 5.5 (2.4-7.2), 5.5 (3.7-7.3) and 5.2 (2.5-7.3), respectively (no statistically significant differences), CYP2C19 genotype-dependent differences were smaller for esomeprazole and rabeprazole compared with values for omeprazole and lansoprazole. In CYP2C19 RMs, the median pH with esomeprazole [5.4 (3.5-6.8)] was significantly higher than those with omeprazole [5.0 (2.4-5.9), P = 0.018], lansoprazole [4.7 (3.7-5.5), P = 0.017] or rabeprazole [4.8 (2.5-6.4), P = 0.002]. In IMs and PMs, the median pH was >5.0 independent of the PPI. In intermediate and rapid metabolisers of CYP2C19, PPIs dosed twice daily could attain sufficient acid suppression, while in CYP2C19 RMs, esomeprazole 20 mg twice daily caused the strongest inhibition of the four PPIs. Therefore, esomeprazole may be effective in Japanese population when dosed twice daily. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Eight weeks of omeprazole 20 mg significantly reduces both laryngopharyngeal reflux and comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis signs and symptoms: Randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Anzić, S A; Turkalj, M; Župan, A; Labor, M; Plavec, D; Baudoin, T

    2018-04-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux recommended treatment (dose and duration) with proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) compared to placebo significantly reduces the signs and symptoms of laryngopharyngeal reflux (LPR) and comorbid chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Double-blind randomised placebo-controlled trial. Eight weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg once daily (OD). Sixty patients (28 women, aged 19-87 years) with diagnosed LPR and comorbid CRS. Significant reduction in signs and symptoms (reflux symptom index (RSI) score as subjective, and reflux finding score (RFS) as objective measure) of LPR after 8 weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg OD when compared to placebo. Secondary objectives were significant reduction in signs and symptoms of comorbid CRS after 8 weeks of treatment with omeprazole 20 mg OD when compared to placebo and the association of the severity of signs and symptoms of LPR with the ones of CRS. RSI and RFS decreased significantly more in the active treatment group after 8 weeks compared to placebo (P < .001 for both). CRS and endoscopy scoring decreased both significantly more in the active group after 8 weeks compared to placebo (P < .001 for both). CRS scoring significantly correlated with RSI (R = 0.312, P = .015) but not with RFS (R = 0.199, P = .127). The results of our trial suggest that omeprazole 20 mg OD for 8 weeks was effective in reducing signs and symptoms of both LPR and CRS, although in most patients still present at the end of the trial. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Acid-suppressive effects of rabeprazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole at reduced and standard doses: a crossover comparative study in homozygous extensive metabolizers of cytochrome P450 2C19.

    PubMed

    Shimatani, Tomohiko; Inoue, Masaki; Kuroiwa, Tomoko; Xu, Jing; Mieno, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Masuo; Tazuma, Susumu

    2006-01-01

    To improve clinical outcomes of the initial therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease, intragastric pH should be above 4.0 for more than 20 hours a day (83.3%) and nocturnal gastric acid breakthrough, defined as 60 continuous minutes of intragastric pH below 4.0 at night, should be inhibited. A "step-down" therapy sometimes fails because of insufficient acid suppression. Therefore we compared the acid-suppressive effects of proton pump inhibitors. This was a prospective, randomized, open-label, 8-way crossover study. In 9 healthy Helicobacter pylori-negative cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 homozygous extensive metabolizers, intragastric pH was measured for 24 hours on day 7 of treatment with rabeprazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole orally administered once daily at reduced and standard doses. Compared with baseline data (7% [range, 5%-20%]), the median values of the 24-hour percent of time that intragastric pH was above 4.0 significantly increased but did not exceed 83.3% under any of the 7 regimens, which were as follows: 10 mg rabeprazole (51% [range, 28%-78%], P < .01), 20 mg rabeprazole (59% [range, 36%-83%], P < .01), 10 mg omeprazole (26% [range, 4%-33%], P < .05), 20 mg omeprazole (48% [range, 31%-73%], P < .01), 40 mg omeprazole (62% [range, 47%-87%], P < .01), 15 mg lansoprazole (34% [range, 5%-51%], P < .05), and 30 mg lansoprazole (56% [range, 20%-76%], P < .05). Significant differences were observed among 10, 20, and 40 mg omeprazole (10 mg versus 20 mg, P < .01; 10 mg versus 40 mg, P < .01; and 20 mg versus 40 mg, P < .05) and between 15 and 30 mg lansoprazole (P < .01), whereas no significant difference was observed between 10 and 20 mg rabeprazole. Nocturnal gastric acid breakthrough was observed under all regimens. Rabeprazole, omeprazole, and lansoprazole, given once daily at standard doses, cannot be expected to achieve ideal acid suppression for the initial therapy for gastroesophageal reflux disease in Helicobacter-negative CYP2C19 homozygous

  18. Spaced administration of PA32540 and clopidogrel results in greater platelet inhibition than synchronous administration of enteric-coated aspirin and enteric-coated omeprazole and clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Gurbel, Paul A; Bliden, Kevin P; Fort, John G; Jeong, Young-Hoon; Shuldiner, Alan; Chai, Sumbul; Gesheff, Tania; Antonino, Mark; Gesheff, Martin; Zhang, Ying; Tantry, Udaya S

    2013-02-01

    A common regimen for patients requiring dual-antiplatelet therapy who are at risk for gastrointestinal complications is the synchronous administration of enteric-coated (EC) aspirin, a proton pump inhibitor, and clopidogrel, although proton pump inhibitors have the potential for pharmacodynamic interaction with clopidogrel. Spaced administration of a clopidogrel and a single-tablet formulation of aspirin and immediate-release omeprazole (PA32540) was considered as an alternative that might reduce this potential pharmacodynamic interaction. A randomized, open-label, crossover study was conducted in healthy subjects (n = 30). Two 7-day treatments were separated by 14-day washout periods: (a) PA32540 + clopidogrel (300 mg loading/75 mg maintenance) 10 hours later and (b) synchronous dosing of clopidogrel + EC aspirin (81 mg) + EC omeprazole (40 mg). The primary end point was the inhibition of platelet aggregation (20 μM adenosine diphosphate, maximal extent) after 7 days. CYP2C19 and ABCB1 genotypes were determined. Inhibition of platelet aggregation was greater with spaced PA32540 + clopidogrel therapy vs synchronous clopidogrel + EC aspirin + EC omeprazole therapy (P = .004). There was no difference in day 7 arachidonic acid-induced aggregation. The effect of spacing on pharmacodynamics was independent of genotype. PA32540 and clopidogrel spaced 10 hours apart had greater antiplatelet effects than did synchronously administered EC aspirin (81 mg), clopidogrel (75 mg), and EC omeprazole in healthy volunteers. These finding are directly relevant to the treatment for patients with high gastrointestinal risk who require dual-antiplatelet therapy and gastroprotection. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of long-term administration of omeprazole on bone mineral density and the mechanical properties of the bone.

    PubMed

    Yanagihara, Gabriela Rezende; de Paiva, Aline Goulart; Neto, Maurílio Pacheco; Torres, Larissa Helena; Shimano, Antônio Carlos; Louzada, Mário Jefferson Quirino; Annoni, Raquel; de Oliveira Penoni, Álvaro César

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown a relationship between long-term use of proton pump inhibitors and bone metabolism. However, this relationship has not yet become established. The aim of the present study was to analyze the mechanical properties and bone mineral density (BMD) of rats that were subjected to long-term omeprazole use. Fifty Wistar rats weighing between 200 and 240 g were divided equally into five groups: OMP300 (omeprazole intake at a dose of 300 μmoL/kg/day); OMP200 (200 μmoL/kg/day); OMP40 (40 μmoL/kg/day); OMP10 (10 μmoL/kg/day); and Cont (control group; intake of dilution vehicle). The solutions were administered for 90 consecutive days. After the rats had been sacrificed, their BMD, the mechanical properties of the dissected femurs and their serum Ca++ levels were analyzed. The BMD of the OMP300 group was lower than that of the controls (p = 0.006). There was no difference on comparing the OMP200, OMP40 and OMP10 groups with the controls. The maximum strength and rigidity of the femur did not differ in the experimental groups in comparison with the controls. The OMP300 group had a statistically lower serum Ca++ concentration than that of the controls (p = 0.049), but the other groups did not show any difference in relation to the controls. Daily intake of 300 μmoL/kg/day of omeprazole decreased the BMD of the femur, but without changes to the rigidity and strength of the femur in adult rats.

  20. Application of nickel zinc ferrite/graphene nanocomposite as a modifier for fabrication of a sensitive electrochemical sensor for determination of omeprazole in real samples.

    PubMed

    Afkhami, Abbas; Bahiraei, Atousa; Madrakian, Tayyebeh

    2017-06-01

    In the present study, a simple and highly sensitive sensor for the determination of omeprazole based on nickel-zinc ferrite/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode is reported. The morphology and electro analytical performance of the fabricated sensor were characterized with X-ray diffraction spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry and operation of the sensor. Results were compared with those achieved at the graphene modified glassy carbon electrode and bare glassy carbon electrode. Under the optimized experimental conditions, linear response was over the range of 0.03-100.0µmolL -1 . The lower detection limit was found to be 0.015µmolL -1 . The effect of different interferences on the anodic current response of OMZ was investigated. By measuring the concentrations of omeprazole in plasma and pharmaceutical samples, the practical application of the modified electrode was evaluated. This revealed that the nickel-zinc ferrite/graphene modified glassy carbon electrode shows excellent analytical performance for the determination of omeprazole with a very low detection limit, high sensitivity, and very good accuracy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lung lesions and anti-ulcer agents beneficial effect: anti-ulcer agents pentadecapeptide BPC 157, ranitidine, omeprazole and atropine ameliorate lung lesion in rats.

    PubMed

    Stancic-Rokotov, D; Slobodnjak, Z; Aralica, J; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Staresinic, M; Gjurasin, M; Anic, T; Zoricic, I; Buljat, G; Prkacin, I; Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Turkovic, B; Kokic, N; Jagic, V; Boban-Blagaic, A

    2001-01-01

    Anti-ulcer agents may likely attenuate lesions outside the gastrointestinal tract, since they had protected gastrectomized rats (a "direct cytoprotective effect"). Therefore, their therapeutic potential in lung/stomach lesions were shown. Rats received an intratracheal (i.t.) HCl instillation [1.5 ml/kg HCl (pH 1.75)] (lung lesion), and an intragastric (i.g.) instillation of 96% ethanol (gastric lesion; 1 ml/rat, 24 h after i.t. HCl instillation), then sacrificed 1 h after ethanol. Basically, in lung-injured rats, the subsequent ethanol-gastric lesion was markedly aggravated. This aggravation, however, in turn, did not affect the severity of the lung lesions in the further period, at least for 1 h of observation. Taking intratracheal HCl-instillation as time 0, a gastric pentadecapeptide, GEPPPGKPADDAGLV, M.W.1419, coded BPC 157 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg), ranitidine (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), were given [/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)] (i) once, only prophylactically [as a pre-treatment (at -1h)], or as a co-treatment [at 0)], or only therapeutically (at +18h or +24 h); (ii) repeatedly, combining prophylactic/therapeutic regimens [(-1 h)+(+24 h)] or [(0)+(+24 h)], or therapeutic/therapeutic regimens [(+18 h)+(+24 h)]. For all agents, combining their prophylactic and salutary regimens (at -1 h/+24 h, or at 0/+24 h) attenuated lung lesions; even if effect had been not seen already with a single application, it became prominent after repeated treatment. In single application studies, relative to controls, a co-treatment (except to omeprazole), a pre-treatment (at -1 h) (pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and atropine, but not ranitidine and omeprazole) regularly attenuated, while therapeutically, atropine (at +18 h), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 highest dose and omeprazole (at +24 h), reversed the otherwise more severe lung lesions.

  2. The effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157, H2-blockers, omeprazole and sucralfate on new vessels and new granulation tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Separovic, J; Anic, T; Buljat, G; Mikus, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Pigac, B; Hanzevacki, M; Marovic, A; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Zoricic, I; Ziger, T; Aralica, G; Konjevoda, P; Prkacin, I; Gjurasin, M; Miklic, P; Artukovic, B; Tisljar, M; Bratulic, M; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I

    1999-12-01

    A clear protection of the gastrointestinal tract and an evident anti-inflammatory effect were shown for a novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (i.p./i.g.) in comparison with several reference standards in various ulcer models along with a protection of endothelium and particular interaction with the NO-system. Thus, we evaluated whether this pentadecapeptide along with other gastroprotective agents could affect angiogenesis and the healing process in vivo using a procedure initially described by Szabo and co-workers. In each rat, two sterile sponges (1 x 1 x 0.25 cm; V = 0.25 mL) with the same quantities of BPC 157 (10 ng x mL(-1), 10 microg x mL(-1), 50 microg x kg(-1)) or reference agents (cimetidine: 10, 100, 500 mg x mL(-1); ranitidine: 2.5, 25, 250 mg x mL(-1); famotidine: 10, 50, 100 mg x mL(-1); omeprazole: 10, 50, 100 mg x mL(-1); sucralfate: 1, 5, 10 mg x mL(-1) were implanted subcutaneously in the lumbar region. The sponges were removed after 3 or 7 d, fixed in formalin, and processed for histologic and histochemical evaluation and morphometry assessment. Compared with the control values, the number of newly formed endothelial spaces inside newly formed granulation tissue was markedly increased in all animals treated with BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, famotidine, sucralfate and omeprazole, a consistent finding noted after either 3 or 7 d. Compared with control values, markedly more granulation tissue was noted in the rats in the groups of animals treated with BPC 157 (50 microg) and in the rats treated with sucralfate in all dosages used, euthanized after 3 d. In all groups treated with H2-blockers however, similar values to those of controls were noted. Thus, it could be concluded that an evident angiogenic property was consistently noted for the novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, H2-blockers (cimetidine, famotidine and ranitidine) and omeprazole, besides the well known angiogenic effect of sucralfate. Furthermore, unlike H2-blockers and omeprazole

  3. Improvement in health-related quality of life after therapy with omeprazole in patients with coronary artery disease and recurrent angina-like chest pain. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of the SF-36 survey

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Many patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have overlapping gastroenterological causes of recurrent chest pain, mainly due to gastroesophageal reflux (GER) and aspirin-induced gastrointestinal tract damage. These symptoms can be alleviated by proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The study addressed whether omeprazole treatment also affects general health-related quality of life (HRQL) in patients with CAD. Study 48 patients with more than 50% narrowing of the coronary arteries on angiography without clinically overt gastrointestinal symptoms were studied. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study design, patients were randomized to take omeprazole 20 mg bid or a placebo for two weeks, and then crossed over to the other study arm. The SF-36 questionnaire was completed before treatment and again after two weeks of therapy. Results Patients treated with omeprazole in comparison to the subjects taking the placebo had significantly greater values for the SF-36 survey (which relates to both physical and mental health), as well as for bodily pain, general health perception, and physical health. In comparison to the baseline values, therapy with omeprazole led to a significant increase in the three summarized health components: total SF-36; physical and mental health; and in the following detailed health concept scores: physical functioning, limitations due to physical health problems, bodily pain and emotional well-being. Conclusions A double dose of omeprazole improved the general HRQL in patients with CAD without severe gastrointestinal symptoms more effectively than the placebo. PMID:21939510

  4. Comparison of inhibitory effects of the proton pump-inhibiting drugs omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole on human cytochrome P450 activities.

    PubMed

    Li, Xue-Qing; Andersson, Tommy B; Ahlström, Marie; Weidolf, Lars

    2004-08-01

    The human clearance of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) of the substituted benzimidazole class is conducted primarily by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (P450) system. To compare the potency and specificity of the currently used PPIs (i.e., omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole) as inhibitors of four cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4), we performed in vitro studies using human liver microsomal preparations and recombinant CYP2C19. Sample analysis was done using selected reaction monitoring liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectometry. With several systems for CYP2C19 activity (two marker reactions, S-mephenytoin 4'-hydroxylation and R-omeprazole 5-hydroxylation, tested in either human liver microsomes or recombinant CYP2C19), the five PPIs showed competitive inhibition of CYP2C19 activity with K(i) of 0.4 to 1.5 microM for lansoprazole, 2 to 6 microM for omeprazole, approximately 8 microM for esomeprazole, 14 to 69 microM for pantoprazole, and 17 to 21 microM for rabeprazole. Pantoprazole was a competitive inhibitor of both CYP2C9-catalyzed diclofenac 4'-hydroxylation and CYP3A4-catalyzed midazolam 1'-hydroxylation (K(i) of 6 and 22 microM, respectively), which were at least 2 times more potent than the other PPIs. All PPIs were poor inhibitors of CYP2D6-mediated bufuralol 1'-hydroxylation with IC(50) > 200 microM. The inhibitory potency of a nonenzymatically formed product of rabeprazole, rabeprazole thioether, was also investigated and showed potent, competitive inhibition with K(i) values of 6 microM for CYP2C9, 2 to 8 microM for CYP2C19, 12 microM for CYP2D6, and 15 microM for CYP3A4. The inhibitory potency of R-omeprazole on the four studied P450 enzymes was also studied and showed higher inhibitory potency than its S-isomer on CYP2C9 and 2C19 activities. Our data suggest that, although the inhibitory profiles of the five studied PPIs were similar, lansoprazole and pantoprazole are the most potent in vitro inhibitors

  5. TCDD and omeprazole prime platelets through the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) non-genomic pathway.

    PubMed

    Pombo, Mónica; Lamé, Michael W; Walker, Naomi J; Huynh, Danh H; Tablin, Fern

    2015-05-19

    The role of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in hemostasis has recently gained increased attention. Here, we demonstrate, by qRT-PCR and western blot, that human platelets express both AhR mRNA and AhR protein. AhR protein levels increase in a dose dependent manner when incubated with either 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) or omeprazole. Treatment of platelets with puromycin blocks increased AhR protein synthesis in the presence of AhR activators. Additionally, treatment of platelets with either activator results in phosphorylation of p38MAPK and cPLA2, two key signaling molecules in platelet activation pathways. Using the AhR competitive inhibitors alpha naphthoflavone and CH-223191, we show that phosphorylation of p38MAPK is AhR dependent. Further, inhibition of p38MAPK blocks downstream cPLA2 phosphorylation induced by TCDD or omeprazole. Treatment with AhR activators results in platelet priming, as demonstrated by increased platelet aggregation, which is inhibited by AhR antagonists. Our data support a model of the platelet AhR non-genomic pathway in which treatment with AhR activators results in increased expression of the AhR, phosphorylation of p38MAPK and cPLA2, leading to platelet priming in response to agonist. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Phenobarbital Treatment at a Neonatal Age Results in Decreased Efficacy of Omeprazole in Adult Mice.

    PubMed

    Tien, Yun-Chen; Piekos, Stephanie C; Pope, Chad; Zhong, Xiao-Bo

    2017-03-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) occur when the action of one drug interferes with or alters the activity of another drug taken concomitantly. This can lead to decreased drug efficacy or increased toxicity. Because of DDIs, physicians in the clinical practice attempt to avoid potential interactions when multiple drugs are coadministrated; however, there is still a large knowledge gap in understanding how drugs taken in the past can contribute to DDIs in the future. The goal of this study was to investigate the consequence of neonatal drug exposure on efficacy of other drugs administered up through adult life. We selected a mouse model to test phenobarbital exposure at a neonatal age and its impact on efficacy of omeprazole in adult life. The results of our experiment show an observed decrease in omeprazole's ability to raise gastric pH in adult mice that received single or multiple doses of phenobarbital at a neonatal age. This effect may be associated with the permanent induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes in adult liver after neonatal phenobarbital treatment. Our data indicates that DDIs may result from drugs administered in the past in an animal model and should prompt re-evaluation of how DDIs are viewed and how to avoid long-term DDIs in clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  7. Pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction assessment of LCZ696 (an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor) with omeprazole, metformin or levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Gan, Lu; Jiang, Xuemin; Mendonza, Anisha; Swan, Therese; Reynolds, Christine; Nguyen, Joanne; Pal, Parasar; Neelakantham, Srikanth; Dahlke, Marion; Langenickel, Thomas; Rajman, Iris; Akahori, Mizuki; Zhou, Wei; Rebello, Sam; Sunkara, Gangadhar

    2016-01-01

    LCZ696 is a novel angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor in development for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Here, we assessed the potential for pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction of LCZ696 (400 mg, single dose or once daily [q.d.]) when co-administered with omeprazole 40 mg q.d. (n = 28) or metformin 1000 mg q.d. (n = 27) or levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol 150/30 μg single dose (n = 24) in three separate open-label, single-sequence studies in healthy subjects. Pharmacokinetic parameters of LCZ696 analytes (sacubitril, LBQ657, and valsartan), metformin, and levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol were assessed. Omeprazole did not alter the AUCinf of sacubitril and pharmacokinetics of LBQ657; however, 7% decrease in the Cmax of sacubitril, and 11% and 13% decreases in AUCinf and Cmax of valsartan were observed. Co-administration of LCZ696 with metformin had no significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of LBQ657 and valsartan; however, AUCtau,ss and Cmax,ss of metformin were decreased by 23%. Co-administration of LCZ696 with levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol had no effect on the pharmacokinetics of ethinyl estradiol and LBQ657 or AUCinf of levonorgestrel. The Cmax of levonorgestrel decreased by 15%, and AUCtau,ss and Cmax,ss of valsartan decreased by 14% and 16%, respectively. Co-administration of LCZ696 with omeprazole, metformin, or levonorgestrel-ethinyl estradiol was not associated with any clinically relevant pharmacokinetic drug interactions. © 2015, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  8. Haloperidol-stomach lesions attenuation by pentadecapeptide BPC 157, omeprazole, bromocriptine, but not atropine, lansoprazole, pantoprazole, ranitidine, cimetidine and misoprostol in mice.

    PubMed

    Bilic, I; Zoricic, I; Anic, T; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Buljat, G; Ivankovic, D; Aralica, G; Prkacin, I; Perovic, D; Mise, S; Rotkvic, I; Petek, M; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2001-03-09

    The focus was on haloperidol (central dopamine antagonist)-stomach lesion, a longly described suitable counterpart of dopamine blocker cysteamine-duodenal lesion. In this, the contribution of blockade of central/peripheral dopamine receptors and prostaglandins synthesis, along with influence of antiulcer agents was evaluated in mice. Male NMRI Hannnover mice were sacrificed 24 h after haloperidol (25 mg/kg b.w. i.p., given alone or with saline (haloperidol+saline) (i) or in combination (ii,iii)). Supporting central dopamine predominance for haloperidol stomach lesion induction, co-administration of peripheral dopamine receptor antagonist domperidone (5 mg/kg i.p.) (haloperidol+ domperidone) (ii), or prostaglandin synthesis inhibitor indomethacin (10 mg/kg s.c.) (haloperidol+ indomethacin) (iii) did not aggravate this lesion. (i) In haloperidol+saline challenged mice the lesions were inhibited by co-administration (/kg i.p.) of a gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, GlyGluProProProGlyLysProAlaAspAspAlaGlyLeuVal, M.W. 1419 (10 microg, 10 ng, 10 pg, but not 1 pg, 100 fg, 10 fg), bromocriptine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg, 100 mg, but not 1 mg). Atropine (10, 100, 200 mg), pirenzepine (10, 100, 200 mg), misoprostol (10, 100, 200 microg), pantoprazole (1, 10, 100 mg), lansoprazole (0.1, 1, 10 mg), cimetidine (10, 100, 200 mg) and ranitidine (10, 100, 200 mg) were not effective. (ii) Dopamine peripheral blockade influence: in haloperidol+domperidone mice, previously effective bromocriptine, pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg) or omeprazole (10 mg) did not attenuate stomach lesions. (iii) Prostaglandins synthesis blockade effect: in haloperidol+indomethacin mice, previously effective agents, bromocriptine or omeprazole were not active, while BPC 157 effect was only lessened.

  9. Preventive effect of irsogladine or omeprazole on non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced esophagitis, peptic ulcers, and small intestinal lesions in humans, a prospective randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Takanori; Umegaki, Eiji; Nouda, Sadaharu; Narabayashi, Ken; Kojima, Yuichi; Yoda, Yukiko; Ishida, Kumi; Kawakami, Ken; Abe, Yosuke; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Inoue, Takuya; Murano, Mitsuyuki; Tokioka, Satoshi; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2013-05-14

    Proton-pump inhibitors such as omeprazole are a standard treatment to prevent non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced upper gastrointestinal mucosal injuries. However, it is unclear which drugs may protect against all NSAID-induced digestive-tract injuries. Here, we compare the efficacy of the gastromucoprotective drug irsogladine with omeprazole in preventing NSAID-induced esophagitis, peptic ulcers, and small-intestinal mucosal injury in healthy subjects. Thirty-two healthy volunteers were assigned to an irsogladine group (Group I; n = 16) receiving diclofenac sodium 75 mg and irsogladine 4 mg daily for 14 days, or an omeprazole group (Group O; n = 16) receiving diclofenac sodium 75 mg and omeprazole 10 mg daily for 14 days. Esophagitis and peptic ulcers were evaluated by esophagogastroduodenoscopy and small-intestinal injuries by capsule endoscopy, fecal calprotectin, and fecal occult blood before and after treatment. There was no significant difference between Group I and Group O with respect to the change in lesion score in the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum before and after treatment.NSAID treatment significantly increased the number of small intestinal mucosal breaks per subject by capsule endoscopic evaluation, from a basal level of 0.1 ± 0.3 up to 1.9 ± 2.0 lesions in Group O (p = 0.0002). In contrast, there were no significant changes in the mean number of mucosal breaks before and after co-treatment in Group I (0.3 ± 0.8 to 0.5 ± 0.7, p = 0.62), and the between-group difference was significant (p = 0.0040). Fecal calprotectin concentration, when the concentration before treatment was defined as 1, was significantly increased both in Group O (from 1.0 ± 0.0 to 18.1 ± 37.1, p = 0.0002) and Group I (from 1.0 ± 0.0 to 6.0 ± 11.1, p = 0.0280); the degree of increase in Group O was significantly higher compared with that in Group I (p<0.05). In addition, fecal occult blood levels increased significantly in Group O (p = 0.0018), but there

  10. Histamine stimulates chloride secretion in omeprazole-inhibited frog gastric mucosa

    SciTech Connect

    McGreevy, J.; Barton, R.; Housinger, T.

    1986-03-05

    Omeprazole (OME) stops hydrogen ion (H) secretion in the histamine (HIST)-stimulated gastric mucosa while the chloride (Cl) which had accompanied the H continues to be pumped into the lumen. This finding suggests that the Cl pump is independent of the H/K ATP-ase driven H pump. To test this hypothesis, 16 Ussing-chambered frog mucosas were exposed to OME prior to HIST stimulation. If the Cl pump is independent, HIST should stimulate Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited mucosa. A 1 hr control (CON) interval preceded exposure to OME (10/sup -4/M) in the nutrient solution. Potential difference (PD), short-circuit current (Isc), resistance (R),more » H flux (J/sup H/) and Cl flux (J/sup Cl/ with /sup 36/Cl) were measured every 15 min. After 1 hr of OME exposure, HIST (10/sup -5/M) was added to the nutrient solution. The findings demonstrate that HIST stimulates Cl secretion in the OME-inhibited bullfrog gastric mucosa.« less

  11. Supramolecular separation mechanism of pentafluorophenyl column using ibuprofen and omeprazole as markers: LC-MS and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Afzal; AlAjmi, Mohamed F; Ali, Imran

    2018-06-01

    The pentafluorophenyl (PFP) column is emerging as a new advancement in separation science to analyze a wide range of analytes and, thus, its separation mechanism at supramolecular level is significant. We developed a mechanism for the separation of ibuprofen and omeprazole using different combinations (ranging from 50:50 to 60:40) of water-acetonitrile containing 0.1% formic acid as the mobile phase. The column used was Waters Acquity UPLC HSS PFP (75 × 2.1 mm, 1.8 μm). The reverse order of elution was observed in different combinations of the mobile phases. The docking study indicated hydrogen bonding between ibuprofen and PFP stationary phase (binding energy was -11.30 kJ/mol). Separation at PFP stationary phase is controlled by hydrogen bonding along with π-π interactions. This stationary phase may be used to analyze both aromatic and aliphatic analytes. The developed mechanism will be useful to separate various analytes by considering the possible interactions, leading to saving of energy, time and money. In addition, this work will be highly useful in preparative chromatography where separation is the major problem at a large scale. Moreover, the developed LC-MS-QTOF method may be used to analyze ibuprofen and omeprazole in an unknown sample owing to the low value of detection limits. Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A comparison of two doses of omeprazole in the treatment of equine gastric ulcer syndrome: a blinded, randomised, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Sykes, B W; Sykes, K M; Hallowell, G D

    2014-07-01

    Studies on omeprazole have reported that doses as low as 0.7 mg/kg bwt per os are potent suppressors of acid production. Yet, to date, no studies have compared treatment efficacy of different doses in clinical cases of equine gastric ulceration. Furthermore, no studies have been performed to compare the healing response of the squamous and glandular mucosa to acid suppression therapy. To compare: 1) the efficacy of 2 doses of omeprazole in the treatment of primary squamous and glandular gastric ulceration; and 2) the healing response of primary squamous and glandular gastric ulceration to acid suppression therapy. A blinded, randomised, dose-response clinical trial. Twenty Thoroughbred racehorses with grade ≥2/4 glandular ulceration were identified on gastroscopy. Seventeen horses also had grade ≥2/4 squamous ulceration. Horses were randomly assigned to one of 2 groups. Horses received either 2.0 g (high dose: 4.0 mg/kg bwt) or 0.8 g (low dose: 1.6 mg/kg bwt) of oral omeprazole per os once daily. Gastroscopy was repeated at 28-35 days. Time and dose significantly affected grades of squamous (P<0.0001, P = 0.02) and glandular (P = 0.006 and 0.005) ulceration. Data analysis did not support our hypothesis that the lower dose would have similar effects (i.e. be noninferior) to the higher dose when considering ulcer healing and ulcer improvement. Improvement was more likely with the high dose for the squamous (P = 0.05) but not glandular (P = 0.4) mucosa. The percentage of glandular ulcers that improved was less than squamous ulcers (P = 0.02). The results suggest that a dose-response exists for the treatment of both squamous and glandular ulcers. Improvement of glandular ulcers was not as complete as observed with squamous ulcers and current equine gastric ulcer syndrome treatment recommendations may not be appropriate for glandular disease. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  13. Effect of the cytochrome P450 2C19 inhibitor omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics and safety profile of bortezomib in patients with advanced solid tumours, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Quinn, David I; Nemunaitis, John; Fuloria, Jyotsna; Britten, Carolyn D; Gabrail, Nashat; Yee, Lorrin; Acharya, Milin; Chan, Kai; Cohen, Nadine; Dudov, Assen

    2009-01-01

    Bortezomib, an antineoplastic for the treatment of relapsed multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma, undergoes metabolism through oxidative deboronation by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes, primarily CYP3A4 and CYP2C19. Omeprazole, a proton-pump inhibitor, is primarily metabolized by and demonstrates high affinity for CYP2C19. This study investigated whether coadministration of omeprazole affected the pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety profile of bortezomib in patients with advanced cancer. The variability of bortezomib pharmacokinetics with CYP enzyme polymorphism was also investigated. This open-label, crossover, pharmacokinetic drug-drug interaction study was conducted at seven institutions in the US and Europe between January 2005 and August 2006. Patients who had advanced solid tumours, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or multiple myeloma, were aged >/=18 years, weighed >/=50 kg and had a life expectancy of >/=3 months were eligible. Patients received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 on days 1, 4, 8 and 11 for two 21-day cycles, plus omeprazole 40 mg in the morning of days 6-10 and in the evening of day 8 in either cycle 1 (sequence 1) or cycle 2 (sequence 2). On day 21 of cycle 2, patients benefiting from therapy could continue to receive bortezomib for six additional cycles. Blood samples for pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic evaluation were collected prior to and at various timepoints after bortezomib administration on day 8 of cycles 1 and 2. Blood samples for pharmacogenomics were also collected. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental analysis of plasma concentration-time data for bortezomib administration on day 8 of cycles 1 and 2, using WinNonlin version 4.0.1.a software. The pharmacodynamic profile was assessed using a whole-blood 20S proteasome inhibition assay. Twenty-seven patients (median age 64 years) were enrolled, 12 in sequence 1 and 15 in sequence 2, including eight and nine pharmacokinetic-evaluable patients, respectively

  14. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial on probiotics in small bowel bacterial overgrowth in children treated with omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Hegar, Badriul; Hutapea, Esther I; Advani, Najid; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the incidence of small bowel bacterial overgrowth (SBBO) in children treated with omeprazole, and to test whether probiotics influence the incidence. A double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was performed in 70 children treated orally during four weeks with 20mg omeprazole per day. Lactobacillus rhamnosus R0011 (1.9×10(9) cfu) and Lactobacillus acidophilus R0052 (0.1×10(9) cfu) were simultaneously given daily to 36 subjects (probiotic group), while 34 subjects received placebo (placebo group). The diagnosis of SBBO was based on the development of suggestive symptoms, in combination with a positive glucose breath test. After one month of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) treatment, 30% (21/70) had a positive breath test suggesting SBBO; of these 62% were symptomatic. Five children developed SBBO-like symptoms, but had a negative breath test; and 44 (63%) were symptom free and had a negative breath test. There was no difference in the incidence of positive breath tests in the probiotic versus the placebo group (33% vs 26.5%; p=0.13). Since symptoms suggesting SBBO developed in 26% of PPI-treated children, and since the glucose breath test was abnormal in 72% of these, this side-effect should be more frequently considered. The probiotic tested did not decrease the risk to develop SBBO. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  15. Esomeprazole 40 mg provides more effective intragastric acid control than lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg in patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms.

    PubMed

    Röhss, Kerstin; Lind, Tore; Wilder-Smith, Clive

    2004-10-01

    To compare the effect of esomeprazole 40 mg with lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg on intragastric pH during single and repeated dosing in four separate studies in patients with symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux disorder (GERD). In four randomised crossover studies, patients with symptoms of GERD received once-daily treatment with esomeprazole 40 mg or lansoprazole 30 mg (study A), omeprazole 20 mg (study B), pantoprazole 40 mg (study C) and rabeprazole 20 mg (study D) for 5 days. Continuous 24-h intragastric pH recording was performed on days 1 (except study B) and 5. Percentage of time over 24 h with intragastric pH greater than 4, 24-h median pH and the proportion of patients with pH greater than 4 for greater than or equal to 12 h and 16 h during the 24-h recording periods were investigated. In all four studies, esomeprazole 40 mg OD maintained intragastric pH greater than 4 for a significantly higher mean percentage of the 24-h period compared with all other proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on days 1 (esomeprazole 40.6% versus lansoprazole 33.4%, P=0.0182; esomeprazole 50.3% versus pantoprazole 29.1%, P<0.001; esomeprazole 41.0% versus rabeprazole 29.4%, P=0.002) and 5 (esomeprazole 57.7% versus lansoprazole 44.5%, P<0.0001; esomeprazole 69.8% versus omeprazole 43.7%, P<0.0001; esomeprazole 67.0% versus pantoprazole 44.8%, P<0.001; esomeprazole 59.4% versus rabeprazole 44.5%, P<0.0001). Higher 24-h median pH and a higher proportion of patients with intragastric pH greater than 4 for greater than or equal to 12 h and 16 h were reported with esomeprazole 40 mg OD than with all the other PPIs in each study. Esomeprazole 40 mg provides greater acid control in more patients and maintains intragastric pH greater than 4 for a longer period than lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg in patients with symptoms of GERD.

  16. Cysteamine-colon and cysteamine-duodenum lesions in rats. Attenuation by gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole, sulphasalazine and methylprednisolone.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Grabarevic, Z; Balen, I; Aralica, G; Gjurasin, M; Komericki, L; Perovic, D; Ziger, T; Anic, T; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Staresinic, M; Aralica, J; DiBiaggio, N; Simec, Z; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    Recently, we showed cysteamine-duodenal lesions without gastric acid, since they were induced also in gastrectomized rats, as in naive rats, and they were inhibited by the novel stomach pentadecapeptide BPC 157 as well as standard antiulcer drugs (i.e. cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole, bromocriptine, atropine). Therefore, as an advantage of considering cysteamine as a directly acting cytotoxic agent and mentioned agents as direct cytoprotective agents, the present focus was on the ulcerogenic effect of cysteamine and protective effect of gastroduodenal antiulcer agents outside upper gastrointestinal tract (i.e. in colon). Intrarectal administration of the cysteamine (200 or 400 mg/kg b.w) produced severe colon lesions (i.e. transmural inflammation with serosal involvement) in rats (30 min-72 h-experimental period), apparently distinctive from smaller lesions after non-specific irritant enema [diluted HCl solution, pH 3.8 (adjusted to pH of cysteamine solution (pH 3.8)]. All of the tested antiulcer agents were applied simultaneously with cysteamine enema (8 cm from the anus, in a volume of the 1.0 ml/rat) intraperitoneally (i.p.), intragastrically (i.g.) or intrarectally (i.r.). Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg or 10 ng/kg b.w.), given in either regimen, previously shown to have, besides others, a particular beneficial activity just in the intestinal mucosa, inhibited these cysteamine colon lesions (assessed after 30 min, 60 min, 180 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h following cysteamine in a dose of either 200 or 400 mg/kg i.r.). Cysteamine-colon lesions were also attenuated by standard antiulcer agents (mg/kg b.w.), given i.p., i.g., or i.r., such as ranitidine (10), cimetidine (50), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), together with methylprednisolone (1), and sulphasalazine (50, i.r.), assessed 30 min following application of 200 mg of cysteamine. Finally, standard cysteamine duodenal lesions (assessed 24 h after a subcutaneous application of 400 mg/kg of cysteamine) were

  17. Acid-suppressive efficacy of a reduced dosage of rabeprazole: comparison of 10 mg twice daily rabeprazole with 20 mg twice daily rabeprazole, 30 mg twice daily lansoprazole, and 20 mg twice daily omeprazole by 24-hr intragastric pH-metry.

    PubMed

    Shimatani, Tomohiko; Inoue, Masaki; Kuroiwa, Tomoko; Xu, Jing; Tazuma, Susumu; Horikawa, Yoko; Nakamura, Masuo

    2005-07-01

    Rabeprazole achieves more potent acid suppression than other proton pump inhibitors. Therefore it is administered at reduced as well as high dosages in eradication therapy for Helicobacter pylori; however, there is incomplete assessment of the efficacy of a reduced dosage of rabeprazole as might be employed in therapy. In this study, we evaluated acid-suppressive efficacy of a reduced dosage of rabeprazole on day 7 by 24-hr pH-metry in 10 healthy male cytochrome P-450 2C19 extensive metabolizers without Helicobacterpylori infection and compared the results with those of high dosages of rabeprazole, lansoprazole, and omeprazole. Median intragastric pH value, pH >3 holding time ratio (pH>3HT), pH>4HT, pH>5HT, pH>6HT, and pH>7HT for 24 hr with rabeprazole, 10 mg twice daily, were not significantly different from those of rabeprazole, 20 mg twice daily, lansoprazole, 30 mg twice daily, and omeprazole, 20 mg twice daily. In conclusion, for acid-suppressive efficacy, a reduced dosage of rabeprazole is comparable to high dosages of rabeprazole, lansoprazole, and omeprazole.

  18. Enantioseparation of rabeprazole and omeprazole by nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis with an ephedrine-based ionic liquid as the chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zheng; Zhang, Lijuan; Lin, Lina; Ji, Ping; Guo, Xingjie

    2010-12-01

    An ephedrine-based chiral ionic liquid, (+)-N,N-dimethylephedrinium-bis(trifluoromethanesulfon)imidate ([DMP](+) [Tf(2) N](-) ), served as both chiral selector and background electrolyte in nonaqueous capillary electrophoresis. The enantioseparation of rabeprazole and omeprazole was achieved in acetonitrile-methanol (60:40 v/v) containing 60 mm[DMP](+) [Tf(2) N](-) . The influences of separation conditions, including the concentration of [DMP](+) [Tf(2) N](-) , the electrophoretic media and the buffer, on enantioseparation were evaluated. The mechanism of enantioseparation was investigated and discussed. Ion-pair interaction and hydrogen bonding may be responsible for the main separation mechanism. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. The effect of cytochrome P2C19 and interleukin-1 polymorphisms on H. pylori eradication rate of 1-week triple therapy with omeprazole or rabeprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin in Chinese people.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Mei, Q; Li, Q S; Hu, Y M; Xu, J M

    2010-12-01

    Genetic polymorphism of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1rα) are associated with efficacy of acid suppression, whereas cytochrome P (CYP) 2C19 polymorphism influences the metabolism of proton pump inhibitor family. Thus, CYP2C19 and IL-1 polymorphisms may affect the efficacy of H. pylori eradication therapy. We compared the efficacies of omeprazole and rabeprazole on eradication of H. pylori in relation to CYP2C19, IL-1B and IL-1RN genotypes in Chinese people. Two hundred and forty Chinese with peptic ulcer disease were randomly assigned to the following regimens: amoxicillin and clarithromycin together with omeprazole (OAC) or rabeprazole (RAC). CYP2C19*2 and *3, IL1B-511, IL1B-31, IL1B+ 3954 and intron 2 of the IL-1RN genotypes were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism. The intention-to-treat-based cure rate of the OAC regimen was significantly lower than that of the RAC regimen in the CYP2C19 wild-type homozygotes (P = 0·014). No significant differences in the cure rates were observed among the IL-1RN and the IL-1B genotype groups. The rabeprazole-based triple regimen was better than the omeprazole in Chinese patients with the CYP2C19 extensive metabolizer genotype. The effectiveness of the PPI/AC regimen is unrelated to IL-1B and IL1-RN genetic polymorphism. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Validated spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of Omeprazole, Tinidazole and Doxycycline in their ternary mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotfy, Hayam M.; Hegazy, Maha A.; Mowaka, Shereen; Mohamed, Ekram Hany

    2016-01-01

    A comparative study of smart spectrophotometric techniques for the simultaneous determination of Omeprazole (OMP), Tinidazole (TIN) and Doxycycline (DOX) without prior separation steps is developed. These techniques consist of several consecutive steps utilizing zero/or ratio/or derivative spectra. The proposed techniques adopt nine simple different methods, namely direct spectrophotometry, dual wavelength, first derivative-zero crossing, amplitude factor, spectrum subtraction, ratio subtraction, derivative ratio-zero crossing, constant center, and successive derivative ratio method. The calibration graphs are linear over the concentration range of 1-20 μg/mL, 5-40 μg/mL and 2-30 μg/mL for OMP, TIN and DOX, respectively. These methods are tested by analyzing synthetic mixtures of the above drugs and successfully applied to commercial pharmaceutical preparation. The methods that are validated according to the ICH guidelines, accuracy, precision, and repeatability, were found to be within the acceptable limits.

  1. Comparative clinical evaluation on herbal formulation Pepsil, Safoof-e-Katira and Omeprazole in gastro esophageal reflux disease.

    PubMed

    Toseef, Muhammad Umar; Saeed, Aftab; Mohi-Ud-Din, Ejaz; Usmanghani, Khan; Nazar, Halima; Nawaz, Allah; Ahmad, Irshad; Siddiqui, Faheem Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the role of Unani herbal drugs Pepsil and Safoof-e-katira on the gastro esophageal reflux disease (GERD). This was multicentre randomized case control study conducted at Matab Hakeem Muhammad Noor-ud-din, Burewala; Aziz Muhammad din Medical and Surgical Centre, Burewala and Shifa-ul-mulk Memorial Hospital, Hamdard University Karachi. The patients were selected according to inclusion and exclusion criteria. In test group-1 the male female ratio was 40%, 60%; test group-2 was 42%, 58% and in control group was 44%, 56% respectively. The observed symptoms in the study were increased appetite (TG-1-95%, TG-2-95% and CG-89%), difficulty in swallowing (TG-1-93%, TG-2-96% and TC-94%), belching/burping (TG-1-97%, TG-2-97% and CG-95%), vomiting (TG-1-90%, TG-2-96% and CG-89%), heart burn (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-98%), palpitation (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-97%), epigastric pain (TG-1-97%, TG-2-97% and CG-90%), abdominal cramps (TG-1-97%, TG-2-98% and CG-95%), tenesmus (TG-1-100%, TG-2-100% and CG-97%), flatulence (TG-1-100%, TG-2-75% and CG-95%), wakeup during sleep (TG-1-94%, TG-2-87% and CG-94%). The p-value of the results of the symptoms was 0.000 except flatulence where the value was 0.001. The statistical results of the study prescribed that all the drugs studied (Pepsil, Safoof-e-katira and Omeprazole) are highly significant. The herbal coded drug Pepsil showed no side effects and unani herbal drug safoof-e-katira showed minimum result of 75% in the patients while Omeprazole resulted with some side effects. In the result it can be concluded that the herbal coded drug Pepsil is a potent herbal drug for gastro esophageal reflux disease.

  2. A Phase I, open-label, randomized, crossover study in three parallel groups to evaluate the effect of Rifampicin, Ketoconazole, and Omeprazole on the pharmacokinetics of THC/CBD oromucosal spray in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Stott, Colin; White, Linda; Wright, Stephen; Wilbraham, Darren; Guy, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    This Phase I study aimed to assess the potential drug-drug interactions (pharmacokinetic [PK] and safety profile) of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)/cannabidiol (CBD) oromucosal spray (Sativex (®), nabiximols) in combination with cytochrome P450 (CYP450) inducer (rifampicin) or inhibitors (ketoconazole or omeprazole). Thirty-six healthy male subjects were divided into three groups of 12, and then randomized to one of two treatment sequences per group. Subjects received four sprays of THC/CBD (10.8/10 mg) alongside single doses of the CYP3A and 2C19 inducer rifampicin (600 mg), CYP3A inhibitor ketoconazole (400 mg) or CYP2C19 inhibitor omeprazole (40 mg). Plasma samples were analyzed for CBD, THC and its metabolite 11-hydroxy-THC (11-OH-THC). A single dose of four sprays of THC/CBD spray (10.8/10 mg) following repeated doses of rifampicin (600 mg) reduced the Cmax and AUC of all analytes. Cmax reduced from 2.94 to 1.88 ng/mL (-36%), 1.03 to 0.50 ng/mL (-52%) and 3.38 to 0.45 ng/mL (-87%) for THC, CBD and 11-OH-THC, respectively compared to single dose administration of THC/CBD spray alone. Ketoconazole co-administration with THC/CBD spray had the opposite effect, increasing the Cmax of the respective analytes from 2.65 to 3.36 ng/mL (+27%), 0.66 to 1.25 ng/mL (+89%) and 3.59 to 10.92 ng/mL (+204%). No significant deviations in Cmax or AUC for any analyte were observed when THC/CBD spray was co-administered with omeprazole. THC/CBD spray was well tolerated by the study subjects both alone and in combination with rifampicin, ketoconazole and omeprazole. Evaluation of the PKs of THC/CBD spray alone and in combination with CYP450 inhibitors/inducers suggests that all analytes are substrates for the isoenzyme CYP3A4, but not CYP2C19. On the basis of our findings, there is likely to be little impact on other drugs metabolized by CYP enzymes on the PK parameters of THC/CBD spray, but potential effects should be taken into consideration when co-administering THC/CBD spray

  3. Design of a Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial to Assess Dabigatran and Omeprazole in Patients with Myocardial Injury after Noncardiac Surgery (MANAGE).

    PubMed

    Duceppe, Emmanuelle; Yusuf, Salim; Tandon, Vikas; Rodseth, Reitze; Biccard, Bruce M; Xavier, Denis; Szczeklik, Wojciech; Meyhoff, Christian S; Franzosi, Maria Grazia; Vincent, Jessica; Srinathan, Sadeesh K; Parlow, Joel; Magloire, Patrick; Neary, John; Rao, Mangala; Chaudhry, Navneet K; Mayosi, Bongani; de Nadal, Miriam; Popova, Ekaterine; Villar, Juan Carlos; Botto, Fernando; Berwanger, Otavio; Guyatt, Gordon; Eikelboom, John W; Sessler, Daniel I; Kearon, Clive; Pettit, Shirley; Connolly, Stuart J; Sharma, Mukul; Bangdiwala, Shrikant I; Devereaux, P J

    2018-03-01

    Worldwide approximately 200 million adults undergo major surgery annually, of whom 8 million are estimated to suffer a myocardial injury after noncardiac surgery (MINS). There is currently no trial data informing the management of MINS. Antithrombotic agents such as direct oral anticoagulants might prevent major vascular complications in patients with MINS. The Management of Myocardial Injury After Noncardiac Surgery (MANAGE) trial is a large international blinded randomized controlled trial of dabigatran vs placebo in patients who suffered MINS. We used a partial factorial design to also determine the effect of omeprazole vs placebo in reducing upper gastrointestinal bleeding and complications. Both study drugs were initiated in eligible patients within 35 days of suffering MINS and continued for a maximum of 2 years. The primary outcome is a composite of major vascular complications for the dabigatran trial and a composite of upper gastrointestinal complications for the omeprazole trial. We present the rationale and design of the trial and baseline characteristics of enrolled patients. The trial randomized 1754 patients between January 2013 and July 2017. Patients' mean age was 69.9 years, 51.1% were male, 14.3% had a history of peripheral artery disease, 6.6% had a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack, 12.9% had a previous myocardial infarction, and 26.0% had diabetes. The diagnosis of MINS was on the basis of an isolated ischemic troponin elevation in 80.4% of participants. MANAGE is the first randomized controlled trial to evaluate a potential treatment of patients who suffered MINS. Copyright © 2018 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Omeprazole increases the efficacy of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor in a PGE{sub 2} induced pain model

    SciTech Connect

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inceoglu, Bora; Yang, Jun

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent endogenous analgesic metabolites produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450s (P450s). Metabolism of EETs by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduces their activity, while their stabilization by sEH inhibition decreases both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we tested the complementary hypothesis that increasing the level of EETs through induction of P450s by omeprazole (OME), can influence pain related signaling by itself, and potentiate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of sEH inhibitor. Rats were treated with OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days), sEH inhibitor TPPU (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) + TPPU (3 mg/kg/day,more » p.o., last 3 days of OME dose) dissolved in vehicle PEG400, and their effect on hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to pain) induced by PGE{sub 2} was monitored. While OME treatment by itself exhibited variable effects on PGE{sub 2} induced hyperalgesia, it strongly potentiated the effect of TPPU in the same assay. The significant decrease in pain with OME + TPPU treatment correlated with the increased levels of EETs in plasma and increased activities of P450 1A1 and P450 1A2 in liver microsomes. The results show that reducing catabolism of EETs with a sEH inhibitor yielded a stronger analgesic effect than increasing generation of EETs by OME, and combination of both yielded the strongest pain reducing effect under the condition of this study. - Highlights: • The soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) inhibitor TPPU is anti-hyperalgesic. • Omeprazole potentiates the anti-hyperalgesic actions of TPPU. • This potentiation is associated with increased P450 activity. • The potentiation is associated with an increase in fatty acid epoxide/diol ratio. • Joint use of sEH inhibitors and P450 inducers could result in drug–drug interactions.« less

  5. Evaluation of the relationship between polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Román, Manuel; Ochoa, Dolores; Sánchez-Rojas, Sergio Daniel; Talegón, Maria; Prieto-Pérez, Rocio; Rivas, Ângela; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Cabaleiro, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the possible association between polymorphisms in CYP2C19 and the pharmacokinetics of omeprazole, rabeprazole and pantoprazole. 151 healthy volunteers were evaluated for polymorphisms in the CYP2C19 gene using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Plasma concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Carriers of the *2 allele displayed poor metabolism for all the PPIs studied (around 50% decrease in clearance). Subjects with the *17 allele showed a light increase in clearance compared with *1/*1 (not significant). CYP2C19*2 is associated with decreased clearance of all the PPIs, that could be associated with higher drug efficacy. CYP2C19*17 could increase clearance of these drugs, although the effect seems small.

  6. Honeycomb structural composite polymer network of gelatin and functional cellulose ester for controlled release of omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Chen; Shi, Chengmei; Tao, Furong; Cui, Yuezhi

    2017-12-01

    The functionalized cellulose ester MCN was firstly synthesized and used to cross-link gelatin by amidation between -NH 2 in gelatin and active ester groups in MCN to form a composite polymer network Gel-MCN, which was confirmed by Van Slyke method, FTIR, XRD and TGA-DTG spectra. The model drug omeprazole was loaded in Gel-MCN composites mainly by electrostatic interaction and hydrogen bonds, which were certified by FTIR, XRD and TGA-DSC. Thermal stability, anti-biodegradability, mechanical property and surface hydrophobicity of the composites with different cross-linking extents and drug loading were systematically investigated. SEM images demonstrated the honeycomb structural cells of cross-linked gelatin networks and this ensured drug entrapment. The drug release mechanism was dominated by a combined effect of diffusion and degradation, and the release rate decreased with cross-linking degree increased. The developed drug delivery system had profound significance in improving pesticide effect and bioavailability of drugs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Comparison of the effects of omeprazole and rabeprazole on ticlopidine metabolism in vitro.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Naoki; Watanabe, Minoru; Takeba, Yuko; Yoshida, Yutoku; Ohba, Keiichiro; Suzuki, Satoshi; Itoh, Fumio; Kumai, Toshio; Kobayashi, Shinichi

    2011-01-01

    The thienopyridine derivative ticlopidine (TCL) is an inhibitor of adenosine diphosphate-induced platelet aggregation. Combination therapy with a thienopyridine derivative and aspirin is standard after coronary stenting, although more hemorrhagic complications occur with the combination therapy than with aspirin alone. A proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is required for prevention or treatment of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in such cases. We examined the effects of PPIs [omeprazole (OPZ) and rabeprazole (RPZ)] on TCL metabolism using pooled human liver microsomes prepared from various human liver blocks and 12 individual human liver microsomes. We calculated the K(i) values of each PPI for TCL metabolic activity and compared the inhibitory effect of each PPI on TCL metabolism. The K(i) values of OPZ and RPZ were 1.4 and 12.7 µM, respectively. The inhibitory effect of OPZ (78.6 ± 0.05%) was significantly greater than that of RPZ (24.2 ± 0.05%) (P < 0.001). Interestingly, a negative correlation existed between the inhibitory effect of OPZ and CYP2C19 activity (r = -0.909, P < 0.001). These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of OPZ is more potent than that of RPZ in vitro. In conclusion, RPZ appears preferable when administering TCL, aspirin, and a PPI in combination.

  8. Assessment of Pharmacokinetic Interactions Between Obeticholic Acid and Caffeine, Midazolam, Warfarin, Dextromethorphan, Omeprazole, Rosuvastatin, and Digoxin in Phase 1 Studies in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jeffrey E; Eliot, Lise; Parkinson, Andrew; Karan, Sharon; MacConell, Leigh

    2017-09-01

    Obeticholic acid (OCA), a potent and selective farnesoid X receptor agonist, is indicated for the treatment of primary biliary cholangitis (PBC). We investigated the potential drug-drug interaction effect of OCA on metabolic CYP450 enzymes and drug transporters. Five phase 1 single-center, open-label, fixed-sequence, inpatient studies were conducted in healthy adult subjects to evaluate the effect of oral daily doses of 10 or 25 mg OCA on single-dose plasma pharmacokinetics of specific probe substrates for enzymes CYP1A2 (caffeine, R-warfarin), CYP3A (midazolam, R-warfarin), CYP2C9 (S-warfarin), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan), CYP2C19 (omeprazole), and drug transporters, BCRP/OATP1B1/OATP1B3 (rosuvastatin), and P-gp (digoxin). OCA showed no substantial suppression/inhibition of S-warfarin, digoxin, and dextromethorphan and weak interactions with caffeine, omeprazole, rosuvastatin, and midazolam. The maximal pharmacodynamic responses (E max ) to warfarin-based INR, PT, and aPTT were reduced by 11%, 11%, and 1%, respectively, for the 10-mg dose group and by 7%, 7% and 0%, respectively, for the 25-mg dose group. Overall, drugs dosed in combination with OCA were well tolerated, and most adverse events were mild in severity. No clinically important trends were noted in laboratory evaluations, vital signs, or 12-lead ECGs. In these studies, OCA showed weak to no suppression/inhibition of metabolic enzymes and drug transporters at the highest recommended therapeutic dose in patients with PBC. On the basis on these analyses, monitoring and maintenance of target INR range are required during coadministration of OCA with drugs that are metabolized by CYP1A2 (R-warfarin). Intercept Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

  9. New Sensitive Kinetic Spectrophotometric Methods for Determination of Omeprazole in Dosage Forms

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ashraf M.

