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Sample records for on line diagnostic

  1. Integration of On-Line and Off-Line Diagnostic Algorithms for Aircraft Engine Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates the integration of on-line and off-line diagnostic algorithms for aircraft gas turbine engines. The on-line diagnostic algorithm is designed for in-flight fault detection. It continuously monitors engine outputs for anomalous signatures induced by faults. The off-line diagnostic algorithm is designed to track engine health degradation over the lifetime of an engine. It estimates engine health degradation periodically over the course of the engine s life. The estimate generated by the off-line algorithm is used to update the on-line algorithm. Through this integration, the on-line algorithm becomes aware of engine health degradation, and its effectiveness to detect faults can be maintained while the engine continues to degrade. The benefit of this integration is investigated in a simulation environment using a nonlinear engine model.

  2. On-line diagnostic system for power generators

    SciTech Connect

    Skormin, V.A.; Goodenough, G.S.; Huber, R.K.

    1996-12-31

    A novel approach to diagnostics of a power generator is developed. It utilizes readily available data acquired by the existing computer-based monitoring/control system. Diagnostic procedures detect various trends in the generator data and interpret these trends in the generator data and interpret these trends as changes in the generator performance caused by incipient failures. Results of trend analyses, subjected to statistical validation, facilitate failure prediction and identification thus providing the justification for service when needed. The procedures are incorporated in a diagnostic system implemented in a PC interfaced with the existing VAX-based process monitoring and control system. The diagnostic system provides graphical display of the diagnostic messages.

  3. Repeatability and reproducibility of characteristic features measured by laser Doppler vibrometry for on-line diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinelli, G.; Paone, N.

    2008-06-01

    It is analyzed the statistical dispersion of characteristic features measured by Laser Doppler Vibrometry (LDV) in on-line diagnostic applications, with reference to on-line detection of mechanical defects of washing machines. The paper presents two complementary approaches: a) experimental evaluation of repeatability of measured features according to the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement-GUM; b) Montecarlo simulation of uncertainty propagation across the on-line test station. Experiments consist in a test bench which simulates the vibration of a washing machine, by playing back on a shaker a real signal acquired on-line and taking repeated measurements, so that a statistical analysis is performed about dispersion of diagnostic features. The analysis is repeated by varying the scattering characteristics of the vibrating surface, so to evaluate the effect of signal quality. The Montecarlo approach consists in modeling the propagation of uncertainty across the various elements of the measurement chain, up to the computation of features. The influence of LDV, Data Acquisition device (DAQ) and processing software have been taken into account. Results allow to estimate Repeatability and Reproducibility (R&R) of a typical set of characteristic features used in industrial diagnostics and to discuss uncertainty of similar diagnostic procedures.

  4. On-Line Texture Diagnostics for Coated Conductor Manufacture. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    White, M. K.

    2002-12-30

    This Phase I project was undertaken to assess the feasibility of implementing a particular diagnostic method for characterizing the crystallographic texture of high temperature superconductor (HTS) coated conductors on-line during their reel-to-reel continuous manufacture. Key factors in this technique were the use of an area detector to greatly reduce scan time, an x-ray mirror to enhance incident beam brightness, and an automation scheme for diffractometer control, tape motion control, and calculation and output of texture characterizations.

  5. On line diagnostics and self-tuning method for the fluidized bed temperature controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porzuczek, Jan

    2016-03-01

    The paper presents the method of on-line diagnostics of the bed temperature controller for the fluidized bed boiler. Proposed solution is based on the methods of statistical process control. Detected decrease of the bed temperature control quality is used to activate the controller self-tuning procedure. The algorithm that provides optimal tuning of the bed temperature controller is also proposed. The results of experimental verification of the presented method is attached. Experimental studies were carried out using the 2 MW bubbling fluidized bed boiler.

  6. Agent-based station for on-line diagnostics by self-adaptive laser Doppler vibrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, S.; Paone, N.; Castellini, P.

    2013-12-01

    A self-adaptive diagnostic system based on laser vibrometry is proposed for quality control of mechanical defects by vibration testing; it is developed for appliances at the end of an assembly line, but its characteristics are generally suited for testing most types of electromechanical products. It consists of a laser Doppler vibrometer, equipped with scanning mirrors and a camera, which implements self-adaptive bahaviour for optimizing the measurement. The system is conceived as a Quality Control Agent (QCA) and it is part of a Multi Agent System that supervises all the production line. The QCA behaviour is defined so to minimize measurement uncertainty during the on-line tests and to compensate target mis-positioning under guidance of a vision system. Best measurement conditions are reached by maximizing the amplitude of the optical Doppler beat signal (signal quality) and consequently minimize uncertainty. In this paper, the optimization strategy for measurement enhancement achieved by the down-hill algorithm (Nelder-Mead algorithm) and its effect on signal quality improvement is discussed. Tests on a washing machine in controlled operating conditions allow to evaluate the efficacy of the method; significant reduction of noise on vibration velocity spectra is observed. Results from on-line tests are presented, which demonstrate the potential of the system for industrial quality control.

  7. Quality control agent: Self-adaptive laser vibrometry for on-line diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serafini, S.; Paone, N.; Castellini, P.

    2012-06-01

    It is presented the development of a self-adaptive diagnostic system based on laser vibrometry for production line quality control. The vibration measurement system consists of a laser Doppler vibrometer, equipped with scanning mirrors and a smart camera, which implements self-adaptivity for compensating target mis-positioning under guidance by a vision system and for the achievement of the best condition for measurement by optimizing the Doppler signal level. This system is designed as a Quality Control Agent (QCA) and it is part of a Multi Agent System (MAS) that supervises all the production line. The QCA behavior is defined so to perform a minimization of measurement uncertainty during the on line tests; for this purpose the QCA exhibits a self-adaptive behavior. Best measurement conditions are defined in terms of amplitude of the optical Doppler beat signal (signal quality - SQ). In this paper, the optimization strategy for measurement enhancement achieved by the down-hill algorithm (Nelder-Mead algorithm) and its effect on signal quality improvement is discussed. Tests on a washing machine in controlled operating conditions allow to evaluate the efficacy of the method; significant reduction of noise on vibration velocity spectra is observed.

  8. On-line spectral diagnostic system for Dalian Coherent Light Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chaoyang; Wei, Shen; Du, Xuewei; Du, Liangliang; Wang, Qiuping; Zhang, Weiqing; Wu, Guorong; Dai, Dongxu; Yang, Xueming

    2015-05-01

    The Dalian Coherent Light Source (DCLS) is a Free electron laser (FEL) user facility currently under construction in the northeast of China. It is designed to work on high gain high harmonic principle with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50-150 nm. The light source has unique features such as the turntable radiation frequency, wide spectral range, high brightness and peak power, very short pulse time structure, etc. A key diagnostic task in DCLS is the on-line source spectral characteristic recording during the source development, and for the definition of the experimental conditions. For this purpose, an online grazing incidence spectrometer with a toroidal mirror and a variable-line-spacing plane grating is designed and presented in this paper to monitor each single FEL pulse. A circular stage is chosen to fit the focal curve and to realize the wavelength scanning. This scanning mechanics is simpler and stable. Resolving power (λ/Δλ) of this spectrometer is better than 12,000 in the whole wavelength range.

  9. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge M.; Agostini, Matteo; Scarin, Paolo; Stotler, Daren P.; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Loch, Stuart D.; Schmitz, Oliver; Tritz, Kevin; Stutman, Dan

    2015-05-06

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model (CRM) with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV ) and density (cm–3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast (~4 μs) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-off layer (SOL) and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. In conclusion, this study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic systems on the divertor.

  10. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    DOE PAGES

    Munoz Burgos, Jorge M.; Agostini, Matteo; Scarin, Paolo; ...

    2015-05-06

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model (CRM) with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV ) and density (cm–3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast (~4 μs) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-offmore » layer (SOL) and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. In conclusion, this study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic systems on the divertor.« less

  11. Evaluation of thermal helium beam and line-ratio fast diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Agostini, M.; Scarin, P.; Stotler, D. P.; Unterberg, E. A.; Loch, S. D.; Schmitz, O.; Tritz, K.; Stutman, D.

    2016-05-01

    A 1-D kinetic collisional radiative model with state-of-the-art atomic data is developed and employed to simulate line emission to evaluate the Thermal Helium Beam (THB) diagnostic on NSTX-U. This diagnostic is currently in operation on RFX-mod, and it is proposed to be installed on NSTX-U. The THB system uses the intensity ratios of neutral helium lines 667.8, 706.5, and 728.1 nm to derive electron temperature (eV) and density (cm-3) profiles. The purpose of the present analysis is to evaluate the applications of this diagnostic for determining fast ( ∽ 4 μs ) electron temperature and density radial profiles on the scrape-off layer and edge regions of NSTX-U that are needed in turbulence studies. The diagnostic is limited by the level of detection of the 728.1 nm line, which is the weakest of the three. This study will also aid in future design of a similar 2-D diagnostic system on the divertor.

  12. The SLAC NLC extraction & diagnostic line

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, J.; Irwin, J.; Walz, D.; Woods, M.

    1995-05-01

    A prototype extraction line for the Next Linear Collider is discussed that has several important functions that include optimizing luminosity, characterizing beam properties at the Interaction Point and transporting beams from the IP to a dump. Beam characterization includes measurements of current, position, profile, energy, polarization and low-order correlations on a bunch-to-bunch basis for feedback and stabilization. Prototype optical and diagnostic layouts are described that provide such functions. The authors also consider possibilities for e, {mu} and {gamma} secondary beam lines and dump experiments as well as energy recovery and local reuse of an assumed 10MW in each 500 GeV beam.

  13. Characterizing ICF Neutron Scintillation Diagnostics on the nTOF line at SUNY Geneseo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson-Keister, Pat; Padawar-Curry, Jonah; Visca, Hannah; Fletcher, Kurt; Padalino, Stephen; Sangster, T. Craig; Regan, Sean

    2015-11-01

    Neutron scintillator diagnostics for ICF and HEDP can be characterized using the neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) line on Geneseo's 1.7 MV tandem Pelletron accelerator. Neutron signals can be differentiated from gamma signals by employing coincidence methods. A 1.8-MeV beam of deuterons incident on a deuterated polyethylene target produces neutrons via the 2H(d,n)3He reaction. Neutrons emerging at a lab angle of 88° have an energy of 2.96 MeV; the 3He ions associated with these neutrons are detected at a scattering angle of 43° using a surface barrier detector. The time of flight of the neutron can be measured by using the 3He detection as a ``start'' signal and the scintillation detection as a ``stop'' signal. This time of flight requirement is used to identify the 2.96-MeV neutron signals in the scintillator. To measure the light curve produced by these monoenergetic neutrons, two photomultiplier (PMT) tubes are attached to the scintillator. The full aperture PMT establishes the nTOF coincidence. The other PMT is fitted with a pinhole to collect single events. The time between the full aperture PMT signal and the arrival of the signal in the pinhole PMT is used to determine the light curve for the scintillator. This system will enable the neutron response of various scintillators to be compared. Supported in part by the Department of Energy National Nuclear Security Administration under Award Number DE-NA0001944.

  14. Diagnostics of recombining laser plasma parameters based on He-like ion resonance lines intensity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryazantsev, S. N.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Faenov, A. Ya; Pikuz, T. A.; Grum-Grzhimailo, A. N.; Pikuz, S. A.

    2016-11-01

    While the plasma created by powerful laser expands from the target surface it becomes overcooled, i.e. recombining one. Improving of diagnostic methods applicable for such plasma is rather important problem in laboratory astrophysics nowadays because laser produced jets are fully scalable to young stellar objects. Such scaling is possible because of the plasma hydrodynamic equations invariance under some transformations. In this paper it is shown that relative intensities of the resonance transitions in He-like ions can be used to measure the parameters of recombining plasma. Intensity of the spectral lines corresponding to these transitions is sensitive to the density in the range of 1016-1020 cm-3 while the temperature ranges from 10 to 100 eV for ions with nuclear charge Zn ∼ 10. Calculations were carried out for F VIII ion and allowed to determine parameters of plasma jets created by nanosecond laser system ELFIE (Ecole Polytechnique, France) for astrophysical phenomenon modelling. Obtained dependencies are quite universal and can be used for any recombining plasma containing He-like fluorine ions.

  15. On-line diagnostics of washing machines: design issues for the optimization of the measurement set-up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinelli, G.; Paone, N.; Cristalli, C.; Torcianti, B.

    2008-06-01

    This paper discusses some of the relevant aspects that a designer of an on-line test station for washing machine diagnostics based on a single-point laser Doppler vibrometer should consider. In particular, the paper presents a series of experiments useful to answer the two following questions: a) Where to locate the measurement point? b) Does the test need to be done with an external load to be inserted into the rotating drum? Tests have been done on a "good" washing machine and on a machine exhibiting the most frequent defects to be detected in production line. The study of the Operating Deflection Shapes (ODS) of the machine has been used to determine the best area of the machine cabinet where to position the single point laser vibrometer for on-line diagnostics. In order to support the decision whether or not to employ an artificial unbalance load inserted into the drum during the dynamic test, measurements have been repeated with and without load. Results have been analysed to highlight pros and cons of the use of an external load.

  16. Development of a Temperature Diagnostic Based on the Emission Lines of Fluorine-Like Ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepson, Jaan K.; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Kaita, Robert; Majeski, Richard; Boyle, Dennis

    2016-06-01

    We used the Flexible Atomic Code to calculate theoretical intensities of extreme ultraviolet emission lines of fluorine-like Al IV, Si VI, and S VIII at electron temperatures Te from 1 eV to well above 100 eV, and found that the intensity ratio of the 3-->2 and 2-->2 transitions is temperature sensitive. We tested these calculations by measuring the relevant Al IV emission in the 115-320 Å spectral region on the Lithium Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. Spectra were taken with the Long Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer, LoWEUS, which has a resolution of ~0.3 Å. We identified emission from neon-like Al V as well as fluorine-like Al IV. Our data include emission from Li II and Li III, and O IV-VI, which we used for wavelength calibration. We used the oxygen line intensities from CHIANTI to calculate the intensity response function for the region we studied. The measurements confirm that the ratio of the intensity of the 3-->2 feature at 133 Å to a pair of 2-->2 lines at 278 Å and 281 Å can be used to derive temperature estimates for the emitting region of the plasma. Our measurements indicate a temperature Te of ~16 ± 2 eV from the 133/278 Å line pair and ~17.5 ±2 eV from the 133/281 Å line pair, which is close to the temperature of maximum abundance of fluorine-like Al.This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Basic Plasma Science Program.

  17. Time-dependent analysis of visible helium line-ratios for electron temperature and density diagnostic using synthetic simulations on NSTX-U

    SciTech Connect

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Barbui, T.; Schmitz, O.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2016-07-11

    Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) plasma diagnostic in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and Edge regions of tokamaks are widely used. Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet 667.8 and 728.1 nm, and triplet 706.5 nm visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application of this powerful diagnostic to high temporal resolution characterization of plasmas. The analysis is done using synthetic emission modeling and diagnostic for low electron density NSTX SOL plasma conditions by several visible lines. Quasi-static equilibrium, and time-dependent models are employed to evaluate transient effects of the atomic population levels that may affect the derived electron temperatures and densities as the helium gas-puff penetrates the plasma. Ultimately, the analysis of a wider range of spectral lines will help to extend this powerful diagnostic to experiments where the wavelength range of the measured spectra may be constrained either by limitations of the spectrometer, or by other conflicting lines from different ions.

  18. Time-dependent analysis of visible helium line-ratios for electron temperature and density diagnostic using synthetic simulations on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Barbui, T.; Schmitz, O.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2016-11-01

    Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) plasma diagnostic in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and edge regions of tokamaks are widely used. Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet, 667.8 and 728.1 nm, and triplet, 706.5 nm, visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application of this powerful diagnostic to high temporal resolution characterization of plasmas. The analysis is done using synthetic emission modeling and diagnostic for low electron density NSTX SOL plasma conditions by several visible lines. Quasi-static equilibrium and time-dependent models are employed to evaluate transient effects of the atomic population levels that may affect the derived electron temperatures and densities as the helium gas-puff penetrates the plasma. The analysis of a wider range of spectral lines will help to extend this powerful diagnostic to experiments where the wavelength range of the measured spectra may be constrained either by limitations of the spectrometer or by other conflicting lines from different ions.

  19. Diagnostics on Z (invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nash, T. J.; Derzon, M. S.; Chandler, G. A.; Fehl, D. L.; Leeper, R. J.; Porter, J. L.; Spielman, R. B.; Ruiz, C.; Cooper, G.; McGurn, J.; Hurst, M.; Jobe, D.; Torres, J.; Seaman, J.; Struve, K.; Lazier, S.; Gilliland, T.; Ruggles, L. A.; Simpson, W. A.; Adams, R.; Seaman, J. A.; Wenger, D.; Nielsen, D.; Riley, P.; French, R.; Stygar, B.; Wagoner, T.; Sanford, T. W. L.; Mock, R.; Asay, J.; Hall, C.; Knudson, M.; Armijo, J.; McKenney, J.; Hawn, R.; Schroen-Carey, D.; Hebron, D.; Cutler, T.; Dropinski, S.; Deeney, C.; LePell, P. D.; Coverdale, C. A.; Douglas, M.; Cuneo, M.; Hanson, D.; Bailey, J. E.; Lake, P.; Carlson, A.; Wakefield, C.; Mills, J.; Slopek, J.; Dinwoodie, T.; Idzorek, G.

    2001-01-01

    The 100 ns, 20 MA pinch-driver Z is surrounded by an extensive set of diagnostics. There are nine radial lines of sight set at 12° above horizontal and each of these may be equipped with up to five diagnostic ports. Instruments routinely fielded viewing the pinch from the side with these ports include x-ray diode arrays, photoconducting detector arrays, bolometers, transmission grating spectrometers, time-resolved x-ray pinhole cameras, x-ray crystal spectrometers, calorimeters, silicon photodiodes, and neutron detectors. A diagnostic package fielded on axis for viewing internal pinch radiation consists of nine lines of sight. This package accommodates virtually the same diagnostics as the radial ports. Other diagnostics not fielded on the axial or radial ports include current B-dot monitors, filtered x-ray scintillators coupled by fiber optics to streak cameras, streaked visible spectroscopy, velocity interferometric system for any reflector, bremsstrahlung cameras, and active shock breakout measurement of hohlraum temperature. The data acquisition system is capable of recording up to 500 channels and the data from each shot is available on the Internet. A major new diagnostic presently under construction is the BEAMLET backlighter. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some of the highest-quality data from them.

  20. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Naiyu; Yuan, Ye

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM) to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF) was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV) model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault. PMID:28182692

  1. Aircraft engine sensor fault diagnostics using an on-line OBEM update method.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaofeng; Xue, Naiyu; Yuan, Ye

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposed a method to update the on-line health reference baseline of the On-Board Engine Model (OBEM) to maintain the effectiveness of an in-flight aircraft sensor Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) system, in which a Hybrid Kalman Filter (HKF) was incorporated. Generated from a rapid in-flight engine degradation, a large health condition mismatch between the engine and the OBEM can corrupt the performance of the FDI. Therefore, it is necessary to update the OBEM online when a rapid degradation occurs, but the FDI system will lose estimation accuracy if the estimation and update are running simultaneously. To solve this problem, the health reference baseline for a nonlinear OBEM was updated using the proposed channel controller method. Simulations based on the turbojet engine Linear-Parameter Varying (LPV) model demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed FDI system in the presence of substantial degradation, and the channel controller can ensure that the update process finishes without interference from a single sensor fault.

  2. Powerloads on the front end components and the duct of the heating and diagnostic neutral beam lines at ITER

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M. J.; Boilson, D.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Geli, F.; Graceffa, J.; Urbani, M.; Schunke, B.; Chareyre, J.; Dlougach, E.; Krylov, A.

    2015-04-08

    The heating and current drive beam lines (HNB) at ITER are expected to deliver ∼16.7 MW power per beam line for H beams at 870 keV and D beams at 1 MeV during the H-He and the DD/DT phases of ITER operation respectively. On the other hand the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) line shall deliver ∼2 MW power for H beams at 100 keV during both the phases. The path lengths over which the beams from the HNB and DNB beam lines need to be transported are 25.6 m and 20.7 m respectively. The transport of the beams over these path lengths results in beam losses, mainly by the direct interception of the beam with the beam line components and reionisation. The lost power is deposited on the surfaces of the various components of the beam line. In order to ensure the survival of these components over the operational life time of ITER, it is important to determine to the best possible extent the operational power loads and power densities on the various surfaces which are impacted by the beam in one way or the other during its transport. The main factors contributing to these are the divergence of the beamlets and the halo fraction in the beam, the beam aiming, the horizontal and vertical misalignment of the beam, and the gas profile along the beam path, which determines the re-ionisation loss, and the re-ionisation cross sections. The estimations have been made using a combination of the modified version of the Monte Carlo Gas Flow code (MCGF) and the BTR code. The MCGF is used to determine the gas profile in the beam line and takes into account the active gas feed into the ion source and neutraliser, the HNB-DNB cross over, the gas entering the beamline from the ITER machine, the additional gas atoms generated in the beam line due to impacting ions and the pumping speed of the cryopumps. The BTR code has been used to obtain the power loads and the power densities on the various surfaces of the front end components and the duct modules for different scenarios of ITER

  3. On-line experimental validation of a model-based diagnostic algorithm dedicated to a solid oxide fuel cell system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polverino, Pierpaolo; Esposito, Angelo; Pianese, Cesare; Ludwig, Bastian; Iwanschitz, Boris; Mai, Andreas

    2016-02-01

    In the current energetic scenario, Solid Oxide Fuel Cells (SOFCs) exhibit appealing features which make them suitable for environmental-friendly power production, especially for stationary applications. An example is represented by micro-combined heat and power (μ-CHP) generation units based on SOFC stacks, which are able to produce electric and thermal power with high efficiency and low pollutant and greenhouse gases emissions. However, the main limitations to their diffusion into the mass market consist in high maintenance and production costs and short lifetime. To improve these aspects, the current research activity focuses on the development of robust and generalizable diagnostic techniques, aimed at detecting and isolating faults within the entire system (i.e. SOFC stack and balance of plant). Coupled with appropriate recovery strategies, diagnosis can prevent undesired system shutdowns during faulty conditions, with consequent lifetime increase and maintenance costs reduction. This paper deals with the on-line experimental validation of a model-based diagnostic algorithm applied to a pre-commercial SOFC system. The proposed algorithm exploits a Fault Signature Matrix based on a Fault Tree Analysis and improved through fault simulations. The algorithm is characterized on the considered system and it is validated by means of experimental induction of faulty states in controlled conditions.

  4. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of a Baseline System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a baseline system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements for aircraft engine on-line diagnostics is developed. This system is composed of a linear on-board engine model (LOBEM) and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The LOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. When the discrepancy among the triplex channels exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of the discrepancy. Through this approach, the baseline system achieves the following objectives: (1) anomaly detection, (2) component fault detection, and (3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the baseline system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components.

  5. Spectral Line Shapes as a Diagnostic Tool in Magnetic Fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Stamm, R; Capes, H; Demura, A; Godbert-Mouret, L; Koubiti, M; Marandet, Y; Mattioli, M; Rosato, J; Rosmej, F; Fournier, K B

    2006-07-22

    Spectral line shapes and intensities are used for obtaining information on the various regions of magnetic fusion devices. Emission from low principal quantum numbers of hydrogen isotopes is analyzed for understanding the complex recycling mechanism. Lines emitted from high principal quantum numbers of hydrogen and helium are dominated by Stark effect, allowing an electronic density diagnostic in the divertor. Intensities of lines emitted by impurities are fitted for a better knowledge of ion transport in the confined plasma.

  6. Time-dependent analysis of visible helium line-ratios for electron temperature and density diagnostic using synthetic simulations on NSTX-U

    DOE PAGES

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Barbui, T.; Schmitz, O.; ...

    2016-07-11

    Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (Te) and density (ne) plasma diagnostic in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and Edge regions of tokamaks are widely used. Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet 667.8 and 728.1 nm, and triplet 706.5 nm visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application of this powerful diagnosticmore » to high temporal resolution characterization of plasmas. The analysis is done using synthetic emission modeling and diagnostic for low electron density NSTX SOL plasma conditions by several visible lines. Quasi-static equilibrium, and time-dependent models are employed to evaluate transient effects of the atomic population levels that may affect the derived electron temperatures and densities as the helium gas-puff penetrates the plasma. Ultimately, the analysis of a wider range of spectral lines will help to extend this powerful diagnostic to experiments where the wavelength range of the measured spectra may be constrained either by limitations of the spectrometer, or by other conflicting lines from different ions.« less

  7. On-line integration of computer controlled diagnostic devices and medical information systems in undergraduate medical physics education for physicians.

    PubMed

    Hanus, Josef; Nosek, Tomas; Zahora, Jiri; Bezrouk, Ales; Masin, Vladimir

    2013-01-01

    We designed and evaluated an innovative computer-aided-learning environment based on the on-line integration of computer controlled medical diagnostic devices and a medical information system for use in the preclinical medical physics education of medical students. Our learning system simulates the actual clinical environment in a hospital or primary care unit. It uses a commercial medical information system for on-line storage and processing of clinical type data acquired during physics laboratory classes. Every student adopts two roles, the role of 'patient' and the role of 'physician'. As a 'physician' the student operates the medical devices to clinically assess 'patient' colleagues and records all results in an electronic 'patient' record. We also introduced an innovative approach to the use of supportive education materials, based on the methods of adaptive e-learning. A survey of student feedback is included and statistically evaluated. The results from the student feedback confirm the positive response of the latter to this novel implementation of medical physics and informatics in preclinical education. This approach not only significantly improves learning of medical physics and informatics skills but has the added advantage that it facilitates students' transition from preclinical to clinical subjects.

  8. On the Use of Spectral Lines Emitted by Carbon Ions for Plasma Diagnostics in Magnetic Fusion Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Koubiti, M.; Capes, H.; Ferri, S.; Godbert-Mouret, L.; Marandet, Y.; Rosato, J.; Stamm, R.

    2008-10-22

    Profiles of the n = 5-6 ({lambda} = 4658 A) and n = 6-7(7726 A) lines emitted by Li-like carbon C{sup +3} ions have been computed for plasma conditions of tokamak and stellarator divertors (N{sub e} = 10{sup 19}-10{sup 21} m{sup -3}, Te = 1-10 eV). The broadening and profiles of these lines are proposed to be used for plasma diagnostic purposes in particular to crosscheck the validity of the plasma parameters determined from the CIV line intensities measured in JT-60U tokamak.

  9. Comparing Narrow- and Broad-line AGNs in a New Diagnostic Diagram for Emission-line Galaxies Based on WISE Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coziol, R.; Torres-Papaqui, J. P.; Andernach, H.

    2015-06-01

    Using a new color-color diagnostic diagram in the mid-infrared (MIR) built from WISE data, the MIRDD, we compare narrow-emission-line galaxies (NELGs) that exhibit different activity types (star-forming galaxies (SFGs) and active galactic nuclei (AGNs), i.e., LINERs, Seyfert 2 galaxies (Sy2s), and Transition-type Objects (TOs)), as determined using one standard diagnostic diagram in the optical (BPT-VO), with broad-line AGNs (QSOs and Sy1s) and BL Lac objects at low redshift (z≤slant 0.25). We show that the BL Lac objects occupy the same region as the LINERs in the MIRDD, whereas the QSOs and Sy1s occupy an intermediate region between the LINERs and the Sy2s. In the MIRDD these galaxies trace a sequence that can be reproduced by a power law, {{F}ν }={{ν }α }, where the spectral index, α, varies from 0 to -2, which is similar to what is observed in the optical/ultraviolet part of the spectra of AGNs with different luminosities. For the NELGs with different activity types, we perform a stellar-population synthesis analysis, confirming that their specific positions in the MIRD depend on their star formation histories (SFH) and demonstrating that the W2-W3 color is tightly correlated with the level of star formation in their host galaxies. In good agreement with the SFH analysis, a comparison of their MIR colors with the colors yielded by spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of galaxies with different activity types shows that the SED of the LINERs is similar to the SEDs of the QSOs and Sy1s, consistent with AGN galaxies with mild star formation, whereas the SEDs of the Sy2s and TOs are consistent with AGN galaxies with strong star formation components. For the BL Lac objects, we show that their blue MIR colors can only be fitted with an SED that has no star formation component, consistent with AGNs in elliptical-type galaxies. From their similarities in MIR colors and SEDs, we infer that, in the nearby universe, the level of star formation activity most probably

  10. Aircraft Engine On-Line Diagnostics Through Dual-Channel Sensor Measurements: Development of an Enhanced System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobayashi, Takahisa; Simon, Donald L.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, an enhanced on-line diagnostic system which utilizes dual-channel sensor measurements is developed for the aircraft engine application. The enhanced system is composed of a nonlinear on-board engine model (NOBEM), the hybrid Kalman filter (HKF) algorithm, and fault detection and isolation (FDI) logic. The NOBEM provides the analytical third channel against which the dual-channel measurements are compared. The NOBEM is further utilized as part of the HKF algorithm which estimates measured engine parameters. Engine parameters obtained from the dual-channel measurements, the NOBEM, and the HKF are compared against each other. When the discrepancy among the signals exceeds a tolerance level, the FDI logic determines the cause of discrepancy. Through this approach, the enhanced system achieves the following objectives: 1) anomaly detection, 2) component fault detection, and 3) sensor fault detection and isolation. The performance of the enhanced system is evaluated in a simulation environment using faults in sensors and components, and it is compared to an existing baseline system.

  11. Thermionic noise measurements for on-line dispenser cathode diagnostics for linear beam microwave tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holland, C.; Brodie, I.

    1985-01-01

    A test stand has been set up to measure the current fluctuation noise properties of B- and M-type dispenser cathodes in a typical TWT gun structure. Noise techniques were used to determine the work function distribution on the cathode surfaces. Significant differences between the B and M types and significant changes in the work function distribution during activation and life are found. In turn, knowledge of the expected work function can be used to accurately determine the cathode-operating temperatures in a TWT structure. Noise measurements also demonstrate more sensitivity to space charge effects than the Miram method. Full automation of the measurements and computations is now required to speed up data acquisition and reduction. The complete set of equations for the space charge limited diode were programmed so that given four of the five measurable variables (J, J sub O, T, D, and V) the fifth could be computed. Using this program, we estimated that an rms fluctuation in the diode spacing d in the frequency range of 145 Hz about 20 kHz of only about 10 to the -5 power A would account for the observed noise in a space charge limited diode with 1 mm spacing.

  12. Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI): On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring for Next Generation Nuclear Plants - Phase I Annual Report

    SciTech Connect

    L. J. Bond; S. R. Doctor; R. W. Gilbert; D. B. Jarrell; F. L. Greitzer; R. J. Meador

    2000-09-01

    OAK-B135 This OSTI ID belongs to an IWO and is being released out of the system. The Program Manager Rebecca Richardson has confirmed that all reports have been received. The objective of this project is to design and demonstrate the operation of the real-time intelligent self-diagnostic and prognostic system for next generation nuclear power plant systems. This new self-diagnostic technology is titled, ''On-Line Intelligent Self-Diagnostic Monitoring System'' (SDMS). This project provides a proof-of-principle technology demonstration for SDMS on a pilot plant scale service water system, where a distributed array of sensors is integrated with active components and passive structures typical of next generation nuclear power reactor and plant systems. This project employs state-of-the-art sensors, instrumentation, and computer processing to improve the monitoring and assessment of the power reactor system and to provide diagnostic and automated prognostics capabilities.

  13. Photoionization of Highly Charged Argon Ions and Their Diagnostic Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nahar, Sultana N.

    2012-06-01

    %TEXT OF YOUR ABSTRACT Lines of highly charged He-like and Li-like ions in the ultraviolet and X-ray regions provide useful diagnostics for the physical and chemical conditions of the astrophysical as well as fusion plasmas. For example, Ar XVII lines in a Syfert galaxy have been measured by the X-ray space observatory Chandra. Results on photoionization of Ar XVI and Ar XVII obtained from relativistic Breit-Pauli R-matrix method and close-coupling approximation will be presented. Important features for level-specific photoionization for the diagnostic w, x, y, z lines of He-like Ar XVII in the ultraviolet region will be illustrated. Although monotonous decay dominates the low energy photoionization for these ions, strong resonances appear in the high energy region indicating higher recombination, inverse process of photoionization, at high temperature. The spectra of the well known 22 diagnostics dielectronic satellite lines of Li-like Ar XVI will be shown produced from the the KLL resonances in photoionization. Acknowledgement: Partially supported by DOE, NSF; Computational work was carried out at the Ohio Supercomputer Center

  14. Developing an edge-plasma diagnostic tool for the Globus-M tokamak based on measuring ratios of HeI lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhin, V. M.; Rykachevskii, A. I.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval', A. N.; Mukhin, E. E.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Voronin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    A diagnostic technique that is based on measuring the ratios of neutral-helium line strengths has been developed for peripheral distributions of electron temperature and density of tokamak plasma. The main components of the technique are a four-channel filter-lens imaging polychromator (FLIP-4) and a Phantom Miro M110 high-speed camera for recording the images. The polychromator has been assembled, adjusted, and tested on an optical test bench. The optical system was installed on the spherical Globus-M tokamak. Some preliminary experiments were carried out. Images of the plasma-gun jet were obtained at neutralhelium lines.

  15. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    Integrity monitoring and flaw diagnostics of flat beams and tubular structures was investigated in this research task using guided acoustic signals. A piezo-sensor suite was deployed to activate and collect Lamb wave signals that propagate along metallic specimens. The dispersion curves of Lamb waves along plate and tubular structures are generated through numerical analysis. Several advanced techniques were explored to extract representative features from acoustic time series. Among them, the Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) is a recently developed technique for the analysis of non-linear and transient signals. A moving window method was introduced to generate the local peak characters from acoustic time series, and a zooming window technique was developed to localize the structural flaws. The time-frequency analysis and pattern recognition techniques were combined for classifying structural defects in brass tubes. Several types of flaws in brass tubes were tested, both in the air and in water. The techniques also proved to be effective under background/process noise. A detailed theoretical analysis of Lamb wave propagation was performed and simulations were carried out using the finite element software system ABAQUS. This analytical study confirmed the behavior of the acoustic signals acquired from the experimental studies. The report presents the background the analysis of acoustic signals acquired from piezo-electric transducers for structural defect monitoring. A comparison of the use of time-frequency techniques, including the Hilbert-Huang transform, is presented. The report presents the theoretical study of Lamb wave propagation in flat beams and tubular structures, and the need for mode separation in order to effectively perform defect diagnosis. The results of an extensive experimental study of detection, location, and isolation of structural defects in flat aluminum beams and brass tubes are presented. The results of this research show the feasibility of on-line

  16. SDSS-IV MaNGA: the impact of diffuse ionized gas on emission-line ratios, interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas metallicity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Kai; Yan, Renbin; Bundy, Kevin; Bershady, Matthew; Haffner, L. Matthew; Walterbos, René; Maiolino, Roberto; Tremonti, Christy; Thomas, Daniel; Drory, Niv; Jones, Amy; Belfiore, Francesco; Sánchez, Sebastian F.; Diamond-Stanic, Aleksandar M.; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Nitschelm, Christian; Andrews, Brett; Brinkmann, Jon; Brownstein, Joel R.; Cheung, Edmond; Li, Cheng; Law, David R.; Roman Lopes, Alexandre; Oravetz, Daniel; Pan, Kaike; Storchi Bergmann, Thaisa; Simmons, Audrey

    2017-04-01

    Diffuse ionized gas (DIG) is prevalent in star-forming galaxies. Using a sample of 365 nearly face-on star-forming galaxies observed by Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO, we demonstrate how DIG in star-forming galaxies impacts the measurements of emission-line ratios, hence the interpretation of diagnostic diagrams and gas-phase metallicity measurements. At fixed metallicity, DIG-dominated low ΣHα regions display enhanced [S II]/Hα, [N II]/Hα, [O II]/Hβ and [O I]/Hα. The gradients in these line ratios are determined by metallicity gradients and ΣHα. In line ratio diagnostic diagrams, contamination by DIG moves H II regions towards composite or low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LI(N)ER)-like regions. A harder ionizing spectrum is needed to explain DIG line ratios. Leaky H II region models can only shift line ratios slightly relative to H II region models, and thus fail to explain the composite/LI(N)ER line ratios displayed by DIG. Our result favours ionization by evolved stars as a major ionization source for DIG with LI(N)ER-like emission. DIG can significantly bias the measurement of gas metallicity and metallicity gradients derived using strong-line methods. Metallicities derived using N2O2 are optimal because they exhibit the smallest bias and error. Using O3N2, R23, N2 = [N II]/Hα and N2S2Hα to derive metallicities introduces bias in the derived metallicity gradients as large as the gradient itself. The strong-line method of Blanc et al. (IZI hereafter) cannot be applied to DIG to get an accurate metallicity because it currently contains only H II region models that fail to describe the DIG.

  17. Laser Integration Line target diagnostics first results (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Le Breton, J. P.; Alozy, E.; Boutin, J. Y.; Duval, A.; Gary, S.; Gontier, D.; Jasmin, S.; Naudy, M.; Reverdin, C.; Rosch, R.; Schmitt, S.; Soullie, G.; Stemmler, P.; Villette, B.; Wrobel, R.; Hulin, S.; Meyer, C.; Romary, P.

    2006-10-15

    The Laser Integration Line (LIL) is part of the Laser Megajoule (LMJ) project. The LMJ installation, which is of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) class, will deliver 1.8 MJ at 0.35 {mu}m wavelength on target with 60 quadruplets of elementary beams. The energy on target of LIL is 30 kJ corresponding to one quadruplet, it is housed in a separate building and has its own experimental setup. Target diagnostics have been progressively installed in the LIL target area. Energy and imaging diagnostics as well as the broadband and high resolution spectrometers have been fabricated in the frame of a unique industrial contract. Optical pointers are used to align the diagnostics to the target. The supervisory system controlling the diagnostics configuration and data acquisition is now able to manage cooperative and Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA) shots. The calibration data base is accessible from the processing network and will very soon include the characterization of all the streaked, gated, and charge coupled device cameras. Only the Raman-Brillouin backscatter spectrometer still requires some final work and operating tests. The first diagnostics results have been obtained at the end of 2004. A gated soft x-ray imager, the Diagnostic de Mesure X (DMX) broadband spectrometer and a pinhole static imager were used in demonstration experiments. The purpose of the first experiment was to observe the closing of a slit etched in a tantalum oxide foam when irradiated by x-rays. The next diagnostics to be activated were the high resolution spectrometers, the gated x-ray imager, the two mirror x-ray imagers, and the scattered energy diagnostic. This was done during the preparation phase of a campaign realized in collaboration with the French Lasers and Plasmas Institute at the end of 2005 in order to study heat conduction in inertial confinement fusion plasmas. The next diagnostic which is now in preparation is a velocity interferometer system for any reflector. This

  18. Contribution of satellite lines to temperature diagnostics with He-like triplet lines in photoionized plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feilu; Han, Bo; Salzmann, David; Zhao, Gang

    2017-04-01

    In the present paper, the He α triplet line ratios (resonance, intercombination, and forbidden lines) are computed for photoionized plasmas, when the contributions of nearby satellite lines are taken into account. The computations have been carried out with our radiative-collisional code, RCF, which is based on the flexible atomic code. The calculations of these line ratios have been done for three materials, namely, silicon, magnesium, and neon. Our calculations are used to derive the plasma temperatures for several astronomical objects, where the spectra are emitted from photoionizing plasmas. It is shown that the incorporation of the satellite lines from doubly excited Li-like ions into the He α triplet lines is necessary to obtain reliable temperature diagnostics for these astrophysical objects.

  19. PERFORMING DIAGNOSTICS ON THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE VISION BEAM LINE TO ELIMINATE HIGH VIBRATION LEVELS AND PROVIDE A SUSTAINABLE OPERATION

    SciTech Connect

    Van Hoy, Blake W

    2014-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) provides variable energy neutrons for a variety of experiments. The neutrons proceed down beam lines to the experiment hall, which houses a variety of experiments and test articles. Each beam line has one or more neutron choppers which filter the neutron beam based on the neutron energy by using a rotating neutron absorbing material passing through the neutron beam. Excessive vibration of the Vision beam line, believed to be caused by the T0 chopper, prevented the Vision beam line from operating at full capacity. This problem had been addressed several times by rebalancing/reworking the T0 beam chopper but the problem stubbornly persisted. To determine the cause of the high vibration, dynamic testing was performed. Twenty-seven accelerometer and motor current channels of data were collected during drive up, drive down, coast down, and steady-state conditions; resonance testing and motor current signature analysis were also performed. The data was analyzed for traditional mechanical/machinery issues such as misalignment and imbalance using time series analysis, frequency domain analysis, and operating deflection shape analysis. The analysis showed that the chopper base plate was experiencing an amplified response to the excitation provided by the T0 beam chopper. The amplified response was diagnosed to be caused by higher than expected base plate flexibility, possibly due to improper grouting or loose floor anchors. Based on this diagnosis, a decision was made to dismantle the beam line chopper and remount the base plate. Neutron activation of the beam line components make modifications to the beam line especially expensive and time consuming due to the radiation handling requirements, so this decision had significant financial and schedule implications. It was found that the base plate was indeed loose because of improper grouting during its initial installation. The base plate was

  20. Feasibility of line-ratio spectroscopy on helium and neon as edge diagnostic tool for Wendelstein 7-X

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbui, T.; Krychowiak, M.; König, R.; Schmitz, O.; Muñoz Burgos, J. M.; Schweer, B.; Terra, A.

    2016-11-01

    A beam emission spectroscopy system on thermal helium (He) and neon (Ne) has been set up at Wendelstein 7-X to measure edge electron temperature and density profiles utilizing the line-ratio technique or its extension by the analysis of absolutely calibrated line emissions. The setup for a first systematic test of these techniques of quantitative atomic spectroscopy in the limiter startup phase (OP1.1) is reported together with first measured profiles. This setup and the first results are an important test for developing the technique for the upcoming high density, low temperature island divertor regime.

  1. Feasibility of line-ratio spectroscopy on helium and neon as edge diagnostic tool for Wendelstein 7-X.

    PubMed

    Barbui, T; Krychowiak, M; König, R; Schmitz, O; Muñoz Burgos, J M; Schweer, B; Terra, A

    2016-11-01

    A beam emission spectroscopy system on thermal helium (He) and neon (Ne) has been set up at Wendelstein 7-X to measure edge electron temperature and density profiles utilizing the line-ratio technique or its extension by the analysis of absolutely calibrated line emissions. The setup for a first systematic test of these techniques of quantitative atomic spectroscopy in the limiter startup phase (OP1.1) is reported together with first measured profiles. This setup and the first results are an important test for developing the technique for the upcoming high density, low temperature island divertor regime.

  2. The Diagnostic Potential of Fe Lines Applied to Protostellar Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.; Antoniucci, S.; Alcalá, J. M.; Bacciotti, F.; Bonito, R.; Podio, L.; Stelzer, B.; Whelan, E. T.

    2013-11-01

    We investigate the diagnostic capabilities of iron lines for tracing the physical conditions of shock-excited gas in jets driven by pre-main sequence stars. We have analyzed the 3000-25000 Å, X-shooter spectra of two jets driven by the pre-main sequence stars ESO-Hα 574 and Par-Lup 3-4. Both spectra are very rich in [Fe II] lines over the whole spectral range; in addition, lines from [Fe III] are detected in the ESO-Hα 574 spectrum. Non-local thermal equilibrium codes solving the equations of the statistical equilibrium along with codes for the ionization equilibrium are used to derive the gas excitation conditions of electron temperature and density and fractional ionization. An estimate of the iron gas-phase abundance is provided by comparing the iron lines emissivity with that of neutral oxygen at 6300 Å. The [Fe II] line analysis indicates that the jet driven by ESO-Hα 574 is, on average, colder (T e ~ 9000 K), less dense (n e ~ 2 × 104 cm-3), and more ionized (x e ~ 0.7) than the Par-Lup 3-4 jet (T e ~ 13,000 K, n e ~ 6 × 104 cm-3, x e < 0.4), even if the existence of a higher density component (n e ~ 2 × 105 cm-3) is probed by the [Fe III] and [Fe II] ultra-violet lines. The physical conditions derived from the iron lines are compared with shock models suggesting that the shock at work in ESO-Hα 574 is faster and likely more energetic than the Par-Lup 3-4 shock. This latter feature is confirmed by the high percentage of gas-phase iron measured in ESO-Hα 574 (50%-60% of its solar abundance in comparison with less than 30% in Par-Lup 3-4), which testifies that the ESO-Hα 574 shock is powerful enough to partially destroy the dust present inside the jet. This work demonstrates that a multiline Fe analysis can be effectively used to probe the excitation and ionization conditions of the gas in a jet without any assumption on ionic abundances. The main limitation on the diagnostics resides in the large uncertainties of the atomic data, which, however, can

  3. Spectral diagnostics based on Doppler-broadened H{sub α} line shape in a single element of a matrix source

    SciTech Connect

    Iordanova, S.; Pashov, A.

    2015-04-08

    The study is on optical emission spectroscopy diagnostics of a single element of a matrix source of negative hydrogen ions. The method developed for description of the hydrogen atoms behaviour is based on analysis of the Balmer H{sub α} line profile, and it can be readily applied to various low pressure hydrogen discharges. The present observations reveal the existence of thermal as well as of non-thermal fast hydrogen atoms in the discharge. For processing of the experimental data a line shape model, which accounts for details of the plasma kinetics and the fine structure of the Balmer lines is developed. The fit of this model to the recorded at different experimental conditions line shapes results in the temperature of the thermal atoms, the mean energy of the fast atoms, the ratio between the densities of these two group of atoms and the relative populations of the fine structure components of the n = 3 hydrogen state. The present study indicates that the reactions leading to production of fast atoms and the process of energy exchange between thermal and fast atoms may be important for the correct modeling of the plasma kinetics.

  4. Polarization diagnostics for cool core cluster emission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Sparks, W. B.; Pringle, J. E.; Cracraft, M.; Meyer, E. T.; Carswell, R. F.; Voit, G. M.; Donahue, M.; Hough, J. H.; Manset, N.

    2014-01-01

    The nature of the interaction between low-excitation gas filaments at ∼10{sup 4} K, seen in optical line emission, and diffuse X-ray emitting coronal gas at ∼10{sup 7} K in the centers of galaxy clusters remains a puzzle. The presence of a strong, empirical correlation between the two gas phases is indicative of a fundamental relationship between them, though as yet of undetermined cause. The cooler filaments, originally thought to have condensed from the hot gas, could also arise from a merger or the disturbance of cool circumnuclear gas by nuclear activity. Here, we have searched for intrinsic line emission polarization in cool core galaxy clusters as a diagnostic of fundamental transport processes. Drawing on developments in solar astrophysics, direct energetic particle impact induced polarization holds the promise to definitively determine the role of collisional processes such as thermal conduction in the ISM physics of galaxy clusters, while providing insight into other highly anisotropic excitation mechanisms such as shocks, intense radiation fields, and suprathermal particles. Under certain physical conditions, theoretical calculations predict of the order of 10% polarization. Our observations of the filaments in four nearby cool core clusters place stringent upper limits (≲ 0.1%) on the presence of emission line polarization, requiring that if thermal conduction is operative, the thermal gradients are not in the saturated regime. This limit is consistent with theoretical models of the thermal structure of filament interfaces.

  5. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers, Volumes 1, 2

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhyaya, Belle R.; Hines, J. Wesley; Lu, Baofu

    2005-06-03

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001 September 2004. Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance.Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. Development of advanced signal processing methods using

  6. On-Line Monitoring and Diagnostics of the Integrity of Nuclear Plant Steam Generators and Heat Exchangers.

    SciTech Connect

    Belle R. Upadhyaya; J. Wesley Hines

    2004-09-27

    The overall purpose of this Nuclear Engineering Education Research (NEER) project was to integrate new, innovative, and existing technologies to develop a fault diagnostics and characterization system for nuclear plant steam generators (SG) and heat exchangers (HX). Issues related to system level degradation of SG and HX tubing, including tube fouling, performance under reduced heat transfer area, and the damage caused by stress corrosion cracking, are the important factors that influence overall plant operation, maintenance, and economic viability of nuclear power systems. The research at The University of Tennessee focused on the development of techniques for monitoring process and structural integrity of steam generators and heat exchangers. The objectives of the project were accomplished by the completion of the following tasks. All the objectives were accomplished during the project period. This report summarizes the research and development activities, results, and accomplishments during June 2001-September 2004. (1) Development and testing of a high-fidelity nodal model of a U-tube steam generator (UTSG) to simulate the effects of fouling and to generate a database representing normal and degraded process conditions. Application of the group method of data handling (GMDH) method for process variable prediction. (2) Development of a laboratory test module to simulate particulate fouling of HX tubes and its effect on overall thermal resistance. Application of the GMDH technique to predict HX fluid temperatures, and to compare with the calculated thermal resistance. (3) Development of a hybrid modeling technique for process diagnosis and its evaluation using laboratory heat exchanger test data. (4) Development and testing of a sensor suite using piezo-electric devices for monitoring structural integrity of both flat plates (beams) and tubing. Experiments were performed in air, and in water with and without bubbly flow. (5) Development of advanced signal

  7. The Impact of a Line Probe Assay Based Diagnostic Algorithm on Time to Treatment Initiation and Treatment Outcomes for Multidrug Resistant TB Patients in Arkhangelsk Region, Russia

    PubMed Central

    Eliseev, Platon; Balantcev, Grigory; Nikishova, Elena; Gaida, Anastasia; Bogdanova, Elena; Enarson, Donald; Ornstein, Tara; Detjen, Anne; Dacombe, Russell; Gospodarevskaya, Elena; Phillips, Patrick P. J.; Mann, Gillian; Squire, Stephen Bertel; Mariandyshev, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    Background In the Arkhangelsk region of Northern Russia, multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis (TB) rates in new cases are amongst the highest in the world. In 2014, MDR-TB rates reached 31.7% among new cases and 56.9% among retreatment cases. The development of new diagnostic tools allows for faster detection of both TB and MDR-TB and should lead to reduced transmission by earlier initiation of anti-TB therapy. Study Aim The PROVE-IT (Policy Relevant Outcomes from Validating Evidence on Impact) Russia study aimed to assess the impact of the implementation of line probe assay (LPA) as part of an LPA-based diagnostic algorithm for patients with presumptive MDR-TB focusing on time to treatment initiation with time from first-care seeking visit to the initiation of MDR-TB treatment rather than diagnostic accuracy as the primary outcome, and to assess treatment outcomes. We hypothesized that the implementation of LPA would result in faster time to treatment initiation and better treatment outcomes. Methods A culture-based diagnostic algorithm used prior to LPA implementation was compared to an LPA-based algorithm that replaced BacTAlert and Löwenstein Jensen (LJ) for drug sensitivity testing. A total of 295 MDR-TB patients were included in the study, 163 diagnosed with the culture-based algorithm, 132 with the LPA-based algorithm. Results Among smear positive patients, the implementation of the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 50 and 66 days compared to the culture-based algorithm (BacTAlert and LJ respectively, p<0.001). In smear negative patients, the LPA-based algorithm was associated with a median decrease in time to MDR-TB treatment initiation of 78 days when compared to the culture-based algorithm (LJ, p<0.001). However, several weeks were still needed for treatment initiation in LPA-based algorithm, 24 days in smear positive, and 62 days in smear negative patients. Overall treatment outcomes

  8. The Far Infrared Lines of OH as Molecular Cloud Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Howard A.

    2004-01-01

    Future IR missions should give some priority to high resolution spectroscopic observations of the set of far-IR transitions of OH. There are 15 far-IR lines arising between the lowest eight rotational levels of OH, and ISO detected nine of them. Furthermore, ISO found the OH lines, sometimes in emission and sometimes in absorption, in a wide variety of galactic and extragalactic objects ranging from AGB stars to molecular clouds to active galactic nuclei and ultra-luminous IR galaxies. The ISO/LWS Fabry-Perot resolved the 119 m doublet line in a few of the strong sources. This set of OH lines provides a uniquely important diagnostic for many reasons: the lines span a wide wavelength range (28.9 m to 163.2 m); the transitions have fast radiative rates; the abundance of the species is relatively high; the IR continuum plays an important role as a pump; the contribution from shocks is relatively minor; and, not least, the powerful centimeter-wave radiation from OH allows comparison with radio and VLBI datasets. The problem is that the large number of sensitive free parameters, and the large optical depths of the strongest lines, make modeling the full set a difficult job. The SWAS montecarlo radiative transfer code has been used to analyze the ISO/LWS spectra of a number of objects with good success, including in both the lines and the FIR continuum; the DUSTY radiative transfer code was used to insure a self-consistent continuum. Other far IR lines including those from H2O, CO, and [OI] are also in the code. The OH lines all show features which future FIR spectrometers should be able to resolve, and which will enable further refinements in the details of each cloud's structure. Some examples are given, including the case of S140, for which independent SWAS data found evidence for bulk flows.

  9. Continuum and line modelling of discs around young stars. II. Line diagnostics for GASPS from the DENT grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamp, I.; Woitke, P.; Pinte, C.; Tilling, I.; Thi, W.-F.; Menard, F.; Duchene, G.; Augereau, J.-C.

    2011-08-01

    Aims: We want to understand the chemistry and physics of discs on the basis of a large unbiased and statistically relevant grid of disc models. One of the main goals is to explore the diagnostic power of various gas emission lines and line ratios for deriving main disc parameters such as the gas mass. Methods: We explored the results of the DENT grid (Disk Evolution with Neat Theory) that consists of 300 000 disc models with 11 free parameters. Through a statistical analysis, we searched for correlations and trends in an effort to find tools for disc diagnostic. Results: All calculated quantities like species masses, temperatures, continuum, and line fluxes differ by several orders of magnitude across the entire parameter space. The broad distribution of these quantities as a function of input parameters shows the limitation of using a prototype T Tauri or Herbig Ae/Be disc model. The statistical analysis of the DENT grid shows that CO gas is rarely the dominant carbon reservoir in discs. Models with large inner radii (10 times the dust condensation radius) and/or shallow surface density gradients lack massive gas-phase water reservoirs. Also, 60% of the discs have gas temperatures averaged over the oxygen mass in the range between 15 and 70 K; the average gas temperatures for CO and O differ by less than a factor two. Our study of the observational diagnostics shows that the [C ii] 158 μm fine structure line flux is very sensitive to the stellar UV flux and presence of a UV excess, and that it traces the outer disc radius (Rout). In the submm, the CO low J rotational lines also trace Rout. Low [O i] 63/145 line ratios (line. This occurs mostly for massive non-flaring, settled disc models without UV excess. A combination of the [O i] 63 line and low J CO lines correlates with several disc properties, such as the average O i gas temperature in

  10. Nuclear activity versus star formation: emission-line diagnostics at ultraviolet and optical wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feltre, A.; Charlot, S.; Gutkin, J.

    2016-03-01

    In the context of observations of the rest-frame ultraviolet and optical emission from distant galaxies, we explore the emission-line properties of photoionization models of active and inactive galaxies. Our aim is to identify new line-ratio diagnostics to discriminate between gas photoionization by active galactic nuclei (AGN) and star formation. We use a standard photoionization code to compute the emission from AGN narrow-line regions and compare this with calculations of the nebular emission from star-forming galaxies achieved using the same code. We confirm the appropriateness of widely used optical spectral diagnostics of nuclear activity versus star formation and explore new diagnostics at ultraviolet wavelengths. We find that combinations of a collisionally excited metal line or line multiplet, such as C IV λλ1548, 1551, O III] λλ1661, 1666, N III] λ1750, [Si III] λ1883+Si III] λ1892 and [C III] λ1907+C III] λ1909, with the He II λ1640 recombination line are individually good discriminants of the nature of the ionizing source. Diagrams involving at least three of these lines allow an even more stringent distinction between active and inactive galaxies, as well as valuable constraints on interstellar gas parameters and the shape of the ionizing radiation. Several line ratios involving Ne-based emission lines, such as [Ne IV] λ2424, [Ne III] λ3343 and [Ne V] λ3426, are also good diagnostics of nuclear activity. Our results provide a comprehensive framework to identify the sources of photoionization and physical conditions of the ionized gas from the ultraviolet and optical nebular emission from galaxies. This will be particularly useful to interpret observations of high-redshift galaxies with future facilities, such as the James Webb Space Telescope and extremely large ground-based telescopes.

  11. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-12-16

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted.

  12. Luminosity Dependence and Redshift Evolution of Strong Emission-Line Diagnostics in Star-Forming Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, L. L.; Barger, A. J.; Songaila, A.

    2016-01-01

    We examine the redshift evolution of standard strong emission-line diagnostics for Hβ-selected star-forming galaxies using the local SDSS sample and a new z=0.2{--}2.3 sample obtained from Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 grism and Keck DEIMOS and MOSFIRE data. We use the SDSS galaxies to show that there is a systematic dependence of the strong emission-line properties on Balmer-line luminosity, which we interpret as showing that both the N/O abundance and the ionization parameter increase with increasing line luminosity. Allowing for the luminosity dependence tightens the diagnostic diagrams and the metallicity calibrations. The combined SDSS and high-redshift samples show that there is no redshift evolution in the line properties once the luminosity correction is applied, i.e., all galaxies with a given L({{H}}β ) have similar strong emission-line distributions at all the observed redshifts. We argue that the best metal diagnostic for the high-redshift galaxies may be a luminosity-adjusted version of the [N ii]6584/Hα metallicity relation. Based in part on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and NASA and was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  13. Ultraviolet line diagnostics of accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitello, Peter; Shlosman, Isaac

    1993-01-01

    The IUE data base is used to analyze the UV line shapes of the cataclysmic variables RW Sex, RW Tri, and V Sge. Observed lines are compared to synthetic line profiles computed using a model of rotating biconical winds from accretion disks. The wind model calculates the wind ionization structure self-consistently including photoionization from the disk and boundary layer and treats 3D line radiation transfer in the Sobolev approximation. It is found that winds from accretion disks provide a good fit for reasonable parameters to the observed UV lines which include the P Cygni profiles for low-inclination systems and pure emission at large inclination. Disk winds are preferable to spherical winds which originate on the white dwarf because they: (1) require a much lower ratio of mass-loss rate to accretion rate and are therefore more plausible energetically; (2) provide a natural source for a biconical distribution of mass outflow which produces strong scattering far above the disk leading to P Cygni profiles for low-inclination systems and pure line emission profiles at high inclination with the absence of eclipses in UV lines; and (3) produce rotation-broadened pure emission lines at high inclination.

