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  1. The tribology of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2006-02-01

    Total hip surgery is an effective way of alleviating the pain and discomfort caused by diseased or damaged joints. However, in the majority of cases, these joints have a finite life. The main reason for failure is osteolysis (bone resorption). It is well documented that an important cause of osteolysis, and therefore the subsequent loosening and failure of conventional metal- or ceramic-on-ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene joints, is the body's immunological response to the polyethylene wear particles. To avoid this, interest has been renewed in metal-on-metal joints. The intention of this paper is to review the studies that have taken place within different laboratories to determine the tribological performance of new-generation metal-on-metal total hip replacements. These types of joint offer a potential solution to enhance the longevity of prosthetic hip systems; however, problems may arise owing to the effects of metal ion release, which are, as yet, not fully understood.

  2. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Executive Summary Objective The objective of this review was to assess the safety and effectiveness of metal on metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty for young patients compared with that of total hip replacement (THR) in the same population. Clinical Need Total hip replacement has proved to be very effective for late middle-aged and elderly patients with severe degenerative diseases of the hips. As indications for THR began to include younger patients and those with a more active life style, the longevity of the implant became a concern. Evidence suggests that these patients experience relatively higher rates of early implant failure and the need for revision. The Swedish hip registry, for example, has demonstrated a survival rate in excess of 80% at 20 years for those aged over 65 years, whereas this figure was 33% by 16 years in those aged under 55 years. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a bone-conserving alternative to THR that restores normal joint biomechanics and load transfer. The technique has been used around the world for more than 10 years, specifically in the United Kingdom and other European countries. The Technology Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty is an alternative procedure to conventional THR in younger patients. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is less invasive than THR and addresses the problem of preserving femoral bone stock at the initial operation. This means that future hip revisions are possible with THR if the initial MOM arthroplasty becomes less effective with time in these younger patients. The procedure involves the removal and replacement of the surface of the femoral head with a hollow metal hemisphere, which fits into a metal acetabular cup. Hip resurfacing arthroplasty is a technically more demanding procedure than is conventional THR. In hip resurfacing, the femoral head is retained, which makes it much more difficult to access the acetabular cup. However, hip resurfacing arthroplasty has several advantages over a

  3. [Dissociation of the acetabular metallic inlay of a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Cazenave, A

    2008-06-01

    Total hip arthroplasty was performed in November 2001 in a 30-year-old active patient with degenerative hip disease. A metal-on-metal bearing was used. Follow-up was considered excellent until the development of pain and squeaking at hip mobilization, leading to revision in March 2006. The acetabular metallic inlay of the metal-on-metal insert was found detached from the polyethylene insert; half of the diameter of the neck of the femoral stem was sectioned. Complete revision was performed with an acetabular graft. At one year follow-up, anatomic and functional outcome has been excellent. To our knowledge, this is the first report of this kind of mechanical failure of a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

  4. Mechanical failure of metal-polyethylene sandwich liner in metal-on-metal total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Yasushi; Fetto, Joseph F

    2015-01-01

    Metal-on-metal had been proposed as an optimal articulation in THRs, however, many monoblock prostheses have been recalled in the USA because of significant high rates of early failure. Metal-on-metal prostheses had been implanted in our institution, and this is a case history of a single patient, in whom metal-on-metal THRs with different femoral sizes of heads were implanted. A 57-year-old female patient underwent bilateral total hip replacements with metal-on-metal prostheses using metal-polyethylene "sandwich" liners 9 years ago on the right side and 7 years ago on the left side respectively. The only difference in both sides was the femoral head diameter of 28 mm in right and 34 mm in left. Seven years after the left surgery, the acetabular liner was dissociated, however, metallosis was not detected. Although the larger femoral head was thought to increase hip joint stability, it dictated a reduction in polyethylene thickness in this prosthesis design, and it was 4 mm in the left hip. Recently, metal-on-metal articulations are thought not to be optimal for hip joint bearing surface, however, this clinical failure was due to the polyethylene thickness and quality.

  5. Predictivity and fate of metal ion release from metal-on-metal total hip prostheses.

    PubMed

    Nicolli, Annamaria; Bisinella, Gianluca; Padovani, Giovanni; Vitella, Antonio; Chiara, Federica; Trevisan, Andrea

    2014-09-01

    Blood metal ion levels in 72 patients with large head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty were studied to determine the correlation between the values measured in whole blood and urine. Urinary cobalt and chromium levels of 30μg and 21μg, respectively, adjusted to creatinine were found to correspond to the 7μg/l cut-off value that has been accepted in whole blood. Cobalt and chromium levels in whole blood and urine both significantly correlated with increased acetabular component inclination angle over 50 degrees and pain scores. There was no correlation with socket anteversion angle or femoral head diameter. The data support the use of urinary measurement of metal ions adjusted to creatinine to monitor patients with large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Pseudotumor associated with metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Scully, William F; Teeny, Steven M

    2013-05-01

    This case report details the presentation, imaging results, and operative findings of a pseudotumor associated with a press-fit metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty (THA). An 80-year-old man presented approximately 7 years after undergoing THA with worsening right groin and lateral hip pain with an associated proximal thigh mass. Physical examination demonstrated a tender, large anterolateral thigh mass that was also evident on metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging.An exploratory operative procedure revealed extensive tissue necrosis involving nearly the entire hip capsule, short external rotators, and tendinous portion of the gluteus medius muscle. In addition, marked surface corrosion was discovered about the taper at the head-neck junction of the prosthetic femoral component and the trunnion within the femoral head. The press-fit THA components were solidly fixed. The metallic head was replaced with a ceramic component, and the polyethylene liner was exchanged. The patient had complete resolution of his preoperative symptoms but had persistent problems with dislocations.Although reports of pseudotumor and local soft tissue reactions associated with metal-on-metal THAs have become increasingly ubiquitous in the literature, similar reports involving metal-on-polyethylene THA implants are less common. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  7. Complications Related to Metal-on-Metal Articulation in Trapeziometacarpal Joint Total Joint Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Frølich, Christina; Hansen, Torben Bæk

    2015-01-01

    Adverse reactions to metal-on-metal (MoM) prostheses are well known from total hip joint resurfacing arthroplasty with elevated serum chrome or cobalt, pain and pseudo tumor formation. It may, however, also be seen after total joint replacement of the trapeziometacarpal joint using MoM articulation, and we present two cases of failure of MoM prostheses due to elevated metal-serum levels in one case and pseudo tumor formation in another case. Furthermore, we suggest a diagnostic algorithm for joint pain after MoM trapeziometacarpal joint replacement based on published experiences from MoM hip prostheses and adverse reactions to metal. PMID:26020592

  8. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty: Quality of Online Patient Information.

    PubMed

    Crozier-Shaw, Geoff; Queally, Joseph M; Quinlan, John F

    2017-03-01

    Metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA) has generated much attention in the media because of early failure of certain implant systems. This study assessed the quality, accuracy, and readability of online information on metal-on-metal THA. The search terms "metal-on-metal hip replacement" and "metal hip replacement" were entered into the 3 most popular search engines. Information quality was assessed with the DISCERN score and a specific metal-on-metal THA content score. Accuracy of information was assessed with a customized score. Readability of the websites was assessed with the Flesch-Kincaid grade level score. A total of 61 unique websites were assessed. For 56% of websites, the target audience was patients. Media or medicolegal sources accounted for 44% of websites. As assessed by DISCERN (range, 16-80) and metal-on-metal THA (range, 0-25) scores, quality of the websites was moderate at best (47.1 and 9.6, respectively). Accuracy (range, 0-8) of the information presented also was moderate, with a mean score of 6.6. Media and medicolegal websites had the lowest scores for both quality and accuracy, despite making up the greatest proportion of sites assessed. Only 1 website (2%) had a Flesch-Kincaid grade level at or less than the recommended level of 8th grade. This study found that online information on metal-on-metal THA was of poor quality, often was inaccurate, and was presented at an inappropriately high reading level, particularly for media and medicolegal websites. Health care providers should counsel patients on the quality of information available and recommend appropriate online resources. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e262-e268.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. Ultrasound findings in asymptomatic patients with modular metal on metal total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Frisch, Nicholas B; Wessell, Nolan M; Taliaferro, Kevin; Van Holsbeeck, Marnix; Silverton, Craig D

    2017-05-01

    The use of metal-on-metal and modular total hip arthroplasty is associated with potentially serious local and systemic complications. The primary aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of a pseudotumor in asymptomatic patients with a particular metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a minimum follow-up of 5 years using ultrasound evaluation. A secondary purpose was to identify associations between the presence of pseudotumor and serum metal ion levels following implantation. We prospectively evaluated data collected from 36 asymptomatic patients who underwent implantation of a Profemur Z metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty from January 2004 to January 2010. Serum metal ion levels were collected in 2012 and 2015. Hip ultrasounds were performed in 2015. Pseudotumors were found in 7/36 patients (19.4%). The average pseudotumor size measured 38.2 cm(3) (range 7.35 cm(3)-130.81 cm(3)). Elevated metal ion levels were found in all patients at all time points. No statistical correlation was found between the presence of pseudotumor and patient age, age of the implant, component design, and any of the serum metal ion levels or ratios. One in every five asymptomatic patients with metal-on-metal implants was found to have a periarticular pseudotumor. There was no dose-dependent relationship found between elevated serum metal ion levels and the development of a pseudotumor. Our findings suggest that in patients with known elevated metal ion levels, continued monitoring of ion levels may not be a reliable predictor of pseudotumor formation, and ultrasound surveillance can and should be routinely used to document the presence and progression of pseudotumor.

  10. Corrosion on the acetabular liner taper from retrieved modular metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Gascoyne, Trevor C; Dyrkacz, Richard M; Turgeon, Thomas R; Burnell, Colin D; Wyss, Urs P; Brandt, Jan-M

    2014-10-01

    Eight retrieved metal-on-metal total hip replacements displayed corrosion damage along the cobalt-chromium alloy liner taper junction with the Ti alloy acetabular shell. Scanning electron microscopy indicated the primary mechanism of corrosion to be grain boundary and associated crevice corrosion, which was likely accelerated through mechanical micromotion and galvanic corrosion resulting from dissimilar alloys. Coordinate measurements revealed up to 4.3mm(3) of the cobalt-chromium alloy taper surface was removed due to corrosion, which is comparable to previous reports of corrosion damage on head-neck tapers. The acetabular liner-shell taper appears to be an additional source of metal corrosion products in modular total hip replacements. Patients with these prostheses should be closely monitored for signs of adverse reaction towards corrosion by-products.

  11. Metal on metal total hip arthroplasty and a large groin mass: Not always adverse reaction to metallic debris

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Harry; Magnussen, Alex; Sharma, Aadhar; Skinner, John

    2014-01-01

    Due to their improved wear rates, Metal-on-metal bearings have been increasingly used in the past decade by orthopaedic surgeons carrying out total hip arthroplasty. However there is increasing evidence that there are significant complications associated with such implants. One well documented complication is that of metallic debris leading to pseudotumour formation, however there is less known about associations with other tumours within the pelvis. We present two cases where an intra-pelvic mass in patients with metal-on-metal implants were diagnosed as being of a different aetiology. This highlights the need for careful assessment of such patients in order to guide appropriate management. PMID:25560054

  12. Does bearing size influence metal ion levels in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty? A comparison of three total hip systems

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of the study was twofold: first, to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference in the metal ion levels among three different large-head metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip systems. The second objective was to assess whether position of the implanted prostheses, patient demographics or factors such as activity levels influence overall blood metal ion levels and whether there is a difference in the functional outcomes between the systems. Methods In a cross-sectional cohort study, three different metal-on-metal total hip systems were assessed: two monoblock heads, the Durom socket (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN, USA) and the Birmingham socket (Smith and Nephew, Memphis, TN, USA), and one modular metal-on-metal total hip system (Pinnacle, Depuy Orthopedics, Warsaw, IN, USA). Fifty-four patients were recruited, with a mean age of 59.7 years and a mean follow-up time of 41 months (12 to 60). Patients were evaluated clinically, radiologically and biochemically. Statistical analysis was performed on all collected data to assess any differences between the three groups in terms of overall blood metal ion levels and also to identify whether there was any other factor within the group demographics and outcomes that could influence the mean levels of Co and Cr. Results Although the functional outcome scores were similar in all three groups, the blood metal ion levels in the larger monoblock large heads (Durom, Birmingham sockets) were significantly raised compared with those of the Pinnacle group. In addition, the metal ion levels were not found to have a statistically significant relationship to the anteversion or abduction angles as measured on the radiographs. Conclusions When considering a MOM THR, the use of a monoblock large-head system leads to higher elevations in whole blood metal ions and offers no advantage over a smaller head modular system. PMID:24472283

  13. [Metal on metal bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty: a survey of material incidents].

    PubMed

    Passuti, N; Terver, S

    2007-05-01

    This study is dedicated to the problems met with metal-metal bearing prostheses. We have analysed the results of the reports sent to the AFSSAPS relating incidents described with this interface. Only 11 incidents were reported during the last 4 years by surgeons from different centers in France. At a mean follow-up of 7 years, we collected 2614 total hip arthroplasties with metal-metal bearings and among them only 5 cases of unusual osteolysis and 10 cases of impingement. The bibliographic analysis did not show any severe specific complication due to the release of Cobalt or Chromium ions. The increased levels of Co an Cr in the patients' blood is now a well established notion (with more than 10 years follow up) and no special carcinogenetic effect has been correlated with the metal-metal bearings. Small diameter cemented cups can provide complications with high rates of acetabular loosening and metallosis; the same is true for some cementless cups also with loosening and a high revision rate. Among 143 hip prosthesis with a cemented polyethylene cup, at a mean follow-up of 42 months there were 22% of evolutive radiolucencies around the cups concerning all three De Lee and Charnley zones. Furthermore there was a statistically significant difference between small and large diameter cups (loosening of cups less than 46 mm in diameter). The same problem has been described for some cementless cups with loosening at the metal-bone interface due to a failure of osteointegration at the implant surface. However no failures were observed with an hydroxyapatite coating on the same cup. An other matter of concern is the skirted metal head: this design is responsible for a high rate of impingement and of prosthetic revision (2.3% among 642 THA). In these cases the increase of Cobalt serum levels was well correlated with the failure of the metal-metal interface. Large diameter heads decrease significantly the risks of dislocation. This is correlated with the increase in size

  14. Comparative effectiveness of metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene bearings in Medicare total hip arthroplasty patients.

    PubMed

    Bozic, Kevin J; Lau, Edmund C; Ong, Kevin L; Vail, Thomas P; Rubash, Harry E; Berry, Daniel J

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of complication and revision total hip arthroplasty (THA) in Medicare THA patients with different bearings. Using the 100% Medicare database (2005-2009), the adjusted risk of complication and revision THA was calculated for 148,827 THA patients (93,929 metal-on-polyethylene, 49,646 metal-on-metal, 5252 ceramic-on ceramic). Adjusted risk of deep vein thrombosis, dislocation, periprosthetic joint infection (PJI), mechanical loosening, periprosthetic fracture, and revision THA at up to 4 years postoperatively was compared using Cox regression. After adjusting for patient and hospital factors, metal-on-metal bearings were associated with higher risk of PJI (P = .001), mechanical loosening (P < .001), and deep vein thrombosis (P = .031) than metal-on-polyethylene bearings and higher risk of PJI (P = .014) than ceramic-on-ceramic bearings. Overall short-term revision rates did not vary significantly across bearing types, consistent with registry data. The benefits of hard-on-hard bearings in Medicare patients remain unproven, and further study is needed to compare long-term complication and revision rates in Medicare THA patients with different bearing types. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Understanding the differences between the wear of metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo-Pina, C G; Yan, Y; Neville, A; Fisher, J

    2008-04-01

    Hip simulator studies have been carried out extensively to understand and test artificial hip implants in vitro as an efficient alternative to obtaining long-term results in vivo. Recent studies have shown that a ceramic-on-metal material combination lowers the wear by up to 100 times in comparison with a typical metal-on-metal design. The reason for this reduction remains unclear and for this reason this study has undertaken simple tribometer tests to understand the fundamental material loss mechanisms in two material combinations: metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic. A simple-configuration reciprocating pin-on-plate wear study was performed under open-circuit potential (OCP) and with applied cathodic protection (CP) in a serum solution using two tribological couples: firstly, cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) pins against Co-Cr plates; secondly, Co-Cr pins against alumina (Al2O3) plates. The pin and plate surfaces prior to and after testing were examined by profilometry and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed a marked reduction in wear when CP was applied, indicating that total material degradation under the OCP condition was attributed to corrosion processes. The substitution of the Co-Cr pin with an Al2O3 plate also resulted in a dramatic reduction in wear, probably due to the reduction in the corrosion-wear interactions between the tribological pair.

  16. The Role of Metal-on-Metal Bearings in Total Hip Arthroplasty and Hip Resurfacing: Review Article.

    PubMed

    Sands, David; Schemitsch, Emil H

    2017-02-01

    The current role of metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings in hip arthroplasty remains controversial. The low wear offered by MoM bearings compared to metal-on-polyethylene and the possibility of a lower risk of dislocation with larger head sizes, encouraged a trend towards the re-introduction of the MoM bearing couple. However, recent evidence has shown that not all designs of the MoM bearing have been successful. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the use of MoM bearings and address the following issues: (1) the reintroduction of metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty, (2) the failure of metal-on-metal bearings in stemmed total hip arthroplasty, (3) the role of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing in modern orthopaedics and (4) metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus total hip arthroplasty. A literature search strategy was conducted using various search terms in MEDLINE and Embase. The highest quality articles that met the inclusion criteria and best answered the topics of focus of this review were selected. Key search terms included 'metal-on-metal', 'total hip arthroplasty' and 'hip resurfacing'. The initial search retrieved 1240 articles. Twenty-two articles were selected and used in the review. Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is still a suitable treatment option in specific patient populations with the appropriate implant design and surgical skill, while stemmed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty should be avoided in all patient populations. Continued follow-up of patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip resurfacing is critical in order to further understand the long-term outcomes of these patients and why certain complications tend to occur with this procedure.

  17. Friction in metal-on-metal total disc arthroplasty: effect of ball radius.

    PubMed

    Moghadas, Parshia; Mahomed, Aziza; Hukins, David W L; Shepherd, Duncan E T

    2012-02-02

    Total disc arthroplasty (TDA) can be used to replace a degenerated intervertebral disc in the spine. There are different designs of prosthetic discs, but one of the most common is a ball-and-socket combination. Contact between the bearing surfaces can result in high frictional torque, which can then result in wear and implant loosening. This study was designed to determine the effects of ball radius on friction. Generic models of metal-on-metal TDA were manufactured with ball radii of 10, 12, 14 and 16 mm, with a radial clearance of 0.015 mm. A simulator was used to test each sample in flexion-extension, lateral bending and axial rotation at frequencies of 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, 1.75 and 2 Hz under loads of 50, 600, 1200 and 2000 N, in new born calf serum. Frictional torque was measured and Stribeck curves were plotted to illustrate the lubrication regime in each case. It was observed that implants with a smaller ball radius showed lower friction and showed boundary and mixed lubrication regimes, whereas implants with larger ball radius showed boundary lubrication only. This study suggests designing metal-on-metal TDAs with ball radius of 10 or 12 mm, in order to reduce wear and implant loosening. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties: a page in orthopedic history?

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurpal; Meyer, Heiko; Ruetschi, Marcel; Chamaon, Kathrin; Feuerstein, Bernd; Lohmann, Christoph H

    2013-11-01

    Large-diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings evolved from the success of hip resurfacing. These implants were used in revision surgery in cases with well-fixed acetabular cups but loose or failed femoral stems, to avoid cup revision. Early data showed low rates of dislocation and potentially low wear profiles due to better fluid film lubrication. The risk of impingement was also thought to be low due to the increased head-neck ratio. Subsequently large-diameter MoM heads gained popularity in primary hip replacement. Recent data has emerged on the unacceptably high revision rates among patients with large-diameter MoM total hip arthroplasties (THAs), high blood levels of metal ions, and adverse tissue reactions. The head-neck (cone-taper) modular interface probably represents the weak link in large metal heads that have been used on conventional tapers. Increased torque of the large head, micromotion, and instability at the cone-taper interface, synergistic interactions between corrosion and wear, edge loading, low clearance, and psoas impingement are the likely causes for early failure of these prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. High Re-Operation Rates Using Conserve Metal-On-Metal Total Hip Articulations

    PubMed Central

    Mogensen, S.L.; Jakobsen, T.; Christoffersen, H.; Krarup, N.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metal-on-metal hip articulations have been intensely debated after reports of adverse reactions and high failure rates. The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the implant of a metal-on.metal total hip articulation (MOM THA) from a single manufacture in a two-center study. Materials and Methods: 108 CONSERVE® MOM THA were implanted in 92 patients between November 2005 and December 2010. Patients had at time of retrospective evaluation their journals reviewed for re-operations and adverse reactions. Results: 20 hips were re-operated (18.4%) at a mean follow up of 53 months. 4 pseudotumors were diagnosed at time of follow up but no substantiated link was made between adverse reactions and re-operations. Conclusion: The high re-operation rates found in this study raised concern about the usage of the MOM THA and subsequently lead to the termination of implantation of this MOM THA at the two orthopaedic departments. PMID:27099640

  20. No association between serum metal ions and implant fixation in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Søballe, Kjeld; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard; Lorenzen, Nina Dyrberg; Mechlenburg, Inger; Stilling, Maiken

    2014-01-01

    Background The mechanism of failure of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been related to a high rate of metal wear debris, which is partly generated from the head-trunnion interface. However, it is not known whether implant fixation is affected by metal wear debris. Patients and methods 49 cases of MoM THA in 41 patients (10 women) with a mean age of 52 (28–68) years were followed with stereoradiographs after surgery and at 1, 2, and 5 years to analyze implant migration by radiostereometric analysis (RSA). Patients also participated in a 5- to 7-year follow-up with measurement of serum metal ions, questionnaires (Oxford hip score (OHS) and Harris hip score (HHS)), and measurement of cup and stem positions and systemic bone mineral density. Results At 1–2 years, mean total translation (TT) was 0.04 mm (95% CI: –0.07 to 0.14; p = 0.5) for the stems; at 2–5 years, mean TT was 0.13 mm (95% CI: –0.25 to –0.01; p = 0.03), but within the precision limit of the method. For the cups, there was no statistically significant TT or total rotation (TR) at 1–2 and 2–5 years. At 2–5 years, we found 4 cups and 5 stems with TT migrations exceeding the precision limit of the method. There was an association between cup migration and total OHS < 40 (4 patients, 4 hips; p = 0.04), but there were no statistically significant associations between cup or stem migration and T-scores < –1 (n = 10), cup and stem positions, or elevated serum metal ion levels (> 7µg/L (4 patients, 6 hips)). Interpretation Most cups and stems were well-fixed at 1–5 years. However, at 2–5 years, 4 cups and 5 stems had TT migrations above the precision limits, but these patients had serum metal ion levels similar to those of patients without measurable migrations, and they were pain-free. Patients with serum metal ion levels > 7 µg/L had migrations similar to those in patients with serum metal ion levels < 7 µg/L. Metal wear debris does not appear to influence the

  1. Midterm results of 36 mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Akrawi, Hawar; Hossain, Fahad S; Niculescu, Stefan; Hashim, Zaid; Ng, Arron Biing; Shetty, Ajit

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the many perceived benefits of metal-on-metal (MoM) articulation in total hip arthroplasty (THA), there have been growing concerns about metallosis and adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Analysis of size 36 mm MoM articulation THAs is presented. These patients were evaluated for patient characteristics, relationship between blood metal ions levels and the inclination as well as the version of acetabular component, cumulative survival probability at final followup and functional outcome at final followup. Materials and Methods: 288, size 36 mm MoM THAs implanted in 269 patients at our institution from 2004 to 2010 were included in this retrospective study. These patients were assessed clinically for hip symptoms, perioperative complications and causes of revision arthroplasty were analysed. Biochemically, blood cobalt and chromium metal ions level were recorded and measurements of acetabular inclination and version were examined. Radiological evaluation utilizing Metal Artefact Reduction Sequence (MARS) MRI was undertaken and implant cumulative survivorship was evaluated. Results: The mean followup was 5 years (range 2–7 years), mean age was 73 years and the mean Oxford hip score was 36.9 (range 5–48). Revision arthroplasty was executed in 20 (7.4%) patients, of which 15 patients underwent single-stage revision THA. The causes of revision arthroplasty were: ARMD changes in 6 (2.2%) patients, infection in 5 (1.9%) patients and aseptic loosening in 5 (1.9%) patients. Three (1.1%) patients had their hips revised for instability, 1 (0.3%) for raised blood metal ions levels. The implant cumulative survival rate, with revision for any reason, was 68.9% at 7 years. Conclusions: Although medium-sized MoM THA with a 36 mm head has a marginally better survivorship at midterm followup, compared to larger size head MoM articulating THA, our findings nonetheless are still worryingly poor in comparison to what has been quoted in the literature

  2. Perfusion MRI in hips with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Anwander, H.; Cron, G. O.; Rakhra, K.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hips with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) have a high rate of adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR), often associated with hypersensitivity reactions. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) measures tissue perfusion with the parameter Ktrans (volume transfer constant of contrast agent). Our purpose was 1) to evaluate the feasibility of DCE-MRI in patients with THA and 2) to compare DCE-MRI in patients with MoM bearings with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) bearings, hypothesising that the perfusion index Ktrans in hips with MoM THA is higher than in hips with MoP THA. Methods In this pilot study, 16 patients with primary THA were recruited (eight MoM, eight MoP). DCE-MRI of the hip was performed at 1.5 Tesla (T). For each patient, Ktrans was computed voxel-by-voxel in all tissue lateral to the bladder. The mean Ktrans for all voxels was then calculated. These values were compared with respect to implant type and gender, and further correlated with clinical parameters. Results There was no significant difference between the two bearing types with both genders combined. However, dividing patients by THA bearing and gender, women with MoM bearings had the highest Ktrans values, exceeding those of women with MoP bearings (0.067 min−1 versus 0.053 min−1; p-value < 0.05) and men with MoM bearings (0.067 min−1 versus 0.034 min−1; p-value < 0.001). Considering only the men, patients with MoM bearings had lower Ktrans than those with MoP bearings (0.034 min−1 versus 0.046 min−1; p < 0.05). Conclusion DCE-MRI is feasible to perform in tissues surrounding THA. Females with MoM THA show high Ktrans values in DCE-MRI, suggesting altered tissue perfusion kinematics which may reflect relatively greater inflammation. Cite this article: Dr P. E. Beaule. Perfusion MRI in hips with metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty: A pilot stud. Bone Joint Res 2016;5:73–79. DOI: 10

  3. Do cobalt and chromium levels predict osteolysis in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty?

    PubMed

    Renner, Lisa; Schmidt-Braekling, Tom; Faschingbauer, Martin; Boettner, Friedrich

    2016-12-01

    Serum metal ions are part of the regular follow-up routine of patients with metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties (MoM-THA). Increased cobalt levels have been suggested to indicate implant failure and corrosion. (1) Is there a correlation between the size of the osteolysis measured on a CT scan and metal ion levels? (2) Can metal ion levels predict the presence of osteolysis in MoM-THA? (3) Are cobalt and chromium serum levels or the cobalt-chromium-ratio diagnostic for osteolysis? CT scans of patients (n = 75) with a unilateral MoM-THA (Birmingham Hip System, Smith & Nephew, TN, USA) implanted by a single surgeon were reviewed to determine the presence of osteolysis. Statistical analysis was performed to detect its association with metal ion levels at the time of the imaging exam. The incidence of osteolysis was the same in men and women (35.6 vs 35.7 %). The cobalt-chromium-ratio correlates with the size of the osteolysis on the CT scan and the femoral component size in the overall study population (p = 0.050, p = 0.001) and in men (p = 0.002, p = 0.001) but not in women (p = 0.312, p = 0.344). The AUC for the cobalt-chromium-ratio to detect osteolysis was 0.613 (p = 0.112) for the overall population, 0.710 for men (p = 0.021) and 0.453 (p = 0.684) for women. The data suggest that a cut off level of 1.71 for the cobalt-chromium-ratio has a sensitivity of 62.5 % and specificity of 72.4 % to identify male patients with osteolysis. The disproportional increase of cobalt over chromium, especially in male patients with large component sizes can not be explained by wear alone and suggests that other processes (corrosion) might contribute to metal ion levels and might be more pronounced in patients with larger component sizes.

  4. Metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty - five- to 11-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Nikolaou, Vassilios S; Petit, Alain; Debiparshad, Kevin; Huk, Olga L; Zukor, David J; Antoniou, John

    2011-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been introduced in an attempt to reduce the wear rate and the consequent osteolysis around implants. The aim of this study was to present the intermediate to long-term clinical and radiological outcomes and to investigate the metal ion levels in the blood of patients who had undergone primary uncemented MoM THA in our institution. Between July 1997 and November 2003, 166 patients (193 hips), with a mean age of 50 years (range, 18-65 years), underwent primary MoM THA. Clinical data, radiographs, and blood samples were obtained at regular follow-up visits. Cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and molybdenum (Mo) ions were measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) from the patient's whole blood. All patients were prospectively followed for a minimum of 5 years (mean, 7 years; range, 5-11 years). The mean Harris hip score (HHS) and the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) activity score at the latest follow-up was 88 ± 11 and 7 ± 1.8 points, respectively. Thirteen hips have been revised. Ten acetabular components had early failure, due to factory manufacturing problems. All other implants have been found stable, with no signs of aseptic loosening. The probability of survival at 11 years, if the hips that were revised due to manufacturing problems were excluded, was 98.4%. The Co and Cr metal ion levels, after increasing significantly during the first 4 to 5 years post-surgery, remained stable, with a tendency to decrease thereafter, but not significantly. During the same follow-up period, Mo ion levels remained stable. In this 5-to-11 year follow-up study of MoM THA patients, excellent survivorship, with low complications rates, was found. Results of longer follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the possible long-term effects of metal ion release.

  5. Surface Characterization of Retrieved Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Implants from Patients with Adverse Reaction to Metal Debris

    PubMed Central

    Burbano, Maria; Russell, Robert; Huo, Michael; Welch, Robert; Roy, Diana; Rodrigues, Danieli C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip implants has decreased recently due to reports of high failure rates and adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR). It has been hypothesized that wear metal debris released from CoCr bearing surfaces may provoke delayed hypersensitivity reactions. The goal of this study is to evaluate the microscopic bearing surface characteristics of implants revised due to evidence of ALTR. The bearing surface of each head and cup was analyzed using multiple microscopy techniques for characterization of the surface features. The presence of severe mechanical scratching was a common characteristic found in all of the implants evaluated. Mechanical factors seemed to be the prevalent failure mode related to the appearance of ALTR with this particular set of retrieved implants. PMID:28788544

  6. Large diameter metal on metal total hip replacement for femoral neck fractures with neurological conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jia; Zheng, Wei; Zhao, Jinzhu; Liu, Denghui; Xu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis can have a femoral neck fracture; yet, the optimal methods of treatment for these hips remains controversial. Many constrained or semi-constrained prostheses, using constrained liners (CLs) with a locking mechanism to capture the femoral head, were used to treat femoral neck fractures in patients with neurological disorders. We retrospectively studied a group of patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis who sustained femoral neck fractures and were treated by total hip arthroplasty using an L-MoM prosthesis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 12 hips in 12 patients who underwent large-diameter metal-on-metal (L-MoM) total hip replacement between May 2007 and October 2009. Eight of the 12 patients (8 hips; 66.7%) had Parkinson's disease and 4 patients (4 hips; 33.3%) were affected with poliomyelitis. Results: The followup time was 5.2 years (range 3.6-6.0 years). At the latest followup, all the patients showed satisfactory clinical and radiographic results, with pain relief. No complications, such as dislocation or aseptic loosening occurred. Conclusion: We believe the use of L-MoM can diminish the rate of instability or dislocation, after operation. The L-MoM is an option for patients with Parkinson's disease and poliomyelitis with femoral neck fracture. PMID:25404774

  7. Clinical and Wear Analyses of 9 Large Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Mathijssen, N. M. C.; Witt, F.; Morlock, M. M.; Vehmeijer, S. B. W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Metal-on-Metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasties (THA) are associated with pseudotumor formation and high revision rates. This prospective study analysed the clinical and wear analyses of 9 large Metal-on-Metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasties (THA) to understand the underlying mechanisms of failure. The MoM bearings were revised for multiple reasons; the main reason was pseudotumor formation. Materials and Methods From 2006 till 2010 the Reinier de Graaf Hospital implanted 160 large head M2a-Magnum™ (Biomet Inc. Warsaw, Indiana, USA) THAs in 150 patients. The first year, 9 bearings were revised and analysed at the Biomechanics Section, Hamburg University of Technology, Germany. We performed clinical (Harris Hip Score, radiographic analysis, blood cobalt and chromium) and wear analysis (implant, tissue and fluid) of the 9 bearings. Since this study did not fall under the scope of the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act in The Netherlands, no ethical approval was necessary. In this prospective study all patient details were anonymized by the corresponding author, all other authors were blinded during the research and wear analyses. Patients with bilateral MoM implants were excluded. Results The 9 bearings had a median (IQR) survival of 41.0 (25) months in situ. From these bearings, three showed no noticeable wear. The median (IQR) head wear volume was 3.2 (3.6) mm3 and maximum wear depth 0.02 (0.02) mm. For the cup the median (IQR) wear volume was 0.23 (0.3) mm3 with a maximum wear depth of 0.03 (0.05) mm. Conclusion An early identification of parameters related to failure of the MoM THA, such as pain, decreased range of motion, radiographic changes and high levels of blood cobalt and chromium is of great importance for patient’s quality of life. Especially now patients and surgeons face the long term effects of all these bearings still in situ. This study reports the clinical and wear analyses of 9 MoM THA. In the majority of this group the

  8. Poor short term outcome with a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Levy, Yadin D; Ezzet, Kace A

    2013-08-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings for total hip arthroplasty (THA) have come under scrutiny with reports of high failure rates. Clinical outcome studies with several commercially available MoM THA bearings remain unreported. We evaluated 78 consecutive MoM THAs from a single manufacturer in 68 patients. Sixty-six received cobalt-chrome (CoCr) monoblock and 12 received modular titanium acetabular cups with internal CoCr liners. Femoral components were titanium with modular necks. At average 2.1 years postoperatively, 12 THAs (15.4%) demonstrated aseptic failure (10 revisions, 2 revision recommended). All revised hips demonstrated capsular necrosis with positive histology reaction for aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions/adverse local tissue reactions. Prosthetic instability following revision surgery was relatively common. Female gender was a strong risk factor for failure, though smaller cups were not. Both monoblock and modular components fared poorly. Corrosion was frequently observed around the proximal and distal end of the modular femoral necks.

  9. Increased risk of revision of cementless stemmed total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal bearings

    PubMed Central

    Pedersen, Alma B; Mäkelä, Keijo; Eskelinen, Antti; Havelin, Leif Ivar; Furnes, Ove; Kärrholm, Johan; Garellick, Göran; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Data from the national joint registries in Australia and England and Wales have revealed inferior medium-term survivorship for metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) than for metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Based on data from the Nordic Arthroplasty Register Association (NARA), we compared the revision risk of cementless stemmed THA with MoM and MoP bearings and we also compared MoM THA to each other. Patients and methods We identified 32,678 patients who were operated from 2002 through 2010 with cementless stemmed THA with either MoM bearings (11,567 patients, 35%) or MoP bearings (21,111 patients, 65%). The patients were followed until revision, death, emigration, or the end of the study period (December 31, 2011), and median follow-up was 3.6 (interquartile range (IQR): 2.4–4.8) years for MoM bearings and 3.4 (IQR: 2.0–5.8) years for MoP bearings. Multivariable regression in the presence of competing risk of death was used to assess the relative risk (RR) of revision for any reason (with 95% confidence interval (CI)). Results The cumulative incidence of revision at 8 years of follow-up was 7.0% (CI: 6.0–8.1) for MoM bearings and 5.1% (CI: 4.7–5.6) for MoP bearings. At 6 years of follow-up, the RR of revision for any reason was 1.5 (CI: 1.3–1.7) for MoM bearings compared to MoP bearings. The RR of revision for any reason was higher for the ASR (adjusted RR = 6.4, CI: 5.0–8.1), the Conserve Plus (adjusted RR = 1.7, CI: 1.1–2.5) and “other” acetabular components (adjusted RR = 2.4, CI: 1.5–3.9) than for MoP THA at 6 years of follow-up. Interpretation At medium-term follow-up, the survivorship for cementless stemmed MoM THA was inferior to that for MoP THA, and metal-related problems may cause higher revision rates for MoM bearings with longer follow-up. PMID:25715878

  10. The John Charnley Award: Metal-on-metal hip resurfacing versus large-diameter head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Garbuz, Donald S; Tanzer, Michael; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P

    2010-02-01

    Resurfacing arthroplasty has become an attractive option for young patients who want to maintain a high activity level. One recent study reported modestly increased activity levels for patients with resurfacing compared to standard total hip arthroplasty (THA). We conducted a prospective randomized clinical trial to compare clinical outcomes of resurfacing versus large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. We randomized 107 patients deemed eligible for resurfacing arthroplasty to have either resurfacing or standard THA. Patients were assessed for quality-of-life outcomes using the PAT-5D index, WOMAC, SF-36, and UCLA activity score. The minimum followup was 0.8 years (mean, 1.1 years; range, 0.8-2.2 years). Of the 73 patients followed at least one year, both groups reported improvement in quality of life on all outcome measures. There was no difference in quality of life between the two arms in the study. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium were measured in a subset of 30 patients. In both groups cobalt and chromium was elevated compared to baseline. Patients receiving a large-head metal-on-metal total hip had elevated ion levels compared to the resurfacing arm of the study. At 1 year, the median serum cobalt increased 46-fold from baseline in patients in the large-head total hip group, while the median serum chromium increased 10-fold. At 1 year, serum cobalt was 10-fold higher and serum chromium 2.6-fold higher than in the resurfacing arm. Due to these excessively high metal ion levels, the authors recommend against further use of this particular large-head total hip arthroplasty. Level I, randomized clinical trial. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  11. Histologic, serologic, and tribologic findings in failed metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty: AAOS exhibit selection.

    PubMed

    Pelt, Christopher E; Erickson, Jill; Clarke, Ian; Donaldson, Thomas; Layfield, Lester; Peters, Christopher L

    2013-11-06

    Despite multiple changes in second-generation metal-on-metal hip implants, greater-than-expected revision rates have led to alarm. We hypothesized that the finding of intraoperative metallosis would be associated with a high metal load on histologic analysis and that both would be associated with increased wear, greater serum metal ion levels, and predictable biologic responses in the histologic sections. We evaluated the implant positioning, serum ion levels, intraoperative findings of metallosis, wear characteristics of retrieved implants (tribology), histology, and outcomes in a series of eighteen large-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties. The arthroplasties were divided into two groups on the basis of the intraoperative finding of metallosis and into two groups on the basis of the metal load score. Intraoperative metallosis was not associated with a high metal load score (p = 0.15). The finding of intraoperative metallosis was associated with greater serum metal ion levels, greater wear rates, and greater complication rates. Aseptic lymphocyte-dominated vasculitis-associated lesion (ALVAL) scores were similar between the metallosis and non-metallosis groups (p = 0.49) as well as between the high and low-metal-load groups (p = 0.56).

  12. [Measurement of chromium and cobalt ions in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty].

    PubMed

    Durazo-Villanueva, A; Benítez-Garduño, R

    2012-01-01

    New metal-on-metal hip replacement models emerged in the 1990 with modifications of the previous designs and alloys. This led to expect a lesser rate of ion and particle release in the body with the resulting decrease in wear, osteolysis and loosening. To measure blood and urine chromium and cobalt ions in a 28 mm metal-on-metal tribology during the first postoperative year. Blood and urine cobalt and chromium concentrations were measured in 10 patients (13 prostheses) with the atomic absorption method. The etiology was studied and they were functionally assessed with the Harris functional scale. Adverse metal reactions were also assessed. 8 male and 2 female patients, mean age 54.5 years; 6 had primary coxarthrosis, one was post-traumatic, and 3 had avascular necrosis. The final assessment according to the Harris scale was 92 points. Mean blood chromium was 1.26 ng/l, blood cobalt was 1.033 microg/l; (reference values: chromium 1.4 ng/l and cobalt 1.8 microg/l); only one figure, in a female patient, was found to be higher than normal (chromium 21.2 ng/l and cobalt 15.4 microg/l). Mean urine chromium was 0.95 ng/ml, urine cobalt was 0.53 microg/l (Reference values: chromium: 2.0 ng/ml and cobalt 0.5 microg/l). All patients, with the exception of a female patient, were within the normal ranges. No adverse effect was observed in patients with metal implants with a 28 mm tribology.

  13. Polymer-on-metal or metal-on-polymer total disc arthroplasty: does it make a difference?

    PubMed

    Moghadas, Parshia M; Shepherd, Duncan E T; Hukins, David W L; Mahomed, Aziza

    2012-10-01

    Mechanical testing of total disc arthroplasty (TDA). To compare the friction between a polymer socket-on-metal ball and metal socket-on-polymer ball TDA. A degenerate intervertebral disc can be replaced by TDA. The most common designs have a ball and socket articulation; the contact between the surfaces leads to friction. Friction needs to be minimized to prevent loosening and wear. One of the common material combinations in disc arthroplasty devices is the articulation of a metal socket on polymer ball. However, the combination of a polymer socket on metal ball (which is used in hip arthroplasty) has not been investigated for TDA. TDA models with either a polymer socket/metal ball or a metal socket/polymer ball were manufactured with ball radii of 10 and 14 mm, each with a radial clearance of 0.35 mm. Samples were tested using a spine simulator with a lubricant of diluted newborn calf serum. Each sample was subjected to an axial load of 1200 N; motions of flexion-extension, lateral bending, and axial rotation were then applied at frequencies of 0.25 to 2 Hz. Frictional torque was measured to compare the performance of the TDAs. The frictional torque was found to be significantly higher for a disc with a metal socket/polymer ball than for a disc with a polymer socket/metal ball for both 10 and 14 mm radii in axial rotation, lateral bend, and extension. The frictional torque in flexion (0°-6°) was not found to be significantly different between the 2 different material combinations. However, when the flexion motion was reduced to 0° to 2°, frictional torque in the metal socket/polymer ball was found to be significantly higher than the polymer socket/metal ball. TDA with a combination of a polymer socket/metal ball has lower friction than the conventional TDA with metal socket/polymer ball. This conclusion has implications in the design of TDA.

  14. Adverse soft-tissue reactions around non-metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty - a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Carli, Alberto; Reuven, Avishai; Zukor, David J; Antoniou, John

    2011-01-01

    Adverse local soft-tissue reactions have been associated with severe osteolysis and implant failure in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA). Such a causal relationship has not often been associated with non metal-on-metal bearing surfaces. The purpose of this study was to assess the literature for cases of adverse soft-tissue reactions in non-metal-on-metal bearings in order to determine if a consistent histological diagnosis existed and if it was bearing-specific. A systematic review was performed in Medline and Embase databases, utilizing keyword searches to target reports of soft tissue complications following THA. Strict exclusion criteria were applied to retrieved studies in order to ensure that analyzed papers involved non-metal-on-metal bearing surfaces, had a final histological diagnosis, and had no previous history of periprosthetic infection or neoplastic process. Presenting symptoms, diagnostic work-up, histological diagnosis, and operative treatment were recorded for all reports retained for analysis. Twenty-seven reports representing 31 cases of adverse soft-tissue reactions for non-metal-on-metal THAs met the criteria for analysis. In the majority of cases, patients presented with painful, limited motion in the affected hip, and radiological evidence of severe osteolysis. Histological examination often revealed a cystic mass, denoted by a granulomatous reaction comprised of histiocytes and giant cells, but few plasma cells. Revision of loose components was the most common successful therapeutic strategy utilized. The present analysis revealed that similar adverse soft-tissue reactions have been described for both metal-on-polyethylene and ceramic bearing surfaces. When encountering such reactions in patients, a comprehensive diagnostic workup, including computed tomography (CT) scanning, lesion biopsy, and revision planning to alternate bearing surfaces should be considered.

  15. Ceramic-on-metal for total hip replacement: mixing and matching can lead to high wear.

    PubMed

    Affatato, Saverio; Spinelli, Michele; Zavalloni, Mara; Traina, Francesco; Carmignato, Simone; Toni, Aldo

    2010-04-01

    Ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal bearing surfaces are often employed for total hip replacement because of their resistance to wear. However, they have some limits: brittleness is a major concern for ceramic, and ion release is a drawback for metal. To reduce the effect of these limitations, a hybrid coupling of ceramic-on-metal has been proposed. The theoretical advantage of this new coupling might lead orthopedic surgeons to use it indiscriminately. We asked whether the wear rate of this innovative solution was comparable with that of ceramic-on-ceramic, which is considered to be the gold standard for wear resistance. In a hip simulator study, we tested the wear pattern of a hybrid ceramic-on-metal coupling supplied by the same distributor; in particular, three different configurations were tested for 5 million cycles: 36-mm ceramic-on-ceramic, 32-mm and 36-mm ceramic-on-metal. These combinations were gravimetrically and geometrically evaluated. After 5 million cycles, the volumetric loss for the metal acetabular cups (Phi 36-mm) was 20-fold greater than that of the ceramic cups of the same size (Phi 36-mm); a volumetric loss of 4.35 mm(3) and 0.26 mm(3) was observed, respectively, for ceramic-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic combinations. Significant statistical differences were observed between all 36-mm different combinations (P < 0.0001). The increased diameter of the 36-mm ceramic-on-metal configuration resulted in a lower volumetric loss compared with that of the 32-mm ceramic-on-metal configuration. Our findings showed an increase in wear for the proposed hybrid specimens with respect to that of the ceramic-on-ceramic ones. This confirms that even in the case of ceramic-on-metal bearings, mixing and matching could not prove effective wear behavior, not even comparable with that of the ceramic-on-ceramic gold standard.

  16. The effect of different bearing surfaces on metal ion levels in urine following 28 mm metal-on-metal and 28 mm metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tiusanen, H; Mäkelä, K; Kiilunen, M; Sarantsin, P; Sipola, E; Pesola, M

    2013-01-01

    Recent advancements in manufacturing technology have enabled more precise tolerances and surface finishes using metal-on-metal bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty. The aim of this study was to compare the level of metal ions in urine after implantation of a 28-mm metal-on-metal bearing manufactured from high-carbon wrought alloy and a 28-mm metal-on-polyethylene bearing. A total of 92 total hip arthroplasty patients were prospectively randomized into two groups: those receiving metal-on-metal bearings and those receiving metal-on-polyethylene bearings. Chromium, cobalt, and molybdenum ion levels in urine were measured preoperatively and at 1 year and 2 years postoperatively. In the metal-on-polyethylene group, there was a slight increase in mean chromium and cobalt concentrations at 2-year follow-up compared to the preoperative level (p = 0.02 for both chromium and cobalt). In the metal-on-metal group, there was a 15-fold increase in chromium and a 26-fold increase in cobalt at 2-year follow-up compared to the preoperative level (p < 0.001 for both chromium and cobalt). However, the quantity of chromium and cobalt in urine from the metal-on-metal group was not higher at 2-year follow-up than at 1-year follow-up (p = 0.5 and p = 0.6, respectively). The 28-mm metal-on-metal bearings yield chromium and cobalt concentrations in urine that can be higher than those recommended for occupational exposure. However, our results also indicate that a steady state in wear and ion production using metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty can occur.

  17. Comparison of metal on metal versus polyethylene-ceramic bearing in uncemented total hip arthroplasty in patients with haemophilic arthropathy.

    PubMed

    Panotopoulos, Joannis; Ay, Cihan; Schuh, Reinhard; Domayer, Stephan; Funovics, Philipp; Trieb, Klemens; Wanivenhaus, Hugo; Windhager, Reinhard

    2014-07-01

    We report the results of a consecutive series of 12 cases with haemophilic hip arthropathy treated with uncemented total hip arthroplasty (THA). Our hypothesis was that THA results in the haemophilic group would be inferior to those in the nonhaemophilic group. The clinical histories of 12 consecutive THAs in eight patients (all men) with hereditary bleeding disorders (haemophilia A and B and von Willebrand disease) were reviewed retrospectively. The results were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group without haemophilia, with special emphasis on bearing surfaces (Metasul metal-on-metal; polyethylene-ceramic articulation). The mean follow-up of the control group was 9.7 (range five to 24) years and was similar to the haemophilia group, with 10.4. Survival in the Metasul haemophilic group was 22.2 % after 18 years, which significantly differed from the Metasul control group (100 % after 24 years). Survival of the polyethylene-ceramic haemophilic group was similar to the control group (100 % after seven years in both groups). The metal-on-metal bearing surface in patients with haemophilia gave inferior results compared with nonhaemophilic patients. The use of metal-on-metal bearings in haemophilia is debatable.

  18. Serum aluminium and cobalt levels after ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Grübl, A; Weissinger, M; Brodner, W; Gleiss, A; Giurea, A; Gruber, M; Pöll, G; Meisinger, V; Gottsauner-Wolf, F; Kotz, R

    2006-08-01

    In a randomised study, 28 patients with a mean age of 62.2 years (32 to 81) with osteoarthritis or avascular necrosis of the hip received either a ceramic-on-ceramic or a metal-on-metal total hip replacement. Apart from the liners the acetabular and femoral components were made of Ti-Al-Nb alloy. The serum aluminium and cobalt levels were measured before, and at one year after surgery. The 15 patients in the ceramic-on-ceramic group had a median pre-operative aluminium level of 1.3 microg/l (0.25 to 8.4) and a cobalt level below the detection limit. At one year the aluminium level was 1.1 microg/l (0.25 to 2.3) and the cobalt level was 0.4 microg/l (0.15 to 0.7). The 13 patients in the metal-on-metal group had a median pre-operative aluminium level of 1.9 microg/l (0.25 to 4.4) and a cobalt level below the detection limit. At one year the median aluminium level was 0.9 microg/l (0.25 to 3.9) whereas the cobalt level was 1.4 microg/l (0.5 to 10.5). This increase in the cobalt level at one year was significant (p < 0.001). Our findings indicate that ceramic-on-ceramic bearings do not cause elevated levels of serum aluminium in the first post-operative year.

  19. Experimental validation of finite element modelling of a modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Wang, Ling; Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth K; Fisher, John

    2014-07-01

    Finite element models are becoming increasingly useful tools to conduct parametric analysis, design optimisation and pre-clinical testing for hip joint replacements. However, the verification of the finite element model is critically important. The purposes of this study were to develop a three-dimensional anatomic finite element model for a modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement for predicting its contact mechanics and to conduct experimental validation for a simple finite element model which was simplified from the anatomic finite element model. An anatomic modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement model (anatomic model) was first developed and then simplified with reasonable accuracy to a simple modular total hip replacement model (simplified model) for validation. The contact areas on the articulating surface of three polyethylene liners of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement bearings with different clearances were measured experimentally in the Leeds ProSim hip joint simulator under a series of loading conditions and different cup inclination angles. The contact areas predicted from the simplified model were then compared with that measured experimentally under the same conditions. The results showed that the simplification made for the anatomic model did not change the predictions of contact mechanics of the modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement substantially (less than 12% for contact stresses and contact areas). Good agreements of contact areas between the finite element predictions from the simplified model and experimental measurements were obtained, with maximum difference of 14% across all conditions considered. This indicated that the simplification and assumptions made in the anatomic model were reasonable and the finite element predictions from the simplified model were valid.

  20. Trunnion Corrosion in Metal-on-Polyethylene Total Hip Arthroplasty: A Case Series.

    PubMed

    Raju, Sivashanmugam; Chinnakkannu, Karthikeyan; Puttaswamy, Mohan K; Phillips, Matthew J

    2017-02-01

    Modular total hip arthroplasty implants can help the operating surgeon reproduce the optimum limb length and offset; however, the modularity can lead to fretting and corrosion with associated metal-related problems. Although metal-on-metal bearings are often reported to have problems, recent case reports suggest that the problems can occur with any articulation, usually as a result of problems at the head/neck junction. We retrospectively reviewed three cases of a specific implant combination with nontraumatic trunnion failure, with two cases presenting as acute complete dissociation of the femoral head from the neck. All three cases had failure of the Accolade TMZF plus stem and trunnion (Stryker) that progressed rapidly from the onset of symptoms. The most likely contributing factors to failure were large femoral head size, high horizontal offset, a low angled neck, and a β titanium alloy taper with a cobalt-chromium head. We recommend regular follow-up of all patients with Accolade TMZF stems, and patients should be advised to seek immediate medical attention if they have any new mechanical symptoms in a metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty. Providers should specifically look for any alteration of alignment between the femoral head and neck in follow-up radiographs.

  1. Early Outcomes Following Metal-on-Metal Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty in Patients Younger Than 50 Years.

    PubMed

    Riley, Clay; Idoine, John; Shishani, Yousef; Gobezie, Reuben; Edwards, Bradley

    2016-09-01

    Reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is a useful intervention for older patients with glenohumeral arthritis and a deficient rotator cuff. However, as a semiconstrained prosthesis, conventional reverse TSA implanted in a young patient could fail over time secondary to polyethylene wear and subsequent osteolysis. A metal-on-metal prosthesis may avoid this type of failure. The purpose of this study is to assess the outcomes in an initial cohort of young patients who underwent reverse TSA using a metal-on-metal prosthesis. Surgical indications included age younger than 50 years with a functioning deltoid and significant impairment of shoulder function with irreparable rotator cuff due to tumor resection, arthritis, or revision surgery. Nine patients with an average age of 37 years underwent implantation of a custom metal-on-metal reverse TSA prosthesis. All patients had a minimum 12-month follow-up or a failure of their procedure requiring revision surgery prior to 1 year. American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) scores, Constant scores, and range of motion were recorded and analyzed pre- and postoperatively to assess improvement, and all complications were noted. Average ASES score improved from 47 points preoperatively to 73.4 points postoperatively (P=.013). Average Constant and adjusted Constant scores improved from 20.8 points and 16% preoperatively to 61.8 points and 67.3% postoperatively, respectively (P=.019 and P=.068). Mean postoperative active forward flexion and active external rotation were 119.4° and 10°, respectively. Complications included the following: 3 patients sustained a postoperative dislocation, 1 patient had a glenoid fracture and complete loss of fixation of the baseplate, and 1 patient experienced dissociation of the glenosphere from the base-plate. Although metal-on-metal reverse TSA may appear to be an attractive choice in the treatment of young patients with limited reconstructive options, postoperative outcomes are

  2. Clinically insignificant trunnionosis in large-diameter metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Kendoff, D.; Lausmann, C.; Henckel, J.; Gehrke, T.; Skinner, J.; Hart, A.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Mechanical wear and corrosion at the head-stem junction of total hip arthroplasties (THAs) (trunnionosis) have been implicated in their early revision, most commonly in metal-on-metal (MOM) hips. We can isolate the role of the head-stem junction as the predominant source of metal release by investigating non-MOM hips; this can help to identify clinically significant volumes of material loss and corrosion from these surfaces. Methods In this study we examined a series of 94 retrieved metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips for evidence of corrosion and material loss at the taper junction using a well published visual grading method and an established roundness-measuring machine protocol. Hips were retrieved from 74 male and 20 female patients with a median age of 57 years (30 to 76) and a median time to revision of 215 months (2 to 324). The reasons for revision were loosening of both the acetabular component and the stem (n = 29), loosening of the acetabular component (n = 58) and infection (n = 7). No adverse tissue reactions were reported by the revision surgeons. Results Evidence of corrosion was observed in 55% of hips. The median Goldberg taper corrosion score was 2 (1 to 4) and the annual rate of material loss at the taper was 0.084 mm3/year (0 to 0.239). The median trunnion corrosion score was 1 (1 to 3). Conclusions We have reported a level of trunnionosis for MOP hips with large-diameter heads that were revised for reasons other than trunnionosis, and therefore may be clinically insignificant. Cite this article: H. S. Hothi, D. Kendoff, C. Lausmann, J. Henckel, T. Gehrke, J. Skinner, A. Hart. Clinically insignificant trunnionosis in large-diameter metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:52–56. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.61.BJR-2016-0150.R2. PMID:28108481

  3. Revision of Failed Hip Resurfacing and Large Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Using Dual-Mobility Components.

    PubMed

    Snir, Nimrod; Park, Brian K; Garofolo, Garret; Marwin, Scott E

    2015-06-01

    Revision of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) or hip resurfacing is associated with high complication rates. The authors propose dual-mobility components as a surgical option and present short- to mid-term results of MoM hips revised with dual-mobility components. Eighteen consecutive hips that underwent revision of MoM THA or hip resurfacing using dual-mobility components were identified. At final follow-up (mean, 17.5 months), the visual analog scale, modified Harris Hip Score, and SF-12 scores had all improved (P<.05, P<.01, and P<.05, respectively). There were no dislocations or other complications. Revision of failed MoM THA or hip resurfacing using a dual-mobility device is an effective strategy. Copyright 2015, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. CT-based quantification of bone stock in large head metal-on-metal unilateral total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Martijn F; Slouwerhof, Inge; van Lingen, Christiaan; Pakvis, Dean F M; van Dalen, Jorn A; Edens, Mireille A; Ettema, Harmen B; Verheyen, Cees C P M; Maas, Mario

    2016-04-01

    To explore ipsilateral and contralateral acetabular roof bone stock density in unilateral large head MoM THA whether there is a significant lower acetabular bone stock in the hip with a metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacement compared to the contralateral side. Second part of this study is to examine if there are any associates with regard to potential bone stock density difference. A database of 317 patients with unilateral metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacements was set up retrospectively for this study. On computed tomography scans, conducted after a relative short in situ time period averaging 2.8 years, regions-of-interests were drawn in the trabecular bone of the acetabulum to measure average Hounsfield Units (HU). HU differences were calculated and tested by Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Univariate analysis was conducted to examine associates of potential bone loss. In a population of 317 patients (156 male, 161 female) with an average age of 61.9 ± 7.8, the median HU on the side of the MoM replacement was 123.3 (7.6-375.4). On the contralateral side, median HU was 144.7 (-0.4 to 332.8). The median HU difference was 21.4 after a mean post-operative in situ time of 2.8 years. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test proved a significant difference (p<0.001). Univariate analyses show that the in situ time of the MoM THA has a significant correlation with the bone density difference. Results show a significant lower bone density at the acetabular roof at the side of the prosthesis compared with the contralateral side after short in situ time of the MoM THA in patients with unilateral MoM total hip replacements. In our patient population, the in situ time showed a significant association with the acetabular bone density difference. As acetabular roof bone stock measurements are feasible and show temporal decline this could become an important parameter to be used in orthopedic decision making for revision surgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  5. Five-year follow-up of a prospective randomised trial comparing ceramic-on-metal and metal-on-metal bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Schouten, R; Malone, A A; Frampton, C M; Tiffen, C; Hooper, G

    2017-10-01

    The primary aim of this independent prospective randomised trial was to compare serum metal ion levels for ceramic-on-metal (CoM) and metal-on-metal (MoM) bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Our one-year results demonstrated elevation in metal ion levels above baseline with no significant difference between the CoM and MoM groups. This paper reviews the five-year data. The implants used in each patient differed only in respect to the type of femoral head (ceramic or metal). At five-year follow-up of the 83 enrolled patients, data from 67 (36 CoM, 31 MoM) was available for comparison. The mean serum cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) ion levels remained above baseline in both groups (CoM: Co 1.16 μg/l (0.41 to 14.67), Cr 1.05 μg/l (0.16 to 12.58); MoM: Co 2.93 μg/l (0.35 to 30.29), Cr 1.85 μg/l (0.36 to 17.00)) but the increase was significantly less in the CoM cohort (Co difference p = 0.001, Cr difference p = 0.002). These medium-term results, coupled with lower revision rates from national joint registries, suggest that the performance of CoM THA may be superior to that of MoM. While both bearing combinations have since been withdrawn these results provide useful information for planning clinical surveillance of CoM THAs and warrants continued monitoring. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1298-1303. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  6. Crowe Type I and II DDH managed by large diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Yalcin, Nadir; Kilicarslan, Kasim; Cicek, Hakan; Kayaalp, Cetin; Yildirim, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Large bearing metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) may offer advantages relating to stability and range of motion in patients with Crowe Type I and II developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). The purpose of this study was to provide an analysis of the clinical and radiological results of MOM THA in this context and compare the results with a cohort of patients treated with metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) bearing surfaces. 75 hips in 65 patients were treated with cementless MOM THA using large femoral heads (36-56 mm). The mean age of the patients was 47.4 years (29 to 59) and 54 were female. A group of 47 hips (41 patients) treated with conventional THA (screwed cup-polyethylene insert-28 mm head) was used for comparison. The study group was followed up for a mean of 62.1 months (32 to 76). No difference was found between the two groups in relation to improvement in Harris hip score (HHS) (43.1 to 90.3 points in the study group, 42.6 to 89.5 points in the control group, p>0.05). Although the preoperative range of motion in all planes were similar in both groups, the large head group demonstrated greater motion in all planes postoperatively, which was significant (all p=0.001). Additionally, there was a significant difference between groups in relation to the necessity for acetabular structural graft (8% and 31.9%, respectively; p=0.001). No major complications or adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) were observed in the study group. The results of large head MOM THA in young and active patients with DDH are similar to conventional THA at early follow-up, but the former offers the advantages of secure acetabular fixation without screws, greater range of motion, and lower risk of dislocation.

  7. Spectral and total temperature-dependent emissivities of few-layer structures on a metallic substrate.

    PubMed

    Blandre, Etienne; Chapuis, Pierre-Olivier; Vaillon, Rodolphe

    2016-01-25

    We investigate the thermal radiative emission of few-layer structures deposited on a metallic substrate and its dependence on temperature with the Fluctuational Electrodynamics approach. We highlight the impact of the variations of the optical properties of metallic layers on their temperature-dependent emissivity. Fabry-Pérot spectral selection involving at most two transparent layers and one thin reflective layer leads to well-defined peaks and to the amplification of the substrate emission. For a single Fabry-Pérot layer on a reflective substrate, an optimal thickness that maximizes the emissivity of the structure can be determined at each temperature. A thin lossy layer deposited on the previous structure can enhance interference phenomena, and the analysis of the participation of each layer to the emission shows that the thin layer is the main source of emission. Eventually, we investigate a system with two Fabry-Pérot layers and a metallic thin layer, and we show that an optimal architecture can be found. The total hemispherical emissivity can be increased by one order of magnitude compared to the substrate emissivity.

  8. Particle characterisation and cytokine expression in failed small-diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Singh, G; Nuechtern, J V; Meyer, H; Fiedler, G M; Awiszus, F; Junk-Jantsch, S; Bruegel, M; Pflueger, G; Lohmann, C H

    2015-07-01

    The peri-prosthetic tissue response to wear debris is complex and influenced by various factors including the size, area and number of particles. We hypothesised that the 'biologically active area' of all metal wear particles may predict the type of peri-prosthetic tissue response. Peri-prosthetic tissue was sampled from 21 patients undergoing revision of a small diameter metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) for aseptic loosening. An enzymatic protocol was used for tissue digestion and scanning electron microscope was used to characterise particles. Equivalent circle diameters and particle areas were calculated. Histomorphometric analyses were performed on all tissue specimens. Aspirates of synovial fluid were collected for analysis of the cytokine profile analysis, and compared with a control group of patients undergoing primary THA (n = 11) and revision of a failed ceramic-on-polyethylene arthroplasty (n = 6). The overall distribution of the size and area of the particles in both lymphocyte and non-lymphocyte-dominated responses were similar; however, the subgroup with lymphocyte-dominated peri-prosthetic tissue responses had a significantly larger total number of particles. 14 cytokines (interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10), chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α and MIP-1ß), and growth factors (granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and platelet derived growth factor) were detected at significantly higher levels in patients with metal wear debris compared with the control group. Significantly higher levels for IL-1ß, IL-5, IL-10 and GM-CSF were found in the subgroup of tissues from failed MoM THAs with a lymphocyte-dominated peri-prosthetic response compared with those without this response. These results suggest that the 'biologically active area' predicts the type of peri-prosthetic tissue response. The cytokines IL-1ß, IL-5

  9. Effect of 3D physiological loading and motion on elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Gao, Leiming; Wang, Fengcai; Yang, Peiran; Jin, Zhongmin

    2009-07-01

    An elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) simulation of a metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip implant was presented, considering both steady state and transient physiological loading and motion gait cycle in all three directions. The governing equations were solved numerically by the multi-grid method and fast Fourier transform in spherical coordinates, and full numerical solutions were presented included the pressure and film thickness distribution. Despite small variations in the magnitude of 3D resultant load, the horizontal anterior-posterior (AP) and medial-lateral (ML) load components were found to translate the contact area substantially in the corresponding direction and consequently to result in significant squeeze-film actions. For a cup positioned anatomically at 45 degrees , the variation of the resultant load was shown unlikely to cause the edge contact. The contact area was found within the cup dimensions of 70-130 degrees and 90-150 degrees in the AP and ML direction respectively even under the largest translations. Under walking conditions, the horizontal load components had a significant impact on the lubrication film due to the squeeze-film effect. The time-dependent film thickness was increased by the horizontal translation and decreased during the reverse of this translation caused by the multi-direction of the AP load during walking. The minimum film thickness of 12-20 nm was found at 0.4s and around the location at (95, 125) degrees. During the whole walking cycle both the average and centre film thickness were found obviously increased to a range of 40-65 nm, compared with the range of 25-55 nm under one load (vertical) and one motion (flexion-extension) condition, which suggested the lubrication in the current MOM hip implant was improved under 3D physiological loading and motion. This study suggested the lubrication performance especially the film thickness distribution should vary greatly under different operating conditions and the time and

  10. Edge loading has a paradoxical effect on wear in metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Harris, William H

    2012-11-01

    Edge wear is an adverse factor that can negatively impact certain THAs. In some metal-on-metal THAs, it can lead to adverse tissue reactions including aseptic lymphocytic vasculitis-associated lesions and even to pseudotumor formation. In some ceramic-on-ceramic THAs, it can lead to squeaking and/or stripe wear. Edge wear in metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic THAs can also be associated with accelerated wear across the articulation of these joints. I asked: Does edge wear occur in metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) articulations? And if so, does it increase joint wear? I examined the evidence in the literature for edge wear occurring in MOP THA and then assessed the evidence in the literature for data supporting the concept that edge wear in MOP hips could accelerate wear across the articulation over time. Extensive data in the literature confirm edge wear is common in MOP THA. Surprisingly, the evidence does not support that it accelerates wear across the articulation. In fact, substantial data support the concept that it does not. These observations suggest, in terms of edge wear accelerating overall wear, MOP articulation may have a privileged position compared to hard-on-hard THA articulations.