    2009-01-01

    New rapid, sensitive, and accurate kinetic spectrophotometric methods were developed, for the first time, to determine omeprazole (OMZ) in its dosage forms. The methods were based on the formation of charge-transfer complexes with both iodine and 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ). The variables that affected the reactions were carefully studied and optimized. The formed complexes and the site of interaction were examined by UV/VIS, IR, and 1H-NMR techniques, and computational molecular modeling. Under optimum conditions, the stoichiometry of the reactions between OMZ and the acceptors was found to be 1 : 1. The order of the reactions and the specific rate constants were determined. The thermodynamics of the complexes were computed and the mechanism of the reactions was postulated. The initial rate and fixed time methods were utilized for the determination of OMZ concentrations. The linear ranges for the proposed methods were 0.10–3.00 and 0.50–25.00 μg mL−1 with the lowest LOD of 0.03 and 0.14 μg mL−1 for iodine and DDQ, respectively. Analytical performance of the methods was statistically validated; RSD was <1.25% for the precision and <1.95% for the accuracy. The proposed methods were successfully applied to the analysis of OMZ in its dosage forms; the recovery was 98.91–100.32% ± 0.94–1.84, and was found to be comparable with that of reference method. PMID:20140076

  10. Normal and polar-organic-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic enantioresolution of omeprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole using monochloro-methylated cellulose-based chiral stationary phase and determination of dexrabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Dixit, Shuchi; Dubey, Rituraj; Bhushan, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Enantioresolution of four anti-ulcer drugs (chiral sulfoxides), namely, omeprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole and pantoprazole, was carried out by high-performance liquid chromatography using a polysaccharide-based chiral stationary phase consisting of monochloromethylated cellulose (Lux cellulose-2) under normal and polar-organic-phase conditions with ultraviolet detection at 285 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, robustness and limit of detection. The optimized enantioresolution method was compared for both the elution modes. The optimized method was further utilized to check the enantiomeric purity of dexrabeprazole. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Phenobarbital Treatment at a Neonatal Age Results in Decreased Efficacy of Omeprazole in Adult Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tien, Yun-Chen; Piekos, Stephanie C.; Pope, Chad

    2017-01-01

    Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) occur when the action of one drug interferes with or alters the activity of another drug taken concomitantly. This can lead to decreased drug efficacy or increased toxicity. Because of DDIs, physicians in the clinical practice attempt to avoid potential interactions when multiple drugs are coadministrated; however, there is still a large knowledge gap in understanding how drugs taken in the past can contribute to DDIs in the future. The goal of this study was to investigate the consequence of neonatal drug exposure on efficacy of other drugs administered up through adult life. We selected a mouse model to test phenobarbital exposure at a neonatal age and its impact on efficacy of omeprazole in adult life. The results of our experiment show an observed decrease in omeprazole’s ability to raise gastric pH in adult mice that received single or multiple doses of phenobarbital at a neonatal age. This effect may be associated with the permanent induction of cytochrome P450 enzymes in adult liver after neonatal phenobarbital treatment. Our data indicates that DDIs may result from drugs administered in the past in an animal model and should prompt re-evaluation of how DDIs are viewed and how to avoid long-term DDIs in clinical practice. PMID:28062542

  12. Effects of Rolapitant Administered Intravenously on the Pharmacokinetics of a Modified Cooperstown Cocktail (Midazolam, Omeprazole, Warfarin, Caffeine, and Dextromethorphan) in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Zhi-Yi; Arora, Sujata; Wang, Jing; Lu, Sharon; Powers, Dan; Kansra, Vikram

    2018-04-25

    Rolapitant is a selective, long-acting neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, approved in the United States and Europe for prevention of delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in adults. This open-label study evaluated the effects of a new intravenous formulation of rolapitant on cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme (CYP3A, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP2D6) activity. On days 1 and 14, 36 healthy volunteers received a modified Cooperstown cocktail (midazolam 3 mg [CYP3A substrate], caffeine 200 mg [CYP1A2 substrate], S-warfarin 10 mg [CYP2C9 substrate] + vitamin K 10 mg, omeprazole 40 mg [CYP2C19 substrate], and dextromethorphan 30 mg [CYP2D6 substrate]). On day 7, subjects received the modified Cooperstown cocktail after 166.5-mg rolapitant infusion. On days 21, 28, and 35, subjects received oral dextromethorphan. Maximum plasma concentration (C max ) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC 0-last ) of probe drugs post- vs pre-rolapitant administration were assessed using geometric least-squares mean ratios (GMRs) with 90%CIs. The 90%CIs of the GMRs were within the 0.80-1.25 no-effect limits for caffeine and S-warfarin C max and AUC 0-last . For midazolam C max and AUC 0-last and omeprazole C max , the 90%CIs of the GMRs were marginally outside these limits. Intravenous rolapitant coadministration increased dextromethorphan exposure, peaking 14 days post-rolapitant administration (GMRs: C max , 2.74, 90%CI 2.21-3.40; AUC 0-last , 3.36, 90%CI 2.74-4.13). Intravenous rolapitant 166.5 mg and probe drugs were well tolerated when coadministered. These data suggest that intravenous rolapitant is not an inhibitor of CYP3A, CYP2C9, CYP2C19, or CYP1A2 but is a moderate inhibitor of CYP2D6. © 2018, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  13. Effects of aging and rifampicin pretreatment on the pharmacokinetics of human cytochrome P450 probes caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in common marmosets genotyped for cytochrome P450 2C19.

    PubMed

    Toda, Akiko; Uehara, Shotaro; Inoue, Takashi; Utoh, Masahiro; Kusama, Takashi; Shimizu, Makiko; Uno, Yasuhiro; Mogi, Masayuki; Sasaki, Erika; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2018-07-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics were investigated for human cytochrome P450 probes after single intravenous and oral administrations of 0.20 and 1.0 mg/kg, respectively, of caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam to aged (10-14 years old, n = 4) or rifampicin-treated/young (3 years old, n = 3) male common marmosets all genotyped as heterozygous for a cytochrome P450 2C19 variant. 2. Slopes of the plasma concentration-time curves after intravenous administration of warfarin and midazolam were slightly, but significantly (two-way analysis of variance), decreased in aged marmosets compared with young marmosets. The mean hepatic clearances determined by in silico fitting for individual pharmacokinetic models of warfarin and midazolam in the aged group were, respectively, 23% and 56% smaller than those for the young group. 3. Significantly enhanced plasma clearances of caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole and midazolam were evident in young marmosets pretreated with rifampicin (25 mg/kg daily for 4 days). Two- to three-fold increases in hepatic intrinsic clearance values were observed in the individual pharmacokinetic models. 4. The in vivo dispositions of multiple simultaneously administered drugs in old, young and P450-enzyme-induced marmosets were elucidated. The results suggest that common marmosets could be experimental models for aged, induced or polymorphic P450 enzymes in P450-dependent drug metabolism studies.

  14. Gastric mucosal lesions induced by complete dopamine system failure in rats. The effects of dopamine agents, ranitidine, atropine, omeprazole and pentadecapeptide BPC 157.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Separovic, J; Buljat, G; Anic, T; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Mikus, D; Duplancic, B; Marovic, A; Zoricic, I; Prkacin, I; Lovric-Bencic, M; Aralica, G; Ziger, T; Perovic, D; Jelovac, N; Dodig, G; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Seiwerth, S; Turkovic, B; Grabarevic, Z; Petek, M; Rucman, R

    2000-01-01

    Up to now, for gastric lesions potentiation or induction, as well as determination of endogenous dopamine significance, dopamine antagonist or dopamine vesicle depletor were given separately. Therefore, without combination studies, the evidence for dopamine significance remains split on either blockade of dopamine post-synaptic receptor or inhibition of dopamine storage, essentially contrasting with endogenous circumstances, where both functions could be simultaneously disturbed. For this purpose, a co-administration of reserpine and haloperidol, a dopamine granule depletor combined with a dopamine antagonist with pronounced ulcerogenic effect, was tested, and the rats were sacrificed 24 h after injurious agent(s) administration. Haloperidol (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given alone, produced the lesions in all rats. Reserpine (5 mg x kg(-1) b.w. i.p.), given separately, also produced lesions. When these agents were given together, the lesions were apparently larger than in the groups injured with separate administration of either haloperidol or reserpine alone. Along with our previous results, when beneficial agents were co-administered, all dopaminomimetics (bromocriptine 10 mg, apomophine 1 mg, amphetamine 20 mg x kg(-1) i.p.) apparently attenuated the otherwise consistent haloperidol-gastric lesions. Likewise, an apparent inhibition of the reserpine-lesions was noted as well. However, if they were given in rats injured with combination of haloperidol and reserpine, their otherwise prominent beneficial effects were absent. Ranitidine (10 mg), omeprazole (10 mg), atropine (10 mg), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (Gly-Glu-Pro-Pro-Pro-Gly-Lys-Pro-Ala-Asp-Asp-Ala-Gly-Leu-Val) (10 microg or 10 ng x kg(-1) i.p.) evidently prevented both haloperidol-gastric lesions and reserpine-gastric lesions. Confronted with potentiated lesions following a combination of haloperidol and reserpine, these agents maintained their beneficial effects, noted in the rats treated with either

  15. Improved HPLC method for determination of four PPIs, omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole in human plasma.

    PubMed

    Noubarani, Maryam; Keyhanfar, Fariborz; Motevalian, Manijeh; Mahmoudian, Masoud

    2010-01-01

    To develop a simple and rapid HPLC method for measuring of four proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole (OPZ), pantoprazole (PPZ), lansoprazole (LPZ) and rabeprazole (RPZ) concentrations in human plasma. Following a single step liquid-liquid extraction analytes along with an internal standard (IS) were separated using an isocratic mobile phase of phosphate buffer (10 mM)/acetonitrile (53/47, v/v adjusted pH to 7.3 with triethylamine) at flow rate of 1 mL/min on reverse phase TRACER EXCEL 120 ODS-A column at room temperature. Total analytical run time for selected PPIs was 10 min. The assays exhibited good linearity (r(2)>0.99) over the studied range of 20 to 2500 ng/mL for OPZ, 20 to 4000 ng/mL for PPZ, 20 to 3000 ng/mL for LPZ and 20 to 1500 ng/mL for RPZ. The recovery of method was equal or greater than 80% and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 20 ng/mL for four PPIs. Coefficient of variation and error at all of the intra-day and inter-day assessment were less than 9.2% for all compounds. The results indicated that this method is a simple, rapid, precise and accurate assay for determination of four PPIs concentrations in human plasma. This validated method is sensitive and reproducible enough to be used in pharmacokinetic studies and also is time- and cost-benefit when selected PPIs are desired to be analyzed.

  16. Effects of omeprazole or anti-reflux surgery on lower oesophageal sphincter characteristics and oesophageal acid exposure over 10 years.

    PubMed

    Emken, Birgitte-Elise G; Lundell, Lars R; Wallin, Lene; Myrvold, Helge E; Engström, Cecilia; Montgomery, Madeleine; Malm, Anders R; Lind, Tore; Hatlebakk, Jan G

    2017-01-01

    To compare the effect of anti-reflux surgery (ARS) versus proton pump inhibitor therapy on lower oesophageal sphincter (LOS) function and oesophageal acid exposure in patients with chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) over a decade of follow-up. In this randomised, prospective, multicentre study we compared LOS pressure profiles, as well as oesophageal exposure to acid, at baseline and at 1 and 10 years after randomisation to either open ARS (n = 137) or long-term treatment with omeprazole (OME) 20-60 mg daily (n = 108). Median LOS resting pressure and abdominal length increased significantly and remained elevated in patients operated on with ARS, as opposed to those on OME. The proportion of total time (%) with oesophageal pH <4.0 decreased significantly in both the surgical and medical groups, and was significantly lower after 1 year in patients treated with ARS versus OME. After 10 years, oesophageal acid exposure was normalised in both groups, with no significant differences, and bilirubin exposure was within normal limits. After 10 years, patients with or without Barrett's oesophagus did not differ in acid reflux control between the two treatment options. Open ARS and OME were both effective in normalising acid reflux into the oesophagus even when studied over a period of 10 years. Anatomically and functionally the LOS was repaired durably by surgery, with increased resting pressure and abdominal length.

  17. Omeprazole increases the efficacy of a soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitor in a PGE2 induced pain model

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Sumanta Kumar; Inceoglu, Bora; Yang, Jun; Wan, Debin; Kodani, Sean D.; da Silva, Carlos Antonio Trindade; Morisseau, Christophe; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) are potent endogenous analgesic metabolites produced from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P450s (P450s). Metabolism of EETs by soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduces their activity, while their stabilization by sEH inhibition decreases both inflammatory and neuropathic pain. Here, we tested the complementary hypothesis that increasing the level of EETs through induction of P450s by omeprazole (OME), can influence pain related signaling by itself, and potentiate the anti-hyperalgesic effect of sEH inhibitor. Rats were treated with OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days), sEH inhibitor TPPU (3 mg/kg/day, p.o.) and OME (100 mg/kg/day, p.o., 7 days) + TPPU (3 mg/kg/day, p.o., last 3 days of OME dose) dissolved in vehicle PEG400, and their effect on hyperalgesia (increased sensitivity to pain) induced by PGE2 was monitored. While OME treatment by itself exhibited variable effects on PGE2 induced hyperalgesia, it strongly potentiated the effect of TPPU in the same assay. The significant decrease in pain with OME + TPPU treatment correlated with the increased levels of EETs in plasma and increased activities of P450 1A1 and P450 1A2 in liver microsomes. The results show that reducing catabolism of EETs with a sEH inhibitor yielded a stronger analgesic effect than increasing generation of EETs by OME, and combination of both yielded the strongest pain reducing effect under the condition of this study. PMID:26522832

  18. Comparison of four proton pump inhibitors for the short-term treatment of esophagitis in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa; Leandro, Gioacchino; Scarcelli, Carlo; D'Ambrosio, Luigi Piero; Paris, Francesco; Annese, Vito; Seripa, Davide; Andriulli, Angelo; Di Mario, Francesco

    2007-09-07

    To compare efficacy and tolerability of four proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) commonly used in the short-term therapy of esophagitis in elderly patients. A total of 320 patients over 65 years with endoscopically diagnosed esophagitis were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments for 8 wk: (1) omeprazole 20 mg/d; (2) lansoprazole 30 mg/d; (3) pantoprazole 40 mg/d, or (4) rabeprazole 20 mg/d. Major symptoms, compliance, and adverse events were recorded. After 8 wk, endoscopy and clinical evaluation were repeated. Per protocol and intention to treat healing rates of esophagitis were: omeprazole = 81.0% and 75.0%, lansoprazole = 90.7% (P = 0.143 vs omeprazole) and 85.0%, pantoprazole = 93.5% (P = 0.04 vs omeprazole) and 90.0% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole), rabeprazole = 94.6% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole) and 88.8% (P = 0.04 vs omeprazole). Dividing patients according to the grades of esophagitis, omeprazole was significantly less effective than the three other PPIs in healing grade 1 esophagitis (healing rates: 81.8% vs 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, P = 0.012). Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (100%) were more effective vs omeprazole (89.6%, P = 0.0001) and lansoprazole (82.4%, P = 0.0001) in decreasing heartburn. Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (92.2% and 90.1%, respectively) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (75.0%, P < 0.05) in decreasing acid regurgitation. Finally, pantoprazole and rabeprazole (95.2% and 100%) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (82.6%, P < 0.05) in decreasing epigastric pain. In elderly patients, pantoprazole and rabeprazole were significantly more effective than omeprazole in healing esophagitis and than omeprazole or lansoprazole in improving symptoms. H pylori infection did not influence the healing rates of esophagitis after a short-term treatment with PPI.

  19. Comparison of four proton pump inhibitors for the short-term treatment of esophagitis in elderly patients

    PubMed Central

    Pilotto, Alberto; Franceschi, Marilisa; Leandro, Gioacchino; Scarcelli, Carlo; D’Ambrosio, Luigi Piero; Paris, Francesco; Annese, Vito; Seripa, Davide; Andriulli, Angelo; Di Mario, Francesco

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To compare efficacy and tolerability of four proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) commonly used in the short-term therapy of esophagitis in elderly patients. METHODS: A total of 320 patients over 65 years with endoscopically diagnosed esophagitis were randomly assigned to one of the following treatments for 8 wk: (1) omeprazole 20 mg/d; (2) lansoprazole 30 mg/d; (3) pantoprazole 40 mg/d, or (4) rabeprazole 20 mg/d. Major symptoms, compliance, and adverse events were recorded. After 8 wk, endoscopy and clinical evaluation were repeated. RESULTS: Per protocol and intention to treat healing rates of esophagitis were: omeprazole = 81.0% and 75.0%, lansoprazole = 90.7% (P = 0.143 vs omeprazole) and 85.0%, pantoprazole = 93.5% (P = 0.04 vs omeprazole) and 90.0% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole), rabeprazole = 94.6% (P = 0.02 vs omeprazole) and 88.8% (P = 0.04 vs omeprazole). Dividing patients according to the grades of esophagitis, omeprazole was significantly less effective than the three other PPIs in healing grade 1 esophagitis (healing rates: 81.8% vs 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively, P = 0.012). Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (100%) were more effective vs omeprazole (89.6%, P = 0.0001) and lansoprazole (82.4%, P = 0.0001) in decreasing heartburn. Pantoprazole and rabeprazole (92.2% and 90.1%, respectively) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (75.0%, P < 0.05) in decreasing acid regurgitation. Finally, pantoprazole and rabeprazole (95.2% and 100%) were also more effective vs lansoprazole (82.6%, P < 0.05) in decreasing epigastric pain. CONCLUSION: In elderly patients, pantoprazole and rabeprazole were significantly more effective than omeprazole in healing esophagitis and than omeprazole or lansoprazole in improving symptoms. H pylori infection did not influence the healing rates of esophagitis after a short-term treatment with PPI. PMID:17724802

  20. Improvement and validation of a high-performance liquid chromatography in tandem mass spectrometry method for monitoring of omeprazole in plasma.

    PubMed

    Wojnicz, Aneta; Gil García, Ana Isabel; Román-Martínez, Manuel; Ochoa-Mazarro, Dolores; Abad-Santos, Francisco; Ruiz-Nuño, Ana

    2015-06-01

    Omeprazole (OME) is a proton pump inhibitor with a 58% bioavailability after a single oral dose. It is subject to marked interindividual variations and significant drug-drug interactions. The authors developed a simple and rapid method based on liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry with solid phase extraction and isotope-labeled internal standard to monitor plasma levels of OME in pharmacokinetics and drug-drug interaction studies. OME and its internal standard (OME-D3) were eluted with a Zorbax Extend C-18 rapid resolution column (4.6 × 50 mm, 3.5 μm) at 25°C, under isocratic conditions through a mobile phase consisting of 1 mM ammonium acetate, pH 8.5 (55%), and acetonitrile (45%). The flow rate was 0.8 mL/min, and the chromatogram run time was 1.2 minutes. OME was detected and quantified by liquid chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization, which operates in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was linear in the range of 1.5-2000 ng/mL for OME. The validation assays for accuracy and precision, matrix effect, extraction recovery, and stability of the samples for OME did not deviate more than 20% for the lower limit of quantification and no more than 15% for other quality controls. These findings are consistent with the requirements of regulatory agencies. The method enables rapid quantification of OME concentrations and can be used in pharmacokinetic and drug-drug interaction studies.

  1. Omeprazole Attenuates Pulmonary Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Activation and Potentiates Hyperoxia-Induced Developmental Lung Injury in Newborn Mice.

    PubMed

    Shivanna, Binoy; Zhang, Shaojie; Patel, Ananddeep; Jiang, Weiwu; Wang, Lihua; Welty, Stephen E; Moorthy, Bhagavatula

    2015-11-01

    Hyperoxia contributes to the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in human preterm infants and a similar lung phenotype characterized by alveolar simplification in newborn mice. Omeprazole (OM) is a proton pump inhibitor that is used to treat humans with gastric acid related disorders. OM-mediated aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) activation attenuates acute hyperoxic lung injury (HLI) in adult mice. Whether OM activates pulmonary AhR and protects C57BL/6J newborn mice against hyperoxia-induced developmental lung (alveolar and pulmonary vascular simplification, inflammation, and oxidative stress) injury (HDLI) is unknown. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that OM will activate pulmonary AhR and mitigate HDLI in newborn mice. Newborn mice were treated daily with i.p. injections of OM at doses of 10 (OM10) or 25 (OM25) mg/kg while being exposed to air or hyperoxia (FiO2 of 85%) for 14 days, following which their lungs were harvested to determine alveolarization, pulmonary vascularization, inflammation, oxidative stress, vascular injury, and AhR activation. To our surprise, hyperoxia-induced alveolar and pulmonary vascular simplification, inflammation, oxidative stress, and vascular injury were augmented in OM25-treated animals. These findings were associated with attenuated pulmonary vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 expression and decreased pulmonary AhR activation in the OM25 group. We conclude that contrary to our hypothesis, OM decreases functional activation of pulmonary AhR and potentiates HDLI in newborn mice. These observations are consistent with our previous findings, which suggest that AhR activation plays a protective role in HDLI in newborn mice. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. An Analysis of the Effectiveness of the Retail Pharmacy Utilization Intervention at General Leonard Wood Army Community Hospital

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-23

    limited to those beneficiaries who filled prescriptions for esomeprazole, clopidogrel, zolpidem, omeprazole, atorvastatin , monteluckast, fexofenadine...formulary. Nexium (esomeprazole) Plavix (clopidogrel) Ambien (zolpidem) Prilosec (omeprazole) Lipitor ( atorvastatin ) Singulair (montelukast...Prilosec (omeprazole) • Topimax (topiramate) • Detrol (tolterodine) Lipitor ( atorvastatin ) We would like to remind you that these medications and many

  3. Novel application of proton pump inhibitor for the prevention of colitis-induced colorectal carcinogenesis beyond acid suppression.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yoon Jae; Lee, Jeong Sang; Hong, Kyung Sook; Chung, Jun Won; Kim, Ju Hyun; Hahm, Ki Baik

    2010-08-01

    Colitis-associated cancers arise in the setting of chronic inflammation wherein an "inflammation-dysplasia-carcinoma" sequence prevails. Based on our previous findings in which the proton pump inhibitor could impose significant levels of anti-inflammatory, antiangiogenic, and selective apoptosis induction beyond gastric acid suppression, we investigated whether omeprazole could prevent the development of colitis-associated cancer in a mouse model induced by repeated bouts of colitis. Omeprazole, 10 mg/kg, was given i.p. all through the experimental periods for colitis-associated carcinogenesis. Molecular changes regarding inflammation and carcinogenesis were compared between control groups and colitis-associated cancer groups treated with omeprazole in addition to chemopreventive outcome. Nine of 12 (75.0%) mice in the control group developed multiple colorectal tumors, whereas tumors were noted in only 3 of 12 (25.0%) mice treated with daily injections of omeprazole. The cancer-preventive results of omeprazole treatment was based on significant decreases in the levels of nitric oxide, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance, and interleukin-6 accompanied with attenuated expressions of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and cyclooxygenase-2. The expressions of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, MMP-11, and MT1-MMMP were significantly decreased in mice treated with omeprazole in accordance with significant decreases in the number of beta-catenin-accumulated crypts. A significant induction of apoptosis was observed in tumor tissue treated with omeprazole. Omeprazole could block the trophic effect of gastrin in colon epithelial cells. The significant anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antimutagenic activities of omeprazole played a cancer-preventive role against colitis-induced carcinogenesis, and our novel in vivo evidence is suggestive of chemopreventive action independent of gastric acid suppression. 2010 AACR.

  4. Heartburn treatment in primary care: randomised, double blind study for 8 weeks

    PubMed Central

    Hatlebakk, Jan G; Hyggen, Arild; Madsen, Per H; Walle, Per O; Schulz, Tom; Mowinckel, Petter; Bernklev, Tomm; Berstad, Arnold

    1999-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects and tolerability of omeprazole and cisapride with that of placebo for control of heartburn in primary care patients. Design Randomised, double blind, placebo controlled study. Setting 65 primary care practices in Norway. Participants 483 untreated patients with complaints of heartburn ⩾3 days a week, with at most grade 1 reflux oesophagitis. Interventions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily, cisapride 20 mg twice daily, or placebo for 8 weeks. Main outcome measures Adequate control of heartburn, defined as ⩽1 day of the past 7 days with no more than mild heartburn, after 4 weeks of treatment. Results In the all patients treated analysis, adequate control of heartburn was achieved in 71% of patients taking omeprazole, 22% taking cisapride, and 18% taking placebo after 4 weeks of treatment (omeprazole v cisapride and placebo, P<0.0001; cisapride v placebo, non-significant). Results were comparable in patients with or without reflux oesophagitis. In patients treated with omeprazole only, symptom control was achieved significantly more often in patients positive for Helicobacter pylori. Antacid use was 2-3 times greater in patients taking cisapride or placebo than in those taking omeprazole. Relief of non-reflux symptoms did not significantly differ between the three groups. Significantly more patients taking cisapride reported adverse events than those taking omeprazole or placebo. Conclusions Omeprazole 20 mg once daily was highly effective in relieving heartburn whereas cisapride 20 mg twice daily was not significantly more effective than placebo. Key messagesIn primary care patients, heartburn is commonly treated empiricallyMost randomised clinical trials of treatment for heartburn have been conducted in specialist care, and documentation for empirical treatment is limitedOmeprazole was significantly more effective than cisapride or placebo in controlling heartburn and other symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux after 2, 4, and 8 weeks

  5. Varying efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens: cost effectiveness study using a decision analysis model.

    PubMed

    Duggan, A E; Tolley, K; Hawkey, C J; Logan, R F

    1998-05-30

    To determine how small differences in the efficacy and cost of two antibiotic regimens to eradicate Helicobacter pylori can affect the overall cost effectiveness of H pylori eradication in duodenal ulcer disease. A decision analysis to examine the cost effectiveness of eight H pylori eradication strategies for duodenal ulcer disease with and without 13C-urea breath testing to confirm eradication. Cumulative direct treatment costs per 100 patients with duodenal ulcer disease who were positive for H pylori. In model 1 the strategy of omeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole alone was the most cost effective of the four strategies assessed. The addition of the 13C-urea breath test and a second course of omeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole achieved the highest eradication rate (97%) but was the most expensive (62.63 pounds per patient). The cost of each additional effective eradication was 589.00 pounds (incremental cost per case) when compared with the cost of treating once only with omeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole; equivalent to the cost of a patient receiving ranitidine for duodenal ulcer relapse for more than 15 years. Eradication strategies of omeprazole, amoxycillin, and metronidazole were less cost effective than omeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole alone. In model 2 the addition of the 13C-urea breath test after treatment, and maintenance treatment, increased the cost of all the strategies and reduced the cost advantage of omeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole alone. Small differences in efficacy can influence the comparative cost effectiveness of strategies for eradicating H pylori. Of the strategies tested the most cost effective (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole alone) was neither the least expensive (omeprazole, amoxycillin, and metronidazole alone) nor the most effective (omeprazole, clarithromycin, and metronidazole with further treatment for patients found positive for H pylori on 13C-urea breath

  6. Physiological and Metabolic Responses Triggered by Omeprazole Improve Tomato Plant Tolerance to NaCl Stress

    PubMed Central

    Rouphael, Youssef; Raimondi, Giampaolo; Lucini, Luigi; Carillo, Petronia; Kyriacou, Marios C.; Colla, Giuseppe; Cirillo, Valerio; Pannico, Antonio; El-Nakhel, Christophe; De Pascale, Stefania

    2018-01-01

    Interest in the role of small bioactive molecules (< 500 Da) in plants is on the rise, compelled by plant scientists' attempt to unravel their mode of action implicated in stimulating growth and enhancing tolerance to environmental stressors. The current study aimed at elucidating the morphological, physiological and metabolomic changes occurring in greenhouse tomato (cv. Seny) treated with omeprazole (OMP), a benzimidazole inhibitor of animal proton pumps. The OMP was applied at three rates (0, 10, or 100 μM) as substrate drench for tomato plants grown under nonsaline (control) or saline conditions sustained by nutrient solutions of 1 or 75 mM NaCl, respectively. Increasing NaCl concentration from 1 to 75 mM decreased the tomato shoot dry weight by 49% in the 0 μM OMP treatment, whereas the reduction was not significant at 10 or 100 μM of OMP. Treatment of salinized (75 mM NaCl) tomato plants with 10 and especially 100 μM OMP decreased Na+ and Cl− while it increased Ca2+ concentration in the leaves. However, OMP was not strictly involved in ion homeostasis since the K+ to Na+ ratio did not increase under combined salinity and OMP treatment. OMP increased root dry weight, root morphological characteristics (total length and surface), transpiration, and net photosynthetic rate independently of salinity. Metabolic profiling of leaves through UHPLC liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry facilitated identification of the reprogramming of a wide range of metabolites in response to OMP treatment. Hormonal changes involved an increase in ABA, decrease in auxins and cytokinin, and a tendency for GA down accumulation. Cutin biosynthesis, alteration of membrane lipids and heightened radical scavenging ability related to the accumulation of phenolics and carotenoids were observed. Several other stress-related compounds, such as polyamine conjugates, alkaloids and sesquiterpene lactones, were altered in response to OMP. Although a

  7. Evaluation of antiulcer activity of indole-3-carbinol and/or omeprazole on aspirin-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Shinnawy, Nashwa A; Abd-Elmageid, Samira A; Alshailabi, Eda M A

    2014-05-01

    The present work is an attempt to elucidate the antiulcer activity of indole-3-carbinol (I3C), which is one of the anticarcinogenic phytochemicals found in the vegetables of Cruciferae family such as broccoli and cauliflower, alone or in combination with omeprazole (OMP), a proton pump inhibitor, to diminish the effects of induced acute gastric ulcer by aspirin (ASA) in male albino rats. A total of 48 adult male albino rats were used in the present study. Animals were divided into eight experimental groups (six animals each group). They were given different experimental inductions of ASA at a dose of 500 mg/kg/body weight, OMP at a dose of 20 mg/kg/body weight and I3C at a dose of 20 mg/kg/body weight either alone or in combination with each other orally for a duration of 7 days. Inner stomach features, ulcer index, pH activity, body weight, stomach weight, hematological investigations, serum total protein albumin and reduced glutathione activity were investigated in addition to the histological, histochemical and immunohistochemical stain of cyclooxygenase-2 to the stomach tissue of normal control, ulcerated and treated ulcerated rats. The results of this study revealed that oral administration of ASA to rats produced the expected characteristic mucosal lesions. OMP accelerated ulcer healing but the administration of I3C either alone or in combination with OMP to ASA-ulcerated rats produced a profound protection to the gastric mucosa from injury induced by ASA. Our results suggested that administration of antiulcer natural substances such as I3C in combination with the perused treatment such as OMP is a very important initiative in the development of new strategies in ulcer healing.

  8. Conversion of sustained release omeprazole loaded buccal films into fast dissolving strips using supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) processing, for potential paediatric drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sajjad; Trivedi, Vivek; Mitchell, John; Boateng, Joshua S

    2016-10-10

    This study involves the development of thin oral solvent cast films for the potential delivery of the proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole (OME) via the buccal mucosa for paediatric patients. OME containing films were prepared from ethanolic gels (1% w/w) of metolose (MET) with polyethylene glycol (PEG 400) (0.5% w/w) as plasticiser, and L-arginine (l-arg) (0.2% w/w) as a stabilizer and dried in an oven at 40°C. The blank and drug loaded films were divided into two groups, one group was subjected to supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) treatment and the other group untreated. The untreated and scCO2 treated films were then characterised using differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, hydration (swelling), mucoadhesion and in vitro drug dissolution studies. Treatment of the solvent cast films with scCO2 caused significant changes to the functional and physical properties of the MET films. The original drug loaded MET films showed a sustained release of OME (1h), whereas scCO2 treatment of the formulations resulted in fast dissolving films with >90% drug release within 15min. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Cost comparative analysis of drug therapy for non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcer in Japan].

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, Masayuki; Yamauchi, Nobuaki; Uchikura, Takeshi; Mochizuki, Mayumi

    2008-04-01

    Drug selection for the treatment of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced gastric ulcer was analyzed pharmacoeconomically. Two patterns consisting of continuation of an NSAID plus administration of the prostaglandin (PG) preparation misoprostol (PG model) for 8 weeks and continuation of an NSAID plus administration of the proton-pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole (PPI model) for 8 weeks were examined. Decision analysis models were created on the basis of reports of clinical studies and epidemiologic studies relating to the drugs and gastric ulcer, and cost-comparative analyses were conducted based on the number of persons who had ulcer healing as health outcomes. Costs were estimated with respect to health expenditures from the third-party payer (public) perspective. In the case of continuation of an NSAID plus administration of the proton-pump inhibitor omeprazole for 8 weeks, the health outcomes improved and costs were reduced in comparison with continuation of an NSAID plus administration of misoprostol, thus making the administration of omeprazole the dominant choice. With continuation of an NSAID plus administration of lansoprazole for 8 weeks, the cost-savings of lansoprazole were inferior to those of misoprostol. The generic omeprazole product was the most cost-saving among the four drugs (misoprostol, original omeprazole product, generic omeprazole product, and lansoprazole) examined.

  10. Seven-year follow-up of a randomized clinical trial comparing proton-pump inhibition with surgical therapy for reflux oesophagitis.

    PubMed

    Lundell, L; Miettinen, P; Myrvold, H E; Hatlebakk, J G; Wallin, L; Malm, A; Sutherland, I; Walan, A

    2007-02-01

    This randomized clinical trial compared long-term outcome after antireflux surgery with acid inhibition therapy in the treatment of chronic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD). Patients with chronic GORD and oesophagitis verified at endoscopy were allocated to treatment with omeprazole (154 patients) or antireflux surgery (144). After 7 years of follow-up, 119 patients in the omeprazole arm and 99 who had antireflux surgery were available for evaluation. The primary outcome variable was the cumulative proportion of patients in whom treatment failed. Secondary objectives were evaluation of the treatment failure rate after dose adjustment of omeprazole, safety, and the frequency and severity of post-fundoplication complaints. The proportion of patients in whom treatment did not fail during the 7 years was significantly higher in the surgical than in the medical group (66.7 versus 46.7 per cent respectively; P=0.002). A smaller difference remained after dose adjustment in the omeprazole group (P=0.045). More patients in the surgical group complained of symptoms such as dysphagia, inability to belch or vomit, and rectal flatulence. These complaints were fairly stable throughout the study interval. The mean daily dose of omeprazole was 22.8, 24.1, 24.3 and 24.3 mg at 1, 3, 5 and 7 years respectively. Chronic GORD can be treated effectively by either antireflux surgery or omeprazole therapy. After 7 years, surgery was more effective in controlling overall disease symptoms, but specific post-fundoplication complaints remained a problem. There appeared to be no dose escalation of omeprazole with time. Copyright (c) 2007 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd.

  11. Weight gain in mice on a high caloric diet and chronically treated with omeprazole depends on sex and genetic background.

    PubMed

    Saqui-Salces, Milena; Tsao, Amy C; Gillilland, Merritt G; Merchant, Juanita L

    2017-01-01

    The impact of omeprazole (OM), a widely used over-the-counter proton pump inhibitor, on weight gain has not been extensively explored. We examined what factors, e.g., diet composition, microbiota, genetic strain, and sex, might affect weight gain in mice fed a high caloric diet while on OM. Inbred C57BL/6J strain, a 50:50 hybrid (B6SJLF1/J) strain, and mice on a highly mixed genetic background were fed four diets: standard chow (STD, 6% fat), STD with 200 ppm OM (STD + O), a high-energy chow (HiE, 11% fat), and HiE chow with OM (HiE + O) for 17 wk. Metabolic analysis, body composition, and fecal microbiota composition were analyzed in C57BL/6J mice. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using mice on the mixed background. After 8 wk, female and male C57BL/6J mice on the HiE diets ate less, whereas males on the HiE diets compared with the STD diets gained weight. All diet treatments reduced energy expenditure in females but in males only those on the HiE + O diet. Gut microbiota composition differed in the C57BL/6J females but not the males. Hybrid B6SJLF1/J mice showed similar weight gain on all test diets. In contrast, mixed strain male mice fed a HiE + O diet gained ∼40% more weight than females on the same diet. In addition to increased weight gain, mixed genetic mice on the HiE + O diet cleared glucose normally but secreted more insulin. We concluded that sex and genetic background define weight gain and metabolic responses of mice on high caloric diets and OM. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  12. Weight gain in mice on a high caloric diet and chronically treated with omeprazole depends on sex and genetic background

    PubMed Central

    Tsao, Amy C.; Gillilland, Merritt G.; Merchant, Juanita L.

    2016-01-01

    The impact of omeprazole (OM), a widely used over-the-counter proton pump inhibitor, on weight gain has not been extensively explored. We examined what factors, e.g., diet composition, microbiota, genetic strain, and sex, might affect weight gain in mice fed a high caloric diet while on OM. Inbred C57BL/6J strain, a 50:50 hybrid (B6SJLF1/J) strain, and mice on a highly mixed genetic background were fed four diets: standard chow (STD, 6% fat), STD with 200 ppm OM (STD + O), a high-energy chow (HiE, 11% fat), and HiE chow with OM (HiE + O) for 17 wk. Metabolic analysis, body composition, and fecal microbiota composition were analyzed in C57BL/6J mice. Oral glucose tolerance tests were performed using mice on the mixed background. After 8 wk, female and male C57BL/6J mice on the HiE diets ate less, whereas males on the HiE diets compared with the STD diets gained weight. All diet treatments reduced energy expenditure in females but in males only those on the HiE + O diet. Gut microbiota composition differed in the C57BL/6J females but not the males. Hybrid B6SJLF1/J mice showed similar weight gain on all test diets. In contrast, mixed strain male mice fed a HiE + O diet gained ∼40% more weight than females on the same diet. In addition to increased weight gain, mixed genetic mice on the HiE + O diet cleared glucose normally but secreted more insulin. We concluded that sex and genetic background define weight gain and metabolic responses of mice on high caloric diets and OM. PMID:27810953

  13. Effects of rabeprazole on the antiplatelet effects and pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Funck-Brentano, Christian; Szymezak, Jean; Steichen, Olivier; Ducint, Dominique; Molimard, Mathieu; Remones, Véronique; Azizi, Michel; Gaussem, Pascale

    2013-12-01

    Several studies have suggested that proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs), mostly omeprazole, interact with clopidogrel efficacy by inhibiting the formation of its active metabolite via CYP2C19 inhibition. Whether this occurs with all PPIs is a matter of debate. As rabeprazole is a less potent CYP2C19 inhibitor than other PPIs, we studied the interaction between rabeprazole and the antiplatelet actions and pharmacokinetics of clopidogrel. To demonstrate the non-inferiority of rabeprazole over placebo using change in platelet reactivity index (PRI; vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein [VASP] assay) in a predefined population of good clopidogrel responders. Omeprazole was used as the positive control. In this randomized three-period crossover study in healthy volunteers, 36 healthy men received clopidogrel (75 mg/day for 7 days) with placebo, omeprazole (20mg/day) or rabeprazole (20mg/day). Clopidogrel antiplatelet effects and disposition kinetics were assessed on day 7 of combination therapy. Non-inferiority threshold was predefined as an upper limit of the 90% confidence interval for the difference in change in PRI between placebo and rabeprazole of<10% in good clopidogrel responders. In good clopidogrel responders (inhibition of VASP index>30%), the clopidogrel antiplatelet effect remained non-inferior to placebo during rabeprazole (difference 3.4% [-1.7; 8.5]) but not omeprazole (difference 7.5% [2.5; 12.6]) co-administration. The AUC0-24 and Cmax of active clopidogrel metabolite decreased with both omeprazole and rabeprazole, and conditions of bioequivalence were not met, except for AUC0-24 with rabeprazole. Rabeprazole does not interact with clopidogrel to the same extent as omeprazole. However, under our experimental conditions and proton-pump inhibitor doses, there was no significant pharmacodynamic interaction between rabeprazole or omeprazole and clopidogrel, despite a significant decrease in the formation of clopidogrel active metabolite. Copyright © 2013

  14. Relationship between the acid-inhibitory effects of two proton pump inhibitors and CYP2C19 genotype in Japanese subjects: a randomized two-way crossover study.

    PubMed

    Furuta, K; Adachi, K; Ohara, S; Morita, T; Tanimura, T; Koshino, K; Kinoshita, Y

    2010-01-01

    This two-way crossover study investigated possible differences between the proton pump inhibitors, omeprazole and rabeprazole, in their effect on gastric acid secretion in Japanese subjects with differing cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily C, polypeptide 19 (CYP2C19) genotypes. A total of 23 Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy volunteers received omeprazole 20 mg/day and rabeprazole 10 mg/day. Each drug treatment was given for a continuous 7-day period allocated in random order, with an interval of at least 1 week between drug treatment periods to allow for wash-out. Intragastric pH was measured on days 1 and 7. Overall median intragastric pH levels at 7 and 8 h after the first administration were significantly higher with omeprazole. There was no significant difference in intragastric pH in homozygous extensive metabolizers, whereas intragastric pH was significantly higher with omeprazole in combined data from heterozygous extensive metabolizers and poor metabolizers at 6, 7 and 8 h after the first drug administration. There were no significant differences in intragastric pH between omeprazole and rabeprazole irrespective of genotype on day 7 of administration. In conclusion, on day 1 the time to onset of the antisecretory action of 20 mg/day omeprazole was more rapid than that of 10 mg/day rabeprazole in Japanese individuals who have a higher incidence of the CYP2C19 poor metabolizer genotype, however by day 7 no difference in antisecretory effect was found, regardless of genotype.

  15. Simultaneous estimation of four proton pump inhibitors--lansoprazole, omeprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole: development of a novel generic HPLC-UV method and its application to clinical pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Bharathi, D Vijaya; Hotha, Kishore Kumar; Jagadeesh, B; Chatki, Pankaj K; Thriveni, K; Mullangi, Ramesh; Naidu, A

    2009-07-01

    A highly selective, sensitive and accurate HPLC method has been developed and validated for the estimation of four proton-pump inhibitors (PPI), lansoprazole (LPZ), omeprazole (OPZ), pantoprazole (PPZ) and rabeprazole (RPZ), with 500 microL human plasma using zonisamide as an internal standard (IS). The sample preparation involved simple liquid-liquid extraction of LPZ, OPZ, PPZ and RPZ and IS from human plasma with ethyl acetate. The baseline separation of all the peaks was achieved with 0.1% triethylamine (pH 6.0):acetonitrile (72:28, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL/min on a Zorbax C(8) column. The total chromatographic run time was 11.0 min and the simultaneous elution of IS, OPZ, RPZ, PPZ and LPZ occurred at approximately 2.42, 4.45, 5.02 and 9.37 min, respectively. The method was proved to be accurate and precise at linearity range of 20.61-1999.79 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient (r) of >or=0.999. The limit of quantitation for each of the PPI studied was 20.61 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy values were found to be within the assay variability limits as per the FDA guidelines. The developed assay method was applied to a pharmacokinetic study in human volunteers. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. The potential therapeutic effect of melatonin in Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease.

    PubMed

    Kandil, Tharwat S; Mousa, Amany A; El-Gendy, Ahmed A; Abbas, Amr M

    2010-01-18

    Gastro-Esophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) defined as a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms and/or complications. Many drugs are used for the treatment of GERD such as omeprazole (a proton pump inhibitor) which is a widely used antiulcer drug demonstrated to protect against esophageal mucosal injury. Melatonin has been found to protect the gastrointestinal mucosa from oxidative damage caused by reactive oxygen species in different experimental ulcer models. The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of exogenous melatonin in the treatment of reflux disease in humans either alone or in combination with omeprazole therapy. 36 persons were divided into 4 groups (control subjects, patients with reflux disease treated with melatonin alone, omeprazole alone and a combination of melatonin and omeprazole for 4 and 8 weeks) Each group consisted of 9 persons. Persons were subjected to thorough history taking, clinical examination, and investigations including laboratory, endoscopic, record of esophageal motility, pH-metry, basal acid output and serum gastrin. Melatonin has a role in the improvement of Gastro-esophageal reflux disease when used alone or in combination with omeprazole. Meanwhile, omeprazole alone is better used in the treatment of GERD than melatonin alone. The present study showed that oral melatonin is a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of GERD. It is an effective line of treatment in relieving epigastric pain and heartburn. However, further studies are required to confirm the efficacy and long-term safety of melatonin before being recommended for routine clinical use. QA13NCT00915616.

  17. Double-dose, new-generation proton pump inhibitors do not improve Helicobacter pylori eradication rate.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyo Sun; Park, Dong Il; Hwang, Sang Jun; Park, Jung Sik; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Sohn, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2007-12-01

    Up to present, omeprazole plus two antibiotics are used for Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy . Few studies have compared double-dose new-generation, proton pump inhibitors (PPI) with omeprazole. Therefore, we conducted a randomized, prospective study to evaluate differences in H. pylori eradication rates by PPI type. Between January 2006 and December 2006, 576 consecutive patients with proven H. pylori infection were enrolled prospectively. Four different PPIs [omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. (old generation), or pantoprazole 40 mg b.i.d., rabeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., or esomeprazole 40 mg b.i.d. (new generation)] were added to clarithromycin (500 mg b.i.d.) and amoxicillin (1 g b.i.d.) for 1 week. By intention-to-treat analysis, no difference was found between the eradication rates of these four PPIs: 64.9% (omeprazole, n = 148), 69.3% (pantoprazole, n = 140), 69.3% (rabeprazole, n = 140), and 72.9% (esomoprazole, n = 148). When eradication rates were analyzed according to whether patients had an ulcer or not on a per-protocol basis, no difference was found between the eradication rates of the four PPIs. However, side-effects were more common in the esomeprazole-based triple therapy group than in the other groups (p < .05). No convincing evidence was obtained that double-dose new-generation PPIs have better H. pylori eradication rates and tolerability than omeprazole.

  18. Influence of different proton pump inhibitors on activity of cytochrome P450 assessed by [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test.

    PubMed

    Kodaira, Chise; Uchida, Shinya; Yamade, Mihoko; Nishino, Masafumi; Ikuma, Mutsuhiro; Namiki, Noriyuki; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Hishida, Akira; Furuta, Takahisa

    2012-03-01

    Aminopyrine is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) in the liver. The investigators evaluated influences of different PPIs on CYP activity as assessed by the [(13)C]-aminopyrine breath test ([(13)C]-ABT). Subjects were 15 healthy volunteers with different CYP2C19 status (5 rapid metabolizers [RMs], 5 intermediate metabolizers [IMs], and 5 poor metabolizers [PMs]). Breath samples were collected before and every 15 to 30 minutes for 3 hours after oral ingestion of [(13)C]-aminopyrine 100 mg on day 8 of each of the following regimens: control; omeprazole 20 mg and 80 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, and rabeprazole 20 mg. Changes in carbon isotope ratios in carbon dioxide ((13)CO(2)/(12)CO(2)) in breath samples were measured by infrared spectrometry and expressed as delta-over-baseline (DOB) ratios (‰). Mean areas under the curve of DOB from 0 to 3 h (AUC(0-3h) of DOB) were significantly decreased by omeprazole 20 mg and lansoprazole 30 mg but not by rabeprazole 20 mg. Conversely, higher PPI dose (ie, omeprazole 80 mg) seemed to further decrease AUC(0-3h) of DOB in RMs but increased it in PMs. Omeprazole and lansoprazole at the standard doses inhibit CYP activity but rabeprazole does not, whereas high-dose omeprazole seems to induce CYPs.

  19. A one-year economic evaluation of six alternative strategies in the management of uninvestigated upper gastrointestinal symptoms in Canadian primary care.

    PubMed

    Barkun, Alan N; Crott, Ralph; Fallone, Carlo A; Kennedy, Wendy A; Lachaine, Jean; Levinton, Carey; Armstrong, David; Chiba, Naoki; Thomson, Alan; Veldhuyzen van Zanten, Sander; Sinclair, Paul; Escobedo, Sergio; Chakraborty, Bijan; Smyth, Sandra; White, Robert; Kalra, Helen; Nevin, Krista

    2010-08-01

    The cost-effectiveness of initial strategies in managing Canadian patients with uninvestigated upper gastrointestinalsymptoms remains controversial. To assess the cost-effectiveness of six management approaches to uninvestigated upper gastrointestinal symptoms in the Canadian setting. The present study analyzed data from four randomized trials assessing homogeneous and complementary populations of Canadian patients with uninvestigated upper gastrointestinal symptoms with comparable outcomes. Symptom-free months, qualityadjusted life-years (QALYs) and direct costs in Canadian dollars of two management approaches based on the Canadian Dyspepsia Working Group (CanDys) Clinical Management Tool, and four additional strategies (two empirical antisecretory agents, and two prompt endoscopy) were examined and compared. Prevalence data, probabilities, utilities and costs were included in a Markov model, while sensitivity analysis used Monte Carlo simulations. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and cost-effectiveness acceptability curves were determined. Empirical omeprazole cost $226 per QALY ($49 per symptom-free month) per patient. CanDys omeprazole and endoscopy approaches were more effective than empirical omeprazole, but more costly. Alternatives using H2-receptor antagonists were less effective than those using a proton pump inhibitor. No significant differences were found for most incremental cost-effectiveness ratios. As willingness to pay (WTP) thresholds rose from $226 to $24,000 per QALY, empirical antisecretory approaches were less likely to be the most costeffective choice, with CanDys omeprazole progressively becoming a more likely option. For WTP values ranging from $24,000 to $70,000 per QALY, the most clinically relevant range, CanDys omeprazole was the most cost-effective strategy (32% to 46% of the time), with prompt endoscopy-proton pump inhibitor favoured at higher WTP values. Although no strategy was the indisputable cost effective option, Can

  20. Cost-effectiveness of treatment regimens for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori in duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Vakil, N; Fennerty, M B

    1996-02-01

    Eradication of Helicobacter pylori with antimicrobials was recommended by a recent NIH consensus panel for all infected patients with peptic ulcer disease. The precise regimen that should be used for eradication of the infection remains uncertain because of the variety of regimens described, variable results with the regimens, and difficulties in predicting drug compliance outside clinical trials. A decision analysis tree was developed with three regimens that are widely used regimens for the eradication of H. pylori: 1) 2-wk triple drug therapy (metronidazole, bismuth, tetracycline with H2 receptor antagonist), 2) 2-wk omeprazole and amoxicillin, and 3) 2-wk omeprazole and clarithromycin. Traditional H2 receptor antagonist therapy was used for comparison. A 2-yr time period was chosen for study to allow sufficient time for relapse and to evaluate its effect on the treatment strategy. Probabilities for eradication, compliance, and metronidazole resistance were determined from published data, and assumptions were tested by sensitivity analysis. Standard 2-wk triple drug therapy was the least expensive strategy ($720), and conventional H2 receptor antagonist therapy was the most expensive ($1791). Costs with 2-wk therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin ($768) were lower than with omeprazole and amoxicillin ($1028). Treatment to eradicate H. pylori in infected patients with duodenal ulcer is a less expensive strategy than traditional therapy with H2 receptor antagonists. Triple drug therapy is the optimal regimen in areas where metronidazole resistance rates are < 36% and compliance is > 53%. Omeprazole and amoxicillin is not cost-effective unless eradication rates are greater than 74%. Dual drug therapy with omeprazole and clarithromycin is effective in regions where metronidazole resistance is high or where it is anticipated that there would be poor compliance with the more complicated triple drug therapy regimen.

  1. Reduced susceptibility of Enterococcus spp. isolates from Cairo University Hospital to tigecycline: Highlight on the influence of proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Reem Mostafa; Ghaith, Doaa Mohammad; Ismail, Dalia Kadry; Zafer, Mai Mahmoud

    2018-03-01

    The incidence of reduced susceptibility to tigecycline (TIG) is increasing. This study aimed to analyse the in vitro activity of TIG against Enterococcus spp. isolates recovered from hospitalised patients and to evaluate the effect of omeprazole on the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TIG against several enterococcal species. A total of 67 Enterococcus clinical isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF/MS and multiplex PCR. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TIG alone and in combination with omeprazole (10, 30 and 60mg/L) were determined by broth microdilution. Antibiotic susceptibility to other antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion. The presence of van, tet(X) and tet(X1) genes was tested by multiplex PCR. Of the 67 Enterococcus isolates, 2 (3.0%) were resistant to TIG and 13 (19.4%) were intermediate-resistant according to EUCAST. The frequencies of resistance to norfloxacin (80.6%), doxycycline (80.6%), levofloxacin (74.6%) and ciprofloxacin (71.6%) were highest, whilst that of vancomycin (25.4%) was lowest. The vanA gene was detected in 11 Enterococcus isolates (8 Enterococcus faecalis, 3 Enterococcus faecium), vanB in 3 Enterococcus isolates (2 E. faecium, 1 E. faecalis) and vanC-2/3 in 3 Enterococcus casseliflavus. Nine isolates (13.4%) were positive for tet(X1). TIG resistance occurred both in patients receiving or not TIG and/or omeprazole. Omeprazole increased TIG MICs by 4-128-fold. The possibility of selection of TIG-non-susceptible Enterococcus in the gut may occur with long-term use of omeprazole. Omeprazole influenced TIG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. To our knowledge; this is the first report of TIG-non-susceptible Enterococcus spp. in Egypt. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on the serum concentrations of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline.

    PubMed

    Gjestad, Caroline; Westin, Andreas A; Skogvoll, Eirik; Spigset, Olav

    2015-02-01

    The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are all metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme CYP2C19, which is inhibited by the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these PPIs on the serum concentrations of citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline. Serum concentrations from patients treated with citalopram, escitalopram, or sertraline were obtained from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring database, and samples from subjects concomitantly using PPIs were identified. Dose-adjusted SSRI serum concentrations were calculated to compare data from those treated and those not treated with PPIs. Citalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+35.3%; P < 0.001), esomeprazole (+32.8%; P < 0.001), and lansoprazole (+14.7%; P = 0.043). Escitalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+93.9%; P < 0.001), esomeprazole (+81.8%; P < 0.001), lansoprazole (+20.1%; P = 0.008), and pantoprazole (+21.6%; P = 0.002). Sertraline concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with esomeprazole (+38.5%; P = 0.0014). The effect of comedication with PPIs on the serum concentration of SSRIs is more pronounced for omeprazole and esomeprazole than for lansoprazole and pantoprazole, and escitalopram is affected to a greater extent than are citalopram and sertraline. When omeprazole or esomeprazole are used in combination with escitalopram, a 50% dose reduction of the latter should be considered.

  3. Effect of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Serum Concentrations of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors Citalopram, Escitalopram, and Sertraline

    PubMed Central

    Gjestad, Caroline; Westin, Andreas A.; Skogvoll, Eirik

    2015-01-01

    Background: The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline are all metabolized by the cytochrome P-450 isoenzyme CYP2C19, which is inhibited by the proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, and pantoprazole. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of these PPIs on the serum concentrations of citalopram, escitalopram, and sertraline. Methods: Serum concentrations from patients treated with citalopram, escitalopram, or sertraline were obtained from a routine therapeutic drug monitoring database, and samples from subjects concomitantly using PPIs were identified. Dose-adjusted SSRI serum concentrations were calculated to compare data from those treated and those not treated with PPIs. Results: Citalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+35.3%; P < 0.001), esomeprazole (+32.8%; P < 0.001), and lansoprazole (+14.7%; P = 0.043). Escitalopram concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with omeprazole (+93.9%; P < 0.001), esomeprazole (+81.8%; P < 0.001), lansoprazole (+20.1%; P = 0.008), and pantoprazole (+21.6%; P = 0.002). Sertraline concentrations were significantly higher in patients treated with esomeprazole (+38.5%; P = 0.0014). Conclusions: The effect of comedication with PPIs on the serum concentration of SSRIs is more pronounced for omeprazole and esomeprazole than for lansoprazole and pantoprazole, and escitalopram is affected to a greater extent than are citalopram and sertraline. When omeprazole or esomeprazole are used in combination with escitalopram, a 50% dose reduction of the latter should be considered. PMID:24887634

  4. Increase in gastric pH reduces hypotensive effect of oral sodium nitrite in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Lucas C; Montenegro, Marcelo F; Amaral, Jefferson H; Ferreira, Graziele C; Oliveira, Alisson M; Tanus-Santos, Jose E

    2012-08-15

    The new pathway nitrate-nitrite-nitric oxide (NO) has emerged as a physiological alternative to the classical enzymatic pathway for NO formation from l-arginine. Nitrate is converted to nitrite by commensal bacteria in the oral cavity and the nitrite formed is then swallowed and reduced to NO under the acidic conditions of the stomach. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that increases in gastric pH caused by omeprazole could decrease the hypotensive effect of oral sodium nitrite. We assessed the effects of omeprazole treatment on the acute hypotensive effects produced by sodium nitrite in normotensive and L-NAME-hypertensive free-moving rats. In addition, we assessed the changes in gastric pH and plasma levels of nitrite, NO(x) (nitrate+nitrite), and S-nitrosothiols caused by treatments. We found that the increases in gastric pH induced by omeprazole significantly reduced the hypotensive effects of sodium nitrite in both normotensive and L-NAME-hypertensive rats. This effect of omeprazole was associated with no significant differences in plasma nitrite, NO(x), or S-nitrosothiol levels. Our results suggest that part of the hypotensive effects of oral sodium nitrite may be due to its conversion to NO in the acidified environment of the stomach. The increase in gastric pH induced by treatment with omeprazole blunts part of the beneficial cardiovascular effects of dietary nitrate and nitrite. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Does BMI affect the clinical efficacy of proton pump inhibitor therapy in GERD? The case for rabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Pace, Fabio; Coudsy, Bogdana; DeLemos, Byron; Sun, Yijun; Xiang, Jim; LoCoco, John; Casalini, Stefania; Li, Honglan; Pelosini, Iva; Scarpignato, Carmelo

    2011-10-01

    Increased BMI is associated with a higher risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease. To investigate whether overweight/obesity (BMI≥25 kg/m(2)) affects rabeprazole clinical efficacy versus omeprazole in patients with erosive esophagitis (EE). Post-hoc analysis of EE healing rate and symptom response stratified by patient BMI was performed on data from a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, 4-to-8-week trial comparing EE healing with rabeprazole (20 mg daily) and omeprazole (20 mg daily). Analysis of variance, two-sample t-test, Blackwelder's test for equivalence, log-rank, and Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel tests were used to analyze comparisons. In the two BMI groups (<25 kg/m(2) and ≥25 kg/m(2) respectively), rabeprazole and omeprazole were equally effective for mucosal healing regardless of patient's BMI (N=542, P>0.05). However, in overweight/obese patients, rabeprazole was significantly faster than omeprazole in inducing heartburn relief during the first treatment week (P<0.0001). Results of this study show that the clinical efficacy of rabeprazole is maintained in overweight/obese patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease and suggest that this subgroup of patients may derive, from rabeprazole, even greater benefit than lean patients.

  6. Morbidity and Mortality in Preterm Infants following Antacid Use: A Retrospective Audit

    PubMed Central

    Dhayade, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Antacids are often prescribed to preterm infants due to misdiagnosis of gastro-oesophageal reflux. This suppresses gastric acidity, a major defence mechanism against infection. This study aims to determine if ranitidine and omeprazole use in very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates, <1500 grams, is associated with increased risk of late onset sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), and mortality. Methods. Retrospective analysis was conducted on neonates, <1500 grams, born and admitted into the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit at The Canberra Hospital during the period from January 2008 to December 2012. Information regarding late onset sepsis, NEC, mortality, ranitidine/omeprazole use, and other neonatal/hospital factors was collected for each neonate. Results. 360 neonates were evaluated, 64 received ranitidine and/or omeprazole, and 296 had not. There were no statistically significant differences in incidence of late onset sepsis (OR = 0.52, CI = 0.24–1.1, and p = 0.117), NEC Stage 2 and above (OR = 0.4, CI = 0.05–3.2, and p = 0.7), or mortality (OR = 0.35, CI = 0.08–1.5, and p = 0.19) between the two groups. After adjusting significant differences in neonatal and hospital factors, risk of late onset sepsis was significantly lower in those that received ranitidine/omeprazole (OR = 0.28, CI = 0.13–0.65, and p = 0.003). Conclusions. Ranitidine and omeprazole use in VLBW preterm infants may not be associated with an increased risk of infection, NEC, and mortality. PMID:27990166

  7. Is ranitidine therapy sufficient for healing peptic ulcers associated with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug use?