  14. UV line diagnostics of accretion disk winds in cataclysmic variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vitello, Peter; Shlosman, Isaac

    1992-01-01

    The IUE data base is used to analyze the UV line shapes of cataclysmic variables RW Sex, RW Tri, and V Sge. Observed lines are compared to synthetic line profiles computed using a model of rotating bi-conical winds from accretion disks. The wind model calculates the wind ionization structure self-consistently including photoionization from the disk and boundary layer and treats 3-D line radiation transfer in the Sobolev approximation. It is found that winds from accretion disks provide a good fit for reasonable parameters to the observed UV lines which include the P Cygni profiles for low inclination systems and pure emission at large inclination. Disk winds are preferable to spherical winds which originate on the white dwarf because they (1) require a much lower ratio of mass loss rate to accretion rate and are therefore more plausible energetically, (2) provide a natural source for a bi-conical distribution of mass outflow which produces strong scattering far above the disk leading to P Cygni profiles for low inclination systems, and pure line emission profiles at high inclination with the absence of eclipses in UV lines, and (3) produce rotation broadened pure emission lines at high inclination.

  15. The resonance lines of MG2 as diagnostics of the upper solar chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Avrett, Eugene H.

    1994-01-01

    The resonance lines of singly ionized magnesium, the MgII h&k lines at about 280 nm, are two of the small number of lines in the solar spectrum that are optically thick in the chromospheric part of the solar atmosphere. Potentially these lines contain information on the initial temperature rise that occurs at the top of the photosphere. Unfortunately, few good observations of the lines exist due to their wavelength near 280 nm the ultraviolet. However, a fair number of observations (on the order of 200) are available from the data base of the UltraViolet Polarimeter and Spectrometer (UVSP) instrument that flew on board of NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite. In addition, this data base contains a number of spectra that include the Mg I resonance line at (lambda)285.2nm, just longward of the h&k lines. The neutral magnesium line is not as strong as its ionic counterparts and samples slightly lower parts of the atmosphere. Its width is a sensitive diagnostic of the ionization balance between neutral and singly ionized magnesium, which determines the opacity scale (and formation height) of other diagnostically important MgI lines like the 457.1 nm intercombination line, the magnesium b lines and the infrared MgI emission lines near 12 microns. Analysis of the observed line profiles shows that it is necessary to include the effects of partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in the formation of the line as in the case of the h&k lines. This implies that the core of the line is very sensitive to the way scattering is treated in the modeling of the line, and in turn this allows us to separate the uncertain effects in the atomic data (viz. the Van der Waals broadening) from the uncertainties in the underlying atmospheric model. The main objective of this research was to compare observed spectra of the magnesium resonance lines against theoretical line profiles calculated from recent models of the solar atmosphere by Fontenla et al., hereafter called FAL. These

  16. Vacuum transmission lines for pulse sharpening and diagnostics applications

    SciTech Connect

    Di Capua, M.S.; Goerz, D.A.; Freytag, E.K.

    1987-06-01

    We investigated the propagation of MV electrical pulses along coaxial transmission lines (TL) in vacuum with network simulations and experiments. One goal was to establish how well a 3 m-long TL would sharpen the output pulse of a relativistic electron beam accelerator. Sharpening occurs as the cathode of the TL emits electrons and the current flow forces the TL into magnetic cut-off. The other goal was to determine how well field emission must be suppressed in a TL to avoid distortion of a propagating pulse. Simulations predict a four-fold risetime improvement (8 ns to 2 ns) through magnetic insulation in a TL with an electrical length (10 ns) comparable to the risetime of the input pulse. In the laboratory we have shown a five-fold improvement (15 to 3 ns) with a velvet covered 3-m line and a 7.5 fold improvement (2 ns) when a vacuum flashover switch was incorporated between the first third and the last two thirds of the TL. Simple arguments and TL simulations suggest that even a small fraction (1 or 2%) of Child-Langmuir (CL) space charge limited emission will distort a propagating voltage pulse. This result is of particular importance when the TL is part of a voltage diagnostic system.

  17. HELIOS: a helium line-ratio spectral-monitoring diagnostic used to generate high resolution profiles near the ion cyclotron resonant heating antenna on TEXTOR.

    PubMed

    Unterberg, E A; Schmitz, O; Fehling, D H; Stoschus, H; Klepper, C C; Muñoz-Burgos, J M; Van Wassenhove, G; Hillis, D L

    2012-10-01

    Radial profiles of electron temperature and density are measured at high spatial (∼1 mm) and temporal (≥10 μs) resolution using a thermal supersonic helium jet. A highly accurate detection system is applied to well-developed collisional-radiative model codes to produce the profiles. Agreement between this measurement and an edge Thomson scattering measurement is found to be within the error bars (≲20%). The diagnostic is being used to give profiles near the ion cyclotron resonant heating antenna on TEXTOR to better understand RF coupling to the core.

  18. Diagnostics of the κ-distribution using Si III lines in the solar transition region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzifčáková, E.; Kulinová, A.

    2011-07-01

    Aims: The solar transition region satisfies the conditions for appearance of the non-thermal κ-distribution. We aim to prove the occurrence of the non-thermal κ-distribution in the solar transition region and diagnose its parameters. Methods: The intensity ratios of Si iii lines observed by SUMER in 1100-1320 Å region do not correspond to the line ratios computed under the assumption of the Maxwellian electron distribution. We computed a set of synthetic Si iii spectra for the electron κ-distributions with different values of the parameter κ. We had to include the radiation field in our calculations to explain the observed line ratios. We propose diagnostics of the parameter κ and other plasma parameters and analyze the effect of the different gradient of differential emission measures (DEM) on the presented calculations. Results: The used line ratios are sensitive to T, density and the parameter κ. All these parameters were determined from the SUMER observations for the coronal hole (CH), quiet Sun (QS) and active region (AR) using our proposed diagnostics. A strong gradient of DEM influences the diagnosed parameters of plasma. The essential contributions to the total line intensities do not correspond to single T but a wider range of T, and they originate in different atmospheric layers. The amount of the contributions from these atmospheric layers depends on the gradient of DEM and the shape of the electron distribution function. Conclusions: The κ-distribution is able to explain the observed Si iii line spectrum in the transition region. The degree of non-thermality increases with the activity of the solar region, it is lower for CH and higher for the AR. The DEM influences the diagnosed T and Ne but it has only little effect on the diagnostics of the parameter κ.

  19. Laser-accelerated ion beam diagnostics with TOF detectors for the ELIMED beam line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milluzzo, G.; Scuderi, V.; Amico, A. G.; Borghesi, M.; Cirrone, G. A. P.; Cuttone, G.; De Napoli, M.; Doria, D.; Dostal, J.; Larosa, G.; Leanza, R.; Margarone, D.; Petringa, G.; Pipek, J.; Romagnani, L.; Romano, F.; Schillaci, F.; Velyhan, A.

    2017-02-01

    Laser-accelerated ion beams could represent the future of particle acceleration in several multidisciplinary applications, as for instance medical physics, hadrontherapy and imaging field, being a concrete alternative to old paradigm of acceleration, characterized by huge and complex machines. In this framework, following on from the ELIMED collaboration, launched in 2012 between INFN-LNS and ELI-Beamlines, in 2014 a three-years contract has been signed between the two institutions for the design and the development of a complete transport beam-line for high-energy ion beams (up to 60 MeV) coupled with innovative diagnostics and in-air dosimetry devices. The beam-line will be installed at the ELI-Beamlines facility and will be available for users. The measurement of the beam characteristics, such as energy spectra, angular distributions and dose-rate is mandatory to optimize the transport as well as the beam delivery at the irradiation point. In order to achieve this purpose, the development of appropriate on-line diagnostics devices capable to detect high-pulsed beams with high accuracy, represents a crucial point in the ELIMED beamline development. The diagnostics solution, based on the use of silicon carbide (SiC) and diamond detectors using TOF technique, will be presented together with the preliminary results obtained with laser-accelerated proton beams.

  20. Development of phosphor imaging diagnostics for particle energization and field line mapping studies in MRX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fox, W.; Zweben, S. J.; Yoo, J.; Jara-Almonte, J.; Myers, C.; Yamada, M.; Ji, H.

    2014-10-01

    The energization of particles by magnetic reconnection is one of its most important roles in space and astrophysical plasmas. We present results from phosphor-screen imaging diagnostics for the Magnetic Reconnection Experiment, developed to measure the location and timing of particle energization by magnetic reconnection and to map field lines. Phosphor-based imaging diagnostics have previously been to study plasma dynamics in in non-neutral plasmas and low-temperature linear machines. In MRX, movable, phosphor-coated probes are scanned across the current sheet, and phosphor emission is imaged on a fast camera acquiring at typically 500 k frames/sec. Optical filters isolate the phosphor emission from line emission in the plasma. The energy sensitivity of the probe is determined by the characteristics of the phosphor and bias of the probe with respect to the plasma. We also present the development of an e-beam diagnostic to directly map the magnetic field line structure and possibly to measure the parallel electric field and/or cross-field electron transport. A modulated electron beam from a hot tungsten filament will be detected downstream by Langmuir probes and the phosphor imager.

  1. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. IV. THE Mg ii TRIPLET LINES AS A NEW DIAGNOSTIC FOR LOWER CHROMOSPHERIC HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Tiago M. D.; Carlsson, Mats; Pontieu, Bart De; Hansteen, Viggo

    2015-06-10

    A triplet of subordinate lines of Mg ii exists in the region around the h and k lines. In solar spectra these lines are seen mostly in absorption, but in some cases can become emission lines. The aim of this work is to study the formation of this triplet, and investigate any diagnostic value they can bring. Using 3D radiative magnetohydrodynamic simulations of quiet Sun and flaring flux emergence, we synthesize spectra and investigate how spectral features respond to the underlying atmosphere. We find that emission in the lines is rare and is typically caused by a steep temperature increase in the lower chromosphere (above 1500 K, with electron densities above 10{sup 17} m{sup −3}). In both simulations the lines are sensitive to temperature increases taking place at column masses ≳5 · 10{sup −4} g cm{sup −2}. Additional information can also be inferred from the peak-to-wing ratio and shape of the line profiles. Using observations from NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph we find both absorption and emission line profiles with similar shapes to the synthetic spectra, which suggests that these lines represent a useful diagnostic that complements the Mg ii h and k lines.

  2. Diagnostic beam absorber in Mu2e beam line

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    Star density, hadron flux, and residual dose distributions are calculated around the {mu}2e diagnostic beam absorber. Corresponding surface and ground water activation, and air activation are presented as well.

  3. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. VI. THE DIAGNOSTIC POTENTIAL OF THE C ii LINES AT 133.5 nm IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Rathore, Bhavna; Carlsson, Mats; Pontieu, Bart De; Leenaarts, Jorrit E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no E-mail: jorrit.leenaarts@astro.su.se

    2015-10-01

    We use 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamic models to investigate how the thermodynamic quantities in the simulation are encoded in observable quantities, thus exploring the diagnostic potential of the C ii 133.5 nm lines. We find that the line core intensity is correlated with the temperature at the formation height but the correlation is rather weak, especially when the lines are strong. The line core Doppler shift is a good measure of the line-of-sight velocity at the formation height. The line width is both dependent on the width of the absorption profile (thermal and non-thermal width) and an opacity broadening factor of 1.2–4 due to the optically thick line formation with a larger broadening for double peak profiles. The C ii 133.5 nm lines can be formed both higher and lower than the core of the Mg ii k line depending on the amount of plasma in the 14–50 kK temperature range. More plasma in this temperature range gives a higher C ii 133.5 nm formation height relative to the Mg ii k line core. The synthetic line profiles have been compared with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations. The derived parameters from the simulated line profiles cover the parameter range seen in observations but, on average, the synthetic profiles are too narrow. We interpret this discrepancy as a combination of a lack of plasma at chromospheric temperatures in the simulation box and too small non-thermal velocities. The large differences in the distribution of properties between the synthetic profiles and the observed ones show that the C ii 133.5 nm lines are powerful diagnostics of the upper chromosphere and lower transition region.

  4. The Formation of IRIS Diagnostics. VI. The Diagnostic Potential of the C II Lines at 133.5 nm in the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rathore, Bhavna; Carlsson, Mats; Leenaarts, Jorrit; De Pontieu, Bart

    2015-10-01

    We use 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamic models to investigate how the thermodynamic quantities in the simulation are encoded in observable quantities, thus exploring the diagnostic potential of the C ii 133.5 nm lines. We find that the line core intensity is correlated with the temperature at the formation height but the correlation is rather weak, especially when the lines are strong. The line core Doppler shift is a good measure of the line-of-sight velocity at the formation height. The line width is both dependent on the width of the absorption profile (thermal and non-thermal width) and an opacity broadening factor of 1.2-4 due to the optically thick line formation with a larger broadening for double peak profiles. The C ii 133.5 nm lines can be formed both higher and lower than the core of the Mg ii k line depending on the amount of plasma in the 14-50 kK temperature range. More plasma in this temperature range gives a higher C ii 133.5 nm formation height relative to the Mg ii k line core. The synthetic line profiles have been compared with Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph observations. The derived parameters from the simulated line profiles cover the parameter range seen in observations but, on average, the synthetic profiles are too narrow. We interpret this discrepancy as a combination of a lack of plasma at chromospheric temperatures in the simulation box and too small non-thermal velocities. The large differences in the distribution of properties between the synthetic profiles and the observed ones show that the C ii 133.5 nm lines are powerful diagnostics of the upper chromosphere and lower transition region.

  5. Radial scanning diagnostics of bremsstrahlung and line emission in T-10 plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nemets, A. R.; Krupin, V. A.; Klyuchnikov, L. A.; Korobov, K. V.; Nurgaliev, M. R.

    2016-12-01

    The paper describes the scanning spectroscopic diagnostics designed for measurement of line integrated plasma radiation in two visible spectral ranges. This diagnostic system is aimed at measuring the bremsstrahlung absolute values and profile with high spatial resolution. The bremsstrahlung absolute values are used to determine the value and radial distribution of effective plasma ion charge Z eff( r) in T-10 discharges. The importance of Z eff measurement is due to its strong influence on plasma heating, confinement, and stability. The spatial distribution of emission for one of the chosen spectral lines is measured simultaneously with bremsstrahlung. The spatial resolution of measurements is 1 cm, and the temporal resolution is up to 10 ms. The spectral equipment and methods for its calibration are described. Examples of line integrated brightness distribution in a "continuum window" of 5236 ± 6 Å and brightness of the lines C5+ (5291 Å), He1+ (4686 Å), and Dβ (4861 Å) are given. Flattening of the bremsstrahlung brightness profile in the central region of the plasma column in some discharges with sawtooth oscillations in the T-10 is observed. The measured effective ion charge profiles in ohmic discharges with high plasma density and low discharge currents demonstrate accumulation of light impurities at the column axis; as a consequence, quenching of sawtooth oscillations in some discharges is observed. The developed diagnostics provides necessary data for investigation of heat, particle, and current transport in the plasma of the T-10. Successful application of the obtained data on Z eff( r) for investigation of geodesic acoustic modes of plasma oscillations in the T-10 should be specially noted.

  6. Optical beam diagnostics on PEP

    SciTech Connect

    Sabersky, A.P.

    1981-02-01

    In designing the PEP optical diagnostics we have been able to build on the experience gained with SPEAR. Most of the problems at SPEAR could be traced to the optical diagnostic system being inside the tunnel. A machine shutdown is required for any maintenance or modification. This implies that in order to make such an instrument successful, a large engineering effort must be mounted to ensure 100% operation at startup. The functions that do not work at startup may never be made to work; this has happened at several machines. Experimental setups are likewise risky and time consuming. A point which has been borne out in both SPEAR and PEP is that the mechanical part of the instrument, the special vacuum chamber, the optical mounts, the alignment and adjustments, require approximately 60% of the effort and cost of the optical diagnostics. It is far better to economize on detectors and electronics than on mechanical and optical essentials.

  7. Carbon recombination lines as a diagnostic of photodissociation regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Natta, A.; Walmsley, C. M.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.

    1994-01-01

    We have observed the C91 alpha radio recombination line toward the Orion H II region. This narrow (approximately 3-5 km per sec full width at half maximum (FWHM)) line is spatially very extended (approximately 8 arcmin or 1 pc). These charateristics compare well with the observed characteristics of the C II fine structure line at 158 microns. Thus, the C91 alpha line originates in the predominantly neutral photodissociation regions separating the H II region from the molecular cloud. We have developed theoretical models for the C II radio recombination lines from photodissociation regions. The results show that the I(C91 alpha)/I(C158) intensity ratio is a sensitive function of the temperature and density of the emitting gas. We have also extended theoretical models for photodissociation regions to include the C II recombination lines. Comparison with these models show that, in the central portion of the Orion region, the C91 alpha line originates in dense (10(exp 6) per cu cm), warm (500-1000 K) gas. Even at large projected distances (approximately 1 pc), the inferred density is still high (10(exp 5) per cu cm) and implies extremely high thermal pressures. As in the case of the (C II) 158 microns line, the large extent of the C91 alpha line shows that (FUV) photons can penetrate to large distances from the illuminating source. The decline of the intensity of the incident radiation field with distance from Theta(sup 1) C seems to be dominated by geometrical dilution, rather than dust extinction. Finally, we have used our models to calculate the intensity of the 9850 A recombination line of C II. The physical conditions inferred from this line are in good agreement with those determined from the radio recombination and the far-infrared fine-structure lines. We show that the ratio of the 9850 A to the C91 alpha lines is a very good probe of very high density clumps.

  8. The diagnostic line: A novel criterion for condition monitoring of rotating machinery.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jinshan; Dou, Chunhong

    2015-11-01

    This study examined scaling properties of an increment series from rotating machinery. Moreover, two fluctuation parameters for the smallest and largest time scales of a scaling range served as a pair of fluctuation parameters to describe system conditions. Therefore, an interesting phenomenon is observed: the data points, each representing a pair of fluctuation parameters, for fault conditions almost form a straight line, while those for normal clearly depart from the straight line. To describe the phenomenon, a novel concept termed the diagnostic line was introduced. Subsequently, properties of the diagnostic line were carefully investigated theoretically and numerically. Consequently, a decisive role of noise in forming the diagnostic line was determined. Accordingly, this study develops a novel criterion for condition monitoring of rotating machinery.

  9. Argon/UF6 plasma exhaust gas reconstitution experiments using preheated fluorine and on-line diagnostics. [fissioning uranium plasma core reactor design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roman, W. C.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of employing a flowing, high-temperature, pure fluorine/UF6 regeneration system to efficiently convert a large fraction of the effluent plasma exhaust back to pure UF6 was demonstrated. The custom built T.O.F. mass spectrometer sampling system permitted on-line measurements of the UF6 concentration at different locations in the exhaust system. Negligible amounts ( 100 ppm) of UF6 were detected in the axial bypass exhaust duct and the exhaust ducts downstream of the cryogenic trap system used to collect the UF6, thus verifying the overall system efficiency over a range of operating conditions. Use of a porous Monel duct as part of the exhaust duct system, including provision for injection of pure fluorine, provided a viable technique to eliminate uranium compound residue on the inside surface of the exhaust ducts. Typical uranium compound mass deposition per unit area of duct was 2 micron g/sq cm. This porous duct technique is directly applicable to future uranium compound transfer exhaust systems. Throughout these experiments, additional basic data on the corrosion aspects of hot, pressurized UF6/fluorine were also accumulated.

  10. The Mg 2 lines as diagnostic of PMS nature in Herbig Ae/Be stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The main objective of this program was to observe some newly discovered and previously unobserved Herbig Ae/Be (HAeBe) stars with IUE. A previous archival study suggested that there was a full range of profiles in the Mg II lines for these objects; ranging from the double peak emission to the narrow absorption lines. It has been found that by studying the IUE data of main sequence B and classical Be stars that the P Cygni profiles in the Mg II lines in HAeBe stars are truly unique and are the signature of accelerating winds in their extended circumstellar material. The arguement, for the purposes of this proposal, that the structure of the Mg II lines was a superior diagnostic of the dynamical activity and ultimately the PMS nature of these objects. This program was a follow up study of several interesting intermediate-mass stars with the goal of classifying these objects based on the shape of their MG II lines. A list of publications resulting from this research is included.

  11. Line Co-57 gamma rays - New diagnostic of supernova structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clayton, D. D.

    1974-01-01

    The nuclear gamma-ray lines emitted when Co-57 decays to Fe-57 should be detectable for several years following Galactic supernovae, and the time structure of their intensity relative to those emitted following the Ni-56 and Co-56 decays can reveal the structure of the exploding star. An analysis of a simplified analytic model is presented as an example.

  12. Applications to cultural heritage diagnostics at the new nuclear microprobe beam line at CEDAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calcagnile, L.; Quarta, G.; Demortier, G.; Maruccio, L.; D'Elia, M.

    2009-06-01

    A nuclear microprobe beam line has been installed at CEDAD (Centre for Dating and Diagnostics), University of Salento, Lecce, Italy. The beam line is connected to the -30° port of the high energy switching magnet of a 3 MV HVEE 4130HC Tandetron accelerator. It is based on an Oxford Microbeam magnetic quadrupole triplet and its general features are presented. The results of functional tests are presented showing how a lateral spatial resolution as low as ˜2 μm has been achieved in vacuum by analysing standard reference material. The results obtained in the analysis of ancient radiocarbon dated biological tissues are presented for the identification and distribution of toxic elements such as Pb.

  13. Therapeutic and diagnostic set for irradiation the cell lines in low level laser therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryko, Lukasz; Zajac, Andrzej; Gilewski, Marian; Szymanska, Justyna; Goralczyk, Krzysztof

    2014-05-01

    In the paper is presented optoelectronic diagnostic set for standardization the biostimulation procedures performed on cell lines. The basic functional components of the therapeutic set are two digitally controlled illuminators. They are composed of the sets of semiconductor emitters - medium power laser diodes and high power LEDs emitting radiation in wide spectral range from 600 nm to 1000 nm. Emitters are coupled with applicator by fibre optic and optical systems that provides uniform irradiation of vessel with cell culture samples. Integrated spectrometer and optical power meter allow to control the energy and spectral parameters of electromagnetic radiation during the Low Level Light Therapy procedure. Dedicated power supplies and digital controlling system allow independent power of each emitter . It was developed active temperature stabilization system to thermal adjust spectral line of emitted radiation to more efficient association with absorption spectra of biological acceptors. Using the set to controlled irradiation and allowing to measure absorption spectrum of biological medium it is possible to carry out objective assessment the impact of the exposure parameters on the state cells subjected to Low Level Light Therapy. That procedure allows comparing the biological response of cell lines after irradiation with radiation of variable spectral and energetic parameters. Researches were carried out on vascular endothelial cell lines. Cells proliferations after irradiation of LEDs: 645 nm, 680 nm, 740 nm, 780 nm, 830 nm, 870 nm, 890 nm, 970 nm and lasers 650 nm and 830 nm were examined.

  14. The Diagnostic Potential of Transition Region Lines Undergoing Transient Ionization in Dynamic Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, J. G.; Giunta, A.; Singh, A.; Madjarska, M. S.; Summers, H.; Kellett, B. J.; O'Mullane, M.

    2012-09-01

    We discuss the diagnostic potential of high cadence UV spectral data when transient ionization is considered. For this we use high cadence UV spectra taken during the impulsive phase of a solar flare (observed with instruments on-board the Solar Maximum Mission) which showed excellent correspondence with hard X-ray pulses. The ionization fraction of the transition region ion O v and, in particular, the contribution function for the O v 1371 Å line are computed within the Atomic Data and Analysis Structure, which is a collection of fundamental and derived atomic data and codes to manipulate them. Due to transient ionization, the O v 1371 Å line is enhanced in the first fraction of a second with the peak in the line contribution function occurring initially at a higher electron temperature than in ionization equilibrium. The rise time and enhancement factor depend mostly on the electron density. The fractional increase in the O v 1371 Å emissivity due to transient ionization can reach a factor of two-four and can explain the fast response in the line flux of transition regions ions during the impulsive phase of flares solely as a result of transient ionization. This technique can be used to diagnose the electron temperature and density of solar flares observed with the forthcoming Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph.

  15. SOLAR TRANSITION REGION LINES OBSERVED BY THE INTERFACE REGION IMAGING SPECTROGRAPH: DIAGNOSTICS FOR THE O IV AND Si IV LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, J.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.; Dzifčáková, E.; Golub, L.

    2014-01-01

    The formation of the transition region O IV and Si IV lines observable by the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) is investigated for both Maxwellian and non-Maxwellian conditions characterized by a κ-distribution exhibiting a high-energy tail. The Si IV lines are formed at lower temperatures than the O IV lines for all κ. In non-Maxwellian situations with lower κ, the contribution functions are shifted to lower temperatures. Combined with the slope of the differential emission measure, it is possible for the Si IV lines to be formed at very different regions of the solar transition region than the O IV lines; possibly close to the solar chromosphere. Such situations might be discernible by IRIS. It is found that photoexcitation can be important for the Si IV lines, but is negligible for the O IV lines. The usefulness of the O IV ratios for density diagnostics independently of κ is investigated and it is found that the O IV 1404.78 Å/1399.77 Å ratio provides a good density diagnostics except for very low T combined with extreme non-Maxwellian situations.

  16. A new table of Balmer line shapes for the diagnostic of magnetic fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosato, J.; Marandet, Y.; Stamm, R.

    2017-01-01

    A new table of Stark-Zeeman line shapes is provided for plasma diagnostics in the framework of magnetic fusion research. Spectral profiles of Dα, Dβ, Dγ, Dδ, and Dε have been calculated using computer simulations in conditions relevant to tokamak edge and divertor plasmas. After a brief presentation of the calculation method, we propose an interpolation formula and we give a routine for diagnostic applications. Analyses of experimental and synthetic spectra are performed as an illustration.

  17. The Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional (KS-3D) line shape model: applications to optical diagnostic in combustion media

    SciTech Connect

    Joubert, Pierre

    2008-10-22

    High-resolution infrared and Raman spectroscopies require refine spectral line shape model to account for all observed features. For instance, for gaseous mixtures of light molecules with heavy perturbers, drastic changes arise particularly in the collision regime, resulting from the inhomogeneous effects due to the radiator speed-dependence of the collisional line broadening and line shifting parameters. Following our previous work concerning the collision regime, we have developed a new line shape modelization called the Keilson and Storer 3-dimensional line shape model to lower densities, when the Doppler contribution, and the collisional confinement narrowing can be no longer neglected. The consequences for optical diagnostics, particularly for H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} mixtures with high pressure and high temperature are presented. The effects of collisional relaxation on the spectral line shapes are discussed.

  18. Density diagnostics derived from the O iv and S iv intercombination lines observed by IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polito, V.; Del Zanna, G.; Dudík, J.; Mason, H. E.; Giunta, A.; Reeves, K. K.

    2016-10-01

    The intensity of the O iv 2s2 2p 2P-2s2p24P and S iv 3 s2 3p 2P-3s 3p24 P intercombination lines around 1400 Å observed with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provide a useful tool to diagnose the electron number density (Ne) in the solar transition region plasma. We measure the electron number density in a variety of solar features observed by IRIS, including an active region (AR) loop, plage and brightening, and the ribbon of the 22-June-2015 M 6.5 class flare. By using the emissivity ratios of O iv and S iv lines, we find that our observations are consistent with the emitting plasma being near isothermal (logT[K] ≈ 5) and iso-density (Ne ≈ 1010.6 cm-3) in the AR loop. Moreover, high electron number densities (Ne ≈ 1013 cm-3) are obtained during the impulsive phase of the flare by using the S iv line ratio. We note that the S iv lines provide a higher range of density sensitivity than the O iv lines. Finally, we investigate the effects of high densities (Ne ≳ 1011 cm-3) on the ionization balance. In particular, the fractional ion abundances are found to be shifted towards lower temperatures for high densities compared to the low density case. We also explored the effects of a non-Maxwellian electron distribution on our diagnostic method. The movie associated to Fig. 3 is available at http://www.aanda.org

  19. Progress on ITER Diagnostic Integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ; Klabacha, Jonathan; Loesser, Doug; Messineo, Mike; Stratton, Brentley; Wood, Rick; Zhai, Yuhu; Andrew, Phillip; Barnsley, Robin; Bertschinger, Guenter; Debock, Maarten; Reichle, Roger; Udintsev, Victor; Vayakis, George; Watts, Christopher; Walsh, Michael

    2013-10-01

    On ITER, front-end components must operate reliably in a hostile environment. Many will be housed in massive port plugs, which also shield the machine from radiation. Multiple diagnostics reside in a single plug, presenting new challenges for developers. Front-end components must tolerate thermally-induced stresses, disruption-induced mechanical loads, stray ECH radiation, displacement damage, and degradation due to plasma-induced coatings. The impact of failures is amplified due to the difficulty in performing robotic maintenance on these large structures. Motivated by needs to minimize disruption loads on the plugs, standardize the handling of shield modules, and decouple the parallel efforts of the many parties, the packaging strategy for diagnostics has recently focused on the use of 3 vertical shield modules inserted from the plasma side into each equatorial plug structure. At the front of each is a detachable first wall element with customized apertures. Progress on US equatorial and upper plugs will be used as examples, including the layout of components in the interspace and port cell regions. Supported by PPPL under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466 and UT-Battelle, LLC under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. DOE.

  20. Ionization energy shift of characteristic K x-ray lines from high-Z materials for plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Słabkowska, K.; Szymańska, E.; Polasik, M.; Pereira, N. R.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Seely, J. F.; Weber, B. V.; Schumer, J. W.

    2014-03-15

    The energy of the characteristic x-rays emitted by high atomic number atoms in a plasma that contains energetic electrons depends on the atom's ionization. For tungsten, the ionization energy shift of the L-lines has recently been used to diagnose the plasma's ionization; the change in energy of a K-line has been measured for iridium and observed for ytterbium. Here, we present detailed computations of the ionization energy shift to K-lines of these and an additional element, dysprosium; for these atoms, some K-lines nearly coincide in energy with K-edges of slightly lower Z atoms so that a change in transmission behind a K-edge filter betrays a change in energy. The ionization energy shift of such high-energy K-lines may enable a unique diagnostic when the plasma is inside an otherwise opaque enclosure such as hohlraums used on the National Ignition Facility.

  1. Argon X-ray line imaging - A compression diagnostic for inertial confinement fusion targets

    SciTech Connect

    Koppel, L.N.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes argon X-ray line imaging which measures the compressed fuel volume directly by forming one-dimensional images of X-rays from argon gas seeded into the D-T fuel. The photon energies of the X-rays are recorded on the film of a diffraction-crystal spectrograph. Neutron activation, which detects activated nuclei produced by the interaction of 14-MeV neutrons with the selected materials of the target, allows to calculate the final compressed fuel density using a hydrodynamics simulation code and the knowledge of the total number of activated nuclei and the neutron yield. Argon X-ray appears to be a valid fuel-compression diagnostic for final fuel densities in the range of 10 to 50 times liquid D-T density.

  2. X-Ray Line-Shape Diagnostics and Novel Stigmatic Imaging Schemes For the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    M. Bitter,, K.W. Hill, N.A. Pablant, L.F. Delgado-Aparicio, P. Beiersdorfer, E. Wang, and M. Sanchez del Rio

    2011-08-15

    In response to a recent solicitation from the US Department of Energy we proposed the development of a new x-ray line-shape diagnostic and novel stigmatic imaging schemes for the National Ignition Facility (NIF). These diagnostics are based on the imaging properties of spherically bent crystals, explained in Fig. 1, which have already been successfully applied to the diagnosis of extended tokamak plasmas for measurements of the ion-temperature and toroidal flow-velocity profiles [United States Patent: US 6, 259, 763 B1] and refs. [1, 2].

  3. Overview of the line-imaging VISAR diagnostic at the National Ignition Facility (NIF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malone, Robert M.; Capelle, Gene A.; Celeste, John R.; Celliers, Peter M.; Frogget, Brent C.; Guyton, Robert L.; Kaufman, Morris I.; Lee, Tony L.; MacGowan, Brian J.; Ng, Edmund W.; Reinbachs, Imants P.; Robinson, Ronald B.; Seppala, Lynn G.; Tunnell, Thomas W.; Watts, Phillip W.

    2007-01-01

    Optical diagnostics are currently being designed to analyze high-energy density physics experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Two line-imaging Velocity Interferometer System for Any Reflector (VISAR) interferometers have been fielded to measure shock velocities, breakout times, and emission of targets sized from 1 to 5 millimeters. A 20-cm-diameter, fused silica triplet lens collects light at f/3 from the targets inside the 10-meter-diameter NIF vacuum chamber. VISAR recordings use a 659.5-nm probe laser. By adding a specially coated beam splitter at the interferometer table, light at wavelengths from 540 to 645 nm is split into a thermal-imaging diagnostic. Because fused silica lenses are used in the first triplet relay, the intermediate image planes for different wavelengths separate by considerable distances. A pair of corrector lenses on the interferometer table reunites these separated wavelength planes to provide a good image. Streak cameras perform all VISAR and thermal-imaging recording. Alignment techniques are discussed.

  4. A spectroscopic survey of Herbig Ae/Be stars with X-Shooter - II. Accretion diagnostic lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fairlamb, J. R.; Oudmaijer, R. D.; Mendigutia, I.; Ilee, J. D.; van den Ancker, M. E.

    2017-02-01

    The Herbig Ae/Be stars (HAeBes) allow an exploration of the properties of pre-main-sequence(PMS) stars above the low-mass range (<2 M_{⊙}) and those bordering the high-mass range (>8 M_{⊙}). This paper is the second in a series exploring accretion in 91 HAeBes with Very Large Telescope/X-shooter spectra. Equivalent width measurements are carried out on 32 different lines, spanning the UV (ultraviolet) to NIR (near infrared), in order to obtain their line luminosities. The line luminosities were compared to accretion luminosities that were determined directly from measurements of a UV excess. When detected, emission lines always demonstrate a correlation with the accretion luminosity, regardless of detection frequency. The average relationship between accretion luminosity and line luminosity is found to be L_acc ∝ L_line1.16 ± 0.15. This is in agreement with the findings in Classical T Tauri stars, although the HAeBe relationship is generally steeper, particularly towards the Herbig Be mass range. Since all observed lines display a correlation with the accretion luminosity, all of them can be used as accretion tracers. This has increased the number of accretion diagnostic lines in HAeBes 10-fold. However, questions still remain on the physical origin of each line, which may not be due to accretion.

  5. GAS EXCITATION IN ULIRGs: MAPS OF DIAGNOSTIC EMISSION-LINE RATIOS IN SPACE AND VELOCITY

    SciTech Connect

    Soto, Kurt T.; Martin, Crystal L.

    2012-11-15

    Emission-line spectra extracted at multiple locations across 39 ultraluminous infrared galaxies have been compiled into a spectrophotometric atlas. Line profiles of H{alpha}, [N II], [S II], [O I], H{beta}, and [O III] are resolved and fit jointly with common velocity components. Diagnostic ratios of these line fluxes are presented in a series of plots, showing how the Doppler shift, line width, gas excitation, and surface brightness change with velocity at fixed position and also with distance from the nucleus. One general characteristic of these spectra is the presence of shocked gas extending many kiloparsecs from the nucleus. In some systems, the rotation curves of the emitting gas indicate motions that suggest gas disks, which are most frequent at early merger stages. At these early merger stages, the emission line ratios indicate the presence of shocked gas, which may be triggered by the merger event. We also report the general characteristics of the integrated spectra.

  6. Spectroscopy of heliumlike argon resonance and satellite lines for plasma temperature diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biedermann, C.; Radtke, R.; Fournier, K. B.

    2002-12-01

    The n=2-1 spectral emission pattern of heliumlike argon, together with the associated satellite emission originating from lithiumlike argon have been measured with high-resolution x-ray spectroscopy at the Berlin electron-beam ion trap. The observed line intensity across a wide range of excitation energies was weighted by an electron-energy distribution to analyze as a function of plasma temperature the line ratios between KLL dielectronic recombination satellites, in particular the j+z, j, and k satellites, and the w-resonance line. A good agreement between various theoretical models is found, supporting the method of line-ratio measurement as a temperature diagnostic for plasmas. A value for the so-called R-line ratio is determined and calculations with the HULLAC suite of codes predict it to be electron density independent over a wide range.

  7. Adding Emission Line Diagnostics To The Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spoon, Henrik

    During the cryogenic phase of the successful Spitzer mission the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) made observations of about 15,000 objects. Among these are low-resolution (highresolution) spectra of more than 4200 (1800) galaxies beyond the Local Group. Results have been published in a great number of papers, led not only by hardcore infrared observers but increasingly also by non-native infrared astronomers. As the PI team of the IRS instrument, we are especially proud of the achievements of the IRS spectrograph, and we feel a special obligation to enhance the legacy value of its many observations. In 2011 we completed the Cornell Atlas of Spitzer-IRS Sources (CASSIS), containing homogeneously, expert-reduced low-resolution IRS spectra for over 13,000 observations. Earlier this year we added more than 7,000 spectra obtained with the high-resolution modules. All of these spectra benefit from the availability of our empirically derived super-sampled point-spread functions, which reduce the effects of bad and low-level rogue pixels in all IRS modules. All spectra are available for download from our CASSIS web portal. Building on this legacy, in 2013 we also started working on the soon to be completed Infrared Database of Extragalactic Observables from Spitzer (IDEOS), which contains mid-IR observables extracted from the low-resolution spectra in CASSIS. IDEOS provides astronomers with widely varying scientific interests access to diagnostics that were previously available only for limited samples, or available on the-fly only to expert users. Here we propose to continue these efforts by measuring the emission line fluxes for 3,000-4,500 galaxies in the CASSIS atlas to add powerful emission line diagnostics to our existing suite of mid-IR observables in IDEOS. IDEOS will be a great asset for future users of NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to select their samples and estimate required integration times. The completion of IDEOS will further coincide with the completion of

  8. Diagnostics data management on MTX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butner, D. N.; Brown, M. D.; Casper, T. A.; Meyer, W. H.; Moller, J. M.

    1991-09-01

    The Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX) is a magnetic fusion energy research experiment to explore electron cyclotron heating using a free electron laser operating in the microwave range. The diagnostic data from MTX is acquired and processed by a distributed, multivendor, computer network. Each shot of the experiment produces data files containing up to 15 megabytes of data. Typically half-second shots are taken every 5 minutes with 50 to 60 shots taken on a single day. As many as 80 full data shots have been taken on a good day. Data files are created on Hewlett-Packard (HP) computers running Unix, HP computers running BASIC, and a Digital Equipment Corporation (DEC) VAXcluster running VMS. A small portion of the data acquired on the HP systems is immediately stored in a data system on the VAXcluster, but most data is held and processed on the computer on which it was acquired. A commercial database program running on the VAXcluster maintains a history of the data files created for each shot. During the night, data files on all computers are compressed to about one-third their original size and the files on the HP computers are transferred to the VAXcluster. When enough data has accumulated, all data files that have not been previously archived are archived to 8 mm magnetic tape. Once the data is on the VAXcluster, a single defined procedure call may be used to obtain data that was taken on any of the computers in the network. Data that has been archived to tape is maintained on disk for a few days. Users may specify that certain shots be designated 'goodshots', whose data files will be maintained on disk for a longer period of time. If a user requests data for a shot that is no longer on disk, retrieval processes on the VAXcluster determine which tapes contain the data, request the computer operator to load the tapes if necessary, and retrieve the files from the tapes. The data is then available for processing by programs running on any computer in the network.

  9. Identifying Fractions on Number Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, George W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the ways students represented fractions on number lines and the effects of instruction on those representations. The instruction primarily concerned representing fractions and ordering fractions on number lines. (Author/PK)

  10. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. D.; Mumgaard, R. T.

    2016-11-01

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using a numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. The software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.

  11. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Scott, S D; Mumgaard, R T

    2016-11-01

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using a numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. The software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.

  12. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, S. D.; Mumgaard, R. T.

    2016-07-20

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using a numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. As a result, the software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.

  13. Tokamak-independent software analysis suite for multi-spectral line-polarization MSE diagnostics

    DOE PAGES

    Scott, S. D.; Mumgaard, R. T.

    2016-07-20

    A tokamak-independent analysis suite has been developed to process data from Motional Stark Effect (mse) diagnostics. The software supports multi-spectral line-polarization mse diagnostics which simultaneously measure emission at the mse σ and π lines as well as at two "background" wavelengths that are displaced from the mse spectrum by a few nanometers. This analysis accurately estimates the amplitude of partially polarized background light at the σ and π wavelengths even in situations where the background light changes rapidly in time and space, a distinct improvement over traditional "time-interpolation" background estimation. The signal amplitude at many frequencies is computed using amore » numerical-beat algorithm which allows the retardance of the mse photo-elastic modulators (pem's) to be monitored during routine operation. It also allows the use of summed intensities at multiple frequencies in the calculation of polarization direction, which increases the effective signal strength and reduces sensitivity to pem retardance drift. The software allows the polarization angles to be corrected for calibration drift using a system that illuminates the mse diagnostic with polarized light at four known polarization angles within ten seconds of a plasma discharge. As a result, the software suite is modular, parallelized, and portable to other facilities.« less

  14. EMAT weld inspection and weld machine diagnostic system for continuous coil processing lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, Wayne M.; MacLauchlan, Daniel T.; Geier, Dan P.; Lang, Dennis D.

    1996-11-01

    Weld breaks of steel coil during cold rolling and continuous pickling operations are a significant source of lost productivity and product yield. Babcock and Wilcox Innerspec Technologies has developed a weld process control system which monitors the key variables of the welding process and determines the quality of the welds generated by flash butt welding equipment. This system is known as the Temate 2000 Automated Flash Butt Weld Inspection and Weld Machine Diagnostic System. The Temate 2000 system utilizes electro- magnetic acoustic transducer (EMAT) technology as the basis for performing on-line, real-time, nondestructive weld quality evaluation. This technique accurately detects voids, laps, misalignment and over/under trim conditions in the weld. Results of the EMAT weld inspection are immediately presented to the weld machine operator for disposition. Welding process variables such as voltage, current, platen movements and upset pressures are monitored and collected with the high speed data acquisition system. This data is processed and presented in real-time display to indicate useful welding process information such as platen crabbing, upset force, peak upset current, and many others. Alarming for each variable is provided and allows detailed maintenance reports and summary information to be generated. All weld quality and process parameter data are stored, traceable to each unique weld, and available for post process evaluation. Installation of the Temate 2000 system in a major flat rolled steel mill has contributed to near elimination of weld breakage and increased productivity at this facility.

  15. Design of x-ray diagnostic beam line for a synchrotron radiation source and measurement results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Akash Deep; Karnewar, A. K.; Ojha, A.; Shrivastava, B. B.; Holikatti, A. C.; Puntambekar, T. A.; Navathe, C. P.

    2014-08-01

    Indus-2 is a 2.5 GeV synchrotron radiation source (SRS) operational at the Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology (RRCAT) in India. We have designed, developed and commissioned x-ray diagnostic beam line (X-DBL) at the Indus-2. It is based on pinhole array imaging (8-18 keV). We have derived new equations for online measurements of source position and emission angle with pinhole array optics. Measured values are compared with the measurements at an independent x-ray beam position monitor (staggered pair blade monitor) installed in the X-DBL. The measured values are close to the theoretical expected values within ±12 μm (or ±1.5 μrad) for sufficiently wide range of the beam movements. So, beside the beam size and the beam emittance, online information for the vertical position and angle is also used in the orbit steering. In this paper, the various design considerations of the X-DBL and online measurement results are presented.

  16. Beyond Zeeman spectroscopy: Magnetic-field diagnostics with Stark-dominated line shapes

    SciTech Connect

    Tessarin, S.; Mikitchuk, D.; Doron, R.; Stambulchik, E.; Kroupp, E.; Maron, Y.; Hammer, D. A.; Jacobs, V. L.; Seely, J. F.; Oliver, B. V.; Fisher, A.

    2011-09-15

    A recently suggested spectroscopic approach for magnetic-field determination in plasma is employed to measure magnetic fields in an expanding laser-produced plasma plume in an externally applied magnetic field. The approach enables the field determination in a diagnostically difficult regime for which the Zeeman-split patterns are not resolvable, as is often encountered under the conditions characteristic of high-energy-density plasmas. Here, such conditions occur in the high-density plasma near the laser target, due to the dominance of Stark broadening. A pulsed-power system is used to generate magnetic fields with a peak magnitude of 25 T at the inner-electrode surface in a coaxial configuration. An aluminum target attached to the inner electrode surface is then irradiated by a laser beam to produce the expanding plasma that interacts with the applied azimuthal magnetic field. A line-shape analysis of the Al III 4s-4p doublet (5696 and 5722 A) enables the simultaneous determination of the magnetic field and the electron density. The measured magnetic fields are generally found to agree with those expected in a vacuum based on the pulsed-power system current. Examples of other transitions that can be used to diagnose a wide range of plasma and magnetic field parameters are presented.

  17. On a front line.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, L.

    1995-01-01

    Like the patients, doctors in Sarajevo depend largely on humanitarian aid; everyone in the public sector has worked without pay for almost three years. The hospital is on a front line; yet the psychiatric department continues to function, even conducting large scale studies of psychosocial aspects of war in Bosnia-Hercegovina. The type of inpatient morbidity and treatment patterns have changed. A plethora of psychosocial rehabilitation programmes has emerged, including counselling, drop in centres, and attending to special needs of elderly people, schoolchildren, and women. The most prominent psychological symptoms were exhaustion at the prospect of a third winter of war and bewilderment at the Western stereotype of Bosnians as Muslim fundamentalists. Images p1052-a p1053-a PMID:7728062

  18. FE-XIII Infrared / FE-XIV Green Line Ratio Diagnostics (P55)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; et al.

    2006-11-01

    aks.astro.itbhu@gmail.com We consider the first 27-level atomic model of Fe XIII (5.9 < log Te < 6.4 K) to estimate its ground level populations, taking account of electron as well as proton collisional excitations and de-excitations, radiative cascades, radiative excitations and de-excitations. Radiative cascade is important but the effect of dilution factor is negligible at higher electron densities. The 3 P1-3P0 and 3P2-3P1 transitions in the ground configuration 3s2 3p2 of Fe XIII result in two forbidden coronal emission lines in the infrared region, namely 10747 Å and 10798 Å., while the 5303 Å green line is formed in the 3s2 3p 2 2 ground configuration of Fe XIV as a result of P3 / 2 - P1 / 2 magnetic dipole transition. The line-widths of appropriate pair of forbidden coronal emission lines observed simultaneously can be useful diagnostic tool to deduce temperature and non-thermal velocity in the large scale coronal structures using intensity ratios of the lines as the temperature signature, instead of assuming ion temperature to be equal to the electron temperature. Since the line intensity ratios IG5303/IIR10747 and IG5303/IIR10798 have very week density dependence, they are ideal monitors of temperature mapping in the solar corona.

  19. On-Line and Off-Line Assessment of Metacognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saraç, Seda; Karakelle, Sema

    2012-01-01

    The study investigates the interrelationships between different on-line and off-line measures for assessing metacognition. The participants were 47 fifth grade elementary students. Metacognition was assessed through two off-line and two on-line measures. The off-line measures consisted of a teacher rating scale and a self-report questionnaire. The…

  20. Histopathological periodic acid-schiff stains of nail clippings as a second-line diagnostic tool in onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Eliza; Izhak, Ofer Ben; Bergman, Reuven

    2012-05-01

    The diagnosis of onychomycosis, using direct microscopy and fungal cultures, is often negative despite the presence of disease. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of nail clippings, using histopathological processing, may be positive in these cases. It is not always clear, however, whether the fungal elements detected by PAS staining are pathogenic fungi or some are saprophytes. We aimed to study the efficacy of histopathological PAS staining of nail clippings as a second-line diagnostic tool in onychomycosis. The study included 100 consecutive cases in which direct microscopy and fungal cultures from suspected onychomycosis were negative on one occasion or more. The obtained nail clippings were processed for routine histology, stained with hematoxylin and eosin and PAS, and examined microscopically. Of the 100 cases, 38 (38%) showed positive fungal elements. As a result, 9 patients had sought and received oral antifungal therapy and all achieved complete clinical cure. The histological examination also revealed parakeratosis and globules of plasma, which were statistically significantly more common in the fungal infected nail samples. This may indicate an ongoing inflammatory process associated with onychomycosis. Neutrophils and bacteria were not statistically and significantly more common in the fungal infected nails. We conclude that as a second-line diagnostic tool, PAS stain of nail clippings increases markedly the diagnostic yield of onychomycosis and, consequently, the outcome of therapy.

  1. Quasi-separatrix layer diagnostics and electron force balance in line-tied systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billey, Zachary; Zweibel, Ellen; Finn, John; Daughton, William

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection plays a key role in processes such as coronal mass ejections, solar/stellar dynamics, planetary magnetospheres and accretion disk flares. Magnetic reconnection may be influenced by the line-tied boundary conditions in these systems. For example, magnetic field lines that enter and exit a stellar surface are fixed to the surface at the timescales which coronal magnetic reconnection events take place. In some systems, temperatures may be high enough and densities low enough that collisionless effects play the dominant role. Motivated by this, we investigate collisionless magnetic reconnection in line tied geometry with a series of fully kinetic particle-in-cell simulations of varying lengths. To understand the reconnection physics, we employ field line integrated reconnection diagnostics to examine the formation of quasi-separatrix layers and their association with the integrated parallel electric field. In addition, we examine the electron force balance along field lines to identify the nature of non-ideal behavior in the reconnection region and its connection to magnetic topology.

  2. Gas Excitation in ULIRGs: Maps of Diagnostic Emission-line Ratios in Space and Velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soto, Kurt T.; Martin, Crystal L.

    2012-11-01

    Emission-line spectra extracted at multiple locations across 39 ultraluminous infrared galaxies have been compiled into a spectrophotometric atlas. Line profiles of Hα, [N II], [S II], [O I], Hβ, and [O III] are resolved and fit jointly with common velocity components. Diagnostic ratios of these line fluxes are presented in a series of plots, showing how the Doppler shift, line width, gas excitation, and surface brightness change with velocity at fixed position and also with distance from the nucleus. One general characteristic of these spectra is the presence of shocked gas extending many kiloparsecs from the nucleus. In some systems, the rotation curves of the emitting gas indicate motions that suggest gas disks, which are most frequent at early merger stages. At these early merger stages, the emission line ratios indicate the presence of shocked gas, which may be triggered by the merger event. We also report the general characteristics of the integrated spectra. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  3. Diagnostic arrangement on S-300 facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakshaev, Yu. L.; Blinov, P. I.; Chernenko, A. S.; Dan'ko, S. A.; Kalinin, Yu. G.; Korolev, V. D.; Tumanov, V. I.; Shashkov, A. Yu.; Chesnokov, A. V.; Ivanov, M. I.

    2001-01-01

    A set of experiments on neutron and x-ray generation was performed on the S-300 facility for the last few months. The S-300 facility is a pulse generator with electric current achieving 3.5 MA, voltage 400-500 kV, and rise time ˜100 ns. (Chernenko et al., Proc. of the 11th International Conference of Power Particle Beams, Prague, 1966, p. 154). It is designed as van eight-module machine transmitting electromagnetic power to the low-inductive load through the vacuum line with self-magnetic isolation. Diagnostic techniques and methods on S-300 used are described in this article. Ten-channel polychromator is used for the soft x-ray and vacuum ultraviolet bands (50-500 eV) measurements with spectral resolution of 5%-20% and time resolution less than 2.5 ns. Radiated power measurements in the region of 0.1-10 keV are performed by vacuum x-ray diodes and semiconductor detectors equipped with different filters. Curved crystal x-ray spectrography is intended for plasma density, electron, and ion temperature evaluation. Visible and x-ray radiation image converter tubes and a streak camera reproduce plasma dynamics. Laser shadow and schlieren probing are used to investigate rare periphery plasma motion. Time-of-flight and activation technique is designed for total neutron yield determination.

  4. Software diagnostic aids on Aladdin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eisert, David E.; Stott, John P.

    1990-08-01

    The upgrade of the Aladdin control system included many enhancements in the software. Some of the new diagnostic aids provided are: - intelligent temporary logging of all readbacks for at least the previous 12 hours, - permanent logging of specified readbacks into disk files, - temporary logging of beam positions at an operator-specified interval, - an alarm system for all devices, including range limits for analogue readbacks that should remain fixed and window limits which automatically track readbacks that should decay or increase monotonically, - automated checklists to verify that devices are within the specified operating range for a particular phase of operation, - latched digital signals to capture momentary changes. The software has been designed to alert the operator when something is wrong, without generating a flood of unimportant messages, and to make it possible to observe and record readbacks over a range of time scales. The latter capability is essential for tracking down marginal components and correlating observed problems with possible causes. The algorithms used for these diagnostic aids, and how well they perform their desired tasks, are described in this paper.

  5. Infrared fine-structure line diagnostics of shrouded active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. M.

    1992-01-01

    The ultraluminous far-IR galaxies revealed by IRAS, quasar-like in luminosity but smothered in molecular gas, probably conceal either immense starbursts or luminous active nuclei. In both scenarios, these objects ought to produce copious infrared fine-structure emission with several lines comparable to H-beta in luminosity. We show how these lines, if detected, can be used to determine the electron densities and far-IR obscurations of shrouded photoionized regions and to constrain the shape and ionization parameter of the ionizing spectra. The presence of Ne v emission in particular will distinguish shrouded AGNs from shrouded starbursts. Since all active galaxies photoionize at least some surrounding material, these diagnostics can also be applied to active galaxies in general and will aid in studying how an active nucleus interacts with the interstellar medium of its host galaxy.

  6. Modelling the Pan-Spectral Energy Distribution of Starburst Galaxies: III. Emission Line Diagnostics of Ensembles of H II Regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dopita, M A; Fischera, J; Sutherland, R S; Kewley, L J; Leitherer, C; Tuffs, R J; Popescu, C C; van Breugel, W; Groves, B A

    2006-05-10

    We have built, as far as possible, fully self-consistent models of H II regions around aging clusters of stars. These produce strong emission line diagnostics applicable to either individual H II regions in galaxies, or to the integrated emission line spectra of disk or starburst galaxies. The models assume that the expansion and internal pressure of individual H II regions is driven by the net input of mechanical energy from the central cluster, be it through winds or supernova events. This eliminates the ionization parameter as a free variable, replacing it with a parameter which depends on the ratio of the cluster mass to the pressure in the surrounding interstellar medium. These models explain why H II regions with low abundances have high excitation, and demonstrate that at least part of the warm ionized medium is the result of overlapping faint, old, large, and low pressure H II regions. We present a number of line ratios (at both optical and IR wavelengths) that provide reliable abundance diagnostics for either single H II regions or for integrated galaxy spectra, and others that are sensitive to the age of the cluster stars exciting individual H II regions.

  7. Erosion on a line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willett, Sean D.

    2010-03-01

    An erosion model is proposed to calculate erosion rates for plane-strain models in which the Earth's surface is represented on a line. The fundamentals of river erosion networks are captured by two principles, Hack's Law, which describes the drainage area structure of river network and a stream-power erosion law, which describes the rate of incision of a river. For a simple morphology of parallel transverse rivers with rectangular drainage basins, this allows the earth's surface to be parameterized by two heights: the trunk stream channel height and the interfluvial ridge height. The resulting expressions are solved for the simple cases of constant uplift rate and a constant mean slope as occurs in critical wedge problems. In the latter case, the uplift rate is variable and changes in space so that the trunk channel elevation and the interfluvial ridge elevation average to maintain a constant mean slope. A general, numerical solution is presented for application to any numerical model with arbitrary surface velocity, variable rock erodibility and precipitation. This algorithm is coupled to a plane-strain, plastic-deformation model to demonstrate the utility of the model.

  8. Millimeter wave Diagnostic Capability on TCV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porte, Laurie; Alberti, Stefano; Coda, Stefano; Duval, Basil; Fontana, Matteo; Goodman, Timothy; Molina-Cabrera, Pedro; SPC Team

    2016-10-01

    TCV has a large set of millimetre wave diagnostics. Two 24 channel ECE heterodyne radiometers have been installed. Each has a line of sight perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field. One radiometer views from the high-field side (HFS) while the second views from the low-field-side (LFS). Each device has two mixers and local oscillators and their associated IF instrumentation and video detection. In addition, a six channel correlation ECE (CECE) radiometer has been installed for measuring electron temperature fluctuations. The CECE radiometer has a high gain antenna that can be rotated in both the toroidal and poloidal planes. All of the radiometers can be attached to a vertical line of sight allowing measurement of ECE signals generated by supra-thermal electrons. A millimetre-wave transmission diagnostic is being commissioned for the measurement of the absorption of the ECRH power. A 300 GHz interferometer has been installed. It is optimised for use at density below 4x1019 m-3. Finally, a short pulse reflectometer is being installed and Doppler backscattering measurements have been made. All of these diagnostic systems will be described and their potential use will be detailed. This work partially funded by the Swiss National Science Foundation.

  9. Near-coincident K-line and K-edge energies as ionization diagnostics for some high atomic number plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, N. R.; Weber, B. V.; Phipps, D. G.; Schumer, J. W.; Seely, J. F.; Carroll, J. J.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Slabkowska, K.; Polasik, M.

    2012-10-15

    For some high atomic number atoms, the energy of the K-edge is tens of eVs higher than the K-line energy of another atom, so that a few eV increase in the line's energy results in a decreasing transmission of the x-ray through a filter of the matching material. The transmission of cold iridium's Asymptotically-Equal-To 63.287 keV K{alpha}{sub 2} line through a lutetium filter is 7% lower when emitted by ionized iridium, consistent with an energy increase of {Delta}{epsilon} Asymptotically-Equal-To 10{+-}1 eV associated with the ionization. Likewise, the transmission of the K{beta}{sub 1} line of ytterbium through a near-coincident K-edge filter changes depending on plasma parameters that should affect the ionization. Systematic exploration of filter-line pairs like these could become a unique tool for diagnostics of suitable high energy density plasmas.

  10. Implementation of a Comprehensive On-Line Closed-Loop Diagnostic System for Roll-to-Roll Amorphous Silicon Solar Cell Production: Final Subcontract Report, 23 April 2003 - 30 September 2006

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, T.

    2007-05-01

    This report summarizes Energy Conversion Devices' diagnostic systems that were developed in this program, as well as ECD's other major accomplishments. This report concentrates on work carried out in the final (third) phase of this program, beginning in the fall of 2004 and ending in the fall of 2006. ECD has developed a comprehensive in-situ diagnostic system that: Reduces the time between deposition in the a-Si machine and device characterization from about 200 h to about 1 h; The Photovoltaic Capacitive Diagnostic systems measure the open-circuit voltage and charging rate (a measure of the short-circuit current) and intra-cell series resistance for each cell in the triple-junction device prior to deposition of the top conductive-oxide coating in a subsequent deposition machine. These systems operate with an rms precision of about 0.03% and have operated for almost 4 years with no need for servicing of the electronics or for calibration; Spectrometers are used to measure the ZnO thickness of the backreflector, a Si thickness, and top conductive-oxide, coatings.