  11. Comparison of synovial fluid, urine, and serum ion levels in metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at a minimum follow-up of 18 years.

    PubMed

    Lass, Richard; Grübl, Alexander; Kolb, Alexander; Stelzeneder, David; Pilger, Alexander; Kubista, Bernd; Giurea, Alexander; Windhager, Reinhard

    2014-09-01

    Diagnosis of adverse reactions to metal debris in metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty is a multifactorial process. Systemic ion levels are just one factor in the evaluation and should not be relied upon solely to determine the need for revision surgery. Furthermore, the correlation between cobalt or chromium serum, urine, or synovial fluid levels and adverse local tissue reactions is still incompletely understood. The hypothesis was that elevated serum and urine metal-ion concentrations are associated with elevated local metal-ion concentrations in primary total hip arthroplasties (THA) and with failure of metal-on-metal articulations in the long-term. In our present study, we evaluated these concentrations in 105 cementless THA with metal-on-metal articulating surfaces with small head diameter at a minimum of 18 years postoperatively. Spearman correlation showed a high correlation between the joint fluid aspirate concentration of cobalt and chromium with the serum cobalt (r = 0.81) and chromium level (r = 0.77) in patients with the THA as the only source of metal-ions. In these patients serum metal-ion analysis is a valuable method for screening. In patients with more than one source of metal or renal insufficiency additional investigations, like joint aspirations are an important tool for evaluation of wear and adverse tissue reactions in metal-on-metal THA.

  12. A prospective, randomised controlled trial comparing ceramic-on-metal and metal-on-metal bearing surfaces in total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Schouten, R; Malone, A A; Tiffen, C; Frampton, C M; Hooper, G

    2012-11-01

    In a double-blinded randomised controlled trial, 83 patients with primary osteoarthritis of the hip received either a ceramic-on-metal (CoM) or metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip replacement (THR). The implants differed only in the bearing surfaces used. The serum levels of cobalt and chromium and functional outcome scores were compared pre-operatively and at six and 12 months post-operatively. Data were available for 41 CoM and 36 MoM THRs (four patients were lost to follow-up, two received incorrect implants). The baseline characteristics of both cohorts were similar. Femoral head size measured 36 mm in all but two patients who had 28 mm heads. The mean serum cobalt and chromium levels increased in both groups, with no difference noted between groups at six months (cobalt p = 0.67, chromium p = 0.87) and 12 months (cobalt p = 0.76, chromium p = 0.76) post-operatively. Similarly, the mean Oxford hip scores, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index and University of California, Los Angeles activity scores showed comparable improvement at 12 months. Our findings indicate that CoM and MoM couplings are associated with an equivalent increase in serum cobalt and chromium levels, and comparable functional outcome scores at six and 12-months follow-up.

  13. Quantitative analysis of orthopedic metal artefact reduction in 64-slice computed tomography scans in large head metal-on-metal total hip replacement, a phantom study.

    PubMed

    Boomsma, Martijn F; Warringa, Niek; Edens, Mireille A; Mueller, Dirk; Ettema, Harmen B; Verheyen, Cees C P M; Maas, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Quantification of the effect of O-MAR on decreasing metal artefacts caused by large head metal on metal total hip arthroplasty (MoM THA) in a dedicated phantom setup of the hip. Pathological reactions of the hip capsule on Computed tomography (CT) can be difficult to diagnose due to different metal artefacts. The O-MAR algorithm deploys an iterative loop where the metal sinogram is identified, extracted, and subsequently serves as a mask to correct the measured sinogram. Main goal of this study is to quantify the ability of the O-MAR technique to correct deviation in medullary bone attenuation caused by streak artefacts from the large-head MoM THA embedded in a phantom. Secondary goal is to evaluate the influence of O-MAR on CNR. The phantom was designed as a Perspex box (PMMA) containing water and a supplementary MOM THA surrounded by Perspex columns comprising calibrated calcium pellets. Each column contains 200 mg of hydroxyapatite/calcium carbonate to simulate healthy bone tissue. Scans were obtained with and without a MoM THA at different dose levels. Different reconstructions were made with filter A, iDose(4) level 5 and with and without O-MAR. The scans without the prosthesis were used as the baseline. Information about the attenuation in Hounsfield units, image noise in standard deviation within the ROI's were extracted and the CNR was calculated. Pellet L0 and R0 (proximal of the MoM THA) were defined as reference, lacking any disturbance by metal artefacts; L5, L6 and L8 were respectively visually categorized as 'light' 'medium' and 'heavy disturbance'. Significant improvements in attenuation deviation caused by metal artefact were 43, 68 and 32 %, for respectively pellet L5, L6 and L8 (p < 0.001). Significant CNR improvements were present for L5 and L6 and were respectively 72 and 52 % (p < 0.001). O-MAR showed no improvement on CNR for L8. This phantom study significantly increases image quality by the use of O-MAR in the presence of metal

  14. Metal-on-conventional polyethylene total hip arthroplasty bearing surfaces have a higher risk of revision than metal-on-highly crosslinked polyethylene: results from a US registry.

    PubMed

    Paxton, Elizabeth W; Inacio, Maria C S; Namba, Robert S; Love, Rebecca; Kurtz, Steven M

    2015-03-01

    Although studies have reported lower radiological wear in highly crosslinked polyethylene (HXLPE) versus conventional polyethylene in total hip arthroplasty (THA), there is limited clinical evidence on the risk of revision of these polyethylene THA bearing surfaces. We asked: (1) Do primary THAs with a metal-on-conventional polyethylene bearing surface have a higher risk of revision (all-cause or aseptic) than metal-on-HXLPE? (2) Is the risk of revision (all-cause or aseptic) higher for conventional polyethylene versus HXLPE when the effect of femoral and acetabular components is controlled for in prosthesis-specific analyses? The Kaiser Permanente's Total Joint Replacement Registry was used to identify metal-on-conventional polyethylene and metal-on-HXLPE primary THAs (N = 26,823) performed between April 2001 and December 2011. The registry has 95% voluntary participation and 8% were lost to followup during the 10-year study period. Endpoints of interest were all-cause and aseptic revisions. Descriptive statistics and marginal Cox regression models with propensity score adjustments were applied to compare risk of revision for metal-on-conventional polyethylene versus metal-on-HXLPE THAs and to evaluate two specific manufacturers' hip implant designs while controlling for femoral and acetabular components. Of the 26,823 THAs included in the study, 1815 (7%) were metal-on-conventional polyethylene and 25,008 (93%) were metal-on-HXLPE. At 7 years followup, the cumulative incidence of revision was 5.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4%-6.7%) for metal-on-conventional and 2.8% (95% CI, 2.6%-3.2%) for metal-on-HXLPE. There was a higher adjusted risk of all-cause (hazard ratio [HR], 1.75; 95% CI, 1.37-2.24; p < 0.001) and aseptic (HR, 1.91; 95% CI, 1.46-2.50; p < 0.001) revisions among metal-on-conventional polyethylene bearing surface hips compared with metal-on-HXLPE. Results were similar within manufacturer hip designs with the same femoral and acetabular components

  15. Prediction of contact mechanics in metal-on-metal Total Hip Replacement for parametrically comprehensive designs and loads.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Finn E; Nyman, Edward; Coburn, James C

    2015-07-16

    Manufacturers and investigators of Total Hip Replacement (THR) bearings require tools to predict the contact mechanics resulting from diverse design and loading parameters. This study provides contact mechanics solutions for metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings that encompass the current design space and could aid pre-clinical design optimization and evaluation. Stochastic finite element (FE) simulation was used to calculate the head-on-cup contact mechanics for five thousand combinations of design and loading parameters. FE results were used to train a Random Forest (RF) surrogate model to rapidly predict the contact patch dimensions, contact area, pressures and plastic deformations for arbitrary designs and loading. In addition to widely observed polar and edge contact, FE results included ring-polar, asymmetric-polar, and transitional categories which have previously received limited attention. Combinations of design and load parameters associated with each contact category were identified. Polar contact pressures were predicted in the range of 0-200 MPa with no permanent deformation. Edge loading (with subluxation) was associated with pressures greater than 500 MPa and induced permanent deformation in 83% of cases. Transitional-edge contact (with little subluxation) was associated with intermediate pressures and permanent deformation in most cases, indicating that, even with ideal anatomical alignment, bearings may face extreme wear challenges. Surrogate models were able to accurately predict contact mechanics 18,000 times faster than FE analyses. The developed surrogate models enable rapid prediction of MoM bearing contact mechanics across the most comprehensive range of loading and designs to date, and may be useful to those performing bearing design optimization or evaluation. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Ceramic on crosslinked polyethylene in total hip replacement: any better than metal on crosslinked polyethylene?

    PubMed

    Callaghan, John J; Liu, Steve S

    2009-01-01

    The authors evaluated the use of ceramic femoral heads on crosslinked polyethylene bearing couples versus metal on crosslinked polyethylene couples in a consecutive series of hips performed by a single surgeon over a one year interval. Ceramic femoral heads and more extensively crosslinked polyethylene were used more commonly in the younger aged patients with utilization of ceramic heads in patients average age 50.2 versus 63.9 for metal heads, and utilization of more extensively crosslinked polyethylene in patients average age 54.1 versus 77.2 years for patients receiving less extensive crosslinked polyethylene. The authors explain the cost effectiveness of this approach where the difference in cost is approximately 36%.

  17. Metal hypersensitivity in total joint arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Pinson, Michelle L; Coop, Christopher A; Webb, Charles N

    2014-08-01

    To review the clinical manifestations, testing methods, and treatment options for hypersensitivity reactions to total joint arthroplasty procedures. Studies were identified using MEDLINE and reference lists of key articles. Randomized controlled trials were selected when available. Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of peer-reviewed literature were included, as were case series and observational studies of clinical interest. Total joint arthroplasty procedures are increasing, as are the hypersensitivity reactions to these implants. Evidence is not conclusive as to whether metal joint implants increase metal sensitivity or whether metal sensitivity leads to prosthesis failure. Currently, patch testing is still the most widely used method for determining metal hypersensitivity; however, there are no standardized commercial panels specific for total joint replacements available currently. In vitro testing has shown comparable results in some studies, but its use in the clinical setting may be limited by the cost and need for specialized laboratories. Hypersensitivity testing is generally recommended before surgery for patients with a reported history of metal sensitivity. In cases of metal hypersensitivity-related joint failure, surgical revision ultimately may be required. Knowledge about joint replacement hypersensitivity reactions becomes vital because the approach to the evaluation depends on appropriate testing to guide recommendations for future arthroplasty procedures. Evaluation of hypersensitivity reactions after total joint arthroplasty requires a systematic approach, including a careful history, targeted evaluation with skin testing, and in vitro studies. Copyright © 2014 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Contact mechanics of modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement under adverse edge loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Wang, Ling; Jin, Zhongmin; Wilcox, Ruth; Fisher, John

    2014-10-17

    Edge loading can negatively impact the biomechanics and long-term performance of hip replacements. Although edge loading has been widely investigated for hard-on-hard articulations, limited work has been conducted for hard-on-soft combinations. The aim of the present study was to investigate edge loading and its effect on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR). A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing. Different cup inclination angles and head lateral microseparation were modelled and their effect on the contact mechanics of the modular MoP hip replacement were examined. The results showed that lateral microseparation caused loading of the head on the rim of the cup, which produced substantial increases in the maximum von Mises stress in the polyethylene liner and the maximum contact pressure on both the articulating surface and backside surface of the liner. Plastic deformation of the liner was observed under both standard conditions and microseparation conditions, however, the maximum equivalent plastic strain in the liner under microseparation conditions of 2000 µm was predicted to be approximately six times that under standard conditions. The study has indicated that correct positioning the components to avoid edge loading is likely to be important clinically even for hard-on-soft bearings for THR. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  19. Availability of metals to the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans: toxicity based on total concentrations in soil and extracted fractions.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Windy A; Williams, Philip L

    2003-05-01

    Current regulation of metals in soils is based on total metal concentrations rather than on actual exposure concentrations. Considering the extreme variation in soil physicochemical properties, total concentrations are not reflective of the availability and resultant toxicity of metals in different soils. In this study, the availability of Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn to the free-living soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans was assessed after 24-h exposures in three soils using a sequential soil extraction procedure. Albany soil, sampled from southern Georgia, USA, is characterized by a high sand content, whereas Cecil soil from the Piedmont region of Georgia contains higher fractions of clay and organic matter. The final soil was an American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) artificial medium composed of peat, kaolin clay, sand, and calcium carbonate. Based on their composition, ASTM medium would sorb metals most strongly and Albany soil the least strongly. In fact, 24-h lethal concentrations to 50% (LC50s) of nematodes for the five metals as determined by the total metal concentration followed this trend. In addition, water-extractable metals were lowest in ASTM medium and highest in Albany soil when spiked at the same concentrations. Our data show the need to consider soil type when performing toxicological tests and establishing site-specific allowable metal concentrations in soil.

  20. Small diameter metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 13 years - a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tardy, N; Maqdes, A; Boisrenoult, P; Beaufils, P; Oger, P

    2015-12-01

    Theoretically, the properties of second-generation metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings are better for wear, osteolysis and longevity. However, follow-up studies of more than 10 years are rare, in particular with hybrid fixation (cemented stainless steel stems and cementless cup), therefore we evaluated the results of this combination after a mean follow-up of 12.8 years: (1) to analyze the survival rate, (2) to compare it with the survival rate in the same series after 6.4 years (95.8% cup, 94.8% stem), (3) to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcome and (4) to analyze these failures. The number of revisions would increase after 10 years. We evaluated 106 total hip arthroplasties (THA) (Cedior™ press-fit cup with cemented Acora™ (n=50) and Exafit™ (n=56) stems and 28mm Metasul™ bearings performed between January 1999 and December 2002. The survival rate was calculated by the Kaplan-Meier method. The clinical assessment included the Postel Merle d'Aubigné (PMA) and Oxford scores. The radiographic assessment evaluated radiolucencies and osteolysis on standard X-rays. A histological analysis was only performed during revision THA. After a mean 12.8 years of follow-up (10-16), 53 THA were reviewed in 48 patients. Thirteen THA revisions (14%) were performed including 11 aseptic revisions (5 stem fractures, 2 cases of impingement and 3 loosenings [1 bipolar and 3 cups] and one case of osteolysis). Overall survival, taking into account revision for aseptic loosening, was 87.6% (CI 95%=77.3 to 99.3%). The mean PMA and Oxford scores at the final follow-up were 17.6±0.8 points (16-18) and 16.5±5.2 points (12-38) respectively. The radiological follow-up mainly identified radiolucencies around the stem in Gruen zones 1 and 7 (17 and 21% respectively). The survival rate of hybrid MoM THA in this series decreased after 10 years and is lower than studies evaluating cementless THA with the 28-mm Metasul™ bearings (90.9 to 100% survival). Although the clinical results are

  1. Risk factors for failure of the 36 mm metal-on-metal Pinnacle total hip arthroplasty system

    PubMed Central

    Matharu, G. S.; Nandra, R. S.; Berryman, F.; Judge, A.; Pynsent, P. B.; Dunlop, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    Aims To determine ten-year failure rates following 36 mm metal-on-metal (MoM) Pinnacle total hip arthroplasty (THA), and identify predictors of failure. Patients and Methods We retrospectively assessed a single-centre cohort of 569 primary 36 mm MoM Pinnacle THAs (all Corail stems) followed up since 2012 according to Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulation Agency recommendations. All-cause failure rates (all-cause revision, and non-revised cross-sectional imaging failures) were calculated, with predictors for failure identified using multivariable Cox regression. Results Failure occurred in 97 hips (17.0%). The ten-year cumulative failure rate was 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 21.6 to 33.7). Primary implantation from 2006 onwards (hazard ratio (HR) 4.30; 95% CI 1.82 to 10.1; p = 0.001) and bilateral MoM hip arthroplasty (HR 1.59; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.46; p = 0.037) predicted failure. The effect of implantation year on failure varied over time. From four years onwards following surgery, hips implanted since 2006 had significantly higher failure rates (eight years 28.3%; 95% CI 23.1 to 34.5) compared with hips implanted before 2006 (eight years 6.3%; 95% CI 2.4 to 15.8) (HR 15.2; 95% CI 2.11 to 110.4; p = 0.007). Conclusion We observed that 36 mm MoM Pinnacle THAs have an unacceptably high ten-year failure rate, especially if implanted from 2006 onwards or in bilateral MoM hip patients. Our findings regarding implantation year and failure support recent concerns about the device manufacturing process. We recommend all patients undergoing implantation since 2006 and those with bilateral MoM hips undergo regular investigation, regardless of symptoms. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:592–600. PMID:28455467

  2. The influence of metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Changdong; Wang, Ling; Li, Dichen; Jin, Zhongmin

    2016-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty of ceramic-on-ceramic bearing combinations is increasingly used clinically. The majority of these implants are used with cementless fixation that a metal-backing shell is press-fitted into the pelvic bone. This usually results in the deformation of the metallic shell, which may also influence the ceramic liner deformation and consequently the contact mechanics between the liner and the femoral head under loading. The explicit dynamic finite element method was applied to model the implantation of a cementless ceramic-on-ceramic with a titanium shell and subsequently to investigate the effect of the metallic shell deformation on the contact mechanics. A total of three impacts were found to be necessary to seat the titanium alloy shell into the pelvic bone cavity with a 1 mm diameter interference and a 1.3 kg impactor at 4500 mm s(-1) velocity. The maximum deformation of the metallic shell was found to be 160 µm in the antero-superior and postero-inferior direction and 97 µm in the antero-inferior and postero-superior direction after the press-fit. The corresponding values were slightly reduced to 67 and 45 µm after the ceramic liner was inserted and then modified to 74 and 43 µm under loading, respectively. The maximum deformation and the maximum principal stress of the ceramic liner were 31 µm and 144 MPa (tensile stress), respectively, after it was inserted into the shell and further increased to 52 µm and 245 MPa under loading. This research highlights the importance of the press-fit of the metallic shell on the contact mechanics of the ceramic liner for ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasties and potential clinical performances.

  3. No association between pseudotumors, high serum metal-ion levels and metal hypersensitivity in large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at 5-7-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, Mette Holm; Stilling, Maiken; Soballe, Kjeld; Bolvig, Lars Hans; Thyssen, Jacob Pontoppidan; Mechlenburg, Inger; Jakobsen, Stig Storgaard

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between metal wear debris, pseudotumor formation and metal hypersensitivity is complex and not completely understood. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in a consecutive series of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to investigate its relationship to serum metal-ion levels and hypersensitivity to metal. Forty-one patients (31 males), mean age 52 (28-68) years, with a total of 49 large-head MoM THA participated in a 5-7-year follow-up study. Patients underwent ultrasonography, serum metal-ion concentrations were measured, metal allergy and atopic dermatitis were evaluated, and the questionnaires of the Oxford Hip Score (OHS), Harris Hip Score (HHS) and the Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36) were completed. Pseudotumors were found in eight patients, but they were asymptomatic and their serum metal-ion levels were similar to those observed in patients with no pseudotumors (p > 0.36). The capsule-stem distance of mean 8.6 mm (SD 3.82, 95% CI: 5.40-11.79) was wider (p = 0.02) in patients with pseudotumours than in patients without pseudotumors of mean 5.6 mm (SD 2.89, 95% CI: 4.68-6.58). Positive patch test reactions were seen in three patients. Higher serum metal-ion levels of chromium and cobalt were significantly correlated with steeper cup inclination and smaller femoral head sizes, and were associated with female gender (p < 0.04). We found no association between pseudotumor formation, serum metal-ion levels, metal patch test reactivity, and atopic dermatitis. However, clinicians should be aware of asymptomatic pseudotumors, and we advise further exploration into the mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of pseudotumors.

  4. MRI Findings in Patients After Small-Head Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty with a Minimum Follow-up of 10 Years.

    PubMed

    Reiner, Tobias; Do, Thuy D; Klot, Matthias C; Hertzsch, Fabian; Seelmann, Kirsten; Gaida, Matthias M; Weber, Marc-André; Gotterbarm, Tobias

    2017-09-20

    Concern has been raised about the late onset of adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD) in patients with a small-head metal-on-metal total hip replacement. The aims of this study were to assess the frequency and characteristic appearance of ARMD in patients with a small-head (28-mm) metal-on-metal total hip replacement and elevated blood ion levels (>1 μg/L) after a minimum follow-up of 10 years and to analyze the possible risk factors associated with the prevalence of these lesions. In the present study, we used metal artifact reduction sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MARS MRI) to investigate the cases of 53 patients (66 hips) with a small-head (28-mm) metal-on-metal total hip replacement and elevated blood ion levels at a mean follow-up interval of 15.5 years (range, 10.6 to 19.3 years). Whole blood metal ion levels (cobalt and chromium), clinical outcome scores (Harris hip score), and radiographs were obtained for each patient. Tissue samples from patients who had revision surgery were histologically examined. MARS MRI revealed ARMD in 27 hips (41%). Most hips with ARMD (67%) were asymptomatic. ARMD were generally small, with a median lesion size of 2.3 cm (range, 0.3 to 71.4 cm) and predominantly cystic in nature. Multivariate regression analysis revealed positive correlation between cobalt ion levels and the presence of ARMD. In this case series, the risk for the development of ARMD was 2.87 times higher for every 1 μg/L increase of blood cobalt ion concentration (95% confidence interval, 1.01 to 8.17; p = 0.048). In this case series, ARMD were seen in 41% of the hips following small-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty at long-term follow-up, and most patients with ARMD were asymptomatic. Blood cobalt ion levels could be identified as a risk factor for ARMD. However, ARMD also occurred in patients with low metal ion levels. Further studies are necessary to investigate the role of ARMD in asymptomatic patients with this bearing type. Therapeutic

  5. Clinical Results and Serum Metal Ion Concentrations following Ceramic-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty at a Mean Follow-Up of 60 Months

    PubMed Central

    Maurer-Ertl, W.; Pranckh-Matzke, D.; Bratschitsch, G.; Maier, M.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Increased metal ion levels following total hip arthroplasty (THA) with metal-on-metal bearings are a highly debated topic. Local soft tissue reactions with chronic pain and systemic side effects such as neuropathy are described. The aim of the current study was to determine the serum metal ion concentrations of Cobalt (Co) and Chrome (Cr) after THA with a ceramic-on-metal (CoM) bearing. Patients and Methods. Between 2008 and 2010, 20 patients underwent THA using a CoM bearing. Clinical function was evaluated by standardized scores systems (Harris Hip Score and WOMAC Score) and radiological examination included X-rays. Patient's blood samples were obtained for metal ion analysis and correlation analysis was done between these results and implant position. Results. Overall, 13 patients with 14 CoM devices were available for the current series. The mean age at time of surgery was 61 years (range, 41 to 85). The postoperative follow-up ranged from 49 to 68 months (mean, 58). Metal ion determination showed mean concentrations of 3,1 µg/L (range, 0,3–15,2 µg/L) for Co and 1,6 µg/L (range, 0,1–5,5 µg/L) for Cr, respectively. A correlation between cup anteversion and Co and Cr concentrations was shown. Conclusion. The current series showed increments for Co and Cr following CoM THA. However, these levels are lower compared to metal ion concentrations in patients with metal-on-metal bearings and the international accepted threshold for revision of MoM devices. We recommend routine follow-up including at least one obligatory evaluation of serum metal ion concentrations and an MRI once to exclude local soft tissue reactions. PMID:28373980

  6. Clinical Results and Serum Metal Ion Concentrations following Ceramic-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty at a Mean Follow-Up of 60 Months.

    PubMed

    Maurer-Ertl, W; Pranckh-Matzke, D; Friesenbichler, J; Bratschitsch, G; Holzer, L A; Maier, M; Leithner, A

    2017-01-01

    Background. Increased metal ion levels following total hip arthroplasty (THA) with metal-on-metal bearings are a highly debated topic. Local soft tissue reactions with chronic pain and systemic side effects such as neuropathy are described. The aim of the current study was to determine the serum metal ion concentrations of Cobalt (Co) and Chrome (Cr) after THA with a ceramic-on-metal (CoM) bearing. Patients and Methods. Between 2008 and 2010, 20 patients underwent THA using a CoM bearing. Clinical function was evaluated by standardized scores systems (Harris Hip Score and WOMAC Score) and radiological examination included X-rays. Patient's blood samples were obtained for metal ion analysis and correlation analysis was done between these results and implant position. Results. Overall, 13 patients with 14 CoM devices were available for the current series. The mean age at time of surgery was 61 years (range, 41 to 85). The postoperative follow-up ranged from 49 to 68 months (mean, 58). Metal ion determination showed mean concentrations of 3,1 µg/L (range, 0,3-15,2 µg/L) for Co and 1,6 µg/L (range, 0,1-5,5 µg/L) for Cr, respectively. A correlation between cup anteversion and Co and Cr concentrations was shown. Conclusion. The current series showed increments for Co and Cr following CoM THA. However, these levels are lower compared to metal ion concentrations in patients with metal-on-metal bearings and the international accepted threshold for revision of MoM devices. We recommend routine follow-up including at least one obligatory evaluation of serum metal ion concentrations and an MRI once to exclude local soft tissue reactions.

  7. Metallic discoloration on the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeong Young; Shin, Dong Hoon; Choi, Jong Soo; Kim, Ki Hong

    2013-08-01

    The differential diagnosis of bluish-gray pigmentation of the skin includes dermal melanocytosis, malignant melanoma and metallic discoloration. Of these disorders, metallic discoloration, which develops from deposits of fine metallic particles on the skin, is an uncommon dermatologic disease. We report a case of metallic discoloration of the right shin caused by titanium alloy prostheses in a patient with right total knee replacement. The patient had bluish-gray pigmentation on her right shin as well as pain while walking. Histopathologic findings of the skin lesion showed abundant black particles in the perivascular area of the lower dermis. Polarizing microscopy revealed refractile foreign materials in the dermis. An energy dispersive X-ray spectrophotometer unit attached to a transmission electron microscope detected titanium and aluminium peaks in the specimen.

  8. Distributed analysis of hip implants using six national and regional registries: comparing metal-on-metal with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene bearings in cementless total hip arthroplasty in young patients.

    PubMed

    Furnes, Ove; Paxton, Elizabeth; Cafri, Guy; Graves, Stephen; Bordini, Barbara; Comfort, Thomas; Rivas, Moises Coll; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-12-17

    The regulation of medical devices has attracted controversy recently because of problems related to metal-on-metal hip implants. There is growing evidence that metal-on-metal implants fail early and cause local and systemic complications. However, the failure associated with metal-on-metal head size is not consistently documented and needs to be communicated to patients and surgeons. The purpose of this study is to compare implant survival of metal on metal with that of metal on highly cross-linked polyethylene. Using a distributed health data network, primary total hip arthroplasties were identified from six national and regional total joint arthroplasty registries (2001 to 2010). Inclusion criteria were patient age of forty-five to sixty-four years, cementless total hip arthroplasties, primary osteoarthritis diagnosis, and exclusion of the well-known outlier implant ASR (articular surface replacement). The primary outcome was revision for any reason. A meta-analysis of survival probabilities was performed with use of a fixed-effects model. Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants. Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were used in 5172 hips and metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants were used in 14,372 hips. Metal-on-metal total hip replacements with a large head size of >36 mm had an increased risk of revision compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene total hip replacements with more than two years of follow-up, with no difference during the first two years after implantation. The results of the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from the multivariable model at various durations of follow-up were 0.95 (0.74 to 1.23) at zero to two years (p = 0.698), 1.42 (1.16 to 1.75) at more than two years to four years (p = 0.001), 1.78 (1.45 to 2.19) at more than four years to six years (p < 0.001), and 2.15 (1.63 to 2.83) at more than

  9. Distributed Analysis of Hip Implants Using Six National and Regional Registries: Comparing Metal-on-Metal with Metal-on-Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Bearings in Cementless Total Hip Arthroplasty in Young Patients

    PubMed Central

    Furnes, Ove; Paxton, Elizabeth; Cafri, Guy; Graves, Stephen; Bordini, Barbara; Comfort, Thomas; Rivas, Moises Coll; Banerjee, Samprit; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-01-01

    Background: The regulation of medical devices has attracted controversy recently because of problems related to metal-on-metal hip implants. There is growing evidence that metal-on-metal implants fail early and cause local and systemic complications. However, the failure associated with metal-on-metal head size is not consistently documented and needs to be communicated to patients and surgeons. The purpose of this study is to compare implant survival of metal on metal with that of metal on highly cross-linked polyethylene. Methods: Using a distributed health data network, primary total hip arthroplasties were identified from six national and regional total joint arthroplasty registries (2001 to 2010). Inclusion criteria were patient age of forty-five to sixty-four years, cementless total hip arthroplasties, primary osteoarthritis diagnosis, and exclusion of the well-known outlier implant ASR (articular surface replacement). The primary outcome was revision for any reason. A meta-analysis of survival probabilities was performed with use of a fixed-effects model. Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants. Results: Metal-on-metal implants with a large head size of >36 mm were used in 5172 hips and metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene implants were used in 14,372 hips. Metal-on-metal total hip replacements with a large head size of >36 mm had an increased risk of revision compared with metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene total hip replacements with more than two years of follow-up, with no difference during the first two years after implantation. The results of the hazard ratios (and 95% confidence intervals) from the multivariable model at various durations of follow-up were 0.95 (0.74 to 1.23) at zero to two years (p = 0.698), 1.42 (1.16 to 1.75) at more than two years to four years (p = 0.001), 1.78 (1.45 to 2.19) at more than four years to six years (p < 0.001), and 2

  10. Predictive role of the lambda ratio in the evaluation of metal-on-metal total hip replacement.

    PubMed

    Affatato, S; Spinelli, M; Zavalloni, M; Leardini, W; Viceconti, M

    2008-07-01

    The wear of metal-on-metal bearings is affected by various design parameters, such as the clearance or surface roughness. It would be very useful to have a significant indicator of wear according to these design parameters, such as the lambda ratio. Three different batches of cast high- and low-carbon cobalt-chromium hip implants (28 mm, 32 mm, and 36 mm diameters) were tested in a hip joint simulator for 2 x 10(6) cycles. Bovine calf serum was used as lubricant, and the samples were weighed at regular intervals during the test. The predictive role of the lambda ratio on the wear behaviour was investigated. Three different configurations were tested to explore the wear rate for a broad range of lambda ratios. The results of these studies clearly showed that the femoral heads of 36 mm diameter had the best wear behaviour with respect to the other two smaller configurations tested. From a predictive point of view, the lambda ratios associated with the configurations tested could clearly indicate that the femoral heads of 36 mm diameter worked in the mixed-lubrication regime (lambda > 1); all the smallest configurations (28mm size) had lambda < 1, thus showing their aptitude to work in the boundary lubrication regime, with substantially higher volume depletion due to wear. The lambda values associated with the 32 mm size varied in a range around 1 (0.95 < lambda < 1.16), suggesting the possibility of operating in the mixed-lubrication regime.

  11. [Effect analysis on the two total load control methods for poisonous heavy metals].

    PubMed

    Fu, Guo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Firstly it should be made clear that implementation of source total load control for the first type of pollutants is necessary for environmental pollution control legislation and economic structure regulation. This kind of surveillance method has been more practical to be implemented since the Manual of the Industry Discharge Coefficient of First National Pollution Sources Investigation was published. The source total load control and water environment total load control are independent of each other and none of them is redundant, on the other side they can be complementary to each other. In the present, some local planning managers are blurring and confusing the contents and styles of the two surveillance methods. They just use the water total load control to manage all the pollutants, and source total load control is discarded, which results in the loss of control for the first type of pollutants especially for the drinking water source surveillance. There is a big difference between the water quality standards and the water environmental background concentration values for the first type of pollutants in the Environmental quality standard for surface water (GB 3838-88), which means that there are problems such as "relaxing the pollutant discharge permit" and "risk induced by valence state change". Taking an enterprise with 10t electrolytic lead production capacity as an example, there is a big difference between the allowable lead discharged loads by the two total load surveillance methods. In summary, it will bring a lot of harmful effects if the water total load control is implemented for the two types of pollutants, so the source total load control and water environmental total load control should be implemented strictly at the same time.

  12. Metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasties: Influence of cobalt and chromium ions on bacterial growth and biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Hosman, Anton H; van der Mei, Henny C; Bulstra, Sjoerd K; Busscher, Henk J; Neut, Daniëlle

    2009-03-01

    Metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings involving cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloys in total hip arthroplasties are becoming more and more popular due to their low wear. Consequences of corrosion products of Co-Cr alloys are for the most part unclear, and the influence of cobalt and chromium ions on biofilm formation has never been studied. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate how Co-Cr ions affect bacterial growth, biofilm formation, and architecture. A collection of clinically isolated and commercially available bacterial strains were exposed to Co-Cr concentrations as found in serum and above as found in adjacent tissue. Planktonic growth of bacteria was inhibited by concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L Co-Cr. Co-Cr concentrations up to 20/9.3 microg/L as reported to occur in serum revealed no consistent influence on biofilm formation, but higher concentrations of 200,000/93,000 microg/L significantly reduced Staphylococcus aureus and CNS biofilm formation. As indicated by confocal laser scanning microscopy, no dead bacteria were encountered in the biofilms, and the metal ion concentrations used must be classified as growth-inhibiting and not bactericidal. Long-term clinical data on infection rates for Co-Cr MOM-bearings are not yet available, but the current results suggest that Co-Cr ions may yield these prostheses less prone to biofilm formation and subsequent infection. (c) 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Increased Mortality in Metal-on-Metal versus Non-Metal-on-Metal Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty at 10 Years and Longer Follow-Up: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Meessen, J. M. T. A.; Fiocco, M.; van der Heide, H. J. L.; Sedrakyan, A.; Nelissen, R. G. H. H.

    2016-01-01

    Importance There are concerns about increased mortality in patients with metal-on-metal bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Objective To determine the mortality and the morbidity in patients with metal-on-metal articulations (MOM THA) compared to patients with non-metal-on-metal articulations (non-MOM THA) after primary total hip arthroplasty. Data Sources Search of PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane, CINAHL, AcademicSearchPremier, ScienceDirect, Wiley and clinical trial registers through March 2015, augmented by a hand search of references from the included articles. No language restrictions were applied. Study Selection Two reviewers screened and identified randomised controlled trials and observational studies of primary total hip arthroplasty comparing MOM THA with non-MOM THA. Data Extraction and Synthesis Two reviewers independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Risk differences (RD) were calculated with random effect models. Meta-regression was used to explore modifying factors. Main Outcomes and Measures Difference in mortality and difference in morbidity expressed as revisions and medical complications between patients with MOM THA and non-MOM THA. Results Forty-seven studies were included, comprising 4,000 THA in randomised trials and over 500,000 THA in observational studies. For mortality, random effects analysis revealed a higher pooled RD of 0.7%, 95%, confidence interval (CI) [0.0%, 2.3%], I-square 42%; the heterogeneity was explained by differences in follow-up. When restricted to studies with long term follow-up (i.e. 10 years or more), the RD for mortality was 8.5%, 95%, CI [5.8%, 11.2%]; number needed to treat was 12. Further subgroup analyses and meta-regression random effects models revealed no evidence for other moderator variables (study level covariates, e.g. resurfacing vs. non-resurfacing MOM) than follow-up duration. The quality of the evidence presented in this meta-analysis was characterized as

  14. Risk of Revision Following Total Hip Arthroplasty: Metal-on-Conventional Polyethylene Compared with Metal-on-Highly Cross-Linked Polyethylene Bearing Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Paxton, Elizabeth; Cafri, Guy; Havelin, Leif; Stea, Susanna; Pallisó, Francesc; Graves, Stephen; Hoeffel, Daniel; Sedrakyan, Art

    2014-01-01

    The results of randomized controlled trials and systematic reviews have suggested reduced radiographic wear in highly cross-linked polyethylene compared with conventional polyethylene in primary total hip arthroplasty. However, longer-term clinical results have not been thoroughly examined, to our knowledge. The purpose of this study was to compare the risk of revision for metal-on-conventional and metal-on-highly cross-linked total hip arthroplasty bearing surfaces with use of a distributed data network of six national and regional registries (Kaiser Permanente, HealthEast, the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy, the Catalan region in Spain, Norway, and Australia). Inclusion criteria were osteoarthritis as the primary diagnosis, cementless implant fixation, and a patient age of forty-five to sixty-four years. These criteria resulted in a sample of 16,571 primary total hip arthroplasties. Multivariate meta-analysis was performed with use of linear mixed models, with survival probability as the unit of analysis. The results of a fixed-effects model suggested that there was insufficient evidence of a difference in risk of revision between bearing surfaces (hazard ratio, 1.20 [95% confidence interval, 0.80 to 1.79]; p = 0.384). Highly cross-linked polyethylene does not appear to have a reduced risk of revision in this subgroup of total hip arthroplasty patients. Arthroplasties involving highly cross-linked polyethylene do not appear to have an increased risk of revision in this subgroup of total hip arthroplasty patients. PMID:25520415

  15. Effect of Metals on β-Actin and Total Protein Synthesis in Cultured Human Intestinal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Calabro, Anthony R.; Gazarian, Dmitry I.; Barile, Frank A.

    2010-01-01

    As an important structural protein, β-actin is associated with anchoring of tight junctions (TJs) to the cell scaffold. Caco-2 cells, an immortal intestinal epithelial cell line, rely on β-actin to form intact monolayers with high transepithelial electrical resistance in cell culture inserts. We examined the effect of six metals on expression of β-actin mRNA and β-actin synthesis, on total and net production of newly synthesized proteins, on paracellular transport of TJ markers, and on cell viability in confluent monolayers. [3H]-glycine and [3H]-tyrosine were used as indicators of newly synthesized proteins in the absence or presence of increasing concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, copper, manganese, mercury and nickel. The monolayers were exposed to 24-hr single exposures as well as continuous daily repeated doses of metals for 48-hr and 96-hr. Results suggest that decreases in newly synthesized proteins, in which β-actin represents about 10%, correlated with 2- to 5-fold higher expression of β-actin mRNA for the higher concentrations of metals. Interestingly, IC50s calculated for each chemical for 24-hr acute and 48- and 96-hr repeated dosing experiments, using the MTT viability assay and paracellular permeability markers, decreased newly synthesized and total proteins to 10% and 40% of control, respectively. Overall, the results indicate that, at equivalent concentrations, the metals affect β-actin mRNA and newly synthesized proteins before cell viability and paracellular permeability are compromised. Consequently the results help in elucidating mechanisms of metal cytotoxicity that lead to understanding the relationship between tight junction integrity, paracellular transport, and cell viability. PMID:20452446

  16. Serum-cobalt levels with metal-on-metal bearings in the cement-free total hip arthroplasty results covering two years; prospective study.

    PubMed

    Weissinger, M; Grübl, A; Pöll, G

    2011-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty increases the use of alternate bearings to prevent polyethylene wear as the number of younger and more active patients has drastically risen. We carried out a prospective randomized study, to assess and compare clinical results and radiological changes, serum-cobalt- and serum-aluminium-levels when metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic bearings are applicated. After giving informed consent 80 consecutive patients were included in this prospective randomized study. They were randomly assigned to receive either a metal-on-metal or a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing in their total hip replacement. Eligible were patients with a primary coxarthrosis or an avascular necrosis of the head of femur. Of the 80 patients 54 were females and 26 males. 42 patients were randomized to a metal-on-metal bearing and 38 patients were randomized to a ceramic-on-ceramic bearing. The average patient-age was 65,8 years and the mean body mass index was 27,7 at the time of operation. Surgery was performed through a transgluteal approach in supine position under general or spinal anaesthesia. A forged conical threaded acetabular component made of titanium-aluminium-niobium alloy was used in all patients. The metal inlays and the 28 mm metal heads were made of Co-28Cr-6Mo alloy with a carbon content of 0,2%. The ceramic inlays and the 28 mm ceramic heads are Al2O3 implants. We used as femoral component a conical rectangular stem of a titanium-aluminium-niobium alloy. Cup and stem werde implanted cementfree. Clinical data werde obtained at a follow up at a minimum of two years after implantation. Patients were assessed with the Harris Hip Score and the University of California at Los Angeles activity scale. 72 of the 80 patients could be explored clinically and radiologically. The 2 year follow up check showed clinically and radiologically no difference between the two groups. The median Harris HipScore was above 90 points and the UCLA score was about 7 points. The medium

  17. The Relationship Between Cobalt/Chromium Ratios and the High Prevalence of Head-Stem Junction Corrosion in Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hothi, Harry S; Berber, Reshid; Whittaker, Robert K; Blunn, Gordon W; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2016-05-01

    The size of the clinical impact of corrosion of the taper junction of metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties (MOM-THAs) is unclear. Examination of a large number of retrieved MOM resurfacings and total hip arthroplasties can help us understand the role of taper corrosion in metal ion release. We graded the severity of corrosion at the taper junction of 395 MOM-THAs and compared the prerevision whole blood metal ion levels of these hips with 529 failed MOM hip resurfacings. Virtually all MOM-THA hips (n = 388) had evidence of corrosion of the head-stem taper junction and graded as severe in 31% (n = 124). The median cobalt/chromium (Co/Cr) ratio was 1.58 (0.01-13.82) and 1.08 (0-4.86) for MOM-THA and MOM hip resurfacing, respectively; this difference was significant (P < .001). THA hips with severely corroded tapers had the highest median Co/Cr ratio of 1.86 (0.01-10). This study demonstrates the high prevalence of severe taper corrosion, which may be related to an elevated Co/Cr ratio before revision. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-06-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints.

  19. Tribo-biological deposits on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene total hip implants retrieved from patients

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Zhiwei; Tian, Yi-Xing; Yue, Wen; Yang, Lei; Li, Qunyang

    2016-01-01

    Artificial total hip arthroplasty (THA) is one of the most effective orthopaedic surgeries that has been used for decades. However, wear of the articulating surfaces is one of the key failure causes limiting the lifetime of total hip implant. In this paper, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) were employed to explore the composition and formation mechanism of the tribo-layer on the articulating surfaces of metal-on-polyethylene (MoPE) implants retrieved from patients. Results showed that, in contrast to conventional understanding, the attached tribo-layer contained not only denatured proteins but also a fraction of polymer particles. The formation of the tribo-layer was believed to relate to lubrication regime, which was supposed to be largely affected by the nature of the ultra-high-molecule-weight-polyethylene (UHMWPE). Wear and formation of tribo-layer could be minimized in elasto-hydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) regime when the UHMWPE was less stiff and have a morphology containing micro-pits; whereas the wear was more severe and tribo-layer formed in boundary lubrication. Our results and analyses suggest that enhancing interface lubrication may be more effective on reducing wear than increasing the hardness of material. This finding may shed light on the design strategy of artificial hip joints. PMID:27345704

  20. Pseudotumour formation due to tribocorrosion at the taper interface of large diameter metal on polymer modular total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Cook, Richard B; Bolland, Benjamin J R F; Wharton, Julian A; Tilley, Simon; Latham, Jeremy M; Wood, Robert J K

    2013-09-01

    We present an in-depth failure analysis of two large diameter bearing metal-on-polymer (MoP) modular total hip replacements, which have required revision surgery due to pseudotumour formation. The failure analysis showed a discrete pattern of material loss from the distal end of the head taper/stem trunnion interface. We postulate that the use of a proximal contacting taper design had provided insufficient mechanical locking between the head and the stem, enabling the head to toggle on the trunnion. In addition, the difference in angle between the taper and the trunnion formed a crevice between the two components. Through a combination of crevice environment, mechanically assisted corrosion, mechanical wear and erosion; debris and metal-ions have been released resulting in the adverse local tissue reactions (ALTR).

  1. Conservative heavy metal total discharge schemes.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Tzung-Yuh; Chen, Ho-Chi

    2017-08-23

    Currently, according to Taiwan's Water Pollution Control Act, the environmental control of waterbodies and water quality depends on the effluent standards and the standard of water quality in the rivers. The Act demands that each stationary pollution source comply with the effluent standard before being discharged into the rivers, and that the overall water quality in the river shall not exceed the declared standard of water quality. To improve the condition of the waterbodies and water quality of the rivers, the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA) in Taiwan has made stricter regulations concerning the discharge standard. Such regulations will help to reduce the weight of individual pollutants discharged; the discharged wastewater, however, will still gradually worsen the water quality of the rivers even after complying with the effluent standard since some of the pollutant dischargers may decrease the concentration of pollutants by diluting the water before discharging; thus, the total weight of metals discharged in the rivers will not be reduced, and the water quality in the areas where the pollutant sources are concentrated will not thereby be significantly improved. To protect the irrigation water and farmlands from being polluted by discharged heavy metals in industrial wastewater, the EPA started controlling the sources in accordance with the total quantity control (TQC) as defined in the Water Pollution Control Act, in the hope of perfecting the environmental protection of waterbodies and water quality, as well as ensuring clean water sources without any pollution for the rivers, land, and people.

  2. Serial magnetic resonance imaging of metal-on-metal total hip replacements. Follow-up of a cohort of 28 mm Ultima TPS THRs.

    PubMed

    Ebreo, D; Bell, P J; Arshad, H; Donell, S T; Toms, A; Nolan, J F

    2013-08-01

    Metal artefact reduction (MAR) MRI is now widely considered to be the standard for imaging metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) has recommended cross-sectional imaging for all patients with symptomatic MoM bearings. This paper describes the natural history of MoM disease in a 28 mm MoM total hip replacement (THR) using MAR MRI. Inclusion criteria were patients with MoM THRs who had not been revised and had at least two serial MAR MRI scans. All examinations were reported by an experienced observer and classified as A (normal), B (infection) or C1-C3 (mild, moderate, severe MoM-related abnormalities). Between 2002 and 2011 a total of 239 MRIs were performed on 80 patients (two to four scans per THR); 63 initial MRIs (61%) were normal. On subsequent MRIs, six initially normal scans (9.5%) showed progression to a disease state; 15 (15%) of 103 THRs with sequential scans demonstrated worsening disease on subsequent imaging. Most patients with a MoM THR who do not undergo early revision have normal MRI scans. Late progression (from normal to abnormal, or from mild to more severe MoM disease) is not common and takes place over several years.

  3. Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty at Five to Twelve Years Follow-Up: A Concise Follow-Up of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Greiner, Justin J; Callaghan, John J; Bedard, Nicholas A; Liu, Steve S; Goetz, Devon D; Mahoney, Craig R

    2016-08-01

    Concern has arisen regarding potential complications with modular metal-on-metal (MoM) acetabular components in total hip arthroplasty. The purpose of this study was to analyze longitudinally the longer term results of a previously reported cohort of patients utilizing a cementless modular acetabular component with a MoM bearing. One hundred sixty-nine consecutive but selected total hip arthroplasties were performed in 148 patients at 2 institutions using a modular acetabular MoM component. One hundred thirty-nine patients (158 hips) were living at minimum 5 years, 1 patient (1 hip) was lost to follow-up and 8 patients (10 hips) were deceased. Patients were evaluated clinically in terms of revision as well as radiographically. Additional testing (metal ion levels, advanced imaging) was performed when concerns for adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) arose. There were 6 (3.8%) additional hips revised since the prior report for a total of 7 hips (4.4%) revised at 5-12 year follow-up. All newly revised hips (3.8%) demonstrated ALTR. There were 7 (4.7%) additional cases of radiographically detected acetabular osteolysis and 7 (4.7%) cases of femoral osteolysis. Longitudinal evaluation of a modular MoM bearing surface acetabular component demonstrated increased rates of ALTR and osteolysis at longer duration follow-up. Although greater than 95% of hips in this study performed well at 5-12 years, when comparing the results to metal-on-polyethylene bearings using the same acetabular component, the results were inferior. Longitudinal surveillance is warranted with this design and this bearing surface couple as cases of ALTR and osteolysis increased with longer follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Noble-metal-based catalysts supported on zeolites and macro-mesoporous metal oxide supports for the total oxidation of volatile organic compounds.

    PubMed

    Barakat, Tarek; Rooke, Joanna C; Tidahy, Haingomalala Lucette; Hosseini, Mahsa; Cousin, Renaud; Lamonier, Jean-François; Giraudon, Jean-Marc; De Weireld, Guy; Su, Bao-Lian; Siffert, Stéphane

    2011-10-17

    The use of porous materials to eliminate volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has proven very effective towards achieving sustainability and environmental protection goals. The activity of zeolites and macro-mesoporous metal-oxide supports in the total oxidation of VOCs has been investigated, with and without noble-metal deposition, to develop highly active catalyst systems where the formation of by-products was minimal. The first catalysts employed were zeolites, which offered a good activity in the oxidation of VOCs, but were rapidly deactivated by coke deposition. The effects of the acido-basicity and ionic exchange of these zeolites showed that a higher basicity was related to exchanged ions with lower electronegativities, resulting in better catalytic performances in the elimination of VOCs. Following on from this work, noble metals were deposited onto macro-mesoporous metal-oxide supports to form mono and bimetallic catalysts. These were then tested in the oxidation of toluene to study their catalytic performance and their deactivation process. PdAu/TiO(2) and PdAu/TiO(2) -ZrO(2) 80/20 catalysts demonstrated the best activity and life span in the oxidation of toluene and propene and offered the lowest temperatures for a 50 % conversion of VOCs and the lowest coke content after catalytic testing. Different characterization techniques were employed to explain the changes occurring in catalyst structure during the oxidation of toluene and propene.

  5. A prospective study of a ceramic-on-metal bearing in total hip arthroplasty. Clinical results, metal ion levels and chromosome analysis at two years.

    PubMed

    Kazi, H A; Perera, J R; Gillott, E; Carroll, F A; Briggs, T W R

    2013-08-01

    We prospectively assessed the efficacy of a ceramic-on-metal (CoM) hip bearing with uncemented acetabular and femoral components in which cobalt-chrome acetabular liners and alumina ceramic heads were used. The cohort comprised 94 total hip replacements (THRs) in 83 patients (38 women and 45 men) with a mean age of 58 years (42 to 70). Minimum follow-up was two years. All patients had pre- and post-operative assessment using the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index (WOMAC), Oxford hip score and Short-Form 12 scores. All showed a statistically significant improvement from three months post-operatively onwards (all p < 0.001). After two years whole blood metal ion levels were measured and chromosomal analysis was performed. The levels of all metal ions were elevated except vanadium. Levels of chromium, cobalt, molybdenum and titanium were significantly higher in patients who underwent bilateral THR compared with those undergoing unilateral THR (p < 0.001). Chromosomal analysis demonstrated both structural and aneuploidy mutations. There were significantly more breaks and losses than in the normal population (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in chromosomal aberration between those undergoing unilateral and bilateral procedures (all analyses p ≥ 0.62). The use of a CoM THR is effective clinically in the short-term, with no concerns, but the significance of high metal ion levels and chromosomal aberrations in the long-term remains unclear.

  6. Total Knee Arthroplasty Failure Induced by Metal Hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ryan; Phan, Duy; Schwarzkopf, Ran

    2015-08-17

    Metal hypersensitivity is an uncommon complication after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) that can lead to significant functional impairment and aseptic prosthesis failure. We describe a 70-year-old patient who presented with persistent pain, swelling, and instability 2 years after a primary TKA. The patient had a history of metal hypersensitivity following bilateral metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty (THA) that was revised to ceramic-on-polyethylene implants. Knee radiographs showed severe osteolysis with implant loosening. Serum cobalt was elevated and serum chromium was significantly elevated, while joint aspiration and inflammatory marker levels ruled out a periprosthetic infection. Revision TKA was performed, with intraoperative tissue pathology and postoperative leukocyte transformation testing confirming metal hypersensitivity as the cause for aseptic implant failure. This case report demonstrates the clinical and laboratory signs that suggest metal hypersensitivity in total knee arthroplasty and the potential for joint function restoration with revision surgery.

  7. In vitro analysis of the wear, wear debris and biological activity of surface-engineered coatings for use in metal-on-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Williams, S; Tipper, J L; Ingham, E; Stone, M H; Fisher, J

    2003-01-01

    Extremely low wear rates have been reported for metal-on-metal total hip replacements, but concerns remain about the effects of metal ion release, dissolution rates and toxicity. Surface-engineered coatings have the potential to improve wear resistance and reduce the biological activity of the wear debris produced. The aim of this study was to examine the wear and wear debris generation from surface-engineered coatings: titanium nitride (TiN), chromium nitride (CrN) and chromium carbon nitride (CrCN) applied to a cobalt-chrome alloy (CoCr) substrate. The coatings were articulated against themselves in a simple geometry model. The wear particles generated were characterized and the cytotoxic effect on U937 macrophages and L929 fibroblasts assessed. The CrN and CrCN coatings showed a decrease in wear compared to the CoCr bearings and produced small (less than 40 nm in length) wear particles. The wear particles released from the surface engineered bearings also showed a decreased cytotoxic effect on cells compared to the CoCr alloy debris. The reduced wear volumes coupled with the reduced cytotoxicity per unit volume of wear indicate the potential for the clinical application of this technology.

  8. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lachiewicz, Paul F; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2016-02-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Some reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted.

  9. Metal Hypersensitivity and Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Lachiewicz, Paul F.; Watters, Tyler Steven; Jacobs, Joshua J.

    2015-01-01

    Metal hypersensitivity in patients with a total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a controversial topic. The diagnosis is difficult, given the lack of robust clinical validation of the utility of cutaneous and in vitro testing. Metal hypersensitivity after TKA is quite rare and should be considered after eliminating other causes of pain and swelling, such as low-grade infection, instability, component loosening or malrotation, referred pain, and chronic regional pain syndrome. Anecdotal observations suggest that two clinical presentations of metal hypersensitivity may occur after TKA: dermatitis or a persistent painful synovitis of the knee. Patients may or may not have a history of intolerance to metal jewelry. Laboratory studies, including erythrocyte sedimentation rate, C-reactive protein level, and knee joint aspiration, are usually negative. Cutaneous and in vitro testing have been reported to be positive, but the sensitivity and specificity of such testing has not been defined. Anecdotal reports suggest that, if metal hypersensitivity is suspected and nonsurgical measures have failed, then revision to components fabricated of titanium alloy or zirconium coating can be successful in relieving symptoms. Revision should be considered as a last resort, however, and patients should be informed that no evidence-based medicine is available to guide the management of these conditions, particularly for decisions regarding revision. Given the limitations of current testing methods, the widespread screening of patients for metal allergies before TKA is not warranted. PMID:26752739

  10. Effects of metals on the total lipid content in the gypsy moth (Lymantria dispar, Lymantriidae, Lepid.) and its hemolymph

    SciTech Connect

    Ortel, J.

    1995-08-01

    Previous work on the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar, was focused on the influence of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn on its life cycle (diverse vitality parameters), stage-specific accumulation potential and implications on one of its parasitoids Glyptapanteles liparidis. Results of these studies suggested that metal exposure of L. dispar at NOEC (No-Observed-Effect-concentration) levels may influence its hemolymph composition. We decided, therefore, to analyze the hemolymph composition for the main substance classes protein, lipids and carbohydrates of fourth instar larvae of L. dispar exposed to concentrations of Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn in the range of NOECs determined by Gintenreiter et al. (1993a). This study presents the first results of the determination of lipid concentration in the hemolymph of fourth instar larvae as well as of total lipid content of the corresponding larvae. 14 refs., 2 figs.

  11. Comparison of Whole-Blood Metal Ion Levels Among Four Types of Large-Head, Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasty Implants: A Concise Follow-up, at Five Years, of a Previous Report.

    PubMed

    Hutt, Jonathan; Lavigne, Martin; Lungu, Eugen; Belzile, Etienne; Morin, François; Vendittoli, Pascal-André

    2016-02-17

    Few studies of total hip arthroplasty (THA) implants with a large-diameter femoral head and metal-on-metal design have directly compared the progression of metal ion levels over time and the relationship to complications. As we previously reported, 144 patients received one of four types of large-diameter-head, metal-on-metal THA designs (Durom, Birmingham, ASR XL, or Magnum implants). Cobalt, chromium, and titanium ion levels were measured over five years. We compared ion levels and clinical results over time. The Durom group showed the highest levels of cobalt (p ≤ 0.002) and titanium ions (p ≤ 0.03). Both the Durom and Birmingham groups demonstrated significant ongoing cobalt increases up to five years. Eight patients (seven with a Durom implant and one with a Birmingham implant) developed adverse local tissue reaction. Six Durom implants and one Birmingham implant required revision, with one pseudotumor under surveillance at the time of the most recent follow-up. We found that ion generation and related complications varied among designs. More concerning was that, for some designs, ion levels continued to increase. Coupling a cobalt-chromium adapter sleeve to an unmodified titanium femoral trunnion along with a large metal-on-metal bearing may explain the poor performances of two of the designs in the current study.

  12. Bearing Change to Metal-On-Polyethylene for Ceramic Bearing Fracture in Total Hip Arthroplasty; Does It Work?

    PubMed

    Lee, Soong Joon; Kwak, Hong Suk; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Kim, Hee Joong

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the short-term to midterm results of reoperation with bearing change to metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) after ceramic bearing fracture in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty. Nine third-generation ceramic bearing fractures (6 heads and 3 liners) were treated with bearing change to MoP. Mean age at reoperation was 52.7 years. Mean follow-up was 4.3 years. During follow-up, 2 of 3 liner-fractured hips and 1 of 6 head-fractured hips showed radiologic signs of metallosis and elevated serum chromium levels. Re-reoperation with bearing rechange to a ceramic head was performed for the hips with metallosis. One liner-fractured hip had periprosthetic joint infection. Dislocation occurred in 3 hips. From our experience, bearing change to MoP is not a recommended treatment option for ceramic bearing fracture in total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The Latest Lessons Learned from Retrieval Analyses of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Metal-on-Metal, and Alternative Bearing Total Disc Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Kurtz, Steven M.; Toth, Jeffrey M.; Siskey, Ryan; Ciccarelli, Lauren; MacDonald, Dan; Isaza, Jorge; Lanman, Todd; Punt, Ilona; Steinbeck, Marla; Goffin, Jan; van Ooij, André

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge regarding the in vivo performance and periposthetic tissue response of cervical and lumbar total disc replacements (TDRs) continues to expand. This review addresses the following four main questions: 1) What are the latest lessons learned from polyethylene in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 2) What are the latest lessons learned regarding adverse local tissue reactions from metal-on-metal, CoCr bearings in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 3) What advancements have been made in understanding the in vivo performance of alternative biomaterials, such as stainless steel and polycarbonate urethane, for TDRs in the past five years? 4) How has retrieval analysis of all these various artificial disc bearing technologies advanced the state of the art in preclinical testing of TDRs? The study of explanted artificial discs and their associated tissues can help inform bearing selection as well as the design of future generations of disc arthroplasty. Analyzing retrieved artificial discs is also essential for validating preclinical test methods. PMID:22904606

  14. The Latest Lessons Learned from Retrieval Analyses of Ultra-High Molecular Weight Polyethylene, Metal-on-Metal, and Alternative Bearing Total Disc Replacements.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, Steven M; Toth, Jeffrey M; Siskey, Ryan; Ciccarelli, Lauren; Macdonald, Dan; Isaza, Jorge; Lanman, Todd; Punt, Ilona; Steinbeck, Marla; Goffin, Jan; van Ooij, André

    2012-03-01

    Knowledge regarding the in vivo performance and periposthetic tissue response of cervical and lumbar total disc replacements (TDRs) continues to expand. This review addresses the following four main questions: 1) What are the latest lessons learned from polyethylene in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 2) What are the latest lessons learned regarding adverse local tissue reactions from metal-on-metal, CoCr bearings in large joints and how are they relevant to current TDRs? 3) What advancements have been made in understanding the in vivo performance of alternative biomaterials, such as stainless steel and polycarbonate urethane, for TDRs in the past five years? 4) How has retrieval analysis of all these various artificial disc bearing technologies advanced the state of the art in preclinical testing of TDRs? The study of explanted artificial discs and their associated tissues can help inform bearing selection as well as the design of future generations of disc arthroplasty. Analyzing retrieved artificial discs is also essential for validating preclinical test methods.

  15. Combined effect of smoking habits and occupational exposure to hard metal on total IgE antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Shirakawa, T.; Kusaka, Y.; Morimoto, K. )

    1992-06-01

    A survey was made within a population of workers (n = 706) exposed to hard metal dust (an alloy including cobalt), an agent known to cause occupational allergy. Twenty-seven (4 percent) of 733 workers were eliminated from consideration in this study because of atopic status identified prior to starting work in the plant. Using a Phadebas PRIST, the subjects' total IgE levels were determined and related to their smoking and exposure status. Nonexposed male smokers (n = 135) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (39.7 IU/ml) than did nonexposed subjects who had never smoked (33.1 IU/ml; n = 99); those with a higher Brinkman index (greater than 300), a smoking index obtained by multiplying the number of cigarettes per day by the duration of smoking in years, had significantly (p less than 0.05) decreased IgE levels. Although ex-smokers (n = 72) had a higher geometric mean IgE level (73.3 IU/ml) than did those who had never smoked, their serum IgE level declined with age since the time they quit smoking, regardless of their hard metal exposure status. Hard metal (cobalt) exposure may play a significant role as an adjuvant in the production of total IgE. A multivariate analysis demonstrated that hard metal exposure and a smoking habit together arithmetically (p less than 0.05) increased total IgE levels. These two factors may be preventable risk factors for occupational allergy in hard metal workers.

  16. The contact mechanics and occurrence of edge loading in modular metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacement during daily activities.

    PubMed

    Hua, Xijin; Li, Junyan; Jin, Zhongmin; Fisher, John

    2016-06-01

    The occurrence of edge loading in hip joint replacement has been associated with many factors such as prosthetic design, component malposition and activities of daily living. The present study aimed to quantify the occurrence of edge loading/contact at the articulating surface and to evaluate the effect of cup angles and edge loading on the contact mechanics of a modular metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) total hip replacement (THR) during different daily activities. A three-dimensional finite element model was developed based on a modular MoP bearing system. Different cup inclination and anteversion angles were modelled and six daily activities were considered. The results showed that edge loading was predicted during normal walking, ascending and descending stairs activities under steep cup inclination conditions (≥55°) while no edge loading was observed during standing up, sitting down and knee bending activities. The duration of edge loading increased with increased cup inclination angles and was affected by the cup anteversion angles. Edge loading caused elevated contact pressure at the articulating surface and substantially increased equivalent plastic strain of the polyethylene liner. The present study suggested that correct positioning the component to avoid edge loading that may occur during daily activities is important for MoP THR in clinical practice. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Adverse local tissue reactions in metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty due to trunnion corrosion: the risk of misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Whitehouse, M R; Endo, M; Zachara, S; Nielsen, T O; Greidanus, N V; Masri, B A; Garbuz, D S; Duncan, C P

    2015-08-01

    Adverse reaction to wear and corrosion debris is a cause for concern in total hip arthroplasty (THA). Modular junctions are a potential source of such wear products and are associated with secondary pseudotumour formation. We present a consecutive series of 17 patients treated at our unit for this complication following metal-on-highly cross-linked polyethylene (MoP) THA. We emphasise the risk of misdiagnosis as infection, and present the aggregate laboratory results and pathological findings in this series. The clinical presentation was pain, swelling or instability. Solid, cystic and mixed soft-tissue lesions were noted on imaging and confirmed intra-operatively. Corrosion at the head-neck junction was noted in all cases. No bacteria were isolated on multiple pre- and intra-operative samples yet the mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate was 49 (9 to 100) and C-reactive protein 32 (0.6 to 106) and stromal polymorphonuclear cell counts were noted in nine cases. Adverse soft-tissue reactions can occur in MoP THA owing to corrosion products released from the head-neck junction. The diagnosis should be carefully considered when investigating pain after THA. This may avoid the misdiagnosis of periprosthetic infection with an unidentified organism and mitigate the unnecessary management of these cases with complete single- or two-stage exchange. ©2015 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  18. Pseudotumour incidence, cobalt levels and clinical outcome after large head metal-on-metal and conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty: mid-term results of a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Veen, H C; Reininga, I H F; Zijlstra, W P; Boomsma, M F; Bulstra, S K; van Raay, J J A M

    2015-11-01

    We compared the incidence of pseudotumours after large head metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) with that after conventional metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA and assessed the predisposing factors to pseudotumour formation. From a previous randomised controlled trial which compared large head (38 mm to 60 mm) cementless MoM THA with conventional head (28 mm) cementless MoP THA, 93 patients (96 THAs: 41 MoM (21 males, 20 females, mean age of 64 years, standard deviation (sd) 4) and 55 MoP (25 males, 30 females, mean age of 65 years, sd 5) were recruited after a mean follow-up of 50 months (36 to 64). The incidence of pseudotumours, measured using a standardised CT protocol was 22 (53.7%) after MoM THA and 12 (21.8%) after MoP THA. Women with a MoM THA were more likely to develop a pseudotumour than those with a MoP THA (15 vs 7, odds ratio (OR) = 13.4, p < 0.001). There was a similar incidence of pseudotumours in men with MoM THAs and those with MoP THAs (7 vs 5, OR = 2.1, p = 0.30). Elevated cobalt levels (≥ 5 microgram/L) were only associated with pseudotumours in women with a MoM THA. There was no difference in mean Oxford and Harris hip scores between patients with a pseudotumour and those without. Contrary to popular belief, pseudotumours occur frequently around MoP THAs. Women with a MoM THA and an elevated cobalt level are at greatest risk. In this study, pseudotumours had no effect on the functional outcome after either large head MoM or conventional MoP THA.