    PubMed Central

    YEOMANS, N D; SVEDBERG, L-E; NAESDAL, J

    2006-01-01

    Long-term use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increases the risk of serious gastroduodenal events. To minimise these risks, patients often require concomitant acid-suppressive therapy. We conducted a literature review of clinical trials examining use of ranitidine 150 mg twice daily to heal gastroduodenal ulcers (GU) in NSAID recipients. Seven studies were identified. After 8 weeks’ treatment with ranitidine, GU healing rates ranged from 50% to 74% and rates of duodenal ulcer (DU) healing ranged from 81% to 84%. Ranitidine was more effective when NSAIDs were discontinued (healing rates reaching 95% and 100%, respectively). The ulcer healing rate with sucralfate was similar to that of ranitidine. However, proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy was associated with significantly greater rates of both GU and DU healing than ranitidine; 8-week GU rates were 92% and 88% with esomeprazole 40 mg and 20 mg, respectively (vs. 74% with ranitidine, p < 0.01). For omeprazole, 8-week healing rates were 87% with omeprazole 40 mg and 84% with omeprazole 20 mg (vs. 64% for ranitidine, p < 0.001), and for lansoprazole the corresponding values were 73–74% and 66–69% for the 30 mg and 15 mg doses, respectively (vs. 50–53% for ranitidine, p < 0.05). In the PPI study reporting DU healing the values were 92% for omeprazole 20 mg (vs. 81% for ranitidine, p < 0.05) and 88% for omeprazole 40 mg (p = 0.17 vs. ranitidine). NSAID-associated GU are more likely to heal when patients receive concomitant treatment with a PPI rather than ranitidine. PMID:17073837

  8. Azithromycin in a triple therapy for H.pylori eradication in active duodenal ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Lapina, Tatiana L.; Bondarenko, Oksana Yu.; Sklanskaya, Olga A.; Grigoriev, Petr Ya.; Vasiliev, Yuri V.; Yakovenko, Emilia P.; Gulyaev, Pavel V.; Fedchenko, Valeri I.

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To assess and compare the efficacy and safety of two triple regimes: A) metronidazole, amoxicillin and omeprazole, which is still widely used in Russia, and B) azithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole in healing active duodenal ulcer and H. pylori eradication. METHODS: 100 patients with active duodenal ulcer were included in the open, multicentre, randomized study with comparative groups. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the following one-week triple regimes: A) metronidazole 500 mg bid, amoxicillin 1 g bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid (OAM, n = 50) and B) azithromycin 1 g od for the first 3 d (total dose 3 g), amoxicillin 1 g bid and omeprazole 20 mg bid (OAA, n = 50). Omeprazole 20 mg od was given after the eradication course as a monotherapy for three weeks. The control endoscopy was performed 8 wk after the entry. H. pylori infection was determined in the entry of the study and four weeks after the cessation of treatment by means of histology and CLO-test. RESULTS: 97 patients completed the study according to the protocol (1 patient of the OAM group did not come to the control endoscopy, 2 patients of the OAA group stopped the treatment because of mild allergic urticaria). Duodenal ulcers were healed in 48 patients of the OAM group (96%; CI 90.5%-100%) and in 46 patients of the OAA group (92%; CI 89.5%-94.5%) (p = ns). H. pylori infection was eradicated in 15 out of 50 patients with OAM (30%; CI 17%-43%) and in 36 out of 50 patients treated with OAA (72%; CI 59%-85%) (P < 0.001) - ITT analysis. CONCLUSION: The triple therapy with omeprazole, amoxicillin and metronidazole failed to eradicate H. pylori in the majority of patients, which is an essential argument to withdraw this regimen out of the national recommendations. Macrolide with amoxicillin are preferable to achieve higher eradication rates. Azithromycin (1 g od for the first 3 d) can be considered as a successful component of the triple PPI-based regimen. PMID:12378634

  9. Synthesis, physicochemical characterization, DFT calculation and biological activities of Fe(III) and Co(II)-omeprazole complexes. Potential application in the Helicobacter pylori eradication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russo, Marcos G.; Vega Hissi, Esteban G.; Rizzi, Alberto C.; Brondino, Carlos D.; Salinas Ibañez, Ángel G.; Vega, Alba E.; Silva, Humberto J.; Mercader, Roberto; Narda, Griselda E.

    2014-03-01

    The reaction between the antiulcer agent omeprazole (OMZ) with Fe(III) and Co(II) ions was studied, observing a high ability to form metal complexes. The isolated microcrystalline solid complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), magnetic measurements, thermal study, FTIR, UV-Visible, Mössbauer, electronic paramagnetic resonance (EPR), and DFT calculations. The metal-ligand ratio for both complexes was 1:2 determined by elemental and thermal analysis. FTIR spectroscopy showed that OMZ acts as a neutral bidentate ligand through the pyridinic nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring and the oxygen atom of the sulfoxide group, forming a five-membered ring chelate. Electronic, Mössbauer, and EPR spectra together with magnetic measurements indicate a distorted octahedral geometry around the metal ions, where the coordination sphere is completed by two water molecules. SEM and XRPD were used to characterize the morphology and the crystal nature of the complexes. The most favorable conformation for the Fe(III)-OMZ and Co(II)-OMZ complexes was obtained by DFT calculations by using B3LYP/6-31G(d)&LanL2DZ//B3LYP/3-21G(d)&LanL2DZ basis set. Studies of solubility along with the antibacterial activity against Helicobacter pylori for OMZ and its Co(II) and Fe(III) complexes are also reported. Free OMZ and both metal complexes showed antibacterial activity against H. pylori. Co(II)-OMZ presented a minimal inhibitory concentration ˜32 times lower than that of OMZ and ˜65 lower than Fe(III)-OMZ, revealing its promising potential use for the treatment of gastric pathologies associated with the Gram negative bacteria. The morphological changes observed in the cell membrane of the bacteria after the incubation with the metal-complexes were also analyzed by SEM microscopy. The antimicrobial activity of the complexes was proved by the viability test.

  10. Helicobacter pylori eradication prior to initiation of long-term non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug therapy in Chinese patients-a cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    You, J H S; Lau, W; Lee, I Y C; Yung, M; Ching, J Y L; Chan, F K L; Lee, K K C

    2006-04-01

    Recent randomized clinical trials suggested that eradication of Helicobacter pylori prior to initiation of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) therapy would reduce the rate of peptic ulcer disease (PUD). To analyze the cost-effectiveness of H. pylori eradication prior to initiation of long-term NSAID therapy for prevention of NSAID-induced PUD in a cohort of Chinese patients at high risk for PUD. Clinical and economic data of 100 participants from a previously reported clinical trial conducted in Hong Kong were analyzed. Patients with a history of peptic ulcers were randomized to 1-week omeprazole 20 mg, amoxicillin 1 g and clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily (eradication group; n = 51) or 1-week omeprazole 20 mg twice daily (omeprazole group; n = 49) before initiation of diclofenac 100 mg daily for 6 months. The rates of PUD and healthcare utilization for routine follow-up as well as for management of symptomatic PUD of the 2 groups were retrieved from medical records. The rate of symptomatic ulcers in eradication group and omeprazole group were 3.9% and 18%, respectively. The mean direct medical cost of the eradication group was significantly lower than that of the omeprazole group by 30% (US dollar 797 (95% CI = 685 - 909) versus US dollar 1,128 (95% CI = 879 - 1,377)) (p = 0.018). The results were robust to variation of all the cost items. H. pylori eradication prior to initiation of NSAID therapy appeared to reduce the ulcer rate and mean direct medical cost when compared to no eradication for Chinese H. pylori-infected NSAID users at high risk for PUD.

  11. Protective Effect of ECQ on Rat Reflux Esophagitis Model.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyeon-Soon; Han, Jeong Hoon; Jeong, Jun Yeong; Sohn, Uy Dong

    2012-12-01

    This study was designed to determine the protective effect of Rumex Aquaticus Herba extracts containing quercetin-3-β-D-glucuronopyranoside (ECQ) on experimental reflux esophagitis. Reflux esophagitis was induced by surgical procedure. The rats were divided into seven groups, namely normal group, control group, ECQ (1, 3, 10, 30 mg/kg) group and omeprazole (30 mg/kg) group. ECQ and omeprazole groups received intraduodenal administration. The Rats were starved for 24 hours before the experiments, but were freely allowed to drink water. ECQ group attenuated the gross esophagitis significantly compared to that treated with omeprazole in a dose-dependent manner. ECQ decreased the volume of gastric juice and increased the gastric pH, which are similar to those of omeprazole group. In addition, ECQ inhibited the acid output effectively in reflux esophagitis. Significantly increased amounts of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and the mucosal depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) were observed in the reflux esophagitis. ECQ administration attenuated the decrement of the GSH levels and affected the MDA levels and MPO activity. These results suggest that the ECQ has a protective effect which may be attributed to its multiple effects including anti-secretory, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory actions on reflux esophagitis in rats.

  12. Characteristics of refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms -is switching proton pump inhibitors based on the patient's CYP2C19 genotype an effective management strategy?

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Oota, Kazuhiro; Harada, Satoshi; Edogawa, Shoko; Kojima, Yuichi; Sanomura, Makoto; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Hayashi, Katsuyoshi; Hongoh, Yasushi; Itabashi, Tsukasa; Kitae, Hidehiro; Hoshimoto, Masahiro; Takeuchi, Nozomi; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2015-01-01

    We investigated factors related to proton pump inhibitor (PPI) -refractory gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms, particularly with respect to acid, the CYP2C19 genotype and psychological aspects. Patients with an Frequency Scale for the Symptoms of GERD (FSSG) score of ≥8 after the initial treatment were switched to therapy with rabeprazole at a dose of 20 mg once daily for eight weeks. We investigated the rate of improvement in PPI-refractory GERD symptoms, background factors, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) score and the CYP2C19 genotype. Patients Sixty patients endoscopically diagnosed with reflux esophagitis within the past six months who had received omeprazole at a dose of 20 mg once daily for eight weeks or longer were enrolled. In 71.6% of the patients, the FSSG score decreased to <8 after treatment with omeprazole at a dose of 20 mg once daily for ≥8 weeks, resulting in improvements in their GERD symptoms. Significant factors related to omeprazole-refractory GERD symptoms included a longer disease duration (p=0.0004) and higher HADS score (p=0.01). Among the omeprazole-refractory cases, only 23.5% of the patients showed symptom improvement after switching to rabeprazole. There were no significant differences in the average scores for FSSG (p=0.089) or HADS (p=0.182), before or after the drug change. A total of 92% of the rabeprazole poor responders were homo/hetero extensive metabolizers for the CYP2C19 genotype. Our findings suggest that switching the PPI from omeprazole (20 mg once daily) to rabeprazole (20 mg once daily) is not a significant effective therapeutic strategy for improving PPI-refractory GERD symptoms, taking into consideration possible psychometric factors and patients who require stronger acid suppression than that achieved with a double dose of PPIs for PPI-refractory GERD symptoms.

  13. Correspondence between the CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 genotypes with the inferred metabolizer phenotype by omeprazole administration in Mexican healthy children.

    PubMed

    Favela-Mendoza, A F; Martínez-Cortes, G; Romero-Prado, M M; Romero-Tejeda, E M; Islas-Carbajal, M C; Sosa-Macias, M; Lares-Asseff, I; Rangel-Villalobos, H

    2018-05-07

    CYP2C19 genotypes presumably allow the prediction of the metabolizer phenotypes: poor (PMs), extensive (EMs) and ultra-rapid (UMs). However, evidence from previous studies regarding this predictive power is unclear, which is important because the benefits expected by healthcare institutions and patients are based on this premise. Therefore, we aimed to complete a formal evaluation of the diagnostic value of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 genes for predicting metabolizer phenotypes established by omeprazole (OME) administration in 118 healthy children from Jalisco (western Mexico). The genotypes for CYP3A4*1B and CYP2C19*2, *3, *4, *5 and *17 alleles were determined. CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 phenotypes were obtained after 20 mg OME administration and HPLC quantification in plasma to estimate the Hydroxylation Index (HI = OME/HOME) and Sulfonation Index (SI = OME/SOME), respectively. The distribution of genotypes and phenotypes for CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 was similar to previous studies in Mexico and Latin America. We estimated the CYP2C19 UM, EM and PM phenotype frequency in 0.84%, 96.61% and 2.54%, respectively. Although differences in the HI distribution were observed between CYP2C19 genotypes, they showed a poor diagnostic ability to predict the CYP2C19 metabolizer phenotype. Similarly, the number of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 functional alleles was correlated with the HI distribution, but also their diagnostic ability to predict the CYP2C19 phenotype was poor. The CYP2C19 phenotype is not predicted by the number of functional alleles of CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 genes. Phenotyping is still the most valuable alternative to dose individualization for CYP2C19 substrate drugs. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Noninvasive assessment of gastric acid secretion in man. Application of electrical impedance tomography (EIT).

    PubMed

    Sarker, S A; Mahalanabis, D; Bardhan, P K; Alam, N H; Rabbani, K S; Kiber, A; Hassan, M; Islam, S; Fuchs, G J; Gyr, K

    1997-08-01

    Electrical impedance tomography (EIT) is a tubeless technique that generates tomographic images of gastric resistivity. We investigated the application of EIT to measure gastric acid secretion. Nineteen normal subjects underwent a standard intubation test. Basal acid output (BAO) and stimulated acid output (SAO) (millimoles per hour) were measured before and after pentagastrin, respectively. On a different day, EIT was performed before (basal) and after pentagastrin (stimulated). The changes in impedance over time were measured and the area under the curve (AUC) was calculated. Both the tests were repeated in 13 subjects after omeprazole treatment. As in the intubation test, there was the expected increase in AUC value after pentagastrin (basal vs stimulated; 1.2 +/- 2.8 vs 731 +/- 297, P < 0.0001). A significant fall in acid output and AUC following omeprazole pretreatment was observed (without vs with omeprazole; 20.5 +/- 5.7 vs 0.03 +/- 0.06, P < 0.0001 for intubation test and 731 +/- 297 vs 44 +/- 172, P < 0.0001 for EIT). There was a significant correlation between SAO and the delta AUC with (r = 0.65 P < 0.001) or without (r = 0.95, P < 0.001) omeprazole and in all the experiments (r = 0.87, P < 0.001). This study demonstrates the predictable change of gastric impedance and may be useful as a noninvasive test for measuring gastric acid secretion.

  15. Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its association with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome in allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Mohammed; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Saleemi, Sarfraz; Khan, Mohammed Qaseem; Khan, Basha; Ahmed, Shad; Ibrahim, Khalid El Tayeb; Mobeireek, Abdullah; Al Mohareb, Fahad; Chaudhri, Naeem

    2013-06-01

    Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome is a significant postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant problem. Recent data in lung transplant patients suggest an association with gastroesophageal reflux disease and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. We studied posthematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome for gastroesophageal reflux disease and its response to a proton pump inhibitor. Seven postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome were studied. Gastroesophageal reflux disease was assessed by 24-hour pH monitoring with a Bravo catheter-free radio pH capsule. Patients with positive gastroesophageal reflux disease were started on omeprazole. Pretreatment and posttreatment pulmonary function tests were done at 3-month intervals. Of 7 patients, 5 had positive results for gastroesophageal reflux disease (71%). Omeprazole had a disease-stabilizing effect on the patients' pulmonary function tests. Our study shows a significant association between bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome and gastroesophageal reflux disease in postallogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant patients. Use of omeprazole may have a disease-stabilizing effect in short-term follow-up.

  16. Sensitivity and proportionality assessment of metabolites from microdose to high dose in rats using LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Ni, Jinsong; Ouyang, Hui; Seto, Carmai; Sakuma, Takeo; Ellis, Robert; Rowe, Josh; Acheampong, Andrew; Welty, Devin; Szekely-Klepser, Gabriella

    2010-03-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity requirement for LC-MS/MS as an analytical tool to characterize metabolites in plasma and urine at microdoses in rats and to investigate proportionality of metabolite exposure from a microdose of 1.67 µg/kg to a high dose of 5000 µg/kg for atorvastatin, ofloxacin, omeprazole and tamoxifen. Only the glucuronide metabolite of ofloxacin, the hydroxylation metabolite of omeprazole and the hydration metabolite of tamoxifen were characterized in rat plasma at microdose by LC-MS/MS. The exposure of detected metabolites of omeprazole and tamoxifen appeared to increase in a nonproportional manner with increasing doses. Exposure of ortho- and para-hydroxyatorvastatin, but not atorvastatin and lactone, increased proportionally with increasing doses. LC-MS/MS has demonstrated its usefulness for detecting and characterizing the major metabolites in plasma and urine at microdosing levels in rats. The exposure of metabolites at microdose could not simply be used to predict their exposure at higher doses.

  17. Development of RP UPLC-TOF/MS, stability indicating method for omeprazole and its related substances by applying two level factorial design; and identification and synthesis of non-pharmacopoeial impurities.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Sushant Bhimrao; Kumar, C Kiran; Bandichhor, Rakeshwar; Bhosale, P N

    2016-01-25

    A new UPLC-TOF/MS compatible, reverse phase-stability indicating method was developed for determination of Omeprazole (OMP) and its related substances in pharmaceutical dosage forms by implementing Design of Experiment (DoE) i.e. two level full factorial Design (2(3)+3 center points=11 experiments) to understand the Critical Method Parameters (CMP) and its relation with Critical Method Attribute (CMA); to ensure robustness of the method. The separation of eleven specified impurities including conversion product of OMP related compound F (13) and G (14) i.e. Impurity-I (1), OMP related compound-I (11) and OMP 4-chloro analog (12) was achieved in a single method on Acquity BEH shield RP18 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm column, with inlet filter (0.2 μm) using gradient elution and detector wavelength at 305 nm and validated in accordance with ICH guidelines and found to be accurate, precise, reproducible, robust and specific. The drug was found to degrade extensively in heat, humidity and acidic conditions and forms unknown degradation products during stability studies. The same method was used for LC-MS analysis to identify m/z and fragmentation of maximum unknown impurities (Non-Pharmacopoeial) i.e. Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9) formed during stability studies. Based on the results, degradation pathway for the drug has been proposed and synthesis of identified impurities i.e. impurities (Impurity-I (1), Impurity-III (3), Impurity-V (5) and Impurity-VIII (9)) are discussed in detail to ensure in-depth understanding of OMP and its related impurities and optimum performance during lifetime of the product. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Evaluation of six proton pump inhibitors as inhibitors of various human cytochromes P450: focus on cytochrome P450 2C19.

    PubMed

    Zvyaga, Tatyana; Chang, Shu-Ying; Chen, Cliff; Yang, Zheng; Vuppugalla, Ragini; Hurley, Jeremy; Thorndike, Denise; Wagner, Andrew; Chimalakonda, Anjaneya; Rodrigues, A David

    2012-09-01

    Six proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), omeprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole, dexlansoprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole, were shown to be weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 (CYP3A4, -2B6, -2D6, -2C9, -2C8, and -1A2) in human liver microsomes. In most cases, IC₅₀ values were greater than 40 μM, except for dexlansoprazole and lansoprazole with CYP1A2 (IC₅₀ = ∼8 μM) and esomeprazole with CYP2C8 (IC₅₀ = 31 μM). With the exception of CYP2C19 inhibition by omeprazole and esomeprazole (IC₅₀ ratio, 2.5 to 5.9), there was no evidence for a marked time-dependent shift in IC₅₀ (IC₅₀ ratio, ≤ 2) after a 30-min preincubation with NADPH. In the absence of preincubation, lansoprazole (IC₅₀ = 0.73 μM) and esomeprazole (IC₅₀ = 3.7 μM) were the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors, followed by dexlansoprazole and omeprazole (IC₅₀ = ∼7.0 μM). Rabeprazole and pantoprazole (IC₅₀ = ≥ 25 μM) were the weakest. A similar ranking was obtained with recombinant CYP2C19. Despite the IC₅₀ ranking, after consideration of plasma levels (static and dynamic), protein binding, and metabolism-dependent inhibition, it is concluded that omeprazole and esomeprazole are the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitors. This was confirmed after the incubation of the individual PPIs with human primary hepatocytes (in the presence of human serum) and by monitoring their impact on diazepam N-demethylase activity at a low concentration of diazepam (2 μM). Data described herein are consistent with reports that PPIs are mostly weak inhibitors of cytochromes P450 in vivo. However, two members of the PPI class (esomeprazole and omeprazole) are more likely to serve as clinically relevant inhibitors of CYP2C19.

  19. Lansoprazole use and tuberculosis incidence in the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink: A population based cohort

    PubMed Central

    Yates, Tom A.; Tomlinson, Laurie A.; Bhaskaran, Krishnan; Langan, Sinead; Thomas, Sara; Smeeth, Liam

    2017-01-01

    Background Recent in vitro and animal studies have found the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole to be highly active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Omeprazole and pantoprazole have no activity. There is no evidence that, in clinical practice, lansoprazole can treat or prevent incident tuberculosis (TB) disease. Methods and findings We studied a cohort of new users of lansoprazole, omeprazole, or pantoprazole from the United Kingdom Clinical Practice Research Datalink to determine whether lansoprazole users have a lower incidence of TB disease than omeprazole or pantoprazole users. Negative control outcomes of myocardial infarction (MI) and herpes zoster were also studied. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to adjust for potential confounding by a wide range of factors. We identified 527,364 lansoprazole initiators and 923,500 omeprazole or pantoprazole initiators. Lansoprazole users had a lower rate of TB disease (n = 86; 10.0 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 8.1–12.4) than omeprazole or pantoprazole users (n = 193; 15.3 cases per 100,000 person years; 95% confidence interval 13.3–17.7), with an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.68 (0.52–0.89). No association was found with MI (adjusted HR 1.04; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.08) or herpes zoster (adjusted HR 1.03; 95% confidence interval 1.00–1.06). Limitations of this study are that we could not determine whether TB disease was due to reactivation of latent infection or a result of recent transmission, nor could we determine whether lansoprazole would have a beneficial effect if given to people presenting with TB disease. Conclusions In this study, use of the commonly prescribed and cheaply available PPI lansoprazole was associated with reduced incidence of TB disease. Given the serious problem of drug resistance and the adverse side effect profiles of many TB drugs, further investigation of lansoprazole as a potential antituberculosis agent is

  20. Effect of CYP2C19 genetic polymorphisms on the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor-based triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fujun; Wang, Jing; Yang, Yanmei; Wang, Xiaoyong; Shi, Ruihua; Xu, Zekuan; Huang, Zuhu; Zhang, Guoxin

    2008-12-01

    CYP2C19 polymorphisms have been inconsistently reported to associate with the efficacy of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-based triple therapies for eradicating Helicobacter pylori infection. The aim of this meta-analysis was to determine whether CYP2C19 polymorphism affect H. pylori eradication rates obtained with first-line PPI-based triple therapies. A systematic literature search was conducted up to July 2007 using Medline, PubMed, EMBase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), ISI Web of Science, CNKI (Chinese), and Wanfang (Chinese) digital database. MeSH terms and keywords included proton pump inhibitor, omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole, or esomeprazole, cytochrome P4502C19 or CYP2C19, and Helicobacter pylori or H. pylori. Twenty articles met the inclusion criteria, and were included in the meta-analysis by using Review Manager 4.2.8. Eradication rates were significantly different between poor metabolizers (PM) and heterozygous extensive metabolizers (HetEM) (odds ratio (OR) = 1.73, p = .002) and between PM and homozygous extensive metabolizers (HomEM) (OR = 2.79, p < .0001). Moreover, eradication rates were also significant difference between HetEM and HomEM (OR = 2.00, p < .0001). Triple omeprazole and lansoprazole therapies achieved higher H. pylori eradication rates in PM than in HomEM (OR = 4.28, p = .0005 for omeprazole and OR = 3.06, p = .001 for lansoprazole), and higher in HetEM than those in HomEM (OR = 3.22, p < .0001 for omeprazole and OR = 1.95, p = .040 for lansoprazole). Rabeprazole therapies had no significant effect on H. pylori eradication rates (between PM and HomEM, OR = 1.35, p = .610 and between HetEM and HomEM, OR = 1.57, p = .190). No significant difference in H. pylori eradication rates between PM and HetEM was observed in the three individual PPI therapies. The efficacy of omeprazole- and lansoprazole-based first-line triple therapies at the standard doses is dependent on CYP2C19 genotype status

  1. Therapy for unhealed gastrocutaneous fistulas in rats as a model for analogous healing of persistent skin wounds and persistent gastric ulcers: stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, atropine, ranitidine, and omeprazole.

    PubMed

    Skorjanec, Sandra; Dolovski, Zdravko; Kocman, Ivan; Brcic, Luka; Blagaic Boban, Alenka; Batelja, Lovorka; Coric, Marjana; Sever, Marko; Klicek, Robert; Berkopic, Lidija; Radic, Bozo; Drmic, Domagoj; Kolenc, Danijela; Ilic, Spomenko; Cesarec, Vedran; Tonkic, Ante; Zoricic, Ivan; Mise, Stjepan; Staresinic, Mario; Ivica, Mihovil; Lovric Bencic, Martina; Anic, Tomislav; Seiwerth, Sven; Sikiric, Predrag

    2009-01-01

    This study focused on unhealed gastrocutaneous fistulas to resolve whether standard drugs that promote healing of gastric ulcers may simultaneously have the same effect on cutaneous wounds, and corticosteroid aggravation, and to demonstrate why peptides such as BPC 157 exhibit a greater healing effect. Therefore, with the fistulas therapy, we challenge the wound/growth factors theory of the analogous nonhealing of wounds and persistent gastric ulcers. The healing rate of gastrocutaneous fistula in rat (2-mm-diameter stomach defect, 3-mm-diameter skin defect) validates macro/microscopically and biomechanically a direct skin wound/stomach ulcer relation, and identifies a potential therapy consisting of: (i) stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 [in drinking water (10 microg/kg) (12 ml/rat/day) or intraperitoneally (10 microg/kg, 10 ng/kg, 10 pg/kg)], (ii) atropine (10 mg/kg), ranitidine (50 mg/kg), and omeprazole (50 mg/kg), (iii) 6-alpha-methylprednisolone (1 mg/kg) [intraperitoneally, once daily, first application at 30 min following surgery; last 24 h before sacrifice (at postoperative days 1, 2, 3, 7, 14, and 21)]. Greater anti-ulcer potential and efficiency in wound healing compared with standard agents favor BPC 157, efficient in inflammatory bowel disease (PL-14736, Pliva), given in drinking water or intraperitoneally. Even after 6-alpha-methylprednisolone aggravation, BPC 157 promptly improves both skin and stomach mucosa healing, and closure of fistulas, with no leakage after up to 20 ml water intragastrically. Standard anti-ulcer agents, after a delay, improve firstly skin healing and then stomach mucosal healing, but not fistula leaking and bursting strength (except for atropine). We conclude that BPC 157 may resolve analogous nonhealing of wounds and persistent gastric ulcers better than standard agents.

  2. Gastroprotective actions of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai water extracts in ethanol-induced rat models of acute and chronic gastritis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hye Jeong; Kim, Min Jung; Kwon, Dae Young; Kang, Eun Seon; Kang, Suna; Park, Sunmin

    2017-08-17

    Taraxacum coreanum Nakai has been traditionally used for treating inflammatory diseases including gastrointestinal diseases. We studied whether water extracts of Taraxacum coreanum Nakai (TCN) had a protective effect on acute and chronic gastritis induced by ethanol/HCl in an animal model of gastritis and its mechanism was also explored. In the acute study, rats were orally administered 0.15g/mL dextrin (normal-control), 0.15g/mL dextrin (control), 0.05g/mL TCN (TCN-L), 0.15g/mL TCN (TCN-H), or 0.01g/mL omeprazole (orally; positive-control), followed by oral administration of 1mL of 60% ethanol plus 150mM HCl (inducer). In the chronic study, rats were administered 10% diluted inducer in drinking water, and 0.6% dextrin, 0.2% or 0.6% TCN, and 0.05% omeprazole were administered in chow for 4 weeks. Acid content, gastric structure, oxidative stress, and markers of inflammation in the stomach tissue were measured at the end of experiment. Acute and chronic ethanol/HCl administration caused the inner layer of the stomach to redden, hemorrhage, and edema in the control group; TCN-H reduced these symptoms more effectively than did the omeprazole positive-control. Acid production and total acidity in the stomach increased in the control group, which was markedly suppressed by omeprazole. TCN also reduced the acid production and acidity, but not to the same degree as omeprazole. H-E and PAS staining revealed that in the inner layer of the stomach, cellular structure was disrupted, with an increased nuclear size and thickness, disarrangement, and decreased mucin in the control group. TCN prevented the cellular disruption in the inner layer, and TCN-H was more effective than the positive-control. This was associated with oxidative stress and inflammation. TCN dose-dependently reduced the infiltration of mast cells and TNF-α expression in the inner layer of the stomach, and decreased lipid peroxides by increasing superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase expression. TCN

  3. Pharmacoeconomic comparison of Helicobacter pylori eradication regimens.

    PubMed

    Sancar, Mesut; Izzettin, Fikret Vehbi; Apikoglu-Rabus, Sule; Besisik, Fatih; Tozun, Nurdan; Dulger, Gul

    2006-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is the most important etiologic agent for development of peptic ulcer, chronic gastritis and gastric carcinomas. It is now well established that H. pylori eradication treatment is more cost-effective than acid suppressing therapies alone for the treatment of peptic ulcer disease. However, the comparative cost-effectiveness of various H. pylori eradication regimens is still not clear. This study was designed to make a pharmacoeconomic comparison of different H. pylori eradication regimens in patients with peptic ulcer disease or chronic gastritis, using real-world cost and effectiveness data. Istanbul University Hospital and Marmara University Hospital. A total of 75 patients diagnosed as H. pylori (+) by endoscopy were randomized to receive one of the seven H. pylori treatment protocols. These protocols were as follows: (LAC) = 'lansoprazole 30 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid' for 7 days and (OCM) = 'omeprazole 20 mg bid + clarithromycin 250 mg bid + metronidazole 500 mg bid'; (OAM) = 'omeprazole 40 mg qd + amoxicillin 500 mg tid + metronidazole 500 mg tid'; (MARB) = 'metronidazole 250 mg tid + amoxicillin 500 mg qid + ranitidine 300 mg hs + bismuth 300 mg qid'; (OAC) = omeprazole 20 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid'; (OCA) = omeprazole 40 mg bid + clarithromycin 500 mg bid + amoxicillin 1 g bid'; (OAB) = 'omeprazole 20 mg bid + amoxicillin 500 mg tid + bismuth 300 mg qid' each for 14 days. Only direct costs were included in the analysis. Effectiveness was measured in terms of "successful eradication". The cost-effectiveness ratios of the regimens were calculated using these effectiveness and cost data. The perspective of the study was assumed as the Government's perspective. Cost-effectiveness ratios of eradication regimens. MARB and OCA regimens were found to be more cost-effective than the other treatment regimens. The eradication rates and cost-effectiveness ratios calculated for these

  4. Effects of an acidic beverage (Coca-Cola) on absorption of ketoconazole.

    PubMed Central

    Chin, T W; Loeb, M; Fong, I W

    1995-01-01

    Absorption of ketoconazole is impaired in patients with achlorhydria. The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of a palatable acidic beverage (Coca-Cola Classic, pH 2.5) in improving the absorption of ketoconazole in the presence of drug-induced achlorhydria. A prospective, randomized, three-way crossover design with a 1-week wash-out period between each treatment was employed. Nine healthy nonsmoking, nonobese volunteers between 22 and 41 years old were studied. Each subject was randomized to receive three treatments: (A) ketoconazole 200-mg tablet with water (control), (B) omeprazole (60 mg) followed by ketoconazole (200 mg) taken with water, and (C) omeprazole (60 mg) followed by ketoconazole (200 mg) taken with 240 ml of Coca-Cola Classic. The pH values of gastric aspirates were checked after omeprazole was administered to confirm attainment of a pH of > 6. Multiple serum samples were obtained for measurements of ketoconazole concentrations by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mean area under the ketoconazole concentration-time curve from zero to infinity for the control treatment (17.9 +/- 13.1 mg.h/liter) was significantly greater than that for treatment B (3.5 +/- 5.1 mg.h/liter; 16.6% +/- 15.0% of control). The mean peak concentration was highest for the control treatment (4.1 +/- 1.9 micrograms/ml), for which the mean peak concentration showed a significant increase over that for treatment B. The absorption of ketoconazole was reduced in the presence of omeprazole-induced achlorhydria. However, drug absorption was significantly increased, to approximately 65% of the mean for the control treatment, when the drug was taken with an acidic beverage, such as Coca-Cola. PMID:7486898

  5. Overdose in young children treated with anti-reflux medications: Poisons enquiry evidence of excess 10-fold dosing errors with ranitidine.

    PubMed

    Crawford, C; Anderson, M; Cooper, G; Jackson, G; Thompson, J; Vale, A; Thomas, Shl; Eddleston, M; Bateman, D N

    2018-04-01

    Accidental drug overdose is a common problem in young children. We examined the influence of formulation and dose in enquiries for different gastro-oesophageal reflux disease treatments in children under 5 years to the UK's National Poisons Information Service. Overdose characteristics with ranitidine, omeprazole or domperidone were compared with those of metoclopramide and the H-1 antagonist chlorphenamine, for the period 1 July 2007 to 30 June 2015. There were a total of 1092 ranitidine, 618 domperidone and 1193 omeprazole cases; 669, 281 and 424, respectively, were single agent enquiries; of these 77% (517) of ranitidine, 52% (145) domperidone and 32% (135) omeprazole cases occurred in children <5 years. In comparison, 17% (34/424) of metoclopramide and 53% (533/1013) of chlorphenamine were <5 years; 79% (410/517) of ranitidine overdose enquiries in children <5 years were under 6 months of age, higher than domperidone (68/145, 47%; p < 0.05), omeprazole (8/135, 6%), chlorphenamine (13/553, 2%) or metoclopramide (1/34, 3%) (all p < 0.01). In children aged <6 months, 101 were 10-fold overdoses, 86 with ranitidine. Tenfold overdoses in children (<5 years) were a feature of ranitidine enquiries, likely due to the high concentration of the syrup. This has relevance to other liquid formulations used for non-licenced indications in young children. Such therapeutic errors cause significant carer anxiety and healthcare utilization. Assistance is needed from manufacturers and legislators in modifying formulation so that drugs can be safely used in young children. Education of prescribers and carers is also needed to reduce the incidence of such errors that cause significant carer anxiety and healthcare utilization.

  6. Gastroprotective effect of garlic in indomethacin induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ashmawy, Nahla E; Khedr, Eman G; El-Bahrawy, Hoda A; Selim, Hend M

    2016-01-01

    Garlic, in its natural plant state, has a great history in ancient medicine as a remedy for many diseases. In our study, the gastroprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) and the possible underlying mechanisms were investigated in an experimental model of indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: (normal control, n = 20), ulcer control (indomethacin group, n = 20), (omeprazole group, n = 30) and (garlic group, n = 20). Each dose of garlic and omeprazole was given to rats orally daily for 10 consecutive days before induction of ulcer by indomethacin. Indomethacin was given as a single oral dose (100 mg/kg). Four hours later after indomethacin treatment, the rats were sacrificed and gastric tissue was obtained for histopathological examination, calculation of ulcer index and measurement of oxidative stress markers as well as gastroprotective mediators. The results showed that indomethacin induced gastric ulcer (ulcer index = 2900), was associated with a significant increase of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and malondialdehyde, and significant decrease of the gastroprotective mediators prostaglandin E2, glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) compared with normal control. Pretreatment with AGE produced comparable results with those obtained in the omeprazole group; the preventive index in the AGE group was 83.4% compared with 94.5% in the omeprazole group. The prophylactic role of AGE in indomethacin-induced ulcer was, in part, mediated by decreasing oxidative stress and increasing gastric level of PGE2, GSH, and NO. AGE corrected the histopathological abnormalities in gastric tissue and proved a promising gastroprotective role in gastric ulcer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Conflicting results between randomized trials and observational studies on the impact of proton pump inhibitors on cardiovascular events when coadministered with dual antiplatelet therapy: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Melloni, Chiara; Washam, Jeffrey B; Jones, W Schuyler; Halim, Sharif A; Hasselblad, Victor; Mayer, Stephanie B; Heidenfelder, Brooke L; Dolor, Rowena J

    2015-01-01

    Discordant results have been reported on the effects of concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) for cardiovascular outcomes. We conducted a systematic review comparing the effectiveness and safety of concomitant use of PPIs and DAPT in the postdischarge treatment of unstable angina/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction patients. We searched for clinical studies in MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from 1995 to 2012. Reviewers screened and extracted data, assessed applicability and quality, and graded the strength of evidence. We performed meta-analyses of direct comparisons when outcomes and follow-up periods were comparable. Thirty-five studies were eligible. Five (4 randomized controlled trials and 1 observational) assessed the effect of omeprazole when added to DAPT; the other 30 (observational) assessed the effect of PPIs as a class when compared with no PPIs. Random-effects meta-analyses of the studies assessing PPIs as a class consistently reported higher event rates in patients receiving PPIs for various clinical outcomes at 1 year (composite ischemic end points, all-cause mortality, nonfatal MI, stroke, revascularization, and stent thrombosis). However, the results from randomized controlled trials evaluating omeprazole compared with placebo showed no difference in ischemic outcomes, despite a reduction in upper gastrointestinal bleeding with omeprazole. Large, well-conducted observational studies of PPIs and randomized controlled trials of omeprazole seem to provide conflicting results for the effect of PPIs on cardiovascular outcomes when coadministered with DAPT. Prospective trials that directly compare pharmacodynamic parameters and clinical events among specific PPI agents in patients with unstable angina/non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction treated with DAPT are warranted. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. A glass of water immediately increases gastric pH in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Karamanolis, George; Theofanidou, Ioanna; Yiasemidou, Marina; Giannoulis, Evangelos; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Ladas, Spiros D

    2008-12-01

    Onset of action of antisecretory agents is of pivotal importance for patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) treated "on-demand." To study the acute effect of acid-inhibiting drugs and water administration on gastric pH. A cross-over study was performed in 12 H. pylori (-), healthy subjects (6 men; mean age: 26 years). A single oral dose of the following agents was received with a wash-out period between each study: a glass of water (200 ml), antacid, ranitidine, omeprazole, esomeprazole, and rabeprazole. Gastric pH was recorded for 6 h after drug intake. Water increased gastric pH >4 in 10/12 subjects after 1 min. The time (median) needed to pH >4 was for: antacid 2 min, ranitidine 50 min, omeprazole 171 min, esomeprazole 151 min, and rabeprazole 175 min. Gastric pH >4 lasted for 3 min after water and for 12 min after antacids; it remained >4 until the end of recording in: 4/12 subjects with ranitidine, 11/12 with rabeprazole, and all with omeprazole and esomeprazole. Water and antacid immediately increased gastric pH, while PPIs showed a delayed but prolonged effect compared to ranitidine.

  9. 21 CFR 520.1615 - Omeprazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... veterinarian.” (d) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount—(i) For treatment of gastric ulcers, 1.8 milligrams... prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, 0.9 mg/lb of body weight (2 mg/kg) once daily for at least an additional 4 weeks. (ii) For prevention of gastric ulcers using the premarked syringe, one dose per day for 8...

  10. 21 CFR 520.1615 - Omeprazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... veterinarian.” (d) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount—(i) For treatment of gastric ulcers, 1.8 milligrams... prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, 0.9 mg/lb of body weight (2 mg/kg) once daily for at least an additional 4 weeks. (ii) For prevention of gastric ulcers using the premarked syringe, one dose per day for 8...

  11. 21 CFR 520.1615 - Omeprazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... veterinarian.” (d) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount—(i) For treatment of gastric ulcers, 1.8 milligrams... prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, 0.9 mg/lb of body weight (2 mg/kg) once daily for at least an additional 4 weeks. (ii) For prevention of gastric ulcers using the premarked syringe, one dose per day for 8...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1615 - Omeprazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... veterinarian.” (d) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount—(i) For treatment of gastric ulcers, 1.8 milligrams... prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, 0.9 mg/lb of body weight (2 mg/kg) once daily for at least an additional 4 weeks. (ii) For prevention of gastric ulcers using the premarked syringe, one dose per day for 8...

  13. 21 CFR 520.1615 - Omeprazole.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... veterinarian.” (d) Conditions of use in horses—(1) Amount—(i) For treatment of gastric ulcers, 1.8 milligrams... prevention of recurrence of gastric ulcers, 0.9 mg/lb of body weight (2 mg/kg) once daily for at least an additional 4 weeks. (ii) For prevention of gastric ulcers using the premarked syringe, one dose per day for 8...

  14. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing before first-line treatment for Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance.

    PubMed

    Cosme, Angel; Montes, Milagrosa; Ibarra, Begoña; Tamayo, Esther; Alonso, Horacio; Mendarte, Usua; Lizasoan, Jacobo; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Bujanda, Luis

    2017-05-14

    To evaluate the efficacy of antimicrobial susceptibility-guided therapy before first-line treatment for infection in patients with dual or triple antibiotic resistance. A total of 1034 patients infected by Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) during 2013-2014 were tested for antimicrobial susceptibility. 157 of 1034 (15%) patients showed resistance to two (127/1034; 12%) and to three (30/1034; 3%) antibiotics. Sixty-eight patients with dual H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole or levofloxacin) were treated for 10 d with triple therapies: OAL (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and levofloxacin 500 mg b.i.d.) 43 cases, OAM (omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d.) 12 cases and OAC (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d.) 13 cases based on the antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Twelve patients showed triple H. pylori -resistance (clarithromycin, metronidazole and levofloxacin) and received for 10 d triple therapy with OAR (omeprazole 20 mg b.id., amoxicillin 1 g b.i.d., and rifabutin 150 mg b.i.d.). Eradication was confirmed by 13C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were assessed by a questionnaire. Intention-to-treat eradication rates were: OAL (97.6%), OAM (91.6%), OAC (92.3%) and OAR (58.3%). Cure rate was significantly higher in naïve patients treated with OAR-10 compared to patients who had two or three previous treatment failures (83% vs 33%). Adverse events rates for OAL, OAM, OAC and OAR were 22%, 25%, 23% and 17%, respectively, all of them mild-moderate. Antimicrobial susceptibility-guided triple therapies during 10 d for first-line treatment leads to an eradication rate superior to 90% in patients with dual antibiotic H. pylori resistance.

  15. Helicobacter pylori first-line and rescue treatments in the presence of penicillin allergy.

    PubMed

    Gisbert, Javier P; Barrio, Jesús; Modolell, Inés; Molina-Infante, Javier; Aisa, Angeles Perez; Castro-Fernández, Manuel; Rodrigo, Luis; Cosme, Angel; Gisbert, Jose Luis; Fernández-Bermejo, Miguel; Marcos, Santiago; Marín, Alicia C; McNicholl, Adrián G

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication is a challenge in penicillin allergy. To assess the efficacy and safety of first-line and rescue treatments in patients allergic to penicillin. Prospective multicenter study. Patients allergic to penicillin were given a first-line treatment comprising (a) 7-day omeprazole-clarithromycin-metronidazole and (b) 10-day omeprazole-bismuth-tetracycline-metronidazole. Rescue treatments were as follows: (a) bismuth quadruple therapy; (b) 10-day PPI-clarithromycin-levofloxacin; and (c) 10-day PPI-clarithromycin-rifabutin. Eradication was confirmed by (13)C-urea breath test. Compliance was determined through questioning and recovery of empty medication envelopes. Adverse effects were evaluated by questionnaires. In total, 267 consecutive treatments were included. (1) First-line treatment: Per-protocol and intention-to-treat eradication rates with omeprazole-clarithromycin-metronidazole were 59 % (62/105; 95 % CI 49-62 %) and 57 % (64/112; 95 % CI 47-67 %). Respective figures for PPI-bismuth-tetracycline-metronidazole were 75 % (37/49; 95 % CI 62-89 %) and 74 % (37/50; 95 % CI (61-87 %) (p < 0.05). Compliance with treatment was 94 and 98 %, respectively. Adverse events were reported in 14 % with both regimens (all mild). (2) Second-line treatment: Intention-to-treat eradication rate with omeprazole-clarithromycin-levofloxacin was 64 % both after triple and quadruple failure; compliance was 88-100 %, with 23-29 % adverse effects (all mild). (3) Third-/fourth-line treatment: Intention-to-treat eradication rate with PPI-clarithromycin-rifabutin was 22 %. In allergic to penicillin patients, a first-line treatment with a bismuth-containing quadruple therapy (PPI-bismuth-tetracycline-metronidazole) seems to be a better option than the triple PPI-clarithromycin-metronidazole regimen. A levofloxacin-based regimen (together with a PPI and clarithromycin) represents a second-line rescue option in the presence of penicillin allergy.

  16. Eradication of Barrett's mucosa with argon plasma coagulation and acid suppression: immediate and mid term results

    PubMed Central

    Van Laethem, J-L; Cremer, M; Peny, M; Delhaye, M; Deviere, J

    1998-01-01

    Background—Intestinal metaplastic mucosa in Barrett's oesophagus can be replaced by squamous epithelium after mucosal thermal ablation associated with acid suppression therapy. 
Aims—To assess whether restoration of squamous epithelium can be obtained after ablation of Barrett's oesophagus using argon plasma coagulation (APC) associated with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. 
Methods—Thirty one patients with Barrett's oesophagus received APC. Omeprazole (40 mg/day) was given from the first APC application to one month after completion of the treatment, then given symptomatically. Twenty four hour pH-metry was performed during endotherapy. 
Results—Complete re-epithelialisation was visualised at endoscopy in 25/31 patients (81%) after a mean number of 2.4 APC sessions (range 1-4). Only partial squamous re-epithelialisation was observed in three patients and three others had no eradication. At histological assessment, eradication of Barrett's oesophagus was only confirmed in 19/31 patients (61%) due to the presence of a few residual Barrett's glands under the new squamous epithelium. Complete eradication was related to a Barrett's oesophagus segment length of less than 4 cm and the absence of circumferential extension but not to the normalisation of oesophageal acid exposure under PPI therapy. Seventeen patients with apparently complete endoscopic and histological eradication of Barrett's oesophagus were re-evaluated at one year; eight (47%) disclosed relapsing islands of Barrett metaplasia despite continuous omeprazole therapy (10-40 mg/day). 
Conclusions—APC combined with 40 mg omeprazole daily can eradicate Barrett's mucosa with apparent squamous re-epithelialisation in the majority of patients even in the absence of normalisation of oesophageal acid exposure. However, one year after endotherapy for Barrett's oesophagus, relapse is frequent but limited in extent. 

 Keywords: Barrett's oesophagus; argon plasma coagulation; omeprazole

  17. Inhibitors of acid secretion can benefit gastric wound repair independent of luminal pH effects on the site of damage

    PubMed Central

    Demitrack, Elise S; Aihara, Eitaro; Kenny, Susan; Varro, Andrea; Montrose, Marshall H

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims The authors’ goal was to measure pH at the gastric surface (pHo) to understand how acid secretion affects the repair of microscopic injury to the gastric epithelium. Methods Microscopic gastric damage was induced by laser light, during confocal/two-photon imaging of pH-sensitive dyes (Cl-NERF, BCECF) that were superfused over the mucosal surface of the exposed gastric corpus of anaesthetised mice. The progression of repair was measured in parallel with pHo. Experimental conditions included varying pH of luminal superfusates, and using omeprazole (60 mg/kg ip) or famotidine (30 mg/kg ip) to inhibit acid secretion. Results Similar rates of epithelial repair and resting pHo values (~pH 4) were reported in the presence of luminal pH 3 or pH 5. Epithelial repair was unreliable at luminal pH 2 and pHo was lower (2.5±0.2, P <0.05 vs pH 3). Epithelial repair was slower at luminal pH 7 and pHo was higher (6.4±0.1, P<0.001). In all conditions, pHo increased adjacent to damage. At luminal pH 3 or pH 7, omeprazole reduced maximal damage size and accelerated epithelial repair, although only at pH 3 did omeprazole further increase surface pH above the level caused by imposed damage. At luminal pH 7, famotidine also reduced maximal damage size and accelerated epithelial repair. Neither famotidine nor omeprazole raised plasma gastrin levels during the time course of the experiments. Conclusions Epithelial repair in vivo is affected by luminal pH variation, but the beneficial effects of acutely blocking acid secretion extend beyond simply raising luminal and/or surface pH. PMID:21997560

  18. Effects of NorA Inhibitors on In Vitro Antibacterial Activities and Postantibiotic Effects of Levofloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, and Norfloxacin in Genetically Related Strains of Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Aeschlimann, Jeffrey R.; Dresser, Linda D.; Kaatz, Glenn W.; Rybak, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    NorA is a membrane-associated multidrug efflux protein that can decrease susceptibility to fluoroquinolones in Staphylococcus aureus. To determine the effect of NorA inhibition on the pharmacodynamics of fluoroquinolones, we evaluated the activities of levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and norfloxacin with and without various NorA inhibitors against three genetically related strains of S. aureus (SA 1199, the wild-type; SA 1199B, a NorA hyperproducer with a grlA mutation; and SA 1199-3, a strain that inducibly hyperproduces NorA) using susceptibility testing, time-kill curves, and postantibiotic effect (PAE) methods. Levofloxacin had the most potent activity against all three strains and was minimally affected by addition of NorA inhibitors. In contrast, reserpine, omeprazole, and lansoprazole produced 4-fold decreases in ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin MICs and MBCs for SA 1199 and 4- to 16-fold decreases for both SA 1199B and SA 1199-3. In time-kill experiments reserpine, omeprazole, or lansoprazole increased levofloxacin activity against SA 1199-3 alone by 2 log10 CFU/ml and increased norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin activities against all three strains by 0.5 to 4 log10 CFU/ml. Reserpine and omeprazole increased norfloxacin PAEs on SA 1199, SA 1199B, and SA 1199-3 from 0.9, 0.6, and 0.2 h to 2.5 to 4.5, 1.1 to 1.3, and 0.4 to 1.1 h, respectively; similar effects were observed with ciprofloxacin. Reserpine and omeprazole increased the levofloxacin PAE only on SA 1199B (from 1.6 to 5.0 and 3.1 h, respectively). In conclusion, the NorA inhibitors dramatically improved the activities of the more hydrophilic fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin). These compounds may restore the activities of these fluoroquinolones against resistant strains of S. aureus or may potentially enhance their activities against sensitive strains. PMID:9925528

  19. Preventive Effects of Tocotrienol on Stress-Induced Gastric Mucosal Lesions and Its Relation to Oxidative and Inflammatory Biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Nur Azlina, Mohd Fahami; Kamisah, Yusof; Chua, Kien Hui; Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Aziz; Qodriyah, Hj Mohd Saad

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the possible gastroprotective effect of tocotrienol against water-immersion restraint stress (WIRS) induced gastric ulcers in rats by measuring its effect on gastric mucosal nitric oxide (NO), oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers. Twenty-eight male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups of seven rats. The two control groups were administered vitamin-free palm oil (vehicle) and the two treatment groups were given omeprazole (20 mg/kg) or tocotrienol (60 mg/kg) orally. After 28 days, rats from one control group and both treated groups were subjected to WIRS for 3.5 hours once. Malondialdehyde (MDA), NO content, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were assayed in gastric tissue homogenates. Gastric tissue SOD, iNOS, TNF-α and IL1-β expression were measured. WIRS increased the gastric MDA, NO, and pro-inflammatory cytokines levels significantly when compared to the non-stressed control group. Administration of tocotrienol and omeprazole displayed significant protection against gastric ulcers induced by exposure to WIRS by correction of both ulcer score and MDA content. Tissue content of TNF-α and SOD activity were markedly reduced by the treatment with tocotrienol but not omeprazole. Tocotrienol significantly corrected nitrite to near normal levels and attenuated iNOS gene expression, which was upregulated in this ulcer model. In conclusion, oral supplementation with tocotrienol provides a gastroprotective effect in WIRS-induced ulcers. Gastroprotection is mediated through 1) free radical scavenging activity, 2) the increase in gastric mucosal antioxidant enzyme activity, 3) normalisation of gastric mucosal NO through reduction of iNOS expression, and 4) attenuation of inflammatory cytokines. In comparison to omeprazole, it exerts similar effectiveness but has a more diverse mechanism of protection, particularly through its effect on NO, SOD activity, and TNF-α.

  20. Comparison of p.o. or i.v. proton pump inhibitors on 72-h intragastric pH in bleeding peptic ulcer.

    PubMed

    Javid, Gul; Zargar, Showkat Ali; U-Saif, Riyaz-; Khan, Bashir Ahmad; Yatoo, Ghulam Nabi; Shah, Altaf Hussain; Gulzar, Ghulam Mohammad; Sodhi, Jaswinder Singh; Khan, Mushtaq Ahmad

    2009-07-01

    After successful endoscopic hemostasis in bleeding peptic ulcer, addition of proton pump inhibitors reduce the rate of recurrent bleeding by maintaining intragastric pH at neutral level. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various proton pump inhibitors given through different routes on intragastric pH over 72 h after endoscopic hemostasis in bleeding peptic ulcer. Ninety consecutive patients who had successful endoscopic therapy of bleeding peptic ulcer underwent 72-h continuous ambulatory intragastric pH study, were randomly assigned to receive p.o. omeprazole 80 mg bolus followed by 40 mg every 12 h for 72 h or i.v. 80 mg omeprazole followed by infusion 8 mg/h for 72 h. Oral pantoprazole 80 mg bolus followed by 80 mg every 12 h for 72 h or i.v. 80 mg pantoprazole followed by infusion of 8 mg/h for 72 h. Oral rabeprazole 80 mg bolus followed by 40 mg every 12 h for 72 h or i.v. 80 mg rabeprazole followed by infusion 8 mg/h for 72 h. Five patients received no treatment after successful endoscopic therapy and underwent 72-h pH study. Mean 72-h intragastric pH for p.o. omeprazole was 6.56 versus 6.93 for omeprazole infusion (P = 0.48). Mean 72-h intragastric pH for p.o. pantoprazole was 6.34 versus 6.32 for pantoprazole infusion (P = 0.62). Mean 72-h intragastric pH for rabeprazole p.o. was 6.11 versus 6.18 rabeprazole i.v. (P = 0.55). Mean 72-h pH for the no proton pump inhibitor group was 2.04. There was no significant difference among various proton pump inhibitors given through different routes on raising intragastric pH above 6 for 72 h after successful endoscopic hemostasis in bleeding peptic ulcer.

  1. [New-generation proton pump inhibitors: progress in the treatment of peptic acid diseases?].

    PubMed

    de Korwin, Jean-Dominique; Ducrotté, Philippe; Vallot, Thierry

    2004-06-19

    EFFECTS AND INCONVENIENCIES OF THE OLDER PRODUCTS: The proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are now universally considered the treatment of choice for management of gastric-acid-related diseases, mainly gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD). These drugs share similar properties: general structure, acid-activation step, covalent binding to the proton pump of the gastric parietal cell via the production of covalent disulphide bonds, relatively stable inhibition of H+,K+-ATPase. However, the older PPIs (omeprazole, lansoprazole et pantoprazole) have notable limitations. These drugs exhibit substantial interpatient variability and may have significant interactions with other drugs. These first-generation PPIs also do not achieve a rapid and sustained suppression of gastric acid, leading to the development of new acid-pump antagonists. The new-generation PPIs, esomeprazole and rabeprazole, offer several pharmacokinetic advantages: lower oxidative hepatic metabolism rate via the CYP 2C19 reducing the activity variations due to genetic polymorphisms and decreasing the risk of significant drug-drug interactions (advantages mainly for rabeprazole), lower metabolic clearance of esomeprazole (S-enantiomer of omeprazole) increasing plasma concentrations and acid suppression of this new PPI, higher accumulation of rabeprazole in the parietal cell due to its higher pKa. Gastric pH studies and therapeutic trials have demonstrated significant advantages of esomeprazole and rabeprazole compared with the older PPIs, which omeprazole is the prototype: a greater inhibition of acid secretion, a more rapid onset of action to provide reflux symptoms relief over 24 hours with lower GERD-related cost for rabeprazole, a sustained acid suppression, cost-effectiveness advantages for esomeprazole in the healing and maintenance of erosive esophagitis compared with lansoprazole, reduced potential for clinically significant drug-drug interactions with rabeprazole compared with omeprazole and

  2. Proton-pump inhibitors in patients requiring antiplatelet therapy: new FDA labeling.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David A; Chilton, Robert; Liker, Harley R

    2014-05-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are recommended for patients who require antiplatelet therapy and have a history of upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Proton-pump inhibitors should also be considered for patients receiving antiplatelet therapy who have other risk factors for gastrointestinal bleeding, including use of aspirin. Thus, evidence of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between PPIs and consequent impaired effectiveness of the antiplatelet agent clopidogrel has caused concern. Here, we discuss comparative studies suggesting that the extent to which a PPI reduces exposure to the active metabolite of clopidogrel and attenuates its antithrombotic effect differs among PPIs. Although a clinically meaningful effect of the interaction between PPIs and clopidogrel on cardiovascular outcomes has not been established, these studies provided the basis for recent changes in US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeling for several PPIs and clopidogrel. New labeling suggests that PPI use among patients taking clopidogrel be limited to pantoprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole, or dexlansoprazole. Because comparative studies indicate that omeprazole and esomeprazole have a greater effect on the CYP2C19-mediated conversion of clopidogrel to its active metabolite and, consequently, clopidogrel's effect on platelet reactivity, FDA labeling recommends avoiding omeprazole and esomeprazole in patients taking clopidogrel. Even a 12-hour separation of dosing does not appear to prevent drug interactions between omeprazole and clopidogrel.

  3. [Prevention of NSAID gastropathy: the difference between a coxibs and the addition of a PPI].

    PubMed

    Lems, Willem F; Kuipers, Ernst J

    2010-01-01

    Several strategies are available for the prevention of NSAID gastropathy: the addition of misoprostol or proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to conventional NSAIDs, or selective use of cyclo-oxygenase 2 inhibitors, the 'coxibs'. The recently published CONDOR study was a randomized trial comparing celecoxib with omeprazole in patients at high risk for NSAID gastropathy. A statistically significant reduction in the primary endpoint was found: hazard ratio: 4.3 (95% CI: 2.6-6.7; p < 0.0001). However, the reduction was largely based on a higher incidence of anaemia in the diclofenac plus omeprazole group. The study has strengths and weaknesses. The most important conclusion is that the nature of the gastro-protective effects of celecoxib and diclofenac/misoprostol are different.

  4. [Effect of components and some protocols of anti-ulcer therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system enzymes of the stomach mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iakubov, A V; Pattakhova, M Kh

    2009-01-01

    The influence of components and some schemata of antiulcerous therapy on content and activity of monooxigenase system's enzymes in mucous membrane of stomach are studied on the model of experimental stomach ulcer in rats. It is established, that among components of antiulcerous therapy such as omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole inhibit content and activity of MOS enzymes. Tinidazol, amoxicillin and azithromycin do not affect the function of MOS. Rifampicin and pantoprazole induce enzyme system of monooxigenase. In triple therapy with omeprazole, clarithromycin and metronidazole the inhibit effect of preparations to system of MOS is exponentiated and it leads to suppression of mucous cytoprotaction of gastro duodenal zone. Triple therapy of ulcerous disease with pantoprazole, rifampicin and azithromycin is effective planning to stimulate defense mechanisms of the organism.