  11. Filterscope diagnostic system on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST).

    PubMed

    Xu, Z; Wu, Z W; Gao, W; Chen, Y J; Wu, C R; Zhang, L; Huang, J; Chang, J F; Yao, X J; Gao, W; Zhang, P F; Jin, Z; Hou, Y M; Guo, H Y

    2016-11-01

    A filterscope diagnostic system has been mounted to observe the line emission and visible bremsstrahlung emission from plasma on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak during the 2014 campaign. By this diagnostic system, multiple wavelengths including Dα (656.1 nm), Dγ (433.9 nm), He ii (468.5 nm), Li i (670.8 nm), Li ii (548.3 nm), C iii (465.0 nm), O ii (441.5 nm), Mo i (386.4 nm), W i (400.9 nm), and visible bremsstrahlung radiation (538.0 nm) are monitored with corresponding wavelength filters. All these multi-channel signals are digitized at up to 200 kHz simultaneously. This diagnostic plays a crucial role in studying edge localized modes and H-mode plasmas, due to the high temporal resolution and spatial resolution that have been designed into it.

  12. VIMOS integral field spectroscopy of blue compact galaxies. I. Morphological properties, diagnostic emission-line ratios, and kinematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cairós, L. M.; Caon, N.; Weilbacher, P. M.

    2015-05-01

    Context. Blue compact galaxies (BCG) are gas-rich, low-luminosity, low-metallicity systems that undergo a violent burst of star formation. These galaxies offer us a unique opportunity to investigate collective star formation and its effects on galaxy evolution in a relatively simple environment. Spatially resolved spectrophotometric studies of BCGs are essential for a better understanding of the role of starburst-driven feedback processes on the kinematical and chemical evolution of low-mass galaxies near and far. Aims: We carry out an integral field spectroscopic study of a sample of BCGs, with the aim of probing the morphology, kinematics, dust extinction, and excitation mechanisms of their warm interstellar medium. Methods: Eight BCGs were observed with the VIMOS integral field unit at the Very Large Telescope using blue and orange grisms in high-resolution mode. At a spatial sampling of 0''&dotbelow;67 per spaxel, we covered about 30″ × 30″ on the sky, with a wavelength range of 4150...7400 Å. Emission lines were fitted with a single Gaussian profile to measure their wavelength, flux, and width. From these data we built two-dimensional maps of the continuum and the most prominent emission-lines, as well as diagnostic line ratios, extinction, and kinematic maps. Results: An atlas has been produced with the following: emission-line fluxes and continuum emission; ionization, interstellar extinction, and electron density maps from line ratios; velocity and velocity dispersion fields. From integrated spectroscopy, it includes tables of the extinction corrected line fluxes and equivalent widths, diagnostic-line ratios, physical parameters, and the abundances for the brightest star-forming knots and for the whole galaxy. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under program ID 079.B-0445.The reduced datacubes and their error maps (FITS files) are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp

  13. Laser diagnostics on a hypersonic combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, David J.; Oldenborg, R. C.; Tiee, J. J.; Northam, G. Burton; Antcliff, Richard R.; Cutler, Andrew D.; Jarrett, O.; Smith, M. W.

    1991-01-01

    NASA-Langley has implemented a laser-based multipoint/multiparameter diagnostics system at its hypersonic direct-connect combustor, in order to measure both temperature and majority species densities in two dimensions, using spatially-scanned CARS; in addition, line-imaged measurements of radical densities are simultaneously generated by LIF at any of several planes downstream of the fuel injector. Initial experimental trials have demonstrated successful detection of one-dimensional images of OH density, as well as CARS N2-temperature measurements, in the turbulent reaction zone of the hypersonic combustor.

  14. LINE1 methylation levels in pre-diagnostic leukocyte DNA and future renal cell carcinoma risk

    PubMed Central

    Karami, Sara; Andreotti, Gabriella; Liao, Linda M; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Purdue, Mark P; Hofmann, Jonathan N; Albanes, Demetrius; Mannisto, Satu; Moore, Lee E

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Higher levels of LINE1 methylation in blood DNA have been associated with increased kidney cancer risk using post-diagnostically collected samples; however, this association has never been examined using pre-diagnostic samples. We examined the association between LINE1 %5mC and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk using pre-diagnostic blood DNA from the United States-based, Prostate, Lung, Colorectal, and Ovarian Cancer Screening Trial (PLCO) (215 cases/436 controls), and the Alpha-tocopherol, Beta-carotene Cancer Prevention Study (ATBC) of Finnish male smokers (191 cases/575 controls). Logistic regression adjusted for age at blood draw, study center, pack-years of smoking, body mass index, hypertension, dietary alcohol intake, family history of cancer, and sex was used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using cohort and sex-specific methylation categories. In PLCO, higher, although non-significant, RCC risk was observed for participants at or above median methylation level (M2) compared to those below the median (M1) (OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 0.96–1.95). The association was stronger in males (M2 vs. M1, OR: 1.54, 95% CI: 1.00–2.39) and statistically significant among male smokers (M2 vs. M1, OR: 2.60, 95% CI: 1.46–4.63). A significant interaction for smoking was also detected (P-interaction: 0.01). No association was found among females or female smokers. Findings for male smokers were replicated in ATBC (M2 vs. M1, OR: 1.31, 95% CI: 1.07–1.60). In a pooled analysis of PLCO and ATBC male smokers (281cases/755controls), the OR among subjects at or above median methylation level (M2) compared to those below the median (M1) was 1.89 (95% CI: 1.34–2.67, P-value: 3 x 10–4); a trend was also observed by methylation quartile (P-trend: 0.002). These findings suggest that higher LINE1 methylation levels measured prior to cancer diagnosis may be a biomarker of future RCC risk among male smokers. PMID:25647181

  15. Infrared fine-structure line diagnostics of shrouded active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Voit, G. M.

    1993-01-01

    Far-infrared spectroscopy of celestial objects will improve dramatically in the coming decade, allowing astronomers to use fine-structure line emission to probe photoionized regions obscured in the optical band by thick clouds of dust. The ultraluminous far-IR galaxies revealed by IRAS, quasar-like in luminosity but smothered in molecular gas, probably conceal either immense starbursts or luminous active nuclei. In both scenarios, these objects ought to produce copious infrared fine-structure emission with several lines comparable to H(beta) in luminosity. This paper shows how these lines, if detected, can be used to determine the electron densities and far-IR obscurations of shrouded photoionized regions and to constrain the shape and ionization parameter of the ionizing spectra. The presence of (Ne V) emission in particular will distinguish shrouded AGN's from shrouded starbursts. Since all active galaxies photoionize at least some surrounding material, these diagnostics can also be applied to active galaxies in general and will aid in studying how an active nucleus interacts with the interstellar medium of its host galaxy.

  16. A computer program for fast non-LTE analysis of interstellar line spectra. With diagnostic plots to interpret observed line intensity ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Tak, F. F. S.; Black, J. H.; Schöier, F. L.; Jansen, D. J.; van Dishoeck, E. F.

    2007-06-01

    Aims:The large quantity and high quality of modern radio and infrared line observations require efficient modeling techniques to infer physical and chemical parameters such as temperature, density, and molecular abundances. Methods: We present a computer program to calculate the intensities of atomic and molecular lines produced in a uniform medium, based on statistical equilibrium calculations involving collisional and radiative processes and including radiation from background sources. Optical depth effects are treated with an escape probability method. The program is available on the World Wide Web at http://www.sron.rug.nl/~vdtak/radex/index.shtml. The program makes use of molecular data files maintained in the Leiden Atomic and Molecular Database (LAMDA), which will continue to be improved and expanded. Results: The performance of the program is compared with more approximate and with more sophisticated methods. An Appendix provides diagnostic plots to estimate physical parameters from line intensity ratios of commonly observed molecules. Conclusions: This program should form an important tool in analyzing observations from current and future radio and infrared telescopes. Appendices A-D, are only available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  17. Metal Emission Lines as Diagnostic Tools for Shock Waves in Outer Atmospheres of M-type Mira Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, He.; Sedlmayr, E.; Wood, P. R.

    One way to reveal the thermo- and hydrodynamical conditions in M-type Mira atmospheres is to study the various emission lines which are emitted behind a shock front and can be observed over a substantial portion of the pulsation period. Analysing a time-resolved series of these emission lines offers the possibility to determine these conditions in different atmospheric layers influenced by the passing shock wave. In particular, the metal emission lines are a diagnostic tool to probe the hydrodynamical conditions of the outer, dust-forming layers of the atmosphere, because they appear late in the pulsation cycle when the shock wave has reached these layers. We present quantitive data on radial velocities, shapes, widths and fluxes of metal emission lines obtained by spectral observations in the optical wavelength region for a sample of six M-type Miras (periods 281-389 days), namely R Aql, RR Sco, R Car, R Leo, S Scl and R Hya (cf. Richter & Wood 2001, A&A 369, 1027-1047). Because of the multiple phase coverage of our observations, the data shows the history of the shock as it emerges through the deep photosphere and then moves out through the atmosphere. The observations are analysed and discussed with regard to the atmospheric conditions.

  18. Magnetic Diagnostics of the Solar Chromosphere with the Mg II h-k Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Pino Alemán, T.; Casini, R.; Manso Sainz, R.

    2016-10-01

    We investigated the formation of the Mg ii h-k doublet in a weakly magnetized atmosphere (20-100 G) using a newly developed numerical code for polarized radiative transfer in a plane-parallel geometry, which implements a recent formulation of partially coherent scattering by polarized multi-term atoms in arbitrary magnetic-field regimes. Our results confirm the importance of partial redistribution effects in the formation of the Mg ii h and k lines, as pointed out by previous work in the non-magnetic case. We show that the presence of a magnetic field can produce measurable modifications of the broadband linear polarization even for relatively small field strengths (˜10 G), while the circular polarization remains well represented by the classical magnetograph formula. Both these results open an important new window for the weak-field diagnostics of the upper solar atmosphere.

  19. Stark broadening for diagnostics of the electron density in non-equilibrium plasma utilizing isotope hydrogen alpha lines

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lin; Tan, Xiaohua; Wan, Xiang; Chen, Lei; Jin, Dazhi; Qian, Muyang; Li, Gongping

    2014-04-28

    Two Stark broadening parameters including FWHM (full width at half maximum) and FWHA (full width at half area) of isotope hydrogen alpha lines are simultaneously introduced to determine the electron density of a pulsed vacuum arc jet. To estimate the gas temperature, the rotational temperature of the C{sub 2} Swan system is fit to 2500 ± 100 K. A modified Boltzmann-plot method with b{sub i}-factor is introduced to determine the modified electron temperature. The comparison between results of atomic and ionic lines indicates the jet is in partial local thermodynamic equilibrium and the electron temperature is close to 13 000 ± 400 K. Based on the computational results of Gig-Card calculation, a simple and precise interpolation algorithm for the discrete-points tables can be constructed to obtain the traditional n{sub e}-T{sub e} diagnostic maps of two Stark broadening parameters. The results from FWHA formula by the direct use of FWHM = FWHA and these from the diagnostic map are different. It can be attributed to the imprecise FWHA formula form and the deviation between FWHM and FWHA. The variation of the reduced mass pair due to the non-equilibrium effect contributes to the difference of the results derived from two hydrogen isotope alpha lines. Based on the Stark broadening analysis in this work, a corrected method is set up to determine n{sub e} of (1.10 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 21} m{sup −3}, the reference reduced mass μ{sub 0} pair of (3.30 ± 0.82 and 1.65 ± 0.41), and the ion kinetic temperature of 7900 ± 1800 K.

  20. A proposed new diagnostic for Herbig disc geometry. FWHM versus J of CO ro-vibrational lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein Bertelsen, R. P.; Kamp, I.; van der Plas, G.; van den Ancker, M. E.; Waters, L. B. F. M.; Thi, W.-F.; Woitke, P.

    2016-05-01

    sources and their inner CO radius. Conclusions: The FWHM versus J is a potential new gas diagnostic for the inner disc with, for example, a constant FWHM versus J indicating the presence of a large gas hole or gap. Models and observations both indicate the potential of this new diagnostic. Our extended sample does not fully support the previous trend where group I discs have CO ro-vibrational emission lines with small FWHM. Instead, our CO ro-vibrational data from a handful of sources indicates different inner disc geometries for the gas and dust of these sources. Based on observations made with ESO Telescopes at the La Silla Paranal Observatory under programme ID 088.C-0898A and programme ID 084.C-1002(A).

  1. Spectroscopic Diagnostics of Solar Magnetic Flux Ropes Using Iron Forbidden Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, X.; Ding, M. D.

    2016-05-01

    In this Letter, we present Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph Fe xxi 1354.08 Å forbidden line emission of two magnetic flux ropes (MFRs) that caused two fast coronal mass ejections with velocities of ≥1000 km s-1 and strong flares (X1.6 and M6.5) on 2014 September 10 and 2015 June 22, respectively. The extreme-ultraviolet images at the 131 and 94 Å passbands provided by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board Solar Dynamics Observatory reveal that both MFRs initially appear as suspended hot channel-like structures. Interestingly, part of the MFRs is also visible in the Fe xxi 1354.08 forbidden line, even prior to the eruption, e.g., for the SOL2014-09-10 event. However, the line emission is very weak and that only appears at a few locations but not the whole structure of the MFRs. This implies that the MFRs could be comprised of different threads with different temperatures and densities, based on the fact that the formation of the Fe xxi forbidden line requires a critical temperature (˜11.5 MK) and density. Moreover, the line shows a non-thermal broadening and a blueshift in the early phase. It suggests that magnetic reconnection at that time has initiated; it not only heats the MFR and, at the same time, produces a non-thermal broadening of the Fe xxi line but also produces the poloidal flux, leading to the ascension of the MFRs.

  2. Putting Alumni On Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Jeffrey R.

    1994-01-01

    College alumni associations are providing graduates with such electronic services as bulletin boards, computer mailing lists, online alumni magazines and newsletters, alumni forums on commercial networks, and electronic mail addresses. Other anticipated uses of the technology include fund raising, classes offered on networks, electronic bookstore…

  3. On the Front Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruffins, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Physician assistants take on primary care duties that were once the exclusive domain of physicians. According to Kevin Lohenry, director of the Primary Care Physician Assistant Program at the University of Southern California, there are either 90,000 or 30 million reasons why someone might see a physician assistant rather than a physician. The 30…

  4. Texts On-Line.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jean-Jacques

    1993-01-01

    Maintains that the study of signs is divided between those scholars who use the Saussurian binary sign (semiology) and those who prefer the Peirce tripartite sign (semiotics). Concludes that neither the Saussurian nor Peircian analysis methods can produce a semiotic interpretation based on a hierarchy of the text's various components. (CFR)

  5. Active galactic nuclei emission line diagnostics and the mass-metallicity relation up to redshift z ∼ 2: The impact of selection effects and evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc'h, Émeric; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin; Trump, Jonathan R.; Dickinson, Mark

    2014-06-10

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ∼ 0 reference sample built from ∼300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ∼ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ∼ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z ≳ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  6. Active Galactic Nuclei Emission Line Diagnostics and the Mass-Metallicity Relation up to Redshift z ~ 2: The Impact of Selection Effects and Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juneau, Stéphanie; Bournaud, Frédéric; Charlot, Stéphane; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Trump, Jonathan R.; Brinchmann, Jarle; Dickinson, Mark; Duc, Pierre-Alain; Gobat, Raphael; Jean-Baptiste, Ingrid; Le Floc'h, Émeric; Lehnert, M. D.; Pacifici, Camilla; Pannella, Maurilio; Schreiber, Corentin

    2014-06-01

    Emission line diagnostic diagrams probing the ionization sources in galaxies, such as the Baldwin-Phillips-Terlevich (BPT) diagram, have been used extensively to distinguish active galactic nuclei (AGN) from purely star-forming galaxies. However, they remain poorly understood at higher redshifts. We shed light on this issue with an empirical approach based on a z ~ 0 reference sample built from ~300,000 Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies, from which we mimic selection effects due to typical emission line detection limits at higher redshift. We combine this low-redshift reference sample with a simple prescription for luminosity evolution of the global galaxy population to predict the loci of high-redshift galaxies on the BPT and Mass-Excitation (MEx) diagnostic diagrams. The predicted bivariate distributions agree remarkably well with direct observations of galaxies out to z ~ 1.5, including the observed stellar mass-metallicity (MZ) relation evolution. As a result, we infer that high-redshift star-forming galaxies are consistent with having normal interstellar medium (ISM) properties out to z ~ 1.5, after accounting for selection effects and line luminosity evolution. Namely, their optical line ratios and gas-phase metallicities are comparable to that of low-redshift galaxies with equivalent emission-line luminosities. In contrast, AGN narrow-line regions may show a shift toward lower metallicities at higher redshift. While a physical evolution of the ISM conditions is not ruled out for purely star-forming galaxies and may be more important starting at z >~ 2, we find that reliably quantifying this evolution is hindered by selections effects. The recipes provided here may serve as a basis for future studies toward this goal. Code to predict the loci of galaxies on the BPT and MEx diagnostic diagrams and the MZ relation as a function of emission line luminosity limits is made publicly available.

  7. Local magnetic fields diagnostics in solar faculae using Fel 5233 line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozitsky, V.; Osyka, O.; Liakh, V.

    2015-12-01

    The bisectors of I ± V Stokes profiles are analyzed for measurements of local magnetic field strengths in solar faculae of 7 August 2013observed on Echelle spectrograph of horizontal solar telescope of the Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University. Obtained observational data indicate the inapplicability the weak-field and one-component approximation for this line. This follows from essential (till five times) differences of bisector splitting in different parts of line profile. A fine effect was found from analysis of mean-square deviation of observed bisector splitting from linear trend. This deviation has a maximum (relatively error level) on distance nearly 120 mǺ from line center that could indicate the presence of local magnetic field of about 7.4 kG.

  8. Local Magnetic Field Diagnostics in Solar Faculae Using FeI 5233 Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozitsky, V.; Osyka, O.; Lyakh, V.

    2015-06-01

    The bisectors of I ± V Stokes profiles are analyzed for measurements of local magnetic field strengths in solar faculae of 7 August 2013 observed on Echelle spectrograph of horizontal solar telescope of the Astronomical Observatory of Kyiv Taras Shevchenko National University. Obtained observational data indicate the inapplicability the weak-field and one-component approximation for this line. This follows from essential (till five times) differences of bisector splitting in different parts of line profile. A fine effect was found from analysis of mean-square deviation of observed bisector splitting from linear trend. This deviation has a maximum (relatively error level) on distance nearly 120 mÅ from line center that could indicate the presence of local magnetic field of about 7.4 kG.

  9. Emission-line diagnostics for the existence of thermal accretion disks in active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, J. H.

    1988-01-01

    The use of the relative strengths of optical and UV emission lines to infer information about the EUV continuum shape is demonstrated. The FeII/H-beta line ratio is strongly dependent on spectral shape, making it a good indicator of the UV spectrum. It is shown how the gravitational influence of a massive black hole may be seen in the nature of gas streaming motions and the orbits of gas clouds in the region where the black hole potential is comparable to the stellar galactic potential.

  10. Origin of the Galactic Diffuse X-Ray Emission: Iron K-shell Line Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Hideki; Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Koyama, Katsuji

    2016-12-01

    This paper reports detailed K-shell line profiles of iron (Fe) and nickel (Ni) of the Galactic Center X-ray Emission (GCXE), Galactic Bulge X-ray Emission (GBXE), Galactic Ridge X-ray Emission (GRXE), magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (mCVs), non-magnetic Cataclysmic Variables (non-mCVs), and coronally Active Binaries (ABs). For the study of the origin of the GCXE, GBXE, and GRXE, the spectral analysis is focused on equivalent widths of the Fe i-Kα, Fe xxv-Heα, and Fe xxvi-Lyα lines. The global spectrum of the GBXE is reproduced by a combination of the mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs spectra. On the other hand, the GRXE spectrum shows significant data excesses at the Fe i-Kα and Fe xxv-Heα line energies. This means that additional components other than mCVs, non-mCVs, and ABs are required, which have symbiotic phenomena of cold gas and very high-temperature plasma. The GCXE spectrum shows larger excesses than those found in the GRXE spectrum at all the K-shell lines of iron and nickel. Among them the largest ones are the Fe i-Kα, Fe xxv-Heα, Fe xxvi-Lyα, and Fe xxvi-Lyβ lines. Together with the fact that the scale heights of the Fe i-Kα, Fe xxv-Heα, and Fe xxvi-Lyα lines are similar to that of the central molecular zone (CMZ), the excess components would be related to high-energy activity in the extreme envelopment of the CMZ.

  11. Solar coronal temperature diagnostics using emission line from multiple stages of ionization of iron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Davila, Joseph M.; Thomas, Roger J.; Thompson, William T.

    1994-01-01

    We obtained spatially resolved extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) spectra of AR 6615 on 1991 May 7 with NASA/ Goddard Space Flight Center's Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS). Included are emission lines from four different stages of ionization of iron: Fe(+15) lambda 335 A, Fe(+14) lambda 327 A, Fe(+13) lambda 334 A, and Fe(+12) lambda 348 A. Using intensity ratios from among these lines, we have calculated the active region coronal temperature along the Solar Extreme Ultraviolet Telescope and Spectrograph (SERTS) slit. Temperatures derived from line ratios which incorporate adjacent stages of ionization are most sensitive to measurement uncertainties and yield the largest scatter. Temperatures derived from line ratios which incorporate nonadjacent stages of ionization are less sensitive to measurement uncertainties and yield little scatter. The active region temperature derived from these latter ratios has an average value of 2.54 x 10(exp 6) K, with a standard deviation approximately 0.12 x 10(exp 6) K, and shows no significant variation with position along the slit.

  12. Progress on MSE-LIF diagnostic for NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sechrest, Y.; Levinton, F. M.; Galante, M.; Dicicco, D.; La Fleur, H.; Cylinder, D.; Yuh, H.

    2016-10-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) was installed on NSTX during the 2011 run year. The MSE-LIF will enable radially resolved measurements of the magnetic field pitch angle and magnitude, both of which can be used to constrain plasma equilibrium reconstructions. A diagnostic neutral beam with low axial energy spread, low divergence, and high reliability has been developed. It operates routinely at 35 kV and 40 mA. A laser has been developed with high power (10 W) and optimal linewidth matched to the energy spread of the neutral beam (6 GHz). The laser wavelength is near 651 nm for a match to the Doppler-shifted Balmer-alpha transition in the beam neutrals. The unique high-power, moderate linewidth laser system utilizes a 19 emitter diode laser bar and feedback from a volume Bragg grating for line width narrowing. Progress on the development of the MSE-LIF diagnostic toward initial operation during NSTX-U plasma operations will be presented, and highlights from the first run year will be discussed. Authors would like to acknowledge support of the NSTX-U Team.

  13. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. II. THE FORMATION OF THE Mg II h and k LINES IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Leenaarts, J.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; De Pontieu, B.; Uitenbroek, H. E-mail: tiago.pereira@astro.uio.no E-mail: bdp@lmsal.com

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer mission will study how the solar atmosphere is energized. IRIS contains an imaging spectrograph that covers the Mg II h and k lines as well as a slit-jaw imager centered at Mg II k. Understanding the observations requires forward modeling of Mg II h and k line formation from three-dimensional (3D) radiation-magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) models. This paper is the second in a series where we undertake this modeling. We compute the vertically emergent h and k intensity from a snapshot of a dynamic 3D RMHD model of the solar atmosphere, and investigate which diagnostic information about the atmosphere is contained in the synthetic line profiles. We find that the Doppler shift of the central line depression correlates strongly with the vertical velocity at optical depth unity, which is typically located less than 200 km below the transition region (TR). By combining the Doppler shifts of the h and k lines we can retrieve the sign of the velocity gradient just below the TR. The intensity in the central line depression is anti-correlated with the formation height, especially in subfields of a few square Mm. This intensity could thus be used to measure the spatial variation of the height of the TR. The intensity in the line-core emission peaks correlates with the temperature at its formation height, especially for strong emission peaks. The peaks can thus be exploited as a temperature diagnostic. The wavelength difference between the blue and red peaks provides a diagnostic of the velocity gradients in the upper chromosphere. The intensity ratio of the blue and red peaks correlates strongly with the average velocity in the upper chromosphere. We conclude that the Mg II h and k lines are excellent probes of the very upper chromosphere just below the TR, a height regime that is impossible to probe with other spectral lines. They also provide decent temperature and velocity diagnostics of the middle chromosphere.

  14. On-Line Communications Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sternick, Barbara R.

    These summaries have been compiled to assist users in selecting terminals for use with the National Library of Medicine (NLM) on-line systems. The summaries describe the salient characteristics and approximate prices of a large number of hard copy and display devices. Many of the terminals listed may be modified by the addition of various options…

  15. PHENIX on-line and off-line computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, S. S.; Chujo, T.; Desmond, E. J.; Ewell, L.; Ghosh, T. K.; Haggerty, J. S.; Ichihara, T.; Jacak, B. V.; Johnson, S. C.; Kehayias, H.-J.; Lauret, J.; Maguire, C. F.; Messer, M.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mitchell, J. T.; Morrison, D. P.; Ojha, I. D.; Pinkenburg, C. H.; Pollack, M.; Pope, K.; Purschke, M. L.; Sorensen, S.; Sourikova, I.; Thomas, T. L.; Velkovsky, M.; Watanabe, Y.; Witzig, C.; Yokkaichi, S.; Zajc, W. A.; PHEN. I. X. Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    Data handling in PHENIX is carried out by the On-Line Computing System (ONCS) and Off-Line Computing System (Off-Line). ONCS provides the overall control and monitoring of the front-end electronics, trigger and data acquisition system and detector ancillary systems. It configures and initializes the on-line system, monitors and controls the data flow, coordinates calibration processes, interlocks the data acquisition process with the slow control subsystems and performs a number of other functions. ONCS uses CORBA software to monitor and control the hardware. Off-Line provides all aspects of data handling not directly connected to the collection of data and monitoring, such as event simulation and reconstruction, data analysis and information management. The impact of the unprecedented data volumes on the design is presented, along with a detailed discussion of the tasks and methods of simulating, obtaining and monitoring the data.

  16. Diagnostic Development for ST Plasmas on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    D. Johnson; NSTX Team

    2003-06-16

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have much lower aspect ratio (a/R) and lower toroidal magnetic field, relative to tokamaks and stellarators. This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities these features pose in the diagnosis of ST plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and discuss some of the corresponding diagnostic development that is underway. The low aspect ratio necessitates a small center stack, with tight space constraints and large thermal excursions, complicating the design of magnetic sensors in this region. The toroidal magnetic field on NSTX is less than or equal to 0.6 T, making it impossible to use ECE as a good monitor of electron temperature. A promising new development for diagnosing electron temperature is electron Bernstein wave (EBW) radiometry, which is currently being pursued on NSTX. A new high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system is being installed. Since non-inductive current initiation and sustainment ar e top-level NSTX research goals, measurements of the current profile J(R) are essential to many planned experiments. On NSTX several modifications are planned to adapt the MSE technique to lower field, and two novel MSE systems are being prototyped. Several high speed 2-D imaging techniques are being developed, for viewing both visible and x-ray emission. The toroidal field is comparable to the poloidal field at the outside plasma edge, producing a large field pitch (>50{sup o}) at the outer mid-plane. The large shear in pitch angle makes some fluctuation diagnostics like beam emission spectroscopy very difficult, while providing a means of achieving spatial localization for microwave scattering investigations of high-k turbulence, which are predicted to be virulent for NSTX plasmas. A brief description of several of these techniques will be given in the context of the current NSTX diagnostic set.

  17. Conversion of the 6302 / 6301 Stokes V Line Ratio to the 5250 / 5247 Ratio for the Diagnostics of Quiet-Sun Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demidov, M. L.; Stenflo, J. O.; Bianda, M.; Ramelli, R.

    2014-10-01

    Observations in the "green" spectral lines Fe I 5247.06 and 5250.22 Å and in the "red" lines Fe I 6301.50 and 6302.50 Å are widely used to explore the properties of solar magnetic fields. The green line pair was introduced in 1973 as part of the line-ratio technique, which has been a powerful tool for investigations of intrinsic magnetic field properties at spatially unresolved scales (magnetic flux tubes with kG strengths). The red line pair has recently played a major role for magnetic-field diagnostics due to the large amount of high-quality data provided by the Hinode space observatory. These red lines however differ not only in the values of their Landé factors, but also in their line-formation properties, with the consequence that the magnetic-field information in their line ratio gets tangled up with thermodynamic effects. In contrast, as the green Fe I 5247.06 and 5250.22 Å lines differ only in their Landé factors, the magnetic field effects become cleanly separated from the thermodynamics, which allows the intrinsic magnetic field parameters to be extracted without ambiguties. The red and green line-ratio values are however statistically correlated. By determining the statistical regression function that relates them, it becomes possible to convert the "contaminated" and ambiguous red line ratio into the green line ratio, with which a reliable direct interpretation in terms of intrinsic field strengths is possible. To determine how the two line ratios are related we have made Stokesmeter observations in these four spectral lines with two solar instruments equipped with high-precision spectropolarimeters, ZIMPOL-3 at IRSOL (Locarno, Switzerland), and the STOP telescope at the Sayan Solar Observatory (Irkutsk, Russia). Most of the obtained results are based on IRSOL observations of quiet-sun magnetic fields. In the case of STOP the full-disk magnetograms of large-scale solar magnetic fields are analyzed. A major advantage at IRSOL is the possibility to

  18. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on KSTAR tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, S. H.; Lee, K. D.; Kwon, M.; Kogi, Y.; Kawahata, K.; Nagayama, Y.; Mase, A.

    2010-10-15

    A new electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostics system was installed for the Second Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR) campaign. The new ECE system consists of an ECE collecting optics system, an overmode circular corrugated waveguide system, and 48 channel heterodyne radiometer with the frequency range of 110-162 GHz. During the 2 T operation of the KSTAR tokamak, the electron temperatures as well as its radial profiles at the high field side were measured and sawtooth phenomena were also observed. We also discuss the effect of a window on in situ calibration.

  19. DREAM DIAGNOSTICS: FRITZ MORGENTHALER'S WORK ON DREAMS.

    PubMed

    Binswanger, Ralf

    2016-07-01

    The unique approach to dreams of Swiss psychoanalyst Fritz Morgenthaler (1919-1984) is presented and discussed. Although rarely discussed in the English-speaking psychoanalytic world, this approach is very alive in German-speaking countries. Focusing on the distinction between the remembered hallucinatory experience of dreamers and the event of telling dreams within psychoanalytic sessions, Morgenthaler made two major innovations: first, he proposed a new understanding and handling of associations to dreams, and second, he offered what he called dream diagnostics as an instrument with which to integrate both resistance and transference into clinical work with dreams.

  20. Laboratory Study of the Diagnostic Utility of the 3C/3D Line Ratio in Fe XVII

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, G. V.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Chen, H.; Chen, M., II; Reed, K. J.

    2002-01-01

    Fe XVII X-ray emission is present in a multitude of sources, such as the corona of the Sun, Capella, and Procyon. Two of the strongest lines observed in these spectra are the resonance and intercombination lines located at 15.01 and 15.26 A, respectively. As part of the laboratory astrophysics program at the electron beam ion traps EBIT-I & EBIT-II located at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory we have measured this line ratio for the case where the relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII is approx. 1. Our results show that an Fe XVI innershell satellite line coincides with the intercombination line and can significantly reduce the relative intensity, R, of the resonance to intercombination line. The fact that the apparent relative intensity of the resonance and intercombination line in Fe XVII is sensitive to the strength of an Fe XVI innershell satellite, and therefore, tho relative abundance of Fe XVI to Fe XVII, makes the line ratio a diagnostic of temperature, and explains the anomalously low ratios observed in the solar and stellar coronae.

  1. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. I. Emission-Line Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melendez, Marcio; Weaver, K.; Kraemer, S.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C. B.; Malumuth, E. M.; Engle, K.; Armus, L.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    We compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra,of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 μm, [Ne II] 12.81μm , [Ne III] 15.56 μm and [Ne V] μm, and hard X-ray show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGN are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The correlations between all the mid-infrared emission lines and BAT luminosities are statistically significant. The mid-infrared emission line fluxes are highly correlated, with the worst correlations for [Ne V]-[Ne II] and [O IV]-[Ne II], as a result of enhanced [Ne II] in some sources due to nuclear stellar activity, however the tightness of these mid-infrared correlations suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that [Ne III] an [O IV] lines do not unambiguously identify AGNs as stand-along diagnostics, however the BAT AGNs fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. While it is likely that detection of [Ne V] indicates the presence of an AGN, the [Ne V] line is weak compared to [O IV] and may not be detected in weak AGN. We suggest that a composite method using [Ne II], [Ne III], and [O IV] provides a more robust diagnostic.

  2. The influence of color information on the recognition of color diagnostic and noncolor diagnostic objects.

    PubMed

    Bramão, Inês; Inácio, Filomena; Faísca, Luís; Reis, Alexandra; Petersson, Karl Magnus

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, the authors explore in detail the level of visual object recognition at which perceptual color information improves the recognition of color diagnostic and noncolor diagnostic objects. To address this issue, 3 object recognition tasks with different cognitive demands were designed: (a) an object verification task; (b) a category verification task; and (c) a name verification task. The authors found that perceptual color information improved color diagnostic object recognition mainly in tasks for which access to the semantic knowledge about the object was necessary to perform the task; that is, in category and name verification. In contrast, the authors found that perceptual color information facilitates noncolor diagnostic object recognition when access to the object's structural description from long-term memory was necessary--that is, object verification. In summary, the present study shows that the role of perceptual color information in object recognition is dependent on color diagnosticity.

  3. Application of Goubau Surface Wave Transmission Line for Improved Bench Testing of Diagnostic Beamline Elements

    SciTech Connect

    John Musson, Keith Cole, Sheldon Rubin

    2009-05-01

    In-air test fixtures for beamline elements typically utilize an X-Y positioning stage, and a wire antenna excited by an RF source. In most cases, the antenna contains a standing wave, and is useful only for coarse alignment measurements in CW mode. A surface-wave (SW) based transmission line permits RF energy to be launched on the wire, travel through the beamline component, and then be absorbed in a load. Since SW transmission lines employ travelling waves, the RF energy can be made to resemble the electron beam, limited only by ohmic losses and dispersion. Although lossy coaxial systems are also a consideration, the diameter of the coax introduces large uncertainties in centroid location. A SW wire is easily constructed out of 200 micron magnet wire, which more accurately approximates the physical profile of the electron beam. Benefits of this test fixture include accurate field mapping, absolute calibration for given beam currents, Z-axis independence, and temporal response measurements of sub-nanosecond pulse structures. Descriptions of the surface wave launching technique, transmission line, and instrumentation are presented, along with measurement data.

  4. Hydrogen transport diagnostics by atomic and molecular emission line profiles simultaneously measured for large helical device

    SciTech Connect

    Fujii, K.; Shikama, T.; Hasuo, M.; Goto, M.; Morita, S.

    2013-01-15

    We observe the Balmer-{alpha}, -{beta}, and -{gamma} lines of hydrogen atoms and Q branches of the Fulcher-{alpha} band of hydrogen molecules simultaneously with their polarization resolved for large helical device. From the fit including the line splits and the polarization dependences by the Zeeman effect, the emission locations, intensities, and the temperatures of the atoms and molecules are determined. The emission locations of the hydrogen atoms are determined outside but close to the last closed flux surface (LCFS). The results are consistent with a previous work (Phys. Plasmas 12, 042501 (2005)). On the other hand, the emission locations of the molecules are determined to be in the divertor legs, which is farer from those of the atoms. The kinetic energy of the atoms is 1 {approx} 20 eV, while the rotational temperature of molecules is {approx}0.04 eV. Additionally, substantial wings, which originate from high velocity atoms and are not reproduced by the conventional spectral analysis, are observed in the Balmer line profiles. We develop a one-dimensional model to simulate the transport of the atoms and molecules. The model reproduces the differences of the emission locations of the atoms and molecules when their initial temperatures are assumed to be 3 eV and 0.04 eV, respectively. From the model, the wings of the Balmer-{alpha} line is attributed to the high velocity atoms exist deep inside the LCFS, which are generated by the charge exchange collisions with hot protons there.

  5. Summary Report on Synchronization, Diagnostics and Instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Arne Freyberger

    2005-03-19

    The proceedings of Working Group 4 of the 2005 Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) workshop are summarized. Working Group 4 dealt with the challenging topic of beam diagnostics for ERL machines. Energy Recovery Linacs represent a challenge for beam diagnostics from several perspectives; invasive versus non-invasive diagnostics, longitudinal and transverse beam diagnostics, overall machine timing/synchronization and machine protection. Beam diagnostics for an ERL can benefit strongly from the experience at third generation light sources, recirculating linacs and presently operating ERLs. During the workshop there were presentations from all these communities, representing a large range operation experience in beam diagnostics. A brief summary Working Group 4 discussion is presented in this paper.

  6. Integral field spectroscopy of planetary nebulae: mapping the line diagnostics and hydrogen-poor zones with VLT FLAMES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsamis, Y. G.; Walsh, J. R.; Péquignot, D.; Barlow, M. J.; Danziger, I. J.; Liu, X.-W.

    2008-05-01

    diagnostics of about 2 spatial pixels across, and so any associated structures should have physical sizes of less than ~1000 astronomical units. Regarding the origin of the inferred zones, we propose that circumstellar discs, Abell 30-type knots, or Helix-type cometary globules may be involved. Implications for emission-line studies of nebulae are discussed. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatory under programme ID 075.D-0847(A). E-mail: ygt@star.ucl.ac.uk

  7. Highlights from the 7th European meeting on molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Loonen, Anne Jm; Schuurman, Rob; van den Brule, Adriaan Jc

    2012-01-01

    This report presents the highlights of the 7th European Meeting on Molecular Diagnostics held in Scheveningen, The Hague, The Netherlands, 12-14 October 2011. The areas covered included molecular diagnostics applications in medical microbiology, virology, pathology, hemato-oncology, clinical genetics and forensics. Novel real-time amplification approaches, novel diagnostic applications and new technologies, such as next-generation sequencing, PCR electrospray-ionization TOF mass spectrometry and techniques based on the detection of proteins or other molecules, were discussed. Furthermore, diagnostic companies presented their future visions for molecular diagnostics in human healthcare.

  8. Multidisciplinary molecular diagnostics: the 9th European meeting on molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Loonen, Anne J M; Schuurman, Rob; van den Brule, Adriaan J C

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a summary of the 9th European Meeting on Molecular Diagnostics held in Noordwijk, The Netherlands, 14-16 October 2015. This 3-day conference covered many relevant topics in the field of molecular diagnostics in humans, including infectious disease, oncology, outbreak management, population-based cancer screening, standardization and quality control, chronic diseases and pharmacogenetics. Beyond these different areas, shared values are new technologies and novel technical and clinical applications. Approximately 450 participants, the majority coming from European countries, attended the meeting. Besides high quality scientific presentations, more than 35 diagnostic companies presented their latest innovations, altogether in an informal and inspiring scientific ambience.

  9. ViDX: Visual Diagnostics of Assembly Line Performance in Smart Factories.

    PubMed

    Xu, Panpan; Mei, Honghui; Ren, Liu; Chen, Wei

    2017-01-01

    Visual analytics plays a key role in the era of connected industry (or industry 4.0, industrial internet) as modern machines and assembly lines generate large amounts of data and effective visual exploration techniques are needed for troubleshooting, process optimization, and decision making. However, developing effective visual analytics solutions for this application domain is a challenging task due to the sheer volume and the complexity of the data collected in the manufacturing processes. We report the design and implementation of a comprehensive visual analytics system, ViDX. It supports both real-time tracking of assembly line performance and historical data exploration to identify inefficiencies, locate anomalies, and form hypotheses about their causes and effects. The system is designed based on a set of requirements gathered through discussions with the managers and operators from manufacturing sites. It features interlinked views displaying data at different levels of detail. In particular, we apply and extend the Marey's graph by introducing a time-aware outlier-preserving visual aggregation technique to support effective troubleshooting in manufacturing processes. We also introduce two novel interaction techniques, namely the quantiles brush and samples brush, for the users to interactively steer the outlier detection algorithms. We evaluate the system with example use cases and an in-depth user interview, both conducted together with the managers and operators from manufacturing plants. The result demonstrates its effectiveness and reports a successful pilot application of visual analytics for manufacturing in smart factories.

  10. Three-dimensional hydrodynamical CO5BOLD model atmospheres of red giant stars. IV. Oxygen diagnostics in extremely metal-poor red giants with infrared OH lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskas, V.; Kučinskas, A.; Bonifacio, P.; Caffau, E.; Ludwig, H.-G.; Steffen, M.; Spite, M.

    2015-04-01

    Context. Although oxygen is an important tracer of Galactic chemical evolution, measurements of its abundance in the atmospheres of the oldest Galactic stars are still scarce and rather imprecise. This is mainly because only a few spectral lines are available for the abundance diagnostics. At the lowest end of the metallicity scale, oxygen can only be measured in giant stars and in most of cases such measurements rely on a single forbidden [O i] 630 nm line that is very weak and frequently blended with telluric lines. Although molecular OH lines located in the ultraviolet and infrared could also be used for the diagnostics, oxygen abundances obtained from the OH lines and the [O i] 630 nm line are usually discrepant to a level of ~ 0.3-0.4 dex. Aims: We study the influence of convection on the formation of the infrared (IR) OH lines and the forbidden [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of extremely metal-poor (EMP) red giant stars. Our ultimate goal is to clarify whether a realistic treatment of convection with state-of-the-art 3D hydrodynamical model atmospheres may help to bring the oxygen abundances obtained using the two indicators into closer agreement. Methods: We used high-resolution (R = 50 000) and high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 200-600) spectra of four EMP red giant stars obtained with the VLT CRIRES spectrograph. For each EMP star, 4-14 IR OH vibrational-rotational lines located in the spectral range of 1514-1548 and 1595-1632 nm were used to determine oxygen abundances by employing standard 1D local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) abundance analysis methodology. We then corrected the 1D LTE abundances obtained from each individual OH line for the 3D hydrodynamical effects, which was done by applying 3D-1D LTE abundance corrections that were determined using 3D hydrodynamical CO5BOLD and 1D hydrostatic LHD model atmospheres. Results: We find that the influence of convection on the formation of [O i] 630 nm line in the atmospheres of EMP giants

  11. A line-imaging velocity interferometer technique for shock diagnostics without x-ray preheat limitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng; Peng, Xiaoshi; Liu, Shenye; Xu, Tao; Mei, Lusheng; Jiang, Xiaohua; Ding, Yongkun

    2011-10-01

    A study was conducted with a line-imaging velocity interferometer on sandwich targets at the Shen Guang-III prototype laser facility in China, with the goal of eliminating the preheat effect. A sandwich target structure was used to reduce the x-ray preheat limitation (radiation temperature ˜170 eV) in a radiative drive shock experiment. With a thick ablator, the preheat effect appeared before the shock arrived at the window. After adding a shield layer of high-Z material on the ablator, x-rays which penetrated the ablator were so weak that the blank-out effect could not be measured. This experiment indicates that the sandwich target may provide a valuable technique in experiments such as equation of state and shock timing for inertial confinement fusion studies.

  12. FE Line Diagnostics of Multiply Shocked Stellar Atmospheres: The Mira S. Carinae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bookbinder, Jay

    1997-01-01

    Extensive LWP-HI spectra were obtained of the Mira S Car at a rapid time cadence as compared with the shock cycle time of S Car. These spectra were obtained in an attempt to understand the velocity structures in the shocked wind using the fluoresced iron lines. Data analysis of the IUE observations, which included the primary calibration of all of the IUE spectra obtained of S Car, was carried out. In addition, line identifications, flux calculations, background subtractions, and line profile analysis as a function of S Car's pulsational phase were performed. The database incorporated all line identifications as a function of pulsation phase for all IUE LWP-HI observations to date of S Car. At least 45 separate iron line features are identified in the S Car spectrum at one or more phases of the shock cycle, including those due to Fe II (UV 161) which is pumped by three different iron lines; Fe I(UV 44) which is pumped by the Mg II k line. Other strong multiplets that have been identified include UV(1), UV(2), UV(5), UV(32), UV(60), UV(63), UV(161), UV(207), and UV(399). Over 300 weaker lines have also been tentatively identified with Fe line transitions.

  13. PHENIX on-line systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adler, S. S.; Allen, M.; Alley, G.; Amirikas, R.; Arai, Y.; Awes, T. C.; Barish, K. N.; Barta, F.; Batsouli, S.; Belikov, S.; Bennett, M. J.; Bobrek, M.; Boissevain, J. G.; Boose, S.; Britton, C.; Britton, L.; Bryan, W. L.; Cafferty, M. M.; Carey, T. A.; Chang, W. C.; Chi, C. Y.; Chiu, M.; Cianciolo, V.; Cole, B. A.; Constantin, P.; Cook, K. C.; Cunitz, H.; Desmond, E. J.; Ebisu, K.; Efremenko, Y. V.; El Chenawi, K.; Emery, M. S.; Engo, D.; Ericson, N.; Fields, D. E.; Frank, S.; Frantz, J. E.; Franz, A.; Frawley, A. D.; Fried, J.; Gannon, J.; Gee, T. F.; Gentry, R.; Giannotti, P.; Gustafsson, H.-A.; Haggerty, J. S.; Hahn, S.; Halliwell, J.; Hamagaki, H.; Hansen, A. G.; Hara, H.; Harder, J.; He, X.; Heistermann, F.; Hemmick, T. K.; Hibino, M.; Hill, J. C.; Homma, K.; Jacak, B. V.; Jagadish, U.; Jia, J.; Kajihara, F.; Kametani, S.; Kamyshkov, Y.; Kandasamy, A.; Kang, J. H.; Kapustinsky, J.; Katou, K.; Kelley, M. A.; Kelly, S.; Kikuchi, J.; Kim, S. Y.; Kim, Y. G.; Kistenev, E.; Kotchetkov, D.; Kurita, K.; Lajoie, J. G.; Lenz, M.; Lenz, W.; Li, X. H.; Lin, S.; Liu, M. X.; Markacs, S.; Matathias, F.; Matsumoto, T.; Mead, J.; Mischke, R. E.; Mishra, G. C.; Moore, A.; Muniruzzamann, M.; Musrock, M.; Nagle, J. L.; Nandi, B. K.; Newby, J.; Nystrand, J.; O'Brien, E.; O'Connor, P.; Ohnishi, H.; Oskarsson, A.; Osterman, L.; Oyama, K.; Paffrath, L.; Pancake, C. E.; Pantuev, V. S.; Petridis, A. N.; Pisani, R. P.; Plagge, T.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M. L.; Rankowitz, S.; Rao, R.; Rau, M.; Read, K. F.; Ryu, S. S.; Sakaguchi, T.; Sato, H. D.; Seto, R.; Shiina, T.; Silvermyr, D.; Simon-Gillo, J.; Simpson, M.; Sippach, W.; Skank, H. D.; Skutnik, S.; Sleege, G. A.; Smith, G. D.; Smith, M.; Stankus, P. W.; Steinberg, P.; Sugitate, T.; Sullivan, J. P.; Taketani, A.; Tamai, M.; Tanaka, Y.; Thomas, W. D.; Todd, R.; Toldo, F.; Turner, G.; Ushiroda, T.; Velkovska, J.; van Hecke, H. W.; Van Lith, M.; Villatte, L.; Von Achen, W.; Walker, J. W.; Wang, H. Q.; White, S. N.; Wintenberg, A. L.; Witzig, C.; Wood, L.; Xie, W.; Young, G. R.; Zajc, W. A.; Zhang, C.; Zhang, L.; PHEN. I. X. Collaboration

    2003-03-01

    The PHENIX On-Line system takes signals from the Front End Modules (FEM) on each detector subsystem for the purpose of generating events for physics analysis. Processing of event data begins when the Data Collection Modules (DCM) receive data via fiber-optic links from the FEMs. The DCMs format and zero suppress the data and generate data packets. These packets go to the Event Builders (EvB) that assemble the events in final form. The Level-1 trigger (LVL1) generates a decision for each beam crossing and eliminates uninteresting events. The FEMs carry out all detector processing of the data so that it is delivered to the DCMs using a standard format. The FEMs also provide buffering for LVL1 trigger processing and DCM data collection. This is carried out using an architecture that is pipelined and deadtimeless. All of this is controlled by the Master Timing System (MTS) that distributes the RHIC clocks. A Level-2 trigger (LVL2) gives additional discrimination. A description of the components and operation of the PHENIX On-Line system is given and the solution to a number of electronic infrastructure problems are discussed.

  14. Chemical Evolution of the Universe at 0.7 < z < 1.6 Derived from Abundance Diagnostics of the Broad-line Region of Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sameshima, H.; Yoshii, Y.; Kawara, K.

    2017-01-01

    We present an analysis of Mg ii λ2798 and Fe ii UV emission lines for archival Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) quasars to explore the diagnostics of the magnesium-to-iron abundance ratio in a broad-line region cloud. Our sample consists of 17,432 quasars selected from the SDSS Data Release 7 with a redshift range of 0.72 < z < 1.63. A strong anticorrelation between the Mg ii equivalent width (EW) and the Eddington ratio is found, while only a weak positive correlation is found between the Fe ii EW and the Eddington ratio. To investigate the origin of these differing behaviors of Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines, we perform photoionization calculations using the Cloudy code, where constraints from recent reverberation mapping studies are considered. We find from calculations that (1) Mg ii and Fe ii emission lines are created at different regions in a photoionized cloud, and (2) their EW correlations with the Eddington ratio can be explained by just changing the cloud gas density. These results indicate that the Mg ii/Fe ii flux ratio, which has been used as a first-order proxy for the Mg/Fe abundance ratio in chemical evolution studies with quasar emission lines, depends largely on the cloud gas density. By correcting this density dependence, we propose new diagnostics of the Mg/Fe abundance ratio for a broad-line region cloud. In comparing the derived Mg/Fe abundance ratios with chemical evolution models, we suggest that α-enrichment by mass loss from metal-poor intermediate-mass stars occurred at z ∼ 2 or earlier.

  15. Infrared lines as probes of solar magnetic features. VIII. MgI 12μm diagnostics of sunspots.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruls, J. H. M. J.; Solanki, S. K.; Rutten, R. J.; Carlsson, M.

    1995-01-01

    Due to their large Zeeman sensitivity, the MgI lines at 12μm are important diagnostics of solar magnetism. The formation of their central emission features is now understood, enabling quantitative modeling and diagnostic application of these lines. We supply the first systematic analysis of solar MgI 12μm Stokes profiles employing detailed line-profile synthesis. We compute Stokes profiles of MgI 12.32μm for the quiet Sun, for sunspot penumbrae and for the extended ("superpenumbral") magnetic canopies surrounding sunspots. We use these computations to analyze recent MgI 12μm observations by Hewagama et al. (1993). Our results are the following: (1) -Saha-Boltzmann temperature sensitivity explains that the emission peaks are stronger in penumbrae than in the quiet Sun, and that they disappear in umbrae. (2) -The formation heights of the emission features are approximately the same in penumbrae and in the quiet Sun, namely τ_500_=~10^-3^. (3) -The simple Seares formula allows relatively accurate determinations of field strength and magnetic inclination. (4) -The observed excess broadening of the σ-component peaks compared with the π component in penumbrae is well explained by primarily horizontal, smooth radial variation of the magnetic field strength. Additional small-scale variations are less than {DELTA}B =~200G. (5) -The vertical field gradients dB/dz in penumbrae range from 0.7G/km to 3G/km; the larger gradients occur near the umbra, the smaller ones near the outer edge of the penumbra. (6) -The MgI 12μm lines are well-suited to measure the base heights of superpenumbral magnetic canopies. These heights range between 300km and 500km above τ_500_=1 out to twice the sunspot radius, in excellent agreement with determinations from other infrared lines.

  16. Instrumentation Manuals On-Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, E.

    This database will serve as an international clearing house for observatory manuals and information on how to access them. At present, CFHT, STScI, and IRTF are participating in this project. It is the author's intention that each observatory will submit electronically a pre-formatted template which is now available on NCSA Mosaic (URL http://www.cfht.hawaii.edu/html/obs-manuals.html). The template describes the instrumentation manual in the following manner: location, version, revision, institution, description wavelength region, field, keywords, contact person, size of document, figures, tables and availability. In addition the template provides the user with a direct link to the manual if it is on-line. The project author will contact the individual or institution in charge of the template at six month intervals in order to insure the manual's accuracy. It is hoped the availability of this service will encourage all observatories to make information about their manuals available electronically.

  17. 40 CFR 86.1806-01 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-board diagnostic system during the certification process, that functions properly on low-sulfur gasoline..., methanol, ethanol), beginning with the model year for which alternate fuel emission standards...

  18. Gas puff imaging diagnostic on NSTX-U

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zweben, S. J.; Scotti, F.; Stotler, D. L.; Diallo, A.; Mandell, N.; Terry, J. L.; Han, W.

    2016-10-01

    The first results and plans for the gas puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic on NSTX-U will be described. The GPI optical efficiency has been improved by about × 10 using a new fiber bundle and interference filter, and the new optics has a zoom lens which can potentially resolve turbulence below the ion gyroradius scale. Experiments are planned to study high-k edge turbulence, correlations of edge turbulence with the SOL heat flux width, and the trigger mechanism of the L-H transition. A second fast camera is planned to view the GPI gas cloud from across the machine, which can potentially measure the field line pitch by simultaneously viewing individual field-aligned blob filaments in the radial vs. poloidal (GPI) and toroidal vs. poloidal (second camera) directions. An incoming collaboration from MIT will bring a 9 × 10 pixel APD-based detector array from Alcator C-Mod to NSTX-U, initially for faster and more sensitive imaging of the existing GPI gas puff. New results and further diagnostic plans will be described. This work was supported by USDOE Contracts #DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-SC0014264, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Commissioning of BL 7.2, the new diagnostic beam line at the ALS

    SciTech Connect

    Sannibale, Fernando; Baum, Dennis; Biocca, Alan; Kelez, Nicholas; Nishimura, Toshiro; Scarvie, Tom; Williams, Eric; Holldack, Karsten

    2004-06-29

    BL 7.2 is a new beamline at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) dedicated to electron beam diagnostics. The system, which is basically a hard x-ray pinhole camera, was installed in the storage ring in August 2003 and commissioning with the ALS electron beam followed immediately after. In this paper the commissioning results are presented together with the description of the relevant measurements performed for the beamline characterization.

  20. AC motor diagnostics system based on complex parametric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolev, N. A.; Solovev, S. V.

    2017-02-01

    The article deals with the principle of evaluation of technical condition, based on a comprehensive analysis of the motor parameters which is a main unit in mechanical engineering. Diagnostics system and residential life assessment of electromechanical equipment is presented based on the AC engine and algorithms of its work. The important challenge of diagnostics remains the well-timed faults detection and maintenance and repair organization. The solution of such challenge remains accuracy and reliability of diagnostic systems.

  1. Advanced Diagnostic System on Earth Observing One

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayden, Sandra C.; Sweet, Adam J.; Christa, Scott E.; Tran, Daniel; Shulman, Seth

    2004-01-01

    In this infusion experiment, the Livingstone 2 (L2) model-based diagnosis engine, developed by the Computational Sciences division at NASA Ames Research Center, has been uploaded to the Earth Observing One (EO-1) satellite. L2 is integrated with the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) which provides an on-board planning capability and a software bridge to the spacecraft's 1773 data bus. Using a model of the spacecraft subsystems, L2 predicts nominal state transitions initiated by control commands, monitors the spacecraft sensors, and, in the case of failure, isolates the fault based on the discrepant observations. Fault detection and isolation is done by determining a set of component modes, including most likely failures, which satisfy the current observations. All mode transitions and diagnoses are telemetered to the ground for analysis. The initial L2 model is scoped to EO-1's imaging instruments and solid state recorder. Diagnostic scenarios for EO-1's nominal imaging timeline are demonstrated by injecting simulated faults on-board the spacecraft. The solid state recorder stores the science images and also hosts: the experiment software. The main objective of the experiment is to mature the L2 technology to Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 7. Experiment results are presented, as well as a discussion of the challenging technical issues encountered. Future extensions may explore coordination with the planner, and model-based ground operations.

  2. Impact of Crop Management Diagnostic Clinics on Advisors' Recommendations and Producer Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wortmann, Charles S.; Glewen, Keith L.; Williams, Susan N.

    2011-01-01

    Adoption resulting from University of Nebraska-Lincoln Crop Management Diagnostic Clinic (CMDC) field days was evaluated using an on-line survey. Respondents reported significant gains in skills because of CMDC, but the gains were similar across skill areas. Adoption was affected by compatibility with the cropping system, relative advantage,…

  3. Mid-IR Properties of an Unbiased AGN Sample of the Local Universe. 1; Emission-Line Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, K. A.; Melendez, M.; Muhotzky, R. F.; Kraemer, S.; Engle, K.; Malumuth. E.; Tueller, J.; Markwardt, C.; Berghea, C. T.; Dudik, R. P.; Winter, L. M.; Armus, L.

    2010-01-01

    \\Ve compare mid-IR emission-lines properties, from high-resolution Spitzer IRS spectra of a statistically-complete hard X-ray (14-195 keV) selected sample of nearby (z < 0.05) AGN detected by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) aboard Swift. The luminosity distribution for the mid-infrared emission-lines, [O IV] 25.89 microns, [Ne II] 12.81 microns, [Ne III] 15.56 microns and [Ne V] 14.32 microns, and hard X-ray continuum show no differences between Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 populations, although six newly discovered BAT AGNs are shown to be under-luminous in [O IV], most likely the result of dust extinction in the host galaxy. The overall tightness of the mid-infrared correlations and BAT luminosities suggests that the emission lines primarily arise in gas ionized by the AGN. We also compared the mid-IR emission-lines in the BAT AGNs with those from published studies of star-forming galaxies and LINERs. We found that the BAT AGN fall into a distinctive region when comparing the [Ne III]/[Ne II] and the [O IV]/[Ne III] quantities. From this we found that sources that have been previously classified in the mid-infrared/optical as AGN have smaller emission line ratios than those found for the BAT AGNs, suggesting that, in our X-ray selected sample, the AGN represents the main contribution to the observed line emission. Overall, we present a different set of emission line diagnostics to distinguish between AGN and star forming galaxies that can be used as a tool to find new AGN.

