Science.gov

Sample records for on-conveyor belt determination

  1. Efficacy of ultraviolet light exposure against survival of Listeria monocytogenes on conveyor belts.

    PubMed

    Morey, Amit; McKee, Shelly R; Dickson, James S; Singh, Manpreet

    2010-06-01

    Listeria monocytogenes has been repeatedly isolated from foods and food-processing facilities including food contact surfaces such as conveyor belts (CB). CBs are often difficult to clean and require rigorous sanitation programs for decontamination. Ultraviolet (UV) light has exhibited microbicidal properties on food contact surfaces and this study was conducted to determine the efficacy of UV against L. monocytogenes on CB made of different materials. A four-strain cocktail of L. monocytogenes (serotypes 3A, 4A, 4B, and 4C) was made to give a suspension of approximately 10(7) CFU/mL. CBs made from four different types of materials, (1) Ropanyl DM 8/2 A2 + 04 (belt 1), (2) Volta FRMW-3.0 (belt 2), (3) Volta FRMB-3.0 (belt 3), and (4) Ropanyl DM (belt 4), were inoculated with 1 mL of the four-strain cocktail (approximately 10(7) CFU/mL) of the bacterial suspension. CBs were treated with UV light (254 nm) for 1 and 3 sec at 5.53 and 5.95 mW/cm(2). Three replications of the experiments were conducted. Two-way analysis of variance of survival populations of L. monocytogenes showed that bacterial counts were significantly reduced (p < 0.05) on all belt types irrespective of UV light intensities and times of exposure. L. monocytogenes populations were reduced (p < 0.05) to below detection limits on belts 1, 2, and 3 after exposure to 5.95 mW/cm(2) UV light intensity for 3 sec. L. monocytogenes-inoculated CBs that were exposed to 5.53 mW/cm(2) showed higher (p < 0.05) survival populations of L. monocytogenes compared with 5.95 mW/cm(2) on all the four CBs. Belt 4 showed survival populations of L. monocytogenes ranging from 1.42 to 1.73 log(10) CFU/cm(2) after UV light treatment for 1 and 3 sec. UV light can be effectively used to reduce L. monocytogenes contamination on CBs.

  2. Pilot-scale continuous ultrasonic cleaning equipment reduces Listeria monocytogenes levels on conveyor belts.

    PubMed

    Tolvanen, Riina; Lundén, Janne; Hörman, Ari; Korkeala, Hannu

    2009-02-01

    Ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt was studied by building a pilot-scale conveyor with an ultrasonic cleaning bath. A piece of the stainless steel conveyor belt was contaminated with meat-based soil and Listeria monocytogenes strains (V1, V3, and B9) and incubated for 72 h to allow bacteria to attach to the conveyor belt surfaces. The effect of ultrasound with a potassium hydroxide-based cleaning detergent was determined by using the cleaning bath at 45 and 50 degrees C for 30 s with and without ultrasound. The detachment of L. monocytogenes from the conveyor belt caused by the ultrasonic treatment was significantly greater at 45 degrees C (independent samples t test, P < 0.001) and at 50 degrees C (independent samples t test, P = 0.04) than without ultrasound. Ultrasonic cleaning efficiency was tested with different cleaning durations (10, 15, 20, and 30 s) and temperatures (30, 45, and 50 degrees C). The differences in the log reduction between cleaning treatments were analyzed by analysis of variance with Tamhane's T2 posthoc test using SPSS (Chicago, IL). The lengthening of the treatment time from 10 to 30 s did not significantly increase the detachment of L. monocytogenes (ANOVA 0.633). At 30 degrees C and at the longest time tested (30 s), the treatment reduced L. monocytogenes counts by only 2.68 log units. However, an increase in temperature from 30 to 50 degrees C improved the effect of the ultrasonic treatment significantly (P < 0.01). Ultrasonic cleaning for 10 s at 50 degrees C reduced L. monocytogenes counts by more than 5 log units. These results indicate that ultrasonic cleaning of a conveyor belt is effective even with short treatment times.

  3. Body mass as a determinant of seat belt use.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, M J; Bolton, A; Wade, G

    1989-04-01

    Prevention of death and injury from motor vehicle accidents depends in part on seat belt use. Understanding the determinants of seat belt use is important for developing strategies to increase seat belt use. The cross-sectional association between body mass index (BMI) and self-reported seat belt use was analyzed using data from 3,140 Health Risk Appraisals completed by Tennessee residents during 1986. Persons in the lowest quintile BMI (less than or equal to 21.8 kg/m2) stated they use seat belts 63% (SD = 38%) of the time compared to persons in the highest BMI quintile (greater than or equal to 29.0 kg/m2) who reported using seat belts 50% (SD = 38%) of the time. BMI remained associated with seat belt use after adjustment for age, sex, race, education, cigarette use, alcohol use, drug use, urban/rural residence, state area of residence, miles driven per year, self-reported physical activity, and satisfaction with life. For a 1 kg/m2 increase in BMI, seat belt use declined -0.73% (95% CI = -1.01, -0.46), and the relative odds of not being a frequent seat belt user increased 3% (odds ratio 1.03, 95% CI = 1.01, 1.05). BMI was the third variable selected in a step-wise multiple linear regression after education and race. The BMI/seat belt association, if causal, has implications for (1) targeting of education programs to likely nonusers by traffic safety agencies; (2) targeting health promotion messages to likely nonusers by primary care providers; and (3) design of automobile seats and restraint devices.

  4. Period Determination of Six Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    Observations of six main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 487 Venetia, P = 13.34 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.20 mag; 684 Hildburg, P = 15.89 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.22 mag; 772 Tanete, P = 8.629 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.18 mag.; 1181 Lilith, P = 15.04 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.11 mag.; 1246 Chaka, P = 25.44 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.25 mag.; and 2834 Christy Carol, P = 12.79 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.39 mag.

  5. Two-load weighed material testing of belt scales

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.I.

    1993-12-31

    Because coal flow on conveyor belts is typically variable rather than constant, knowing the accuracy of belt scales over a broad range of flow rates is commercially important. But their present accuracy measurement technique is inadequate for judging a scale`s total performance. The method, which is to perform a weighed material test as described in National Institute of Science and Technology`s Handbook 44, yields data only at one load point rather than over the wide range of loads that they need. To determine the actual accuracy of installed belt scales, two-load weighed material testing should be performed. This paper is about belt scale tests, but will begin with some thoughts about static platform scales because understanding the testing of these scales lays the groundwork for understanding the testing of belt scales.

  6. Smoking, Sociodemographic Determinants, and Stress in the Alabama Black Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuaib, Faisal; Foushee, H. R.; Ehiri, John; Bagchi, Suparna; Baumann, Angela; Kohler, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In the Alabama Black Belt, poverty is high, and the educational level is low. Studies have found increased tobacco use among individuals exposed to high levels of stress. Few studies have been conducted in this region to measure smoking status, its sociodemographic determinants, and how smoking status relates to stressful environmental…

  7. Smoking, Sociodemographic Determinants, and Stress in the Alabama Black Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shuaib, Faisal; Foushee, H. R.; Ehiri, John; Bagchi, Suparna; Baumann, Angela; Kohler, Connie

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: In the Alabama Black Belt, poverty is high, and the educational level is low. Studies have found increased tobacco use among individuals exposed to high levels of stress. Few studies have been conducted in this region to measure smoking status, its sociodemographic determinants, and how smoking status relates to stressful environmental…

  8. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  9. 23 CFR 1240.13 - Determination of national average seat belt use rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of national average seat belt use rate... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION GUIDELINES SAFETY INCENTIVE GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.13 Determination of national...

  10. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  11. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.12 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey....

  12. HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HEATER'S HELPER OPERATING PUSHER. HOT BILLETS ON CONVEYOR MOVE TO OPENING AT THE HEAD OF THE 12" MILL. PUSHER (ELECTRICALLY OPERATED) MOVES BILLETS INTO READY POSITION FOR 12" MILL. - Cambria Iron Company, Gautier Works, 12" Mill, Clinton Street & Little Conemaugh River, Johnstown, Cambria County, PA

  13. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  14. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240.11 Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of...

  15. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1) Beginning in calendar year 1998, State seat belt use rates used for determining allocations under this...

  16. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1) Beginning in calendar year 1998, State seat belt use rates used for determining allocations under this...

  17. 23 CFR 1240.12 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar year 1998 and beyond. (a) State seat belt use survey. (1) Beginning in calendar year 1998, State seat belt use rates used for determining allocations under this...

  18. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate D Appendix D to Part 1240 Highways NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION AND FEDERAL HIGHWAY... BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Pt. 1240, App. D Appendix D to Part 1240—Determination of National...

  19. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of State-submitted information. NHTSA will review available seat belt use rate information submitted by each State for...

  20. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of State-submitted information. NHTSA will review available seat belt use rate information submitted by each State for...

  1. 23 CFR 1240.11 - Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar... Determination of State seat belt use rate for calendar years 1996 and 1997. (a) Review of State-submitted information. NHTSA will review available seat belt use rate information submitted by each State for...

  2. Rotation Period Determination of Four Main-belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    Observations of four main-belt asteroids (MBA) revealed the following rotation periods and lightcurve amplitudes: 3861 Lorenz, P = 11.91 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.28 mag; 6173 Jimwestphal P = 2.908 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.41 mag; 10259 Osipovyurij, P = 6.356 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.30 mag; 29470 Higgs, P = 36.31 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.48 mag.

  3. Determination of The Mechanical Power in Belt Conveyor's Drive System in Industrial Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Król, Robert; Kaszuba, Damian; Kisielewski, Waldemar

    2016-10-01

    Mechanical power is a value which carries a significant amount of information on the properties of the operating status of the machine analysed. The value of mechanical power reflects the degree of load of the drive system and of the entire machine. It is essential to determine the actual efficiency of the drive system η [%], which is the key parameter of the energy efficiency of the drive system. In the case of a single drive of a belt conveyor the actual efficiency is expressed as the ratio of mechanical output power Pm [W] at the drive pulley shaft to active electrical power drawn by the motor Pe [W]. Furthermore, the knowledge about the mechanical power from all drives of the multiple driven belt conveyor allows for the analysis of load distribution between the drives. In case of belt conveyor, the mechanical power Pm [W] generated by the drive at the drive pulley's shaft is equal to its angular velocity ω [rad / s] multiplied by the torque T [Nm]. The measurement of angular velocity is relatively easy and can be realized with the use of a tachometer or can be determined on the basis of linear velocity of the conveyor belt during belt conveyor's steady state operation. Significantly more difficult to perform in industrial conditions is the measurement of the torque. This is due to the operational conditions of belt conveyors (e.g. dustiness, high humidity, high temperature) and tight assembly of the drive components without the possibility of their disassembly. It makes it difficult or even impossible to measure the torque using a number of the techniques available, causing an individual approach to each object of research. The paper proposes a measurement methodology allowing to determine the mechanical power in belt conveyors drives which are commonly used in underground and surface mining. The paper presents result of the research into mechanical power in belt conveyor's drive carried out in underground mine conditions.

  4. An independent determination of Fomalhaut b's orbit and the dynamical effects on the outer dust belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beust, H.; Augereau, J.-C.; Bonsor, A.; Graham, J. R.; Kalas, P.; Lebreton, J.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Ertel, S.; Faramaz, V.; Thébault, P.

    2014-01-01

    Context. The nearby star Fomalhaut harbors a cold, moderately eccentric (e ~ 0.1) dust belt with a sharp inner edge near 133 au. A low-mass, common proper motion companion, Fomalhaut b (Fom b), was discovered near the inner edge and was identified as a planet candidate that could account for the belt morphology. However, the most recent orbit determination based on four epochs of astrometry over eight years reveals a highly eccentric orbit (e = 0.8 ± 0.1) that appears to cross the belt in the sky plane projection. Aims: We perform here a full orbital determination based on the available astrometric data to independently validate the orbit estimates previously presented. Adopting our values for the orbital elements and their associated uncertainties, we then study the dynamical interaction between the planet and the dust ring, to check whether the proposed disk sculpting scenario by Fom b is plausible. Methods: We used a dedicated MCMC code to derive the statistical distributions of the orbital elements of Fom b. Then we used symplectic N-body integration to investigate the dynamics of the dust belt, as perturbed by a single planet. Different attempts were made assuming different masses for Fom b. We also performed a semi-analytical study to explain our results. Results: Our results are in good agreement with others regarding the orbit of Fom b. We find that the orbit is highly eccentric, is close to apsidally aligned with the belt, and has a mutual inclination relative to the belt plane of <29° (67% confidence). If coplanar, this orbit crosses the disk. Our dynamical study then reveals that the observed planet could sculpt a transient belt configuration with a similar eccentricity to what is observed, but it would not be simultaneously apsidally aligned with the planet. This transient configuration only occurs a short time after the planet is placed on such an orbit (assuming an initially circular disk), a time that is inversely proportional to the planet's mass

  5. Method for determining molten metal pool level in twin-belt continuous casting machines

    DOEpatents

    Kaiser, Timothy D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Dykes, Charles D.

    1989-03-21

    A method for determining level of molten metal in the input of a continuous metal casting machine having at least one endless, flexible, revolving casting belt with a surface which engages the molten metal to be cast and a reverse, cooled surface along which is directed high velocity liquid coolant includes the steps of predetermining the desired range of positions of the molten metal pool and positioning at least seven heat-sensing transducers in bearing contact with the moving reverse belt surface and spaced in upstream-downstream relationship relative to belt travel spanning the desired pool levels. A predetermined temperature threshold is set, somewhat above coolant temperature and the output signals of the transducer sensors are scanned regarding their output signals indicative of temperatures of the moving reverse belt surface. Position of the molten pool is determined using temperature interpolation between any successive pair of upstream-downstream spaced sensors, which follows confirmation that two succeeding downstream sensors are at temperature levels exceeding threshold temperature. The method accordingly provides high resolution for determining pool position, and verifies the determined position by utilizing full-strength signals from two succeeding downstream sensors. In addition, dual sensors are used at each position spanning the desired range of molten metal pool levels to provide redundancy, wherein only the higher temperature of each pair of sensors at a station is utilized.

  6. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... national vehicle miles traveled attributable to that State. B. If a State seat belt use rate is unavailable... estimated State seat belt use rate for the unknown calendar year. The estimated State seat belt use rate... substantial as to render the survey less accurate than the FARS estimate....

  7. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... national vehicle miles traveled attributable to that State. B. If a State seat belt use rate is unavailable... estimated State seat belt use rate for the unknown calendar year. The estimated State seat belt use rate... substantial as to render the survey less accurate than the FARS estimate....

  8. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... national vehicle miles traveled attributable to that State. B. If a State seat belt use rate is unavailable... estimated State seat belt use rate for the unknown calendar year. The estimated State seat belt use rate... substantial as to render the survey less accurate than the FARS estimate....

  9. 23 CFR Appendix D to Part 1240 - Determination of National Average Seat Belt Use Rate

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... national vehicle miles traveled attributable to that State. B. If a State seat belt use rate is unavailable... estimated State seat belt use rate for the unknown calendar year. The estimated State seat belt use rate... substantial as to render the survey less accurate than the FARS estimate....

  10. A statistical approach to determining energetic outer radiation belt electron precipitation fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon Wedlund, Mea; Clilverd, Mark A.; Rodger, Craig J.; Cresswell-Moorcock, Kathy; Cobbett, Neil; Breen, Paul; Danskin, Donald; Spanswick, Emma; Rodriguez, Juan V.