  5. Influence of different proton pump inhibitors on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fang; Zhu, Liqin; Li, Na; Ge, Tingyue; Xu, Gaoqi; Liao, Shasha

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the influence of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on the pharmacokinetics of voriconazole and to characterise potential drug-drug interactions (DDIs) between voriconazole and various PPIs (omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole). Using adjusted physicochemical data and the pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of voriconazole and PPIs, physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models were built and were verified in healthy subjects using GastroPlus TM to predict the plasma concentration-time profiles of voriconazole and PPIs. These models were then used to assess potential DDIs for voriconazole when administered with PPIs. The results indicated the PBPK model-simulated plasma concentration-time profiles of both voriconazole and PPIs were consistent with the observed profiles. In addition, the DDI simulations suggested that the PK values of voriconazole increased to various degrees when combined with several PPIs. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve for the time of the simulation (AUC 0- t ) of voriconazole was increased by 39%, 18%, 12% and 1% when co-administered with omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole, respectively. Omeprazole was the most potent CYP2C19 inhibitor tested, whereas rabeprazole had no influence on voriconazole (omeprazole > esomeprazole > lansoprazole > rabeprazole). However, in consideration of the therapeutic concentration range, dosage adjustment of voriconazole is unnecessary regardless of which PPI was co-administered. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  6. Systematic review: standard- and double-dose proton pump inhibitors for the healing of severe erosive oesophagitis -- a mixed treatment comparison of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Edwards, S J; Lind, T; Lundell, L; DAS, R

    2009-09-15

    No randomized controlled trial (RCT) has compared all European-licensed standard- and double-dose PPIs for the healing of severe erosive oesophagitis. To compare the effectiveness of licensed doses of PPIs for healing severe erosive oesophagitis (i.e. esomeprazole 40 mg, lansoprazole 30 mg, omeprazole 20 mg and 40 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg and rabeprazole 20 mg). Systematic review of CENTRAL, EMBASE and MEDLINE for RCTs in patients with erosive oesophagitis (completed October 2008). Endoscopically verified healing rates at 4 and 8 weeks were extracted and re-calculated if not analysed by intention-to-treat. A mixed treatment comparison was used to combine direct treatment comparisons with indirect trial evidence while maintaining randomization. Odds ratios (OR) are reported compared to omeprazole 20 mg. A total of 3021 papers were identified in the literature search; 12 were of sufficient quality to be included in the analysis. Insufficient data were available to included rabeprazole. Esomeprazole 40 mg was found to provide significantly higher healing rates at 4 weeks [OR 1.84, 95% Credible Interval (95% CrI): 1.50 to 2.22] and 8 weeks (OR 1.91, 95% CrI: 1.13 to 2.88). No other PPI investigated had significantly higher healing rates than omeprazole 20 mg. Esomeprazole 40 mg consistently demonstrates higher healing rates compared with licensed standard- and double-dose PPIs.

  7. Meta-analysis: comparative efficacy of different proton-pump inhibitors in triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication.

    PubMed

    Vergara, M; Vallve, M; Gisbert, J P; Calvet, X

    2003-09-15

    It is not known whether certain proton-pump inhibitors are more efficacious than others when used in triple therapy for Helicobacter pylori eradication. To compare the efficacy of different proton-pump inhibitors in triple therapy by performing a meta-analysis. A MEDLINE search was performed. Abstracts of the European Helicobacter pylori Study Group and the American Gastroenterological Association congresses from 1996 to 2002 were also examined. Randomized studies with at least two branches of triple therapy that differed only in terms of type of proton-pump inhibitor were included in a meta-analysis using Review Manager 4.1. Fourteen studies were included. Intention-to-treat cure rates were similar for omeprazole and lansoprazole: 74.7% vs. 76%, odds ratio (OR) 0.91 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.69-1.21] in a total of 1085 patients; for omeprazole and rabeprazole: 77.9% vs. 81.2%, OR 0.81 (95% CI 0.58-1.15) in a total of 825 patients; for omeprazole and esomeprazole: 87.7% vs. 89%, OR 0.89 (95% CI 0.58-1.35) in 833 patients; and for lansoprazole and rabeprazole: 81% vs. 85.7%, OR 0.77 (95% CI 0.48-1.22) in 550 patients. The efficacy of various proton-pump inhibitors seems to be similar when used for H. pylori eradication in standard triple therapy.

  8. Problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging.

    PubMed

    Philbert, Daphne; Notenboom, Kim; Bouvy, Marcel L; van Geffen, Erica C G

    2014-06-01

    Medicine packages can cause problems in daily practice, especially among older people. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of problems experienced by older people when opening medicine packaging and to investigate how patients manage these problems. A convenience sample of 30 community pharmacies participated in this study. They selected a systematic sample of 30 patients over 65 years old with a recent omeprazole prescription, and a questionnaire was administered by telephone for at least 10 patients per pharmacy. A total of 317 patients completed the questionnaire. They received their omeprazole in a bottle (n = 179, 56.5%), push-through blister pack (n = 102, 32.2%) or peel-off blister pack (n = 36, 11.4%). Some 28.4% of all patients experienced one or more problems with opening their omeprazole packaging; most problems occurred with peel-off blisters (n = 24, 66.7% of all respondents using peel-off blisters), followed by push-through blisters (n = 34, 33.3%) and finally bottles (n = 32, 17.9%). The risk of experiencing problems with peel-off blisters and push-through blisters was higher [relative risk 3.7 (95% confidence interval 2.5-5.5) and 1.9 (1.2-2.8), respectively] than the risk of experiencing problems with opening bottles. Two-thirds of respondents reported management strategies for their problems. Most were found for problems opening bottles (n = 24, 75%), followed by push-through blisters (n = 24, 70.6%) and peel-off blisters (n = 14, 58.3%). One in four patients over 65 experienced difficulties opening their omeprazole packaging and not all of them reported a management strategy for their problems. Manufacturers are advised to pay more attention to the user-friendliness of product packaging. In addition, it is important that pharmacy staff clearly instruct patients on how to open their medicine packaging, or assist them in choosing the most appropriate packaging. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Non-Cardiac Chest Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home / Digestive Health Topic / Non-cardiac Chest Pain Non-cardiac Chest Pain Basics Overview and Symptoms What ... at a reduced dose such as Omeprazole (or equivalent PPI medication ) 20 mg twice daily about 40 ...

  10. Vismodegib

    MedlinePlus

    ... cimetidine (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), and ranitidine (Zantac); and proton-pump inhibitors such as dexlansoprazole (Dexilant), lansoprazole (Prevacid, in Prevpac), omeprazole (Prilosec, Zegerid), pantoprazole (Protonix), and rabeprazole (AcipHex). Your doctor may need to change the ...

  11. Drug-induced diarrhea

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat cancer. Drugs used to treat heartburn and stomach ulcers, such as omeprazole (Prilosec), esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), ... any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should ...

  12. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, and methylenedioxy...

  13. Cobicistat

    MedlinePlus

    ... taking a medication for indigestion, heartburn, or ulcers (proton pump inhibitors) such as esomeprazole (Nexium, in Vimovo), lansoprazole (Prevacid), omeprazole (Prilosec, in Zegerid), pantoprazole (Protonix), or rabeprazole (AcipHex) take them at least 12 hours after ...

  14. Decrease in Switches to 'Unsafe' Proton Pump Inhibitors After Communications About Interactions with Clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Kruik-Kollöffel, Willemien J; van der Palen, Job; van Herk-Sukel, Myrthe P P; Kruik, H Joost; Movig, Kris L L

    2017-08-01

    In 2009 and 2010 medicines regulatory agencies published official safety statements regarding the concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors and clopidogrel. We wanted to investigate a change in prescription behaviour in prevalent gastroprotective drug users (2008-2011). Data on drug use were retrieved from the Out-patient Pharmacy Database of the PHARMO Database Network. We used interrupted time series analyses (ITS) to estimate the impact of each safety statement on the number of gastroprotective drug switches around the start of clopidogrel and during clopidogrel use. After the first statement (June 2009), significantly fewer patients switched from another proton pump inhibitor to (es)omeprazole (-14.9%; 95% CI -22.6 to -7.3) at the moment they started clopidogrel compared to the period prior to this statement. After the adjusted statement in February 2010, the switch percentage to (es)omeprazole decreased further (-4.5%; 95% CI -8.1 to -0.9). We observed a temporary increase in switches from proton pump inhibitors to histamine 2-receptor antagonists after the first statement; the decrease in the reverse switch was statistically significant (-23.0%; 95% CI -43.1 to -2.9). With ITS, we were able to demonstrate a decrease in switches from other proton pump inhibitors to (es)omeprazole and an increase of the reverse switch to almost 100%. We observed a partial and temporary switch to histamine 2-receptor antagonists. This effect of safety statements was shown for gastroprotective drug switches around the start of clopidogrel treatment.

  15. Comparison of acid inhibition with standard dosages of proton pump inhibitors in relation to CYP2C19 genotype in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Shirai, Naohito; Nishino, Masafumi; Kodaira, Chise; Uotani, Takahiro; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Kagami, Takuma; Sugimoto, Ken; Furuta, Takahisa

    2014-09-01

    The aim of therapeutic regimens using proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in patients with acid-related diseases is to potently inhibit acid secretion for the full 24 h. However, optimum treatment is still unclear because the pharmacodynamics of PPIs differ among CYP2C19 genotypes and most of the previous studies have had loss of sample power. Using pH monitoring, we compared acid inhibition at standard dosage of omeprazole (20 mg, 50 times), lansoprazole (30 mg, 68 times), and rabeprazole (10 mg, 65 times) in Helicobacter pylori-negative healthy young Japanese volunteers. Median pH with rabeprazole was 5.4 (3.3-7.5), which was significantly greater than with either omeprazole [4.4 (2.1-7.3)] or lansoprazole [4.8 (3.5-6.4)] (both P < 0.05). Median 24-h pH differed among the different CYP2C19 genotypes in all three PPIs. In CYP2C19 extensive metabolizers (EMs), the genotype that is refractory to PPI treatment, median pH with omeprazole, lansoprazole, and rabeprazole was 3.8 (2.1-4.4), 4.5 (3.5-5.3) and 4.8 (3.3-7.5), respectively. Treatment with the selected PPIs at their standard dosages had difficulty maintaining acid inhibition for a full 24 h, especially in CYP2C19 EM. However, rabeprazole has the merit of less influence of CYP2C19 genotype compared with the other PPIs.

  16. ADVANCED TOOLS FOR ASSESSING SELECTED PRESCRIPTION AND ILLICIT DRUGS IN TREATED SEWAGE EFFLUENTS AND SOURCE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this poster is to present the application and assessment of advanced state-of-the-art technologies in a real-world environment - wastewater effluent and source waters - for detecting six drugs [azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, m...

  17. Standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Xiao-Zhong; Qiao, Xiu-Li; Song, Wen-Chong; Wang, Xiao-Feng; Liu, Feng

    2010-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effectiveness of standard triple, bismuth pectin quadruple and sequential therapies for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication in a randomized, double-blinded, comparative clinical trial in China. METHODS: A total of 215 H. pylori-positive patients were enrolled in the study and randomly allocated into three groups: group A (n = 72) received a 10-d bismuth pectin quadruple therapy (20 mg rabeprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid, 100 mg bismuth pectin qid, and 500 mg levofloxacin qd); group B (n = 72) received the sequential therapy (20 mg omeprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid, in 5 d, followed by 20 mg omeprazole bid, 500 mg tinidazole bid, 500 mg clarithromycin bid, for another 5 d); group C (n = 71) received a standard 1-wk triple therapy (20 mg omeprazole bid, 1000 mg amoxicillin bid, 500 mg clarithromycin bid). After all these treatments, 20 mg omeprazole bid was administrated for 3 wk. H. pylori status was assessed by histology, 13C-urea breath test and rapid urease test at baseline and 4-6 wk after completion of treatment. Ulcer cicatrization was assessed by gastroscopy. χ2 test (P < 0.05) was used to compare the eradication rates and ulcer cicatrisation rates among the three groups. RESULTS: The eradication rate was 83.33% (60/72) in group A, 88.89% (64/72) in group B, and 80.56% (58/71) in group C. The ulcer cicatrisation rate was 86.44% (51/59) in group A, 90.16% (55/61) in group B, and 84.91% (45/53) in group C. The sequential therapy yielded a higher eradication rate and ulcer cicatrisation rate than the standard triple and bismuth pectin quadruple therapies. Statistically, the eradication rate of group B was significantly different from groups A and C (P < 0.05), but the difference of ulcer cicatrisation rate and side effects was not statistically significant among the three groups (P > 0.05). The three protocols were generally well tolerated. CONCLUSION: The sequential therapy has achieved a significantly higher eradication

  18. [Experience of treatment of patients with gastropathy induced by non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs].

    PubMed

    Vakhrushev, Ia M; Loshchakova, O Iu

    2007-01-01

    A complex study of 147 patients who were taking non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) revealed gastric lesions in 120 patients (81.6%). H2 blocker (ranitidine) was used for treating 40 patients with NSAID-induced gastropathy, proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole) was used for 40 patients, and Gastrozepin combined with Misoprostol--for 40 patients. Pain syndrome and dyspepsia were eliminated in most of the patients as a result of the treatment. Using Gastrozepin and Misoprostol produced an active effect on the trophic processes in the gastric mucous coat and caused erosion and ulcer healing. As compared to ranitidine and omeprazole, Gastrozepin used in combination with Cytotec produces a lower effect on the reduction of the acid-producing stomach function, yet it has a considerably greater effect on the normalization of the gastric mucus structure and restoration of metabolism of the gastric mucous coat collagen.

  19. [Partial regression of Barret esophagus with high grade dysplasia and adenocarcinoma after photocoagulation and endocurietherapy under antisecretory treatment].

    PubMed

    Fremond, L; Bouché, O; Diébold, M D; Demange, L; Zeitoun, P; Thiefin, G

    1995-01-01

    Barrett's oesophagus is a premalignant condition. The possibility of eradicating at least partially the metaplastic epithelium has been reported recently. In this case report, a patient with Barrett's oesophagus complicated by high grade dysplasia and focal adenocarcinoma was treated by Nd:Yag laser then high dose rate intraluminal irradiation while on omeprazole 40 mg/day. A partial eradication of Barrett's oesophagus and a transient tumoural regression were obtained. Histologically, residual specialized-type glandular tissue was observed beneath regenerative squamous epithelium. Four months after intraluminal irradiation, a local tumoural recurrence was detected while the area of restored squamous epithelium was unchanged on omeprazole 40 mg/day. This indicates that physical destruction of Barrett's oesophagus associated with potent antisecretory treatment can induce a regression of the metaplastic epithelium, even in presence of high grade dysplasia. The persistence of specialized-type glands beneath the squamous epithelium raises important issues about its potential malignant degeneration.

  20. Helicobacter pylori related dyspepsia: prevalence and treatment outcomes at University Kebangsaan Malaysia-Primary Care Centre

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Aziz, Aznida Firzah; Hamzah, Zuhra; Tong, Seng Fah; Nadeson, Sukumar; Wan Puteh, Sharifa Ezat

    2009-01-01

    Background Optimum management of dyspepsia in primary care is a debatable subject. Testing for Helicobacter pylori (HP) has been recommended in primary care as this strategy will cure most underlying peptic ulcer disease and prevent future gastro duodenal disease. Methods A total of 98 patients completed Modified Glasgow Dyspepsia Severity Score Questionnaire (MGDSSQ) at initial presentation before undergoing the 13Carbon Urea Breath Test (UBT) for HP. Those with positive UBT received Eradication Therapy with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, Clarithromycin 500 mg daily and Amoxycillin 500 mg twice daily for one week followed by Omeprazole to be completed for another 4 to 6 weeks. Those with negative UBT received empirical treatment with oral Omeprazole 20 mg twice daily for 4 to 6 weeks. Patients were assessed again using the MGDSSQ at the completion of treatment and one month after stopping treatment. Results The prevalence of dyspepsia at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia-Primary Care Centre was 1.12% (124/11037), out of which 23.5% (23/98) was due to HP. Post treatment assessment in both HP (95.7%, 22/23) and non HP-related dyspepsia (86.7%, 65/75) groups showed complete or almost complete resolution of dyspepsia. Only about 4.3% (1/23) in the HP related dyspepsia and 13.3% (10/75) in the non HP group required endoscopy. Conclusion The prevalence of dyspepsia due to HP in this primary care centre was 23.5%. Detection of HP related dyspepsia yielded good treatment outcomes (95.7%). PMID:19435494

  1. The effects of inhibiting cytochrome P450 3A, p-glycoprotein, and gastric acid secretion on the oral bioavailability of methadone in dogs.

    PubMed

    Kukanich, B; Lascelles, B D X; Aman, A M; Mealey, K L; Papich, M G

    2005-10-01

    Methadone is an opioid, which has a high oral bioavailability (>70%) and a long elimination half-life (>20 h) in human beings. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ketoconazole [a CYP3A and p-glycoprotein (p-gp) inhibitor] and omeprazole (an H+,K(+)-ATPase proton-pump inhibitor) on oral methadone bioavailability in dogs. Six healthy dogs were used in a crossover design. Methadone was administered i.v. (1 mg/kg), orally (2 mg/kg), again orally following oral ketoconazole (10 mg/kg q12 h for two doses), and following omeprazole (1 mg/kg p.o. q12 h for five doses). Plasma concentrations of methadone were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography or fluorescence polarization immunoassay. The mean +/- SD for the elimination half-life, volume of distribution, and clearance were 1.75 +/- 0.25 h, 3.46 +/- 1.09 L/kg, and 25.14 +/- 9.79 mL/min.kg, respectively following i.v. administration. Methadone was not detected in any sample following oral administration alone or following oral administration with omeprazole. Following administration with ketoconazole, detectable concentrations of methadone were present in one dog with a 29% bioavailability. MDR-1 genotyping, encoding p-gp, was normal in all dogs. In contrast to its pharmacokinetics humans, methadone has a short elimination half-life, rapid clearance, and low oral bioavailability in dogs and the extent of absorption is not affected by inhibition of CYP3A, p-gp, and gastric acid secretion.

  2. Safe use of proton pump inhibitors in patients with cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Weersink, Rianne A; Bouma, Margriet; Burger, David M; Drenth, Joost P H; Froukje Harkes-Idzinga, S; Hunfeld, Nicole G M; Metselaar, Herold J; Monster-Simons, Margje H; van Putten, Sandra A W; Taxis, Katja; Borgsteede, Sander D

    2018-04-24

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) belong to the most frequently used drugs, also in patients with cirrhosis. PPIs are extensively metabolized by the liver, but practice guidance on prescribing in cirrhosis is lacking. We aim to develop practical guidance on the safe use of PPIs in cirrhosis. A systematic literature search identified studies about the safety (i.e. adverse events) and pharmacokinetics of PPIs in cirrhotic patients. This evidence and data from the product information was reviewed by an expert panel who classified drugs as safe; no additional risks known; additional risks known; unsafe; or unknown. Guidance was aimed at the oral use of PPIs and categorized by the severity of cirrhosis, using the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification. A total of 69 studies were included. Esomeprazole, omeprazole and rabeprazole were classified as having 'no additional risks known'. A reduction in maximum dose of omeprazole and rabeprazole is recommended for CTP A and B patients. For patients with CTP C cirrhosis, the only PPI advised is esomeprazole in a maximum dosage of 20 mg per day. Pantoprazole and lansoprazole were classified as unsafe, because of 4- to 8-fold increased exposure. The use of PPIs in cirrhotic patients has been associated with the development of infections and hepatic encephalopathy and should be carefully considered. We suggest using esomeprazole, omeprazole or rabeprazole in patients with CTP A or B cirrhosis and only esomeprazole in patients with CTP C. Pharmacokinetic changes are also important to consider when prescribing PPIs to vulnerable, cirrhotic patients. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of substituted benzimidazoles on acid secretion in isolated and enriched guinea pig parietal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Sewing, K F; Harms, P; Schulz, G; Hannemann, H

    1983-01-01

    The inhibitory effect of the three benzimidazole derivatives timoprazole, picoprazole, and omeprazole on histamine and dbcAMP stimulated 14C-aminopyrine accumulation (= H+ secretion) has been studied in isolated and enriched guinea-pig parietal cells. All compounds tested inhibited H+ secretion in a concentration dependent manner with IC50 values of 8.5 +/- 1.9 mumol/l for timoprazole, 3.9 +/- 0.7 mumol/l for picoprazole, and 0.13 +/- 0.03 mumol/l for omeprazole. The IC50 of timoprazole, when dbcAMP was used as a stimulus, did not differ significantly from that of histamine stimulation. The type of inhibition was of a non-competitive nature. The full acid response to histamine after temporary exposure of the cells to the benzimidazoles could be restored by washing the cells twice; this suggests that the inhibition is reversible. The data - among others - indicate that the properties of the benzimidazoles described here would allow these compounds to be used as effective antisecretagogues. PMID:6303916

  4. Inhibitory action of lansoprazole and its analogs against Helicobacter pylori: inhibition of growth is not related to inhibition of urease.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, K; Takagi, E; Tsuda, M; Nakazawa, T; Satoh, H; Nakao, M; Okamura, H; Tamura, T

    1995-01-01

    The proton pump inhibitors omeprazole and lansoprazole and its acid-activated derivative AG-2000, which are potent and specific inhibitors of urease of Helicobacter pylori (K. Nagata, H. Satoh, T. Iwahi, T. Shimoyama, and T. Tamura, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:769-774, 1993), inhibited the growth of H. pylori. The growth was inhibited not only in urease-positive clinical isolates but also in their urease-negative derivatives which had no urease polypeptides. AG-1789, a derivative of lansoprazole with no inhibitory activity against H. pylori urease, also inhibited the growth of both strains even more strongly than the urease inhibitors lansoprazole and AG-2000. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of omeprazole and lansoprazole was not affected by glutathione or dithiothreitol, which completely abolished the inhibitory activity of lansoprazole against H. pylori urease. These results indicated that the inhibitory action of these compounds against the growth of H. pylori was independent from the inhibitory action against urease. PMID:7726537

  5. Evaluation of the activity of CYP2C19 in Gujrati and Marwadi subjects living in Mumbai (Bombay).

    PubMed

    Panchabhai, Tanmay S; Noronha, Shaun F; Davis, Sanish; Shinde, Vishal M; Kshirsagar, Nilima A; Gogtay, Nithya J

    2006-10-24

    Inherited differences in the metabolism and disposition of drugs, and genetic polymorphisms in the targets of drug therapy (e.g., receptors), can greatly influence efficacy and toxicity of medications. Marked interethnic differences in CYP2C19 (a member of the cytochrome P-450 enzyme superfamily catalyzing phase I drug metabolism) which affects the metabolism of a number of clinically important drugs have been documented. The present study evaluated the activity of CYP2C19 in normal, healthy Gujrati and Marwadi subjects by phenotyping (a western Indian population). All subjects received 20 mg of omeprazole, which was followed by blood collection at 3 hrs to estimate the metabolic ratio of omeprazole to 5-hydroxyomeprazole. The analysis was done by HPLC. It was seen that 10.36% of this population were poor metabolizers(PM) whereas 89.63% were extensive metabolizers(EM). A genotyping evaluation would better help in identifying population specific genotypes and thus help individualize drug therapy.

  6. Cost-effectiveness comparison of current proton-pump inhibitors to treat gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in the UK.

    PubMed

    Remák, E; Brown, R E; Yuen, C; Robinson, A

    2005-10-01

    Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) is a recurring condition with many patients requiring long-term maintenance therapy. Therefore initial choice of treatment has long-term cost implications. The aim was to compare the costs and effectiveness of treatment of GORD the (unconfirmed by endoscopy) with seven proton pump inhibitors (PPIs: esomeprazole, lansoprazole (capsules and oro-dispersible tablets), omeprazole (generic and branded), pantoprazole and rabeprazole), over one year. A treatment model was developed of 13 interconnected Markov models incorporating acute treatment of symptoms, long-term therapy and subsequent decisions to undertake endoscopy to confirm diagnosis. Patients were allowed to stop treatment or to receive maintenance treatment either continuously or on-demand depending on response to therapy. Long-term dosing schedule (high dose or step-down dose) was based on current market data. Efficacy of treatments was based on clinical trials and follow-up studies, while resource use patterns were determined by a panel of physicians. The model predicts total expected annual costs, number of symptom-free days and quality-adjusted life-years (QALY). Generic omeprazole and rabeprazole dominated (i.e. cost less and resulted in more symptom-free days and higher QALY gains) the other PPIs. Rabeprazole had a favourable cost-effectiveness ratio of 3.42 pounds per symptom-free day and 8308 pounds/quality-adjusted life-year gained when compared with generic omeprazole. Rabeprazole remained cost-effective independent of choice of maintenance treatment (i.e. proportion of patients remaining on continuous treatment versus on-demand treatment). Economic models provide a useful framework to evaluate PPIs in realistic clinical scenarios. Our findings show that rabeprazole is cost-effective for the treatment of GORD.

  7. Phenotype-genotype analysis of CYP2C19 in Colombian mestizo individuals

    PubMed Central

    Isaza, Carlos; Henao, Julieta; Martínez, José H Isaza; Arias, Juan C Sepúlveda; Beltrán, Leonardo

    2007-01-01

    Background Omeprazole is metabolized by the hepatic cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2C19 enzyme to 5-hydroxyomeprazole. CYP2C19 exhibits genetic polymorphisms responsible for the presence of poor metabolizers (PMs), intermediate metabolizers (IMs) and extensive metabolizers (EMs). The defective mutations of the enzyme and their frequencies change between different ethnic groups; however, the polymorphism of the CYP2C19 gene has not been studied in Colombian mestizos. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genotype and phenotype status of CYP2C19 in Colombian mestizos, in order to contribute to the use of appropriate strategies of drug therapy for this population. Methods 189 subjects were genotyped using the multiplex SNaPshot technique and a subgroup of 44 individuals received 20 mg of omeprazole followed by blood collection at 3 hours to determine the omeprazole hydroxylation index by HPLC. Results 83.6%, 15.3% and 1.1% of the subjects were genotyped as EMs, IMs and PMs, respectively. The frequencies of the CYP2C29*1 and CYP2C19*2 alleles were 91.3% and 8.7% respectively whereas the *3, *4, *5, *6 and *8 alleles were not found. No discrepancies were found between the genotype and phenotype of CYP2C19. Conclusion The frequency of poor metabolizers (1.1%) in the Colombian mestizos included in this study is similar to that in Bolivian mestizos (1%) but lower than in Mexican-Americans (3.2%), West Mexicans (6%), Caucasians (5%) and African Americans (5.4%). The results of this study will be useful for drug dosage recommendations in Colombian mestizos. PMID:17623107

  8. Prevention of Chemically-Induced Urinary Bladder Cancers by Naproxen: Protocols to Reduce Gastric Toxicity in Humans Do Not Alter Preventive Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Lubet, Ronald A.; Scheiman, James M.; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M. Margaret; Boring, Daniel L.; Steele, Vernon E.; Grubbs, Clinton J.

    2015-01-01

    The COX inhibitors (NSAIDs/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2 specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials, and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular (CV) effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen (NPX)] have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present studies examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of NPX. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/Kg BW/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/Kg BW/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), NPX alone or combined with omeprazole prevented cancers; yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN treated rats were administered NPX: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily NPX/1wk vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily NPX/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19% and 96% of rats (P<0.01). Short-term NPX treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols which should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g. NPX) in clinical prevention trials. PMID:25762530

  9. The effect of proton pump inhibitors on the CYP2C19 enzyme activity evaluated by the pantoprazole-13C breath test in GERD patients: clinical relevance for personalized medicine.

    PubMed

    Modak, Anil S; Klyarytska, Iryna; Kriviy, Valerij; Tsapyak, Tatjana; Rabotyagova, Yliya

    2016-12-17

    Patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are routinely prescribed one of the six FDA approved proton pump inhibitors (PPI). All of these PPI are inhibitors of CYP2C19 enzyme to varying degrees. The phenotype pantoprazole- 13 C breath test (Ptz-BT) was used to identify patients who are poor metabolizers (PM) and the extent of phenoconversion of CYP2C19 enzyme activity caused by four PPI (omeprazole, esomprazole pantoprazole and rabeprazole) in 54 newly diagnosed GERD patients prior to initiating randomly selected PPI therapy and 30 d after PPI therapy. The phenoconversion after 30 d of PPI therapy in GERD patients was statistically significant (p  =0.001) with omeprazole/esomeprazole (n  =  27) strong CYP2C19 inhibitors, while there was no change in CYP2C19 enzyme activity (p  =  0.8) with pantoprazole/ rabeprazole (n  =  27), weak CYP2C19 inhibitors. The concommitant use of omeprazole/esomeprazole, therefore, could have critical clinical relevance in individualizing medications metabolized primarily by CYP2C19 such as PPI, clopidogrel, phenytoin, cyclophosphamide, thalidomide, citalopram, clonazepam, diazepam, proguanil, tivantinib etc. The rapid (30 min), in vivo, and non-invasive phenotype Ptz-BT can evaluate CYP2C19 enzyme activity. More importantly, it can identify GERD patients with low CYP2C19 enzyme activity (PM), caused by PPI or other concomitant medications, who would benefit from dose adjustments to maintain efficacy and avoid toxicity. The existing CYP2C19 genotype tests cannot predict the phenotype nor can it detect phenoconversion due to non genetic factors.

  10. Effectiveness of add-on therapy with domperidone vs alginic acid in proton pump inhibitor partial response gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in systemic sclerosis: randomized placebo-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Foocharoen, Chingching; Chunlertrith, Kitti; Mairiang, Pisaln; Mahakkanukrauh, Ajanee; Suwannaroj, Siraphop; Namvijit, Suwassa; Wantha, Orathai; Nanagara, Ratanavadee

    2017-02-01

    Twice-daily dosing of proton pump inhibitor (PPI), the standard therapy for gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD), is an effective therapy for GERD in SSc. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of omeprazole in combination with domperidone vs in combination with algycon in reducing the severity and frequency of reflux symptoms of PPI partial response (PPI-PR) GERD in SSc. Adult SSc patients having PPI-PR GERD were randomly assigned to receive domperidone plus algycon placebo or algycon plus domperidone placebo in a 1:1 ratio plus omeprazole for 4 weeks. The assessment included severity of symptom grading by visual analogue scale, frequency of symptoms by frequency scale for symptoms of GERD and quality of life (QoL) by EuroQol five-dimensions questionnaire scoring. One hundred and forty-eight SSc-GERD patients were enrolled, of whom 88 had PPI-PR. Eighty cases were randomized for either domperidone (n = 38) or algycon (n = 37) therapy. The majority in both groups had the diffuse SSc subset. At the end of the study, no significant difference in symptom grading was found between groups. After treatment and compared with baseline, the severity of symptoms, frequency scale for symptoms of GERD and QoL significantly improved in both groups. Five (13.2%) and 8 (21.6%) respective cases in the domperidone and algycon groups did not respond. The prevalence of PPI-PR GERD is common. Domperidone and algycon are equally effective treatments in combination with omeprazole. However, ∼17% of patients were non-responsive, so the effectiveness of domperidone, algycon and PPI combination therapy should be further investigated. https://clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01878526). © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Effect of proton pump inhibitors on gastric juice volume, gastric pH and gastric intramucosal pH in critically ill patients : a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Olcay; Memiş, Dilek; Sut, Necdet

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effect of administration of a single-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) on gastric intramucosal pH (pHi), gastric juice volume and gastric pH in critically ill patients. This prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study included 75 patients who were divided into five groups that received the following treatment: group C (n = 15), saline 100 mL; group O (n = 15), omeprazole 20 mg; group P (n = 15), pantoprazole 40 mg; group E (n = 15), esomeprazole 20 mg; and group R (n = 15), rabeprazole 20 mg. All treatments were administered nasogastrically in 100 mL of physiological saline. Measurements of gastric pHi, gastric juice volume and gastric pH were obtained immediately before and 2, 4 and 6 hours after administration of treatments. In addition, gastric content was aspirated and its volume was recorded. Initial gastric pHi, gastric juice volume and gastric pH values were not statistically significantly different among the groups (p > 0.05). No statistically significant difference in gastric pHi was seen among the groups before or 2, 4 or 6 hours after saline or PPI administration. At hours 2, 4 and 6, gastric pH in the pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole groups increased significantly, whereas gastric juice volume decreased significantly, compared with the omeprazole and placebo groups (p < 0.001). No statistically significant differences were seen between the pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole groups. This is the first study to show that single-dose pantoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole are associated with greater gastric pH increase and greater gastric juice volume decrease than omeprazole in critically ill patients. Our study also suggests that PPIs do not affect gastric pHi measurements in critically ill patients and can be administered during pH monitoring.

  12. Divalent metals and pH alter raltegravir disposition in vitro.

    PubMed

    Moss, Darren M; Siccardi, Marco; Murphy, Matthew; Piperakis, Michael M; Khoo, Saye H; Back, David J; Owen, Andrew

    2012-06-01

    Raltegravir shows marked pharmacokinetic variability in patients, with gastrointestinal pH and divalent-metal binding being potential factors. We investigated raltegravir solubility, lipophilicity, pK(a), and permeativity in vitro to elucidate known interactions with omeprazole, antacids, and food, all of which increase gastric pH. Solubility of raltegravir was determined at pH 1 to 8. Lipophilicity of raltegravir was determined using octanol-water partition. Raltegravir pK(a) was determined using UV spectroscopy. The effects of pH, metal salts, and omeprazole on the cellular permeativity of raltegravir were determined using Caco-2 monolayers. Cellular accumulation studies were used to determine the effect of interplay between pH and ABCB1 transport on raltegravir accumulation. Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) or scintillation counting. Raltegravir at 10 mM was partly insoluble at pH 6.6 and below. Raltegravir lipophilicity was pH dependent and was reduced as pH was increased from 5 to 9. The pK(a) of raltegravir was 6.7. Raltegravir cellular permeativity was heavily influenced by changes in extracellular pH, where apical-to-basolateral permeativity was reduced 9-fold (P < 0.05) when apical pH was increased from 5 to 8.5. Raltegravir cellular permeativity was also reduced in the presence of magnesium and calcium. Omeprazole did not alter raltegravir cellular permeativity. Cellular accumulation of raltegravir was increased independently by inhibiting ABCB1 and by lowering extracellular pH from pH 8 to 5. Gastrointestinal pH and polyvalent metals can potentially alter the pharmacokinetic properties of raltegravir, and these data provide an explanation for the variability in raltegravir exposure in patients. The evaluation of how divalent-metal-containing products, such as multivitamins, that do not affect gastric pH alter raltegravir pharmacokinetics in patients is now justified.

  13. Divalent Metals and pH Alter Raltegravir Disposition In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Moss, Darren M.; Siccardi, Marco; Murphy, Matthew; Piperakis, Michael M.; Khoo, Saye H.; Back, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Raltegravir shows marked pharmacokinetic variability in patients, with gastrointestinal pH and divalent-metal binding being potential factors. We investigated raltegravir solubility, lipophilicity, pKa, and permeativity in vitro to elucidate known interactions with omeprazole, antacids, and food, all of which increase gastric pH. Solubility of raltegravir was determined at pH 1 to 8. Lipophilicity of raltegravir was determined using octanol-water partition. Raltegravir pKa was determined using UV spectroscopy. The effects of pH, metal salts, and omeprazole on the cellular permeativity of raltegravir were determined using Caco-2 monolayers. Cellular accumulation studies were used to determine the effect of interplay between pH and ABCB1 transport on raltegravir accumulation. Samples were analyzed using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS) or scintillation counting. Raltegravir at 10 mM was partly insoluble at pH 6.6 and below. Raltegravir lipophilicity was pH dependent and was reduced as pH was increased from 5 to 9. The pKa of raltegravir was 6.7. Raltegravir cellular permeativity was heavily influenced by changes in extracellular pH, where apical-to-basolateral permeativity was reduced 9-fold (P < 0.05) when apical pH was increased from 5 to 8.5. Raltegravir cellular permeativity was also reduced in the presence of magnesium and calcium. Omeprazole did not alter raltegravir cellular permeativity. Cellular accumulation of raltegravir was increased independently by inhibiting ABCB1 and by lowering extracellular pH from pH 8 to 5. Gastrointestinal pH and polyvalent metals can potentially alter the pharmacokinetic properties of raltegravir, and these data provide an explanation for the variability in raltegravir exposure in patients. The evaluation of how divalent-metal-containing products, such as multivitamins, that do not affect gastric pH alter raltegravir pharmacokinetics in patients is now justified. PMID:22450971

  14. Prevention of chemically induced urinary bladder cancers by naproxen: protocols to reduce gastric toxicity in humans do not alter preventive efficacy.

    PubMed

    Lubet, Ronald A; Scheiman, James M; Bode, Ann; White, Jonathan; Minasian, Lori; Juliana, M Margaret; Boring, Daniel L; Steele, Vernon E; Grubbs, Clinton J

    2015-04-01

    The COX inhibitors (NSAID/Coxibs) are a major focus for the chemoprevention of cancer. The COX-2-specific inhibitors have progressed to clinical trials and have shown preventive efficacy in colon and skin cancers. However, they have significant adverse cardiovascular effects. Certain NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) have a good cardiac profile, but can cause gastric toxicity. The present study examined protocols to reduce this toxicity of naproxen. Female Fischer-344 rats were treated weekly with the urinary bladder-specific carcinogen hydroxybutyl(butyl)nitrosamine (OH-BBN) for 8 weeks. Rats were dosed daily with NPX (40 mg/kg body weight/day, gavage) or with the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole (4.0 mg/kg body weight/day) either singly or in combination beginning 2 weeks after the final OH-BBN. OH-BBN-treated rats, 96% developed urinary bladder cancers. While omeprazole alone was ineffective (97% cancers), naproxen alone or combined with omeprazole-prevented cancers, yielding 27 and 35% cancers, respectively. In a separate study, OH-BBN -: treated rats were administered naproxen: (A) daily, (B) 1 week daily naproxen/1week vehicle, (C) 3 weeks daily naproxen/3 week vehicle, or (D) daily vehicle beginning 2 weeks after last OH-BBN treatment. In the intermittent dosing study, protocol A, B, C, and D resulted in palpable cancers in 27%, 22%, 19%, and 96% of rats (P < 0.01). Short-term naproxen treatment increased apoptosis, but did not alter proliferation in the urinary bladder cancers. Two different protocols that should decrease the gastric toxicity of NSAIDs in humans did not alter chemopreventive efficacy. This should encourage the use of NSAIDs (e.g., naproxen) in clinical prevention trials. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  15. Prophylactic effects of Clausena excavata Burum. f. leaf extract in ethanol-induced gastric ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Albaayit, Shaymaa Fadhel Abbas; Abba, Yusuf; Abdullah, Rasedee; Abdullah, Noorlidah

    2016-01-01

    Clausena excavata is a natural herb with both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. It has been used for decades in folkloric practice for the amelioration of various ailments. In this study, the gastroprotective activity of methanolic extract of C. excavata leaves (MECE) was determined in the Sprague Dawley rat ethanol-induced gastric ulcer model. Rats were pretreated with a single dose of vehicle (5% Tween 20), 20 mg/mL omeprazole, 400 and 200 mg/mL of MECE dissolved in 5% Tween 20. Ulcer was induced with 5 mL/kg of ethanol and stomach tissue was obtained after 1 hour. Histological examination was done on hematoxylin and eosin, periodic acid-Schiff, and immunochemically stained gastric mucosal tissues. Prostaglandin E2, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and lipid peroxidation levels of the gastric tissue homogenates were also determined. Significantly (P<0.05) smaller ulcer areas, less intense edema, and fewer leukocytes’ infiltration were observed in MECE- and omeprazole-treated than in untreated gastric mucosa with ulcer. The gastric pH, mucus production, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase contents increased, while the lipid peroxidation content decreased as a result of MECE treatment. Bcl-2-associated X protein was underexpressed, while heat shock protein 70 and transforming growth factor-beta protein were overexpressed in the ulcerated gastric mucosa tissues treated with omeprazole and MECE. Similarly, there was a reduction in the levels of tumor necrotic factor-alpha and interleukin-6, while the level of interleukin-10 was increased. This study showed that the gastroprotective effect of MECE is achieved through inhibition of gastric juice secretion and ulcer lesion development, stimulation of mucus secretion, elevation of gastric pH, reduction of reactive oxygen species production, inhibition of apoptosis in the gastric mucosa, and modulation of inflammatory cytokines. PMID:27366052

  16. Expression of HSP72 in the gastric mucosa is regulated by gastric acid in rats-Correlation of HSP72 expression with mucosal protection

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, Isao; Otaka, Michiro; Jin, Mario

    2006-10-20

    Background and aim: The real mechanism of adaptive cytoprotection in the gastric mucosa is not well established. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acid suppressing agents on a 72-kDa heat shock protein (HSP72) expression, which is known as endogenous cytoprotective factor, in the gastric mucosa. Also, the association of gastric mucosal protective function against HCl-challenge was compared between HSP72-induced and -reduced group. Materials and methods: Expression of HSP72 was measured by Western blotting in the gastric mucosa before and after administration of famotidine or omeprazole. The gastric mucosal protective function against 0.6 N HCl was compared betweenmore » control group and HSP72-reduced group. Also, the effect of increased expression of gastric HSP72 by additional administration of zinc sulfate or zinc L-carnosine, which is known as HSP72-inducer, on mucosal protective function was studied. Results: HSP72 expression in the gastric mucosa was reduced by acid suppressing agents. The lowest expression level of HSP72 was observed 12 h (famotidine, H2-receptor antagonist) or 48 h (omeprazole, proton pump inhibitor) after administration. The gastric mucosal protective ability against 0.6 N HCl was also reduced when HSP72 expression was decreased by famotidine or omeprazole. This phenomenon was reversed by HSP72 induction by additional administration of zinc derivatives. Conclusion: Our results might indicate that the expression of HSP72 in the gastric mucosa is physiologically regulated by gastric acid, and that HSP72 induction could be important in view of mucosal protection especially when HSP72 expression is reduced by administration of acid suppressing agents such as proton pump inhibitor or H2 receptor antagonist.« less

  17. Practical considerations in the management of proton-pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Castro, Lara; Martín-de-Argila-dePrados, Carlos; Albillos-Martínez, Agustín

    2016-03-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) are one of the most active ingredients prescribed in Spain. In recent decades there has been an overuse of these drugs in both outpatient clinics and hospitals that has lead to a significant increase in healthcare spending and to an increase in the risk of possible side effects. It is important for health professionals to know the accepted indications and the correct doses for the use of these drugs. On the market there are different types of PPI: omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole and esomeprazole. Omeprazole is the oldest and most used PPI, being also the cheapest. Although there are no important differences between PPIs in curing diseases, esomeprazole, a new-generation PPI, has proved to be more effective in eradicating H. pylori and in healing severe esophagitis compared to other PPIs. In recent years the use of generic drugs has spread; these drugs have the same bioavailability than the original drugs. In the case of PPIs, the few comparative studies available in the literature between original and generic drugs have shown no significant differences in clinical efficacy.

  18. Effect of antisecretory agents and vagotomy on healing of chronic cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Poulsen, S.S.; Raaberg, L.; Therkelsen, K.

    1986-07-01

    Penetrated cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcers in rats have a very prolonged course of healing. In this study, it was investigated how much the healing of these ulcers is accelerated by some treatments. The treatments included omeprazole, cimetidine, and truncal vagotomy. In addition, the effect of omeprazole and cimetidine on gastric acid secretion was investigated in chronic gastric fistula rats. After 25 days of treatment, significantly more rats in the treated groups had healed ulcers than in the control group. There was little further improvement up to 100 days of treatment, and the difference between treated and untreated groups decreased. The morphologymore » of healing ulcers in treated and untreated rats was also compared. In controls, there was a simultaneous regeneration of mucosa and the submucosal Brunner's glands from the edges of the ulcer, the slow proliferation rate of the latter probably being decisive for the prolonged healing. In the treated rats, the mucosa first regenerated with formation of crypts and low villi and subsequently, the Brunner's glands were formed by proliferation from the bottom of the crypts.« less

  19. Histopathological evaluation of gastro protective effect of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds against aspirin induced ulcer in albino mice.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Wafa; Aslam, Bilal; Javed, Ijaz; Khaliq, Tanweer; Muhammad, Faqir; Ali, Asghar; Raza, Ahmed

    2015-11-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the antiulcer activity of Berberis vulgaris (Zereshk) seeds in albino mice. After acclimatization, animals were divided into six equal groups. Aspirin 150 mg/kg was used to induce gastric ulcer in all groups except normal control. Omeprazole 20mg/kg was used as synthetic anti ulcer drug in study. Three dose levels of B. vulgaris seed powder 300 mg/kg, 600 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg were used respectively orally. Histopathological analysis was carried out to evaluate the gastroprotective activity of B. vulgaris seed powder. Results of the study showed that in case of aspirin treated mice gastric luminal mucosa villi were decreased in height or were absent. In the glandular region there was connective tissue proliferation and also infiltration of cells. Similar infiltration of cells was present on muscularis mucosa. In esophageal region tumor cells were present. However three dose levels of B. vulgaris significantly reduced the tissue proliferation, infiltration of cells and sloughing induced by aspirin. Highest dose of B. vulgaris (900 mg/kg) showed similar results as synthetic antiulcer drug omeprazole.

  20. Antiulcerogenic activity of fractions and 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane isolated from Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae).

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Sérgio Faloni; Comunello, Eros; Noldin, Vânia Floriani; Monache, Franco Delle; Cechinel Filho, Valdir; Niero, Rivaldo

    2008-01-01

    The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous-soluble fractions from leaves of Maytenus robusta (Celastraceae) were evaluated for their protective actions against ethanol-induced gastric lesions in rats. The treatment with all fractions (150 mg/kg) and omeprazol (30 mg/kg) significantly reduced the lesion index, the total lesion area, and the percentage of lesion, in comparison with the control group (p<0.05). Since the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction was found to be most active in the pylorus ligated model, this fraction was further investigated and resulted in the isolation of triterpene 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane. The triterpene was evaluated in the HCl/ethanol-induced ulcer model in mice. In this assay, both the groups treated with 3,15-dioxo-21alpha-hydroxy friedelane and omeprazol, at a dose of 30 mg/kg, presented a significant reduction in lesion index, total lesion area, and in the percentage of the lesion, when compared with the control group (p<0.05). The result suggests that the antiulcer effect observed in the extract and fractions may be attributed, at least in part, to this compound. Further experiments are underway to determine which antiulcer mechanisms involved in gastroprotection.

  1. A Benzimidazole Proton Pump Inhibitor Increases Growth and Tolerance to Salt Stress in Tomato.

    PubMed

    Van Oosten, Michael J; Silletti, Silvia; Guida, Gianpiero; Cirillo, Valerio; Di Stasio, Emilio; Carillo, Petronia; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Maggio, Albino; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    Pre-treatment of tomato plants with micromolar concentrations of omeprazole (OP), a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor in mammalian systems, improves plant growth in terms of fresh weight of shoot and roots by 49 and 55% and dry weight by 54 and 105% under salt stress conditions (200 mM NaCl), respectively. Assessment of gas exchange, ion distribution, and gene expression profile in different organs strongly indicates that OP interferes with key components of the stress adaptation machinery, including hormonal control of root development (improving length and branching), protection of the photosynthetic system (improving quantum yield of photosystem II) and regulation of ion homeostasis (improving the K + :Na + ratio in leaves and roots). To our knowledge OP is one of the few known molecules that at micromolar concentrations manifests a dual function as growth enhancer and salt stress protectant. Therefore, OP can be used as new inducer of stress tolerance to better understand molecular and physiological stress adaptation paths in plants and to design new products to improve crop performance under suboptimal growth conditions. Highlight: Omeprazole enhances growth of tomato and increases tolerance to salinity stress through alterations of gene expression and ion uptake and transport.

  2. [Comparison of Helicobacter pylori eradication rate in patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia and peptic ulcer diseases according to proton pump inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Hong, Eun Jung; Park, Dong Il; Oh, Suk Joong; Song, Min Jun; Choi, Woo Hyuk; Hong, Cheul Ho; Park, Jung Ho; Kim, Hong Joo; Cho, Yong Kyun; Shon, Chong Il; Jeon, Woo Kyu; Kim, Byung Ik

    2008-08-01

    Conflicting results have been reported whether patients with non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD) respond differently to Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) eradication treatment compared with patients with peptic ulcer diseases (PUD). The aim of this study was to evaluate any difference in H. pylori eradication rates between patients with NUD and PUD according to each proton pump inhibitor (PPI). From September, 2004 to April, 2007, we retrospectively reviewed 2,297 patients with NUD (1,050 patients) or PUD (1,247 patients) infected with H. pylori. All patients received a standard 1 week triple therapy comprising of one of the five PPIs (pantoprazole, esomeprazole, omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole), clarithromycin and amoxicillin. The follow-up H. pylori test was performed 4 weeks after the completion of therapy. There was no significant difference in the eradication rates between the two groups. In comparison of eradication rates according to PPI, omeprazole- based triple therapy group showed higher eradication rate than other groups in patients with NUD, but not in patients with PUD. This study failed to show any difference in H. pylori eradication rate between patients with NUD and PUD. There is no convincing evidence that the eradication rate may be affected by different PPI.

  3. A Benzimidazole Proton Pump Inhibitor Increases Growth and Tolerance to Salt Stress in Tomato

    PubMed Central

    Van Oosten, Michael J.; Silletti, Silvia; Guida, Gianpiero; Cirillo, Valerio; Di Stasio, Emilio; Carillo, Petronia; Woodrow, Pasqualina; Maggio, Albino; Raimondi, Giampaolo

    2017-01-01

    Pre-treatment of tomato plants with micromolar concentrations of omeprazole (OP), a benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor in mammalian systems, improves plant growth in terms of fresh weight of shoot and roots by 49 and 55% and dry weight by 54 and 105% under salt stress conditions (200 mM NaCl), respectively. Assessment of gas exchange, ion distribution, and gene expression profile in different organs strongly indicates that OP interferes with key components of the stress adaptation machinery, including hormonal control of root development (improving length and branching), protection of the photosynthetic system (improving quantum yield of photosystem II) and regulation of ion homeostasis (improving the K+:Na+ ratio in leaves and roots). To our knowledge OP is one of the few known molecules that at micromolar concentrations manifests a dual function as growth enhancer and salt stress protectant. Therefore, OP can be used as new inducer of stress tolerance to better understand molecular and physiological stress adaptation paths in plants and to design new products to improve crop performance under suboptimal growth conditions. Highlight: Omeprazole enhances growth of tomato and increases tolerance to salinity stress through alterations of gene expression and ion uptake and transport. PMID:28769943

  4. Impact of visceral leishmaniasis and curative chemotherapy on cytochrome P450 activity in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Almeida, Roque; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Marques, Maria Paula; Moraes, Natália V; da Silva, Angela M; Souza, Tania M V; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and curative chemotherapy on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in patients from an endemic region in Brazil. Adult patients with parasitologically confirmed VL were given a CYP phenotyping cocktail, comprising midazolam, omeprazole and losartan, immediately before (Study phase 1), 2-3 days (phase 2) and 3-6 months (phase 3) after curative VL chemotherapy. CYP activity was assessed by the apparent clearance of midazolam (CYP3A), omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazol ratio in plasma (CYP2C19) and losartan/E3174 ratio in urine (CYP2C9). Mean values (95% confidence interval) in phases 1, 2 and 3 were, respectively: log apparent midazolam clearance, 1.21 (1.10-1.31), 1.45 (1.32-1.57) and 1.35 (1.26-1.44) ml min(-1)  kg(-1) ; omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole ratio, 0.78 (0.61-0.94), 0.45 (0.27-0.63) and 0.37 (0.20-0.55); losartan/E3174 ratio, 0.66 (0.39-0.92), 0.35 (0.20-0.50) and 0.35 (0.16-0.53). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in CYP3A (P = 0.018) and CYP2C19 (P = 0.008), but not CYP2C9 (P = 0.11) phenotypic activity, across the three study phases. The phenotypic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were significantly reduced during acute VL compared with post-chemotherapy. We propose that increased plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines during active disease account for the suppression of CYP activity. The failure to detect significant changes in CYP2C9 activity in the overall cohort may reflect differential effects of the inflammatory process on the expression of CYP isoforms, although the possibility of insufficient statistical power cannot be dismissed. © 2015 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Impact of visceral leishmaniasis and curative chemotherapy on cytochrome P450 activity in Brazilian patients

    PubMed Central

    Lanchote, Vera Lucia; Almeida, Roque; Barral, Aldina; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Marques, Maria Paula; Moraes, Natália V; da Silva, Angela M; Souza, Tania M V; Suarez-Kurtz, Guilherme

    2015-01-01

    Aims The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of human visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and curative chemotherapy on the activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A, CYP2C9 and CYP2C19 in patients from an endemic region in Brazil. Methods Adult patients with parasitologically confirmed VL were given a CYP phenotyping cocktail, comprising midazolam, omeprazole and losartan, immediately before (Study phase 1), 2–3 days (phase 2) and 3–6 months (phase 3) after curative VL chemotherapy. CYP activity was assessed by the apparent clearance of midazolam (CYP3A), omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazol ratio in plasma (CYP2C19) and losartan/E3174 ratio in urine (CYP2C9). Results Mean values (95% confidence interval) in phases 1, 2 and 3 were, respectively: log apparent midazolam clearance, 1.21 (1.10–1.31), 1.45 (1.32–1.57) and 1.35 (1.26–1.44) ml min–1 kg–1; omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole ratio, 0.78 (0.61–0.94), 0.45 (0.27–0.63) and 0.37 (0.20-0.55); losartan/E3174 ratio, 0.66 (0.39–0.92), 0.35 (0.20–0.50) and 0.35 (0.16–0.53). Analysis of variance revealed significant differences in CYP3A (P = 0.018) and CYP2C19 (P = 0.008), but not CYP2C9 (P = 0.11) phenotypic activity, across the three study phases. Conclusion The phenotypic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2C19 were significantly reduced during acute VL compared with post-chemotherapy. We propose that increased plasma concentrations of proinflammatory cytokines during active disease account for the suppression of CYP activity. The failure to detect significant changes in CYP2C9 activity in the overall cohort may reflect differential effects of the inflammatory process on the expression of CYP isoforms, although the possibility of insufficient statistical power cannot be dismissed. PMID:25940755

  6. Therapeutic protein-drug interaction assessment for daclizumab high-yield process in patients with multiple sclerosis using a cocktail approach.

    PubMed

    Tran, Jonathan Q; Othman, Ahmed A; Wolstencroft, Paul; Elkins, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    To characterize the potential effect of daclizumab high-yield process (DAC HYP), a monoclonal antibody that blocks the high-affinity interleukin-2 receptors for treatment of multiple sclerosis, on activity of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. Twenty patients with multiple sclerosis received an oral cocktail of probe substrates of CYP1A2 (caffeine 200 mg), CYP2C9 (warfarin 10 mg/vitamin K 10 mg), CYP2C19 (omeprazole 40 mg), CYP2D6 (dextromethorphan 30 mg) and CYP3A (midazolam 5 mg) on two sequential occasions: 7 days before and 7 days after subcutaneous administration of DAC HYP 150 mg every 4 weeks for three doses. Serial pharmacokinetic blood samples up to 96 h post dose and 12-h urine samples were collected on both occasions. Area under the curve (AUC) for caffeine, S-warfarin, omeprazole and midazolam, and urine dextromethorphan to dextrorphan ratio were calculated. Statistical analyses were conducted on log-transformed parameters using a linear mixed-effects model. The 90% confidence intervals (CIs) for the geometric mean ratio (probe substrate with DAC HYP/probe substrate alone) for caffeine AUC from 0-12 h (0.93-1.15), S-warfarin AUC from 0 to infinity (AUC[0-inf]) (0.95-1.06), omeprazole AUC(0-inf) (0.88-1.13) and midazolam AUC(0-inf) (0.89-1.15) were within the no-effect boundary of 0.80-1.25. The geometric mean ratio for urine dextromethorphan to dextrorphan ratio was 1.01, with the 90% CI (0.76-1.34) extending slightly outside the no-effect boundary, likely due to high variability with urine collections and CYP2D6 activity. DAC HYP treatment in patients with multiple sclerosis had no effect on CYP 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6 and 3A activity. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  7. Efficacy and Safety of Proton-Pump Inhibitors in High-Risk Cardiovascular Subsets of the COGENT Trial.

    PubMed

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Cannon, Christopher P; Cryer, Byron L; Liu, Yuyin; Hsieh, Wen-Hua; Doros, Gheorghe; Cohen, Marc; Lanas, Angel; Schnitzer, Thomas J; Shook, Thomas L; Lapuerta, Pablo; Goldsmith, Mark A; Laine, Loren; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2016-09-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to reduce rates of gastrointestinal events in patients requiring dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT). Data are limited regarding the efficacy and safety of PPIs in high-risk cardiovascular subsets after acute coronary syndrome or percutaneous coronary intervention. All patients enrolled in COGENT (Clopidogrel and the Optimization of Gastrointestinal Events Trial) were initiated on DAPT (with aspirin and clopidogrel) for various indications within the prior 21 days. These post hoc analyses of the COGENT trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of omeprazole compared with placebo in subsets of patients requiring DAPT for the 2 most frequent indications: 1) patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (for any indication) within 14 days of randomization (n = 2676; 71.2%); and 2) patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome managed with or without percutaneous coronary intervention (n = 1573; 41.8%). Unadjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate effect sizes through final follow-up. Median follow-up duration was 110 days (interquartile range 55-167). In percutaneous coronary intervention-treated patients, omeprazole significantly reduced rates of composite gastrointestinal events at 180 days (1.2% vs 2.7%; hazard ratio [HR] 0.43; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.22-0.85; P = .02) without increasing composite cardiovascular events (5.4% vs 6.3%; HR 1.00; 95% CI, 0.67-1.50; P = 1.00). Similarly, omeprazole lowered risk of the primary gastrointestinal endpoint at 180 days in patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome (1.1% vs 2.7%; HR 0.37; 95% CI, 0.13-1.01; P = .05) without a significant excess in cardiovascular events (5.6% vs 4.5%; HR 1.40; 95% CI, 0.77-2.53; P = .27). PPI therapy attenuates gastrointestinal bleeding risk without significant excess in major cardiovascular events in high-risk cardiovascular subsets, regardless of indication for DAPT. Future studies will be

  8. Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of the FDA-licensed proton pump inhibitors for erosive esophagitis: A PRISMA-compliant network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei-Juan; Li, Qing; Sun, Min; Liu, Li-Qin

    2017-09-01

    This study compared the effectiveness and acceptability of all Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dose proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in erosive esophagitis (EE): Dexlansoprazole 60 mg, Esomeprazole 40 mg, Esomeprazole 20 mg, Pantoprazole 40 mg, Lansoprazole 30 mg, Rabeprazole 20 mg, Omeprazole 20 mg. A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Totally, 25 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met study selection criteria and were incorporated in this network meta-analysis (NMA) study. For the NMA, eligible RCTs of adults with EE verified by endoscopic examination were randomly assigned to the licensed PPIs at least 4 weeks of continuous therapy. The primary efficacy outcome was the endoscopic healing rates at 4 and 8 weeks. Heartburn relief rates were a secondary efficacy outcome. The rates of withdrawal were analyzed as a safety outcome. In comparison to the common comparator omeprazole 20 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg provided significantly healing rates at 4 weeks [odds ratio (OR), 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.24-1.71)] and 8 weeks [1.58 (1.29-1.92)], and improved the heartburn relief rates [1.29 (1.07-1.56)]. In comparison to lansoprazole 30 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg provided significantly healing rates at 4 weeks [1.30 (1.10-1.53)] and 8 weeks [1.37 (1.13-1.67)], and improved the heartburn relief rates [1.29 (1.03-1.62)]. In terms of acceptability, only dexlansoprazole 60 mg had significantly more all-cause discontinuation than omeprazole 20 mg [1.54 (1.03-2.29)], pantoprazole 40 mg [1.68 (1.08-2.63)], and lansoprazole 30 mg [1.38 (1.02-1.88)]. The standard-dose esomeprazole 40 mg had more superiority in mucosal erosion healing and heartburn relief. Esomeprazole 40 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg, esomeprazole 20 mg, and lansoprazole 30 mg showed more benefits in effectiveness and acceptability than other interventions.