  4. Students' Off-Line and On-Line Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elizabeth A.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Examines the knowledge construction processes of novice programmers using parentheses and quotes in hypermedia; identifies characteristics of successful and unsuccessful students working off- and on-line. The strategies of perceptual matching and computer feedback were used in both settings to interpret of the information presented. (Author/AEF)

  5. The NSINIC on-line system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lev, Brian

    1991-01-01

    The NSI NIC on-line system is described in the form of view graphs. The following subject areas are covered: NSI history; the ADFTO's other on-line services; the current system; and the next generation of NSI NIC.

  6. On-line surfactant monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mullen, K.I.; Neal, E.E.; Soran, P.D.; Smith, B.

    1995-04-01

    This group has developed a process to extract metal ions from dilute aqueous solutions. The process uses water soluble polymers to complex metal ions. The metal/polymer complex is concentrated by ultrafiltration and the metals are recovered by a pH adjustment that frees the metal ions. The metal ions pass through the ultrafiltration membrane and are recovered in a concentrated form suitable for reuse. Surfactants are present in one of the target waste streams. Surfactants foul the costly ultrafiltration membranes. It was necessary to remove the surfactants before processing the waste stream. This paper discusses an on-line device the authors fabricated to monitor the process stream to assure that all the surfactant had been removed. The device is inexpensive and sensitive to very low levels of surfactants.

  7. Butt weld inspection and weld machine diagnostic system for continuous coil processing lines

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, D.D.; Geier, D.; Shultz, B.L.

    1995-07-01

    Weld breaks of steel coil during cold rolling and continuous pickling operations are a significant source of lost productivity and product yield. Babcock and Wilcox Innerspec Technologies has developed and installed a weld process control system which monitors the key variables of the welding process and determines the quality of welds generated by flash-butt welding equipment. The TEMATE 2000 System utilizes Electro-Magnetic Acoustic Transducer (EMAT) technology as the basis for performing on-line, real-time, nondestructive weld quality evaluation. This technique accurately detects voids, laps, misalignment and over/under trim conditions in the weld. Results of the EMAT weld inspection are immediately presented to the weld machine operator for disposition. All weld quality and process parameter data are stored, traceable to each unique weld, and available for post process evaluation. Installation of the TEMATE 2000 system in a major flat rolled steel mill has contributed to near elimination of weld breakage and increased productivity at this facility.

  8. Origin of the Galactic Diffuse X-ray Emission: Iron K-Shell Line Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobukawa, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Hideki; Nobukawa, Kumiko K.; Yamauchi, Shigeo; Koyama, Katsuji

    2017-01-01

    An unresolved X-ray emission extends along the Galactic plane, so-called the Galactic diffuse X-ray emission (GDXE). The characteristic feature is three K-shell lines of Fe at 6.4, 6.7, and 6.9 keV. Recently, superposition of faint point sources, such as Cataclysmic variables (CVs) and Active binaries (ABs) is thought to be a major origin, although it is under debate which sub-class mostly contribute. We re-analyzed the Suzaku archive data and constructed spectral models of ABs, magnetic CVs (mCVs), and non-magnetic CVs (non-mCVs). The GBXE is explained by combination of those models; non-mCVs and ABs mainly contribute while mCVs account for ~10% or less of the 5-10 keV flux. On the other hand, the GCXE and GRXE spectra cannot be represented by any combination of the point sources, indicating another origin would be required.

  9. Near infrared hydrogen lines as diagnostic of accretion and winds in T Tauri stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folha, D. F. M.; Emerson, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    From a sample of 50 T Tauri stars, mostly from the Taurus-Auriga complex, Pa beta line profiles were obtained for 49 of the stars and Br gamma profiles for 37 of the stars. Emission at Pa beta was observed for 42 stars and emission at Br gamma was found for 30 stars. The most conspicuous features in the line profiles is the almost complete absence of blueshifted absorption components and the relatively high frequency of inverse P Cygni profiles (IPC). At Pa beta, 34% of the profiles are IPC while at Br gamma 20% are IPC. The redshifted absorption features indicate infall at velocities of about 200 km s-1, compatible with free fall from a few radii out. In general, line profiles are broad centrally peaked with slightly blueshifted line peaks. Existing wind and accretion models fail, in quantitative terms, to explain the shape of the observed profiles. Magnetospheric accretion models, being the currently preferred ones, produce lines too narrow (by ~ 100 km s-1 FWHM), wings extending to velocities too low (by at least ~ 100 km s-1) and with maximum normalized intensities too high by factors of a few. A qualitative agreement between some of the accretion model predicted profiles and some observations hint that emission in these lines might, at least partially, arise from infalling material. Definite claims regarding the origin of the emission in these lines cannot be made until models match observations much better than they currently do. Tables 4 and 5 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strastg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strastg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/365/90 Tables 6 and 7 are also available in electronic form at the CDS

  10. List of On-Line Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teachers & Writers, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 57 World Wide Web sites grouped by subjects, including language arts curricula and pedagogy, writing tools, "fun" writing tools, on-line libraries, on-line books, miscellaneous on-line collections, language arts indexes, technology planning guides, technology plan examples, censorship and copyrights,…

  11. Suppression of gradient across seam line using a smoothing filter in spatially compounded ultrasonic diagnostic images.

    PubMed

    Choi, Myoung Hwan

    2007-01-01

    A method to reduce seam line artifact in spatial compounding of ultrasonic images is presented. Spatial compounding is a speckle reducing imaging technique in which a number of ultrasound images of a given target that have been obtained from multiple view angles are combined into a single compounded image by combining the data received from each data point in the compounded image. Since different view angle results in different view area, and the images of different view areas are combined into an image, the compounded image consists of regions with different signal to noise ratio, and the boundary lines between these regions are visible in the compounded images. In this paper, we present an algorithm that effectively reduces the visibility of this seam line in the spatially compounded images. Design procedure for a smoothing filter is described and the results of applying the filter to in-vivo ultrasonic images are analyzed.

  12. On the reliability of Stokes diagnostics of magnetic elements away from solar disc centre

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solanki, S. K.; Steiner, O.; Buente, M.; Murphy, G.; Ploner, S. R. O.

    1998-05-01

    {The spectropolarimetric signature of models of small-scale magnetic features is well understood at the centre of the solar disc, but has been little studied near the solar limb, mainly because the detailed geometry of the flux tubes must then be taken into account in a realistic analysis. We present multi-ray calculations of Stokes profiles through arrays of 2-D magnetohydrostatic models of small flux tubes. We compare the Stokes profile shapes and Stokes based diagnostics (Q to V ratio, V amplitude, magnetic line ratio, centre of gravity wavelengths, etc.) resulting from plane-parallel and 2-D flux-tube models at different limb distances for two lines in the visible and an infrared H-band line. For the visible lines around 5250 Angstroms all the diagnostics we have studied, with the exception of the Q and U to V ratio, are significantly affected by the finite size of the flux tubes and the passage of the rays through non-magnetic material near the limb. We show that magnetic filling factors and the global magnetic flux may be underestimated using the usual calibration techniques. In addition, near the solar limb the magnetic line ratio can move into a regime that is forbidden according to simpler models. The spatially averaged longitudinal field derived from the centre-of-gravity method also becomes strongly model dependent. The thermal structure of the non-magnetic atmosphere appears to play a particularly important role in determining the values of these diagnostic parameters. The infrared line at 1.5648 mu m, on the one hand, reacts little to the external atmosphere and provides superior diagnostics of both the magnetic field strength and filling factor. On the other hand, for a flux tube with a sharp boundary this line shows little dependence on the flux-tube diameter, in contrast to the earlier findings of Zayer et al. (1989). }

  13. IR line scanner on UAV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shi-chao; Qin, Jie-xin; Qi, Hong-xing; Xiao, Gong-hai

    2011-08-01

    This paper introduces the designing principle and method of the IR line scanner on UAV in three aspects of optical-mechanical system, electronics system and processing software. It makes the system achieve good results in practical application that there are many features in the system such as light weight, small size, low power assumption, wide field of view, high instantaneous field of view, high noise equivalent temperature difference, wirelessly controlled and so on. The entire system is designed as follows: Multi-element scanner is put into use for reducing the electrical noise bandwidth, and then improving SNR; Square split aperture scanner is put into use for solving the image ratation distortion, besides fit for large velocity to height ratio; DSP is put into use for non-uniformity correction and background nosie subtraction, and then improving the imagery quality; SD card is put into use as image data storage media instead of the hard disk; The image data is stored in SD card in FAT32 file system, easily playbacked by processing software on Windows and Linux operating system; wireless transceiver module is put into use for wirelessly controlled.

  14. Peak Lead Levels and Diagnostics in Lead Service Lines Dominated by PbO2 - abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multiple studies have presented “profiles” of water lead levels from tap to main through lead service lines (LSLs), in systems where the LSLs were coated with common Pb(II) corrosion solids. These Pb(II) solids were either actual Pb(II) minerals or Pb(II) sorbed onto other pipe ...

  15. Neurocognitive diagnostic challenges and the DSM-5: perspectives from the front lines of clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Remington, Ruth

    2012-09-01

    The proposed changes to the DSM-IV-TR are an attempt to advance a common language to be used by clinicians and researchers in psychiatry in the United States. Any improvement brought about by these changes may be jeopardized unless the ICD-10, which is used by non-psychiatric clinicians and researchers worldwide, and the DSM resolve the differences in the definitions and diagnostic criteria of most disorders. Unless there is congruence between the two manuals, debate is therefore likely to continue in the literature as to which provider is best suited to direct the care for the person with dementia: primary care providers, psychiatric providers, or neurologists. The changes to the DSM-IV-TR have the potential to promote preventive measures and early diagnosis, provided that the stigma associated with mental illnesses can be mitigated. A common language among psychiatric and primary care APRNs, other clinicians, and researchers will enhance effective communication and improve dementia care.

  16. Generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.

    PubMed

    Franceschi, Valentina; Jacca, Sarah; Sassu, Elena L; Stellari, Fabio F; van Santen, Vicky L; Donofrio, Gaetano

    2014-01-01

    Raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the United States, Europe and Australia. Furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. Nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. In fact the biotech companies involved in nanobody production and application continue to grow in number and size. Hence, the development of reagents and tools to assist in the further growth of this new scientific and entrepreneurial reality is becoming a necessity. These are needed mainly to address alpaca disease diagnosis and prophylaxis, and to develop alpaca immunization strategies for nanobody generation. For instance an immortalized alpaca cell line would be extremely valuable. In the present work the first stabilized alpaca cell line from alpaca skin stromal cells (ASSCs) was generated and characterized. This cell line was shown to be suitable for replication of viruses bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine viral diarrhea virus and caprine herpesvirus-1 and the endocellular parasite Neospora caninum. Moreover ASSCs were easy to transfect and transduce by several methods. These two latter characteristics are extremely useful when recombinant antigens need to be produced in a host homologous system. This work could be considered as a starting point for the expansion of the biotechnologies linked to alpaca farming and industry.

  17. Update on Malaria Diagnostics and Test Utilization.

    PubMed

    Mathison, Blaine A; Pritt, Bobbi S

    2017-04-12

    Malaria is a potentially life-threatening disease requiring rapid diagnosis and treatment. Although microscopic examination of thick and thin blood films remains the gold standard for laboratory diagnosis, rapid antigen tests and nucleic acid amplification methods may also play a useful role for detection of acute infection. This review discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the commonly-used diagnostic methods and provides important practice points for optimal malaria test utilization.

  18. New diagnostic systems on HL-2A

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, X. T.; Zhou, Y.; Deng, Z. C.; Xiao, W. W.; Liu, Z. T.; Shi, Z. B.; Yan, L. W.; Hong, W. Y.; Yang, Q. W.

    2006-10-15

    Three new diagnostic systems have been presented in this article: (1) the pulse molecular beam injection as a modulated particle source and microwave reflectometry for investigation of the particle transport, (2) a new three-step electrostatic probe array for zonal flow studying, and (3) eight-channel laser interferometer with 6 m HCN laser for electron density profile measurement with good spatial resolution. The main experimental results have also been shown briefly.

  19. Diagnostics for first plasma and development plan on KSTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Na, H. K.; Lee, S. G.; Bak, J. G.; Seo, D. C.; Seo, S. H.; Oh, S. T.; Ko, W. H.; Chung, J.; Nam, Y. U.; Lee, K. D.; Ka, E. M.; Oh, Y. K.; Kwon, M.; Jeong, S. H.

    2010-06-15

    The first plasma with target values of the plasma current and the pulse duration was finally achieved on June 13, 2008 in the Korea Superconducting Tokamak Advanced Research (KSTAR). The diagnostic systems played an important role in achieving successful first plasma operation for the KSTAR tokamak. The employed plasma diagnostic systems for the KSTAR first plasma including the magnetic diagnostics, millimeter-wave interferometer, inspection illuminator, H{sub {alpha}}, visible spectrometer, filterscope, and electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer have provided the main plasma parameters, which are essential for the plasma generation, control, and physics understanding. Improvements to the first diagnostic systems and additional diagnostics including an x-ray imaging crystal spectrometer, reflectometer, ECE radiometer, resistive bolometer, and soft x-ray array are scheduled to be added for the next KSTAR experimental campaign in 2009.

  20. Identifying Fractions on Number Lines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Behr, Merlyn J.; Bright, George W.

    A two-year study was conducted with fourth-grade children in the context of extensive teaching experiments concerned with the learning of rational number concepts. Representational difficulties in using the number line model were investigated. While instruction in the second year attempted to resolve observed learning difficulties, the results of…

  1. Optical Diagnostics on HIT-SI3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everson, Christopher; Jarboe, Thomas; Morgan, Kyle

    2016-10-01

    Interferometry and Thomson Scattering are implemented on the HIT-SI3 (Helicity Injected Torus - Steady Inductive 3) device to provide time resolved measurements of electron density and spatially resolved measurements of electron temperature, respectively. HIT-SI3 is a modification of the original HIT-SI apparatus that uses three injectors instead of two. The scientific aim of HIT-SI3 is to develop a deeper understanding of how injector behavior and interactions influence current drive and spheromak stability. The interferometer system makes use of an intermediate frequency between two parallel 184.3 μm Far-Infrared (FIR) laser cavities which are optically pumped by a CO2 laser. The phase shift in this beat frequency due to the plasma index of refraction is used to calculate the line-integrated electron density. To measure the electron temperature, Thomson Scattered light from a 20 J (1 GW pulse) Ruby laser off of free electrons in the HIT-SI3 plasma is measured simultaneously at four locations across the spheromak (nominally 23 cm minor radius). Polychromators bin the collected light into 3 spectral bands to detect the relative level of scattering. Work supported by the D.O.E.

  2. Time-resolved x-ray line diagnostics of laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, R.L.; Matthews, D.L.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Lee, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    We have examined the underdense plasma conditions of laser irradiated disks using K x-rays from highly ionized ions. A 900 ps laser pulse of 0.532 ..mu..m light is used to irradiate various Z disks which have been doped with low concentrations of tracer materials. The tracers whose Z's range from 13 to 22 are chosen so that their K x-ray spectrum is sensitive to typical underdense plasma temperatures and densities. Spectra are measured using a time-resolved crystal spectrograph recording the time history of the x-ray spectrum. A spatially-resolved, time-integrated crystal spectrograph also monitors the x-ray lines. Large differences in Al spectra are observed when the host plasma is changed from SiO/sub 2/ to PbO or In. Spectra will be presented along with preliminary analysis of the data.

  3. Impact of irradiation effects on design solutions for ITER diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costley, A.; deKock, L.; Walker, C.; Janeschitz, G.; Yamamoto, S.; Shikama, T.; Belyakov, V.; Farnum, E.; Hodgson, E.; Nishitani, T.; Orlinski, D.; Zinkle, S.; Kasai, S.; Stott, P.; Young, K.; Zaveriaev, V.

    2000-12-01

    An overview of the results of the irradiation tests on diagnostic components under the ITER technology R&D tasks and the solutions for the present diagnostic design are given in the light of these results. A comprehensive irradiation database of diagnostic components has been accumulated and permits conclusions to be drawn on the application of these components in ITER. Under the ITER technology R&D tasks, not only has work been shared among four home teams, but also several bilateral collaborations and round-robin experiments have been performed to enhance the R&D activities.

  4. Imaging system for hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    Dorf, L. A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Wurden, G. A.; Ticos, C. M.; Wang Zhehui

    2006-10-15

    The novel hypervelocity dust injection diagnostic will facilitate our understanding of basic aspects of dust-plasma interaction and magnetic field topology in fusion plasma devices, by observing 'comet tails' associated with the injected micron-size dust particles. A single projection of the tail onto an image plane will not provide sufficient information; therefore, we plan to use two views, with intensified DiCam-Pro cameras on two NSTX ports. Each camera can furnish up to five overlaying sequential images with gate times greater than 3 ns and 1280x1024 pixel resolution. A coherent fiber bundle with 1500x1200 fibers will relay the image from an imaging lens installed directly on the port to the camera optics. The lens receives light from the outer portion of the NSTX cross section and focuses a 1 cm tail onto at least 60 fibers for adequate resolution. The estimated number of photons received by the camera indicates signal-to-noise ratios of 10{sup 2}-10{sup 4}, with the use of a 10 nm bandwidth filter. The imaging system with one camera was successfully tested on NSTX in 2005. Photographing lithium pellets yielded bright and distinctive pictures of the tails nearly aligned with B lines. We also observed that the bright 'filaments' - plasma cords with high density and temperature - are present in both top and bottom portions of the machine.

  5. EPs welcome new focus on reducing diagnostic errors.

    PubMed

    2015-12-01

    Emergency medicine leaders welcome a major new report from the Institute of Medicine (IOM) calling on providers, policy makers, and government agencies to institute changes to reduce the incidence of diagnostic errors. The 369-page report, "Improving Diagnosis in Health Care," states that the rate of diagnostic errors in this country is unacceptably high and offers a long list of recommendations aimed at addressing the problem. These include large, systemic changes that involve improvements in multiple areas, including health information technology (HIT), professional education, teamwork, and payment reform. Further, of particular interest to emergency physicians are recommended changes to the liability system. The authors of the IOM report state that while most people will likely experience a significant diagnostic error in their lifetime, the importance of this problem is under-appreciated. According to conservative estimates, the report says 5% of adults who seek outpatient care each year experience a diagnostic error. The report also notes that research over many decades shows diagnostic errors contribute to roughly 10% of all.deaths. The report says more steps need to be taken to facilitate inter-professional and intra-professional teamwork throughout the diagnostic process. Experts concur with the report's finding that mechanisms need to be developed so that providers receive ongoing feedback on their diagnostic performance.

  6. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. VII. THE FORMATION OF THE O i 135.56 NM LINE IN THE SOLAR ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsuan; Carlsson, Mats E-mail: mats.carlsson@astro.uio.no

    2015-11-01

    The O i 135.56 nm line is covered by NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) small explorer mission which studies how the solar atmosphere is energized. We study here the formation and diagnostic potential of this line by means of non-local thermodynamic equilibrium modeling employing both 1D semi-empirical and 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamic models. We study the basic formation mechanisms and derive a quintessential model atom that incorporates essential atomic physics for the formation of the O i 135.56 nm line. This atomic model has 16 levels and describes recombination cascades through highly excited levels by effective recombination rates. The ionization balance O i/O ii is set by the hydrogen ionization balance through charge exchange reactions. The emission in the O i 135.56 nm line is dominated by a recombination cascade and the line is optically thin. The Doppler shift of the maximum emission correlates strongly with the vertical velocity in its line forming region, which is typically located at 1.0–1.5 Mm height. The total intensity of the line emission is correlated with the square of the electron density. Since the O i 135.56 nm line is optically thin, the width of the emission line is a very good diagnostic of non-thermal velocities. We conclude that the O i 135.56 nm line is an excellent probe of the middle chromosphere, and compliments other powerful chromospheric diagnostics of IRIS such as the Mg ii h and k lines and the C ii lines around 133.5 nm.

  7. Diagnostics for the Biased Electrode Experiment on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    A.L. Roquemore, S.J. Zweben, C.E. Bush, R. Kaita, R. J. Marsalsa, and R.J. Maqueda

    2009-03-20

    A linear array of four small biased electrodes was installed in NSTX in an attempt to control the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL) by creating a strong local poloidal electric field. The set of electrodes were separated poloidally by a 1 cm gap between electrodes and were located slightly below the midplane of NSTX, 1 cm behind the RF antenna and oriented so that each electrode is facing approximately normal to the magnetic field. Each electrode can be independently biased to ±100 volts. Present power supplies limit the current on two electrodes to 30 amps the other two to 10 amps each. The effect of local biasing was measured with a set of Langmuir probes placed between the electrodes and another set extending radially outward from the electrodes, and also by the gas puff imaging diagnostic (GPI) located 1 m away along the magnetic field lines intersecting the electrodes. Two fast cameras were also aimed directly at the electrode array. The hardware and controls of the biasing experiment will be presented and the initial effects on local plasma parameters will be discussed.

  8. Development of a New Diagnostic System for Human Liver Diseases Based on Conventional Ultrasonic Diagnostic Equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Tsuneo; Nakazawa, Toshihiro; Harada, Akimitsu; Sato, Hiroaki; Maruyama, Yukio; Sato, Sojun

    2001-05-01

    In this paper, the authors present the experimental results of using a quantitative ultrasonic diagnosis technique for human liver diseases using the fractal dimension (FD) of the shape of the power spectra (PS) of RF signals. We have developed an experimental system based on a conventional ultrasonic diagnostic system. As a result, we show that normal livers, fatty livers and liver cirrhosis can be identified using the FD values.

  9. RF Transmission Lines on Silicon Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, George E.

    1999-01-01

    A review of RF transmission lines on silicon substrates is presented. Through measurements and calculated results, it is shown that attenuation is dominated by conductor loss if silicon substrates with a resistivity greater than 2500 Ohm-cm are used. Si passivation layers affect the transmission line attenuation; however, measured results demonstrate that passivation layers do not necessarily increase attenuation. If standard, low resistivity Si wafers must be used, alternative transmission lines such as thin film microstrip and Co-Planar Waveguide (CPW) on thick polyimide layers must be used. Measured results presented here show that low loss per unit length is achievable with these transmission lines.

  10. On the interpretation of chromospheric emission lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Judge, P. G.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reexamines the formation of ultraviolet emission lines in stellar chromospheres, using detailed radiative transfer calculations and relatively simple methods based on approximate line cooling rates, including escape probabilities. Approximations for the cooling integrals are demonstrated to work well for 'effectively thin' chromospheric lines. Two cases are identified, whose behavior can be understood using Ayres's (1979) chromospheric scaling laws relating the chromospheric structure to stellar properties: those of inactive stars, like cool giants, and more active stars like the sun.

  11. Diagnostics of Local Magnetic Fields in Solar Flares Using FeI 5383 and MgI 5528 Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozitsky, V. G.; Lozitsky, O. V.

    Main purpose of the present work is to estimate upper limit of the local magnetic field strength in solar flares using spectral lines FeI 5383 and MgI 5528. These lines like FeI 5233 have low Lande factors (1.12 and 1.00, respectively) and relatively large spectral width (0.2-0.3 Å). On this account, even in a case of very strong fields (3-4 kG) they must show the simple picture of the Zeeman splitting, with parallel to each other the bisectors of profiles I+V and I - V. In actual fact, another picture was found for nine flares: bisectors of these lines have maximums of splitting on certain distances from line center, what must not be in the homogeneous magnetic field. In particular, both lines have peak of bisector splitting on distance 150-170 mÅ from line center. If we assume the Zeeman nature of named peculiarities then necessary fields are 11.2 kG for FeI 5383 and 10.5-11.2 kG for MgI 5528. Likely, this agreement of field values is a new argument to reality of such very strong magnetic fields in flares.

  12. Locating Fractions on a Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Understanding fractions remains problematic for many students. The use of the number line aids in this understanding, but requires students to recognise that a fraction represents the distance from zero to a dot or arrow marked on a number line which is a linear scale. This article continues the discussion from "Identifying Fractions on a…

  13. On-Line Assessment: What, Why, How.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Natal, Dottie

    Recent increases in the speed and accessibility of computers and networks have made it possible to administer tests on-line. On-line assessment can be conducted in a controlled setting, such as a testing center, or distributed over local area networks or the Internet to libraries and student homes, allowing students the flexibility to complete…

  14. Energy shifts of K- and L-lines as spectroscopic diagnostic of Z-pinch plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Słabkowska, K.; Szymańska, E.; Polasik, M.; Rzadkiewicz, J.; Syrocki, Ł.; Pereira, N. R.

    2014-12-15

    Ultrafast molybdenum wire implosions on the Z machine at Sandia produce intense pulses of multi-keV x-rays from partially ionized plasmas. The most intense radiation comes from a hot, dense core of thermal plasma in ionization equilibrium with Mo ionized to within the L-shell. Non-thermal, energetic electrons in the plasma generate Kα and Kβ radiation, whose energy is affected by Mo’s ionization state, and therefore on the plasma temperature. Based on an extensive series of recent computations on this effect, we recalculate the pinch’ Mo x-ray spectrum, with reasonable results.

  15. First structures on RyantoRainbow Line. Hframe structure on Line 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    First structures on Ryan-to-Rainbow Line. H-frame structure on Line 1 (right) has historic porcelain suspension insulators and H-frame structure on Line 2 (center) has two historic porcelain insulators and one modern non-ceramic insulator. View to north - Ryan Hydroelectric Facility, Ryan-to-Rainbow 100 kV Transmission Line, West bank of Missouri River, northeast of Great Falls, Great Falls, Cascade County, MT

  16. Magnetic and Electric Field Diagnostics of Chromospheric Jets by Spectropolarimetric Observations of the HI Paschen Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anan, T.; Casini, R.; Ichimoto, K.

    2014-10-01

    In order to study the magnetic and electric fields of chromospheric jets, we observed the full Stokes spectra of the Paschen series of neutral hydrogen in active region jets that took place at the solar limb on May 5, 2012. For the observations, we used the spectropolarimeter of the Domeless Solar Telescope at Hida observatory, Japan. Inversion of the Stokes spectra taking into account the effect of magnetic field on the energy structure and polarization of the hydrogen levels (including the Hanle effect and level-crossing effects) elucidates the magnetic field approximately aligned with the visible structure of the jets. In addition to the magnetic field, the energy structure and the polarization of the hydrogen levels is sensitive to electric field through the Stark effect, electric Hanle effect (analogous effect with the Hanle effect by magnetic field), and the level-crossing effects. Since, we found no definitive evidence of the polarization produced by the effect of electric field in the observed Stokes profiles, we derived upper limits of electric field felt by neutral atom moving across the magnetic field, and conclude that the velocity of the neutral atom perpendicular to the magnetic field was below several percents of the velocity bulk plasma motion.

  17. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Line Profiles in Searches for Binary Supermassive Black Holes: Comparison of Models with Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanovic, Tamara; Eracleous, Michael; Runnoe, Jessie C.; Sigurdsson, Steinn

    2017-01-01

    Motivated by observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) we develop a semi-analytic model to describe the spectral emission line signatures of these systems. We are particularly interested in modeling the profiles of the broad emission lines, which have been used as a tool to search for SBHBs. The goal of this work is to test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this context, we model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk that forms a common envelope about a gravitationally bound binary. Our first generation model shows that emission line profiles tend to have different statistical properties depending on the semi-major axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the alignment of the triple-disk system, and can in principle be used to constrain the statistical distribution of these parameters. We present the results of a second generation model, which improves upon the treatment of radiative transfer by taking into account the effect of line-driven winds on the properties of the model emission line profiles. This improvement allows a preliminary comparison of the model profiles with the observed SBHB candidates and AGN population in general.

  18. On-line generalized Steiner problem

    SciTech Connect

    Awerbuch, B.; Azar, Y.; Bartal, Y.

    1996-12-31

    The Generalized Steiner Problem (GSP) is defined as follows. We are given a graph with non-negative weights and a set of pairs of vertices. The algorithm has to construct minimum weight subgraph such that the two nodes of each pair are connected by a path. We consider the on-line generalized Steiner problem, in which pairs of vertices arrive on-line and are needed to be connected immediately. We give a simple O(log{sup 2} n) competitive deterministic on-line algorithm. The previous best online algorithm (by Westbrook and Yan) was O({radical}n log n) competitive. We also consider the network connectivity leasing problem which is a generalization of the GSP. Here edges of the graph can be either bought or leased for different costs. We provide simple randomized O(log{sup 2} n) competitive algorithm based on the on-line generalized Steiner problem result.

  19. Diagnostics monitor of the braking efficiency in the on board diagnostics system for the motor vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gajek, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The article presents diagnostics monitor for control of the efficiency of brakes in various road conditions in cars equipped with pressure sensor in brake (ESP) system. Now the brake efficiency of the vehicles is estimated periodically in the stand conditions on the base of brake forces measurement or in the road conditions on the base of the brake deceleration. The presented method allows to complete the stand - periodical tests of the brakes by current on board diagnostics system OBD for brakes. First part of the article presents theoretical dependences between deceleration of the vehicle and brake pressure. The influence of the vehicle mass, initial speed of braking, temperature of brakes, aerodynamic drag, rolling resistance, engine resistance, state of the road surface, angle of the road sloping on the deceleration have been analysed. The manner of the appointed of these parameters has been analysed. The results of the initial investigation have been presented. At the end of the article the strategy of the estimation and signalization of the irregular value of the deceleration are presented.

  20. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2011-10-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  1. Application of t-LASCA and speckle-averaging techniques for diagnostics of malignant tumors on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulyanov, Sergey; Laskavy, Vladislav; Golova, Alina; Polyanina, Tatyana; Ulianova, Onega; Feodorova, Valentina; Ulyanov, Alexander

    2012-03-01

    Method t-LASCA has been adopted for diagnostics of malignant tissue on animal models. Investigations of tumors on inbred mice (line BALB/c) after the inoculation of syngeneic myeloma cells (line Sp.2/0-Ag.8) have been carried out. The efficiency of application of t-LASCA for tumor investigations has been proven. It has been also found that map of time-averaged speckles is more informative rather than LASCA-image.

  2. Benchmarking Diagnostic Algorithms on an Electrical Power System Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtoglu, Tolga; Narasimhan, Sriram; Poll, Scott; Garcia, David; Wright, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Diagnostic algorithms (DAs) are key to enabling automated health management. These algorithms are designed to detect and isolate anomalies of either a component or the whole system based on observations received from sensors. In recent years a wide range of algorithms, both model-based and data-driven, have been developed to increase autonomy and improve system reliability and affordability. However, the lack of support to perform systematic benchmarking of these algorithms continues to create barriers for effective development and deployment of diagnostic technologies. In this paper, we present our efforts to benchmark a set of DAs on a common platform using a framework that was developed to evaluate and compare various performance metrics for diagnostic technologies. The diagnosed system is an electrical power system, namely the Advanced Diagnostics and Prognostics Testbed (ADAPT) developed and located at the NASA Ames Research Center. The paper presents the fundamentals of the benchmarking framework, the ADAPT system, description of faults and data sets, the metrics used for evaluation, and an in-depth analysis of benchmarking results obtained from testing ten diagnostic algorithms on the ADAPT electrical power system testbed.

  3. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Garrison, A.A.

    1993-01-01

    This report relates to the development of an on-line Raman analyzer for control of a distillation column. It is divided into: program issues, experimental control system evaluation, energy savings analysis, and reliability analysis. (DLC)

  4. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  5. Effects of diagnostic ionizing radiation on pregnancy via TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammed, W. H.; Artoli, A. M.

    2008-08-01

    In Sudan, X-rays are routinely used at least once for measurements of pelvis during the gestation period, though this is highly prohibited worldwide, except for a few life threatening cases. To demonstrate the effect of diagnostic ionizing radiation on uterus, fetus and neighboring tissues to the ovaries, two independent experiments on pregnant rabbits were conducted. The first experiment was a proof of concept that diagnostic ionizing radiation is hazardous throughout the gestation period. The second experiment was done through Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) to elucidate the morphological changes in the ultra structure of samples taken from irradiated pregnant rabbits. This study uses TEM to test the effect of diagnostic radiation of less than 0.6 Gray on the cellular level. Morphological changes have been captured and the images were analyzed to quantify these effects.

  6. On Line in New York.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, David

    1994-01-01

    The International Education and Resource Network (I*EARN) creates an international classroom in which students work together on global education projects and literary and current events publications. Teacher David Egan describes some of the many activities available to students on the network. (LZ/Author)

  7. Interpolating Functions on Lines in 3-Space

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-01-01

    numbers comprise the compilation report: ADP011967 thru ADPO12009 UNCLASSIFIED Interpolating Functions on Lines in 3-Space Martin Peternell and Helmut...reproduction in any form reserved. 352 M. Peternell and H. Pottmann §2. Lines in Space An oriented line L in Euclidean 3-space E 3 is determined by a...intersection r = Q n T is a quadratic cone with vertex Z. The intersection e = E n T is a hyperplane 354 M. Peternell and H. Pottmann X t) Fig. 2. Local

  8. Progress of development of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on COMPASS.

    PubMed

    Bilkova, P; Melich, R; Aftanas, M; Böhm, P; Sestak, D; Jares, D; Weinzettl, V; Stöckel, J; Hron, M; Panek, R; Scannell, R; Walsh, M J

    2010-10-01

    A new Thomson scattering diagnostic system has been designed and is being built now on the COMPASS tokamak at the Institute of Plasma Physics ASCR in Prague (IPP Prague) in the Czech Republic. This contribution focuses on design, development, and installation of the light collection and detection system. High spatial resolution of 3 mm will be achieved by a combination of design of collection optics and connected polychromators. Imaging characteristics of both core and edge plasma collection objectives are described and fiber backplane design is presented. Several calibration procedures are discussed. The operational deployment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic is planned by the end of 2010.

  9. Tuning the beam: a physics perspective on beam diagnostic instrumentation

    SciTech Connect

    Gulley, Mark S

    2010-01-01

    In a nutshell, the role of a beam diagnostic measurement is to provide information needed to get a particle beam from Point A (injection point) to Point B (a target) in a useable condition, with 'useable' meaning the right energy and size and with acceptable losses. Specifications and performance requirements of diagnostics are based on the physics of the particle beam to be measured, with typical customers of beam parameter measurements being the accelerator operators and accelerator physicists. This tutorial will be a physics-oriented discussion of the interplay between tuning evolutions and the beam diagnostics systems that support the machine tune. This will include the differences between developing a tune and maintaining a tune, among other things. Practical longitudinal and transverse tuning issues and techniques from a variety of proton and electron machines will also be discussed.

  10. Non-Gaussian Velocity Distributions in Solar Flares from Extreme Ultraviolet Lines: A Possible Diagnostic of Ion Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffrey, Natasha L. S.; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Labrosse, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    In a solar flare, a large fraction of the magnetic energy released is converted rapidly to the kinetic energy of non-thermal particles and bulk plasma motion. This will likely result in non-equilibrium particle distributions and turbulent plasma conditions. We investigate this by analyzing the profiles of high temperature extreme ultraviolet emission lines from a major flare (SOL2014-03-29T17:44) observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on Hinode. We find that in many locations the line profiles are non-Gaussian, consistent with a kappa distribution of emitting ions with properties that vary in space and time. At the flare footpoints, close to sites of hard X-ray emission from non-thermal electrons, the κ index for the Fe xvi 262.976 Å line at 3 MK takes values of 3–5. In the corona, close to a low-energy HXR source, the Fe xxiii 263.760 Å line at 15 MK shows κ values of typically 4–7. The observed trends in the κ parameter show that we are most likely detecting the properties of the ion population rather than any instrumental effects. We calculate that a non-thermal ion population could exist if locally accelerated on timescales ≤0.1 s. However, observations of net redshifts in the lines also imply the presence of plasma downflows, which could lead to bulk turbulence, with increased non-Gaussianity in cooler regions. Both interpretations have important implications for theories of solar flare particle acceleration.

  11. Porphyria or Catatonia: Diagnostic Dilemma on the Medical Wards.

    PubMed

    Kurkjian, Natalie; Tucker, Phebe

    2016-01-01

    A 24-year-old Caucasian female, DD, was admitted to the medical service at an academic hospital with symptoms of weakness in bilateral lower extremities, falls, headaches, and altered mental status. Psychiatry was consulted to evaluate for psychiatric causes of her symptoms. This case presented a diagnostic challenge as the patient's identified symptoms changed almost daily, depending on what practitioner or medical service she encountered. In this study, we discuss the differential diagnoses, tests and treatments the patient received, with a review of literature helping differentiate between diagnostic parameters.

  12. University Students' Perspectives on Diagnostic Testing in Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ní Fhloinn, Eabhnat; Bhaird, Ciarán Macan; Nolan, Brien

    2014-01-01

    Many universities issue mathematical diagnostic tests to incoming first-year students, covering a range of the basic concepts with which they should be comfortable from secondary school. As far as many lecturers are concerned, the purpose of this test is to determine the students' mathematical knowledge on entry. It should also provide an early…

  13. Effective On-Board Diagnostics for electronic engine controls

    SciTech Connect

    Florence, D.E.; Michel, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Properly implemented, On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Systems fill the gap in sophistication between computer based fuel injection engine controls and a carburetor oriented service industry. By emphasizing simplicity and credibility, inexpensive OBD systems make electronic engine controls a desirable feature to the service technician.

  14. Diagnostic experiments on supersonic jet noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclaughlin, D. K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments and computations on the flowfield and radiated noise of supersonic model jets are discussed. The shock associated noise produced by large scale instabilities in underexpanded supersonic jets, the nonlinear propagation distortion phenomenon in the noise radiated by supersonic model jets, and computations of instability evolution and radiated noise using the LSNOIS computer code are addressed.

  15. The effects of a multidensity plasma on ultraviolet spectroscopic electron density diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doschek, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    Spectroscopic electron density diagnostics have been developed for interpretation of UV, EUV, and X-ray emission line spectra of solar and other astrophysical plasmas, and tokamak plasmas. In principle, accurate electron densities can be determined. However, in practice, a number of difficulties arise with respect to the determination of very accurate electron densities in the 1100-3000 A region. The present study has the objective to investigate one of these difficulties, taking into account the effect on line ratios produced by a source composed of several regions of substantially different densities, all at the same temperature. The study is in particular concerned with a source in which small high density knots are embedded in low-density plasma. Attention is given to line ratios involving the O IV multiplet near 1400 A, obtained from the spectrum of a surge observed outside the solar limb.

  16. Diagnostic criteria for Huntington's disease based on natural history.

    PubMed

    Reilmann, Ralf; Leavitt, Blair R; Ross, Christopher A

    2014-09-15

    Huntington's disease (HD) is currently diagnosed based on the presence of motor signs indicating 99% "diagnostic confidence" for HD. Recent advances in the understanding of HD natural history and neurobiology indicate that disease-related brain changes begin at least 12 to 15 years before the formal diagnosis based on motor onset. Furthermore, subtle motor dysfunction, cognitive changes, and behavioral alterations are often seen before diagnosis made according to the current criteria. As disease-modifying treatments are developed, likely beginning therapy early will be desirable. We therefore suggest that expanded diagnostic criteria for HD should be adapted to better reflect the natural history of the disease, to enable the conduct of clinical trials in premanifest subjects targeting prevention of neurodegeneration, and to facilitate earlier symptomatic treatment. We propose a new set of criteria for HD diagnostic categories in the International Classification of Diseases that reflect our current understanding of HD natural history and pathogenesis. Based on defined criteria, for example, the Diagnostic Confidence Level and the Total Functional Capacity scales of the Unified Huntington's Disease Rating Scale, HD should be divided in the categories "genetically confirmed" with the subcategories "presymptomatic," "prodromal," and "manifest" and "not genetically confirmed" subdivided into "clinically at risk," "clinically prodromal," and "clinically manifest."

  17. On-line electroplating thickness monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Clifford G.

    1989-03-01

    This paper describes a novel instrumental technique for on-line measuring the thickness of electroplating, based on the precise determination of the resistance of the electroplated deposit on a stainless steel wire sensor. Laboratory and field testing of the technique is described. Data are presented for nickel, copper, and gold. Block diagrams for the sensor and the system are presented.

  18. Electron Cyclotron Emission Diagnostics on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Richard; Austin, Max; Phillips, Perry; Rowan, William; Beno, Joseph; Auroua, Abelhamid; Feder, Russell; Patel, Ashish; Hubbard, Amanda; Pandya, Hitesh

    2010-11-01

    Electron cyclotron emission (ECE) will be employed on ITER to measure the radial profile of electron temperature and non thermal features of the electron distribution as well as measurements of ELMs, magnetic islands, high frequency instabilities, and turbulence. There are two quasioptical systems, designed with Gaussian beam analysis. One view is radial, primarily for temperature profile measurement, the other views at a small angle to radial for measuring non-thermal emission. Radiation is conducted to by a long corrugated waveguide to a multichannel Michelson interferometer which provides wide wavelength coverage but limited time response as well as two microwave radiometers which cover the fundamental and second harmonic ECE and provide excellent time response. Measurements will be made in both X and O mode. In-situ calibration is provided by a novel hot calibration source. We discuss spatial resolution and the implications for physics studies.

  19. IPAC datasets and on-line services.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, R.; Helou, G.; Mazzarella, J.; IPAC Tools Group

    The Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (IPAC) was created by NASA in 1983 to process and analyze data from the IRAS satellite. At present, IPAC on-line services are intended first to provide access to the extensive IRAS archives (catalogs, images, raw scan data) and second to support observation planning and data analysis for new IR missions, in particular ESA's Infrared Space Observatory (ISO). Here, information on access to the IPAC on-line catalogs is given and the software tools IRSKY, XCATSCAN, and XSCANPI are described in some detail.

  20. On-line atomic data access

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, D.R.; Nash, J.K.

    1996-04-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser- produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology nables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users of the Internet. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  1. On-line atomic data access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David R.; Nash, Jeffrey K.

    1996-07-01

    The need for atomic data is one which continues to expand in a wide variety of applications including fusion energy, astrophysics, laser-produced plasma research, and plasma processing. Modern computer database and communications technology enables this data to be placed on-line and obtained by users over the INTERNET. Presented here is a summary of the observations and conclusions regarding such on-line atomic data access derived from a forum held at the Tenth APS Topical Conference on Atomic Processes in Plasmas.

  2. Line-on-Line Coincidence: A New Type of Epitaxy Found in Organic-Organic Heterolayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannsfeld, Stefan C.; Leo, Karl; Fritz, Torsten

    2005-02-01

    We propose a new type of epitaxy, line-on-line coincidence (LOL), which explains the ordering in the organic-organic heterolayer system PTCDA on HBC on graphite. LOL epitaxy is similar to point-on-line coincidence (POL) in the sense that all overlayer molecules lie on parallel, equally spaced lines. The key difference to POL is that these lines are not restricted to primitive lattice lines of the substrate lattice. Potential energy calculations demonstrate that this new type of epitaxy is indeed characterized by a minimum in the overlayer-substrate interaction potential.

  3. High Temporal and Spatial Resolution Electron Density Diagnostic for the Edge Plasma based on Stark Broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, Abdullah; Martin, Elijah; Shannon, Steve; Isler, Ralph; Caughman, John

    2016-10-01

    Passive spectroscopic measurements of Stark broadening have been reliably used to determine electron density for decades. However, a low-density limit ( 1014 cm-3) exists due to Doppler and instrument broadening of the spectral line profile. A synthetic electron density diagnostic capable of high temporal (ms) and spatial (mm) resolution is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic is based on measuring the Stark broadened, Doppler-free, spectral line profile of a Balmar series transition by using an active laser based technique. The diagnostic approach outlined here greatly reduces both of these broadening contributions using Doppler-free saturation spectroscopy (DFSS), allowing access to lower density regimes. The measured profile is then fit to a fully quantum mechanical model including the appropriate electric and magnetic field operators. The modeling and experimental results for this active spectroscopic technique are presented for a magnetized (<=5 T), low-density (1011-1013 cm-3) plasma. Details of applying DFSS to the plasma edge are also discussed.

  4. Emission Signatures from Sub-parsec Binary Supermassive Black Holes. I. Diagnostic Power of Broad Emission Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, Khai; Bogdanović, Tamara

    2016-09-01

    Motivated by advances in observational searches for sub-parsec supermassive black hole binaries (SBHBs) made in the past few years, we develop a semi-analytic model to describe spectral emission-line signatures of these systems. The goal of this study is to aid the interpretation of spectroscopic searches for binaries and to help test one of the leading models of binary accretion flows in the literature: SBHB in a circumbinary disk. In this work, we present the methodology and a comparison of the preliminary model with the data. We model SBHB accretion flows as a set of three accretion disks: two mini-disks that are gravitationally bound to the individual black holes and a circumbinary disk. Given a physically motivated parameter space occupied by sub-parsec SBHBs, we calculate a synthetic database of nearly 15 million broad optical emission-line profiles and explore the dependence of the profile shapes on characteristic properties of SBHBs. We find that the modeled profiles show distinct statistical properties as a function of the semimajor axis, mass ratio, eccentricity of the binary, and the degree of alignment of the triple disk system. This suggests that the broad emission-line profiles from SBHB systems can in principle be used to infer the distribution of these parameters and as such merit further investigation. Calculated profiles are more morphologically heterogeneous than the broad emission lines in observed SBHB candidates and we discuss improved treatment of radiative transfer effects, which will allow a direct statistical comparison of the two groups.

  5. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1995-01-01

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  6. Effect of tornado loads on transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Ishac, M.F.; White, H.B.

    1994-12-31

    Of all the populated areas in Canada, southwestern Ontario has experienced the highest tornado incidence and faces the greatest tornado damage. About 1 or 2 tornadoes per 10,000 km{sup 2} can be expected there annually. The probability of a tornado strike at a given point is very small but the probability of a transmission line being crossed by a tornado is significant. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature related to tornadoes in Ontario and to investigate the effect of tornado loads on transmission lines. Based on this investigation a design basis tornado loading for transmission towers is proposed.

  7. Camera calibration based on parallel lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weimin; Zhang, Yuhai; Zhao, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, computer vision has been wildly used in our daily life. In order to get some reliable information, camera calibration can not be neglected. Traditional camera calibration cannot be used in reality due to the fact that we cannot find the accurate coordinate information of the referenced control points. In this article, we present a camera calibration algorithm which can determine the intrinsic parameters both with the extrinsic parameters. The algorithm is based on the parallel lines in photos which can be commonly find in the real life photos. That is we can first get the intrinsic parameters as well as the extrinsic parameters though the information picked from the photos we take from the normal life. More detail, we use two pairs of the parallel lines to compute the vanishing points, specially if these parallel lines are perpendicular, which means these two vanishing points are conjugate with each other, we can use some views (at least 5 views) to determine the image of the absolute conic(IAC). Then, we can easily get the intrinsic parameters by doing cholesky factorization on the matrix of IAC.As we all know, when connect the vanishing point with the camera optical center, we can get a line which is parallel with the original lines in the scene plane. According to this, we can get the extrinsic parameters R and T. Both the simulation and the experiment results meets our expectations.

  8. Video on phone lines: technology and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsing, T. Russell

    1996-03-01

    Recent advances in communications signal processing and VLSI technology are fostering tremendous interest in transmitting high-speed digital data over ordinary telephone lines at bit rates substantially above the ISDN Basic Access rate (144 Kbit/s). Two new technologies, high-bit-rate digital subscriber lines and asymmetric digital subscriber lines promise transmission over most of the embedded loop plant at 1.544 Mbit/s and beyond. Stimulated by these research promises and rapid advances on video coding techniques and the standards activity, information networks around the globe are now exploring possible business opportunities of offering quality video services (such as distant learning, telemedicine, and telecommuting etc.) through this high-speed digital transport capability in the copper loop plant. Visual communications for residential customers have become more feasible than ever both technically and economically.

  9. Optical Diagnostics for Flow Control on Small Wings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-13

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0249 Optical diagnostics for flow control on small wings GEOFF SPEDDING UNIVERSITY OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA LOS ANGELES...information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1. REPORT DATE... control on small wings 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-15-1-0255 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Geoffrey R Spedding 5d. PROJECT

  10. LUST ON-LINE CALCULATOR INTRODUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators to assist in performing site assessment and modeling calculations for leaking underground storage tank sites (http://www.epa.gov/athens/onsite). The calculators are divided into four types: parameter estimation, models, scientific...

  11. Authority Issues in On-Line Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podis, JoAnne M.

    An informal study examined the sources of professors' authority and whether the authority dynamic between professor and student changes in an electronic setting. Five on-line writing instructors (who use Internet Email or the World Wide Web) completed a questionnaire. Results indicated that (1) professors tended, at least initially, to replicate…

  12. Transformation invariant on-line target recognition.

    PubMed

    Iftekharuddin, Khan M

    2011-06-01

    Transformation invariant automatic target recognition (ATR) has been an active research area due to its widespread applications in defense, robotics, medical imaging and geographic scene analysis. The primary goal for this paper is to obtain an on-line ATR system for targets in presence of image transformations, such as rotation, translation, scale and occlusion as well as resolution changes. We investigate biologically inspired adaptive critic design (ACD) neural network (NN) models for on-line learning of such transformations. We further exploit reinforcement learning (RL) in ACD framework to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We exploit two ACD designs, such as heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) and dual heuristic dynamic programming (DHP) to obtain transformation invariant ATR. We obtain extensive statistical evaluations of proposed on-line ATR networks using both simulated image transformations and real benchmark facial image database, UMIST, with pose variations. Our simulations show promising results for learning transformations in simulated images and authenticating out-of plane rotated face images. Comparing the two on-line ATR designs, HDP outperforms DHP in learning capability and robustness and is more tolerant to noise. The computational time involved in HDP is also less than that of DHP. On the other hand, DHP achieves a 100% success rate more frequently than HDP for individual targets, and the residual critic error in DHP is generally smaller than that of HDP. Mathematical analyses of both our RL-based on-line ATR designs are also obtained to provide a sufficient condition for asymptotic convergence in a statistical average sense.

  13. Lines

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mires, Peter B.

    2006-01-01

    National Geography Standards for the middle school years generally stress the teaching of latitude and longitude. There are many creative ways to explain the great grid that encircles our planet, but the author has found that students in his college-level geography courses especially enjoy human-interest stories associated with lines of latitude…

  14. Microstrip transmission line tapers on ferrites

    SciTech Connect

    Albuquerque, M.R.; dAssuncao, A.G.; Lima, F.

    1997-04-01

    The spectral domain approach is employed to perform a theoretical investigation of tapered microstrip lines on magnetized ferrite substrates. A linear variation of the conducting strip width along the direction of propagation is considered. The analysis takes into account the effects of the applied dc magnetic bias field in the transmission characteristics of these structures. The properties of the taper are determined by a model based on a segmentation of the considered line into uniform microstrip line subsections. Normalized phase constants and characteristic impedances are obtained by using the Hertz vector potentials method and Galerkin numerical technique. Numerical results are presented to show the taper input parameters as a function of the load impedance, geometrical dimensions, operating frequency, and ferrite parameters, considering the orientation and magnitude changes of the biasing magnetic-field {bold H}{sub 0}. The results agree fairly well with those available in the literature for tapered microstrip lines on isotropic dielectric substrates. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. Sample solution constraints on motor-driven diagnostic nanodevices.

    PubMed

    Korten, Slobodanka; Albet-Torres, Nuria; Paderi, Francesca; ten Siethoff, Lasse; Diez, Stefan; Korten, Till; te Kronnie, Geertruy; Månsson, Alf

    2013-03-07

    The last decade has seen appreciable advancements in efforts towards increased portability of lab-on-a-chip devices by substituting microfluidics with molecular motor-based transportation. As of now, first proof-of-principle devices have analyzed protein mixtures of low complexity, such as target protein molecules in buffer solutions optimized for molecular motor performance. However, in a diagnostic work-up, lab-on-a-chip devices need to be compatible with complex biological samples. While it has been shown that such samples do not interfere with crucial steps in molecular diagnostics (for example antibody-antigen recognition), their effect on molecular motors is unknown. This critical and long overlooked issue is addressed here. In particular, we studied the effects of blood, cell lysates and solutions containing genomic DNA extracts on actomyosin and kinesin-microtubule-based transport, the two biomolecular motor systems that are most promising for lab-on-a-chip applications. We found that motor function is well preserved at defined dilutions of most of the investigated biological samples and demonstrated a molecular motor-driven label-free blood type test. Our results support the feasibility of molecular-motor driven nanodevices for diagnostic point-of-care applications and also demonstrate important constraints imposed by sample composition and device design that apply both to kinesin-microtubule and actomyosin driven applications.

  16. Modeling FAMA ion beam diagnostics based on the Ptolemy II model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balvanović, R.; Beličev, P.; Radjenović, B.

    2012-10-01

    The previously developed model of ion beam transport control of the FAMA facility is further enhanced by equipping it with the model of ion beam diagnostics. The model of control, executing once, is adjusted so that it executes in iterative mode, where each iteration samples the input beam normally distributed over initial phase space and calculates a single trajectory through the facility beam lines. The model takes into account only the particles that manage to pass through all the beam line apertures, emulating in this way a Faraday cup and a beam profile meter. Generated are also beam phase space distributions and horizontal and vertical beam profiles at the end of the beam transport lines the FAMA facility consists of. By adding the model of ion beam diagnostics to the model of ion beam transport control, the process of determining optimal ion beam control parameters is eased and speeded up, and the understanding of influence of control parameters on the ion beam characteristics is improved.

  17. Integrated rapid-diagnostic-test reader platform on a cellphone.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-08-07

    We demonstrate a cellphone-based rapid-diagnostic-test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 g, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting diode (LED)-based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 s per image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT, as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data), to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) and HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android-based smartphones and an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist healthcare professionals and policymakers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness.

  18. The diagnostic accuracy of the GenoType® Mtbdrsl assay for the detection of resistance to second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs

    PubMed Central

    Theron, Grant; Peter, Jonny; Richardson, Marty; Barnard, Marinus; Donegan, Sarah; Warren, Rob; Steingart, Karen R; Dheda, Keertan

    2014-01-01

    Background Accurate and rapid tests for tuberculosis (TB) drug resistance are critical for improving patient care and decreasing the transmission of drug-resistant TB. Genotype®MTBDRsl (MTBDRsl) is the only commercially-available molecular test for detecting resistance in TB to the fluoroquinolones (FQs; ofloxacin, moxifloxacin and levofloxacin) and the second-line injectable drugs (SLIDs; amikacin, kanamycin and capreomycin), which are used to treat patients with multidrug-resistant (MDR-)TB. Objectives To obtain summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy ofMTBDRsl for FQ resistance, SLID resistance and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB; defined asMDR-TB plus resistance to a FQand a SLID) when performed (1) indirectly (ie on culture isolates confirmed as TB positive) and (2) directly (ie on smear-positive sputum specimens). To compare summary estimates of the diagnostic accuracy of MTBDRsl for FQ resistance, SLID resistance and XDR-TB by type of testing (indirect versus direct testing). The populations of interest were adults with drug-susceptible TB or drug-resistant TB. The settings of interest were intermediate and central laboratories. Search methods We searched the following databases without any language restriction up to 30 January 2014: Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; MEDLINE; EMBASE; ISI Web of Knowledge; MEDION; LILACS; BIOSIS; SCOPUS; the metaRegister of Controlled Trials; the search portal of the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform; and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses A&I. Selection criteria We included all studies that determined MTBDRsl accuracy against a defined reference standard (culture-based drug susceptibility testing (DST), genetic testing or both).We included cross-sectional and diagnostic case-control studies.We excluded unpublished data and conference proceedings. Data collection and analysis For each study, two review authors independently extracted data using a

  19. Status of neutron diagnostics on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, G. Q.; Hu, L. Q.; Pu, N.; Zhou, R. J.; Xiao, M.; Cao, H. R.; Zhu, Y. B.; Li, K.; Fan, T. S.; Peng, X. Y.; Du, T. F.; Ge, L. J.; Huang, J.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.

    2016-11-01

    Neutron diagnostics have become a significant means to study energetic particles in high power auxiliary heating plasmas on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Several kinds of neutron diagnostic systems have been implemented for time-resolved measurements of D-D neutron flux, fluctuation, emission profile, and spectrum. All detectors have been calibrated in laboratory, and in situ calibration using 252Cf neutron source in EAST is in preparation. A new technology of digitized pulse signal processing is adopted in a wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor, compact recoil proton spectrometer, and time of flight spectrometer. Improvements will be made continuously to the system to achieve better adaptation to the EAST's harsh γ-ray and electro-magnetic radiation environment.

  20. Status of neutron diagnostics on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhong, G Q; Hu, L Q; Pu, N; Zhou, R J; Xiao, M; Cao, H R; Zhu, Y B; Li, K; Fan, T S; Peng, X Y; Du, T F; Ge, L J; Huang, J; Xu, G S; Wan, B N

    2016-11-01

    Neutron diagnostics have become a significant means to study energetic particles in high power auxiliary heating plasmas on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). Several kinds of neutron diagnostic systems have been implemented for time-resolved measurements of D-D neutron flux, fluctuation, emission profile, and spectrum. All detectors have been calibrated in laboratory, and in situ calibration using (252)Cf neutron source in EAST is in preparation. A new technology of digitized pulse signal processing is adopted in a wide dynamic range neutron flux monitor, compact recoil proton spectrometer, and time of flight spectrometer. Improvements will be made continuously to the system to achieve better adaptation to the EAST's harsh γ-ray and electro-magnetic radiation environment.

  1. XP Workshop on Agile Product Line Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanam, Yaser; Cooper, Kendra; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Maurer, Frank

    Software Product Line Engineering (SPLE) promises to lower the costs of developing individual applications as they heavily reuse existing artifacts. Besides decreasing costs, software reuse achieves faster development and higher quality. Traditionally, SPLE favors big design upfront and employs traditional, heavy weight processes. On the other hand, agile methods have been proposed to rapidly develop high quality software by focusing on producing working code while reducing upfront analysis and design. Combining both paradigms, although is challenging, can yield significant improvements.

  2. Locating Fraction on a Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hannula, Markku S.

    2003-01-01

    Based on a survey of 3067 Finnish 5th and 7th graders and a task-based interview of 20 7th graders we examine student's understanding of fraction. Two tasks frame a specific fraction (3/4) in different contexts: as part of an eight-piece bar (area context) and as a location on a number line. The results suggest that students' understanding of…

  3. Estimating personalized diagnostic rules depending on individualized characteristics.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ying; Wang, Yuanjia; Huang, Chaorui; Zeng, Donglin

    2017-03-30

    There is an increasing demand for personalization of disease screening based on assessment of patient risk and other characteristics. For example, in breast cancer screening, advanced imaging technologies have made it possible to move away from 'one-size-fits-all' screening guidelines to targeted risk-based screening for those who are in need. Because diagnostic performance of various imaging modalities may vary across subjects, applying the most accurate modality to the patients who would benefit the most requires personalized strategy. To address these needs, we propose novel machine learning methods to estimate personalized diagnostic rules for medical screening or diagnosis by maximizing a weighted combination of sensitivity and specificity across subgroups of subjects. We first develop methods that can be applied when competing modalities or screening strategies that are observed on the same subject (paired design). Next, we present methods for studies where not all subjects receive both modalities (unpaired design). We study theoretical properties including consistency and risk bound of the personalized diagnostic rules and conduct simulation studies to examine performance of the proposed methods. Lastly, we analyze data collected from a brain imaging study of Parkinson's disease using positron emission tomography and diffusion tensor imaging with paired and unpaired designs. Our results show that in some cases, a personalized modality assignment is estimated to improve empirical area under the receiver operating curve compared with a 'one-size-fits-all' assignment strategy. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Application of lightning arrester on transmission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, K.