    2014-05-01

    Subionospheric radio wave data from an Antarctic-Arctic Radiation-Belt (Dynamic) Deposition VLF Atmospheric Research Konsortia (AARDDVARK) receiver located in Churchill, Canada, is analyzed to determine the characteristics of electron precipitation into the atmosphere over the range 3 < L < 7. The study advances previous work by combining signals from two U.S. transmitters from 20 July to 20 August 2010, allowing error estimates of derived electron precipitation fluxes to be calculated, including the application of time-varying electron energy spectral gradients. Electron precipitation observations from the NOAA POES satellites and a ground-based riometer provide intercomparison and context for the AARDDVARK measurements. AARDDVARK radiowave propagation data showed responses suggesting energetic electron precipitation from the outer radiation belt starting 27 July 2010 and lasting ~20 days. The uncertainty in >30 keV precipitation flux determined by the AARDDVARK technique was found to be ±10%. Peak >30 keV precipitation fluxes of AARDDVARK-derived precipitation flux during the main and recovery phase of the largest geomagnetic storm, which started on 4 August 2010, were >105 el cm-2 s-1 sr-1. The largest fluxes observed by AARDDVARK occurred on the dayside and were delayed by several days from the start of the geomagnetic disturbance. During the main phase of the disturbances, nightside fluxes were dominant. Significant differences in flux estimates between POES, AARDDVARK, and the riometer were found after the main phase of the largest disturbance, with evidence provided to suggest that >700 keV electron precipitation was occurring. Currently the presence of such relativistic electron precipitation introduces some uncertainty in the analysis of AARDDVARK data, given the assumption of a power law electron precipitation spectrum.

  11. Local magnitude determinations for intermountain seismic belt earthquakes from broadband digital data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pechmann, J.C.; Nava, S.J.; Terra, F.M.; Bernier, J.C.

    2007-01-01

    The University of Utah Seismograph Stations (UUSS) earthquake catalogs for the Utah and Yellowstone National Park regions contain two types of size measurements: local magnitude (ML) and coda magnitude (MC), which is calibrated against ML. From 1962 through 1993, UUSS calculated ML values for southern and central Intermountain Seismic Belt earthquakes using maximum peak-to-peak (p-p) amplitudes on paper records from one to five Wood-Anderson (W-A) seismographs in Utah. For ML determinations of earthquakes since 1994, UUSS has utilized synthetic W-A seismograms from U.S. National Seismic Network and UUSS broadband digital telemetry stations in the region, which numbered 23 by the end of our study period on 30 June 2002. This change has greatly increased the percentage of earthquakes for which ML can be determined. It is now possible to determine ML for all M ???3 earthquakes in the Utah and Yellowstone regions and earthquakes as small as M <1 in some areas. To maintain continuity in the magnitudes in the UUSS earthquake catalogs, we determined empirical ML station corrections that minimize differences between MLs calculated from paper and synthetic W-A records. Application of these station corrections, in combination with distance corrections from Richter (1958) which have been in use at UUSS since 1962, produces ML values that do not show any significant distance dependence. ML determinations for the Utah and Yellowstone regions for 1981-2002 using our station corrections and Richter's distance corrections have provided a reliable data set for recalibrating the MC scales for these regions. Our revised ML values are consistent with available moment magnitude determinations for Intermountain Seismic Belt earthquakes. To facilitate automatic ML measurements, we analyzed the distribution of the times of maximum p-p amplitudes in synthetic W-A records. A 30-sec time window for maximum amplitudes, beginning 5 sec before the predicted Sg time, encompasses 95% of the

  12. Determining the orbit of Fomalhaut b and discovering structure in the debris belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul

    2012-10-01

    HST has a unique capability to detect tenuous debris disks and exosolar planets at optical wavelengths. Using the ACS/HRC in 2004-2006, we imaged the debris belt surrounding Fomalhaut, finding evidence for a planetary system in the structure of the belt, and then directly imaging a planet candidate, Fomalhaut b. New STIS data recover Fomalhaut b in 2010 with the expected flux and near its expected position. We also discover a tenuous belt halo extending 30 AU beyond the previously measured outer belt edge, demonstrating that the belt structure is more complex than initially assumed.We propose a GO program dedicated to the study of Fomalhaut b's orbit and structure in the belt. The goals are to constrain the orbital elements of Fomalhaut b and establish with confidence that it is bound. The proposed astrometry is designed to measure the eccentricity with sufficient precision to discriminate between a circular orbit and one that is nested within the belt with e 0.12. STIS is the only instrument that is demonstrably capable of making these astrometric observations. Moreover, we propose to build a high signal-to-noise image of the belt by combining the proposed Cycle 20 data with those obtained from previous cycles. The Fomalhaut system is of general interest to the community, particularly for studying the dynamical evolution of planetary systems relative to their outer planetesimal belts. Given its proximity {7.7 pc}, Fomalhaut's belt is a rare example where we can resolve disk structure on sub-AU scales. The proposed additional STIS observations are critical for discerning between real astrophysical features and instrumental noise.

  13. Engineering study on conveyor system for HC-21C project

    SciTech Connect

    De Vries, M.L.

    1995-02-02

    The sludge stabilization process thermally stabilizes reactive plutonium bearing materials in a muffle furnace. This process is used to prepare the material for long term storage in the vaults. The process is conducted in Room 230A and 230B. The furnaces are located in glovebox HC-21C. Glovebox HC-21A is used for preparation of the charge and packaging of the high fired oxide. The feed for the process is located throughout the PRF and RMC-line gloveboxes, with over half of the feedstock currently being located in HA-23S. For readiness assessment, the sludge stabilization process at PFP was reviewed by the ALARA team to see how the process could be improved. One suggestion was made that the conveyor system be used to transfer items from HA-23S to the process glovebox (HA-21A) instead of sealing items in and out of the gloveboxes. The following discussion describes and compares past and current methods. In addition, actions are addressed that would need to be completed before the conveyor method could be used. The transportation of the feedstock to the process and all the different influencing factors will be examined to determine the best method. This assessment is being performed considering only the current campaign for HC-21C. However, there is a possibility that in the future, additional furnaces will be installed and further campaigns done.

  14. Time taken as a determinant of advancement in Shotokan karate black-belt Tekki kata performance.

    PubMed

    Layton, C

    1999-12-01

    18 experienced black-belt subjects were individually timed on the kata Tekki Shodan. A significant relationship was found between years training and increased performance time and also between increased performance time and grade, both independent of age.

  15. Orbit determination for Fomalhaut b and the origin of the debris belt halo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalas, Paul

    2011-10-01

    HST has a unique capability to detect tenuous debris disks and exosolar planets at optical wavelengths. Using the ACS/HRC in 2004-2006, we imaged the debris belt surrounding Fomalhaut, finding evidence for a planetary system in the structure of the belt, and then directly imaging a planet candidate, Fomalhaut b {Fom b}. New STIS data recover Fom b in 2010 with the expected flux and near its expected position. We also discover a tenuous belt halo extending 30 AU beyond the previously measured outer belt edge. These grains may be driven outward by radiation pressure or dynamically perturbed by Fom b.We propose a long-term GO program dedicated to the study of the orbit of Fom b and its interaction with this newly discovered halo. The goals are to constrain the orbital elements of Fom b and establish with confidence that it is bound. The proposed astrometry is designed to measure the eccentricity with sufficient precision to discriminate between a circular orbit and one that is nested within the belt with e 0.12. STIS is the only instrument demonstrated able to make these astrometric observations.To pinpoint the origin of grains that comprise the belt halo, we propose to obtain the halo scattered light color by direct imaging in F336W and F814W using WFC3/UVIS. If the main belt and halo share the same color {as opposed to blue Rayleigh-scattering grains} then planetary dynamical perturbations will be suspected. The UVIS F336W observations leave open the possibility of detecting Fomalhaut b at short wavelengths, testing the hypothesis that Fom b is optically bright due to scattering from an extended circumplanetary ring system such as that found around Saturn.

  16. Period Determination of Main-belt Asteroid (26274) 1998 RH75

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Johnny Eugene, Jr.; Linder, Tyler; Puckett, Andrew; Holmes, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Photometric observations of the inner main-belt asteroid (26274) 1998 RH75 were made on three nights in 2016 March. Analysis gave a bimodal lightcurve with a synodic period of 3.1296 ± 0.0001 h and amplitude of 0.55 ± 0.02 mag.

  17. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems.

    PubMed

    Brien, Chris J; Berger, Bettina; Rabie, Huwaida; Tester, Mark

    2013-02-08

    There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east-west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north-south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east-west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north-south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north-south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend-free arrangement of treatments with a linear trend term

  18. Accounting for variation in designing greenhouse experiments with special reference to greenhouses containing plants on conveyor systems

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background There are a number of unresolved issues in the design of experiments in greenhouses. They include whether statistical designs should be used and, if so, which designs should be used. Also, are there thigmomorphogenic or other effects arising from the movement of plants on conveyor belts within a greenhouse? A two-phase, single-line wheat experiment involving four tactics was conducted in a conventional greenhouse and a fully-automated phenotyping greenhouse (Smarthouse) to investigate these issues. Results and discussion Analyses of our experiment show that there was a small east–west trend in total area of the plants in the Smarthouse. Analyses of the data from three multiline experiments reveal a large north–south trend. In the single-line experiment, there was no evidence of differences between trios of lanes, nor of movement effects. Swapping plant positions during the trial was found to decrease the east–west trend, but at the cost of increased error variance. The movement of plants in a north–south direction, through a shaded area for an equal amount of time, nullified the north–south trend. An investigation of alternative experimental designs for equally-replicated experiments revealed that generally designs with smaller blocks performed best, but that (nearly) trend-free designs can be effective when blocks are larger. Conclusions To account for variation in microclimate in a greenhouse, using statistical design and analysis is better than rearranging the position of plants during the experiment. For the relocation of plants to be successful requires that plants spend an equal amount of time in each microclimate, preferably during comparable growth stages. Even then, there is no evidence that this will be any more precise than statistical design and analysis of the experiment, and the risk is that it will not be successful at all. As for statistical design and analysis, it is best to use either (i) smaller blocks, (ii) (nearly) trend

  19. Keeping conveyor belts clean and safe

    SciTech Connect

    Stahura, R.P.

    1997-12-01

    The author discusses the gains which are available to plant operation by the investment of effort in keeping operating equipment clean. In part clean equipment indicates an attitude toward overall maintenance. But in particular the author addresses the question of conveyor belt maintenance, and the issue of fugitive material which is carried back on the belt and can drop or scrape off, resulting in dirty equipment, loss of efficiency, and loss of material. The author presents examples to illustrate the magnitude of the problem, and a simple way to quantify loss on conveyors. Then he discusses approaches which can be instituted to address this problem, and the type of economic payoff which can result from this work.

  20. Period Determination of Four Main-belt Asteroids in Mid-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrero, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Observations of four main-belt asteroids (MBA) produced lightcurve parameters of: 1030 Vitja, P = 6.332 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.21 mag; 1058 Grubba, P = 46.30 ± 0.01 h, A = 0.24 mag; 1486 Marilyn, P = 4.568 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.42 mag.; and 3255 Tholen, P = 2.947 ± 0.001 h, A = 0.11 mag.

  1. Determinants of patronage of traditional bone setters in the middle belt of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwadiaro, H C; Ozoilo, K N; Nwadiaro, P O; Kidmas, A T; Oboiren, M

    2008-01-01

    Traditional bone setting is a practice that is common in our environment. This is a community based survey of opinions concerning orthodox and traditional fracture management in four states of the middle belt of Nigeria. We set out to ascertain the factors influencing preference of treatment of fractures among populations in the middle belt of Nigeria. A community based questionnaire survey of randomly selected adults regarding preference of choice of treatment between orthodox and traditional fracture management. One hundred and eighty-six questionnaires were found analyzable with a male to female ratio of 2:1. There was a preponderance of preference for orthodox fracture management (70.4%). Decisions were mainly collegiate, outside the influence of the individual; only 9.9% decided to attend traditional bone setters on their own. Reasons adduced for preference of traditional bone setters were incongruous and inconsistent. A fixated cultural outlook was recognized as being the motivating factor for patronage of traditional bone setters. Need for enlightenment campaign of the public against patronage of traditional bone setters is emphasized. A gradual phasing out of traditional bone setting with a road map towards making orthodox fracture management available to all is advocated.

  2. Belt-driven conveyor belts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    An intermediate belt drive system offers a number of advantages over conventional systems, including lower power requirements and the ability to use lower quality, cheaper, conveyor belts. The advantages of a correctly designed belt conveyor with end pulley drives are included.

  3. Pan-African reactivation of the Lurio segment of the Kibaran Belt system: a reappraisal from recent age determinations in northern Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacchi, R.; Cadoppi, P.; Costa, M.

    2000-04-01

    The role of the Lurio Belt in northern Mozambique, and the geological evolution of its foreland in the Proterozoic are discussed in the light of recent, single zircon age determinations showing Pan-African age for the granulite-facies metamorphism. The following tentative conclusions are reached, and evidence for and against them is reviewed. The Lurio Belt had a two-fold history, as a crust-forming orogen during the Kibaran and as a transpressive suture in Pan-African times. Together with the Zambezi Belt and the Schlesien-Mwembeshi Lineament, it formed a 3000 km discontinuity which underwent an embryonic oceanic development before being sutured during the Pan-African collisional event. The Lurio Belt foreland had a tectonic-metamorphic evolution at ca 1000 Ma, prior to major, Pan-African overprinting and was probably continuous with the basement of Queen Maud Land (Antarctica) and Natal. In Pan-African times, clockwise transpressive movements along the Lurio Belt brought about emplacement of granulite klippen in its foreland. If there is a southward continuation of the Pan-African Mozambique Belt beyond Mozambique, it is probably to be found in Antarctica.

  4. Social Determinants of Cardiovascular Health among Black and White Women Residing in Stroke Belt and Buckle Regions of the South

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Sharon K.; Gebreab, Samson; Quarells, Rakale; Gibbons, Gary H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To assess the associations of social determinants on cardiovascular health among White and Black residing in Stroke Belt (urban) and Stroke Buckle (rural) regions of the South. Design A cross-sectional observational analysis based on a random digit-dial telephone survey of a representative sample of White and Black adults residing in urban and rural Georgia conducted from 2004–2005. Separate logistic regression analyses examined the effects of social determinants on cardiovascular health within and between White and Black women and within and between urban and rural residential location. The main outcome measure was poor cardiovascular health defined as ≥2 self-reported clinical cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, overweight or obese). Social determinants were defined as socioeconomic status (SES), general daily stress, racial discrimination, and stress due to exposure to racial discrimination. Significance was established as a two-tailed P,.05. Results A total of 674 White and Black women aged 18–90 years were included in the sample. Results showed Black women with lower SES had worse cardiovascular health than White women in both rural and urban areas (rural odds ratio [OR] 2.68; confidence interval [CI] 1.44, 4.90; P=.001; urban OR=2.92; CI=1.62, 5.23; P=.0003). White women reporting high or very high exposure to general daily stress where more likely to have worse cardiovascular health than White women reporting very little to no daily stress (OR =2.85; CI=1.49, P5.44; P5.001). Conclusion Our findings demonstrate the importance of social determinants associated with cardiovascular health. Tailored cardiovascular risk reduction intervention is needed among lower SES Black women in Stroke Belt and Buckle regions of the South, as well as stress-reduction intervention among White women in the South. (Ethn Dis. 2014;24[2]:133–143) PMID:24804357

  5. Social determinants of cardiovascular health among black and white women residing in Stroke Belt and Buckle regions of the South.

    PubMed

    Davis, Sharon K; Gebreab, Samson; Quarells, Rakale; Gibbons, Gary H

    2014-01-01

    To assess the associations of social determinants on cardiovascular health among White and Black residing in Stroke Belt (urban) and Stroke Buckle (rural) regions of the South. A cross-sectional observational analysis based on a random digit-dial telephone survey of a representative sample of White and Black adults residing in urban and rural Georgia conducted from 2004-2005. Separate logistic regression analyses examined the effects of social determinants on cardiovascular health within and between White and Black women and within and between urban and rural residential location. The main outcome measure was poor cardiovascular health defined as > or = 2 self-reported clinical cardiovascular disease risk factors (hypertension, diabetes, elevated cholesterol, overweight or obese). Social determinants were defined as socioeconomic status (SES), general daily stress, racial discrimination, and stress due to exposure to racial discrimination. Significance was established as a two-tailed P < .05. A total of 674 White and Black women aged 18-90 years were included in the sample. Results showed Black women with lower SES had worse cardiovascular health than White women in both rural and urban areas (rural odds ratio [OR] 2.68; confidence interval [CI] 1.44, 4.90; P = .001; urban OR = 2.92; CI = 1.62, 5.23; P = .0003). White women reporting high or very high exposure to general daily stress where more likely to have worse cardiovascular health than White women reporting very little to no daily stress (OR = 2.85; CI = 1.49, 5.44; P = .001). Our findings demonstrate the importance of social determinants associated with cardiovascular health. Tailored cardiovascular risk reduction intervention is needed among lower SES Black women in Stroke Belt and Buckle regions of the South, as well as stress-reduction intervention among White women in the South.