  9. Use of bicarbonate buffer systems for dissolution characterization of enteric-coated proton pump inhibitor tablets.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Hiroko; Yoshida, Hiroyuki; Izutsu, Ken-Ichi; Goda, Yukihiro

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of buffer systems (bicarbonate or phosphate at different concentrations) on the in vitro dissolution profiles of commercially available enteric-coated tablets. In vitro dissolution tests were conducted using an USP apparatus II on 12 enteric-coated omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets, including innovator and generic formulations in phosphate buffers, bicarbonate buffers and a media modified Hanks (mHanks) buffer. Both omeprazole and rabeprazole tablets showed similar dissolution profiles among products in the compendial phosphate buffer system. However, there were large differences between products in dissolution lag time in mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. All formulations showed longer dissolution lag times at lower concentrations of bicarbonate or phosphate buffers. The dissolution rank order of each formulation differed between mHanks buffer and bicarbonate buffers. A rabeprazole formulation coated with a methacrylic acid copolymer showed the shortest lag time in the high concentration bicarbonate buffer, suggesting varied responses depending on the coating layer and buffer components. Use of multiple dissolution media during in vitro testing, including high concentration bicarbonate buffer, would contribute to the efficient design of enteric-coated drug formulations. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society, Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology.

  10. Proton pump inhibitors induce a caspase-independent antitumor effect against human multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Canitano, Andrea; Iessi, Elisabetta; Spugnini, Enrico Pierluigi; Federici, Cristina; Fais, Stefano

    2016-07-01

    Multiple Myeloma (MM) is the second most common hematological malignancy and is responsive to a limited number of drugs. Unfortunately, to date, despite the introduction of novel drugs, no relevant increase in survival rates has been obtained. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been shown to have significant antitumor action as single agents as well as in combination with chemotherapy. This study investigates the potential anti-tumor effectiveness of two PPIs, Lansoprazole and Omeprazole, against human MM cells. We found that Lansoprazole exerts straightforward efficacy against myeloma cells, even at suboptimal concentrations (50 µM), while Omeprazole has limited cytotoxic action. The Lansoprazole anti-MM effect was mostly mediated by a caspase-independent apoptotic-like cytotoxicity, with only a secondary anti-proliferative action. This study provides clear evidence supporting the use of Lansoprazole in the strive against MM with an efficacy proven much higher than current therapeutical approaches and without reported side effects. It is however conceivable that, consistent with the results obtained in other human tumors, Lansoprazole may well be combined with existing anti-myeloma therapies with the aim to improve the low level of efficacy of the current strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The efficacy and safety of proton-pump inhibitors in treating patients with non-erosive reflux disease: a network meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lingxiao; Chen, Yujie; Li, Bo

    2016-09-01

    Proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been proved as safe and effective ways to treat patients with non-erosive reflux disease (NERD). However, less is known about the comparisons among different PPIs and their best dosage. We aimed to synthesize the available evidence through network meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy and safety of different PPIs in treating patients with NERD. Fifteen studies with 6309 patients were included in the meta-analyses. For the rate of symptomatic relief, compared with control groups, all interventions except rabeprazole 5 mg significantly increased rate of symptomatic relief. Among the comparisons of different interventions, omeprazole 20 mg group was associated with a higher rate of symptomatic relief in contrast to omeprazole 10 mg group (odds ratio, OR: 1.89, 95% confidence interval, CI: 1.34, 2.67; p-value: 0.0005) or rabeprazole 5 mg group (OR: 2.51, 95%CI: 1.16, 5.42; p-value: 0.019); dexlansoprazole 30 mg therapy significantly improved the rate of symptomatic relief compared with rabeprazole 5 mg group (OR: 2.64, 95%CI: 1.08, 6.43; p-value: 0.03). For the rate of adverse events, there was no significant difference among all interventions.

  12. Analysis, occurrence, fate and risks of proton pump inhibitors, their metabolites and transformation products in aquatic environment: A review.

    PubMed

    Kosma, Christina I; Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2016-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) which include omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole, are extensively used for the relief of gastro-intestinal disorders. Despite their high worldwide consumption, PPIs are extensively metabolized in human bodies and therefore are not regularly detected in monitoring studies. Very recently, however, it has been shown that some omeprazole metabolites may enter and are likely to persist in aquatic environment. Hence, to fully assess the environmental exposures and risks associated with PPIs, it is important to better understand and evaluate the fate and behavior not only of the parent compound but also of their metabolites and their transformation products arising from biotic and abiotic processes (hydrolysis, photodegradation, biodegradation etc.) in the environment. In this light, the purpose of this review is to summarize the present state of knowledge on the introduction and behavior of these chemicals in natural and engineering systems and highlight research needs and gaps. It draws attention to their transformation, the increase contamination by their metabolites/TPs in different environmental matrices and their potential adverse effects in the environment. Furthermore, existing research on analytical developments with respect to sample treatment, separation and detection of PPIs and their metabolites/TPs is provided. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Reversible vascular calcifications associated with hypervitaminosis D.

    PubMed

    Cirillo, Massimo; Bilancio, Giancarlo; Cirillo, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    A 64-year-old man was hospitalized in 2002 with symptoms of stupor, weakness, and renal colic. The clinical examination indicated borderline hypertension, small masses in the glutei, and polyuria. Laboratory tests evidenced high serum concentrations of creatinine, calcium, and phosphate. Imaging assessments disclosed widespread vascular calcifications, gluteal calcifications, and pelvic ectasia. Subsequent lab tests indicated suppressed serum parathyroid hormone, extremely high serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D, and normal serum 1,25-dihydroxy vitamin D. Treatment was started with intravenous infusion of saline and furosemide due to the evidence of hypercalcemia. Prednisone and omeprazole were added given the evidence of hypervitaminosis D. The treatment improved serum calcium, kidney function, and consciousness. The medical history disclosed recent treatment with exceptionally high doses of slow-release intra-muscular cholecalciferol and the recent excretion of urinary stones. The patient was discharged when it was possible to stop the intravenous treatment. The post-discharge treatment included oral hydration, furosemide, prednisone and omeprazole for approximately 6 months up to complete resolution of the hypercalcemia. The patient came back 12 years later because of microhematuria. Lab tests were normal for calcium/phosphorus homeostasis and kidney function. Imaging tests indicated only minor vascular calcifications. This is the first evidence of reversible vascular calcifications secondary to hypervitaminosis D.

  14. Recent advances in chirally pure proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pai, Vikas; Pai, Nitin

    2007-08-01

    Chirality is a ubiquitous natural phenomenon resulting because of a differential spatial orientation of molecules around its chiral centre. This leads to the existence of two or more spatially dissimilar forms, known as stereoisomers or enantiomers, which are non-superimposable images of each other and may significantly differ from each other with respect to pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties and molecular interaction. Thus one isomer may offer significant pharmacokinetic and therapeutic advantages as compared to the other isomer or the racemic mixture (mixture containing both enantiomers). Proton pump inhibitors are a class of drugs which have been very effective in the management of acid-related disorders. The proton pumps currently available in the market including omeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole and lansoprazole are racemic mixtures of the S and R isomers. Chirally pure forms of proton pump inhibitors show a superior metabolic and pharmacokinetic profile as compared to their racemates. The therapeutic efficacy is also superior to the parent racemate. This has been clearly demonstrated with the development of esomeprazole- the S-isomer of omeprazole. S-pantoprazole and dexrabeprazole also offer therapeutic advantages as compared to racemic pantoprazole and racemic rabeprazole respectively. This article reviews the chiral developments in the proton pump inhibitors and their clinical applications.

  15. High performance liquid chromatography with photo diode array for separation and analysis of naproxen and esomeprazole in presence of their chiral impurities: Enantiomeric purity determination in tablets.

    PubMed

    Ragab, Marwa A A; El-Kimary, Eman I

    2017-05-12

    A stereoselective high performance liquid chromatographic method with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD) was introduced for S-naproxen and esomeprazole determination in tablets. The separation was achieved on a Kromasil Cellucoat chiral column using a mobile phase consisting of hexane: isopropanol: trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) (90:9.9:0.1 v/v/v). The proposed system was found to be suitable for the enantioseparation of naproxen and omeprazole biologically active isomers. After optimization of the chromatographic conditions, resolution values of 3.84 and 2.17 could be obtained for naproxen and omeprazole isomers, respectively. The method was fully validated for the determination of S-isomers of each drug in their dosage form. Also, the enentiomeric purity was determined in commercial tablet containing S-naproxen and esomeprazole. The enantiomeric purity was calculated for each drug and the chiral impurities (R-isomers) could be determined at 1% level. The method was validated and good results with respect to linearity, precision, accuracy, selectivity and robustness were obtained. The limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 2.00, 6.50 and 0.10, 0.35μgmL -1 for S-naproxen and esomeprazole, respectively. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Extemporaneous compounding in a sample of New Zealand hospitals: a retrospective survey.

    PubMed

    Kairuz, Therése; Chhim, Srey; Hasan, Fhazeel; Kumar, Karishma; Lal, Aarti; Patel, Roshni; Singh, Ranjani; Dogra, Mridula; Garg, Sanjay

    2007-03-23

    To determine the extent and nature of extemporaneous compounding of liquid preparations in a sample of New Zealand hospitals. Retrospective data were collected from eight hospitals known to provide compounding services during the period 1 June 2004 to 31 December 2004; including dosage form, volume, and quantity prepared. Data were collected on site from compounding logbooks and batch sheets. Demographic patient data was limited to age and was only collected from pharmacy departments where this information was readily available. Off-label use was analysed where appropriate data were available. 2015 products were compounded over the 7-month period; an average of 251.9 per month. More oral dosage forms were compounded (n=152) compared to topical dosage forms (n=100); 74 drugs required extemporaneous preparation for oral use. There were 16 drugs used in an off-label manner on 144 occasions for paediatric patients. Most off-label drugs were reformulated as suspensions; omeprazole suspension was compounded at all of the hospitals. Off-label use of four drugs (sotalol, labetalol, diazoxide, and clonidine) was analysed for different paediatric age groups. Suspensions are the most frequently compounded dosage form and omeprazole is the drug that is most frequently reformulated. Off-label medicines form a small but integral role in the supply of medicinal products.

  17. Key Mutations Alter the Cytochrome P450 BM3 Conformational Landscape and Remove Inherent Substrate Bias*

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Christopher F.; Peet, Caroline; Mason, Amy E.; Voice, Michael W.; Leys, David; Munro, Andrew W.

    2013-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s) have enormous potential in the production of oxychemicals, due to their unparalleled regio- and stereoselectivity. The Bacillus megaterium P450 BM3 enzyme is a key model system, with several mutants (many distant from the active site) reported to alter substrate selectivity. It has the highest reported monooxygenase activity of the P450 enzymes, and this catalytic efficiency has inspired protein engineering to enable its exploitation for biotechnologically relevant oxidations with structurally diverse substrates. However, a structural rationale is lacking to explain how these mutations have such effects in the absence of direct change to the active site architecture. Here, we provide the first crystal structures of BM3 mutants in complex with a human drug substrate, the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. Supported by solution data, these structures reveal how mutation alters the conformational landscape and decreases the free energy barrier for transition to the substrate-bound state. Our data point to the importance of such “gatekeeper” mutations in enabling major changes in substrate recognition. We further demonstrate that these mutants catalyze the same 5-hydroxylation reaction as performed by human CYP2C19, the major human omeprazole-metabolizing P450 enzyme. PMID:23828198

  18. In Vitro Activities of Rabeprazole, a Novel Proton Pump Inhibitor, and Its Thioether Derivative Alone and in Combination with Other Antimicrobials against Recent Clinical Isolates of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Yoshiyuki; Akahane, Takayuki; Yamaguchi, Masaru; Oana, Kozue; Takahashi, Yuko; Okimura, Yukie; Okabe, Tadashi; Gotoh, Akira; Katsuyama, Tsutomu

    2000-01-01

    The MICs of rabeprazole sodium (RPZ), a newly developed benzimidazole proton pump inhibitor (PPI), against 133 clinical Helicobacter pylori strains revealed a higher degree of activity than the another two PPIs, lansoprazole and omeprazole. Time-kill curve assays of RPZ, when combined with amoxicillin, clarithromycin, or metronidazole, disclosed that synergistic effects were demonstrated in combination with each antibiotic examined. Moreover, no apparent antagonistic effect appeared among all of the strains tested. PMID:10639386

  19. The Karolinska cocktail for phenotyping of five human cytochrome P450 enzymes.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Magnus; Andersson, Katarina; Dalén, Per; Mirghani, Rajaa A; Muirhead, Gary J; Nordmark, Anna; Tybring, Gunnel; Wahlberg, Anneli; Yaşar, Umit; Bertilsson, Leif

    2003-06-01

    Our objectives were (1) to determine whether the drugs caffeine, losartan, omeprazole, debrisoquin (INN, debrisoquine), and quinine can be given simultaneously in low doses as a cocktail for the phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A2, 2C9, 2C19, 2D6, and 3A4, respectively, and (2) to design an administration schedule to give as few sampling occasions as possible. Twenty-four subjects were given oral doses of 100 mg caffeine, 25 mg losartan, 20 mg omeprazole, 10 mg debrisoquin, and 250 mg quinine on separate days. After a washout period of at least 4 days, all drugs were given simultaneously except for quinine, which was given 8 hours after the other drugs. Blood and urine samples were collected to determine parent drug and metabolite concentrations for assessment of phenotyping indices. Any difference between both single and cocktail doses was tested on a log-normal distribution. The phenotypic indices of CYP1A2 (paraxanthine/caffeine in 4-hour plasma), CYP2C9 (losartan/E-3174 [metabolite of losartan] in 0- to 8-hour urine), CYP2C19 (omeprazole/5-hydroxyomeprazole in 3-hour plasma), and CYP3A4 (quinine/3-hydroxyquinine in 16-hour plasma) were not significantly changed when probe drugs were administered alone compared with together, although a tendency toward higher concentrations of losartan was seen during simultaneous administration (95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.002; P =.051). The CYP2D6 phenotypic index (debrisoquin/4-hydroxydebrisoquin in 0- to 8-hour urine) was significantly changed when drugs were given together (95% confidence interval, 0.45-0.87; P =.007), indicating an inhibition of the debrisoquin metabolism. The within-subject coefficients of variation (8%-25%) were much lower than the between-subject coefficients of variation (34%-79%). The administration of drugs together suggests an inhibition of debrisoquin metabolism caused by the concurrent drugs given. By separating debrisoquin from the other cocktail drugs, this method is likely to be used

  20. Pharmacokinetic drug interactions with clopidogrel: updated review and risk management in combination therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Yu; Chen, Meng; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Yu, Lu-Shan; Zeng, Su; Xiang, Mei-Xiang; Zhou, Quan

    2015-01-01

    Background Coprescribing of clopidogrel and other drugs is common. Available reviews have addressed the drug–drug interactions (DDIs) when clopidogrel is as an object drug, or focused on combination use of clopidogrel and a special class of drugs. Clinicians may still be ignorant of those DDIs when clopidogrel is a precipitant drug, the factors determining the degree of DDIs, and corresponding risk management. Methods A literature search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to analyze the pharmacokinetic DDIs of clopidogrel and new P2Y12 receptor inhibitors. Results Clopidogrel affects the pharmacokinetics of cerivastatin, repaglinide, ferulic acid, sibutramine, efavirenz, and omeprazole. Low efficacy of clopidogrel is anticipated in the presence of omeprazole, esomeprazole, morphine, grapefruit juice, scutellarin, fluoxetine, azole antifungals, calcium channel blockers, sulfonylureas, and ritonavir. Augmented antiplatelet effects are anticipated when clopidogrel is coprescribed with aspirin, curcumin, cyclosporin, St John’s wort, rifampicin, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The factors determining the degree of DDIs with clopidogrel include genetic status (eg, cytochrome P540 [CYP]2B6*6, CYP2C19 polymorphism, CYP3A5*3, CYP3A4*1G, and CYP1A2-163C.A), species differences, and dose strength. The DDI risk does not exhibit a class effect, eg, the effects of clopidogrel on cerivastatin versus other statins, the effects of proton pump inhibitors on clopidogrel (omeprazole, esomeprazole versus pantoprazole, rabeprazole), the effects of rifampicin on clopidogrel versus ticagrelor and prasugrel, and the effects of calcium channel blockers on clopidogrel (amlodipine versus P-glycoprotein-inhibiting calcium channel blockers). The mechanism of the DDIs with clopidogrel involves modulating CYP enzymes (eg, CYP2B6, CYP2C8, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4), paraoxonase-1, hepatic carboxylesterase 1, P-glycoprotein, and organic anion

  1. Comparative effectiveness and acceptability of the FDA-licensed proton pump inhibitors for erosive esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Mei-Juan; Li, Qing; Sun, Min; Liu, Li-Qin

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: This study compared the effectiveness and acceptability of all Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-recommended dose proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in erosive esophagitis (EE): Dexlansoprazole 60 mg, Esomeprazole 40 mg, Esomeprazole 20 mg, Pantoprazole 40 mg, Lansoprazole 30 mg, Rabeprazole 20 mg, Omeprazole 20 mg. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library. Totally, 25 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) met study selection criteria and were incorporated in this network meta-analysis (NMA) study. Results: For the NMA, eligible RCTs of adults with EE verified by endoscopic examination were randomly assigned to the licensed PPIs at least 4 weeks of continuous therapy. The primary efficacy outcome was the endoscopic healing rates at 4 and 8 weeks. Heartburn relief rates were a secondary efficacy outcome. The rates of withdrawal were analyzed as a safety outcome. In comparison to the common comparator omeprazole 20 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg provided significantly healing rates at 4 weeks [odds ratio (OR), 1.46 (95% confidence interval, 95% CI, 1.24–1.71)] and 8 weeks [1.58 (1.29–1.92)], and improved the heartburn relief rates [1.29 (1.07–1.56)]. In comparison to lansoprazole 30 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg provided significantly healing rates at 4 weeks [1.30 (1.10–1.53)] and 8 weeks [1.37 (1.13–1.67)], and improved the heartburn relief rates [1.29 (1.03–1.62)]. In terms of acceptability, only dexlansoprazole 60 mg had significantly more all-cause discontinuation than omeprazole 20 mg [1.54 (1.03–2.29)], pantoprazole 40 mg [1.68 (1.08–2.63)], and lansoprazole 30 mg [1.38 (1.02–1.88)]. Conclusion: The standard-dose esomeprazole 40 mg had more superiority in mucosal erosion healing and heartburn relief. Esomeprazole 40 mg, pantoprazole 40 mg, esomeprazole 20 mg, and lansoprazole 30 mg showed more benefits in effectiveness and acceptability than other

  2. Fasting-Induced Changes in Hepatic P450 Mediated Drug Metabolism Are Largely Independent of the Constitutive Androstane Receptor CAR.

    PubMed

    de Vries, E M; Lammers, L A; Achterbergh, R; Klümpen, H-J; Mathot, R A A; Boelen, A; Romijn, J A

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic drug metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes is altered by the nutritional status of patients. The expression of P450 enzymes is partly regulated by the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR). Fasting regulates the expression of both P450 enzymes and CAR and affects hepatic drug clearance. We hypothesized that the fasting-induced alterations in P450 mediated drug clearance are mediated by CAR. To investigate this we used a drug cocktail validated in humans consisting of five widely prescribed drugs as probes for specific P450 enzymes: caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), omeprazole (CYP2C19), midazolam (CYP3A4) and s-warfarin (CYP2C9). This cocktail was administered to wild type (WT, C57Bl/6) mice or mice deficient for CAR (CAR-/-) that were either fed ad libitum or fasted for 24 hours. Blood was sampled at predefined intervals and drug concentrations were measured as well as hepatic mRNA expression of homologous/orthologous P450 enzymes (Cyp1a2, Cyp2d22, Cyp3a11, Cyp2c37, Cyp2c38 and Cyp2c65). Fasting decreased Cyp1a2 and Cyp2d22 expression and increased Cyp3a11 and Cyp2c38 expression in both WT and CAR-/- mice. The decrease in Cyp1a2 was diminished in CAR-/- in comparison with WT mice. Basal Cyp2c37 expression was lower in CAR-/- compared to WT mice. Fasting decreased the clearance of all drugs tested in both WT and CAR-/- mice. The absence of CAR was associated with an decrease in the clearance of omeprazole, metoprolol and midazolam in fed mice. The fasting-induced reduction in clearance of s-warfarin was greater in WT than in CAR-/-. The changes in drug clearance correlated with the expression pattern of the specific P450 enzymes in case of Cyp1a2-caffeine and Cyp2c37-omeprazole. We conclude that CAR is important for hepatic clearance of several widely prescribed drugs metabolized by P450 enzymes. However the fasting-induced alterations in P450 mediated drug clearance are largely independent of CAR.

  3. Inhibitory effects of kale ingestion on metabolism by cytochrome P450 enzymes in rats.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Izumi; Yamada, Masayoshi; Uotsu, Nobuo; Teramoto, Sachiyuki; Takayanagi, Risa; Yamada, Yasuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala DC) is a leafy green vegetable belonging to the cabbage family (Brassicaceae) that contains a large amount of health-promoting phytochemicals. There are any reports about the effects of kale ingestion on the chemoprevention function and mechanism, but the interactions between kale and drugs have not been researched. We investigated the effects of kale intake on cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolism by using cocktail probe drugs, including midazolam (for CYP3A4), caffeine (for CYP1A2), dextromethorphan (for CYP2D6), tolbutamide (for CYP2C9), omeprazole (for CYP2C19), and chlorzoxazone (for CYP2E1). Cocktail drugs were administered into rats treated with kale and cabbage (2000 mg/kg) for a week. The results showed that kale intake induced a significant increase in plasma levels and the AUC of midazolam, caffeine, and dextromethorphan. In addition, the plasma concentration and AUC of omeprazole tended to increase. Additionally, no almost differences in the mRNA expression levels of CYP enzymes in the liver were observed. In conclusion, kale ingestion was considered to have an inhibitory effect on the activities of CYP3A4, 1A2, 2D6, and 2C19 for a reason competitive inhibition than inhibitory changes in the mRNA expressions.

  4. Antioxidant Properties and Gastroprotective Effects of 2-(Ethylthio)Benzohydrazones on Ethanol-Induced Acute Gastric Mucosal Lesions in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ariffin, Azhar; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Abdullah, Zanariah

    2016-01-01

    A series of new 2-(ethylthio)benzohydrazone derivatives (1–6) were prepared and characterised by IR, 1H NMR, and 13C NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The newly prepared compounds were screened for their in vitro antioxidant activities using free radical scavenging 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Among them, most powerful antioxidant, compound 1 has been selected in order to illustrate anti-ulcer effect on ethanol-induced gastric mucosal lesions in rats. Four groups of Sprague Dawley rats were respectively treated with 10% Tween 20 as ulcer control group, 20 mg/kg omeprazole as reference group, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg compound 1 as experimental animals. Macroscopically, ulcer control group showed extensive hemorrhagic lesions of gastric mucosa compared with omeprazole or compound 1. Rats pre-treated with compound 1 showed increased in gastric pH and gastric mucus. Histologically, ulcer control group showed severe damage to gastric mucosa with edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer. In immunohistochemical analysis, rats which were pre-treated with compound 1 showed up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax proteins. In conclusion, the gastroprotective effect of compound 1 may be due to its antioxidant activity, and/or due to up-regulation of HSP70 and down-regulation of Bax protein in stained tissue section. PMID:27272221

  5. Comparative risk of ischemic stroke among users of clopidogrel together with individual proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Charles E; Bilker, Warren B; Brensinger, Colleen M; Flockhart, David A; Freeman, Cristin P; Kasner, Scott E; Kimmel, Stephen E; Hennessy, Sean

    2015-03-01

    There is controversy and little information about whether individual proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) differentially alter the effectiveness of clopidogrel in reducing ischemic stroke risk. We, therefore, aimed to elucidate the risk of ischemic stroke among concomitant users of clopidogrel and individual PPIs. We conducted a propensity score-adjusted cohort study of adult new users of clopidogrel, using 1999 to 2009 Medicaid claims from 5 large states. Exposures were defined by prescriptions for esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, rabeprazole, and pantoprazole-with pantoprazole serving as the referent. The end point was hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke, defined by International Classification of Diseases Ninth Revision Clinical Modification codes in the principal position on inpatient claims, within 180 days of concomitant therapy initiation. Among 325 559 concomitant users of clopidogrel and a PPI, we identified 1667 ischemic strokes for an annual incidence of 2.4% (95% confidence interval, 2.3-2.5). Adjusted hazard ratios for ischemic stroke versus pantoprazole were 0.98 (0.82-1.17) for esomeprazole; 1.06 (0.92-1.21) for lansoprazole; 0.98 (0.85-1.15) for omeprazole; and 0.85 (0.63-1.13) for rabeprazole. PPIs of interest did not increase the rate of ischemic stroke among clopidogrel users when compared with pantoprazole, a PPI thought to be devoid of the potential to interact with clopidogrel. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Acute Toxicity and Gastroprotection Studies of a New Schiff Base Derived Manganese (II) Complex against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Ulcerations in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed Yousif; Hashim, Najihah Mohd; Dhiyaaldeen, Summaya M; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; El-Ferjani, Rashd M; Adam, Hoyam; Alkotaini, Bassam; Batran, Rami Al; Ali, Hapipah Mohd

    2016-05-27

    Manganese is a crucial element for health. In this study, the gastroprotective efficacy of Mn (II) complex (MDLA) against acidified ethanol (HCl/Ethanol)-induced gastric ulceration in rats was evaluated. The animals were distributed into 5 groups. Groups 1 and 2 received carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), group 3 was pretreated with omeprazole, and groups 4 and 5 were given 10 and 20 mg/kg of MDLA, respectively. After one hour, CMC and HCl/Ethanol were given to groups 2-5 whilst the animals in group 1 were ingested with CMC. After sacrifice, gastric lesions were evaluated by wall mucus, gross appearance, histology, antioxidant enzymes and immunohistochemistry. Group 2 displayed severe gastric damage with a significant reduction in wall mucus. Conversely, gastric lesions were reduced in groups 3-5 by 85.72%, 56.51% and 65.93%, respectively. The rats in groups 3-5 showed up-regulation of heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) with down-regulation of Bcl-2-associated protein x (Bax). Pretreatment with omeprazole or MDLA led to an increase in the uptake of Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) stain in the glandular part of the gastric tissue, raised levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and a reduction in malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations. These results suggested the gastroprotective action of Mn (II) complex.

  7. Five-year examination of utilization and drug cost outcomes associated with benefit design changes including reference pricing for proton pump inhibitors in a state employee health plan.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jill T; Neill, Kathryn K; Davis, Dwight A

    2011-04-01

    The Arkansas State Employee Benefits Division (EBD) is a self-insured program comprising public school and other state employees, their spouses, and dependents. Previous research published in JMCP (2006) showed drug cost savings of $2.20 per member per month (PMPM; 37.6%) or annualized savings of $3.4 million associated with a benefit design change and coverage of the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) omeprazole over-the-counter (OTC) beginning in March 2004. On May 1, 2005, brand esomeprazole was excluded from coverage, with current users grandfathered for 4 months until September 2005. Reference pricing for PPIs, including esomeprazole but excluding generic omeprazole, was implemented on September 1, 2005, and the beneficiary cost share for all PPIs except generic omeprazole was determined from comparison of the PPI actual price to the $0.90 omeprazole OTC reference price per unit. To examine PPI utilization and drug costs before and after (a) excluding esomeprazole from coverage (with grandfathering current users) and (b) implementing a therapeutic maximum allowable cost (TMAC), or reference-pricing benefit design, for the PPI class in a large state employee health plan with fairly stable enrollment of approximately 127,500 members in 2005 through 2008 and approximately 128,000 members in 2009 Q1. The pharmacy claims database for the EBD was used to examine utilization and cost data for PPIs in a longitudinal analysis for the 61-month period from March 1, 2004, through March 31, 2009. Pharmacy claims data were compared for the period 14 months prior to esomeprazole exclusion (preperiod), 4 months during the esomeprazole exclusion (postperiod 1), and the ensuing 43 months of PPI reference pricing (postperiod 2). PPI cost and utilization data for the intervention group of approximately 127,500 beneficiaries were compared with a group of 122 self-insured employers with a total of nearly 1 million beneficiaries whose pharmacy benefits did not include reference pricing for

  8. Comparative risk of ischemic stroke among users of clopidogrel together with individual proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Bilker, Warren B.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Flockhart, David A.; Freeman, Cristin P.; Kasner, Scott E.; Kimmel, Stephen E.; Hennessy, Sean

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose There is controversy and little information concerning whether individual proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) differentially alter the effectiveness of clopidogrel in reducing ischemic stroke risk. We therefore aimed to elucidate the risk of ischemic stroke among concomitant users of clopidogrel and individual PPIs. Methods We conducted a propensity score-adjusted cohort study of adult new users of clopidogrel, using 1999–2009 Medicaid claims from 5 large states. Exposures were defined by prescriptions for esomeprazole, lansoprazole, omeprazole, rabeprazole and pantoprazole—with pantoprazole serving as the referent. The endpoint was hospitalization for acute ischemic stroke, defined by International Classification of Diseases 9th Revision Clinical Modification codes in the principal position on inpatient claims, within 180 days of concomitant therapy initiation. Results Among 325,559 concomitant users of clopidogrel and a PPI, we identified 1,667 ischemic strokes for an annual incidence of 2.4% (95% confidence interval: 2.3–2.5). Adjusted hazard ratios for ischemic stroke vs. pantoprazole were: 0.98 (0.82–1.17) for esomeprazole; 1.06 (0.92–1.21) for lansoprazole; 0.98 (0.85–1.15) for omeprazole; and 0.85 (0.63–1.13) for rabeprazole. Conclusions PPIs of interest did not increase the rate of ischemic stroke among clopidogrel users when compared to pantoprazole, a PPI thought to be devoid of the potential to interact with clopidogrel. PMID:25657176

  9. Economic evaluation of Helicobacter pylori eradication in the CADET-Hp randomized controlled trial of H. pylori-positive primary care patients with uninvestigated dyspepsia.

    PubMed

    Chiba, N; Veldhuyzen Van Zanten, S J O; Escobedo, S; Grace, E; Lee, J; Sinclair, P; Barkun, A; Armstrong, D; Thomson, A B R

    2004-02-01

    Adult Helicobacter pylori-positive patients by 13C-urea breath test with uninvestigated dyspepsia symptoms were randomized to 1-week eradication treatment with omeprazole, metronidazole and clarithromycin (OMC) vs. omeprazole and placebo antimicrobials (OPP) in the Canadian Adult Dyspepsia Empiric Treatment-H. pylori-positive (CADET-Hp) study. To perform an economic evaluation of this 1-year study. Following blind eradication treatment, family practitioners managed patients according to their usual practices. Health resource utilization information was collected prospectively. From the mean costs of the health resources consumed and the treatment outcomes, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratios and incremental net benefits of eradication treatment vs. OPP were determined. Eradication therapy significantly improved dyspepsia symptoms (treatment success: OMC, 50%; OPP, 36%; P = 0.02). The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of OMC vs. OPP was - 387 Canadian dollars (CAD$) per treatment success (90% CI, - CAD$1707, CAD$607), indicating a lower cost with treatment success. The incremental net benefit analysis showed that H. pylori eradication was cost-effective if the willingness-to-pay value exceeded a nominal figure of CAD$100 from a health service perspective or CAD$607 from the societal perspective. In uninvestigated patients presenting with dyspepsia at the primary care level, eradication of H. pylori in those who are H. pylori positive leads to a cost-effective improvement in dyspepsia symptoms compared with a strategy of not eradicating H. pylori in these patients.

  10. [Cost-effectiveness analysis of 2 strategies of Helicobacter pylori eradication: results of a prospective and randomized study in primary care].

    PubMed

    Gomollón, F; Valdepérez, J; Garuz, R; Fuentes, J; Barrera, F; Malo, J; Tirado, M; Simón, M A

    2000-06-03

    To analyze cost-effectiveness of two different strategies to treat H. pylori infection in peptic ulcer in the primary care setting. Consecutive patients with endoscopic diagnosis of peptic ulcer were randomized to one of two strategies: a) treatment during 7 days with omeprazole, tetracycline, metronidazole and bismuth subcitrate ("quadruple" therapy) and if failure second-line treatment with omeprazole, amoxycillin and clarithromycin during 7 days (OCA7), and b) initial treatment with OCA7 and if failure treatment with "quadruple therapy". End point was eradication 8 weeks after last treatment dose. Direct and indirect costs were estimated (euros, 1997) and a cost-effectiveness analysis using a decision-tree model was undertaken after real clinical data. 95% confidence intervals are given. After screening 255 patients, 97 were finally included. 48 patients were given strategy a and 49 strategy b. Eradication was obtained (intention-to-treat) in 72.9% (CI 95%: 58.2-84.7) in group a versus 91.8% (CI 95%: 80.4-97.7) (p < 0.05) in group b. Mean cost per case treated was lower in group a (237 versus 268 euros) but cost per case eradicated was lower in group b (320 versus 296 euros). The cost was primarily determined by efficacy. Treatment with OCA7 followed by rescue with "quadruple" therapy if failure is more efficient in our area that the inverse strategy. Efficiency is mostly determined by efficacy.

  11. Stereoselective disposition of proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Tommy; Weidolf, Lars

    2008-01-01

    It is estimated that about half of all therapeutic agents are chiral, but most of these drugs are administered in the form of the racemic mixture, i.e. a 50/50 mixture of its enantiomers. However, chirality is one of the main features of biology, and many of the processes essential for life are stereoselective, implying that two enantiomers may work differently from each other in a physiological environment. Thus, receptors or metabolizing enzymes would recognize one of the ligand enantiomers in favour of the other. With one exception, all presently marketed proton pump inhibitors (PPIs)--omeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole--used for the treatment of gastric acid-related diseases are racemic mixtures. The exception is esomeprazole, the S-enantiomer of omeprazole, which is the only PPI developed as a single enantiomer drug. The development of esomeprazole (an alkaline salt thereof, e.g. magnesium or sodium) was based on unique metabolic properties that clearly differentiated esomeprazole from omeprazole, the racemate. At comparable doses, these properties led to several clinical advantages, for example higher bioavailability in the majority of patients, i.e. the extensive metabolizers (EMs; 97% in Caucasian and 80-85% in Asian populations), lower exposure in poor metabolizers (PMs; 3% in Caucasian and 15-20% in Asian populations) and lower interindividual variation. For the other, i.e. racemic, PPIs there are some data available on the characteristics of the individual enantiomers, and we have therefore undertaken to analyse the current literature with the purpose of evaluating the potential benefits of developing single enantiomer drugs from lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. For lansoprazole, the plasma concentrations of the S-enantiomer are lower than those of the R-enantiomer in both EMs and PMs, and, consequently, the variability in the population or between EMs and PMs is not likely to decrease with either of the lansoprazole

  12. The Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 in Addition to Standard Helicobacter pylori Eradication Treatment in Children.

    PubMed

    Bin, Zhang; Ya-Zheng, Xu; Zhao-Hui, Deng; Bo, Chu; Li-Rong, Jiang; Vandenplas, Yvan

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to investigate Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 during Helicobacter pylori eradication in children. One hundred ninety-four H. pylori positive children were randomized in two groups. Therapy (omeprazole+clarithromycin+amoxicillin or omeprazole+clarithromycin+metronidazole in case of penicillin allergy) was given to both groups during two weeks. In the treatment group (n: 102) S. boulardii was added to the triple therapy, while the control group (n: 92) only received triple therapy. The incidence, onset, duration and severity of diarrhea and compliance to the eradication treatment were compared. A (13)C urea breath test was done 4 weeks after the end of eradication therapy in two groups of 21 patients aged 12 years and older to test the H. pylori eradication rate. In the treatment group, diarrhea occurred in 12 cases (11.76%), starting after 6.25±1.24 days, lasting 3.17±1.08 days, and compliance to eradication treatment was 100%. In the control group, diarrhea occurred in 26 cases (28.26%), starting after 4.05±1.11 days, lasting 4.02±0.87 days, and in six cases eradication treatment was stopped prematurely (p<0.05). The (13)C urea breath test showed successful H. pylori eradication in 71.4% of the patients in the treatment and in 61.9 % in the control group (not significant). S. boulardii has a beneficial effect on the prevention and treatment of diarrhea during H. pylori eradication in children. Although S. boulardii did only slightly increase H. pylori eradication rate, compliance to eradication treatment was improved.

  13. The antiulcer effect of Cibotium barometz leaves in rats with experimentally induced acute gastric ulcer

    PubMed Central

    AL-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Hajrezaie, Maryam; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Kamran, Sareh; Bagheri, Elham; Zahedifard, Maryam; Saremi, Kamelia; Noor, Suzita Mohd; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-01-01

    Cibotium barometz is a pharmaceutical plant customarily used in traditional medicine in Malaysia for the treatment of different diseases, such as gastric ulcer. The gastroprotective effect of C. barometz leaves against ethanol-induced gastric hemorrhagic abrasions in Sprague Dawley rats has been evaluated in terms of medicinal properties. Seven groups of rats (normal control and ulcerated control groups, omeprazole 20 mg/kg, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz correspondingly) were used in antiulcer experiment and pretreated with 10% Tween 20. After 1 hour, the normal group was orally administered 10% Tween 20, whereas absolute alcohol was fed orally to ulcerated control, omeprazole, and experimental groups. Gastric’s homogenate were assessed for endogenous enzymes activities. Stomachs were examined macroscopically and histologically. Grossly, the data demonstrated a significant decrease in the ulcer area of rats pretreated with plant extract in a dose-dependent manner with respect to the ulcerated group. Homogenates of the gastric tissue exhibited significantly increased endogenous enzymes activities in rats pretreated with C. barometz extract associated with the ulcerated control group. Histology of rats pretreated with C. barometz extract group using hematoxylin and eosin staining exhibited a moderate-to-mild disruption of the surface epithelium with reduction in submucosal edema and leucocyte infiltration in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, it showed heat shock protein70 protein up-expression and BCL2-associated X protein downexpression. These outcomes might be attributed to the gastroprotective and antioxidative effects of the plant. PMID:28408799

  14. Obesity does not affect treatment outcomes with proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Prateek; Vakil, Nimish; Monyak, John T; Silberg, Debra G

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is associated with increased risk of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). To evaluate the effect of obesity on symptom resolution in patients with nonerosive reflux disease (NERD) and healing rates in patients with erosive esophagitis (EE). Two post hoc analyses were performed. Analyses included pooled data from randomized, double-blind, multicenter studies of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in GERD patients. Analysis 1 included 704 patients with NERD receiving esomeprazole 20 mg, esomeprazole 40 mg, or placebo. Analysis 2 included 11,027 patients with EE receiving esomeprazole 40 mg, omeprazole 20 mg, or lansoprazole 30 mg. For NERD patients, no significant association between baseline heartburn severity and body mass index (BMI) was observed. In EE patients, overweight (BMI 25 to <35 kg/m) and obese (BMI ≥35 kg/m) patients had significantly higher rates of Los Angeles (LA) grade C or D EE than patients with BMI <25 kg/m (P<0.0001). Percentages of PPI-treated patients who achieved heartburn resolution or EE healing within a given LA grade were similar across BMI categories. Heartburn resolution was significantly associated with treatment (esomeprazole vs. placebo), increasing age, and for men versus women (all P≤0.0284). EE healing was significantly associated with PPI treatment (esomeprazole and lansoprazole vs. omeprazole), increasing age, race, presence of a hiatal hernia, and lower LA grade at baseline (all P≤0.0183). In patients with GERD, high BMI was associated with more severe EE at baseline. However, during PPI treatment, BMI is not a significant independent predictor of heartburn resolution or EE healing.

  15. Mechanisms of Gastroprotective Effects of Ethanolic Leaf Extract of Jasminum sambac against HCl/Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    AlRashdi, Ahmed S.; Salama, Suzy M.; Alkiyumi, Salim S.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.; Hadi, A. Hamid A.; Abdelwahab, Siddig I.; Taha, Manal M.; Hussiani, Jamal; Asykin, Nur

    2012-01-01

    Jasminum sambac is used in folk medicine as the treatment of many diseases. The aim of the present investigation is to evaluate the gastroprotective effects of ethanolic extracts of J. sambac leaves against acidified ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in rats. Seven groups of rats were orally pre-treated with carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) as normal group, CMC as ulcer group, 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as positive group, 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of extract as the experimental groups, respectively. An hour later, CMC was given orally to normal group and acidified ethanol solution was given orally to the ulcer control, positive control, and the experimental groups. The rats were sacrificed after an hour later. Acidity of gastric content, the gastric wall mucus, ulcer areas, and histology and immunohistochemistry of the gastric wall were assessed. Gastric homogenates were determined for prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), superoxide dismutase (SOD), andmalondialdehyde (MDA) content. Ulcer group exhibited significantly severe mucosal injury as compared with omeprazole or extract which shows significant protection towards gastric mucosal injury the plant promotes ulcer protection as it shows significant reduction of ulcer area grossly, and histology showed marked reduction of edema and leucocytes infiltration of submucosal layer compared with ulcer group. Immunohistochemistry showed overexpression of Hsp70 protein and downexpression of Bax protein in rats pretreated with extract. Significant increased in the pH, mucus of gastric content and high levels of PGE2, SOD and reduced amount of MDA was observed. PMID:22550543

  16. Proton pump inhibitor monotherapy and the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, S; Cui, Z; Zhou, M; Li, R; Li, H; Zhang, S; Ba, Y; Cheng, G

    2017-02-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are commonly used as potent gastric acid secretion antagonists for gastro-esophageal disorders and their overall safety in patients with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) is considered to be good and they are well-tolerated. However, recent studies have suggested that PPIs may be a potential independent risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events. The aim of our meta-analysis was to examine the association between PPI monotherapy and cardiovascular events in patients with GERD. A literature search involved examination of relevant databases up to July 2015 including PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, and ClinicalTrial.gov, as well as selected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) reporting cardiovascular events with PPI exposure in GERD patients. In addition, the pooled risk ratio (RR) and heterogeneity were assessed based on a fixed effects model of the meta-analysis and the I 2 statistic, respectively. Seventeen RCTs covering 7540 patients were selected. The pooled data suggested that the use of PPIs was associated with a 70% increased cardiovascular risk (RR=1.70, 95% CI: [1.13-2.56], P=.01, I 2 =0%). Furthermore, higher risks of adverse cardiovascular events in the omeprazole subgroup (RR=3.17, 95% CI: [1.43-7.03], P=.004, I 2 =25%) and long-term treatment subgroup (RR=2.33, 95% CI: [1.33-4.08], P=.003, I 2 =0%) were found. PPI monotherapy can be a risk factor for cardiovascular adverse events. Omeprazole could significantly increase the risk of cardiovascular events and, so, should be used carefully. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rat with chronic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tsukahara, Takuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Urade, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01) accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis.

  18. Acid Reflux Directly Causes Sleep Disturbances in Rat with Chronic Esophagitis

    PubMed Central

    Nakahara, Kenichi; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Tsukahara, Takuya; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Watanabe, Toshio; Urade, Yoshihiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2014-01-01

    Background & Aims Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is strongly associated with sleep disturbances. Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy improves subjective but not objective sleep parameters in patients with GERD. This study aimed to investigate the association between GERD and sleep, and the effect of PPI on sleep by using a rat model of chronic acid reflux esophagitis. Methods Acid reflux esophagitis was induced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and then wrapping the duodenum near the pylorus. Rats underwent surgery for implantation of electrodes for electroencephalogram and electromyogram recordings, and they were transferred to a soundproof recording chamber. Polygraphic recordings were scored by using 10-s epochs for wake, rapid eye movement sleep, and non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. To examine the role of acid reflux, rats were subcutaneously administered a PPI, omeprazole, at a dose of 20 mg/kg once daily. Results Rats with reflux esophagitis presented with several erosions, ulcers, and mucosal thickening with basal hyperplasia and marked inflammatory infiltration. The reflux esophagitis group showed a 34.0% increase in wake (232.2±11.4 min and 173.3±7.4 min in the reflux esophagitis and control groups, respectively; p<0.01) accompanied by a reduction in NREM sleep during light period, an increase in sleep fragmentation, and more frequent stage transitions. The use of omeprazole significantly improved sleep disturbances caused by reflux esophagitis, and this effect was not observed when the PPI was withdrawn. Conclusions Acid reflux directly causes sleep disturbances in rats with chronic esophagitis. PMID:25215524

  19. Head-to-head comparison of H2-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors in the treatment of erosive esophagitis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wei-Hong; Huang, Jia-Qing; Zheng, Ge-Fan; Xia, Harry Hua-Xiang; Wong, Wai-Man; Lam, Shiu-Kum; Wong, Benjamin Chun-Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To systematically evaluate the efficacy of H2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs) and proton pump inhibitors in healing erosive esophagitis (EE). METHODS: A meta-analysis was performed. A literature search was conducted in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases to include randomized controlled head-to-head comparative trials evaluating the efficacy of H2RAs or proton pump inhibitors in healing EE. Relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated under a random-effects model. RESULTS: RRs of cumulative healing rates for each comparison at 8 wk were: high dose vs standard dose H2RAs, 1.17 (95%CI, 1.02-1.33); standard dose proton pump inhibitors vs standard dose H2RAs, 1.59 (95%CI, 1.44-1.75); standard dose other proton pump inhibitors vs standard dose omeprazole, 1.06 (95%CI, 0.98-1.06). Proton pump inhibitors produced consistently greater healing rates than H2RAs of all doses across all grades of esophagitis, including patients refractory to H2RAs. Healing rates achieved with standard dose omeprazole were similar to those with other proton pump inhibitors in all grades of esophagitis. CONCLUSION: H2RAs are less effective for treating patients with erosive esophagitis, especially in those with severe forms of esophagitis. Standard dose proton pump inhibitors are significantly more effective than H2RAs in healing esophagitis of all grades. Proton pump inhibitors given at the recommended dose are equally effective for healing esophagitis. PMID:15996033

  20. Antacid medication inhibits digestion of dietary proteins and causes food allergy: a fish allergy model in BALB/c mice.

    PubMed

    Untersmayr, Eva; Schöll, Isabella; Swoboda, Ines; Beil, Waltraud J; Förster-Waldl, Elisabeth; Walter, Franziska; Riemer, Angelika; Kraml, Georg; Kinaciyan, Tamar; Spitzauer, Susanne; Boltz-Nitulescu, George; Scheiner, Otto; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika

    2003-09-01

    Digestible proteins were supposed to be irrelevant for oral sensitization and induction of food allergy. Approximately 10% of the adult population uses antacids for the treatment of dyspeptic disorders, drugs that hinder peptic digestion. In these patients, proteins that are normally degradable might act as food allergens. We aimed to study the influence of antacid intake on the allergenicity of dietary proteins, taking sturgeon caviar and parvalbumin, the major fish allergen, as examples. Caviar proteins and recombinant parvalbumin from carp, rCyp c 1, were applied for intragastric feedings with or without the antacids sucralfate, ranitidine or omeprazole, using a Balb/c mouse model. Both caviar proteins and parvalbumin were rapidly degraded in an in vitro digestion assay at pH 2.0, but not at pH 5.0, imitating the effect of antacids. The groups fed with caviar in combination with ranitidine hydrochloride intramuscularly or sucralfate orally had significant levels of caviar-specific IgE antibodies (P <.01), T-cell reactivity, and elevated counts of gastrointestinal eosinophils and mast cells. Food allergy in these groups was further evidenced by oral provocation tests and positive immediate-type skin reactivity. In contrast, feedings with caviar alone led to antigen-specific T-cell tolerance. None of the groups showed immune reactivity against the daily mouse diet. As a proof of the principle, feeding mice with parvalbumin in combination with ranitidine or omeprazole intramuscularly induced allergen-specific IgE antibodies (P <.05). When antacid medication impairs the gastric digestion, IgE synthesis toward novel dietary proteins is promoted, leading to food allergy.

  1. Comparison of azithromycin and clarithromycin triple therapy regimens for helicobacter pylori eradication in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Jalalzadeh, Mojgan; Nazarian, Morteza; Vafaeimanesh, Jamshid; Mirzamohammadi, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication with clarithromycin is more expensive than with azithromycin. This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of these two antibiotics in eradicating H. pylori in hemodialysis (HD) patients. This is a prospective, randomized, double-blinded clinical trial analysis of HD patients. Patients who had dyspepsia and showed positive results for two of three tests, anti-H. pylori serology, H. pylori stool antigen (HpSAg), or Urease Breath Test (UBT), were included in the study. The subjects consisted of 39 dialysis patients who were randomly divided into two groups that received medication twice daily. Group OAC received 20 mg omeprazol, 500 mg amoxycilin, and 250 mg clarithromycin, and Group OAAz received 20 mg omeprazol, 500 mg amoxicillin, and 250 mg azithromycin. Both regimens were administered for 14 days. Eradication was investigated by performing the UBT and the HpSAg test eight weeks later. This study began with 39 patients, 37 of which completed the treatment schedule (20 males and 17 females, mean age 59 years). Two patients died due to MI before beginning treatment. In the OAC group, negative results on the UBT and HpSAg tests were found in 82.4% and 88.2% of the participants, respectively. In the OAAz group, these values were 80% and 85%, respectively. The data showed that the difference between the two regimens was not significant (P = 1.0). According to the data, no differences in eradication rates were apparent between the azitromycin and the claritromycin regimens. However, lower cost and fewer complaints could be considered as an advantage of the triple therapy with azithromycin.

  2. Gastroesophageal reflux disease management according to contemporary international guidelines: a translational study.

    PubMed

    Pace, Fabio; Riegler, Gabriele; de Leone, Annalisa; Dominici, Patrizia; Grossi, Enzo

    2011-03-07

    To test the Genval recommendations and the usefulness of a short trial of proton pump inhibitor (PPI) in the initial management and maintenance treatment of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) patients. Five hundred and seventy seven patients with heartburn were recruited. After completing a psychometric tool to assess quality of life (PGWBI) and a previously validated GERD symptom questionnaire (QUID), patients were grouped into those with esophagitis (EE, n = 306) or without mucosal damage (NERD, n = 271) according to endoscopy results. The study started with a 2-wk period of high dose omeprazole (omeprazole test); patients responding to this PPI test entered an acute phase (3 mo) of treatment with any PPI at the standard dose. Finally, those patients with a favorable response to the standard PPI dose were maintained on a half PPI dose for a further 3-mo period. The test was positive in 519 (89.9%) patients, with a greater response in EE patients (96.4%) compared with NERD patients (82.6%) (P = 0.011). Both the percentage of completely asymptomatic patients, at 3 and 6 mo, and the reduction in heartburn intensity were significantly higher in the EE compared with NERD patients (P < 0.01). Finally, the mean PGWBI score was significantly decreased before and increased after therapy in both subgroups when compared with the mean value in a reference Italian population. Our study confirms the validity of the Genval guidelines in the management of GERD patients. In addition, we observed that the overall response to PPI therapy is lower in NERD compared to EE patients.

  3. Therapeutics for Equine Gastric Ulcer Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zavoshti, Fereydon Rezazadeh; Andrews, Frank M

    2017-04-01

    Equine gastric ulcer syndrome (EGUS) is an umbrella term used to describe ulcers in the nonglandular squamous and glandular mucosa, terminal esophagus, and proximal duodenum. Gastric ulcers in the squamous and glandular regions occur more often than esophageal or duodenal ulcers and likely have a different pathogenesis. At present, omeprazole is accepted globally as the best pharmacologic therapy for both regions of the stomach; however, the addition of coating agents and synthetic prostaglandins could add to its effectiveness in treatment of EGUS. Dietary and environmental management are necessary for prevention of recurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Drug-induced gynecomastia].

    PubMed

    Hugues, F C; Gourlot, C; Le Jeunne, C

    2000-02-01

    Drugs are a very common cause of gynecomastia and should always be entertained as the possible causal agent of such a condition. This drug side-effect is due to an impaired balance in the serum estrogen/serum androgen ratio, whatever the mechanism, or a rise in prolactin level. Sex hormones, antiandrogens, are frequently involved as well as spironolactone, cimetidine, verapamil and cancer chemotherapy (especially alkylating agents). Diazepam, tricyclic antidepressants, neuroleptics, calcium channel blockers, captopril, digitalis glycosides, omeprazole, some antibiotics and growth hormone are all possibly, but less often, the responsible agent. Criteria of the French method for determining drug causality are discussed.

  5. The Metabolism of Clopidogrel: CYP2C19 Is a Minor Pathway.

    PubMed

    Ford, Neville F

    2016-12-01

    The major metabolic pathway of clopidogrel is conversion to carboxylic acid by an esterase (CES1), forming clopidogrelic acid (SR26334) that is inactive. There is agreement on the structure of the active metabolite; however, there are differing views about the mechanism of its formation. Sanofi studied the conversion of clopidogrel to the active metabolite using human liver microsomes. It was concluded that 2-oxo-clopidogrel was formed via CYP3A oxidation. From a subsequent in vitro study by Sankyo of the metabolism of clopidogrel using recombinant DNA CYPs, it was concluded that CYP2C19 was the major oxidative pathway. Such CYPs can give false-negative results particularly with drugs such as clopidogrel that have high first-pass metabolism in the enterocyte. CYP3A is present in the enterocyte but not CYP2C19. However, the view that clopidogrel is a CYP2C19 substrate was reinforced by a finding that omeprazole, a CYP2C19 inhibitor, reduced the ability of clopidogrel to inhibit platelet aggregation. The drug-drug interaction study of clopidogrel with omeprazole had the effect of reducing the area under the curve (AUC) of the clopidogrel active metabolite by 45%. However, a drug interaction study with a CYP3A inhibitor, grapefruit juice, caused a 6-fold reduction in the AUC of the active metabolite. Clopidogrel is therefore now considered to be primarily a CYP3A4/5 substrate. CYP2C19 has a minor role whose effect can be detected using a sensitive methodology such as platelet aggregometry. © 2016, The American College of Clinical Pharmacology.

  6. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach.

    PubMed

    Huang, Julie Y; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD's colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium.

  7. Risk factors and prescription patterns of gastroesophageal reflux disease: HEAL study in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Butt, Arshad Kamal; Hashemy, Irfan

    2014-07-01

    To determine the frequency of the use of proton-pump inhibitor therapy in patients with typical symptoms of gastroesophageal reflux disease and evaluate its risk factors. The cross-sectional study was conducted between June 2010 and February 2011 across 10 cities of Pakistan. Adult patients giving a current history of typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms were included. Information on patient demography, medical history, family history, prescription patterns, lifestyle factors and dietary habits were collected. SPSS 18 was used for statistical analysis and descriptive statistics were used for the analysis of categorical and continuous variables. Of the 1010 patients enrolled, 954 (94.45%) formed the study population. Of them, 520 (54.5%) were men. The overall mean age was 41.9 +/- 12.5 years, and 439 (46%) had body mass index > or = 25 kg/m2. Further, 805 (84.4%) reported history of dyspepsia while 692 (72.5%) had gastroesophageal reflux disease during the preceding year. Family history of acid peptic disease was reported by 231 (24.2%) patients. Prior to consultation, 505 (52.9%) patients were on proton-pump inhibitors. Following consultation, 923 (96.8%) patients were prescribed proton-pump inhibitors, with omeprazole being the preferred choice in 577 (60.5%). Associated risk factors included regular use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in 355 (37.2%) and current smoking in 210 (22.0%). Consuming spicy meals was reported by 666 (70.0%). Nearly half the patients with typical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms were overweight, and a majority consumed spicy meals. Proton-pump inhibitors were widely prescribed, and omeprazole was the preferred choice of drug.

  8. Effect of treatment for Chlamydia pneumoniae and Helicobacter pylori on markers of inflammation and cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes: South Thames Trial of Antibiotics in Myocardial Infarction and Unstable Angina (STAMINA).

    PubMed

    Stone, Adam F M; Mendall, Michael A; Kaski, Juan-Carlos; Edger, Tracey M; Risley, Paul; Poloniecki, Jan; Camm, A John; Northfield, Timothy C

    2002-09-03

    Infection with Helicobacter pylori and Chlamydia pneumoniae is associated with coronary heart disease. We conducted an intervention study using antibiotics against these bacteria in patients with acute coronary syndromes to determine whether antibiotics reduce inflammatory markers and adverse cardiac events. Patients (n=325) admitted with acute myocardial infarction or unstable angina (acute coronary syndromes) were randomized to receive a 1-week course of 1 of 3 treatment regimens: (1) placebo; (2) amoxicillin (500 mg twice daily), metronidazole (400 mg twice daily), and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily); or (3) azithromycin (500 mg once daily), metronidazole (400 mg twice daily), and omeprazole (20 mg twice daily). Serum fibrinogen, white cell count, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at study entry and at 1, 3, and 12 months during follow-up. Cardiac death and readmission with acute coronary syndrome were considered clinical end points. Patients were followed for 1 year. C-reactive protein levels were reduced (P=0.03) in unstable angina patients receiving amoxicillin, and fibrinogen was reduced in both patient groups receiving antibiotics (P=0.06). There were 17 cardiac deaths and 71 readmissions with acute coronary syndrome. No difference in frequency or timing of end points was observed between the 2 antibiotic groups. At 12 weeks, there was a 36% reduction in all end points in patients receiving antibiotics compared with placebo (P=0.02). This reduction persisted during the 1-year follow-up. Neither C pneumoniae nor H pylori antibody status was significantly related to response to treatment. Antibiotic treatment significantly reduced adverse cardiac events in patients with acute coronary syndromes, but the effect was independent of H pylori or C pneumoniae seropositivity.