    1990-05-01

    A lightning arrester on transmission lines is expected to reduce lightning incidents; however, the problems of the application guide to be established such as the method of application, the treating capacity for lightning energy, and the coordination to an arc horn remain as they are. The method of application for a lightning arrester on transmission lines and its effect are examined from the viewpoint of the generating incident on transmission lines by lightning and the operating viewpoint of a lightning arrester for a 77kV system. The double circuit setup of an arrester is the best method to reduce the lightning incidents and the single circuit setup can reduce the incident rate by 40 percent preventing the flashover of the circuit on which the arrester is not set up. For installing an arrester on a short section, the flashover point can transfer to the next steel tower where the arrester is not set up, only when lightning strikes the last steel tower. Inflowing current into an arrester from a direct lightning strike is considerably large and the energy at that time becomes large but this energy can be reduced by the operation of the arrester set up on another steel tower.

  5. Parent-Child Diagnostic Agreement on Anxiety Symptoms with a Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children

    PubMed Central

    Popp, Lukka; Neuschwander, Murielle; Mannstadt, Sandra; In-Albon, Tina; Schneider, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    Objective: In clinical structured diagnostic interviews, diagnoses based on parent and child reports have low to moderate agreement. The aims of the present study are (1) to examine diagnostic agreement on anxiety disorders between parents and children on the levels of current and lifetime diagnostic category and diagnoses focusing in particular on diagnostic criteria and (2) to identify parent- and child-related predictors for diagnostic agreement. Method: The sample consisted of 166 parent-child dyads interviewed with the Structured Diagnostic Interview for Mental Disorders in Children (Kinder-DIPS, Schneider et al., 2009). The children (51.8% girls) were between the ages of 7 and 18 years (M = 10.94; SD = 2.22). Results: Overall, parent-child agreement on the diagnostic category of anxiety disorder (k = 0.21; k = 0.22) and the specific anxiety diagnoses (base rate > 10%) of social phobia, specific phobia and separation anxiety disorder (k = 0.24–0.52; k = 0.19–0.43) and corresponding diagnostic criteria (k = 0.22–0.67; k = 0.24–0.41) were low to moderate with the highest agreement on separation anxiety disorder (k > 0.43). Lower maternal depression, and higher social support reported by mother and father were associated with higher parent-child agreement. Maternal depression was indicated as the strongest predictor. Parental sense of competence, parental anxiety, the amount of parent-child interaction and the child's age and gender had no predictive value. Conclusions: Parent-child agreement can be expected to be higher on the level of anxiety criteria compared to specific anxiety diagnoses and diagnostic anxiety category. Psychological strains in the family—especially maternal depression and low social support—lower the parent-child agreement on anxiety symptoms. Child- and relation-related variables (age, gender, amount of time parent(s) and children interact) play no role in the prediction of low parent-child agreement.

  6. Real-time plasma control based on the ISTTOK tomography diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P J; Carvalho, B B; Neto, A; Coelho, R; Fernandes, H; Sousa, J; Varandas, C; Chávez-Alarcón, E; Herrera-Velázquez, J J E

    2008-10-01

    The presently available processing power in generic processing units (GPUs) combined with state-of-the-art programmable logic devices benefits the implementation of complex, real-time driven, data processing algorithms for plasma diagnostics. A tomographic reconstruction diagnostic has been developed for the ISTTOK tokamak, based on three linear pinhole cameras each with ten lines of sight. The plasma emissivity in a poloidal cross section is computed locally on a submillisecond time scale, using a Fourier-Bessel algorithm, allowing the use of the output signals for active plasma position control. The data acquisition and reconstruction (DAR) system is based on ATCA technology and consists of one acquisition board with integrated field programmable gate array (FPGA) capabilities and a dual-core Pentium module running real-time application interface (RTAI) Linux. In this paper, the DAR real-time firmware/software implementation is presented, based on (i) front-end digital processing in the FPGA; (ii) a device driver specially developed for the board which enables streaming data acquisition to the host GPU; and (iii) a fast reconstruction algorithm running in Linux RTAI. This system behaves as a module of the central ISTTOK control and data acquisition system (FIRESIGNAL). Preliminary results of the above experimental setup are presented and a performance benchmarking against the magnetic coil diagnostic is shown.

  7. On-Line Condition Monitoring of a Power Transmission Unit of a Rail Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deuszkiewicz, P.; Radkowski, S.

    2003-11-01

    The paper addresses the issue of selection of diagnostic parameters and methods of an object's condition classification. The research was conducted for a power transmission unit of a commuter train. We analysed the vibration of the axle box as measured on the track for systems before and after an overhaul. In the final part of the paper, we proposed an algorithm that can be used to identify the technical condition of a machine while using neural networks and we also described the operation of an on-line diagnostic system.

  8. Update on New Jersey's Use of Infrared Thermographic Building Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semanovich, Sharon A.; Allen, Lee R.

    1989-03-01

    Within the capital city region of New Jersey are a total of five State office buildings which have undergone infrared thermographic building diagnostics. All of the office buildings were newly constructed for the specific use of the State of New Jersey. The thermographic inspections stem from questions involving the thermal integrity of new construction. The buildings are of various construction materials and techniques including curtain wall, brick face and precast concrete panel. All but one are on the city's district heating system, which serves a number of State buildings in downtown Trenton. The State has found infrared thermographic building diagnostics to be very useful in locating thermal anomalies associated with a building's thermal envelope. Other testing methods, such as calorimeter boxes and heat flow meters, are necessary in order to achieve a complete diagnosis of a building's thermal envelope. In-situ R-values are of great concern for energy efficiency and future design. With the information from the original five infrared thermographic building diagnostic reports, plus other reports of before and after tests, the State has collected a variety of report presentations. By comparing the various styles and information presented, the State of New Jersey has determined a need for better specifications in contracting infra-red thermographic services.

  9. Progress on a 200kW Diagnostic Neutral Beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schartman, Ethan; Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F.; Kwan, J. W.; Leung, K. N.; Wu, Y.; Vainionpaa, H.

    2009-11-01

    The interaction of neutral beam atoms with a magnetized plasma provides diagnostic access to the interiors of fusion experiments. Parameters which can be measured using neutral beams include ion temperature and velocity, density fluctuations and also local magnetic field direction. Nova Photonics, Inc and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory are developing a diagnostic neutral beam for use in fusion experiments which lack neutral heating beams, or on which the heating beam is not suitable for diagnostics. Our apparatus is designed to produce a 1 s duration, 5 x 8 cm elliptical cross section hydrogen beam at energies up to 40 kV and up to 5 A current. Hydrogen ions are produced in a multicusp 13 kW, 13 MHz RF source. The extracted ions have current densities of 100 - 150 mA/cm^2. The proton fraction of the hydrogen ions is 85%. Beams are extracted from the source with a rectangular, multi-aperature grids. Details of the source performance will be presented as well as initial operation of the extraction optics and neutralizer region. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE under grant DE-FG02-05ER86256.

  10. Gamma-ray limits on neutrino lines

    SciTech Connect

    Queiroz, Farinaldo S.; Yaguna, Carlos E.; Weniger, Christoph

    2016-05-23

    Monochromatic neutrinos from dark matter annihilations (χχ→νν-bar) are always produced in association with a gamma-ray spectrum generated by electroweak bremsstrahlung. Consequently, these neutrino lines can be searched for not only with neutrino detectors but also indirectly with gamma-ray telescopes. Here, we derive limits on the dark matter annihilation cross section into neutrinos based on recent Fermi-LAT and HESS data. We find that, for dark matter masses above 200 GeV, gamma-ray data actually set the most stringent constraints on neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation and, therefore, an upper bound on the dark matter total annihilation cross section. In addition, we point out that gamma-ray telescopes, unlike neutrino detectors, have the potential to distinguish the flavor of the final state neutrino. Our results indicate that we have already entered into a new era where gamma-ray telescopes are more sensitive than neutrino detectors to neutrino lines from dark matter annihilation.

  11. Measurement of Deflection Line on Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Rudolf; Štroner, Martin

    2013-12-01

    Prestressed concrete bridges are very sensitive to the increase in long-term deflections. Reliable forecasts of deflections of bridge structures during construction and durability are crucial for achieving good durability. The main results of measurements are the changes of the deflection line of the bridge structures, which places special demands on the measurement procedure. Results from measurements are very useful for the improvement of mathematical prediction methods of behaviour of long span prestressed concrete structures.

  12. Spectroscopic problems in ITER diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisitsa, V. S.; Bureyeva, L. A.; Kukushkin, A. B.; Kadomtsev, M. B.; Krupin, V. A.; Levashova, M. G.; Medvedev, A. A.; Mukhin, E. E.; Shurygin, V. A.; Tugarinov, S. N.; Vukolov, K. Yu

    2012-12-01

    Problems of spectroscopic diagnostics of ITER plasma are under consideration. Three types of diagnostics are presented: 1) Balmer lines spectroscopy in the edge and divertor plasmas; 2) Thomson scattering, 3) charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The Zeeman-Stark structure of line shapes is discussed. The overlapping of isotopes H-D-T spectral line shapes are presented for the SOL and divertor conditions. The polarization measurements of H-alpha spectral lines for H-D mixture on T-10 tokamak are shown in order to separate Zeeman splitting in more details. The problem of plasma background radiation emission for Thomson scattering in ITER is discussed in details. The line shape of P-7 hydrogen spectral line having a wave length close to laser one is presented together with continuum radiation. The charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CXRS) is discussed in details. The data on Dα, HeII and CVI measurements in CXRS experiments on T-10 tokamak are presented.

  13. On-line diagnosis of unrestricted faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, J. F.; Sundstrom, R. J.

    1974-01-01

    A formal model for the study of on-line diagnosis is introduced and used to investigate the diagnosis of unrestricted faults. A fault of a system S is considered to be a transformation of S into another system S' at some time tau. The resulting faulty system is taken to be the system which looks like S up to time tau, and like S' thereafter. Notions of fault tolerance error are defined in terms of the resulting system being able to mimic some desired behavior as specified by a system similar to S. A notion of on-line diagnosis is formulated which involves an external detector and a maximum time delay within which every error caused by a fault in a prescribed set must be detected. It is shown that if a system is on-line diagnosable for the unrestricted set of faults then the detector is at least as complex, in terms of state set size, as the specification. The use of inverse systems for the diagnosis of unrestricted faults is considered. A partial characterization of those inverses which can be used for unrestricted fault diagnosis is obtained.

  14. The impact of patenting on DNA diagnostic practice.

    PubMed

    Matthijs, Gert; Hodgson, Shirley

    2008-02-01

    Patents on genes often cover the gene sequence and the link between a disease and mutations in a gene, rather than a technology for the identification of mutations per se. Normally, patents are important for encouraging the development of new diagnostic tools and kits, but there is evidence that they can have severely deleterious effects on the delivery of genetic services. The difference largely depends on the licensing policy of the patent holder. This article describes different ways in which patents are used in this context and how the effects may be mitigated.

  15. Intracranial arachnoid cyst on dental radiography: a diagnostic challenge.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lisha; Sun, Zhipeng; Ma, Xuchen

    2013-03-01

    Intracranial arachnoid cysts (IACs) can present as congenital asymptomatic lesions that may predispose them to present as an incidental finding during radiographic examination. On the other hand, IACs may also give rise to a series of neurologic symptoms depending on their size and location, such as vomiting, seizures, headache, and ataxia. Skull deformities, including macrocephaly, may occur and become remarkable on dental radiology. We report 2 patients who were identified with IAC before orthodontic treatment. The dental radiologic appearance of IAC is discussed and may constitute a diagnostic challenge to both the dentist and radiologist.

  16. Thyroid cell lines in research on goitrogenesis.

    PubMed

    Gerber, H; Peter, H J; Asmis, L; Studer, H

    1991-12-01

    Thyroid cell lines have contributed a lot to the understanding of goitrogenesis. The cell lines mostly used in thyroid research are briefly discussed, namely the rat thyroid cell lines FRTL and FRTL-5, the porcine thyroid cell lines PORTHOS and ARTHOS, The sheep thyroid cell lines OVNIS 5H and 6H, the cat thyroid cell lines PETCAT 1 to 4 and ROMCAT, and the human thyroid cell lines FTC-133 and HTh 74. Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and COS-7 cells, stably transfected with TSH receptor cDNA and expressing a functional TSH receptor, are discussed as examples for non-thyroidal cells, transfected with thyroid genes.

  17. ISHM-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics for avionics based on a distributed intelligent agent system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jiuping; Zhong, Zhengqiang; Xu, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, an integrated system health management-oriented adaptive fault diagnostics and model for avionics is proposed. With avionics becoming increasingly complicated, precise and comprehensive avionics fault diagnostics has become an extremely complicated task. For the proposed fault diagnostic system, specific approaches, such as the artificial immune system, the intelligent agents system and the Dempster-Shafer evidence theory, are used to conduct deep fault avionics diagnostics. Through this proposed fault diagnostic system, efficient and accurate diagnostics can be achieved. A numerical example is conducted to apply the proposed hybrid diagnostics to a set of radar transmitters on an avionics system and to illustrate that the proposed system and model have the ability to achieve efficient and accurate fault diagnostics. By analyzing the diagnostic system's feasibility and pragmatics, the advantages of this system are demonstrated.

  18. Robust In-Flight Sensor Fault Diagnostics for Aircraft Engine Based on Sliding Mode Observers.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaodong; Huang, Jinquan; Lu, Feng

    2017-04-11

    For a sensor fault diagnostic system of aircraft engines, the health performance degradation is an inevitable interference that cannot be neglected. To address this issue, this paper investigates an integrated on-line sensor fault diagnostic scheme for a commercial aircraft engine based on a sliding mode observer (SMO). In this approach, one sliding mode observer is designed for engine health performance tracking, and another for sensor fault reconstruction. Both observers are employed in in-flight applications. The results of the former SMO are analyzed for post-flight updating the baseline model of the latter. This idea is practical and feasible since the updating process does not require the algorithm to be regulated or redesigned, so that ground-based intervention is avoided, and the update process is implemented in an economical and efficient way. With this setup, the robustness of the proposed scheme to the health degradation is much enhanced and the latter SMO is able to fulfill sensor fault reconstruction over the course of the engine life. The proposed sensor fault diagnostic system is applied to a nonlinear simulation of a commercial aircraft engine, and its effectiveness is evaluated in several fault scenarios.

  19. Diagnostic suite used for magnetohydrodynamics equilibrium reconstruction on the PEGASUS toroidal experiment (abstract)

    SciTech Connect

    Sontag, A. C.; Garstka, G. D.; Fonck, R. J.; Schooff, R. J.; Thorson, T. A.; Tritz, K. L.

    2001-01-01

    Magnetic equilibrium reconstruction on the PEGASUS toroidal experiment is a crucial tool to determine macroscopic plasma parameters, such as geometry, l{sub i}, {beta}{sub t}, and q{sub {psi}}. These parameters are tightly coupled to the plasma shape due to the very high toroidicity in PEGASUS where A{approx}1.1--1.3. A systematic scan of model plasma parameters in a magnetic equilibrium code has been employed to determine an acceptable array of magnetic diagnostics for accurately characterizing the plasma equilibrium. The magnetic diagnostics used include a poloidal array of magnetic pickup coils and flux loops along with a Rogowski loop for the toroidal plasma current. A 270 GHz {mu} wave interferometer for line averaged density in conjunction with spectroscopic temperature estimates provide a central pressure constraint. Visible images of the plasma provide constraints on the plasma size and location. A one-dimensional SXR camera is being developed to provide a measurement of the magnetic axis location. A time evolving current filament model and wall flux loops are used to determine the induced currents flowing in the continuous, resistive vacuum vessel wall. The ability of the equilibrium reconstruction code to reproduce model equilibria using this diagnostic set provides a quantitative measure of the accuracy of these equilibrium reconstructions. A Monte Carlo analysis with Gaussian noise added to the model data tests the robustness of this technique. A comparison of the model equilibria with the reconstructions obtained using noisy data is shown.

  20. Integrated Rapid-Diagnostic-Test Reader Platform on a Cellphone

    PubMed Central

    Mudanyali, Onur; Dimitrov, Stoyan; Sikora, Uzair; Padmanabhan, Swati; Navruz, Isa; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a cellphone based Rapid-Diagnostic-Test (RDT) reader platform that can work with various lateral flow immuno-chromatographic assays and similar tests to sense the presence of a target analyte in a sample. This compact and cost-effective digital RDT reader, weighing only ~65 grams, mechanically attaches to the existing camera unit of a cellphone, where various types of RDTs can be inserted to be imaged in reflection or transmission modes under light-emitting-diode (LED) based illumination. Captured raw images of these tests are then digitally processed (within less than 0.2 sec/image) through a smart application running on the cellphone for validation of the RDT as well as for automated reading of its diagnostic result. The same smart application running on the cellphone then transmits the resulting data, together with the RDT images and other related information (e.g., demographic data) to a central server, which presents the diagnostic results on a world-map through geo-tagging. This dynamic spatio-temporal map of various RDT results can then be viewed and shared using internet browsers or through the same cellphone application. We tested this platform using malaria, tuberculosis (TB) as well as HIV RDTs by installing it on both Android based smart-phones as well as an iPhone. Providing real-time spatio-temporal statistics for the prevalence of various infectious diseases, this smart RDT reader platform running on cellphones might assist health-care professionals and policy makers to track emerging epidemics worldwide and help epidemic preparedness. PMID:22596243

  1. The new European directive on in vitro diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Dati, Francesco

    2003-10-01

    The Directive on in vitro Diagnostic Medical Devices (IVDD 98/79/EC) was officially adopted by the European Union (EU) on December 7, 1998. The IVDD aims to supplement the legal framework of the European Community, which governs the conditions for the placing on the market of medical devices, by extending the already implemented legislation to the category of in vitro diagnostic medical devices (IVDs). They consist of those devices, including reagents and reagent products, calibrator materials or instruments, as well as specimen receptacles, intended by the manufacturer for the in vitro analysis of specimens derived from the human body. This directive has introduced at the European level common regulatory requirements across Europe for the safety, quality and performance of in vitro diagnostics (IVDs), incorporating them into medical device legislation. It harmonizes the conformity assessment procedures to be applied by manufacturers before they place IVDs on the market. For certain products expressly specified in the directive, of which the most important are used for the evaluation of the safety of blood supply and patient testing, the manufacturer will have to take into account in their performance evaluation the so-called "Common Technical Specifications" (CTS). These are needed to establish the performance characteristics of the IVDs in evaluation and have the same status as harmonized standards. In the meantime, the IVD directive has been transposed into national law in all EU countries. During a transitional period ending in December 2003, manufacturers will have the option of following pre-existing national regulatory processes or taking their IVDs through the new procedures as specified in the directive. Following this, starting from 7th December 2003, adherence to the directive regulations will become mandatory, and only IVDs bearing the "Communautés Européennes (CE) mark" can then be sold in the EU.

  2. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  3. Thomson scattering diagnostic on the Compact Toroidal Hybrid Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Traverso, Peter; Maurer, D. A.; Ennis, D. A.; Hartwell, G. J.

    2016-10-01

    A Thomson scattering system is being commissioned for the non-axisymmetric plasmas of the Compact Toroidal Hybrid (CTH), a five-field period current-carrying torsatron. The system takes a single point measurement at the magnetic axis to both calibrate the two- color soft x-ray Te system and serve as an additional diagnostic for the V3FIT 3D equilibrium reconstruction code. A single point measurement will reduce the uncertainty in the reconstructed peak pressure by an order of magnitude for both current-carrying plasmas and future gyrotron-heated stellarator plasmas. The beam, generated by a frequency doubled Continuum 2 J, Nd:YaG laser, is passed vertically through an entrance Brewster window and a two-aperture optical baffle system to minimize stray light. The beam line propagates 8 m to the CTH device mid-plane with the beam diameter < 3 mm inside the plasma volume. Thomson scattered light is collected by two adjacent f/2 plano-convex condenser lenses and focused onto a custom fiber bundle. The fiber is then re-bundled and routed to a Holospec f/1.8 spectrograph to collect the red-shifted scattered light from 535-565 nm. The system has been designed to measure plasmas with core Te of 100 to 200 eV and densities of 5 ×1018 to 5 ×1019 m-3. Work supported by USDOE Grant DE-FG02-00ER54610.

  4. Impacts of dairy diagnostic teams on herd performance.

    PubMed

    Weinand, D; Conlin, B J

    2003-05-01

    This study evaluated impacts of educational diagnostic teams of consultants used to transfer technology to dairy farms. Herd management performance changes were measured by comparing Dairy Herd Improvement data from 38 project farms to data from herds that were geographical contemporaries. The value of focused goals for effecting change was also assessed. Interviews provided producers' perception of project outcomes and insight on organization and conduct of dairy diagnostic teams. Changes observed in project herds were small compared with controls with tendencies for increased herd size and improved milk production per cow. Focused goals had greater impacts on increasing herd size, milk per cow, first lactation peak milk, reducing age at first calving, and percentages of cows with subclinical mastitis. Time, money, facility limitations, labor, and alternative priorities were the most cited constraints to implementing changes. Satisfaction scores of producers were significantly related to the degree that team recommendations were followed. Improved attitudes, quality of life, and financial well-being were benefits listed by a majority of producers from participation in the project. If similar projects were to be offered, 83% said they would participate again, and 69% indicated they would pay at least some of the costs. Project farms served as demonstration farms for 1930 other producers in their respective locales, resulting in a multiplier effect of original advice given by consultant teams. Suggestions by farmer participants for improvements in dairy diagnostic teams included needs for at least some unbiased team members, more frequent meetings, more follow-up on recommendations, and consistency of recommendations with family goals.

  5. Electron cyclotron emission diagnostics on the large helical device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagayama, Y.; Kawahata, K.; England, A.; Ito, Y.; Bretz, N.; McCarthy, M.; Taylor, G.; Doane, J.; Ikezi, H.; Edlington, T.; Tomas, J.

    1999-01-01

    The electron cyclotron emission (ECE) diagnostic system is installed on the large helical device (LHD). The system includes the following instruments: a heterodyne radiometer, a Michelson spectrometer, and a grating polychromator. A 63.5 mm corrugated waveguide system is fully utilized. Large collection optics and notch filters at the frequency of the LHD electron cyclotron heating (ECH) were developed for this system. In addition to these filters, the rectangular waveguide notch filters, the ECE measurement with the radiometer has been successfully performed during the ECH.

  6. Preparations for the motional Stark effect diagnostic on EAST

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, J.; Li, Y. Y.; Lyu, B. Sheng, P.; Wan, B. N.; Zhang, Y.; Yin, X. H.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M. Y.; Shi, Y. J.

    2014-11-15

    Measurement and control of the current profile is essential for high performance and steady state operation of Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). For this purpose, a conventional Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostics utilizing photoelastic modulators is proposed and investigated. The pilot experiment includes one channel to verify the feasibility of MSE, whose sightline intersects with Neutral Beam Injection at major radius of R = 2.12 m. A beam splitter is adopted for simultaneous measurements of Stark multiplets and their polarization directions. A simplified simulation code was also developed to explore the Stark splitting spectra. Finally, the filter is optimized based on the viewing geometry and neutral beam parameters.

  7. Healthcare provider and patient perspectives on diagnostic imaging investigations

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, Anne-Marie; Hoffmann, Willem A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Much has been written about the patient-centred approach in doctor–patient consultations. Little is known about interactions and communication processes regarding healthcare providers’ and patients’ perspectives on expectations and experiences of diagnostic imaging investigations within the medical encounter. Patients journey through the health system from the point of referral to the imaging investigation itself and then to the post-imaging consultation. Aim and setting: To explore healthcare provider and patient perspectives on interaction and communication processes during diagnostic imaging investigations as part of their clinical journey through a healthcare complex. Methods: A qualitative study was conducted, with two phases of data collection. Twenty-four patients were conveniently selected at a public district hospital complex and were followed throughout their journey in the hospital system, from admission to discharge. The second phase entailed focus group interviews conducted with providers in the district hospital and adjacent academic hospital (medical officers and family physicians, nurses, radiographers, radiology consultants and registrars). Results: Two main themes guided our analysis: (1) provider perspectives; and (2) patient dispositions and reactions. Golden threads that cut across these themes are interactions and communication processes in the context of expectations, experiences of the imaging investigations and the outcomes thereof. Conclusion: Insights from this study provide a better understanding of the complexity of the processes and interactions between providers and patients during the imaging investigations conducted as part of their clinical pathway. The interactions and communication processes are provider–patient centred when a referral for a diagnostic imaging investigation is included. PMID:26245604

  8. On-line and Mobil Learning Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackerman, S. A.; Whittaker, T. M.; Jasmin, T.; Mooney, M. E.

    2012-12-01

    Introductory college-level science courses for non-majors are critical gateways to imparting not only discipline-specific information, but also the basics of the scientific method and how science influences society. They are also indispensable for student success to degree. On-line, web-based homework (whether on computers or mobile devices) is a rapidly growing use of the Internet and is becoming a major component of instruction in science, replacing delayed feedback from a few major exams. Web delivery and grading of traditional textbook-type questions is equally effective as having students write them out for hand grading, as measured by student performance on conceptual and problem solving exams. During this presentation we will demonstrate some of the interactive on-line activities used to teach concepts and how scientists approach problem solving, and how these activities have impacted student learning. Evaluation of the activities, including formative and summative, will be discussed and provide evidence that these interactive activities significantly enhance understanding of introductory meteorological concepts in a college-level science course. More advanced interactive activities are also used in our courses for department majors, some of these will be discussed and demonstrated. Bring your mobile devices to play along! Here is an example on teaching contouring: http://profhorn.aos.wisc.edu/wxwise/contour/index.html

  9. A new interferometry-based electron density fluctuation diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod.

    PubMed

    Kasten, C P; Irby, J H; Murray, R; White, A E; Pace, D C

    2012-10-01

    The two-color interferometry diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has been upgraded to measure fluctuations in the electron density and density gradient for turbulence and transport studies. Diagnostic features and capabilities are described. In differential mode, fast phase demodulation electronics detect the relative phase change between ten adjacent, radially-separated (ΔR = 1.2 cm, adjustable), vertical-viewing chords, which allows for measurement of the line-integrated electron density gradient. The system can be configured to detect the absolute phase shift of each chord by comparison to a local oscillator, measuring the line-integrated density. Each chord is sensitive to density fluctuations with k(R) < 20.3 cm(-1) and is digitized at up to 10 MS/s, resolving aspects of ion temperature gradient-driven modes and other long-wavelength turbulence. Data from C-Mod discharges is presented, including observations of the quasi-coherent mode in enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas and the weakly coherent mode in I-mode.

  10. A new interferometry-based electron density fluctuation diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasten, C. P.; Irby, J. H.; Murray, R.; White, A. E.; Pace, D. C.

    2012-10-01

    The two-color interferometry diagnostic on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak has been upgraded to measure fluctuations in the electron density and density gradient for turbulence and transport studies. Diagnostic features and capabilities are described. In differential mode, fast phase demodulation electronics detect the relative phase change between ten adjacent, radially-separated (ΔR = 1.2 cm, adjustable), vertical-viewing chords, which allows for measurement of the line-integrated electron density gradient. The system can be configured to detect the absolute phase shift of each chord by comparison to a local oscillator, measuring the line-integrated density. Each chord is sensitive to density fluctuations with kR < 20.3 cm-1 and is digitized at up to 10 MS/s, resolving aspects of ion temperature gradient-driven modes and other long-wavelength turbulence. Data from C-Mod discharges is presented, including observations of the quasi-coherent mode in enhanced D-alpha H-mode plasmas and the weakly coherent mode in I-mode.

  11. Neutral particle analyzer diagnostics on the TCV tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Karpushov, Alexander N.; Duval, Basil P.; Schlatter, Christian; Afanasyev, Valery I.; Chernyshev, Fedor V.

    2006-03-15

    Experimental apparatus and data analysis techniques used in neutral particle analyzer (NPA) diagnostics on the Tokamak a Configuration Variable (TCV) are described. Two NPAs are used on TCV to measure the energy spectrum of neutral particle fluxes from the plasma. The 'five-channel energy analyzer of atomic particles' used in double electrical analysis mode with fast voltage sweeping detect particles without atomic mass discrimination in the energy range of 0.6-8.0 keV with a time resolution of 0.5-2.0 ms and an energy resolution of 7%-20%. The 28-channel ''compact neutral particle analyzer'' (CNPA) is an EIIB spectrometer with mass and energy separations designed for medium sized fusion machines featuring a carbon neutral stripping foil, a permanent magnet for dispersion, and channel-electron multiplier detectors. The CNPA simultaneously detects two mass species [hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) or D and helium (He)] in the 0.5-50 keV energy range with a resolution of 60%-10% and a time resolution of 0.5-4.0 ms. The CNPA views the plasma across the path of the diagnostic neutral beam and can perform active charge-exchange NPA measurement. Data analysis procedures and numerical algorithms developed for NPA measurement are routinely used on TCV to obtain information on the plasma ion temperature, ion energy distribution function, plasma isotope ratios, and other plasma characteristics.

  12. Metagenomic abundance estimation and diagnostic testing on species level

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Martin S.; Renard, Bernhard Y.

    2013-01-01

    One goal of sequencing-based metagenomic community analysis is the quantitative taxonomic assessment of microbial community compositions. In particular, relative quantification of taxons is of high relevance for metagenomic diagnostics or microbial community comparison. However, the majority of existing approaches quantify at low resolution (e.g. at phylum level), rely on the existence of special genes (e.g. 16S), or have severe problems discerning species with highly similar genome sequences. Yet, problems as metagenomic diagnostics require accurate quantification on species level. We developed Genome Abundance Similarity Correction (GASiC), a method to estimate true genome abundances via read alignment by considering reference genome similarities in a non-negative LASSO approach. We demonstrate GASiC’s superior performance over existing methods on simulated benchmark data as well as on real data. In addition, we present applications to datasets of both bacterial DNA and viral RNA source. We further discuss our approach as an alternative to PCR-based DNA quantification. PMID:22941661

  13. Neutral particle analyzer diagnostics on the TCV tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpushov, Alexander N.; Duval, Basil P.; Schlatter, Christian; Afanasyev, Valery I.; Chernyshev, Fedor V.

    2006-03-01

    Experimental apparatus and data analysis techniques used in neutral particle analyzer (NPA) diagnostics on the Tokamak à Configuration Variable (TCV) are described. Two NPAs are used on TCV to measure the energy spectrum of neutral particle fluxes from the plasma. The "five-channel energy analyzer of atomic particles" used in double electrical analysis mode with fast voltage sweeping detect particles without atomic mass discrimination in the energy range of 0.6-8.0keV with a time resolution of 0.5-2.0ms and an energy resolution of 7%-20%. The 28-channel "compact neutral particle analyzer" (CNPA) is an EIIB spectrometer with mass and energy separations designed for medium sized fusion machines featuring a carbon neutral stripping foil, a permanent magnet for dispersion, and channel-electron multiplier detectors. The CNPA simultaneously detects two mass species [hydrogen (H) and deuterium (D) or D and helium (He)] in the 0.5-50keV energy range with a resolution of 60%-10% and a time resolution of 0.5-4.0ms. The CNPA views the plasma across the path of the diagnostic neutral beam and can perform active charge-exchange NPA measurement. Data analysis procedures and numerical algorithms developed for NPA measurement are routinely used on TCV to obtain information on the plasma ion temperature, ion energy distribution function, plasma isotope ratios, and other plasma characteristics.

  14. PV Manufacturing R&D Project Status and Accomplishments under 'In-Line Diagnostics and Intelligent Processing' and 'Yield, Durability and Reliability': Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, D. J.; Mitchell, R. L.; Keyes, B. M.; Bower, W. I.; King, R.; Mazer, J.

    2006-05-01

    The PV Manufacturing R&D (PVMR&D) Project conducts cost-shared research and development programs with U.S. PV industry partners. There are currently two active industry partnership activities. ''In-line Diagnostics and Intelligent Processing'', launched in 2002, supports development of new in-line diagnostics and monitoring with real-time feedback for optimal process control and increased yield in the fabrication of PV modules, systems, and other system components. ''Yield, Durability and Reliability'', launched in late 2004, supports enhancement of PV module, system component, and complete system reliability in high-volume manufacturing. A second key undertaking of the PVMR&D Project is the collection and analysis of module production cost-capacity metrics for the U.S. PV industry. In the period from 1992 through 2005, the average module manufacturing cost in 2005 dollars fell 54% (5.7% annualized) to $2.74/Wp, and the capacity increased 18.6-fold (25% annualized) to 253 MW/yr. An experience curve analysis gives progress ratios of 87% and 81%, respectively, for U.S. silicon and thin-film module production.

  15. Evidence on the Effectiveness of On-Line Homework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillard-Eggers, Jane; Wooten, Tommy; Childs, Brad; Coker, John

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to evaluate the impact and effectiveness of on-line homework in principles of accounting classes. We surveyed students to determine their degree of satisfaction with on-line homework and their perceptions about its effectiveness in enhancing their learning. We also gathered data to determine the extent of online…

  16. Whole-saliva proteolysis and its impact on salivary diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Thomadaki, K; Helmerhorst, E J; Tian, N; Sun, X; Siqueira, W L; Walt, D R; Oppenheim, F G

    2011-11-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins-histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1-was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes.

  17. Diagnostics for Z-pinch implosion experiments on PTS

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, X. D. Huang, X. B. Zhou, S. T. Zhang, S. Q. Dan, J. K. Li, J. Cai, H. C. Wang, K. L. Ouyang, K. Xu, Q. Duan, S. C. Chen, G. H. Wang, M. Feng, S. P. Yang, L. B. Xie, W. P. Deng, J. J.

    2014-12-15

    The preliminary experiments of wire array implosion were performed on PTS, a 10 MA z-pinch driver with a 70 ns rise time. A set of diagnostics have been developed and fielded on PTS to study pinch physics and implosion dynamics of wire array. Radiated power measurement for soft x-rays was performed by multichannel filtered x-ray diode array, and flat spectral responses x-ray diode detector. Total x-ray yield was measured by a calibrated, unfiltered nickel bolometer which was also used to obtain pinch power. Multiple time-gated pinhole cameras were used to produce spatial-resolved images of x-ray self-emission from plasmas. Two time-integrated pinhole cameras were used respectively with 20-μm Be filter and with multilayer mirrors to record images produced by >1-keV and 277±5 eV self-emission. An optical streak camera was used to produce radial implosion trajectories, and an x-ray streak camera paired with a horizontal slit was used to record a continuous time-history of emission with one-dimensional spatial resolution. A frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was used to produce four frame laser shadowgraph images with 6 ns time interval. We will briefly describe each of these diagnostics and present some typical results from them.

  18. Updates on chikungunya epidemiology, clinical disease, and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Sam, I-Ching; Kümmerer, Beate M; Chan, Yoke-Fun; Roques, Pierre; Drosten, Christian; AbuBakar, Sazaly

    2015-04-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is an Aedes-borne alphavirus, historically found in Africa and Asia, where it caused sporadic outbreaks. In 2004, CHIKV reemerged in East Africa and spread globally to cause epidemics, including, for the first time, autochthonous transmission in Europe, the Middle East, and Oceania. The epidemic strains were of the East/Central/South African genotype. Strains of the Asian genotype of CHIKV continued to cause outbreaks in Asia and spread to Oceania and, in 2013, to the Americas. Acute disease, mainly comprising fever, rash, and arthralgia, was previously regarded as self-limiting; however, there is growing evidence of severe but rare manifestations, such as neurological disease. Furthermore, CHIKV appears to cause a significant burden of long-term morbidity due to persistent arthralgia. Diagnostic assays have advanced greatly in recent years, although there remains a need for simple, accurate, and affordable tests for the developing countries where CHIKV is most prevalent. This review focuses on recent important work on the epidemiology, clinical disease and diagnostics of CHIKV.

  19. Whole-saliva Proteolysis and Its Impact on Salivary Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Thomadaki, K.; Helmerhorst, E.J.; Tian, N.; Sun, X.; Siqueira, W.L.; Walt, D.R.; Oppenheim, F.G.

    2011-01-01

    There is growing interest in the use of human whole saliva for diagnostics and disease monitoring as an alternative to blood samples. In contrast to blood, whole saliva is a non-sterile body fluid. Proper hand-ling and storage are required to preserve the integrity of potential biomarkers. We investigated salivary autoproteolytic degradation using a variety of approaches. We determined inhibition of protease activities by monitoring the endogenous proteome. In addition, the stability of highly protease-susceptible proteins—histatin 5, statherin, and PRP1—was assessed. Experimental variables included (a) protease inhibitors, (b) salivary pH, (c) incubation temperatures, and (d) sample heating. A cocktail containing AEBSF, aprotinin, pancreatic trypsin inhibitor, leupeptin, antipain, and EDTA could not prevent histatin 5, statherin, or PRP1 degradation in whole saliva. Among the other treatments evaluated, short-term storage of freshly collected samples on ice was effective without interfering with the chemistry of the proteome. In conclusion, whole saliva contains a unique mixture of enzymes as evidenced from their resilience to protease inhibition. Analytical evidence on protein stability is needed to ensure the validity of salivary biomarker study outcomes. Analysis of the data presented will provide help and guidance for the use of saliva samples for diagnostic purposes. PMID:21917601

  20. Babar On-Line Prototype Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abrams, G. S.; Jacobsen, R. G.; Lewis, S. A.; Ogren, Z.; Glanzman, T.; Weinstein, A.; White, J. L.

    The BaBar On-line system has begun construction of a prototype which will serve as a test bench and beam test system. The system architecture is based on single board computers running VxWorks, linked to Unix workstations via ethernet (as well as tests with FDDI). This early system is based on the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System, which provides both control of state transitions and monitoring facilities. This functionality is achieved with no software investment: native EPICS utilities are used to develop screen displays and control panels. Emphasis at this time is on the incorporation of reusable code. The first application of this prototype is the creation of a testbed for the BaBar dataflow research and development.

  1. A temporally and spatially resolved electron density diagnostic method for the edge plasma based on Stark broadening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zafar, A.; Martin, E. H.; Shannon, S. C.; Isler, R. C.; Caughman, J. B. O.

    2016-11-01

    An electron density diagnostic (≥1010 cm-3) capable of high temporal (ms) and spatial (mm) resolution is currently under development at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The diagnostic is based on measuring the Stark broadened, Doppler-free spectral line profile of the n = 6-2 hydrogen Balmer series transition. The profile is then fit to a fully quantum mechanical model including the appropriate electric and magnetic field operators. The quasi-static approach used to calculate the Doppler-free spectral line profile is outlined here and the results from the model are presented for H-δ spectra for electron densities of 1010-1013 cm-3. The profile shows complex behavior due to the interaction between the magnetic substates of the atom.

  2. A diagnostic tool for malaria based on computer software.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas; Uthaisar, Kwuntida; Phunphuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil

    2015-11-12

    Nowadays, the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis is a staining of thick and thin blood film examined by expert laboratorists. It requires well-trained laboratorists, which is a time consuming task, and is un-automated protocol. For this study, Maladiag Software was developed to predict malaria infection in suspected malaria patients. The demographic data of patients, examination for malaria parasites, and complete blood count (CBC) profiles were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to create the equation for the malaria diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters of the equation were tested on 4,985 samples (703 infected and 4,282 control samples). The equation indicated 81.2% sensitivity and 80.3% specificity for predicting infection of malaria. The positive likelihood and negative likelihood ratio were 4.12 (95% CI = 4.01-4.23) and 0.23 (95% CI = 0.22-0.25), respectively. This parameter also had odds ratios (P value < 0.0001, OR = 17.6, 95% CI = 16.0-19.3). The equation can predict malaria infection after adjust for age, gender, nationality, monocyte (%), platelet count, neutrophil (%), lymphocyte (%), and the RBC count of patients. The diagnostic accuracy was 0.877 (Area under curve, AUC) (95% CI = 0.871-0.883). The system, when used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, might improve malaria diagnoses and enhance prompt treatment.

  3. Perspectives on Advances in Tuberculosis Diagnostics, Drugs, and Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Schito, Marco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Fletcher, Helen A.; McNerney, Ruth; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Bates, Matthew; Kibiki, Gibson; Kapata, Nathan; Corrah, Tumena; Bomanji, Jamshed; Vilaplana, Cris; Johnson, Daniel; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-01-01

    Despite concerted efforts over the past 2 decades at developing new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines with expanding pipelines, tuberculosis remains a global emergency. Several novel diagnostic technologies show promise of better point-of-care rapid tests for tuberculosis including nucleic acid–based amplification tests, imaging, and breath analysis of volatile organic compounds. Advances in new and repurposed drugs for use in multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis have focused on development of several new drug regimens and their evaluation in clinical trials and now influence World Health Organization guidelines. Since the failure of the MVA85A vaccine 2 years ago, there have been no new tuberculosis vaccine candidates entering clinical testing. The current status quo of the lengthy treatment duration and poor treatment outcomes associated with MDR/XDR tuberculosis and with comorbidity of tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus and noncommunicable diseases is unacceptable. New innovations and political and funder commitment for early rapid diagnosis, shortening duration of therapy, improving treatment outcomes, and prevention are urgently required. PMID:26409271

  4. Electron kinetic effects on optical diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnov, V. V.; Brower, D. L.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Ding, W. X.; Duff, J.; Parke, E.

    2014-08-01

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP) and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. We calculate electron thermal corrections to the interferometric phase and polarization state of an EM wave propagating along tangential and poloidal chords (Faraday and Cotton-Mouton polarimetry) and perform analysis of the degree of polarization for incoherent TS. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = Te/mec2 model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ2-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of Te measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  5. Impact of gene patents on the development of molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Toneguzzo, Frances

    2011-07-01

    There is a widely held view that gene patents in particular and patents in general, because of the exclusionary rights that they provide, are inhibiting the development of and access to critical molecular diagnostic testing. This is a highly relevant issue for healthcare delivery as we move towards personalized medicine, which relies heavily on genetic testing to tailor treatments that are specific for individual characteristics. Critics of the patent system hope to void or diminish the exclusionary aspect of patents by removing genes from the definition of what is patentable, by increasing the number of activities that fall within the research use exemption, or by compelling patent holders to license their rights non-exclusively. Although a re-examination of what constitutes patentable subject matter is an important undertaking, narrowing the definition of patentable subject matter is at best only a partial solution. Erosion of the patent system through compulsory licensing or expansion of the research use exemption runs the risk of destroying important incentives without also fully addressing the problem. To promote solutions that truly address the issues, this article distinguishes documented facts from perceptions and suggests alternative approaches to explore. The author believes that efforts to undermine the patent system are simply counterproductive and that time would be better spent addressing the real issues that lie within molecular diagnostic development.

  6. Electron kinetic effects on optical diagnostics in fusion plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Mirnov, V. V.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J.; Parke, E.; Brower, D. L. Ding, W. X.

    2014-08-21

    At anticipated high electron temperatures in ITER, the effects of electron thermal motion on Thomson scattering (TS), toroidal interferometer/polarimeter (TIP) and poloidal polarimeter (PoPola) diagnostics will be significant and must be accurately treated. We calculate electron thermal corrections to the interferometric phase and polarization state of an EM wave propagating along tangential and poloidal chords (Faraday and Cotton-Mouton polarimetry) and perform analysis of the degree of polarization for incoherent TS. The precision of the previous lowest order linear in τ = T{sub e}/m{sub e}c{sup 2} model may be insufficient; we present a more precise model with τ{sup 2}-order corrections to satisfy the high accuracy required for ITER TIP and PoPola diagnostics. The linear model is extended from Maxwellian to a more general class of anisotropic electron distributions that allows us to take into account distortions caused by equilibrium current, ECRH and RF current drive effects. The classical problem of degree of polarization of incoherent Thomson scattered radiation is solved analytically exactly without any approximations for the full range of incident polarizations, scattering angles, and electron thermal motion from non-relativistic to ultra-relativistic. The results are discussed in the context of the possible use of the polarization properties of Thomson scattered light as a method of T{sup e} measurement relevant to ITER operational scenarios.

  7. Perspectives on Advances in Tuberculosis Diagnostics, Drugs, and Vaccines.

    PubMed

    Schito, Marco; Migliori, Giovanni Battista; Fletcher, Helen A; McNerney, Ruth; Centis, Rosella; D'Ambrosio, Lia; Bates, Matthew; Kibiki, Gibson; Kapata, Nathan; Corrah, Tumena; Bomanji, Jamshed; Vilaplana, Cris; Johnson, Daniel; Mwaba, Peter; Maeurer, Markus; Zumla, Alimuddin

    2015-10-15

    Despite concerted efforts over the past 2 decades at developing new diagnostics, drugs, and vaccines with expanding pipelines, tuberculosis remains a global emergency. Several novel diagnostic technologies show promise of better point-of-care rapid tests for tuberculosis including nucleic acid-based amplification tests, imaging, and breath analysis of volatile organic compounds. Advances in new and repurposed drugs for use in multidrug-resistant (MDR) or extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis have focused on development of several new drug regimens and their evaluation in clinical trials and now influence World Health Organization guidelines. Since the failure of the MVA85A vaccine 2 years ago, there have been no new tuberculosis vaccine candidates entering clinical testing. The current status quo of the lengthy treatment duration and poor treatment outcomes associated with MDR/XDR tuberculosis and with comorbidity of tuberculosis with human immunodeficiency virus and noncommunicable diseases is unacceptable. New innovations and political and funder commitment for early rapid diagnosis, shortening duration of therapy, improving treatment outcomes, and prevention are urgently required.

  8. Engineered Hybrid Nanoparticles for On-Demand Diagnostics and Therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Truc; Zhao, Yanli

    2015-12-15

    Together with the simultaneous development of nanomaterials and molecular biology, the bionano interface brings about various applications of hybrid nanoparticles in nanomedicine. The hybrid nanoparticles not only present properties of the individual components but also show synergistic effects for specialized applications. Thus, the development of advanced hybrid nanoparticles for targeted and on-demand diagnostics and therapeutics of diseases has rapidly become a hot research topic in nanomedicine. The research focus is to fabricate novel classes of programmable hybrid nanoparticles that are precisely engineered to maximize drug concentrations in diseased cells, leading to enhanced efficacy and reduced side effects of chemotherapy for the disease treatment. In particular, the hybrid nanoparticle platforms can simultaneously target diseased cells, enable the location to be imaged by optical methods, and release therapeutic drugs to the diseased cells by command. This Account specially discusses the rational fabrication of integrated hybrid nanoparticles and their applications in diagnostics and therapeutics. For diagnostics applications, hybrid nanoparticles can be utilized as imaging agents that enable detailed visualization at the molecular level. By the use of suitable targeting ligands incorporated on the nanoparticles, targeted optical imaging may be feasible with improved performance. Novel imaging techniques such as multiphoton excitation and photoacoustic imaging using near-infrared light have been developed using the intrinsic properties of particular nanoparticles. The use of longer-wavelength excitation sources allows deeper penetration into the human body for disease diagnostics and at the same time reduces the adverse effects on normal tissues. Furthermore, multimodal imaging techniques have been achieved by combining several types of components in nanoparticles, offering higher accuracy and better spatial views, with the aim of detecting life

  9. Measurements of the internal magnetic field using the B-Stark motional Stark effect diagnostic on DIII-D (inivited).

    PubMed

    Pablant, N A; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Holcomb, C T; Kaplan, D H

    2010-10-01

    Results are presented from the B-Stark diagnostic installed on the DIII-D tokamak. This diagnostic provides measurements of the magnitude and direction of the internal magnetic field. The B-Stark system is a version of a motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic based on the relative line intensities and spacing of the Stark split D(α) emission from injected neutral beams. This technique may have advantages over MSE polarimetry based diagnostics in future devices, such as the ITER. The B-Stark diagnostic technique and calibration procedures are discussed. The system is shown to provide accurate measurements of B(θ)/B(T) and ∣B∣ over a range of plasma conditions. Measurements have been made with toroidal fields in the range of 1.2-2.1 T, plasma currents in the range 0.5-2.0 MA, densities between 1.7 and 9.0×10(19) m(-3), and neutral beam voltages between 50 and 81 keV. The viewing direction and polarization dependent transmission properties of the collection optics are found using an in situ beam into gas calibration. These results are compared to values found from plasma equilibrium reconstructions and the MSE polarimetry system on DIII-D.

  10. On-line consolidation of thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, Po-Jen

    An on-line consolidation system, which includes a computer-controlled filament winding machine and a consolidation head assembly, has been designed and constructed to fabricate composite parts from thermoplastic towpregs. A statistical approach was used to determine the significant processing parameters and their effect on the mechanical and physical properties of composite cylinders fabricated by on-line consolidation. A central composite experimental design was used to select the processing conditions for manufacturing the composite cylinders. The thickness, density, void content, degree of crystallinity and interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were measured for each composite cylinder. Micrographs showed that complete intimate contact and uniform fiber-matrix distribution were achieved. The degree of crystallinity of the cylinders was found to be in the range of 25-30%. Under optimum processing conditions, an ILSS of 58 MPa and a void content of <1% were achieved for APC-2 (PEEK/Carbon fiber) composite cylinders. An in-situ measurement system which uses a slip ring assembly and a computer data acquisition system was developed to obtain temperature data during winding. Composite cylinders were manufactured with eight K-type thermocouples installed in various locations inside the cylinder. The temperature distribution inside the composite cylinder during winding was measured for different processing conditions. ABAQUS finite element models of the different processes that occur during on-line consolidation were constructed. The first model was used to determine the convective heat transfer coefficient for the hot-air heat source. A convective heat transfer coefficient of 260 w/msp{2°}K was obtained by matching the calculated temperature history to the in-situ measurement data. To predict temperature distribution during winding an ABAQUS winding simulation model was developed. The winding speed was modeled by incrementally moving the convective boundary conditions

  11. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X L; Cheng, Z F; Hou, S Y; Zhuang, G; Luo, J

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  12. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXT

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F. Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-15

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  13. Isotope-selective sensor for medical diagnostics based on PAS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, M.; Groninga, H. G.; Harde, H.

    2005-06-01

    Development of new optical sensor technologies has a major impact on the progression of diagnostic methods. Of the permanently increasing number of non-invasive 13C-breath tests, the Urea Breath Test for detection of Helicobacter pylori is the most prominent. However, many recent developments go beyond gastroenterological applications. We present a new detection scheme for breath analysis that employs an especially compact and simple set-up based on Photoacoustic Spectroscopy. Using a wavelength-modulated DFB-diode laser and taking advantage of acoustical resonances of the sample cell, we performed very sensitive isotope-selective measurements on CO2. Detection limits for 13CO2 of a few ppm and for the variation of the 13CO2 concentration of approximately 1% were achieved.

  14. Upgrade of absolute extreme ultraviolet diagnostic on J-TEXTa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, X. L.; Cheng, Z. F.; Hou, S. Y.; Zhuang, G.; Luo, J.

    2014-11-01

    The absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diagnostic system is used for radiation observation on J-TEXT tokamak [J. Zhang, G. Zhuang, Z. J. Wang, Y. H. Ding, X. Q. Zhang, and Y. J. Tang, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 073509 (2010)]. The upgrade of the AXUV system is aimed to improve the spatial resolution and provide a three-dimensional image on J-TEXT. The new system consists of 12 AXUV arrays (4 AXUV16ELG arrays, 8 AXUV20ELG arrays). The spatial resolution in the cross-section is 21 mm for the AXUV16ELG arrays and 17 mm for the AXUV20ELG arrays. The pre-amplifier is also upgraded for a higher signal to noise ratio. By upgrading the AXUV imaging system, a more accurate observation on the radiation information is obtained.

  15. The DiagOn: an Undulator Diagnostic for SOLEIL Low Energy Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Desjardins, K.; Hustache, S.; Polack, F.; Moreno, T.; Idir, M.; Dubuisson, J.-M.; Daguerre, J.-P.; Giorgetta, J.-L.; Thoraud, S.; Delmotte, F.; Ravet-Krill, M.-F.

    2007-01-19

    DiagOn is a diagnostic tool intended to precisely define the emission axis of an undulator, that has been developed by SOLEIL synchrotron Optics and Detectors groups. It uses the particular structure of monochromatic undulator emission into a narrow hollow cone centered on the axis. One wavelength is selected by a multilayer mirror to produce a characteristic image of the emission cone on scintillator and CCD camera. We review the emission properties of undulator in order to define the best parameters, K value, photon energy and emission angle, for diagnosis. Then the choice of optimal multilayer coating of the mirror is discussed. We finish by some consideration on mirror cooling and mechanical conception for stable operation. The precise localization of the undulator axis will allow an optimal and fast alignment of the elements located before this detector, particularly adjustable aperture from the head of each of the lines.

  16. NASDA's Advanced On-Line System (ADOLIS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamamoto, Yoshikatsu; Hara, Hideo; Yamada, Shigeo; Hirata, Nobuyuki; Komatsu, Shigenori; Nishihata, Seiji; Oniyama, Akio

    1993-01-01

    Spacecraft operations including ground system operations are generally realized by various large or small scale group work which is done by operators, engineers, managers, users and so on, and their positions are geographically distributed in many cases. In face-to-face work environments, it is easy for them to understand each other. However, in distributed work environments which need communication media, if only using audio, they become estranged from each other and lose interest in and continuity of work. It is an obstacle to smooth operation of spacecraft. NASDA has developed an experimental model of a new real-time operation control system called 'ADOLIS' (ADvanced On-Line System) adopted to such a distributed environment using a multi-media system dealing with character, figure, image, handwriting, video and audio information which is accommodated to operation systems of a wide range including spacecraft and ground systems. This paper describes the results of the development of the experimental model.

  17. Studies on LH-generated Fast Electron Tail Using the Oblique ECE Diagnostic at JET

    SciTech Connect

    Sozzi, C.; Grossetti, G.; Farina, D.; Figini, L.; Garavaglia, S.; Nowak, S.; Baranov, Y.; Kirov, K.; Luna, E. de la

    2009-11-26

    The new Oblique ECE diagnostics of JET allows simultaneous measurement along three lines of sight at different toroidal angles. JET pulses, in which modulated LHCD power was applied, were analyzed by means of the SPECE emission code, which takes into account the fast electron tail generated by LH. The code results were compared to the ECE spectra from the oblique ECE diagnostic. The match between the computed and the experimental data from the three lines of sight provides an estimate of the density of superthermal electrons and of their maximum energy from which the fraction of the plasma current driven by LHCD is derived.

  18. Commissioning the SPEAR3 Diagnostic Beamlines

    SciTech Connect

    Corbett, W.J.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Mok, W.Y.; Ringwall, A.; /SLAC

    2007-06-05

    SPEAR3 has two diagnostic beam lines: an x-ray pinhole camera and a visible/UV beam line. The pinhole camera images {approx}8 keV dipole synchrotron radiation (SR) incident on a phosphor screen. The visible beam line delivers conventional optical radiation to an array of cameras and diagnostic elements on a 1x3m optical bench. This paper briefly reviews the pinhole camera system while concentrating more on visible beam line power transmission calculations and streak camera data. Impedance estimates in the nominal optics and bunch length measurements in low-alpha optics are presented.

  19. On-board fault diagnostics for fly-by-light flight control systems using neural network flight processors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urnes, James M., Sr.; Cushing, John; Bond, William E.; Nunes, Steve

    1996-10-01

    Fly-by-Light control systems offer higher performance for fighter and transport aircraft, with efficient fiber optic data transmission, electric control surface actuation, and multi-channel high capacity centralized processing combining to provide maximum aircraft flight control system handling qualities and safety. The key to efficient support for these vehicles is timely and accurate fault diagnostics of all control system components. These diagnostic tests are best conducted during flight when all facts relating to the failure are present. The resulting data can be used by the ground crew for efficient repair and turnaround of the aircraft, saving time and money in support costs. These difficult to diagnose (Cannot Duplicate) fault indications average 40 - 50% of maintenance activities on today's fighter and transport aircraft, adding significantly to fleet support cost. Fiber optic data transmission can support a wealth of data for fault monitoring; the most efficient method of fault diagnostics is accurate modeling of the component response under normal and failed conditions for use in comparison with the actual component flight data. Neural Network hardware processors offer an efficient and cost-effective method to install fault diagnostics in flight systems, permitting on-board diagnostic modeling of very complex subsystems. Task 2C of the ARPA FLASH program is a design demonstration of this diagnostics approach, using the very high speed computation of the Adaptive Solutions Neural Network processor to monitor an advanced Electrohydrostatic control surface actuator linked through a AS-1773A fiber optic bus. This paper describes the design approach and projected performance of this on-line diagnostics system.

  20. On-line chemical composition analyzer development

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, M.J.; Garrison, A.A.; Muly, E.C.; Moore, C.F.

    1992-02-01

    The energy consumed in distillation processes in the United States represents nearly three percent of the total national energy consumption. If effective control of distillation columns can be accomplished, it has been estimated that it would result in a reduction in the national energy consumption of 0.3%. Real-time control based on mixture composition could achieve these savings. However, the major distillation processes represent diverse applications and at present there does not exist a proven on-line chemical composition sensor technology which can be used to control these diverse processes in real-time. This report presents a summary of the findings of the second phase of a three phase effort undertaken to develop an on-line real-time measurement and control system utilizing Raman spectroscopy. A prototype instrument system has been constructed utilizing a Perkin Elmer 1700 Spectrometer, a diode pumped YAG laser, two three axis positioning systems, a process sample cell land a personal computer. This system has been successfully tested using industrially supplied process samples to establish its performance. Also, continued application development was undertaken during this Phase of the program using both the spontaneous Raman and Surface-enhanced Raman modes of operation. The study was performed for the US Department of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies, whose mission is to conduct cost-shared R D for new high-risk, high-payoff industrial energy conservation technologies. Although this document contains references to individual manufacturers and their products, the opinions expressed on the products reported do not necessarily reflect the position of the Department of Energy.