  6. Determination of a No-Observable Effect Level for Endotoxin Following a Single Intravitreal Administration to Dutch Belted Rabbits.

    PubMed

    Bantseev, Vladimir; Miller, Paul E; Bentley, Ellison; Schuetz, Chris; Streit, Tim M; Christian, Brian J; Farman, Cindy; Booler, Helen; Thackaberry, Evan A

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the inflammatory response and determine a no-observable effect level (NOEL) in rabbit eyes after endotoxin intravitreal (ITV) injection. Fifty-three naïve male Dutch Belted rabbits were treated with a single 50-μL ITV injection ranging from 0.01 to 0.75 endotoxin units/eye (EU/eye) and monitored for up to 42 days post treatment. Ophthalmic examination included slit-lamp biomicroscopy and indirect ophthalmoscopy. Laser flare photometry was performed in a subset of animals. On days 2, 8, 16, and 43, a subset of animals was necropsied and eyes processed for histopathological evaluation. Intravitreal injection of endotoxin at ≥0.05 EU/eye resulted in a dose-related anterior segment inflammation response. No aqueous flare or cell response was noted in the 0.01 EU/eye dose group. A more delayed posterior segment response characterized by vitreal cell response was observed beginning on day 5, peaking on day 9, and decreasing starting on day 16 that persisted at trace to a level of 1+ on day 43. Microscopy findings of infiltrates of minimal mixed inflammatory cells in the vitreous and subconjunctiva and proteinaceous fluid in the anterior chamber and/or vitreous were observed in eyes given ≥0.1 EU/eye. We defined the NOEL for ITV endotoxin to be 0.01 EU/eye, suggesting that the vitreal cavity is more sensitive to the effects of endotoxin than the anterior segment and aqueous chamber. These data highlight the importance of assessing endotoxin level in intravitreal formulations, as levels as low as 0.05 EU/eye may confound the safety evaluations of intravitreal therapeutics in rabbits.

  7. A new on-belt elemental analyzer for the cement industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sowerby, B. D.; Lim, C. S.; Tickner, J. R.; Manias, C.; Retallack, D.

    2001-07-01

    On-line control of raw mill feed composition is a key to the improved control of cement plants. Elements of primary importance to the industry are calcium, silicon, aluminum and iron. Direct on-conveyor belt analysis of raw mill feed is required, independent of changes in belt loading, moisture content, and both horizontal and vertical segregation. A new and improved on-conveyor belt elemental analyzer for cement raw mill feed has been developed and tested successfully in Adelaide Brighton's Birkenhead cement plant. The analyzer utilizes two 241Am-Be neutron sources and multiple BGO detectors to measure both neutron inelastic scatter and thermal neutron capture gamma rays. Dynamic tests in the plant on highly segregated material having depths in the range 100 to 200 mm have shown analyzer total RMS errors of 0.49, 0.52, 0.38 and 0.23 wt.% (on a loss free basis) for CaO, SiO2, Al2O3, and Fe2O3 respectively, when 10-minute counting periods are used.

  8. Systematic conveyor belt cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Rappen, A.

    1984-01-01

    The currently available conveyor belt cleaning devices are enumerated. Recent investigations have confirmed the belt scraping devices based on intermittent linear contact by means of individually adjustable and spring-loaded scraper blades, usually of metallic construction as the most advanced type of belt cleaner. The system also allows application on reversing belts. Criteria are presented for assessing the performance of a belt cleaner.

  9. An on-belt elemental analyser for the cement industry.

    PubMed

    Lim, C S; Tickner, J R; Sowerby, B D; Abernethy, D A; McEwan, A J; Rainey, S; Stevens, R; Manias, C; Retallack, D

    2001-01-01

    On-line control of raw mill feed composition is a key factor in the improved control of cement plants. A new and improved on-conveyor belt elemental analyser for cement raw mill feed based on neutron inelastic scatter and capture techniques has been developed and tested successfully in Adelaide Brighton's Birkenhead cement plant on highly segregated material with a depth range of 100 to 180 mm. Dynamic tests in the plant have shown analyser RMS total errors of 0.49, 0.52, 0.38 and 0.23 wt% (on a loss free basis) for CaO, SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 respectively, when 10-minute counting periods are used.

  10. 20-liter furnance test method to determine the combustion gas toxicity of conveyor belts. Report of investigations/1996

    SciTech Connect

    De Rosa, M.I.

    1996-09-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Pittsburgh Research Center conducted experiments with mine conveyor belt samples in a 20-L furnace and in a laboratory fire tunnel to measure and compare the major toxic gas concentrations evolved during the combustion of the materials. The toxic gas concentrations, measured simultaneously through a multiport sampling device and treated as yield values, included hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), oxides of nitrogen (NOx treated as NO2), and carbon monoxide (CO). Correlations were developed for the toxic gas yields as a function of the percentage of chlorine (for HCl gas), nitrogen (for HCN and NO2 gases), and carbon (for CO gas) contained in the original materials.

  11. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, William J.

    1985-01-01

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  12. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.

    1985-07-02

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making laterial turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rolles which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  13. Laterally bendable belt conveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, W.J.

    1982-09-24

    An endless, laterally flexible and bendable belt conveyor particularly adapted for coal mining applications in facilitating the transport of the extracted coal up- or downslope and around corners in a continuous manner is disclosed. The conveying means includes a flat rubber belt reinforced along the middle portion thereof along which the major portion of the belt tension is directed so as to cause rotation of the tubular shaped belt when trammed around lateral turns thus preventing excessive belt bulging distortion between adjacent belt supports which would inhibit belt transport. Pretension induced into the fabric reinforced flat rubber belt by conventional belt take-up means supports the load conveyed when the belt conveyor is making lateral turns. The carrying and return portions of the belt are supported and formed into a tubular shape by a plurality of shapers positioned along its length. Each shaper is supported from above by a monorail and includes clusters of idler rollers which support the belt. Additional cluster rollers in each shaper permit the belt supporting roller clusters to rotate in response to the belt's operating tension imposed upon the cluster rollers by induced lateral belt friction forces. The freely rotating roller clusters thus permit the belt to twist on lateral curves without damage to itself while precluding escape of the conveyed material by effectively enclosing it in the tube-shaped, inner belt transport length.

  14. DETERMINATION OF AN UPPER LIMIT FOR THE WATER OUTGASSING RATE OF MAIN-BELT COMET P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS)

    SciTech Connect

    O'Rourke, L.; Teyssier, D.; Kueppers, M.; Snodgrass, C.; De Val-Borro, M.; Hartogh, P.; Biver, N.; Bockelee-Morvan, D.; Hsieh, H.; Micheli, M.; Fernandez, Y.

    2013-09-01

    A new Main-Belt Comet (MBC) P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) was discovered on 2012 October 6, approximately one month after its perihelion, by the Pan-STARRS1 survey based in Hawaii. It displayed cometary activity upon its discovery with one hypothesis being that the activity was driven by sublimation of ices; as a result, we searched for emission assumed to be driven by the sublimation of subsurface ices. Our search was of the H{sub 2}O 1{sub 10}-1{sub 01} ground state rotational line at 557 GHz from P/2012 T1 (PANSTARRS) with the Heterodyne Instrument for the Far Infrared on board the Herschel Space Observatory on 2013 January 16, when the object was at a heliocentric distance of 2.504 AU and a geocentric distance of 2.064 AU. Perihelion was in early 2012 September at a distance of 2.411 AU. While no H{sub 2}O line emission was detected in our observations, we were able to derive sensitive 3{sigma} upper limits for the water production rate and column density of <7.63 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 25} molecules s{sup -1} and of <1.61 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2}, respectively. An observation taken on 2013 January 15 using the Very Large Telescope found the MBC to be active during the Herschel observation, suggesting that any ongoing sublimation due to subsurface ice was lower than our upper limit.

  15. Belt attachment and system

    DOEpatents

    Schneider, Abraham D.; Davidson, Erick M.

    2016-02-02

    Disclosed herein is a belt assembly including a flexible belt with an improved belt attachment. The belt attachment includes two crossbars spaced along the length of the belt. The crossbars retain bearings that allow predetermined movement in six degrees of freedom. The crossbars are connected by a rigid body that attaches to the bearings. Implements that are attached to the rigid body are simply supported but restrained in pitching rotation.

  16. Infrared Kuiper Belt Constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Teplitz, V.L.; Stern, S.A.; Anderson, J.D.; Rosenbaum, D.; Scalise, R.J.; Wentzler, P.

    1999-05-01

    We compute the temperature and IR signal of particles of radius {ital a} and albedo {alpha} at heliocentric distance {ital R}, taking into account the emissivity effect, and give an interpolating formula for the result. We compare with analyses of {ital COBE} DIRBE data by others (including recent detection of the cosmic IR background) for various values of heliocentric distance {ital R}, particle radius {ital a}, and particle albedo {alpha}. We then apply these results to a recently developed picture of the Kuiper belt as a two-sector disk with a nearby, low-density sector (40{lt}R{lt}50{endash}90 AU) and a more distant sector with a higher density. We consider the case in which passage through a molecular cloud essentially cleans the solar system of dust. We apply a simple model of dust production by comet collisions and removal by the Poynting-Robertson effect to find limits on total and dust masses in the near and far sectors as a function of time since such a passage. Finally, we compare Kuiper belt IR spectra for various parameter values. Results of this work include: (1) numerical limits on Kuiper belt dust as a function of ({ital R}, {ital a}, {alpha}) on the basis of four alternative sets of constraints, including those following from recent discovery of the cosmic IR background by Hauser et al.; (2) application to the two-sector Kuiper belt model, finding mass limits and spectrum shape for different values of relevant parameters including dependence on time elapsed since last passage through a molecular cloud cleared the outer solar system of dust; and (3) potential use of spectral information to determine time since last passage of the Sun through a giant molecular cloud. {copyright} {ital {copyright} 1999.} {ital The American Astronomical Society}

  17. Conveyor belt plow for ideal belt cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Michaelsen, W.J.

    1982-05-01

    The accumulation of excess material around the return drum of a conveyor arises from an inefficient belt plow. The frequency with which this problem occurs would indicate a design problem rather than faulty installation or negligent maintenance. The reasons for the poor operation of the plow become obvious after applying basic physical principles. Simple and cheap improvements can be implemented to improve plow performance. To be effective, a plow should be installed either near the tail end, to protect the return drum, or ahead of the automatic belt tensioning device, to prevent spillage from falling onto the take-up pulley. In order to perform well, the scraping blade of the plow must be in continuous contact with the belt across its full width, having contact pressure as uniform as possible. It has been proven, though, that uniform contact pressure cannot be achieved under operating conditions with the standard arrangement shown in Figure 1. There are two solutions to this problem which can be carried out in most mine workshops and help reduce belt downtime. All too often an ineffective plow allows material to be needlessly trapped against the belt, causing excessive wear and, ultimately, tearing the belt. Even with highly experienced belt crews, a short stoppage in the main belt can have serious effects throughout the mine. An efficient plow means a cleaner running belt.

  18. Belt separation system under slat in fattening pig housing: effect of belt type and extraction frequency.

    PubMed

    Alonso, F; Vázquez, J; Ovejero, I; Garcimartín, M A; Mateos, A; Sánchez, E

    2010-08-01

    The efficiency of manure separation by a conveyor belt under a partially slatted floor for fattening pigs was determined for two types of belts, a flat belt with an incline of up to 6 degrees transversely and a concave belt with an incline of up to 1 degrees longitudinally. A 31.20% and 23.75% dry matter content of the solid fraction was obtained for the flat and concave belt, respectively. The flat belt was more efficient at 6 degrees than other slope angles. The residence time of the manure on the two belt types influenced the separation efficiency from a live weight of 63.00 kg upwards. The quantity of residue produced with this system was reduced to 25-40% with respect to a pit system under slat. This could mean a remarkable reduction in costs of storage, transport and application of manure. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Synaptic ribbon. Conveyor belt or safety belt?

    PubMed

    Parsons, T D; Sterling, P

    2003-02-06

    The synaptic ribbon in neurons that release transmitter via graded potentials has been considered as a conveyor belt that actively moves vesicles toward their release sites. But evidence has accumulated to the contrary, and it now seems plausible that the ribbon serves instead as a safety belt to tether vesicles stably in mutual contact and thus facilitate multivesicular release by compound exocytosis.

  20. Gould Belt Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivera, Leticia; Loinard, Laurent; Dzib, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Using archive VLA data and recent observations on the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array it is worked on a semi-automatic python/CASA code to select, reduce and plot several young stars belonging to the Ophiuchus core. This code mean to help to select observations made along the 30 years of the VLA done in the selected area with the wide configurations A and B, and in the X and C band, to determine their position and compare it with the most recent ones. In this way it is possible to determinate their proper motion with very high precision. It is presented the phases of the process and our first results worked on three well know stars: S1, DoAr 21 and VLA1623. This is the tip of a bigger work that includes Taurus molecular cloud and other important recent star formation regions belonging to the Gould Belt. Our goal is to support the most suitable among several theories about Gould Belt origin or provide a new one taking in count the dynamics of those regions.

  1. Biomechanics of seat belt restraint system.

    PubMed

    Sances, Anthony; Kumaresan, Srirangam; Herbst, Brian; Meyer, Steve; Hock, Davis

    2004-01-01

    Seat belt system restrains and protects occupants in motor vehicle crashes and any slack in seat belt system induces additional loading on occupant. Signs of belt loading are more obvious in high-speed frontal collisions with heavy occupants. However subtle changes may occur at low speeds or with low forces from occupants during rollovers. In certain cases, the seat belt webbing is twisted and loaded by the occupant. The loading of webbing induces an observable fold/crimp on the seat belt. The purpose of the study is to biomechanically evaluate the force required to produce such marks using an anthropometric physical test dummy. Two tests were conducted to determine the amount of force required to put an observable fold/crimp in a shoulder belt. A head form designed by Voight Hodgson was used to represent the neck which interacted with the belt. The force was applied with a pneumatic pull ram (central hydraulic 89182 N) and the force was measured with a 44,000 N transducer load cell (DSM-10K). Results indicate that the force of over 1,000 N produced a fold or crimp in the belt.

  2. Belt conveyor apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, D.J.; Bogart, R.L.

    1987-05-05

    A belt conveyor apparatus is described comprising: means defining a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley, an endless belt member adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys defining thereby an upper and lower reach, the endless belt member having a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects at a first location on the conveyance path and transport the objects to and then discharge the objects at a second location on the conveyance path; and motive means in communication with the means defining a conveyance path, for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path.

  3. Emission products from combustion of conveyor belts

    SciTech Connect

    Egan, M.R.

    1988-01-01

    A series of experiments were undertaken by the Bureau of Mines to determine the emission products of several types of conveyor belting and other combustible materials found in mines. These experiments were conducted under intermediate scale, stimulated mine conditions to determine smoke characteristics and gas concentrations. From these determinations, heat-release rates, particle sizes, obscuration rates, combustion yields, and production constants were calculated. Three types of belts were investigated: chloroprene, also known as neoprene (NP); polyvinyl chloride (PVC); and styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR). The belts were designated as ignitable or self-extinguishing depending on the length of the burning time and the subsequent combustion products. These conveyor belt combustion results are compared with previous analyses of wood, transformer fluid, and coal fires. Together they form a data base by which findings from future experiments with other mine combustibles can be compared.

  4. Hazards of conveyor belt fires

    SciTech Connect

    Perzak, F.J.; Litton, C.D.; Mura, K.E.; Lazzara, C.P.