  19. Effect of femoral head size on the wear of metal on metal bearings in total hip replacements under adverse edge-loading conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M

    2013-02-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have shown low-wear rates under standard hip simulator conditions; however, retrieval studies have shown large variations in wear rates and mechanisms. High-wear in vivo has caused catastrophic complications and has been associated with steep cup-inclination angle (rotational malpositioning). However, increasing the cup-inclination angle in vitro has not replicated the increases in wear to the same extent as those observed in retrievals. Clinically relevant wear rates, patterns, and particles were observed in vitro for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings when microseparation (translational malpositioning) conditions were introduced into the gait cycle. In the present study, 28 and 36-mm MoM bearings were investigated under adverse conditions. Increasing the cup angle from 45° to 65° resulted in a significant increase in the wear rate of the 28 mm bearings. However, for the 36 mm bearings, head-rim contact did not occur under the steep cup-angle condition, and the wear rate did not increase. The introduction of microseparation to the gait cycle significantly increased the wear rate of the MoM bearings. Cup angle and head size did not influence the wear rate under microseparation conditions. This study indicated that high-in vivo wear rates were associated with edge loading due to rotational malpositioning such as high-cup-inclination angle and translational malpositioning that could occur due to several surgical factors. Translational malpositioning had a more dominant effect on the wear rate. Preclinical simulation testing should be undertaken with translational and rotational malpositioning conditions as well as standard walking cycle conditions defined by the ISO standard.

  20. Effect of femoral head size on the wear of metal on metal bearings in total hip replacements under adverse edge-loading conditions

    PubMed Central

    Al-Hajjar, Mazen; Fisher, John; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Jennings, Louise M

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have shown low-wear rates under standard hip simulator conditions; however, retrieval studies have shown large variations in wear rates and mechanisms. High-wear in vivo has caused catastrophic complications and has been associated with steep cup-inclination angle (rotational malpositioning). However, increasing the cup-inclination angle in vitro has not replicated the increases in wear to the same extent as those observed in retrievals. Clinically relevant wear rates, patterns, and particles were observed in vitro for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings when microseparation (translational malpositioning) conditions were introduced into the gait cycle. In the present study, 28 and 36-mm MoM bearings were investigated under adverse conditions. Increasing the cup angle from 45° to 65° resulted in a significant increase in the wear rate of the 28 mm bearings. However, for the 36 mm bearings, head-rim contact did not occur under the steep cup-angle condition, and the wear rate did not increase. The introduction of microseparation to the gait cycle significantly increased the wear rate of the MoM bearings. Cup angle and head size did not influence the wear rate under microseparation conditions. This study indicated that high-in vivo wear rates were associated with edge loading due to rotational malpositioning such as high-cup-inclination angle and translational malpositioning that could occur due to several surgical factors. Translational malpositioning had a more dominant effect on the wear rate. Preclinical simulation testing should be undertaken with translational and rotational malpositioning conditions as well as standard walking cycle conditions defined by the ISO standard. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2013. PMID:23281164

  1. A comparative study of metal pollution and potential eco-risk in the sediment of Chaohu Lake (China) based on total concentration and chemical speciation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Enfeng; Shen, Ji

    2014-06-01

    Total and extractable concentrations of Cu, Pb, and Zn were determined in surface sediments of west Chaohu Lake (China) by HCl-HNO3-HF-HClO4 digestion and an optimized BCR sequential extraction procedure, respectively. The metal pollution was evaluated by the enrichment factor approach, and the potential eco-risk was evaluated by the sediment quality guideline (SQG) and risk assessment code (RAC) assessments. The results indicated that both total and extractable metal concentrations were highly variable and were affected by sediment properties, even though the sediments were predominantly composed of <63-μm particles (>89%). Enrichment factors of the metals based on the total and extractable concentrations all showed higher values in the northern lake area and decreasing values towards the south. This distribution indicated an input of anthropogenic metals via the Nanfei River. Anthropogenic Cu, Pb, and Zn in surface sediments showed comparable values for each metal based on the total and extractable concentrations, suggesting that anthropogenic Cu, Pb, and Zn resided predominantly in the extractable fractions. Sediment Cu had low eco-risk, and Pb and Zn had medium eco-risk by the SQG assessment, whereas the eco-risk rankings of Cu, Pb, and Zn were medium, low, and low-high, respectively, by the RAC assessment. Referencing to the labile (dilute acid soluble) metal concentrations, we deduced that the eco-risk of Cu may be largely overestimated by the RAC assessment, and the eco-risk of Pb may be largely overestimated by the SQG assessment. Overall, sediments Cu and Pb may pose low eco-risk, and Zn may pose low-high eco-risk.

  2. The relation between titanium taper corrosion and cobalt-chromium bearing wear in large-head metal-on-metal total hip prostheses: a retrieval study.

    PubMed

    Witt, F; Bosker, B H; Bishop, N E; Ettema, H B; Verheyen, C C P M; Morlock, M M

    2014-09-17

    Revision of hip implants due to adverse tissue reactions to metal debris has been associated with wear and corrosion of the metal-on-metal bearing articulation and the modular taper interface. Bearing articulation wear is increased in conditions of poor lubrication, which can also lead to high friction moments that may cause corrosion at the taper interface. This suggests that wear of the bearing and increased corrosion of the taper interface should occur simultaneously, which was investigated in this study. Forty-three large-diameter cobalt-chromium bearings of the same design, implanted with a titanium stem using a titanium adapter, were retrieved at revision at a single center. Retrievals were grouped according to visual inspection of the female taper surface of the adapter into slight and severe corrosion groups. Volume change of bearing and taper surfaces was assessed using a coordinate measurement machine. Serum ion concentrations were determined for forty-three patients, whereas tissue metal concentration was measured for twelve patients. Severe taper corrosion was observed in 30% of the retrievals. Corrosion was observed either as material deposition or wear. The overall bearing wear rate was significantly higher in the group with severe taper corrosion than in the group with slight corrosion (7.2 ± 9.0 mm(3)/yr versus 3.1 ± 6.8 mm(3)/yr, respectively; p = 0.023) as were the serum cobalt (40.5 ± 44.9 μg/L versus 15.2 ± 23.9 μg/L, respectively; p = 0.024) and chromium ion concentrations (32.7 ± 32.7 μg/L versus 12.0 ± 15.1 μg/L, respectively; p = 0.019). Serum metal ion concentrations were more consistent indicators of wear than tissue metal concentrations. The increased bearing articulation wear and serum metal ion concentrations in cases with taper interface corrosion support the hypothesis that increased friction in the joint articulation is one of the factors responsible for simultaneous articulation and taper damage. However, independent taper

  3. Block-step asymmetry 5 years after large-head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty is related to lower muscle mass and leg power on the implant side.

    PubMed

    Hjorth, M H; Stilling, M; Lorenzen, N D; Jakobsen, S S; Soballe, K; Mechlenburg, I

    2014-06-01

    Metal-on-metal articulations mimic the human hip anatomy, presumably lower dislocation rates and increase the range-of-motion. This study aims to measure the muscle mass and power of both legs in patients with unilateral metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, and to investigate their effect on block-step test, spatio-temporal gait parameters and self-reported function. Twenty-eight patients (7 women), mean age 50 (28-68) years, participated in a 5-7 year follow-up. Patients had received one type unilateral large-head metal-on-metal total hip articulation, all of which were well-functioning at follow-up. Mean muscle mass was measured by the total-body Dual energy X-ray Absorption scans, and muscle power was measured in a leg extensor power rig. Block-step test and spatio-temporal gait parameters were measured with an inertial measurement unit. Self-reported function was assessed by the Hip Disability and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score. We found a significant difference between the mean muscle mass of the implant-side leg and the non-implant-side leg in hip, thigh and calf areas (P<0.008) and in mean muscle power (P=0.025). Correlations between mean muscle mass and mean muscle power were significant for both the implant-side leg (r=0.45, P=0.018) and the non-implant-side leg (r=0.51, P=0.007). The difference in mean muscle power between legs correlated with block-step test asymmetry during ascending (r=0.40, P=0.047) and descending (r=0.53, P=0.006). Correlations between self-reported function and power of the implant-side leg were not significant. Young patients have not fully regained muscle mass, muscle power and function 5-7 years after metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Incidence of Adverse Reactions to Metal Debris From 28-mm Metal-on-Metal Total Hip Arthroplasties With Minimum 10 Years of Follow-Up: Clinical, Laboratory, and Ultrasound Assessment of 44 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Béchir; Putman, Sophie; Cholewinski, Pierre; Paris, Amandine; Migaud, Henri; Girard, Julien

    2017-04-01

    Total hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings has been suspected to cause adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMD), with the incidence varying greatly by implant type and patient gender. The prevalence of ARMD from small-diameter MoM bearings in women is unknown, especially after 10 years of follow-up (FU). Cementless 28-mm MoM total hip arthroplasty bearings (Metasul) were implanted consecutively in 42 active women between 1996 and 2002. They were reviewed after a minimum of 10 years' FU with clinical, laboratory, radiological, and ultrasound assessments. Mean FU was 15.9 years (range, 13-18). The mean Postel-Merle d'Aubigné and Oxford scores were 16.9 (range, 13-18) and 15.1 (range, 12-24), respectively, at FU. Mean cup inclination angle was 46.3° (range, 35°-57°). No femoral osteolysis was detected, but limited acetabular osteolysis (11%) over the screw holes occurred in 5 cases. No liquid or solid synovial reactions or ARMD were apparent on ultrasound, even in the 5 cases of pelvic osteolysis. Mean chromium levels were 1.32 μg/L (range, 0.1-7.9) and cobalt levels were 1.85 μg/L (range, 0.35-13.6). Cobalt was >3 μg/L in only 3 cases. The 15.9-year survivorship was 95% (range, 94.1%-98.9%). Reliable results were obtained with 28-mm MoM bearings, notably in young, active patients. This implant configuration requires very accurate positioning. No ARMD was seen in this group at 16 years' FU. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A. R.; Wiley, B. J.; Ren, Y.; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au100-xPdx (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when ``tuned up'' against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can

  6. Plasma trace metals during total parenteral alimentation.

    PubMed

    Solomons, N W; Layden, T J; Rosenberg, I H; Vo-Khactu, K; Sandstead, H H

    1976-06-01

    The plasma concentrations of the trace metals zinc and copper were studied prospectively in 13 patients with gastrointestinal diseases treated with parenteral alimentation (TPA) for periods of from 8 days to 7 1/2 weeks. Plasma copper levels fell rapidly and consistently in all patients, with an overall rate of - 11 mug per 100 ml per week. Zinc concentrations declined in 10 of 13 patients at a more gradual rate. Analysis of the standard parenteral alimentation fluids revealed zinc content equivalent to 50% of the daily requirement and a negligible content of copper. From combined analysis of plasma zinc, hair zinc, and taste acuity, there is evidence that increased utilization or redistribution within the body may effect plasma concentrations in some patients. Neither an increase in urinary excretion nor a primary decrease in plasma binding proteins appeared to be a major factor in lowering plasma trace metal concentrations. These findings indicate that a marked decrease in plasma copper is regular and a decline in plasma zinc is common during TPA using fluids unsupplemented with trace metals. Supplementation of parenteral alimentation fluids with the trace metals zinc and copper is recommended.

  7. On the road to metallic nanoparticles by rational design: bridging the gap between atomic-level theoretical modeling and reality by total scattering experiments.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Binay; Wilson, A R; Wiley, B J; Ren, Y; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-11-14

    The extent to which current theoretical modeling alone can reveal real-world metallic nanoparticles (NPs) at the atomic level was scrutinized and demonstrated to be insufficient and how it can be improved by using a pragmatic approach involving straightforward experiments is shown. In particular, 4 to 6 nm in size silica supported Au(100-x)Pd(x) (x = 30, 46 and 58) explored for catalytic applications is characterized structurally by total scattering experiments including high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled to atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Atomic-level models for the NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modeling Sutton-Chen (SC) method. Models are matched against independent experimental data and are demonstrated to be inaccurate unless their theoretical foundation, i.e. the SC method, is supplemented with basic yet crucial information on the length and strength of metal-to-metal bonds and, when necessary, structural disorder in the actual NPs studied. An atomic PDF-based approach for accessing such information and implementing it in theoretical modeling is put forward. For completeness, the approach is concisely demonstrated on 15 nm in size water-dispersed Au particles explored for bio-medical applications and 16 nm in size hexane-dispersed Fe48Pd52 particles explored for magnetic applications as well. It is argued that when "tuned up" against experiments relevant to metals and alloys confined to nanoscale dimensions, such as total scattering coupled to atomic PDF analysis, rather than by mere intuition and/or against data for the respective solids, atomic-level theoretical modeling can provide a sound understanding of the synthesis-structure-property relationships in real-world metallic NPs. Ultimately this can help advance nanoscience and technology a step closer to producing metallic NPs by rational design.

  8. TOTAL DISSOLVED AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT LAKE TEXOMA MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved metals in water and total metals in sediments have been measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during June 1999 to October 2001, and October 2001, respectively. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in marina water were Na and Ca, followed by Mg an...

  9. TOTAL DISSOLVED AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT LAKE TEXOMA MARINAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dissolved metals in water and total metals in sediments have been measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during June 1999 to October 2001, and October 2001, respectively. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in marina water were Na and Ca, followed by Mg an...

  10. Metal release and metal allergy after total hip replacement with resurfacing versus conventional hybrid prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Gustafson, Klas; Jakobsen, Stig S; Lorenzen, Nina D; Thyssen, Jacob P; Johansen, Jeanne D; Bonefeld, Charlotte M; Stilling, Maiken; Baad-Hansen, Thomas; Søballe, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    Background Metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip arthroplasties were reintroduced because of the problems with osteolysis and aseptic loosening related to polyethylene wear of early metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) arthroplasties. The volumetric wear rate has been greatly reduced with MOM arthroplasties; however, because of nano-size wear particles, the absolute number has been greatly increased. Thus, a source of metal ion exposure with the potential to sensitize patients is present. We hypothesized that higher amounts of wear particles result in increased release of metal ions and ultimately lead to an increased incidence of metal allergy. Methods 52 hips in 52 patients (median age 60 (51–64) years, 30 women) were randomized to either a MOM hip resurfacing system (ReCap) or a standard MOP total hip arthoplasty (Mallory Head/Exeter). Spot urine samples were collected preoperatively, postoperatively, after 3 months, and after 1, 2, and 5 years and tested with inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry. After 5 years, hypersensitivity to metals was evaluated by patch testing and lymphocyte transformation assay. In addition, the patients answered a questionnaire about hypersensitivity. Results A statistically significant 10- to 20-fold increase in urinary levels of cobalt and chromium was observed throughout the entire follow-up in the MOM group. The prevalence of metal allergy was similar between groups. Interpretation While we observed significantly increased levels of metal ions in the urine during the entire follow-up period, no difference in prevalence of metal allergy was observed in the MOM group. However, the effect of long-term metal exposure remains uncertain. PMID:24930546

  11. On-site analysis of heavy metal contaminated areas by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence analysis (TXRF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stosnach, Hagen

    2006-11-01

    In this paper the possibilities and restriction for applying the low power TXRF spectrometer PicoTAX for the one-site analysis of heavy metal contaminated soils and sediments are evaluated. Basis for this evaluation is the Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) program, conducted by the U.S. Environmental Protection Protection Agency (US EPA). During a measurement campaign, performed under realistic conditions, 320 soil and sediment samples were analyzed. The task was the fast analysis of the main target elements antimony, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, mercury, nickel, selenium, silver, vanadium, and zinc. These elements were present in wide ranging concentrations. Out of a set of seven primary and five secondary objectives the method detection limits, accuracy and precision of the TXRF measurements are discussed. In addition to the on-site measurements, the application of TXRF analysis for the analysis of soil- and sediment samples after complete microwave assisted acid digestion is reported. Recent instrument improvements have distinctly increased the quality of measurement results. A detailed description of these new developments and new measurement results are discussed

  12. Uncemented third-generation ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty using metal acetabular shell with direct taper locking liner.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Sachiyuki; Wakui, Motohiro; Matsueda, Munenori

    2013-06-01

    The ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC)-bearing couple in total hip arthroplasty (THA) was developed to reduce the wear debris and osteolysis. Although the mechanical strength of third-generation ceramic has improved over previous generations, the risk of osteolysis and ceramic fracture is still an important concern. We studied 124 uncemented THAs with third-generation CoC-bearing couple implanted between 2000 and 2004. The ceramic liner and head were secured with the direct taper locking mechanism. One hundred and eleven hips were followed-up for minimum of 8 years, with an average follow-up period of 10.1 years (range 8.0-12.8 years). Patients were evaluated with a particular emphasis on the prevalence of the osteolysis and the ceramic fracture. The survivorship with the end point as implant revision for any reason was 94.9 % (95 % confidence intervals 90.0-99.3 %) at 12.8 years. Revisions were performed because of one ceramic liner fracture, three dislocations, and two deep infections. No radiographic evidence of wear or osteolysis was observed. The preoperative Merle d'Aubigne and Postel hip score increased from 11.6 to 17.1. Patients, who received third-generation CoC THA had no detectable wear and osteolysis. One ceramic fracture occurred, and the main reason for revision was dislocation.

  13. TOTAL AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT MARINA SEDIMENTS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total and bioavailable metals in sediments were measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during the fall of 2001. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in sediments were Ca (56811 mg/kg) and Al (31095 mg/kg), followed by Fe (19393 mg/kg), K (6089 mg/kg), and Mg...

  14. TOTAL AND BIOAVAILABLE METALS AT MARINA SEDIMENTS IN LAKE TEXOMA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total and bioavailable metals in sediments were measured at marina areas in Lake Texoma during the fall of 2001. The metals most often found in the highest concentrations in sediments were Ca (56811 mg/kg) and Al (31095 mg/kg), followed by Fe (19393 mg/kg), K (6089 mg/kg), and Mg...

  15. Cross-Shear Implementation in Sliding-Distance-Coupled Finite Element Analysis of Wear in Metal-on-Polyethylene Total Joint Arthroplasty: Intervertebral Total Disc Replacement as an Illustrative Application

    PubMed Central

    Goreham-Voss, Curtis M.; Hyde, Philip J.; Hall, Richard M.; Fisher, John; Brown, Thomas D.

    2010-01-01

    Computational simulations of wear of orthopaedic total joint replacement implants have proven to valuably complement laboratory physical simulators, for pre-clinical estimation of abrasive/adhesive wear propensity. This class of numerical formulations has primarily involved implementation of the Archard/Lancaster relationship, with local wear computed as the product of (finite element) contact stress, sliding speed, and a bearing-couple-dependent wear factor. The present study introduces an augmentation, whereby the influence of interface cross-shearing motion transverse to the prevailing molecular orientation of the polyethylene articular surface is taken into account in assigning the instantaneous local wear factor. The formulation augment is implemented within a widely-utilized commercial finite element software environment (ABAQUS). Using a contemporary metal-on-polyethylene total disc replacement (ProDisc-L) as an illustrative implant, physically validated computational results are presented to document the role of cross-shearing effects in alternative laboratory consensus testing protocols. Going forward, this formulation permits systematically accounting for cross-shear effects in parametric computational wear studies of metal-on-polyethylene joint replacements, heretofore a substantial limitation of such analyses. PMID:20399432

  16. Comparison of ceramic-on-ceramic to metal-on-polyethylene bearing surfaces in total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Hu, Dongcai; Tie, Kai; Yang, Xiao; Tan, Yang; Alaidaros, Mohammed; Chen, Liaobin

    2015-02-03

    In recent years, the choice of ceramic-on-ceramic (COC) and metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) remains controversial. The purpose of this study was to compare the reliability and durability of COC with that of MOP bearing surfaces in THA. Based on prospective randomized controlled trials (RCTs) searched from Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane central database, we performed a meta-analysis for comparing clinical and radiographic outcomes of COC with those of MOP. Two investigators independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. Relative risks and weighted mean differences from each trial were pooled using random-effect or fixed-effect models depending on the heterogeneity of the included studies. Five RCTs involving 897 patients with 974 hips met predetermined inclusion criteria. Our results demonstrated COC significantly decreased the risks of revision, osteolysis and radiolucent line, aseptic loosening, and dislocation and increased the risks of squeaking and intraoperative implant fracture compared with MOP. There was no significant difference between the two groups in postoperative hip function, deep infection, and heterotopic ossification. Generally, despite more squeaking and intraoperative implant fracture, our findings support the use of COC bearing surface which has lower rates of revision, osteolysis and radiolucent line, aseptic loosening, and dislocation compared with MOP.

  17. Double metal tibial blocks augmentation in total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Chung, Kyu Sung; Lee, Jin Kyu; Lee, Hee Jae; Choi, Choong Hyeok

    2016-01-01

    Severe uncontained tibial bone defects occurring during total knee arthroplasty are challenging, and which treatment method is the best remains unknown. In this study, clinical and radiographic outcomes of double metal blocks augmentation were examined. Between 2004 and 2012, double metal blocks augmentation was carried out in 17 patients with severe asymmetric uncontained tibial bone defects. The first block was attached to the tibial tray with screws, and then the second block was cemented to the first block. Out of 17 patients, 13 (8 primary, 5 revision) were available for final follow-up at a median of 69 months (range 24-99). For clinical assessment, range of motion and Knee Society score were evaluated preoperatively and annually thereafter. At the final follow-up, Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis Index, Oxford knee, Short Form-36, Lower extremity functional scale, and Lower extremity activity scale scores were evaluated. Radiographic assessment for radiolucent lines at the block-cement-bone interfaces and signs of failure was performed annually using fluoroscopy and standard radiographs. Range of motion and Knee Society score were significantly improved post-operatively. Other clinical outcomes were favourable. Radiolucent lines were seen on fluoroscopy in three knees, but no sign of failure, such as loosening, collapse, or instability, was observed at the final follow-up. Double metal blocks augmentation is a favourable and useful method, which does not cause mechanical failure or protrusion of the prosthetic because of its modularity, to manage severe asymmetric uncontained proximal tibial bone defects >15 mm in total knee arthroplasty. Case series, Level IV.

  18. Total Ionizing Dose effects on a 28 nm Hi-K metal-gate CMOS technology up to 1 Grad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattiazzo, S.; Bagatin, M.; Bisello, D.; Gerardin, S.; Marchioro, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Pantano, D.; Pezzotta, A.; Zhang, C.-M.; Baschirotto, A.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an irradiation study on single transistors manufactured in a 28 nm high-k commercial CMOS technology up to 1 Grad. Both nMOSFET and pMOSFET transistors have been irradiated and electrical parameters have been measured. For nMOSFETs, the leakage current shows an increase of 2–3 orders of magnitude, while only moderate degradation for other parameters has been observed. For pMOSFETs, a more severe degradation of parameters has been measured, especially in the drain current. This work is relevant as the evaluation of a new generation of CMOS technologies to be used in future HEP experiments.

  19. Availability of Total Knee Arthroplasty Implants for Metal Hypersensitivity Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ajwani, Sanil Harji; Charalambous, Charalambos P.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To provide information on the type of “hypersensitivity-friendly” components available for primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in the current market. Materials and Methods Implant manufactures were identified using the 2013 National Joint Registries of the United Kingdom and Sweden and contacted to obtain information about the products they offer for patients with metal hypersensitivity. Results Information on 23 TKA systems was provided by 13 implant manufacturers. Of these, 15 systems had options suitable for metal hypersensitivity patients. Two types of “hypersensitivity-friendly” components were identified: 10 implants were cobalt chrome prostheses with a “hypersensitivity-friendly” outer coating and 5 implants were made entirely from non-cobalt chrome alloys. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that several hypersensitivity TKA options exist, some of which provide the same designs and surgical techniques as the conventional implants. The information in this study can guide TKA surgeons in making informed choices about implants and identifying implants that could be examined in future controlled studies comparing outcomes between “hypersensitivity-friendly” and conventional implants. PMID:27894179

  20. Comparison of the risk of revision in cementless total hip arthroplasty with ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-polyethylene bearings

    PubMed Central

    Varnum, Claus; Pedersen, Alma B; Kjærsgaard-Andersen, Per; Overgaard, Søren

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) bearings were introduced in total hip arthroplasty (THA) to reduce problems related to polyethylene wear. We compared the 9-year revision risk for cementless CoC THA and for cementless metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Patients and methods In this prospective, population-based study from the Danish Hip Arthroplasty Registry, we identified all the primary cementless THAs that had been performed from 2002 through 2009 (n = 25,656). Of these, 1,773 THAs with CoC bearings and 9,323 THAs with MoP bearings were included in the study. To estimate the relative risk (RR) of revision, we used regression with the pseudo-value approach and treated death as a competing risk. Results 444 revisions were identified: 4.0% for CoC THA (71 of 1,773) and 4.0% for MoP THA (373 of 9,323). No statistically significant difference in the risk of revision for any reason was found for CoC and MoP bearings after 9 years of follow-up (adjusted RR = 1.3, 95% CI: 0.72–2.4). Revision rates due to component failure were 0.5% (n = 8) for CoC bearings and 0.1% (n = 6) for MoP bearings (p < 0.001). 6 patients with CoC bearings (0.34%) underwent revision due to ceramic fracture. Interpretation When compared to the “standard” MoP bearings, CoC THA had a 33% higher (though not statistically significantly higher) risk of revision for any reason at 9 years. PMID:25637339

  1. Zeolite-Based Organic Synthesis (ZeoBOS) of Acortatarin A: First Total Synthesis Based on Native and Metal-Doped Zeolite-Catalyzed Steps.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Eric; Borghèse, Sophie; Blanc, Aurélien; Bénéteau, Valérie; Pale, Patrick

    2017-01-31

    Similarly to polymer-supported assisted synthesis (PSAS), organic synthesis could be envisaged being performed by using zeolites, native or metal-doped, as heterogeneous catalysts. To illustrate this unprecedented Zeolite-Based Organic Synthesis (ZeoBOS), the total synthesis of acortatarin A was achieved through a novel strategy and using five out of eleven synthetic steps catalyzed by H- or metal-doped zeolites as catalysts. Notably, the formation of an yne-pyrrole intermediate with a copper-doped zeolite and the spiroketalization of an alkyne diol with a silver-doped zeolite have been developed as key steps of the synthesis.

  2. Metal-on-metal hip joint tribology.

    PubMed

    Dowson, D; Jin, Z M

    2006-02-01

    The basic tribological features of metal-on-metal total hip replacements have been reviewed to facilitate an understanding of the engineering science underpinning the renaissance of these hard-on-hard joints. Metal-on-polymer hip replacements operate in the boundary lubrication regime, thus leading to the design guidance to reduce the femoral head diameter as much as is feasible to minimize frictional torque and volumetric wear. This explains why the gold-standard implant of this form from the past half-century had a diameter of only 22.225 mm (7/8 in). Metal-on-metal implants can operate in the mild mixed lubrication regime in which much of the applied load is supported by elastohydrodynamic films. Correct tribological design leads to remarkably low steady state wear rates. Promotion of the most effective elastohydrodynamic films calls for the largest possible head diameters and the smallest clearances that can reasonably be adopted, consistent with fine surface finishes, good sphericity and minimal structural elastic deformation of the cup on its foundations. This guidance, which is opposite in form to that developed for metal-on-polymer joints, is equally valid for solid (monolithic) metallic heads on metallic femoral stems and surface replacement femoral shells. Laboratory measurements of friction and wear in metal-on-metal joints have confirmed their potential to achieve a very mild form of mixed lubrication. The key lies in the generation of effective elastohydrodynamic lubricating films of adequate thickness compared with the composite roughness of the head and cup. The calculation of the film thickness is by no means easy, but the full procedure is outlined and the use of an empirical formula that displays good agreement with calculations based upon the full numerical solutions is explained. The representation of the lambda ratio, lambda, embracing both film thickness and composite roughness, is described.

  3. Correlation between the limiting pH of metal ion solubility and total metal concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Apak, R.; Hizal, J.; Ustaer, C.

    1999-03-15

    As an alternative to species distribution diagrams (pM vs pH curves in aqueous solution) drawn for a fixed total metal concentration, this work has developed simple linear models for correlating the limiting pH of metal ion solubility -- in equilibrium with the least soluble amorphous metal hydroxide solid phase -- to the total metal concentration. Thus adsorptive metal removal processes in complex systems can be better designed once the limiting pH of heavy metal solubility (i.e., pH{sup *}) in such a complex environment can be envisaged by simple linear equations. pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} (M{sub t} = total metal concentration that can exist in aqueous solution in equilibrium with M(OH){sub 2(s)}) linear curves for uranyl-hydroxide, uranyl-carbonate-hydroxide, and mercuric-chloride-hydroxide simple and mixed-ligand systems and cupric-carbonate-hydroxide complexes in equilibrium with mixed hydroxide solid phases may enable the experimental chemist to distinguish true adsorption (e.g., onto hydrous oxide sorbents) from bulk precipitation removal of the metal and to interpret some anomalous metal fixation data -- usually attributed to pure adsorption in the literature -- with precipitation if the pM{sub t} at the studied pH is lower than that tolerated by pH{sup *} vs pM{sub t} curves. This easily predictable pH{sup *} corresponding to a given pM{sub t} may aid the design of desorptive mobilization experiments for certain metals as well as their adsorptive removal with the purpose of simulating metal adsorption and desorption cycles in real complex environments with changing groundwater pH.

  4. Determination of metallic contaminants on Ge wafers using direct- and droplet sandwich etch-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hellin, D.; Bearda, T.; Zhao, C.; Raskin, G.; Mertens, P. W.; De Gendt, S.; Heyns, M. M.; Vinckier, C.

    2003-12-01

    An analysis methodology for the metallic contamination control of Ge wafer substrates has been developed and evaluated for six elements (K, Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn). Detection limits (DL) of Direct-total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (D-TXRF) analysis on Ge wafers have been determined and found to be at the E10 at/cm 2 level. The values have been found to be a factor between 1 and 3 higher than on Si wafers, exclusively caused by differences in the background intensity. Additionally, a preconcentration procedure based on the Droplet sandwich etch (DSE) method has been developed. This method relies on the transfer of the surface and subsurface contaminants from the wafer to the liquid phase by wet chemical etching. Application of the DSE method on reference Ge wafers followed by analysis of the etch liquid by TXRF resulted in recovery rates (RR) of 40%. In an optimization study, it was found that the main DSE method parameters had limited influence on the RR. However, a detection efficiency study clearly demonstrated an underestimation by the TXRF analysis. An independent analysis for Ca, Cr, Fe and Zn by GF-AAS resulted in RR varying at approximately 100%. By internal standardization with the element La for the TXRF analysis, recovery rates could be increased to the 60% level. This underestimation by TXRF may find an origin in a matrix effect caused by the Ge etch products. By application of the developed DSE-TXRF method, DL at the E9 at/cm 2 level could be realized, with values, which are at least one order of magnitude lower compared to the DL of D-TXRF on Ge wafers.

  5. Optimization of heavy metals total emission, case study: Bor (Serbia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilić, Ivana; Bogdanović, Dejan; Živković, Dragana; Milošević, Novica; Todorović, Boban

    2011-07-01

    The town of Bor (Serbia) is one of the most polluted towns in southeastern Europe. The copper smelter which is situated in the centre of the town is the main pollutant, mostly because of its old technology, which leads to environmental pollution caused by higher concentrations of SO 2 and PM 10. These facts show that the word is about a very polluted region in Europe which, apart from harming human health in the region itself, poses a particular danger for wider area of southeastern Europe. Optimization of heavy metal's total emission was undertaken because years of long contamination of the soil with heavy metals of anthropogenic origin created a danger that those heavy metals may enter the food chains of animals and people, which can lead to disastrous consequences. This work represents the usage of Geographic Information System (GIS) for establishing a multifactor assessment model to quantitatively divide polluted zones and for selecting control sites in a linear programming model, combined with PROMETHEE/GAIA method, Screen View modeling system, and linear programming model. The results show that emissions at some control sites need to be cut for about 40%. In order to control the background of heavy metal pollution in Bor, the ecological environment must be improved.

  6. Groin pain after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Delgado-Sevillano, Ramon; de la Flor-García, Maria Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Total hip replacement continues to be a widely successful operation, but persistent groin pain following a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing remains a problem for some patients. The concern regarding the safety and efficacy of metal-on-metal total hip replacements has been rising. We present the case of a 47-year-old man with groin pain after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing. We observed high metal ion levels detected in blood analytical studies and a pseudotumor in magnetic resonance imaging. Our patient was treated with a revision surgery. The progressive elevation of blood and urine metal levels in the presence of periarticular cysts and/or groin pain is a complication of metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty and needs revision surgery. PMID:27489648

  7. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium in patients with Sikomet metal-metal total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Milosev, Ingrid; Pisot, Venceslav; Campbell, Pat

    2005-05-01

    Metal/metal total hip replacements (M/M THRs) made of CoCr-based alloys were reintroduced in hip arthroplasty in order to avoid the problem of polyethylene wear and consequently to diminish the wear debris-related osteolysis. Emerging concerns accompanying the reintroduction of M/M THRs are related to the possibility increase of Co and Cr serum levels and, therefore, a careful surveillance of M/M patients is recommended. In the present work three groups of patients with Sikomet SM21 low-carbon alloy were investigated: retrospective group, prospective group and revision group. The investigation of these different groups of patients provided data concerning the metal concentration as a function of time in situ, as well as time ex situ, i.e., following the removal of M/M bearing. A retrospective group of 25 patients sampled at average 60 +/- 20 months postoperatively showed a 3-fold increase in cobalt and a 4.4-fold increase in chromium compared with the control group. In the prospective group of seven patients both cobalt and chromium increase with time and at average 140 +/- 80 days achieved a significant increase compared with preoperative values. An important contribution of this study to the current knowledge on M/M bearings is achieved by the measurements in the revision group of 10 patients, where we observed a decline of serum Co and Cr levels following the removal of M/M articulation. While the link between the increase in metal serum levels and the presence of M/M THR is proved, the biological impact of these results remains to be elucidated.

  8. Evaluation of silicon influence on the mitigation of cadmium-stress in the development of Arabidopsis thaliana through total metal content, proteomic and enzymatic approaches.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, Josiane M T; Chacón-Madrid, Katherine; Galazzi, Rodrigo M; Campos, Bruna K; Arruda, Sandra C C; Azevedo, Ricardo A; Arruda, Marco A Z

    2017-12-01

    The mitigation of Cd-stress through Si addition to Arabidopsis thaliana cultivation is evaluated in terms of total metal content, proteomic and enzymatic approaches. Four different treatment are evaluated: TC (control, without Si or Cd addition), T1 (with Si addition), T2 (with Cd addition), and T3 (with Si and Cd addition). Through the total determination of Cd and Si in Arabidopsis leaves, the Cd concentration decreased by half when T2 is compared with T3 treatment. In terms of proteomic approach, some differential protein species are achieved by comparative proteomics through 2-D DIGE of all treatments evaluated. Fifty six differential abundant proteins spots (abundance factor ≥1.5) are detected, and 32 of them accurately characterized and identified through nESI-LC-MS/MS. These proteins are differentially produced due to Cd and/or Si treatments, which mainly include proteins associated with disease/defense, energy and metabolism. The most difference in the abundance of proteins is found due to the presence or absence of Si in plants treated with Cd. Regarding the enzymatic approaches, a major increase is found on APX, CAT and GR activities (5.0, 3.5, and 1.5-fold, respectively). The same is observed for the MDA concentration because an increase of 3-fold is found when TC are compared to those treated with T2. However, when T3 plants are evaluated, the enzymes activities are similar to TC plants. Differences ranging from 6.5 to 21% are detected considering the activity of SOD in the treatments (T1-T3 x TC). The decreased activities of CAT, APX and GR and lower MDA concentration indicate a lower reactive oxygen species production in plants treated with Cd and Si. Based on a proteomics point of view it is possible to conclude that Si-Cd interactions occur at protein level and allow plants to respond effectively to the Cd toxicity, revealing the active involvement of Si on mechanisms involved in Si-induced Cd tolerance in Arabidopsis plants. Additionally, from an

  9. Effects of pH and metal ions on the conformation of bovine serum albumin in aqueous solution An attenuated total reflection (ATR) FTIR spectroscopic study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qing, Huai; Yanlin, He; Fenlin, Sheng; Zuyi, Tao

    1996-11-01

    The Hummel-Dreyer gel permeation technique has been applied to investigate the binding of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with Zn 2+ and Cd 2+, and has provided evidence for the existence of two different types of binding sites in the BSA molecule. The effects of pH and the presence of metal ions Zn 2- and Cd 2+ on the conformation of BSA were investigated using ATR FTIR Spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that there were different conformational states in BSA at pH 5.0 and 9.0. Furthermore, we observed the spectral changes of BSA in the amide I region and major metal ion (Zn 2+ and Cd 2+) binding sites which were CO and CN groups of BSA.

  10. Exposure assessment of metal intakes from drinking water relative to those from total diet in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Koichi; Ishikawa, Kohei; Kurosawa, Yuki; Matsui, Yoshihiko; Matsushita, Taku; Magara, Yasumoto

    2010-01-01

    Daily intakes of 17 metals (boron, aluminium, chromium, manganese, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, selenium, molybdenum, cadmium, antimony, lead, uranium, magnesium, calcium, and iron) via drinking water and total diet were investigated in six cities in Japan. The daily metal intakes were estimated and compared with tolerable daily intake (TDI) values proposed by the WHO or Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives for toxic metals and with recommended dietary allowances (RDAs) or adequate intake (AI) values proposed for essential metals by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labour and Welfare. Among the 13 toxic metals, mean dietary intakes of 10 (except arsenic, selenium, and molybdenum) were less than 50% of TDI, suggesting that for these 10 metals the allocation of intake to drinking water in establishing guidelines or standards could possibly be increased from the normal allocation of 10-20% of TDI. For the 13 toxic metals, the contribution of drinking water to TDI was 2% or less in all six cities. Mean dietary intakes of the essential elements magnesium, calcium, and iron were less than the RDA or AI values. Drinking water did not contribute much to essential metal intake, accounting for less than 10% of RDA or AI.

  11. A hydrometallurgical process for recovering total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors.

    PubMed

    Prabaharan, G; Barik, S P; Kumar, B

    2016-06-01

    A hydrometallurgical process for recovering the total metal values from waste monolithic ceramic capacitors was investigated. The process parameters such as time, temperature, acid concentration, hydrogen peroxide concentration and other reagents (amount of zinc dust and sodium formate) were optimized. Base metals such as Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni are leached out in two stages using HCl in stage 1 and HCl with H2O2 in stage 2. More than 99% of leaching efficiency for base metals (Cu, Ni, Ba, Ti and Sn) was achieved. Precious metals such as Au and Pd are leached out using aquaregia and nitric acid was used for the leaching of Ag. Base metals (Ba, Ti, Sn, Cu and Ni) are recovered by selective precipitation using H2SO4 and NaOH solution. In case of precious metals, Au and Pd from the leach solution were precipitated out using sodium metabisulphite and sodium formate, respectively. Sodium chloride was used for the precipitation of Ag from leach solution. Overall recovery for base metals and precious metals are 95% and 92%, respectively. Based on the results of the present study, a process flow diagram was proposed for commercial application.

  12. The characterization of total and leachable metals in foundry molding sands.

    PubMed

    Dungan, Robert S; Dees, Nikki H

    2009-01-01

    Waste molding sands from the foundry industry have been successfully used as a component in manufactured soils, but concern over metal contamination must be addressed before many states will consider this beneficial use. Since there is little data available on this topic, the purpose of this study was to characterize total and leachable metals from waste molding sands. A total elemental analysis for Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, V, and Zn was conducted on 36 clay-bonded and seven chemically bonded molding sands. Total metal concentrations in the molding sands were similar to those found in agricultural soils. The leaching of metals (i.e. Ag, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) was assessed via the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP), and ASTM water leach test. Based on the TCLP data, none of the 43 molding sands would meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) characteristic for toxicity due to high Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, and Pb. Compared to the TCLP results, the metal concentrations were generally lower in the SPLP and ASTM extracts, which is likely related to the buffering capacity of the extraction fluids.

  13. Metal oxide films on metal

    DOEpatents

    Wu, Xin D.; Tiwari, Prabhat

    1995-01-01

    A structure including a thin film of a conductive alkaline earth metal oxide selected from the group consisting of strontium ruthenium trioxide, calcium ruthenium trioxide, barium ruthenium trioxide, lanthanum-strontium cobalt oxide or mixed alkaline earth ruthenium trioxides thereof upon a thin film of a noble metal such as platinum is provided.

  14. Same-Level Fracture of the Tibial Metal Tray and Polyethylene Insert After Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Kang, Jong Yeal; Lee, Yong Seuk

    2016-07-01

    The authors report a case of failure fracture of the tibial metal tray and polyethylene insert at the same level in a 73-year-old woman 10 years after total knee arthroplasty using the AMK Total Knee System (DePuy, Warsaw, Indiana). Causes of this fracture are analyzed and discussed, with the focus on the importance of component design, position, and size. The overall aim of this case report is for orthopedic surgeons to avoid this complication in total knee arthroplasty by paying attention to these controllable factors. [Orthopedics. 2016; 39(4):e787-e789.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Biomaterial hypersensitivity: is it real? Supportive evidence and approach considerations for metal allergic patients following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Mitchelson, Andrew J; Wilson, Craig J; Mihalko, William M; Grupp, Thomas M; Manning, Blaine T; Dennis, Douglas A; Goodman, Stuart B; Tzeng, Tony H; Vasdev, Sonia; Saleh, Khaled J

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of biomaterial hypersensitivity developing in response to joint implant materials was first presented more than 30 years ago. Many studies have established probable causation between first-generation metal-on-metal hip implants and hypersensitivity reactions. In a limited patient population, implant failure may ultimately be related to metal hypersensitivity. The examination of hypersensitivity reactions in current-generation metal-on-metal knee implants is comparatively limited. The purpose of this study is to summarize all available literature regarding biomaterial hypersensitivity after total knee arthroplasty, elucidate overall trends about this topic in the current literature, and provide a foundation for clinical approach considerations when biomaterial hypersensitivity is suspected.

  16. Metal-on-Metal Hip Resurfacing Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Sehatzadeh, S; Kaulback, K; Levin, L

    2012-01-01

    Background Metal-on-metal (MOM) hip resurfacing arthroplasty (HRA) is in clinical use as an appropriate alternative to total hip arthroplasty in young patients. In this technique, a metal cap is placed on the femoral head to cover the damaged surface of the bone and a metal cup is placed in the acetabulum. Objectives The primary objective of this analysis was to compare the revision rates of MOM HRA using different implants with the benchmark set by the National Institute of Clinical Excellence (NICE). The secondary objective of this analysis was to review the literature regarding adverse biological effects associated with implant material. Review Methods A literature search was performed on February 13, 2012, to identify studies published from January 1, 2009, to February 13, 2012. Results The revision rates for MOM HRA using 6 different implants were reviewed. The revision rates for MOM HRA with 3 implants met the NICE criteria, i.e., a revision rate of 10% or less at 10 years. Two implants had short-term follow-ups and MOM HRA with one of the implants failed to meet the NICE criteria. Adverse tissue reactions resulting in failure of the implants have been reported by several studies. With a better understanding of the factors that influence the wear rate of the implants, adverse tissue reactions and subsequent implant failure can be minimized. Many authors have suggested that patient selection and surgical technique affect the wear rate and the risk of tissue reactions. The biological effects of high metal ion levels in the blood and urine of patients with MOM HRA implants are not known. Studies have shown an increase in chromosomal aberrations in patients with MOM articulations, but the clinical implications and long-term consequences of this increase are still unknown. Epidemiological studies have shown that patients with MOM HRA implants did not have an overall increase in mortality or risk of cancer. There is insufficient clinical data to confirm the

  17. Statistical quality control of total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals contained in the component medicinal herbs of "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donggyu; Kim, Bogsoon; Yun, Eunsun; Kim, Junghun; Chae, Youngzoo; Park, Seungkook

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the current quality control status of raw materials in "Ssanghwatang", a widely used oriental formula effective for fatigue recovery in Korea, 1024 samples of 9 herbs available in Seoul area markets were collected, and the contents of quality inspection items such as total ash, acid-insoluble ash, loss on drying, and hazardous heavy metals (Pb, As, Cd, Hg) were examined. Medicinal herbs requiring quality control, which may not meet the specifications and standards set by the Korea Food and Drug Administration, were selected using robust z-scores, a random variable. Among the quality control items, control of total ash content was required for the Ssanghwatang raw materials Cinnamomi Cortex, Rehmanniae Radix Preparata, Zingiberis Rhizoma, and Zizyphi Fructus; loss on drying for Cinnamomi Cortex; and heavy metal (Cd) for Angelicae Gigantis Radix, Cinnamomi Cortex, and Zingiberis Rhizoma. Additionally, acid-insoluble ash content revealed how many fine soil and sand particles are present in commercial medicinal herbs, which were correlated with heavy metals such as Pb (r = 0.528) and As (r = 0.342) in Rehmanniae Radix Preparata (p < 0.01).

  18. Low incidence of groin pain and early failure with large metal articulation total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Meding, John B; Meding, Lindsey K; Keating, E Michael; Berend, Michael E

    2012-02-01

    Large-diameter metal-on-metal articulations reportedly improve stability and wear in THAs. However, some reports suggest some patients have unexplained hip and early failures with these implants. Thus, the potential benefits may be offset by these concerns. However, the incidence of these problems is not clearly established. We therefore assessed hip pain, function, osteolysis, and complications in patients with large-diameter metal-on-metal THA. We retrospectively reviewed 611 patients who had 681 large-diameter metal-on-metal THAs with the same cup and head design. The average age at operation was 62 years, 53% of the THAs were in men, and the average body mass index was 32 kg/m(2). The diagnosis was osteoarthritis in 92% of the THAs. The minimum followup was 24 months (mean, 37 months; range, 24-60 months). Nine of the 611 patients (1.5%) experienced moderate or severe pain in the hip region that we considered to be coming from an extraarticular source in each case. Harris hip scores for pain averaged 42 points. Total Harris hip scores averaged 93 points. Cup abduction averaged 42°, and cup anteversion averaged 26°. There were no infections. Three cups (0.4%) were considered radiographically loose. All were secondary to inadequate seating of the shell. Our observations suggest with this implant the concerns of higher incidences of groin pain, early failures, and adverse tissue reactions were not confirmed. Early successes or failures with large-diameter metal-on-metal articulations may be implant specific. Level IV, therapeutic study. See Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  19. Total concentrations and chemical speciation of heavy metals in liquefaction residues of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Huang, Huajun; Zeng, Guangming; Li, Hui; Wang, Jingyu; Zhou, Chunfei; Zhu, Huina; Pei, Xiaokai; Liu, Zhifeng; Liu, Zhantao

    2011-03-01

    The risk (including bioavailability and eco-toxicity) of heavy metals (Pb, Zn, Cu, Cd, Cr and Ni) in liquefaction residues (LR) of sewage sludge (SS) was estimated, according to both the speciation of heavy metals and the local environmental characteristics. The amount of organic matters in LR was lower than that in SS, resulting in a smaller calorific value, while the total content of heavy metals in LR nearly doubled. High residual rates of heavy metals (about 80%) indicated that the heavy metals in SS were concentrated into LR after liquefaction. The comparisons of sequential extraction results between SS and LR showed that after liquefaction, the mobile and easily available heavy metal fractions (acid soluble/exchangeable and reducible fractions) were mainly transformed into the relatively stable heavy metal fractions (oxidizable and residual fractions). The bioavailability and eco-toxicity of heavy metals in LR were relieved, though the total concentrations of heavy metals increased.

  20. Retrospective cohort study of the performance of the Pinnacle metal on metal (MoM) total hip replacement: a single-centre investigation in combination with the findings of a national retrieval centre

    PubMed Central

    Langton, David John; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra Prasad; Avery, Peter; Waller, Sue; Tank, Ghanshyabhai; Lord, James; Joyce, Thomas; Cooke, Nick; Logishetty, Raj; Nargol, Antoni Viraf Francis

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine risk factors for revision in patients implanted with a commonly used metal on metal (MoM) hip replacement. Design Retrospective cohort study in combination with a prospective national retrieval study (Northern Retrieval Registry (NRR)). Setting Combined orthopaedic unit in combination with the NRR. Participants All patients implanted with a DePuy Pinnacle MoM hip prostheses by the 2 senior authors were invited to attend for a review which included clinical examination, blood metal ion measurements, radiographs and targeted imaging. Explanted components underwent wear analysis using validated methodology and these results were compared with those obtained from the NRR. Results 489 MoM Pinnacle hips were implanted into 434 patients (243 females and 191 males). Of these, 352 patients attended the MoM recall clinics. 64 patients had died during the study period. For the purposes of survival analysis, non-attendees were assumed to have well-functioning prostheses. The mean follow-up of the cohort as a whole was 89 months. 71 hips were revised. Prosthetic survival for the whole cohort was 83.6% (79.9–87.3) at 9 years. The majority of explanted devices exhibited signs of taper junction failure. Risk factors for revision were bilateral MoM prostheses, smaller Pinnacle liners, and implantation in 2006 and later years. A significant number of devices were found to be manufactured out of their specifications. This was confirmed with analysis of the wider data set from the NRR. Conclusions This device was found to have an unacceptably high revision rate. Bilateral prostheses, those implanted into female patients and devices implanted in later years were found to be at greater risk. A significant number of explanted components were found to be manufactured with bearing diameters outside of the manufacturer's stated tolerances. Our findings highlight the clinical importance of hitherto unrecognised variations in device production. PMID:27130159

  1. Formation of a pseudotumor in total hip arthroplasty using a tribological metal-polyethylene pair.

    PubMed

    Fagotti, Lorenzo; Vicente, José Ricardo Negreiros; Miyahara, Helder Souza; de Oliveira, Pedro Vitoriano; Bernabé, Antônio Carlos; Croci, Alberto Tesconi

    2015-01-01

    The aim here was to report a case of a young adult patient who evolved with tumor formation in the left thigh, 14 years after revision surgery on hip arthroplasty. Davies in 2005 made the first description of this disease in patients undergoing metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty. Over the last decade, however, pseudotumors around metal-on-polyethylene surfaces have become more prevalent. Our patient presented with increased volume of the left thigh 8 years after hip arthroplasty revision surgery. Two years before the arising of the tumor in the thigh, a nodule in the inguinal region was investigated to rule out a malignant neoplastic process, but the results were inconclusive. The main preoperative complaints were pain, functional limitation and marked reduction in the range of motion of the left hip. Plain radiographs showed loosening of acetabular and femoral, and a large mass between the muscle planes was revealed through magnetic resonance imaging of the left thigh. The surgical procedure consisted of resection of the lesion and removal of the components through lateral approach. In respect of total hip arthroplasty, pseudotumors are benign neoplasms in which the bearing surface consists of metal-on-metal, but they can also occur in different tribological pairs, as presented in this case.

  2. Fate of metals in coastal sediments of a Mediterranean flood-dominated system: An approach based on total and labile fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Radakovitch, Olivier; Probst, Jean-Luc; Monaco, André; Charrière, Bruno; Buscail, Roselyne

    2011-05-01

    The dynamics of sediment-bound metals (Cs, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn) were studied off the Têt River (western Gulf of Lion), a typical Mediterranean coastal river punctuated by short and violent flash-floods. Spatial and temporal sampling strategies were combined to elucidate the fate of these elements in response to both the riverine sediment input and the offshore transport of these sediments through hydrodynamics. Our results show the temporal entrapment of riverborne particles and associated metals, consecutively to a major flood event, in the nearshore sedimentary unit called prodelta. Here, deposition and resuspension mechanisms define a sedimentological cycle that could be followed completely in this study. In terms of speciation between reactive (labile) and residual fractions along the fluvio-deltaic continuum, our results show that Cu, Pb and Zn are the most labile (potentially mobile) metals in the river, in accordance with their contributions from anthropogenic sources. But in the marine surficial sediments, two main behaviours can be discriminated when compared to the riverine suspended particulate matter. While Pb and Zn depict rather a constant labile fraction, Cu is characterized by decreasing levels (up to 50% difference). In terms of environmental impact, these contrasting trends have direct repercussions for the contaminant dispersal in the coastal area. Whereas Pb and Zn conserve their enhanced levels because of their stronger affinity with fine sediments, Cu is marked by the entire loss of its anthropogenic component that is progressively transferred to the dissolved phase, likely mediated by organic ligands. We ascribe these behaviours to different post-depositional partition mechanisms with respect to oxidation of the particulate organic phase at the bottom sediment/water interface. Also, analysis of one sediment core from the prodelta indicates that these early diagenetic processes govern the chemical forms of land-derived contaminants

  3. Attenuated total reflection response to wavelength tuning of plasmon-induced transparency in a metal-insulator-metal structure.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Kouki; Watanabe, Takeshi; Neo, Yoichiro; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Tomita, Makoto

    2016-11-15

    We experimentally demonstrated a plasmon-induced transparency in a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure based on the attenuated total reflection (ATR) response. Here, the MIM waveguide (MIMWG) mode and the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) resonance mode acted as low- and high-Q resonance modes, respectively. The dependence of the resonance angles of SPP and MIMWG mode resonances on the incident wavelength differed, which allowed the coupling condition between the two modes to be tuned via the wavelength. When the resonance angles of the two modes coincided, the ATR response showed a symmetric plasmon-induced transparency spectrum; in contrast, when the resonance angles were detuned, the ATR exhibited a sharp asymmetric spectrum characteristic to off-resonance Fano interference.

  4. Retrospective cohort study of the performance of the Pinnacle metal on metal (MoM) total hip replacement: a single-centre investigation in combination with the findings of a national retrieval centre.

    PubMed

    Langton, David John; Sidaginamale, Raghavendra Prasad; Avery, Peter; Waller, Sue; Tank, Ghanshyabhai; Lord, James; Joyce, Thomas; Cooke, Nick; Logishetty, Raj; Nargol, Antoni Viraf Francis

    2016-04-29

    To determine risk factors for revision in patients implanted with a commonly used metal on metal (MoM) hip replacement. Retrospective cohort study in combination with a prospective national retrieval study (Northern Retrieval Registry (NRR)). Combined orthopaedic unit in combination with the NRR. All patients implanted with a DePuy Pinnacle MoM hip prostheses by the 2 senior authors were invited to attend for a review which included clinical examination, blood metal ion measurements, radiographs and targeted imaging. Explanted components underwent wear analysis using validated methodology and these results were compared with those obtained from the NRR. 489 MoM Pinnacle hips were implanted into 434 patients (243 females and 191 males). Of these, 352 patients attended the MoM recall clinics. 64 patients had died during the study period. For the purposes of survival analysis, non-attendees were assumed to have well-functioning prostheses. The mean follow-up of the cohort as a whole was 89 months. 71 hips were revised. Prosthetic survival for the whole cohort was 83.6% (79.9-87.3) at 9 years. The majority of explanted devices exhibited signs of taper junction failure. Risk factors for revision were bilateral MoM prostheses, smaller Pinnacle liners, and implantation in 2006 and later years. A significant number of devices were found to be manufactured out of their specifications. This was confirmed with analysis of the wider data set from the NRR. This device was found to have an unacceptably high revision rate. Bilateral prostheses, those implanted into female patients and devices implanted in later years were found to be at greater risk. A significant number of explanted components were found to be manufactured with bearing diameters outside of the manufacturer's stated tolerances. Our findings highlight the clinical importance of hitherto unrecognised variations in device production. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not

  5. Metal Contacts on Semiconductors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-04-01

    alkali metal Na. The transition metals are all highly reactive with clean InP, and give a range of Schottky barriers between ohmic and 0.4 eV. We have...also investigated Schottky barriers for thick films of these metals deposited on clean cleaved (110) InP, surfaces, by I-V and C-V technLqueSg) This...interesting case. When deposited on clean GaAs (110) surfaces it yields a Schottky barrier height comparable with those for metals such as A, Ni, Ap and Au

  6. STANDARD-REFERENCE WATER-SUSPENDED SEDIMENT SAMPLE FOR TOTAL RECOVERABLE METALS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fishman, Marvin J.; Malo, Bernard A.; Boyle, Delora K.

    1984-01-01

    The U. S. Geological Survey has been preparing and maintaining a library of standard-reference water samples for dissolved inorganic constituents for 19 years. Recently, the reference-sample program was expanded to include a water-suspended sediment mixture for the determination of total recoverable metals. An interlaboratory round-robin study was conducted. Digestion procedures used by the U. S. Geological Survey and the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency were used to solubilize the metals before their measurement. The data indicate that both digestion procedures for total recoverable metals are essentially equivalent. Precision data are comparable to those data obtained in standard-reference water samples for dissolved metals.

  7. Quantitative determination on heavy metals in different stages of wine production by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence and Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence: Comparison on two vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Carvalho, Maria Luisa; Becker, Maria; von Bohlen, Alex

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the elemental content, namely heavy metals, of samples of vine-leaves, grapes must and wine. In order to assess the influence of the vineyard age on the elemental content throughout the several stages of wine production, elemental determinations of trace elements were made on products obtained from two vineyards aged 6 and 14 years from Douro region. The elemental content of vine-leaves and grapes was determined by Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (EDXRF), while analysis of the must and wine was performed by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence (TXRF). Almost all elements present in wine and must samples did not exceed the recommended values found in literature for wine. Bromine was present in the 6 years old wine in a concentration 1 order of magnitude greater than what is usually detected. The Cu content in vine-leaves from the older vineyard was found to be extremely high probably due to excessive use of Cu-based fungicides to control vine downy mildew. Higher Cu content was also detected in grapes although not so pronounced. Concerning the wine a slightly higher level was detected on the older vineyard, even so not exceeding the recommended value.

  8. Total suspended dust and heavy metal levels emitted from a workplace compared with nearby residential houses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdul-Wahab, Sabah A.; Yaghi, Basma

    Total suspended particulate matter (TSP) were collected from the workplace in Sohar Industrial Estate (SIE) in Oman. The samples were taken from 19 different industrial activities that represent major sources of particulate matter in the SIE. The collected samples were analyzed for 9 heavy metals (Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, Cd, V and Mo) by using the inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry analysis (ICP-OES). Furthermore, the indoor TSP and heavy metal concentrations were measured inside 12 houses within Sohar residential area to determine the contributions of various industrial activities on nearby residential houses. The results indicated that the mean concentrations of heavy metals in the TSP were too low to yield any known environmental health effects. In general, the results showed that the concentrations of heavy metals in the workplaces of SIE and its nearby houses were low compared to the guideline values. In addition, the values were low in comparison with other known sites around the world. Moreover, significant contribution from industrial sources at SIE was evidenced at nearby houses.

  9. Ten-Year Outcome of Serum Metal Ion Levels After Primary Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Brett R.; Hsu, Andrew R.; Skipor, Anastasia K.; Hallab, Nadim J.; Paprosky, Wayne G.; Galante, Jorge O.; Jacobs, Joshua J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: We previously reported on the metal ion concentrations of cobalt, chromium, and titanium that were found in the serum of patients three years after they had undergone primary total hip arthroplasty as compared with the concentrations found in the serum of control patients who did not have an implant. This study is a concise update on the serum metal levels found in a cohort of these patients ten years after the time of hip implantation. Of the original seventy-five subjects, metal ion levels were available for forty patients (53%). Ten patients (hybrid group) had received a hybrid total hip replacement that consisted of a modular cobalt-alloy femoral stem with a cobalt-alloy femoral head that had been inserted with cement and a titanium acetabular socket that had been inserted without cement. Nine patients (cobalt-chromium [CoCr] group) had received an implant with an extensively porous-coated modular cobalt-alloy femoral stem and femoral head along with a titanium acetabular socket; the femoral and acetabular components had each been inserted without cement. Eight patients (titanium group) had undergone insertion of a proximally porous-coated modular titanium-alloy femoral stem with a cobalt-alloy femoral head and a titanium acetabular socket; the femoral and acetabular components had each been inserted without cement. Thirteen patients (control group) from the original control group of patients who had not received an implant served as control subjects. Serum metal levels were measured with use of high-resolution sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The hybrid total hip arthroplasty group had mean cobalt levels that were 3.2 times higher at 120 months than they were at baseline, and the cobalt levels in that group were significantly higher than those in the titanium total hip arthroplasty group at thirty-six, sixty, eighty-four, ninety-six, and 120 months (p < 0.01). The hybrid group had mean chromium levels that were 3.9 times

  10. Differences in metal ion release following cobalt-chromium and oxidized zirconium total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Garrett, Simon; Jacobs, Neal; Yates, Piers; Smith, Anne; Wood, David

    2010-08-01

    Ions are released from all metals after implantation in the body through processes of corrosive and mechanical wear. The aim of this study was to investigate whether serum metal ion levels are raised in patients following total knee arthroplasty. Serum levels of chromium, cobalt, aluminium, molybdenum and zirconium were measured in two groups of patients at a minimum of 3 years after knee arthroplasty. Twenty three patients had a cobalt-chromium femoral component and 14 patients had an oxidized zirconium femoral component, acting as a control group as this femoral component is free from cobalt and chromium. All patients had the same titanium tibial base plates, and no patellae were resurfaced. Despite the lack of cobalt and chromium in the prostheses used in the control group, no statistically significant differences in serum cobalt and chromium ion levels were found between the groups. On the basis of these results there does not appear to be any significant rise in serum metal ion levels following total knee arthroplasty several years after implantation.

  11. Esophagojejunal Anastomosis Fistula, Distal Esophageal Stenosis, and Metalic Stent Migration after Total Gastrectomy

    PubMed Central

    Al Hajjar, Nadim; Popa, Calin; Al-Momani, Tareg; Margarit, Simona; Graur, Florin; Tantau, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Esophagojejunal anastomosis fistula is the main complication after a total gastrectomy. To avoid a complex procedure on friable inflamed perianastomotic tissues, a coated self-expandable stent is mounted at the site of the anastomotic leak. A complication of stenting procedure is that it might lead to distal esophageal stenosis. However, another frequently encountered complication of stenting is stent migration, which is treated nonsurgically. When the migrated stent creates life threatening complications, surgical removal is indicated. We present a case of a 67-year-old male patient who was treated at our facility for a gastric adenocarcinoma which developed, postoperatively, an esophagojejunostomy fistula, a distal esophageal stenosis, and a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an esophagojejunostomy fistula combined with a distal esophageal stenosis as well as with a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. PMID:25945277

  12. Esophagojejunal anastomosis fistula, distal esophageal stenosis, and metalic stent migration after total gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Al Hajjar, Nadim; Popa, Calin; Al-Momani, Tareg; Margarit, Simona; Graur, Florin; Tantau, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Esophagojejunal anastomosis fistula is the main complication after a total gastrectomy. To avoid a complex procedure on friable inflamed perianastomotic tissues, a coated self-expandable stent is mounted at the site of the anastomotic leak. A complication of stenting procedure is that it might lead to distal esophageal stenosis. However, another frequently encountered complication of stenting is stent migration, which is treated nonsurgically. When the migrated stent creates life threatening complications, surgical removal is indicated. We present a case of a 67-year-old male patient who was treated at our facility for a gastric adenocarcinoma which developed, postoperatively, an esophagojejunostomy fistula, a distal esophageal stenosis, and a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of an esophagojejunostomy fistula combined with a distal esophageal stenosis as well as with a metallic coated self-expandable stent migration.

  13. Characterisation of wear particles produced by metal on metal and ceramic on metal hip prostheses under standard and microseparation simulation.

    PubMed

    Brown, Christopher; Williams, Sophie; Tipper, Joanne L; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2007-05-01

    The failure of metal on polyethylene total hip replacements due to wear particle induced osteolysis and late aseptic loosening has focused interest upon alternative bearings, such as metal on metal implants. A recent advance in this field has been the development of a novel ceramic on metal implant. The characteristics of the wear particles generated in this low-wearing bearing have not been previously determined. The aims of this study were to characterise metal wear particles from metal on metal and ceramic on metal hips under standard and adverse (microseparation) wear conditions. Accurate characterisation of cobalt-chrome wear particles is difficult since the reactive nature of the particles prevents them from being isolated using acids and bases. A method was developed to isolate the metal wear particles using enzymes to digest serum containing lubricants from metal on metal and ceramic on metal hip simulations. High resolution scanning electron microscopy was then used to characterise the wear particles generated by both metal on metal and ceramic on metal implants under standard and microseparation wear conditions. The wear particles isolated from all simulations had a mean size of less than 50 nm with a rounded and irregular morphology. No significant difference was found between the size of wear particles generated under any conditions.