  1. On-Target Contrast Diagnostic via Specular Reflectivity Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirozhkov, A. S.; Choi, I. W.; Sung, J. H.; Lee, S. K.; Yu, T. J.; Jeong, T. M.; Kim, I. J.; Hafz, N.; Kim, C. M.; Pae, K. H.; Noh, Y.-C.; Ko, D.-K.; Lee, J.; Robinson, A.; Foster, P.; Hawkes, S.; Streeter, M.; Spindloe, C.; McKenna, P.; Carroll, D. C.; Wahlström, C.-G.; Zepf, M.; Dromey, B.; Markey, K.; Kar, S.; Li, Y. T.; Xu, M. H.; Nagatomo, H.; Mori, M.; Yogo, A.; Kiriyama, H.; Ogura, K.; Sagisaka, A.; Orimo, S.; Nishiuchi, M.; Sugiyama, H.; Esirkepov, T. Zh.; Okada, H.; Kondo, S.; Kanazawa, S.; Nakai, Y.; Akutsu, A.; Motomura, T.; Tanoue, M.; Shimomura, T.; Ikegami, M.; Daito, I.; Kando, M.; Kameshima, T.; Bolton, P.; Bulanov, S. V.; Daido, H.; Neely, D.

    2009-07-01

    High-power laser contrast is challenging to measure, especially in the real target irradiation conditions. We present a convenient and relatively simple contrast diagnostic technique based on the measurement of target specular reflectivity at full laser power. The reflectivity remains high even at intensities above 1019 W/cm2 in the case of a high-contrast prepulse-free laser. On the contrary, the specular reflectivity drops in the case of lower contrast, due to the beam break-up and increased absorption caused by the preformed plasma. The technique was demonstrated using three different laser systems with several contrast conditions: Astra (CLF, RAL), TiS laser at APRI, GIST, and J-KAREN (APRC, JAEA).

  2. Further data on the diagnostic value of spontaneous drawing.

    PubMed

    Gerevich, J; Ungvári, G; Karczag, I

    1979-01-01

    In discussing 2 patients, the authors point out that a study of spontaneous drawings by psychotics can be of considerable diagnostic importance in clinical practice. The clear structure of the drawings threw doubt on the diagnosis of schizophrenia in the case of the first patient who could be classified in the schizophenia spectrum on the basis of the formal symptoms. In the case of the second patient, where th clinical picture suggested different diagnosis, the drawings represent the 'ossified' essence of the experience and behavior symptoms and thus provided an objective basis for nosological classification. In addition, a characteristic feature of the difference between the creativity of the schizophrenic and the creative artist could be seen from a comparison with medieval Gothic art.

  3. Measurements by the plasma diagnostics package on STS-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shawhan, S. D.; Murphy, G. B.

    1982-01-01

    A comprehensive set of measurements about the orbiter environment are provided by the plasma diagnostics package (PDP). Ion and electron particle densities, energies, and spatial distribution functions; ion mass for identification of particular molecular ion species; and magnetic fields, electric fields and electromagnetic waves over a broad frequency range are studied. Shuttle environmental measurements will be made both on the pallet and, by use of the remote manipulator system (RMS), the PDP will be maneuvered in and external to the bay area to continue environmental measurements and to carry on a joint plasma experiment with the Utah State University fast-pulsed electron generator. Results of orbiter environment EMI measurements and S-band field strengths as well as preliminary results from wake search operations indicating wake boundary identifiers are reported.

  4. Papers presented at the eleventh topical conference on high-temperature plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    This report contains the following eleven papers presented at the conference: Neutral Beam Diagnostics for Alcator C-Mod; A Study for the Installation of the TEXT HIBP on DIII-D; Time-domain Triple-probe Measurement of Edge Plasma Turbulence on TEXT-U; A Langmuir/Mach Probe Array for Edge Plasma Turbulence and Flow; Determination of Field Line Location and Safety Factor in TEXT-U; Hybrid ECE Imaging Array System for TEXT-U; First Results from the Phase Contrast Imaging System on TEXT-U; A Fast Tokamak Plasma Flux and Electron Density Reconstruction Technique; Time-series Analysis of Nonstationary Plasma Fluctuations Using Wavelet Transforms; Quantitative Modeling of 3-D Camera Views for Tokamak Divertors; and Variable-frequency Complex Demodulation Technique for Extracting Amplitude and Phase Information. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  5. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, J.T.

    1993-11-23

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched {sup 6}Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated {sup 6}Li(n)T reaction occurs in the coated surface of {sup 6}Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers. 5 figures.

  6. On-line Resources for Xenopus

    PubMed Central

    Bowes, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    Summary Since the advent of computational methods in biology the quantity of biological data has grown exponentially. These data support genomic, genetic, developmental, and other forms of biological experimentation. The number of on-line resources has kept pace with the growth in data. Xenopus has perhaps lagged some of the other model organisms in developing resources but is now quickly catching up. There are now a number of well-established and developing resources for Xenopus. This chapter looks beyond the widely-known public databases, Genbank and the EBI, and describes how the researcher can use a number of central sites such as Xenbase, UniProtKB, and major genome browsers to navigate to a variety of different resources. PMID:22956109

  7. On-line tritium production monitor

    DOEpatents

    Mihalczo, John T.

    1993-01-01

    A scintillation optical fiber system for the on-line monitoring of nuclear reactions in an event-by-event manner is described. In the measurement of tritium production one or more optical fibers are coated with enriched .sup.6 Li and connected to standard scintillation counter circuitry. A neutron generated .sup.6 Li(n )T reaction occurs in the coated surface of .sup.6 Li-coated fiber to produce energetic alpha and triton particles one of which enters the optical fiber and scintillates light through the fiber to the counting circuit. The coated optical fibers can be provided with position sensitivity by placing a mirror at the free end of the fibers or by using pulse counting circuits at both ends of the fibers.

  8. On-line process control monitoring system

    DOEpatents

    O'Rourke, Patrick E.; Van Hare, David R.; Prather, William S.

    1992-01-01

    An on-line, fiber-optic based apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a chemical substance at a plurality of locations in a chemical processing system comprises a plurality of probes, each of which is at a different location in the system, a light source, optic fibers for carrying light to and from the probes, a multiplexer for switching light from the source from one probe to the next in series, a diode array spectrophotometer for producing a spectrum from the light received from the probes, and a computer programmed to analyze the spectra so produced. The probes allow the light to pass through the chemical substance so that a portion of the light is absorbed before being returned to the multiplexer. A standard and a reference cell are included for data validation and error checking.

  9. 40 CFR 86.1806-01 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... diagnostic trouble code shall identify multiple misfiring cylinder conditions; under multiple misfire conditions, the misfiring cylinders need not be uniquely identified if a distinct multiple misfire diagnostic... monitoring is disabled for a multiple number of driving cycles (i.e., more than one) due to the...

  10. 40 CFR 86.1806-04 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (ISO) standards. The following documents are incorporated by reference, see § 86.1: (1) SAE material... to ISO/DIS 15031-5:April 30, 2002”, (Revised, April 2002). (iii) Diagnostic trouble codes shall be consistent with SAE J2012 “Diagnostic Trouble Code Definitions—Equivalent to ISO/DIS 15031-6:April 30,...

  11. Assessing Diagnostic Tests II: Grading on a Curve.

    PubMed

    Jupiter, Daniel C

    2015-01-01

    In this Investigators' Corner, I continue discussing how to introduce and assess new diagnostic tests to replace older tests that are considered gold standards. Specifically, I talk about how to assess a "family" of diagnostics, and how to choose an optimal "family member."

  12. Practical Rhumb Line Calculations on the Spheroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, G. G.

    About ten years ago this author wrote the software for a suite of navigation programmes which was resident in a small hand-held computer. In the course of this work it became apparent that the standard text books of navigation were perpetuating a flawed method of calculating rhumb lines on the Earth considered as an oblate spheroid. On further investigation it became apparent that these incorrect methods were being used in programming a number of calculator/computers and satellite navigation receivers. Although the discrepancies were not large, it was disquieting to compare the results of the same rhumb line calculations from a number of such devices and find variations of some miles when the output was given, and therefore purported to be accurate, to a tenth of a mile in distance and/or a tenth of a minute of arc in position. The problem has been highlighted in the past and the references at the end of this show that a number of methods have been proposed for the amelioration of this problem. This paper summarizes formulae that the author recommends should be used for accurate solutions. Most of these may be found in standard geodetic text books, such as, but also provided are new formulae and schemes of solution which are suitable for use with computers or tables. The latter also take into account situations when a near-indeterminate solution may arise. Some examples are provided in an appendix which demonstrate the methods. The data for these problems do not refer to actual terrestrial situations but have been selected for illustrative purposes only. Practising ships' navigators will find the methods described in detail in this paper to be directly applicable to their work and also they should find ready acceptance because they are similar to current practice. In none of the references cited at the end of this paper has the practical task of calculating, using either a computer or tabular techniques, been addressed.

  13. The new EU regulation on in vitro diagnostics: potential issues at the interface of medicines and companion diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Enzmann, Harald; Meyer, Ralf; Broich, Karl

    2016-12-01

    The new European regulation for in vitro diagnostics (IVD) divides the certification of IVD including companion diagnostics (CDx) by notified bodies (NB) from the market authorization of medicines. With the new regulation, CDx will require conformity assessment which is expected to include clinical evidence by NB. This is a significant change from the current situation: until now most IVD have been certified based on their manufacturers' assessment. For one medicine assessed by the EMA, certification of several different CDx by different NB is possible. As the benefit-risk balance of the medicine may depend on the performance (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) of its CDx, a close cooperation of EMA and NB will be necessary. The availability of detailed information on CDx used in the pivotal clinical trials for the medicine's authorization will become crucial for the assessment of alternative or competing CDx.

  14. Searching for Information On-Line and Off-Line: Gender Differences among Middle School Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Marguerite; Taylor, Roger; Chi, Michelene T. H.

    2003-01-01

    There has been a national call for increased use of computers and technology in schools. Currently, however, little is known about how students use and learn from these new technologies. This study examines how students search for, browse, and learn specific information when performing an on-line (Web) versus an off-line (Library) search.…

  15. Identifying Fractions on a Number Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Monica

    2013-01-01

    Fractions are generally introduced to students using the part--whole model. Yet the number line is another important representation which can be used to build fraction concepts (Australian Curriculum Assessment and Reporting Authority [ACARA], 2012). Number lines are recognised as key in students' number development not only of fractions, but…

  16. Design of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yinan; Gao, Li; Huang, Jiefeng; Qiu, Qingshuang; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-11-01

    An infrared multi-channel Thomson scattering diagnostic system is designed from the viewpoint of development of the proposed system on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). A 3 J/50 Hz Nd:YAG laser, which is injected vertically into plasma in the direction from top to bottom, serves as the power source of the system. The scattering light is then collected horizontally and is transmitted to an interference-filter avalanche photodiode based polychromater for spectrum analysis. The system covers the half plasma cross section, providing 14 spatial points with 2 cm resolution. The proposed system can thus satisfy the requirements of the J-TEXT at present and in the near future. A detailed description of the system design is presented in this paper.

  17. Design of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on J-TEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yinan; Gao, Li; Huang, Jiefeng; Qiu, Qingshuang; Zhuang, Ge

    2016-11-01

    An infrared multi-channel Thomson scattering diagnostic system is designed from the viewpoint of development of the proposed system on the Joint Texas Experimental Tokamak (J-TEXT). A 3 J/50 Hz Nd:YAG laser, which is injected vertically into plasma in the direction from top to bottom, serves as the power source of the system. The scattering light is then collected horizontally and is transmitted to an interference-filter avalanche photodiode based polychromater for spectrum analysis. The system covers the half plasma cross section, providing 14 spatial points with 2 cm resolution. The proposed system can thus satisfy the requirements of the J-TEXT at present and in the near future. A detailed description of the system design is presented in this paper.

  18. Diagnostic performance on briefly presented digital pathology images

    PubMed Central

    Houghton, Joseph P; Smoller, Bruce R; Leonard, Niamh; Stevenson, Michael R; Dornan, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Background: Identifying new and more robust assessments of proficiency/expertise (finding new “biomarkers of expertise”) in histopathology is desirable for many reasons. Advances in digital pathology permit new and innovative tests such as flash viewing tests and eye tracking and slide navigation analyses that would not be possible with a traditional microscope. The main purpose of this study was to examine the usefulness of time-restricted testing of expertise in histopathology using digital images. Methods: 19 novices (undergraduate medical students), 18 intermediates (trainees), and 19 experts (consultants) were invited to give their opinion on 20 general histopathology cases after 1 s and 10 s viewing times. Differences in performance between groups were measured and the internal reliability of the test was calculated. Results: There were highly significant differences in performance between the groups using the Fisher's least significant difference method for multiple comparisons. Differences between groups were consistently greater in the 10-s than the 1-s test. The Kuder–Richardson 20 internal reliability coefficients were very high for both tests: 0.905 for the 1-s test and 0.926 for the 10-s test. Consultants had levels of diagnostic accuracy of 72% at 1 s and 83% at 10 s. Conclusions: Time-restricted tests using digital images have the potential to be extremely reliable tests of diagnostic proficiency in histopathology. A 10-s viewing test may be more reliable than a 1-s test. Over-reliance on “at a glance” diagnoses in histopathology is a potential source of medical error due to over-confidence bias and premature closure. PMID:26605121

  19. Improving on the diagnostic characteristics of echocardiography for pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Broderick-Forsgren, Kathleen; Davenport, Clemontina A; Sivak, Joseph A; Hargett, Charles William; Foster, Michael C; Monteagudo, Andrew; Armour, Alicia; Rajagopal, Sudarshan; Arges, Kristine; Velazquez, Eric J; Samad, Zainab

    2017-03-24

    This retrospective study evaluated the diagnostic characteristics of a combination of echocardiographic parameters for pulmonary hypertension (PH). Right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) estimation by echocardiography (echo) is used to screen for PH. However, the sensitivity of this method is suboptimal. We hypothesized that RVSP estimation in conjunction with other echo parameters would improve the value of echo for PH. The Duke Echo database was queried for adult patients with known or suspected PH who had undergone both echo and right heart catheterization (RHC) within a 24 h period between 1/1/2008 and 12/31/2013. Patients with complex congenital heart disease, heart transplantation, ventricular assist device, or on mechanical ventilation at time of study were excluded. Diagnostic characteristics of several echo parameters (right atrial enlargement, pulmonary artery (PA) enlargement, RV enlargement, RV dysfunction, and RVSP) for PH (mean PA pressure 25 mmHg on RHC) were evaluated among 1007 patients. RVSP ≥40 had a sensitivity of 77% (accuracy 77), while RVSP ≥35 had the highest sensitivity at 88% (81% accuracy). PA enlargement had the lowest sensitivity at 17%. The area under the curve (AUC) for RVSP was 0.844. A model including RVSP, RA, PA, RV enlargement and RV dysfunction had a higher AUC (AUC = 0.87) than RVSP alone. The value of echo as a screening test for PH is improved by a model incorporating a lower RVSP in addition to other right heart parameters. These findings need to be validated in prospective cohorts.

  20. A Distributed System for Learning Programming On-Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verdu, Elena; Regueras, Luisa M.; Verdu, Maria J.; Leal, Jose P.; de Castro, Juan P.; Queiros, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Several Web-based on-line judges or on-line programming trainers have been developed in order to allow students to train their programming skills. However, their pedagogical functionalities in the learning of programming have not been clearly defined. EduJudge is a project which aims to integrate the "UVA On-line Judge", an existing…

  1. On-Line Learning: One Way to Bring People Together

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goff-Kfouri, Carol Ann

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the benefits of on-line learning for adult learners and to further demystify three common misconceptions concerning on-line learning: students certainly do receive support from their on-line professors, the professor is pro-active rather than passive, and students may be more motivated to learn than in…

  2. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  3. GENOSENSE Diagnostics GmbH.

    PubMed

    Schneeberger, Christian

    2004-07-01

    GENOSENSE Diagnostics GmbH, a company specialized in preventive genetic diagnostics, has committed itself to applying molecular medical knowledge to realizing the vision of individual, preventive and patient-tailored medicine. GENOSENSE offers a unique line of preventive genomic diagnostic profiles. Each profile focuses on a carefully selected set of polymorphisms associated with particular diseases or physiologic imbalances. GENOSENSE does not only provide the genetic test results, but highly capable medical experts 'translate' the results into a clinical language and assist the customer with established support regarding their medical interpretation. In addition, the company provides academic institutions and pharmaceutical companies with turnkey solutions for research-based projects.

  4. Disposable blast shields for use on NIF imaging diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Cal A.; Wang, Karen M.; Masters, Nathan

    2015-08-01

    The NIFs 192 lasers can deliver 2 MJ of energy to Target Chamber Center (TCC) to produce environments not available in any other experimental laboratory. The NIFs ability to deliver such intense energy to a small volume causes harsh consequences to experimental equipment and supporting diagnostics such as holhraums, support packages, target positioners, diagnostic equipment, and laser optics. Of these, the hohlraum and support packages are typically quickly vaporized and transformed into an expanding shell of high-hypersonic gases referred to as debris wind. During an experimental event such as fusion implosion, the target diagnostic components used to measure key observables in the experiment are subjected to extreme pressures and impact shocks due to incident debris wind loading. As diagnostics are positioned closer to TCC, the diagnostic pinhole stacks and other components along the diagnostic structure become more likely to be at or above the yield strength of the materials commonly used. In particular, the pinhole stack components and data recording instruments behind the pinholes are the most costly to replace. Thus, a conceptual configuration for a pinhole shield is proposed, analyzed, and tested with the intent of mitigating damage to the pinhole stack and imaging equipment and allowing immediate re-use of this diagnostic equipment. This pinhole shield would be a replaceable window that can be replaced quickly by inserting and removing it before and after each experimental laser shot, which will allow NIF to benefit from significant material and labor costs.

  5. 3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. DETAIL, LIGHTNING ARRESTER ON SAR TRANSMISSION LINE. EEC print no. S-C-01-00478, no date. Photographer unknown. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, Transmission Lines, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  6. Purification of HBsAg produced by the human hepatoma cell line PLC/PRE/5 by affinity chromatography using monoclonal antibodies and application for ELISA diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Merten, O W; Reiter, S; Scheirer, W; Katinger, H

    1983-01-01

    The human cell line PLC/PRF/5 (5) was used for the production of hepatitis B surface antigen subtype ad (HBsAg ad) and purified by affinity chromatography (AC) with monoclonal antibodies (mAb). mAb to HBsAg from mouse ascites have been purified by Protein A - AC prior coupling to AH-Sepharose 4B (Pharmacia). The combined procedure of ammonium-sulphate-precipitation of HBsAg from culture supernatants and immunosorbent-AC leads to approx. 700-fold purification. ELISA results using the mAb and the HBsAg for diagnostics of human serum, positive for anti-HBsAg-antibodies correlate with the RIA (AUSAB, Abbott).

  7. Optical parameters measurement for diagnostic and photodynamic therapy of human cervical adenocarcinoma (HeLa) cell line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehman, A.; Firdous, S.; Nawaz, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the optical properties, absorption coefficient (μ a ) scattering coefficient (μ s ) and refractive indices, (n) of HeLa cell line in a suspension of 2% minimum essential medium (MEM) at two different (632.8 and 532.0 nm) wave lengths of laser light. Optical properties were determined with Kubelka Munk Model (KMM) and refractive index measurement was made through minimum angle of deviation method (MAD). We reported μ a = 8.643 ± 0.187 and 2.348 ± 0.249 cm-1 and μ s = 5.609 ± 0.287 and 88.166 ± 2.833 cm-1 at 632.8 and 532.0 nm, respectively. Refractive index was found to be 1.332 and 1.312 at 632.8 nm and 532.0 nm, respectively. The discussed results provide a route of information for clinical diagnosis, therapeutic application and dosimetry studies in HeLa and other cell lines.

  8. On-line evaluation of multiloop digital controller performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wieseman, Carol D.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation is to inform the Guidance and Control community of capabilities which were developed by the Aeroservoelasticity Branch to evaluate the performance of multivariable control laws, on-line, during wind-tunnel testing. The capabilities are generic enough to be useful for all kinds of on-line analyses involving multivariable control in experimental testing. Consequently, it was decided to present this material at this workshop even though it has been presented elsewhere. Topics covered include: essential on-line analysis requirements; on-line analysis capabilities; on-line analysis software; frequency domain procedures; controller performance evaluation frequency-domain flutter suppression; and plant determination.

  9. US healthcare. America on the line.

    PubMed

    Berliner, H

    1998-01-29

    The growth of telephone advice lines has been partly driven by managed care schemes, keen to reduce use of health services. Some managed care companies are considering e-mail advice services, with nurses responding to descriptions of patients' symptoms.

  10. Lensfree holographic imaging for on-chip cytometry and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Seo, Sungkyu; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek K; Erlinger, Anthony; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2009-03-21

    We experimentally illustrate a lensfree holographic imaging platform to perform on-chip cytometry. By controlling the spatial coherence of the illumination source, we record a 2D holographic diffraction pattern of each cell or micro-particle on a chip using a high resolution sensor array that has approximately 2 microm pixel size. The recorded holographic image is then processed by using a custom developed decision algorithm for matching the detected hologram texture to existing library images for on-chip characterization and counting of a heterogeneous solution of interest. The holographic diffraction signature of any microscopic object is significantly different from the classical diffraction pattern of the same object. It improves the signal to noise ratio and the signature uniformity of the cell patterns; and also exhibits much better sensitivity for on-chip imaging of weakly scattering phase objects such as small bacteria or cells. We verify significantly improved performance of this holographic on-chip cytometry approach by automatically characterizing heterogeneous solutions of red blood cells, yeast cells, E. coli and various sized micro-particles without the use of any lenses or microscope objectives. This lensless on-chip holography platform will especially be useful for point-of-care cytometry and diagnostics applications involving e.g., infectious diseases such as HIV or malaria.

  11. Effect of glutamate analogues on brain tumor cell lines.

    PubMed

    Campbell, G L; Bartel, R; Freidman, H S; Bigner, D D

    1985-10-01

    Glutamate analogues have been used in many different experimental approaches in neurobiology. A small number of these analogues have been classified as gliotoxic. We have examined the effect of seven glutamate analogues (five gliotoxic and two neurotoxic) on the growth and viability of four human glioma cell lines, one human medulloblastoma cell line, and one human sarcoma cell line. Aminoadipic acid and homocysteic acid predominantly affected the growth of two glioma cell lines in the presence of 4 mM glutamine. Phosphonobutyric acid predominantly affected the other two glioma cell lines and the medulloblastoma cell line in the presence of 4 mM glutamine. In medium containing no glutamine, all three analogues had marked effects on all the cell lines except the sarcoma cell line. These effects were dose dependent. We postulate that these results can in part be explained on the basis of metabolic compartmentalization.

  12. PREFACE: XXII International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parigger, C. G.

    2014-11-01

    The 22nd International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS) was convened at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) at Tullahoma, Tennessee, USA, during June 1 to 6, 2014. A variety of topics of interest to the line shape community were addressed during invited and contributed oral and poster presentations. General categories of the ICSLS 2014 scientific contents included Astrophysics, Biomedical Physics, High and Low Temperature Plasma Physics, Magnetic Fusion Physics, Neutrals Atomic-Molecular-Optical (AMO) Physics, and Applied Physics. Research interests at UTSI and at the Center for Laser Applications (CLA) focus on Applied Physics and Plasma Physics areas such as laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, spectroscopy with ultra-short light pulses, combustion diagnostics, to name a few. Consequently, the presentations during the conference addressed a variety of these topics. Attendance at the conference included researchers from North America, Africa, Asia and Europe, with an international representation showing 250 authors and co-authors with over 25 different citizenships, and 100 participants at the Conference. Figure 1 shows a photo of Conference attendees. The schedule included 82 contributions, 41 oral and 41 poster presentations. The 29 invited, 12 contributed oral and 41 contributed poster presentations were selected following communication with the international organizing committee members. A smart phone ''app'' was also utilized, thanks to Elsevier, to communicate electronic versions of the posters during the conference. Special thanks go to the members of the international and local committees for their work in organizing the 22nd ICSLS. In addition, thank you notes also go to the peer reviewers for the proceedings. Following the success of the IOP: Journal of Physics Conference Series selected for the 21st ICSLS publication, the proceedings papers report ongoing research activities. Papers submitted amount to 68 in number, or 83% of

  13. 40 CFR 86.1806-04 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standards and/or the following International Standards Organization... shall be formatted according to SAE J1930 “Electrical/Electronic Systems Diagnostic Terms,...

  14. An improved RANSAC algorithm for line matching on multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Lijun; Li, Yong; Yu, Hang; Xu, Liangpeng; Fan, Chunxiao

    2017-02-01

    This paper proposes a method for removing mismatched lines on multispectral images. The inaccurate detection of ending points brings a great challenge for matching lines since corresponding lines may not be integrally extracted. Due to the inaccurate detection of ending points, lines are usually mismatched with the line description. To eliminate the mismatched lines, we employ a modified RANSAC (Random Sample Consensus) consisting of two steps: (1) pick three line matches randomly and determine their intersections, which are used to calculate a transformation; (2) the best transformation is obtained by sorting the matching score of line matches and then the inliers are declared as the correct matches. Experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively remove incorrect matches on multispectral images.

  15. On-line upgrade of program modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waldrop, Raymond S.; Volz, Richard A.; Smith, Gary W.; Holzbacher-Valero, A. A.; Goldsack, S. J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a taxonomy of problems that must be solved in order to achieve on-line upgradability of long-lived programs, and presents a solution to the fundamental problems in the taxonomy. The solutions are based upon AdaPT, a set of language extensions designed to aid in the distribution of a single Ada program. AdaPT introduces three major units, the public, the partition, and the node. Publics are primarily used to share type information. Partitions are the basic units of distribution while nodes are used to control the configuration of the program. Nodes and partitions can be created dynamically via the allocator. A node-level routine controls the replacement process. The controlling node creates a new instance of the routine being replaced; the run-time system must ensure that the new instance is the updated one. Once access to the new version has been established, all further calls to the module are redirected to the new version and the caller is informed of the change so that it may make subsequent calls directly. When a module is being upgraded, there is a transition period during which both the old and new versions are present. We require that clients of a potentially replaceable module 'check in' with the controlling node. The controlling node keeps track of the number of clients that have been redirected to the replacement. When all have been redirected, the old version can be deallocated.

  16. Use of Gaussian Beam Tracing in the Design of Millimeter-Wave Diagnostics on ITER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Heeseok; Bitter, Manfred; Tobias, Ben; Park, Hyeon; Zolfaghari, Ali

    2016-10-01

    When the wavelength of the radiation being studied is comparable to the size optical components, the diffraction effect cannot be ignored. Gaussian beam tracing (GBT) can be used by treating the propagation of the light as a beam with certain size rather than a ray used in geometrical optics when analyzing the optics of millimeter-wave diagnostics. Gaussian optics is an effective way to represent diffraction effect because of its ability to show the beam size and the intensity that could be altered from diffraction. GBT has been used in two millimeter-wave diagnostics suited to ITER geometry. The first is in a design of a Gaussian telescope for correction of transmission line misalignment in the ITER LFS reflectometer due to motion of the vessel during heating to operating temperature from room temperature. The second is a new concept of using spherical mirrors for electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) and assessing its promise of a more realistic method of ECEI in ITER than previous idea of using a cylindrical mirror that requires large access ports that can be exposed to intense neutron radiation. The spherical mirror promises a smaller aperture on the first wall of ITER. The simulation of GBT of the two applications are analyzed and discussed. This work is supported by US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. Electron Density Measurements on LTX Using Microwave and Millimeter-Wave Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubota, S.; Nguyen, X. V.; Peebles, W. A.; Boyle, D. P.; Kaita, R.; Kozub, T.; Majeski, R.; Merino, E.; Schmitt, J. C.

    2015-11-01

    The dynamic evolution of the electron density profile is tracked using microwave and millimeter-wave diagnostics on LTX. The 296 GHz (λ =1 mm) interferometer provides a radial line density measurement at the midplane, while an FMCW (frequency-modulated continuous-wave) reflectometer (13.5 -33 GHz, or O-mode 0 . 2 - 1 . 3 ×1013 cm-3) provides density profile measurements for the low-field side. Data taken during FY2015 will be compared with measurements from Thomson scattering and estimates of the plasma position from LRDFIT. Measurements of density fluctuations due to low-frequency (<100 kHz) MHD instabilities will also be shown. Future plans include the installation of a correlation reflectomter (Ka-band, 27-40 GHz) with dual tuneable sources and a frequency bandwidth of up to 5 MHz. This system will utilize the same antennas as the profile reflectometer to provide radial and/or toroidal/poloidal correlations. Further diagnostic details will be presented at the meeting. Supported by U.S. DoE Grants DE-FG02-99ER54527 and DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  18. Line and streak detection on polished and textured surfaces using line integrals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkilinc, M. Sezer; Jaber, Mustafa; Saber, Eli; Pearson, Robert

    2011-03-01

    In this paper, a framework for detecting lines in a polished or textured substrate is proposed. Modules for image capture, rectification, enhancement, and line detection are included. If the surface being examined is specular (mirror-like), the image capture will be restricted, that is, the camera has to be fixed off-axis in the zenith direction. A module for image rectification and projection is included to overcome this limitation in order to yield an orthographic image. In addition, a module for image enhancement that includes high-boost is employed to improve the edge sharpness and decrease the spatial noise in the image. Finally, a line-integral technique is applied to find the confidence vectors that represent the spatial positions of the lines of interest. The Full-Width at Half-Max (FWHM) approximation is applied to determine the corresponding lines in a target image. Experimental results show that our technique has an effective performance on synthetic and real images. Print quality assessment is the main application of the proposed algorithm; however, it can be used to detect lines/ streak in prints, on substrate or any type of media where lines are visible.

  19. Diagnostic of fusion neutrons on JET tokamak using diamond detector

    SciTech Connect

    Nemtsev, G.; Amosov, V.; Marchenko, N.; Meshchaninov, S.; Rodionov, R.; Popovichev, S.; Collaboration: JET EFDA Conbributors

    2014-08-21

    In 2011-2012, an experimental campaign with a significant yield of fusion neutrons was carried out on the JET tokamak. During this campaign the facility was equipped with two diamond detectors based on natural and artificial CVD diamond. These detectors were designed and manufactured in State Research Center of Russian Federation TRINITI. The detectors measure the flux of fast neutrons with energies above 0.2 MeV. They have been installed in the torus hall and the distance from the center of plasma was about 3 m. For some of the JET pulses in this experiment, the neutron flux density corresponded to the operational conditions in collimator channels of ITER Vertical Neutron Camera. The main objective of diamond monitors was the measurement of total fast neutron flux at the detector location and the estimation of the JET total neutron yield. The detectors operate as threshold counters. Additionally a spectrometric measurement channel has been configured that allowed us to distinguish various energy components of the neutron spectrum. In this paper we describe the neutron signal measuring and calibration procedure of the diamond detector. Fluxes of DD and DT neutrons at the detector location were measured. It is shown that the signals of total neutron yield measured by the diamond detector correlate with signals measured by the main JET neutron diagnostic based on fission chambers with high accuracy. This experiment can be considered as a successful test of diamond detectors in ITER-like conditions.

  20. On the primary barrier in diagnostic x-ray shielding.

    PubMed

    Dixon, R L

    1994-11-01

    The traditional approach to shielding design for diagnostic x-ray facilities has been to designate as primary barriers the floor and those walls on which the useful beam may impinge, and to ignore the attenuation provided by the patient, grid, cassette, cassette holder, and x-ray table in computing the required thickness of these barriers. The degree of attenuation provided by the aforementioned materials has been measured on three-phase x-ray equipment including a variety of modern x-ray tables, grids, and cassettes. The primary beam is shown to be attenuated by more than two orders of magnitude at 100 kVp by the x-ray tables tested prior to impinging on the floor (ignoring patient attenuation). If patient attenuation is included, the attenuation is more than three orders of magnitude. Transmission factors as well as lead and concrete equivalencies for the various attenuating materials have been determined and included in tabular form. Example calculations for a heavy work load show that only a modest amount of concrete is required in the floor as a primary barrier if attenuation by these materials is taken into consideration (less than 2.5 cm at 80 kVp and less than 4 cm at 100 kVp) and the required secondary barrier may be thicker than the primary barrier.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Theoretical Modeling of Star-Forming Galaxies. I. Emission-Line Diagnostic Grids for Local and Low-Metallicity Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Kewley, Lisa J.; Larson, Kirsten L.

    2010-02-01

    We use the newest generation of the Starburst99/Mappings code to generate an extensive suite of models to facilitate detailed studies of star-forming galaxies and their interstellar medium properties, particularly at low metallicities. The new models used include a rigorous treatment of metal opacities in the population synthesis modeling and more detailed dust physics in the photoionization code. These models span a wide range of physical parameters including metallicity, ionization parameter, and the adoption of both an instantaneous burst and continuous star formation history (SFH). We examine the agreement between our models and local (z < 0.1) star-forming galaxy populations from several large data sets, including the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, the Nearby Field Galaxy Survey, and samples of blue compact galaxies and metal-poor galaxies. We find that models adopting a continuous SFH reproduce the metallicity-sensitive line ratios observed in the local population of star-forming galaxies, including the low-metallicity sample. However, we find that the current codes generate an insufficiently hard ionizing radiation field, leading to deficiencies in the [S II] fluxes produced by the models. We consider the advantages and shortcomings of this suite of models, and discuss future work and improvements that can be applied to the modeling of star-forming galaxies.

  2. Shining light on neurosurgery diagnostics using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Broadbent, Brandy; Tseng, James; Kast, Rachel; Noh, Thomas; Brusatori, Michelle; Kalkanis, Steven N; Auner, Gregory W

    2016-10-01

    Surgical excision of brain tumors provides a means of cytoreduction and diagnosis while minimizing neurologic deficit and improving overall survival. Despite advances in functional and three-dimensional stereotactic navigation and intraoperative magnetic resonance imaging, delineating tissue in real time with physiological confirmation is challenging. Raman spectroscopy is a promising investigative and diagnostic tool for neurosurgery, which provides rapid, non-destructive molecular characterization in vivo or in vitro for biopsy, margin assessment, or laboratory uses. The Raman Effect occurs when light temporarily changes a bond's polarizability, causing change in the vibrational frequency, with a corresponding change in energy/wavelength of the scattered photon. The recorded inelastic scattering results in a "fingerprint" or Raman spectrum of the constituent under investigation. The amount, location, and intensity of peaks in the fingerprint vary based on the amount of vibrational bonds in a molecule and their ensemble interactions with each other. Distinct differences between various pathologic conditions are shown as different intensities of the same peak, or shifting of a peak based on the binding conformation. Raman spectroscopy has potential for integration into clinical practice, particularly in distinguishing normal and diseased tissue as an adjunct to standard pathologic diagnosis. Further, development of fiber-optic Raman probes that fit through the instrument port of a standard endoscope now allows researchers and clinicians to utilize spectroscopic information for evaluation of in vivo tissue. This review highlights the need for such an instrument, summarizes neurosurgical Raman work performed to date, and discusses the future applications of neurosurgical Raman spectroscopy.

  3. A potentiometric biosensor for rapid on-site disease diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Tarasov, Alexey; Gray, Darren W; Tsai, Meng-Yen; Shields, Niall; Montrose, Armelle; Creedon, Niamh; Lovera, Pierre; O'Riordan, Alan; Mooney, Mark H; Vogel, Eric M

    2016-05-15

    Quantitative point-of-care (POC) devices are the next generation for serological disease diagnosis. Whilst pathogen serology is typically performed by centralized laboratories using Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA), faster on-site diagnosis would infer improved disease management and treatment decisions. Using the model pathogen Bovine Herpes Virus-1 (BHV-1) this study employs an extended-gate field-effect transistor (FET) for direct potentiometric serological diagnosis. BHV-1 is a major viral pathogen of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD), the leading cause of economic loss ($2 billion annually in the US only) to the cattle and dairy industry. To demonstrate the sensor capabilities as a diagnostic tool, BHV-1 viral protein gE was expressed and immobilized on the sensor surface to serve as a capture antigen for a BHV-1-specific antibody (anti-gE), produced in cattle in response to viral infection. The gE-coated immunosensor was shown to be highly sensitive and selective to anti-gE present in commercially available anti-BHV-1 antiserum and in real serum samples from cattle with results being in excellent agreement with Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) and ELISA. The FET sensor is significantly faster than ELISA (<10 min), a crucial factor for successful disease intervention. This sensor technology is versatile, amenable to multiplexing, easily integrated to POC devices, and has the potential to impact a wide range of human and animal diseases.

  4. [Controversy on diagnostic and treatment of rhinosinusitis in children].

    PubMed

    Zakrzewska, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Rhinosinusitis (RS) is a significant health problem both in children and adult. A growing interest in RS resulted in two documents of European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps group (EPOS). This consensus offers evidence-based recommendations on diagnosis and treatment of RS and is intended to be a state-of- the art review for the specialists as well as the general practitioners.The recommendations divide rhinosinusitis as follows: acute viral or acute bacterial, recurrent and chronic RS. The symptoms of acute RS may increase after 5 day or persist after 10 days with less than 12 weeks duration. In recurrent RS there are about 6 episodes of acute RS during one year. Chronic RS is likely when symptoms of RS persist for longer than 12 weeks. Treatment of common cold is only symptomatic, while antibiotics and/or nasal steroids are recommended in severe acute RS. Endoscopic sinus surgery is indicated in chronic RS only when medical treatment fails and optimal medical treatment should always be continued after surgery. The computer tomography is the gold standard for diagnostics in cases of complication of RS or planning functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS).

  5. LINE-INTERLOCKING EFFECTS ON POLARIZATION IN SPECTRAL LINES BY RAYLEIGH AND RAMAN SCATTERING

    SciTech Connect

    Sampoorna, M.; Nagendra, K. N.; Stenflo, J. O. E-mail: knn@iiap.res.in

    2013-06-20

    The polarized spectrum of the Sun and stars is formed from the scattering of anisotropic radiation on atoms. Interpretation of this spectrum requires the solution of polarized line transfer in multilevel atomic systems. While sophisticated quantum theories of polarized line formation in multilevel atomic systems exist, they are limited by the approximation of complete frequency redistribution in scattering. The partial frequency redistribution (PRD) in line scattering is a necessary component in modeling the polarized spectra of strong lines. The polarized PRD line scattering theories developed so far confine themselves to a two-level or a two-term atom model. In this paper, we present a heuristic approach to the problem of polarized line formation in multilevel atoms taking into account the effects of PRD and a weak magnetic field. Starting from the unpolarized PRD multilevel atom approach of Hubeny et al., we incorporate the polarization state of the radiation field. However, the lower level polarization is neglected. Two iterative methods of solving the polarized PRD line transfer in multilevel atoms are also presented. Taking the example of a five-level Ca II atom model, we present illustrative results for an isothermal one-dimensional model atmosphere.

  6. Specific Challenges in Conducting and Reporting Studies on the Diagnostic Accuracy of Ultrasonography in Bovine Medicine.

    PubMed

    Buczinski, Sébastien; O'Connor, Annette M

    2016-03-01

    Ultrasonography is used by bovine practitioners more for reproductive issues than as a diagnostic test for medical and surgical diseases. This article reviews the specific challenges and standards concerning reporting of studies on diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in cattle for nonreproductive issues. Specific biases and applicability concerns in studies reporting ultrasonography as a diagnostic test are also reviewed. Better understanding of these challenges will help the practitioner to interpret and apply (or not) diagnostic accuracy study results depending on the field context. Examples of application of sensitivity and specificity results in a clinical context are given using the Bayes theorem.

  7. Variability in pathogenicity prediction programs: impact on clinical diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Walters-Sen, Lauren C; Hashimoto, Sayaka; Thrush, Devon Lamb; Reshmi, Shalini; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Astbury, Caroline; Pyatt, Robert E

    2015-01-01

    Current practice by clinical diagnostic laboratories is to utilize online prediction programs to help determine the significance of novel variants in a given gene sequence. However, these programs vary widely in their methods and ability to correctly predict the pathogenicity of a given sequence change. The performance of 17 publicly available pathogenicity prediction programs was assayed using a dataset consisting of 122 credibly pathogenic and benign variants in genes associated with the RASopathy family of disorders and limb-girdle muscular dystrophy. Performance metrics were compared between the programs to determine the most accurate program for loss-of-function and gain-of-function mechanisms. No one program correctly predicted the pathogenicity of all variants analyzed. A major hindrance to the analysis was the lack of output from a significant portion of the programs. The best performer was MutPred, which had a weighted accuracy of 82.6% in the full dataset. Surprisingly, combining the results of the top three programs did not increase the ability to predict pathogenicity over the top performer alone. As the increasing number of sequence changes in larger datasets will require interpretation, the current study demonstrates that extreme caution must be taken when reporting pathogenicity based on statistical online protein prediction programs in the absence of functional studies. PMID:25802880

  8. [The Will Rogers phenomenon and its impact on imaging diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Golder, W A

    2009-04-01

    The Will Rogers phenomenon is a possible cause of systematic distortions in the results of clinical studies, which can be produced if stage migration occurs during a disease. The term refers to the apparent paradox which is observed when an element is changed from one set to another and the average values of both sets are altered in the same way. The effect is due to the prerequisite that the numerical value of the element being moved is placed between the mean values of both groups. In medicine, this phenomenon is a consequence of the evolution of staging procedures and may be source of misleading statistics for survival in cancer. Both advanced pathological assessment and modern imaging techniques may be involved. The wrong conclusions are induced by comparing the effects of treatment in contemporary patient groups, which profit from extensive diagnostic procedures, to those of historical controls. Treatise informs about the history of the term and illustrates its effects by numerical examples and clinical data. Finally, a model computation based on current PET/CT figures is offered.

  9. Self Diagnostic Accelerometer Testing on the C-17 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tokars, Roger P.; Lekki, John D.

    2013-01-01

    The self diagnostic accelerometer (SDA) developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center was tested for the first time in an aircraft engine environment as part of the Vehicle Integrated Propulsion Research (VIPR) program. The VIPR program includes testing multiple critical flight sensor technologies. One such sensor, the accelerometer, measures vibrations to detect faults in the engine. In order to rely upon the accelerometer, the health of the accelerometer must be ensured. The SDA is a sensor system designed to actively determine the accelerometer structural health and attachment condition, in addition to vibration measurements. The SDA uses a signal conditioning unit that sends an electrical chirp to the accelerometer and recognizes changes in the response due to changes in the accelerometer health and attachment condition. To demonstrate the SDAs flight worthiness and robustness, multiple SDAs were mounted and tested on a C-17 aircraft engine. The engine test conditions varied from engine off, to idle, to maximum power. The SDA attachment conditions were varied from fully tight to loose. The newly developed SDA health algorithm described herein uses cross correlation pattern recognition to discriminate a healthy from a faulty SDA. The VIPR test results demonstrate for the first.

  10. Minimizing Load Effects on NA4 Gear Vibration Diagnostic Parameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dempsey, Paula J.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2001-01-01

    NA4 is a vibration diagnostic parameter, developed by researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center, for health monitoring of gears in helicopter transmissions. The NA4 reacts to the onset of gear pitting damage and continues to react to the damage as it spreads. This research also indicates NA4 reacts similarly to load variations. The sensitivity of NA4 to load changes will substantially affect its performance on a helicopter gearbox that experiences continuously changing load throughout its flight regimes. The parameter NA4 has been used to monitor gear fatigue tests at constant load. At constant load, NA4 effectively detects the onset of pitting damage and tracks damage severity. Previous research also shows that NA4 reacts to changes in load applied to the gears in the same way it reacts to the onset of pitting damage. The method used to calculate NA4 was modified to minimize these load effects. The modified NA4 parameter was applied to four sets of experimental data. Results indicate the modified NA4 is no longer sensitive to load changes, but remains sensitive to pitting damage.

  11. 77 FR 3748 - Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearings on Genetic Diagnostic Testing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Request for Comments and Notice of Public Hearings on Genetic Diagnostic... in gathering information on the genetic diagnostic testing for purposes of preparing a report on the... USPTO invites the public to provide comments and to attend public hearings addressing genetic...

  12. Development of a Multichannel Spectrometer for the Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoenbeck, N. L.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Schlossberg, D. J.; Winz, G. R.

    2011-10-01

    To explore electron transport in helicity-driven discharges and investigate edge stability, a multi-point Thomson scattering diagnostic is being developed. Red-shifted scattered light from the Nd:YAG laser, 532-632 nm, is imaged using a custom lens coupled to fiber optic cables capable of imaging 1.4 cm along the length of the laser beam. Initially 1 spectrometer, containing up to 8 radial spatial points will be available for detection, with an upgrade to 3 spectrometers planned in the near future. New high efficiency volume phase holographic gratings, with > 75% transmission, allow for a simplified spectrometer design. This provides high optical throughput and readily couples to new high quantum efficiency (~45%) image intensified CCD cameras for multichannel design. These cameras can be gated to as low as 2 ns. The two gratings fabricated for this system (2971 lines/mm and 2072 lines/mm) cover the design temperature range of 10 eV to 1 keV. Completing the spectrometer are high quality lenses with focal lengths of 130 cm on the collimating lens and 85 cm on the exit lens. This design has a spectral range compatible with the blue shift from a conventional ruby laser and allows for a compact, simplified system. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  13. Implementation of a Thomson Scattering Diagnostic on Pegasus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlossberg, D. J.; Dowd, A. S.; Fonck, R. J.; Moritz, J. I.; Schoenbeck, N. L.; Winz, G. R.

    2011-10-01

    The multipoint Thomson scattering system on PEGASUS will diagnose point-source helicity-driven plasmas, including dominant particle transport mechanisms and sources of helicity dissipation. Helicity-driven plasmas are estimated to have áTe ñ ~ 50 eV for stochastic field line confinement and ~200 eV for standard Ohmic closed flux surface confinement. To accurately characterize these regimes, a novel system is being designed, installed, and calibrated. A Nd:YAG laser is frequency doubled to provide a 9 ns, 2 J pulse radially across the plasma. Remote alignment of steering mirrors can be performed between shots along the 6 m length of the external laser beam-line. The 532 nm laser beam is focused to a <= 3 mm diameter beam within the plasma. Plasma background measurements are made simultaneously with data collection. A custom optical system collects signal from >70% of the plasma cross-section with 1.4 cm radial resolution. Optical fibers relay light to a high-efficiency volume phase holographic grating spectrometer coupled to a high quantum efficiency image intensified CCD camera, gated at >= 2 ns. Signal levels for plasmas with ne >1018 m-3 and 10 eV

  14. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-15

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot ({approx}10 min) time scale with {approx}1 {mu}m depth and {approx}1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic - nuclear scattering of MeV ions - to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  15. An Edge Rotation and Temperature Diagnostic on NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    T.M. Biewer; R.E. Bell; R. Feder; D.W. Johnson; R.W. Palladino

    2003-08-29

    A new diagnostic for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is described whose function is to measure ion rotation and temperature at the plasma edge. The diagnostic is sensitive to C III, C IV, and He II intrinsic emission, covering a radial region of 15 cm at the extreme edge of the outboard midplane. Thirteen chords are distributed between toroidal and poloidal views, allowing the toroidal and poloidal rotation and temperature of the plasma edge to be simultaneously measured with 10 ms resolution. Combined with the local pressure gradient and the EFIT code reconstructed magnetic field profile, the edge flow gives a measure of the local radial electric field.

  16. Upgraded multipulse laser and multipoint Thomson scattering diagnostics on EAST.

    PubMed

    Zang, Qing; Zhao, Junyu; Yang, Li; Hu, Qingsheng; Xi, Xiaoqi; Dai, Xingxing; Yang, Jianhua; Han, Xiaofeng; Li, Mengting; Hsieh, C L

    2011-06-01

    Recently a new Thomson scattering diagnostic system was upgraded in EAST tokamak experiment using a multipulse Nd:YAG (neodymium-yttrium aluminium garnet) laser and a multipoint observation volumes. This diagnostic uses a new optical laser alignment technique that was made to determine accurately the laser position, and a new lens collection system that enables the measurement of wider plasma's object. A composite control system made we can get the results in several seconds. Furthermore, a new data processing method was adopted for much exact results.

  17. EOS ODL Metadata On-line Viewer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J.; Rabi, M.; Bane, B.; Ullman, R.

    2002-12-01

    We have recently developed and deployed an EOS ODL metadata on-line viewer. The EOS ODL metadata viewer is a web server that takes: 1) an EOS metadata file in Object Description Language (ODL), 2) parameters, such as which metadata to view and what style of display to use, and returns an HTML or XML document displaying the requested metadata in the requested style. This tool is developed to address widespread complaints by science community that the EOS Data and Information System (EOSDIS) metadata files in ODL are difficult to read by allowing users to upload and view an ODL metadata file in different styles using a web browser. Users have the selection to view all the metadata or part of the metadata, such as Collection metadata, Granule metadata, or Unsupported Metadata. Choices of display styles include 1) Web: a mouseable display with tabs and turn-down menus, 2) Outline: Formatted and colored text, suitable for printing, 3) Generic: Simple indented text, a direct representation of the underlying ODL metadata, and 4) None: No stylesheet is applied and the XML generated by the converter is returned directly. Not all display styles are implemented for all the metadata choices. For example, Web style is only implemented for Collection and Granule metadata groups with known attribute fields, but not for Unsupported, Other, and All metadata. The overall strategy of the ODL viewer is to transform an ODL metadata file to a viewable HTML in two steps. The first step is to convert the ODL metadata file to an XML using a Java-based parser/translator called ODL2XML. The second step is to transform the XML to an HTML using stylesheets. Both operations are done on the server side. This allows a lot of flexibility in the final result, and is very portable cross-platform. Perl CGI behind the Apache web server is used to run the Java ODL2XML, and then run the results through an XSLT processor. The EOS ODL viewer can be accessed from either a PC or a Mac using Internet

  18. 78 FR 54487 - Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic-Hematology; Including On-Site Leased Workers From Manpower...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-04

    ... Employment and Training Administration Abbott Laboratories; Diagnostic--Hematology; Including On-Site Leased... Laboratories, Diagnostic--Hematology division, including on-site leased workers from Manpower Service Group... to the production of hematology reagents and instruments. The company reports that workers...

  19. A computer code to calculate line by line atmospheric transmission spectra on a microcomputer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Safren, H. G.

    1987-01-01

    A computer program is described which calculates line by line atmospheric transmission spectra on a microcomputer. Radiance calculations are not included. The program is written in FORTRAN and could be modified to run on a microcomputer other than the one on which it was implemented, except that the plotting routine would have to be replaced. The program is based on the 1978 Air Force Geophysics Laboratory LASER routine, and uses absorption line data from the 1982 update of the AFGL Atmospheric Absorption Line Parameters Compilation; segments of needed line data are taken from the tape, preprocessed into the form used by the program and stored on floppy disks. The program calculates transmission spectra over a variety of paths and spanning an arbitrarily chosen wavelength or frequency range; the path may be chosen to be horizontal, vertical or slanted at any zenith angle, and may extend between any two altitudes between 0 and 15 km. Aerosol effects are included, presently based on the 1976 Shettle and Fenn models, plus some molecular continuum effects and Rayleigh scattering.

  20. On-line dimensional measurement of small components on the eyeglasses assembly line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosati, G.; Boschetti, G.; Biondi, A.; Rossi, A.

    2009-03-01

    Dimensional measurement of the subassemblies at the beginning of the assembly line is a very crucial process for the eyeglasses industry, since even small manufacturing errors of the components can lead to very visible defects on the final product. For this reason, all subcomponents of the eyeglass are verified before beginning the assembly process either with a 100% inspection or on a statistical basis. Inspection is usually performed by human operators, with high costs and a degree of repeatability which is not always satisfactory. This paper presents a novel on-line measuring system for dimensional verification of small metallic subassemblies for the eyeglasses industry. The machine vision system proposed, which was designed to be used at the beginning of the assembly line, could also be employed in the Statistical Process Control (SPC) by the manufacturer of the subassemblies. The automated system proposed is based on artificial vision, and exploits two CCD cameras and an anthropomorphic robot to inspect and manipulate the subcomponents of the eyeglass. Each component is recognized by the first camera in a quite large workspace, picked up by the robot and placed in the small vision field of the second camera which performs the measurement process. Finally, the part is palletized by the robot. The system can be easily taught by the operator by simply placing the template object in the vision field of the measurement camera (for dimensional data acquisition) and hence by instructing the robot via the Teaching Control Pendant within the vision field of the first camera (for pick-up transformation acquisition). The major problem we dealt with is that the shape and dimensions of the subassemblies can vary in a quite wide range, but different positioning of the same component can look very similar one to another. For this reason, a specific shape recognition procedure was developed. In the paper, the whole system is presented together with first experimental lab

  1. On multiscale moving contact line theory

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shaofan; Fan, Houfu

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a multiscale moving contact line (MMCL) theory is presented and employed to simulate liquid droplet spreading and capillary motion. The proposed MMCL theory combines a coarse-grained adhesive contact model with a fluid interface membrane theory, so that it can couple molecular scale adhesive interaction and surface tension with hydrodynamics of microscale flow. By doing so, the intermolecular force, the van der Waals or double layer force, separates and levitates the liquid droplet from the supporting solid substrate, which avoids the shear stress singularity caused by the no-slip condition in conventional hydrodynamics theory of moving contact line. Thus, the MMCL allows the difference of the surface energies and surface stresses to drive droplet spreading naturally. To validate the proposed MMCL theory, we have employed it to simulate droplet spreading over various elastic substrates. The numerical simulation results obtained by using MMCL are in good agreement with the molecular dynamics results reported in the literature. PMID:26345090

  2. Diagnostics of surface wave driven low pressure plasmas based on indium monoiodide-argon system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ögün, C. M.; Kaiser, C.; Kling, R.; Heering, W.

    2015-06-01

    Indium monoiodide is proposed as a suitable alternative to hazardous mercury, i.e. the emitting component inside the compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), with comparable luminous efficacy. Indium monoiodide-argon low pressure lamps are electrodelessly driven with surface waves, which are launched and coupled into the lamp by the ‘surfatron’, a microwave coupler optimized for an efficient operation at a frequency of 2.45 GHz. A non intrusive diagnostic method based on spatially resolved optical emission spectroscopy is employed to characterize the plasma parameters. The line emission coefficients of the plasma are derived by means of Abel’s inversion from the measured spectral radiance data. The characteristic plasma parameters, e.g. electron temperature and density are determined by comparing the experimentally obtained line emission coefficients with simulated ones from a collisional-radiative model. Additionally, a method to determine the absolute plasma efficiency via irradiance measurements without any goniometric setup is presented. In this way, the relationship between the plasma efficiency and the plasma parameters can be investigated systematically for different operating configurations, e.g. electrical input power, buffer gas pressure and cold spot temperature. The performance of indium monoiodide-argon plasma is compared with that of conventional CFLs.

  3. High-Mileage Study of On-Board Diagnostic Emissions.

    PubMed

    Gardetto, Ed; Lindner, Jim; Bagian, Tandi

    2005-10-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set guidelines for states to follow in designing and running vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. Included in this charge was a requirement to implement an on-board diagnostic (OBD) test for both basic and enhanced I/M programs. This paper provides the results to date of an ongoing EPA study undertaken to assess the durability of the OBD system as vehicles age and as mileage is accrued. The primary results of this effort indicate the points described below. First, the majority of high-mileage vehicles tested had emission levels within their certification limits, and their malfunction indicator light (MIL) was not illuminated, indicating that the systems are capable of working throughout the life of a vehicle. Second, OBD provides better air quality benefits than an IM240 test (using the federal test procedure [FTP] as the benchmark comparison). This statement is based on greater emissions reductions from OBD-directed repairs than reductions associated with IM240-identified repairs. In general, the benefits of repairing the OBD fails were smaller, but the aggregate benefits were greater, indicating that OBD tests find both the high-emitting and a number of marginally high-emitting vehicles without false failures that can occur with any tailpipe test. Third, vehicles that truly had high-tailpipe emissions as confirmed by laboratory IM240 and FTP testing also had illuminated MILs at a statistically significant level. Last, field data from state programs have demonstrated MIL illumination rates comparable with those seen in this work, suggesting that the vehicles sampled in this study were representative of the larger fleet. Nonetheless, it is important to continue the testing of high-mileage OBD vehicles into the foreseeable future to ensure that the systems are operating correctly as the fleet ages and as changes in emission certification levels take effect.

  4. High-mileage study of on-board diagnostic emissions.

    PubMed

    Gardetto, Ed; Bagian, Tandi; Lindner, Jim

    2005-10-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act amendments require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to set guidelines for states to follow in designing and running vehicle inspection and maintenance (I/M) programs. Included in this charge was a requirement to implement an on-board diagnostic (OBD) test for both basic and enhanced I/M programs. This paper provides the results to date of an ongoing EPA study undertaken to assess the durability of the OBD system as vehicles age and as mileage is accrued. The primary results of this effort indicate the points described below. First, the majority of high-mileage vehicles tested had emission levels within their certification limits, and their malfunction indicator light (MIL) was not illuminated, indicating that the systems are capable of working throughout the life of a vehicle. Second, OBD provides better air quality benefits than an IM240 test (using the federal test procedure [FTP] as the benchmark comparison). This statement is based on greater emissions reductions from OBD-directed repairs than reductions associated with IM240-identified repairs. In general, the benefits of repairing the OBD fails were smaller, but the aggregate benefits were greater, indicating that OBD tests find both the high-emitting and a number of marginally high-emitting vehicles without false failures that can occur with any tailpipe test. Third, vehicles that truly had high-tailpipe emissions as confirmed by laboratory IM240 and FTP testing also had illuminated MILs at a statistically significant level. Last, field data from state programs have demonstrated MIL illumination rates comparable with those seen in this work, suggesting that the vehicles sampled in this study were representative of the larger fleet. Nonetheless, it is important to continue the testing of high-mileage OBD vehicles into the foreseeable future to ensure that the systems are operating correctly as the fleet ages and as changes in emission certification levels take effect.

  5. Diagnostic Modeling of PAMS VOC Observation on Regional Scale Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, T.; Chen, T.; Ou Yang, C.; Wang, J.; Chang, J. S.