    1995-12-31

    This report describes a US Bureau of Mines study on the hazards of large-scale conveyor belt fires in underground coal mines, as a function of both air velocity and distance from belt surface to gallery roof. The fire hazards considered were smoke obscuration, toxic effects of carbon monoxide (CO), and elevated air temperatures downstream of the fire. All of these hazards scale with the ratio of fire intensity to ventilation airflow. These hazards were all found to be greater at the lower belt-to-roof distance, owing to the greater fire intensities that resulted. The hazards of smoke obscuration and elevated CO levels were greater at lower air velocities. Smoke obscuration was found to be the earliest hazard, reaching critical levels before the stages of flame spread. Fire growth rates during rapid flame spread were much greater than rates measured during the early stages of flame spread. Fire growth rates during rapid flame spread were much greater than rates measured during the early stages of belt burning. Data were analyzed to determine the early-warning capability of fire sensors. Smoke sensors provided the earliest warning, followed closely by CO sensors. Thermal sensors did not exhibit any early warning capability.

  5. Cleaning conveyor belts in the chicken-cutting area of a poultry processing plant with 45°c water.

    PubMed

    Soares, V M; Pereira, J G; Zanette, C M; Nero, L A; Pinto, J P A N; Barcellos, V C; Bersot, L S

    2014-03-01

    Conveyor belts are widely used in food handling areas, especially in poultry processing plants. Because they are in direct contact with food and it is a requirement of the Brazilian health authority, conveyor belts are required to be continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. The use of water in this procedure has been questioned based on the hypothesis that water may further disseminate microorganisms but not effectively reduce the organic material on the surface. Moreover, reducing the use of water in processing may contribute to a reduction in costs and emission of effluents. However, no consistent evidence in support of removing water during conveyor belt cleaning has been reported. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to compare the bacterial counts on conveyor belts that were or were not continuously cleaned with hot water under pressure. Superficial samples from conveyor belts (cleaned or not cleaned) were collected at three different times during operation (T1, after the preoperational cleaning [5 a.m.]; T2, after the first work shift [4 p.m.]; and T3, after the second work shift [1:30 a.m.]) in a poultry meat processing facility, and the samples were subjected to mesophilic and enterobacterial counts. For Enterobacteriaceae, no significant differences were observed between the conveyor belts, independent of the time of sampling or the cleaning process. No significant differences were observed between the counts of mesophilic bacteria at the distinct times of sampling on the conveyor belt that had not been subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. When comparing similar periods of sampling, no significant differences were observed between the mesophilic counts obtained from the conveyor belts that were or were not subjected to continuous cleaning with water at 45°C. Continuous cleaning with water did not significantly reduce microorganism counts, suggesting the possibility of discarding this procedure in chicken processing.

  6. A photometric survey of outer belt asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dimartino, M.; Gonano-Beurer, M.; Mottola, Stefano; Neukum, G.

    1992-01-01

    Since 1989, we have been conducting a research program devoted to the study of the Trojans and outer belt asteroids (Hilda and Cybele groups), in order to characterize their rotational properties and shapes. As an outcome of several observational campaigns, we determined rotational periods and lightcurve amplitudes for 23 distant asteroids, using both CCD and photoelectric photometry. In this paper, we compare the rotational properties of main belt asteroids and Trojans, based on the preliminary results of this survey.

  7. To Belt or Not To Belt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vail, Kathleen

    1999-01-01

    The National Highway Traffic Transportation Safety Administration (NHTSA) is in the midst of the first school-bus crash tests in more than 10 years. Its report is expected in June 2000, and those on both sides of the seat-belt debate are waiting to see what NHTSA will recommend on passenger restraints in large school buses. A sidebar lists sources…

  8. The effects of nighttime seat belt enforcement on seat belt use by tavern patrons: a preliminary analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Malenfant, J E; Van Houten, R

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of police enforcement and the use of signs and posters in promoting seat belt use by nighttime tavern patrons. Ten taverns in two cities served as sites. Data were collected on the nighttime seat belt use of tavern patrons and daytime citywide seat belt use. Results indicated that the intervention increased nighttime seat belt use by tavern patrons. Daytime seat belt use increased in one city and remained at a high level in the other following the intervention. Because previous research has shown that tavern patrons are overrepresented in the impaired driving population, and that seat belt use decreases the likelihood of serious injury or death, results of this study suggest that enforcement of seat belt use could reduce casualties resulting from impaired driving. PMID:3198547

  9. Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, D. G.; Fox, N.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Mauk, B. H.

    2009-01-01

    Scheduled to launch in May 2012, NASA's dual spacecraft Living With a Star Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission carries the field and particle instrumentation needed to determine the processes that produce enhancements in radiation belt ion and electron fluxes, the dominant mechanisms that cause the loss of relativistic electrons, and the manner by which the ring current and other geomagnetic phenomena affect radiation belt behavior. The two spacecraft will operate in low-inclination elliptical lapping orbits around the Earth, within and immediately exterior to the Van Allen radiation belts. During course of their two year primary mission, they will cover the full range of local times, measuring both AC and DC electric and magnetic fields to 10kHz, as well as ions from 50 eV to 1 GeV and electrons with energies ranging from 50 eV to 10 MeV.

  10. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  11. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Trujillo, Chad

    2012-02-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a medium wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System.

  12. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-06-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Kuiper Belt surveys to date have not been optimized to survey beyond the Kuiper Belt edge at 50 AU. Most of these surveys either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we propose a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if this eccentric, distant body is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or just the first of a new class of object in the outer Solar System. We will also explore the Neptune Trojans and scattered disk populations through the survey.

  13. Persistence of Salmonella on egg conveyor belts is dependent on the belt type but not on the rdar morphotype.

    PubMed

    Stocki, S L; Annett, C B; Sibley, C D; McLaws, M; Checkley, S L; Singh, N; Surette, M G; White, A P

    2007-11-01

    Commercial caged layer flocks in Alberta, Canada, are commonly monitored for Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (ST) by environmental sampling. In one recent case, a SE strain isolated from the egg conveyor belt was a source of persistent infection for the flock. This study was undertaken to examine Salmonella colonization on egg conveyor belts and to determine whether the rdar morphotype, a conserved physiology associated with aggregation and long-term survival, contributed to persistence. Four woven belts constructed of natural or nonnatural fibers and a 1-piece belt made of vinyl were tested with rdar-positive ST and SE strains and a rdar-negative ST DeltaagfD reference strain. The type of egg belt was the most important factor influencing Salmonella colonization and persistence. The vinyl belt, with the least surface area available for colonization, had the fewest Salmonella remaining after washing and disinfection, whereas the hemp-plastic belt, with the greatest surface area, had the most Salmonella remaining. Real-time gene expression indicated that the rdar morphotype was involved in colonizing the egg belt pieces; however, it was not essential for persistence. In addition, rdar-positive and rdar-negative strains were equally similarly to disinfection on the egg belt pieces. The results indicate that Salmonella can persist on a variety of egg belts by mechanisms other than the rdar morphotype, and that using egg conveyer belts with reduced surface area for bacterial colonization can lessen contamination problems.

  14. Belt conveyor apparatus

    SciTech Connect

    Oakley, David J.; Bogart, Rex L.

    1987-01-01

    A belt conveyor apparatus according to this invention defines a conveyance path including a first pulley and at least a second pulley. An endless belt member is adapted for continuous travel about the pulleys and comprises a lower portion which engages the pulleys and an integral upper portion adapted to receive objects therein at a first location on said conveyance path and transport the objects to a second location for discharge. The upper belt portion includes an opposed pair of longitudinally disposed crest-like members, biased towards each other in a substantially abutting relationship. The crest-like members define therebetween a continuous, normally biased closed, channel along the upper belt portion. Means are disposed at the first and second locations and operatively associated with the belt member for urging the normally biased together crest-like members apart in order to provide access to the continuous channel whereby objects can be received into, or discharged from the channel. Motors are in communication with the conveyance path for effecting the travel of the endless belt member about the conveyance path. The conveyance path can be configured to include travel through two or more elevations and one or more directional changes in order to convey objects above, below and/or around existing structures.

  15. Belt scales user's guide

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, N.I. )

    1993-02-01

    A conveyor-belt scale provides a means of obtaining accurate weights of dry bulk materials without delaying other plant operations. In addition, for many applications a belt scale is the most cost-effective alternative among many choices for a weighing system. But a number of users are not comfortable with the accuracy of their belt scales. In cases of unsatisfactory scale performance, it is often possible to correct problems and achieve the accuracy that was expected. To have a belt scale system that is accurate, precise, and cost effective, practical experience has shown that certain basic requisites must be satisfied. These requisites include matching the scale capability to the needs of the application, selecting durable scale equipment and conveyor idlers, adopting improved conveyor support methods, employing superior scale installation and alignment techniques, and establishing and practicing an effective scale testing and performance monitoring program. The goal of the Belt Scale Users' Guide is to enable utilities to reap the benefits of consistently accurate output from their new or upgraded belt scale installations. Such benefits include eliminating incorrect payments for coal receipts, improving coal pile inventory data, providing better heat rate results to enhance plant efficiency and yield more economical power dispatch, and satisfying regulatory agencies. All these benefits can reduce the cost of power generation.

  16. Taxi driver seat belt wearing in Nanjing, China.

    PubMed

    Routley, Virginia; Ozanne-Smith, Joan; Qin, Yu; Wu, Ming

    2009-01-01

    To determine and validate patterns of seat belt use and attitudes of taxi drivers on wearing a seat belt following national and provincial seat belt legislation in 2004-2005. Roadside daylight seat belt observation and interview survey methods were used, as well as observations from inside taxis during routine trips and a taxi driver focus group. The setting was Nanjing, Jiangsu Province, PR China in April of 2006 and 2007. Prevalence of seat belt use and attitudes to wearing a seat belt were determined, as were vehicle and driver characteristics, and comparisons with other motor-vehicle driver's seat belt use and attitudes. Taxi drivers interviewed were predominantly male and aged 30-39 years. They spent more hours per week in their vehicles and had more driving experience than other drivers. Over half (56.2%) of taxi drivers interviewed reported that they always wore seat belts, while observation of taxi drivers showed lower wearing rates (i.e., roadside observation was 43.8%, and observation from inside taxis was 36.2%). Belt tampering was a practice of 12-15% of taxi drivers. "Fine avoidance, safety, high speed and long trips" were given as important reasons for wearing and "feeling trapped and uncomfortable" for not wearing. Seat belt reminder signs in taxis were common (82.6% of taxis), but did not appear to impact on driver seat belt use. The four research methods found taxi drivers to have consistently low "correct wearing" rates. As in several other countries, taxi drivers are particularly resistant to seat belt use. Innovative strategies, including occupational health and safety approaches, may be required to achieve increased levels of seat belt use.

  17. Liquid belt radiator design study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. P.; Fitzgerald, K. F.

    1986-01-01

    The Liquid Belt Radiator (LBR) is an advanced concept developed to meet the needs of anticipated future space missions. A previous study documented the advantages of this concept as a lightweight, easily deployable alternative to present day space heat rejection systems. The technical efforts associated with this study concentrate on refining the concept of the LBR as well as examining the issues of belt dynamics and potential application of the LBR to intermediate and high temperature heat rejection applications. A low temperature point design developed in previous work is updated assuming the use of diffusion pump oil, Santovac-6, as the heat transfer media. Additional analytical and design effort is directed toward determining the impact of interface heat exchanger, fluid bath sealing, and belt drive mechanism designs on system performance and mass. The updated design supports the earlier result by indicating a significant reduction in system specific system mass as compared to heat pipe or pumped fluid radiator concepts currently under consideration (1.3 kg/sq m versus 5 kg/sq m).

  18. Decay rate of the second radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  19. Decay rate of the second radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Badhwar, G. D.; Robbins, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  20. Decay rate of the second radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  1. Enhanced radiation belts and systems implications workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crain, C. M.

    1983-03-01

    Determination of the degree of understanding of the effects on space systems produced by enhancement of the natural radiation belts, identification of the areas where additional understanding is needed, and provision of suggestions for further research were determined. Topics relevant to enhanced radiation belts and their potential effects on the architecture of enduring space systems were discussed. Topics included injection of trapped radiation from fission debris, loss mechanisms and lifetimes, SPECTER codes for predicting total radiation flux, mission considerations of trapped radiation, hardware vulnerability and hardening, single event phenomena, and planning for a chemical release satellite.

  2. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  3. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless the machines are provided with mechanical shifters. (b) Belt dressing shall not be applied while belts are...

  4. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    The Radiation Belt Storm Probe mission (RBSP) will explore the Van Allen Radiation Belts in the Earth's magnetosphere. The charge particles in these regions can be hazardous to both spacecraft and ...

  5. Moving belt radiator development status

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The ralative merits of Solid Belt (SBR), Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  6. Moving belt radiator development status

    SciTech Connect

    White, K.A.

    1988-07-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The ralative merits of Solid Belt (SBR), Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  7. Moving Belt Radiator technology issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, K. Alan, III

    1988-01-01

    Development of the Moving Belt Radiator (MBR) as an advanced space radiator concept is discussed. The relative merits of Solid Belt (SBR) Liquid Belt (LBR), and Hybrid Belt (HBR) Radiators are described. Analytical and experimental efforts related to the dynamics of a rotating belt in microgravity are reviewed. The development of methods for transferring heat to the moving belt is discussed, and the results from several experimental investigations are summarized. Limited efforts related to the belt deployment and stowage, and to fabrication of a hybrid belt, are also discussed. Life limiting factors such as seal wear and micrometeroid resistance are identified. The results from various MBR point design studies for several power levels are compared with advanced Heat Pipe Radiator technology. MBR designs are shown to compare favorable at both 300 and 1000 K temperature levels. However, additional effort will be required to resolve critical technology issues and to demonstrate the advantage of MBR systems.

  8. Conveyor belt care.

    PubMed

    1989-07-08

    Nurses, doctors, politicians and public have reacted to the prospect of high-volume hospital bed usage - conveyor belt care - by warning of a future-shock scenario of 'pro[Illegible Word] pea' patients whipped through dehumanising hospital treatment and promptly dumped crutchless into the community.

  9. The Stroke Belt Consortium.

    PubMed

    Alberts, M J

    1996-01-01

    The "Stroke Belt" describes a region of the southeastern United States with a high incidence of stroke and mortality due to stroke. In an effort to address the problem of stroke in this region, we have formed the Stroke Belt Consortium (SBC). This report describes the formation and functions of the SBC. The SBC is a unique organization with representatives from many areas, including health care, government, nonprofit organizations, the pharmaceutical industry, minority groups, educational groups, and managed care. The goals of the consortium are to advance public and professional education about stroke in the Stroke Belt, with a special emphasis on the populations in that region. The first meeting of the consortium was held in November 1994. Many helpful and innovative ideas and initiatives were generated at the first SBC meeting. These included improved techniques for professional education, the development of a mass media campaign for public education, screening of college students for stroke risk factors, and using fast-food restaurants and sporting events as venues to promote stroke education. This type of organized effort may produce cost-effective programs and initiatives, particularly for largescale educational efforts, that will enhance the prevention and treatment of stroke patients. If successful in the Stroke Belt, similar organizations can be formed in other regions of the nation to address specific issues related to stroke prevention, education, and treatment.

  10. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Fillius, R W; McIlwain, C E

    1974-01-25

    Pioneer 10 counted relativistic electrons throughout the magnetosphere of Jupiter, with the greatest fluxes being inside 20 Jupiter radii. The peak flux of electrons with energy greater than 50 million electron volts was 1.3 x 10(7) per square centimeter per second at the innermost penetration of the radiation belts.

  11. Radiation belts of jupiter.

    PubMed

    Stansberry, K G; White, R S

    1973-12-07

    Predictions of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts are based mainly on decimeter observations of 1966 and 1968. Extensive calculations modeling radial diffusion of particles inward from the solar wind and electron synchrotron radiation are used to relate the predictions and observations.

  12. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2012B to recover interesting objects that will be discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population.