  14. Metal neck and liner impingement in ceramic bearing total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young-Kyun; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Koo, Kyung-Hoi; Yoon, Kang Sup; Kim, Hee Joong

    2011-02-01

    Although impingement between the neck of the metallic stem and the ceramic liner has been suspected to be the cause of ceramic liner failure in ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA), no report has directly demonstrated microscopic damage on ceramic liner. We performed 18 reoperations on 18 patients who had undergone third generation ceramic-on-ceramic THA. Considering impingement, 16 patients, who were reoperated more than 1 year after previous ceramic bearing THA, were evaluated. Retrieved alumina liners, showing evidence of impingement, were examined by means of visual inspection and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Four of the 16 hips showed neck notching and black stained liners, evidence of metallic neck to ceramic impingement. Impinged alumina bearings had been implanted for an average of 62.5 months (range: 35-99 months) before reoperation. SEM of the black stained area demonstrated disruptive wear and loss of surface integrity. Furthermore, one liner had multiple microcracks, and its cross-sectional SEM analysis revealed one microcrack propagating into the deep portion of the ceramic liner. Our observations suggest that metal neck-to-ceramic impingement in ceramic-on-ceramic THA can cause microcrack formation in ceramic liner. Copyright © 2010 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  15. Total Contents and Sequential Extraction of Heavy Metals in Soils Irrigated with Wastewater, Akaki, Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitamo, Daniel; Itana, Fisseha; Olsson, Mats

    2007-02-01

    The Akaki River, laden with untreated wastes from domestic, industrial, and commercial sources, serves as a source of water for irrigating vegetable farms. The purpose of this study is to identify the impact of waste-water irrigation on the level of heavy metals and to predict their potential mobility and bioavailability. Zn and V had the highest, whereas Hg the lowest, concentrations observed in the soils. The average contents of As, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, V, and Hg of both soils; and Pb and Se from Fluvisol surpassed the mean + 2 SD of the corresponding levels reported for their uncontaminated counterparts. Apparently, irrigation with waste water for the last few decades has contributed to the observed higher concentrations of the above elements in the study soils (Vertisol and Fluvisol) when compared to uncontaminated Vertisol and Fluvisol. On the other hand, Vertisol accommodated comparatively higher average levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Zn, etc V, and Cd, whereas high contents of Pb and Se were observed in Fluvisol. Alternatively, comparable levels of Co and Hg were found in either soil. Except for Ni, Cr, and Cd in contaminated Vertisol, heavy metals in the soils were not significantly affected by the depth (0-20 and 30-50 cm). When the same element from the two soils was compared, the levels of Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Se, Zn, V, Cd at 0-20 cm; and Cr, Ni, Cu, Cd, and Zn at 30-50 cm were significantly different. Organic carbon (in both soils), CEC (Fluvisol), and clay (Vertisol) exhibited significant positive correspondences with the total heavy metal levels. Conversely, Se and Hg contents revealed perceptible associations with carbonate and pH. The exchangeable fraction was dominated by Hg and Cd, whereas the carbonate fraction was abounded with Cd, Pb, and Co. conversely, V and Pb displayed strong affinity to reducible fraction, where as Cr, Cu, Zn, and Ni dominated the oxidizable fraction. Cr, Hg, Se, and Zn (in both soils) showed preference to the residual fraction

  16. Catastrophic failure of a low profile metal-backed glenoid component after total shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Vuillermin, Carley B.; Trump, Mark E.; Barwood, Shane A.; Hoy, Gregory A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: The longevity of the glenoid component in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) continues to be problematic. All polyethylene glenoid components have been most widely used, but loosening rates with time and the need for revision has resulted in high-profile metal-backed components with the potential for a more stable prosthesis bone interface and liner exchange. High revision rates in the high profile metal backed designs led us to evaluate a low profile metal backed component. Aims: To examine the rate and mode of failure of a TSA in a single surgeon consecutive series that has been identified by the Australian National Joint Replacement Registry to have a higher than anticipated rate of revision. Materials and Methods: This is a single surgeon retrospective consecutive series of 51 arthroplasties undertaken in 50 patients (18 males and 32 females) with an average age of 70.4 ears (range 51-90) and mean follow-up of 5.5 years (range 3.7-8.1). Results: We observed a very high (29%) rate of revision of the metal-backed glenoid components in this series. The primary mode of failure was glenoid baseplate nonintegration which with a well-fixed central cage screw led to bone resorption and implant breakage or disassembly. Conclusion: Analysis of the mode of failure of implants identified by robust registries is essential for the development of new prostheses and the pursuit of prosthesis longevity. This low profile metal backed prosthesis has been withdrawn, but without a published mechanism of failure. We feel that any prosthesis withdrawal should be accompanied by appropriate published mechanisms to prevent future component design errors based on similar design problems. PMID:26622128

  17. Biomaterial Hypersensitivity: Is It Real? Supportive Evidence and Approach Considerations for Metal Allergic Patients following Total Knee Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Mihalko, William M.; Grupp, Thomas M.; Manning, Blaine T.; Dennis, Douglas A.; Goodman, Stuart B.; Saleh, Khaled J.

    2015-01-01

    The prospect of biomaterial hypersensitivity developing in response to joint implant materials was first presented more than 30 years ago. Many studies have established probable causation between first-generation metal-on-metal hip implants and hypersensitivity reactions. In a limited patient population, implant failure may ultimately be related to metal hypersensitivity. The examination of hypersensitivity reactions in current-generation metal-on-metal knee implants is comparatively limited. The purpose of this study is to summarize all available literature regarding biomaterial hypersensitivity after total knee arthroplasty, elucidate overall trends about this topic in the current literature, and provide a foundation for clinical approach considerations when biomaterial hypersensitivity is suspected. PMID:25883940

  18. Prevalence of pseudotumor in asymptomatic patients after metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Williams, Daniel H; Greidanus, Nelson V; Masri, Bassam A; Duncan, Clive P; Garbuz, Donald S

    2011-12-07

    The cause of recently reported pseudotumor formation in patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements is unknown. It has been postulated that there is an association between elevated levels of serum metal ions and pseudotumor formation. The primary purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of pseudotumor formation in asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal total hip replacement after a minimum duration of follow-up of two years. A secondary purpose was to assess whether a correlation exists between elevated serum metal ion levels and pseudotumor formation. In the present study, the prevalence of pseudotumor formation, as detected with ultrasound, was evaluated for thirty-one asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty, twenty-four asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty, and twenty asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Serum levels of cobalt and chromium were measured in the metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and hip resurfacing arthroplasty groups. Ten patients (32%) in the metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group had a solid or cystic mass, with another three patients (10%) having a substantial fluid collection. Five patients (25%) in the hip resurfacing arthroplasty group had a solid or cystic mass, with another patient (5%) having a fluid collection. Pseudotumor formation was significantly more frequent in the metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group compared with the metal-on-polyethylene total hip arthroplasty group (p = 0.015). We did not detect a significant correlation between the serum metal ion levels and the size of pseudotumor abnormality. The median serum metal ion level was greater in patients with pseudotumor formation than it was in those without pseudotumor formation, but the difference was not significant. We recommend high-resolution ultrasound surveillance of all asymptomatic patients with a metal-on-metal implant that is known to

  19. Heavy metal pollution in vegetables grown in the vicinity of a multi-metal mining area in Gejiu, China: total concentrations, speciation analysis, and health risk.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanyan; Wang, Hongbin; Wang, Haijuan; Yin, Fei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Hu, Yongjun

    2014-11-01

    A field survey was conducted to investigate the present situation and health risk of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), and zinc (Zn) in soils and vegetables in a multi-metal mining area, Gejiu, China. Furthermore, three vegetables (water spinach, potato, and summer squash) containing high metal concentrations were selected to further analyze metal speciation. The results showed that the average concentrations of five metals in soil exceeded the limiting values, and their bioavailable concentrations were significantly positively correlated to the total ones. Heavy metals in the edible parts of vegetables also exceeded the corresponding standards. The leaves of pakchoi, peppermint, and coriander had a strong metal-accumulative ability and they were not suitable for planting. Except the residue forms, the main forms of metals in the edible parts of three selected vegetables were ethanol-, NaCl-, and HAc-extractable fractions for As, Pb, and Cd, respectively; however, Cu was mainly presented as NaCl-extractable and Zn as HAc-extractable fractions. A high proportion of ethanol-extractable As showed that As bioactivity and toxic effects were the highest. Although the total and bioavailable Cd were high in soil, its speciation in vegetables was mainly presented as HAc-extractable fraction, which has a relatively low bioactivity. Lead and arsenic were imposing a serious threat on the local residents via vegetable consumption.

  20. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Metals and Some Refractory Oxide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.

    1959-01-01

    A description of the apparatus and methods used for obtaining total hemispherical emissivity is presented, and data for several stably oxidized metals are included. The metals which were tested included type 347 stainless steel, tungsten, and Haynes alloys B, C, X, and 25. No values of emissivity were obtained for tungsten or Haynes alloy B because of the nature of the oxides produced. The refractory oxide coatings tested were flame-sprayed alumina and zirconia. The results of the investigation indicate that strongly adherent, oxidized surfaces of a high stable emissivity can be produced on type 347 stainless steel for which the total hemispherical emissivity varied from 0.87 to 0.91 for temperatures from 600 F to 2,000 F. For this same temperature range, the Haynes alloys tested showed values of total hemispherical emissivity from 0.90 to 0.96 for alloy C, from 0.85 to 0.88 for alloy X, and from 0.85 to 0.89 for alloy 25. Haynes alloy B and tungsten formed nonadherent oxides at elevated temperatures and, therefore, stable emissivities were not obtained. The results obtained for the flame-sprayed ceramics (alumina and zirconia) showed considerably higher values of total emissivity than those measured for coatings applied by other methods. Emissivity values ranging from 0.69 to 0.44 for aluminum oxide and from 0.62 to 0.44 for zirconium oxide were measured for temperatures from 800 F to 2,000 F.

  1. In situ fluorescent protein imaging with metal film-enhanced total internal reflection microscopy.

    PubMed

    Burghardt, Thomas P; Charlesworth, Jon E; Halstead, Miriam F; Tarara, James E; Ajtai, Katalin

    2006-06-15

    Fluorescence detection of single molecules provides a means to investigate protein dynamics minus ambiguities introduced by ensemble averages of unsynchronized protein movement or of protein movement mimicking a local symmetry. For proteins in a biological assembly, taking advantage of the single molecule approach could require single protein isolation from within a high protein concentration milieu. Myosin cross-bridges in a muscle fiber are proteins attaining concentrations of approximately 120 muM, implying single myosin detection volume for this biological assembly is approximately 1 attoL (10(-18) L) provided that just 2% of the cross-bridges are fluorescently labeled. With total internal reflection microscopy (TIRM) an exponentially decaying electromagnetic field established on the surface of a glass-substrate/aqueous-sample interface defines a subdiffraction limit penetration depth into the sample that, when combined with confocal microscopy, permits image formation from approximately 3 attoL volumes. Demonstrated here is a variation of TIRM incorporating a nanometer scale metal film into the substrate/glass interface. Comparison of TIRM images from rhodamine-labeled cross-bridges in muscle fibers contacting simultaneously the bare glass and metal-coated interface show the metal film noticeably reduces both background fluorescence and the depth into the sample from which fluorescence is detected. High contrast metal film-enhanced TIRM images allow secondary label visualization in the muscle fibers, facilitating elucidation of Z-disk structure. Reduction of both background fluorescence and detection depth will enhance TIRM's usefulness for single molecule isolation within biological assemblies.

  2. Systems view of optimizing metal on metal bearings.

    PubMed

    Schey, J A

    1996-08-01

    Metal on metal hip prostheses are critically reviewed as examples of a tribologic system. Because the inputs (load, velocity, fluid) are given, the designer has relatively few options, which can be exploited only if operative lubrication and wear mechanisms are known. Nothing can he done about the fluid, but film thickness can he influenced by macrogeometry (diameter and clearance) and by provision of film enhancing features. Microgeometry (surface topography, including asperity geometry and spacing) is a powerful contributor, but has not been sufficiently characterized or controlled. Compared with metal/polymer bearings, the total knowledge is small, and extensive research is called for. The high cost and long duration of hip joint simulation tests makes them more suitable to evaluate devices and to validate findings from bench tests. A particularly important task is to establish which experimental fluid adequately simulates the fluid formed around an all metal prosthesis. Much basic work can he conducted in bench tests, particularly in a form of oscillating twist compression test with cyclic loading, which induces squeeze film and mixed film lubrication. There is need for friction and wear studies with different metals and coatings, with controlled surface topography, and with lubricants specially formulated to clarify the roles played by various constituents of the fluid formed in metal on metal joints.

  3. Is the Total Concentration of a Heavy Metal in Soil a Suitable Tool for Assessing the Environmental Risk? Considering the Case of Copper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernández-Calviño, David; Pérez-Rodríguez, Paula; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Estévez, Manuel Arias

    National legislation concerning soil pollution by heavy metals in different countries is mostly based on the total heavy metal concentration levels allowed in different soils. As soil pollution is an issue of worldwide concern, here we develop a laboratory exercise for students in which they must check the suitability of a total metal…

  4. Survivorship Between 2 Different Ceramic-on-Ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty With or Without a Metal-Backed Titanium Sleeve Bearing: A 5- to 14-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, Yoshitoshi; Hasegawa, Yukiharu; Komatsu, Daigo; Seki, Taisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the clinical and radiographic results of consecutive ceramic-on-ceramic bearings with and without a metal-backed titanium sleeve in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. Eighty-five patients (64 women and 21 men; average age 55.2 years) were included in the A group without sleeve while 147 patients (116 women and 31 men; average age 54.2 years) were included in the B group with sleeve. Clinical and radiologic measurements at follow-up (range, 5-14 years; average, 8.1 years) were analyzed. The mean latest postoperative Harris Hip Score was 89.1 for patients from both groups. One joint (1.2%) in the A group displayed ceramic liner fracture, while no incidences of liner fracture occurred in the B group. Audible squeaking was observed in 1 joint (1.2%) in the A group and 1 (0.7%) in the B group. The mean annual liner rate of wear was 0.0049 and 0.0046 mm/y for the A group and B group, respectively. Three joints in the A group (3.5%) required revision total hip arthroplasty because of individual episodes of aseptic cup loosening, ceramic liner fracture, and infection. One joint in the B group (0.7%) required revision because of progressive osteolysis of the proximal femur. Ten-year Kaplan-Meier survivorship, based on an end point of component loosening and bearing failure, was 97.6% for the A group and 99.3% for the B group. There were no clinical, radiographic, or survivorship differences between groups. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metals in urban soils of East St. Louis, IL, Part I: Total concentration of heavy metals in soils.

    PubMed

    Kaminski, M D; Landsberger, S

    2000-09-01

    The city of East St. Louis, IL, has a history of abundant industrial activities including smelters of ferrous and non-ferrous metals, a coal-fired power plant, companies that produce organic and inorganic chemicals, and petroleum refineries. A protocol for soil analysis was developed to produce sufficient information on the extent of heavy metal contamination in East St. Louis soils. Soil cores representing every borough of East St. Louis were analyzed for heavy metals--As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, and Zn. The topsoil contained heavy metal concentrations as high as 12.5 ppm Cd, 14,400 ppm Cu, ppm quantities of Hg, 1860 ppm Pb, 40 ppm Sb, 1130 ppm Sn, and 10,360 ppm Zn. Concentrations of Sb, Cu, and Cd were well correlated with Zn concentrations, suggesting a similar primary industrial source. In a sandy loam soil from a vacated rail depot near the bank of the Mississippi River, the metals were evenly distributed down to a 38-cm depth. The clay soils within a half-mile downwind of the Zn smelter and Cu products company contained elevated Cd (81 ppm), Cu (340 ppm), Pb (700 ppm), and Zn (6000 ppm) and displayed a systematic drop in concentration of these metals with depth. This study demonstrates the often high concentration of heavy metals heterogeneously distributed in the soil and provides baseline data for continuing studies of heavy metal soil leachability.

  6. Th1 type lymphocyte reactivity to metals in patients with total hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hallab, Nadim James; Caicedo, Marco; Finnegan, Alison; Jacobs, Joshua J

    2008-01-01

    Background All prostheses with metallic components release metal debris that can potentially activate the immune system. However, implant-related metal hyper-reactivity has not been well characterized. In this study, we hypothesized that adaptive immunity reaction(s), particularly T-helper type 1 (Th1) responses, will be dominant in any metal-reactivity responses of patients with total joint replacements (TJAs). We tested this hypothesis by evaluating lymphocyte reactivity to metal "ions" in subjects with and without total hip replacements, using proliferation assays and cytokine analysis. Methods Lymphocytes from young healthy individuals without an implant or a history of metal allergy (Group 1: n = 8) were used to assess lymphocyte responses to metal challenge agents. In addition, individuals (Group 2: n = 15) with well functioning total hip arthroplasties (average Harris Hip Score = 91, average time in-situ 158 months) were studied. Age matched controls with no implants were also used for comparison (Group 3, n = 8, 4 male, 4 female average age 70, range 49–80). Group 1 subjects' lymphocyte proliferation response to Aluminum+3, Cobalt+2, Chromium+3, Copper+2, Iron+3, Molybdenum+5, Manganeese+2, Nickel+2, Vanadium+3 and Sodium+2 chloride solutions at a variety of concentrations (0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 10.0 mM) was studied to establish toxicity thresholds. Mononuclear cells from Group 2 and 3 subjects were challenged with 0.1 mM CrCl3, 0.1 mM NiCl2, 0.1 mM CoCl2 and approx. 0.001 mM titanium and the reactions measured with proliferation assays and cytokine analysis to determine T-cell subtype prominence. Results Primary lymphocytes from patients with well functioning total hip replacements demonstrated a higher incidence and greater magnitude of reactivity to chromium than young healthy controls (p < 0.03). Of the 15 metal ion-challenged subjects with well functioning total hip arthroplasties, 7 demonstrated a proliferative response to Chromium, Nickel

  7. Exposures to inhalable and "total" oil mist aerosol by metal machining shop workers.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, P W; Vincent, J H; Bishop, M J; Brosseau, L M; Greaves, I A

    1996-12-01

    Several recent studies have compared worker personal aerosol exposures as measured by the current method with those obtained by a new approach based on collecting the inhalable fraction, intended to represent all the particles that are capable of entering through the nose and/or mouth during breathing. The present study investigated this relationship for a metal machining facility where aerosols were generated from severely refined, nonaqueous ("straight") cutting oils used during the lathe working of metal rod stock. Workers (n = 23) wore two personal aerosol samplers simulataneously, one of the 37-mm type (for "total" aerosol exposure, E37) and the other of the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) type (for inhalable aerosol exposure, EIOM). The data were analyzed by weighted least squares linear regression to determine the coefficient S in the relation EIOM = S.E37. It was found that S = 2.96 +/- 0.60. This ratio-in which exposure to inhalable aerosol was greater than to "total" aerosol-is consistent with previous observations in other industries. The relative coarsenss of the oil mist aerosol, as estimated by cascade impactor measurements, probably explains the difference between the sampling methods. The collection of large "splash" droplets, may also contribute. Future occupational aerosol standards for metalworking fluids will be based on the new, health-related criteria, and exposures will be assessed on the basis of the inhalable fraction. Results of studies like that described here will enable assessment of the impact on future workplace aerosol exposure assessments of introducing new standards.

  8. Antioxidant activities, metal contents, total phenolics and flavonoids of seven Morchella species.

    PubMed

    Gursoy, Nevcihan; Sarikurkcu, Cengiz; Cengiz, Mustafa; Solak, M Halil

    2009-09-01

    Seven Morchella species were analyzed for their antioxidant activities in different test systems namely beta-carotene/linoleic acid, DPPH, reducing power, chelating effect and scavenging effect (%) on the stable ABTS*(+), in addition to their heavy metals, total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In beta-carotene/linoleic acid system, the most active mushrooms were M. esculenta var. umbrina and M.angusticeps. In the case of DPPH, methanol extract of M. conica showed high antioxidant activity. The reducing power of the methanol extracts of mushrooms increased with concentration. Chelating capacity of the extracts was also increased with the concentration. On the other hand, in 40 microg ml(-1) concentration, methanol extract of M. conica, exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity (78.66+/-2.07%) when reacted with the ABTS*(+) radical. Amounts of seven elements (Cu, Mn, Co, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and five heavy metals (Ni, Pb, Cd, Cr, and Al) were also determined in all species. M. conica was found to have the highest phenolic content among the samples. Flavonoid content of M. rotunda was also found superior (0.59+/-0.01 microg QEs/mg extract).

  9. Metal hypersensitivity in total knee arthroplasty: revision surgery using a ceramic femoral component - a case report.

    PubMed

    Bergschmidt, Philipp; Bader, Rainer; Mittelmeier, Wolfram

    2012-03-01

    We present a case involving the revision of a total knee arthroplasty with a metal femoral component using a ceramic implant due to metal hypersensitivity. A 58-year-old female patient underwent total knee arthroplasty (TKA) with a standard metal bicondylar knee system. She suffered from persistent pain and strong limitations in her range of motion (ROM) associated with flexion during the early postoperative period. Arthroscopic arthrolysis of the knee joint and intensive active and passive physical treatment, in combination with a cortisone regime, temporarily increased the ROM and reduced pain. No signs of low grade infection or other causes of implant failure were evident. Histology of synovial tissue revealed lymphoplasmacellular fibrinous tissue, consistent with a type IV allergic reaction. Allergometry (skin reaction) revealed type IV hypersensitivity against nickel-II-sulfate and palladium chloride. Revision surgery of the metal components was performed with a cemented ceramic femoral component (same bicondylar design) and a cemented titanium alloy tibial component. Postoperative evaluations were performed 10days, and 3 and 12months after the revision surgery. There was an increased ROM in flexion to 90° at the 12month follow-up. No swelling or effusion was observed at all clinical examinations after the revision surgery. No pain at rest and moderate walking pain were evident. The presented case demonstrates that ceramic implants are a promising solution for patients suffering from hypersensitivity to metal ions in total knee arthroplasty.

  10. What Are Normal Metal Ion Levels After Total Hip Arthroplasty? A Serologic Analysis of Four Bearing Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Brian T; Ortiz, Philippe A; Boles, John W; Lee, Yuo-Yu; Padgett, Douglas E; Westrich, Geoffrey H

    2017-05-01

    The recent experiences with adverse local tissue reactions have highlighted the need to establish what are normal serum levels of cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and titanium (Ti) after hip arthroplasty. Serum Co, Cr, and Ti levels were measured in 80 nonconsecutive patients with well-functioning unilateral total hip arthroplasty and compared among 4 bearing surfaces: ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC); ceramic-on-polyethylene (CoP); metal-on-polyethylene (MoP), and dual mobility (DM). The preoperative and most recent University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) and Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) scores were compared among the different bearing surfaces. No significant difference was found among serum Co and Cr levels between the 4 bearing surface groups (P = .0609 and P = .1577). Secondary analysis comparing metal and ceramic femoral heads demonstrated that the metal group (MoP, modular dual mobility (Stryker Orthopedics, Mahwah, NJ) [metal]) had significant higher serum Co levels compared with the ceramic group (CoC, CoP, MDM [ceramic]) (1.05 mg/L ± 1.25 vs 0.59 mg/L ± 0.24; P = .0411). Spearman coefficient identified no correlation between metal ion levels and patient-reported outcome scores. No serum metal ion level differences were found among well-functioning total hip arthroplasty with modern bearing couples. Significantly higher serum Co levels were seen when comparing metal vs ceramic femoral heads in this study and warrants further investigation. Metal ion levels did not correlate with patient-reported outcome measures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. MR Imaging with Metal-suppression Sequences for Evaluation of Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Talbot, Brett S; Weinberg, Eric P

    2016-01-01

    Metallic artifact at orthopedic magnetic resonance (MR) imaging continues to be an important problem, particularly in the realm of total joint arthroplasty. Complications often follow total joint arthroplasty and can be expected for a small percentage of all implanted devices. Postoperative complications involve not only osseous structures but also adjacent soft tissues-a highly problematic area at MR imaging because of artifacts from metallic prostheses. Without special considerations, susceptibility artifacts from ferromagnetic implants can unacceptably degrade image quality. Common artifacts include in-plane distortions (signal loss and signal pileup), poor or absent fat suppression, geometric distortion, and through-section distortion. Basic methods to reduce metallic artifacts include use of spin-echo or fast spin-echo sequences with long echo train lengths, short inversion time inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences for fat suppression, a high bandwidth, thin section selection, and an increased matrix. With care and attention to the alloy type (eg, titanium, cobalt-chromium, stainless steel), orientation of the implant, and magnetic field strength, as well as use of proprietary and nonproprietary metal-suppression techniques, previously nondiagnostic studies can yield key diagnostic information. Specifically, sequences such as the metal artifact reduction sequence (MARS), WARP (Siemens Healthcare, Munich, Germany), slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC), and multiacquisition with variable-resonance image combination (MAVRIC) can be optimized to reveal pathologic conditions previously hidden by periprosthetic artifacts. Complications of total joint arthroplasty that can be evaluated by using MR imaging with metal-suppression sequences include pseudotumoral conditions such as metallosis and particle disease, infection, aseptic prosthesis loosening, tendon injury, and muscle injury. ©RSNA, 2015.

  12. Total energy magnetic anisotropy calculations for free-standing transition-metal monolayers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shick, A. B.; Blügel, S.

    1997-03-01

    A self-consistent relativistic spin-polarized version of the full potential linearized augmented planewave (FLAPW) method (E. Wimmer, H. Krakauer, M. Weinert and A.J. Freeman, Phys. Rev. B 24), 864 (1981). is developed on the basis of a second variation treatment of the spin-orbit (SOC) interaction. The method is applied to the study of the magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) of free-standing transition-metal monolayers (Fe, Rh, Ir). The total energy results are compared with different theoretical models used to calculate the MAE, e.g. those based on the "local force" theorem for SOC interaction or rotation of the magnetization direction. The anisotropy of the orbital magnetic moment is calculated to be in qualitative agreement with previous theoretical predictions. For Fe and Rh monolayers, the self-consistently determined MAE and the results based on the "local force" theorem are in good agreement, but the approaches fail to agree for the case of Ir. On the basis of self-consistent total energy calculations we show that an Ir monolayer shows a large in-plane magnetic anisotropy and a large anisotropy for the spin and orbital magnetic moments.

  13. Metals, nutrients and total suspended solids discharged during different flow conditions in highly urbanised catchments.

    PubMed

    Beck, Hayden J; Birch, Gavin F

    2012-01-01

    Stormwater discharged from highly urbanised catchments on the southern shore of Sydney estuary, Australia, has been identified as the primary source of contaminants responsible for ecological degradation and reduction in recreational value of the waterway. Effective management of this pollution requires knowledge of contaminant loads associated with various stormwater flow conditions in three highly urbanised catchments in Sydney estuary catchment. The majority (>90%) of metal (Cu, Pb and Zn) and total suspended solid annual loads were contributed during high-flow conditions (>50 mm rainfall day(t1)), whereas ≤55% of TN and ≤21% of total phosphorus were contributed to annual loading by dry weather base-flow conditions. All flow conditions posed an in-stream ecological threat because contaminant concentrations exceeded water quality guidelines for all analytes measured, except Pb. Irregular, temporal variability in contaminant concentrations associated with base-flow (within day and amongst days), high-flow (amongst events) and irregular discharges indicated that contaminant contributions in stormwater were strongly controlled by human activity in the three catchments. Significant variation in contaminant concentrations under all flow conditions revealed unique chemical signatures for each catchment despite similarities in land uses, location and geology amongst catchments. These characteristics indicate that assessment and management of stormwater pollution needs to be conducted on an individual-catchment basis for highly urbanised regions of Sydney estuary catchment.

  14. Size of metallic and polyethylene debris particles in failed cemented total hip replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Salvati, E. A.; Betts, F.; DiCarlo, E. F.; Doty, S. B.; Bullough, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of differing failure rates of total hip prostheses made of various metals prompted us to measure the size of metallic and polyethylene particulate debris around failed cemented arthroplasties. We used an isolation method, in which metallic debris was extracted from the tissues, and a non-isolation method of routine preparation for light and electron microscopy. Specimens were taken from 30 cases in which the femoral component was of titanium alloy (10), cobalt-chrome alloy (10), or stainless steel (10). The mean size of metallic particles with the isolation method was 0.8 to 1.0 microns by 1.5 to 1.8 microns. The non-isolation method gave a significantly smaller mean size of 0.3 to 0.4 microns by 0.6 to 0.7 microns. For each technique the particle sizes of the three metals were similar. The mean size of polyethylene particles was 2 to 4 microns by 8 to 13 microns. They were larger in tissue retrieved from failed titanium-alloy implants than from cobalt-chrome and stainless-steel implants. Our results suggest that factors other than the size of the metal particles, such as the constituents of the alloy, and the amount and speed of generation of debris, may be more important in the failure of hip replacements.

  15. Size of metallic and polyethylene debris particles in failed cemented total hip replacements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, J. M.; Salvati, E. A.; Betts, F.; DiCarlo, E. F.; Doty, S. B.; Bullough, P. G.

    1992-01-01

    Reports of differing failure rates of total hip prostheses made of various metals prompted us to measure the size of metallic and polyethylene particulate debris around failed cemented arthroplasties. We used an isolation method, in which metallic debris was extracted from the tissues, and a non-isolation method of routine preparation for light and electron microscopy. Specimens were taken from 30 cases in which the femoral component was of titanium alloy (10), cobalt-chrome alloy (10), or stainless steel (10). The mean size of metallic particles with the isolation method was 0.8 to 1.0 microns by 1.5 to 1.8 microns. The non-isolation method gave a significantly smaller mean size of 0.3 to 0.4 microns by 0.6 to 0.7 microns. For each technique the particle sizes of the three metals were similar. The mean size of polyethylene particles was 2 to 4 microns by 8 to 13 microns. They were larger in tissue retrieved from failed titanium-alloy implants than from cobalt-chrome and stainless-steel implants. Our results suggest that factors other than the size of the metal particles, such as the constituents of the alloy, and the amount and speed of generation of debris, may be more important in the failure of hip replacements.

  16. Airborne exposure to heavy metals and total particulate during abrasive blasting using copper slag abrasive.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Dale; Spear, Terry; Seymour, Marie; Cashell, Lori

    2002-06-01

    This research investigates occupational exposure to metal and total particulate aerosols during abrasive blasting operations using one substitute abrasive, copper slag. Airborne exposures to metal (As, Be, Pb, Cr, Cd, V, and Ti) and total particulate aerosols from two copper slag sources are evaluated by the collection and analysis of personal breathing zone samples during abrasive blasting operations in both indoor and outdoor settings. Results from this research indicate that abrasive blasting operations using copper slag abrasive can generate, in a relatively short time, total particulate, lead, arsenic, and chromium exposures that exceed permissible exposure limits (PELs) set by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Results also show statistically significant differences in exposure concentrations between slag sources. A correlation between total particulate concentrations and metal concentrations is indicated in both slag sources and in both indoor and outdoor settings. Results of this research allow occupational health and safety professionals to make a more informed determination of the degree of health risk posed to workers during abrasive blasting operations using commercially obtained copper slag abrasive.

  17. [Second-generation metal bearings in cementless primary total hip arthroplasty: rationale, French homologation and preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Delaunay, C

    2000-12-01

    Long-term outcome of Charnley low-friction arthroplasty in young active patients is impaired worldwide due to wear of the polyethylene (PE) component and osteolysis. In the late eighties, reports of possible low wear with some former metal on metal total hip arthroplasties led to the reintroduction of metallic bearings. The aims of this work were to examine the rationale for using metal on metal bearings in primary total hip arthroplasty (THA) and report preliminary results obtained with cementless Metasul -Alloclassic hips. From January 1994 to March 1997, 64 cementless primary Alloclassic-THA (grit-blasted titanium SL stems and CSF treaded cups) with 28 mm Metasul bearings were performed. Mean age at surgery was 60 years (range, 36-73). Diagnoses were usual, mainly primary osteoarthrosis in 70 p. 100 of the hips. Two bearing surfaces were exchanged for late dislocation at 2.6 and 2.9 years. Thus, 62 hips in 58 active patients (4 bilateral) were reviewed after a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 3.2 years, range 24-66 months). Clinical results according to the Merle d'Aubigne and Charnley rating system were graded excellent or good in all 62 hips. Radiologically, calcar, atrophy and spot welds were noted in 93 p. 100 and 82 p. 100 of hips respectively. Proximal reactive and lucent lines and mild proximal stress shielding were observed in 8 p. 100 and 4.8 p. 100 of hips respectively. No osteolysis granuloma has thus far been observed in the vicinity of any component. Cobalt blood level remained normal, except in 6 cases due to occupational exposure (n=1), possible impingement (n=1) or an unknown cause (n=4). All elevated cobalt levels (range 7 to 25 microg/l) were nevertheless far below the toxic limit. Dislocation may be due either to the posterolateral surgical approach and/or early impingement with the first Metasul bearing design (head sleeve). Metasul acetabular component fixation is not restricted to only cementless metal-backing, unlike alumina-ceramic cups

  18. Revision total knee arthroplasty due to bone cement and metal hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Stathopoulos, Ioannis P; Andrianopoulos, Nicolaos; Paschaloglou, Dimitrios; Tsarouchas, Ioannis

    2017-02-01

    Hypersensitivity to implants is a rare complication of total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Metal and, less frequently, bone cement can produce allergic symptomatology that if unresponsive to conservative treatment could lead to revision. We present the case of a patient with generalized pruritus and metal taste starting during the first postoperative month after TKA. Dermal allergy exams revealed that the patient had hypersensitivity to nickel sulphate and cobalt chloride and bone cement. Conservative treatment with antihistamine medication and corticosteroids failed to control the symptoms. The patient underwent revision TKA with a hypoallergic prosthesis 8 months after the primary procedure. Full disappearance of the symptoms occurred 3 months after revision. The latest follow-up evaluation (3 years post-revision) was unremarkable. In our opinion, an exhaustive medical history should be obtained from every candidate for total joint replacement and in cases of prior severe allergic reactions to metals, plastics or glues, patch testing of the components of the future prosthesis should be done. When an already implanted prosthesis causes symptoms like pain, edema, pruritus, erythema, limited range of motion and increase in joint's temperature, the possibility of allergy to metals and/or bone cement (in case of cemented prosthesis) should be checked after the exclusion of other reasons like infection. If symptoms cannot be controlled by conservative measures, revision should be decided and carried out with hypoallergic prosthesis.

  19. Effects of some metallic compounds on Klebsiella

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.H.

    1988-04-01

    Many industrial and waste disposal practices unconsciously pollute the environment by adding excess heavy metals to it. Although reports show an inconsistency in the toxic levels of heavy metals such as zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury and silvery between microbial groups, the toxic effects of the metals on microorganisms have been well documented. Little is known of the differential effects these metals have on coliform K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. These bacteria are widely recognized as antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens. Besides, they are able to fix dinitrogen. In this study, these metals were found to affect these organisms in a variety of concentrations. Such effect could affect the total coliform count in water, dinitrogen fixation, and removable of nitrate in soil and water.

  20. Effects of some metallic compounds on Klebsiella

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, S.H. )

    1988-05-01

    Many industrial and waste disposal practices unconsciously pollute the environment by adding excess heavy metals to it. Although reports show an inconsistency in the toxic levels of heavy metals such as zinc, nickel, cadmium, mercury and silver between microbial groups, the toxic effects of the metals on microorganisms have been well documented. Little is known of the differential effects these metals have on coliform K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca. These bacteria are widely recognized as antibiotic resistant opportunistic pathogens ubiquitously distributed in environments. Besides, they are able to fix dinitrogen. In this study, these metals were found to affect these organisms in a variety of concentrations. Such effect could affect the total coliform count in water, dinitrogen fixation, and removable of nitrate in soil and water.

  1. Total metal levels in crayfish Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823), and surface sediments in Lake Terkos, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurun, Aysegül; Balkis, Nuray; Erkan, Melike; Balkis, Hüsamettin; Aksu, Abdullah; Erşan, Mahmut Selim

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the total metal accumulation (aluminium, copper, manganese, lead, cadmium and iron) in different organs and eggs of Astacus leptodactylus (Eschscholtz, 1823) and sediments total metal contents (aluminium, copper, manganese, lead, cadmium, iron, zinc, chromium, nickel) in Lake Terkos. Water and sediment samples were collected from two stations at two different depths (1 and 2 m) of Lake Terkos in May 2008. Crayfish samples were collected by trammel net at the same region. Primary hydrographic conditions, such as temperature (13.6-19.4 degrees C), salinity (0.27-0.34 per thousand), dissolved oxygen (7.04-12.30 mg l(-1)) and pH (7.42-8.51), were recorded for each sampling point. Moreover, the total organic carbon (1.65-5.44%) and the total calcium carbonate contents (19.44-41.16%) of sediment samples were determined. According to the Turkish Food Codex (J Zool 26:283-288, 2002), the maximum allowable Pb and Cd levels in crayfish are 0.5 mg/kg wet weight. Accordingly, the Pb and Cd levels determined in A. leptodactylus samples are below this limit. However, when compared with the acceptable metal limits defined by WHO, Australian National Health and Medical Research Council and Ministry of Agriculture in United Kingdom (UK), it is clear that the Cu level is at the limit and the Cd results exceed the limit. When the metal contents in sediment samples from Lake Terkos are examined, it is seen that the Al, Fe, Mn, Ni and Cu contents are lower while Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb contents are higher than the crustal average values. The high values draw attention to the land-based domestic and industrial inputs. Lake Terkos sediments have high enrichment factors (EF) of Zn, Cr, Cd and Pb metals which corroborate this result. The low EFs of Fe, Ni and Cu are due to the natural (terrigeneous) inputs. Additionally, there is no Al, Fe, Ni and Cu metal enrichment in these lake sediments because of the low contamination factor (CF) values. However, it is

  2. A Perspective on Commissioning and Education -- Total Quality, Total Force

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-01

    that lends information for program improvement. In helping to build officership and career motivation into their graduates, commissioning programs...commitment to continuous improvement (the Japanese concept of kaizen ), a focus 11 on customer needs and satisfaction, benchmarking or comparison...or less dedicated to continuous learning. It has been suggested that a lack of 26 maturity or motivation in USAFA graduates might be linked to

  3. Determination of platinum group metal catalyst residues in active pharmaceutical ingredients by means of total reflection X-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marguí, Eva; Queralt, Ignasi; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2013-08-01

    The control of metal catalyst residues (i.e., platinum group metals (PGMs)) in different stages of the manufacturing processes of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and, especially, in the final product is crucial. For API specimens, there are strict guidelines to limit the levels of metal residues based on their individual levels of safety concern. For PGMs the concentration limit has been established at 10 mg/kg in the API. Therefore great effort is currently being devoted to the development of new and simple procedures to control metals in pharmaceuticals. In the present work, an analytical methodology based on benchtop total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (TXRF) has been developed for the rapid and simple determination of some PGM catalyst impurities (Rh, Pd, Ir and Pt) in different types of API samples. An evaluation of different sample treatments (dissolution and digestion of the solid pharmaceutical samples) has been carried out and the developed methodologies have been validated according to the analytical parameters to be considered and acceptance criteria for PGM determination according to the United States Pharmacopeia (USP). Limits of quantification obtained for PGM metals were in the range of 2-4 mg/kg which are satisfactory according to current legislation. From the obtained results it is shown that the developed TXRF method can be implemented in the pharmaceutical industries to increase productivity of the laboratory; offering an interesting and complementary analytical tool to other atomic spectroscopic methods.

  4. Metallic attenuated total reflection infrared hollow fibers for robust optical transmission systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jing, Chengbin; Guo, Hong; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao; Liu, Aiyun; Shi, Yiwei

    2014-07-01

    A durable metallic attenuated total reflection (ATR) hollow fiber (bore size: 1.45 mm, wall thickness: 50 μm) was designed and fabricated based on a nickel capillary tube and hexagonal germanium dioxide (GeO2). The anomalous dispersion of the hexagonal GeO2 layer grown inside a nickel tube achieves low-loss light transmission at two peak-power wavelengths for CO2 laser devices (10.2 and 10.6 μm). An 11-28 W, 10.2 or 10.6 μm CO2 laser power was steadily delivered via a fiber elastically bent from 0° to 90° (radius: 45 cm) for over 40 min (transmission loss: 0.22 to 4.2 dB/m). Theoretically fitting the measured temperatures showed that front-end clipping caused greater thermal loading than the distributed mode absorption. The maximum external temperature of a nickel ATR fiber is much lower than that of a silica glass ATR fiber owing to their different heat dissipation abilities. The HE11 mode purity of the output beam profiles decreased from 90.3% to 44.7% as the bending angle increased from 0° to 90°. Large core sizes and wall roughnesses (scattering loss 0.04 dB/m) contributed to mode mixing and excess losses that were above the value predicted by the classical Marcatili and Schmeltzer equation (0.024-0.037 dB/m).

  5. Present state of metal-on-metal hybrid hip resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Amstutz, Harlan C

    2008-01-01

    Bone conservation and preservation, joint stability, and low wear of the large metal-on-metal resurfacing bearings have been convincingly demonstrated in the current literature. The clinical results of 600 MM Hybrid Conserve Plus Resurfacing in 519 patients with an average follow-up of 6.9 years (range, 4.0-10.4 years) have been excellent. The average age was 48.9 years, 74% of the patients were male, and the study included all etiologies of the young with arthritis. The complication rates other than dislocation and fracture of the femoral neck are comparable between resurfacing and conventional total hip replacement. The incidence of femoral neck fracture is low (1.2% worldwide) with less than 0.6% in this series and none occurring in the last 5 years due to proper patient selection and improved surgical technique. Component loosening after metal-on-metal resurfacing has been significantly reduced and acetabular component loosening is uncommon and has not happened in this series. Femoral bone preparation and optimal cementing techniques are paramount to prevention of femoral loosening. Clearance between the cylindrically reamed part of the head and the component varies in different designs, and the surgeon must note the need for different cementing strategies for different recommended clearances. The learning curve of a surgeon undertaking resurfacing can be greatly reduced by observation and hands-on training in specialized centers with surgeons experienced in resurfacing.

  6. Assessment of the characteristic of nutrients, total metals, and fecal coliform in Sibu Laut River, Sarawak, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soo, Chen-Lin; Ling, Teck-Yee; Lee, Nyanti; Apun, Kasing

    2016-03-01

    The concentrations of nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus), total metals, and fecal coliform (FC) coupling with chlorophyll- a (chl- a), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand (BOD5) and other general environmental parameters were evaluated at the sub-surface and near-bottom water columns of 13 stations in the Sibu Laut River during low and high slack waters. The results indicated that inorganic nitrogen (mainly nitrate) was the primary form of nitrogen whereas organic phosphorus was the major form of phosphorus. The abundance of total heavy metals in Sibu Laut River and its tributaries was in the order of Pb < Cu < Zn < Cd. Fecal coliform concentration was relatively low along Sibu Laut River. The shrimp farm effluents contributed a substantial amount of chl- a, BOD5, nutrients, and FC to the receiving creek except for total metals. Nevertheless, the influence was merely noticeable in the intake creek and amended rapidly along Selang Sibu River and brought minimal effects on the Sibu Laut River. Besides, the domestic sewage effluents from villages nearby also contributed a substantial amount of pollutants.

  7. Assessment of marine pollution in Izmir Bay: nutrient, heavy metal and total hydrocarbon concentrations.

    PubMed

    Kucuksezgin, F; Kontas, A; Altay, O; Uluturhan, E; Darilmaz, E

    2006-01-01

    Izmir Bay (western Turkey) is one of the great natural bays of the Mediterranean. Izmir is an important industrial and commercial centre and a cultural focal point. The main industries in the region include food processing, oil, soap and paint production, chemical industries, paper and pulp factories, textile industries and metal processing. The mean concentrations showed ranges of 0.01-0.19 and 0.01-10 microM for phosphate, 0.10-1.8 and 0.12-27 microM for nitrate+nitrite, and 0.30-5.8 and 0.43-39 microM for silicate in the outer and middle-inner bays, respectively. The TNO(x)/PO(4) ratio is significantly lower than the Redfield's ratio and nitrogen is the limiting element in the middle-inner bays. Diatoms and dinoflagellates were observed all year around in the bay and are normally nitrogen limited. Metal concentrations ranged between Hg: 0.05-1.3, Cd: 0.005-0.82, Pb: 14-113 and Cr: 29-316 microg g(-1) in the sediments. The results showed significant enrichments during sampling periods from Inner Bay. Outer and middle bays show low levels of heavy metal enrichments except estuary of Gediz River. The concentrations of Hg, Cd and Pb in the outer bay were generally similar to the background levels from the Mediterranean. The levels gradually decreased over the sampling period. Total hydrocarbons concentrations range from 427 to 7800 ng g(-1) of sediments. The highest total hydrocarbon levels were found in the inner bay due to the anthropogenic activities, mainly combustion processes of traffic and industrial activities. The concentrations of heavy metals found in fish varied for Hg: 4.5-520, Cd: 0.10-10 and Pb: 0.10-491 microg kg(-1) in Izmir Bay. There was no significant seasonal variation in metal concentrations. An increase in Hg concentration with increasing length was noted for Mullus barbatus. A person can consume more than 2, 133 and 20 meals per week of fish in human diet would represent the tolerable weekly intake of mercury, cadmium and lead, respectively

  8. Use of a trabecular metal implant in ankle arthrodesis after failed total ankle replacement

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Arthrodesis after failed total ankle replacement is complicated and delayed union, nonunion, and shortening of the leg often occur—especially with large bone defects. We investigated the use of a trabecular metal implant and a retrograde intramedullary nail to obtain fusion. Patients and methods 13 patients with a migrated or loose total ankle implant underwent arthrodesis with the use of a retrograde intramedullary nail through a trabecular metal Tibial Cone. The mean follow-up time was 1.4 (0.6–3.4) years. Results At the last examination, 7 patients were pain-free, while 5 had some residual pain but were satisfied with the procedure. 1 patient was dissatisfied and experienced pain and swelling when walking. The implant-bone interfaces showed no radiographic zones or gaps in any patient, indicating union. Interpretation The method is a new way of simplifying and overcoming some of the problems of performing arthrodesis after failed total ankle replacement. PMID:21067435

  9. Active brazing alloy paste as a totally metal thick film conductor material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Mingguang; Chung, D. D. L.

    1994-06-01

    A silver-based active (titanium-containing) brazing alloy, namely 63Ag-34.25Cu-1.75Ti-1.OSn, was found to serve as a totally metal (no glass) thick film conductor which exhibited lower electrical resistivity, much greater film/substrate adhesion, much lower porosity, similar solderability, and lower scratch resistance compared to the conventional silver-glass thick film. The brazing alloy film was formed by screen printing a paste containing the alloy particles and then firing at 880°C in vacuum.

  10. Metal ion levels in the blood of patients after hip resurfacing: a comparison between twenty-eight and thirty-six-millimeter-head metal-on-metal prostheses.

    PubMed

    Antoniou, John; Zukor, David J; Mwale, Fackson; Minarik, William; Petit, Alain; Huk, Olga L

    2008-08-01

    Metal ion toxicity, metal hypersensitivity, and metal carcinogenicity are causes for concern for patients with metal-on-metal hip replacements. Thus, understanding the biological fate of metal ions, and consequently their long-term systemic effects, is of great interest to patients and surgeons alike. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was used to measure the levels of cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ions in the blood of control patients (preoperative control pre-resurfacing patients), patients with a metal-on-polyethylene total hip prosthesis, patients with a metal-on-metal total hip prosthesis with either a 28 or 36-mm femoral head, and patients with a hip resurfacing prosthesis. Since cobalt and chromium ions have the potential to induce oxidative stress through irreversible biochemical damage to macromolecules, the levels of ions were correlated to the concentration of three oxidative stress markers in the plasma of these patients. The median cobalt level was significantly lower (p < 0.001) in the 36-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (1.8 parts per billion [1.8 microg/L]) compared with the 28-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (2.5 parts per billion [2.5 microg/L]) and the hip resurfacing group (2.3 parts per billion [2.3 microg/L]) at six months postoperatively. The median chromium level was also significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the 36-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (0.25 parts per billion [0.25 microg/L]) compared with the 28-mm metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty group (0.35 parts per billion [0.35 microg/L]) and the hip resurfacing group (0.50 parts per billion [0.50 microg/L]) at six months postoperatively. However, neither the median cobalt levels nor the median chromium levels were significantly different among the three metal-on-metal groups at one year. The median levels of molybdenum were not significantly different among the three groups at either six months or one year. In addition, there was no

  11. Effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this article was to review the effects of xenobiotics on total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Measurement of TAC is appropriate for evaluation of the total antioxidant defenses of blood, cells, and different kinds of tissues and organs. TAC is reduced by alcoholism, smoking, and exposure to radiation, herbicides, carbon monoxide, carbon tetrachloride, lead, arsenic, mercury, cadmium, aluminum, and other toxic elements. The test is also an important tool in evaluating environmental and occupational exposure. PMID:23554550

  12. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design.

    PubMed

    Baleani, Massimiliano; Erani, Paolo; Bordini, Barbara; Zuccheri, Federica; Mąkosa, Mateusz Kordian; De Pasquale, Dalila; Beraudi, Alina; Stea, Susanna

    2017-07-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61) and metal-on-metal (N = 87) bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions.

  13. In Vivo Damage of the Head-Neck Junction in Hard-on-Hard Total Hip Replacements: Effect of Femoral Head Size, Metal Combination, and 12/14 Taper Design

    PubMed Central

    Erani, Paolo; Bordini, Barbara; Zuccheri, Federica; Mąkosa, Mateusz Kordian; De Pasquale, Dalila; Beraudi, Alina; Stea, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Recently, concerns have been raised about the potential effect of head-neck junction damage products at the local and systemic levels. Factors that may affect this damage process have not been fully established yet. This study investigated the possible correlations among head-neck junction damage level, implant design, material combination, and patient characteristics. Head-neck junctions of 148 retrieved implants were analysed, including both ceramic-on-ceramic (N = 61) and metal-on-metal (N = 87) bearings. In all cases, the male taper was made of titanium alloy. Damage was evaluated using a four-point scoring system based on damage morphology and extension. Patient age at implantation, implantation time, damage risk factor, and serum ion concentration were considered as independent potential predicting variables. The damage risk factor summarises head-neck design characteristics and junction loading condition. Junction damage correlated with both implantation time and damage factor risk when the head was made of ceramic. A poor correlation was found when the head was made of cobalt alloy. The fretting-corrosion phenomenon seemed mainly mechanically regulated, at least when cobalt alloy components were not involved. When a component was made of cobalt alloy, the role of chemical phenomena increased, likely becoming, over implantation time, the damage driving phenomena of highly stressed junctions. PMID:28773095

  14. Salvage of failed total ankle replacement using tantalum trabecular metal: case series.

    PubMed

    Sagherian, Bernard H; Claridge, Richard J

    2015-03-01

    Although newer generations of total ankle arthroplasty designs have better clinical outcomes, failure due to aseptic loosening remains a frequent major complication. Arthrodesis is the most common salvage procedure for a failed total ankle replacement. There are several arthrodesis techniques each with its advantages and disadvantages. We present a technique of ankle arthrodesis for failed total ankle replacements using tantalum Trabecular Metal™ (Zimmer, Warsaw, IN) with internal fixation, thus sparing the subtalar joint. Three patients who had undergone arthrodesis for a failed total ankle replacement using tantalum Trabecular Metal were retrospectively reviewed. The mean follow-up period was 57 (range, 31-86) months. The mean age at ankle arthroplasty was 57 (range, 33-72) years and at ankle arthrodesis was 63 (range, 44-74) years. The mean time from arthroplasty to arthrodesis was 7 (range, 2-11) years. The American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society (AOFAS) score improved from 30.7 (range, 20-39) preoperatively to 72.7 (range, 65-77) postoperatively at the time of last follow-up. Arthrodesis was achieved at a mean of 3 months, and there were no complications. The technique described has several advantages when compared to other methods of salvage ankle arthrodesis. The subtalar joint is not included in the fusion unless it is degenerative and symptomatic. Height of the ankle is maintained throughout the fusion process. Furthermore, Trabecular Metal is abundantly available; it avoids donor site morbidity and eliminates the risk of transmissible diseases. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Metallic attenuated total reflection infrared hollow fibers for robust optical transmission systems

    SciTech Connect

    Jing, Chengbin; Guo, Hong; Hu, Zhigao; Yang, Pingxiong; Chu, Junhao; Liu, Aiyun; Shi, Yiwei

    2014-07-07

    A durable metallic attenuated total reflection (ATR) hollow fiber (bore size: 1.45 mm, wall thickness: 50 μm) was designed and fabricated based on a nickel capillary tube and hexagonal germanium dioxide (GeO{sub 2}). The anomalous dispersion of the hexagonal GeO{sub 2} layer grown inside a nickel tube achieves low-loss light transmission at two peak-power wavelengths for CO{sub 2} laser devices (10.2 and 10.6 μm). An 11–28 W, 10.2 or 10.6 μm CO{sub 2} laser power was steadily delivered via a fiber elastically bent from 0° to 90° (radius: 45 cm) for over 40 min (transmission loss: 0.22 to 4.2 dB/m). Theoretically fitting the measured temperatures showed that front-end clipping caused greater thermal loading than the distributed mode absorption. The maximum external temperature of a nickel ATR fiber is much lower than that of a silica glass ATR fiber owing to their different heat dissipation abilities. The HE{sub 11} mode purity of the output beam profiles decreased from 90.3% to 44.7% as the bending angle increased from 0° to 90°. Large core sizes and wall roughnesses (scattering loss 0.04 dB/m) contributed to mode mixing and excess losses that were above the value predicted by the classical Marcatili and Schmeltzer equation (0.024–0.037 dB/m).

  16. Total Fume and Metal Concentrations during Welding in Selected Factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-01-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder’s health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers’ welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m3 (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m3 (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m3 (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m3 (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m3 (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m3 (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m3–0.477 mg/m3, 0.001 mg/m3–0.080 mg/m3 and 0.001 mg/m3–0.058 mg/m3 respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems. PMID:20717553

  17. Total fume and metal concentrations during welding in selected factories in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Balkhyour, Mansour Ahmed; Goknil, Mohammad Khalid

    2010-07-01

    Welding is a major industrial process used for joining metals. Occupational exposure to welding fumes is a serious occupational health problem all over the world. The degree of risk to welder's health from fumes depends on composition, concentration, and the length of exposure. The aim of this study was to investigate workers' welding fume exposure levels in some industries in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. In each factory, the air in the breathing zone within 0.5 m from welders was sampled during 8-hour shifts. Total particulates, manganese, copper, and molybdenum concentrations of welding fumes were determined. Mean values of eight-hour average particulate concentrations measured during welding at the welders breathing zone were 6.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 1), 5.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 2), 11.3 mg/m(3) (Factory 3), 6.8 mg/m(3) (Factory 4), 4.7 mg/m(3) (Factory 5), and 3.0 mg/m(3) (Factory 6). Mean values of airborne manganese, copper, and molybdenum levels measured during welding were in the range of 0.010 mg/m(3)-0.477 mg/m(3), 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.080 mg/m(3) and 0.001 mg/m(3)-0.058 mg/m(3) respectively. Mean values of calculated equivalent exposure values were: 1.50 (Factory 1), 1.56 (Factory 2), 5.14 (Factory 3), 2.21 (Factory 4), 2.89 (Factory 5), and 1.20 (Factory 6). The welders in factories 1, 2, 3, and 4 were exposed to welding fume concentration above the SASO limit value, which may increase the risk of respiratory health problems.

  18. Management of failed metal-backed glenoid component in patients with bilateral total shoulder arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinning; Eichinger, Josef K.; Higgins, Laurence D.

    2013-01-01

    Total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) is successful in providing pain relief and functional improvements for patients with shoulder arthritis. Outcomes are directly correlated with implant position and fixation, which ultimately affects wear and longevity. Metal-backed glenoid components were introduced as an alternative to the standard cemented glenoid fixation. Early loosening and cavitary glenoid bone loss has been reported as a major complication associated with these metal-backed glenoids, which presents the surgeon with a challenging revision situation. Furthermore, failure of bilateral TSA in patients with metal-backed glenoids is extremely rare. We present two patients with early failure of bilateral TSA secondary to loosening of the metal-backed glenoids. Both patients had significant glenoid bone loss and were treated with four different types of revision techniques. A description of treatments and outcomes of both patients are reported along with the simple shoulder test and American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons scores. One patient underwent revision to bilateral reverse prosthesis and experienced a much-improved outcome in comparison to the patient revised to a hemiarthroplasty and resection arthroplasty, for each shoulder respectively. In patients who present with failed TSA, revision to a reverse prosthesis with or without staged glenoid bone graft should be considered as an option of treatment. It is also important to rule out infection with intraoperative tissue biopsy before proceeding to revision surgery. However, in patients with catastrophic glenoid bone loss, both hemiarthroplasty and resection arthroplasty can provide an alternative treatment option, but they are associated with a poorer functional outcome and pain relief. PMID:24403762

  19. Optimization of Scan Time in MRI for Total Hip Prostheses: SEMAC Tailoring for Prosthetic Implants Containing Different Types of Metals.

    PubMed

    Deligianni, X; Bieri, O; Elke, R; Wischer, T; Egelhof, T

    2015-12-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of soft tissues after total hip arthroplasty is of clinical interest for the diagnosis of various pathologies that are usually invisible with other imaging modalities. As a result, considerable effort has been put into the development of metal artifact reduction MRI strategies, such as slice encoding for metal artifact correction (SEMAC). Generally, the degree of metal artifact reduction with SEMAC directly relates to the overall time spent for acquisition, but there is no specific consensus about the most efficient sequence setup depending on the implant material. The aim of this article is to suggest material-tailored SEMAC protocol settings. Five of the most common total hip prostheses (1. Revision prosthesis (S-Rom), 2. Titanium alloy, 3. Müller type (CoNiCRMo alloy), 4. Old Charnley prosthesis (Exeter/Stryker), 5. MS-30 stem (stainless-steel)) were scanned on a 1.5 T MRI clinical scanner with a SEMAC sequence with a range of artifact-resolving slice encoding steps (SES: 2-23) along the slice direction (yielding a total variable scan time ranging from 1 to 10 min). The reduction of the artifact volume in comparison with maximal artifact suppression was evaluated both quantitatively and qualitatively in order to establish a recommended number of steps for each case. The number of SES that reduced the artifact volume below approximately 300 mm(3) ranged from 3 to 13, depending on the material. Our results showed that although 3 SES steps can be sufficient for artifact reduction for titanium prostheses, at least 11 SES should be used for prostheses made of materials such as certain alloys of stainless steel. Tailoring SES to the implant material and to the desired degree of metal artifact reduction represents a simple tool for workflow optimization of SEMAC imaging near total hip arthroplasty in a clinical setting. Five of the most common total hip prostheses have been investigated in vitro. Tailored SEMAC protocols - in terms of

  20. Data on total and spectral solar irradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Mecherikunnel, A.T.; Gatlin, J.A.; Richmond, J.C.

    1983-05-01

    This paper presents a brief survey of the data available on solar constant and extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance. The spectral distribution of solar radiation at ground surface, computed from extraterrestrial solar spectral irradiance for several air mass values and for four levels of atmospheric pollution, is also presented. The total irradiance at ground level is obtained by integration of the area under the spectral irradiance curves. It is significant that, as air mass increases or as turbidity increases, the amount of energy in the infrared relative to the total increases and that the energy in the UV and visible decreases.

  1. Heart failure after conventional metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Marianne H; Pratt, Nicole L; Inacio, Maria C S; Roughead, Elizabeth E; Shakib, Sepehr; Nicholls, Stephen J; Graves, Stephen E

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose — It is unclear whether metal particles and ions produced by mechanical wear and corrosion of hip prostheses with metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have systemic adverse effects on health. We compared the risk of heart failure in patients with conventional MoM total hip arthroplasty (THA) and in those with metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) THA. Patients and methods — We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Australian Government Department of Veterans’ Affairs health claims database on patients who received conventional THA for osteoarthritis between 2004 and 2012. The MoM THAs were classified into groups: Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) XL Acetabular System, other large-head (LH) (> 32 mm) MoM, and small-head (SH) (≤ 32 mm) MoM. The primary outcome was hospitalization for heart failure after THA. Results — 4,019 patients with no history of heart failure were included (56% women). Men with an ASR XL THA had a higher rate of hospitalization for heart failure than men with MoP THA (hazard ratio (HR) = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.6–6.5). No statistically significant difference in the rate of heart failure was found with the other LH MoM or SH MoM compared to MoP in men. There was no statistically significant difference in heart failure rate between exposure groups in women. Interpretation — An association between ASR XL and hospitalization for heart failure was found in men. While causality between ASR XL and heart failure could not be established in this study, it highlights an urgent need for further studies to investigate the possibility of systemic effects associated with MoM THA. PMID:27759468

  2. Metal Ion Levels in Young, Active Patients Receiving a Modular, Dual Mobility Total Hip Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Nam, Denis; Salih, Rondek; Brown, Katherine M; Nunley, Ryan M; Barrack, Robert L

    2017-05-01

    Dual mobility total hip arthroplasty (THA) components improve stability, yet use of a modular cobalt alloy acetabular liner may be associated with metal ion release. This study's purpose was to measure blood metal ion levels in young, active patients receiving a dual mobility THA prosthesis. This is a prospective study of young, active patients undergoing primary THA. Twenty-six patients received a 22-mm cobalt alloy (n = 10) or a 28-mm ceramic (n = 16) femoral head, a modular cobalt chrome acetabular liner, with a highly cross-linked polyethylene insert (dual mobility). Seventeen control patients received a 32-mm cobalt alloy (n = 6), oxidized zirconium (n = 5), or ceramic (n = 6) femoral head and polyethylene acetabular liner (conventional). All patients received a cementless, titanium femoral stem. Blood metal ion levels (μg/L) were measured preoperatively and at 1 year postoperatively. No difference was present for age or body mass index (P = .5 and .9). At 1 year postoperatively, mean cobalt levels were greater in the dual mobility cohort (0.23 ± 0.39 vs 0.15 ± 0.07, P < .001). Four patients in the dual mobility cohort had a cobalt level outside the reference range (0.03-0.29), with values from 0.34 to 1.81 μg/L. One patient in the conventional cohort had a cobalt level outside the reference range with a value of 0.39 μg/L. The presence and clinical significance of increased cobalt levels in 4 patients with the use of a modular dual mobility prosthesis demonstrates the necessity of continued surveillance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. [Update on metal-on-metal hip joints].

    PubMed

    Günther, K-P; Lützner, J; Hannemann, F; Schmitt, J; Kirschner, S; Goronzy, J; Stiehler, M; Lohmann, C; Hartmann, A

    2013-05-01

    Increasing data are available describing risk factors for the development of local and systemic adverse events following operations using metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants. The prevalence and clinical relevance of metal-associated problems are, however, still under debate. They can be influenced by type and position of implant as well as patient-specific factors. Patients with small MoM heads (maximum diameter 32 mm) and subgroups of resurfacing arthroplasty can achieve good long-term survival. The use of large head MoM implants (diameters greater than 36 mm), however, is currently not advised due to the unsatisfactory results.

  4. Radiological Stability after Revision of Infected Total Knee Arthroplasty Using Modular Metal Augments

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyung-Jae; Cho, Chul-Hyun; Son, Eun-Seok; Jung, Jae-Won

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the radiological stability according to the number of modular augments after revision of infected total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Materials and Methods Between February 2006 and September 2013, 37 patients (39 knees) followed ≥2 years after revision of infected TKA using modular metal augments for bone defects were reviewed retrospectively. We divided the patients into 3 groups according to the number of augments into group A (≤2 augments, 14 knees), group B (3–4 augments, 18 knees), and group C (5≥ augments, 7 knees) and evaluated the width of radiolucent zones around the implant at the last follow-up. Results There were 3 Anderson Orthopedic Research Institute type I, 33 type II, and 3 type III bone defects. The mean number of radiolucent zones of group A was 3 and the sum of width averaged 4.4 mm. In group B, the values were 4.8 and 6.2 mm, respectively. In group C, the values were 8.1 and 12.9 mm, respectively. The differences between the three groups were statistically significant. Conclusions In revision TKA with modular metal augmentation caused by infected TKA, increased modularity can result in radiological instability. PMID:26955613

  5. The Total Solar Eclipse on Svalbard 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sigernes, F.; Ellingsen, P. G.; Holmen, S. E.; Brekke, P.; Danielsen, A.; Olsen, B.; Syrjäsuo, M.; Chen, X.; Dyrland, M. E.; Partamies, N.; Baddeley, L. J.; Lorentzen, D. A.; Krogtoft, M. A.; Dragland, T.; Mortensson, H.; Smistad, L.; Oksavik, K.; Heinselman, C. J.; Habbal, S. R.

    2015-12-01

    This work reports the results from a multi-instrumental campaign that was planned and executed to record the Total Solar Eclipse that occurred on Friday 20th of March 2015 in Longyearbyen (78oN, 15oE) on Svalbard, Norway. Both airborne hyperspectral- and ground-based camera systems were used to image the event. A novel video accumulation filter technique is presented that reveals small scale chromospheric features. The result is fused with a High Dynamic Range (HDR) image of the Corona taken from the old Auroral Station in Adventdalen. The Kjell Henriksen Observatory (KHO) was also operative, but did not detect any dayside auroral signatures. The background sky condition was too bright during totality for the auroral cameras. The airborne hyperspectral data is used to cluster and classify active solar regions with prominences from the background continuum.

  6. The Inflammatory Phenotype in Failed Metal-On-Metal Hip Arthroplasty Correlates with Blood Metal Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Paukkeri, Erja-Leena; Korhonen, Riku; Hämäläinen, Mari; Pesu, Marko; Eskelinen, Antti; Moilanen, Teemu; Moilanen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hip arthroplasty is the standard treatment of a painful hip destruction. The use of modern metal-on-metal (MOM) bearing surfaces gained popularity in total hip arthroplasties during the last decade. Recently, worrisome failures due to adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD), including pseudotumor response, have been widely reported. However, the pathogenesis of this reaction remains poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ARMD response by flow cytometry approach. Methods Sixteen patients with a failed Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) hip prosthesis were included in the study. Samples of pseudotumor tissues collected during revision surgery were degraded by enzyme digestion and cells were typed by flow cytometry. Whole blood chromium and cobalt concentrations were analyzed with mass spectrometry before revision surgery. Results Flow cytometry analysis showed that the peri-implant pseudotumor tissue expressed two principal phenotypes, namely macrophage-dominated and T-lymphocyte-dominated response; the average portions being 54% (macrophages) and 25% (T-lymphocytes) in macrophage-dominated inflammation and 20% (macrophages) and 54% (T-lymphocytes) in T-lymphocyte-dominated response. The percentages of B-lymphocytes and granulocytes were lower in both phenotypes. Interestingly, the levels of blood chromium and cobalt were significantly higher in patients with macrophage-dominated response. Conclusions The results suggest that the adverse tissue reactions induced by MOM wear particles contain heterogeneous pathogeneses and that the metal levels are an important factor in the determination of the inflammatory phenotype. The present results support the hypothesis that higher metal levels cause cytotoxicity and tissue injury and macrophages are recruited to clear the necrotic debris. On the other hand, the adverse response developed in association with lower metal levels is T-lymphocyte-dominated and is likely to reflect

  7. Determination of some heavy metals (Fe, Cu, Zn and Pb) in blood by total reflection X-ray fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounakhla, M.; Doukkali, A.; Lalaoui, K.; Aguenaou, H.; Mokhtar, N.; Attrassi, B.