  9. Multiple Acid Sensors Control Helicobacter pylori Colonization of the Stomach

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Goers Sweeney, Emily; Guillemin, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori’s ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria’s response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors. They enable H. pylori to respond to and escape from increases in hydrogen ion concentration near 100 nanomolar. TlpD also mediates attraction to basic pH, a response dampened by another chemoreceptor TlpB. H. pylori mutants lacking both TlpA and TlpD (ΔtlpAD) are unable to sense acid and are defective in establishing colonization in the murine stomach. However, blocking acid production in the stomach with omeprazole rescues ΔtlpAD’s colonization defect. We used 3D confocal microscopy to determine how acid blockade affects the distribution of H. pylori in the stomach. We found that stomach acid controls not only the overall bacterial density, but also the microscopic distribution of bacteria that colonize the epithelium deep in the gastric glands. In omeprazole treated animals, bacterial abundance is increased in the antral glands, and gland colonization range is extended to the corpus. Our findings indicate that H. pylori has evolved at least two independent receptors capable of detecting acid gradients, allowing not only survival in the stomach, but also controlling the interaction of the bacteria with the epithelium. PMID:28103315

  10. Levofloxacin versus clarithromycin in a 10 day triple therapy regimen for first-line Helicobacter pylori eradication: a single-blind randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Lavín, Antonio; Salcines-Caviedes, J Ramón; Carrascosa, Miguel F; Dierssen-Sotos, Trinidad; Cobo, Marta; Campos, M Rosario; Ayestarán, Blanca; Fernández-Pousa, Antonio; González-Colominas, Elena; Aresti-Zárate, Santiago; Hernández, Mónica; Pascual, Encarna Lozano

    2012-09-01

    There is growing evidence that the standard triple therapy against Helicobacter pylori infection is losing clinical effectiveness. A triple therapy regimen with levofloxacin, amoxicillin and a proton pump inhibitor has been reported to be effective and well tolerated, and this regimen has been suggested as an alternative first-line treatment. The aim of this single-blind randomized clinical trial was to compare the eradication success of two first-line triple therapy regimens in the north of Spain: clarithromycin, amoxicillin and omeprazole (CAO) versus levofloxacin, amoxicillin and omeprazole (LAO). A total of 250 consecutive patients diagnosed by conventional methods with H. pylori infection were randomized into one of two 10 day therapeutic regimens: standard CAO (n = 128) or LAO (n = 122). Eradication was confirmed by the (13)C-urea breath test. Adverse effects and compliance were also assessed. The clinical trial registration number was HPL08001HCLAD (EudraCT: 2008-001892-31). Intention-to-treat cure rates were: CAO, 75.0% (96/128; 95% CI: 66.6%-82.2%) and LAO, 82.8% (101/122; 95% CI: 74.9%-89.0%). Per-protocol cure rates were: CAO, 78.0% (96/123; 95% CI: 69.7%-85.0%) and LAO, 83.1% (98/118; 95% CI: 75.0%-89.3%). There were no statistically significant differences in effectiveness between the two regimens. In addition, no relevant differences in compliance or adverse effects were demonstrated. Levofloxacin-based treatment for H. pylori infection did not improve upon the eradication rate of the standard clarithromycin-based triple therapy in this study. This may reflect the progressive increase in in vitro resistance rates to levofloxacin observed in our region.

  11. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jai Moo; Kim, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Proton pump inhibitor (PPI) is a prodrug which is activated by acid. Activated PPI binds covalently to the gastric H(+), K(+)-ATPase via disulfide bond. Cys813 is the primary site responsible for the inhibition of acid pump enzyme, where PPIs bind. Omeprazole was the first PPI introduced in market, followed by pantoprazole, lansoprazole and rabeprazole. Though these PPIs share the core structures benzimidazole and pyridine, their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics are a little different. Several factors must be considered in understanding the pharmacodynamics of PPIs, including: accumulation of PPI in the parietal cell, the proportion of the pump enzyme located at the canaliculus, de novo synthesis of new pump enzyme, metabolism of PPI, amounts of covalent binding of PPI in the parietal cell, and the stability of PPI binding. PPIs have about 1hour of elimination half-life. Area under the plasmic concentration curve and the intragastric pH profile are very good indicators for evaluating PPI efficacy. Though CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 polymorphism are major components of PPI metabolism, the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of racemic mixture of PPIs depend on the CYP2C19 genotype status. S-omeprazole is relatively insensitive to CYP2C19, so better control of the intragastric pH is achieved. Similarly, R-lansoprazole was developed in order to increase the drug activity. Delayed-release formulation resulted in a longer duration of effective concentration of R-lansoprazole in blood, in addition to metabolic advantage. Thus, dexlansoprazole showed best control of the intragastric pH among the present PPIs. Overall, PPIs made significant progress in the management of acid-related diseases and improved health-related quality of life.

  12. Greater than 95% success with 14-day bismuth quadruple anti- Helicobacter pylori therapy: a pilot study in US Hispanics.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Cesar O; Cardenas, Victor M; Reddy, Rita K; Dominguez, Delfina C; Snyder, Lindsey K; Graham, David Y

    2012-10-01

    A combination capsule of bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline plus omeprazole given as 10-day therapy has an overall effectiveness of 92-93% in per-protocol analysis (Grade B) with eradication of 86-91% of metronidazole-resistant Helicobacter pylori. This study aimed to explore whether extending the duration to 14 days would improve overall effectiveness per protocol to ≥95% (Grade A) in a population in which metronidazole resistance was anticipated to exist. A one-arm, open-label pilot study of H. pylori-infected, asymptomatic/mildly dyspeptic adults, Hispanic residents of El Paso, Texas, received a 14-day course of omeprazole, plus the combination capsule. We cultured and Gram-stained specimens obtained using a minimally invasive orogastric brush. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by (13)C-urea breath test at 4 or more weeks post-therapy. Forty-seven subjects (7 men and 40 women, average age 42 years) were entered. The per-protocol effectiveness was 97.1% (33/34) (95% mid-P CI: 86.3, 99.9); 100% of metronidazole-resistant strains were eradicated. Side effects were mild and self-limited but contributed to nonadherence. Therapy taken for <10 days was more likely to result in eradication failure (p < .001). Office-based orogastric brushing was well tolerated; positive cultures were obtained in 95%. Gram staining showed H. pylori-like forms in all specimens. This pilot study supports the concept that 14-day OBMT therapy is likely to be more efficacious for H. pylori eradication (Grade A, PP basis) than a 10-day course where metronidazole resistance is suspected. If confirmed, 14 days should be recommended in populations where metronidazole resistance is common. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. [Does the antisecretory agent used affect the evolution of upper digestive hemorrhage?].

    PubMed

    Ortí, E; Canelles, P; Quiles, F; Zapater, R; Cuquerella, J; Ariete, V; Tomé, A; Medina, E

    1995-06-01

    To investigate whether omeprazole has improved morbidity-mortality among patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding of non-variceal origin in comparison with ranitidine. Prospective, randomized and open study. We study 519 consecutive patients admitted to our Service between June 1991 and January 1993 for upper gastrointestinal bleeding of peptic origin, dividing the patients into two randomized groups that were homogeneous in terms of age, sex, previous history of gastric disease and upper gastrointestinal bleeding, intake of non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs, and the severity of bleeding on admittance. Thus, Group A consisted of 252 patients treated immediately upon arrival at the emergency ward with 50 mg intravenous ranitidine, followed by a further 50 mg every 6 hours. Group B in turn consisted of 267 patients initially given a bolus dose of 80 mg omeprazole intravenously, followed by an additional 40 mg every 8 hours for 48 hours. Forty mg were subsequently administered every 12 hours until hospital discharge. Endoscopy was performed in all cases within the first 24 hours following admittance, those patients with active upper gastrointestinal bleeding resulted from Forrest-type ulcer of subjected to endoscopic sclerotherapy were excluded. Duodenal ulcer was the most common cause of bleeding, followed by gastric ulcer and acute lesions of the mucosa. Emphasis should be placed on the high incidence of previous non-steroidal antiinflammatory drug intake in our series (54.5%). We encountered no statistically significant differences between the two groups on comparing bleeding stigmata, transfusion requirements, recurrences, emergency surgery, the duration of hospital stay, and mortality. Both drugs were found to possess a similar efficacy in treating upper gastrointestinal bleeding of peptic origin.

  14. The Efficacy of Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 in Addition to Standard Helicobacter pylori Eradication Treatment in Children

    PubMed Central

    Bin, Zhang; Ya-Zheng, Xu; Zhao-Hui, Deng; Bo, Chu; Li-Rong, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to investigate Saccharomyces boulardii CNCM I-745 during Helicobacter pylori eradication in children. Methods One hundred ninety-four H. pylori positive children were randomized in two groups. Therapy (omeprazole+clarithromycin+amoxicillin or omeprazole+clarithromycin+metronidazole in case of penicillin allergy) was given to both groups during two weeks. In the treatment group (n: 102) S. boulardii was added to the triple therapy, while the control group (n: 92) only received triple therapy. The incidence, onset, duration and severity of diarrhea and compliance to the eradication treatment were compared. A 13C urea breath test was done 4 weeks after the end of eradication therapy in two groups of 21 patients aged 12 years and older to test the H. pylori eradication rate. Results In the treatment group, diarrhea occurred in 12 cases (11.76%), starting after 6.25±1.24 days, lasting 3.17±1.08 days, and compliance to eradication treatment was 100%. In the control group, diarrhea occurred in 26 cases (28.26%), starting after 4.05±1.11 days, lasting 4.02±0.87 days, and in six cases eradication treatment was stopped prematurely (p<0.05). The 13C urea breath test showed successful H. pylori eradication in 71.4% of the patients in the treatment and in 61.9 % in the control group (not significant). Conclusion S. boulardii has a beneficial effect on the prevention and treatment of diarrhea during H. pylori eradication in children. Although S. boulardii did only slightly increase H. pylori eradication rate, compliance to eradication treatment was improved. PMID:25866729

  15. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of drug-drug interaction between dabigatran and proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ollier, Edouard; Hodin, Sophie; Basset, Thierry; Accassat, Sandrine; Bertoletti, Laurent; Mismetti, Patrick; Delavenne, Xavier

    2015-12-01

    To quantify the drug-drug interactions between dabigatran etexilate (DE) and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) and in particular the role of P-gp activity modulation. In the first part of the study, efflux ratios of DE were evaluated using the caco-2 cell line in the presence of pantoprazole, omeprazole, rabeprazole, lansoprazole and ciclosporin A (positive control). The two PPI that reduced the efflux ratio of dabigatran to the greatest and least extent, respectively, were used during the second part of the study, comprising a single-centre, randomised, open-label study with an incomplete Latin square design. Nine healthy volunteers received DE (150 mg) alone, DE (150 mg) with the first PPI and DE (150 mg) with the second PPI in randomised sequence. Dabigatran plasma concentration and thrombin time were measured in blood samples withdrawn at 11 time points after each treatment. Models were built using a nonlinear mixed-effect modelling approach. Omeprazole and rabeprazole were the two PPI that reduced the efflux ratio of DE least and most, respectively. The PK model was based on an inverse Gaussian absorption process with one compartment. The relationship between dabigatran concentration and thrombin time was considered linear. Some PK profiles had dramatically low concentration values due to poor absorption. These profiles were clustered using a between subject model mixture with interoccasion variability. The concomitant administration of PPI did not significantly change dabigatran pharmacokinetics. DE is subject to high absorption variability, precluding evaluation of the effect of PPI on its pharmacokinetics. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  16. Studies regarding the mechanism of false negative urea breath tests with proton pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y; Opekun, Antone R; Hammoud, Fadi; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Reddy, Rita; Osato, Michael S; El-Zimaity, Hala M T

    2003-05-01

    The mechanism of false negative urea breath tests (UBTs) results among proton pump inhibitor (PPI) users is unknown. We studied the time course of PPI-associated negative UBT, the relation to Helicobacter pylori density, and whether gastric acidification would prevent false negative UBT results. In the UBT experiment, H. pylori-infected volunteers received omeprazole 20 mg b.i.d. for 13.5 days. UBTs with citric acid were done before, after 6.5 days of PPI, and 1, 2, 4, 7, and 14 days after therapy. In the culture and histology experiment, after a wash-out of >5 months, nine of the original subjects were rechallenged with omeprazole for 6.5 days. Antral and corpus biopsies for histology and culture were done before and 1 day after PPI administration. Thirty subjects (mean age 42 yr) were enrolled. UBTs were significantly reduced on day 6.5 (p = 0.031); 10 subjects (33%) developed transient negative UBTs. The UBT recovered in all but one subject by the fourth day post-PPI and in all subjects by day 14. In the culture and histology experiment, upon PPI rechallenge, three of nine subjects (33%) had negative UBTs. H. pylori density, whether measured by culture or histology, decreased with PPI therapy; antral biopsies became histologically negative in five subjects and corpus biopsies in three subjects. PPI-induced negative UBT results were related to the anti-H. pylori effect of the PPI. Acidification of the stomach did not prevent false negative UBT results. Three days is likely the minimum delay from stopping PPI until one should perform a test for active infection. A delay of 14 days is preferred.

  17. Clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors - where do we stand in 2012?

    PubMed Central

    Drepper, Michael D; Spahr, Laurent; Frossard, Jean Louis

    2012-01-01

    Clopidogrel in association with aspirine is considered state of the art of medical treatment for acute coronary syndrome by reducing the risk of new ischemic events. Concomitant treatment with proton pump inhibitors in order to prevent gastrointestinal side effects is recommended by clinical guidelines. Clopidogrel needs metabolic activation predominantly by the hepatic cytochrome P450 isoenzyme Cytochrome 2C19 (CYP2C19) and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are extensively metabolized by the CYP2C19 isoenzyme as well. Several pharmacodynamic studies investigating a potential clopidogrel-PPI interaction found a significant decrease of the clopidogrel platelet antiaggregation effect for omeprazole, but not for pantoprazole. Initial clinical cohort studies in 2009 reported an increased risk for adverse cardiovascular events, when under clopidogrel and PPI treatment at the same time. These observations led the United States Food and Drug Administration and the European Medecines Agency to discourage the combination of clopidogrel and PPI (especially omeprazole) in the same year. In contrast, more recent retrospective cohort studies including propensity score matching and the only existing randomized trial have not shown any difference concerning adverse cardiovascular events when concomitantly on clopidogrel and PPI or only on clopidogrel. Three meta-analyses report an inverse correlation between clopidogrel-PPI interaction and study quality, with high and moderate quality studies not reporting any association, rising concern about unmeasured confounders biasing the low quality studies. Thus, no definite evidence exists for an effect on mortality. Because PPI induced risk reduction clearly overweighs the possible adverse cardiovascular risk in patients with high risk of gastrointestinal bleeding, combination of clopidogrel with the less CYP2C19 inhibiting pantoprazole should be recommended. PMID:22611308

  18. Cardiovascular outcomes associated with concomitant use of clopidogrel and proton pump inhibitors in patients with acute coronary syndrome in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Fang; Shen, Li-Jiuan; Wu, Fe-Lin Lin; Bai, Chyi-Huey; Gau, Churn-Shiouh

    2012-01-01

    AIMS Our study aimed to examine the impact of concomitant use of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) with clopidogrel on the cardiovascular outcomes of patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Furthermore, we sought to quantify the effects of five individual PPIs when used concomitantly with clopidogrel. METHODS We conducted a retrospective cohort study of patients who were newly hospitalized for ACS between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2007 retrieved from the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) and who were prescribed clopidogrel (n= 37 099) during the follow-up period. A propensity score technique was used to establish a matched cohort in 1:1 ratio (n= 5173 for each group). The primary clinical outcome was rehospitalization for ACS, while secondary outcomes were rehospitalization for percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA) with stent, PTCA without stent and revascularization (PTCA or coronary artery bypass graft surgery) after the discharge date for the index ACS event. RESULTS The adjusted hazard ratio of rehospitalization for ACS was 1.052 (95% confidence interval, 0.971–1.139; P= 0.214) in the propensity score matched cohort. Among all PPIs, only omeprazole was found to be statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of rehospitalization for ACS (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.226; 95% confidence interval, 1.066–1.410; P= 0.004). Concomitant use of esomeprazole, pantoprazole, rabeprazole and lansoprazole did not increase the risk. CONCLUSIONS Our study indicated no statistically significant increase in the risk of rehospitalization for ACS due to concurrent use of clopidogrel and PPIs overall. Among individual PPIs, only omeprazole was found to be statistically significantly associated with increased risk of rehospitalization for ACS. PMID:22364155

  19. Influence of low-dose proton pump inhibitors administered concomitantly or separately on the anti-platelet function of clopidogrel.

    PubMed

    Furuta, Takahisa; Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Kodaira, Chise; Nishino, Masafumi; Yamade, Mihoko; Uotani, Takahiro; Sahara, Shu; Ichikawa, Hitomi; Kagami, Takuma; Iwaizumi, Moriya; Hamaya, Yasushi; Osawa, Satoshi; Sugimoto, Ken; Umemura, Kazuo

    2017-04-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) at low doses can effectively prevent gastrointestinal bleeding due to aspirin and are widely used in Japan for gastroprotection in patients taking anti-platelet agents. We examined the influence of different PPIs at low doses administered concomitantly or separately on anti-platelet functions of clopidogrel. In 41 healthy Japanese volunteers with different CYP2C19 genotypes who took clopidogrel 75 mg in the morning alone, or with omeprazole 10 mg, esomeprazole 10 mg, lansoprazole 15 mg, or rabeprazole 10 mg, either concomitantly in the morning or separately in the evening, we measured the inhibition of platelet aggregation (IPA, %) using VerifyNow P2Y12 assay at 4 h after the last clopidogrel dose on Day 7 of each regimen. IPA by clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime, approximately 4 h after clopidogrel, was also measured. Mean IPAs in those concomitantly receiving omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole or rabeprazole (47.2 ± 21.1%, 43.2 ± 20.2%, 46.4 ± 18.8%, and 47.3 ± 19.2%, respectively) were significantly decreased compared with those receiving clopidogrel alone (56.0%) (all ps < 0.001). This decrease was observed when PPIs were administered separately in the evening. However, IPA by clopidogrel with rabeprazole administered at lunchtime was 51.6%, which was markedly similar to that of clopidogrel alone (p = 0.114). All tested PPIs reduce the efficacy of clopidogrel when administered concomitantly. Our preliminary data suggest that administration of rabeprazole 4 h following clopidogrel may minimize potential drug-drug interactions.

  20. Immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to proton pump inhibitors: usefulness of skin tests in the diagnosis and assessment of cross-reactivity.

    PubMed

    Kepil Özdemir, S; Yılmaz, I; Aydin, Ö; Büyüköztürk, S; Gelincik, A; Demirtürk, M; Erdoğdu, D; Cömert, S; Erdoğan, T; Karakaya, G; Kalyoncu, A F; Oner Erkekol, F; Dursun, A B; Misirligil, Z; Bavbek, S

    2013-08-01

    Data are limited about the value of skin tests in the diagnosis of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity between PPIs. We aimed to assess the role of skin testing in the diagnosis of PPI-related immediate hypersensitivity reactions and the cross-reactivity patterns among PPIs. The study was designed in a prospective, national, multicentre nature. Sixty-five patients with a suggestive history of a PPI-induced immediate hypersensitivity reaction and 30 control subjects were included. Standardized skin prick and intradermal tests were carried out with a panel of PPIs. Single-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests (OPTs) with the PPIs other than the culprit PPI that displayed negative results in skin tests (n = 61) and diagnostic OPTs with the suspected PPI (n = 12) were performed. The suspected PPIs were lansoprazole (n = 52), esomeprazole (n = 11), pantoprazole (n = 9), rabeprazole (n = 2), and omeprazole (n = 1). The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values of the skin tests with PPIs were 58.8%, 100%, 70.8%, and 100%, respectively. Fifteen of the 31 patients with a hypersensitivity reaction to lansoprazole had a positive OPT or skin test result with at least one of the alternative PPIs (8/52 pantoprazole, 6/52 omeprazole, 5/52 esomeprazole, 3/52 rabeprazole). Considering the high specificity, skin testing seems to be a useful method for the diagnosis of immediate-type hypersensitivity reactions to PPIs and for the evaluation of cross-reactivity among PPIs. However, OPT should be performed in case of negativity on skin tests. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Clarithromycin vs. Gemifloxacin in Quadruple Therapy Regimens for Empiric Primary Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Masoodi, Mohsen; Talebi-Taher, Mahshid; Tabatabaie, Khadijeh; Khaleghi, Siamak; Faghihi, Amir-Hossein; Agah, Shahram; Asadi, Reyhaneh

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection plays a crucial role in the treatment of peptic ulcer. Clarithromycin resistance is a major cause of treatment failure. This randomized clinical trial aimed at evaluating the efficacy of a clarithromycin versus gemifloxacin containing quadruple therapy regimen in eradication of H.pylori infection. METHODS In this randomized double blind clinical trial (RCT 2012102011054N2), a total of 120 patients were randomized to two groups of 60 patients each. Patients with proven H.pylori infection were consecutively assigned into two groups to receive OBAG or OBAC in gastroenterology clinic in Rasoul-e- Akram General Hospital in Tehran, Iran. The patients in the OBAG group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, bismuth subcitrate (240 mg) twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and gemifloxacin (320 mg) once daily, and those in the OBAC group received omeprazole (20 mg) twice daily, 240 mg of bismuth subcitrate twice daily, amoxicillin (1 gr) twice daily, and clarithromycin (500 mg) twice daily for 10 days. RESULTS Five patients from each group were excluded from the study because of poor compliance, so 110 patients completed the study. The intention-to-treat eradication rate was 61.6% and 66.6% for the OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively. According to the per protocol analysis, the success rates of eradication of H.pylori infection were 67.2% and 72.7% for OBAC and OBAG groups, respectively (p=0.568). CONCLUSION The results of this study suggest that gemifloxacin containing regimen is at least as effective as clarithromycin regimen; hence, this new treatment could be considered as an alternative for the patients who cannot tolerate clarithromycin. PMID:26106468

  2. Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen; Al-Obaidi, Mazen M Jamil; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Fouad, Mustafa; Golbabapour, Shahram; Talaee, Samaneh

    2013-08-01

    Corchorus olitorius is a medicinal plant traditionally utilized as an antifertility, anti-convulsive, and purgative agent. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were divided into seven groups according to their pretreatment: an untreated control group, an ulcer control group, a reference control group (20 mg/kg omeprazole), and four experimental groups (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract). Carboxymethyl cellulose was the vehicle for the agents. Prior to the induction of gastric ulcers with absolute ethanol, the rats in each group were pretreated orally. An hour later, the rats were sacrificed, and gastric tissues were collected to evaluate the ulcers and to measure enzymatic activity. The tissues were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. Compared with the extensive mucosal damage in the ulcer control group, gross evaluation revealed a marked protection of the gastric mucosa in the experimental groups, with significantly preserved gastric wall mucus. In these groups, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) and reduced (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition to the histologic analyses (HE and periodic acid-Schiff staining), immunohistochemistry confirmed the protection through the upregulation of Hsp70 and the downregulation of Bax proteins. The gastroprotection of the experimental groups was comparable to that of the reference control medicine omeprazole. Our study reports the gastroprotective property of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology published by Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats

    PubMed Central

    Al Batran, Rami; Al-Bayaty, Fouad; Ameen Abdulla, Mahmood; Jamil Al-Obaidi, Mazen M; Hajrezaei, Maryam; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Fouad, Mustafa; Golbabapour, Shahram; Talaee, Samaneh

    2013-01-01

    Background and AimCorchorus olitorius is a medicinal plant traditionally utilized as an antifertility, anti-convulsive, and purgative agent. This study aimed to evaluate the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats. MethodsThe rats were divided into seven groups according to their pretreatment: an untreated control group, an ulcer control group, a reference control group (20 mg/kg omeprazole), and four experimental groups (50, 100, 200, or 400 mg/kg of extract). Carboxymethyl cellulose was the vehicle for the agents. Prior to the induction of gastric ulcers with absolute ethanol, the rats in each group were pretreated orally. An hour later, the rats were sacrificed, and gastric tissues were collected to evaluate the ulcers and to measure enzymatic activity. The tissues were subjected to histological and immunohistochemical evaluations. ResultsCompared with the extensive mucosal damage in the ulcer control group, gross evaluation revealed a marked protection of the gastric mucosa in the experimental groups, with significantly preserved gastric wall mucus. In these groups, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05) and reduced (P < 0.05), respectively. In addition to the histologic analyses (HE and periodic acid-Schiff staining), immunohistochemistry confirmed the protection through the upregulation of Hsp70 and the downregulation of Bax proteins. The gastroprotection of the experimental groups was comparable to that of the reference control medicine omeprazole. ConclusionsOur study reports the gastroprotective property of an ethanolic extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats. PMID:23611708

  4. Comparison of two management strategies for Helicobacter pylori treatment: clinical study and cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Marko, Dritana; Calvet, Xavier; Ducons, Julio; Guardiola, Jordi; Tito, Llucia; Bory, Felipe

    2005-02-01

    First-line proton pump inhibitor-based triple and quadruple therapies for Helicobacter pylori eradication present similar levels of efficacy. Cross-over treatment (quadruple following triple failure, and triple following quadruple failure) seems the most sensible approach to treatment failures, but the two strategies -'quadruple first' versus 'triple first'- have not been previously compared. The aims of our study were to assess the usefulness and the cost-effectiveness of the two treatment strategies. Forty-nine out of 344 patients included in a previous study comparing triple therapy - 7 days of omeprazole, amoxicillin and clarithromycin twice a day - with quadruple therapy - 7 days of omeprazole twice a day, plus tetracycline, metronidazole and bismuth subcitrate three times a day - failed initial treatment and were assigned to cross-over therapy. Cure was determined by urea breath test. A decision analysis was performed to compare the two eradication strategies. Intention to treat cure rates were 46% (10/22 patients; 95% CI 24-68%) for second-line triple therapy and 63% (17/27 patients; 95% CI 42-81%) for second-line quadruple therapy. Per protocol cure rates were 71% and 85%, respectively. Intention to treat cure rates were 87% (95% CI 81-92%) for the 'triple first' versus 86% (95% CI 80-91%) for the 'quadruple first' strategy (p = .87). The 'quadruple first' strategy was more cost-effective. The incremental cost of 'triple first' strategy per person was 19 in the low-cost area and 65 US dollars in the high-cost area. The effectiveness of 'triple first' and 'quadruple first' strategies is similar, although the latter seems slightly more cost-effective.

  5. Hypomagnesaemia associated with long-term use of proton pump inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Toh, James Wei Tatt; Ong, Evonne; Wilson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Hypomagnesaemia and associated hypocalcaemia and hypoparathyroidism have been increasingly recognised as rare long-term side-effects of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). The PPIs may inhibit active magnesium (Mg) absorption by interfering with transcellular transient receptor potential melastatin-6 and -7 (TRPM 6 and 7) channels. More recent cell culture studies have suggested concomitant inhibition of passive Mg absorption by omeprazole. After being treated with a range of PPIs, the four patients in our case series developed hypomagnesaemia, which responded to withdrawal of therapy and initiation of Mg replacement. Their clinical course and management demonstrate key aspects of hypomagnesaemia associated with long-term use of PPIs. PMID:25138239

  6. Antiprotozoal activity of proton-pump inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villanueva, Jaime; Romo-Mancillas, Antonio; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Yépez-Mulia, Lilián; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Castillo, Rafael

    2011-12-15

    Parasitic diseases are still a major health problem in developing countries. In our effort to find new antiparasitic agents, in this Letter we report the in vitro antiprotozoal activity of omeprazole, lansoprazole, rabeprazole and pantoprazole against Trichomonas vaginalis, Giardia intestinalis and Entamoeba histolytica. Molecular modeling studies were an important tool to highlight the potential antiprotozoal activity of these drugs. Experimental evaluations revealed a strong activity for all compounds tested. Rabeprazole and pantoprazole were the most active compounds, having IC(50) values in the nanomolar range, which were even better than metronidazole, the drug of choice for these parasites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Therapeutic effects of the integrated acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine on reflux esophagitis].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wan; Li, Bolin; Sun, Jianhui; Wang, Zhikun; Zhang, Nana; Shi, Fang; Pei, Lin

    2017-07-12

    To compare the differences in the clinical therapeutic effects on reflux esophagitis among the combined therapy of huazhuo jiedu jiangni decoction (the decoction for resolving the turbid, detoxification and reducing the pathologic upward qi in short) and acupuncture, omeprazole and Chinese herbal medicine. Ninety patients were randomized into 3 groups, 4 cases of them were dropped off. Finally, there were 29 cases in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, 29 cases in the western medication group and 28 cases in the Chinese herbal medicine group in the statistical analysis. In the combined therapy group with acupuncture and the decoction, the decoction was prescribed recurrence rate. The therapeutic effects are better than the simple application of either Chinese herbal medicine or omeprazole. for oral administration. Additionally, acupuncture was applied to Neiguan (PC 6), Zusanli (ST 36), Zhongwan (CV 12), Ganshu (BL 18), Danshu (BL 19) and Taichong (LR 3). The decoction was applied one dose a day and acupuncture was once a day. In the western medication group, omeprazole capsules, 20 mg were prescribed for oral administration, twice a day. In the Chinese herbal medicine group, the decoction was simply applied. The treatment was 8 weeks in the 3 groups and the follow-up visit was 6 months. The score of reflux disorder questionnaire (RDQ) and the changes in esophageal mucosa under gastroscope were observed before and after treatment; the clinical therapeutic effects and recurrence rate were evaluated in the 3 groups. In 4 and 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ scores in the 3 groups were all reduced as compared with those before treatment (all P <0.05). In 4 weeks of treatment, RDQ score in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine was lower than that in the western medication group ( P <0.05). In 8 weeks of treatment, RDQ score in the combined therapy group with acupuncture and Chinese herbal medicine was lower than

  8. Myopathy including polymyositis: a likely class adverse effect of proton pump inhibitors?

    PubMed

    Clark, David W J; Strandell, Johanna

    2006-06-01

    Polymyositis occurring in patients treated with omeprazole has been signalled as a possible adverse drug reaction (ADR) by the New Zealand Intensive Medicines Monitoring Programme (IMMP) and the WHO Collaborating Centre for International Drug Monitoring: the Uppsala Monitoring Centre (UMC). Polymyositis and other myopathies have also been reported in post-marketing data and in the medical literature in association with proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use. We wished to follow-up these signals and investigate the evidence of causality for the association of polymyositis and other myopathy with PPI use. Spontaneously reported ADRs from national monitoring centres are sent to the WHO ADR database (VigiBase). VigiBase was searched for case reports of the PPIs, omeprazole, pantoprazole, lansoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole, with terms indicative of myopathy, and further information was elicited from the national centres to help establish causality. Literature sources were reviewed for the occurrence of the above terms in combination with PPIs. In total, there were 292 reports of various myopathies with PPIs, excluding 868 cases of 'myalgia'. In this analysis, 69 patients recovered when the drug was withdrawn and, in 15 patients, the reaction re-occurred when the drug was reinstated. In one-third of the 292 cases, the PPI was the single administered drug, and the PPI was the single suspected drug by the reporter in 57% of reports where concomitant medication was used. In this analysis, three index cases are documented. One involves the same patient taking three different PPIs (lansoprazole, esomeprazole and rabeprazole) at different time periods, with myalgia and muscle weakness occurring with all three drugs. In the two other index cases, myopathies with esomeprazole and omeprazole were reported with positive rechallenge, and causality was assessed as 'possible' and 'certain' by the reporting centres. In 27 cases myositis or polymyositis was reported. Other myopathies

  9. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, bromocriptine, and atropine effect in cysteamine lesions in totally gastrectromized rats: a model for cytoprotective studies.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mikus, D; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Perić, J; Konjevoda, P; Perović, D; Jurina, L; Hanzevacki, M; Separović, J; Gjurasin, M; Jadrijević, S; Jelovac, N; Miklić, P; Buljat, G; Marović, A

    1997-05-01

    A superior effectiveness in various lesion assays was noted for the novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, originated from human gastric juice protein (BPC) and claimed to be a cytoprotective agent. From this viewpoint, as a previously untreated experimental improvement to create an acid-free environmental for cytoprotection studies, total gastrectomy was done 24 hr before the ulcerogenic procedure. In the absence of stomach and gastric acid, the damaging effects of cysteamine (400 mg/kg subcutaneously, death 24 hr thereafter), to date thought to be an acid-related duodenal ulcerogen, and the BPC 157 cytoprotective effect (10 microg or 10 ng/kg intraperitoneally) were further challenged. BPC 157 was compared with reference agents [cimetidine (50), ranitidine (10), omeprazole (10), bromocriptine (10) and atropine (10) (mg/kg intraperitoneally, 1 hr before cysteamine] known to be also cytoprotective. In naive rats, with intact stomach, all of them showed a strong beneficial effect. Interestingly, in gastrectomized animals, the application of BPC 157 or the reference agents before cysteamine significantly prevented the otherwise severe duodenal lesion development noted in the control gastrectomized cysteamine rats. In groups without cysteamine, no lesions were noted (laparotomy, gastrectomy only, 24 or 48 hr postsurgical period), nor was lesion potentiation seen in cysteamine-treated laparotomized animals. In summary, these findings--equal damaging effect of cysteamine and equal protection of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 and reference agents in gastrectomized and rats with intact stomach--seem to be particularly relevant for a cytoprotective viewpoint. Without a stomach, the cysteamine damaging effect was convincingly defined as an essential gastric acid-independent injury (analogous to ethanol gastric lesions). Likewise, a high "cytoprotective capacity," apparently acid independent, common for all tested agents (novel pentadecapeptide BPC 157, cimetidine, ranitidine, omeprazole

  10. Randomized controlled study of a novel triple nitazoxanide (NTZ)-containing therapeutic regimen versus the traditional regimen for eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Shehata, Mona Ah; Talaat, Raghda; Soliman, Samah; Elmesseri, Huda; Soliman, Shaimaa; Abd-Elsalam, Sherief

    2017-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection has become more and more resistant to conventional first-line treatment regimens. So, there is a considerable interest in evaluating new antibiotic combinations and regimens. Nitazoxanide is an anti-infective drug with demonstrated activity against protozoa and anaerobic bacteria including H. pylori. This work is designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a unique triple nitazoxanide-containing regimen as a treatment regimen in Egyptian patients with H. pylori infection. Two hundred and 24 patients with upper gastrointestinal tract (GIT) dyspeptic symptoms in whom H. pylori -induced GIT disease was confirmed were included in the study. They have been randomized to receive either nitazoxanide 500 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and omeprazole 40 mg twice daily for 14 days or metronidazole 500 mg b.i.d., clarithromycin 500 mg b.i.d., and omeprazole 40  mg twice daily for 14 days. Laboratory evaluation for H. pylori antigen within the stool was performed 6 weeks after cessation of H. pylori treatment regimens to assess the response. The response to treatment was significantly higher in group 1 of nitazoxanide treatment regimen than group 2 of traditional treatment regimen. One hundred and six cases (94.6%) of 112 patients who completed the study in group 1 showed complete cure, while only 63 cases (60.6%) of 104 patients who completed the study in group 2 showed the same response according to per-protocol (PP) analysis (P<.001). The regimen was well tolerated by all the patients enrolled in the study. Nitazoxanide-containing triple therapy is a promising therapy for the first-line eradication of H. pylori. (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02422706). © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Proton Pump Inhibitor Initiation and Withdrawal affects Gut Microbiota and Readmission Risk in Cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Bajaj, Jasmohan S; Acharya, Chathur; Fagan, Andrew; White, Melanie B; Gavis, Edith; Heuman, Douglas M; Hylemon, Phillip B; Fuchs, Michael; Puri, Puneet; Schubert, Mitchell L; Sanyal, Arun J; Sterling, Richard K; Stravitz, R Todd; Siddiqui, Mohammad S; Luketic, Velimir; Lee, Hannah; Sikaroodi, Masoumeh; Gillevet, Patrick M

    2018-06-06

    Cirrhosis is associated with gut microbial dysbiosis, high readmissions and proton pump inhibitor (PPI) overuse, which could be inter-linked. Our aim was to determine the effect of PPI use, initiation and withdrawl on gut microbiota and readmissions in cirrhosis. Four cohorts were enrolled. Readmissions study: Cirrhotic inpatients were followed throughout the hospitalization and 30/90-days post-discharge. PPI initiation, withdrawal/continuation patterns were analyzed between those with/without readmissions. Cross-sectional microbiota study: Cirrhotic outpatients and controls underwent stool microbiota analysis. Beneficial autochthonous and oral-origin taxa analysis vis-à-vis PPI use was performed. Longitudinal studies: Two cohorts of decompensated cirrhotic outpatients were enrolled. Patients on chronic unindicated PPI use were withdrawn for 14 days. Patients not on PPI were started on omeprazole for 14 days. Microbial analysis for oral-origin taxa was performed pre/post-intervention. Readmissions study: 343 inpatients (151 on admission PPI) were enrolled. 21 were withdrawn and 45 were initiated on PPI resulting in a PPI use increase of 21%. PPIs were associated with higher 30 (p = 0.002) and 90-day readmissions (p = 0.008) independent of comorbidities, medications, MELD and age. Cross-sectional microbiota: 137 cirrhotics (59 on PPI) and 45 controls (17 on PPI) were included. PPI users regardless of cirrhosis had higher oral-origin microbiota while cirrhotics on PPI had lower autochthonous taxa compared to the rest. Longitudinal studies: Fifteen decompensated cirrhotics tolerated omeprazole initiation with an increase in oral-origin microbial taxa compared to baseline. PPIs were withdrawn from an additional 15 outpatients, which resulted in a significant reduction of oral-origin taxa compared to baseline. PPIs modulate readmission risk and microbiota composition in cirrhosis, which responds to withdrawal. The systematic withdrawal and judicious use of PPIs

  12. Mucosal protective agents prevent exacerbation of NSAID-induced small intestinal lesions caused by antisecretory drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Amagase, Kikuko; Takeuchi, Koji

    2014-02-01

    Antisecretory drugs such as histamine H₂-receptor antagonists and proton pump inhibitors are commonly used for the treatment of upper gastrointestinal mucosal lesions induced by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). However, it has recently been reported that these drugs exacerbate NSAID-induced small intestinal lesions in rats. Unfortunately, there are few effective agents for the treatment of this complication. We examined the effects of mucosal protective agents (MPAs) (misoprostol, irsogladine, and rebamipide) and mucin of porcine stomach on diclofenac-induced intestinal lesions and the exacerbation of the lesions by ranitidine or omeprazole. The effects of the drugs on intestinal motility and mucus distribution/content were also examined. Male Wistar rats (180-220 g) were used. Each drug was administered orally under fed conditions. Diclofenac (1-10 mg/kg) produced multiple lesions in the small intestine dose-dependently. Both ranitidine (30 mg/kg) and omeprazole (100 mg/kg) significantly increased the intestinal lesions induced by low doses (3 and 6 mg/kg) of diclofenac. Misoprostol (0.03-0.3 mg/kg), irsogladine (3-30 mg/kg), and rebamipide (30-300 mg/kg), as well as mucin (30-300 mg/kg) inhibited the formation of intestinal lesions caused by a high dose (10 mg/kg) of diclofenac alone and prevented the exacerbation of diclofenac-induced lesions by antisecretory drugs. Diclofenac (10 mg/kg) markedly increased the intestinal motility and decreased the mucosal mucus, and the decrease of mucus was significantly inhibited by the MPAs. These results indicate the usefulness of the MPAs for the treatment of intestinal lesions induced by NSAIDs alone or by coadministration with antisecretory drugs, and suggest that mucus plays an important role in the protection of intestinal mucosa by the MPAs.

  13. Ameliorative effects of Panax quinquefolium on experimentally induced reflux oesophagitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Pratibha; Singh, Neetu; Sengupta, Shibani; Palit, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Reflux oesophagitis (RE), is one of the most prevalent chronic gastrointestinal disorders commonly referred to as gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and requires long term therapy. The present study was designed to investigate the protective effects of Panax quinquefolium (PQ), administered with variable doses, on experimentally induced reflux oesophagitis (RE) in rats. Methods: Forty two female Sprague-Dawley (180-220 g) rats were randomly divided to receive standardized root powder of PQ (50-200mg/kg, po), standard anti-reflux (omeprazole, 5 mg/kg, ip) and anti-oxidant (α-tocopherol, 16 mg/kg, po). After 45 min drug pretreatment, RE was produced in rats by simultaneous ligation of the pyloric end and forestomach. Several parameters, including macroscopic lesion index, glutathione system, lipid peroxidation (LPO) and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were measured. Alterations in ICAM-1, CINC-2 and MCP-1 gene expression were examined through reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Results: PQ significantly attenuated the severity of the macroscopic signs of RE-induced tissue damage, replenished the depleted GSH level and reduced the RE-associated LPO levels dose dependently. In contrast, omeprazole though effectively improved the mucosal damage, it failed to bring significant attenuation of RE-associated changes in LPO, GSH level and MPO activity. α-Tocopherol significantly ameliorated RE-induced tissue injury and improved LPO level and GSH/GSSG ratio but failed to counteract RE-induced MPO activity. PQ at dose of 100 mg/kg significantly downregulated ICAM-1 and CINC-2 expression whereas it showed no effect over MCP-1 expression. Interpretation & conclusions: The present data indicate that PQ protects against RE-induced oesophageal damage via a mechanism that inhibits the influx of inflammatory cell to oesophagus and a consequence excessive oxidative load, opening the avenue to its promising protective role in

  14. [Dental status and efficacy of Helicobacter pylori eradication].

    PubMed

    Namiot, D B; Namiot, Z; Kemona, A; Gołebiewska, M

    2001-04-01

    Beside stomach Helicobacter pylori can colonize the oral cavity. One may think, therefore, that if H. pylori persists the eradication therapy in the oral cavity, it could infect the stomach again. Since in the oral cavity H. pylori occurs most frequently in a dental plaque gathering on teeth, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the natural teeth status is important for the efficacy of H. pylori eradication. The study was conducted on 45 peptic ulcer patients with natural teeth. They were eradicated with one of two regimens: 1/OAT-omeprazole (2 x 20 mg), amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg), tinidazole (2 x 500 mg) (14-day course), 2/OAC-omeprazole (2 x 20 mg), amoxicillin (2 x 1000 mg), clarithromycin (2 x 250 mg) (7-day course). Dentistry examination was performed 4-6 weeks after the end of eradication therapy and consisted of determination of the number of teeth, caries index, dental treatment index, plaque index, and periodontal index. It was found that in successfully eradicated patients with OAT regimen, the number of teeth was higher and caries index lower than in those whose eradication therapy was unsuccessful; 24.8 +/- 5.2 vs 15.5 +/- 8.6 (p < 0.01) and 31.4% vs 46.0% (p < 0.01), respectively. The number of teeth and caries index were not associated with the efficacy of H. pylori eradication in OAC treated group. Irrespectively of the eradication regimen used, OAT or OAC, dental treatment index, plaque index, and periodontal index were not associated with the efficacy of H. pylori eradication. It is concluded that the natural teeth status may have influence on the outcome of H. pylori eradication. One should remember about this prescribing drugs for H. pylori eradication.

  15. A stepwise protocol for the treatment of refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xianghuai; Lv, Hanjing; Yu, Li; Chen, Qiang; Liang, Siwei

    2016-01-01

    Background Refractory gastroesophageal reflux-induced chronic cough (GERC) is difficult to manage. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of a novel stepwise protocol for treating this condition. Methods A total of 103 consecutive patients with suspected refractory reflux-induced chronic cough failing to a standard anti-reflux therapy were treated with a stepwise therapy. Treatment commences with high-dose omeprazole and, if necessary, is escalated to subsequent sequential treatment with ranitidine and finally baclofen. The primary end-point was overall cough resolution, and the secondary end-point was cough resolution after each treatment step. Results High-dose omeprazole eliminated or improved cough in 28.1% of patients (n=29). Further stepwise of treatment with the addition of ranitide yielded a favorable response in an additional 12.6% (n=13) of patients, and subsequent escalation to baclofen provoked response in another 36.9% (n=38) of patients. Overall, this stepwise protocol was successful in 77.6% (n=80) of patients. The diurnal cough symptom score fell from 3 [1] to 1 [0] (Z=6.316, P=0.000), and the nocturnal cough symptom score decreased from 1 [1] to 0 [1] (Z=–4.511, P=0.000), with a corresponding reduction in the Gastroesophageal Reflux Diagnostic Questionnaire score from 8.6±1.7 to 6.8±0.7 (t=3.612, P=0.000). Conversely, the cough threshold C2 to capsaicin was increased from 0.49 (0.49) µmol/L to 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L (Z=–5.892, P=0.000), and the cough threshold C5 was increased from 1.95 (2.92) µmol/L to 7.8 (5.85) µmol/L (Z=–5.171, P=0.000). Conclusions Sequential stepwise anti-reflux therapy is a useful therapeutic strategy for refractory reflux-induced chronic cough. PMID:26904227

  16. Review article: relationship between the metabolism and efficacy of proton pump inhibitors--focus on rabeprazole.

    PubMed

    Horn, J

    2004-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are now considered the mainstay of treatment for acid-related disease. Although all proton pump inhibitors are highly effective, the antisecretory effects of different drugs in this class are not completely consistent across patients. One reason for this is the acid-suppressing effect of Helicobacter pylori infection, which may augment the actions of proton pump inhibitors. A second important reason for interpatient variability of the effects of proton pump inhibitors on acid secretion involves genetically determined differences in the metabolism of these drugs. This article focuses on the impact of genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 (CYP)2C19 on the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of proton pump inhibitors, particularly rabeprazole. Results reviewed indicate that the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of rabeprazole differ significantly from those of other proton pump inhibitors. Most importantly, the clearance of rabeprazole is largely nonenzymatic and less dependent on CYP2C19 than other drugs in its class. This results in greater consistency of pharmacokinetics for rabeprazole across a wide range of patients with acid-related disease, particularly those with different CYP2C19 genotypes. The pharmacodynamic profile for rabeprazole is also characterized by more rapid suppression of gastric acid secretion than with other proton pump inhibitors, which is also independent of CYP2C19 genotype. The favourable pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile for rabeprazole has been shown to result in high eradication rates for H. pylori in both normal and poor metabolizers. Pharmacodynamic results have also suggested that rabeprazole may be better suited than omeprazole as on-demand therapy for symptomatic gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Finally, the use of rabeprazole is not complicated by clinically significant drug-drug interactions of the type that have been reported for omeprazole.

  17. Oral or intravenous proton pump inhibitor in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding after successful endoscopic epinephrine injection

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Jai-Jen; Hsu, Yao-Chun; Perng, Chin-lin; Lin, Hwai-Jeng

    2009-01-01

    AIMS We aimed to assess the clinical effectiveness of oral vs. intravenous (i.v.) regular-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) after endoscopic injection of epinephrine in patients with peptic ulcer bleeding. METHODS Peptic ulcer patients with active bleeding, nonbleeding visible vessels, or adherent clots were enrolled after successful endoscopic haemostasis achieved by epinephrine injection. They were randomized to receive either oral rabeprazole (RAB group, 20 mg twice daily for 3 days) or i.v. omeprazole (OME group, 40 mg i.v. infusion every 12 h for 3 days). Subsequently, the enrolled patients receive oral PPI for 2 months (rabeprazole 20 mg or esomeprazole 40 mg once daily). The primary end-point was recurrent bleeding up to 14 days. The hospital stay, blood transfusion, surgery and mortality within 14 days were compared as well. RESULTS A total of 156 patients were enrolled, with 78 patients randomly allocated in each group. The two groups were well matched for factors affecting the clinical outcomes. Primary end-points (recurrent bleeding up to 14 days) were reached in 12 patients (15.4%) in the OME group and 13 patients (16.7%) in the RAB group [95% confidence interval (CI) of difference −12.82, 10.22]. All the rebleeding events occurred within 3 days of enrolment. The two groups were not different in hospital stay, volume of blood transfusion, surgery or mortality rate (1.3% of the OME group and 2.6% of the RAB group died, 95% CI of difference −5.6, 3.0). CONCLUSIONS Oral rabeprazole and i.v. regular-dose omeprazole are equally effective in preventing rebleeding in patients with high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers after successful endoscopic injection with epinephrine. PMID:19523014

  18. Does Knowledge of Medication Prices Predict Physicians’ Support for Cost Effective Prescribing Policies?

    PubMed Central

    Polinski, Jennifer M.; Maclure, Malcolm; Marshall, Blair; Cassels, Alan; Agnew-Blais, Jessica; Patrick, Amanda R.; Schneeweiss, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    Background British Columbia implemented a generic substitution (GS) and Reference Drug Program (RDP) to contain drug expenditures without negatively affecting health outcomes. Years after implementation, these policies remain controversial among physicians. Objective To assess British Columbia general practitioners’ (GPs) opinions of RDP and GS stratified by knowledge of drug costs. Methods In telephone interviews, GPs ranked the economic and clinical appropriateness of drug policy options on a 5-point Likert scale. Responses to economic questions were stratified and compared according to the accuracy (±$10 of the actual cost) of GPs’ cost estimates for a 30-day supply of atorvastatin and omeprazole. Results The majority of 210 interviewed GPs rated the economic appropriateness of GS and RDP positively (79% and 65%) but fewer rated them clinically appropriate (60% and 43%). Ratings for GS were more favorable than RDP, economically (mean=4.3 v. 3.8, p=0.0005) and clinically (mean=3.7 v 3.1, p=0.006). GP’s assessment of the therapeutic equivalence among ACE inhibitors and among CCBs correlated with their ratings of the respective RDPs (ρ=0.3, p=0.03, and ρ=0.4, p=0.02). GPs underestimated the price for omeprazole by C$28 (33%) and atorvastatin by C$28 (34%). GPs with accurate cost estimates were equally as likely to favorably rank the economic appropriateness of RDP as those with inaccurate estimates (mean = 3.7 v. 4.0, p=0.0847). GS was assessed similarly (mean = 4.2 v. 4.5, p=0.0712). Conclusions In British Columbia, the majority of GPs hold favorable opinions of GS and RDP, but simply educating physicians about drug prices will not make them more supportive of cost-containment policies. PMID:18641423

  19. Biochanin a gastroprotective effects in ethanol-induced gastric mucosal ulceration in rats.

    PubMed

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Salehen, NurAin; Karimian, Hamed; Zahedifard, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Al Batran, Rami; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Khalifa, Shaden A M; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Biochanin A notable bioactive compound which is found in so many traditional medicinal plant. In vivo study was conducted to assess the protective effect of biochanin A on the gastric wall of Spraguedawley rats` stomachs. The experimental set included different animal groups. Specifically, four groups with gastric mucosal lesions were receiving either a) Ulcer control group treated with absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg), b) 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as reference group, c) 25 of biochanin A, d) 50 mg/kg of biochanin A. Histopathological sectioning followed by immunohistochemistry staining were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the different treatments on gastric wall mucosal layer. The gastric secretions were collected in the form of homogenate and exposed to superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide enzyme (NO) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein content were measured. Ulceration and patchy haemorrhage were clearly observed by light microscopy. The morphology of the gastric wall as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent microscopic observations, exhibited sever deformity with notable thickness, oedematous and complete loss of the mucosal coverage however the biochanin-pretreated animals, similar to the omeprazole-pretreated animals, showed less damage compared to the ulcer control group. Moreover, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and down-regulation of Bax protein were detected in the biochanin A pre-treated groups and the gastric glandular mucosa was positively stained with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and the Leucocytes infiltration was commonly seen. Biochanin A displayed a great increase in SOD and NO levels and decreased the release of MDA. This gastroprotective effect of biochanin A could be attributed to the enhancement of cellular metabolic cycles perceived as an increase in the SOD, NO activity, and decrease in the level of MDA, and also decrease in level of Bax expression and increase the Hsp70 expression level.

  20. Biochanin A Gastroprotective Effects in Ethanol-Induced Gastric Mucosal Ulceration in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hajrezaie, Maryam; Salehen, NurAin; Karimian, Hamed; Zahedifard, Maryam; Shams, Keivan; Batran, Rami Al; Majid, Nazia Abdul; Khalifa, Shaden A. M.; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; El-Seedi, Hesham; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2015-01-01

    Background Biochanin A notable bioactive compound which is found in so many traditional medicinal plant. In vivo study was conducted to assess the protective effect of biochanin A on the gastric wall of Spraguedawley rats` stomachs. Methodology The experimental set included different animal groups. Specifically, four groups with gastric mucosal lesions were receiving either a) Ulcer control group treated with absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg), b) 20 mg/kg of omeprazole as reference group, c) 25 of biochanin A, d) 50 mg/kg of biochanin A. Histopathological sectioning followed by immunohistochemistry staining were undertaken to evaluate the influence of the different treatments on gastric wall mucosal layer. The gastric secretions were collected in the form of homogenate and exposed to superoxide dismutase (SOD) and nitric oxide enzyme (NO) and the level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and protein content were measured. Ulceration and patchy haemorrhage were clearly observed by light microscopy. The morphology of the gastric wall as confirmed by immunohistochemistry and fluorescent microscopic observations, exhibited sever deformity with notable thickness, oedematous and complete loss of the mucosal coverage however the biochanin-pretreated animals, similar to the omeprazole-pretreated animals, showed less damage compared to the ulcer control group. Moreover, up-regulation of Hsp70 protein and down-regulation of Bax protein were detected in the biochanin A pre-treated groups and the gastric glandular mucosa was positively stained with Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS) staining and the Leucocytes infiltration was commonly seen. Biochanin A displayed a great increase in SOD and NO levels and decreased the release of MDA. Conclusions This gastroprotective effect of biochanin A could be attributed to the enhancement of cellular metabolic cycles perceived as an increase in the SOD, NO activity, and decrease in the level of MDA, and also decrease in level of Bax expression and increase the Hsp

  1. Apocynin protects against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats by attenuating the upregulation of NADPH oxidases 1 and 4.

    PubMed

    El-Naga, Reem N

    2015-12-05

    Gastric ulcer is a common gastrointestinal disorder affecting many people all over the world. Absolute ethanol (5 ml/kg) was used to induce gastric ulceration in rats. Apocynin (50 mg/kg) was given orally one hour before the administration of absolute ethanol. Omeprazole (20 mg/kg) was used as a standard. Interestingly, apocynin pre-treatment provided 93.5% gastroprotection against ethanol-induced ulceration. Biochemically, gastric mucin content was significantly increased with apocynin pre-treatment. This finding was further supported by alcian blue staining of stomach sections obtained from the different treated groups. Also, gastric juice volume and acidity were significantly reduced. Apocynin significantly ameliorated ethanol-induced oxidative stress by replenishing reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase levels as well as reducing elevated malondialdehyde levels in gastric tissues. Besides, ethanol-induced pro-inflammatory response was significantly decreased by apocynin pre-treatment via reducing elevated levels of pro-inflammatory markers; interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. Additionally, caspase-3 tissue level was significantly reduced in apocynin pre-treated group. Interestingly, NADPH oxidase-1 (NOX-1) and NOX-4 up-regulation was shown to be partially involved in the pathogenesis of ethanol-induced gastric ulceration and was significantly reversed by apocynin pre-treatment. Gastroprotective properties of apocynin were confirmed by histopathological examination. It is worth mentioning that apocynin was superior in all aspects except gastric mucin content parameter where it was significantly increased by 13.5 folds in the omeprazole pre-treated group. This study was the first to show that apocynin is a promising gastroprotective agent against ethanol-induced gastric ulceration, partially via its anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic effects as well as down-regulating NOX-1 and NOX-4

  2. Method transfer from high-pressure liquid chromatography to ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography. II. Temperature and pressure effects.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Dennis; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Leśko, Marek; Cavazzini, Alberto; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2015-07-03

    The importance of the generated temperature and pressure gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) are investigated and compared to high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). The drug Omeprazole, together with three other model compounds (with different chemical characteristics, namely uncharged, positively and negatively charged) were used. Calculations of the complete temperature profile in the column at UHPLC conditions showed, in our experiments, a temperature difference between the inlet and outlet of 16 °C and a difference of 2 °C between the column center and the wall. Through van't Hoff plots, this information was used to single out the decrease in retention factor (k) solely due to the temperature gradient. The uncharged solute was least affected by temperature with a decrease in k of about 5% while for charged solutes the effect was more pronounced, with k decreases up to 14%. A pressure increase of 500 bar gave roughly 5% increase in k for the uncharged solute, while omeprazole and the other two charged solutes gave about 25, 20 and 15% increases in k, respectively. The stochastic model of chromatography was applied to estimate the dependence of the average number of adsorption/desorption events (n) and the average time spent by a molecule in the stationary phase (τs) on temperature and pressure on peak shape for the tailing, basic solute. Increasing the temperature yielded an increase in n and decrease in τs which resulted in less skew at high temperatures. With increasing pressure, the stochastic modeling gave interesting results for the basic solute showing that the skew of the peak increased with pressure. The conclusion is that pressure effects are more pronounced for both retention and peak shape than the temperature effects for the polar or charged compounds in our study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Cost-effectiveness of strategies for primary prevention of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced peptic ulcer disease.

    PubMed

    Ko, C W; Deyo, R A

    2000-06-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) increase the risk of peptic ulcer disease by 5- to 7-fold in the first 3 months of treatment. This study examined the relative cost-effectiveness of different strategies for the primary prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers in patients that are starting NSAID treatment. A decision analysis model was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of 6 prophylactic strategies relative to no prophylaxis for patients 65 years of age starting a 3-month course of NSAIDs: (1) testing for Helicobacter pylori infection and treating those with positive tests; (2) empiric treatment of all patients for Helicobacter pylori; (3) conventional-dose histamine2 receptor antagonists; (4) high-dose histamine2 receptor antagonists; (5) misoprostol; and (6) omeprazole. Costs were estimated from 1997 Medicare reimbursement schedules and the Drug Topics Red Book. Empiric treatment of Helicobacter pylori with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline was cost-saving in the baseline analysis. Selective treatment of Helicobacter pylori, misoprostol, omeprazole, and conventional-dose or high-dose histamine2 receptor antagonists cost $23,800, $46,100, $34,400, and $15,600 or $21,500 per year of life saved, respectively, relative to prophylaxis. The results were sensitive to the probability of an ulcer, the probability and mortality of ulcer complications, and the cost of, efficacy of, and compliance with prophylaxis. The cost-effectiveness estimates did not change substantially when costs associated with antibiotic resistance of Helicobacter pylori were incorporated. Several strategies for primary prevention of NSAID-induced ulcers in patients starting NSAIDs were estimated to have acceptable cost-effectiveness relative to prophylaxis. Empirically treating all patients for Helicobacter pylori with bismuth, metronidazole, and tetracycline was projected to be cost-saving in older patients.