  13. Beyond the Kuiper Belt Edge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Of the thousands of known objects beyond Neptune, only one has a perihelion significantly beyond 50 AU, Sedna at 75 AU. Most Kuiper Belt surveys to date either did not go faint enough, did not have the required long cadence to detect very slow moving objects or covered too small of an area of sky to efficiently detect objects beyond 50 AU. The dynamical and physical properties of objects in this region offer key constraints on the formation and evolution of our solar system. In order to probe the Sedna like population of objects with moderate radii (100 km) we are conducting a deep wide-field outer solar system survey. This survey will allow us to determine if the objects beyond 50 AU are fainter than expected, if there is truly a dearth of objects, or if the Kuiper Belt continues again after some sizable gap possibly caused by a planet sized object. We will be able to examine the origin of Sedna and determine if it is unique (as once believed for Pluto) or one of a new class of object. We request one night in 2013B to recover a very interesting object that we discovered at Subaru in July 2012 and complete the sky coverage needed to constrain the Sedna-like population. This one night was awarded to us in 2012B but lost because of instrument problems.

  14. Seat Belt Education Program--A Model for Public Health Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders, Stephen; Pine, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether a brief seat belt group educational intervention could be incorporated into an existing public health program and result in increased use of seat belts. Seat belt use increased from 4.9 to 12.6 percent among 268 low-income mothers during the study. (Author/CH)

  15. Epsilon Eridani Inner Asteroid Belt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-14

    SCI2017_0004: Artist's illustration of the Epsilon Eridani system showing Epsilon Eridani b, right foreground, a Jupiter-mass planet orbiting its parent star at the outside edge of an asteroid belt. In the background can be seen another narrow asteroid or comet belt plus an outermost belt similar in size to our solar system's Kuiper Belt. The similarity of the structure of the Epsilon Eridani system to our solar system is remarkable, although Epsilon Eridani is much younger than our sun. SOFIA observations confirmed the existence of the asteroid belt adjacent to the orbit of the Jovian planet. Credit: NASA/SOFIA/Lynette Cook

  16. The empty primordial asteroid belt.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Sean N; Izidoro, Andre

    2017-09-01

    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth's mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter's present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets' gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself.

  17. The empty primordial asteroid belt

    PubMed Central

    Raymond, Sean N.; Izidoro, Andre

    2017-01-01

    The asteroid belt contains less than a thousandth of Earth’s mass and is radially segregated, with S-types dominating the inner belt and C-types the outer belt. It is generally assumed that the belt formed with far more mass and was later strongly depleted. We show that the present-day asteroid belt is consistent with having formed empty, without any planetesimals between Mars and Jupiter’s present-day orbits. This is consistent with models in which drifting dust is concentrated into an isolated annulus of terrestrial planetesimals. Gravitational scattering during terrestrial planet formation causes radial spreading, transporting planetesimals from inside 1 to 1.5 astronomical units out to the belt. Several times the total current mass in S-types is implanted, with a preference for the inner main belt. C-types are implanted from the outside, as the giant planets’ gas accretion destabilizes nearby planetesimals and injects a fraction into the asteroid belt, preferentially in the outer main belt. These implantation mechanisms are simple by-products of terrestrial and giant planet formation. The asteroid belt may thus represent a repository for planetary leftovers that accreted across the solar system but not in the belt itself. PMID:28924609

  18. The levantine amber belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nissenbaum, A.; Horowitz, A.

    1992-02-01

    Amber, a fossil resin, is found in Early Cretaceous sanstones and fine clastics in Lebanon, Jordan, and Israel. The term "Levantine amber belt" is coined for this amber-containing sediment belt. The amber occurs as small nodules of various colors and frequently contains inclusions of macro- and microorganisms. The Lebanese amber contains Lepidoptera and the amber from southern Israel is rich in fungal remains. The source of the amber, based on geochemical and palynological evidence, is assumed to be from a conifer belonging to the Araucariaceae. The resins were produced by trees growing in a tropical near shore environment. The amber was transported into small swamps and was preserved there together with lignite. Later reworking of those deposits resulted in redeposition of the amber in oxidized sandstones.

  19. Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Nilsen, E.

    2001-01-01

    Since their initial discovery in 1992, to date only a relatively small number of Kuiper Belt Objects (KBO's) have been discovered. Current detection techniques rely on frame-to-frame comparisons of images collected by optical telescopes such as Hubble, to detect KBO's as they move against the background stellar field. Another technique involving studies of KBO's through occultation of known stars has been proposed. Such techniques are serendipitous, not systematic, and may lead to an inadequate understanding of the size, range, and distribution of KBO's. In this paper, a future Kuiper Belt Mapping Radar is proposed as a solution to the problem of mapping the size distribution, extent, and range of KBO's. This approach can also be used to recover radar albedo and object rotation rates. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Jupiter's radiation belts.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brice, N.; Mcdonough, T. R.

    1973-01-01

    A model for the production and loss of energetic electrons in Jupiter's radiation belt is presented. It is postulated that the electrons originate in the solar wind and are diffused in toward the planet by perturbations which violate the particles' third adiabatic invariant. At large distances, magnetic perturbations, electric fields associated with magnetospheric convection, or interchange instabilities driven by thermal plasma gradients may drive the diffusion. Inside about 10 Jupiter radii, the diffusion is probably driven by electric fields associated with the upper atmosphere dynamo which is driven by neutral winds in the ionosphere. The diurnal component of the dynamo wind fields produces a dawn-dusk asymmetry in the decimetric radiation from the electrons in the belts, and the lack of obvious measured asymmetries in the decimetric radiation measurements provides estimates of upper limits for these Jovian ionospheric neutral winds.

  1. Deconstructing the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Lozier, M Susan

    2010-06-18

    For the past several decades, oceanographers have embraced the dominant paradigm that the ocean's meridional overturning circulation operates like a conveyor belt, transporting cold waters equatorward at depth and warm waters poleward at the surface. Within this paradigm, the conveyor, driven by changes in deepwater production at high latitudes, moves deep waters and their attendant properties continuously along western boundary currents and returns surface waters unimpeded to deepwater formation sites. A number of studies conducted over the past few years have challenged this paradigm by revealing the vital role of the ocean's eddy and wind fields in establishing the structure and variability of the ocean's overturning. Here, we review those studies and discuss how they have collectively changed our view of the simple conveyor-belt model.

  2. Protocrustal evolution of the Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt as determined by high precision zircon Lu-Hf and U-Pb isotope data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Augland, Lars Eivind; David, Jean

    2015-10-01

    The Nuvvuagittuq Supracrustal Belt (NSB) in northern Quebec, Canada, represents one of the oldest known crustal fragments preserved in the Earth's crust. Its age has, however, been disputed and different authors present crustal formation ages varying from ca. 3.8 Ga to 4.4 Ga (e.g. O'Neil et al., 2012; Guitreau et al., 2013). Here we report new high precision U-Pb geochronological and coupled Lu-Hf isotope data from zircons that reveal the age of the NSB and provide new constraints on the source rocks to this piece of early crust. Two rocks have been analysed, a felsic schist, interpreted to represent a volcanite, and a mylonitic tonalite that is intrusive into the NSB. The felsic schist was emplaced at 3771 + 5 / - 3 Ma, dating the formation of the NSB. The Lu-Hf model age indicates that the parental melt to the felsic schist was extracted from the mantle at this age or within a few tens of million years, but no more than 300 m.y., before its extrusion. This mantle extraction age provides an absolute maximum age for the NSB, but the most probable age of its protocrust is ca. 3.8 Ga. The mylonitic tonalite was emplaced at 3667 + 3 / - 1 Ma. Its Lu-Hf isotopic composition reveals the presence of an older crustal component than that of the NSB, requiring that its precursor melt formed from a Hadean source that was older than the NSB. Based on recent models for Archean TTG formation, we propose that this source represents re-melted Hadean hydrated crust that must have been translated below the NSB at ca. 3667 Ma.

  3. Exploring Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sykes, M. V.; Larson, S. M.; Whiteley, R.; Fink, U.; Jedicke, R.; Emery, J.; Fevig, R.; Kelley, M.; Harris, A. W.; Ostro, S.; Reed, K.; Binzel, R. P.; Rivkin, A.; Magri, C.; Bottke, W.; Durda, D.; Walker, R.; Davis, D.; Hartmann, W. K.; Sears, D.; Yano, H.; Granahan, J.; Storrs, A.; Bus, S. J.; Bell, J. F.; Tholen, D.; Cellino, A.

    2001-11-01

    Terrestrial planet formation in the main asteroid belt was interrupted when growing protoplanets became sufficiently massive to gravitationally perturb the local population, causing bodies to collide with increased energy, thus ending accretion and commencing fragmentation and disruption. Few of these protoplanets are thought to have survived unshattered (e.g., Ceres, Vesta, Pallas), leaving a main belt population dominated by fragments of fragments, and significantly depleted of mass as a consequence of dynamical scattering. Yet, these fragments retain a record of the early steps of planet formation and evolution, as well as a record of early solar system conditions and the primordial composition gradient in that region. By exploring main belt asteroids through groundbased observations and spacecraft, modeling and theoretical work, we seek ultimately to recover this information. A single mission to a single target is not sufficient to address, in isolation, these questions. They require a foundation of robust, broad, and continuing groundbased, theoretical, and modeling programs. Such work is funded at a small fraction of a typical mission cost through the NASA Research and Analysis Program. Therefore, within the context of planetary decadal study recommendations to NASA, highest priority needs to be given to maintaining and growing a healthy R&A program over the next ten years and beyond. Missions also have an important role to play. An Earth orbiting remote sensing mission needs to be considered as a means of collecting important data for a large fraction of all main belt asteroids above a sub-kilometer diameter (while also realizing synergistic benefits to astrophysics). Missions to specific main belt targets can provide important new insights and leverage new understanding of existing data, models, and theories, but target definition (and corresponding instrument complement) is critical and must be based on our existing knowledge of these very diverse objects

  4. NIR reflectance method to determine moisture content in food products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandala, C. V. K.; Konda Naganathan, G.; Subbiah, J.

    2008-08-01

    Moisture content (MC) is an important quality factor that is measured and monitored, at various stages of processing and storage, in the food industry. There are some commercial instruments available that use near infrared (NIR) radiation measurements to determine the moisture content of a variety of grain products, such as wheat and corn, with out the need of any sample grinding or preparation. However, to measure the MC of peanuts with these instruments the peanut kernels have to be chopped into smaller pieces and filled into the measuring cell. This is cumbersome, time consuming and destructive. An NIR reflectance method is presented here by which the average MC of about 100 g of whole kernels could be determined rapidly and nondestructively. The MC range of the peanut kernels tested was between 8% and 26%. Initially, NIR reflectance measurements were made at 1 nm intervals in the wave length range of 1000 nm to 1800 nm and the data was modeled using partial least squares regression (PLSR). The predicted values of the samples tested in the above range were compared with the values determined by the standard air-oven method. The predicted values agreed well with the air-oven values with an R2 value of 0.96 and a standard error of prediction (SEP) of 0.83. Using the PLSR beta coefficients, five key wavelengths were identified and using multiple linear regression (MLR) method MC predictions were made. The R2 and SEP values of the MLR model were 0.84 and 1.62, respectively. Both methods performed satisfactorily and being rapid, nondestructive, and non-contact, may be suitable for continuous monitoring of MC of grain and peanuts as they move on conveyor belts during their processing.

  5. Lap belt injuries in children.

    PubMed

    McGrath, N; Fitzpatrick, P; Okafor, I; Ryan, S; Hensey, O; Nicholson, A J

    2010-01-01

    The use of adult seat belts without booster seats in young children may lead to severe abdominal, lumbar or cervical spine and head and neck injuries. We describe four characteristic cases of lap belt injuries presenting to a tertiary children's hospital over the past year in addition to a review of the current literature. These four cases of spinal cord injury, resulting in significant long-term morbidity in the two survivors and death in one child, arose as a result of lap belt injury. These complex injuries are caused by rapid deceleration characteristic of high impact crashes, resulting in sudden flexion of the upper body around the fixed lap belt, and consequent compression of the abdominal viscera between the lap belt and spine. This report highlights the dangers of using lap belts only without shoulder straps. Age-appropriate child restraint in cars will prevent these injuries.

  6. SLH Timing Belt Powertrain

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Abe

    2014-04-09

    The main goal of this proposal was to develop and test a novel powertrain solution for the SLH hydroEngine, a low-cost, efficient low-head hydropower technology. Nearly two-thirds of U.S. renewable electricity is produced by hydropower (EIA 2010). According to the U.S. Department of Energy; this amount could be increased by 50% with small hydropower plants, often using already-existing dams (Hall 2004). There are more than 80,000 existing dams, and of these, less than 4% generate power (Blankinship 2009). In addition, there are over 800 irrigation districts in the U.S., many with multiple, non-power, low-head drops. These existing, non-power dams and irrigation drops could be retrofitted to produce distributed, baseload, renewable energy with appropriate technology. The problem is that most existing dams are low-head, or less than 30 feet in height (Ragon 2009). Only about 2% of the available low-head hydropower resource in the U.S. has been developed, leaving more than 70 GW of annual mean potential low-head capacity untapped (Hall 2004). Natel Energy, Inc. is developing a low-head hydropower turbine that operates efficiently at heads less than 6 meters and is cost-effective for deployment across multiple low-head structures. Because of the unique racetrack-like path taken by the prime-movers in the SLH, a flexible powertrain is required. Historically, the only viable technological solution was roller chain. Despite the having the ability to easily attach blades, roller chain is characterized by significant drawbacks, including high cost, wear, and vibration from chordal action. Advanced carbon- fiber-reinforced timing belts have been recently developed which, coupled with a novel belt attachment system developed by Natel Energy, result in a large reduction in moving parts, reduced mass and cost, and elimination of chordal action for increased fatigue life. The work done in this project affirmatively addressed each of the following 3 major uncertainties concerning

  7. Radiation Belt Dynamics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-27

    is unlimited. 15 DISTRIBUTION LIST DTIC/OCP 8725 John J. Kingman Rd, Suite 0944 Ft Belvoir, VA 22060-6218 1 cy AFRL /RVIL Kirtland AFB, NM 87117... AFRL -RV-PS- AFRL -RV-PS- TR-2016-0007 TR-2016-0007 RADIATION BELT DYNAMICS Jay M. Albert, et al. 27 December 2015 Final Report APPROVED FOR... KIRTLAND AIR FORCE BASE, NM 87117-5776 DTIC COPY NOTICE AND SIGNATURE PAGE Using Government drawings, specifications, or other data included in this

  8. Planetary Migration and Kuiper Belt Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu

    The Kuiper belt holds memory of the dynamical processes that shaped the architecture of the solar system, including the orbital migration history of the giant planets. We propose studies of the orbital dynamics of the Kuiper Belt in order to understand the origin of its complex dynamical structure and its link to the orbital migration history of the giant planets. By means of numerical simulations, statistical tests, as well as analytical calculations we will (1) investigate the origin of resonant Kuiper belt objects to test alternative scenarios of Neptune's migration history, (2) investigate the long term dynamical evolution of the Haumea family of Kuiper Belt objects in order to improve the age estimate of this family, and (3) investigate resonance-sticking behavior and the Kozai-Lidov mechanism and its role in the origin of the extended scattered disk. These studies directly support the goals of the NASA-OSS program by improving our understanding of the origin of the solar system's architecture. Our results will provide constraints on the nature and timing of the dynamical excitation event that is thought to have occurred in early solar system history and to have determined the architecture of the present-day solar system; our results will also provide deeper theoretical understanding of sticky mean motion resonances which contribute greatly to the longevity of many small bodies, improve our understanding of dynamical transport of planetesimals in planetary systems, and help interpret observations of other planetary systems.

  9. The Beaufort Sea fold-and-thrust belt, northwestern Canada: Implications for thrust-belt evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Root, K.G. )

    1991-06-01

    The northeasternmost segment of the Cordilleran thrust belt of western North American underlies the Beaufort Sea continental margin. Folds and associated northesat-directed thrusts in this region formed synchronously with Tertiary sedimentation. As a result, the times of fold development can be determined from reflection seismic data by analyzing lateral thickness changes in stratigraphic sequences of known ages, and onlap and truncation relationships at unconformities. Thrust faulting occurred throughout the late Paleocene-Pliocene. The abundant temporal data indicate the deformational seuqence was significantly differet from the simple, steplike, foreland-propagating model formulated in other less well-dated thrust belts. Many thrusts were active simultaneously, especially during the late Eocnee, when the region of active thrusting had an across-strike width of greater than 200 km. This observation calls into question the popular concept that only one thrust moves at a time as a thrust belt develops. The thrust belt propagated along, as well as across, strike. During the late Paleocene-middle Eocene, the area of active thrusting was bounded on the southeast by poorly imaged zones of right-lateral strike-slip faults that apparently are the northern offshore continuation of the Rapid fault array. The change in the age of thrusting along strike results in no obvious geometrical anomalies and could not be deduced without timing information. This has an important implication: temporal data cannot necessarily be projected along strike in a thrust belt.