    2003-05-01

    The main purpose of this study is the interaction between nutrition (micronutrients heavy metals: Fe, Zn, Cu) and toxic heavy metals such as Pb in blood of children living in Gharb region of Morocco. This region receives all pollution carried by the Sebou river coming mainly from industrial activities. A rapid and simple analytical procedure was used for the determination of Fe, Cu and Zn trace amounts in blood by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence technique. This method is an energy dispersive XRF technique in a special geometry of primary beam, sample and detector. The sample is deposited on a plane polished surface of a suitable reflector material. It is presented as a few drops (25 μl) from a solution of blood digested in a mixture of HNO3 and H2O2 using a microwaves accelerated reaction system. The accuracy of measurements has been investigated by using certified materials. The concentration of Cu was found to be normal in all samples (\\cong1 ppm) which ruled out any interaction between this element and the others. On the other hand, amounts of Fe and Zn are very variables, suggesting an interaction between Fe and Zn. However, amounts of Pb in blood are inferior to 50 ppb, suggesting that no interaction exist with this metal and micronutrients.

  8. Analysis of total and dissolved heavy metals in surface water of a Mexican polluted river by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarazua, G.; Ávila-Pérez, P.; Tejeda, S.; Barcelo-Quintal, I.; Martínez, T.

    2006-11-01

    The present area of study is located in the Upper Course of the Lerma River (UCLR). The Lerma is one of the most important rivers of Mexico, where it drains highly populated and industrialized regions. The aim of the present study is to determine the heavy metal concentration of Cr, Mn, Fe, Cu and Pb in dissolved and total phases of the UCLR by means of Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry (TXRF). The surface water samples were collected at 8 sites distributed following the stream flow direction of the river. Four sampling campaigns were carried out in each site in a 1-year period. A sample preparation method was applied in order to obtain the total and dissolved fraction and to destroy the organic matter. The total heavy metal average concentration decrease in the following order: Fe (2566 μg/L) > Mn (300 μg/L) > Cu (66 μg/L) > Cr (21 μg/L) > Pb (15 μg/L). In general, the heavy metal concentrations in water of the UCLR are below the maximum permissible limits.

  9. Total on-line purchasing system (TOPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, N.

    1995-11-01

    The Information Management Division (IMD) at LLNL is developing a new purchasing system for the Procurement Department. The first major development of this new system is called, {open_quotes}Total On-Line Purchasing System{close_quotes} (TOPS). TOPS will help speed up the requisitioning process by having requisitions electronically entered by requesters and electronically sent to buyers to be put on Purchase Orders. The new purchasing system will use Electronic Commerce (EC)/Electronic Data Interchange (EDI), to help increase transaction flows for shipping notices, RFQs, Quotes, Purchase Orders, and Invoices. ANSI X.12 is the EDI standard that this new EC will use.

  10. Total Life Cycle-Based Materials Selection for Polymer Metal Hybrid Body-in-White Automotive Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Sellappan, V.; He, T.; Seyr, Norbert; Obieglo, Andreas; Erdmann, Marc; Holzleitner, Jochen

    2009-03-01

    Over the last dozen of years, polymer metal hybrid (PMH) technologies have established themselves as viable alternatives for use in light-weight automotive body-in-white bolt-on as well as load-bearing (structural) components. Within the PMH technologies, sheet-metal stamped/formed and thermoplastic injection molding subcomponents are integrated into a singular component/module. Due to attending synergetic effects, the performance of the PMH component typically exceeds that attainable by an alternative single-material technologies. In the present work, a total life cycle (TLC) approach to the selection of metallic and thermoplastic materials (as well as the selection of structural adhesives, where appropriate) is considered. The TLC material selection approach considers the consequences and ramifications of material selection at each major stage of the vehicle manufacturing process chain (press shop, injection molding shop, body shop, paint shop, and assembly), as well as relation to the vehicle performance, durability and the end-of-the-life-of-the-vehicle considerations. The approach is next applied to the case of injection overmolding technology to identify the optimal grade of short glass-fiber reinforced nylon when used in a prototypical PMH load-bearing automotive body-in-white component.

  11. On the total variation dictionary model.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tieyong; Ng, Michael K

    2010-03-01

    The goal of this paper is to provide a theoretical study of a total variation (TV) dictionary model. Based on the properties of convex analysis and bounded variation functions, the existence of solutions of the TV dictionary model is proved. We then show that the dual form of the model can be given by the minimization of the sum of the l(1) -norm of the dual solution and the Bregman distance between the curvature of the primal solution and the subdifferential of TV norm of the dual solution. This theoretical result suggests that the dictionary must represent sparsely the curvatures of solution image in order to obtain a better denoising performance.

  12. Comparative study of material loss at the taper interface in retrieved metal-on-polyethylene and metal-on-metal femoral components from a single manufacturer.

    PubMed

    Bills, Paul; Racasan, Radu; Bhattacharya, Saugatta; Blunt, Liam; Isaac, Graham

    2017-08-01

    There have been a number of reports on the occurrence of taper corrosion and/or fretting and some have speculated on a link to the occurrence of adverse local tissue reaction specifically in relation to total hip replacement which have a metal-on-metal bearing. As such a study was carried out to compare the magnitude of material loss at the taper in a series of retrieved femoral heads used in metal-on-polyethylene bearings with that in a series of retrieved heads used in metal-on-metal bearings. A total of 36 metal-on-polyethylene and 21 metal-on-metal femoral components were included in the study all of which were received from a customer complaint database. Furthermore, a total of nine as-manufactured femoral components were included to provide a baseline for characterisation. All taper surfaces were assessed using an established corrosion scoring method and measurements were taken of the female taper surface using a contact profilometry. In the case of metal-on-metal components, the bearing wear was also assessed using coordinate metrology to determine whether or not there was a relationship between bearing and taper material loss in these cases. The study found that in this cohort the median value of metal-on-polyethylene taper loss was 1.25 mm(3) with the consequent median value for metal-on-metal taper loss being 1.75 mm(3). This study also suggests that manufacturing form can result in an apparent loss of material from the taper surface determined to have a median value of 0.59 mm(3). Therefore, it is clear that form variability is a significant confounding factor in the measurement of material loss from the tapers of femoral heads retrieved following revision surgery.

  13. Size Distribution and Estimated Respiratory Deposition of Total Chromium, Hexavalent Chromium, Manganese, and Nickel in Gas Metal Arc Welding Fume Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cena, Lorenzo G; Chisholm, William P; Keane, Michael J; Cumpston, Amy; Chen, Bean T

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the mass of total Cr, Cr(VI), Mn, and Ni in 15 size fractions for mild and stainless steel gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes. Samples were collected using a nano multi orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) with polyvinyl chloride filters on each stage. The filters were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were experimentally calculated and percent recoveries were measured from spiked metals in solution and dry, certified welding-fume reference material. The fraction of Cr(VI) in total Cr was estimated by calculating the ratio of Cr(VI) to total Cr mass for each particle size range. Expected, regional deposition of each metal was estimated according to respiratory-deposition models. The weight percent (standard deviation) of Mn in mild steel fumes was 9.2% (6.8%). For stainless steel fumes, the weight percentages were 8.4% (5.4%) for total Cr, 12.2% (6.5%) for Mn, 2.1% (1.5%) for Ni and 0.5% (0.4%) for Cr(VI). All metals presented a fraction between 0.04 and 0.6 μm. Total Cr and Ni presented an additional fraction <0.03 μm. On average 6% of the Cr was found in the Cr(VI) valence state. There was no statistical difference between the smallest and largest mean Cr(VI) to total Cr mass ratio (p-value D 0.19), hence our analysis does not show that particle size affects the contribution of Cr(VI) to total Cr. The predicted total respiratory deposition for the metal particles was ∼25%. The sites of principal deposition were the head airways (7-10%) and the alveolar region (11-14%). Estimated Cr(VI) deposition was highest in the alveolar region (14%).

  14. Full Metal Jacket With Drug-Eluting Stents for Coronary Chronic Total Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Pil Hyung; Lee, Seung-Whan; Yun, Sung-Cheol; Bae, Jaeseok; Ahn, Jung-Min; Park, Duk-Woo; Kang, Soo-Jin; Kim, Young-Hak; Lee, Cheol Whan; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Seung-Jung

    2017-07-24

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcomes and predictors of adverse events following successful "full metal jacket" (FMJ) (stent length ≥60 mm without gap) procedures using drug-eluting stents to treat coronary chronic total occlusions (CTOs). The FMJ stenting procedure is often required to treat CTOs, but its clinical efficacy and safety remain unknown. In total, 1,126 successful CTO procedures (1,107 consecutive patients) performed between May 2003 and March 2015 were studied. The primary endpoint was target lesion failure, a composite of cardiac death, target vessel-related myocardial infarction, or target lesion revascularization or reocclusion. Overall, 406 patients (36.7%) underwent the FMJ procedure, increasing in frequency over time (28.5% from 2003 to 2006 and 41.7% after 2011). The mean stent length was 76.8 ± 14.6 mm (range 60 to 122 mm), and the average number of stent overlaps was 2.5 ± 0.6 (range 2 to 4). A total of 127 patients (31.3%) had persistent luminal narrowing at the distal reference segment after stenting. During the median follow-up period of 5.1 years, target lesion failure occurred in 16.0% of patients. There were 17 cases of total reocclusion and 5 cases of stent thrombosis. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the number of implanted stents (hazard ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.16 to 2.54; p = 0.006) and persistent distal luminal narrowing (hazard ratio: 2.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.66 to 4.47; p < 0.001) were predictors of increased risk for target lesion failure. The FMJ procedure using drug-eluting stents for CTOs provides acceptable long-term clinical results. Persistent distal luminal narrowing increases the future likelihood of adverse events despite procedural success. Copyright © 2017 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Metal Artifact Reduction for Orthopedic Implants (O-MAR): Usefulness in CT Evaluation of Reverse Total Shoulder Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Shim, Euddeum; Kang, Yusuhn; Ahn, Joong Mo; Lee, Eugene; Lee, Joon Woo; Oh, Joo Han; Kang, Heung Sik

    2017-10-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the effect of the metal artifact reduction algorithm for orthopedic implants (O-MAR) on CT image quality for patients with reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA), with emphasis placed on the evaluation of bone in the vicinity of prostheses. Sixty-five patients who underwent CT scanning after RTSA were enrolled in the study. Two radiologists analyzed the images reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP) with or without O-MAR processing. Images were evaluated to determine the degree of streaking artifacts, the confidence in depicting various structures around the prosthesis, and the presence of pseudolesions. The mean CT number and SD of the selected ROIs placed in the greater tuberosity, glenoid bone, and deltoid muscle were recorded. For measurements from the greater tuberosity and glenoid bone, the frequency with which the measurement met the typical CT number of bone was calculated. O-MAR images showed less metal streak artifact and noise and provided better visualization of the axillary neurovascular bundle compared with FBP images, with a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 for all). FBP images were found to be statistically significantly better than O-MAR images, offering better visualization of bone cortex, bone trabeculae, and the bone-prosthesis interface (p < 0.001 for all). Scapular pseudonotching was observed on 4.6% of FBP images and 36.9% of O-MAR images. The pseudocemented appearance was noted on 47.7% of O-MAR images but was not seen on FBP images. The use of O-MAR improved CT image quality for patients with RTSA in the aspect of metal artifact reduction and soft-tissue profile. However, O-MAR tends to degrade depiction of the bone trabeculae and bone cortex and generate new artifacts, including a pseudocemented appearance and scapular pseudonotching.

  16. Combined use of total metal content and size fractionation of metal biomolecules to determine the provenance of pine nuts (Pinus pinea).

    PubMed

    Gómez-Ariza, J L; Arias-Borrego, A; García-Barrera, T

    2007-07-01

    Four essential elements (Mn, Ni, Zn, and Cu) and their molecular-size distribution patterns have been determined, for twenty four samples of pine nuts from eight areas in Spain and Portugal (Huelva, Cádiz, Badajoz, Cataluña, Castilla, Madrid, Faro, and Coimbra), by size-exclusion liquid chromatography (SEC) coupled on-line to UV and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) detection. The variability observed in total element content and the size-exclusion profiles of elements in samples from distant areas were considered as chemical descriptors for characterization of geographic origin. A pattern-recognition technique, the display method principal component analysis, was used as visualization technique to determine the provenance of the pine nuts collected. The results obtained confirmed that size fractionation profiles give more information for assessing the provenance of pine nuts than the total elements composition traditionally used for this purpose. Combination of these chemical descriptors was the most suitable choice for the samples studied. Figure This paper shows the application of an analytical approach based on total elements concentrations and the relative abundance of metal-biomolecules, estimated by the size-exclusion fractions, as chemical descriptors to determine the provenance of pine nuts. Principal component analysis (PCA) has been used as a visualization technique.

  17. Early results of large head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Kostensalo, I; Seppänen, M; Mäkelä, K; Mokka, J; Virolainen, P; Hirviniemi, J

    2012-01-01

    Total hip arthroplasty significantly improves patient's life quality. However, total joint replacement is associated with possible complications, such as dislocations, infections, fractures and periprosthetic osteolysis. The goal of this study was to evaluate a large head metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasties and analyse short term complications related to them. Between 9/2005 and 6/2009, a total of 691 hip replacements were performed on 635 patients with the use of Magnum M2 large head cementless metal-on-metal prosthesis in Turku University Hospital. All patients had a scheduled follow-up at two to three months, and at one year. The results were evaluated using X-rays, Harris Hip Score (HHS), and evaluating post-operative complications and reasons for re-operations. During our follow-up the HHS median raised from its preoperative value of 59.8 to 86.4 two to three months after the operation, and to 93.9 one year after the operation. As a complication we had five infections requiring single open debridement (early infection) or a two stage revision. Seven patients had a periprosthetic femoral fracture that was operated and 11 patients were reoperated because of acetabular component malposition, fracture or early loosening. We did not observe any dislocations, n. ischiadicus damages, squeeking or complications related to high metal ion release (ALVAL-reactions (Aseptic Lymphocyte-dominated Vasculitis-Associated Lesion) or pseudotumours). The metal-on-metal bearing pair allows large femoral head size, which decreases the risk for dislocation. It may also decrease the risk for osteolysis and aseptic loosening in a long run. Early complication rate related to the bearing surface is minimal. Metal-on-metal prosthesis is a good choice for young and active patients with good bone quality.

  18. Monitoring the integrity of the cement-metal interface of total joint components in vitro using acoustic emission and ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Davies, J P; Tse, M K; Harris, W H

    1996-08-01

    Debonding of the cement-metal interface of cemented femoral components of total hip arthroplasty has been shown from clinical and autopsy material to be a common occurrence. Experimentally, debonding has been shown to increase markedly the strains in the adjacent cement mantle. Studies of autopsy-retrieved specimens demonstrate that debonding of the cement-metal interface is a key initiating event in loosening of cemented femoral components of total hip arthroplasty. However, both the radiographic and autopsy evidence of cement-metal interfacial debonding exist after the fact, that is, after debonding has occurred. The lack of prospective data showing that debonding does indeed occur under physiologic loading and occurs prior to other forms of failure of fixation leaves uncertain the issue of debonding and its role in initiating loosening of cemented femoral components. Knowing when, where, and to what extent the cement-metal interface debonds is critical information in understanding the process of loosening of cemented femoral components. Such information would contribute to improving the durability of stems and improving cementing techniques. In this study, the two nondestructive techniques of acoustic emission and ultrasonic evaluation of the cement-metal interface of cemented femoral stems of total hip arthroplasty were combined to investigate when, where, and to what extent cement-metal debonding occurred in vitro in simulated femurs loaded physiologically in fatigue in simulated single-leg stance. Debonding of the cement-metal interface of a cemented femoral component in this model was both an initiating event and a major mechanism of compromise of the cement-metal interface. Additional acoustic emission signals arose from cracks that developed in the cement.

  19. Metals plated on fluorocarbon polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ford, H.; Krasinsky, J. B.; Vango, S. P.

    1964-01-01

    Electroplating lead on fluorocarbon polymer parts is accomplished by etching the parts to be plated with sodium, followed by successive depositions of silver and lead from ultrasonically agitated plating solutions. Metals other than lead may be electroplated on the silvered parts.

  20. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    DOE PAGES

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; ...

    2011-08-29

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing δ. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-δ. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (δ=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (δ=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reducedmore » BaTiO3-δ is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.« less

  1. FORMING PROTECTIVE FILMS ON METAL

    DOEpatents

    Gurinsky, D.H.; Kammerer, O.F.; Sadofsky, J.; Weeks, J.R.

    1958-12-16

    Methods are described of inhibiting the corrosion of ferrous metal by contact with heavy liquid metals such as bismuth and gallium at temperatures above 500 icient laborato C generally by bringing nltrogen and either the metal zirconium, hafnium, or titanium into reactlve contact with the ferrous metal to form a thin adherent layer of the nitride of the metal and thereafter maintaining a fractional percentage of the metal absorbed in the heavy liquid metal in contact with the ferrous metal container. The general purpose for uslng such high boiling liquid metals in ferrous contalners would be as heat transfer agents in liquid-metal-fueled nuclear reactors.

  2. Intelligent Simultaneous Quantitative Online Analysis of Environmental Trace Heavy Metals with Total-Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Junjie; Wang, Yeyao; Yang, Qi; Liu, Yubing; Shi, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Total-reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) has achieved remarkable success with the advantages of simultaneous multi-element analysis capability, decreased background noise, no matrix effects, wide dynamic range, ease of operation, and potential of trace analysis. Simultaneous quantitative online analysis of trace heavy metals is urgently required by dynamic environmental monitoring and management, and TXRF has potential in this application domain. However, it calls for an online analysis scheme based on TXRF as well as a robust and rapid quantification method, which have not been well explored yet. Besides, spectral overlapping and background effects may lead to loss of accuracy or even faulty results during practical quantitative TXRF analysis. This paper proposes an intelligent, multi-element quantification method according to the established online TXRF analysis platform. In the intelligent quantification method, collected characteristic curves of all existing elements and a pre-estimated background curve in the whole spectrum scope are used to approximate the measured spectrum. A novel hybrid algorithm, PSO-RBFN-SA, is designed to solve the curve-fitting problem, with offline global optimization and fast online computing. Experimental results verify that simultaneous quantification of trace heavy metals, including Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Zn, is realized on the online TXRF analysis platform, and both high measurement precision and computational efficiency are obtained. PMID:25954949

  3. Evaluation of the fixation of the trabecular metal wedge in patients undergoing revision of total hip arthroplasty☆☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Callado, Victor Magalhães; de Sandes Kimura, Osamu; de Carvalho Leal, Diogo; Teixeira de Sousa Filho, Pedro Guilme; Cury Fernandes, Marco Bernardo; Carvalho de Almendra Freitas, Emílio Henrique

    2014-01-01

    Objective this study aimed to evaluate the fixation of the trabecular metal wedge in patients undergoing revision of total hip arthroplasty. Methods twenty-three cases with minimum grading of Paprosky II-B that were operated between July 2008 and February 2013 were evaluated. These cases were evaluated based on radiographs before the operation, immediately after the operation and later on after the operation. Loss of fixation was defined as a change in the abduction angle of the component greater than 10° or any mobilization greater than 6 mm. Results it was found that there was 100% fixation of the acetabula after a mean of 29.5 months. One case underwent removal of the implanted components due to infection. Conclusions there is still no consensus regarding the best option for reconstructing hips with bone loss. However, revision using a trabecular metal wedge has presented excellent short- and medium-term results. This qualifies it as an important tool for achieving a fixed and stable acetabular component. PMID:26229828

  4. Making A Noble-Metal-On-Metal-Oxide Catalyst

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Irvin M.; Davis, Patricia P.; Upchurch, Billy T.

    1989-01-01

    Catalyst exhibits superior performance in oxidation of CO in CO2 lasers. Two-step process developed for preparing platinum- or palladium-on-tin-oxide catalyst for recombination of CO and O2, decomposition products that occur in high-voltage discharge region of closed-cycle CO2 laser. Process also applicable to other noble-metal/metal-oxide combinations.

  5. Determination of the toxicity characteristic for metals in soil: A comparison of the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure and total metal determination

    SciTech Connect

    Bass, D.A.; Taylor, J.D.

    1994-12-01

    A comparison is made of the concentrations of metals extracted from soils using the Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and a total determination method. This information is of interest in two ways. First, it is hoped that a relationship might be established between the amount of each metal determined after extraction by the TCLP and the amount determined using a total determination method. And second, data are also presented which indicate the general extractability of various metals in soil samples using the TCLP. This study looks specifically at inorganic elements (Sb, As, Ba, Cd, Cu, Cr, Pb, Mg, Hg, Se, Ag, Sn, and Zn) in soils from a firing range. Results show that total determination methods for metals can not generally be used for heterogeneous samples, such as soil samples from a firing range. Some correlation between a total determination method and TCLP was observed when Ba and Cd were present in the samples at lower concentrations (less than 80 mg/kg for Ba and less than 25 mg/kg for Cd); however, additional data are necessary to verify this correlation.

  6. Atomic oxygen effects on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fromhold, Albert T.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of specimen geometry on the attack of metals by atomic oxygen is addressed. This is done by extending the coupled-currents approach in metal oxidation to spherical and cylindrical geometries. Kinetic laws are derived for the rates of oxidation of samples having these geometries. It is found that the burn-up time for spherical particles of a given diameter can be as much as a factor of 3 shorter than the time required to completely oxidize a planar sample of the same thickness.

  7. Metal-on-metal surface replacement: a triumph of hope over reason: opposes.

    PubMed

    Su, Edwin P; Su, Sherwin L

    2011-09-09

    Hip resurfacing has been performed for over a decade but still raises controversy as an alternative to traditional total hip arthroplasty (THA). Concerns exist about the potential complications of hip resurfacing, including femoral neck fracture and osteonecrosis of the femoral head. Recently, attention has been given to the metal-on-metal bearing of hip resurfacing with regard to production of metal ions, possible tissue necrosis, and rare instances of metal hypersensitivity. Given the success of the gold-standard THA, it is understandable why some surgeons believe metal-on-metal surface replacement to be "a triumph of hope over reason." However, this article opposes that viewpoint, demonstrating that data exist to justify the practice of preserving bone in younger patients. Hip resurfacing can maintain femoral bone without the expense of removing additional acetabular bone by using modern implants with incremental sizing. Furthermore, many of the problems cited with the bearing couple (such as excess metal production) have been due to poor implant designs, which have now been removed from the market. Finally, we now realize that the metal-on-metal articulation is more sensitive to malposition; thus, good surgical technique and experience can solve many of the problems that have been cited in the past. National registry results confirm that in a select population, hip resurfacing performs comparably to THA, while fulfilling the goal of bone preservation.

  8. Effect of total laryngectomy on esophageal motility

    SciTech Connect

    Hanks, J.B.; Fisher, S.R.; Meyers, W.C.; Christian, K.C.; Postlethwait, R.W.; Jones, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Total laryngectomy for cancer can result in dysphagia and altered esophageal motility. Manometric changes in the upper esophageal sphincter (UES), and in proximal and distal esophageal function have been reported. However, most studies have failed to take into account radiation therapy and appropriate controls. We selected ten male patients (54.3 +/- 1.9 yr) for longitudinal manometric evaluation prior to laryngectomy then at two weeks and again six months later. No patient received preoperative radiation therapy, had a previous history of esophageal surgery, or developed a postoperative wound infection or fistula. Seven of ten patients had positive nodes and received 6,000-6,600 rads postoperative radiation therapy. Preoperatively 4 of 10 patients complained of dysphagia which did not significantly change following surgery and radiation. Two of three patients who did not complain of dysphagia preoperatively and received radiation postoperatively developed dysphagia. No patient without dysphagia preoperatively who received no radiation therapy developed symptoms. Our studies show that laryngectomy causes alterations in the UES resting and peak pressures but not in the proximal or distal esophagus, or the lower esophageal sphincter. These data also imply radiation therapy may be associated with progressive alterations in motility and symptomatology. Further study regarding the effects of radiation on esophageal motility and function are urged.

  9. Influence of sulfhydryl sites on metal binding by bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nell, Ryan M.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2017-02-01

    The role of sulfhydryl sites within bacterial cell envelopes is still unknown, but the sites may control the fate and bioavailability of metals. Organic sulfhydryl compounds are important complexing ligands in aqueous systems and they can influence metal speciation in natural waters. Though representing only approximately 5-10% of the total available binding sites on bacterial surfaces, sulfhydryl sites exhibit high binding affinities for some metals. Due to the potential importance of bacterial sulfhydryl sites in natural systems, metal-bacterial sulfhydryl site binding constants must be determined in order to construct accurate models of the fate and distribution of metals in these systems. To date, only Cd-sulfhydryl binding has been quantified. In this study, the thermodynamic stabilities of Mn-, Co-, Ni-, Zn-, Sr- and Pb-sulfhydryl bacterial cell envelope complexes were determined for the bacterial species Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. Metal adsorption experiments were conducted as a function of both pH, ranging from 5.0 to 7.0, and metal loading, from 0.5 to 40.0 μmol/g (wet weight) bacteria, in batch experiments in order to determine if metal-sulfhydryl binding occurs. Initially, the data were used to calculate the value of the stability constants for the important metal-sulfhydryl bacterial complexes for each metal-loading condition studied, assuming a single binding reaction for the dominant metal-binding site type under the pH conditions of the experiments. For most of the metals that we studied, these calculated stability constant values increased significantly with decreasing metal loading, strongly suggesting that our initial assumption was not valid and that more than one type of binding occurs at the assumed binding site. We then modeled each dataset with two distinct site types with identical acidity constants: one site with a high metal-site stability constant value, which we take to represent metal-sulfhydryl binding and which dominates under low

  10. Treatment of large bone defects with trabecular metal cones in revision total knee arthroplasty: short term clinical and radiographic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Derome, Pascale; Sternheim, Amir; Backstein, David; Malo, Michel

    2014-01-01

    The early term results of 29 cases of revision total knee arthroplasty using highly porous trabecular metal cone implants for femoral and tibial major bone deficit reconstruction (Anderson Orthopedic Research Institute classification type 2B and 3) have been prospectively analyzed. Indications for revision surgery included: aseptic loosening/wear, staged reimplantation after infection, as well as periprosthetic fracture. At an average follow-up of 33 months (range, 13-73 months) the mean Knee Society Score and functional score statistically improved. Radiological follow-up revealed no evidence of loosening or migration of the constructs. No evidence of complications was noted in correlation with the use of trabecular metal cones. This study supports evidence that trabecular metal cones are an efficient and effective option for dealing with significant bone deficits and obtaining stable biological fixation in revision total knee arthroplasty.

  11. Total neutron scattering investigation of the structure of a cobalt gallium oxide spinel prepared by solvothermal oxidation of gallium metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Playford, Helen Y.; Hannon, Alex C.; Tucker, Matthew G.; Lees, Martin R.; Walton, Richard I.

    2013-11-01

    A new solvothermal synthesis route to mixed-metal gallium oxides with the spinel structure has been developed for ternary oxides of ideal composition Ga3-xMxO4-y (M=Co, Zn, Ni). The structure of the novel cobalt gallate produced in this manner, Ga1.767(8)Co0.973(8)O3.752(8), has been determined from total neutron scattering to be a partially defective spinel with mixed-valent cobalt (approximately 25% Co3+ and 75% Co2+) and with vacancies on approximately 6% of oxygen sites. Pair distribution function (PDF) analysis reveals significant local deviations from the average cubic structure, which are attributed to the conflicting coordination preferences of the Co2+ (potential Jahn-Teller distortion) and Ga3+ (Ga off-centring). Reverse Monte Carlo (RMC) modelling supports this conclusion since different metal-oxygen bond-distance distributions are found for the two cations in the refined configuration. An investigation of magnetic properties shows evidence of short-range magnetic order and spin-glass-like behaviour, consistent with the structural disorder of the material.

  12. Relationships among total recoverable and reactive metals and metalloid in St. Lawrence River sediment: bioaccumulation by chironomids and implications for ecological risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Desrosiers, Mélanie; Gagnon, Christian; Masson, Stéphane; Martel, Louis; Babut, Marc P

    2008-01-15

    The availability and bioaccumulation of metals and metalloids, and the geochemical interactions among them, are essential to developing an ecological risk assessment (ERA) framework and determining threshold concentrations for these elements. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationships among total recoverable and reactive metals and metalloid in sediment and their bioaccumulation by chironomids. In the fall of 2004 and 2005, 58 stations located in the three fluvial lakes of the St. Lawrence River and its largest harbour area in Montreal, Canada, were sampled. Nine total recoverable and reactive metals (Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) and one metalloid (As) were measured in whole sediment using two extraction methods: HCl/HNO(3) and HCl 1N, respectively. The bioaccumulation of six metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) and As by chironomids was evaluated in a subset of 22 stations. Strong collinearities were observed between some total recoverable or reactive metal concentrations in sediment; two principal clusters, including collinear metals, were obtained. The first one included metals of mainly geological origin (Al, Cr, Fe, Mn, Ni), while the second one included As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, which likely derive mainly from point sources of anthropogenic contamination. Each element also showed strong collinearity between their total recoverable and reactive forms (0.65< or =r < or =0.97). We can conclude that both chemical forms are equivalent for use in statistical models needed to explain biological responses and also in screening risk assessment. However, these relationships are not always proportional. Lower availability percentages were observed for Cd, Cu and Zn in the highly mixed-contaminated area of the Montreal Harbour, even though concentrations in sediment were higher. We observed a significant correlation (0.50< or =r < or =0.56) between concentrations in chironomids and concentrations of both total recoverable and reactive Cr and Pb in

  13. Total and available heavy metal concentrations in soils of the Thriassio plain (Greece) and assessment of soil pollution indexes.

    PubMed

    Massas, Ioannis; Kalivas, Dionisios; Ehaliotis, Constantions; Gasparatos, Dionisios

    2013-08-01

    The Thriassio plain is located 25 km west of Athens city, the capital of Greece. Two major towns (Elefsina and Aspropyrgos), heavy industry plants, medium to large-scale manufacturing, logistics plants, and agriculture comprise the main land uses of the studied area. The aim of the present study was to measure the total and available concentrations of Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe in the top soils of the plain, and to asses soil contamination by these metals by using the geoaccumulation index (I geo), the enrichment factor (EF), and the availability ratio (AR) as soil pollution indexes. Soil samples were collected from 90 sampling sites, and aqua regia and DTPA extractions were carried out to determine total and available metal forms, respectively. Median total Cr, Zn, Ni, Pb, Co, Mn, Ba, Cu, and Fe concentrations were 78, 155, 81, 112, 24, 321, 834, 38, and 16 × 10(3) mg kg(-1), respectively. The available fractions showed much lower values with medians of 0.4, 5.6, 1.7, 6.9, 0.8, 5.7, 19.8, 2.1, and 2.9 mg kg(-1). Though median total metal concentrations are not considered as particularly high, the I geo and the EF values indicate moderate to heavy soil enrichment. For certain metals such as Cr, Ni, Cu, and Ba, the different distribution patterns between the EFs and the ARs suggest different origin of the total and the available metal forms. The evaluation of the EF and AR data sets for the soils of the two towns further supports the argument that the EFs can well demonstrate the long-term history of soil pollution and that the ARs can adequately portray the recent history of soil pollution.

  14. Tests on Double Layer Metalization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, D. S.

    1983-01-01

    28 page report describes experiments in fabrication of integrated circuits with double-layer metalization. Double-layer metalization requires much less silicon "real estate" and allows more flexibility in placement of circuit elements than does single-layer metalization.

  15. Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclusters.

    PubMed

    Lucas, A A; Sunjic, M

    2012-03-14

    A model is constructed to describe inelastic scattering events accompanying electron capture by a highly charged ion flying by a metallic nanosphere. The electronic energy liberated by an electron leaving the Fermi level of the metal and dropping into a deep Rydberg state of the ion is used to increase the ion kinetic energy and, simultaneously, to excite multiple surface plasmons around the positively charged hole left behind on the metal sphere. This tsunami-like phenomenon manifests itself as periodic oscillations in the kinetic energy gain spectrum of the ion. The theory developed here extends our previous treatment (Lucas et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 013034) of the Ar(q+)/C(60) charge exchange system. We provide an analysis of how the individual multipolar surface plasmons of the metallic sphere contribute to the formation of the oscillatory gain spectrum. Gain spectra showing characteristic, tsunami-like oscillations are simulated for Ar(15+) ions capturing one electron in distant collisions with Al and Na nanoclusters.

  16. Plasmon tsunamis on metallic nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, A. A.; Sunjic, M.

    2012-03-01

    A model is constructed to describe inelastic scattering events accompanying electron capture by a highly charged ion flying by a metallic nanosphere. The electronic energy liberated by an electron leaving the Fermi level of the metal and dropping into a deep Rydberg state of the ion is used to increase the ion kinetic energy and, simultaneously, to excite multiple surface plasmons around the positively charged hole left behind on the metal sphere. This tsunami-like phenomenon manifests itself as periodic oscillations in the kinetic energy gain spectrum of the ion. The theory developed here extends our previous treatment (Lucas et al 2011 New J. Phys. 13 013034) of the Arq+/C60 charge exchange system. We provide an analysis of how the individual multipolar surface plasmons of the metallic sphere contribute to the formation of the oscillatory gain spectrum. Gain spectra showing characteristic, tsunami-like oscillations are simulated for Ar15+ ions capturing one electron in distant collisions with Al and Na nanoclusters.

  17. Enhancing degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons and uptake of heavy metals in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis by humic acids addition.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kijune; Kim, Ki Seob; Park, Soyoung

    2013-01-01

    The effects of humic acid (HA) on heavy-metal uptake by plants and degradation of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) in a wetland microcosm planted with Phragmites communis were evaluated by comparing waterlogged soils and water-drained upland soils. Experiments were conducted on soils artificially contaminated with heavy metals (Pb, Cu, Cd, Ni) and diesel fuel. HA showed a positive influence on biomass increase for all conditions, but more for belowground than aboveground biomass, and lower in contaminated than uncontaminated soil. The bioavailability and leachability factor (BLF) for all heavy metals except Ni increased with HA addition in both the control and the P. communis planted microcosms, suggesting that more heavy metals could be potentially phytoavailable for plant uptake. Microbial activities were not affected by both heavy metals and TPH contamination, and HA effects on stimulating microbial activities were much greater in the contaminated soil than under uncontaminated conditions. HA addition enhanced the degradation of TPH and n-alkane in waterlogged conditions. The results show that HA can increase the remedial performance in P. communis dominated wetlands simultaneously contaminated with heavy metals and petroleum hydrocarbons and thus prevent contamination of groundwater or other adjacent ecosystems.

  18. CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yifeng; Hoffman, Emily; Wimmer, Markus; Fischer, Alfons; Jacobs, Joshua; Marks, Laurence

    2013-01-21

    After the rapid growth in the use of CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements since the second generation was introduced circa 1990, metal-on-metal hip replacements have experienced a sharp decline in the last two years due to biocompatibility issues related to wear and corrosion products. Despite some excellent clinical results, the release of wear and corrosion debris and the adverse response of local tissues have been of great concern. There are many unknowns regarding how CoCrMo metal bearings interact with the human body. This perspective article is intended to outline some recent progresses in understanding wear and corrosion of metal-on-metal hip replacement both in vivo and in vitro. The materials, mechanical deformation, corrosion, wear-assisted corrosion, and wear products will be discussed. Possible adverse health effects caused by wear products will be briefly addressed, as well as some of the many open questions such as the detailed chemistry of corrosion, tribochemical reactions and the formation of graphitic layers. Nowadays we design almost routinely for high performance materials and lubricants for automobiles; humans are at least as important. It is worth remembering that a hip implant is often the difference between walking and leading a relatively normal life, and a wheelchair.

  19. CoCrMo Metal-on-Metal Hip Replacements

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yifeng; Hoffman, Emily; Wimmer, Markus; Fischer, Alfons; Jacobs, Joshua; Marks, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    After the rapid growth in the use of CoCrMo metal-on-metal hip replacements since the second generation was introduced circa 1990, metal-on-metal hip replacements have experienced a sharp decline in the last two years due to biocompatibility issues related to wear and corrosion products. Despite some excellent clinical results, the release of wear and corrosion debris and the adverse response of local tissues have been of great concern. There are many unknowns regarding how CoCrMo metal bearings interact with the human body. This perspective article is intended to outline some recent progresses in understanding wear and corrosion of metal-on-metal hip replacement both in-vivo and in-vitro. The materials, mechanical deformation, corrosion, wear-assisted corrosion, and wear products will be discussed. Possible adverse health effects caused by wear products will be briefly addressed, as well as some of the many open questions such as the detailed chemistry of corrosion, tribochemical reactions and the formation of graphitic layers. Nowadays we design almost routinely for high performance materials and lubricants for automobiles; humans are at least as important. It is worth remembering that a hip implant is often the difference between walking and leading a relatively normal life, and a wheelchair. PMID:23196425

  20. Metal ion concentrations and semen quality in patients undergoing hip arthroplasty: A prospective comparison between metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene implants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Szu-Yuan; Chang, Chih-Hsiang; Hu, Chih-Chien; Chen, Chun-Chieh; Chang, Yu-Han; Hsieh, Pang-Hsin

    2016-03-01

    The widespread usage of metal-on-metal (MoM) articulations in total hip arthroplasty (THA) has been tempered by concerns of increased metal ion production. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the influence of metal ion exposure on semen quality in young male patients undergoing THA. Male patients who were scheduled for unilateral THA and aged between 20 and 45 years were prospectively enrolled. Patients were sorted into MoM and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) groups with equal case number. Semen and blood metal ion levels were measured and sperm analysis was performed before, 6 months after, and 1 year after surgery. Compared to preoperative baseline, patients (n = 50) in both groups had increased cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) concentrations in blood and seminal fluid after surgery. Between-group comparisons at 6 months and 1 year after surgery showed that patients in the MoM group both had a greater Co concentration in blood and semen and a greater Cr concentration in blood and semen. Patients receiving MoM prosthesis had a reduced percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and decreases from the preoperative level (44.7%) were significant at 6 months (36.8%, p = 0.03) and 1 year (33.8%, p = 0.004). Our data shows a significantly greater concentration of metal ion in blood and semen in patients with MoM prosthesis with a reduced percentage of morphologically normal sperm. Despite small effects on sperm quality, some concerns remain. Further studies are necessary to determine sources of metal ion and to investigate effects on male fertility. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Tribo-electrochemical characterization of metallic biomaterials for total joint replacement.

    PubMed

    Diomidis, N; Mischler, S; More, N S; Roy, Manish

    2012-02-01

    Knee and hip joint replacement implants involve a sliding contact between the femoral component and the tibial or acetabular component immersed in body fluids, thus making the metallic parts susceptible to tribocorrosion. Micro-motions occur at points of fixation leading to debris and ion release by fretting corrosion. β-Titanium alloys are potential biomaterials for joint prostheses due to their biocompatibility and compatibility with the mechanical properties of bone. The biotribocorrosion behavior of Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr was studied in Hank's balanced salt solution at open circuit potential and at an applied potential in the passive region. Reciprocating sliding tribocorrosion tests were carried out against technical grade ultra high molecular weight polyethylene, while fretting corrosion tests were carried out against alumina. The wear of the alloy is insignificant when sliding against polyethylene. However, depassivation does take place, but the tested alloy showed an ability to recover its passive state during sliding. The abrasivity of the alloy depends on the electrochemical conditions of the contact, while the wear of polyethylene proceeds through third body formation and material transfer. Under fretting corrosion conditions recovery of the passive state was also achieved. In a fretting contact wear of the alloy proceeds through plastic deformation of the bulk material and wear resistance depends on the electrochemical conditions. Copyright © 2011 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Metal-on-metal hip arthroplasty in patients thirty years of age or younger.

    PubMed

    Girard, Julien; Bocquet, Donatien; Autissier, Guillaume; Fouilleron, Nicolas; Fron, Damien; Migaud, Henri

    2010-10-20

    Total hip arthroplasty in patients younger than thirty years of age represents a long-term challenge. As polyethylene wear secondary to a high activity level could be problematic, hard-on-hard bearings have been proposed to reduce wear. The aim of this retrospective case series was to assess the clinical and radiographic results of primary metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty in patients thirty years of age or younger. We retrospectively studied thirty-four patients (forty-seven hips) who had undergone metal-on-metal total hip arthroplasty and analyzed the radiographic and clinical measurements after a mean duration of follow-up of 108 months (range, 62.4 to 153.6 months). The mean age of the patients at the time of surgery was twenty-five years (range, fifteen to thirty years). The diameter of the head of the femoral component was 28 mm in all hips except five, in which it was 32 mm. The metal-on-metal bearing was the same in all patients. The mean Merle d'Aubigné score increased from 10.6 (range, 1 to 14) to 17.1 (range, 12 to 18). No wear was found on the latest radiograph, but osteolysis was noted in three femora and two acetabula. Two revisions were performed, one because of impingement secondary to cup malorientation and the other because of acetabular loosening with osteolysis. Kaplan-Meier analysis with revision of either component as the end point revealed a ten-year survival rate of 94.5% (95% confidence interval, 80% to 98.6%). The survival rate of the femoral stem was 100%. These encouraging intermediate-term results indicate that hip arthroplasty with metal-on-metal bearing components may be a suitable solution for young and active patients with hip osteoarthritis or osteonecrosis of the femoral head.

  3. Wear evaluation of cobalt-chromium alloy for use in a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    PubMed

    St John, Kenneth R; Zardiackas, Lyle D; Poggie, Robert A

    2004-01-15

    Wear of the polyethylene in total joint prostheses has been a source of morbidity and early device failure, which has been extensively reported in the last 20 years. Although research continues to attempt to reduce the wear of polyethylene joint-bearing surfaces by modifications in polymer processing, there is a renewed interest in the use of metal-on-metal bearing couples for hip prostheses. Wear testing of total hip replacement systems involving the couple of metal or ceramic heads on polymeric acetabular components has been performed and reported, but, until recently, there has been little data published for pin-on-disk or hip-simulator wear studies involving the combination of a metallic femoral head component with an acetabular cup composed of the same or a dissimilar metal. This study investigated the in vitro wear resistance of two cobalt/chromium/molybdenum alloys, which differed primarily in the carbon content, as potential alloys for use in a metal-on-metal hip-bearing couple. The results of pin-on-disk testing showed that the alloy with the higher (0.25%) carbon content was more wear resistant, and this alloy was therefore chosen for testing in a hip-simulator system, which modeled the loads and motions that might be exerted clinically. Comparison of the results of metal-on-polyethylene samples to metal-on-metal samples showed that the volumetric wear of the metal-on-polyethylene bearing couple after 5,000,000 cycles was 110-180 times that for the metal-bearing couple. Polyethylene and metal particles retrieved from either the lubricant for pin-on-disk testing or hip simulator testing were characterized and compared with particles retrieved from periprosthetic tissues by other researchers, and found to be similar. Based upon the results of this study, metal-on-metal hip prostheses manufactured from the high carbon cobalt/chromium alloy that was investigated hold sufficient promise to justify human clinical trials.

  4. Effect of multiple metal resistant bacteria from contaminated lake sediments on metal accumulation and plant growth.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Ramakrishna, Wusirika

    2011-05-15

    Naturally occurring bacteria play an important role in bioremediation of heavy metal pollutants in soil and wastewater. This study identified high levels of resistance to zinc, cesium, lead, arsenate and mercury in eight copper resistant Pseudomonas strains previously isolated from Torch Lake sediment. These strains showed variable susceptibility to different antibiotics. Furthermore, these metal resistant strains were capable of bioaccumulation of multiple metals and solubilization of copper. Bacterial strains TLC 3-3.5-1 and TLC 6-6.5-1 showed high bioaccumulation ability of Zn (up to 15.9 mg/g dry cell) and Pb (80.7 mg/g dry cell), respectively. All the strains produced plant growth promoting indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), iron chelating siderophore and solubilized mineral phosphate and metals. The effect of bacterial inoculation on plant growth and copper uptake by maize (Zea mays) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) was investigated using one of the isolates (Pseudomonas sp. TLC 6-6.5-4) with higher IAA production and phosphate and metal solubilization, which resulted in a significant increase in copper accumulation in maize and sunflower, and an increase in the total biomass of maize. The multiple metal-resistant bacterial isolates characterized in our study have potential applications for remediation of metal contaminated soils in combination with plants and metal contaminated water. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Radiobiological speculations on therapeutic total body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Vriesendorp, H.M. )

    1990-01-01

    Unexpected total body irradiation (TBI) of human beings, involved in nuclear warfare or in accidents in nuclear reactors can be lethal. In the 1950s, bone marrow transplantation was discovered as a potentially life saving procedure after TBI in the dose range of 5.0 to 12.0 Gy. Since that time, deliberate or therapeutic TBI has been used to condition patients with a lethal bone marrow disorder for bone marrow replacement. The therapeutic ratio of TBI followed by bone marrow transplantation is small. Many potentially lethal complications can occur, such as acute TBI side effects, late TBI side effects or immunological complications of bone marrow transplantation such as graft versus host disease or graft rejection. The benefits of TBI and bone marrow transplantation are that they offer a chance for cure of previously lethal bone marrow disorders. The optimal parameters for TBI remain to be defined. The review discusses the current clinical and experimental animal data, as they relate to the future definition of less toxic TBI procedures with a better therapeutic ratio. Different TBI procedures are required for patients with malignant vs. non-malignant disorders or for patients with histoincompatible vs. histocompatible bone marrow donors.77 references.

  6. Study on Metal/Metal oxide/Graphene Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ke; Feng, Ying; Khalid Zahir, Raja

    2013-03-01

    Metal/metal-oxide/graphene (Metal = Al, Ti, Hf, Zr) tunnel junctions were fabricated by transferring single-layer graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition on Cu onto metal strips by either a wet or dry approach. The metal strips were prepared by dc magnetron sputtering through a shadow mask and were exposed to air for about 10 minutes for native oxides to grow prior to the transfer. Good tunneling properties were observed for all the junctions fabricated by either means of graphene transfer. The zero-bias resistance of these junctions all increases with time to a final value, indicating continuing oxidation of the metals with a self-limited oxidation rate. Some junctions show the final area-normalized zero-bias resistances and self-limited oxidation time scales for Al, Ti, Hf, Zr are about 0.15, 0.2, 6000, 1000 k Ωcm2 and 25, 90, 6, 9 hour, respectively. The tunneling spectra were studied at various temperature down to 4.2 K and analyzed by the Brinkman-Dynes-Rowell model to get the height and width of the tunnel barriers, taking into account the electron structure of graphene. The junctions are good candidates for chemical sensing applications.

  7. Size Distribution and Estimated Respiratory Deposition of Total Chromium, Hexavalent Chromium, Manganese, and Nickel in Gas Metal Arc Welding Fume Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Cena, Lorenzo G.; Chisholm, William P.; Keane, Michael J.; Cumpston, Amy; Chen, Bean T.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the mass of total Cr, Cr(VI), Mn, and Ni in 15 size fractions for mild and stainless steel gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes. Samples were collected using a nano multi orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) with polyvinyl chloride filters on each stage. The filters were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were experimentally calculated and percent recoveries were measured from spiked metals in solution and dry, certified welding-fume reference material. The fraction of Cr(VI) in total Cr was estimated by calculating the ratio of Cr(VI) to total Cr mass for each particle size range. Expected, regional deposition of each metal was estimated according to respiratory-deposition models. The weight percent (standard deviation) of Mn in mild steel fumes was 9.2% (6.8%). For stainless steel fumes, the weight percentages were 8.4% (5.4%) for total Cr, 12.2% (6.5%) for Mn, 2.1% (1.5%) for Ni and 0.5% (0.4%) for Cr(VI). All metals presented a fraction between 0.04 and 0.6 μm. Total Cr and Ni presented an additional fraction <0.03 μm. On average 6% of the Cr was found in the Cr(VI) valence state. There was no statistical difference between the smallest and largest mean Cr(VI) to total Cr mass ratio (p-value D 0.19), hence our analysis does not show that particle size affects the contribution of Cr(VI) to total Cr. The predicted total respiratory deposition for the metal particles was ∼25%. The sites of principal deposition were the head airways (7–10%) and the alveolar region (11–14%). Estimated Cr(VI) deposition was highest in the alveolar region (14%). PMID:26848207

  8. Accumulation of total trace metals due to rapid urbanization in microtidal zone of Pallikaranai marsh, South of Chennai, India.

    PubMed

    Jayaprakash, M; Urban, B; Velmurugan, P M; Srinivasalu, S

    2010-11-01

    The article presents the results for enrichment of total trace metals (TTMs) from Pallikaranai salt marsh in South Chennai, a metropolis on the southeast coast of India. TTMs Fe, Mn, Cr, Cu, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Cd, Sr, V, and Hg along with sediment texture, OC, and CaCO3 were analyzed in 36 surface sediments collected during August 2008 to recognize and observe the input of TTMs in the marsh from various sources in the city limits. In view of the rapid urbanization and industrialization in Chennai City, especially on the southern side, uncontrolled input of sewage, garbage, and industrial effluents into the Pallikaranai marsh land, the elevated concentrations are not surprising. The level of enrichment of TTMs has also increased by 20% to 60% for most of the elements when compared with all other ecosystems in the world as well as the nearby area. The results also indicate that the marshy region is more heavily contaminated with Cd, Hg, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn than other regions on the southeast coast of India. The Enrichment Factor, Contamination Factor, and I (geo) indexes are calculated, and these values are useful to assess the degree of pollution in sediments. The spatial distributions of TTMs are also controlled by other factors like geochemical, precipitation, and flocculation of particulate substances in the marsh. The results of the present study suggest the need for a regular monitoring and management program which will help to improve the quality of Pallikaranai pristine marsh land.

  9. Effects of micronutrients on metal toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Peraza, M A; Ayala-Fierro, F; Barber, D S; Casarez, E; Rael, L T

    1998-01-01

    There is growing evidence that micronutrient intake has a significant effect on the toxicity and carcinogenesis caused by various chemicals. This paper examines the effect of micronutrient status on the toxicity of four nonessential metals: cadmium, lead, mercury, and arsenic. Unfortunately, few studies have directly examined the effect of dietary deficiency or supplementation on metal toxicity. More commonly, the effect of dietary alteration must be deduced from the results of mechanistic studies. We have chosen to separate the effect of micronutrients on toxic metals into three classes: interaction between essential micronutrients and toxic metals during uptake, binding, and excretion; influence of micronutrients on the metabolism of toxic metals; and effect of micronutrients on secondary toxic effects of metals. Based on data from mechanistic studies, the ability of micronutrients to modulate the toxicity of metals is indisputable. Micronutrients interact with toxic metals at several points in the body: absorption and excretion of toxic metals; transport of metals in the body; binding to target proteins; metabolism and sequestration of toxic metals; and finally, in secondary mechanisms of toxicity such as oxidative stress. Therefore, people eating a diet deficient in micronutrients will be predisposed to toxicity from nonessential metals. PMID:9539014

  10. [Survey on the use and behaviour of metal-metal hip replacements in Spain].

    PubMed

    Calcerrada, N; Fernández-Vega, A; Valls-León, C; Garcia-Cimbrelo, E

    2016-01-01

    Following medical device alerts published in different countries of problems with metal-on-metal total hip replacements, the Spanish Agency of Medicines and Medical Devices (AEMPS) in collaboration with the Spanish Hip Society Surgery designed a national survey to gather information on the use and behaviour of these hip implants. The survey consisted of a questionnaire sent by e-mail to 283 clinical centre recipients of metal-on-metal hips to be filled in by surgeons with expertise in the field. A total of 257 questionnaires were completed. The response rate of the clinical centres was 36.7%. A total of 97.7% of the responses reported that clinical and radiological follow-ups are carried out, and 79.6% undertook metal ion analyses (chromium and cobalt). A large majority (83.6%) of the responders who had who used surface implants, and 70% of those with large-head implants reported peri-operative complications. The most common complication was pain (25% with surface implants and 30.8% with large-head implants). Currently 80.8% of those responding were considering abandoning implanting of these hip replacements. Despite the many limitations to this study, the survey has allowed us to obtain in a quick first view of the implant scenario of Metal on Metal hip implants in Spain, and to determine the type of patient implanted, the time of implantation, and the experience/expertise of the surgeons, and the type of follow-up carried out. Copyright © 2015 SECOT. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of metal-on-metal wear on the host immune system and infection in hip arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose Joint replacement with metal-on-metal (MOM) bearings have gained popularity in the last decades in young and active patients. However, the possible effects of MOM wear debris and its corrosion products are still the subject of debate. Alongside the potential disadvantages such as toxicity, the influences of metal particles and metal ions on infection risk are unclear. Methods We reviewed the available literature on the influence of degradation products of MOM bearings in total hip arthroplasties on infection risk. Results Wear products were found to influence the risk of infection by hampering the immune system, by inhibiting or accelerating bacterial growth, and by a possible antibiotic resistance and heavy metal co-selection mechanism. Interpretation Whether or not the combined effects of MOM wear products make MOM bearings less or more prone to infection requires investigation in the near future. PMID:20860450

  12. A Finite-Element Study of Metal Backing and Tibial Resection Depth in a Composite Tibia Following Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Susumu; Rogge, Renee D; Small, Scott R; Berend, Michael E; Ritter, Merrill A

    2016-04-01

    Prosthetic alignment, patient characteristics, and implant design are all factors in long-term survival of total knee arthroplasty (TKA), yet the level at which each of these factors contribute to implant loosening has not been fully described. Prior clinical and biomechanical studies have indicated tibial overload as a cause of early TKA revision. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between tibial component design and bone resection on tibial loading. Finite-element analysis (FEA) was performed after simulated implantation of metal backed (MB) and all-polyethylene (AP) TKA components in 5 and 15 mm of tibial resection into a validated intact tibia model. Proximal tibial strains significantly increased between 13% and 199% when implanted with AP components (p < 0.05). Strain significantly increased between 12% and 209% in the posterior tibial compartment with increased bone resection (p < 0.05). This study indicates elevated strains in AP implanted tibias across the entirety of the proximal tibial cortex, as well as a posterior shift in tibial loading in instances of increased resection depth. These results are consistent with trends observed in prior biomechanical studies and may associate the documented device history of tibial collapse in AP components with increased bone strain and overload beneath the prosthesis.

  13. Analysis of mixed lubrication mechanism in metal-on-metal hip joint replacements.

    PubMed

    Jin, Z M

    2002-01-01

    A simple mixed lubrication model has been developed to predict the asperity contact and wear for the metal-on-metal bearing couple for total hip joint replacements. It has been shown that the femoral head radius has a large effect on the predicted asperity contact and wear depending on the lubrication regime. An increase in the femoral head radius can lead to an increase in wear under a predominantly boundary lubrication regime, but this trend can be reversed under a mixed lubrication regime towards fluid film lubrication. These observations are consistent with the recent experimental findings from hip simulator studies by Smith and co-workers.

  14. Calculation of the total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Bray, I. ); Stelbovics, A.T. )

    1994-04-01

    The total and total ionization cross sections for positron scattering on atomic hydrogen are calculated by applying the convergent-close-coupling method to the model where positronium-formation channels are omitted. This model accurately describes the physics of the scattering whenever the positronium formation cross section is negligible, in particular, above 100 eV for this system. The total ionization cross section results in this energy region are in excellent agreement with the recent measurements of Jones [ital et] [ital al]. [J. Phys. B 26, L483 (1993)], and so lie below the earlier measurements of Spicher [Phys. Rev. Lett. 64, 1019 (1990)], and the recent calculations of Acacia [ital et] [ital al]. [Phys. Rev. Lett. (to be published)]. The total cross section is in very good agreement with the recent measurements of Zhou [ital et] [ital al]. (unpublished) down to 30 eV.

  15. Seasonal distribution and contamination levels of total PHCs, PAHs and heavy metals in coastal waters of the Alang-Sosiya ship scrapping yard, Gulf of Cambay, India.

    PubMed

    Srinivasa Reddy, M; Basha, Shaik; Joshi, H V; Ramachandraiah, G

    2005-12-01

    Alang-Sosiya situated on the Gulf of Cambay is one of the largest ship breaking yard in the world. The seasonal distribution and contamination levels of dissolved and/or dispersed total petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs), total polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals in seawater during high tide are investigated. The concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals are higher in the winter than in the monsoon and summer. The concentrations of total PHCs and PAHs are about three times higher in the winter and two times in the monsoon or summer at Along-Sosiya and about twice in all seasons at two stations one on either side 5 km away from it as compared to the reference station at Mahuva, 60 km away towards the south. Further, the levels of PHCs are correlated with salinity and compared with those of other regions. The concentration of all metals is the highest in the winter season followed by the monsoon and summer. We carried out the quantitative analysis of the possible relationships among 13 variables such as Al, Fe, Pb, Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Cr, Co, pH, NO3-, NO2 and PO4(3-).

  16. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids after implantation of hip replacements with metal-on-metal bearing--systematic review of clinical and epidemiological studies.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed "time out" for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Patients with implanted Mo

  17. Structured surfaces on metal optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinkopf, Ralf; Hartung, Johannes; Kinast, Jan; Gebhardt, Andreas; Risse, Stefan; Eberhardt, Ramona

    2015-09-01

    Diamond machining of metal optics is a flexible way to manufacture structured elements on different surface geometries. Especially curved substrates such as spheres, aspheres, or freeforms in combination with structured elements enable innovative products like headlights of automobiles or spectrometers in life science or space applications. Using diamond turning, servo turning, milling, and shaping, different technologies for arbitrary geometries are available. The addressed wavelengths are typically in the near- infrared (NIR) and infrared (IR) spectral range. Applying additional finishing processes, diamond machining is also used for optics applicable down to the EUV spectral range. This wide range of applications is represented in the used materials, too. However, one important material group for diamond machining is metal substrates. For diamond machining of structured surfaces, it is important to consider the microstructure of the utilized materials thoroughly. Especially amorphous materials as nickel-phosphorus alloys or fine-grained copper allow the fine structuring of refractive and diffractive structures. The paper analyzes the influence variables for diamond machining of structured surfaces and shows the use of this research for applications in the spectral range from IR to EUV.

  18. Permeation impact on metallization degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peike, C.; Hoffmann, S.; Hülsmann, P.; Weiß, K.-A.; Koehl, M.; Bentz, P.

    2012-10-01

    The degradation of the inorganic components in a PV module is, besides polymer degradation, one of the most important aspects of PV module aging. Especially the corrosion of the cell metallization may lead to significant decreases in PV module performance. But in which way the metallization corrosion is affected by the permeation of atmospheric gases is not understood, yet. In order to investigate this permeation impact, laminates with a systematic variation of back-sheet and encapsulation materials as well as different laminate set-ups were made. Two different kinds of encapsulation (EVA and PVB) and four different back-sheet materials (TAPT, PA and two different TPT foils) were used. Standard cells with a two and three bus bar set-up were used. The laminates were subjected to damp-heat aging tests with a relative humidity of 80% at 80°C and 90°C, respectively. The degradation was investigated by means of electroluminescence imaging, Raman spectroscopy and microscopy. Special attention was paid to the spatial distribution of corrosion effects on the cell. Furthermore, the occurrence of a typical damp-heat induced damage, apparent as a shaded area in the electroluminescence images, should be investigated. A corrosion of the grid and the ribbons could be observed. EDX measurements revealed the grid corrosion to go along with the formation of needles of lead compounds from the silver paste.

  19. Cemented all-polyethylene and metal-backed polyethylene tibial components used for primary total knee arthroplasty: a systematic review of the literature and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials involving 1798 primary total knee implants.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Jeffrey; Mosier, Michael

    2011-10-05

    The cost of the implant as part of a total knee arthroplasty accounts for a substantial portion of the costs for the overall procedure: all-polyethylene tibial components cost considerably less than cemented metal-backed tibial components. We performed a systematic review of the literature to determine whether the clinical results of lower-cost all-polyethylene tibial components were comparable with the results of a more expensive metal-backed tibial component. We searched The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, EBSCO CINAHL, the bibliographies of identified articles, orthopaedic meeting abstracts, health technology assessment web sites, and important orthopaedic journals. This search was performed for the years 1990 to the present. No language restriction was applied. We restricted our search to Level-I studies involving participants who received either an all-polyethylene or a metal-backed tibial implant. The primary outcome measures were durability, function, and adverse events. Two reviewers independently screened the papers for inclusion, assessed trial quality, and extracted data. Effects estimates were pooled with use of fixed and random-effects models of risk ratios, calculated with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity was assessed with the I2 statistic. Forest plots were also generated. Data on 1798 primary total knee implants from twelve studies were analyzed. In all studies, the median or mean age of the participants was greater than sixty-seven years, with a majority of the patients being female. There was no difference between patients managed with an all-polyethylene tibial component and those managed with a metal-backed tibial component in terms of adverse events. There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of the durability of the implants at two, ten, and fifteen years postoperatively, regardless of the year or how durability was defined (revision or radiographic failure). Finally, with use of a variety of validated

  20. Gene expression influences on metal immunomodulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lynes, Michael A.; Fontenot, Andrew P.; Lawrence, David A.; Rosenspire, Allen J.; Pollard, K. Michael

    2006-01-15

    Heavy metals in the environment originate from both human activities and natural processes. Exposure to these metals can result in important changes to immune activity. Depending on the metal and dose, these changes can result in enhanced immune function, diminished immune responses, or altered responses that produce autoimmune disease. One of the intriguing aspects of these various phenomena are the multiple points of interaction with cellular machinery at which metals elicit these changes. The individual sections of this review serve to underscore the variety of targets that can be altered by exposure to heavy metals, and provide some comparisons between the effects of specific heavy metals on the immune system. These observations may ultimately lead us to a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms by which metals alter the immune system, and may enable the development of countermeasures to offset these effects.

  1. High blood metal ion levels in 19 of 22 patients with metal-on-metal hinge knee replacements

    PubMed Central

    Laitinen, Minna; Nieminen, Jyrki; Reito, Aleksi; Pakarinen, Toni-Karri; Suomalainen, Piia; Pamilo, Konsta; Parkkinen, Jyrki; Lont, Tonis; Eskelinen, Antti

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose There has been increasing alarm regarding metal-on-metal (MoM) joint replacements leading to elevated levels of metal ions and adverse reactions to metal debris (ARMDs). There is little information available concerning the prevalence of and risk factors for these adverse reactions, except with MoM hip joint replacements. We determined the levels of metal ions in blood and the rate of revision due to ARMDs in patients treated with MoM hinge total knee arthroplasty (TKA). Patients and methods 22 patients with TKAs and MoM hinge connecting mechanisms were studied for whole-blood chromium and cobalt levels at 6 months, 1 year, and/or ≥2 years after surgery. Possible ARMDs were investigated by MRI. 12 patients with TKAs and metal-on-polyethylene (MoP) connecting mechanisms served as controls. Results The cobalt levels were over 5 ppb in 19 of the 22 patients in the MoM group and in 1 of the 12 patients in the MoP group. The chromium levels were over 5 ppb in 11 of the 22 patients in the MoM group and in none of the 12 patients in the MoP group. Pseudotumors were operated in 4 of the 22 patients in the MoM group and in none of the patients in the MoP group. Interpretation Our results clearly show that the MoM hinge TKA carries a high risk of increased levels of systemic metal ions and also local ARMD, leading to complicated knee revisions. We therefore discourage the use of MoM hinge TKA. PMID:28122467

  2. Breast milk metal ion levels in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Raymond; de Waal Malefijt, Jan; Gosens, Taco

    2013-01-01

    Metal-on-metal resurfacing arthroplasty of the hip has been used increasingly over the last 10 years in younger active patients. The dissolution of the metal wear particles results in measurable increases in cobalt and chromium ions in the serum and urine of patients with a metal-on-metal bearing. We measured the cobalt, chromium, and molybdenum ion levels in urine; serum; and breast milk in a young and active patient with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis after a pathologic fracture of the femoral neck. Metal-on-metal hip prosthesis leads to increasing levels of molybdenum in breast milk in the short-term follow-up. There are no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt ions in breast milk. Besides the already known elevated concentrations in serum of chromium and cobalt after implantation of a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, we found no increasing levels of chromium and cobalt in urine.