  4. Protective effect of lafutidine, a histamine H2 receptor antagonist, against loxoprofen-induced small intestinal lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Amagase, Kikuko; Ochi, Akimu; Sugihara, Tetsuya; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2010-05-01

    We examined the effect of lafutidine, a histamine H(2) receptor antagonist with a mucosal protective action mediated by capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons (CSN), on intestinal lesions produced by loxoprofen administration in rats. Animals were given loxoprofen (10-100 mg/kg p.o.) and killed 24 h later. Lafutidine (10 and 30 mg/kg), cimetidine (100 mg/kg) or famotidine (30 mg/kg) was given twice p.o. at 0.5 h before and 6 h after loxoprofen. Omeprazole (100 mg/kg) was given p.o. once 0.5 h before. Ampicillin (800 mg/kg) was given p.o. twice at 24 h and 0.5 h before loxoprofen, while 16,16-dimethyl prostaglandin E(2) (dmPGE(2); 0.01 mg/kg) was given i.v. twice at 5 min before and 6 h after. Loxoprofen dose-dependently produced hemorrhagic lesions in the small intestine, accompanied by invasion of enterobacteria and increased inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression as well as myeloperoxidase activity in the mucosa. The ulcerogenic response to loxoprofen (60 mg/kg) was significantly prevented by lafutidine (30 mg/kg), similar to dmPGE(2) and ampicillin, and the effect of lafutidine was totally attenuated by ablation of CSN. Neither cimetidine, famotidine nor omeprazole had a significant effect against these lesions. Lafutidine alone increased mucus secretion and reverted the decreased mucus response to loxoprofen, resulting in suppression of bacterial invasion and iNOS expression. In addition, loxoprofen downregulated Muc2 expression, and this response was totally reversed by lafutidine mediated by CSN. Lafutidine protects the small intestine against loxoprofen-induced lesions, essentially mediated by the CSN, and this effect may be functionally associated with increased Muc2 expression/mucus secretion, an important factor in the suppression of bacterial invasion.

  5. Protective effect of D-002, a mixture of beeswax alcohols, against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Yohani; Oyárzabal, Ambar; Mas, Rosa; Molina, Vivian; Jiménez, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    D-002, a mixture of higher aliphatic beeswax alcohols, produces gastroprotective and antioxidant effects. To investigate the gastroprotective effect of D-002 against indomethacin-induced ulcers, oxidative variables and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the rat gastric mucosa were examined. Rats were randomized into six groups: a negative vehicle control and five indomethacin (50 mg/kg) treated groups, comprising a positive control, three groups treated orally with D-002 (5, 25 and 100 mg/kg) and one group with omeprazole 20 mg/kg intraperitoneally (ip). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl groups (PCG), hydroxyl radical generation and catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and MPO enzyme activities in the rat gastric mucosa were assessed. Indomethacin increased the content of MDA and PCG, the generation of *OH radical and MPO enzyme activity, while it decreased the CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activities as compared to the negative controls. D-002 (5-100 mg/kg) significantly and dose-dependently reduced indomethacin-induced ulceration to 75 %. Also, D-002 decreased the content of MDA and PCG, the generation of hydroxyl radicals and MPO activity as compared to the positive controls. The highest dose of D-002 (100 mg/kg) increased significantly GSH-PX and SOD activities, while all doses used increased CAT activities. Omeprazole 20 mg/kg, the reference drug, reduced significantly the ulcers (93 %), MDA and PCG, the generation of hydroxyl radicals and MPO activity, and increased the CAT, GSH-PX and SOD activities. D-002 treatment produced gastroprotective effects against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration, which can be related to the reduction of hydroxyl radical generation, lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation and MPO activity, and to the increase of the antioxidant enzymes activities in the rat gastric mucosa.

  6. Potential protective effects of Clostridium butyricum on experimental gastric ulcers in mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fang-Yan; Liu, Jia-Ming; Luo, Hai-Hua; Liu, Ai-Hua; Jiang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Clostridium butyricum (C. butyricum) on experimental gastric ulcers (GUs) induced by alcohol, restraint cold stress, or pyloric ligation in mice, respectively. METHODS: One hundred and twenty mice were randomly allocated into three types of gastric ulcer models (n = 40 each), induced by alcohol, restraint cold stress, or pyloric ligation. In each GU model, 40 mice were allocated into four groups (n = 10 each): the sham control group; model group (GU induction without pretreatment); C. butyricum group (GU induction with C. butyricum pretreatment); and Omeprazole group (GU induction with Omeprazole pretreatment). The effects of C. butyricum were evaluated by examining the histological changes in the gastric mucosal erosion area, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), the level of malondialdehyde (MDA), and the contents of interleukin (IL)-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and 6-keto-PGF-1α (degradation product of PGI2) in the gastric tissue. RESULTS: Our data showed that C. butyricum significantly reduced the gastric mucosal injury area and ameliorated the pathological conditions of the gastric mucosa. C. butyricum not only minimized the decreases in activity of SOD and CAT, but also reduced the level of MDA in all three GU models used in this study. The accumulation of IL1-β, TNF-α and LBT4 decreased, while 6-keto-PGF-1α increased with pretreatment by C. butyricum in all three GU models. CONCLUSION: Our data demonstrated the protective effects of pretreatment with C. butyricum on anti-oxidation and anti-inflammation in different types of GU models in mice. Further studies are needed to explore its potential clinical benefits. PMID:26217085

  7. A 29-Year-Old Man With Nonproductive Cough, Exertional Dyspnea, and Chest Discomfort.

    PubMed

    Halpenny, Darragh; Suh, James; Garofano, Suzette; Alpert, Jeffrey

    2015-09-01

    A 29-year-old man presented with a 5-month history of worsening dry cough, exertional dyspnea, chest tightness, and palpitations. He had been treated by his primary care physician with trials of guaifenesin/codeine, azithromycin, albuterol, and omeprazole without improvement. He denied wheezing, fever, sweats, anorexia, joint pain, swelling, or rash. He had no past medical history. He denied a history of tobacco smoking or IV drug use. He kept no pets, worked as a manager in an office environment, and had no history of occupational inhalational exposure. He reported using aerosolized insect spray to eradicate bed bugs in his house shortly before the cough began but did not report any acute symptoms when using the spray.

  8. Identification of proton-pump inhibitor drugs that inhibit Trichomonas vaginalis uridine nucleoside ribohydrolase.

    PubMed

    Shea, Tara A; Burburan, Paola J; Matubia, Vivian N; Ramcharan, Sandy S; Rosario, Irving; Parkin, David W; Stockman, Brian J

    2014-02-15

    Trichomonas vaginalis continues to be a major health problem with drug-resistant strains increasing in prevalence. Novel antitrichomonal agents that are mechanistically distinct from current therapies are needed. The NIH Clinical Compound Collection was screened to find inhibitors of the uridine ribohydrolase enzyme required by the parasite to scavenge uracil for its growth. The proton-pump inhibitors omeprazole, pantoprazole, and rabeprazole were identified as inhibitors of this enzyme, with IC50 values ranging from 0.3 to 14.5 μM. This suggests a molecular mechanism for the in vitro antitrichomonal activity of these proton-pump inhibitors, and may provide important insights toward structure-based drug design. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease relapse in primary care patients successfully treated with a proton pump inhibitor.

    PubMed

    López-Colombo, A; Pacio-Quiterio, M S; Jesús-Mejenes, L Y; Rodríguez-Aguilar, J E G; López-Guevara, M; Montiel-Jarquín, A J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Morales-Hernández, E R; Ortiz-Juárez, V R; Ávila-Jiménez, L

    There are no studies on the factors associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) relapse in primary care patients. To identify the risk factors associated with GERD relapse in primary care patients that responded adequately to short-term treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. A cohort study was conducted that included GERD incident cases. The patients received treatment with omeprazole for 4 weeks. The ReQuest questionnaire and a risk factor questionnaire were applied. The therapeutic success rate and relapse rate were determined at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment suspension. A logistic regression analysis of the possible risk factors for GERD relapse was carried out. Of the 83 patient total, 74 (89.16%) responded to treatment. Symptoms recurred in 36 patients (48.64%) at 4 weeks and in 13 patients (17.57%) at 12 weeks, with an overall relapse rate of 66.21%. The OR multivariate analysis (95% CI) showed the increases in the possibility of GERD relapse for the following factors at 12 weeks after treatment suspension: basic educational level or lower, 24.95 (1.92-323.79); overweight, 1.76 (0.22-13.64); obesity, 0.25 (0.01-3.46); smoking, 0.51 (0.06-3.88); and the consumption of 4-12 cups of coffee per month, 1.00 (0.12-7.84); citrus fruits, 14.76 (1.90-114.57); NSAIDs, 27.77 (1.12-686.11); chocolate, 0.86 (0.18-4.06); ASA 1.63 (0.12-21.63); carbonated beverages, 4.24 (0.32-55.05); spicy food 7-16 times/month, 1.39 (0.17-11.17); and spicy food ≥ 20 times/month, 4.06 (0.47-34.59). The relapse rate after short-term treatment with omeprazole was high. The consumption of citrus fruits and NSAIDs increased the possibility of GERD relapse. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  10. Prevalence of the prescription of potentially interacting drugs.

    PubMed

    Tragni, Elena; Casula, Manuela; Pieri, Vasco; Favato, Giampiero; Marcobelli, Alberico; Trotta, Maria Giovanna; Catapano, Alberico Luigi

    2013-01-01

    The use of multiple medications is becoming more common, with a correspondingly increased risk of untoward effects and drug-related morbidity and mortality. We aimed at estimating the prevalence of prescription of relevant potentially interacting drugs and at evaluating possible predictors of potentially interacting drug exposure. We retrospectively analyzed data on prescriptions dispensed from January 2004 to August 2005 to individuals of two Italian regions with a population of almost 2.1 million individuals. We identified 27 pairs of potentially interacting drugs by examining clinical relevance, documentation, and volume of use in Italy. Subjects who received at least one prescription of both drugs were selected. Co-prescribing denotes "two prescriptions in the same day", and concomitant medication "the prescription of two drugs with overlapping coverage". A logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the predictors of potential Drug-Drug Interaction (pDDIs). 957,553 subjects (45.3% of study population) were exposed to at least one of the drugs/classes of the 27 pairs. Overall, pDDIs occurred 2,465,819 times. The highest rates of concomitant prescription and of co-prescription were for ACE inhibitors+NSAIDs (6,253 and 4,621/100,000 plan participants). Considering concomitance, the male/female ratio was <1 in 17/27 pairs (from 0.31 for NSAIDs-ASA+SSRI to 0.74 for omeprazole+clopidogrel). The mean age was lowest for methotrexate pairs (+omeprazole, 59.9 years; +NSAIDs-ASA, 59.1 years) and highest for digoxin+verapamil (75.4 years). In 13/27 pairs, the mean ages were ≥70 years. On average, subjects involved in pDDIs received ≥10 drugs. The odds of exposure were more frequently higher for age ≥65 years, males, and those taking a large number of drugs. A substantial number of clinically important pDDIs were observed, particularly among warfarin users. Awareness of the most prevalent pDDIs could help practitioners in preventing concomitant use

  11. Ten-day bismuth-containing quadruple therapy is effective as first-line therapy for Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis: a prospective randomized study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Lin, Z; Chen, S; Li, J; Chen, C; Huang, Z; Ye, B; Ding, J; Li, W; Wu, L; Jiang, Y; Meng, L; Du, Q; Si, J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of 10-day bismuth-containing quadruple (B-quadruple) treatment as first-line therapy in patients with Helicobacter pylori-related chronic gastritis. A randomized controlled trial was conducted from October 2011 to December 2013 in Zhejiang, China, including patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis who were randomly provided either 10-day omeprazole-based triple therapy (OM-triple; omeprazole 20 mg twice daily, clarithromycin 500 mg twice daily and amoxicillin 1 g twice daily) or 10-day B-quadruple therapy (OM-triple + bismuth subcitrate 120 mg four times daily). H. pylori status, pathologic findings and dyspeptic symptoms were assessed at baseline and after 3 months. The primary outcome was H. pylori eradication rates by intention-to-treat (ITT) and per-protocol (PP) analyses. The secondary outcomes were the histologic and symptomatic benefits from H. pylori eradication. A total of 351 patients with H. pylori-related chronic gastritis were recruited. The eradication rates of the OM-triple and B-quadruple groups were 58.4% (108/185) and 86.1% (143/166) respectively according to ITT analysis (p <0.01). PP rates of H. pylori eradication were 63.2% (108/171) and 92.3% (143/155) respectively (p <0.01). According to the PP analysis, active and chronic inflammation in gastric mucosa was substantially improved in all treated patients (n=326). However, pathologic atrophic gastritis and intestinal metaplasia did not regress in both groups (n=326). The reduction of dyspeptic symptoms score was significantly higher in the B-quadruple group than in the OM-triple group (0.59±0.057 vs. 0.39±0.046) (p <0.01). Ten-day B-quadruple therapy is more effective than OM-triple therapy as first-line therapy for patients with H. pylori-induced chronic gastritis in China. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Proton Pump Inhibitors on the Gastric Mucosa-Associated Microbiota in Dyspeptic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Paroni Sterbini, Francesco; Palladini, Alessandra; Masucci, Luca; Cannistraci, Carlo Vittorio; Pastorino, Roberta; Ianiro, Gianluca; Bugli, Francesca; Martini, Cecilia; Ricciardi, Walter; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Cammarota, Giovanni; Posteraro, Brunella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Besides being part of anti-Helicobacter pylori treatment regimens, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are increasingly being used to treat dyspepsia. However, little is known about the effects of PPIs on the human gastric microbiota, especially those related to H. pylori infection. The goal of this study was to characterize the stomach microbial communities in patients with dyspepsia and to investigate their relationships with PPI use and H. pylori status. Using 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, we analyzed the mucosa-associated microbial populations of 24 patients, of whom 12 were treated with the PPI omeprazole and 9 (5 treated and 4 untreated) were positive for H. pylori infection. The Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Actinobacteria phyla accounted for 98% of all of the sequences, with Helicobacter, Streptococcus, and Prevotella ranking among the 10 most abundant genera. H. pylori infection or PPI treatment did not significantly influence gastric microbial species composition in dyspeptic patients. Principal-coordinate analysis of weighted UniFrac distances in these communities revealed clear but significant separation according to H. pylori status only. However, in PPI-treated patients, Firmicutes, particularly Streptococcaceae, were significantly increased in relative abundance compared to those in untreated patients. Consistently, Streptococcus was also found to significantly increase in relation to PPI treatment, and this increase seemed to occur independently of H. pylori infection. Our results suggest that Streptococcus may be a key indicator of PPI-induced gastric microbial composition changes in dyspeptic patients. Whether the gastric microbiota alteration contributes to dyspepsia needs further investigation. IMPORTANCE Although PPIs have become a popular treatment choice, a growing number of dyspeptic patients may be treated unnecessarily. We found that patients treated with omeprazole showed gastric microbial communities

  13. Factors influencing the shift of patients from one proton pump inhibitor to another: the effect of direct-to-consumer advertising.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Richard A; Shaheen, Nicholas J; Schommer, Jon C

    2005-09-01

    Switching from one proton pump inhibitor (PPI) to another is common, and may be related to factors other than efficacy and tolerability. The purposes of this study were to describe the incidence of therapeutic switching among PPI users, quantify direct ambulatory medical costs of switching, and characterize the relationship between product switching and variables hypothesized to influence a switch (eg, direct-to-consumer [DTC] advertising, structure of insurance coverage, disease diagnosis). This was a retrospective cohort study of health plans using 1998 data. The subjects were employees and dependents with employer-sponsored health insurance contributing to the Medstat Market-Scan administrative dataset. Using a commercially available database to quantify DTC advertising by marketing area, market-specific expenditures were matched to eligible subjects. Among PPI users, we identified those who switched from one product to another (switchers) and compared their utilization and spending with nonswitchers. We then evaluated the relationship between drug use and variables hypothesized to affect switching: DTC advertising, insurance characteristics, patient diagnosis, diagnostic procedures, comorbidities, age, and sex. The analysis used data for 396,500 individuals from 47 unique markets that were geographically well distributed, with population density similar to that of the United States overall. The sample was also comparable with US census estimates for age and sex among working adults and their dependents. Only 620 (6.3%) of PPI users switched products during the 1998 calendar year. Annual diagnostic and drug costs were >US $400 higher for switchers than nonswitchers. Subjects in areas with high levels of DTC advertising were 43% more likely to switch from lansoprazole to omeprazole than those in the low-expenditure areas. Additionally, patients paying prescription drug copayments >US $5 were 12% less likely to switch from lansoprazole to omeprazole than patients

  14. Comparing policies to enhance prescribing efficiency in Europe through increasing generic utilization: changes seen and global implications.

    PubMed

    Godman, Brian; Shrank, William; Andersen, Morten; Berg, Christian; Bishop, Iain; Burkhardt, Thomas; Garuoliene, Kristina; Herholz, Harald; Joppi, Roberta; Kalaba, Marija; Laius, Ott; McGinn, Diane; Samaluk, Vita; Sermet, Catherine; Schwabe, Ulrich; Teixeira, Inês; Tilson, Lesley; Tulunay, F Cankat; Vlahović-Palčevski, Vera; Wendykowska, Kamila; Wettermark, Björn; Zara, Corinne; Gustafsson, Lars L

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this article was to evaluate the influence of different demand-side measures to enhance the prescribing of generics in ambulatory care based on cross-national comparisons. An observational retrospective study was conducted using administrative databases from across Europe, documenting changes in reimbursed utilization and expenditure of different proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and statins between 2001 and 2007, alongside different reforms to enhance prescribing efficiency. Utilization was converted to defined daily doses (DDDs) and expenditures were converted to euros. Demand-side measures were collated under the '4 Es'--education, engineering, economics and enforcement--to enable comparisons on the nature and intensity of reforms between countries. There were considerable differences in the utilization of generics and patent-protected PPIs and statins among Western European countries. Decreased utilization of omeprazole and simvastatin, alongside increased utilization of esomeprazole, atorvastatin and rosuvastatin, was seen in countries with limited demand-side measures to counteract commercial pressures. Prescribing restrictions, or a combination of education, prescribing targets and financial incentives, had the greatest influence on enhancing the utilization of omeprazole and simvastatin. For example, there was a threefold reduction in the utilization of atorvastatin in Austria following prescribing restrictions. Multiple demand-side interventions generally had a greater influence than single interventions, with the impact appearing additive. Multiple interventions coupled with initiatives to lower prices of generics considerably enhanced prescribing efficiency. This cross-national study has demonstrated considerable variation in the utilization and expenditure of PPIs and statins across Europe, providing opportunities to further improve prescribing efficiency. The '4 Es' do provide an understandable methodology to document and compare the influence

  15. Challenges of correlating pH change with relief of clinical symptoms in gastro esophageal reflux disease: a phase III, randomized study of Zegerid versus Losec.

    PubMed

    Walker, Dave; Ng Kwet Shing, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Gruss, Hans-Jurgen; Reguła, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Zegerid (on demand immediate-release omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate combination therapy) has demonstrated earlier absorption and more rapid pH change compared with Losec (standard enteric coated omeprazole), suggesting more rapid clinical relief of heartburn. This Phase III, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study assessed the clinical superiority of Zegerid versus Losec for rapid relief of heartburn associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Patients with a history of frequent (2 3 days/week) uncomplicated GERD, were randomized to receive Zegerid (20 mg) or Losec (20 mg) with corresponding placebo. Study medication was self-administered on the first episode of heartburn, and could be taken for up to 3 days within a 14 day study period. Heartburn severity was self assessed up to 180 minutes post dose (9 point Likert scale). Primary endpoint was median time to sustained response (≥3 point reduction in heartburn severity for ≥45 minutes). Of patients randomized to Zegerid (N=122) or Losec (N=117), 228/239 had recorded ≥1 evaluable heartburn episodes and were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. No significant between-group differences were observed for median time to sustained response (60.0 vs. 52.2 minutes, Zegerid [N=117] and Losec [N=111], respectively), sustained partial response (both, 37.5 minutes) and sustained total relief (both, 105 minutes). Significantly more patients treated with Zegerid reached sustained total relief within 0-30 minutes post dose in all analysis sets (p<0.05). Both treatments were well tolerated and did not raise any safety concerns. Superiority of Zegerid over Losec for rapid heartburn relief was not demonstrated; both treatments were equally effective however the rapid onset of action of Losec was unexpected. Factors, including aspects of study design may have contributed to this. This study supports previously reported difficulty in correlating intra-gastric pH change with

  16. A practical approach for predicting retention time shifts due to pressure and temperature gradients in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Åsberg, Dennis; Chutkowski, Marcin; Leśko, Marek; Samuelsson, Jörgen; Kaczmarski, Krzysztof; Fornstedt, Torgny

    2017-01-06

    Large pressure gradients are generated in ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC) using sub-2μm particles causing significant temperature gradients over the column due to viscous heating. These pressure and temperature gradients affect retention and ultimately result in important selectivity shifts. In this study, we developed an approach for predicting the retention time shifts due to these gradients. The approach is presented as a step-by-step procedure and it is based on empirical linear relationships describing how retention varies as a function of temperature and pressure and how the average column temperature increases with the flow rate. It requires only four experiments on standard equipment, is based on straightforward calculations, and is therefore easy to use in method development. The approach was rigorously validated against experimental data obtained with a quality control method for the active pharmaceutical ingredient omeprazole. The accuracy of retention time predictions was very good with relative errors always less than 1% and in many cases around 0.5% (n=32). Selectivity shifts observed between omeprazole and the related impurities when changing the flow rate could also be accurately predicted resulting in good estimates of the resolution between critical peak pairs. The approximations which the presented approach are based on were all justified. The retention factor as a function of pressure and temperature was studied in an experimental design while the temperature distribution in the column was obtained by solving the fundamental heat and mass balance equations for the different experimental conditions. We strongly believe that this approach is sufficiently accurate and experimentally feasible for this separation to be a valuable tool when developing a UHPLC method. After further validation with other separation systems, it could become a useful approach in UHPLC method development, especially in the pharmaceutical industry where

  17. Challenges of Correlating pH Change with Relief of Clinical Symptoms in Gastro Esophageal Reflux Disease: A Phase III, Randomized Study of Zegerid versus Losec

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Dave; Ng Kwet Shing, Richard; Jones, Deborah; Gruss, Hans-Jurgen; Reguła, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Background Zegerid (on demand immediate-release omeprazole and sodium bicarbonate combination therapy) has demonstrated earlier absorption and more rapid pH change compared with Losec (standard enteric coated omeprazole), suggesting more rapid clinical relief of heartburn. This Phase III, multicenter, double-blind, double-dummy, randomized study assessed the clinical superiority of Zegerid versus Losec for rapid relief of heartburn associated with gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD). Methods Patients with a history of frequent (2 3 days/week) uncomplicated GERD, were randomized to receive Zegerid (20mg) or Losec (20mg) with corresponding placebo. Study medication was self-administered on the first episode of heartburn, and could be taken for up to 3 days within a 14 day study period. Heartburn severity was self assessed up to 180 minutes post dose (9 point Likert scale). Primary endpoint was median time to sustained response (≥3 point reduction in heartburn severity for ≥45 minutes). Results Of patients randomized to Zegerid (N=122) or Losec (N=117), 228/239 had recorded ≥1 evaluable heartburn episodes and were included in the modified intent-to-treat population. No significant between-group differences were observed for median time to sustained response (60.0 vs. 52.2 minutes, Zegerid [N=117] and Losec [N=111], respectively), sustained partial response (both, 37.5 minutes) and sustained total relief (both, 105 minutes). Significantly more patients treated with Zegerid reached sustained total relief within 0–30 minutes post dose in all analysis sets (p<0.05). Both treatments were well tolerated and did not raise any safety concerns. Conclusions Superiority of Zegerid over Losec for rapid heartburn relief was not demonstrated; both treatments were equally effective however the rapid onset of action of Losec was unexpected. Factors, including aspects of study design may have contributed to this. This study supports previously reported difficulty in

  18. Potentiation of the gastric antisecretory activity of histamine H2-receptor antagonists by clebopride.

    PubMed

    Fernández, A G; Massingham, R; Roberts, D J

    1988-05-01

    The substituted benzamide, clebopride, at doses (0.03-3 mg kg-1 i.p.) that were without effect per se on the secretion of gastric acid in pylorus ligated (Shay) rats, potentiated the antisecretory effects of the histamine H2 receptor antagonists cimetidine and ranitidine in this model but not those of the muscarine receptor antagonist pirenzepine nor those of the proton pump inhibitor omeprazole. By contrast, clebopride was without influence on the inhibitory effects of cimetidine on pentagastrin-induced secretion in perfused stomach (Ghosh and Schild) preparations in anaesthetized rats. The significance of these findings is discussed in relation to the previously described potentiating effects of clebopride on the anti-ulcer activity of cimetidine in various experimental models, and the potential beneficial effects of such combined therapy in the clinic.

  19. Study to Evaluate the Effect of Rifampicin, Ketoconazole, and Omeprazole on the Pharmacokinetics of Sativex

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-02-22

    Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics of Sativex in the Absence and Presence of a Known Inducer of CYP3A4; Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics of Sativex in the Absence and Presence of a Potent Inhibitor of CYP3A4; Evaluation of Pharmacokinetics of Sativex in the Absence and Presence of a CYP2C19 Inhibitor

  20. Osteogenic Activity of Locally Applied Small Molecule Drugs in a Rat Femur Defect Model

    PubMed Central

    Cottrell, Jessica A.; Vales, Francis M.; Schachter, Deborah; Wadsworth, Scott; Gundlapalli, Rama; Kapadia, Rasesh; O'Connor, J. Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The long-term success of arthroplastic joints is dependent on the stabilization of the implant within the skeletal site. Movement of the arthroplastic implant within the bone can stimulate osteolysis, and therefore methods which promote rigid fixation or bone growth are expected to enhance implant stability and the long-term success of joint arthroplasty. In the present study, we used a simple bilateral bone defect model to analyze the osteogenic activity of three small-molecule drug implants via microcomputerized tomography (micro-CT) and histomorphometry. In this study, we show that local delivery of alendronate, but not lovastatin or omeprazole, led to significant new bone formation at the defect site. Since alendronate impedes osteoclast-development, it is theorized that alendronate treatment results in a net increase in bone formation by preventing osteoclast mediated remodeling of the newly formed bone and upregulating osteoblasts. PMID:20625499

  1. Helicobacter pylori and gastric or duodenal ulcer.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    In patients with gastric or duodenal ulcer associated with Helicobacter pylori, treatment of the infection improves healing and prevents complications and recurrences. The drug regimen generally consists of a high-dose proton-pump inhibitor (PPI) such as omeprazole plus antibiotics. Using the standard Prescrire methodology, we conducted a review of the literature in order to determine the standard empirical antibiotic regimen for H. pylori infection in adults with gastric or duodenal ulcer in France. In 2015, due to an increase in H. pylori resistance to clarithromycin, a 7-day course of the PPI + clarithromycin + amoxicillin combination is effective in only about 70% of cases. A Cochrane systematic review and meta-analysis of trials involving thousands of patients suggests that prolonging treatment with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin or a PPI + amoxicillin + metronidazole to 10 or 14 days improves the rate of H. pylori eradication by 5% to 10%. A metanalysis of seven trials including a total of about 1000 patients showed that combination therapy with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days eradicates H. pylori in about 90% of cases, compared to about 80% of cases with a PPI + amoxicillin + clarithromycin given for 7 days. Sequential treatment with amoxicillin for 5 days, followed by clarithromycin + metronidazole for 5 days, has also been tested in thousands of patients. Efficacy and adverse effects were similar to those observed when the same antibiotics were taken simultaneously for 5 days. In randomised trials, replacing clarithromycin or amoxicillin with a fluoroquinolone yielded conflicting results. In 2009, nearly 20% of H. pylori isolates were resistant to levofloxacin in France. Tetracycline has only been evaluated in combination with bismuth. The few available data on doxycycline suggest that its efficacy is similar to that of tetracycline. A fixed-dose combination of bismuth subcitrate potassium + metronidazole

  2. Exploring pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting brand changes.

    PubMed

    Babar, Z U; Polwin, A; Kan, S W; Amerasinghe, N; McCarthy, S; Rasheed, F; Stewart, J; Lessing, C; Ragupathy, R; Scahill, S L

    2015-01-01

    In New Zealand, the use of generic medicines is advocated by the Pharmaceutical Management Agency of New Zealand (PHARMAC). Among other interventions, PHARMAC uses educational awareness campaigns to educate pharmacists to promote the uptake of generic medicines. However, the opinion of pharmacists regarding these interventions has not yet been evaluated. The objective of this study was to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding PHARMAC's interventions in promoting medicine brand changes. A cross-sectional study design was employed to explore pharmacists' opinions regarding brand changes. A questionnaire was sent to 500 randomly selected pharmacists in New Zealand. In second component of the study, five community pharmacies in the Auckland region were selected through convenience sampling, and a semi-structured interview was conducted with a pharmacist in each site. One-hundred and eighty seven questionnaires were returned and analyzed (response rate of 37.4%). Sixty-eight percent of pharmacists supported brand changes and 98.4% mentioned that PHARMAC is responsible for informing them of brand changes. Over half (51.3%) of pharmacists found the current interventions effective, and 39.6% were satisfied with the current brand change information provided by PHARMAC. The majority (94.7%) of pharmacists currently receive faxed information but many indicated (70.8%) that they prefer email notifications. Cilazapril was considered the least difficult medicine to substitute in the past 10 years and omeprazole the most difficult. Patient acceptance and claims about effectiveness were the main factors in determining the difficulty of brand substitution. Fewer than half of the respondents felt that interventions were implemented with enough preparation time for a brand change. The ideal lead-in time was in the range of three to six months. Pharmacists expressed a number of concerns about brand changes such as the frequency at which they occur and the lack of generic stock

  3. ANTISECRETORY TREATMENT FOR PEDIATRIC GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE - A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW.

    PubMed

    Mattos, Ângelo Zambam de; Marchese, Gabriela Meirelles; Fonseca, Bárbara Brum; Kupski, Carlos; Machado, Marta Brenner

    2017-12-01

    Proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists are two of the most commonly prescribed drug classes for pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease, but their efficacy is controversial. Many patients are treated with these drugs for atypical manifestations attributed to gastroesophageal reflux, even that causal relation is not proven. To evaluate the use of proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists in pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease through a systematic review. A systematic review was performed, using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials databases. The search was limited to studies published in English, Portuguese or Spanish. There was no limitation regarding date of publication. Studies were considered eligible if they were randomized-controlled trials, evaluating proton pump inhibitors and/or histamine H2 receptor antagonists for the treatment of pediatric gastroesophageal reflux disease. Studies published only as abstracts, studies evaluating only non-clinical outcomes and studies exclusively comparing different doses of the same drug were excluded. Data extraction was performed by independent investigators. The study protocol was registered at PROSPERO platform (CRD42016040156). After analyzing 735 retrieved references, 23 studies (1598 randomized patients) were included in the systematic review. Eight studies demonstrated that both proton pump inhibitors and histamine H2 receptor antagonists were effective against typical manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease, and that there was no evidence of benefit in combining the latter to the former or in routinely prescribing long-term maintenance treatments. Three studies evaluated the effect of treatments on children with asthma, and neither proton pump inhibitors nor histamine H2 receptor antagonists proved to be significantly better than placebo. One study compared different combinations of omeprazole, bethanechol and placebo for the

  4. The gastro protective effects of Cibotium barometz hair on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Wajeeh, Nahla Saeed; Hajerezaie, Maryam; Noor, Suzita Mohd; Halabi, Mohammed Farouq; Al-Henhena, Nawal; Azizan, Ainnul Hamidah Syahadah; Kamran, Sareh; Hassandarvish, Pouya; Shwter, Abdrabuh N; Karimian, Hamed; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2017-01-19

    Cibotium barometz is a medical herb used traditionally in the Malaysian peninsula for several ailments, including gastric ulcer. The aim of this study was assessment the anti-ulcer effects of C. barometz hair on ethanol-induced stomach hemorrhagic abrasions in animals. Seven groups of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were administered 10% Tween 20 in the normal control and ulcer control groups, and omeprazole 20 mg/kg and 62.5, 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg of C. barometz hair extract in the experimental groups. After 60 min, the normal control group of rats was orally administered 10% Tween 20, while absolute ethanol was orally administered to the groups of ulcer control, omeprazole and experimental groups. Stomachs of the rats were examined macroscopically and histologically. Homogenates of stomachs were used to evaluate endogenous antioxidant enzyme activities. Rats pre-fed with plant extract presented a significant decrease in the sore area, increased pH of gastric contents and preserved stomach wall mucus compared to the ulcer group. Histologically, rats pre-fed with C. barometz hair extract showed mild to moderate disruptions of the surface epithelium while animals pre-fed with absolute ethanol showed severe disruptions of the stomach epithelium with edema and leucocyte penetration of the submucosal layer. A Periodic acid Schiff (PAS) staining revealed that each rat pre-treated with the plant extract displayed an intense uptake of stomach epithelial glycoprotein magenta color compared to the ulcer control group. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that rats pre-fed with the plant extract showed an up-regulation of the heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and down-regulation of Bax proteins compared to ulcer control rats. Homogenates of the stomach tissue demonstrated significant increases in the endogenous antioxidant enzymatic activity and decreased lipid peroxidation (MDA) in rats pre-treated with C. barometz hair extract compared with the ulcer control rats. In acute

  5. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions.

  6. Emerging organic contaminants in coastal waters: anthropogenic impact, environmental release and ecological risk.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jheng-Jie; Lee, Chon-Lin; Fang, Meng-Der

    2014-08-30

    This study provides a first estimate of the sources, distribution, and risk presented by emerging organic contaminants (EOCs) in coastal waters off southwestern Taiwan. Ten illicit drugs, seven nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), five antibiotics, two blood lipid regulators, two antiepileptic drugs, two UV filters, caffeine, atenolol, and omeprazole were analyzed by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS). Thirteen EOCs were detected in coastal waters, including four NSAIDs (acetaminophen, ibuprofen, ketoprofen, and codeine), three antibiotics (ampicillin, erythromycin, and cefalexin), three illicit drugs (ketamine, pseudoephedrine, and MDMA), caffeine, carbamazepine, and gemfibrozil. The median concentrations for the 13 EOCs ranged from 1.47 ng/L to 156 ng/L. Spatial variation in concentration of the 13 EOCs suggests discharge into coastal waters via ocean outfall pipes and rivers. Codeine and ampicillin have significant pollution risk quotients (RQ>1), indicating potentially high risk to aquatic organisms in coastal waters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor (AhR) as a Drug Target for Cancer Chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Safe, Stephen; Cheng, Yating; Jin, Un-Ho

    2017-02-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is overexpressed in some patients with different tumor types, and the receptor can be a negative or positive prognostic factor. There is also evidence from both in vivo and in vitro cell culture models that the AhR can exhibit tumor-specific pro-oncogenic and tumor suppressor-like functions and therefore can be treated with AhR antagonists or agonists, respectively. Successful clinical applications of AhR ligands will require the synthesis and development of selective AhR modulators (SAhRMs) with tumor-specific AhR agonist or antagonist activity, and some currently available compounds such as indole-3-carbinol and diindolylmethane-(DIM) and synthetic AhR antagonists are potential drug candidates. There is also evidence that some AhR-active pharmaceuticals, including tranilast, flutamide, hydroxytamoxifen and omeprazole or their derivatives, may be effective AhR-dependent anticancer agents for single or combination cancer chemotherapies for treatment of breast and pancreatic cancers.

  8. Inhibition of partially purified K+/H+-ATPase from guinea-pig isolated and enriched parietal cells by substituted benzimidazoles.

    PubMed Central

    Beil, W.; Sewing, K. F.

    1984-01-01

    The cellular and subcellular distributions of adenosinetriphosphatases (ATPases) were examined in guinea-pig gastric mucosal cells. All cell types displayed Mg2+-ATPase and bicarbonate (HCO3-)-stimulated ATPase activity. K+-ATPase was located only in fractions derived from parietal cells. Differential and density-gradient centrifugation of material prepared from parietal cells revealed that K+-ATPase activity was located in a tubulo-vesicular membrane fraction. Enzyme activity was ten fold greater in this fraction than in a crude parietal cell homogenate. The substituted benzimidazoles, omeprazole and picoprazole, inhibited K+-ATPase (IC50 1.8 +/- 0.5 mumol l-1 and 3.1 +/- 0.4 mumol l-1, respectively). Detailed kinetic analysis indicated that these compounds were non-competitive and reversible inhibitors of the enzyme. In contrast cimetidine and verapamil were without effect on the enzyme. The relevance of the inhibition of K+-ATPase to the antisecretory activity of the benzimidazoles, in experimental animals and man, is discussed. PMID:6146367

  9. Beyond gastric acid reduction: Proton pump inhibitors induce heme oxygenase-1 in gastric and endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Becker, Jan C.; Grosser, Nina; Waltke, Christian

    2006-07-07

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been demonstrated to prevent gastric mucosal injury by mechanisms independent of acid inhibition. Here we demonstrate that both omeprazole and lansoprazole protect human gastric epithelial and endothelial cells against oxidative stress. This effect was abrogated in the presence of the heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) inhibitor ZnBG. Exposure to either PPI resulted in a strong induction of HO-1 expression on mRNA and protein level, and led to an increased activity of this enzyme. Expression of cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 remained unaffected, and COX-inhibitors did not antagonize HO-1 induction by PPIs. Our results suggest that the antioxidantmore » defense protein HO-1 is a target of PPIs in both endothelial and gastric epithelial cells. HO-1 induction might account for the gastroprotective effects of PPIs independently of acid inhibition, especially in NSAID gastropathy. Moreover, our findings provide additional perspectives for a possible but yet unexplored use of PPIs in vasoprotection.« less

  10. Motility abnormalities in esophageal body in GERD: are they truly related to reflux?

    PubMed

    Ciriza de los Ríos, C; García Menéndez, L; Díez Hernández, A; Fernández Eroles, A L; Vega Fernández, A; Enguix Armada, A

    2005-03-01

    Esophageal motility abnormalities have been observed in patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease. The aim of the present study was to determine if esophageal motor disorders in patients with a positive response to the omeprazole test are related to the existence of reflux or they are concomitant findings. A 24-hour pH monitoring and a stationary manometry were performed on 128 patients: 49 of them had normal manometry, 31 hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter, 29 motor disorder in esophageal body, and 19 hypotensive lower esophageal sphincter and motor disorder in esophageal body. We found an association between the presence of abnormal reflux and motor disorder in esophageal body (chi test; P < 0.05). However, ineffective esophageal motility was the disorder most strongly related to reflux, whereas the hypercontractile disorders were not clearly attributed to it. Esophageal manometric abnormalities should be considered cautiously before considering a motor disorder as a consequence of abnormal reflux.

  11. Extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction as a result of involuntary transcavitary implantation of hair in a cat

    PubMed Central

    Linton, Michael; Buffa, Eugene; Simon, Adrian; Ashton, Julie; McGregor, Ross; Foster, Darren J

    2015-01-01

    Case summary A 4-year-old male neutered domestic shorthair cat was referred for investigation of jaundice. The cat had a recent history of a skin laceration repair following trauma. Sequential serum biochemistry demonstrated increasing plasma bilirubin concentrations; abdominal ultrasonography revealed ongoing pancreatitis and apparent extrahepatic obstruction of the common bile duct. Exploratory laparotomy identified constriction of the common bile duct with foreign material (cat hair). The constricting band of hair was removed surgically; cholecystoduodenostomy was performed. Postsurgical quality of life is excellent with chronic treatment of tylosin, omeprazole and ursodeoxycholic acid. Relevance and novel information To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of extrahepatic biliary duct obstruction resulting from the intra-abdominal migration of a foreign body, in this case, hair shafts. The mechanism by which this occurred was likely a combination of physical constriction by the hair shafts and subsequent foreign body reaction surrounding this. This should be included in the differential diagnosis of a cat with jaundice. PMID:28491390

  12. A Novel Action of the Proton Pump Inhibitor Rabeprazole and Its Thioether Derivative against the Motility of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsui, Nanako; Taneike, Ikue; Ohara, Tatsuki; Goshi, Satoshi; Kojio, Seiichi; Iwakura, Nobuhiro; Matsumaru, Hiroyuki; Wakisaka-Saito, Noriko; Zhang, Hui-Min; Yamamoto, Tatsuo

    2000-01-01

    The motility of Helicobacter pylori was maximum at 37°C and at pH 6. A newly developed proton pump inhibitor, rabeprazole (RPZ), and its thioether derivative (RPZ-TH) markedly inhibited the motility of H. pylori. The concentrations of the drug necessary to inhibit 50% of the motility were 0.25, 16, 16, and >64 μg/ml for RPZ-TH, RPZ, lansoprazole, and omeprazole, respectively. No such inhibitory effects were observed with H2 blockers or anti-H. pylori agents. The motilities of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli—but not those of Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139, Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium, and Proteus mirabilis—were also inhibited. Prolonged incubation with RPZ or RPZ-TH inhibited bacterial growth of only H. pylori, except for a turbid colony mutant. The results indicate that RPZ and RPZ-TH have a characteristic inhibitory effect against the motility of H. pylori (spiral-shaped bacteria), which is distinguished from that against bacterial growth. PMID:11036024

  13. Hypersensitivity reaction to mizolastine: study of cross reactions.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo-Garijo, M A; Jiménez-Ferrera, G; Bobadilla-González, P; Cordobés-Durán, C

    2006-01-01

    A 26-year-old male suffering from acute rhinitis took the first dose of Zolistan (mizolastine, 10 mg), orally, and 15 minutes later he developed intense generalized pruritus, cutaneous rash, oropharyngeal pruritus, edema on his face, difficulty in swallowing, and mild dyspnea. He was treated with methylprednisolone and epinephrine and improved within 30 minutes. The patient had not taken mizolastine before and he has avoided it since the reaction. Cutaneous tests with Zolistan and its excipients proved negative. Simple-blind oral challenge tests with the excipients and then with Zolistan were positive only with Zolistan. In order to confirm the absence of cross-reactivity between mizolastine and other benzimidazoles, we tested omeprazole, domperidone and mebendazole, all of which yielded negative results. To our knowledge, this is the second case of immediate hypersensitivity to mizolastine documented to date. In our case, the clinical history, physical examination and provocation tests allow us to establish the diagnosis of hypersensitivity to mizolastine and exclude the cross reactivity with other benzimidazole derivatives.

  14. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: A review

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-01-01

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects. PMID:25493014

  15. Fluoxetine and norfluoxetine mediated complex drug-drug interactions: in vitro to in vivo correlation of effects on CYP2D6, CYP2C19 and CYP3A4

    PubMed Central

    Sager, Jennifer E; Lutz, Justin D; Foti, Robert S; Davis, Connie; Kunze, Kent L; Isoherranen, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Fluoxetine and its circulating metabolite norfluoxetine present a complex multiple inhibitor system that causes reversible or time-dependent inhibition of CYP2D6, CYP3A4, and CYP2C19 in vitro. While significant inhibition of all three enzymes in vivo is predicted, midazolam and lovastatin AUCs were unaffected by two week dosing of fluoxetine whereas dextromethorphan AUC was increased by 27-fold and omeprazole AUC by 7.1-fold. This observed discrepancy between in vitro risk assessment and in vivo DDI profile was rationalized by time-varying dynamic pharmacokinetic models that incorporated circulating concentrations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine enantiomers, mutual inhibitor-inhibitor interactions and CYP3A4 induction. The dynamic models predicted all DDIs with less than 2-fold error. This study demonstrates that complex drug-drug interactions that involve multiple mechanisms, pathways and inhibitors with their metabolites can be predicted and rationalized via characterization of all the inhibitory species in vitro. PMID:24569517

  16. Efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer: a review.

    PubMed

    Bi, Wei-Ping; Man, Hui-Bin; Man, Mao-Qiang

    2014-12-07

    Gastric ulcer is a common disorder of the digestive system. Current therapeutic regimens largely rely on Western medicine. However, numerous studies have demonstrated that herbal medicines can effectively treat gastric ulcer in humans and various animal models via divergent mechanisms. This review updates the efficacy and safety of herbal medicines in treating gastric ulcer, and the mechanisms of their action in humans and animal models. Studies have demonstrated that the efficacy of herbal medicines is comparable or superior to that of drugs such as omeprazole or cimetidine in humans and animal models, and herbal medicines display fewer adverse effects. The mechanisms by which herbal medicines benefit gastric ulcer include stimulation of mucous cell proliferation, anti-oxidation, and inhibition of gastric acid secretion and H(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity. Some herbal medicines also exhibit antimicrobial properties. Utilization of herbal medicines could be a valuable alternative to treat gastric ulcer in humans effectively, with few adverse effects.

  17. Identification of a dicaffeoylquinic acid isomer from Arctium lappa with a potent anti-ulcer activity.

    PubMed

    Carlotto, Juliane; da Silva, Luisa M; Dartora, Nessana; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; Sabry, Diego de A; Filho, Arquimedes P S; de Paula Werner, Maria F; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello; Cipriani, Thales R; de Souza, Lauro M

    2015-04-01

    Leaves of Arctium lappa contain several mono- and dicaffeoylquinic acids, as evaluated by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to investigate the protection on gastric mucosa against ulcers, rats were treated with fractions from leaf extract prior to ethanol-induced ulcers. The original fraction obtained as ethanol soluble fraction from hot aqueous extract was able to protect de gastric mucosa, and this effect was retained in the ethyl acetate fraction, obtained from liquid/liquid fractionation. The main compound in this fraction was isolated and chemically characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectrometry, assisted by isopropylidene derivatization which gave rise a mass increment of 40 units. Therefore, the underivatized compound that had m/z 515.119 [M-H](-) was shifted to m/z 555.151, being confirmed as 1,3-O-dicaffeoylquinic acid, which presented an ED50 of 57 µg kg(-1) on gastric protection, lesser than the therapeutic concentration of omeprazole (40 mg kg(-1)). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. First-line eradication rates comparing two shortened non-bismuth quadruple regimens against Helicobacter pylori: an open-label, randomized, multicentre clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Lavín, Antonio; Salcines-Caviedes, J Ramón; Diaz-Perez, Ainhoa; Carrascosa, Miguel F; Ochagavía, María; Fernandez-Forcelledo, José Luis; Cobo, Marta; Fernández-Gil, Pedro; Ayestarán, Blanca; Sánchez, Blanca; Campo, Cristina; Llorca, Javier; Lorenzo, Silvia; Illaro, Aitziber

    2015-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori eradication remains a challenge. Non-bismuth-based quadruple regimens (NBQR) have shown high eradication rates (ER) elsewhere that need to be locally confirmed. The objective of this study was to compare the first-line ER of a hybrid therapy (20 mg of omeprazole twice daily and 1 g of amoxicillin twice daily for 10 days, adding 500 mg of clarithromycin twice daily and 500 mg of metronidazole every 8 h for the last 5 days; OA-OACM) with that of a 10 day concomitant regimen consisting of taking all four drugs twice daily every day (including 500 mg of metronidazole every 12 h; OACM). A 10 day arm with standard triple therapy (OAC; 20 mg of omeprazole/12 h, 1 g of amoxicillin/12 h and 500 mg of clarithromycin/12 h) was included. Three hundred consecutive patients were randomized (1: 2: 2) into one of the three following regimens: (i) OAC (60); (ii) OA-OACM (120); and (iii) OACM (120). Eradication was generally confirmed by a [(13)C]urea breath test at least 4 weeks after the end of treatment. Adverse events and compliance were assessed. EudraCT: 2011-006258-99. ITT cure rates were: OAC, 70.0% (42/60) (95% CI: 58.3-81.7); OA-OACM, 90.8% (109/120) (95% CI: 85.6-96.0); and OACM, 90.0% (107/119) (95% CI: 84.6-95.4). PP rates were: OAC, 72.4% (42/58) (95% CI: 60.8-84.1); OA-OACM, 93.9% (108/115) (95% CI: 89.5-98.3); and OACM, 90.3% (102/113) (95% CI: 84.8-95.8). Both NBQR significantly improved ER compared with OAC (P < 0.01), but no differences were seen between them. Mean compliance was elevated [98.0% (SD = 9.8)] with no differences between groups. There were more adverse events in the quadruple arms (OACM, 65.8%; OA-OACM, 68.6%; OAC, 46.6%; P < 0.05), but no significant differences between groups in terms of severity were seen. Hybrid and concomitant regimens show good ER against H. pylori infection with an acceptable safety profile. They clearly displace OAC as first-line regimen in our area. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  19. Meta-analyses: does long-term PPI use increase the risk of gastric premalignant lesions?

    PubMed

    Eslami, Layli; Nasseri-Moghaddam, Siavosh

    2013-08-01

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are the most effective agents available for reducing acid secretion. They are used for medical treatment of various acid-related disorders. PPIs are used extensively and for extended periods of time in gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). A troublesome issue regarding maintenance therapy has been the propensity of PPI-treated patients to develop chronic atrophic gastritis while on therapy that could theoretically lead to an increased incidence of gastric cancer. In addition, animal studies have raised concern for development of enterochromaffin-like cell hyperplasia and carcinoid tumors in the stomachs of mice receiving high dose PPIs. Current literature does not provide a clear-cut conclusion on the subject and the reports are sometimes contradictory. Therefore, this study is a systematic review of the available literature to address the safety of long-term PPI use and its relation to the development of malignant/premalignant gastric lesions. A literature search of biomedical databases was performed. The reference lists of retrieved articles were reviewed to further identify relevant trials. We hand-searched the abstracts of the American Digestive Disease Week (DDW) and the United European Gastroenterology Week (UEGW) from 1995 to 2013. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that used PPIs as the primary treatment for at least six month versus no treatment, placebo, antacid or anti-reflux surgery (ARS) were included. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Discrepancies in the interpretation were resolved by consensus. All analyses of outcomes were based on the intention-to-treat principle. We performed statistical analysis using Review Manager software. The effect measure of choice was relative risk (RR) for dichotomous data. Six RCTs with a total of 785 patients met the inclusion criteria. Two multicenter RCTs compared Esomeprazole with placebo. One RCT compared omeprazole with ARS. Two RCTs compared omeprazole with

  20. Prevalence of gastro-esophageal reflux disease in patients with difficult to control asthma and effect of proton pump inhibitor therapy on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and requirement for asthma medications.

    PubMed

    Sandur, V; Murugesh, M; Banait, V; Rathi, P M; Bhatia, S J; Joshi, J M; Kate, A

    2014-01-01

    The hypothesis that GER can trigger or exacerbate asthma is supported by several clinical trials that have shown amelioration in asthma symptoms and/or an improvement in pulmonary function after antireflux therapy. To investigate the prevalence of GER in patients with difficult to control asthma and to determine the effect of omeprazole on asthma symptoms, reflux symptoms, pulmonary function and on the requirement of asthma medications. Patients with difficult to control asthma were recruited into the study. All patients underwent esophageal manometry and 24 hour esophageal pH monitoring. Pulmonary function tests were done before and after treatment. The severity of asthma and reflux was assessed by a 1 week pulmonary symptom score(PSS) and reflux symptom score(RSS) respectively before and after treatment. Those who had an abnormal pH study (pH <4 in the distal esophagus for >5% of the time) underwent anti-GER treatment with lifestyle changes, and a proton pump inhibitor (omeprazole 40 mg, bid) for 3 months. Asthma medications were added or deleted based on severity of asthma. Out of 250 asthmatic patients screened, forty patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Twenty eight of 40 patients(70%) were diagnosed to have GERD. Of the patients 28 with GER, 8 patients(28.5%) had no reflux symptoms. On 24 hr pH metry, the percentage time pH <4.0 was 10.81 ± 4.72 and 1.11 ± 1.21; Deemester score was 37.65 ± 14.54 and 4.89 ± 6.39 (p-value is 0.0001) in GERD and non-GERD patients respectively.In GERD group, post treatment reflux symptom score(RSS) improved from 22.39 ± 14.99 to 1.04 ± 1.07, pulmonary symptom score(PSS) improved from 27.14 ± 7.49 to 13.82 ± 4.21 and night time asthma symptom score(NASS) improved from 6.71 ± 1.80 to 3.04 ± 1.23 (p-value <0.0001). After treatment, FEV1 and PEFR increased from 1.38 ± 0.57 and 4.14 ± 1.97 to 1.47 ± 0.54 and 5.56 ± 1.72, respectively (p-value 0.00114). PPI therapy improves nocturnal asthma symptoms, daytime asthma

  1. Influence of the urine flow rate on some caffeine metabolite ratios used to assess CYP1A2 activity.

    PubMed

    Sinués, Blanca; Fanlo, Ana; Bernal, María Luisa; Mayayo, Esteban; Soriano, María Antonia; Martínez-Ballarin, Enrique

    2002-12-01

    Five established metabolite ratios (MRs) to measure P450 CYP1A2 activity--MR1 (17X + 17U)/137X, MR2 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17U, MR3 (17X/137X), MR4 (AFMU + 1X + 1U + 17X + 17U)/137X, and MR5 (AFMU + 1X + 1U)/17X--were calculated in urine 4-5 hours after caffeine intake. First, to assess the potential of omeprazole to induce CYP1A2 activity, a caffeine test was performed in 27 subjects on two occasions: before and after 14 days on omeprazole (20 mg/day). Samples of urine were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to quantify caffeine and metabolites used to calculate the different caffeine MRs. MR1, MR3, and MR4 were enhanced after treatment; the percentage of change was inversely associated with that of the urine flow, with r values of -0.48, -0.49, and -0.47, respectively. However, MR2 or MR5 were not modified. To determine the reason for these contradictory results, the authors analyzed data of metabolites, ratios, and their components (numerators and denominators) from 152 subjects (who underwent one caffeine test) and their relationship with the urinary flow. Caffeine concentration in urine was the only compound nondependent on the urine flow. Consistently, ratios containing caffeine (MR1, MR3, and MR4) were highly influenced by the rate of urine excretion, since the flow dependence of their numerators is not canceled out by that of caffeine in their denominators. The dependency of the caffeine excretion on renal factors may explain the opposite results found with the different ratios in the aforementioned prospective study of drug interaction, the absence of closer correlations of the five MRs to each other, the discrepancies about the type of frequency distribution of the different MRs (either normal or multimodal), and the higher sensitivity of MR2 to detect gender differences in CYP1A2 activity found in this study. In summary, the data clearly emphasize the need for a strict control of the liquid intake to avoid high urine flows when MRs

  2. Effect of esomeprazole and rabeprazole on intragastric pH in healthy Chinese: an open, randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhao-Shen; Zhan, Xian-Bao; Xu, Guo-Ming; Cheng, Neng-Neng; Liao, Zhuan

    2007-06-01

    Esomeprazole is the S-isomer of omeprazole, with a stronger acid suppressive effect than omeprazole. This open, randomized crossover study was designed to evaluate the effect of esomeprazole and another proton-pump inhibitor, rabeprazole, on intragastric pH in healthy Chinese. Thirty-six healthy volunteers (26 men and 10 women, aged between 20 and 31 years) were enrolled. Subjects were given either esomeprazole 40 mg (n = 18) or rabeprazole 10 mg (n = 18) orally once daily for 5 days during the first dosing period, then the other medicine at the set dosage for the second dosing period. The two periods were separated by a 14-day washout phase. The doses were chosen according to the State Food and Drug Administration of China for the treatment of acid-related diseases. Intragastric pH was continuously monitored for 24 h on days 1 and 5 of each dosing period. CYP2C19 genotypes were analyzed to identify the extensive metabolizers (EM) and poor metabolizers (PM). The percentage of time with intragastric pH >4 was significantly higher (P < 0.001) in subjects receiving esomeprazole than in those receiving rabeprazole in the first 4 h after administration of the first dose (70.65% vs 44.87%), at 24 h on day 1 (73.7% vs 54.8%) and at 24 h on day 5 (84.2% vs 76.2%). The median intragastric pH was also higher in subjects receiving esomeprazole than in those receiving rabeprazole in the first 6 h, day 1 and day 5 (P 4 for at least 16 h on day 1 (63.9% vs 33.3%) and on day 5 (88.9% vs 61.1%) was higher after administration of esomeprazole than after rabeprazole (both P < 0.05). On genotype analysis, 28 of the subjects were EM and eight were PM. Those who were PM tended to have a higher, albeit not statistically significant, percentage of time with intragastric pH >4 and the median 24-h intragastric pH than those who were EM. Both drugs were well tolerated. Esomeprazole 40 mg orally once daily is more effective and

  3. Aspirin and omeprazole for secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease in patients at risk for aspirin-associated gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    García-Rayado, Guillermo; Sostres, Carlos; Lanas, Angel

    2017-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the most important cause of morbidity and mortality in the world and low-dose aspirin is considered the cornerstone of the cardiovascular disease prevention. However, low-dose aspirin use is associated with gastrointestinal adverse effects in the whole gastrointestinal tract. In this setting, co-therapy with a proton pump inhibitor is the most accepted strategy to reduce aspirin related upper gastrointestinal damage. In addition, some adverse effects have been described with proton pump inhibitors long term use. Areas covered: Low-dose aspirin related beneficial and adverse effects in cardiovascular system and gastrointestinal tract are reviewed. In addition, this manuscript summarizes current data on upper gastrointestinal damage prevention and adverse events with proton pump inhibition. Finally, we discuss the benefit/risk ratio of proton pump inhibitor use in patients at risk of gastrointestinal damage taking low-dose aspirin. Expert commentary: Nowadays, with the current available evidence, the combination of low-dose aspirin with proton pump inhibitor is the most effective therapy for cardiovascular prevention in patients at high gastrointestinal risk. However, further studies are needed to discover new effective strategies with less related adverse events.

  4. Interaction of Constitutive Nitric Oxide Synthases with Cyclooxygenases in Regulation of Bicarbonate Secretion in the Gastric Mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zolotarev, V A; Andreeva, Yu V; Vershinina, E; Khropycheva, R P

    2017-05-01

    Neuronal NO synthase blocker 7-nitroindazole suppressed bicarbonate secretion in rat gastric mucosa induced by mild local irritation with 1 M NaCl (pH 2.0). Non-selective blocker of neuronal and endothelial synthases, Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA), did not affect HCO 3 - production, but inhibited secretion after pretreatment with omeprazole. Non-selective cyclooxygenase blocker indomethacin inhibited HCO 3 - production under conditions of normal synthase activity and in the presence of L-NNA, but was ineffective when co-administered with 7-nitroindazole. It was concluded that neuronal and endothelial synthases are involved in different mechanisms of regulation of HCO 3 - secretion in the gastric mucosa induced by mild irritation. Activation of neuronal synthase stimulated HCO 3 - production, which is mediated mainly through activation of cyclooxygenase. Theoretically, activation of endothelial synthase should suppress HCO 3 - production. The effect of endothelial synthase depends on acid secretion in the stomach and bicarbonate concentration in the submucosa, as it was demonstrated in experiments with intravenous NaHCO 3 infusion.