  10. Making the most of the worst-case scenario: should belt-positioning booster seats be used in lap-belt-only seating positions?

    PubMed

    Kirley, Bevan B; Teoh, Eric R; Lund, Adrian K; Arbogast, Kristy B; Kallan, Michael J; Durbin, Dennis R

    2009-12-01

    Examine real-world crash injury data to determine whether children seated with lap belts only are better protected with or without belt-positioning booster seats. Crash injury rates among booster-age children were examined for three restraint categories: lap belt only, belt-positioning booster seat with lap belt, and booster seat with lap/shoulder belt. Data were drawn from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) and the Partners for Child Passenger Safety (PCPS) crash surveillance system for years 1997-2006 and 1998-2006, respectively. Main outcome measures were the percentage of crash-involved booster-age children with moderate or greater injury (maximum abbreviated injury score [MAIS] 2+). The estimated risk of MAIS 2+ injury among children restrained with lap belts and boosters was 0.12 percent (NASS-CDS) and 0.96 percent (PCPS), compared with 1.21 and 1.74 percent, respectively, for lap belts only. This difference was not significant due to small numbers of children in lap belts with boosters. In PCPS, children restrained by lap/shoulder belts and boosters had lower injury risk than children restrained by lap belts, with or without boosters. Although data for children secured in lap belts with boosters are limited, the results suggest that boosters are not harmful. This finding is inconsistent with the current recommendation that booster seats not be used when children must be buckled with lap belts only. Data also confirm that booster seats with lap/shoulder belts remain the optimal protection for booster-age children.

  11. Physics and Automobile Safety Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kortman, Peter; Witt, C. Edwin

    This collection of problems and experiments related to automobile safety belt usage is intended to serve as a supplement to a standard physics course. Its purpose is to convince the students that the use of safety belts to prevent injury or death is firmly supported by the considerations of physical quantities and laws which apply in a collision…

  12. Teaching Science: Seat Belt Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Describes activities that will help students understand how car seat belts work, the limited reaction time available to passengers in an automobile accident, and the force of impact in a car collision. These activities will provide students with hands-on experiences that demonstrate the importance of always wearing seat belts while in an…

  13. Geography of the asteroid belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zellner, B. H.

    1978-01-01

    The CSM classification serves as the starting point on the geography of the asteroid belt. Raw data on asteroid types are corrected for observational biases (against dark objects, for instance) to derive the distribution of types throughout the belt. Recent work on family members indicates that dynamical families have a true physical relationship, presumably indicating common origin in the breakup of a parent asteroid.

  14. Dynamical studies of the Kuiper belt and the Centaurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, Kathryn Margaret

    The Kuiper belt is a population of small bodies located outside Neptune's orbit. The observed Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) can be divided into several subclasses based on their dynamical structure. I construct models for these subclasses and use numerical integrations to investigate their long-term evolution. I use these models to quantify the connection between the Kuiper belt and the Centaurs (objects whose orbits cross the orbits of the giant planets) and the short-period comets in the inner solar system. I discuss how these connections could be used to determine the physical properties of KBOs and what future observations could conclusively link the comets and Centaurs to specific Kuiper belt subclasses. The Kuiper belt's structure is determined by a combination of long-term evolution and its formation history. The large eccentricities and inclinations of some KBOs and the prevalence of KBOs in mean motion resonances with Neptune are evidence that much of the Kuiper belt's structure originated during the solar system's epoch of giant planet migration; planet migration can sculpt the Kuiper belt's scattered disk, capture objects into mean motion resonances, and dynamically excite KBOs. Different models for planet migration predict different formation locations for the subclasses of the Kuiper belt, which might result in different size distributions and compositions between the subclasses; the high-inclination portion of the classical Kuiper belt is hypothesized to have formed closer to the Sun than the low-inclination classical Kuiper belt. I use my model of the classical Kuiper belt to show that these two populations remain largely dynamically separate over long timescales, so primordial physical differences could be maintained until the present day. The current Kuiper belt is much less massive than the total mass required to form its largest members. It must have undergone a mass depletion event, which is likely related to planet migration. The Haumea

  15. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, Timothy; Selesnick, Richard; Mazur, Joseph

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented ver-sion of the Selesnick et al., [2007] model. The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  16. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.

    2011-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick Inner Zone Model (SIZM). The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations from SAMPEX/PET and HEO orbit and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  17. Inner Radiation Belt Data Assimilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Mazur, J. E.

    2010-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al., [2007] model. The physics-based model computes inner belt proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants M, K, and L according to a comprehensive list of inner belt source and loss processes. We modify the model solution based on in-situ proton observations and according to a data-assimilation method which exploits the non-Gaussian nature of inner belt proton intensities and Poisson or Gaussian counting statistics of the observations, as appropriate. We demonstrate the method by presenting data-assimilated inner belt proton intensities during a solar particle injection.

  18. Effectiveness of automatic shoulder belt systems in motor vehicle crashes.

    PubMed

    Rivara, F P; Koepsell, T D; Grossman, D C; Mock, C

    2000-06-07

    Approximately 10 million cars with automatic shoulder belt systems are currently in use in the United States. However, reports on the effectiveness of such restraints have yielded conflicting results. To determine the effectiveness of automatic shoulder belt systems in reducing the risk of injury and death among front-seat passenger vehicle occupants. Analysis of data collected from the 1993-1996 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration Crashworthiness Data System on front-seat occupants involved in 25,811 tow-away crashes of passenger cars, light trucks, vans, and sport utility vehicles. Death and serious injury to specific body areas by use of manual lap and shoulder belts, automatic shoulder belts with manual lap belts, or automatic shoulder belts without lap belts, compared with no restraint use. Use of automatic shoulder belts without lap belts was associated with a decrease in the risk of death vs no restraint use but was not statistically significant for all crashes (odds ratio [OR], 0.66; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.42-1.06) or for frontal crashes (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.38-1.35) after adjustment for occupant age, sex, vehicle year, air-bag deployment, estimated change in vehicle speed during the crash, and principal direction of force. This association was significantly weaker than the 86% lower risk observed for use of automatic shoulder belts with lap belts (OR, 0.14; 95% CI, 0.07-0.26 vs no restraint; P<.05). Use of automatic shoulder belts without lap belts was associated with an increased risk of serious chest (OR, 2.66; 95% CI, 1.11-6.35) and abdominal (OR, 2.06; 95% CI, 1.004-4.22) injuries for all crashes. These data indicate that improperly used automatic restraint systems may be less effective than properly used systems and are associated with an increased risk of serious chest and abdominal injuries. Given the continued widespread use of these automatic systems, educational programs may be warranted. JAMA. 2000;283:2826-2828

  19. Effect of one-way clutch on the nonlinear vibration of belt-drive systems with a continuous belt model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu; Zu, Jean W.

    2013-11-01

    This study focuses on the nonlinear steady-state response of a belt-drive system with a one-way clutch. A dynamic model is established to describe the rotations of the driving pulley, the driven pulley, and the accessory shaft. Moreover, the model considers the transverse vibration of the translating belt spans for the first time in belt-drive systems coupled with a one-way clutch. The excitation of the belt-drive system is derived from periodic fluctuation of the driving pulley. In automotive systems, this kind of fluctuation is induced by the engine firing harmonic pulsations. The derived coupled discrete-continuous nonlinear equations consist of integro-partial-differential equations and piece-wise ordinary differential equations. Using the Galerkin truncation, a set of nonlinear ordinary differential equations is obtained from the integro-partial-differential equations. Applying the Runge-Kutta time discretization, the time histories of the dynamic response are numerically solved for the driven pulley and the accessory shaft and the translating belt spans. The resonance areas of the coupled belt-drive system are determined using the frequency sweep. The effects of the one-way clutch on the belt-drive system are studied by comparing the frequency-response curves of the translating belt with and without one-way clutch device. Furthermore, the results of 2-term and 4-term Galerkin truncation are compared to determine the numerical convergence. Moreover, parametric studies are conducted to understand the effects of the system parameters on the nonlinear steady-state response. It is concluded that one-way clutch not only decreases the resonance amplitude of the driven pulley and shaft's rotational vibration, but also reduces the resonance region of the belt's transverse vibration.

  20. Typical values of the electric drift E × B/B2 in the inner radiation belt and slot region as determined from Van Allen Probe measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejosne, Solène; Mozer, F. S.

    2016-12-01

    The electric drift E × B/B2 plays a fundamental role for the description of plasma flow and particle acceleration. Yet it is not well-known in the inner belt and slot region because of a lack of reliable in situ measurements. In this article, we present an analysis of the electric drifts measured below L 3 by both Van Allen Probes A and B from September 2012 to December 2014. The objective is to determine the typical components of the equatorial electric drift in both radial and azimuthal directions. The dependences of the components on radial distance, magnetic local time, and geographic longitude are examined. The results from Van Allen Probe A agree with Van Allen Probe B. They show, among other things, a typical corotation lag of the order of 5 to 10% below L 2.6, as well as a slight radial transport of the order of 20 m s-1. The magnetic local time dependence of the electric drift is consistent with that of the ionosphere wind dynamo below L 2 and with that of a solar wind-driven convection electric field above L 2. A secondary longitudinal dependence of the electric field is also found. Therefore, this work also demonstrates that the instruments on board Van Allen Probes are able to perform accurate measurements of the electric drift below L 3.

  1. New approach on volatile contents determination in silicate melt inclusions: A coupling X-ray microtomography and geochemical approach in Los Humeros caldera complex (Eastern Mexican Volcanic Belt)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creon, L.; Levresse, G.; Carrasco Nuñez, G.

    2016-12-01

    Volatile contents and magma degassing behavior are known to affect the style, frequency, and intensity of near-surface magmatic processes. For this reason, much effort have been devoted to characterize the volatile evolution of shallow magmatic systems to better constrain volcanic history. Silicate melt inclusions (SMI) represent samples of melt that were isolated from the bulk magma at depth, thus preserving the PTX conditions of the pre-eruptive material. SMI are often affected by the formation of a bubble after trapping; this is a natural consequence of the PVTX properties of crystal-melt-volatile systems. Previous workers have recognized that bubble formation is an obstacle, which affects the interpretation of SMI trapping conditions based only on analysis of the glass phase. Indeed, they explained that bubbles can contain a significant percentage of the volatiles, particularly for those with low solubility in the melt (e.g. CO2). In this study, we propose to define the pre-eruptive PTX conditions of Los Humeros magma chamber using SMI from the various eruption events within 460 and 30 Ka. An innovative analytical coupling has been used in order to determine: (1) the volume of the SMI glass and bubble, using high resolution 3D X-ray microtomography; (2) the density and composition of the bubbles, using Raman spectroscopy; (3) the volatile element contents in glass, using NanoSIMS; and, (4) the major elements composition of the glass, using EPMA. The recalculated volatile concentrations of the total SMI (glass + bubble), illustrate clearly that the volatile content determinations using only the glass phase, underestimate drastically the total volatile content and therefore induce significant error on the determination of the pre-eruptive volcanic budget and on the constrain on the volcanic and thermal history. This study had moreover highlighted the complex evolution of Los Humeros composite magma chamber and, gave constrains for geothermal exploration purpose.

  2. Geographical Variablity of the Width of the Tropical Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currey, B.

    2014-12-01

    A number of recent studies have found evidence for a widening of the earth's tropical belt (Seidel et al). Most studies focus on the annual mean zonal mean tropical belt width. The purpose of this research, however, is to determine the longitudinal variability of the width of the tropical belt. We study how well defined the boundaries of the tropical belt are in both hemispheres as a function of longitude as well as season. The sharpness of the tropical boundaries as a function of longitude can provide information, which is otherwise hidden in the more commonly studied zonal averages. Localized widening of the tropical belt is expected to have a bigger climatic impact for a very sharp tropical boundary encompassing a drastic distinction between the climates of the tropics versus the subtropics. An improved understanding of the morphology of the tropical belt can help us determine any changes regarding these regions surrounding the edges of the tropics. By locating the subtropical tropopause break, a region where the tropopauses' altitude drastically shifts, the boundaries of the tropical belt can be observed. By finding the gradient of the tropopause break, we can determine the sharpness of the tropical boundaries. It was found that during each hemisphere's respective summer season the tropical belt edge over the Pacific and Atlantic oceans can display a tendency to be very fickle and thus poorly defined. For all times of the year, however, it is shown that the tropopause break in each hemisphere's respective winter and over land has the tendency to create a well-defined and sharp tropical edge.

  3. Evaluation of the static belt fit provided by belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert, Sheila M; Sherwood, Christopher P; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A

    2009-05-01

    Belt-positioning booster seats are recommended for children who use vehicle seat belts as primary restraints but who are too small to obtain good belt fit. Previous research has shown that belt-positioning boosters reduce injury risk, but the belt fit produced by the wide range of boosters in the US market has not previously been assessed. The present study describes the development of a method for quantifying static belt fit with a Hybrid-III 6-year-old test dummy. The measurement method was applied in a laboratory seat mockup to 31 boosters (10 in both backless and highback modes) across a range of belt geometries obtained from in-vehicle measurements. Belt fit varied widely across boosters. Backless boosters generally produced better lap belt fit than highback boosters, largely because adding the back component moved the dummy forward with respect to the lap belt routing guides. However, highback boosters produced more consistent shoulder belt fit because of the presence of belt routing guides near the shoulder. Some boosters performed well on both lap belt and shoulder belt fit. Lap belt fit in dedicated boosters was generally better than in combination restraints that also can be used with an integrated harness. Results demonstrate that certain booster design features produce better belt fit across a wide range of belt geometries. Lap belt guides that hold the belt down, rather than up, and shoulder belt guides integrated into the booster backrest provided better belt fit.

  4. Seat Belt Use and Stress in Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schichor, Aric; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Explored adolescent seat belt use and psychosocial risk factors in urban minority population (n=541). Found seat belt use reported by 49 percent of respondents. Those reporting no or intermittent seat belt use were significantly more likely than seat belt users to feel down, have decreased home support, have problems with school and the law, and…

  5. Investigation of a new type charging belt

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1994-12-31

    There are many desirable characteristics for an electrostatic accelerator charging belt. An attempt has been made to find a belt that improves on these properties over the stock belt. Results of the search, procurement, and 1,500 hours of operational experience with a substantially different belt are reported.

  6. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  7. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt... § 393.93 Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages. (a) Buses—(1) Buses... the driver's seat and seat belt assembly anchorages that conform to the location and...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  9. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  10. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1731 - Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor....1731 Maintenance of belt conveyors and belt conveyor entries. (a) Damaged rollers, or other damaged belt conveyor components, which pose a fire hazard must be immediately repaired or replaced. All...

  13. Previously Undetected Radiation Belt Revealed

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Since their discovery over 50 years ago, the Earth'€™s Van Allen radiation belts have been considered to consist of two distinct zones of trapped, highly energetic charged particles. Observations f...

  14. The earth's trapped radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noll, R. B.; Mcelroy, M. B.

    1975-01-01

    The near-earth charged particle environment is discussed in terms of spacecraft design criteria. Models are presented of the trapped radiation belts and based on in-situ data obtained from spacecraft.

  15. Chaos on the conveyor belt.

    PubMed

    Sándor, Bulcsú; Járai-Szabó, Ferenc; Tél, Tamás; Néda, Zoltán

    2013-04-01

    The dynamics of a spring-block train placed on a moving conveyor belt is investigated both by simple experiments and computer simulations. The first block is connected by a spring to an external static point and, due to the dragging effect of the belt, the blocks undergo complex stick-slip dynamics. A qualitative agreement with the experimental results can be achieved only by taking into account the spatial inhomogeneity of the friction force on the belt's surface, modeled as noise. As a function of the velocity of the conveyor belt and the noise strength, the system exhibits complex, self-organized critical, sometimes chaotic, dynamics and phase transition-like behavior. Noise-induced chaos and intermittency is also observed. Simulations suggest that the maximum complexity of the dynamical states is achieved for a relatively small number of blocks (around five).