  3. Total Quality Management (TQM): Training Module on "Focus on Processes."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, David

    This module for a 1-semester Total Quality Management (TQM) course for high school or community college students contains a brief overview of the definition of processes, a section on process flow diagrams, and a section on process management as well as a description of process variation. Examples are used throughout the module to make processes…

  4. Similar Wear in Total Hip Arthroplasties with Metallic or Zirconia Femoral Heads

    PubMed Central

    Cohn, Randy M.; González Della Valle, Alejandro; Peterson, Margaret

    2008-01-01

    Ceramic femoral heads have been used in an attempt at reducing polyethylene wear of total hip arthroplasties. Clinical results with zirconia femoral heads have been mixed. This study was undertaken to compare the polyethylene wear and incidence of periprosthetic osteolysis in total hip replacements performed using a 28-mm zirconia versus a 28-mm cobalt chromium femoral head. Thirty-five hips with a 28-mm cobalt chromium head and 68 hips with a 28-mm zirconia head were evaluated after a minimum follow-up of 2 years (average, 4.0 years; range, 2.0 to 9.1 years). A monoblock acetabular component was used in all patients. Polyethylene wear was measured in serial radiographs from 58 of the hips utilizing a computer-assisted vector wear technique. Periacetabular osteolysis developed in three patients (two with a zirconia head and one with a cobalt chromium head). The total wear and the annual wear rate were 0.48 mm and 0.11 mm/year for the cobalt chromium heads and 0.53 mm and 0.14 mm/year for the zirconia heads, respectively. We found no benefit with respect to the rate of polyethylene wear or incidence of osteolysis with the use of zirconia femoral heads. PMID:18815852

  5. Selective Metallization Induced by Laser Activation: Fabricating Metallized Patterns on Polymer via Metal Oxide Composite.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jihai; Zhou, Tao; Wen, Liang

    2017-02-28

    Recently, metallization on polymer substrates has been given more attention due to its outstanding properties of both plastics and metals. In this study, the metal oxide composite of copper-chromium oxide (CuO·Cr2O3) was incorporated into the polymer matrix to design a good laser direct structuring (LDS) material, and the well-defined copper pattern (thickness =10 μm) was successfully fabricated through selective metallization based on 1064 nm near-infrared pulsed laser activation and electroless copper plating. We also prepared polymer composites incorporated with CuO and Cr2O3; however, these two polymer composites both had very poor capacity of selective metallization, which has no practical value for LDS technology. In our work, the key reasons causing the above results were systematically studied and elucidated using XPS, UV-vis-IR, optical microscopy, SEM, contact angle, ATR FTIR, and so on. The results showed that 54.0% Cu(2+) in the polymer composite of CuO·Cr2O3 (the amount =5 wt %) is reduced to Cu(0) (elemental copper) after laser activation (irradiation); however, this value is only 26.8% for the polymer composite of CuO (the amount =5 wt %). It was confirmed that to achieve a successful selective metallization after laser activation, not only was the new formed Cu(0) (the catalytic seeds) the crucial factor, but the number of generated Cu(0) catalytic seeds was also important. These two factors codetermined the final results of the selective metallization. The CuO·Cr2O3 is very suitable for applications of fabricating metallic patterns (e.g., metal decoration, circuit) on the inherent pure black or bright black polymer materials via LDS technology, which has a prospect of large-scale industrial applications.

  6. Tunable color filters based on metal-insulator-metal resonators.

    PubMed

    Diest, Kenneth; Dionne, Jennifer A; Spain, Merrielle; Atwater, Harry A

    2009-07-01

    We report a method for filtering white light into individual colors using metal-insulator-metal resonators. The resonators are designed to support photonic modes at visible frequencies, and dispersion relations are developed for realistic experimental configurations. Experimental results indicate that passive Ag/Si(3)N(4)/Au resonators exhibit color filtering across the entire visible spectrum. Full field electromagnetic simulations were performed on active resonators for which the resonator length was varied from 1-3 microm and the output slit depth was systematically varied throughout the thickness of the dielectric layer. These resonators are shown to filter colors based on interference between the optical modes within the dielectric layer. By careful design of the output coupling, the resonator can selectively couple to intensity maxima of different photonic modes and, as a result, preferentially select any of the primary colors. We also illustrate how refractive index modulation in metal-insulator-metal resonators can yield actively tunable color filters. Simulations using lithium niobate as the dielectric layer and the top and bottom Ag layers as electrodes, indicate that the output color can be tuned over the visible spectrum with an applied field.

  7. Changes in total concentrations and assessed background concentrations of heavy metals in moss in Lithuania and the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005.

    PubMed

    Sakalys, J; Kvietkus, K; Sucharová, J; Suchara, I; Valiulis, D

    2009-06-01

    Data on concentrations of heavy metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, V and Zn) in moss collected on the lightly industrialized territory of Lithuania and on the highly industrialized territory of the Czech Republic in 1995, 2000 and 2005 is used to separate the background and anthropogenic contributions to heavy metal concentrations in moss. The distribution of the concentration logarithms allowed us to determine a background mode, and to estimate the background concentration of heavy metals from this mode. The method was then applied for an estimation of the contribution of local sources to the total pollution level in both countries. The average concentrations and the background modes of heavy metals in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic were very similar, except in the case of vanadium, where the background concentration was higher in Lithuania than in the Czech Republic. For most elements, the background concentration in moss had a decreasing tendency in Lithuania and in the Czech Republic between 1995 and 2005, though the concentration of Cu and Hg increased in Lithuania. The variability of chromium concentration in moss differed from the remaining investigated elements in the Czech Republic, and it was expressed as a bimodal lognormal distribution. This variability may be due to simultaneous contamination of moss by chromium from soil and from industrial sources of pollution.

  8. Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals.

    PubMed

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Calà Lesina, Antonino; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Poitras, Daniel; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2017-07-18

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and aluminium. We demonstrate the process on silver coins weighing up to 5 kg and bearing large topographic variations (∼1.5 cm). We find that colours are related to a single parameter, the total accumulated fluence, making the process suitable for high-throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of laser-irradiated surfaces reveal various nanoparticle size distributions. Large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations based on these nanoparticle distributions reproduce trends seen in reflectance measurements, and demonstrate the key role of plasmonic resonances in colour formation.

  9. Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals

    PubMed Central

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Calà Lesina, Antonino; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Poitras, Daniel; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2017-01-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and aluminium. We demonstrate the process on silver coins weighing up to 5 kg and bearing large topographic variations (∼1.5 cm). We find that colours are related to a single parameter, the total accumulated fluence, making the process suitable for high-throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of laser-irradiated surfaces reveal various nanoparticle size distributions. Large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations based on these nanoparticle distributions reproduce trends seen in reflectance measurements, and demonstrate the key role of plasmonic resonances in colour formation. PMID:28719576

  10. Laser-induced plasmonic colours on metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guay, Jean-Michel; Calà Lesina, Antonino; Côté, Guillaume; Charron, Martin; Poitras, Daniel; Ramunno, Lora; Berini, Pierre; Weck, Arnaud

    2017-07-01

    Plasmonic resonances in metallic nanoparticles have been used since antiquity to colour glasses. The use of metal nanostructures for surface colourization has attracted considerable interest following recent developments in plasmonics. However, current top-down colourization methods are not ideally suited to large-scale industrial applications. Here we use a bottom-up approach where picosecond laser pulses can produce a full palette of non-iridescent colours on silver, gold, copper and aluminium. We demonstrate the process on silver coins weighing up to 5 kg and bearing large topographic variations (~1.5 cm). We find that colours are related to a single parameter, the total accumulated fluence, making the process suitable for high-throughput industrial applications. Statistical image analyses of laser-irradiated surfaces reveal various nanoparticle size distributions. Large-scale finite-difference time-domain computations based on these nanoparticle distributions reproduce trends seen in reflectance measurements, and demonstrate the key role of plasmonic resonances in colour formation.

  11. Microseparation, fluid pressure and flow in failures of metal-on-metal hip resurfacing arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    Wroblewski, B. M.; Siney, P. D.; Fleming, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing was introduced into clinical practice because it was perceived to be a better alternative to conventional total hip replacement for young and active patients. However, an increasing number of reports of complications have arisen focusing on design and orientation of the components, the generation of metallic wear particles and serum levels of metallic ions. The procedure introduced a combination of two elements: large-dimension components and hard abrasive particles of metal wear. The objective of our study was to investigate the theory that microseparation of the articular surfaces draws in a high volume of bursal fluid and its contents into the articulation, and at relocation under load would generate high pressures of fluid ejection, resulting in an abrasive water jet. Methods This theoretical concept using MoM resurfacing components (head diameter 55 mm) was modelled mathematically and confirmed experimentally using a material-testing machine that pushed the head into the cup at a rate of 1000 mm/min until fully engaged. Results The mathematical model showed the pattern but not the force of fluid ejection, the highest pressures were expected when the separation of the components was only a fraction of one millimetre. The experimental work confirmed the results; with the mean peak ejection pressure of 43 763 N/m2 equivalent to 306 mmHg or 5 psi. Conclusions The mechanical effect of the high-pressure abrasive water jet is the likely cause of the spectrum of complications reported with metal-on-metal resurfacing. Investigating serum levels of metallic elements may not be the best method for assessing the local mechanical effects of the abrasive water jet. PMID:23610667

  12. Total irregular labeling of butterfly network on level two

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin

    2017-08-01

    Previous results related to the concepts of the total irregular labeling of a graph indicate that the butterfly network was one of some graphs which have not been specified in term of the total irregularity strengths. This paper aimed to determine the total vertex irregularity strength, the total edge irregularity strength, and the total irregularity strength of butterfly network on level 2. The assessment of three parameters of butterfly network was conducted by determining the lower bound and the upper bound. The lower bound was analyzed based on the characteristics of the graph and other proponent theorems, while upper bound was analyzed by constructing a function. In this paper we determine that the total vertex irregularity strength, the total edge irregularity strength, and the total irregularity strength of butterfly network are 4, 6, and 6, respectively.

  13. Optimal design of resonant enhanced quantum dot infrared photodetector based on metal-insulator-metal microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Han; Jing, Youliang; Li, Mengyao; Li, Liang; Zhen, Honglou

    2015-11-01

    The design of quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP) based on metal-insulator-metal (MIM) microcavity in which the quantum dot (QD) is sandwiched between a planar metallic film and a metallic stripe is reported. By a finite difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the light coupling efficiency spectra and enhancement factor are numerically calculated. The results exhibit that the total electric field concentrated in metal-metal region is strongly enhanced when the resonant frequency of microcavity is equal to the QD's peak response frequency. This enhancement effect mainly originates from the resonant coupling of incident photons into microcavity forming the surface plasmonic mode. The optimization of structural parameters for MIM microcavity is discussed, demonstrating an optimal structure of quantum dot infrared photodetector with the coupling efficiency improved nearly 7 times compared with conventional mesa QDIPs. So, it is deduced that a favorable performance of device such as high quantum efficiency and infrared responsivity is possible. Finally, the detector shows the potential application in the infrared sensing and imaging, as well as integrating with other electronic and optoelectronic device for the sub-wavelength size.

  14. The effect of solid metal composition on solid metal/ liquid metal partitioning of trace elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rai, N.; van Westrenen, W.

    2010-12-01

    Fundamental understanding of the partitioning behaviour of elements between different core and/or mantle phases is needed to constrain processes of planetary differentiation and evolution. The partitioning behaviour of elements between solid metal and liquid metal in the Fe-S system, of relevance to core crystallisation in planetesimals and the terrestrial planets, has been investigated by several workers [1-6], most of whom [1-5] conclude that variations in partition coefficients can be explained by variations in melt composition. However, recently Stewart et al. [6] showed that the crystal-lattice strain model commonly used to describe silicate mineral - silicate melt partitioning can be applied to partially molten metallic systems. This suggests the structure of the solid metal also plays a role in determining solid metal / molten metal partitioning. Here, we investigate the effect of the structure of the solid metal in the Fe-S system on solid/liquid metal partitioning by obtaining new element partitioning data at pressures between 0.5 and 3 GPa. The effect of the solid metal is isolated from pressure-temperature-melt composition effects by performing experiments at constant P and T with two Fe-S bulk compositions on either side of the eutectic composition. In addition to the effect of solid metal composition we investigate the effects of pressure and S content on trace element partitioning behaviour and the application of the lattice strain model to our results. Starting mixtures were doped with several hundred ppm levels of trace elements Ni, Co, W, Mo, V, Nb, Ta, Sn, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr, Mn, P, Ge,. Experiments were performed using a QUICKPress piston cylinder apparatus at the VU University, Amsterdam using alumina capsules. Experiments were heated to 1073 K at pressure and allowed to sinter for a duration of 10 hours before the temperature was raised at a rate of 50 K / min to the target value. Preliminary EPMA data for a 1 GPa experiment with FeS as the solid

  15. Perovskite-type metal oxides exhibiting negligible grain boundary resistance to total electrical conductivity.

    PubMed

    Pannu, Tania; Pannu, Kanwar Gulsher Singh; Thangadurai, Venkataraman

    2011-01-17

    In this paper, we report the synthesis, structure and electrical properties of the perovskite-type AZn0.33+xNb0.67-xO3-δ (A = Sr or Ba; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.08). The investigated compounds were prepared by employing the solid-state (ceramic) reaction using alkaline nitrates, zinc oxide, and niobium oxide at elevated temperatures in air. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) showed the formation of disordered Zn and Nb at the B-sites of space group Pm3̅m with cubic structure and a lattice constant comparable to that of the literature. The AC impedance study showed mainly bulk contribution to the total electrical conductivity over the investigated frequency range of 0.01 Hz to 1 MHz in all the investigated atmospheres even at low temperatures, which is significantly different from that of the well-known perovskite-type B-site ordered BaCa0.33+xNb0.67-xO3-δ and the disordered acceptor-doped BaCeO3. The bulk dielectric constant determined at 500 and 700 °C in air was found to be in the range of 35-100. In air, the isothermal bulk dielectric constant seems to increase with an increasing Zn content, and a similar trend was observed for total electrical conductivity. In dry and wet H2, the electrical conductivity decreases with an increasing Zn content in AZn0.33+xNb0.67-xO3-δ, and the x = 0 member of the Ba compound exhibits the highest total conductivity of 7.2 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) in dry H2 at 800 °C. Both Sr and Ba compounds were found to be stable against the reaction with pure CO2 at 700 °C and H2O at 100 °C for a long period of time. SrZn0.33+xNb0.67-xO3-δ was found to be stable in 30 ppm H2S at 800 °C, while the corresponding Ba compound formed reaction products such as BaS (JCPDS Card 01-0757), BaS2 (JCPDS Card 21-0087), and BaS3 (JCPDS Card 03-0824).

  16. Winter-time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter and associated metals in Delhi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Arun; Gupta, Sandeep; Jain, V. K.

    2009-03-01

    A study of the winter time size distribution and source apportionment of total suspended particulate matter (TSPM) and associated heavy metal concentrations have been carried out for the city of Delhi. This study is important from the point of view of implementation of compressed natural gas (CNG) as alternate of diesel fuel in the public transport system in 2001 to reduce the pollution level. TSPM were collected using a five-stage cascade impactor at six sites in the winters of 2005-06. The results of size distribution indicate that a major portion (~ 40%) of TSPM concentration is in the form of PM0.7 (< 0.7 μm). Similar trends were observed with most of the heavy metals associated with various size fractions of TSPM. A very good correlation between coarse and fine size fraction of TSPM was observed. It was also observed that the metals associated with coarse particles have more chances of correlation with other metals; rather they are associated with fine particles. Source apportionment was carried out separately in coarse and fine size modes of TSPM by Chemical Mass Balance Receptor Model (CMB8) as well as by Principle Component Analysis (PCA) of SPSS. Source apportionment by PCA reveals that there are two major sources (possibly vehicular and crustal re-suspension) in both coarse and fine size fractions. Results obtained by CMB8 show the dominance of vehicular pollutants and crustal dust in fine and coarse size mode respectively. Noticeably the dominance of vehicular pollutants are now confined to fine size only whilst during pre CNG era it dominated both coarse and fine size mode. An increase of 42.5, 44.4, 48.2, 38.6 and 38.9% in the concentrations of TSPM, PM10.9, coarse particles, fine particles and lead respectively was observed during pre (2001) to post CNG (2005-06) period.

  17. Bioaccumulation of trace metals and total petroleum and genotoxicity responses in an edible fish population as indicators of marine pollution.

    PubMed

    D'Costa, Avelyno; Shyama, S K; Praveen Kumar, M K

    2017-08-01

    The present study reports the genetic damage and the concentrations of trace metals and total petroleum hydrocarbons prevailing in natural populations of an edible fish, Arius arius in different seasons along the coast of Goa, India as an indicator of the pollution status of coastal water. Fish were collected from a suspected polluted site and a reference site in the pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon seasons. Physico-chemical parameters as well as the concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and trace metals in the water and sediment as well as the tissues of fish collected from these sites were recorded. The genotoxicity status of the fish was assessed employing the micronucleus test and comet assay. A positive correlation (p<0.001) was observed between the tail DNA and micronuclei in all the fish collected. Multiple regression analysis revealed that tissue and environmental pollutant concentrations and genotoxicity were positively associated and higher in the tissues of the fish collected from the polluted site. Pollution indicators and genotoxicity tests, combined with other physiological or biochemical parameters represent an essential integrated approach for efficient monitoring of aquatic ecosystems in Goa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO ORGANIC, TOTAL INORGANIC, AND METAL OXIDE FRACTIONS IN BIOSOLIDS AND BIOSOLID-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact and potential hazards of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain from biosolids application on soils has been studied for decades. The early hypothesis known as "Time Bomb" has been questioned by recent research results which tend ...

  19. ADSORPTION OF CADMIUM ONTO ORGANIC, TOTAL INORGANIC, AND METAL OXIDE FRACTIONS IN BIOSOLIDS AND BIOSOLID-AMENDED SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The environmental impact and potential hazards of metals in biosolids to plants, animals and the human food chain from biosolids application on soils has been studied for decades. The early hypothesis known as "Time Bomb" has been questioned by recent research results which tend ...

  20. Time series models for prediction the total and dissolved heavy metals concentration in road runoff and soil solution of roadside embankments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aljoumani, Basem; Kluge, Björn; sanchez, Josep; Wessolek, Gerd

    2017-04-01

    Highways and main roads are potential sources of contamination for the surrounding environment. High traffic rates result in elevated heavy metal concentrations in road runoff, soil and water seepage, which has attracted much attention in the recent past. Prediction of heavy metals transfer near the roadside into deeper soil layers are very important to prevent the groundwater pollution. This study was carried out on data of a number of lysimeters which were installed along the A115 highway (Germany) with a mean daily traffic of 90.000 vehicles per day. Three polyethylene (PE) lysimeters were installed at the A115 highway. They have the following dimensions: length 150 cm, width 100 cm, height 60 cm. The lysimeters were filled with different soil materials, which were recently used for embankment construction in Germany. With the obtained data, we will develop a time series analysis model to predict total and dissolved metal concentration in road runoff and in soil solution of the roadside embankments. The time series consisted of monthly measurements of heavy metals and was transformed to a stationary situation. Subsequently, the transformed data will be used to conduct analyses in the time domain in order to obtain the parameters of a seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model. Four phase approaches for identifying and fitting ARIMA models will be used: identification, parameter estimation, diagnostic checking, and forecasting. An automatic selection criterion, such as the Akaike information criterion, will use to enhance this flexible approach to model building

  1. Metal biosorption capability of Cupriavidus taiwanensis and its effects on heavy metal removal by nodulated Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Ming; Wu, Chih-Hui; James, Euan K; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2008-03-01

    A novel metal biosorption system consisting of the symbiotic combination of an indigenous metal-resistant rhizobial strain, Cupriavidus taiwanensis TJ208, and its host plant Mimosa pudica has been developed for the removal of heavy-metal pollutants. Free-living C. taiwanensis TJ208 cells were able to adsorb 50.1, 19.0, and 19.6 mg/g of Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. After nodulation via inoculation with strain TJ208, the metal uptake ability of M. pudica markedly increased, as the nodulated M. pudica displayed a high metal uptake capacity (qmax) of 485, 25, and 43 mg/g, respectively, which is 86, 12, and 70% higher than that of nodule-free plants. Moreover, with TJ208 nodules, the M. pudica plant also displayed a 71, 81, and 33% enhancement in metal adsorption efficiency (eta) for Pb, Cu, and Cd, respectively. The nodulation appeared to give the greatest enhancing effect on the uptake of Pb, which is consistent with the preference of metal adsorption ability of TJ208. This seems to indicate the crucial role that the rhizobial strain may play in stimulating metal uptake of the nodulated plant. Furthermore, the results show that metal accumulation in the nodulated plant mainly occurred in the roots, accounting for 65-95% of total metal uptake. In contrast, the nodules and the shoots only contributed to 3-12 and 2-23% of total metal uptake, respectively. Nevertheless, the specific adsorption capacity of nodules is comparable to that of the roots. Hence, this work demonstrates the feasibility and effectiveness of using the nodulated plants to promote phyto-removal of heavy metals from the polluted environment as well as to restrict the metal contaminants in the unharmful region of the plant.

  2. Metallic Nanostructures Based on DNA Nanoshapes.

    PubMed

    Shen, Boxuan; Tapio, Kosti; Linko, Veikko; Kostiainen, Mauri A; Toppari, Jari Jussi

    2016-08-10

    Metallic nanostructures have inspired extensive research over several decades, particularly within the field of nanoelectronics and increasingly in plasmonics. Due to the limitations of conventional lithography methods, the development of bottom-up fabricated metallic nanostructures has become more and more in demand. The remarkable development of DNA-based nanostructures has provided many successful methods and realizations for these needs, such as chemical DNA metallization via seeding or ionization, as well as DNA-guided lithography and casting of metallic nanoparticles by DNA molds. These methods offer high resolution, versatility and throughput and could enable the fabrication of arbitrarily-shaped structures with a 10-nm feature size, thus bringing novel applications into view. In this review, we cover the evolution of DNA-based metallic nanostructures, starting from the metallized double-stranded DNA for electronics and progress to sophisticated plasmonic structures based on DNA origami objects.

  3. Metallic Nanostructures Based on DNA Nanoshapes

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Boxuan; Tapio, Kosti; Linko, Veikko; Kostiainen, Mauri A.; Toppari, Jari Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Metallic nanostructures have inspired extensive research over several decades, particularly within the field of nanoelectronics and increasingly in plasmonics. Due to the limitations of conventional lithography methods, the development of bottom-up fabricated metallic nanostructures has become more and more in demand. The remarkable development of DNA-based nanostructures has provided many successful methods and realizations for these needs, such as chemical DNA metallization via seeding or ionization, as well as DNA-guided lithography and casting of metallic nanoparticles by DNA molds. These methods offer high resolution, versatility and throughput and could enable the fabrication of arbitrarily-shaped structures with a 10-nm feature size, thus bringing novel applications into view. In this review, we cover the evolution of DNA-based metallic nanostructures, starting from the metallized double-stranded DNA for electronics and progress to sophisticated plasmonic structures based on DNA origami objects. PMID:28335274

  4. Photodegradation of chlorofluorocarbon alternatives on metal oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, K.; Hisanaga, T. )

    1994-05-01

    HCFC and HFC were photodegraded on metal oxides. Degradation rate on several metal oxides was in the order: TiO[sub 2] > ZnO > Fe[sub 2]O[sub 3] > kaolin [ge] SiO[sub 2] [ge] Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]. Principal degradation products were CO[sub 2], Cl[sup [minus

  5. Use of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) for the evaluation of heavy metal poisoning due to the improper use of a traditional ayurvedic drug.

    PubMed

    Borgese, L; Zacco, A; Bontempi, E; Pellegatta, M; Vigna, L; Patrini, L; Riboldi, L; Rubino, F M; Depero, L E

    2010-09-05

    An Indian patient referred to Clinica del Lavoro 'L.Devoto' of Milano showed clinical signs of heavy metal poisoning, possibly related to a sustained 6-month use of approx. 3 g/day of a traditional preparation (a whitish powder with a 'mineral' appearance) to treat urological problems. To confirm the causal relationship between the disease and the use of such product, metal testing was performed on the patient's hair and the ayurvedic remedy samples by total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF). For TXRF analysis 1-cm cut of the patient's hair was directly deposited onto the quartz glass sample carrier, then 10 microl of nitric acid 65% were added and dried in air. TXRF showed high versatility, rapid and simultaneous element detection, and short analysis time, thus supporting a wider use in emergency medicine and in forensic analyses. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Surface Attack on Metals in the Presence of Liquid Metals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-04-10

    Lo *stics Age y. DITiUTION STATEMENT A 4 C. St r fene TecN al forma on C iter b Cmeon tatzooe on7500 17. UPPLEMAR NOTES * D ~III 1473EENAR NOESINO O... metalI . is to be controlled, and this problem is covered more fully in the section on diffusion characteristics of alloy combinations. Reaction models on...antimony and arsenic are stable additions but bismuth 40 removal is rapid by an evaporation mechanism. Anti - mony provides a stronger creep resistant

  7. Effects of magnetic soil on metal detectors: preliminary experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Y.

    2007-04-01

    In a series of previous papers, analytical results dealing with the effects of soil electromagnetic properties on the performance of induction metal detectors were reported. In this paper experimental data are provided to verify some previously reported results. The time-domain response of a magnetic soil half-space and a small metallic sphere situated in air as well as buried in the soil were measured using a purpose-designed system based on a modified Schiebel AN19/2 metal detector. As in the previous work, the sphere is chosen as a simple prototype for the small metal parts in low-metal landmines. The soil used was Cambodian "laterite" with dispersive magnetic susceptibility, which serves as a good model for soils that are known to adversely affect the performance of metal detectors. The metal object used was a sphere of diameter 0.0254 m made of 6061-T6 aluminum. Experimental data are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Data also show that for the weakly magnetic soil used in the experiments, the total response of the buried sphere is the sum of the response of the soil and that of the sphere placed in air. This finding should simplify the prediction or measurement of response of buried targets as one can separately measure/compute the response of an object in air and that of the host media and simply add the two. This simplification may not be possible for soils that are more strongly magnetic.

  8. The metal to metal interface and its effect on adhesion and friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The nature of the interface, adhesion and friction properties of noble metals, platinum metals, Group IV (B) metals and transition metals were considered. The surface chemical activity of the noble and platinum metals is shown to effect metal to metal interfaces as does a valance bonding in the transition metals. With the Group IV (B) metals the degree of metallic nature of the elements is shown to effect interfacial behavior. The effect of surface segregation of alloy constituents such as silicon in iron and its influence on the metal to metal interface is discussed. In addition the effect of alloy constituents on changes in bulk properties such as transformations in tin are shown to effect interfacial adhesion and friction behavior.

  9. Sequelae of large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties

    PubMed Central

    van Lingen, Christiaan P.; Zagra, Luigi M.; Ettema, Harmen B.; Verheyen, Cees C.

    2016-01-01

    Large-head metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings were re-popularised in the late 1990s with the introduction of modern hip resurfacing (HR), followed closely by large metal head total hip arthroplasty (THA). A worldwide increase in the use of MoM hip arthroplasty subsequently saw a sharp decline, due to serious complications. MoM was rapidly adopted in the early 2000s until medical device alerts were issued by government regulatory agencies and national and international organisations, leading to post-marketing surveillance and discontinuation of these implants. Guidelines for MoM hip implant follow-up differ considerably between regulatory authorities worldwide; this can in part be attributed to missing or conflicting evidence. The authors consider that the use of large-head MoM THA should be discontinued. MoM HR should be approached with caution and, when considered, should be used only in patients who meet all of the recommended selection criteria, which limits its indications considerably. The phased introduction of new prostheses should be mandatory in future. Close monitoring of outcomes and long-term follow-up is also necessary for the introduction of new prostheses. Cite this article: van Lingen CP, Zagra LM, Ettema HB, Verheyen CC. Sequelae of large-head metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties: current status and future prospects. EFORT Open Rev 2016;1:345-353. DOI: 10.1302/2058-5241.1.160014. PMID:28461912

  10. Effect of head size on wear properties of metal-on-metal bearings of hip prostheses, and comparison with wear properties of metal-on-polyethylene bearings using hip simulator.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, Yoshimitsu

    2014-03-01

    The effects of articular head size on the wear losses of the metal insert and articular head for a metal-on-metal bearing were examined using a hip simulator manufactured to satisfy ISO 14242-1. The wear properties of metal-on-metal and metal-on-polyethylene bearings were also compared under the same conditions. The total wear losses of the metal insert and articular head decreased with increasing diameter of the metal insert in the range from 28 to 44mm. The total wear loss was greater for a diameter of 48mm than for a diameter of 44mm. When the articular metal insert diameter was smaller than 44mm, the wear loss was reduced because the contact surface pressure increased with increasing metal insert diameter. However, the increase in wear loss observed for the 48-mm-diameter insert might have been due to the considerable increase in the rotation moment with increasing insert diameter. The tendency of decreasing contact pressure calculated using the Hertzian contact stress equation nearly conformed to the change in wear loss. On the other hand, the wear loss of an artificial hip joint consisting of a cross-linked ultrahigh-molecular-weight polyethylene insert (UHMWPE) and a Co-Cr-Mo articular head was small.

  11. On the metallicity of open clusters. III. Homogenised sample

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Netopil, M.; Paunzen, E.; Heiter, U.; Soubiran, C.

    2016-01-01

    Context. Open clusters are known as excellent tools for various topics in Galactic research. For example, they allow accurately tracing the chemical structure of the Galactic disc. However, the metallicity is known only for a rather low percentage of the open cluster population, and these values are based on a variety of methods and data. Therefore, a large and homogeneous sample is highly desirable. Aims: In the third part of our series we compile a large sample of homogenised open cluster metallicities using a wide variety of different sources. These data and a sample of Cepheids are used to investigate the radial metallicity gradient, age effects, and to test current models. Methods: We used photometric and spectroscopic data to derive cluster metallicities. The different sources were checked and tested for possible offsets and correlations. Results: In total, metallicities for 172 open cluster were derived. We used the spectroscopic data of 100 objects for a study of the radial metallicity distribution and the age-metallicity relation. We found a possible increase of metallicity with age, which, if confirmed, would provide observational evidence for radial migration. Although a statistical significance is given, more studies are certainly needed to exclude selection effects, for example. The comparison of open clusters and Cepheids with recent Galactic models agrees well in general. However, the models do not reproduce the flat gradient of the open clusters in the outer disc. Thus, the effect of radial migration is either underestimated in the models, or an additional mechanism is at work. Conclusions: Apart from the Cepheids, open clusters are the best tracers for metallicity over large Galactocentric distances in the Milky Way. For a sound statistical analysis, a sufficiently large and homogeneous sample of cluster metallicities is needed. Our compilation is currently by far the largest and provides the basis for several basic studies such as the statistical

  12. Management of tibial bone defects with metal augmentation in primary total knee replacement: a minimum five-year review.

    PubMed

    Lee, J K; Choi, C H

    2011-11-01

    Bone defects are occasionally encountered during primary total knee replacement (TKR) and cause difficulty in establishing a stable well-aligned bone-implant interface. Between March 1999 and November 2005, 59 knees in 43 patients underwent primary TKR with a metal block augmentation for tibial bone deficiency. In all, six patients (eight knees) died less than four years post-operatively, and four patients (five knees) were lost to follow-up leaving 46 knees in 33 patients available for review at a mean of 78.6 months (62 to 129). The clinical results obtained, including range of movement, American Knee Society and Oxford knee scores, and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities osteoarthritis index, were good to excellent, with no failures. Radiolucent lines at the block-cement-bone interface were noted in five knees (11%) during the first post-operative year, but these did not progress. Modular rectangular metal augmentation for tibial bone deficiency is a useful option. No deterioration of the block-prosthesis or block-cement-bone interface was seen at minimum of five years follow-up.

  13. Causes of failure of ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal hip arthroplasties.

    PubMed

    Porat, Manny; Parvizi, Javad; Sharkey, Peter F; Berend, Keith R; Lombardi, Adolph V; Barrack, Robert L

    2012-02-01

    Few large series of hard bearing surfaces have reported on reasons for early failure. A number of unique mechanisms of failure, including fracture, squeaking, and adverse tissue reactions, have been reported with these hard bearing surfaces. However, the incidence varies among the published studies. To confirm the incidences, we identified the etiologies of early failures of hard-on-hard bearing surfaces for ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal THAs. We retrospectively reviewed records of 2907 THAs with hard-on-hard bearing surfaces implanted between 1996 and 2009; 1697 (58%) had ceramic-on-ceramic and 1210 (42%) had metal-on-metal bearing surfaces. We recorded bearing-related complications and compared them to nonspecific reasons for revision THA. The minimum followup of the ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal cohorts was 6 months (mean, 48 months; range, 6-97 months) and 24 months (mean, 60 months; range, 24-178 months), respectively. The overall revision rate for ceramic-on-ceramic THA was 2.2% (38 of 1697), with aseptic loosening accounting for 55% of revisions (femur or acetabulum). The bearing accounted for 13% of the revisions in the ceramic-on-ceramic THA cohort. The overall metal-on-metal revision rate was 5.4% (65 of 1210), 17 involving adverse tissue reactions related to the metal-on-metal bearing surface (17 of 1210, 1.4% of cases; 17 of 65, 26% of revisions). Twenty-six percent of the revisions from metal-on-metal and 13% of ceramic-on ceramic were bearing related. The overall short- to medium-term revision rate was 2.2% and 5.4% for ceramic-on-ceramic and metal-on-metal, respectively. The most common etiology of failure was loosening of the femoral or acetabular components. Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of level of evidence.

  14. Formation of molten metal films during metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liou, Nai-Shang; Okada, Makoto; Prakash, Vikas

    2004-09-01

    The present paper describes results of plate-impact pressure-shear friction experiments conducted to study time-resolved growth of molten metal films during dry metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. By employing tribo-pairs comprising hard tool-steel against relatively low melt-point metals such as 7075-T6 aluminum alloys, interfacial friction stress ranging from 100 to 400 MPa and slip speeds of approximately 100 m/ s have been generated. These relatively high levels of friction stress combined with high slip-speeds generate conditions conducive for interfacial temperatures to approach the melting point of the lower melt point metal (Al alloy) comprising the tribo-pair. A Lagrangian finite element code is developed to understand the evolution of the thermo-mechanical fields and their relationship to the observed slip response. The code accounts for dynamic effects, heat conduction, contact with friction, and full thermo-mechanical coupling. At temperatures below the melting point the material is described as an isotropic thermally softening elastic-viscoplastic solid. For material elements with temperatures in excess of the melt point a purely Newtonian fluid constitutive model is employed. The results of the hybrid experimental-computational study provides new insights into the thermoelastic-plastic interactions during high speed metal-on-metal slip under extreme interfacial conditions. During the early part of frictional slip the coefficient of kinetic friction is observed to decrease with increasing slip velocity. During the later part transition in interfacial slip occurs from dry metal-on-metal sliding to the formation of molten Al films at the tribo-pair interface. Under these conditions the interfacial resistance approaches the shear strength of the molten aluminum alloy under normal pressures of approximately 1- 3 GPa and shear strain rates of ˜10 7 s-1. The results of the study indicate that under these extreme conditions molten

  15. Renal clearance of cobalt in relation to the use of metal-on-metal bearings in hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Joseph; Ziaee, Hena; Pradhan, Chandra; Pynsent, Paul B; McMinn, Derek J W

    2010-04-01

    was a progressive increase in the rate at which the kidneys cleared the plasma of cobalt. In subjects with no prosthetic device, the kidneys tend to conserve cobalt in the body. We found that, in patients with a metal-on-metal hip prosthesis, there is a progressive increase in cobalt clearance with increasing in vivo wear at the levels of cobalt release expected in patients with an array of metal-on-metal-bearing total joint arthroplasties. We found no threshold beyond which renal capacity to excrete these ions is overwhelmed.

  16. A synopsis on metals in medicine and psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Yung, C Y

    1984-01-01

    A total of 40 metals are reviewed and summarized to give a general perspective on the metal's two major effects, relevant to medicine and psychiatry in man. These two effects are metal excess (poisoning) and deficiency. These metals are grouped arbitrarily into six categories; (a) The heavy metals, (b) the essential and questionable essential trace elements, (c) the macrominerals, (d) the alkali metals, (e) elements used as therapeutic agents, and (f) miscellaneous elements. The heavy metals are invariably toxic and could be lethal, and no deficiency state has yet been described in man, although arsenic has been postulated to be essential. The essential trace elements are vital to a number of vital physiological and biochemical functions, and newer essential trace elements are to be identified in the future. The recent findings suggest vanadium excess may aggravate the affective symptoms in bipolar affective disorder; selenium may inhibit certain carcinogenesis such as oesophageal cancer; and silicon may inhibit atheromatous formation in the aorta. There is also some suggestion that certain allergic syndromes may be correlated with very low levels of iron, copper, manganese. The study of elements will undoubtedly expand the understanding of disease processes in medicine and psychiatry.

  17. Predicting density functional theory total energies and enthalpies of formation of metal-nonmetal compounds by linear regression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deml, Ann M.; O'Hayre, Ryan; Wolverton, Chris; Stevanović, Vladan

    2016-02-01

    The availability of quantitatively accurate total energies (Etot) of atoms, molecules, and solids, enabled by the development of density functional theory (DFT), has transformed solid state physics, quantum chemistry, and materials science by allowing direct calculations of measureable quantities, such as enthalpies of formation (Δ Hf ). Still, the ability to compute Etot and Δ Hf values does not, necessarily, provide insights into the physical mechanisms behind their magnitudes or chemical trends. Here, we examine a large set of calculated Etot and Δ Hf values obtained from the DFT+U -based fitted elemental-phase reference energies (FERE) approach [V. Stevanović, S. Lany, X. Zhang, and A. Zunger, Phys. Rev. B 85, 115104 (2012), 10.1103/PhysRevB.85.115104] to probe relationships between the Etot/Δ Hf of metal-nonmetal compounds in their ground-state crystal structures and properties describing the compound compositions and their elemental constituents. From a stepwise linear regression, we develop a linear model for Etot, and consequently Δ Hf , that reproduces calculated FERE values with a mean absolute error of ˜80 meV/atom. The most significant contributions to the model include calculated total energies of the constituent elements in their reference phases (e.g., metallic iron or gas phase O2), atomic ionization energies and electron affinities, Pauling electronegativity differences, and atomic electric polarizabilities. These contributions are discussed in the context of their connection to the underlying physics. We also demonstrate that our Etot/Δ Hf model can be directly extended to predict the Etot and Δ Hf of compounds outside the set used to develop the model.

  18. Trace level voltammetric determination of heavy metals and total mercury in tea matrices (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Melucci, Dora; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio

    2013-12-01

    An analytical procedure regarding the voltammetric determination of mercury(II), copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in matrices involved in food chain is proposed. In particular, tea leaves were analyzed as real samples. The digestion of each matrix was carried out using a concentrated HCl-HNO3-H2SO4 acidic attack mixture; 0.01 mol L(-1) EDTA-Na2+ 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl + 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl was employed as the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using a conventional three electrode cell, employing, as working electrodes, a gold electrode (GE) and a stationary hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The analytical procedure has been verified on the standard reference materials Spinach Leaves NIST-SRM 1570a, Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a and Apple Leaves NIST-SRM 1515. For all the elements, the precision as repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr) was of the order of 3-5%, while the trueness, expressed as relative error (e) was of the order of 3-7%. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was applied to commercial tea leaves samples. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed.

  19. TRACE LEVEL VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF HEAVY METALS AND TOTAL MERCURY IN TEA MATRICES (Camellia sinensis).

    PubMed

    Melucci, Dora; Locatelli, Marcello; Locatelli, Clinio

    2013-10-24

    An analytical procedure regarding the voltammetric determination of mercury(II), copper(II), lead(II), cadmium(II) and zinc(II) by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry (SWASV) in matrices involved in food chain is proposed. In particular, tea leaves were analysed as real samples. The digestion of each matrix was carried out using a concentrated HCl-HNO3-H2SO4 acidic attack mixture; 0.01 mol L(-1) EDTA-Na2 + 0.15 mol L(-1) NaCl + 0.5 mol L(-1) HCl was employed as the supporting electrolyte. The voltammetric measurements were carried out using a conventional three electrode cell, employing, as working electrodes, a gold electrode (GE) and a stationary hanging mercury drop electrode (HMDE). The analytical procedure has been verified on the standard reference materials Spinach Leaves NIST-SRM 1570a, Tomato Leaves NIST-SRM 1573a and Apple Leaves NIST-SRM 1515. For all the elements, the precision as repeatability, expressed as relative standard deviation (sr) was of the order of 3-5 %, while the trueness, expressed as relative error (e) was of the order of 3-7 %. Once set up on the standard reference materials, the analytical procedure was applied to commercial tea leaves samples. A critical comparison with spectroscopic measurements is also discussed.

  20. Effects of hydrogen on metals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, C. E.

    1969-01-01

    Several rules to guide choice of materials, and methods of welding, electroplating, and heat treatment will provide a method for minimizing failures in storage tanks and related hardware. Failures are caused by high-pressure hydrogen effects, the formation of hydrides in titanium, and hydrogen absorption through various metals processing techniques.

  1. Three metal-on-metal hip replacement devices from the same manufacturer--a short- to mid-term survival.

    PubMed

    Kostensalo, Inari; Junnila, Mika; Mokka, Jari; Virolainen, Petri; Vahlberg, Tero; Mäkelä, Keijo T

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate short- to mid-term results of three different metal-on-metal hip devices from the same manufacturer. A total of 329 hip operations were performed in a single academic unit between 2004 and 2010 using either Birmingham hip resurfacing or Synergy--Birmingham and Synergy--R3 total hip arthroplasty. The overall survival rate at the end of the follow-up time for Birmingham hip resurfacing was 88%, for Synergy--Birmingham total hip arthroplasty 95%, and for Synergy--R3 total hip arthroplasty 81% (p = 0.036). Five revision operations were performed due to adverse reaction to metal debris. Head sizes > 50 mm had lower revision rates compared to smaller ones. Synergy--R3 had a poor survival already at short-term. The mid-term survival of Birmingham hip resurfacing arthroplasty was inferior compared to previous studies.

  2. A trabecular metal tibial component in total knee replacement in patients younger than 60 years: a two-year radiostereophotogrammetric analysis.

    PubMed

    Henricson, A; Linder, L; Nilsson, K G

    2008-12-01

    We compared the performance of uncemented trabecular metal tibial components in total knee replacement with that of cemented tibial components in patients younger than 60 years over two years using radiostereophotogrammetric analysis (RSA). A total of 22 consecutive patients (mean age 53 years, 33 to 59, 26 knees) received an uncemented NexGen trabecular metal cruciate-retaining monobloc tibial component and 19 (mean 53 years, 44 to 59, 21 knees) a cemented NexGen Option cruciate-retaining modular tibial component. All the trabecular metal components migrated during the initial three months and then stabilised. The exception was external rotation, which did not stabilise until 12 months. Unlike conventional metal-backed implants which displayed a tilting migration comprising subsidence and lift-off from the tibial tray, most of the trabecular metal components showed subsidence only, probably due to the elasticity of the implant. This pattern of subsidence is regarded as being beneficial for uncemented fixation.

  3. Total synthesis of buckminsterfullerene (C60) and endohedral metal complexes. Final report, 1 March 1994-28 February 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, Y.F.

    1997-08-11

    A summary of our work aimed at the synthesis of a variety of endohedral metal complexes of fullerenes is presented. The completion of the synthesis of suitable highly unsaturated macrocyclic precursors containing 60 carbon atoms is described. These compounds were required to study their rearrangement to a fullerene framework in a process analogous to the gas-phase rearrangement of mono- and polycyclic polyynes (acetylenic rings) in the formation of C60 and higher fullerenes. Three types of synthetic acetylenic precursors were targeted, namely triply-linked bis-benzene-cyclophanes with octayne linking units, sextuply-linked bis-benzene-cyclophanes with tetrayne linkers, and deca-alkynylated metallocenes which include a metal in their structure early in the synthesis. The rearrangement to C60 of the first examples of these compounds has been studied in the gas phase by LDMS and in solution by various chemical reactions. Another aspect of our work was initiated by the successful opening of the largest orifice on the framework of C60 known to date in the form of a cobalt(III) complex of ethenobisfulleroid C64H4. This strategy is being applied in a double fashion on adjacent sites of the surface of C60 to form an even larger opening, aimed at eventual metal insertion inside the cage.

  4. Studies on metal-dielectric plasmonic structures.

    SciTech Connect

    Chettiar, Uday K.; Liu, Zhengtong; Thoreson, Mark D.; Shalaev, Vladimir M.; Drachev, Vladimir P.; Pack, Michael Vern; Kildishev, Alexander V.; Nyga, Piotr

    2010-01-01

    The interaction of light with nanostructured metal leads to a number of fascinating phenomena, including plasmon oscillations that can be harnessed for a variety of cutting-edge applications. Plasmon oscillation modes are the collective oscillation of free electrons in metals under incident light. Previously, surface plasmon modes have been used for communication, sensing, nonlinear optics and novel physics studies. In this report, we describe the scientific research completed on metal-dielectric plasmonic films accomplished during a multi-year Purdue Excellence in Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship sponsored by Sandia National Laboratories. A variety of plasmonic structures, from random 2D metal-dielectric films to 3D composite metal-dielectric films, have been studied in this research for applications such as surface-enhanced Raman sensing, tunable superlenses with resolutions beyond the diffraction limit, enhanced molecular absorption, infrared obscurants, and other real-world applications.

  5. Chemical state analysis of trace-level alkali metals sorbed in micaceous oxide by total reflection X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baba, Y.; Shimoyama, I.; Hirao, N.

    2016-10-01

    In order to determine the chemical states of radioactive cesium (137Cs or 134Cs) sorbed in clay minerals, chemical states of cesium as well as the other alkali metals (sodium and rubidium) sorbed in micaceous oxides have been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Since the number of atoms in radioactive cesium is extremely small, we specially focused on chemical states of trace-level alkali metals. For this purpose, we have measured XPS under X-ray total reflection (TR) condition. For cesium, it was shown that ultra-trace amount of cesium down to about 100 pg cm-2 can be detected by TR-XPS. This amount corresponds to about 200 Bq of 137Cs (t1/2 = 30.2 y). It was demonstrated that ultra-trace amount of cesium corresponding to radioactive cesium level can be measured by TR-XPS. As to the chemical states, it was found that core-level binding energy in TR-XPS for trace-level cesium shifted to lower-energy side compared with that for thicker layer. A reverse tendency is observed in sodium. Based on charge transfer within a simple point-charge model, it is concluded that chemical bond between alkali metal and micaceous oxide for ultra-thin layer is more polarized that for thick layer.

  6. Influence of biochar amendments on marine sediment trace metal bioavailability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gehrke, G. E.; Hsu-Kim, H.

    2014-12-01

    Biochar has become a desirable material for use in agricultural application to enhance soil quality and in-situ soil and sediment remediation to immobilize organic contaminants. We investigated the effects of biochar sediment amendments on the bioavailability of a suite of inorganic trace metals (Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in contaminated sediments from multiple sites in Elizabeth River, VA. We incubated sediments in microcosms with a variety of water column redox and salinity conditions and compared sediments amended with two types of woody biochar to sediments amended with charcoal activated carbon and unamended sediments. We leached sediments in artificial gut fluid mimic of the benthic invertebrate Arenicola marina as a measure of bioavailability of the trace metals analyzed. In unamended anaerobic sediments, the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction of each trace metal is 1-4% of the total sediment concentration for each metal. Initial results indicate that in anaerobic microcosms, woody biochar sediment amendments (added to 5% dry wt) decrease the gut fluid mimic leachable fraction by 30-90% for all trace metals analyzed, and have comparable performance to charcoal activated carbon amendments. However, in microcosms without controlled redox conditions, woody biochar amendments increase the bioavailable fraction of Ni and Cu by up to 80%, while decreasing the bioavailable fraction of Co, Zn, and Pb by approximately 50%; charcoal activated carbon amendments decreased the bioavailability of all trace metals analyzed by approximately 20%. In microcosms without an overlying water column, biochar and activated carbon amendments had no significant effects on trace metal bioavailability. This research demonstrates that biochar can effectively decrease the bioavailability of trace metals in marine sediments, but its efficiency is metal-specific, and environmental conditions impact biochar performance.

  7. Vacancy Transport and Interactions on Metal Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-06

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2013-0317 VACANCY TRANSPORT AND INTERACTIONS ON METAL SURFACES Gert Ehrlich UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS CHAMPAIGN Final Report 03/06/2014...30, 2012 Gert Ehrlich , PI Abstract This proposal is a study of vacancy transport and vacancy interaction on metal surfaces. Adatom self...Trembułowicz, Gert Ehrlich , Grażyna Antczak,Surface diffusion of gold on quasihexagonal-reconstructed Au(100) ,Physical Review B 84 (2011) 245445-1

  8. Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuemeka, Nwokocha; Philippe, Mounmbegna; Magdalene, Nwokocha; Onyezuligbo, Onyekachi

    2012-01-01

    We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.

  9. Management of metal-on-metal hip implant patients: Who, when and how to revise?

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Reshid; Skinner, John A; Hart, Alister J

    2016-01-01

    The debate on how best to manage patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants continues. With over 1 million patients affected worldwide, the impact is far reaching. The majority of the aggressive failures of MOM hip implants have been dealt with by revision hip surgery, leaving patients with a much more indolent pattern of failure of devices that have been in situ for more than 10 years. The longer-term outcome for such patients remains unknown, and much debate exists on how best to manage these patients. Regulatory guidance is available but remains open to interpretation due to the lack of current evidence and long-term studies. Metal ion thresholds for concern have been suggested at 7 ppb for hip resurfacing arthroplasty and below this level for large diameter total hip arthroplasties. Soft tissue changes including pseudotumours and muscle atrophy have been shown to progress, but this is not consistent. New advanced imaging techniques are helping to diagnose complications with metal hips and the reasons for failure, however these are not widely available. This has led to some centres to tackle difficult cases through multidisciplinary collaboration, for both surgical management decisions and also follow-up decisions. We summarise current evidence and consider who is at risk, when revision should be undertaken and how patients should be managed. PMID:27190754

  10. Metal fractionation study on bed sediments of River Yamuna, India.

    PubMed

    Jain, C K

    2004-02-01

    The pollution of aquatic ecosystem by heavy metals has assumed serious proportions due to their toxicity and accumulative behavior. The toxicity and fate of the water borne metal is dependent on its chemical form and therefore quantification of the different forms of metal is more meaningful than the estimation of its total metal concentrations. In this study fractionation of metal ions on bed sediments of River Yamuna has been studied to determine the eco-toxic potential of metal ions. The investigations suggest that copper have a tendency to remain associated with residual, reducible and carbonate fractions. The Risk Assessment Code reveal that about 30-50% of lead at most of the sites exist in exchangeable fraction while 30-50% of cadmium at almost all the sites is either exchangeable or carbonate bound and therefore comes under the high risk category and can easily enter the food chain. Most of the copper is in immobile fraction at Delhi while at other sites, a sizable portion (10-30%) is found in carbonate fraction thus posing medium risk for the aquatic environment. Fractionation pattern of zinc shows low to medium risk to aquatic environment.

  11. Selective enrichment of metal-binding proteins based on magnetic core/shell microspheres functionalized with metal cations.

    PubMed

    Fang, Caiyun; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Xiaoqin; Lu, Haojie

    2015-06-21

    Metal binding proteins play many important roles in a broad range of biological processes. Characterization of metal binding proteins is important for understanding their structure and biological functions, thus leading to a clear understanding of metal associated diseases. The present study is the first to investigate the effectiveness of magnetic microspheres functionalized with metal cations (Ca(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and Fe(3+)) as the absorbent matrix in IMAC technology to enrich metal containing/binding proteins. The putative metal binding proteins in rat liver were then globally characterized by using this strategy which is very easy to handle and can capture a number of metal binding proteins effectively. In total, 185 putative metal binding proteins were identified from rat liver including some known less abundant and membrane-bound metal binding proteins such as Plcg1, Acsl5, etc. The identified proteins are involved in many important processes including binding, catalytic activity, translation elongation factor activity, electron carrier activity, and so on.

  12. Wetting of metals and glasses on Mo

    SciTech Connect

    Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.; Saiz, Eduardo; Lopez-Esteban, Sonia; Benhassine, Mehdi; de Coninck, Joel; Rauch, Nicole; Ruehle, Manfred

    2008-01-08

    The wetting of low melting point metals and Si-Ca-Al-Ti-O glasses on molybdenum has been investigated. The selected metals (Au, Cu, Ag) form a simple eutectic with Mo. Metal spreading occurs under nonreactive conditions without interdiffusion or ridge formation. The metals exhibit low (non-zero) contact angles on Mo but this requires temperatures higher than 1100 C in reducing atmospheres in order to eliminate a layer of adsorbed impurities on the molybdenum surface. By controlling the oxygen activity in the furnace, glass spreading can take place under reactive or nonreactive conditions. We have found that in the glass/Mo system the contact angle does not decrease under reactive conditions. In all cases, adsorption from the liquid seems to accelerate the diffusivity on the free molybdenum surface.

  13. Determination of metal-cofactors in enzyme complexes by total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittershagen, A.; Rostam-Khani, P.; Klimmek, O.; Groß, R.; Zickermann, V.; Zickermann, I.; Gemeinhardt, S.; Kröger, A.; Ludwig, B.; Kolbesen, B. O.

    1997-07-01

    The determination of metal-cofactors and their molar concentrations is an important requirement for the characterisation of metalloproteins and a challenge regarding the capabilities of trace analytical methods. In this respect, total-reflection X-ray fluorescence spectrometry offers many advantages for the determination of trace elements in enzymes, as compared to other well known analytical techniques such as flame atomic absorption spectrometry or inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), because of the significantly smaller amounts of sample required. Without any decomposition, elements like P, S, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mn and Mo could be determined with high accuracy, in spite of the large bio-organic matrix. The enzymes (polysulphide reductase and hydrogenase of the rumen bacterium Wolinella succinogenes, and the cytochrome c oxidase and quinol oxidase of the soil bacterium Paracoccus denitrificans) were transferred from their usual salt-buffer into a solution of 100 mmol l -1 tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (tris)-acetate containing an appropriate detergent. By this procedure, an improved signal-to-noise ratio is obtained. The polysulphide reductase was found to contain copper as a hitherto existing unknown cofactor. The enzyme contains a stretch of amino acids that are typical of copper proteins and thus confirm the presence of this element. Furthermore, the data concerning cytochrome c oxidase from Paracoccus denitrificans are in good agreement with published values obtained by ICP-AES. Also, results from measurements with the quinol oxidase from the same bacterium agree with the expected values. The investigations lead to the conclusion that the method is well suited to the quantitative determination of metals in enzymes, in particular their molar fractions, and requires only small amounts of the biological sample without any extensive pretreatment.

  14. Blood metal ion testing is an effectivescreening tool to identify poorly performing metal-on-metal bearingsurfaces.

    PubMed

    Sidaginamale, R P; Joyce, T J; Lord, J K; Jefferson, R; Blain, P G; Nargol, A V F; Langton, D J

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this piece of work were to: 1) record the background concentrations of blood chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) concentrations in a large group of subjects; 2) to compare blood/serum Cr and Co concentrations with retrieved metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacings; 3) to examine the distribution of Co and Cr in the serum and whole blood of patients with MoM hip arthroplasties; and 4) to further understand the partitioning of metal ions between the serum and whole blood fractions. A total of 3042 blood samples donated to the local transfusion centre were analysed to record Co and Cr concentrations. Also, 91 hip resurfacing devices from patients who had given pre-revision blood/serum samples for metal ion analysis underwent volumetric wear assessment using a coordinate measuring machine. Linear regression analysis was carried out and receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the reliability of metal ions to identify abnormally wearing implants. The relationship between serum and whole blood concentrations of Cr and Co in 1048 patients was analysed using Bland-Altman charts. This relationship was further investigated in an in vitro study during which human blood was spiked with trivalent and hexavalent Cr, the serum then separated and the fractions analysed. Only one patient in the transfusion group was found to have a blood Co > 2 µg/l. Blood/Serum Cr and Co concentrations were reliable indicators of abnormal wear. Blood Co appeared to be the most useful clinical test, with a concentration of 4.5 µg/l showing sensitivity and specificity for the detection of abnormal wear of 94% and 95%, respectively. Generated metal ions tended to fill the serum compartment preferentially in vivo and this was replicated in the in vitro study when blood was spiked with trivalent Cr and bivalent Co. Blood/serum metal ion concentrations are reliable indicators of abnormal wear processes. Important differences exist however between elements and the blood

  15. Bearing surfaces for hip arthroplasty - is metal-on-metal a passing fancy?

    PubMed

    Lee, Reginald K; Nevelos, Jim; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Markel, David C

    2012-12-01

    Metal-on-metal bearings have had popularity that has waxed and waned over the years. The advantages realized relative to wear resistance and strength had been offset by early failures, manufacturing difficulty, and most recently by adverse soft tissue responses to the metallic debris. The bearing's history, evolution, advantages and disadvantages will be discussed in attempt to answer the question: is metal-on-metal a passing fancy?

  16. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures.

    PubMed

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Kuo, Chia-Liang; Su, Yen-Hao; Chen, Shin-Hau; Lin, Kuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ping-Hung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-05-27

    Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented.

  17. Sorption of metal ions on alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Baumgarten, E.; Kirchhausen-Duesing, U.

    1997-10-01

    The adsorption of metal ions on aluminas is of great interest in different fields such as geochemistry, oceanography, limnology, and pollution control. Precipitation and adsorption of metal ions (Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), and Cr(III)) on {gamma}-alumina were investigated experimentally. A surface chemical reaction model to calculate concentrations of aluminum ions, metal ions, and pH as variables depending on amount of alumina, volume of liquid and gas phase, initial metal concentration, and amount of acid or base added is presented. In the case of Co(II) the pH dependence of rest concentrations with and without alumina is equal; adsorption may be disregarded. For the other ions adsorption is important. Considering the charge of the surface does not improve the fit. In the pH region, where adsorption leads to lower rest concentrations than precipitation, adsorption may be described by a Henry isotherm.

  18. Neuropsychiatric symptoms following metal-on-metal implant failure with cobalt and chromium toxicity.

    PubMed

    Green, Ben; Griffiths, Emily; Almond, Solomon

    2017-01-24

    There were at least 31,171 metal-on-metal (MoM) hip implants in the UK between 2003 and 2011. Some of these were subject to failure and widescale recalls and revisions followed. This is a presentation of ten cases (mean age 60 years) where we evaluated neuropsychiatric morbidity following metal-on-metal hip implant failure and revision. Implants were ASR total hip replacement (acetabular implant, taper sleeve adaptor and unipolar femoral implants) performed between 2005 and 2009. This case series describes, for the first time, neuropsychiatric complications after revision where there has been cobalt and chromium toxicity. Pre-revision surgery, nine patients had toxic levels of chromium and cobalt (mean level chromium 338 nmol/l, mean cobalt 669.4 nmol/l). Depression assessment showed 9 of 9 respondents fulfilled the BDI criteria for depression and 3 of these were being treated. 7 of 9 patients showing short term memory deficit with mean mini mental state examination score of 24.2. The normal population mean MMSE for this group would be expected to be 28 with <25 indicating possible dementia. We found neurocognitive and depressive deficits after cobalt and chromium metallosis following MoM implant failure. Larger studies of neurocognitive effects are indicated in this group. There may be implications for public health.

  19. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, S.; Holmes, J.; Patel, M.

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable.The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone can be of use to investigate the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  20. On the link between martian total ozone and potential vorticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, James A.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time that total ozone in the martian atmosphere is highly correlated with the dynamical tracer, potential vorticity, under certain conditions. The degree of correlation is investigated using a Mars global circulation model including a photochemical model. Potential vorticity is the quantity of choice to explore the dynamical nature of polar vortices because it contains information on winds and temperature in a single scalar variable. The correlation is found to display a distinct seasonal variation, with a strong positive correlation in both northern and southern winter at poleward latitudes in the northern and southern hemisphere respectively. The identified strong correlation implies variations in polar total ozone during winter are predominantly controlled by dynamical processes in these spatio-temporal regions. The weak correlation in northern and southern summer is due to the dominance of photochemical reactions resulting from extended exposure to sunlight. The total ozone/potential vorticity correlation is slightly weaker in southern winter due to topographical variations and the preference for ozone to accumulate in Hellas basin. In northern winter, total ozone can be used to track the polar vortex edge. The ozone/potential vorticity ratio is calculated for both northern and southern winter on Mars for the first time. Using the strong correlation in total ozone and potential vorticity in northern winter inside the polar vortex, it is shown that potential vorticity can be used as a proxy to deduce the distribution of total ozone where satellites cannot observe for the majority of northern winter. Where total ozone observations are available on the fringes of northern winter at poleward latitudes, the strong relationship of total ozone and potential vorticity implies that total ozone anomalies in the surf zone of the northern polar vortex can potentially be used to determine the origin of potential vorticity filaments.

  1. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J.; Hyde, Timothy A.; Fincke, James R.

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  2. Alkali metal adsorbates on W(110): Ionic, covalent, or metallic

    SciTech Connect

    Riffe, D.M.; Wertheim, G.K.; Citrin, P.H. )

    1990-01-29

    The photoemission signal from the first atomic layer of W(110) is used to assess the nature of the interaction between the surface atoms of the metal substrate and the adsorbates Na, K, and Cs for coverages up to 1 atomic layer. Our results indicate that there is little or no charge transfer from the alkali metal to the W surface, even in the limit of low coverage. The satellite structure of the photoemission lines of the outermost {ital p} shell of the alkali metals confirms this conclusion. While contrary to the conventional picture of alkali-metal-charge donation, these findings fully support recent theoretical calculations.

  3. Metal Ion Concentrations in Body Fluids after Implantation of Hip Replacements with Metal-on-Metal Bearing – Systematic Review of Clinical and Epidemiological Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Albrecht; Hannemann, Franziska; Lützner, Jörg; Seidler, Andreas; Drexler, Hans; Günther, Klaus-Peter; Schmitt, Jochen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The use of metal-on-metal (MoM) total hip arthroplasty (THA) increased in the last decades. A release of metal products (i.e. particles, ions, metallo-organic compounds) in these implants may cause local and/or systemic adverse reactions. Metal ion concentrations in body fluids are surrogate measures of metal exposure. Objective To systematically summarize and critically appraise published studies concerning metal ion concentrations after MoM THA. Methods Systematic review of clinical trials (RCTs) and epidemiological studies with assessment of metal ion levels (cobalt, chromium, titanium, nickel, molybdenum) in body fluids after implantation of metalliferous hip replacements. Systematic search in PubMed and Embase in January 2012 supplemented by hand search. Standardized abstraction of pre- and postoperative metal ion concentrations stratified by type of bearing (primary explanatory factor), patient characteristics as well as study quality characteristics (secondary explanatory factors). Results Overall, 104 studies (11 RCTs, 93 epidemiological studies) totaling 9.957 patients with measurement of metal ions in body fluids were identified and analyzed. Consistently, median metal ion concentrations were persistently elevated after implantation of MoM-bearings in all investigated mediums (whole blood, serum, plasma, erythrocytes, urine) irrespective of patient characteristics and study characteristics. In several studies very high serum cobalt concentrations above 50 µg/L were measured (detection limit typically 0.3 µg/L). Highest metal ion concentrations were observed after treatment with stemmed large-head MoM-implants and hip resurfacing arthroplasty. Discussion Due to the risk of local and systemic accumulation of metallic products after treatment with MoM-bearing, risk and benefits should be carefully balanced preoperatively. The authors support a proposed „time out“ for stemmed large-head MoM-THA and recommend a restricted indication for hip

  4. Update on the vitek partial and total temporomandibular joint systems.

    PubMed

    Kent, J N; Block, M S; Halpern, J; Fontenot, M G

    1993-04-01

    A retrospective recall study was done on 262 VK I (N = 138) and VK II (N = 124) (Vitek, Inc, Houston, TX) partial and total temporomandibular joints placed between 1982 and 1990. The cumulative success rate of VK I total joints observed for up to 10 years was approximately 20%, whereas the success rate of VK II total joints observed up to 6 years was approximately 80%. At the 5- to 6-year interval for each, these rates were 44% and 79%, respectively. Wear of the Teflon fluorinated ethylene propylene polymer surface was the primary reason for VK I failure; there was no material failure of the VK II prostheses. Slightly better pain relief, increase in interincisal opening, improvement in diet, and greater overall satisfaction were noted with the use of VK II. A highly significant improvement in success data was found if no surgery had been performed before either VK I or VK II total joint placement. Rib grafts were not particularly helpful after removal of total joint prostheses, particularly if the patient had a history of multiple surgeries. Total temporomandibular joint surgery must be reserved for patients in whom alternative surgical methods have failed or are no longer indicated. All total joint implants, particularly the VK I, must be observed closely with clinical examination and imaging and removed at the earliest sign of material failure.

  5. On the ground state of metallic hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chakravarty, S.; Ashcroft, N. W.

    1978-01-01

    A proposed liquid ground state of metallic hydrogen at zero temperature is explored and a variational upper bound to the ground state energy is calculated. The possibility that the metallic hydrogen is a liquid around the metastable point (rs = 1.64) cannot be ruled out. This conclusion crucially hinges on the contribution to the energy arising from the third order in the electron-proton interaction which is shown here to be more significant in the liquid phase than in crystals.

  6. Effect of swing phase load on metal-on-metal hip lubrication, friction and wear.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sophie; Jalali-Vahid, Davood; Brockett, Claire; Jin, Zhongmin; Stone, Martin H; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2006-01-01

    There is renewed interest in metal-on-metal (MOM) total hip replacements (THRs), however, variable wear rates have been observed clinically. It is hypothesised that changes in soft tissue tensioning during surgery may alter loading of THRs during the swing phase of gait leading to changes in fluid film lubrication, friction and wear. This study aimed to assess the effect of swing phase load on the lubrication, friction and wear of MOM hip replacements. Theoretical lubrication modelling was carried out using elastohydrodynamic theory. All the governing equations were solved numerically for the lubricant film thickness between the articulating surfaces under the transient dynamic conditions with low and high swing phase loads. Friction testing was completed using a single axis pendulum simulator, simplified loading cycles were applied with low and high swing phase loads. MOM hip replacements were tested in a hip simulator, modified to provide different swing phase loading regimes; a low (100 N) and a high load (as per ISO 14242-1; 280 N). Results demonstrated that the performance of MOM bearings is highly dependent on swing phase load. Hence, changes in the tension of the tissues at surgery and variations in muscle forces may increase swing phase load, reduce lubrication, increase friction and accelerate wear. This may explain some of the variations that have been observed with clinical wear rates.