    2008-12-01

    While a number of gas-phase chemical mechanisms, such as CBM-Z, RADM2, SAPRC-07 had been successful in studying gas-phase atmospheric chemical processes they all used some lumped organic species to varying degrees. Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations (PAMS) has been in use for over ten years and yet it is not clear how the detailed organic species measured by PAMS compare to the lumped model species under regional-scale transport and chemistry interactions. By developing a detailed mechanism specifically for the PAMS organics and embedding this diagnostic model within a regional-scale transport and chemistry model we can then directly compare PAMS observation with regional-scale model simulations. We modify one regional-scale chemical transport model (Taiwan Air Quality Model, TAQM) by adding a submodel with chemical mechanism for interactions of the 56 species observed by PAMS. This submodel then calculates the time evolution of these 56 PAMS species within the environment established by TAQM. It is assumed that TAQM can simulate the overall regional-scale environment including impact of regional-scale transport and time evolution of oxidants and radicals. Therefore we can scale these influences to the PAMS organic species and study their time evolution with their species-specific source functions, meteorological transport, and chemical interactions. Model simulations of each species are compared with PAMS hourly surface measurements. A case study located in a metropolitan area in central Taiwan showed that with wind speeds lower than 3 m/s, when meteorological simulation is comparable with observation, the diurnal pattern of each species performs well with PAMS data. It is found that for many observations meteorological transport is an influence and that local emissions of specific species must be represented correctly. At this time there are still species that cannot be modeled properly. We suspect this is mostly due to lack of information on local

  6. Raman-shifting an ArF excimer laser to generate new lines for obtaining optical diagnostic based information in flow fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koker, Edmond B.

    1994-12-01

    The application of tunable excimer lasers in combustion and flow diagnostics is almost routine nowadays. The properties of this laser system that enable density and temperature measurements in supersonic and hypersonic flow fields to be conducted are its high power, high repetition rate, and high spectral brightness. The limitation imposed by this system on these measurements is the paucity of lines in the wavelength region, the vacuum-ultraviolet, where species of interest, such as OH, N2, O2, H2, H2O, CO, NO, etc., are susceptible to electronic excitation to high-lying states. To circumvent this problem one normally resorts to nonlinear optical techniques such as frequency conversion via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), more commonly known as Raman shifting or Raman mixing, to extend these nonintrusive and nonperturbing techniques to the shorter wavelengths in the VUV region and, for that matter, to longer wavelengths in the infrared region, if the need arises. The theoretical basis of SRS and its application are well documented in the literature. In essence, the Raman shift is a consequence of the inelastic scattering of the incident radiation by the sample. Most of the scattered radiation from the molecules of the sample is unchanged in frequency. However, a small fraction of the incident radiation is changed in frequency. This shift is a result of the fact that some of the incident photons on colliding with the molecules of the sample give up some of their energy and emerge with a lower energy resulting in the lower-frequency Stokes radiation. Other incident photons may increase their energy by colliding with the vibrationally excited molecules of the medium and emerge as higher-frequency antistokes radiation. The generation of the latter is the main objective of this project. The process, however, depends on several factors, including the beam quality of the pump laser, the cross-section of the gaseous medium, the gas pressure, and the ambient temperature

  7. Raman-shifting an ArF excimer laser to generate new lines for obtaining optical diagnostic based information in flow fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koker, Edmond B.

    1994-01-01

    The application of tunable excimer lasers in combustion and flow diagnostics is almost routine nowadays. The properties of this laser system that enable density and temperature measurements in supersonic and hypersonic flow fields to be conducted are its high power, high repetition rate, and high spectral brightness. The limitation imposed by this system on these measurements is the paucity of lines in the wavelength region, the vacuum-ultraviolet, where species of interest, such as OH, N2, O2, H2, H2O, CO, NO, etc., are susceptible to electronic excitation to high-lying states. To circumvent this problem one normally resorts to nonlinear optical techniques such as frequency conversion via stimulated Raman scattering (SRS), more commonly known as Raman shifting or Raman mixing, to extend these nonintrusive and nonperturbing techniques to the shorter wavelengths in the VUV region and, for that matter, to longer wavelengths in the infrared region, if the need arises. The theoretical basis of SRS and its application are well documented in the literature. In essence, the Raman shift is a consequence of the inelastic scattering of the incident radiation by the sample. Most of the scattered radiation from the molecules of the sample is unchanged in frequency. However, a small fraction of the incident radiation is changed in frequency. This shift is a result of the fact that some of the incident photons on colliding with the molecules of the sample give up some of their energy and emerge with a lower energy resulting in the lower-frequency Stokes radiation. Other incident photons may increase their energy by colliding with the vibrationally excited molecules of the medium and emerge as higher-frequency antistokes radiation. The generation of the latter is the main objective of this project. The process, however, depends on several factors, including the beam quality of the pump laser, the cross-section of the gaseous medium, the gas pressure, and the ambient temperature

  8. 40 CFR 86.005-17 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... code must identify multiple misfiring cylinder conditions; under multiple misfire conditions, the misfiring cylinders need not be uniquely identified if a distinct multiple misfire diagnostic trouble code... for a multiple number of driving cycles (i.e., more than one) due to the continued presence of...

  9. System Requirements for On-Line and Batch Retrieval.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Society for Information Science, Washington, DC. Special Interest Group on Computerized Retrieval Services.

    Three papers on system requirements for on-line and batch retrieval presented at the American Society for Information Science (ASIS) annual meeting are included here. At G.D. Searle, data for records related to pharmacology screening are used in a batch system, and an on-line system is used to search information on mutagenic, carcinogenic, and…

  10. Improved metrology of implant lines on static images of textured silicon wafers using line integral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Kuldeep; Saber, Eli; Verrier, Kevin

    2015-02-01

    In solar wafer manufacturing processes, the measurement of implant mask wearing over time is important to maintain the quality of wafers and the overall yield. Mask wearing can be estimated by measuring the width of lines implanted by it on the substrate. Previous methods, which propose image analysis methods to detect and measure these lines, have been shown to perform well on polished wafers. Although it is easier to capture images of textured wafers, the contrast between the foreground and background is extremely low. In this paper, an improved technique to detect and measure implant line widths on textured solar wafers is proposed. As a pre-processing step, a fast non-local means method is used to denoise the image due to the presence of repeated patterns of textured lines in the image. Following image enhancement, the previously proposed line integral method is used to extract the position of each line in the image. Full- Width One-Third maximum approximation is then used to estimate the line widths in pixel units. The conversion of these widths into real-world metric units is done using a photogrammetric approach involving the Sampling Distance. The proposed technique is evaluated using real images of textured wafers and compared with the state-of-the-art using identical synthetic images, to which varying amounts of noise was added. Precision, recall and F-measure values are calculated to benchmark the proposed technique. The proposed method is found to be more robust to noise, with critical SNR value reduced by 10dB in comparison to the existing method.

  11. Evaluation of materials for on-board laser diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, James R.; Thomas, David; Lewis, Jay; Phipps, Claude R.

    2008-05-01

    The AEgis Technologies Group and RTI International are developing microsensors for High Energy Laser (HEL) diagnostic applications. The conformal sensor array will measure the irradiance profile of an incident laser beam, and concomitant rise in surface temperature of the target. The open mesh architecture allows 90% of the beam to impact the surface. A critical part of this program is developing a protective coating that ensures sensor survivability at high irradiance levels for operational lifetimes on the order of 10 seconds. The protective coating must transmit a measurable amount of light to the irradiance sensor. We have conducted experiments to evaluate candidate heat shield materials. In the first round of experiments, a 10kW CO2 laser was used to irradiate pure materials, including metals and carbon foils. Although many of the metal foils were perforated by the laser, no significant amount of material was ablated away. In fact, most of the test samples gained mass, presumably due to oxidation. Analysis of high speed video shows that once the metal melted, surface tension caused the molten metal to coalesce into droplets around the rim of the hole. The second and third rounds of testing, conducted with a 3kW, 1.07μm fiber laser, included samples of highly reflective metals and ceramics, standard plasma-sprayed coatings, and multilayer stacks. We have also measured the performance of temperature sensors and irradiance sensors fabricated from nanoparticle solutions deposited by advanced printing technology and have completed a preliminary investigation of high temperature adhesives.

  12. How Do Gut Feelings Feature in Tutorial Dialogues on Diagnostic Reasoning in GP Traineeship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolper, C. F.; Van de Wiel, M. W. J.; Hendriks, R. H. M.; Van Royen, P.; Van Bokhoven, M. A.; Van der Weijden, T.; Dinant, G. J.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic reasoning is considered to be based on the interaction between analytical and non-analytical cognitive processes. Gut feelings, a specific form of non-analytical reasoning, play a substantial role in diagnostic reasoning by general practitioners (GPs) and may activate analytical reasoning. In GP traineeships in the Netherlands, trainees…

  13. 40 CFR 85.2231 - On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2231 On-board diagnostic test equipment requirements. (a) The test system interface to the vehicle shall include a plug that conforms to SAE J1962 “Diagnostic Connector.”...

  14. Transmission line icing measurement on photogrammetry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huan; Ma, Xiaohong; Zhao, Lijin; Du, Hao; Luo, Hong; Mao, Xianyin; Tang, Min; Liu, Yawen

    2015-12-01

    Icing thickness parameter is the basic data for power sector to make decision for icing accident prevention. In this paper, a transmission line icing measurement method is proposed. It used the photogrammetry method to realize icing parameters measurement through the integration of high resolution camera, laser range finder and inertial measurement unit. Compared with traditional icing measurement method, this method is flexible and is the effective supplement of the fixed icing detection terminal. And its high accuracy measurement guarantees the reliability of the icing thickness parameters.

  15. On-Line Administrative Information Systems: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sire, Paul W.

    A case study approach is used to document the on-line information system developed by the Office of Management Information and Computing at the University of Vermont. Stanford University's Project INFO On-Line Administration Information System, OASIS, was chosen as a model. The administrative system is one of two on campus, the other designed for…

  16. [Thalassaemia diagnostics].

    PubMed

    Kusters, Elske; Kerkhoffs, Jean-Louis H; van Rossum, André P

    2014-01-01

    The thalassaemias are characterised by quantitative aberrations in the production of the globin chains that make up haemoglobin, and are a subgroup of the haemoglobinopathies. In this LabQuiz we show how thalassaemia carrier status can be indicated in the results of regular laboratory tests, and discuss the laboratory diagnostics that can confirm or rule out thalassaemia. In these two cases we will present a man of Moroccan descent, and two brothers of Filipino descent, all with anaemia and microcytosis. We show it is possible to differentiate between iron-deficiency anaemia and thalassaemia carrier status on the basis of a complete blood count and measurement of ferritin levels, and which laboratory diagnostics can be subsequently performed in order to confirm a suspicion of thalassaemia. The background section discusses the properties and pitfalls of routine laboratory diagnostics for the thalassaemias, and thalassaemia diagnostics in the Dutch newborn screening programme.

  17. Microlensing Effects on Emission Lines from Homologously Expanding Winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ignace, R.; Bryce, H. M.; Hendry, M. A.

    2004-12-01

    We have been investigating the influence of microlensing on a variety of spectroscopic signatures relevant to circumstellar flows. Here we report on recent results for line profiles that form in spherically symmetric winds during a microlensing event. As a convenient test case, we have adopted a homologous velocity law (v ∝ r, from r=Rphot to rmax). Results are discussed for resonance scattering P Cygni lines and recombination emission lines. Somewhat surprisingly, the rectified line profiles show rather mild variations in response to microlensing. The reason is that both the line emission from the extended wind and the stellar photosphere are lensed, so that the strong magnification effects of lensing seen in either component are partially supressed when showing the continuum normalized spectrum (which is the common form of display for such data). Still, significant and observable variations in the line equivalent width do result. This research has been supported in part by NSF grant AST-0354261.

  18. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  19. A new dump system design for stray light reduction of Thomson scattering diagnostic system on EAST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Shumei; Zang, Qing; Han, Xiaofeng; Wang, Tengfei; Yu, Jin; Zhao, Junyu

    2016-07-01

    Thomson scattering (TS) diagnostic is an important diagnostic for measuring electron temperature and density during plasma discharge. However, the measurement of Thomson scattering signal is disturbed by the stray light easily. The stray light sources in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) TS diagnostic system were analyzed by a simulation model of the diagnostic system, and simulation results show that the dump system is the primary stray light source. Based on the optics theory and the simulation analysis, a novel dump system including an improved beam trap was proposed and installed. The measurement results indicate that the new dump system can reduce more than 60% of the stray light for the diagnostic system, and the influence of stray light on the error of measured density decreases.

  20. On the Ontology Based Representation of Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Ganzinger, Matthias; He, Shan; Breuhahn, Kai; Knaup, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cell lines are frequently used as highly standardized and reproducible in vitro models for biomedical analyses and assays. Cell lines are distributed by cell banks that operate databases describing their products. However, the description of the cell lines' properties are not standardized across different cell banks. Existing cell line-related ontologies mostly focus on the description of the cell lines' names, but do not cover aspects like the origin or optimal growth conditions. The objective of this work is to develop an ontology that allows for a more comprehensive description of cell lines and their metadata, which should cover the data elements provided by cell banks. This will provide the basis for the standardized annotation of cell lines and corresponding assays in biomedical research. In addition, the ontology will be the foundation for automated evaluation of such assays and their respective protocols in the future. To accomplish this, a broad range of cell bank databases as well as existing ontologies were analyzed in a comprehensive manner. We identified existing ontologies capable of covering different aspects of the cell line domain. However, not all data fields derived from the cell banks' databases could be mapped to existing ontologies. As a result, we created a new ontology called cell culture ontology (CCONT) integrating existing ontologies where possible. CCONT provides classes from the areas of cell line identification, origin, cell line properties, propagation and tests performed. PMID:23144907

  1. An update on feline infectious peritonitis: diagnostics and therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Niels C

    2014-08-01

    This review is concerned with what has been learned about feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) diagnostics and therapeutics since the publication of an extensive overview of literature covering the period 1963-2009. Although progress has been made in both areas, obtaining a definitive diagnosis of FIP remains a problem for those veterinarians and/or cat owners who require absolute certainty. This review will cover both indirect and direct diagnostic tests for the disease and will emphasize their limitations, as well as their specificity and sensitivity. There is still no effective treatment for FIP, although there are both claims that such therapies exist and glimmers of hope coming from new therapies that are under research. FIP has also been identified in wild felids and FIP-like disease is now a growing problem among pet ferrets.

  2. Two dimensional radiated power diagnostics on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinke, M. L.; Hutchinson, I. H.

    2008-10-01

    The radiated power diagnostics for the Alcator C-Mod tokamak have been upgraded to measure two dimensional structure of the photon emissivity profile in order to investigate poloidal asymmetries in the core radiation. Commonly utilized unbiased absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode arrays view the plasma along five different horizontal planes. The layout of the diagnostic set is shown and the results from calibrations and recent experiments are discussed. Data showing a significant, 30%-40%, inboard/outboard emissivity asymmetry during ELM-free H-mode are presented. The ability to use AXUV diode arrays to measure absolute radiated power is explored by comparing diode and resistive bolometer-based emissivity profiles for highly radiative L-mode plasmas seeded with argon. Emissivity profiles match in the core but disagree radially outward resulting in an underprediction of Prad of nearly 50% by the diodes compared to Prad determined using resistive bolometers.

  3. Monitoring System of Power Line Icing Based on GPRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wancheng, Xie

    GPRS-based power line monitoring system for ice. The system is based on the images to monitor the power line monitoring device for ice. System through the use of simplified Sobel algorithm and Hough transform to image edge detection, with DSP high-speed computing performance and optimization of DSP code, and realized the power line ice thickness of the terminal identification and automatic alarm function; using the terminal identification means, is intelligent Monitoring of a new attempt.

  4. Blogs and Wikis: Environments for On-Line Collaboration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodwin-Jones, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Discusses two recent innovations made available via the Internet that are useful to language educators: blogs and wikis. Blogs are on-line journals that offer opportunities for collaborative use. They are easily linked and cross-linked, thus creating larger on-line communities. Wikis feature a loosely structured set of pages, linked in multiple…

  5. Are On-Line Data Bases in Your Library's Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deacon, Jim

    1983-01-01

    THE FOLLOWING IS THE FULL TEXT OF THIS DOCUMENT: Today there are over 900 on-line data banks available for public access. Most microcomputers can use them through the aid of a modem and communication program. Major public information utilities that offer access to these on-line data bases are growing and expanding. The Source, a data base utility…

  6. On-Line Distance Learning: A Model for Developing Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khan, Abdul W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses issues related to open and distance-learning (ODL) in developing countries, using the virtual campus initiative of the Indira Gandhi National Open University (India) as an example and model of on-line program delivery and on-line, for-profit telelearning centers. Suggests strategies to enable open and distance-learning institutions to…

  7. On-Line Course Development: Engaging and Retaining Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruster, Benita G.

    2015-01-01

    As the number of on-line classes and the demand for on-line education continues to sky-rocket, it is critical that course developers and university faculty have the skills to effectively design curricula, to develop engaging learning opportunities, and to create responsive courses that meet individual student needs. This paper details three…

  8. THE FORMATION OF IRIS DIAGNOSTICS. I. A QUINTESSENTIAL MODEL ATOM OF Mg II AND GENERAL FORMATION PROPERTIES OF THE Mg II h and k LINES

    SciTech Connect

    Leenaarts, J.; Pereira, T. M. D.; Carlsson, M.; De Pontieu, B.; Uitenbroek, H. E-mail: tiago.pereira@astro.uio.no E-mail: bdp@lmsal.com

    2013-08-01

    NASA's Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) space mission will study how the solar atmosphere is energized. IRIS contains an imaging spectrograph that covers the Mg II h and k lines as well as a slit-jaw imager centered at Mg II k. Understanding the observations will require forward modeling of Mg II h and k line formation from three-dimensional (3D) radiation-MHD models. This paper is the first in a series where we undertake this forward modeling. We discuss the atomic physics pertinent to h and k line formation, present a quintessential model atom that can be used in radiative transfer computations, and discuss the effect of partial redistribution (PRD) and 3D radiative transfer on the emergent line profiles. We conclude that Mg II h and k can be modeled accurately with a four-level plus continuum Mg II model atom. Ideally radiative transfer computations should be done in 3D including PRD effects. In practice this is currently not possible. A reasonable compromise is to use one-dimensional PRD computations to model the line profile up to and including the central emission peaks, and use 3D transfer assuming complete redistribution to model the central depression.

  9. On-line and off-line data analysis for the EUSO-TA experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piotrowski, Lech Wiktor; Casolino, Marco; Conti, Livio; Ebisuzaki, Toshikazu; Fornaro, Claudio; Kawasaki, Yoshiya; Hachisu, Yusuke; Ohmori, Hitoshi; De Santis, Cristian; Shinozaki, Kenji; Takizawa, Yoshiyuki; Uehara, Yoshihiro

    2015-02-01

    We show the principles of the communication protocol, on-line calibration, off-line data format as well as basic visualisation and data analysis software implemented for the EUSO-TA on-ground experiment, being the first step towards implementation in a future space based mission. EUSO-TA is an on-ground detector for measuring UV (290-430 nm) light from extensive air showers induced by cosmic rays. It is a prototype experiment for the JEM-EUSO space-borne mission, built according to the same constraints of low mass, low power consumption and thus low computing power. Nevertheless, it needs to process a huge amount of data in short time, taking 2.5 μs exposures for 2304 channels. The low processing power and high time resolution require an efficient communication protocol and simple yet powerful algorithms for on-line analysis. The off-line data format is designed for storing a huge amount of data, at the same time allowing easy access, analysis and sharing. Its structure is scalable and adjustable to different experimental designs. It is independent of the data origin, whether it is hardware or a Monte-Carlo simulator. Use of object-oriented techniques and the ROOT framework allows rapid development of dedicated analysis software, such as a Python based quick-view program described herein. Basic capabilities of the software, such as display of the focal surface, light curves and calibration data are shown in this paper.

  10. Mjollnir Rotational Line Scan Diagnostics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-05-19

    dramatically. This has been verified independently at Aerospace in recent experiments by Bernard .2 0 Careful tuning with DF could not reduce the power...Kerstetter, J. Mol. Spectry., U, 77 (1970). 14. W.F. Herget, W.E. Deeds, N.M. Gailar, R.J. Lovell , and A.H. Nielsen, J. Opt. Soc. Am., 52, 1113 (1962

  11. PREFACE: XXI International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes (ICSLS 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devdariani, Alexander Z.

    2012-12-01

    The 21st International Conference on Spectral Line Shapes, ICSLS, was held in the historic main building of St Petersburg State University (St. Petersburg, Russia) on 3-9 June 2012. The event continued the tradition started in 1978 in Meudon Observatory in Paris. Representatives of line shape physics have since met every two years in different locations in Europe and North America. The most recent events were held in St John's, Newfoundland, Canada (2010), Valladolid, Spain (2008), and Auburn, AL (USA). Traditionally, the conferences consider experimental and theoretical issues of studying spectral line shapes, diagnostic utilization of spectral line profiles observed in absorption, emission or scattering of electromagnetic radiation by atoms, molecules, and clusters in different environments, including neutral environments, laboratory low and fusion plasmas, astrophysical conditions, and planetary atmospheres. The Conference was attended by over 100 professionals from Europe, Asia, America, Africa and New Zealand. The conference program was put together in such a way so as to exclude any parallel sessions. Five afternoon sessions featured 19 invited talks and 20 oral contributions, and two evening sessions offered 61 poster presentations, including post-deadline posters. This setup allowed for a relaxed and unhurried discussion of results and facilitated productive networking. The invited talks were selected by recommendation of members of the International Scientific Committee. The Organizers would like to thank all the members of the International Scientific Committee for their proposals on the agenda and their valuable advice. When considering candidates for oral contributions, the organizers took into account the suggestions and preferences of potential conference participants. When selecting the theses of poster presentations, the organizers focused on the topics in line with the theme of the conference and studies with well-formulated results. It must be

  12. Beam Diagnostics Based on AC Modulation of System Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Tiefenback

    2004-11-10

    To improve the performance of operating accelerators, quantities such as lattice functions, beam transfer functions, betatron frequencies, etc, can be measured turn by turn with beam position monitors or from difference measurements using step changes in system parameters. Spectral measurements in closed orbit machines provide accurate values for some properties. But for open-ended systems and some measurements in closed-orbit machines, periodic modulation can be very useful for obtaining information about the beam line. Using examples from existing machines, we compare and contrast beam based modulation techniques and step function or passive measurements. For example, large amplitude dipole modulation in rings can be used in dedicated exploration of nonlinear optical properties without beam degradation, even allowing for tune spread effects. Low-level modulation can provide real-time system monitoring with no adverse effect on beam users. Examples considered include fully resonant dipole modulation in storage rings such as RHIC (hadrons) and PEP-II (electrons), and the continuous low-level modulation used in the CEBAF recirculating electron linac for real-time feedback to improve availability.

  13. Operational modelling to guide implementation and scale-up of diagnostic tests within the health system: exploring opportunities for parasitic disease diagnostics based on example application for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Langley, Ivor; Adams, Emily; Doulla, Basra; Squire, S Bertel

    2014-12-01

    Research and innovation in the diagnosis of infectious and parasitic diseases has led to the development of several promising diagnostic tools, for example in malaria there is extensive literature concerning the use of rapid diagnostic tests. This means policymakers in many low and middle income countries need to make difficult decisions about which of the recommended tools and approaches to implement and scale-up. The test characteristics (e.g. sensitivity and specificity) of the tools alone are not a sufficient basis on which to make these decisions as policymakers need to also consider the best combination of tools, whether the new tools should complement or replace existing diagnostics and who should be tested. Diagnostic strategies need dovetailing to different epidemiology and structural resource constraints (e.g. existing diagnostic pathways, human resources and laboratory capacity). We propose operational modelling to assist with these complex decisions. Projections of patient, health system and cost impacts are essential and operational modelling of the relevant elements of the health system could provide these projections and support rational decisions. We demonstrate how the technique of operational modelling applied in the developing world to support decisions on diagnostics for tuberculosis, could in a parallel way, provide useful insights to support implementation of appropriate diagnostic innovations for parasitic diseases.

  14. Capping Layer Effects on Electromigration in Narrow Cu Lines

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, C.-K.; Rosenberg, R.

    2004-12-08

    Electromigration in narrow (bamboo-like) Cu Damascene lines capped with either a CoWP, Ta/TaN, SiNx, or SiCxNyHz layer is reviewed. A thin CoWP or Ta/TaN cap on top of the Cu line surface significantly reduces interface diffusion and improves the electromigration lifetime when compared with lines capped with SiNx or SiCxNyHz. Activation energies for electromigration were found to be 1.9-2.4 eV, 1.4 eV, and 0.85-1.1 eV for the Cu lines capped with CoWP, Ta/TaN, and SiNx or SiCxNyHz, respectively. Relationships between line width, diffusion path, void nucleation sites and lifetime are presented. Resistance changes in the CoWP coated lines were related to the solubility and diffusivity of Co in Cu such that void growth caused by electromigration was detectable only as a significant resistance increase over that caused by the Co. The solubility and diffusivity of Co in Cu was determined from line resistance measurements of thermally annealed Cu lines with CoWP caps. The activation energy of Co diffusion in Cu lines was found to be 2.2 eV, and the solubility limit of Co in Cu was found to be 18e(-0.57eV/kT) atomic percent.

  15. Straight lines, 'uncurved lines', and Helmholtz's 'great circles on the celestial sphere'.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Brian; Brecher, Kenneth

    2007-01-01

    Helmholtz's famous pincushioned chessboard figure has been used to make the point that straight lines in the world are not always perceived as straight and, conversely, that curved lines in the world can sometimes be seen as straight. However, there is little agreement as to the cause of these perceptual errors. Some authors have attributed the errors to the shape of the retina, or the amount of cortex devoted to the processing of images falling on different parts of the retina, while others have taken the effects to indicate that visual space itself is curved. Helmholtz himself claimed that the 'uncurved lines on the visual globe' corresponded to 'direction circles' defined as those arcs described by the line of fixation when the eye moves according to Listing's law. Careful re-reading of Helmholtz together with some additional observations lead us to the conclusion that two other factors are also involved in the effect: (i) a lack of information about the distance of peripherally viewed objects and (ii) the preference of the visual system for seeing the pincushion squares as similar in size.

  16. Metastatic Chordoma: A Diagnostic Challenge on Fine Needle Aspiration

    PubMed Central

    Tranesh, Ghassan; Nassar, Aziza

    2016-01-01

    Chordomas are primary low grade malignant tumors of bone that usually arise within both ends of axial skeleton. The Notochord is a midline, ectoderm-derived structure that defines the phylum of chordates. Chordomas may pose difficult diagnostic challenges when encountered in secondary locations, such as lungs or other parenchymatous organs. We report the cytologic findings of a metastatic chordoma sampled through CT-scan guided fine needle aspiration (FNA) of lower lobe lung nodule in a 54-year-old man diagnosed with recurrent chordoma involving the lumber spine and paraspinal region. PMID:26881166

  17. [Positron emission tomography: diagnostic imaging on a molecular level].

    PubMed

    Allemann, K; Wyss, M; Wergin, M; Bley, C Rohrer; Ametamay, S; Bruehlmeier, M; Kaser-Hotz, B

    2004-08-01

    In human medicine positron emission tomography (PET) is a modern diagnostic imaging method. In the present paper we outline the physical principles of PET and give an overview over the main clinic fields where PET is being used, such as neurology, cardiology and oncology. Moreover, we present a current project in veterinary medicine (in collaboration with the Paul Scherrer Institute and the University Hospital Zurich), where a hypoxia tracer is applied to dogs and cats suffering from spontaneous tumors. Finally new developments in the field of PET were discussed.

  18. Insulation Degradation Diagnostic Technology to XLPE Cable

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchida, Katsumi; Okamoto, Tatsuki

    XLPE power cables have been in use for long time now and some of them are approaching 30 years of their designed lifetime. However, under the present severe economic situation, it is necessary to use the existing apparatus as long as possible. So, degradation diagnostic methods with high reliability are needed earnestly. This paper explains the insulation degradation mechanism of XLPE power cables and the newest diagnostic methods on each voltage class. In 3.3-77kV classes, fairly high extents of the cable accidents depend on the water-tree degradation. For 3.3-6.6kV class cables, on-line diagnostic methods with high reliability to detect bridged water-trees have been developed and put in practical use. And, for 22-77kV classes, two promising off-line diagnostic methods to detect un-bridged water-trees have begun to carry out in on-site tests.

  19. How do gut feelings feature in tutorial dialogues on diagnostic reasoning in GP traineeship?

    PubMed

    Stolper, C F; Van de Wiel, M W J; Hendriks, R H M; Van Royen, P; Van Bokhoven, M A; Van der Weijden, T; Dinant, G J

    2015-05-01

    Diagnostic reasoning is considered to be based on the interaction between analytical and non-analytical cognitive processes. Gut feelings, a specific form of non-analytical reasoning, play a substantial role in diagnostic reasoning by general practitioners (GPs) and may activate analytical reasoning. In GP traineeships in the Netherlands, trainees mostly see patients alone but regularly consult with their supervisors to discuss patients and problems, receive feedback, and improve their competencies. In the present study, we examined the discussions of supervisors and their trainees about diagnostic reasoning in these so-called tutorial dialogues and how gut feelings feature in these discussions. 17 tutorial dialogues focussing on diagnostic reasoning were video-recorded and transcribed and the protocols were analysed using a detailed bottom-up and iterative content analysis and coding procedure. The dialogues were segmented into quotes. Each quote received a content code and a participant code. The number of words per code was used as a unit of analysis to quantitatively compare the contributions to the dialogues made by supervisors and trainees, and the attention given to different topics. The dialogues were usually analytical reflections on a trainee's diagnostic reasoning. A hypothetico-deductive strategy was often used, by listing differential diagnoses and discussing what information guided the reasoning process and might confirm or exclude provisional hypotheses. Gut feelings were discussed in seven dialogues. They were used as a tool in diagnostic reasoning, inducing analytical reflection, sometimes on the entire diagnostic reasoning process. The emphasis in these tutorial dialogues was on analytical components of diagnostic reasoning. Discussing gut feelings in tutorial dialogues seems to be a good educational method to familiarize trainees with non-analytical reasoning. Supervisors need specialised knowledge about these aspects of diagnostic reasoning and

  20. On-Line Construction of Parameterized Suffix Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Taehyung; Na, Joong Chae; Park, Kunsoo

    We consider on-line construction of a suffix tree for a parameterized string, where we always have the suffix tree of the input string read so far. This situation often arises from source code management systems where, for example, a source code repository is gradually increasing in its size as users commit new codes into the repository day by day. We present an on-line algorithm which constructs a parameterized suffix tree in randomized O(n) time, where n is the length of the input string. Our algorithm is the first randomized linear time algorithm for the on-line construction problem.

  1. Packings of a charged line on a sphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alben, Silas

    2008-12-01

    We find equilibrium configurations of open and closed lines of charge on a sphere, and track them with respect to varying sphere radius. Closed lines transition from a circle to a spiral-like shape through two low-wave-number bifurcations—“baseball seam” and “twist”—which minimize Coulomb energy. The spiral shape is the unique stable equilibrium of the closed line. Other unstable equilibria arise through tip-splitting events. An open line transitions smoothly from an arc of a great circle to a spiral as the sphere radius decreases. Under repulsive potentials with faster-than-Coulomb power-law decay, the spiral is tighter in initial stages of sphere shrinkage, but at later stages of shrinkage the equilibria for all repulsive potentials converge on a spiral with uniform spacing between turns. Multiple stable equilibria of the open line are observed.

  2. Multi-agent system for line detection on images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alpatov, Boris A.; Babayan, Pavel V.; Shubin, Nikita Yu.

    2016-10-01

    Lines are one of the most informative structure elements on any images. For this reason, objects detection and recognition problems are often reduced to edge detection task. One of the most popular approaches to detect lines is based on the Hough transform or Radon transform. However, using both of transforms allows estimating the infinite lines parameters only. It is necessary to use additional approaches to estimate the ends of the detected lines. Moreover, Radon transform does not allow detecting non-straight curve shapes at all. This work is oriented to solve line detection problem using Radon transform and multi-agent approach. The results of the experimental researches that confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach are given. The real full HD image sequences are used. The direction of further improvements is proposed.

  3. Preparing Students for Assessment in the On-Line Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Michele L.

    2002-01-01

    Advises professors with limited technological experience on how to use features of their existing computer networks to communicate assessment expectations to their on-line students. Explains how e-mail and Web postings can serve this purpose. (EV)

  4. On-Line Allocation Of Robot Resources To Task Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyons, Damian M.

    1989-02-01

    In this paper, I present an approach to representing plans that make on-line decisions about resource allocation. An on-line decision is the evaluation of a conditional expression involving sensory information as the plan is being executed. I use a plan representation called 7ZS10'1 1,12that has been especially designed for the domain of robot programming, and in particular, for the problem of on-line decisions. The resource allocation example is based on the robot assembly cell architecture outlined by Venkataraman and Lyons16. I begin by setting forth a definition of on-line decision making and some arguments as to why this form of decision making is important and useful. To set the context for the resource allocation example, I take some care in categorizing the types of on-line decision making and the approaches adopted by other workers so far. In particular, I justify a plan-based approach to the study of on-line decision making. From that, the focus shifts to one type of decision making: on-line allocation of robot resources to task plans. Robot resources are the physical manipulators (grippers, wrists, arms, feeders, etc) that are available to carry out the task. I formulate the assembly cell architecture of Venkataraman and Lyons16 as an R.S plan schema, and show how the on-line allocation specified in that architecture can be implemented. Finally, I show how considering the on-line allocation of logical resources, that is a physical resource plus some model information, can be used as a non-traditional approach to some problems in robot task planning.

  5. A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and Diagnostics Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and Diagnostics Algorithms by Kwok F Tom ARL-TR-7230 March 2015...TR-7230 March 2015 A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and Diagnostics Algorithms Kwok F Tom...DATES COVERED (From - To) 10/2012–09/2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Primer on Vibrational Ball Bearing Feature Generation for Prognostics and

  6. Electron Beam Diagnostics in Plasmas Based on Electron Beam Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Darrin; Leal-Quiros, Edbertho; Blackwell, David; Walton, Scott; Murphy, Donald; Fernsler, Richard; Meger, Robert

    2001-10-01

    Over the last few years, electron beam ionization has been shown to be a viable generator of high density plasmas with numerous applications in materials modification. To better understand these plasmas, we have fielded electron beam diagnostics to more clearly understand the propagation of the beam as it travels through the background gas and creates the plasma. These diagnostics vary greatly in sophistication, ranging from differentially pumped systems with energy selective elements to metal 'hockey pucks' covered with thin layers of insulation to electrically isolate the detector from the plasma but pass high energy beam electrons. Most importantly, absolute measurements of spatially resolved beam current densities are measured in a variety of pulsed and continuous beam sources. The energy distribution of the beam current(s) will be further discussed, through experiments incorporating various energy resolving elements such as simple grids and more sophisticated cylindrical lens geometries. The results are compared with other experiments of high energy electron beams through gases and appropriate disparities and caveats will be discussed. Finally, plasma parameters are correlated to the measured beam parameters for a more global picture of electron beam produced plasmas.

  7. Implementation of a new atomic basis for the He I equilibrium line ratio technique for electron temperature and density diagnostic in the SOL for H-mode plasmas in DIII-D

    SciTech Connect

    Burgos, JMM; Schmitz, O.; Unterberg, Ezekial A; Loch, S. D.; Ballance, C. P.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluating the ratio of selected helium lines allows for measurement of electron densities and temperatures. This technique is applied for L-mode plasmas at TEXTOR (O. Schmitz et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 50 (2008) 115004). We report our first efforts to extend it to H-mode plasma diagnostics in DIII-D. This technique depends on the accuracy of the atomic data used in the collisional radiative model (CRM). We present predictions for the electron temperatures and densities by using recently calculated R-Matrix With Pseudostates (RMPS) and Convergent Close-Coupling (CCC) electron-impact excitation and ionization data. We include contributions from higher Rydberg states by means of the projection matrix. These effects become significant for high electron density conditions, which are typical in H-mode. We apply a non-equilibrium model for the time propagation of the ionization balance to predict line emission profiles from experimental H-mode data from DIII-D. (C) 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Line matching based on planar homography for stereo aerial images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yanbiao; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Shoudong; Yan, Lei; Dissanayake, Gamini

    2015-06-01

    We propose an efficient line matching algorithm for a pair of calibrated aerial photogrammetric images, which makes use of sparse 3D points triangulated from 2D point feature correspondences to guide line matching based on planar homography. Two different strategies are applied in the proposed line matching algorithm for two different cases. When three or more points can be found coplanar with the line segment to be matched, the points are used to fit a plane and obtain an accurate planar homography. When one or two points can be found, the approximate terrain plane parallel to the line segment is utilized to compute an approximate planar homography. Six pairs of rural or urban aerial images are used to demonstrate the efficiency and validity of the proposed algorithm. Compared with line matching based on 2D point feature correspondences, the proposed method can increase the number of correctly matched line segments. In addition, compared with most line matching methods that do not use 2D point feature correspondences, the proposed method has better efficiency, although it obtains fewer matches. The C/C++ source code for the proposed algorithm is available at

  9. Clinical benefits of predilution on-line hemodiafiltration.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Kenji; Minakuchi, Jun

    2013-01-01

    There are two types of hemodiafiltration (HDF) treatments, predilution and postdilution. In Japan, clinical doctors have been using the on-line HDF treatment for renal replacement therapy for 20 years. However, this treatment is not popular in Japan because it has not been recognized by the government. Generally, the advantage of postdilution HDF over predilution HDF resides in the fact that it removes low-weight molecular proteins (LWMPs) and protein-binding uremic toxin. Thus, postdilution on-line HDF has been widely used in the world, but in Japan predilution on line-HDF has been the preferred treatment. There are several reasons why predilution on-line HDF has been the preferred treatment in Japan. Predilution on-line HDF is superior to postdilution on-line HDF in removing LWMPs and protein-binding uremic toxin, for example p-cresol and homocysteine. In addition, there are several reports on the biocompatibilities in predilution on-line HDF. Predilution on-line HDF is associated with reduced shear stress, and the synthesis of cytokine and cellular adhesion molecules. Moreover, with predilution on-line HDF/hemofiltration, blood pressure remains stable during treatment. In Japan, over 90% of dialysis patients have been receiving hemodialysis (HD) therapy with the ultra-high flux dialysis membrane. These ultra-high flux dialysis membranes achieve β2-microglobulin clearance rates of >50 ml/min. In addition, these membranes have the same power as postdilution HDF because they allow automatic internal filtration. Thus, in spite of HD treatment, as a result, the effect is the same as with postdilution HDF treatment. There have been small and retrospective studies on predilution on-line HDF, and we must use a hemodiafilter during the on-line HDF treatment. However, the hemodiafilter has been unsuccessful in reaching the LWMP removal rates which we demand. And the most important point is to carry out a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial of predilution

  10. Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle.

    PubMed

    Linder, Ewert; Varjo, Sami; Thors, Cecilia

    2016-06-17

    Imaging at high resolution and subsequent image analysis with modified mobile phones have the potential to solve problems related to microscopy-based diagnostics of parasitic infections in many endemic regions. Diagnostics using the computing power of "smartphones" is not restricted by limited expertise or limitations set by visual perception of a microscopist. Thus diagnostics currently almost exclusively dependent on recognition of morphological features of pathogenic organisms could be based on additional properties, such as motility characteristics recognizable by computer vision. Of special interest are infectious larval stages and "micro swimmers" of e.g., the schistosome life cycle, which infect the intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. The ciliated miracidium, emerges from the excreted egg upon its contact with water. This means that for diagnostics, recognition of a swimming miracidium is equivalent to recognition of an egg. The motility pattern of miracidia could be defined by computer vision and used as a diagnostic criterion. To develop motility pattern-based diagnostics of schistosomiasis using simple imaging devices, we analyzed Paramecium as a model for the schistosome miracidium. As a model for invasive nematodes, such as strongyloids and filaria, we examined a different type of motility in the apathogenic nematode Turbatrix, the "vinegar eel." The results of motion time and frequency analysis suggest that target motility may be expressed as specific spectrograms serving as "diagnostic fingerprints."

  11. Recent advance in target diagnostics on the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caillaud, T.; Alozy, E.; Briat, M.; Cornet, P.; Darbon, S.; Dizière, A.; Duval, A.; Drouet, V.; Fariaut, J.; Gontier, D.; Landoas, O.; Marchet, B.; Masclet-Gobain, I.; Oudot, G.; Soullié, G.; Stemmler, P.; Reverdin, C.; Rosch, R.; Rousseau, A.; Rossé, B.; Rubbelynck, C.; Troussel, P.; Villette, B.; Aubard, F.; Huelvan, S.; Maroni, R.; Llavador, P.; Allouche, V.; Burillo, M.; Chollet, C.; D'Hose, C.; Prat, B.; Trosseille, C.; Raimbourg, J.; Zuber, C.; Lebreton, J. P.; Perez, S.; Ulmer, J. L.; Jalinaud, T.; Jadaud, J. P.; Bourgade, J. L.; Wrobel, R.; Rogue, X.; Miquel, J. L.

    2016-09-01

    Since the first experimental campaign conducted in 2014 with mid field Gated X-ray Imager (GXI) and two quadruplets (20 kJ at 351 nm) focused on target, the Laser MégaJoule (LMJ) operational capability is still growing up. New plasma diagnostics have been implemented: a large field 2D GXI, two broadband x-ray spectrometers (called DMX and miniDMX), a specific soft x-ray spectrometer and a Laser Entrance Hole (LEH) imaging diagnostic. A series of experiments have been performed leading to more than 60 shots on target. We will present the plasma diagnostics development status conducted at CEA for experimental purpose. Several diagnostics are now under manufacturing or development which include a Streaked Soft X-ray Imager (SSXI), an Equation Of State (EOS) diagnostic suite ("EOS pack"), a Full Aperture BackScattering (FABS) diagnostic, a Near Backscattered Imager (NBI), a high resolution 2D GXI, a high resolution x-ray spectrometer, a specific set of two polar hard x-ray imagers for LEH characterization and a set of Neutron Time of Flight (NTOF) detectors. We describe here the diagnostics design and performances in terms of spatial, temporal and spectral resolutions. Their designs have taken into account the harsh environment (neutron yields, gamma rays, electromagnetic perturbations, debris and shrapnel) and the safety requirements.

  12. Mobile Diagnostics Based on Motion? A Close Look at Motility Patterns in the Schistosome Life Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Ewert; Varjo, Sami; Thors, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Imaging at high resolution and subsequent image analysis with modified mobile phones have the potential to solve problems related to microscopy-based diagnostics of parasitic infections in many endemic regions. Diagnostics using the computing power of “smartphones” is not restricted by limited expertise or limitations set by visual perception of a microscopist. Thus diagnostics currently almost exclusively dependent on recognition of morphological features of pathogenic organisms could be based on additional properties, such as motility characteristics recognizable by computer vision. Of special interest are infectious larval stages and “micro swimmers” of e.g., the schistosome life cycle, which infect the intermediate and definitive hosts, respectively. The ciliated miracidium, emerges from the excreted egg upon its contact with water. This means that for diagnostics, recognition of a swimming miracidium is equivalent to recognition of an egg. The motility pattern of miracidia could be defined by computer vision and used as a diagnostic criterion. To develop motility pattern-based diagnostics of schistosomiasis using simple imaging devices, we analyzed Paramecium as a model for the schistosome miracidium. As a model for invasive nematodes, such as strongyloids and filaria, we examined a different type of motility in the apathogenic nematode Turbatrix, the “vinegar eel.” The results of motion time and frequency analysis suggest that target motility may be expressed as specific spectrograms serving as “diagnostic fingerprints.” PMID:27322330

  13. State diagnostics of RTD based on nanoscale multilayered AlGaAs heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makeev, M. O.; Meshkov, S. A.; Sinyakin, V. Yu

    2016-08-01

    In the present work the problems of technical diagnostics of RTD based on nanoscale multilayered AlGaAs heterostructures are being solved. The technique and the algorithms of RTD functionality region developing are being considered.

  14. Theory of satellite structures on spectral-line profiles.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atakan, A. K.; Jacobson, H. C.

    1973-01-01

    A systematic comparison with experiment of various explanations for the problem of satellite-band formation on spectral-line profiles was initiated. The experiments were performed under a variety of conditions in an effort to construct a consistent model of entire line shapes. A composite theory is detailed which is the result of the insights of many individuals. The calculations indicate that the main features of the problem, the line, the high-intensity red satellites, and the blue satellite can be described simultaneously. The results also indicate that widely different potentials can lead to very similar line profiles. Ancillary conclusions are presented concerning the role of Lennard-Jones potentials in line-shape calculations.

  15. Polarimetry diagnostic on OMEGA EP using a 10-ps, 263-nm probe beam

    SciTech Connect

    Davies, A. Haberberger, D.; Boni, R.; Ivancic, S.; Brown, R.; Froula, D. H.

    2014-11-15

    A polarimetry diagnostic was built and characterized for magnetic-field measurements in laser-plasma experiments on the OMEGA EP laser. This diagnostic was built into the existing 4ω (263-nm) probe system that employs a 10-ps laser pulse collected with an f/4 imaging system. The diagnostic measures the rotation of the probe beam's polarization. The polarimeter uses a Wollaston prism to split the probe beam into orthogonal polarization components. Spatially localized intensity variations between images indicate polarization rotation. Magnetic fields can be calculated by combining the polarimetry data with the measured plasma density profile obtained from angular filter refractometry.

  16. Conceptual design of a fast-ion D-alpha diagnostic on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J. Wan, B.; Hu, L.; Hu, C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Zhu, Y.; Hellermann, M. G. von; Gao, W.; Wu, C.; Li, Y.; Fu, J.; Lyu, B.; Yu, Y.; Ye, M.; Shi, Y.

    2014-11-15

    To investigate the fast ion behavior, a fast ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic system has been planned and is presently under development on Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The greatest challenges for the design of a FIDA diagnostic are its extremely low intensity levels, which are usually significantly below the continuum radiation level and several orders of magnitude below the bulk-ion thermal charge-exchange feature. Moreover, an overlaying Motional Stark Effect (MSE) feature in exactly the same wavelength range can interfere. The simulation of spectra code is used here to guide the design and evaluate the diagnostic performance. The details for the parameters of design and hardware are presented.

  17. Simulated plasma facing component measurements for an in situ surface diagnostic on Alcator C-Moda)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwig, Z. S.; Whyte, D. G.

    2010-10-01

    The ideal in situ plasma facing component (PFC) diagnostic for magnetic fusion devices would perform surface element and isotope composition measurements on a shot-to-shot (˜10 min) time scale with ˜1 μm depth and ˜1 cm spatial resolution over large areas of PFCs. To this end, the experimental adaptation of the customary laboratory surface diagnostic—nuclear scattering of MeV ions—to the Alcator C-Mod tokamak is being guided by ACRONYM, a Geant4 synthetic diagnostic. The diagnostic technique and ACRONYM are described, and synthetic measurements of film thickness for boron-coated PFCs are presented.

  18. Influence of multi-valued diagnostic signals on optimal sensor placement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rostek, Kornel

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the comparison of results of optimal sensor placement with the use of binary and multi-valued diagnostic signals is given. The exoneration assumption was introduced and its effects were discussed. The influence of multi-valued diagnostic signals on several fault isolability metrics were discussed. The optimal sensor placement problem under budgetary constraints is formulated. A branch-and-bound algorithm solving this problem is described. It is used in context of three tanks system with 25 possible diagnostic signals.

  19. Bayesian modeling and inference for diagnostic accuracy and probability of disease based on multiple diagnostic biomarkers with and without a perfect reference standard.

    PubMed

    Jafarzadeh, S Reza; Johnson, Wesley O; Gardner, Ian A

    2016-03-15

    The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) is used as a performance metric for quantitative tests. Although multiple biomarkers may be available for diagnostic or screening purposes, diagnostic accuracy is often assessed individually rather than in combination. In this paper, we consider the interesting problem of combining multiple biomarkers for use in a single diagnostic criterion with the goal of improving the diagnostic accuracy above that of an individual biomarker. The diagnostic criterion created from multiple biomarkers is based on the predictive probability of disease, conditional on given multiple biomarker outcomes. If the computed predictive probability exceeds a specified cutoff, the corresponding subject is allocated as 'diseased'. This defines a standard diagnostic criterion that has its own ROC curve, namely, the combined ROC (cROC). The AUC metric for cROC, namely, the combined AUC (cAUC), is used to compare the predictive criterion based on multiple biomarkers to one based on fewer biomarkers. A multivariate random-effects model is proposed for modeling multiple normally distributed dependent scores. Bayesian methods for estimating ROC curves and corresponding (marginal) AUCs are developed when a perfect reference standard is not available. In addition, cAUCs are computed to compare the accuracy of different combinations of biomarkers for diagnosis. The methods are evaluated using simulations and are applied to data for Johne's disease (paratuberculosis) in cattle.

  20. Planning an Integrated On-Line Library system (IOLS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    by block number 1 Field Group Subgroup IOLS, NCTIS, library, automation , analysis, cost, implementation 19 Abstract (continue on reverse if necessary...and identify by block number) Requirements for an Integrated On-line Library System (IOLS) to automate the acquisitions, cataloging and circulation...ABSTRACT Requirements for an Integrated On-line Library System (IOLS) to automate the acqui- sitions, cataloging and circulation functions of the Dudley

  1. On-line Monitoring of Ultrasonic Polymer Chain Scission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akyüz, Ali; Giz, Ahmet; Çatalgil-Giz, Huceste

    2007-03-01

    Poly vinyl pyrrolidone in dilute aqueous solution was subjected to ultrasonic scission. The decrease of the molecular weight was monitored by light scattering via a BIMwA molecular weight analyzer. The on-line data was compared with the theoretical models of Schmid, Malhorta, Price, Madras and Berlin, Doulah,. The models were compared on the bases of χ^2 analysis and fit quality. It is seen that on-line data can discriminate among theoretical models.

  2. Edge determination for polycrystalline silicon lines on gate oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villarrubia, John S.; Vladar, Andras E.; Lowney, Jeremiah R.; Postek, Michael T., Jr.

    2001-08-01

    In a scanning electron microscope (SEM) top-down secondary electron image, areas within a few tens of nanometers of the line edges are characteristically brighter than the rest of the image. In general, the shape of the secondary electron signal within such edge regions depends upon the energy and spatial distribution of the electron beam and the sample composition, and it is sensitive to small variations in sample geometry. Assigning edge shape and position is done by finding a model sample that is calculated, on the basis of a mathematical model of the instrument-sample interaction, to produce an image equal to the one actually observed. Edge locations, and consequently line widths, are then assigned based upon this model sample. In previous years we have applied this strategy to lines with geometry constrained by preferential etching of single crystal silicon. With this study we test the procedure on polycrystalline silicon lines. Polycrystalline silicon lines fabricated according to usual industrial processes represent a commercially interesting albeit technically more challenging application of this method. With the sample geometry less constrained a priori, a larger set of possible sample geometries must be modeled and tested for a match to the observed line scan, and the possibility of encountering multiple acceptable matches is increased. For this study we have implemented a data analysis procedure that matches measured image line scans to a precomputed library of sample shapes and their corresponding line scans. Linewidth test patterns containing both isolated and dense lines separated form the underlying silicon substrate by a thin gate oxide have been fabricated. Line scans from test pattern images have been fitted to the library of modeled shapes.

  3. Coupling Between Microstrip Lines and Finite Ground Coplanar Lines Embedded in Polyimide Layers for 3D-MMICs on Silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ponchak, G. E.; Bushyager, N.; Papapolymerou, J.; Tentzeris, E. M.; Laskar, J.

    2002-01-01

    Three-dimensional circuits built upon multiple layers of polyimide are required for constructing Si/SiGe monolithic microwave/mm-wave integrated circuits on CMOS (low resistivity) Si wafers. It is expected that these circuits will replace the ones fabricated on GaAs and reduce the overall system cost. However, the closely spaced transmission lines that are required for a high-density circuit environment are susceptible to high levels of cross-coupling, which degrades the overall circuit performance. In this paper, theoretical and experimental results on coupling and ways to reduce it are presented for two types of transmission lines: a) the microstrip line and b) the Finite Ground Coplanar (FGC) line. For microstrip lines it is shown that a fence of metalized via-holes can significantly reduce coupling, especially in the case when both lines are on the same polyimide layer or when the shielding structure extends through several polyimide layers. For closely spaced microstrip lines, coupling is lower for a metal filled trench shield than a via-hole fence. Coupling amongst microstrip lines is dependent on the ratio of line separation to polyimide thickness and is primarily due to magnetic fields. For FGC lines it is shown that they have in general low coupling that can be reduced significantly when there is even a small gap between the ground planes of each line. FGC lines have approximately 8 dB lower coupling than coupled coplanar waveguides (CPW). In addition, forward and backward characteristics of the FGC lines do not resemble those of other transmission lines such as microstrip. Therefore, the coupling mechanism of the FGC lines is different compared to thin film microstrip lines.

  4. Lower hybrid emission diagnostics on the NASA Lewis bumpy torus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mallavarpu, R.

    1977-01-01

    The feasibility of using RF emission near the lower hybrid frequency of the NASA Lewis Bumpy Torus plasma for diagnostic purposes is examined. The emission is detected using a spectrum analyzer and a 50 omega miniature coaxial antenna that is sensitive to the polarization of the incoming signal. The frequency shift of the lower hybrid emission peak is monitored as a function of the background pressure, electrode voltage, electrode ring configuration and the strength of the toroidal dc magnetic field. Simultaneous measurements of the average plasma density are made with a polarization diplexing microwave interferometer. Data derived from the experiment are discussed with reference to the following: (1) the strength of the dc magnetic field in the emitting region; (2) comparison of the lower hybrid plasma density with the average plasma density; and (3) validity of the cold plasma lower hybrid resonance formula in the high density operating regime of the bumpy torus plasma.

  5. Intra-uterine foetal death: an avoidable diagnostic pitfall.

    PubMed

    Divers, M J

    1991-01-01

    A case is presented where maternal tachycardia was misinterpreted as foetal heart activity on cardiography in a case of IUFD. Diagnostic implications and the use of real line ultrasound scanning are discussed.

  6. Protein interactions with HER-family receptors can have different characteristics depending on the hosting cell line.

    PubMed

    Barta, Pavel; Malmberg, Jennie; Melicharova, Ludmila; Strandgård, John; Orlova, Anna; Tolmachev, Vladimir; Laznicek, Milan; Andersson, Karl

    2012-05-01

    Cell lines are common model systems in the development of therapeutic proteins and in the research on cellular functions and dysfunctions. In this field, the protein interaction assay is a frequently used tool for assessing the adequacy of a protein for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. In this study, we investigated the extent to which the interaction characteristics depend on the choice of cell line for HER-family receptors. The interaction characteristics of two therapeutic antibodies (trastuzumab and cetuximab) and one Affibody molecule (ZHER2:342), interacting with the intended receptor were characterized with high precision using an automated real-time interaction method, in different cell lines (HaCaT, A431, HEP-G2, SKOV3, PC3, DU-145). Clear differences in binding affinity and kinetics, up to one order of magnitude, were found for the interaction of the same protein binding to the same receptor on different cells for all three proteins. For HER-family receptors, it is therefore important to refer to the measured affinity for a protein-receptor interaction together with the hosting cell line. The ability to accurately measure affinity and kinetics of a protein-receptor interaction on cell lines of different origins may increase the understanding of underlying receptor biology, and impact the selection of candidates in the development of therapeutic or diagnostic agents.

  7. On-Line Point Positioning with Single Frame Camera Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-03-15

    AD-A248 307 --. On-line point positioning with single frame camera data DTIC FnleoS ELECTE 1b. Kersten, K. R. Holm, A. Gruen PRV (1992 Institute of...until exhiausted StCUIRITY CLSif!CATION Of THIS PAGE All othier editions are obsolext UNLSS I F ED .... . . ... On-line point positioning with single... all work undertakm in this project. Pe a .. [ -4 IOn-line point poitonng with angle frame camr daon 2. Introduction Aerotriangulation is an efficient

  8. Qualitative Facets of Prospective Elementary Teachers' Diagnostic Proceeding: Collecting and Interpreting in One-on-One Interviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhold, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The research presented in this paper focuses on the cognitive diagnostic strategies that prospective elementary mathematics teachers (PTs) use in their reflections of one-on-one diagnostic interviews with children in grade one. Thereby, it responds to the detected lack of knowledge regarding qualitative facets of diagnostic proceeding in interview…

  9. An on-line NMR technique with a programmable processor

    SciTech Connect

    Razazian, K.; Dieckman, S.L.; Raptis, A.C.

    1995-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is used to determine molecular content of materials, mainly in laboratory measurements. The reduced cost of fast computer processors, together with recent break throughs in digital signal processor technology, has facilitated the on-line use of NMR by allowing modifications of the available technology. This paper describes a system and an algorithm for improving the on-line operations. It is base on the time-domain NMR signal detected by the controller and some prior knowledge of chemical signal patterns. The desired signal can be separated from a composite signal by using an adaptive line enhancer (ALE) filter. This technique would be useful for upgrading process procedures in on-line manufacturing.

  10. 16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INDEPENDENCE HALL LOOKING SOUTH ON CHESTNUT ST. (horizontal line) BETWEEN SIXTH (right) AND FIFTH (left) STS. - Independence National Historical Park, Walnut, Sixth, Chestnut & Second Streets, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. 15. View South on Wabash of Dan Ryan Line showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. View South on Wabash of Dan Ryan Line showing curve from Harrison St. Photo by Jet Lowe. - Union Elevated Railroad, Union Loop, Wells, Van Buren, Lake Streets & Wabash Avenue, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  12. 99. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE AND SAMPLING VALVE FOR RAPIDLOAD ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    99. LIQUID OXYGEN LINE AND SAMPLING VALVE FOR RAPID-LOAD ON WEST SIDE OF SKID 9A - Vandenberg Air Force Base, Space Launch Complex 3, Launch Pad 3 East, Napa & Alden Roads, Lompoc, Santa Barbara County, CA

  13. 29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. HEADWORKS OF DEER FLAT LOW LINE CANAL ON LOWER EMBANKMENT, SHOWING IDAHO-SHAPED ROCKS FLANKING ENTRANCE TO BRIDGE. VIEW TO EAST. - Boise Project, Deer Flat Embankments, Lake Lowell, Nampa, Canyon County, ID

  14. 18. WILEY CITY LINE CUT AND OVERPASS ON CONGDON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. WILEY CITY LINE - CUT AND OVERPASS ON CONGDON ORCHARD PROPERTY, LOOKING WEST - Yakima Valley Transportation Company Interurban Railroad, Connecting towns of Yakima, Selah & Wiley City, Yakima, Yakima County, WA

  15. Impact of diagnostic neutral beam optimization on active spectroscopy in MST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Xiande; Nornberg, Mark. D.; den Hartog, Daniel. J.; Oliva, Steven. P.; Craig, Darren; Univ of Wisconsin, Madison Team; Wheaton College, IL Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen diagnostic neutral beam on MST provides local measurements of impurity ion emission through charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) and of core-localized magnetic field through the motional Stark effect (MSE). The beam has been optimized to operate at 50kV, 4A steady beam current with 20ms beam pulse and 75% primary energy ion fraction. It's achieved by tuning the beam voltage, arc current, fuel line pressure, arc and high voltage module timing, and the magnetic isolation field. Electron density measurements in the ion source revealed that ion extraction is maximized under low density conditions which are thought to affect the shape of the ion sheath at the extraction grid. The sheath may be transitioning from a planar or convex shape at high density to one which is concave which helps focus the ion trajectories and produce higher beam current. With the improvements in beam operation, the CHERS signal is expected to increase by 20%-30%, and the Stark broadening is expected to increase by 10%. These signal increases will help resolve convolved fine-structure components in both analyses. Beam voltage ripple is also measured to better quantify the accuracy of spectral MSE and CHERS measurement. This work is supported by the U.S. DOE.