  16. Propeller Belts of Saturn

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-05-10

    This view from NASA's Cassini spacecraft is the sharpest ever taken of belts of the features called propellers in the middle part of Saturn's A ring. The propellers are the small, bright features that look like double dashes, visible on both sides of the wave pattern that crosses the image diagonally from top to bottom. The original discovery of propellers in this region in Saturn's rings was made using several images taken from very close to the rings during Cassini's 2004 arrival at Saturn. Those discovery images were of low resolution and were difficult to interpret, and there were few clues as to how the small propellers seen in those images were related to the larger propellers Cassini observed later in the mission. This image, for the first time, shows swarms of propellers of a wide range of sizes, putting the ones Cassini observed in its Saturn arrival images in context. Scientists will use this information to derive a "particle size distribution" for propeller moons, which is an important clue to their origins. The image was taken using the Cassini spacecraft's narrow-angle camera on April 19. The view was has an image scale of 0.24 mile (385 meters) per pixel, and was taken at a sun-ring-spacecraft angle, or phase angle, of 108 degrees. The view looks toward a point approximately 80,000 miles (129,000 kilometers) from Saturn's center. https://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21448

  17. The distant Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, B.; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, J. M.; Morbidelli, A.; Holman, M.; Loredo, T.

    2000-10-01

    We present results from a series of deep imaging surveys designed to look for very faint objects in the outer solar system. We find roughly 10-20 percent of our detections outside a heliocentric distance of 48 AU, a much larger fraction than all previously published surveys. The implications of this result for the radial structure of the Kuiper Belt will be discussed, as well as how it interacts with various theories regarding the sculpting of the orbital distribution of the trans-Neptunian region. We find a luminosity function with a continuing steep slope down to the limit of our detections at about 26th magnitude, implying that observations are just on the threshold of reaching the level where the TNO size distribution is exptected to `roll over' to a shallower collisional slope. The size distribution in the observed region is expected to hold information about the time scale and physics of planetesimal building in the early outer Solar System. This work has been supported by a Henri Chretien international research grant (AAS), by NASA Origins grants NAG5-8198 and NAG5-9678, by an ACI Jeune award from the French Research Ministry, and an Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur BQR grant.

  18. Evaluation of Silurian-Niagaran reef belt in Northeastern Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Aminian, K.; Ameri, S.; Bomar, R.M.

    1987-12-01

    Silurian pinnacle reefs have remained the main exploration targets in the Michigan basin over the last decade. Recent discoveries have extended the reef belt into new areas in the western and northeastern parts of Michigan's lower peninsula. Meanwhile, the exploration for these reefs has continued in more developed areas of the belt in northern Michigan, southwestern Ontario, and southern Michigan. The results of exploration activities in northeastern Michigan in Cheboygan, Montmorency, and Presque Isle counties is different from the rest of the northern portion of the belt. A detailed study used the data available from the exploration activities in this area to determine the reef belt characteristics and reserves potential in northeastern Michigan and its extension into Lake Huron. The results indicated some interesting features, including the narrowing of the belt as it approaches Lake Huron. It was concluded that the different depositional environment during the Silurian Age had affected the development of the belt and the hydrocarbon accumulation in the pinnacle reefs in this part of the basin.

  19. Trapped belt variations and their effects on human space flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robbins, Donald E.; Badhwar, Gautam D.

    1993-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and its subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an 18-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within 18 months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20 percent. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  20. Belt conveyors for bulk materials. 6th ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The 16 chapters are entitled: Belt conveyor general applications economics; Design considerations; Characteristics and conveyability of bulk materials; Capacities, belt widths and speeds; Belt conveyor idlers; Belt tension and power engineering; Belt selection; Pulleys and shafts; Curves; Steep angle conveying; Belt cleaners and accessories; Transfer points; Conveyor motor drives and controls; Operation, maintenance and safety; Belt takeups; and Emerging technologies. 6 apps.

  1. Northern Belt of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.

    A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.

    The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.

    The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.

    The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.

    The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere

  2. Northern Belt of Jupiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    A four-panel frame shows a section of Jupiter's north equatorial belt viewed by NASA's Cassini spacecraft at four different wavelengths, and a separate reference frame shows the location of the belt on the planet.

    A fascinating aspect of the images in the four-panel frame is the small bright spot in the center of each. The images come from different layers of the atmosphere, so the spot appears to be a storm penetrating upward through several layers. This may in fact be a 'monster' thunderstorm, penetrating all the way into the stratosphere, as do some summer thunderstorms in the midwestern United States. These images were taken on Nov. 27, 2000, at a resolution of 192 kilometers (119 miles) per pixel. They have been contrast-enhanced to highlight features in the atmosphere.

    The top panel of the four-panel frame is an image taken in a near-infrared wavelength at which the gases in Jupiter's atmosphere are relatively non-absorbing. Sunlight can penetrate deeply into the atmosphere at this wavelength and be reflected back out, providing a view of an underlying region of the atmosphere, the lower troposphere.

    The second panel was taken in the blue portion of wavelengths detected by the human eye. At these wavelengths, gases in the atmosphere scatter a modest amount of sunlight, so the clouds we see tend to be at somewhat higher altitudes than in the top panel.

    The third panel shows near-infrared reflected sunlight at a wavelength where the gas methane, an important constituent of Jupiter's atmosphere, absorbs strongly. Dark places are regions without high-level clouds and consequently large amounts of methane accessible to sunlight. Bright regions are locations with high clouds in the upper troposphere shielding the methane below.

    The bottom panel was taken in the ultraviolet. At these very short wavelengths, the clear atmosphere scatters sunlight, and hazes in the stratosphere, above the troposphere

  3. A mantle conveyor belt beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, T. W.; Faccenna, C.

    2011-12-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone, leading to stacking of crustal slices during indentation. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic, generating the highest mountain belts on Earth (Argand, 1924). While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing in spite of large collisional resisting forces. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale upwelling is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia.

  4. Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byers, David

    The National Reconnaissance Office (NRO), NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), the Aerospace Corporation, the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have jointly formed the Proton Spectrometer Belt Research (PSBR) program to meet two primary objectives: to measure the high-energy proton spectrum by placing the Relativistic Proton Spectrometer (RPS) instrument on board the Radiation Belt Storm Probes (RBSP) spacecraft to measure the inner Van Allen belt protons with energies from 50 MeV to 2 GeV, and to produce the next generation radiation belt models. Presently, the intensity of trapped protons with energies beyond about 150 MeV is not well known and thought to be underestimated in existing specification models. Such protons are known to pose a number of hazards to astronauts and spacecraft; including total ionizing dose, displacement damage, single event effects, and nuclear activation. The RPS addresses a priority highly ranked by the scientific and technical community and will extend the measurement capability of the RBSP mission to a range beyond that originally planned. The PSBR program will use the RPS data, coupled with other data sets, to upgrade existing radiation belt models, significantly improving the radiation hazards specified by increasing the spectral and spatial coverage, and the time-correlated probability of occurrence statistics, quantifying the model accuracy and uncertainty.

  5. Applications of radiation belt research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2011-10-01

    When Arthur Clark and John Pierce proposed geosynchronous and low-Earth-orbiting (GEO and LEO) communications satellites, respectively, they did not envision that the environment in which their concepts would fly would be anything but benign. Discovery of the Van Allen radiation belts in 1958 fundamentally altered understanding of Earth's near-space environment and its impacts on technologies. Indeed, the first commercial telecommunications satellite, Telstar 1, in LEO, failed some 6 months after launch (10 July 1962) due to trapped radiation that had been enhanced from the Starfish Prime high-altitude nuclear test on the day prior to launch. Today radiation trapped in the geomagnetic field, as well as solar energetic particles that can access the magnetosphere, forms critical constraints on the design and operations of satellite systems. These considerations were important factors in the planning of the AGU Chapman Conference on radiation belts that was hosted in July 2011 by the Memorial University of Newfoundland in St. John's, Canada (see "Chapman Conference on Radiation Belts and the Inner Magnetosphere," page 4). The conference presentations, discussions, and hallway conversations illuminated current understanding of Earth's radiation belts and critical issues remaining. Certainly, fundamental understanding of radiation belt origins remains elusive. The relative roles of adiabatic processes, geomagnetic storm injections, and wave heating, among other considerations, are central topics of intense debate and of competing modeling regimes by numerous active groups.

  6. Trends in PVC conveyor belting

    SciTech Connect

    Hopwood, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    The development of mechanical systems of extraction at the coal face necessitated the introduction of efficient methods of mineral transportation in deep-mining operations. The most popular system is the belt conveyor. Originally PVC was being evaluated as a rubber substitute, as in its liquid form it appeared to offer an easier route to fabric coating and impregnation for conveyor belt applications. However, it was not until 1950, when over 200 miners lost their lives due to an underground fire being spread by combustible rubber conveyor belts, that the full significance of the properties of PVC were appreciated. Following this tragedy, an intensive development program to produce a substitute for rubber was initiated. It had to have similar operational characteristics as rubber while incorporating the safety features of resistance to flame propagation and build-up of static electrical charges. It became evident that PVC could be compounded to realize these requirements and belting manufacturers immediately started to produce a new generation of belts based on the previouly proven mechanical characteristics of multiply fabrics, but substituting PVC for the rubber content. The advantages of PVC are discussed.

  7. Effects of vehicle seat and belt geometry on belt fit for children with and without belt positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew P; Ebert-Hamilton, Sheila M; Klinich, Kathleen D; Manary, Miriam A; Rupp, Jonathan D

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to quantify the effects of belt-positioning boosters on lap and shoulder belt fit. Postures and belt fit were measured for forty-four boys and girls ages 5-12 in four highback boosters, one backless booster, and on a vehicle seat without a booster. Belt anchorage locations were varied over a wide range. Seat cushion angle, seat back angle, and seat cushion length were varied in the no-booster conditions. All boosters produced better mean lap belt fit than was observed in the no-booster condition, but the differences among boosters were relatively large. With one midrange belt configuration, the lap belt was not fully below the anterior-superior iliac spine (ASIS) landmark on the front of the pelvis for 89% of children in one booster, and 75% of children failed to achieve that level of belt fit in another. In contrast, the lap belt was fully below the ASIS for all but two children in the best-performing booster. Child body size had a statistically significant but relatively small effect on lap belt fit. The largest children sitting without a booster had approximately the same lap belt fit as the smallest children experienced in the worst-performing booster. Increasing lap belt angle relative to horizontal produced significantly better lap belt fit in the no-booster condition, but the boosters isolated the children from the effects of lap belt angles. Reducing seat cushion length in the no-booster condition improved lap belt fit but changing cushion angle did not. Belt upper anchorage (D-ring) location had a strong effect on shoulder belt fit in conditions without shoulder belt routing from the booster. Unexpectedly, the worst average shoulder belt fit was observed in one highback booster with a poorly positioned shoulder belt routing clip. The shoulder belt was routed more outboard, on average, with a backless booster than without a booster, but raising the child also amplified the effect of D-ring location, such that children were

  8. Biomechanics of 4-point seat belt systems in farside impacts.

    PubMed

    Rouhana, Stephen W; Kankanala, Sundeep V; Prasad, Priya; Rupp, Jonathan D; Jeffreys, Thomas A; Schneider, Lawrence W

    2006-11-01

    The biomechanical behavior of a harness style 4-point seat belt system in farside impacts was investigated through dummy and post mortem human subject tests. Specifically, this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of the inboard shoulder belt portion of a 4-point seat belt on the risk of vertebral and soft-tissue neck injuries during simulated farside impacts. Two series of sled tests simulating farside impacts were completed with crash dummies of different sizes, masses and designs to determine the forces and moments on the neck associated with loading of the shoulder belt. The tests were also performed to help determine the appropriate dummy to use in further testing. The BioSID and SID-IIs reasonably simulated the expected kinematics response and appeared to be reasonable dummies to use for further testing. Analysis also showed that dummy injury measures were lower than injury assessment reference values used in development of side impact airbags. Six post-mortem human subjects, three small females and three medium sized males, were tested under conditions similar to those used for the dummy tests. The carotid arteries were pressurized in an attempt to simulate the corresponding neck vascular response of living humans. Post-test autopsies conducted on all test subjects indicated an absence of test-induced arterial or vertebral injuries. Further, comparative analysis of kinematics confirmed the adequacy of the BioSID and SID-IIs in simulating cadaveric response in farside impacts with harness style 4-point belts. A number of issues remain to be solved before the implementation of 4-point seat belts in vehicles, including, among others, the risk of injury to a pregnant woman and her fetus in frontal crashes. The risk of fetal injury in pregnant occupants may be related to the location of the 4-point seat belt's buckle and latch junction at the centerline of the mother's abdomen.

  9. Effects of a lifting belt on spine moments and muscle recruitments after unexpected sudden loading.

    PubMed

    Lavender, S A; Shakeel, K; Andersson, G B; Thomas, J S

    2000-06-15

    Ten men and eight women participated in a repeated-measures experiment in which sudden loads were applied unexpectedly to a container held in the hands. Three independent variables were investigated: lifting belt use, preload, and load symmetry. To determine whether a lifting belt would help protect the spine in sudden symmetric and asymmetric loading situations. Unexpected loading events have long been associated with the onset of back pain. Based on work showing that lifting belts restrict motion of the torso, the hypothesis was that a lifting belt would stiffen the spine, thereby protecting its supporting tissues. A weight, equal to 7.5% of the subjects' trunk extension force, was allowed to fall 1 m before the bottom of a box held by blindfolded subjects was pulled. Kinetic and kinematic data, obtained from two force plates and a magnetic motion measurement system, were used in a three-dimensional, dynamic, linked-segment biomechanical model to calculate spine moments. Electromyogram data were simultaneously obtained from eight trunk muscles. The belt reduced the forward bending of the spine during the symmetric loadings. In the men, the belt also reduced the forward flexion moment acting on the spine. The belt restricted lateral bending in the women and men, when the box was preloaded. The peak electromyogram amplitudes from posterior contralateral erector spinae and latissimus dorsi muscles increased during the asymmetric loadings, whereas three ipsilateral muscles were less active. The conflicting moment and electromyographic results, combined with the influence of load symmetry, preload, and gender make the benefits of the lifting belt difficult to delineate. Although the data support the hypothesis that the belt stiffens the torso's response to sudden loading, the effects are small, and considerable individual differences exist. The findings show that during unexpected sudden loading, a belt may reduce the net external moment loading. At the same time the

  10. Pattern of seat belt use by drivers in Trinidad and Tobago, West Indies

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In Trinidad and Tobago, the law on the mandatory use of seat belts was passed in 1995, but this law is hardly enforced. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of seat belt use by motor vehicle drivers in the country. Findings A cross-sectional study of 959 motor vehicle drivers using a self-administered questionnaire. Data analysis included Pearson Chi square test and multinomial logistic regression analysis in order to determine the possible predictors of seat belt use by the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago. A majority of the drivers sometimes (51.8%) or always (31.6%) use a seat belt. About 16.7%, 29% and 54.2% of the drivers perceived that the other drivers use their seat belts more frequently, with the same frequency and less frequently respectively compared to themselves. The main reason for not using seat belt by the drivers was given as frequent stops (40.7%) and the main motivation to use seat belt by the drivers was given as stiffer penalties for non-compliance with the seat belt law (44.5%). The predictors of seat belt use were male driver, no formal or lower level of education, driving for less than 10 years, and the perception that the other drivers use seat belts with the same or higher frequency compared to the respondents. Conclusion Only a small proportion of the drivers in Trinidad and Tobago always use a seat belt when driving. There is the need to enforce the seat belt legislation in the country. PMID:21679410

  11. Dynamics of Radiation Belt Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ukhorskiy, A. Y.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-11-01

    This paper reviews basic concepts of particle dynamics underlying theoretical aspect of radiation belt modeling and data analysis. We outline the theory of adiabatic invariants of quasiperiodic Hamiltonian systems and derive the invariants of particle motion trapped in the radiation belts. We discuss how the nonlinearity of resonant interaction of particles with small-amplitude plasma waves, ubiquitous across the inner magnetosphere, can make particle motion stochastic. Long-term evolution of a stochastic system can be described by the Fokker-Plank (diffusion) equation. We derive the kinetic equation of particle diffusion in the invariant space and discuss its limitations and associated challenges which need to be addressed in forthcoming radiation belt models and data analysis.