  5. Barrett's esophagus: photodynamic therapy for ablation of dysplasia, reduction of specialized mucosa and treatment of superficial esophageal cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overholt, Bergein F.; Panjehpour, Masoud

    1995-03-01

    Fifteen patients with Barrett's esophagus and dysplasia were treated with photodynamic therapy. Four patients also had early, superficial esophageal cancers and 5 had esophageal polyps. Light was delivered via a standard diffuser or a centering esophageal balloon. Eight patients maintained on omeprazole and followed for 6 - 54 months are the subject of this report. Photodynamic therapy ablated dysplastic or malignant mucosa in patients with superficial cancer. Healing and partial replacement of Barrett's mucosa with normal squamous epithelium occurred in all patients and complete replacement with squamous epithelium was found in two. Side effects included photosensitivity and mild-moderate chest pain and dysphagia for 5 - 7 days. In three patients with extensive circumferential mucosal ablation in the proximal esophagus, healing was associated with esophageal strictures which were treated successfully by esophageal dilation. Strictures were not found in the distal esophagus. Photodynamic therapy combined with long-term acid inhibition provides effective endoscopic therapy of Barrett's mucosal dysplasia and superficial (Tis-T1) esophageal cancer. The windowed centering balloon improves delivery of photodynamic therapy to diffusely abnormal esophageal mucosa.

  6. Ulcerative colitis with acute pleurisy

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shuming; Wang, Lihua; Zhang, Weisheng; Zhang, Zhuqing; Liu, Lina; Wang, Yingde; Meng, Hua

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), including ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease, are associated with a large number of extraintestinal manifestations. Pulmonary manifestations are infrequently seen in patients with IBD. Moreover, serositis including pleural and pericardial manifestations in UC is rare. Patient concerns: We report a case of UC with acute pleurisy in a 43-year-old man; review literature; and discuss the diagnosis, differential diagnosis, and treatment. Diagnoses: Active duodenal ulcer was found using gastroscopy. Multiple ulcers in segmented pattern were noticed in the left hemi-colon using colonoscopy. An UC in active stage was confirmed subsequently by histology. Intervention: The patient was treated with bifidobacterium tetravaccine tablets, oral mesalazine and mesalazine enemas. The omeprazole and mucosal protective agents were given to treat the duodenal ulcer. Outcomes: As follow-up, the therapy including oral mesalazine and infliximab regularly was continued and the patient condition was stabilized. Main lesson: Pulmonary involvement should be considered in patients who develop pleurisy in UC. Infliximab is considered the better available treatment for patients presenting with pleurisy in UC. PMID:28746225

  7. A rapid Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic method for analysis of certain proton pump inhibitors in binary and ternary mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khashaba, Pakinaz Y.; Ali, Hassan Refat H.; El-Wekil, Mohamed M.

    2018-02-01

    A simple and non-destructive FTIR method was used to determine certain proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) in binary and ternary mixtures. Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs); omeprazole (OMZ), esomeprazole (EZM), lansoprazole (LAN), pantoprazole sodium (PAN sodium) and rabeprazole sodium (RAB sodium) in binary mixture with domperidone (DOM) and ternary mixture of OMZ, clarithromycin (CLM) and tinidazole (TNZ) were determined in the solid-state by FTIR spectroscopy for the first time. The method was validated according to ICH-guidelines where linearity was ranged from 20 to 850 μg/g and 20-360 μg/g for PPIs and DOM, respectively in binary mixtures and 10-400, 100-8000 and 150-14,000 μg/g for OMZ, CLM and TNZ, respectively. Limits of detection were found to be 6-100 and 9-100 μg/g for PPIs and DOM, respectively and 4, 40 and 50 μg/g for OMZ, CLM and TNZ, respectively. The method was applied successfully for determination of the cited drugs in their respective pharmaceutical dosage forms.

  8. Sample size calculation in economic evaluations.

    PubMed

    Al, M J; van Hout, B A; Michel, B C; Rutten, F F

    1998-06-01

    A simulation method is presented for sample size calculation in economic evaluations. As input the method requires: the expected difference and variance of costs and effects, their correlation, the significance level (alpha) and the power of the testing method and the maximum acceptable ratio of incremental effectiveness to incremental costs. The method is illustrated with data from two trials. The first compares primary coronary angioplasty with streptokinase in the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, in the second trial, lansoprazole is compared with omeprazole in the treatment of reflux oesophagitis. These case studies show how the various parameters influence the sample size. Given the large number of parameters that have to be specified in advance, the lack of knowledge about costs and their standard deviation, and the difficulty of specifying the maximum acceptable ratio of incremental effectiveness to incremental costs, the conclusion of the study is that from a technical point of view it is possible to perform a sample size calculation for an economic evaluation, but one should wonder how useful it is.

  9. Anti-inflammatory, Analgesic and Antiulcer properties of Porphyra vietnamensis

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Saurabh; Sharma, Kiran; Sharma, Ajay; Nagpal, Kalpana; Bera, Tanmoy

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Aim of the present work was to investigate the anti-inflammatory, analgesic and antiulcer effects of red seaweed Porphyra vietnamensis (P. vietnamenis). Materials and Methods: Aqueous (POR) and alcoholic (PE) fractions were successfully isolated from P. vietnamenis. Further biological investigations were performed using a classic test of paw edema induced by carrageenan, writhing induced by acetic acid, hot plate method and naproxen induced gastro-duodenal ulcer. Results: Among the fractions POR showed better activity. POR and PE significantly (p < 0.05) reduced carrageenan induced paw edema in a dose dependent manner. In the writhing test POR significantly (p < 0.05) reduced abdominal writhes than PE. In hot plate method POR showed better analgesic activity than PE. POR showed comparable ulcers reducing potential (p<0.01) to that of omeprazole, and has more ulcer reducing potential then PE. Conclusions: The results of this study demonstrated that P. vietnamenis aqueous fraction possesses biological activity that is close to the standards taken for the treatment of peripheral painful or/and inflammatory and ulcer conditions. PMID:25767759

  10. Comparative healing property of kombucha tea and black tea against indomethacin-induced gastric ulceration in mice: possible mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Debashish; Hassarajani, Sham A; Maity, Biswanath; Narayan, Geetha; Bandyopadhyay, Sandip K; Chattopadhyay, Subrata

    2010-12-01

    The healing activity of black tea (BT) and BT fermented with Candida parapsilosis and kombucha culture, designated as CT and KT respectively against the indomethacin-induced stomach ulceration has been studied in a mouse model. The KT sample (KT4) produced by fermenting BT for four days, showed the best DPPH radical scavenging capacity and phenolics contents. Hence the ulcer-healing activity of KT4 was compared with those of CT4 and BT. All the tea extracts (15 mg kg(-1)) could effectively heal the gastric ulceration as revealed from the histopathological and biochemical studies, with relative efficacy as KT4 > CT4 ∼ BT. The healing capacities of the tea extracts could be attributed to their antioxidant activity as well as the ability to protect the mucin content of the gastric tissues. In addition, the ability of KT4 to reduce gastric acid secretion might also contribute to its ulcer-healing activity. The tea preparation KT4 (15 mg kg(-1)) was as effective as the positive control, omeprazole (3 mg kg(-1)) in ulcer healing.

  11. Rare mutation in the SLC26A3 transporter causes life-long diarrhoea with metabolic alkalosis

    PubMed Central

    Abou Ziki, Maen D; Verjee, Mohamud A

    2015-01-01

    SLC26A3, a chloride/bicarbonate transporter mainly expressed in the intestines, plays a pivotal role in chloride absorption. We present a 23-year-old woman with a history of congenital chloride diarrhoea (CCD) and renal transplant who was admitted for rehydration and treatment of acute kidney injury after she presented with an acute diarrhoeal episode. Laboratory investigations confirmed metabolic alkalosis and severe hypochloraemia, consistent with her underlying CCD. This contrasts with most other forms of diarrhoea, which are normally associated with metabolic acidosis. Genetic testing was offered and revealed a homozygous non-sense mutation in SLC26A3 (Gly-187-Stop). This loss-of-function mutation results in bicarbonate retention in the blood and chloride loss into the intestinal lumen. Symptomatic management with daily NaCl and KCl oral syrups was supplemented with omeprazole therapy. The loss of her own kidneys is most likely due to crystal-induced nephropathy secondary to chronic volume contraction and chloride depletion. This case summarises the pathophysiology and management of CCD. PMID:25568271

  12. Evaluating the effect of metronidazole plus amoxicillin-clavulanate versus amoxicillin-clavulanate alone in canine haemorrhagic diarrhoea: a randomised controlled trial in primary care practice.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, V; Klein, L; Channell, S; Simpson, B; Wright, B; Edwards, C; Gilbert, R; Day, R; Caddy, S L

    2018-06-07

    To investigate the benefit of supplementing amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy with metronidazole in dogs presenting to a primary care veterinary practice with severe haemorrhagic diarrhoea. Prospective randomised blinded trial on dogs presenting with haemorrhagic diarrhoea of less than 3 days duration to a primary care veterinary hospital and also requiring intravenous fluid therapy. Cases were randomised to receive either metronidazole or saline, in addition to standard supportive therapy consisting of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, intravenous fluid therapy, buprenorphine and omeprazole. Treatment efficacy was measured by duration of hospitalisation and daily scoring of disease severity. Thirty-four cases successfully completed the trial. There was no significant difference in hospitalisation time between treatment groups (mean for dogs receiving metronidazole was 29.6 hours and for controls was 26.3 hours) nor in daily clinical scores. This study strongly suggests that addition of metronidazole is not an essential addition to amoxicillin-clavulanic acid therapy for treatment of severe cases of haemorrhagic diarrhoea in dogs. © 2018 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  13. Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in 20 dogs (2012 to 2014).

    PubMed

    Muenster, M; Hoerauf, A; Vieth, M

    2017-05-01

    To describe the clinical features of canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. A search of our medical records produced 20 dogs with clinical signs attributable to oesophageal disease, hyper-regeneratory oesophagopathy and no other oesophageal disorders. The clinical, endoscopic and histological findings of the dogs were analysed. The 3-year incidence of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease was 0·9% of our referral dog population. Main clinical signs were regurgitation, discomfort or pain (each, 20/20 dogs) and ptyalism (18/20 dogs). Oesophagoscopy showed no (5/20 dogs) or minimal (13/20 dogs) mucosal lesions. In oesophageal mucosal biopsy specimens, there were hyperplastic changes of the basal cell layer (13/20 dogs), stromal papillae (14/20 dogs) and entire epithelium (9/20 dogs). Eleven dogs received omeprazole or pantoprazole and regurgitation and ptyalism improved in eight and pain diminished in six of these dogs within three to six weeks. Our findings suggest that canine gastro-oesophageal reflux disease is a more common clinical problem than hitherto suspected. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  14. Combining Chimeric Mice with Humanized Liver, Mass Spectrometry, and Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Modeling in Toxicology.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Mitsui, Marina; Shimizu, Makiko; Guengerich, F Peter

    2016-12-19

    Species differences exist in terms of drug oxidation activities, which are mediated mainly by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. To overcome the problem of species extrapolation, transchromosomic mice containing a human P450 3A cluster or chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes have been introduced into the human toxicology research area. In this review, drug metabolism and disposition mediated by humanized livers in chimeric mice are summarized in terms of biliary/urinary excretions of phthalate and bisphenol A and plasma clearances of the human cocktail probe drugs caffeine, warfarin, omeprazole, metoprolol, and midazolam. Simulation of human plasma concentrations of the teratogen thalidomide and its human metabolites is possible with a simplified physiologically based pharmacokinetic model based on data obtained in chimeric mice, in accordance with reported clinical thalidomide concentrations. In addition, in vivo nonspecific hepatic protein binding parameters of metabolically activated 14 C-drug candidate and hepatotoxic medicines in humanized liver mice can be analyzed by accelerator mass spectrometry and are useful for predictions in humans.

  15. Protective Effect of Eburicoic Acid of the Chicken of the Woods Mushroom, Laetiporus sulphureus (Higher Basidiomycetes), Against Gastric Ulcers in Mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junzhi; Sun, Wenjun; Luo, Huajun; He, Haibo; Deng, Weiqiao; Zou, Kun; Liu, Can; Song, Jing; Huang, Wenfeng

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and tumor-inhibiting effects of eburicoic acid, the main bioactive component in the Laetiporus sulphureus, on gastric ulcers. A total of 48 Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups: control, model, OL (omeprazole, 20 mg/kg/day, orally), EA-L (eburicoic acid, 10 mg/kg/day, orally), EA-M (eburicoic acid, 20 mg/kg/day, orally), and EA-H (eburicoic acid, 40 mg/kg/day, orally). Gastric ulcers were induced in mice by administering 80% ethanol containing 15 mg/mL aspirin (10.0 mL/kg, i.g.) 4 hours after drug administration on day 5. The ulcer index and H+/K+-ATPase activity were evaluated in vivo. Computer-aided molecular docking simulated the interaction between eburicoic acid and H+/K+-ATPase. The results showed that the oral administration of eburicoic acid protected the gastric mucosa from gastric lesions morphologically and especially attenuated H+/K+-ATPase activity. The results of this study indicate that the gastric protective effect of eburicoic acid might inhibit gastric acid.

  16. [Clinical observation of peptic ulcer treated with acupuncture based on theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang].

    PubMed

    Li, Cuiying; Li, Jinxiang; Pan, Shimin; Zhang, Xi; Li, Ying

    2017-08-12

    To compare the effects differences for peptic ulcer between acupuncture based on the theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang and conventional western medication. Sixty patients with peptic ulcer of liver-stomach disharmony type (LSDT) and weakness of spleen and stomach type (WSST) were assigned into an observation group and a control group by block randomization according to syndrome differentiation.Finally,28 cases (17 with LSDT and 11 with WSST) in the observation group,29 cases (18 with LSDT and 11 with WSST) in the control group were included.In the observation group,patients with LSDT were treated with acupuncture at Zhongwan (CV 12),Taichong (LR 3),Xingjian (LR 2),Qimen (LR 14),Zusanli (ST 36),Gongsun (SP 4),Shaofu (HT 8),Jingqu (LU 8),Neiguan (PC 6); those with WSST,at Zhongwan (CV 12),Dadu (SP 2),Taibai (SP 3),Yinlingquan (SP 9),Zusanli (ST 36),Shaofu (HT 8), Taichong (LR 3),Yingu (KI 10),Taixi (KI 3),Taiyuan (LU 9) according to the theory of "the compatibility of the five meridians" in Huxiang .Reinforcing and reducing were according to syndrome differentiation.The treatment was given once a day with needle retained for 30 min,5 days a week,2 days at interval.In the control group,the conventional triple drugs (omeprazole,amoxicillin and clarithromycin) were prescribed orally for Hp positive patients,and omeprazole for Hp negative patients.All the patients were treated for 4 weeks.The clinical syndrome score,ulcer healing under gastroscope,anti-Hp infection and Hp negative conversion ratio rate were observed in the two groups before and after treatment as well as 1 month after treatment.The total effects were evaluated. The syndrome scores after treatment and at 1 month ofter treatment decreased in the two groups (all P <0.05),while without significant difference between the two groups (both P >0.05).The scores within the group between the two syndromes showed no significance in the two groups (both P >0.05).The cure rates under

  17. Impact of oesophagitis classification in evaluating healing of erosive oesophagitis after therapy with proton pump inhibitors: a pooled analysis.

    PubMed

    Yaghoobi, Mohammad; Padol, Sara; Yuan, Yuhong; Hunt, Richard H

    2010-05-01

    The results of clinical trials with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are usually based on the Hetzel-Dent (HD), Savary-Miller (SM), or Los Angeles (LA) classifications to describe the severity and assess the healing of erosive oesophagitis. However, it is not known whether these classifications are comparable. The aim of this study was to review systematically the literature to compare the healing rates of erosive oesophagitis with PPIs in clinical trials assessed by the HD, SM, or LA classifications. A recursive, English language literature search in PubMed and Cochrane databases to December 2006 was performed. Double-blind randomized control trials comparing a PPI with another PPI, an H2-RA or placebo using endoscopic assessment of the healing of oesophagitis by the HD, SM or LA, or their modified classifications at 4 or 8 weeks, were included in the study. The healing rates on treatment with the same PPI(s), and same endoscopic grade(s) were pooled and compared between different classifications using Fisher's exact test or chi2 test where appropriate. Forty-seven studies from 965 potential citations met inclusion criteria. Seventy-eight PPI arms were identified, with 27 using HD, 29 using SM, and 22 using LA for five marketed PPIs. There was insufficient data for rabeprazole and esomeprazole (week 4 only) to compare because they were evaluated by only one classification. When data from all PPIs were pooled, regardless of baseline oesophagitis grades, the LA healing rate was significantly higher than SM and HD at both 4 and 8 weeks (74, 71, and 68% at 4 weeks and 89, 84, and 83% at 8 weeks, respectively). The distribution of different grades in study population was available only for pantoprazole where it was not significantly different between LA and SM subgroups. When analyzing data for PPI and dose, the LA classification showed a higher healing rate for omeprazole 20 mg/day and pantoprazole 40 mg/day (significant at 8 weeks), whereas healing by SM classification

  18. Effect of clinician-patient communication on compliance with flupentixol-melitracen in functional dyspepsia patients

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Xiu-Juan; Li, Wen-Ting; Chen, Xin; Wang, Er-Man; Liu, Qing; Qiu, Hong-Yi; Cao, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Sheng-Liang

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To explore whether clinician-patient communication affects adherence to psychoactive drugs in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients with psychological symptoms. METHODS: A total of 262 FD patients with psychological symptoms were randomly assigned to four groups. The patients in Groups 1-3 were given flupentixol-melitracen (FM) plus omeprazole treatment. Those in Group 1 received explanations of both the psychological and gastrointestinal (GI) mechanisms of the generation of FD symptoms and the effects of FM. In Group 2, only the psychological mechanisms were emphasized. The patients in Group 3 were not given an explanation for the prescription of FM. Those in Group 4 were given omeprazole alone. The primary endpoints of this study were compliance rate and compliance index to FM in Groups 1-3. Survival analyses were also conducted. The secondary end points were dyspepsia and psychological symptom improvement in Groups 1-4. The correlations between the compliance indices and the reductions in dyspepsia and psychological symptom scores were also evaluated in Groups 1-3. RESULTS: After 8 wk of treatment, the compliance rates were 67.7% in Group 1, 42.4% in Group 2 and 47.7% in Group 3 (Group 1 vs Group 2, P = 0.006; Group 1 vs Group 3, P = 0.033). The compliance index (Group 1 vs Group 2, P = 0.002; Group 1 vs Group 3, P = 0.024) with the FM regimen was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3. The survival analysis revealed that the patients in Group 1 exhibited a significantly higher compliance rate than Groups 2 and 3 (Group 1 vs Group 2, P = 0.002; Group 1 vs Group 3, P = 0.018). The improvement in dyspepsia (Group 1 vs Group 2, P < 0.05; Group 1 vs Group 3, P < 0.05; Group 1 vs Group 4, P < 0.01) and psychological symptom scores (anxiety: Group 1 vs Group 2, P < 0.01; Group 1 vs Group 3, P < 0.05; Group 1 vs Group 4, P < 0.01; depression: Group 1 vs Group 2, P < 0.01; Group 1 vs Group 3, P < 0.01; Group 1 vs Group 4, P < 0.01) in Group 1 were

  19. Effect of clinician-patient communication on compliance with flupentixol-melitracen in functional dyspepsia patients.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiu-Juan; Li, Wen-Ting; Chen, Xin; Wang, Er-Man; Liu, Qing; Qiu, Hong-Yi; Cao, Zhi-Jun; Chen, Sheng-Liang

    2015-04-21

    To explore whether clinician-patient communication affects adherence to psychoactive drugs in functional dyspepsia (FD) patients with psychological symptoms. A total of 262 FD patients with psychological symptoms were randomly assigned to four groups. The patients in Groups 1-3 were given flupentixol-melitracen (FM) plus omeprazole treatment. Those in Group 1 received explanations of both the psychological and gastrointestinal (GI) mechanisms of the generation of FD symptoms and the effects of FM. In Group 2, only the psychological mechanisms were emphasized. The patients in Group 3 were not given an explanation for the prescription of FM. Those in Group 4 were given omeprazole alone. The primary endpoints of this study were compliance rate and compliance index to FM in Groups 1-3. Survival analyses were also conducted. The secondary end points were dyspepsia and psychological symptom improvement in Groups 1-4. The correlations between the compliance indices and the reductions in dyspepsia and psychological symptom scores were also evaluated in Groups 1-3. After 8 wk of treatment, the compliance rates were 67.7% in Group 1, 42.4% in Group 2 and 47.7% in Group 3 (Group 1 vs Group 2, P = 0.006; Group 1 vs Group 3, P = 0.033). The compliance index (Group 1 vs Group 2, P = 0.002; Group 1 vs Group 3, P = 0.024) with the FM regimen was significantly higher in Group 1 than in Groups 2 and 3. The survival analysis revealed that the patients in Group 1 exhibited a significantly higher compliance rate than Groups 2 and 3 (Group 1 vs Group 2, P = 0.002; Group 1 vs Group 3, P = 0.018). The improvement in dyspepsia (Group 1 vs Group 2, P < 0.05; Group 1 vs Group 3, P < 0.05; Group 1 vs Group 4, P < 0.01) and psychological symptom scores (anxiety: Group 1 vs Group 2, P < 0.01; Group 1 vs Group 3, P < 0.05; Group 1 vs Group 4, P < 0.01; depression: Group 1 vs Group 2, P < 0.01; Group 1 vs Group 3, P < 0.01; Group 1 vs Group 4, P < 0.01) in Group 1 were greater than those in

  20. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory and gastric anti-ulcer activity of Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) leaves in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Mostofa, Ronia; Ahmed, Shanta; Begum, Mst Marium; Sohanur Rahman, Md; Begum, Taslima; Ahmed, Siraj Uddin; Tuhin, Riazul Haque; Das, Munny; Hossain, Amir; Sharma, Manju; Begum, Rayhana

    2017-05-16

    The medicinal plants signify a massive basin of potential phytoconstituents that could be valuable as a substitute to allopathic drugs or considered as an analogue in drug development. Phyllanthus niruri L. (Euphorbiaceae) is generally used in traditional medicine to treat ulcer and inflammation. In this project we investigated the methanolic extract of leaves of Phyllanthus niruri for anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcer activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of methanol extract of Phyllanthus niruri leaves was evaluated at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. while using ibuprofen (20 mg/kg, p.o) as the standard drug. The animals used were Swiss albino rats. Inflammation was induced by injecting 0.1 ml carrageenan (1% w/v) into the left hind paw. Paw tissues from the different groups were examined for inflammatory cell infiltration. On the other hand, antiulcer activity of methanolic extract of P. niruri leaves at the doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, p.o. were examined against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the Swiss albino rats - keeping omeprazole (20 mg/kg, p.o.) as reference. The rats were dissected and the stomachs were macroscopically examined to identify hemorrhagic lesions in the glandular mucosa. P. niruri significantly (p < 0.01) decreased carrageenan-induced paw edema; it exhibited a reduction of 46.80%, 55.32% and 69.14% at doses of 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg, respectively. These findings were further supported by the histological study. The methanolic extract also disclosed good protective effect against ethanol-acid induced gastric mucosal injury in the rats. Administration of the extract's doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) demonstrated a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the ethanol- acid induced gastric erosion in all the experimental groups when compared to the control. The methanolic extract at the higher dose (400 mg/kg) resulted in better inhibition of ethanol-acid induced gastric ulcer as compare to omeprazole (20

  1. First characterization of a microsporidial triosephosphate isomerase and the biochemical mechanisms of its inactivation to propose a new druggable target.

    PubMed

    García-Torres, Itzhel; De la Mora-De la Mora, Ignacio; Hernández-Alcántara, Gloria; Molina-Ortiz, Dora; Caballero-Salazar, Silvia; Olivos-García, Alfonso; Nava, Gabriela; López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Enríquez-Flores, Sergio

    2018-06-05

    The microsporidia are a large group of intracellular parasites with a broad range of hosts, including humans. Encephalitozoon intestinalis is the second microsporidia species most frequently associated with gastrointestinal disease in humans, especially immunocompromised or immunosuppressed individuals, including children and the elderly. The prevalence reported worldwide in these groups ranges from 0 to 60%. Currently, albendazole is most commonly used to treat microsporidiosis caused by Encephalitozoon species. However, the results of treatment are variable, and relapse can occur. Consequently, efforts are being directed toward identifying more effective drugs for treating microsporidiosis, and the study of new molecular targets appears promising. These parasites lack mitochondria, and oxidative phosphorylation therefore does not occur, which suggests the enzymes involved in glycolysis as potential drug targets. Here, we have for the first time characterized the glycolytic enzyme triosephosphate isomerase of E. intestinalis at the functional and structural levels. Our results demonstrate the mechanisms of inactivation of this enzyme by thiol-reactive compounds. The most striking result of this study is the demonstration that established safe drugs such as omeprazole, rabeprazole and sulbutiamine can effectively inactivate this microsporidial enzyme and might be considered as potential drugs for treating this important disease.

  2. Aspirin-induced small bowel injuries and the preventive effect of rebamipide

    PubMed Central

    Mizukami, Kazuhiro; Murakami, Kazunari; Abe, Takashi; Inoue, Kunimitsu; Uchida, Masahiro; Okimoto, Tadayoshi; Kodama, Masaaki; Fujioka, Toshio

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the influence of taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk on small intestinal complications and to examine the preventive effect of rebamipide. METHODS: This study was conducted as a single-center, randomized, double-blind, cross-over, placebo-controlled study. Eleven healthy male subjects were enrolled. Each subject underwent video capsule endoscopy after 1 and 4 wk of taking aspirin and omeprazole, along with either rebamipide or placebo therapy. The primary endpoint was to evaluate small bowel damage in healthy subjects before and after taking low-dose aspirin for 4 wk. RESULTS: The number of subjects with mucosal breaks (defined as multiple erosions and/or ulcers) were 1 at 1 wk and 1 at 4 wk on the jejunum, and 6 at 1 wk (P = 0.0061) and 7 at 4 wk on the ileum (P = 0.0019). Rebamipide significantly prevented mucosal breaks on the ileum compared with the placebo group (P = 0.0173 at 1 wk and P = 0.0266 at 4 wk). CONCLUSION: Longer-term, low-dose aspirin administration induced damage in the small bowel. Rebamipide prevented this damage, and may be a candidate drug for treating aspirin-induced small bowel complications. PMID:22171147

  3. Therapeutic effect of low molecular weight chitosan containing sepia ink on ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Liu, Kang; Li, Lei; Li, Yingxin; Sui, Xianxian; Rao, Yinzhu; Wu, Jiahao; Wu, Qiuping

    2016-12-01

    To evaluate the role of low molecular chitosan containing sepia ink (LMCS) in ethanol-induced (5 ml/kg) gastric ulcer in rats. Animals were divided into four groups (n = 12): normal group (Normal), negative control group (Con), experiment group (LMCS) and positive control Omeprazole group (OMZ). Gastric empty rate was detected in the first 7 days. Rats were sacrificed at 7, 14 and 21 day for histology and ELISA detections. Gastric empty was no significant differences among the groups (P > 0.05). Histological observation showed gastric mucosal LMCS treated had better healing effect. Hydroxyproline (Hyp) was significantly increased from 7 day (P < 0.05). LMCS significantly inhibited malondialdehyde (MDA) generation for lipid peroxidation from 7 day (P < 0.05). LMCS significantly promoted the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) at the earlier stage (P < 0.05). OMZ had the similar effects above. As for myeloperoxidase (MPO), LMCS significantly decreased and restored it to normal levels from 7 day (P < 0.05), it is earlier than OMZ which is from 14 day. LMCS can improve gastric mucosa tissue repair, exert significant influences on oxidative and antioxidant enzyme activities and neutrophil infiltration.

  4. Scleroderma: a case report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harahap, T. A.; Marpaung, B.

    2018-03-01

    Scleroderma is a complex disease in which extensive fibrosis, vascular alterations, and autoantibodies against various cellular antigens are among the principal features.[1,2] The prevalenceranging from 50 to 300 cases per 1 million persons with women are at much higher risk. The average age of diagnosis is the fifth decades of life.[2] There is no cure for scleroderma, but many of its problems and complications can be treated.[3-7]A 54-year-old female patient with main complains limitation of motion and mouth, stiffness and painful joints in the hands and feet, thickening on the skin in the chest and trunk for eight years, purplish red spots on arms and legs intermittent for tenyears. On physical examination found sclerosis lesions, sclerodactyly on fingers and toes, telangiectasias in the antebrachii and cruris region. On laboratory, examination showed ANA test 10.7 and Anti DS DNA 123. The histopathological of the skin result is scleroderma. The patient was diagnosed with scleroderma and treated with methotrexate 7.5 mg/weeks, ciclosporin 2×100 mg/day, omeprazole 2×20 mg. After seven days of therapy, there is aclinical improvement, and the patient becomes anoutpatient treatment.

  5. Congenital chloride diarrhea misdiagnosed as pseudo-Bartter syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saneian, Hossein; Bahraminia, Emad

    2013-09-01

    Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is a rare autosomal recessive disease which is characterized by intractable diarrhea of infancy, failure to thrive, high fecal chloride, hypochloremia, hypokalemia, hyponatremia and metabolic alkalosis. In this case report, we present the first female and the second official case of CCD in Iran. A 15-month-old girl referred to our hospital due to failure to thrive and poor feeding. She had normal kidneys, liver and spleen. Treating her with Shohl's solution, thiazide and zinc sulfate did not result in weight gain. Consequently, pseudo-Bartter syndrome was suspected, she was treated with intravenous (IV) therapy to which she responded dramatically. In addition, hypokalemia resolved quickly. Since this does not usually happen in patients with the pseudo-Bartter syndrome, stool tests were performed. Abnormal level of chloride in stool suggested CCD and she was thus treated with IV fluid replacement, Total parentral nutrition and high dose of oral omeprazole (3 mg/kg/day). She gained 1 kg of weight and is doing fine until present. CCD is a rare hereditary cause of intractable diarrhea of infancy. It should be considered in infants with unknown severe electrolyte disturbances.

  6. Post-acquisition data processing for the screening of transformation products of different organic contaminants. Two-year monitoring of river water using LC-ESI-QTOF-MS and GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS.

    PubMed

    López, S Herrera; Ulaszewska, M M; Hernando, M D; Martínez Bueno, M J; Gómez, M J; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2014-11-01

    This study describes a comprehensive strategy for detecting and elucidating the chemical structures of expected and unexpected transformation products (TPs) from chemicals found in river water and effluent wastewater samples, using liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometer (LC-ESI-QTOF-MS), with post-acquisition data processing and an automated search using an in-house database. The efficacy of the mass defect filtering (MDF) approach to screen metabolites from common biotransformation pathways was tested, and it was shown to be sufficiently sensitive and applicable for detecting metabolites in environmental samples. Four omeprazole metabolites and two venlafaxine metabolites were identified in river water samples. This paper reports the analytical results obtained during 2 years of monitoring, carried out at eight sampling points along the Henares River (Spain). Multiresidue monitoring, for targeted analysis, includes a group of 122 chemicals, amongst which are pharmaceuticals, personal care products, pesticides and PAHs. For this purpose, two analytical methods were used based on direct injection with a LC-ESI-QTOF-MS system and stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE) with bi-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with a time-of-flight spectrometer (GCxGC-EI-TOF-MS).

  7. Geneva cocktail for cytochrome p450 and P-glycoprotein activity assessment using dried blood spots.

    PubMed

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-09-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session.

  8. Pharmacodynamic evaluation of clopidogrel plus PA32540: the Spaced PA32540 With Clopidogrel Interaction Gauging (SPACING) study.

    PubMed

    Gurbel, P A; Bliden, K P; Fort, J; Zhang, Y; Plachetka, J R; Antonino, M; Gesheff, M; Tantry, U S

    2011-12-01

    PA32540 combines 325 mg enteric-coated (EC) aspirin (ASA) with 40 mg immediate-release omeprazole; its influence on the antiplatelet effect of clopidogrel (C) is unknown. In this randomized, open-label study, subjects (n = 30) were treated with (i) 300 mg C + 325 mg ECASA followed by 75 mg C + 325 mg ECASA on days 2-7, (ii) 300 mg C + PA32540 followed by 75 mg C + PA32540 on days 2-7, or (iii) PA32540 in the morning + 300 mg C 10 h later on day 1 and PA32540 in the morning + 75 mg C 10 h later on days 2-7. We analyzed the noninferiority of PA32540 relative to ECASA, as defined by the upper bound of the 95% confidence interval ≤10% for the difference in least-square means of platelet inhibition between the treatments. As compared to ECASA+C, synchronous treatment of PA32540+C was not noninferior, whereas the spacing strategy of PA32540+C was noninferior. Spacing the administration of PA32540 and clopidogrel lessens the interaction observed with synchronous administration; PA32540 administration with clopidogrel may be associated with a different antiplatelet profile.

  9. Mechanistic models enable the rational use of in vitro drug-target binding kinetics for better drug effects in patients.

    PubMed

    de Witte, Wilhelmus E A; Wong, Yin Cheong; Nederpelt, Indira; Heitman, Laura H; Danhof, Meindert; van der Graaf, Piet H; Gilissen, Ron A H J; de Lange, Elizabeth C M

    2016-01-01

    Drug-target binding kinetics are major determinants of the time course of drug action for several drugs, as clearly described for the irreversible binders omeprazole and aspirin. This supports the increasing interest to incorporate newly developed high-throughput assays for drug-target binding kinetics in drug discovery. A meaningful application of in vitro drug-target binding kinetics in drug discovery requires insight into the relation between in vivo drug effect and in vitro measured drug-target binding kinetics. In this review, the authors discuss both the relation between in vitro and in vivo measured binding kinetics and the relation between in vivo binding kinetics, target occupancy and effect profiles. More scientific evidence is required for the rational selection and development of drug-candidates on the basis of in vitro estimates of drug-target binding kinetics. To elucidate the value of in vitro binding kinetics measurements, it is necessary to obtain information on system-specific properties which influence the kinetics of target occupancy and drug effect. Mathematical integration of this information enables the identification of drug-specific properties which lead to optimal target occupancy and drug effect in patients.

  10. A Review of Esophageal Chest Pain

    PubMed Central

    Coss-Adame, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Noncardiac chest pain is a term that encompasses all causes of chest pain after a cardiac source has been excluded. This article focuses on esophageal sources for chest pain. Esophageal chest pain (ECP) is common, affects quality of life, and carries a substantial health care burden. The lack of a systematic approach toward the diagnosis and treatment of ECP has led to significant disability and increased health care costs for this condition. Identifying the underlying cause(s) or mechanism(s) for chest pain is key for its successful management. Common etiologies include gastroesophageal reflux disease, esophageal hypersensitivity, dysmotility, and psychological conditions, including panic disorder and anxiety. However, the pathophysiology of this condition is not yet fully understood. Randomized controlled trials have shown that proton pump inhibitor therapy (either omeprazole, lansoprazole, or rabeprazole) can be effective. Evidence for the use of antidepressants and the adenosine receptor antagonist theophylline is fair. Psychological treatments, notably cognitive behavioral therapy, may be useful in select patients. Surgery is not recommended. There remains a large unmet need for identifying the phenotype and prevalence of pathophysiologic mechanisms of ECP as well as for well-designed multicenter clinical trials of current and novel therapies. PMID:27134590

  11. One year treatment of Barrett's oesophagus with proton pump inhibitors (a multi-center study).

    PubMed

    Babic, Z; Bogdanovic, Z; Dorosulic, Z; Petrovic, Z; Kujundzic, M; Banic, M; Marusic, M; Heinzl, R; Bilić, B; Andabak, M

    2015-12-01

    Aim of the study was to investigate the effects of 1-year therapy by different proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) on epithelial tissue and surrounding inflammatory changes in Barrett's oesophagus, in patients who have abandoned invasive therapy. A group of 120 patients (sampled in 60-month period, from 61201 upper gastrointestinal endoscopies) who were diagnosed both, endoscopically and pathohistologically with Barrett's oesophagus, and who have abandoned invasive therapeutic approach were enrolled in study. Treatment with different PPIs was initiated and continued for a year. At the end of treatment, patients were reassessed by endoscopy with tissue biopsy and pathohistological analysis. No difference in regenerating squamous epithelium or degree of dysplasia was seen between different treatment groups. Interestingly, most patients receiving pantoprazole (94%) ended up with thinner squamous epithel (P<0.0001). The squamous epithel was consider thinner only if its total thickness, measured on histological specimen, was smaller for more than 50% of the thickness before therapy. Significantly less of difference (P<0.0014) was seen with patients receiving lansoprazole (65%) and (P<0.003) omeprazole (50%). Regeneration of the squamous epithel was the same for all PPIs but not good enough to stop the progression of the disease.

  12. Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry) Reduces Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage via Regulation of HSP-70, NF-κB, and MCP-1 Signaling.

    PubMed

    Paulrayer, Antonisamy; Adithan, Aravinthan; Lee, Jeong Ho; Moon, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Dae Geun; Im, So Yeon; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2017-06-05

    Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. belongs to the Rosaceae family. The purpose of this study is to explore the gastroprotective effect of the Aronia melanocarpa hydro-alcoholic extract (AMHAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in a rat model. Different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of AMHAE, or 30 mg/kg of omeprazole, significantly inhibited the gastric injury formation. The ethanol-induced ulcer group showed significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and interleukin (IL)-4. However, AMHAE (200 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly reversed the altered pathophysiological levels of these biomolecules to near normal stages. The gastroprotective activity of AMHAE was abolished by pretreatment with l-NAME, naloxone, capsazepine, and indomethacin, demonstrating the participation of nitric oxide (NO), opioids, TRPV (vanilloid receptor-related transient receptor potential), and prostaglandins in AMHAE-assisted gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric injuries. This gastroprotective effect of AMHAE might be due to the downregulation of TNF-α-based NF-κB, MCP-1 signaling and strong antioxidant properties.

  13. Duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, J; Lembo, A; Elashoff, J; Fass, R; Mayer, E

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Patients with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD) frequently report that meals high in fat worsen heartburn. Nevertheless, studies to determine whether high fat meals promote gastro-oesophageal reflux have produced conflicting and equivocal conclusions.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—To determine, alternatively, whether fat in the small intestinal lumen intensifies the perception of heartburn, we studied 11 patients with typical heartburn from GORD. After being placed on omeprazole to suppress endogenous acid, these fasting subjects underwent oesophageal perfusions with graded doses of HCl at pH values of 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5. Oesophageal perfusions were conducted while the duodenum was perfused with saline (control) and again with fat at 8 g/h.
RESULTS—Time to onset, intensity, and severity of heartburn varied with dose of oesophageal acid (p<0.01). Time to onset was significantly (p<0.01) shorter, and intensity and severity of heartburn significantly (p<0.05) greater, during duodenal perfusion with fat.
CONCLUSION—We conclude that duodenal fat intensifies the perception of heartburn.


Keywords: gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; heartburn; perception; fat PMID:11600463

  14. Epidemiological risk factors in microscopic colitis: a prospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Bañares, Fernando; de Sousa, Monia R; Salas, Antonio; Beltrán, Belén; Piqueras, Marta; Iglesias, Eva; Gisbert, Javier P; Lobo, Beatriz; Puig-Diví, Valentí; García-Planella, Esther; Ordás, Ingrid; Andreu, Montserrat; Calvo, Marta; Montoro, Miguel; Esteve, Maria; Viver, Josep M

    2013-02-01

    The cause of collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC) is unknown and epidemiological risk factors for CC and LC are not well studied. The aim was to evaluate in a case-control study epidemiological risk factors for CC and LC. In all, 120 patients with CC, 70 with CL, and 128 controls were included. For all cases and controls information was prospectively recorded. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed separately for CC and LC. Independent associations observed with the diagnosis of CC were: current smoking (odds ratio [OR], 2.4), history of polyarthritis (OR, 20.8), and consumption of lansoprazole (OR, 6.4), low-dose aspirin (OR, 3.8), beta-blockers (OR, 3.6), and angiotensin II receptor antagonists (OR 0.20). In the case of LC they were: current smoking (OR, 3.8), associated autoimmune diseases (OR, 8), and consumption of sertraline (OR, 17.5), omeprazole (OR 2.7), low-dose aspirin (OR, 4.7), and oral antidiabetic drugs (OR, 0.14). The consumption of drugs, current smoking, and associated autoimmune diseases were independently associated with the risk of microscopic colitis.

  15. Aronia melanocarpa (Black Chokeberry) Reduces Ethanol-Induced Gastric Damage via Regulation of HSP-70, NF-κB, and MCP-1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Paulrayer, Antonisamy; Adithan, Aravinthan; Lee, Jeong Ho; Moon, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Dae Geun; Im, So Yeon; Kang, Chang-Won; Kim, Nam Soo; Kim, Jong-Hoon

    2017-01-01

    Aronia melanocarpa (Michx.) Ell. belongs to the Rosaceae family. The purpose of this study is to explore the gastroprotective effect of the Aronia melanocarpa hydro-alcoholic extract (AMHAE) against ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in a rat model. Different concentrations (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) of AMHAE, or 30 mg/kg of omeprazole, significantly inhibited the gastric injury formation. The ethanol-induced ulcer group showed significant increases of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nuclear factor-kappaB p65 (NF-κB p65), and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, and decreased activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-px), and interleukin (IL)-4. However, AMHAE (200 mg/kg) pretreatment significantly reversed the altered pathophysiological levels of these biomolecules to near normal stages. The gastroprotective activity of AMHAE was abolished by pretreatment with l-NAME, naloxone, capsazepine, and indomethacin, demonstrating the participation of nitric oxide (NO), opioids, TRPV (vanilloid receptor-related transient receptor potential), and prostaglandins in AMHAE-assisted gastroprotection against ethanol-induced gastric injuries. This gastroprotective effect of AMHAE might be due to the downregulation of TNF-α-based NF-κB, MCP-1 signaling and strong antioxidant properties. PMID:28587230

  16. Protective effects of D-002 on experimentally induced gastroesophageal reflux in rats.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Zullyt; Molina, Vivian; Mas, Rosa; Ravelo, Yazmin; Perez, Yohany; Oyarzabal, Ambar

    2014-02-28

    To investigate the effects of beeswax alcohols (D-002) on the esophageal damage induced by gastroesophageal reflux (GER) in rats. Sixty male rats were randomized into six groups (10 rats/group): a negative control and five groups with experimentally induced GER: a positive vehicle control, three treated with D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg, respectively), and one with omeprazole 10 mg/kg. All treatments were given by gastric gavage. One hour after dosing, GER was produced by simultaneous ligation of the pyloric end and the forestomach. Esophageal lesions index (ELI), gastric secretion volume and acidity, and esophageal malondialdehyde (MDA) and sulfhydryl (SH) group concentrations were measured. Statistical significance was considered at P < 0.05. As compared to the negative control, the positive control group exhibited increased ELI (5.2 ± 0.33 vs 0 ± 0, P = 0.0003), gastric secretion volume (2.69 ± 0.09 vs 0.1 ± 0.0, P = 0.0003) and acidity (238 ± 19.37 vs 120.0 ± 5.77, P = 0.001), and esophageal concentrations of MDA (2.56 ± 0.1 vs 1.76 ± 0.28, P = 0.001) and SH groups (1.02 ± 0.05 vs 0.56 ± 0.08, P = 0.0003). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) reduced ELI (3.36 ± 0.31, 2.90 ± 0.46 and 2.8 ± 0.23, respectively) vs the positive control (5.2 ± 0.33) (P = 0.004; P = 0.002; P = 0.001, respectively). There were no significant changes in acidity with D-002 treatment, and only the highest dose reduced the volume of the gastric secretion (1.92 ± 0.25) vs the positive control (2.69 ± 0.09, P = 0.013). D-002 (25, 100 and 200 mg/kg) lowered the esophageal MDA (2.05 ± 0.16, 1.98 ± 0.22 and 1.93 ± 0.22, respectively) (P = 0.01; P = 0.03; P = 0.03, respectively) and SH group concentration (0.87 ± 0.06, 0.79 ± 0.08 and 0.77 ± 0.06, respectively) (P = 0.04; P = 0.04; P = 0.02) vs the positive control (2.56 ± 0.10 and 1.02 ± 0.05, respectively). Omeprazole decreased ELI (2.54 ± 0.47), gastric secretion volume (1.97 ± 0.14) and acidity (158.5 ± 22

  17. Determination of the adequate dosage of rebamipide, a gastric mucoprotective drug, to prevent low-dose aspirin-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury.

    PubMed

    Ota, Kazuhiro; Takeuchi, Toshihisa; Nouda, Sadaharu; Ozaki, Haruhiko; Kawaguchi, Shinpei; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Harada, Satoshi; Edogawa, Shoko; Kojima, Yuichi; Kuramoto, Takanori; Higuchi, Kazuhide

    2016-11-01

    Small intestinal mucosal injury caused by low-dose aspirin is a common cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. We aimed to investigate the protective effects and optimal dose of rebamipide for low-dose aspirin-induced gastrointestinal mucosal injury. In this prospective randomized trial, 45 healthy volunteers (aged 20-65 years) were included and divided into three groups. The groups received enteric-coated aspirin 100 mg (low-dose aspirin) plus omeprazole 10 mg (Group A: proton pump inhibitor group), low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide 300 mg (Group B: standard-dose group), or low-dose aspirin plus rebamipide 900 mg (Group C: high-dose group). Esophagogastroduodenoscopy and video capsule endoscopy were performed, and the fecal occult blood reaction and fecal calprotectin levels were measured before and two weeks after drug administration. Although the fecal calprotectin levels increased significantly in Group A, they did not increase in Groups B and C. The esophagogastroduodenoscopic and video capsule endoscopic findings and the fecal occult blood test findings did not differ significantly among the three groups. In conclusion, standard-dose rebamipide is sufficient for preventing mucosal injury of the small intestine induced by low-dose aspirin, indicating that high-dose rebamipide is not necessary.

  18. Cytochrome P450 induction by rifampicin in healthy subjects: determination using the Karolinska cocktail and the endogenous CYP3A4 marker 4beta-hydroxycholesterol.

    PubMed

    Kanebratt, K P; Diczfalusy, U; Bäckström, T; Sparve, E; Bredberg, E; Böttiger, Y; Andersson, T B; Bertilsson, L

    2008-11-01

    The Karolinska cocktail, comprising caffeine, losartan, omeprazole, and quinine, was given before and after administration of rifampicin (20, 100, or 500 mg daily) to measure induction of cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. Rifampicin was given for 14 days to eight healthy subjects (all of whom possessed at least one wild-type CYP2C9 and one wild-type CYP2C19 gene) in each dose group. 4beta-hydroxycholesterol was assessed as an endogenous marker of CYP3A4 induction. A fourfold induction of CYP3A4 was seen at the highest dose by both quinine:3'-hydroxyquinine and 4beta-hydroxycholesterol measurements (P < 0.001). CYP3A4 was also induced at the two lower doses of rifampicin when measured by these two markers (P < 0.01 or P < 0.001). CYP1A2, CYP2C9, and CYP2C19 were induced after 500 mg rifampicin daily (1.2-fold, P < 0.05; 1.4-fold, P < 0.05; and 4.2-fold, P < 0.01, respectively). In conclusion, we have shown that the Karolinska cocktail and 4beta-hydroxycholesterol can be used for an initial screening of the induction properties of a drug candidate.

  19. Clinical Drug-Drug Interaction Potential of BFE1224, Prodrug of Antifungal Ravuconazole, Using Two Types of Cocktails in Healthy Subjects.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Yasuyuki; Ito, Yuko; Matsuki, Shunji; Sanpei, Kasumi; Ogawa, Osamu; Takeda, Kenji; Schuck, Edgar L; Uemura, Naoto

    2018-05-16

    BFE1224, prodrug of ravuconazole, is a novel, once-daily, oral, triazole antifungal drug, and currently in development for the treatment of onychomycosis. The clinical drug-drug interaction (DDI) potential of BFE1224 with cytochrome P450 (CYP) and transporter was assessed by using two types of cocktails in healthy subjects in separate clinical studies. The CYP and transporter cocktails consisted of caffeine/tolbutamide/omeprazole/dextromethorphan/midazolam used in study 1 and digoxin/rosuvastatin used in study 2. In addition, repaglinide was separately administered to the same subjects in study 2. There were no major effects on the pharmacokinetics of CYP and transporter substrates, except for an approximate threefold increase in midazolam exposure after oral administration of BFE1224. The clinical DDIs of BFE1224 were mild for CYP3A and minor for other major CYPs (CYP1A2/2C8/2C9/2C19/2D6) as well as those of P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) 1B1, and OATP1B3. © 2018 The Authors. Clinical and Translational Science published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

  20. Polar organic chemical integrative sampling and liquid chromatography- electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry for assessing selected prescription and illicit drugs in treated sewage effluents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones-Lepp, T. L.; Alvarez, D.A.; Petty, J.D.; Huckins, J.N.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the research presented in this paper was twofold: (1) to demonstrate the coupling of two state-of-the-art techniques: a time-weighted polar organic chemical integrative sampler (POCIS) and microliquid chromatography–electrospray/ion-trap mass spectrometry and (2) to assess the ability of these methodologies to detect six drugs (azithromycin, fluoxetine, omeprazole, levothyroxine, methamphetamine, methylenedioxymethamphetamine [MDMA]) in a real-world environment, e.g., waste water effluent. In the effluent from three wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), azithromycin was detected at concentrations ranging from 15 to 66 ng/L, which is equivalent to a total annual release of 1 to 4 kg into receiving waters. Detected and confirmed in the effluent from two WWTPs were two illicit drugs, methamphetamine and MDMA, at 2 and 0.5 ng/L, respectively. Although the ecotoxicologic significance of drugs in environmental matrices, particularly water, has not been closely examined, it can only be surmised that these substances have the potential to adversely affect biota that are continuously exposed to them even at very low levels. The potential for chronic effects on human health is also unknown but of increasing concern because of the multiuse character of water, particularly in densely populated, arid areas.

  1. Protective Effects of Chlorogenic Acid against Experimental Reflux Esophagitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung-Woo; Lee, Sun-Mee

    2014-01-01

    Esophageal reflux of gastric contents causes esophageal mucosal damage and inflammation. Recent studies show that oxygen-derived free radicals mediate mucosal damage in reflux esophagitis (RE). Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is one of the most abundant polyphenols in the human diet and possesses anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and anti-oxidant activities. In this context, we investigated the effects of CGA against experimental RE in rats. RE was produced by ligating the transitional region between the forestomach and the glandular portion and covering the duodenum near the pylorus ring with a small piece of catheter. CGA (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and omeprazole (positive control, 10 mg/kg) were administered orally 48 h after the RE operation for 12 days. CGA reduced the severity of esophageal lesions, and this beneficial effect was confirmed by histopathological observations. CGA reduced esophageal lipid peroxidation and increased the reduced glutathione/oxidized glutathione ratio. CGA attenuated increases in the serum level of tumor necrosis factor-α, and expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 protein. CGA alleviates RE-induced mucosal injury, and this protection is associated with reduced oxidative stress and the anti-inflammatory properties of CGA. PMID:25414772

  2. Effect of Short-Term Fasting on Systemic Cytochrome P450-Mediated Drug Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: A Randomized, Controlled, Crossover Study Using a Cocktail Approach.

    PubMed

    Lammers, Laureen A; Achterbergh, Roos; van Schaik, Ron H N; Romijn, Johannes A; Mathôt, Ron A A

    2017-10-01

    Short-term fasting can alter drug exposure but it is unknown whether this is an effect of altered oral bioavailability and/or systemic clearance. Therefore, the aim of our study was to assess the effect of short-term fasting on oral bioavailability and systemic clearance of different drugs. In a randomized, controlled, crossover trial, 12 healthy subjects received a single administration of a cytochrome P450 (CYP) probe cocktail, consisting of caffeine (CYP1A2), metoprolol (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A4), omeprazole (CYP2C19) and warfarin (CYP2C9), on four occasions: an oral (1) and intravenous (2) administration after an overnight fast (control) and an oral (3) and intravenous (4) administration after 36 h of fasting. Pharmacokinetic parameters of the probe drugs were analyzed using the nonlinear mixed-effects modeling software NONMEM. Short-term fasting increased systemic caffeine clearance by 17% (p = 0.04) and metoprolol clearance by 13% (p < 0.01), whereas S-warfarin clearance decreased by 19% (p < 0.01). Fasting did not affect bioavailability. The study demonstrates that short-term fasting alters CYP-mediated drug metabolism in a non-uniform pattern without affecting oral bioavailability.

  3. Occurrence of emerging pollutants in urban wastewater and their removal through biological treatment followed by ozonation.

    PubMed

    Rosal, Roberto; Rodríguez, Antonio; Perdigón-Melón, José Antonio; Petre, Alice; García-Calvo, Eloy; Gómez, María José; Agüera, Ana; Fernández-Alba, Amadeo R

    2010-01-01

    This work reports a systematic survey of over seventy individual pollutants in a Sewage Treatment Plant (STP) receiving urban wastewater. The compounds include mainly pharmaceuticals and personal care products, as well as some metabolites. The quantification in the ng/L range was performed by Liquid Chromatography-QTRAP-Mass Spectrometry and Gas Chromatography coupled to Mass Spectrometry. The results showed that paraxanthine, caffeine and acetaminophen were the main individual pollutants usually found in concentrations over 20 ppb. N-formyl-4-amino-antipiryne and galaxolide were also detected in the ppb level. A group of compounds including the beta-blockers atenolol, metoprolol and propanolol; the lipid regulators bezafibrate and fenofibric acid; the antibiotics erythromycin, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim, the antiinflammatories diclofenac, indomethacin, ketoprofen and mefenamic acid, the antiepileptic carbamazepine and the antiacid omeprazole exhibited removal efficiencies below 20% in the STP treatment. Ozonation with doses lower than 90 microM allowed the removal of many individual pollutants including some of those more refractory to biological treatment. A kinetic model allowed the determination of second order kinetic constants for the ozonation of bezafibrate, cotinine, diuron and metronidazole. The results show that the hydroxyl radical reaction was the major pathway for the oxidative transformation of these compounds. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Psidium guajava Linn confers gastro protective effects on rats.

    PubMed

    Livingston Raja, N R; Sundar, K

    2012-02-01

    The best alternatives to synthetic medicines, available, for the treatment of gastric ulcer disorders, are the natural products found in plants. They are known to exhibit a variety of activities. The present study is aimed at the screening of Psidium (P.) guajava Linn for its gastro protective effect. The methanol extracts of the leaves of P. guajava were tested in three different ulcer models viz. aspirin (ASP), pyloric ligation (PL) and ethanol (EtoH) induced ulcer models in rats. The treatment of P. guajava at varying doses (100 mg/kg and 200 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited the gastric lesions induced by ASP (70.5%), PL (65.07%) and EtoH (70.4%) respectively and the potency was found to be equivalent as compared to the standard drug, omeprazole. Reduction in the gastric secretory volume, acid secretion and increased gastric pH were the factors observed in treated rats. The presence of volatile oil, flavonoids and saponins present in the extracts of P. guajava may be responsible for the anti-ulcer property exhibited. The results further suggest that P. guajava possess gastro protective as well as ulcer healing properties which might also be due to its anti-secretory properties.

  5. Geneva Cocktail for Cytochrome P450 and P-Glycoprotein Activity Assessment Using Dried Blood Spots

    PubMed Central

    Bosilkovska, M; Samer, C F; Déglon, J; Rebsamen, M; Staub, C; Dayer, P; Walder, B; Desmeules, J A; Daali, Y

    2014-01-01

    The suitability of the capillary dried blood spot (DBS) sampling method was assessed for simultaneous phenotyping of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes and P-glycoprotein (P-gp) using a cocktail approach. Ten volunteers received an oral cocktail capsule containing low doses of the probes bupropion (CYP2B6), flurbiprofen (CYP2C9), omeprazole (CYP2C19), dextromethorphan (CYP2D6), midazolam (CYP3A), and fexofenadine (P-gp) with coffee/Coke (CYP1A2) on four occasions. They received the cocktail alone (session 1), and with the CYP inhibitors fluvoxamine and voriconazole (session 2) and quinidine (session 3). In session 4, subjects received the cocktail after a 7-day pretreatment with the inducer rifampicin. The concentrations of probes/metabolites were determined in DBS and plasma using a single liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method. The pharmacokinetic profiles of the drugs were comparable in DBS and plasma. Important modulation of CYP and P-gp activities was observed in the presence of inhibitors and the inducer. Minimally invasive one- and three-point (at 2, 3, and 6 h) DBS-sampling methods were found to reliably reflect CYP and P-gp activities at each session. PMID:24722393

  6. Recent effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for severe reflux esophagitis: the first multicenter prospective study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Hideki; Matsuhashi, Nobuyuki; Sakaguchi, Masahiro; Inoue, Syuji; Nakada, Koji; Higuchi, Kazuhide; Haruma, Ken; Joh, Takashi

    2015-11-01

    Proton pump inhibitors are the first-line treatment for reflux esophagitis. Because severe reflux esophagitis has very low prevalence in Japan, little is known about the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors in these patients. This prospective multicenter study assessed the effectiveness of proton pump inhibitors for severe reflux esophagitis in Japan. Patients with modified Los Angeles grade C or D reflux esophagitis were treated with daily omeprazole (10 or 20 mg), lansoprazole (15 or 30 mg), or rabeprazole (10, 20, or 40 mg) for 8 weeks. Healing was assessed endoscopically, with questionnaires administered before and after treatment to measure the extent of reflux and dyspepsia symptoms. Factors affecting healing rates, including patient characteristics and endoscopic findings, were analyzed. Of the 115 patients enrolled, 64 with grade C and 19 with grade D reflux esophagitis completed the study. The healing rate was 67.5% (56/83), with 15 of the other 27 patients (55.6%) improving to grade A or B. No patient characteristic or endoscopic comorbidity was significantly associated with healing rate. Reflux and dyspepsia symptoms improved significantly with treatment. The low healing rate suggests the need of endoscopic examination to assess healing of reflux esophagitis at the end of therapy. (UMIN000005271).

  7. Removal of trace organic chemical contaminants by a membrane bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Trinh, T; van den Akker, B; Stuetz, R M;