  16. A Pilot Study on Modeling of Diagnostic Criteria Using OWL and SWRL.

    PubMed

    Hong, Na; Jiang, Guoqian; Pathak, Jyotishiman; Chute, Christopher G

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to describe our efforts in a pilot study on modeling diagnostic criteria using a Semantic Web-based approach. We reused the basic framework of the ICD-11 content model and refined it into an operational model in the Web Ontology Language (OWL). The refinement is based on a bottom-up analysis method, in which we analyzed data elements (including value sets) in a collection (n=20) of randomly selected diagnostic criteria. We also performed a case study to formalize rule logic in the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome using the Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL). The results demonstrated that it is feasible to use OWL and SWRL to formalize the diagnostic criteria knowledge, and to execute the rules through reasoning.

  17. Arctic production to put demands on line pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    The launching of offshore production in the high Arctic will bring with it increased demand for the line pipe exhibiting good weldability and toughness characteristics in extremely low temperatures. West German steelmakers long have been recognized for supplying pipe and structural materials to the offshore market. Increased emphasis on arctic oil and gas exploration has seen the Germans increase research and development efforts on arctic grade steels, particularly line pipe. These R and D efforts are discussed.

  18. Effects of velocity averaging on the shapes of absorption lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickett, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    The velocity averaging of collision cross sections produces non-Lorentz line shapes, even at densities where Doppler broadening is not apparent. The magnitude of the effects will be described using a model in which the collision broadening depends on a simple velocity power law. The effect of the modified profile on experimental measures of linewidth, shift and amplitude will be examined and an improved approximate line shape will be derived.

  19. Diagnostic omission errors in acute paediatric practice: impact of a reminder system on decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Ramnarayan, Padmanabhan; Winrow, Andrew; Coren, Michael; Nanduri, Vasanta; Buchdahl, Roger; Jacobs, Benjamin; Fisher, Helen; Taylor, Paul M; Wyatt, Jeremy C; Britto, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    Background Diagnostic error is a significant problem in specialities characterised by diagnostic uncertainty such as primary care, emergency medicine and paediatrics. Despite wide-spread availability, computerised aids have not been shown to significantly improve diagnostic decision-making in a real world environment, mainly due to the need for prolonged system consultation. In this study performed in the clinical environment, we used a Web-based diagnostic reminder system that provided rapid advice with free text data entry to examine its impact on clinicians' decisions in an acute paediatric setting during assessments characterised by diagnostic uncertainty. Methods Junior doctors working over a 5-month period at four paediatric ambulatory units consulted the Web-based diagnostic aid when they felt the need for diagnostic assistance. Subjects recorded their clinical decisions for patients (differential diagnosis, test-ordering and treatment) before and after system consultation. An expert panel of four paediatric consultants independently suggested clinically significant decisions indicating an appropriate and 'safe' assessment. The primary outcome measure was change in the proportion of 'unsafe' workups by subjects during patient assessment. A more sensitive evaluation of impact was performed using specific validated quality scores. Adverse effects of consultation on decision-making, as well as the additional time spent on system use were examined. Results Subjects attempted to access the diagnostic aid on 595 occasions during the study period (8.6% of all medical assessments); subjects examined diagnostic advice only in 177 episodes (30%). Senior House Officers at hospitals with greater number of available computer workstations in the clinical area were most likely to consult the system, especially out of working hours. Diagnostic workups construed as 'unsafe' occurred in 47/104 cases (45.2%); this reduced to 32.7% following system consultation (McNemar test, p

  20. Diagnostics for energetic particle studies on the HL-2A tokamak

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Q. W. Zhou, H. Y.; Yang, J. W.; Shi, Z. B.; Ji, X. Q.; Yuan, G. L.; Zhang, Y. P.; Yu, D. L.; Jiang, M.; Li, W.; Ding, X. T.; Yin, Z. J.; Cao, H. R.

    2014-11-15

    About 13 kinds of diagnostics for energetic particle physics studied on the HuanLiuqi-2A (commonly referred to as HL-2A) tokamak are described in this paper. Their measurement ranges, resolutions, and arrangement are presented. Three under-construction diagnostics including imaging fast ion D-alpha, scintillator matrix (for hard X-ray detection), and bundle fission chamber are described in detail.

  1. Impact of gut microbiota on the fly's germ line

    PubMed Central

    Elgart, Michael; Stern, Shay; Salton, Orit; Gnainsky, Yulia; Heifetz, Yael; Soen, Yoav

    2016-01-01

    Unlike vertically transmitted endosymbionts, which have broad effects on their host's germ line, the extracellular gut microbiota is transmitted horizontally and is not known to influence the germ line. Here we provide evidence supporting the influence of these gut bacteria on the germ line of Drosophila melanogaster. Removal of the gut bacteria represses oogenesis, expedites maternal-to-zygotic-transition in the offspring and unmasks hidden phenotypic variation in mutants. We further show that the main impact on oogenesis is linked to the lack of gut Acetobacter species, and we identify the Drosophila Aldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh) gene as an apparent mediator of repressed oogenesis in Acetobacter-depleted flies. The finding of interactions between the gut microbiota and the germ line has implications for reproduction, developmental robustness and adaptation. PMID:27080728

  2. Development of a two-line OH-laser-induced fluorescence thermometry diagnostics strategy for gas-phase temperature measurements in engines.

    PubMed

    Devillers, R; Bruneaux, G; Schulz, C

    2008-11-01

    This study aims at optimizing two-line OH thermometry strategies for in-cylinder measurement in internal combustion engines. Various aspects are investigated experimentally, such as the selection of suitable OH lines and the possibility of using a single calibration coefficient for variable mixture composition, temperature, and pressure conditions. Two kinds of experimental systems have been investigated. First, a laminar methane-air burner flame at atmospheric pressure, whose stability allowed the determination of OH-laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) intensity ratios from nonsimultaneous imaging. The temperature distribution in the flame is presented for OH-transition pairs with various temperature sensitivities. The burner flame was studied for equivalence ratios from phi=0.93 to 1.30 in order to check for the stability of calibration over various flame conditions. Additionally, OH LIF images were acquired in an optical engine for the chosen OH transitions yielding data about the effect of pressure on OH LIF signals under realistic experimental conditions.

  3. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  4. On line monitoring of acrylamide formation.

    PubMed

    Cook, David J; Channell, Guy A; Taylor, Andrew J

    2005-01-01

    A system to monitor the formation of acrylamide in model systems and from real food products under controlled conditions of temperature, time and moisture content has been developed. By humidifying the gas that flows through the sample, some control over moisture content can be affected. Results are presented to show the validity and reproducibility of the technique and its ability to deliver quantitative data. The effects of different processing conditions on acrylamide formation and on the development of color, due to the Maillard reaction, are evaluated.

  5. On-line resources for otolaryngologists.

    PubMed

    Saada, A A

    1998-09-01

    Advances in telecommunications technology in the last decade have fostered the development of computer networks that allow access to vast amounts of information and services. The most prominent is the Internet (Glowniak, 1995). Medical information is increasingly available on such computer networks. The purpose of the present article is to provide an update to previously published otolaryngology sites (Johns, 1996; Burton and Johns, 1996) available on the World Wide Web, and to provide the otolaryngologist with details of resources that are accessible via the Internet. However, the reader should also be aware that the uniform resource locator (URL) addresses of Web sites can change without warning.

  6. Los Alamos contribution to target diagnostics on the National Ignition Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mack, J.M.; Baker, D.A.; Caldwell, S.E.

    1994-07-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) will have a large suite of sophisticated target diagnostics. This will allow thoroughly diagnosed experiments to be performed both at the ignition and pre-ignition levels. As part of the national effort Los Alamos National Laboratory will design, construct and implement a number of diagnostics for the NIF. This paper describes Los Alamos contributions to the ``phase I diagnostics.`` Phase I represents the most fundamental and basic measurement systems that will form the core for most work on the NIF. The Los Alamos effort falls into four categories: moderate to hard X-ray (time resolved imaging neutron spectroscopy- primarily with neutron time of flight devices; burn diagnostics utilizing gamma ray measurements; testing measurement concepts on the TRIDENT laser system at Los Alamos. Because of the high blast, debris and radiation environment, the design of high resolution X-ray imaging systems present significant challenges. Systems with close target proximity require special protection and methods for such protection is described. The system design specifications based on expected target performance parameters is also described. Diagnosis of nuclear yield and burn will be crucial to the NIF operation. Nuclear reaction diagnosis utilizing both neutron and gamma ray detection is discussed. The Los Alamos TRIDENT laser system will be used extensively for the development of new measurement concepts and diagnostic instrumentation. Some its potential roles in the development of diagnostics for NIF are given.

  7. Farm animal practitioners' views on their use and expectations of veterinary diagnostic laboratories.

    PubMed

    Robinson, P A; Epperson, W B

    2013-05-11

    Diagnostic sampling of farm animals by private veterinary practitioners can be an important contributing factor towards the discovery of emerging and exotic diseases. This focus group study of farm animal practitioners in Northern Ireland investigated their use and expectations of diagnostic veterinary laboratories, and elicited their opinions on the role of the private practitioner in veterinary surveillance and the protection of rural public health. The veterinarians were enthusiastic users of diagnostic laboratories, and regarded their own role in surveillance as pivotal. They attached great importance to their veterinary public health duties, and called for more collaboration with their medical general practitioner counterparts. The findings of this research can be used to guide future development of veterinary diagnostic services; provide further insights into the mechanics of scanning surveillance; and measure progress towards a 'One Health' approach between veterinarians and physicians in one geographical region of the UK.

  8. Workers on the Line: Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Lowell. Tsongas Industrial History Center.

    This field trip program, a 90-minute interpretive tour and a 90-minute hands-on workshop, provides students with the opportunity to explore the causes and nature of the conflict between workers and owners which grew out of the Industrial Revolution. The workshop complements the tour by bringing the significance of historic resources to life as…

  9. On-Line Databases in Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Enzo

    1986-01-01

    Use of online bibliographic databases in Mexico is provided through Servicio de Consulta a Bancos de Informacion, a public service that provides information retrieval, document delivery, translation, technical support, and training services. Technical infrastructure is based on a public packet-switching network and institutional users may receive…

  10. Student Perceptions of On-Line Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherrer, Christina R.; Butler, Renee J.; Burns, Shekinah

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to study general student perceptions of online education and characterize the differences that exist between various student demographic groups, with a focus on differences between those who have and have not previously taken courses online. We surveyed more than 300 students and analyzed their responses. Although…

  11. Advocacy on the Front Lines of CTE

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Career and technical education (CTE) in the 21st century is more relevant and rigorous than ever before. It prepares students to compete in the global workplace, it inspires lifelong learning, and it helps prevent at-risk students from dropping out of school because it keeps them engaged in the learning process. Those who work on the front lines…

  12. Before You Sign ... on the Dotted Line

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polonio, Narcisa A.; Miller, Emily R.

    2012-01-01

    This is a great time for individuals aspiring to the community college presidency. According to the 2012 American College President Study by the American Council on Education, in 2006, 47 percent of community college presidents were 51 to 60 years old and only 37 percent were between the ages of 61 and 70. More than five years later, 51 percent…

  13. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the lithium tokamak experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, J. C. Lazerson, S.; Majeski, R.; Bialek, J.

    2014-11-15

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment is a spherical tokamak with a close-fitting low-recycling wall composed of thin lithium layers evaporated onto a stainless steel-lined copper shell. Long-lived non-axisymmetric eddy currents are induced in the shell and vacuum vessel by transient plasma and coil currents and these eddy currents influence both the plasma and the magnetic diagnostic signals that are used as constraints for equilibrium reconstruction. A newly installed set of re-entrant magnetic diagnostics and internal saddle flux loops, compatible with high-temperatures and lithium environments, is discussed. Details of the axisymmetric (2D) and non-axisymmetric (3D) treatments of the eddy currents and the equilibrium reconstruction are presented.

  14. Magnetic diagnostics for equilibrium reconstructions with eddy currents on the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, J C; Bialek, J; Lazerson, S; Majeski, R

    2014-11-01

    The Lithium Tokamak eXperiment is a spherical tokamak with a close-fitting low-recycling wall composed of thin lithium layers evaporated onto a stainless steel-lined copper shell. Long-lived non-axisymmetric eddy currents are induced in the shell and vacuum vessel by transient plasma and coil currents and these eddy currents influence both the plasma and the magnetic diagnostic signals that are used as constraints for equilibrium reconstruction. A newly installed set of re-entrant magnetic diagnostics and internal saddle flux loops, compatible with high-temperatures and lithium environments, is discussed. Details of the axisymmetric (2D) and non-axisymmetric (3D) treatments of the eddy currents and the equilibrium reconstruction are presented.

  15. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  16. On-line fan blade damage detection using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oberholster, A. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology for monitoring the on-line condition of axial-flow fan blades with the use of neural networks. In developing this methodology, the first stage was to utilise neural networks trained on features extracted from on-line blade vibration signals measured on an experimental test structure. Results from a stationary experimental modal analysis of the structure were used for identifying global blade mode shapes and their corresponding frequencies. These in turn were used to assist in identifying vibration-related features suitable for neural network training. The features were extracted from on-line blade vibration and strain signals which were measured using a number of sensors. The second stage in the development of the methodology entails utilising neural networks trained on numerical Frequency Response Function (FRF) features obtained from a Finite Element Model (FEM) of the test structure. Frequency domain features obtained from on-line experimental measurements were used to normalise the numerical FRF features prior to neural network training. Following training, the networks were tested using experimental frequency domain features. This approach makes it unnecessary to damage the structure in order to train the neural networks. The paper shows that it is possible to classify damage for several fan blades by using neural networks with on-line vibration measurements from sensors not necessarily installed on the damaged blades themselves. The significance of this is that it proves the possibility to perform on-line fan blade damage classification using less than one sensor per blade. Even more significant is the demonstration that an on-line damage detection system for a fan can be developed without having to damage the actual structure.

  17. Soliton communication lines based on spectrally efficient modulation formats

    SciTech Connect

    Yushko, O V; Redyuk, A A

    2014-06-30

    We report the results of mathematical modelling of optical-signal propagation in soliton fibre-optic communication lines (FOCLs) based on spectrally efficient signal modulation formats. We have studied the influence of spontaneous emission noise, nonlinear distortions and FOCL length on the data transmission quality. We have compared the characteristics of a received optical signal for soliton and conventional dispersion compensating FOCLs. It is shown that in the presence of strong nonlinearity long-haul soliton FOCLs provide a higher data transmission performance, as well as allow higher order modulation formats to be used as compared to conventional communication lines. In the context of a coherent data transmission, soliton FOCLs allow the use of phase modulation with many levels, thereby increasing the spectral efficiency of the communication line. (optical communication lines)

  18. On-line Resources for Teaching Sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruckner, M. Z.; Larsen, K.; Buhr, S. M.; Kirk, K. B.; Ledley, T. S.; Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Savina, M. E.; Tewksbury, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    Sustainability encompasses broad interdisciplinary topics such as climate change, agricultural food production, and water resource use that include both scientific and societal components. Today's students will need to learn how to address complex, interdisciplinary, sustainability-related challenges throughout their lives. To support faculty in teaching complex concepts in sustainability to undergraduates, the Science Education Resource Center (SERC) now provides integrated access to all resources on teaching sustainability developed by projects hosted on SERC websites. Drawing extensively from collections developed by On the Cutting Edge: Professional Development for Geoscience Faculty, InTeGrate: Interdisciplinary Teaching of Geoscience for a Sustainable Future, the Climate Literacy and Energy Awareness Network (CLEAN), as well as more than 10 smaller projects, these resources include browsable access to (1) over 120 course descriptions submitted by faculty that provide information about course goals, assessments, and syllabi used in teaching courses with a sustainability focus, (2) over 160 faculty-submitted descriptions of activities that can be used to incorporate and address sustainability concepts, and (3) more than 90 interdisciplinary essays that highlight how faculty incorporate sustainability concepts into their teaching. The Sustainability Portal additionally includes several collections of lessons focused on a central theme, such as carbon footprint exercises and materials for teaching about energy that incorporate quantitative skills. The Sustainability Portal provides access to information about incorporating sustainability issues into geoscience courses and examples of how these concepts can be taught for topics such as geology and human health, public policy and Earth science, complex systems, urban students and urban environments, energy, and climate change. A rich collection of innovative pedagogical approaches conducive to teaching about

  19. An on-line Kerr spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallet, G.; Vasilescu, D.

    1991-10-01

    A transient electric birefringence computerized spectrometer inducing Kerr effect in anisotropically polarizable solutions such as DNA is described. Rectangular unipolar or bipolar pulses up to 400 V (I<10 A) can be applied to solutions with relatively high conductivity. The software developed for recording the signal in a PC/AT computer, interpreting the shape of the signals and plotting the experimental and theoretical curves, is also described. The software is written in turbo Pascal 5.0, except for the Labcard driver, which is in 80286 assembly language. The performances of the apparatus have been checked on various DNA solutions.

  20. On-line access to nursing literature.

    PubMed

    Cassey, M Z; Kane, W P; Sutton, L S

    1993-01-01

    Providing access to the multiple databases essential to nursing practice and education is a challenge for universities and health care providers alike. Collaboration between Wayne State University and other institutions in the Detroit metropolitan area provides a unique system for user access to nursing information. Building on the Detroit Area Library Network (DALNET) structure, additional computer databases have been added to the Library User Information System (LUIS) to allow faculty and student access from remote locations. With university identification, faculty and students access up-to-date literature-searching tools and check the availability of desired journal articles at multiple locations throughout the large tri-county area.

  1. Measurement of diagnostic neutral beam parameters on J-TEXT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J. R.; Cheng, Z. F.; Li, Z.; Li, Y.; Luo, J.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhuang, G.

    2016-11-01

    A Doppler frequency shift spectrum (DFSS) system composed of two spectrometers has been developed for the joint Texas experimental tokamak to measure diagnostic neutral beam parameters including the beam energy fractions, intensity distributions, and divergences. The beam energy fractions are derived from measurements of H-alpha (Hα) emission using collisional excitation cross sections. The beam intensity distributions are obtained using an 11-channel measurement with a reconstruction technique. The beam divergences are obtained from spectrum broadening and geometric calculations. The results of preliminary investigations indicate that the DFSS system works well and can be used to obtain all of these parameters simultaneously. According to the preliminary experiment, the one-third energy fraction has the largest proportion (about 45%) of the beam energy and the full energy fraction is about 10%. The beam diameter is about 8.1 cm at a distance of 2.04 m from the accelerator. The beam divergence angle is about 3.3°. The current beam parameters are insufficient for charge-exchange measurements.

  2. Measurement of diagnostic neutral beam parameters on J-TEXT.

    PubMed

    Wang, J R; Cheng, Z F; Li, Z; Li, Y; Luo, J; Zhang, X L; Zhuang, G

    2016-11-01

    A Doppler frequency shift spectrum (DFSS) system composed of two spectrometers has been developed for the joint Texas experimental tokamak to measure diagnostic neutral beam parameters including the beam energy fractions, intensity distributions, and divergences. The beam energy fractions are derived from measurements of H-alpha (Hα) emission using collisional excitation cross sections. The beam intensity distributions are obtained using an 11-channel measurement with a reconstruction technique. The beam divergences are obtained from spectrum broadening and geometric calculations. The results of preliminary investigations indicate that the DFSS system works well and can be used to obtain all of these parameters simultaneously. According to the preliminary experiment, the one-third energy fraction has the largest proportion (about 45%) of the beam energy and the full energy fraction is about 10%. The beam diameter is about 8.1 cm at a distance of 2.04 m from the accelerator. The beam divergence angle is about 3.3°. The current beam parameters are insufficient for charge-exchange measurements.

  3. Studies of RF sheaths and diagnostics on IShTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crombé, K.; Devaux, S.; D'Inca, R.; Faudot, E.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Heuraux, S.; Jacquot, J.; Louche, F.; Moritz, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.; Noterdaeme, J.-M.

    2015-12-01

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetised plasma test facility for RF sheaths studies at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching. In contrast to a tokamak, a test stand provides more liberty to impose the parameters and gives better access for the instrumentation and antennas. The project will support the development of diagnostic methods for characterising RF sheaths and validate and improve theoretical predictions. The cylindrical vacuum vessel has a diameter of 1 m and is 1.1 m long. The plasma is created by an external cylindrical plasma source equipped with a helical antenna that has been designed to excite the m=1 helicon mode. In inductive mode, plasma densities and electron temperatures have been characterised with a planar Langmuir probe as a function of gas pressure and input RF power. A 2D array of RF compensated Langmuir probes and a spectrometer are planned. A single strap RF antenna has been designed; the plasma-facing surface is aligned to the cylindrical plasma to ease the modelling. The probes will allow direct measurements of plasma density profiles in front of the RF antenna, and thus a detailed study of the density modifications induced by RF sheaths, which influences the coupling. The RF antenna frequency has been chosen to study different plasma wave interactions: the accessible plasma density range includes an evanescent and propagative behaviour of slow or fast waves, and allows the study of the effect of the lower hybrid resonance layer.

  4. Direct effect of diagnostic ultrasound on genetically interesting molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Ciatti, S.; Domokos, G.; Koevesi-Domokos, S.; Milano, F.

    1981-01-01

    Ultrasound is a non-ionizing radiation and at typical intensities used in diagnostic sonography, macroscopic damage to tissues is negligible. Some recent experiments, however, provided evidence for possible genetic damage caused by relatively low-intensity ultrasound irradiation. Although the implications of such experiments concerning possible genetic damage caused by low intensity ultrasound irradiation are not yet completely understood, the very existence of such results raises an important theoretical question. Is it possible that a non-ionizing radiation can cause significant changes in the structure of a typical DNA molecule. Several mechanisms exist which are responsible for such changes including: (1) structural changes in the molecule due to sound absorption from a high harmonic of the repetition frequency of a pulsed ultrasound radiation; (2) structural changes due to multi-phonon absorption from low harmonics of the repetition frequency; and (3) break-up of the molecule as a consequence of the excitation of collective vibrations. The calculations presented suggest that, should damage to DNA in vitro caused by low-intensity ultrasound be confirmed beyond reasonable doubt, such catastrophic changes in the structure of DNA molecules are more likely to arise as a result of their collective modes rather than from a localizable breakup of some hydrogen bonds. (ERB)

  5. An upgraded x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic on MSTa)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, D. J.; Almagri, A. F.; Burke, D. R.; Forest, C. B.; Goetz, J. A.; Kaufman, M. C.; O'Connell, R.

    2010-10-01

    An upgraded x-ray spectroscopy diagnostic is used to measure the distribution of fast electrons in MST and to determine Zeff and the particle diffusion coefficient Dr. A radial array of 12 CdZnTe hard-x-ray detectors measures 10-150 keV Bremsstrahlung from fast electrons, a signature of reduced stochasticity and improved confinement in the plasma. A new Si soft-x-ray detector measures 2-10 keV Bremsstrahlung from thermal and fast electrons. The shaped output pulses from both detector types are digitized and the resulting waveforms are fit with Gaussians to resolve pileup and provide good time and energy resolution. Lead apertures prevent detector saturation and provide a well-known etendue, while lead shielding prevents pickup from stray x-rays. New Be vacuum windows transmit >2 keV x-rays, and additional Al and Be filters are sometimes used to reduce low energy flux for better resolution at higher energies. Measured spectra are compared to those predicted by the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D to deduce Zeff and Dr.

  6. Diagnostic time in digital pathology: A comparative study on 400 cases

    PubMed Central

    Vodovnik, Aleksandar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Numerous validation studies in digital pathology confirmed its value as a diagnostic tool. However, a longer time to diagnosis than traditional microscopy has been seen as a significant barrier to the routine use of digital pathology. As a part of our validation study, we compared a digital and microscopic diagnostic time in the routine diagnostic setting. Materials and Methods: One senior staff pathologist reported 400 consecutive cases in histology, nongynecological, and fine needle aspiration cytology (20 sessions, 20 cases/session), over 4 weeks. Complex, difficult, and rare cases were excluded from the study to reduce the bias. A primary diagnosis was digital, followed by traditional microscopy, 6 months later, with only request forms available for both. Microscopic slides were scanned at ×20, digital images accessed through the fully integrated laboratory information management system (LIMS) and viewed in the image viewer on double 23” displays. A median broadband speed was 299 Mbps. A diagnostic time was measured from the point slides were made available to the point diagnosis was made or additional investigations were deemed necessary, recorded independently in minutes/session and compared. Results: A digital diagnostic time was 1841 and microscopic 1956 min; digital being shorter than microscopic in 13 sessions. Four sessions with shorter microscopic diagnostic time included more cases requiring extensive use of magnifications over ×20. Diagnostic time was similar in three sessions. Conclusions: A diagnostic time in digital pathology can be shorter than traditional microscopy in the routine diagnostic setting, with adequate and stable network speeds, fully integrated LIMS and double displays as default parameters. This also related to better ergonomics, larger viewing field, and absence of physical slide handling, with effects on both diagnostic and nondiagnostic time. Differences with previous studies included a design, image size, number

  7. Passive optical sensor for lightning detection on overhead power lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosolem, J. B.; Barbosa, C. F.; Florídia, C.; Bezerra, E. L.

    2009-10-01

    In this work we present the results of a passive optical sensor for monitoring lightning strikes on overhead power lines, which can also be used for several other applications. The optic sensor is very simple and cheap and basically consists in the use of an antenna connected directly to a semiconductor laser. No batteries and solar panels are necessary to implement this sensing system in power lines towers. It was tested in laboratory and showed a good performance.

  8. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus

    SciTech Connect

    Gelfusa, M.; Gaudio, P.; Peluso, E.; Murari, A.; Baruzzo, M.; Lupelli, I.; Hawkes, N.; Brix, M.; Drozdov, V.; Meigs, A.; Romanelli, M.; Schmuck, S.; Sieglin, B.; Collaboration: JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-15

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of

  9. Influence of plasma diagnostics and constraints on the quality of equilibrium reconstructions on Joint European Torus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfusa, M.; Murari, A.; Lupelli, I.; Hawkes, N.; Gaudio, P.; Baruzzo, M.; Brix, M.; Craciunescu, T.; Drozdov, V.; Meigs, A.; Peluso, E.; Romanelli, M.; Schmuck, S.; Sieglin, B.; JET-EFDA Contributors

    2013-10-01

    One of the main approaches to thermonuclear fusion relies on confining high temperature plasmas with properly shaped magnetic fields. The determination of the magnetic topology is, therefore, essential for controlling the experiments and for achieving the required performance. In Tokamaks, the reconstruction of the fields is typically formulated as a free boundary equilibrium problem, described by the Grad-Shafranov equation in toroidal geometry and axisymmetric configurations. Unfortunately, this results in mathematically very ill posed problems and, therefore, the quality of the equilibrium reconstructions depends sensitively on the measurements used as inputs and on the imposed constraints. In this paper, it is shown how the different diagnostics (Magnetics Measurements, Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect), together with the edge current density and plasma pressure constraints, can have a significant impact on the quality of the equilibrium on JET. Results show that both the Polarimetry and Motional Stark Effect internal diagnostics are crucial in order to obtain reasonable safety factor profiles. The impact of the edge current density constraint is significant when the plasma is in the H-mode of confinement. In this plasma scenario the strike point positions and the plasma last closed flux surface can change even by centimetres, depending on the edge constraints, with a significant impact on the remapping of the equilibrium-dependent diagnostics and of pedestal physics studies. On the other hand and quite counter intuitively, the pressure constraint can severely affect the quality of the magnetic reconstructions in the core. These trends have been verified with several JET discharges and consistent results have been found. An interpretation of these results, as interplay between degrees of freedom and available measurements, is provided. The systematic analysis described in the paper emphasizes the importance of having sufficient diagnostic inputs and of

  10. The ISO SWS on-line system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roelfsema, P. R.; Kester, D. J. M.; Wesselius, P. R.; Wieprech, E.; Sym, N.

    1992-01-01

    The software which is currently being developed for the Short Wavelength Spectrometer (SWS) of the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) is described. The spectrometer has a wide range of capabilities in the 2-45 micron infrared band. SWS contains two independent gratings, one for the long and one for the short wavelength section of the band. With the gratings a spectral resolution of approximately 1000 to approximately 2500 can be obtained. The instrument also contains two Fabry-Perault's yielding a resolution between approximately 1000 and approximately 20000. Software is currently being developed for the acquisition, calibration, and analysis of SWS data. The software is firstly required to run in a pipeline mode without human interaction, to process data as they are received from the telescope. However, both for testing and calibration of the instrument as well as for evaluation of the planned operating procedures the software should also be suitable for interactive use. Thirdly the same software will be used for long term characterization of the instrument. The software must work properly within the environment designed by the European Space Agency (ESA) for the spacecraft operations. As a result strict constraints are put on I/O devices, throughput etc.

  11. Interactive 3d Landscapes on Line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanini, B.; Calori, L.; Ferdani, D.; Pescarin, S.

    2011-09-01

    The paper describes challenges identified while developing browser embedded 3D landscape rendering applications, our current approach and work-flow and how recent development in browser technologies could affect. All the data, even if processed by optimization and decimation tools, result in very huge databases that require paging, streaming and Level-of-Detail techniques to be implemented to allow remote web based real time fruition. Our approach has been to select an open source scene-graph based visual simulation library with sufficient performance and flexibility and adapt it to the web by providing a browser plug-in. Within the current Montegrotto VR Project, content produced with new pipelines has been integrated. The whole Montegrotto Town has been generated procedurally by CityEngine. We used this procedural approach, based on algorithms and procedures because it is particularly functional to create extensive and credible urban reconstructions. To create the archaeological sites we used optimized mesh acquired with laser scanning and photogrammetry techniques whereas to realize the 3D reconstructions of the main historical buildings we adopted computer-graphic software like blender and 3ds Max. At the final stage, semi-automatic tools have been developed and used up to prepare and clusterise 3D models and scene graph routes for web publishing. Vegetation generators have also been used with the goal of populating the virtual scene to enhance the user perceived realism during the navigation experience. After the description of 3D modelling and optimization techniques, the paper will focus and discuss its results and expectations.

  12. On Asymmetry of Hydrogen Spectral Lines in Nonequlibrium Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Demura, A. V.; Demchenko, G. V.; Nikolic, D.

    2008-10-22

    The Standard Theory (ST) of hydrogen spectral lines Stark broadening is applied within many-body approach to detailed description of profile asymmetry simultaneously accounting for the quadrupole interaction, quadratic Stark effect shifts and corrections to oscillator strengths. The influence of electronic collision shifts and impact widths, trivial asymmetry, the Boltzmann and dipole intensity scaling factors are studied as well. The consistent inclusion of the latter two factors in ST frames requests the line contour redefinition to avoid divergence. It is demonstrated that the asymmetry of hydrogen spectral lines is the many-parametric sensitive function of broadening mechanisms. The comparison with the precision experiment on stabilized arc data for H{sub {beta}} line has shown good coincidence within assumption of nonequilibrium between electrons and heavy neutral particles.

  13. Improving the performance of a filling line based on simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasiulewicz-Kaczmarek, M.; Bartkowiak, T.

    2016-08-01

    The paper describes the method of improving performance of a filling line based on simulation. This study concerns a production line that is located in a manufacturing centre of a FMCG company. A discrete event simulation model was built using data provided by maintenance data acquisition system. Two types of failures were identified in the system and were approximated using continuous statistical distributions. The model was validated taking into consideration line performance measures. A brief Pareto analysis of line failures was conducted to identify potential areas of improvement. Two improvements scenarios were proposed and tested via simulation. The outcome of the simulations were the bases of financial analysis. NPV and ROI values were calculated taking into account depreciation, profits, losses, current CIT rate and inflation. A validated simulation model can be a useful tool in maintenance decision-making process.

  14. Remote Automatic Material On-Line Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Magnuson, Erik

    2005-12-20

    moisture ranging from 2% to over 140% (referenced to the wood's dry weight). Accuracy exceeded that offered by existing instrumentation when the moisture content was in excess of the fiber saturation point ({approx}20%). Accuracy was independent of the wood form: solid wood, wood chips or sawdust. The prototype NMR system was designed and built for incorporation and use in a beta test site. Beta testing is under way at the pilot plant operated by the Pulp and Paper Research Institute of Canada (PAPRICAN) in Vancouver, B.C. Other industries were also investigated. For example, laboratory testing demonstrated that low-field NMR is capable of measuring the hydrogen content of calcium oxide (quicklime). Hydrogen content measurement can be done both rapidly (on the order of 1 second) and nondestructively. Measurement of moisture in quicklime affects energy consumption in the steel industry. Further advances in system electronics, ongoing under DOD support, will enable yet more substantial system cost reductions over the prototype system, opening up a wider range of utility.

  15. Harmonic resonance on parallel high voltage transmission lines

    SciTech Connect

    Harries, J.R.; Randall, J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) has received complaints of telephone interference over a wide area of northwestern Washington State for several years. However, until 1995 investigations had proved inconclusive as either the source of the harmonics or the operating conditions changed whenever investigators arrived. The 2,100 Hz interference had been noticed at several optically isolated telephone exchanges. The area of complaint corresponded to electric service areas near the transmission line corridors of the BPA Custer-Monroe 500-kV lines. High 2,100 Hz field strength was measured near the 500-kV lines and also under lower voltage lines served from stations along the transmission line corridor. Tests and studies made with the Alternative Transients Program version of the Electromagnetic Transients Program (EMTP) were able to define the phenomena and isolate the source. Harmonic resonance has been observed, measured and modeled on parallel 500-kV lines that are about one wavelength at 2,100 Hz, the 35th harmonic. A seemingly small harmonic injection at one location on the system causes significant problems some distance away such as telephone interference.

  16. Studies of RF sheaths and diagnostics on IShTAR

    SciTech Connect

    Crombé, K.; D’Inca, R.; Faugel, H.; Fünfgelder, H.; Jacquot, J.; Ochoukov, R.; Louche, F.; Tripsky, M.; Van Eester, D.; Wauters, T.

    2015-12-10

    IShTAR (Ion cyclotron Sheath Test ARrangement) is a linear magnetised plasma test facility for RF sheaths studies at the Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik in Garching. In contrast to a tokamak, a test stand provides more liberty to impose the parameters and gives better access for the instrumentation and antennas. The project will support the development of diagnostic methods for characterising RF sheaths and validate and improve theoretical predictions. The cylindrical vacuum vessel has a diameter of 1 m and is 1.1 m long. The plasma is created by an external cylindrical plasma source equipped with a helical antenna that has been designed to excite the m=1 helicon mode. In inductive mode, plasma densities and electron temperatures have been characterised with a planar Langmuir probe as a function of gas pressure and input RF power. A 2D array of RF compensated Langmuir probes and a spectrometer are planned. A single strap RF antenna has been designed; the plasma-facing surface is aligned to the cylindrical plasma to ease the modelling. The probes will allow direct measurements of plasma density profiles in front of the RF antenna, and thus a detailed study of the density modifications induced by RF sheaths, which influences the coupling. The RF antenna frequency has been chosen to study different plasma wave interactions: the accessible plasma density range includes an evanescent and propagative behaviour of slow or fast waves, and allows the study of the effect of the lower hybrid resonance layer.

  17. New live line tester for porcelain suspension insulators on high-voltage power lines

    SciTech Connect

    Vaillancourt, G.H.; St-Jean, M. ); Bellerive, J.P. ); Jean, C. )

    1994-01-01

    Suspension insulator assemblies known as insulator strings are used in overhead power transmission lines to mechanically support high-voltage conductors while providing adequate insulation to withstand switching and lightning overvoltages. Since the useful life in service of the individual insulator elements making up these strings is hard to predict, they must be verified periodically to insure that adequate line reliability is maintained at all times. Over the years many testing methods have been used for this purpose, each one with its own advantages and disadvantages. Until now at Hydro-Quebec, porcelain insulators had been tested by the buzz method which simply consists of applying a short-circuit to each insulator in a string and listening for a buzz-like sound indicating a good insulator. However, safety considerations that preclude short-circuiting insulators and other disadvantages of that method have led Hydro-Quebec to undertake and complete the development of a new insulator tester. The working principle of this new device is based on the automatic measurement and recording of the electric field along the insulator string which decreases considerably in front of an internally-shorted insulator. The tester is slid along the string while the insulators are counted automatically. The information from tests on up to 200 strings can be stored in the device to be later transferred in a host computer for interpretation and/or permanent storage. The new tester also gives information on voltage distribution along the insulator strings which can be useful for the design of future power transmission lines.

  18. Polarization of Coronal Forbidden Lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hao; Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio; Qu, Zhongquan

    2017-03-01

    Since the magnetic field is responsible for most manifestations of solar activity, one of the most challenging problems in solar physics is the diagnostics of solar magnetic fields, particularly in the outer atmosphere. To this end, it is important to develop rigorous diagnostic tools to interpret polarimetric observations in suitable spectral lines. This paper is devoted to analyzing the diagnostic content of linear polarization imaging observations in coronal forbidden lines. Although this technique is restricted to off-limb observations, it represents a significant tool to diagnose the magnetic field structure in the solar corona, where the magnetic field is intrinsically weak and still poorly known. We adopt the quantum theory of polarized line formation developed in the framework of the density matrix formalism, and synthesize images of the emergent linear polarization signal in coronal forbidden lines using potential-field source-surface magnetic field models. The influence of electronic collisions, active regions, and Thomson scattering on the linear polarization of coronal forbidden lines is also examined. It is found that active regions and Thomson scattering are capable of conspicuously influencing the orientation of the linear polarization. These effects have to be carefully taken into account to increase the accuracy of the field diagnostics. We also found that linear polarization observation in suitable lines can give valuable information on the long-term evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona.

  19. Line operators from M-branes on compact Riemann surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amariti, Antonio; Orlando, Domenico; Reffert, Susanne

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, we determine the charge lattice of mutually local Wilson and 't Hooft line operators for class S theories living on M5-branes wrapped on compact Riemann surfaces. The main ingredients of our analysis are the fundamental group of the N-cover of the Riemann surface, and a quantum constraint on the six-dimensional theory. The latter plays a central role in excluding some of the possible lattices and imposing consistency conditions on the charges. This construction gives a geometric explanation for the mutual locality among the lines, fixing their charge lattice and the structure of the four-dimensional gauge group.

  20. Engagement of parents in on-line social support interventions.

    PubMed

    Paterson, Barbara L; Brewer, Joan; Stamler, Lynnette Leeseberg

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this scoping review was to determine what the relevant research informs us about which parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability are likely to engage in an on-line social support program and why they choose to be engaged. The review included 16 peer-reviewed research reports about on-line social support offered to parents of children with chronic disease and/or disability. It was conducted using scoping review approaches recommended by H. Arskey and L. O'Malley (2005). A key finding of this review is that it appears that the development of on-line social support interventions for parents may not have integrated what is known in the field of Internet technology as necessary to engage users. This has implications for nurses wishing to provide on-line social support for parents. As well, it highlights future directions for research, including investigations of which parents are likely to engage in on-line social support interventions and the features of the intevention that will attract and sustain them as participants.

  1. EPA'S ON-LINE CALCULATORS AND TRAINING COURSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA has developed a suite of on-line calculators called "OnSite" for assessing transport of environmental contaminants int the subsurface. The calculators are available on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/athens/onsite, and are divided into four categories: Parameter Estimate...

  2. Investigation into the Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients on Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, K.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage ratings needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations. and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  3. Investigation Into The Effects of Microsecond Power Line Transients On Line-Connected Capacitors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javor, Ken

    1999-01-01

    An investigation was conducted into the effect of power-line transients on capacitors used by NASA and installed on platform primary power inputs to avionics. The purpose was to investigate whether capacitor voltage rating needs to be derated for expected spike potentials. Concerns had been voiced in the past by NASA suppliers that MIL-STD-461 CS06-like requirements were overly harsh and led to physically large capacitors. The author had previously predicted that electrical-switching spike requirements representative of actual power-line transient potentials, durations and source impedance would require no derating. This investigation bore out that prediction. It was further determined that traditional low source impedance CS06-like transients also will not damage a capacitor, although the spikes themselves are not nearly as well filtered. This report should be used to allay fears that CS06-like requirements drive capacitor voltage derating. Only that derating required by the relatively long duration transients in power quality specification need concern the equipment designer.

  4. Assessing the impact of next-generation rapid diagnostic tests on Plasmodium falciparum malaria elimination strategies.

    PubMed

    Slater, Hannah C; Ross, Amanda; Ouédraogo, André Lin; White, Lisa J; Nguon, Chea; Walker, Patrick G T; Ngor, Pengby; Aguas, Ricardo; Silal, Sheetal P; Dondorp, Arjen M; La Barre, Paul; Burton, Robert; Sauerwein, Robert W; Drakeley, Chris; Smith, Thomas A; Bousema, Teun; Ghani, Azra C

    2015-12-03

    Mass-screen-and-treat and targeted mass-drug-administration strategies are being considered as a means to interrupt transmission of Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, the effectiveness of such strategies will depend on the extent to which current and future diagnostics are able to detect those individuals who are infectious to mosquitoes. We estimate the relationship between parasite density and onward infectivity using sensitive quantitative parasite diagnostics and mosquito feeding assays from Burkina Faso. We find that a diagnostic with a lower detection limit of 200 parasites per microlitre would detect 55% of the infectious reservoir (the combined infectivity to mosquitoes of the whole population weighted by how often each individual is bitten) whereas a test with a limit of 20 parasites per microlitre would detect 83% and 2 parasites per microlitre would detect 95% of the infectious reservoir. Using mathematical models, we show that increasing the diagnostic sensitivity from 200 parasites per microlitre (equivalent to microscopy or current rapid diagnostic tests) to 2 parasites per microlitre would increase the number of regions where transmission could be interrupted with a mass-screen-and-treat programme from an entomological inoculation rate below 1 to one of up to 4. The higher sensitivity diagnostic could reduce the number of treatment rounds required to interrupt transmission in areas of lower prevalence. We predict that mass-screen-and-treat with a highly sensitive diagnostic is less effective than mass drug administration owing to the prophylactic protection provided to uninfected individuals by the latter approach. In low-transmission settings such as those in Southeast Asia, we find that a diagnostic tool with a sensitivity of 20 parasites per microlitre may be sufficient for targeted mass drug administration because this diagnostic is predicted to identify a similar village population prevalence compared with that currently detected using

  5. Development of an on-line fuel failure monitoring system for CANDU reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingstone, Stephen Jason

    Although relatively rare in CANDU plants, fuel defects have always been an important operating concern for CANDU fuel operation and behaviour, and play a critical role in health, safety, and the economics of an operating reactor. A fuel defect occurs when a fuel element has a breach in its sheath resulting in fission product (FP) release and/or uranium fuel loss into the reactor primary heat transport system (PHTS). The unintended release of FP and fuel material into the PHTS creates elevated radiation fields and hazards for the reactor operator. The intent of this thesis is to develop an online real-time system that can analyse PHTS activity and infer information relating to otherwise unknown defect(s) in the reactor core. A MATLABRTM based Graphical User Interface (GUI) programme called COLDD (CANDU On-Line Defected fuel Diagnostic) has been developed to provide detailed diagnostics of PHTS activities. COLDD is based on new techniques, a new empirical diffusion coefficient, new algorithms, and refinement of existing techniques. Several techniques are based on detailed mechanistic models that are presented in detail, while other techniques are based on empirical rules from experimental and commercial experience; the diversity of techniques are shown to be self-consistent. The techniques employed by COLDD are compared to techniques used internationally by other defected fuel diagnostic tools for non-CANDU type reactors. The ability for COLDD to perform successful defected fuel diagnostics is dependent on the quality of the data provided. A detailed sensitivity analysis is performed to determine key measurement parameters. Techniques are also developed to allow operators to perform robust error checking of data to ensure consistency. COLDD is validated against theoretical, experimental, and commercial reactor data, and shown to be stable and consistent in all cases. The plethora of analysis modes are shown to be self-consistent. The version of COLDD described in

  6. Diagnostic Algorithm Benchmarking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poll, Scott

    2011-01-01

    A poster for the NASA Aviation Safety Program Annual Technical Meeting. It describes empirical benchmarking on diagnostic algorithms using data from the ADAPT Electrical Power System testbed and a diagnostic software framework.

  7. Shrinking the lymphatic filariasis map: update on diagnostic tools for mapping and transmission monitoring.

    PubMed

    Rebollo, Maria P; Bockarie, Moses John

    2014-12-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF), which is highly endemic in 73 countries worldwide, is targeted for elimination by 2020. The strategy for achieving this goal is based on 4 sequential programmatic steps: mapping, Mass drug administration (MDA) implementation, post-MDA surveillance and verification of LF elimination. All 4 stages of the implementation process are dependent on the availability of user friendly and highly sensitive rapid diagnostic tools. By the end of 2012, 59 countries had completed mapping for LF and Eritrea was the only country yet to start the process. Rolling out new diagnostic tools to facilitate the mapping process will enable an accelerated shrinking of the LF map to zero endemic countries by 2020. When the Global Programme to Eliminate Lymphatic Filariasis was launched in 2000, diagnostic tools for LF were limited to clinical examination, detection of microfilaria (MF) by microscopy in night blood samples and detection of antibodies to native-antigen preparations. There has been a significant improvement in the traditional LF diagnostic methods in recent years and some new tools are now available. This paper provides an update on the human diagnostic tests available for LF and their current applications as tools in mapping and transmission monitoring. The values of entomological indicators and parasite detection and speciation methods applied to vector populations are also discussed.

  8. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury: consensus on conceptual definition, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Ian J; Perkes, Iain E; Fernandez-Ortega, Juan-Francisco; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Dolce, Giuliano; Hendricks, Henk T

    2014-09-01

    A syndrome of paroxysmal, episodic sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury has been recognized for almost 60 years. This project sought to simplify the confused nomenclature for the condition (>31 eponyms) and simplify the nine overlapping sets of diagnostic criteria. A consensus-developed questionnaire based on a systematic review of the literature was circulated to a widely representative, international expert group utilizing a Delphi approach. Diagnostic criteria were dropped if group consensus failed to agree on their relative importance, with a goal of reaching a Cronbach α of 0.8 (suitable for research purposes). The resulting criteria were combined into an assessment measure for clinical and research settings. The consensus group recommend that the term "paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity" replace previous terms to describe the "syndrome, recognised in a subgroup of survivors of severe acquired brain injury, of simultaneous, paroxysmal transient increases in sympathetic [elevated heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, sweating] and motor [posturing] activity." An 11 point probabilistic diagnostic scale was developed with reference to published criteria, yielding an acceptable Cronbach α of 0.8. These 11 items were proceduralized and combined with a symptom severity index to produce a diagnostic tool for use with adults (the paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity assessment measure [PSH-AM]). Development of a pediatric version of the scale and further research into the validity of the PSH-AM is recommended. The consensus position builds on previous literature to establish diagnostic definitions and criteria, an important move to standardize research and management of this condition.

  9. On the Nodal Lines of Eisenstein Series on Schottky Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakobson, Dmitry; Naud, Frédéric

    2017-04-01

    On convex co-compact hyperbolic surfaces {X=Γ backslash H2}, we investigate the behavior of nodal curves of real valued Eisenstein series {F_λ(z,ξ)}, where {λ} is the spectral parameter, {ξ} the direction at infinity. Eisenstein series are (non-{L^2}) eigenfunctions of the Laplacian {Δ_X} satisfying {Δ_X F_λ=(1/4+λ^2)F_λ}. As {λ} goes to infinity (the high energy limit), we show that, for generic {ξ}, the number of intersections of nodal lines with any compact segment of geodesic grows like {λ}, up to multiplicative constants. Applications to the number of nodal domains inside the convex core of the surface are then derived.

  10. ``Multifractals in Transmission of Off-line & On-line E-Voting Systems''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksoed, Wh-

    An e-voting systems is a voting system in which the election data is recorded, stored & processed primarily as digital information. Those are 2 type of e-voting systems: off-line & on-line systems[Alaguvel & Gnanavel, 2013]. ``Using transfer matrix method & multifractal theory, we studied the transmission properties of 1D generalized Fibonacci structures GF(m.n) in which m & n different intervals are integer according to a substitution rule[Yuannong Zhang, et.al,:Multifractal properties of 1D quasi-period Photonic Crystal''. ``Transmission spectra of 1D fractal multilayer structures are found to exhibit self-similar properties'' says Zhukovsky & Lavrinenko in ``Spectral self-similarity in fractal 1D photonic structures'',Photonics & Nanostructures, 2005 whereas Jacob Trevino, et.al studies `structural properties, photonic density of state & bandedge modes of Vogel spiral arrays of dielectric cylinders in air'. Acknowledgment to HE. Mr. AUGUST PARENGKUAN if accepts 1995-2005 Invoicing & Fulfillments to ``KOMPAS'' cq the Prodi of Physics ITB.

  11. Array-on-a-disk? How Blu-ray technology can be applied to molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Morais, Sergi; Tortajada-Genaro, Luis; Maquieira, Angel

    2014-09-01

    This editorial comments on the balance and perspectives of compact disk technology applied to molecular diagnostics. The development of sensitive, rapid and multiplex assays using Blu-ray technology for the determination of biomarkers, drug allergens, pathogens and detection of infections would have a direct impact on diagnostics. Effective tests for use in clinical, environmental and food applications require versatile and low-cost platforms as well as cost-effective detectors. Blu-ray technology accomplishes those requirements and advances on the concept of high density arrays for massive screening to achieve the demands of point of care or in situ analysis.

  12. Diagnostic profile on the IFA 40: HEp-20-10 - an immunofluorescence test for reliable antinuclear antibody screening.

    PubMed

    Rohwäder, Edda; Locke, Michael; Fraune, Johanna; Fechner, Kai

    2015-04-01

    Indirect immunofluorescence assay is the recommended gold standard to test for antinuclear antibodies (ANA), which are important biomarkers for systemic rheumatic autoimmune diseases. It is internationally accepted that indirect immunofluorescence assay ANA screening is most sensitive on human epithelial (HEp-2) cells. The cells present a multitude of antigens that display distinguishable localization patterns in interphase and mitotic cells in indirect immunofluorescence analysis. Here, we present the IFA 40: HEp-20-10 test kit (Euroimmun AG, Lübeck, Germany), which is cleared for sale on the US market by the FDA. The test has been designed for qualitative and semiquantitative screening of ANA in human sera. It uses the commonly applied 1:40 cutoff dilution and the enhanced HEp-20-10 cell line for more efficient pattern recognition and has been validated in various studies and by method comparison. The IFA 40: HEp-20-10 test fulfills the essential criteria for reliable application in autoimmune diagnostics.

  13. On the formation of Mg ii h and k lines in solar prominences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, P.; Vial, J.-C.; Anzer, U.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: With the recent launch of the IRIS mission, it has become urgent to develop the spectral diagnostics using the Mg ii resonance h and k lines. In this paper, we aim to demonstrate the behavior of these lines under various prominence conditions. Our results serve as a basis for analysis of new IRIS data and for more sophisticated prominence modeling. Methods: For this exploratory work, we use a canonical 1D prominence-slab model, which is isobaric and may have three different temperature structures: isothermal, PCTR-like (prominence-corona transition region), and consistent with the radiative equilibrium. The slabs are illuminated by a realistic incident solar radiation obtained from the UV observations. A five-level plus continuum Mg ii model atom is used to solve the full NLTE problem of the radiative transfer. We use the numerical code based on the ALI techniques and apply the partial frequency redistribution for both Mg ii resonance lines. We also use the velocity-dependent boundary conditions to study the effect of Doppler dimming in the case of moving prominences. Finally, the relaxation technique is used to compute a grid of models in radiative equilibrium. Results: We computed the Mg ii h and k line profiles that are emergent from prominence-slab models and show their dependence on kinetic temperature, gas pressure, geometrical extension, and microturbulent velocity. By increasing the line opacity, significant departures from the complete frequency redistribution take place in the line wings. Models with a PCTR temperature structure show that Mg ii becomes ionized to Mg iii in the temperature range between roughly 15 000 and 30 000 K. Doppler dimming is significant for Mg ii resonance lines. At the velocity 300 km s-1, the line intensity decreases to about 20% of the value for static prominences. Finally, we demonstrate the role of Mg ii h and k radiation losses on the prominence energy balance. Their dominant role is at lower pressures, while the

  14. Overview of the impact of noninvasive prenatal testing on diagnostic procedures.

    PubMed

    Warsof, Steven L; Larion, Sebastian; Abuhamad, Alfred Z

    2015-10-01

    Noninvasive prenatal testing (NIPT) has had a profound influence in the field of prenatal diagnosis since the 1997 discovery of cell-free fetal DNA in maternal blood. Research has progressed rapidly, with clinical data supporting laboratory studies showing that NIPT is highly sensitive and specific for fetal aneuploidy, resulting in marked uptake in the high-risk patient population. The superior accuracy of NIPT compared with conventional screening methods has led to significant decreases in the number of invasive diagnostic procedures, in addition to a concomitant decrease in the number of procedure-related fetal losses. Yet, NIPT has been described as a 'disruptive innovation' due to the considerable changes the technology has commanded on current prenatal screening and diagnostic practices. This review summarizes both institutional and global experience with NIPT uptake, its effect on reducing diagnostic invasive procedures, and the unique challenges that reduced procedural volume may have on physician and trainee proficiency, cytogenetic laboratories, and neonatal outcome.

  15. Design and operation of the multiple-pulse driver line on the OMEGA laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosc, T. Z.; Kelly, J. H.; Hill, E. M.; Waxer, L. J.

    2016-05-01

    The multiple-pulse driver line (MPD) provides on-shot co-propagation of two separately generated pulse shapes in all 60 OMEGA beams at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. Smoothing by spectral dispersion (SSD), which increases the laser bandwidth, can be applied to either one of the two pulse shapes, thereby enabling dynamic bandwidth reduction. The design of the MPD required careful consideration of beam combination as well as the minimum pulse separation for two pulses generated by two separate seed sources. A new combined-pulse-shape diagnostic needed to be designed and installed after the last SSD grating. The capability of MPD to reduce dynamic bandwidth has been used on a series of campaigns on OMEGA and the performance data are presented.

  16. On-line measurement of heat of combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chaturvedi, S. K.; Chegini, H.

    1988-01-01

    An experimental method for an on-line measurement of heat of combustion of a gaseous hydrocarbon fuel mixture of unknown composition is developed. It involves combustion of a test gas with a known quantity of air to achieve a predetermined oxygen concentration level in the combustion products. This is accomplished by a feedback controller which maintains the gas volumetric flow rate at a level consistent with the desired oxygen concentration in the products. The heat of combustion is determined from a known correlation with the gas volumetric flow rate. An on-line microcomputer accesses the gas volumetric flow data, and displays the heat of combustion values at desired time intervals.

  17. Antiproliferative Effect of Solanum nigrum on Human Leukemic Cell Lines

    PubMed Central

    Gabrani, Reema; Jain, Ramya; Sharma, Anjali; Sarethy, Indira P.; Dang, Shweta; Gupta, S.

    2012-01-01

    Solanum nigrum is used in various traditional medical systems for antiproliferative, antiinflammatory, antiseizure and hepatoprotective activities. We have evaluated organic solvent and aqueous extracts obtained from berries of Solanum nigrum for antiproliferative activity on leukemic cell lines, Jurkat and HL-60 (Human promyelocytic leukemia cells). The cell viability after the treatment with Solanum nigrum extract was measured by MTT (3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide) assay. Results indicated increased cytotoxicity with increasing extract concentrations. Comparative analysis indicated that 50% inhibitory concentration value of methanol extract is the lowest on both cell lines. PMID:23716874

  18. On-line metrology with conoscopic holography: beyond triangulation.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Ignacio; Enguita, Jose M; Frade, María; Marina, Jorge; Ojea, Guillermo

    2009-01-01

    On-line non-contact surface inspection with high precision is still an open problem. Laser triangulation techniques are the most common solution for this kind of systems, but there exist fundamental limitations to their applicability when high precisions, long standoffs or large apertures are needed, and when there are difficult operating conditions. Other methods are, in general, not applicable in hostile environments or inadequate for on-line measurement. In this paper we review the latest research in Conoscopic Holography, an interferometric technique that has been applied successfully in this kind of applications, ranging from submicrometric roughness measurements, to long standoff sensors for surface defect detection in steel at high temperatures.

  19. On-line access to geoscience bibliographic citations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wild, Emily C.

    2012-01-01

    On-line geoscience bibliographic citations and access points to citations are exponentially increasing as commercial, non-profit, and government agencies worldwide publish materials electronically. On-line bibliographic tools capture cited works, and open access content allows for freely obtained citations and documents. For this newsletter, citations from the numerous journals and books listed in the "Recent Papers" section of the EXPLORE newsletters from 2008-2011 were used to provide freely-accessible web sites to determine the availability of bibliographic information.

  20. Pressure effects on water vapour lines: beyond the Voigt profile.

    PubMed

    Ngo, N H; Tran, H; Gamache, R R; Hartmann, J M

    2012-06-13

    A short overview of recent results on the effects of pressure (collisions) regarding the shape of isolated infrared lines of water vapour is presented. The first part of this study considers the basic collisional quantities, which are the pressure-broadening and -shifting coefficients, central parameters of the Lorentzian (and Voigt) profile and thus of any sophisticated line-shape model. Through comparisons of measured values with semi-classical calculations, the influences of the molecular states (both rotational and vibrational) involved and of the temperature are analysed. This shows the relatively unusual behaviour of H(2)O broadening, with evidence of a significant vibrational dependence and the fact that the broadening coefficient (in cm(-1) atm(-1)) of some lines increases with temperature. In the second part of this study, line shapes beyond the Voigt model are considered, thus now taking 'velocity effects' into account. These include both the influence of collisionally induced velocity changes that lead to the so-called Dicke narrowing and the influence of the dependence of collisional parameters on the speed of the radiating molecule. Experimental evidence of deviations from the Voigt shape is presented and analysed. The interest of classical molecular dynamics simulations, to model velocity changes, together with semi-classical calculations of the speed-dependent collisional parameters for line-shape predictions from 'first principles', are discussed.