  7. Bone and metal: an orthopaedic perspective on osseointegration of metals.

    PubMed

    Goriainov, Vitali; Cook, Richard; M Latham, Jeremy; G Dunlop, Douglas; Oreffo, Richard O C

    2014-10-01

    The area of implant osseointegration is of major importance, given the predicted significant rise in the number of orthopaedic procedures and an increasingly ageing population. Osseointegration is a complex process involving a number of distinct mechanisms affected by the implant bulk properties and surface characteristics. Our understanding and ability to modify these mechanisms through alterations in implant design is continuously expanding. The following review considers the main aspects of material and surface alterations in metal implants, and the extent of their subsequent influence on osseointegration. Clinically, osseointegration results in asymptomatic stable durable fixation of orthopaedic implants. The complexity of achieving this outcome through incorporation and balance of contributory factors is highlighted through a clinical case report.

  8. Total hip arthroplasty with ceramic-on-ceramic bearing failure from third-body wear.

    PubMed

    Bonnaig, Nicolas S; Freiberg, Richard A; Freiberg, Andrew A

    2011-01-01

    This article describes a new mechanism of failure of a ceramic-on-ceramic total hip arthroplasty (THA) due to fretting corrosion and failure of the Morse taper. A 46-year-old man with hip osteonecrosis underwent THA in 2006. A ceramic-on-ceramic, un-cemented THA with a titanium femoral component and metal-on-ceramic Morse taper was implanted. Two years postoperatively, he presented with swelling in his groin and a painless medial thigh mass. The thigh mass was diagnosed as an abscess. Incision and drainage was performed and resulted in a sinus tract that continuously drained copious amounts of seropurulent fluid. Two months later, the patient underwent irrigation, debridement, and explantation of his hip. Frozen sections showed no signs of infection. There was dramatic visible wear of the Morse taper and pieces of metal embedded in the ceramic. Permanent sections showed chronic inflammation and foreign body reaction. He subsequently underwent an uneventful re-implantation with a metal-on-highly-cross-linked-polyethylene THA. In this case, failure of the morse taper led to metal debris, which reacted with the ceramic and caused dramatic third-body wear. The thigh mass, which appeared to be an infection, proved to be a massive foreign body granuloma. Malfunction of the morse taper as reported in this case represents a possible failure mechanism of a ceramic-on-ceramic THA. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  9. [Total contents of heavy metals and their chemical fractionation in agricultural soils at different locations of Beijing City].

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhi-Fan; Zhao, Ye; Guo, Ting-Zhong; Wang, Shui-Feng; Tian, Qing

    2013-06-01

    In this study, 23 groups of suited typical soil-wheat grain samples were collected from different locations of Beijing city (central city, suburban plain and exurban plain), the accumulation, chemical forms and bioavailability of heavy metals in arable soils under different human activity intensity were analyzed, and their source identifications and health risk were discussed. The results showed that (1) Urban soils exhibited Pb contamination with an average concentration (35.59 mg x kg(-1)) above the WHO limit, probably due to the emission of traffic activities and industrial processes. In addition, long-term sewage irrigation and other agricultural activities led to local metal contamination in the suburban agricultural soils. (2) Cu, Zn and Pb were predominantly associated with the residual (35%-75%) and organic (23%-53%) fractions, followed by Fe/Mn oxide (1%-19%), and very small proportion of carbonate (n. d.-5%) and exchangeable (n. d.-2%) fraction. Furthermore, compared with the suburban agricultural soils, Pb, Zn and Cu in the urban agricultural soils showed higher mobility, whereas the exurban agricultural soils presented the lowest mobility. For Cd, the order was contrary. Besides, Cd showed the highest bioavailability among the four metals in suburban and exurban arable soils due to its considerable proportion of exchangeable (13% -31%) and carbonate fractions (11%-27%). (3) Cd and Zn contents in wheat grains were largely dependent on the Fe/Mn ox. fractions in the studied soils (P < 0.05, r were 0.43-0.7). (4) Pb and Zn concentrations in wheat grains in some of the urban and suburban agricultural soils were above the standard limit, which might bring potential risk for the health of the local residents.

  10. Impact of metals on the biodegradation of organic pollutants.

    PubMed Central

    Sandrin, Todd R; Maier, Raina M

    2003-01-01

    Forty percent of hazardous waste sites in the United States are co-contaminated with organic and metal pollutants. Data from both aerobic and anaerobic systems demonstrate that biodegradation of the organic component can be reduced by metal toxicity. Metal bioavailability, determined primarily by medium composition/soil type and pH, governs the extent to which metals affect biodegradation. Failure to consider bioavailability rather than total metal likely accounts for much of the enormous variability among reports of inhibitory concentrations of metals. Metals appear to affect organic biodegradation through impacting both the physiology and ecology of organic degrading microorganisms. Recent approaches to increasing organic biodegradation in the presence of metals involve reduction of metal bioavailability and include the use of metal-resistant bacteria, treatment additives, and clay minerals. The addition of divalent cations and adjustment of pH are additional strategies currently under investigation. PMID:12826480

  11. Oxygen effect on low-alloy steel weld metal properties

    SciTech Connect

    Potapov, N.N. . Welding Dept.)

    1993-08-01

    It is shown that the weld metal oxygen content in submerged arc low-alloy steel welds, as well as in low-carbon steel welds is dependent on the concentration of oxides decomposed at low temperatures in a weld pool slag phase. The oxygen is mainly in the form of fine dispersed oxide inclusions of less than 0.03 [mu]m. Differentiated evaluation of silicon reduction effects in submerged arc welded low-alloy steels revealed that weld metal brittle fracture strength depends to a considerable degree on total weld metal oxide inclusion content than on silicon increment in the weld. Therefore, the increase of weld metal brittle fracture susceptibility with the growth of weld oxide inclusion content is important to know. Welds with lowered oxygen content [0] [<=] 0.02% also display the tendency to decrease in plasticity because (1) the ferritic-pearlitic matrix of improved purity is likely to generate unbalanced structures on cooling and, (2) when there are no oxide inclusions, the shape of sulfur and phosphor precipitation from the melt changes from globular to film-like. Optimal low-alloy steel weld metal oxygen content is defined in the range of 0.02-0.035.

  12. ‘Pseudotumour’ invading the proximal femur with normal metal ions following metal on metal hip resurfacing

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Harry; Sugand, Kapil; Ali, Ibrahim; Smith, Jay

    2015-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman who had undergone hybrid metal-on-metal hip resurfacing 8 years earlier underwent revision arthroplasty because of hip, groin and lateral thigh pain. The main differential was aseptic loosening; however, serum cobalt and chromium levels were normal. Multiple imaging modalities revealed a periprosthetic, cystic soft tissue mass adjacent to the proximal femur. A large ‘pseudotumour’ with proximal femoral invasion was found at revision arthroplasty. We report the first finding of a ‘pseudotumour’ invading the proximal femur with normal metal ions following metal on metal hip resurfacing. PMID:25670783

  13. Surface arthroplasty for osteonecrosis of the hip: hemiresurfacing versus metal-on-metal hybrid resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Beaulé, Paul E; Amstutz, Harlan C; Le Duff, Michel; Dorey, Frederic

    2004-12-01

    Eighty-four hips with Ficat stage III and IV osteonecrosis were treated: 56 with metal-on-metal surface arthroplasty (MMSA) and 28 with hemi-surface arthroplasty (HSA). Average follow-up was 4.9 years. UCLA hip scores were significantly better for MMSA versus HSA for function and activity as well as Harris Hip scores and physical component of the SF-12 scores. In the MMSA group, 2 hips were revised to total hip arthroplasty for femoral loosening, and 5 hips had adverse radiological changes. In the HSA group, 4 hips were revised (1 sepsis and 3 for pain). There was no evidence of any femoral loosening or neck narrowing in the HSA group. Although the functional clinical outcome of MMSA is superior to HSA, long-term follow up of MMSA will determine the reliability of the femoral fixation.

  14. Design and simulation of omnidirectional reflective color filters based on metal-dielectric-metal structure.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chenying; Shen, Weidong; Zhang, Yueguang; Peng, Hao; Zhang, Xing; Liu, Xu

    2014-05-05

    We propose omnidirectional reflective color filters based on metal-dielectric-metal subwavelength grating structure. By particle swarm optimization, the structural parameters of three color filters (yellow, magenta, cyan) are obtained. The optimized filters can present the same perceived specular color at unpolarized illumination for a broad range of incident angles. The reflectance curves at different incident angles keep almost invariable and the color difference is less than 6 in CIEDE2000 formula up to 45°. Angle-insensitive properties including the incident angular tolerance, azimuthal angular tolerance and the polarization effect are investigated thoroughly to construct a real omnidirectional color filter. Through the analysis of the magnetic field, the physical origin is verified that the total absorption band at specific wavelength results from the localized surface plasmon resonance responsible for the angle insensitive spectral filtering.

  15. Muscle atrophy and metal-on-metal hip implants

    PubMed Central

    Berber, Reshid; Khoo, Michael; Cook, Erica; Guppy, Andrew; Hua, Jia; Miles, Jonathan; Carrington, Richard; Skinner, John; Hart, Alister

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Muscle atrophy is seen in patients with metal-on-metal (MOM) hip implants, probably because of inflammatory destruction of the musculo-tendon junction. However, like pseudotumors, it is unclear when atrophy occurs and whether it progresses with time. Our objective was to determine whether muscle atrophy associated with MOM hip implants progresses with time. Patients and methods We retrospectively reviewed 74 hips in 56 patients (32 of them women) using serial MRI. Median age was 59 (23–83) years. The median time post-implantation was 83 (35–142) months, and the median interval between scans was 11 months. Hip muscles were scored using the Pfirrmann system. The mean scores for muscle atrophy were compared between the first and second MRI scans. Blood cobalt and chromium concentrations were determined. Results The median blood cobalt was 6.84 (0.24–90) ppb and median chromium level was 4.42 (0.20–45) ppb. The median Oxford hip score was 34 (5–48). The change in the gluteus minimus mean atrophy score between first and second MRI was 0.12 (p = 0.002). Mean change in the gluteus medius posterior portion (unaffected by surgical approach) was 0.08 (p = 0.01) and mean change in the inferior portion was 0.10 (p = 0.05). Mean pseudotumor grade increased by 0.18 (p = 0.02). Interpretation Worsening muscle atrophy and worsening pseudotumor grade occur over a 1-year period in a substantial proportion of patients with MOM hip implants. Serial MRI helps to identify those patients who are at risk of developing worsening soft-tissue pathology. These patients should be considered for revision surgery before irreversible muscle destruction occurs. PMID:25588091

  16. Effects of CoCr metal wear debris generated from metal-on-metal hip implants and Co ions on human monocyte-like U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Posada, Olga M; Tate, Rothwelle J; Grant, M Helen

    2015-03-01

    Hip resurfacing with cobalt-chromium (CoCr) alloy was developed as a surgical alternative to total hip replacement. However, the biological effects of nanoparticles generated by wear at the metal-on-metal articulating surfaces has limited the success of such implants. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the combined exposure to CoCr nanoparticles and cobalt ions released from a resurfacing implant on monocytes (U937 cells) and whether these resulted in morphology changes, proliferation alterations, toxicity and cytokine release. The interaction between prior exposure to Co ions and the cellular response to nanoparticulate debris was determined to simulate the situation in patients with metal-on-metal implants receiving a second implant. Effects on U937 cells were mainly seen after 120h of treatment. Prior exposure to Co ions increased the toxic effects induced by the debris, and by Co ions themselves, suggesting the potential for interaction in vivo. Increased TNF-α secretion by resting cells exposed to nanoparticles could contribute to osteolysis processes in vivo, while increased IFN-γ production by activated cells could represent cellular protection against tissue damage. Data suggest that interactions between Co ions and CoCr nanoparticles would occur in vivo, and could threaten the survival of a CoCr metal implant. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts.

    PubMed

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-05-07

    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  18. Vibrations of alkali metal overlayers on metal surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusina, G. G.; Eremeev, S. V.; Echenique, P. M.; Benedek, G.; Borisova, S. D.; Chulkov, E. V.

    2008-06-01

    We review the current progress in the understanding of vibrations of alkalis adsorbed on metal surfaces. The analysis of alkali vibrations was made on the basis of available theoretical and experimental results. We also include in this discussion our recent calculations of vibrations in K/Pt(111) and Li(Na)/Cu(001) systems. The dependence of alkali adlayer localized modes on atomic mass, adsorption position and coverage as well as the dependence of vertical vibration frequency on the substrate orientation is discussed. The square root of atomic mass dependence of the vertical vibration energy has been confirmed by using computational data for alkalis on the Al(111) and Cu(001) substrates. We have confirmed that in a wide range of submonolayer coverages the stretch mode energy remains nearly constant while the energy of in-plane polarized modes increases with the increase of alkali coverage. It was shown that the spectrum of both stretch and in-plane vibrations can be very sensitive to the adsorption position of alkali atoms and substrate orientation.

  19. Effect of rotational alignment on outcome of total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Breugem, Stefan J; van den Bekerom, Michel PJ; Tuinebreijer, Willem E; van Geenen, Rutger C I

    2015-01-01

    Background and purpose Poor outcomes have been linked to errors in rotational alignment of total knee arthroplasty components. The aims of this study were to determine the correlation between rotational alignment and outcome, to review the success of revision for malrotated total knee arthroplasty, and to determine whether evidence-based guidelines for malrotated total knee arthroplasty can be proposed. Patients and methods We conducted a systematic review including all studies reporting on both rotational alignment and functional outcome. Comparable studies were used in a correlation analysis and results of revision were analyzed separately. Results 846 studies were identified, 25 of which met the inclusion criteria. From this selection, 11 studies could be included in the correlation analysis. A medium positive correlation (ρ = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.27–0.59) and a large positive correlation (ρ = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.64–0.73) were found between external rotation of the tibial component and the femoral component, respectively, and the Knee Society score. Revision for malrotation gave positive results in all 6 studies in this field. Interpretation Medium and large positive correlations were found between tibial and femoral component rotational alignment on the one hand and better functional outcome on the other. Revision of malrotated total knee arthroplasty may be successful. However, a clear cutoff point for revision for malrotated total knee arthroplasty components could not be identified. PMID:25708694

  20. The metal to metal interface and its effect on adhesion and friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buckley, D. H.

    1976-01-01

    The paper considers the interface between two bulk metals and the effect of this interface on adhesive bonding, resistance to tangential displacements, friction and the interfacial transport from one surface to another. Using Auger emission spectroscopy, field ion microscopy, and low energy electron diffraction techniques, the influence of surface orientation, lattice registry, crystal lattice structure and defects, metal surface chemistry and alloying on the characteristics of the interface was studied for noble, platinum, transition, and Group 4B metals. With dissimilar metals in contact, epitaxial transfer of the cohesively weaker to the cohesively stronger metal has been observed. Surface chemical activity of the noble and platinum metals is shown to affect interfacial behavior as does a valence bonding in the transition metals, and the degree of metallic nature in the Group 4B elements. Alloying elements, e.g., Si and Fe, can alter interfacial behavior by segregation to the surface of metals or by altering bulk properties such as crystal transformation kinetics.

  1. Simultaneously Extracted Metals/Acid-Volatile Sulfide and Total Metals in Surface Sediment from the Hanford Reach of the Columbia RIver and the Lower Snake River

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, Gregory W.; Crecelius, Eric A.

    2001-01-24

    Metals have been identified as contaminants of concern for the Hanford Reach because of upriver mining, industrial activities, and past nuclear material production at the US Department of Energy's Hanford Site. This study was undertaken to better understand the occurrence and fate of metals in sediment disposition areas in the Columbia and Snake Rivers.

  2. Recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Nianguang; Shi, Zhihao; Tang, Yuping; Chen, Jianwei

    2008-01-01

    Summary An overview of recent progress on the total synthesis of acetogenins from Annonaceae during the past 12 years is provided. These include mono-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, nonadjacent bis-tetrahydrofurans, tri-tetrahydrofurans, adjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, nonadjacent tetrahydrofuran-tetrahydropyrans, mono-tetrahydropyrans, and acetogenins containing only γ-lactone. This review emphasizes only the first total synthesis of molecules of contemporary interest and syntheses that have helped to correct structures. In addition, some significant results on the novel synthesis and structure–activity relationship studies of annonaceous acetogenins are also introduced. PMID:19190742

  3. Effect of bearing geometry and structure support on transient elastohydrodynamic lubrication of metal-on-metal hip implants.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feng; Jin, Zhongming; Roberts, Paul; Grigoris, Peter

    2007-01-01

    An effective lubrication can significantly reduce wear of metal-on-metal artificial hip joints. The improvement of the lubrication can be achieved through the optimisation of the bearing geometry in terms of a small clearance and/or the structural support such as a polyethylene backing underneath a metallic bearing in a sandwich acetabular cup form. The separate effects of these two factors on fluid film lubrication of 28 mm diameter metal-on-metal total hip joints under walking conditions were numerically investigated in this paper. The results show that a larger lubricant film due to the polyethylene backing can be significantly enhanced by the transient squeeze-film action, particularly during the stance phase, and a similar lubricant film can be developed for both the monolithic cup relying on the smaller clearance and the sandwich cup benefiting from the polyethylene backing. Both cup systems can function in a wide range of lubrication regimes, covering both mixed and fluid film, under the current design and manufacture conditions.

  4. Long-term observation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals in the total suspended particles collected at Okinawa, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handa, D.; Okada, K.; Kuroki, Y.; Nakama, Y.; Nakajima, H.; Somada, Y.; Ijyu, M.; Azechi, S.; Oshiro, Y.; Nakaema, F.; Miyagi, Y.; Arakaki, T.; Tanahara, A.

    2011-12-01

    The economic growth and population increase in recent Asia have been increasing air pollution. Emission rate of air pollutants from Asia, in particular oxides of nitrogen, surpassed those from North America and Europe and should continue to exceed them for decades. Okinawa Island is situated approximately 1500 km south of Tokyo, Japan, 2000 km southeast of Beijing, China, and 1000 km south of South Korea. Its location is ideal in observing East Asia's air quality because maritime air mass prevails during summer, while continental air mass dominates during fall, winter, and spring. The maritime air mass data can be seen as background clean air and can be compared with continental air masses which have been affected by anthropogenic activities. We collected total suspended particles (TSP) on quartz filters by using a high volume air sampler at the Cape Hedo Atmosphere and Aerosol Monitoring Station (CHAAMS), Okinawa, Japan during August 2005 and August 2010. Sampling duration was one week for each sample. We determined the concentrations of water-soluble anions, cations, water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and acid-digested metals in TSP samples using ion chromatography, atomic absorption spectrometry, total organic carbon analyzer and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), respectively. Seasonal variation of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals showed that the concentrations were the lowest in summer, higher in fall and winter, and the highest in spring. When air mass came from Asian continent, the concentrations of water-soluble chemical components and acid-digested metals were much higher compared to the other directions, suggesting long-range transport of air pollutants from Asian continent. Also, when the air mass came from Asian continent (75-100% dominant), the mean concentrations of non-sea salt sulfate and nitrate increased ca. 1.8 times and ca. 3.7 times, respectively between 2005 and 2010, and the ratio of nitrate to

  5. Upper limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Willson, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares during the period February-November 1980 are established using data collected by the solar-constant monitor (ACRIM) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Results show typical limits of 6 x 10 to the 29th erg/sec for a 32-second integration time, with 5-sigma statistical significance, for an impulsive emission. For a gradual component, about 4 x 10 to the 32nd ergs total radiant energy is found. The limits are determined to lie about an order of magnitude higher than the total radiant energy estimated from the various known emission components, which indicates the presence of a heretofore unknown dominant component of flare radiation.

  6. Upper limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.; Willson, R. C.

    1983-01-01

    Limits on the total radiant energy of solar flares during the period February-November 1980 are established using data collected by the solar-constant monitor (ACRIM) on the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Results show typical limits of 6 x 10 to the 29th erg/sec for a 32-second integration time, with 5-sigma statistical significance, for an impulsive emission. For a gradual component, about 4 x 10 to the 32nd ergs total radiant energy is found. The limits are determined to lie about an order of magnitude higher than the total radiant energy estimated from the various known emission components, which indicates the presence of a heretofore unknown dominant component of flare radiation.

  7. Physicochemical processes on the solid metal-molten metal interface

    SciTech Connect

    Eremenko, V.N.; Dybkov, V.I.; Natanzon, Y.V.

    1985-05-01

    The authors present a method of dissolution by which bimetalspecimens of St3 and 45 steels, 12Kh18N1OT stainless steel with A995 aluminum, ADl and silumin were obtained. Tests showed high mechanical strength of the bimetals and good resistance under thermal shock conditions. The authors further conclude that the method of creation of permanent joints of metals by holding the solid, more refractory metal with a liquid low-melting one is most suitable for the production of cylindrical bimetal blanks since in this case it is easy to agitate the molten metal by rotation of the original blank of the solid metal in it. By simple machining from such a bimetal, it is possible to obtain tubes, butt joints or concentric two- and three-layer sleeves.

  8. Electrowetting-actuated optical switch based on total internal reflection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chao; Wang, Di; Yao, Li-Xiao; Li, Lei; Wang, Qiong-Hua

    2015-04-01

    In this paper we demonstrate a liquid optical switch based on total internal reflection. Two indium tin oxide electrodes are fabricated on the bottom substrate. A conductive liquid (Liquid 1) is placed on one side of the chamber and surrounded by a density-matched silicone oil (Liquid 2). In initial state, when the light beam illuminates the interface of the two liquids, it just meets the conditions of total internal reflection. The light is totally reflected by Liquid 2, and the device shows light-off state. When we apply a voltage to the other side of the indium tin oxide electrode, Liquid 1 stretched towards this side of the substrate and the curvature of the liquid-liquid interface changes. The light beam is refracted by Liquid 1 and the device shows light-on state. So the device can achieve the functions of an optical switch. Because the light beam can be totally reflected by the liquid, the device can attain 100% light intensity attenuation. Our experiments show that the response time from light-on (off) to light-off (on) are 130 and 132 ms, respectively. The proposed optical switch has potential applications in variable optical attenuators, information displays, and light shutters.

  9. Structural evolution across the insulator-metal transition in oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ studied using neutron total scattering and Rietveld analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Jeong, I.-K.; Lee, Seunghun; Jeong, Se-Young; Won, C. J.; Hur, N.; Llobet, A.

    2011-08-29

    Oxygen-deficient BaTiO3-δ exhibits an insulator-metal transition with increasing δ. We performed neutron total scattering measurements to study structural evolution across an insulator-metal transition in BaTiO3-δ. Despite its significant impact on resistivity, slight oxygen reduction (δ=0.09) caused only a small disturbance on the local doublet splitting of Ti-O bond. This finding implies that local polarization is well preserved under marginal electric conduction. In the highly oxygen-deficient metallic state (δ=0.25), however, doublet splitting of the Ti-O bond became smeared. The smearing of the local Ti-O doublet is complemented with long-range structural analysis and demonstrates that the metallic conduction in the highly oxygen-reduced BaTiO3-δ is due to the appearance of nonferroelectric cubic lattice.

  10. Heavy metals in dolphins stranded on the French Atlantic coast.

    PubMed

    Holsbeek, L; Siebert, U; Joiris, C R

    1998-07-03

    Heavy metal concentrations (total and organic Hg, Ti, Cr, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) were determined in the muscle, liver and kidney of 36 dolphins stranded on the French Atlantic coast between 1977 and 1990: 29 common dolphins Delphinus delphis, five bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus and two striped dolphins Stenella coeruleoalba. Total Hg concentration in the liver increased with age, while relative methylmercury concentration decreased, reflecting the existence of a slow demethylation process. To a lower extent, a similar pattern was observed in the kidney and muscle. No age-related increase was found for other heavy metals, although the highest levels for Cd and Cr were always found in adults. No difference in contamination could be detected between the 1977-1980 and 1984-1990 periods.

  11. Impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events on soil quality.

    PubMed

    Burges, Aritz; Epelde, Lur; Garbisu, Carlos

    2015-02-01

    Most frequently, soil metal pollution results from the occurrence of repeated single-metal and, above all, multi-metal pollution events, with concomitant adverse consequences for soil quality. Therefore, in this study, we evaluated the impact of repeated single-metal and multi-metal (Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn) pollution events on soil quality, as reflected by the values of a variety of soil microbial parameters with potential as bioindicators of soil functioning. Specifically, parameters of microbial activity (potentially mineralizable nitrogen, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase activity) and biomass (fungal and bacterial gene abundance by RT-qPCR) were determined, in the artificially metal-polluted soil samples, at regular intervals over a period of 26 weeks. Similarly, we studied the evolution over time of CaCl2-extractable metal fractions, in order to estimate metal bioavailability in soil. Different metals showed different values of bioavailability and relative bioavailability ([metal]bio/[metal]tot) in soil throughout the experiment, under both repeated single-metal and multi-metal pollution events. Both repeated Zn-pollution and multi-metal pollution events led to a significant reduction in the values of acid phosphatase activity, and bacterial and fungal gene abundance, reflecting the negative impact of these repeated events on soil microbial activity and biomass, and, hence, soil quality.

  12. The influence of bioavailable heavy metals and microbial parameters of soil on the metal accumulation in rice grain.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Ling; Guan, Dongsheng; Peart, M R; Chen, Yujuan; Li, Qiqi; Dai, Jun

    2017-10-01

    A field-based study was undertaken to analyze the effects of soil bioavailable heavy metals determined by a sequential extraction procedure, and soil microbial parameters on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The results showed that Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations in rice grain decreases by 65.9%, 78.9%, 32.6%, 80.5%, 61.0% and 15.7%, respectively in the sites 3 (far-away), compared with those in sites 1 (close-to). Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil catalase activity, the MBC/MBN ratio, along with bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni could explain 68.9% of the total eigenvalue, indicating that these parameters have a great impact on the heavy metal accumulation in rice grain. The soil bioavailable heavy metals have a dominant impact on their accumulation in rice grain, with a variance contribution of 60.1%, while the MBC/MBN has a regulatory effect, with a variance contribution of 4.1%. Stepwise regression analysis showed that the MBC/MBN, urease and catalase activities are the key microbial parameters that affect the heavy metal accumulation in rice by influencing the soil bioavailable heavy metals or the translocation of heavy metals in rice. RDA showed an interactive effect between Cu, Pb and Zn in rice grain and the soil bioavailable Cd, Cr and Ni. The heavy metals in rice grain, with the exception of Pb, could be predicted by their respective soil bioavailable heavy metals. The results suggested that Pb accumulation in rice grain was mainly influenced by the multi-metal interactive effects, and less affected by soil bioavailable Pb. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Measurements of Total Hemispherical Emissivity of Several Stably Oxidized Nickel-Titanium Carbide Cemented Hard Metals from 600 F to 1,600 F

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wade, William R.; Casey, F. W., Jr.

    1959-01-01

    The total hemispherical emissivity of several nickel-titanium carbide cemented hard metals have been measured over a temperature range from 600 F to l,600 F. A variety of cemented hard metals were obtained from the Kennametal Corporation. A brief discussion of the apparatus employed and the procedures used for this investigation is included. The results of the tests of specimens in the as-received and polished states indicate a nearly constant emissivity for each material tested over the temperature range considered and only slight differences in emissivity values for the different materials. Values obtained on the stably oxidized specimens range from 0.90 to 0.94 at 6000 F and o.88 to 0.92 at 1,600 F for the as-received specimens and from 0.82 to 0.89 at 600 F and 0.85 to 0.87 at 1,600 F for the polished specimens. The surface analysis of the oxidized materials as obtained by X-ray diffraction methods and metallographic techniques are presented as an aid to reproducing the surface on which these measurements were made.

  14. Biomolecule-coated metal nanoparticles on titanium.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Stephen L; Chatt, Amares; Zhang, Peng

    2012-02-07

    Immobilizations of nanoparticles and biomolecules on biocompatible substrates such as titanium are two promising approaches to bringing new functionalities to Ti-based biomaterials. Herein, we used a variety of X-ray spectroscopic techniques to study and better understand metal-thiolate interactions in biofunctionalized metal nanoparticle systems supported on Ti substrates. Using a facile one-step procedure, a series of Au nanoparticle samples with varied biomolecule coatings ((2-mercatopropionyl)glycine (MPG) and bovine serum albumin (BSA)) and biomolecule concentrations are prepared. Ag and Pd systems are also studied to observe change with varying metal composition. The structure and properties of these biomolecule-coated nanoparticles are investigated with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and element-specific X-ray techniques, including extended X-ray absorption fine structure (Au L(3)-edge), X-ray absorption near-edge structure (Au L(3), Ag L(3), Pd L(3), and S K-edge), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (Au 4f, Ag 3d, Pd 3d, and S 2p core level). It was found that, by comparison of SEM and X-ray spectroscopy results, the coating of metal nanoparticles with varying model biomolecule systems can have a significant effect on both surface coverage and organization. This work offers a facile chemical method for bio- and nanofunctionalization of Ti substrates as well as provides a physical picture of the structure and bonding of biocoated metal nanoparticles, which may lead to useful applications in orthopedics and biomedicine.

  15. Metal ion release from bearing wear and corrosion with 28 mm and large-diameter metal-on-metal bearing articulations: a follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Vendittoli, P-A; Roy, A; Mottard, S; Girard, J; Lusignan, D; Lavigne, M

    2010-01-01

    We have updated our previous randomised controlled trial comparing release of chromium (Cr) and cobalt (Co) ions and included levels of titanium (Ti) ions. We have compared the findings from 28 mm metal-on-metal total hip replacement, performed using titanium CLS/Spotorno femoral components and titanium AlloFit acetabular components with Metasul bearings, with Durom hip resurfacing using a Metasul articulation or bearing and a titanium plasma-sprayed coating for fixation of the acetabular component. Although significantly higher blood ion levels of Cr and Co were observed at three months in the resurfaced group than in total hip replacement, no significant difference was found at two years post-operatively for Cr, 1.58 microg/L and 1.62 microg/L respectively (p = 0.819) and for Co, 0.67 microg/L and 0.94 microg/L respectively (p = 0.207). A steady state was reached at one year in the resurfaced group and after three months in the total hip replacement group. Interestingly, Ti, which is not part of the bearing surfaces with its release resulting from metal corrosion, had significantly elevated ion levels after implantation in both groups. The hip resurfacing group had significantly higher Ti levels than the total hip replacement group for all periods of follow-up. At two years the mean blood levels of Ti ions were 1.87 microg/L in hip resurfacing and and 1.30 microg/L in total hip replacement (p = 0.001). The study confirms even with different bearing diameters and clearances, hip replacement and 28 mm metal-on-metal total hip replacement produced similar Cr and Co metal ion levels in this randomised controlled trial study design, but apart from wear on bearing surfaces, passive corrosion of exposed metallic surfaces is a factor which influences ion concentrations. Ti plasma spray coating the acetabular components for hip resurfacing produces significantly higher release of Ti than Ti grit-blasted surfaces in total hip replacement.

  16. [Effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil properties and vertical distribution of heavy metal].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zong-Ming; Chen, Wei-Ping; Jiao, Wen-Tao; Wang, Mei-E

    2012-12-01

    Utilization of reclaimed water is one of the important methods to alleviate water shortage. The effect of reclaimed water irrigation on soil is always a concern. To understand the effect of long time reclaimed water irrigation on soil, typical farmland irrigated with reused water was selected. Soil properties and heavy metal concentration of soil and water samples were analyzed to identify the effect of the irrigation on heavy metal vertical distribution and organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen and pH value in soil. The results show that heavy metal contents of irrigation water used in Liangshuihe farmland are 2.5 to 10.5 times higher than that of Beiyechang farmland, and reclaimed water irrigation could cause changes of soil properties that soil organic matter content, total carbon, total nitrogen were increased and pH values were reduced. Based on the field investigation results, the soil nutrient conditions benefit from irrigate reclaimed water, however, the accumulation of heavy metal in soil could raise the risk. As a source of soil heavy metal, reclaimed water irrigation could make differences on the accumulation and mobility of soil heavy metal. Also the distribution and mobility of soil heavy metal are influenced by soil organic matter content and there are more heavy metal were taken up by plants or transferred to the deeper area in Liangshuihe farmland.

  17. Influence of heavy metal stress on antioxidant status and DNA damage in Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Gjorgieva, Darinka; Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Ruskovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity.

  18. Influence of Heavy Metal Stress on Antioxidant Status and DNA Damage in Urtica dioica

    PubMed Central

    Kadifkova Panovska, Tatjana; Bačeva, Katerina; Stafilov, Trajče

    2013-01-01

    Heavy metals have the potential to interact and induce several stress responses in the plants; thus, effects of heavy metal stress on DNA damages and total antioxidants level in Urtica dioica leaves and stems were investigated. The samples are sampled from areas with different metal exposition. Metal content was analyzed by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometer (ICP-AES), for total antioxidants level assessment the Ferric-Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assay was used, and genomic DNA isolation from frozen plant samples was performed to obtain DNA fingerprints of investigated plant. It was found that heavy metal contents in stems generally changed synchronously with those in leaves of the plant, and extraneous metals led to imbalance of mineral nutrient elements. DNA damages were investigated by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique, and the results demonstrated that the samples exposed to metals yielded a large number of new fragments (total 12) in comparison with the control sample. This study showed that DNA stability is highly affected by metal pollution which was identified by RAPD markers. Results suggested that heavy metal stress influences antioxidant status and also induces DNA damages in U. dioica which may help to understand the mechanisms of metals genotoxicity. PMID:23862140

  19. Fraunhofer Diffraction Effects on Total Power for a Planckian Source.

    PubMed

    Shirley, E L

    2001-01-01

    An algorithm for computing diffraction effects on total power in the case of Fraunhofer diffraction by a circular lens or aperture is derived. The result for Fraunhofer diffraction of monochromatic radiation is well known, and this work reports the result for radiation from a Planckian source. The result obtained is valid at all temperatures.

  20. Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study designed to examine the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation and their effects on organizational performance. Process Alignment and People Involvement are two key concepts for successful implementation of TQM. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these two constructs affect organizational…

  1. Total Quality Management Practices and Their Effects on Organizational Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hung, Richard Yu-Yuan; Lien, Bella Ya-Hui

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports a study designed to examine the key concepts of Total Quality Management (TQM) implementation and their effects on organizational performance. Process Alignment and People Involvement are two key concepts for successful implementation of TQM. The purpose of this paper is to discuss how these two constructs affect organizational…

  2. Effects of elevated total dissolved solids on bivalves

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of experiments were performed to assess the toxicity of different dominant salt recipes of excess total dissolved solids (TDS) to organisms in mesocosms. Multiple endpoints were measured across trophic levels. We report here the effects of four different TDS recipes on b...

  3. Effects of elevated total dissolved solids on bivalves

    EPA Science Inventory

    A series of experiments were performed to assess the toxicity of different dominant salt recipes of excess total dissolved solids (TDS) to organisms in mesocosms. Multiple endpoints were measured across trophic levels. We report here the effects of four different TDS recipes on b...

  4. The global distribution on total ozone - Toms satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krueger, Arlin J.

    1989-01-01

    The general behavior of total ozone by season and latitude was known before 1930 through the pioneering observations by Dobson. The ozone record at Oxford and other European stations was dominated by an annual cycle and by irregular short term fluctuations. The amplitude and phase of the annual cycle were determined at representative latitudes in both hemispheres. However, the short term variations appeared to be meteorological origin, although the specific cause could not be identified. Data from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) on the Nimbus 7 spacecraft, with global coverage at an average spatial resolution of 66 km, can now be used to completely map the total ozone field. These maps demonstrate that troughs and ridges in the upper troposphere are responsible for the large, short term ozone variations found at middle latitudes, while in the tropics, the steady, low ozone levels show broad scale structure associated with the Hadley circulation.

  5. Total cross sections of beauty and charmed mesons on protons

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, A.; Meshkov, S.

    1991-06-01

    Using a simple scaling law we predict the values of the total cross sections {sigma}(B{plus_minus}p), {sigma}B{sub d,s}{sup 0}, {sigma}({bar B}{sub d,s}{sup 0}P), {sigma}(D{sub d,s}{sup {plus_minus}}P), {sigma}(D{sup 0}p), {sigma}({bar D}{sup 0}p) from known total K{sub p} cross sections. We assume that mesons with the same light valence quark, q, and differing only by their heavy valence quark content, Q, have total cross sections on protons which scale as the inverse of the nth power of the reduced mass of the meson. We predict that {sigma}(Q{bar q})p > {sigma}({bar Q}q)p.

  6. Influence of Metal Properties on the Formation and Evolution of Metal Coatings During Mechanical Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Liang; Lu, Yun; Sato, Hiromasa; Asanuma, Hiroshi; Guo, Jie

    2013-06-01

    Powders of Cu, Ti, Ni, Fe, and Zn metals were used to prepare coatings on the surfaces of Al2O3 balls by the mechanical coating technique. The coated Al2O3 balls were characterized with XRD and SEM. The results showed that all the metal powders except Ni formed continuous metal coatings. The evolution of metal coatings during mechanical coating was also investigated. The analysis indicates that as long as continuous metal coatings can be formed, the evolution can fall into the following stages: nucleation, formation and coalescence of discrete islands, formation and thickening of continuous coatings, and exfoliation of continuous coatings. Electronegativity of the metal was shown to have a major effect on the adhesion of the tiny metal particles on the surfaces of the Al2O3 balls during the initial stage of mechanical coating. The lower the electronegativity of the metal, the greater the coverage of the metal on the Al2O3 ball and the easier the adhesion of the tiny metal particles. Further, the better the plastic deformability of metal, the easier the cold welding among metal powder particles and the greater the thickness of the continuous metal coatings.

  7. Diffraction effects on broadband radiation: formulation for computing total irradiance.

    PubMed

    Shirley, Eric L

    2004-05-01

    I present a formulation for treating diffraction effects on total irradiance in the case of a Planck source; earlier work generally depended on calculating diffraction effects on spectral irradiance followed by summation over spectral components. The formulation is derived and demonstrated for Fraunhofer diffraction by circular apertures, rectangular apertures and slits, and Fresnel diffraction by circular apertures. The prospects for treating other sources and optical systems are also discussed.

  8. Synthesis-atomic structure-properties relationships in metallic nanoparticles by total scattering experiments and 3D computer simulations: case of Pt-Ru nanoalloy catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasai, Binay; Ren, Yang; Shan, Shiyao; Zhao, Yinguang; Cronk, Hannah; Luo, Jin; Zhong, Chuan-Jian; Petkov, Valeri

    2015-04-01

    An approach to determining the 3D atomic structure of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in fine detail and using the unique knowledge obtained for rationalizing their synthesis and properties targeted for optimization is described and exemplified on Pt-Ru alloy NPs of importance to the development of devices for clean energy conversion such as fuel cells. In particular, PtxRu100-x alloy NPs, where x = 31, 49 and 75, are synthesized by wet chemistry and activated catalytically by a post-synthesis treatment involving heating under controlled N2-H2 atmosphere. So-activated NPs are evaluated as catalysts for gas-phase CO oxidation and ethanol electro-oxidation reactions taking place in fuel cells. Both as-synthesized and activated NPs are characterized structurally by total scattering experiments involving high-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction coupled to atomic pair distribution functions (PDFs) analysis. 3D structure models both for as-synthesized and activated NPs are built by molecular dynamics simulations based on the archetypal for current theoretical modelling Sutton-Chen method. Models are refined against the experimental PDF data by reverse Monte Carlo simulations and analysed in terms of prime structural characteristics such as metal-to-metal bond lengths, bond angles and first coordination numbers for Pt and Ru atoms. Analysis indicates that, though of a similar type, the atomic structure of as-synthesized and respective activated NPs differ in several details of importance to NP catalytic properties. Structural characteristics of activated NPs and data for their catalytic activity are compared side by side and strong evidence found that electronic effects, indicated by significant changes in Pt-Pt and Ru-Ru metal bond lengths at NP surface, and practically unrecognized so far atomic ensemble effects, indicated by distinct stacking of atomic layers near NP surface and prevalence of particular configurations of Pt and Ru atoms in these layers, contribute to the

  9. Electromagnetic force on structured metallic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velzen, Andrew H.; Webb, Kevin J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a method by which the relatively weak electromagnetic force exerted on a surface can be dramatically enhanced. By structuring a metal surface at the nanoscale, we show that the force can be substantially increased over that on the planar metallic surface. The basis for this effect is found to be cavity-enhanced fields and the excitation of surface waves, and results are related to theory. In practice, this force enhancement could be expanded to other materials in various frequency regimes. This increased electromagnetic force should facilitate an expansion of applications related to optomechanics.

  10. Towards nanoprinting with metals on graphene

    PubMed Central

    Melinte, G.; Moldovan, S.; Hirlimann, C.; Liu, X.; Bégin-Colin, S.; Bégin, D.; Banhart, F.; Pham-Huu, C.; Ersen, O.

    2015-01-01

    Graphene and carbon nanotubes are envisaged as suitable materials for the fabrication of the new generation of nanoelectronics. The controlled patterning of such nanostructures with metal nanoparticles is conditioned by the transfer between a recipient and the surface to pattern. Electromigration under the impact of an applied voltage stands at the base of printing discrete digits at the nanoscale. Here we report the use of carbon nanotubes as nanoreservoirs for iron nanoparticles transfer on few-layer graphene. An initial Joule-induced annealing is required to ensure the control of the mass transfer with the nanotube acting as a ‘pen' for the writing process. By applying a voltage, the tube filled with metal nanoparticles can deposit metal on the surface of the graphene sheet at precise locations. The reverse transfer of nanoparticles from the graphene surface to the nanotube when changing the voltage polarity opens the way for error corrections. PMID:26314620

  11. Some stars are totally metal: a new mechanism driving dust across star-forming clouds, and consequences for planets, stars, and galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Hopkins, Philip F.

    2014-12-10

    Dust grains in neutral gas behave as aerodynamic particles, so they can develop large local density fluctuations entirely independent of gas density fluctuations. Specifically, gas turbulence can drive order-of-magnitude 'resonant' fluctuations in the dust density on scales where the gas stopping/drag timescale is comparable to the turbulent eddy turnover time. Here we show that for large grains (size ≳ 0.1 μm, containing most grain mass) in sufficiently large molecular clouds (radii ≳ 1-10 pc, masses ≳ 10{sup 4} M {sub ☉}), this scale becomes larger than the characteristic sizes of prestellar cores (the sonic length), so large fluctuations in the dust-to-gas ratio are imprinted on cores. As a result, star clusters and protostellar disks formed in large clouds should exhibit significant abundance spreads in the elements preferentially found in large grains (C, O). This naturally predicts populations of carbon-enhanced stars, certain highly unusual stellar populations observed in nearby open clusters, and may explain the 'UV upturn' in early-type galaxies. It will also dramatically change planet formation in the resulting protostellar disks, by preferentially 'seeding' disks with an enhancement in large carbonaceous or silicate grains. The relevant threshold for this behavior scales simply with cloud densities and temperatures, making straightforward predictions for clusters in starbursts and high-redshift galaxies. Because of the selective sorting by size, this process is not necessarily visible in extinction mapping. We also predict the shape of the abundance distribution—when these fluctuations occur, a small fraction of the cores may actually be seeded with abundances Z ∼ 100 (Z) such that they are almost 'totally metal' (Z ∼ 1)! Assuming the cores collapse, these totally metal stars would be rare (1 in ∼10{sup 4} in clusters where this occurs), but represent a fundamentally new stellar evolution channel.

  12. Total petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the surface sediments of Bohai Bay, China: long-term variations in pollution status and adverse biological risk.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ran; Qin, Xuebo; Peng, Shitao; Deng, Shihuai

    2014-06-15

    Surface sediments collected from 2001 to 2011 were analyzed for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) and five heavy metals. The sediment concentration ranges of TPH, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd and Hg were 6.3-535 μg/g, 58-332 μg/g, 7.2-63 μg/g, 4.3-138 μg/g, 0-0.98μg/g, and 0.10-0.68 μg/g, respectively. These results met the highest marine sediment quality standards in China, indicating that the sediment was fairly clean. However, based on the effects range-median (ERM) quotient method, the calculated values for all of the sampling sites were higher than 0.10, suggesting that there was a potential adverse biological risk in Bohai Bay. According to the calculated results, the biological risk decreased from 2001 to 2007 and increased afterwards. High-risk sites were mainly distributed along the coast. This study suggests that anthropogenic influences might be responsible for the potential risk of adverse biological effects from TPH and heavy metals in Bohai Bay.

  13. Revision of Metal-on-metal Hip Prostheses Results in Marked Reduction of Blood Cobalt and Chromium Ion Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Lainiala, Olli; Reito, Aleksi; Elo, Petra; Pajamäki, Jorma; Puolakka, Timo; Eskelinen, Antti

    2015-07-01

    High revision rates attributable to adverse reactions to metal debris have been reported for total hip arthroplasties (THAs) with metal-on-metal implants and hip resurfacings. The effect of revision on blood metal ion levels is described only in small series, the clinical results of revisions have been contradictory, and concerns regarding component loosening have been presented. We asked: (1) Did revision surgery result in a reduction to normal for whole blood cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) levels (2) What changes to the Oxford Hip Score were observed after revision of these hips with metal-on-metal implants? (3) Were there radiologic signs of component loosening observed on 1-year followup radiographs? Between September 2010 and April 2013, 154 patients (166 hips) who had THAs with implantation of the Articular Surface Replacement (ASR™) system and 44 patients (49 hips) who had hip resurfacings of the ASR™ implant underwent revision surgery for adverse reactions to metal debris at our institution, after recall of these components in August 2010. General indications for revision of these implants included a symptomatic hip and/or a predominantly solid pseudotumor seen on cross-sectional imaging. Since recall, patients were systematically followed after revision with Oxford Hip Score questionnaires, blood Co and Cr measurements (analyzed from whole blood with dynamic reaction-cell inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry), and plain radiographs at 2 and 12 months after revision surgery, and thereafter at 2-year intervals. Preoperative and 1-year postoperative blood Co and Cr values were available for 93% (185 of 198 patients), Oxford Hip Score for 76% (151 of 198 patients), and plain radiographs for all patients. Whole-blood levels of Co decreased below the 7 ppb cut-off value in all patients with revision of unilateral THA or resurfacing, however, blood Cr levels remained elevated in four of 90 patients (4%) in the unilateral THA group and four of 34

  14. ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING: EFFECTS ON METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corrosion control pipe loop study to evaluate the effect of ion exchange water softening on metal leaching from household plumbing materials was conducted on two different water qualities having different pH's and hardness levels. The results showed that removing hardness ions ...

  15. ION EXCHANGE SOFTENING: EFFECTS ON METAL CONCENTRATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A corrosion control pipe loop study to evaluate the effect of ion exchange water softening on metal leaching from household plumbing materials was conducted on two different water qualities having different pH's and hardness levels. The results showed that removing hardness ions ...

  16. Effect of heavy metals on bacterial transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Olson, M. S.

    2010-12-01

    Adsorption of metals onto bacteria and soil takes place as stormwater runoff infiltrates into the subsurface. Changes in both bacterial surfaces and soil elemental content have been observed, and may alter the attachment of bacteria to soil surfaces. In this study, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectrometry (EDS) analyses were performed on soil samples equilibrated with synthetic stormwater amended with copper, lead and zinc. The results demonstrate the presence of copper and zinc on soil surfaces. To investigate bacterial attachment behavior, sets of batch sorption experiments were conducted on Escherichia Coli (E. coli) under different chemical conditions by varying solution compositions (nutrient solution vs synthetic stormwater). The adsorption data is best described using theoretical linear isotherms. The equilibrium coefficient (Kd) of E. coli is higher in synthetic stormwater than in nutrient solution without heavy metals. The adsorption of heavy metals onto bacterial surfaces significantly decreases their negative surface charge as determined via zeta potential measurements (-17.0±5.96mv for E. coli equilibrated with synthetic stormwater vs -21.6±5.45mv for E. coli equilibrated with nutrient solution), indicating that bacterial attachment may increase due to the attachment of metals onto bacterial surfaces and their subsequent change in surface charge. The attachment efficiency (α) of bacteria was also calculated and compared for both solution chemistries. Bacterial attachment efficiency (α) in synthetic stormwater is 0.997, which is twice as high as that in nutrient solution(α 0.465). The ratio of bacterial diameter : collector diameter suggests minimal soil straining during bacterial transport. Results suggest that the presence of metals in synthetic stormwater leads to an increase in bacterial attachment to soil surfaces. In terms of designing stormwater infiltration basins, the presence of heavy metals seems to

  17. Tribolayer Formation in a Metal-on-Metal (MoM) Hip Joint: An Electrochemical Investigation

    PubMed Central

    Mathew, MT; Nagelli, C; Pourzal, R; Fischer, A; Laurent, MP; Jacobs, JJ; Wimmer, MA

    2013-01-01

    The demand for total hip replacement (THR) surgery is increasing in the younger population due to faster rehabilitation and more complete restoration of function. Up to 2009, metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joint bearings were a popular choice due to their design flexibility, post-operative stability and relatively low wear rates. The main wear mechanisms that occur along the bearing surface of MoM joints are tribochemical reactions that deposit a mixture of wear debris, metal ions and organic matrix of decomposed proteins known as a tribolayer. No in-depth electrochemical studies have been reported on the structure and characteristics of this tribolayer or about the parameters involved in its formation. In this study, we conducted an electrochemical investigation of different surfaces (bulk-like: control, nano-crystalline: new implant and tribolayer surface: retrieved implant) made out of two commonly used hip CoCrMo alloys (high-carbon and low-carbon). As per ASTM standard, cyclic polarization tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy tests were conducted. The results obtained from electrochemical parameters for different surfaces clearly indicated a reduction in corrosion for the tribolayer surface (Icorr: 0.76 μA/cm2). Further, polarization resistance (Rp:2.39±0.60MΩ/cm2) and capacitance (Cdl:15.20±0.75 μF/cm2) indicated variation in corrosion kinetics for the tribolayer surface, that attributed to its structure and stability in a simulated body environment. PMID:24099949

  18. Effect of heavy-metal on synthesis of siderophores by Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZGKD3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Peili; Xing, Zhukang; Zhang, Yuxiu; Chai, Tuanyao

    2017-01-01

    Most siderophore-producing bacteria could improve the plant growth. Here, the effect of heavy-metal on the growth, total siderophore and pyoverdine production of the Cd tolerance Pseudomonas aeruginosa ZGKD3 were investigated. The results showed that ZGKD3 exhibited tolerance to heavy metals, and the metal tolerance decreased in the order Mn2+>Pb2+>Ni2+>Cu2+>Zn2+>Cd2+. The total siderophore and pyoverdine production of ZGKD3 induced by metals of Cd2+, Cu2+, Zn2+, Ni2+, Pb2+ and Mn2+ were different, the total siderophore and pyoverdine production reduced in the order Cd2+>Pb2+>Mn2+>Ni2+>Zn2+ >Cu2+ and Zn2+>Cd2+>Mn2+>Pb2+>Ni2+>Cu2+, respectively. These results suggested that ZGKD3 could grow in heavy-metal contaminated soil and had the potential of improving phytoremediation efficiency in Cd and Zn contaminated soils.

  19. Impact of a total solar eclipse on surface atmospheric electricity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manohar, G. K.; Kandalgaonkar, S. S.; Kulkarni, M. K.

    1995-10-01

    A study of the impact of a total solar eclipse (TSE) on surface atmospheric electricity was made using observations of surface electrical potential gradient, conductivity, and boundary layer parameters recorded during the TSE of February 16, 1980, and on a control day at Raichur. The study showed that with the progressing of the eclipse, as a consequence of inhibited convection, the responses of turbulent mixing in the boundary layer near the ground exhibited diminution and subsequent restoration, respectively. During the next 45 min after the totality, when the surface layer remained stably stratified, the diminution in the potential gradient and the increase in the conductivity was maximum; this was about 60% and 200%, respectively, of their corresponding control day values. This result is in very good agreement with most earlier studies of solar eclipses. The study of the impact of the TSE during 3-4 hours of posteclipse showed significant cooling (˜3°C) of the entire surface air layer and a considerable drop in wind speed over the stretch (1130 km×120 km) of the totality-occupied land region. This significant and systematic phenomenon was responsible for setting up a land-sea breezelike circulation, that is, subsidence/downward air motion over the totality-occupied land region and upward over the noneclipsed land across the totality stretch. This resulted in a considerable aerosol-induced reduction in conductivity and about 5 to 8 times increase in potential gradient during the 3-4 hours of posteclipse. This response of the atmospheric electricity parameters was unlike that observed on the normal days.

  20. Total Body Irradiation, Toward Optimal Individual Delivery: Dose Evaluation With Metal Oxide Field Effect Transistors, Thermoluminescence Detectors, and a Treatment Planning System

    SciTech Connect

    Bloemen-van Gurp, Esther J. Mijnheer, Ben J.; Verschueren, Tom A.M.; Lambin, Philippe

    2007-11-15

    Purpose: To predict the three-dimensional dose distribution of our total body irradiation technique, using a commercial treatment planning system (TPS). In vivo dosimetry, using metal oxide field effect transistors (MOSFETs) and thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs), was used to verify the calculated dose distributions. Methods and Materials: A total body computed tomography scan was performed and loaded into our TPS, and a three-dimensional-dose distribution was generated. In vivo dosimetry was performed at five locations on the patient. Entrance and exit dose values were converted to midline doses using conversion factors, previously determined with phantom measurements. The TPS-predicted dose values were compared with the MOSFET and TLD in vivo dose values. Results: The MOSFET and TLD dose values agreed within 3.0% and the MOSFET and TPS data within 0.5%. The convolution algorithm of the TPS, which is routinely applied in the clinic, overestimated the dose in the lung region. Using a superposition algorithm reduced the calculated lung dose by approximately 3%. The dose inhomogeneity, as predicted by the TPS, can be reduced using a simple intensity-modulated radiotherapy technique. Conclusions: The use of a TPS to calculate the dose distributions in individual patients during total body irradiation is strongly recommended. Using a TPS gives good insight of the over- and underdosage in a patient and the influence of patient positioning on dose homogeneity. MOSFETs are suitable for in vivo dosimetry purposes during total body irradiation, when using appropriate conversion factors. The MOSFET, TLD, and TPS results agreed within acceptable margins.

  1. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, B. J.; Richardson, V. M.; Langton, D. J.; Smith, E.; Joyce, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The high revision rates of the DePuy Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) and the DePuy ASR XL (the total hip arthroplasty (THA) version) have led to questions over the viability of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. Some designs of MoM hip joint do, however, have reasonable mid-term performance when implanted in appropriate patients. Investigations into the reasons for implant failure are important to offer help with the choice of implants and direction for future implant designs. One way to assess the performance of explanted hip prostheses is to measure the wear (in terms of material loss) on the joint surfaces. Methods In this study, a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was used to measure the wear on five failed cementless Biomet Magnum/ReCap/ Taperloc large head MoM THAs, along with one Biomet ReCap resurfacing joint. Surface roughness measurements were also taken. The reason for revision of these implants was pain and/or adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) and/or elevated blood metal ion levels. Results The mean wear rate of the articulating surfaces of the heads and acetabular components of all six joints tested was found to be 6.1 mm3/year (4.1 to 7.6). The mean wear rate of the femoral head tapers of the five THAs was 0.054 mm3/year (0.021 to 0.128) with a mean maximum wear depth of 5.7 µm (4.3 to 8.5). Conclusion Although the taper wear was relatively low, the wear from the articulating surfaces was sufficient to provide concern and was potentially large enough to have been the cause of failure of these joints. The authors believe that patients implanted with the ReCap system, whether the resurfacing prosthesis or the THA, should be closely monitored. Cite this article: S. C. Scholes, B. J. Hunt, V. M. Richardson, D. J. Langton, E. Smith, T. J. Joyce. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:113–122. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0130.R2. PMID:28246095

  2. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint.

    PubMed

    Scholes, S C; Hunt, B J; Richardson, V M; Langton, D J; Smith, E; Joyce, T J

    2017-02-01

    The high revision rates of the DePuy Articular Surface Replacement (ASR) and the DePuy ASR XL (the total hip arthroplasty (THA) version) have led to questions over the viability of metal-on-metal (MoM) hip joints. Some designs of MoM hip joint do, however, have reasonable mid-term performance when implanted in appropriate patients. Investigations into the reasons for implant failure are important to offer help with the choice of implants and direction for future implant designs. One way to assess the performance of explanted hip prostheses is to measure the wear (in terms of material loss) on the joint surfaces. In this study, a coordinate measuring machine (CMM) was used to measure the wear on five failed cementless Biomet Magnum/ReCap/ Taperloc large head MoM THAs, along with one Biomet ReCap resurfacing joint. Surface roughness measurements were also taken. The reason for revision of these implants was pain and/or adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD) and/or elevated blood metal ion levels. The mean wear rate of the articulating surfaces of the heads and acetabular components of all six joints tested was found to be 6.1 mm(3)/year (4.1 to 7.6). The mean wear rate of the femoral head tapers of the five THAs was 0.054 mm(3)/year (0.021 to 0.128) with a mean maximum wear depth of 5.7 µm (4.3 to 8.5). Although the taper wear was relatively low, the wear from the articulating surfaces was sufficient to provide concern and was potentially large enough to have been the cause of failure of these joints. The authors believe that patients implanted with the ReCap system, whether the resurfacing prosthesis or the THA, should be closely monitored.Cite this article: S. C. Scholes, B. J. Hunt, V. M. Richardson, D. J. Langton, E. Smith, T. J. Joyce. Explant analysis of the Biomet Magnum/ReCap metal-on-metal hip joint. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:113-122. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.62.BJR-2016-0130.R2. © 2017 Scholes et al.

  3. Physician Impact on the Total Cost of Care

    PubMed Central

    Taheri, Paul A.; Butz, David; Griffes, Louisa C.; Morlock, David R.; Greenfield, Lazar J.

    2000-01-01

    Background and Objectives Physicians’ efforts at cost containment focus on decreased resource utilization and reduced length of stay. Although these efforts appear to be appropriate, little data exist to gauge their success. As such, the goal of this study is to determine trauma service cost allocations and how this information can help physicians to contain costs. Materials and Methods The authors analyzed the costs for 696 trauma admissions at a level I trauma center for fiscal year 1997. Data were obtained from the hospital costing system. Costs analyzed were variable direct, fixed direct, and Indirect costs. Together, the fixed and indirect costs are referred to as “hospital overhead.” Total Cost equals variable direct plus fixed direct plus indirect costs. Results The mean variable, fixed, and indirect costs per patient were $7,998, $3,534, and $11,086, respectively. Mean total cost per patient was $22,618. Conclusion The 35% variable direct cost represents the percentage of total cost that is typically under the immediate influence of physicians, in contrast to the 65% of total cost over which physicians have little control. Physicians must gain a better understanding of cost drivers and must participate in the operations and allocations of institutional fixed direct and indirect costs if the overall cost of care is to be reduced. PMID:10714637

  4. How have alternative bearings (such as metal-on-metal, highly cross-linked polyethylene, and ceramic-on-ceramic) affected the prevention and treatment of osteolysis?

    PubMed

    Callaghan, John J; Cuckler, John M; Huddleston, James I; Galante, Jorge O

    2008-01-01

    Osteolysis is a multifactorial process dependent on surgical technique, implant design, patient factors, and material composition. Alternative bearing surfaces, such as highly cross-linked polyethylene, ceramic-on-ceramic, and metal-on-metal articular surfaces, have been introduced in an attempt to reduce wear and osteolysis following total hip arthroplasty. Intermediate-term follow-up data available suggest that the prevalence and severity of osteolysis may be reduced with these materials compared with conventional metal-on-polyethylene bearing surface couples. However, long-term data are presently unavailable; the future performance of these bearings awaits clinical validation.

  5. Toxicity of heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles on plants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghazala; Komatsu, Setsuko

    2016-08-01

    Plants are under the continual threat of changing climatic conditions that are associated with various types of abiotic stresses. In particular, heavy metal contamination is a major environmental concern that restricts plant growth. Plants absorb heavy metals along with essential elements from the soil and have evolved different strategies to cope with the accumulation of heavy metals. The use of proteomic techniques is an effective approach to investigate and identify the biological mechanisms and pathways affected by heavy metals and metal-containing nanoparticles. The present review focuses on recent advances and summarizes the results from proteomic studies aimed at understanding the response mechanisms of plants under heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress. Transport of heavy metal ions is regulated through the cell wall and plasma membrane and then sequestered in the vacuole. In addition, the role of different metal chelators involved in the detoxification and sequestration of heavy metals is critically reviewed, and changes in protein profiles of plants exposed to metal-containing nanoparticles are discussed in detail. Finally, strategies for gaining new insights into plant tolerance mechanisms to heavy metal and metal-containing nanoparticle stress are presented. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Plant Proteomics--a bridge between fundamental processes and crop production, edited by Dr. Hans-Peter Mock. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Balancing innovation and medical device regulation: the case of modern metal-on-metal hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Howard, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Due to problems with wear particle generation and subsequent loosening using conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements, there has been a shift toward alternative bearing systems, including metal-on-metal (MoM), for younger, more active patients with degenerative joint disease. Based on positive results from early short-term clinical studies, MoM hip replacements were readily adopted by orthopedic surgeons with thousands being implanted worldwide over the past decade. Unacceptably high revision rates reported by two national joint registries called into question the rigorousness of the regulatory approval process for these implants, particularly with respect to premarket data requirements to prove safety, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the regulatory pathway chosen. The purpose of this review was to investigate the balance between facilitating the introduction of new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment. The case of MoM hip replacement devices was used to frame the investigation and subsequent discussions. The regulatory approval processes and post-market surveillance requirements associated with three common MoM hip replacements (two resurfacings: the Birmingham and articular surface replacement and the articular surface replacement XL total hip replacement) were investigated. With respect to modern MoM hip replacement devices, the balance between facilitating the introduction of these new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment was not achieved. The lessons learned from these experiences have application beyond joint replacements to the introduction of new medical technologies in general, particularly for those who have a significant potential for harm. In this regard, a series of recommendations have been developed to contribute to the evolution of the medical device regulatory process.

  7. Balancing innovation and medical device regulation: the case of modern metal-on-metal hip replacements

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Jason J

    2016-01-01

    Due to problems with wear particle generation and subsequent loosening using conventional metal-on-polyethylene total hip replacements, there has been a shift toward alternative bearing systems, including metal-on-metal (MoM), for younger, more active patients with degenerative joint disease. Based on positive results from early short-term clinical studies, MoM hip replacements were readily adopted by orthopedic surgeons with thousands being implanted worldwide over the past decade. Unacceptably high revision rates reported by two national joint registries called into question the rigorousness of the regulatory approval process for these implants, particularly with respect to premarket data requirements to prove safety, effectiveness, and the appropriateness of the regulatory pathway chosen. The purpose of this review was to investigate the balance between facilitating the introduction of new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment. The case of MoM hip replacement devices was used to frame the investigation and subsequent discussions. The regulatory approval processes and post-market surveillance requirements associated with three common MoM hip replacements (two resurfacings: the Birmingham and articular surface replacement and the articular surface replacement XL total hip replacement) were investigated. With respect to modern MoM hip replacement devices, the balance between facilitating the introduction of these new medical technologies and the need to ensure safety and effectiveness through comprehensive regulatory assessment was not achieved. The lessons learned from these experiences have application beyond joint replacements to the introduction of new medical technologies in general, particularly for those who have a significant potential for harm. In this regard, a series of recommendations have been developed to contribute to the evolution of the medical device regulatory process

  8. Formability Evaluation of Sheet Metals Based on Global Strain Distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ling; Lin, Jianping; Min, Junying; Ye, You; Kang, Liugen

    2016-06-01

    According to the conventional methods for formability evaluation, e.g., forming limit curve (FLC), limit dome height, and total elongation, inconsistent results are observed when comparing the formability of four advanced high-strength steels (AHSS) with an ultimate tensile strength grade of 1000 MPa. The strain distribution analysis with the aid of digital image correlation technique shows that different uniform deformation capabilities of sheet metals under the same loading conditions are responsible for this inconsistency. In addition, metallurgical analysis suggests that inhomogeneous microstructure distribution and phase transformation during deformation in some materials play important roles in the uniform deformation capability of sheet metal. Limit strains on the commonly used FLC only relate to the major and minor strains of local deforming elements associated with the onset of necking. However, the formability of a sheet metal component is determined by the strain magnitudes of all deforming elements involved during the forming process. Hence, the formability evaluation of sheet metals from a global aspect is more applicable for practical engineering. A new method based on two indices (i.e., which represent global formability and uniform deformation capability, respectively) is proposed to evaluate the formability of sheet metals based on global strain distribution. The formability and evolution of deformation uniformity of the investigated AHSS at different stress states are studied with this new method. Compared with other formability evaluation methods, the new method is demonstrated to be more appropriate for practical engineering, and it is applicable to both in-plane and out-of-plane deformation. Additionally, the global formability of sheet metals can be more comprehensively understood with this new method.

  9. Progress on FP13 Total Cross Section Measurements Capability

    SciTech Connect

    Ullmann, John Leonard; Couture, Aaron Joseph; Koehler, Paul E.; Mocko, Michal; Mosby, Shea Morgan; Wender, Stephen Arthur

    2016-09-26

    An accurate knowledge of the neutron capture cross section is important for many applications. Experimental measurements are important since theoretical calculations of capture have been notoriously difficult, with the ratio of measured to calculated cross sections often a factor of 2 or more in the 10 keV to 1 MeV region. However, a direct measurement of capture cannot be made on many interesting radioactive nuclides because of their short half-life or backgrounds caused by their nuclear decay. On the other hand, neutron transmission measurements of the total cross section are feasible for a wide range of radioactive nuclides since the detectors are far from the sample, and often are less sensitive to decay radiation. The parameters extracted from a total cross section measurement, which include the average resonance spacing, the neutron strength function, and the average total radiation width, (Γγ), provide tight constraints on the calculation of the capture cross section, and when applied produce much more accurate results. These measurements can be made using the intense epithermal neutron flux at the Lujan Center on relatively small quantities of target material. It was the purpose of this project to investigate and develop the capability to make these measurements. A great deal of progress was made towards establishing this capability during 2016, including setting up the flight path and obtaining preliminary results, but more work remains to be done.

  10. Theodolite-camera videometrics system based on total station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Zhao-kun; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Xiao-hu

    2011-08-01

    A novel measuring system, named Theodolite-camera Videometrics System (TVS) based on total station, has been introduced in this paper, and the concept of theodolite-camera which is the key component of TVS has been proposed, it consists of non-metric camera and rotation platform generally, and can rotate horizontally and vertically. TVS based on total station is free of field control points, and the fields of view of its theodolite-cameras are nonfixed, thus TVS is qualified for targets with wide moving range or big structure. Theodolite-camera model has been analyzed and presented in detail in this paper. The calibration strategy adopted has been demonstrated to be accurate and feasible by both simulated and real data, and TVS has also been proved to be a valid, reliable, precise measuring system, and living up to expectations.

  11. Laboratory studies on the tribology of hard bearing hip prostheses: ceramic on ceramic and metal on metal.

    PubMed

    Vassiliou, K; Scholes, S C; Unsworth, A

    2007-01-01

    Total hip replacements offer relief to a great many patients every year around the world. With an expected service life of around 25 years on most devices, and with younger and younger patients undergoing this surgery, it is of great importance to understand the mechanisms of their function. Tribological testing of both conventional and hard bearing joint combinations have been conducted in many centres throughout the world, and, after being initially abandoned owing to premature failures, hard bearing combinations have been revisited as viable options for joint replacements. Improved design, manufacturing procedures, and material compositions have led to improved performance over first-generation designs in both metal-on-metal and ceramic-on-ceramic hip prostheses. This paper offers a review of the work conducted in an attempt to highlight the most important factors affecting joint performance and tribology of hard bearing combinations. The tribological performance of these joints is superior to that of conventional metal- or ceramic-on-polymer designs.

  12. Impact of Middle vs. Inferior Total Turbinectomy on Nasal Aerodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Dayal, Anupriya; Rhee, John S.; Garcia, Guilherme J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This computational study aims to: (1) Use virtual surgery to theoretically investigate the maximum possible change in nasal aerodynamics after turbinate surgery; (2) Quantify the relative contributions of the middle and inferior turbinates to nasal resistance and air conditioning; (3) Quantify to what extent total turbinectomy impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity. Study Design Virtual surgery and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Setting Academic tertiary medical center. Subjects and Methods Ten patients with inferior turbinate hypertrophy were studied. Three-dimensional models of their nasal anatomies were built based on pre-surgery computed tomography scans. Virtual surgery was applied to create models representing either total inferior turbinectomy (TIT) or total middle turbinectomy (TMT). Airflow, heat transfer, and humidity transport were simulated at a 15 L/min steady-state inhalation rate. The surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling was defined as the area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2. Results In both virtual total turbinectomy models, nasal resistance decreased and airflow increased. However, the surface area where heat fluxes exceed 50 W/cm2 either decreased (TIT) or did not change significantly (TMT), suggesting that total turbinectomy may reduce the stimulation of cold receptors by inspired air. Nasal heating and humidification efficiencies decreased significantly after both TIT and TMT. All changes were greater in the TIT models than in the TMT models. Conclusion TIT yields greater increases in nasal airflow, but also impairs the nasal air conditioning capacity to a greater extent than TMT. Radical resection of the turbinates may decrease the surface area stimulated by mucosal cooling. PMID:27165673

  13. Silicon-based coatings on niobium metal

    SciTech Connect

    Stupik, P.D.; Jervis, T.R.; Nastasi, M.; Donovan, M.M.; Barron, A.R. . Dept. of Chemistry; Los Alamos National Lab., NM; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1989-01-01

    Silicon coatings on niobium substrates were subjected to thermal, ion beam and laser mixing, and the effectiveness of the different methods for the synthesis of graded interfaces was compared. The resulting metal/silicon interfaces were characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and the Rutherford backscattering (RBS). 6 refs., 4 figs.

  14. Buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2001-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  15. Metal-On-Metal Bonding and Rebonding Revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Bogicevic, A.

    1999-02-23

    Density-functional calculations for a wide variety of metals show that, contrary to the rebonding view of adsorbate bonding, addimers do not have notably longer surface bonds than adatoms, do not reside farther above the surface, and do not meet the rebonding arguments for augmented mobility. Rebonding concepts are found to have some utility in explaining addimer stability.

  16. Metal containing material processing on coater/developer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawakami, Shinichiro; Mizunoura, Hiroshi; Matsunaga, Koichi; Hontake, Koichi; Nakamura, Hiroshi; Shimura, Satoru; Enomoto, Masashi

    2016-03-01

    Challenges of processing metal containing materials need to be addressed in order apply this technology to Behavior of metal containing materials on coater/developer processing including coating process, developer process and tool metal contamination is studied using CLEAN TRACKTM LITHIUS ProTM Z (Tokyo Electron Limited). Through this work, coating uniformity and coating film defectivity were studied. Metal containing material performance was comparable to conventional materials. Especially, new dispense system (NDS) demonstrated up to 80% reduction in coating defect for metal containing materials. As for processed wafer metal contamination, coated wafer metal contamination achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 3 materials. After develop metal contamination also achieved less than 1.0E10 atoms/cm2 with 2 materials. Furthermore, through the metal defect study, metal residues and metal contamination were reduced by developer rinse optimization.

  17. An Examination of the Association of Selected Toxic Metals with Total and Central Obesity Indices: NHANES 99-02

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Miguel A.; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M.; Allison, David B.

    2010-01-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:20948927

  18. An examination of the association of selected toxic metals with total and central obesity indices: NHANES 99-02.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Miguel A; Elobeid, Mai; Ruden, Douglas M; Allison, David B

    2010-09-01

    It is conceivable that toxic metals contribute to obesity by influencing various aspects of metabolism, such as by substituting for essential micronutrients and vital metals, or by inducing oxidative stress. Deficiency of the essential metal zinc decreases adiposity in humans and rodent models, whereas deficiencies of chromium, copper, iron, and magnesium increases adiposity. This study utilized the NHANES 99-02 data to explore the association between waist circumference and body mass index with the body burdens of selected toxic metals (barium, cadmium, cobalt, cesium, molybdenum, lead, antimony, thallium, and tungsten). Some of the associations were significant direct relationships (barium and thallium), and some of the associations were significant inverse relationships (cadmium, cobalt, cesium, and lead). Molybdenum, antimony, and tungsten had mostly insignificant associations with waist circumference and body mass index. This is novel result for most of the toxic metals studied, and a surprising result for lead because high stored lead levels have been shown to correlate with higher rates of diabetes, and obesity may be a key risk factor for developing diabetes. These associations suggest the possibility that environmental exposure to metals may contribute to variations in human weight gain/loss. Future research, such as prospective studies rather than the cross-sectional studies presented here, is warranted to confirm these findings.

  19. Annotated Bibliography of Selected NPRDC Publications on Total Quality Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    process deadly diseases of management, grated both with the leadership of improvement, the use of the management practices that repre- requirements for...34 t p a paith and the organization of work to that contribute to resistance to "deadly diseases on a par with deal with these "deadly diseases ...controlled by systems out- job characteristics (e.g., skill side of the chain of command The "total quality" concept variety, autonomy ) will result

  20. Total Quality Management (TQM): Training Module on "Overview of TQM."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leigh, David

    This module for a Total Quality Management (TQM) course was designed to give students a broad background in TQM and its influence on the business world in the United States. It can be used in a U.S. history class, an economics class, an English class, or as part of a TQM course for high school or community college students. The module covers the…

  1. Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yong; Warren, Scott C.; Fuller, Patrick; Grzybowski, Bartosz A.

    2016-07-01

    To develop electronic devices with novel functionalities and applications, various non-silicon-based materials are currently being explored. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics due to their small size, which can impart functions that are distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The use of semiconductor nanoparticles has already led to improvements in the efficiency of solar cells, the processability of transistors and the sensitivity of photodetectors, and the optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have led to similar advances in plasmonics and energy conversion. However, metals screen electric fields and this has, so far, prevented their use in the design of all-metal nanoparticle circuitry. Here, we show that simple electronic circuits can be made exclusively from metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands. In these materials, electronic currents are controlled by the ionic gradients of mobile counterions surrounding the ‘jammed’ nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-based electronic elements of the circuitry can be interfaced with metal nanoparticles capable of sensing various environmental changes (humidity, gas, the presence of various cations), creating electronic devices in which metal nanoparticles sense, process and ultimately report chemical signals. Because the constituent nanoparticles combine electronic and chemical sensing functions, we term these systems ‘chemoelectronic’. The circuits have switching times comparable to those of polymer electronics, selectively transduce parts-per-trillion chemical changes into electrical signals, perform logic operations, consume little power (on the scale of microwatts), and are mechanically flexible. They are also ‘green’, in the sense that they comprise non-toxic nanoparticles cast at room temperature from alcohol solutions.

  2. Chemoelectronic circuits based on metal nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yong; Warren, Scott C; Fuller, Patrick; Grzybowski, Bartosz A

    2016-07-01

    To develop electronic devices with novel functionalities and applications, various non-silicon-based materials are currently being explored. Nanoparticles have unique characteristics due to their small size, which can impart functions that are distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The use of semiconductor nanoparticles has already led to improvements in the efficiency of solar cells, the processability of transistors and the sensitivity of photodetectors, and the optical and catalytic properties of metal nanoparticles have led to similar advances in plasmonics and energy conversion. However, metals screen electric fields and this has, so far, prevented their use in the design of all-metal nanoparticle circuitry. Here, we show that simple electronic circuits can be made exclusively from metal nanoparticles functionalized with charged organic ligands. In these materials, electronic currents are controlled by the ionic gradients of mobile counterions surrounding the 'jammed' nanoparticles. The nanoparticle-based electronic elements of the circuitry can be interfaced with metal nanoparticles capable of sensing various environmental changes (humidity, gas, the presence of various cations), creating electronic devices in which metal nanoparticles sense, process and ultimately report chemical signals. Because the constituent nanoparticles combine electronic and chemical sensing functions, we term these systems 'chemoelectronic'. The circuits have switching times comparable to those of polymer electronics, selectively transduce parts-per-trillion chemical changes into electrical signals, perform logic operations, consume little power (on the scale of microwatts), and are mechanically flexible. They are also 'green', in the sense that they comprise non-toxic nanoparticles cast at room temperature from alcohol solutions.

  3. Asymptomatic pseudotumours after metal-on-metal hip resurfacing show little change within one year.

    PubMed

    van der Weegen, W; Brakel, K; Horn, R J; Hoekstra, H J; Sijbesma, T; Pilot, P; Nelissen, R G H H

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the natural course of unrevised asymptomatic pseudotumours after metal-on-metal (MoM) hip resurfacing during a six- to 12-month follow-up period. We used repeated metal artefact reduction sequence (MARS)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), serum metal ion analysis and clinical examination to study 14 unrevised hips (mean patient age 52.7 years, 46 to 68, 5 female, 7 male) with a pseudotumour and 23 hips (mean patient age 52.8 years, 38 to 69, 7 female, 16 male) without a pseudotumour. The mean post-operative time to the first MARS-MRI scan was 4.3 years (2.2 to 8.3), and mean time between the first and second MARS-MRI scan was eight months (6 to 12). At the second MRI scan, the grade of severity of the pseudotumour had not changed in 35 hips. One new pseudotumour (Anderson C2 score, moderate) was observed, and one pseudotumour was downgraded from C2 (moderate) to C1 (mild). In general, the characteristics of the pseudotumours hardly changed. Repeated MARS-MRI scans within one year in patients with asymptomatic pseudotumours after MoM hip resurfacing showed little or no variation. In 23 patients without pseudotumour, one new asymptomatic pseudotumour was detected. This is the first longitudinal study on the natural history of pseudotumours using MARS-MRI scans in hip resurfacing, and mirrors recent results for 28 mm diameter MoM total hip replacement.

  4. Vascular endothelial cells minimize the total force on their nuclei.

    PubMed Central

    Hazel, A L; Pedley, T J

    2000-01-01

    The vascular endothelium is a cellular monolayer that lines the arterial walls. It plays a vital role in the initiation and development of atherosclerosis, an occlusive arterial disease responsible for 50% of deaths in the Western world. The focal nature of the disease suggests that hemodynamic forces are an important factor in its pathogenesis. This has led to the investigation of the effects of mechanical forces on the endothelial cells themselves. It has been found that endothelial cells do respond to stresses induced by the flowing blood; in particular, they elongate and align with an imposed flow direction. In this paper, we calculate the distribution of force exerted on a three-dimensional hump, representing the raised cell nucleus, by a uniform shear flow. It is found that, for a nonaxisymmetric ellipsoidal hump, the least total force is experienced when the hump is aligned with the flow. Furthermore, for a hump of fixed volume, there is a specific aspect ratio combination that results in the least total force upon the hump, (0.38:2.2:1.0; height:length:width). This is approximately the same as the average aspect ratio taken up by the cell nuclei in vivo (0.27:2.23:1.0). It is possible, therefore, that the cells respond to the flow in such a way as to minimize the total force on their nuclei. PMID:10620272

  5. Metalated nucleotide chemisorption on hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Benedetti, Michele; Antonucci, Daniela; De Castro, Federica; Girelli, Chiara R; Lelli, Marco; Roveri, Norberto; Fanizzi, Francesco P

    2015-12-01

    The experiments here reported evidence on the importance of the residual charge of a nucleotide derivative, for the adsorption on nHAP (hydroxyapatite nanocrystals), in water solution. We found that the simple presence of phosphates on the nucleotide derivative does not guarantee adsorption on nHAP. On the other hand, we demonstrated that a cationic or neutral charge on a nucleotide derivative produces a strongly reduced chemical adsorption (chemisorption) whereas, in the presence of a net negative charge, relevant adsorption on nHAP is observed. The number of phosphates can only modulate the adsorption efficiency of a molecule provided that this latter bears an overall negative charge. The neutral zwitterionic nucleotide Pt(II) complexes, bearing negatively charged phosphates, are unable to give stable chemisorption. Previous considerations are important to model the binding ability of phosphate bearing nucleotide derivatives or molecules on hydroxyapatite. The findings reported in the present paper could be relevant in bone tissue targeting or nHAP mediated drug delivery.

  6. The influence of nitrilotriacetate on heavy metal uptake of lettuce and ryegrass

    SciTech Connect

    Kulli, B.; Balmer, M.; Krebs, R.; Lothenbach, B.; Geiger, G.; Schulin, R.

    1999-12-01

    Metal uptake and removal from the soil by plants may be a useful measure to remediate contaminated soils. These processes can be enhanced by adding metal chelators to soil. The authors investigated the effect of nitrolotriacetate (NTA) and urea on the uptake of Cd, Cu, and Zn by lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. ev. Orion) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. ev. Bastion) in pot experiments. Nitric acid-extractable heavy metal concentrations in the contaminated soil were 2 mg Cd, 530 mg Cu, and 700 mg Zn/kg. Three NTA treatments were compared with two urea treatments, and a control. Nitrilotriacetate and urea increased the NaNO{sub 3}-extractable soil concentrations of the three metals. At the highest NTA dose, metal concentrations in the aboveground plant biomass was 4 to 24 times greater than in the control plants. While NTA increased plant metal concentrations, it reduced plant matter production. At lower doses, this effect was small. At the highest NTA dose, plant growth was almost completely inhibited. Severe visual symptoms indicated metal toxicity as the likely cause. The urea treatments generally increased the plant matter production. Total metal uptake was in general larger at the lowest or at the intermediate NTA dose than at the highest doses. Little additional total metal uptake was achieved with NTA treatments than with urea. Compared with the controls, neither NTA nor urea enhanced total uptake under the given conditions by more than threefold.

  7. Effects of background noise on total noise annoyance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willshire, K. F.

    1987-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to assess the effects of combined community noise sources on annoyance. The first experiment baseline relationships between annoyance and noise level for three community noise sources (jet aircraft flyovers, traffic and air conditioners) presented individually. Forty eight subjects evaluated the annoyance of each noise source presented at four different noise levels. Results indicated the slope of the linear relationship between annoyance and noise level for the traffic noise was significantly different from that of aircraft and of air conditioner noise, which had equal slopes. The second experiment investigated annoyance response to combined noise sources, with aircraft noise defined as the major noise source and traffic and air conditioner noise as background noise sources. Effects on annoyance of noise level differences between aircraft and background noise for three total noise levels and for both background noise sources were determined. A total of 216 subjects were required to make either total or source specific annoyance judgements, or a combination of the two, for a wide range of combined noise conditions.

  8. A note concerning multivariate total positivity on the simplex

    SciTech Connect

    Rayens, W.S.

    1996-12-31

    Although compositional data arise frequently in many different disciplines, relatively little is known about families of parametric densities that reside on a simplex, which is the natural sample space for such data. An exception to this is a recent paper by Gupta and Richards wherein the Liouville family is defined and discussed. They sought to characterize dependence properties within this new family using, among other ideas, multivariate total positivity. Further investigation reveals that their results are not very useful. In fact, it is shown that there does not exist a Liouville density, as defined by Gupta and Richards, that is also multivariate totally positive of order 2. Fatal flaws associated with an obvious alternative to their definition are discussed.

  9. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Kuo, Chia-Liang; Su, Yen-Hao; Chen, Shin-Hau; Lin, Kuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ping-Hung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented. PMID:28773545

  10. New Insights into Wear and Biological Effects of Metal-on-Metal Bearings

    PubMed Central

    Catelas, Isabelle; Wimmer, Markus A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Despite the renewed interest in metal-on-metal implants in the past two decades, the underlying wear mechanisms and biological effects are still not fully understood. Methods: This paper first reviews the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings, bringing new insights into the interaction of wear and corrosion, and putting the characteristics and the potential origin of wear particles in perspective with the proposed wear mechanisms. It then summarizes the current knowledge on the biological effects of particles and metal ions in relation to these wear mechanisms. Results: Tribochemical reactions play an important role in the wear of metal-on-metal joints. The generated tribomaterial, which progressively forms by mechanical mixing of the uppermost nanocrystalline zone of the metal surface with proteins from the synovial fluid, governs the wear rate and influences the corrosive behavior of the bearing. Nanometer-sized wear particles may initially originate from the passivation layer covering the implant surface and then detach from this tribolayer. The inflammatory response observed surrounding metal-on-metal implants appears to be lower than that around metal-on-polyethylene implants. However, metallic byproducts, which can complex with proteins, may lead to a T lymphocyte-mediated hypersensitivity response. Conclusions: The tribolayer appears to have beneficial effects on the wear rate. Much information has been gained on wear particle characteristics, but the exact mechanisms of particle detachment remain to be further elucidated. Excessive wear along with a hypersensitivity response may be at the origin of the early adverse tissue reactions that have been recently reported in some patients with metal-on-metal implants. Clinical Relevance: Future development of new methods to improve the tribolayer retention and optimize the tribocorrosive properties of the implant may minimize the clinical impact of implant wear and immune responses. PMID:21543694

  11. Impact of total laryngectomy on return to work.

    PubMed

    Costa, Jose Miguel; López, Montserrat; García, Jacinto; León, Xavier; Quer, Miquel

    2017-05-17

    Total laryngectomy is one of the most mutilating oncological operations. There are no specific studies evaluating return to work after this surgery. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 116 laryngectomized patients who were disease- free and had a minimum follow-up of 2 years from total laryngectomy. A survey was conducted to find out their employment situation before and after surgery. At the time of surgery, 62 (53%) were working, 40 (35%) were retired and 14 (12%) were in a disability situation. 60% had professions with low qualification requirements, the largest group being construction workers. Of the 62 patients active at the time of total laryngectomy, 29 became inactive and 33 (53%) maintained their work activity. The most important factors in maintaining work activity were the level of professional qualification and the method of vocal rehabilitation. Eighty percent of the patients with high-intermediate qualification maintained their jobs, compared to 35% of those with low professional qualifications (P<.001). Seventy percent of the patients with voice prostheses maintained their work activity, compared to 31% of the patients rehabilitated with oesophageal voice (P=.004). Logistic regression confirmed these as independent variables for continuing to work. This is the first study that analyzes the impact of total laryngectomy on the work situation. The most important factors for a return to work were having a high-intermediate skilled job and the use of voice prosthesis as a method of vocal rehabilitation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Cirugía de Cabeza y Cuello. All rights reserved.

  12. Metal Contacts on Low-Dimensional Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Hui

    As the scaling of the microelectronics is reaching nano regime, low-dimensional materials have been of increasing interest for future electronics applications. The low-dimensional materials, such as Si nanowires (SiNWs), carbon nanotubes (CNTs), graphene and transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), not only provide small body for further-scaled devices but also bring about new intrinsic properties for application in future optoelectronics, spintronics and so on. However, the small dimensions add significant difficulty for reducing contact resistance in the nanoelectronic devices. This dissertation presents a study of the metal contacts on low-dimensional materials. The focus of this work is on SiNWs and monolayer or few-layer MoS2. First, the metal contact on SiNW field effect transistors (FETs) was studied with a gate assisted Kelvin structure. In this work, I fabricated ambipolar SiNW FETs with Al contacts. The ambipolar characteristics and the gate assisted Kelvin structure enabled the measurement of the contact properties of both electron and hole flows at the same contact. In this work I found that the contact performance is affected by the carrier type that flows in the channel as well as the current direction. In addition, an inverter was designed and realized on a single SiNW leveraged by the ambipolar FET characteristics. Then, I have studied metal contacts on MoS2, which is one of typical two-dimensional semiconductors. In the first part of this work, Ag and Ti contacts on exfoliated MoS2 monolayers and few-layers are fabricated, characterized and analyzed. Based on the current-voltage (I-V) measurement, surface morphology and Raman spectroscopic measurement, I found that interface morphology plays an important role on the contact performance in MoS2 FETs. In the second part of this work, gate-assisted contact measurement was carried out on chemical vapor deposited low-dimensional MoS 2 layers. The contact resistance and current crowding have been

  13. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints

    PubMed Central

    Koseki, Hironobu; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Higuchi, Takashi; Sunagawa, Sinya; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII) may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa), a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and prevented the adhesion of wear debris. The results of this study suggest that the CII surface stabilizes the wear status due to the low friction coefficient and low infiltration of partner materials, and these properties also prevent the adhesion of wear debris and inhibit excessive wear. Carbon is considered to be biologically inert; therefore, CII is anticipated to be applicable to the bearing surfaces of MoM prostheses. PMID:28615939

  14. Effect of carbon ion implantation on the tribology of metal-on-metal bearings for artificial joints.

    PubMed

    Koseki, Hironobu; Tomita, Masato; Yonekura, Akihiko; Higuchi, Takashi; Sunagawa, Sinya; Baba, Koumei; Osaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Metal-on-metal (MoM) bearings have become popular due to a major advantage over metal-on-polymer bearings for total hip arthroplasty in that the larger femoral head and hydrodynamic lubrication of the former reduce the rate of wear. However, concerns remain regarding adverse reactions to metal debris including metallosis caused by metal wear generated at the taper-head interface and another modular junction. Our group has hypothesized that carbon ion implantation (CII) may improve metal wear properties. The purpose of this study was to investigate the wear properties and friction coefficients of CII surfaces with an aim to ultimately apply these surfaces to MoM bearings in artificial joints. CII was applied to cobalt-chromium-molybdenum (Co-Cr-Mo) alloy substrates by plasma source ion implantation. The substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy and a 3D measuring laser microscope. Sliding contact tests were performed with a simple geometry pin-on-plate wear tester at a load of 2.5 N, a calculated contact pressure of 38.5 MPa (max: 57.8 MPa), a reciprocating velocity of 30 mm/s, a stroke length of 60 mm, and a reciprocating cycle count of 172,800 cycles. The surfaces of the CII substrates were generally featureless with a smooth surface topography at the same level as untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy. Compared to the untreated Co-Cr-Mo alloy, the CII-treated bearings had lower friction coefficients, higher resistance to catastrophic damage, and prevented the adhesion of wear debris. The results of this study suggest that the CII surface stabilizes the wear status due to the low friction coefficient and low infiltration of partner materials, and these properties also prevent the adhesion of wear debris and inhibit excessive wear. Carbon is considered to be biologically inert; therefore, CII is anticipated to be applicable to the bearing surfaces of MoM prostheses.

  15. The chemical form of metallic debris in tissues surrounding metal-on-metal hips with unexplained failure.

    PubMed

    Hart, Alister J; Quinn, Paul D; Sampson, Barry; Sandison, Ann; Atkinson, Kirk D; Skinner, John A; Powell, Jonathan J; Mosselmans, J Fred W

    2010-11-01

    Implant-derived material from metal-on-metal (MOM) hip arthroplasties may be responsible for an unexplained tissue inflammatory response. The chemical form of the metal species in the tissues is predominantly chromium (Cr), but the currently used techniques have not been able to determine whether this is Cr(III) phosphate or Cr(III) oxide. The analytical challenge must overcome the fact that the metal in the tissues is at a relatively low concentration and tissue preparation or the microscopy beam used can affect the results. Microfocus X-ray spectroscopy using a synchrotron beam is useful in addressing both these issues. Using this technique we compared tissue from failed MOM hips with: (1) tissue from metal-on-polyethylene (MOP) hips; (2) chemical standards; (3) metal discs cut from MOM hips. The most abundant implant-related species in all MOM hip tissues contained Cr. Comparison with standards revealed the chemical form was Cr(III) phosphate, which did not vary with manufacturer type (four types analysed) or level of blood metal ions. Cobalt (Co) and molybdenum (Mo) were occasionally present in areas of high Cr. Co was normally found in a metallic state in the tissue, while Mo was found in an oxidized state. The variety of metallic species may have arisen from corrosion, wear or a combination of both. No evidence of Cr(VI) was seen in the tissues examined.

  16. Atomic Manipulation on Metal Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ternes, Markus; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    Half a century ago, Nobel Laureate Richard Feynman asked in a now-famous lecture what would happen if we could precisely position individual atoms at will [R.P. Feynman, Eng. Sci. 23, 22 (1960)]. This dream became a reality some 30 years later when Eigler and Schweizer were the first to position individual Xe atoms at will with the probe tip of a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM) on a Ni surface [D.M. Eigler, E.K. Schweizer, Nature 344, 524 (1990)].

  17. Clinical failure analysis of contemporary ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacements.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Jan-M; Gascoyne, Trevor C; Guenther, Leah E; Allen, Andrew; Hedden, David R; Turgeon, Thomas R; Bohm, Eric R

    2013-08-01

    The present study investigates the performance of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacements by combining a retrieval analysis with a survivorship analysis to elucidate mechanisms that led to clinical failure. Semiquantitative surface damage assessment, contact profilometry, contour measurements, and scanning electron microscopy were performed to characterize the types and quantify the extent of surface damage on the retrieved ceramic components. The implantation period was positively correlated with both damage scores of the femoral heads (R = 0.573, p < 0.001) and the acetabular cups (R = 0.592, p < 0.001). Increased maximal out-of-roundness values of the femoral heads correlated with both increased metal transfer damage score (R = 0.384, p = 0.023) and increased stripe damage score (R = 0.729, p ≤ 0.001) of the acetabular liners. The damage rate (damage score/year) for both the retrieved heads and acetabular liners was at least 2.2-fold greater at inclination angles of >45° than the damage rate at inclination angles of ≤45°. For the retrieved femoral heads only, the linear wear rate of 25.5 ± 21.3 µm/year at inclination angles of >45° was 6-fold greater than the linear wear rate of 4.2 ± 2.3 µm/year at inclination angles of ≤45°. Metal transfer on the ceramic bearing surface could possibly contribute to fluid-film starvation and, in combination with an increased inclination angle, may facilitate an adhesive wear mechanism associated with stripe surface damage. At our institution, the clinical survivorship of ceramic-on-ceramic total hip replacements was 98.9% (a total of 9 out of 815 patients were revised within 10 years after total hip arthroplasty) with revision as the end point, suggesting their safe use in younger patients.

  18. The realization of half-metal and spin-semiconductor for metal adatoms on arsenene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Geng; Zhao, Yinchang; Zeng, Shuming; Ni, Jun

    2016-12-01

    First-principles calculations have been performed to study the adsorption of 15 different metal adatoms on silicenelike arsenene. The adsorption energies, geometries, density of states, dipole moments, work functions, net magnetic moments and Bader charges transferred from adatoms to arsenene sheet are calculated. All of the 15 metal adatoms on arsenene have binding energies larger than cohesive energies of the bulk metal, implying that stable adsorbates can be formed. As a result of the localized states originating from adatoms, the adsorption systems show a rich variety of electronic properties, such as metal, half-metal, semiconducting, and spin-semiconducting behaviors. The Co doped arsenene displays a half-metal property. The adsorption of Cu, Ag, and Au turns semiconducting arsenene into a narrow gap spin-semiconductor. These results indicate potential applications of functionalizations of silicenelike arsenene with metal adatoms, in particular for spintronics and dilute magnetic semiconductor materials.

  19. Microwave Imaging on Metal Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolliver, C. L.

    1998-01-01

    This final report for the project discusses the attempts to model, using different methods, microwave image reconstruction. Maximum Entropy Method was not successful. Attempts to use Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) got some good results after initial failure. SVD is based upon a theory of linear algebra, to the effect that any M X N Matrix A whose number of rows M is greater than or equal to its number of columns, N can be written as the product of an M X N column-orthogonal matrix U, an N X N diagonal Matrix, W, with m positive or zero elements (the singular values) and the transposition of an N X N orthogonal matrix V. In microwave imaging, the scattered fields can be expressed by the induced current distribution. The SVD method required more contiguous computer memory than was available. Work was also done on the Conjugate Gradient Method (CGM), which didn't work well when tried earlier. It was found that separation of the imaginary part and the real part during calculation may work. This work was considered incomplete as of the end of the grant period.

  20. Anharmonic Vibrational Spectroscopy on Metal Transition Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latouche, Camille; Bloino, Julien; Barone, Vincenzo

    2014-06-01

    Advances in hardware performance and the availability of efficient and reliable computational models have made possible the application of computational spectroscopy to ever larger molecular systems. The systematic interpretation of experimental data and the full characterization of complex molecules can then be facilitated. Focusing on vibrational spectroscopy, several approaches have been proposed to simulate spectra beyond the double harmonic approximation, so that more details become available. However, a routine use of such tools requires the preliminary definition of a valid protocol with the most appropriate combination of electronic structure and nuclear calculation models. Several benchmark of anharmonic calculations frequency have been realized on organic molecules. Nevertheless, benchmarks of organometallics or inorganic metal complexes at this level are strongly lacking despite the interest of these systems due to their strong emission and vibrational properties. Herein we report the benchmark study realized with anharmonic calculations on simple metal complexes, along with some pilot applications on systems of direct technological or biological interest.

  1. Hip Squeaking after Ceramic-on-ceramic Total Hip Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Guo-Liang; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Yan; Ma, Qi; Weng, Xi-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aimed to review the characteristics and influencing factors of squeaking after ceramic-on-ceramic (CoC) total hip arthroplasty (THA) and to analyze the possible mechanisms of the audible noise. Data Sources: The data analyzed in this review were based on articles from PubMed and Web of Science. Study Selection: The articles selected for review were original articles and reviews found based on the following search terms: “total hip arthroplasty”, “ceramic-on-ceramic”, “hip squeaking”, and “hip noise.” Results: The mechanism of the squeaking remains unknown. The possible explanations included stripe wear, edge loading, a third body, fracture of the ceramic liner, and resonance of the prosthesis components. Squeaking occurrence is influenced by patient, surgical, and implant factors. Conclusions: Most studies indicated that squeaking after CoC THA was the consequence of increasing wear or impingement, caused by prosthesis design, patient characteristics, or surgical factors. However, as conflicts exist among different articles, the major reasons for the squeaking remain to be identified. PMID:27453238

  2. ``Electric growth`` of metal overlayers on semiconductor substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Cho, J.H. |; Niu, Q.; Shih, C.K.; Suo, Z.

    1998-02-01

    In this article, the authors present the main results from their recent studies of metal overlayer growth on semiconductor substrates. They show that a variety of novel phenomena can exist in such systems, resulting from several competing interactions. The confined motion of the conduction electrons within the metal overlayer can mediate a surprisingly long-range repulsive force between the metal-semiconductor interface and the growth front, acting to stabilize the overlayer. Electron transfer from the overlayer to the substrate leads to an attractive force between the two interfaces, acting to destabilize the overlayer. Interface-induced Friedel oscillations in electron density can further impose an oscillatory modulation onto the two previous interactions. These three competing factors, of all electronic nature, can make a flat metal overlayer critically, marginally, or magically stable, or totally unstable against roughening. The authors further show that, for many systems, these electronic effects can easily win over the effect of stress. First-principles studies of a few representative systems support the main features of the present electronic growth concept.

  3. Study of total ionizing dose radiation effects on enclosed gate transistors in a commercial CMOS technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong-Mei; Wang, Zhi-Hua; Huangfu, Li-Ying; Gou, Qiu-Jing

    2007-12-01

    This paper studies the total ionizing dose radiation effects on MOS (metal-oxide-semiconductor) transistors with normal and enclosed gate layout in a standard commercial CMOS (compensate MOS) bulk process. The leakage current, threshold voltage shift, and transconductance of the devices were monitored before and after γ-ray irradiation. The parameters of the devices with different layout under different bias condition during irradiation at different total dose are investigated. The results show that the enclosed layout not only effectively eliminates the leakage but also improves the performance of threshold voltage and transconductance for NMOS (n-type channel MOS) transistors. The experimental results also indicate that analogue bias during irradiation is the worst case for enclosed gate NMOS. There is no evident different behaviour observed between normal PMOS (p-type channel MOS) transistors and enclosed gate PMOS transistors.

  4. Graphene growth on coinage-metal substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarty, Kevin

    2012-02-01

    The low solubility of carbon in Cu and Au gives these coinage metals advantages as substrates for graphene growth. Namely, growth occurs exclusively by surface processes, avoiding the complications of C segregating from the bulk of the metal substrate. However, the relatively weak interactions of Cu and Au with graphene can lead to mosaic films having large ranges of in-plane orientations. This talk will emphasize understanding the relationship between the microstructure of graphene sheets and the mechanisms of island nucleation and growth. We use low-energy electron microscopy (LEEM) to observe growth. We find that bunches of substrate steps on Cu(111) can generate misorientation boundaries in a graphene sheet as it overgrows the steps [1]. Thus, growth on rough Cu(111) leads to large rotational disorder. Optimized growth on smooth Cu(111) and Au(111), however, produces islands all in close registry to a single in-plane orientation. On Cu(100), the most abundant grain orientation of commercial Cu foils, graphene islands align around two equivalent in-plane Cu directions [2]. This inherent source of disorder from symmetry mismatch is further compounded by large spreads of orientation around the equivalent directions. The substrate choice also affects the microscopic growth mechanism. The rate that C diffuses to the graphene islands limits growth on Cu(111) [and likely on Au(111)]. The sheet edges are then morphologically unstable, with dendritic islands at low temperature and six-fold loped islands at higher temperature. In contrast, growth on Cu(100) is limited by the rate of C attaching to the graphene edge. This mechanism, combined with the symmetry mismatch, produces two-fold islands. Finally, the coinage metals will be compared to other transition metal substrates. [4pt] [1] Phys. Rev. B 84, p. 155425 (2011). [0pt] [2] Nano Lett. 10, p. 4890 (2010).

  5. Effects of historic metal(loid) pollution on earthworm communities.

    PubMed

    Lévêque, Thibaut; Capowiez, Yvan; Schreck, Eva; Mombo, Stéphane; Mazzia, Christophe; Foucault, Yann; Dumat, Camille

    2015-04-01

    The effects of metal(loid)s (Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, As and Sb) from atmospheric fallout on earthworm communities were investigated in a fallow meadow located close to a 60-year-old lead recycling factory. We examined abundance and species diversity as well as the ratio of adult-to-juvenile earthworms, along five 140 m parallel transects. The influence of soil pollution on the earthworm community at the plot scale was put in context by measuring some physico-chemical soil characteristics (OM content, N content, pH), as well as total and bioavailable metal(loid) concentrations. Earthworms were absent in the highly polluted area (concentration from 30,000 to 5000 mg Pb·kg(-1) of dried soil), just near the factory (0-30 m area). A clear and almost linear relationship was observed between the proportion of juvenile versus mature earthworms and the pollution gradient, with a greater proportion of adults in the most polluted zones (only adult earthworms were observed from 30 to 50 m). Apporectodea longa was the main species present just near the smelter (80% of the earthworms were A. longa from 30 to 50 m). The earthworm density was found to increase progressively from five individuals·m(-2) at 30 m to 135 individuals·m(-2) at 140 m from the factory. On average, metal(loid) accumulation in earthworm tissues decreased linearly with distance from the factory. The concentration of exchangeable metal(loid)s in earthworm surface casts was higher than that of the overall soil. Finally, our field study clearly demonstrated that metal(loid) pollution has a direct impact on earthworm communities (abundance, diversity and proportion of juveniles) especially when Pb concentrations in soil were higher than 2050 mg·kg(-1). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Limits on quality of life in communication after total laryngectomy.

    PubMed

    Chaves, Adriana Di Donato; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Balata, Patrícia Maria Mendes; Santos, Veridiana da Silva; de Lima, Leilane Maria; de Souza, Síntia Ribeiro; da Silva, Hilton Justino

    2012-10-01

     Among people affected by cancer, the impairment of quality of life of people affected by cancer can cause have devastating effects. The self-image of patients after post-laryngectomyzed patients may be find themselves compromised, affecting the quality of life in this population.  To characterize quality of life in related to communication in people who have undergone went total laryngectomy surgery.  This is an observational study, with a cross-sectional and descriptive series. Design of series study. The sample were comprised 15 patients interviewed the period from January to February of 2011. We used the Quality Protocol for Life Communication in Post-laryngectomy adapted from Bertocello (2004); which this questionnaire contains 55 questions. The protocol was organized from the nature of using responses classified as positive and negative aspects, proposals in with respect to five 5 communication domains: family relationships, social relationships, personal analysis; morphofunctional aspect, and use of writing. To promote and guarantee the autonomy of the respondents, was examiners made use of used assistive technology with the Visual Response Scale.  The responses that total laryngectomy compromises the quality of life in communication amounted to 463 occurrences (65.7%), and that who responses suggesting good quality of life were represented with amounted to 242 occurrences (34.3%), from a total of 705 occurrencesresponses. From Among the five 5 Communication domains, four 4 had percentages of above 63% for occurrences of negative content for impact on communication. Appearance Morphofunctional appearance gave the had the highest percentage of negative content, amounting to 77.3% of cases.  The results showed important limitations of a personal and social nature due to poor communication with their peers. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary interventions that aim to minimize the entrapment of negative impact on these people communication

  7. Limits on quality of life in communication after total laryngectomy

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Adriana Di Donato; Pernambuco, Leandro de Araújo; Balata, Patrícia Maria Mendes; Santos, Veridiana da Silva; de Lima, Leilane Maria; de Souza, Síntia Ribeiro; da Silva, Hilton Justino

    2012-01-01

    Summary Introduction: Among people affected by cancer, the impairment of quality of life of people affected by cancer can cause have devastating effects. The self-image of patients after post-laryngectomyzed patients may be find themselves compromised, affecting the quality of life in this population. Objective: To characterize quality of life in related to communication in people who have undergone went total laryngectomy surgery. Methods: This is an observational study, with a cross-sectional and descriptive series. Design of series study. The sample were comprised 15 patients interviewed the period from January to February of 2011. We used the Quality Protocol for Life Communication in Post-laryngectomy adapted from Bertocello (2004); which this questionnaire contains 55 questions. The protocol was organized from the nature of using responses classified as positive and negative aspects, proposals in with respect to five 5 communication domains: family relationships, social relationships, personal analysis; morphofunctional aspect, and use of writing. To promote and guarantee the autonomy of the respondents, was examiners made use of used assistive technology with the Visual Response Scale. Results: The responses that total laryngectomy compromises the quality of life in communication amounted to 463 occurrences (65.7%), and that who responses suggesting good quality of life were represented with amounted to 242 occurrences (34.3%), from a total of 705 occurrencesresponses. From Among the five 5 Communication domains, four 4 had percentages of above 63% for occurrences of negative content for impact on communication. Appearance Morphofunctional appearance gave the had the highest percentage of negative content, amounting to 77.3% of cases. Conclusions: The results showed important limitations of a personal and social nature due to poor communication with their peers. Thus, there is a need for multidisciplinary interventions that aim to minimize the

  8. Speciation analysis of selected metals and determination of their total contents in paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples: An approach to investigate the permeability of the human blood-cerebrospinal fluid-barrier.

    PubMed

    Nischwitz, Volker; Berthele, Achim; Michalke, Bernhard

    2008-10-10

    Neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease are gaining increasing relevance in our aging society. However, the complex multifactorial mechanisms of these diseases are not sufficiently understood yet. Several studies indicate that metal ions play an important role in the promotion of these diseases. Consequently, the transport pathways of metals and their species to the brain are of special interest. Following oral or inhalative uptake metals are absorbed and distributed via the blood stream in the body. Transport into the brain requires crossing of the neural barriers. Our study focuses on the investigation of the permeability of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-barrier for selected metals (Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Mg and Ca). For the first time paired human serum and CSF samples obtained from a neurological department were characterised for total metal concentrations and metal species. For CSF few data are available in the literature on total metal contents and applications of element speciation analysis in CSF samples are rare. In our study mean CSF/serum ratios (n=29) were 0.7 for Mn, 0.02 for Fe, 0.02 for Cu, 0.03 for Zn, 1.3 for Mg and 0.5 for Ca. Size exclusion chromatography (SEC) online with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry was further developed for the size characterisation of the metal species in CSF and serum with limits of detection of 0.4microgL(-1) for Fe, 0.01microgL(-1) for Mn, 0.2microgL(-1) for Cu, 0.2microgL(-1) for Zn, 0.6microgL(-1) for Mg and 3.8microgL(-1) for Ca in the eluate from the HPLC column. Apart from Mn the application of this technique has not been published for metal speciation in CSF, yet. In the case of some Mn species it turned out that methanol, which was contained in the mobile phase of a SEC method previously published from our group on qualitative characterisation of Mn species, was interfering with the quantification. The modified method developed in this work (with NaCl but without

  9. Unraveling transition metal dissolution of Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 (NCM 111) in lithium ion full cells by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evertz, Marco; Horsthemke, Fabian; Kasnatscheew, Johannes; Börner, Markus; Winter, Martin; Nowak, Sascha

    2016-10-01

    In this work we investigated the transition metal dissolution of the layered cathode material Li1.04Ni1/3Co1/3Mn1/3O2 in dependence on the cycle number and cut-off cell voltage during charge by using the total reflection X-ray fluorescence technique for the elemental analysis of the specific lithium ion battery degradation products. We could show that with ongoing cycling transition metal dissolution from the cathode increased over time. However, it was less pronounced at 4.3 V compared to elevated charge cut-off voltages of 4.6 V. After a maximum of 100 cycles, we detected an overall transition metal loss of 0.2 wt‰ in relation to the whole cathode active material for cells cycled to 4.3 V. At an increased charge cut-off voltage of 4.6 V, 4.5 wt‰ transition metal loss in relation to the whole cathode active material could be detected. The corresponding transition metal dissolution induced capacity loss at the cathode could thus be attributed to 1.2 mAh g-1. Compared to the overall capacity loss of 80 mAh g-1 of the complete cell after 100 galvanostatic charge/discharge cycles the value is quite low. Hence, the overall full cell capacity fade cannot be assigned exclusively to the transition metal dissolution induced cathode fading.

  10. One the influence of metal lattice diffusion on oxidation of metals and alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbs, G.B.

    1981-08-01

    The influence of metal lattice diffusion on oxidation kinetics is discussed for two single cases: (i) a pure metal, where vacancies generated at the scale-metal interface diffuse to sinks within the metal; and (ii) a binary alloy of metals A and B, with A forming the more stable oxide. In the first case it is shown that vacancy effects are generally negligible. Analyses suggesting the contrary have failed to replace atom concentration gradients by the more appropriate chemical potential gradients. For the alloy, Wagner's condition for breakdown of A oxide is confirmed. It is shown that growth of A oxide cannot be controlled by diffusion of A in the metal, if B atoms can react at the scale-metal interface; scale-breakdown intervenes.

  11. Organically modified silicas on metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Dean, Stacey L; Stapleton, Joshua J; Keating, Christine D

    2010-09-21

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling.

  12. Organically Modified Silicas on Metal Nanowires

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Organically modified silica coatings were prepared on metal nanowires using a variety of silicon alkoxides with different functional groups (i.e., carboxyl groups, polyethylene oxide, cyano, dihydroimidazole, and hexyl linkers). Organically modified silicas were deposited onto the surface of 6-μm-long, ∼300-nm-wide, cylindrical metal nanowires in suspension by the hydrolysis and polycondensation of silicon alkoxides. Syntheses were performed at several ratios of tetraethoxysilane to an organically modified silicon alkoxide to incorporate desired functional groups into thin organosilica shells on the nanowires. These coatings were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and infrared spectroscopy. All of the organically modified silicas prepared here were sufficiently porous to allow the removal of the metal nanowire cores by acid etching to form organically modified silica nanotubes. Additional functionality provided to the modified silicas as compared to unmodified silica prepared using only tetraethoxysilane precursors was demonstrated by chromate adsorption on imidazole-containing silicas and resistance to protein adsorption on polyethyleneoxide-containing silicas. Organically modified silica coatings on nanowires and other nano- and microparticles have potential application in fields such as biosensing or nanoscale therapeutics due to the enhanced properties of the silica coatings, for example, the prevention of biofouling. PMID:20715881

  13. Scattering of electrons on metal clusters and fullerenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerchikov, Leonid G.; Solov'yov, Andrey V.; Connerade, Jean-Patrick; Greiner, Walter

    1997-09-01

    It is shown that the main contribution to the elastic cross section of fast electrons on metal clusters and fullerenes results from scattering on the frozen cluster potential, which is determined by the electron density distribution of the ground state of the target cluster. The specific shape of the electron distribution in fullerenes and metal clusters manifests itself in the diffraction behaviour of the elastic differential cross section. The analysis of the total elastic cross section dependence upon projectile velocity, the number of atoms in the cluster and its size is provided. The cross section of elastic scattering on a cluster surpasses the sum of the individual scattering cross sections on the equivalent number of isolated atoms. This occurs because of the coherent interaction of the projectile electron with electrons delocalized in the cluster volume. We have demonstrated that collective electron excitations sensitive to the many-electron correlations dominate inelastic scattering. The surface plasmon resonances can be observed in the differential cross section for inelastic scattering. We found a condition for the quadrupole and higher multipole plasmon excitations to contribute relatively little to the electron energy loss spectrum. The results obtained have been compared with experimental data for the electron - fullerene 0953-4075/30/18/013/img7 collision. Reasonable agreement between theoretical and experimental results is reported. We have also demonstrated that plasmon excitations provide the main contribution to the total inelastic cross section over a wide energy range. We have calculated the dependence of the total inelastic cross section on collision energy and compared the result obtained with the experimental data available, giving an interpretation for the plateau region in the cross section as caused by plasmon excitations rather than the cluster fragmentation process. We have shown that the single-particle jellium approximation fails to

  14. [The effect of exposure factors on the concentration of heavy metals in residents near abandoned metal mines].

    PubMed

    Kim, Sanghoo; Cho, Yong Min; Choi, Seung Hyun; Kim, Hae Joon; Choi, Jaewook

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed the factors that have an influence on the residents exposed to heavy metals, and we utilized the findings to establish the proper management of abandoned metal mines in the future. For a total of 258 residents who lived close to abandoned mines in Gangwon-province and Gyeonggi-province, the exposure factors and biomarkers in their blood and urine were comparatively analyzed via multiple regression analysis. The blood levels of lead and mercury and the cadmium levels in urine were found to be higher in the study group than that in the average Korean. For the blood levels of heavy metals according to each exposure factor, all of them were found to be significantly higher in both of the group residing for a longer period of time and the group living closer to the source of pollutants. Multiple regression analysis disclosed that all the heavy metals, except lead, in their blood were significantly reduced in proportion to the increased distance of inhabitancy from the mines. Their other biomarkers were within the normal ranges. We found that the distance between the residential village and the mines was a factor that affects the blood level of heavy metals in the villagers. This finding could be an important factor when developing a management model for the areas that surround abandoned metal mines. (ED note: I much like this important study.).

  15. Effects of heavy metals on benthic macroinvertebrate communities in New Zealand streams

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, C.W.; Clements, W.H.

    1998-11-01

    The authors performed chemical analyses of heavy metals in water and periphyton, toxicity tests with Daphnia magna and an indigenous mayfly (Deleatidium sp.), and field surveys of benthic macroinvertebrates to estimate the degree of metal pollution in three catchments in the Coromandel Peninsula of New Zealand. Good agreement was found between toxicity tests and measures of benthic community structure, particularly at stations with the highest metal levels. Responses of benthic communities at stations with low or moderate levels of metal contamination were variable and were probably confounded by factors other than heavy metals. Effects of heavy metals on benthic communities in New Zealand streams were similar to those reported for metal-polluted streams in North America and Europe, suggesting that responses to metal contamination are predictable. Abundance and species richness of mayflies, number of taxa in the orders Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera, and total taxonomic richness were the best indicators of heavy metals in New Zealand streams. In contrast, the quantitative macroinvertebrate community index (QMCI), a biotic index proposed for assessing effects of organic enrichment in New Zealand streams, could not distinguish between reference and metal-polluted streams. The poor performance of the QMCI was primarily due to incorrect tolerance scores for some taxa to heavy metals. Because of concerns regarding the subjective assignment of tolerance values to species, the authors recommend that tolerance values for dominant species in New Zealand streams should be verified experimentally in stream microcosms.

  16. Fast optical limiting on volatilizable metallic mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belousova, Inna M.; Kislyakov, Ivan M.; Leonov, Nikita B.; Venediktova, Anastasia V.; Vartanyan, Tigran A.

    2017-08-01

    We report on the investigation into an optical limiter, utilizing ablation destruction of a thin-film metallic mirror affected by high-intensity laser irradiation with nanosecond pulse duration. Its limiting threshold and dynamic range showed up being dependent on both the type of a material used and the thickness of the metallic film, as well as the type of the substrate material. An aluminum film deposited onto a polycarbonate substrate with reflection coefficient of weak irradiation being 90% has a limiting threshold 30 mJ/cm2, whilst reflection coefficient drops down to 1% at pulse energy density 200 J/cm2, wavelength being 1.06 μm.

  17. Surgeons' Perspectives on Premium Implants in Total Joint Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wasterlain, Amy S; Bello, Ricardo J; Vigdorchik, Jonathan; Schwarzkopf, Ran; Long, William J

    2017-06-29

    Declining total joint arthroplasty reimbursement and rising implant prices have led many hospitals to restrict access to newer, more expensive total joint arthroplasty implants. The authors sought to understand arthroplasty surgeons' perspectives on implants regarding innovation, product launch, costs, and cost-containment strategies including surgeon gain-sharing and patient cost-sharing. Members of the International Congress for Joint Reconstruction were surveyed regarding attitudes about implant technology and costs. Descriptive and univariate analyses were performed. A total of 126 surgeons responded from all 5 regions of the United States. Although 76.9% believed new products advance technology in orthopedics, most (66.7%) supported informing patients that new implants lack long-term clinical data and restricting new implants to a small number of investigators prior to widespread market launch. The survey revealed that 66.7% would forgo gain-sharing incentives in exchange for more freedom to choose implants. Further, 76.9% believed that patients should be allowed to pay incremental costs for "premium" implants. Surgeons who believed that premium products advance orthopedic technology were more willing to forgo gain-sharing (P=.040). Surgeons with higher surgical volume (P=.007), those who believed implant companies should be allowed to charge more for new technology (P<.001), and those who supported discussing costs with patients (P=.004) were more supportive of patient cost-sharing. Most arthroplasty surgeons believe technological innovation advances the field but support discussing the "unproven" nature of new implants with patients. Many surgeons support alternative payment models permitting surgeons and patients to retain implant selection autonomy. Most respondents prioritized patient beneficence and surgeon autonomy above personal financial gain. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  18. Voltage effects on cells cultured on metallic biomedical implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haerihosseini, Seyed Morteza

    voltage were measured and related to the observed responses. Results show that cathodic and anodic voltages outside the voltage viability range (-400 < V < +500) lead to primarily intrinsic apoptotic and necrotic cell death, respectively. Cell death is associated with cathodic current densities of 0.1 uAcm-2 and anodic current densities of 10 uAcm-2. Significant increase in metallic ions (Co, Cr, Ni, Mo) was seen at +500 mV, and -1000 mV (Cr only) compared to open circuit potential. The number and total projected area of adhesion complexes was also lower on the polarized alloy (p < 0.05). These results show that reduction reactions on CoCrMo alloys leads to apoptosis of cells on the surface and may be a relevant mode of cell death for metallic implants in-vivo. . On the other hand, we studied how surface oxide thickness of Ti affects its voltage viability range and cellular response and whether anodic oxidation can serve as a means to extend this range. Cellular behavior (cell viability, cytoskeletal organization, and cellular adhesion) on bare and anodized Ti samples, potentiostatically held at voltages at the cathodic edge of the viability range, were assessed. Surfaces were characterized using contact angle (CA) measurement technique and atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the observed cellular response was related to the changes in the electrochemical properties (electrochemical currents, open circuit potential, and impedance spectra) of the samples. Results show that anodization at a low voltage (9 V) in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) generates a compact surface oxide with comparable surface roughness and energy to the starting native oxide on the bare surface. The anodized surface extends the viability range at 24 hours by about a 100 mV in the cathodic region, and preserved the cytoskeletal integrity and cell adhesion. Broadening of the viability range corresponds to an increase in impedance of the anodized surface at -400 mV(Ag/AgCl) and the resulting low average

  19. Impact of Total Shoulder Arthroplasty on Golfing Activity.

    PubMed

    Papaliodis, Dean; Richardson, Nicholas; Tartaglione, Jason; Roberts, Timothy; Whipple, Richard; Zanaros, George

    2015-07-01

    Golf is a widely popular sport in the United States with 29 million Americans participating in the game. With an aging population and increased incidence of glenohumeral degenerative arthritis, the number of active golfers requiring total shoulder replacement is on the rise. This study aims to evaluate the effect of total shoulder replacement on golfing activity. Retrospective; questionnaire. Survey. Three hundred sixty-seven patients were identified based on Current Procedural Terminology codes who underwent total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) between January 2004 and January 2013. A voluntary anonymous questionnaire was sent to patients by mail including both objective and subjective questions about their level of golf activity and ability both before and after the surgery. Two hundred sixty-eight (73%) patients responded with 35 (34 right-handed and 1 left-handed patients) golfers completing the questionnaire. Results including visual analog pain scores, handicap change, and driving distance were evaluated statistically using the Student t test. Thirty-five golfers at an average time of 3.2 years after TSA completed the questionnaire with 31/35 being able to return to the sport at an average time of 8.4 months postoperatively. Thirty of 31 patients reported improvement in their pain level during and after golfing activity by an average of 4.3 (P < 0.05) on a visual analog scale (VAS) for pain. On average, driving distances increased by 12.5 yd (P = 0.0012) and handicap improved by 1.4 strokes (P = 0.03). Patients who undergo TSA for primary glenohumeral arthritis can safely return to golfing activity with a significant decrease in their perceived pain level as per VAS scores. Statistically significant findings included an increase in driving distance by 12.5 yd and an improvement in handicap by 1.4. In counseling patients, it is the authors' opinion that based on our experience with golfers undergoing TSA, patients can safely return to sport at an average of 8

  20. Wall effects on the electrical manipulation of metal nanowires.

    PubMed

    Loucaides, Neophytos G; Ramos, Antonio

    2015-07-01

    The rotation induced by AC electric fields on metal nanowires has been studied theoretically and experimentally. In the experiments, the nanowires rotate close to the bottom of the device. The present work studies the effects of the wall on the electrorotation and electro-orientation of a metal nanowire numerically. The induced electrical rotation of a metal nanowire in solution is originated by both the electrical torque on the induced dipole and the induced charge EOF around the particle. The theoretical analysis presented here only considers the effects of the wall on the nanowire rotation originated by the torque on the induced dipole. Two methods are employed in the analysis in order to obtain the electrical and viscous torques acting on the nanowire: (i) the 3D electrical and hydrodynamic equations are simulated using the finite element method and (ii) hydrodynamic and electrical slender-body approximations are used to obtain, respectively, line distributions of Stokeslets and charge that take into account the proximity of a plane wall. The numerical results obtained from the two methods are totally in agreement. The main wall effects are that the electrical torque is reduced, the viscous torque is increased, and an electric repulsive force from the wall appears.

  1. Gluteal muscle fatty atrophy is not associated with elevated blood metal ions or pseudotumors in patients with a unilateral metal-on-metal hip replacement

    PubMed Central

    Reito, Aleksi; Elo, Petra; Nieminen, Jyrki; Puolakka, Timo; Eskelinen, Antti

    2016-01-01

    Background and purpose There are no international guidelines to define adverse reaction to metal debris (ARMD). Muscle fatty atrophy has been reported to be common in patients with failing metal-on-metal (MoM) hip replacements. We assessed whether gluteal muscle fatty atrophy is associated with elevated blood metal ion levels and pseudotumors. Patients and methods 263 consecutive patients with unilateral ASR XL total hip replacement using a posterior approach and with an unoperated contralateral hip were included in the study. All patients had undergone a standard screening program at our institution, including MRI and blood metal ion measurement. Muscle fatty atrophy was graded as being absent, mild, moderate, or severe in each of the gluteal muscles. Results The prevalance of moderate-to-severe gluteal muscle atrophy was low (12% for gluteus minimus, 10% for gluteus medius, and 2% for gluteus maximus). Muscle atrophy was neither associated with elevated blood metal ion levels (> 5 ppb) nor with the presence of a clear (solid- or mixed-type) pseudotumor seen in MRI. A combination of moderate-to-severe atrophy in MRI, elevated blood metal ion levels, and MRI-confirmed mixed or solid pseudotumor was rare. Multivariable regression revealed that “preoperative diagnosis other than osteoarthrosis” was the strongest predictor of the presence of fatty atrophy. Interpretation Gluteal muscle atrophy may be a clinically significant finding with influence on hip muscle strength in patients with MoM hip replacement. However, our results suggest that gluteal muscle atrophy seen in MRI is not associated with either the presence or severity of ARMD, at least not in patients who have been operated on using the posterior approach. PMID:26427902

  2. [Ceramic-on-ceramic bearings in total hip arthroplasty (THA)].

    PubMed

    Sentürk, U; Perka, C

    2015-04-01

    The main reason for total hip arthroplasty (THA) revision is the wear-related aseptic loosening. Younger and active patients after total joint replacement create high demands, in particular, on the bearings. The progress, especially for alumina ceramic-on-ceramic bearings and mixed ceramics have solved many problems of the past and lead to good in vitro results. Modern ceramics (alumina or mixed ceramics containing alumina) are extremely hard, scratch-resistant, biocompatible, offer a low coefficient of friction, superior lubrication and have the lowest wear rates in comparison to all other bearings in THA. The disadvantage of ceramic is the risk of material failure, i.e., of ceramic fracture. The new generation of mixed ceramics (delta ceramic), has reduced the risk of head fractures to 0.03-0.05 %, but the risk for liner fractures remains unchanged at about 0.02 %. Assuming a non-impinging component implantation, ceramic-on-ceramic bearings have substantial advantages over all other bearings in THA. Due to the superior hardness, ceramic bearings produce less third body wear and are virtually impervious to damage from instruments during the implantation process. A specific complication for ceramic-on-ceramic bearings is "squeaking". The high rate of reported squeaking (0.45 to 10.7 %) highlights the importance of precise implant positioning and the stem and patient selection. With precise implant positioning this problem is rare with many implant designs and without clinical relevance. The improved tribology and the presumable resulting implant longevity make ceramic-on-ceramic the bearing of choice for young and active patients. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Impacts of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles on marine organisms.

    PubMed

    Baker, Tony J; Tyler, Charles R; Galloway, Tamara S

    2014-03-01

    Increasing use of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles [Me(O)NPs] in products means many will inevitably find their way into marine systems. Their likely fate here is sedimentation following hetero-aggregation with natural organic matter and/or free anions, putting benthic, sediment-dwelling and filter feeding organisms most at risk. In marine systems, Me(O)NPs can absorb to micro-organisms with potential for trophic transfer following consumption. Filter feeders, especially bivalves, accumulate Me(O)NPs through trapping them in mucus prior to ingestion. Benthic in-fauna may directly ingest sedimented Me(O)NPs. In fish, uptake is principally via the gut following drinking, whilst Me(O)NPs caught in gill mucus may affect respiratory processes and ion transport. Currently, environmentally-realistic Me(O)NP concentrations are unlikely to cause significant adverse acute health problems, however sub-lethal effects e.g. oxidative stresses have been noted in many organisms, often deriving from dissolution of Ag, Cu or Zn ions, and this could result in chronic health impacts. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Application of patent bio-rack wetland system using Phragmites sp. for domestic wastewater treatment in the presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) and heavy metal salts.

    PubMed

    Valipour, Alireza; Raman, V Kalyan; Ghole, V S

    2011-07-01

    The quality of water recourses is degrading due to improper wastewater management. The aim of this study is to examine the potential of bio-rack system for treatment of domestic wastewater in the presence of high total dissolved solids (TDS) and heavy metal salts. The bio-rack is a modified wetland system incorporated with the advantages of phytoremediation and attached growth microbial process. The bio-rack is void of the soil strata based root zone system and in lieu a support matrix is provided to enrich the micro flora. The studies indicate that, Phragmites sp. can tolerate TDS up to 9000 mg/L in the bio-rack. The heavy metal removal is a function of phytoaccumulation or phytoextraction, which can lead to morphological deformity if heavy metals exceed the saturation limit of 786 and 5760 mg/kg Cd, 854 and 9280 mg/kg Cu, 639 and 4720 mg/kg Ni, 1187 and 7516 mg/kg Zn, in shoots and roots respectively. The reduction in TDS is marginal (14%) at the highest tolerable limit whereas the heavy metal reduction is 68%, 69%, 67%, 71% for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn respectively at the outlet of the treatment system. The sewage treatment performance of the bio-rack system for all other parameters is estimated as 75 % Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), 86 % Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD5), 27% Total Dissolved Solids (TDS), 73% Total Suspended Solids (TSS), 9% chlorides, 70% ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), 32% phosphate (PO4-P), 92% most probable number (MPN) and 93% total viable count (TVC) reduction.

  5. Tunable, omnidirectional structural color on reflection based on metal-SiOx-metal structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Chenying; Mao, Kening; Shen, Weidong; Fang, Bo; Fang, Xu; Zhang, Xing; Zhang, Yueguang; Liu, Xu

    2016-12-01

    An omnidirectional structural color based on the metal-SiOx-metal stack structure is proposed, which can present the same perceived color for a broad range of incidence angles. The tunable structural color can be obtained with adjustable intermediate dielectric layer by simply adjusting the deposition condition, especially the oxygen flow rate during the deposition processes. The resonance condition can be satisfied across the whole visible light region with this special dielectric. The strong absorption caused by the resonance within the metal-SiOx-metal structure accounts for the efficient spectral filtering feature, and the constant phase shift within the dielectric layer leads to angle insensitivity of this color filter. This simple color tuning method for omnidirectional structural colors can have a great potential in various applications such as displaying, imaging, colorful decoration, anti-counterfeiting and so forth.

  6. The Effect of QBO on the Total Mass Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saǧır, Selçuk; Atıcı, Ramazan

    2016-07-01

    The relationship between Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) measured at 10 hPa altitude and total mass density (TMD) values obtained from NRLMSIS-00 model for 90 km altitude of ionosphere known as Mesosphere-Lower Thermosphere (MLT) region is statistically investigated. For this study, multiple-regression model is used. To see the effect on TMD of QBO directions, Dummy variables are also added to model. In the result of calculations, it is observed that QBO is effected on TMD. It is determined that 69% of variations at TMD can be explainable by QBO. It is determined that the explainable ratio is at the rate of 5%. Also, it is seen that an increase/a decrease of 1 meter per second at QBO give rise to an increase/a decrease of 7,2x10-4 g/cm3 at TMD.

  7. Effect of lubricants on friction in laboratory tests of a total disc replacement device.

    PubMed

    Moghadas, Parshia; Mahomed, Aziza; Hukins, David W L; Shepherd, Duncan E T

    2013-09-01

    Some designs of total disc replacement devices have articulating bearing surfaces, and these devices are tested in vitro with a lubricant of diluted calf serum. It is believed that the lubricant found in total disc replacement devices in vivo is interstitial fluid that may have properties between that in Ringer's solution and diluted calf serum. To investigate the effect of lubricants, a set of friction tests were performed on a generic model of a metal against metal ball-and-socket total disc replacement device. Two devices were tested: one with a ball radius of 10 mm and other with a ball radius of 16 mm; each device had a radial clearance of 0.015 mm. A spine simulator was used to measure frictional torque for each device in axial rotation, flexion-extension and lateral bending at frequencies of 0.25-2 Hz, under 1200 N axial load. Each device was tested with two different lubricants: a solution of new born calf serum diluted with deionised water and Ringer's solution. The results showed that the frictional torque generated between the bearing surfaces was significantly higher in Ringer's solution than in diluted calf serum. The use of Ringer's solution as a lubricant provides a stringent test condition to detect possible problems. Diluted calf serum is more likely to provide an environment closer to that in vivo. However, the precise properties of the fluid lubricating a total disc replacement device are not known; hence, tests using diluted calf serum may not necessarily give the same results as those obtained in vivo.