  12. Apparatus for forming drive belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An apparatus for manufacturing belts, such as seamless belts, is provided, the apparatus has relatively movable rollers that are mounted in an oven. A belt blank, for example, of a thin polyester film, is rotated on the rollers as heat is applied. Four rollers, each mounted on a separate roller assembly, are movable along appropriate tracks while a fifth centrally located roller is stationary. A pair of dc motors are operatively connected to a speed reduction gear assembly to provide a pair of rotating drive shafts that extend into the oven. One rotating shaft drives all of the rollers through a rotational gear assembly while the other drive shaft is capable of positioning the movable rollers through respective rotating threaded shafts. Control devices are provided for controlling the motors while measuring devices are operatively connected to the positional drive shaft to indicate the position of the rollers.

  13. Water activities in the Kerala Khondalite Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Peterson, J. W.

    1988-01-01

    The author and colleagues presented their determinations of water activities in various granulite-facies rocks of the Kerala Khondalite Belt. Using mineral equilibria, thermodynamic data, and assumed geopressure-geotemperature conditions of 5.5 kbar and 750 C, they calculated uniformly low a(H2O) values of about 0.27 over a large geographic region. They suggested that these conditions were produced by the presence of abundant CO2-rich fluids, derived either from deeper levels or from metamorphic reactions involving graphite.

  14. Fall Protection Characteristics of Safety Belts and Human Impact Tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-08-23

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt(1)), which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness(2, 3)), which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference(4-9)) to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model(10)) was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  15. Fall protection characteristics of safety belts and human impact tolerance.

    PubMed

    Hino, Yasumichi; Ohdo, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2014-01-01

    Many fatal accidents due to falls from heights have occurred at construction sites not only in Japan but also in other countries. This study aims to determine the fall prevention performance of two types of safety belts: a body belt, which has been used for more than 40 yr in the Japanese construction industry as a general type of safety equipment for fall accident prevention, and a full harness, which has been used in many other countries. To determine human tolerance for impact trauma, this study discusses features of safety belts with reference to relevant studies in the medical science, automobile crash safety, and aircrew safety. For this purpose, simple drop tests were carried out in a virtual workplace to measure impact load, head acceleration, and posture in the experiments, the Hybrid-III pedestrian model was used as a human dummy. Hybrid-III is typically employed in official automobile crash tests (New Car Assessment Program: NCAP) and is currently recognized as a model that faithfully reproduces dynamic responses. Experimental results shows that safety performance strongly depends on both the variety of safety belts used and the shock absorbers attached onto lanyards. These findings indicate that fall prevention equipment, such as safety belts, lanyards, and shock absorbers, must be improved to reduce impact injuries to the human head and body during falls.

  16. Feasibility demonstration of a novel, flat-belt, continuously variable transmission for automotive and electric-hybrid vehicle application. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kumm, E.L.

    1984-05-01

    The performance of the Kumm Flat Belt Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) was determined over its design input speed, output torque, and speed ratio range. This report documents both the tests results and the design, fabrication, and assembly activities. A novel flat belt pulley concept is used in the CVT. This arrangement significantly reduces the required width of the pulleys and their actuators as compared to pulleys whose sheaves are moved axially by actuators to vary the belt radius ratio or pulley speed ratio. The operation of the flat belt pulley guideway discs positioning the belt by moving belt drive elements radially is shown.

  17. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of Subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  18. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  19. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  20. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety belt... requirements of subpart C of this part. (b) This section does not apply to balloons that incorporate a...

  1. Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission Trailer

    NASA Image and Video Library

    With launch scheduled for 2012, the Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) are two identical spacecraft that will investigate the doughnut shaped Van Allen radiation belts, the first discovery of the sp...

  2. Scenarios for the Evolution of Asteroid Belts

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-11-01

    This illustration shows three possible scenarios for the evolution of asteroid belts. At the top, a Jupiter-size planet migrates through the asteroid belt, scattering material and inhibiting the formation of life on planets.

  3. Keeping conveyor belts clean reduces operating costs

    SciTech Connect

    Leroy, T.C.

    1982-07-01

    Surveys devices for cleaning conveyor belts. Inefficient belt cleaning will result in material sticking to the return belt. This material then accumulates and forms piles underneath the conveyor, as shown in an illustration. Unevenly worn idlers bring about off-centering of the belt, causing spillage, and often, considerable damage. Continued accumulation of the material brings about stoppages and unscheduled shut downs of the plant. Devices examined include brushes, metallic cable and depression rollers.

  4. Effect of a stiff lifting belt on spine compression during lifting.

    PubMed

    Kingma, Idsart; Faber, Gert S; Suwarganda, Edin K; Bruijnen, Tom B M; Peters, Rob J A; van Dieën, Jaap H

    2006-10-15

    An in vivo study on weightlifters. To determine if and how a stiff back belt affects spinal compression forces in weightlifting. In weightlifting, a back belt has been reported to enhance intraabdominal pressure (IAP) and to reduce back muscle EMG and spinal compression forces. Nine experienced weightlifters lifted barbells up to 75% body weight while inhaling and wearing a belt, inhaling and not wearing a belt, and exhaling and wearing a belt. IAP, trunk muscle EMG, ground reaction forces, and kinematics were measured. An EMG-assisted trunk model, including IAP effects, was used to calculate spinal compression and shear forces and to reveal the contribution of back muscles, abdominal muscles, and IAP to moment generation. The belt reduced compression forces by about 10%, but only when inhaling before lifting. The moment generated by IAP increased when wearing a belt and inhaling, but this moment was small and the increase was largely negated by the flexing moment generated by abdominal muscles. Wearing a tight and stiff back belt while inhaling before lifting reduces spine loading. This is caused by a moment generated by the belt rather than by the IAP.

  5. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  6. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  7. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  8. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  9. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  10. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  11. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  12. 46 CFR 169.723 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Safety belts. 169.723 Section 169.723 Shipping COAST... Control, Miscellaneous Systems, and Equipment § 169.723 Safety belts. Each vessel must carry a harness type safety belt conforming to Offshore Racing Council (ORC) standards for each person on watch...

  13. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  14. 36 CFR 4.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 4.15 Section 4... TRAFFIC SAFETY § 4.15 Safety belts. (a) Each operator and passenger occupying any seating position of a motor vehicle in a park area will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened...

  15. Grinding Glass Disks On A Belt Sander

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyons, James J., III

    1995-01-01

    Small machine attached to table-top belt sander makes possible to use belt sander to grind glass disk quickly to specified diameter within tolerance of about plus or minus 0.002 in. Intended to be used in place of production-shop glass grinder. Held on driveshaft by vacuum, glass disk rotated while periphery ground by continuous sanding belt.

  16. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  20. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  1. 30 CFR 77.406 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drive belts. 77.406 Section 77.406 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... Mechanical Equipment § 77.406 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not be shifted while in motion unless...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1727 - Drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drive belts. 75.1727 Section 75.1727 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1727 Drive belts. (a) Drive belts shall not...

  4. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel shall be provided with switches to stop the drive pulley automatically in the event of...

  5. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to personnel shall be provided with switches to stop the drive pulley automatically in the event of...

  6. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  7. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  8. 30 CFR 77.1107 - Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Belt conveyors. 77.1107 Section 77.1107 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY... § 77.1107 Belt conveyors. Belt conveyors in locations where fire would create a hazard to...

  9. Out-of-sequence thrusting in polycyclic thrust belts: An example from the Mesozoic Yanshan belt, North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chengming; Zhang, Changhou; Cope, Tim D.; Lin, Yi

    2016-09-01

    The EW trending Yanshan belt, an intraplate fold-thrust belt located in the northern North China Craton that has experienced several episodes of deformation widely separated in time, is characterized by out-of-sequence thrusts. According to detailed mapping in the central Yanshan belt, five geometric and stratigraphic criteria used to aid in determining whether a thrust has an out-of-sequence geometry or not can be recognized. They are (1) unconformable relationships, (2) inclination of fault surfaces, (3) irregular changes in apparent offset along strike, (4) short fault length relative to apparent offset, and (5) in-sequence geometry. With the help of these criteria, two generations of out-of-sequence thrusts that postdate the original in-sequence thrusting in the central Yanshan belt are recognized. The ancestral southward verging fold-and-thrust belt that formed prior to 180 Ma was deformed and cut by two younger generations of faults that are probably more deeply rooted and are constrained to between 172-165 Ma and 152-135 Ma. A series of thrusts with opposite vergence formed during the last period, resulting in abundant abnormal field relationships such as younger-on-older thrust relations, fold truncation, and cutting down-section. The nature and occurrence of faults in the Yanshan belt implies that superimposed deformation, a common feature in polycyclic orogenic belts, is a mechanism for the generation of out-of-sequence thrusting. This adds to mechanisms already described in the literature, such as maintaining constant critical taper at an orogenic scale, inhibition of the deformation front, and lateral changes in the nature of the décollement horizons.

  10. Inner main belt asteroids in Slivan states?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The spin state of ten asteroids in the Koronis family has previously been determined. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods that were either short or long. The Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect has been demonstrated to be able to explain all these peculiar facts. In particular, the effect causes the spin axes of the prograde rotators to be captured in a secular spin-orbit resonance known as Cassini state 2, a configuration dubbed "Slivan state". Aims: It has been proposed based on an analysis of a sample of asteroids in the Flora family that Slivan states might also exist in this region of the main belt. This is surprising because convergence of the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s6 was assumed to prevent Slivan states in this zone. We therefore investigated the possibility of a long-term stable capture in the Slivan state in the inner part of the main belt and among the asteroids previously observed. Methods: We used the swift integrator to determine the orbital evolution of selected asteroids in the inner part of the main belt. We also implemented our own secular spin propagator into the swift code to efficiently analyze their spin evolution. Results: Our experiments show that the previously suggested Slivan states of the Flora-region asteroids are marginally stable for only a small range of the flattening parameter Δ. Either the observed spins are close to the Slivan state by chance, or additional dynamical effects that were so far not taken into account change their evolution. We find that only the asteroids with very low-inclination orbits (lower than ≃4°, for instance) could follow a similar evolution path as the Koronis members and be captured in their spin state into the Slivan state. A greater number of asteroids in the inner main-belt Massalia

  11. Inertial compensation for belt acceleration in an instrumented treadmill.

    PubMed

    Hnat, Sandra K; van den Bogert, Antonie J

    2014-11-28

    Instrumented treadmills provide a convenient means for applying horizontal perturbations during gait or standing. However, varying the treadmill belt speed introduces inertial artifacts in the sagittal plane moment component of the ground reaction force. Here we present a compensation method based on a second-order dynamic model that predicts inertial pitch moment from belt acceleration. The method was tested experimentally on an unloaded treadmill at a slow belt speed with small random variations (1.20±0.10m/s) and at a faster belt speed with large random variations (2.00±0.50m/s). Inertial artifacts of up to 12Nm (root-mean-square, RMS) and 30Nm (peak) were observed. Coefficients of the model were calibrated on one trial and then used to predict and compensate the pitch moment of another trial with different random variations. Coefficients of determination (R(2)) were 72.08% and 96.75% for the slow and fast conditions, respectively. After compensation, the root-mean-square (RMS) of the inertial artifact was reduced by 47.37% for the slow speed and 81.98% for fast speed, leaving only 1.5Nm and 2.1Nm of artifact uncorrected, respectively. It was concluded that the compensation technique reduced inertial errors substantially, thereby improving the accuracy in joint moment calculations on an instrumented treadmill with varying belt speed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The binary Kuiper-belt object 1998 WW31.

    PubMed

    Veillet, Christian; Parker, Joel Wm; Griffin, Ian; Marsden, Brian; Doressoundiram, Alain; Buie, Marc; Tholen, David J; Connelley, Michael; Holman, Matthew J

    2002-04-18

    The recent discovery of a binary asteroid during a spacecraft fly-by generated keen interest, because the orbital parameters of binaries can provide measures of the masses, and mutual eclipses could allow us to determine individual sizes and bulk densities. Several binary near-Earth, main-belt and Trojan asteroids have subsequently been discovered. The Kuiper belt-the region of space extending from Neptune (at 30 astronomical units) to well over 100 AU and believed to be the source of new short-period comets-has become a fascinating new window onto the formation of our Solar System since the first member object, not counting Pluto, was discovered in 1992 (ref. 13). Here we report that the Kuiper-belt object 1998 WW31 is binary with a highly eccentric orbit (eccentricity e approximately 0.8) and a long period (about 570 days), very different from the Pluto/Charon system, which was hitherto the only previously known binary in the Kuiper belt. Assuming a density in the range of 1 to 2 g cm-3, the albedo of the binary components is between 0.05 and 0.08, close to the value of 0.04 generally assumed for Kuiper-belt objects.

  13. On static contact of belt and different pulleys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyaev, A. K.; Eliseev, V. V.; Irschik, H.; Oborin, E. A.

    2017-06-01

    The fitting of a looped belt on two pulleys with different radii is considered. A geometrically nonlinear model with account for tension and transverse shear is applied for modeling the belt. The pulleys are considered rigid bodies, and the belt-pulley contact is assumed frictionless. The problem has an axis of symmetry, therefore the boundary value problem is formulated and solved for a half of the belt. The considered part consists of three segments, two contact segments and a free span segment between them. The introduction of a dimensionless material coordinate at all segments leads to a system of ordinary differential equations of fifteenth order. The nonlinear boundary value problem for this system and boundary conditions is solved numerically with the shooting method and the finite difference method. As a result, the belt shape including the rotation angle, the forces, moments and contact pressure are determined. The contact pressure increases near the end point of contact areas, however no concentrated contact forces occur.

  14. An anomalous basaltic meteorite from the innermost main belt.

    PubMed

    Bland, Philip A; Spurny, Pavel; Towner, Martin C; Bevan, Alex W R; Singleton, Andrew T; Bottke, William F; Greenwood, Richard C; Chesley, Steven R; Shrbeny, Lukas; Borovicka, Jiri; Ceplecha, Zdenek; McClafferty, Terence P; Vaughan, David; Benedix, Gretchen K; Deacon, Geoff; Howard, Kieren T; Franchi, Ian A; Hough, Robert M

    2009-09-18

    Triangulated observations of fireballs allow us to determine orbits and fall positions for meteorites. The great majority of basaltic meteorites are derived from the asteroid 4 Vesta. We report on a recent fall that has orbital properties and an oxygen isotope composition that suggest a distinct parent body. Although its orbit was almost entirely contained within Earth's orbit, modeling indicates that it originated from the innermost main belt. Because the meteorite parent body would likely be classified as a V-type asteroid, V-type precursors for basaltic meteorites unrelated to Vesta may reside in the inner main belt. This starting location is in agreement with predictions of a planetesimal evolution model that postulates the formation of differentiated asteroids in the terrestrial planet region, with surviving fragments concentrated in the innermost main belt.

  15. Tectonics of some Amazonian greenstone belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibbs, A. K.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone belts exposed amid gneisses, granitoid rocks, and less abundant granulites along the northern and eastern margins of the Amazonian Craton yield Trans-Amazonican metamorphic ages of 2.0-2.1 Ga. Early proterozoic belts in the northern region probably originated as ensimatic island arc complexes. The Archean Carajas belt in the southeastern craton probably formed in an extensional basin on older continental basement. That basement contains older Archean belts with pillow basalts and komatiites. Belts of ultramafic rocks warrant investigatijon as possible ophiolites. A discussion follows.

  16. Seat Belt Sign and Its Significance

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Amit; Inamadar, Praveenkumar Ishwarappa; Subrahmanyam, Bhattara Vishweswar

    2013-01-01

    Safety belts are the most important safety system in motor vehicles and when worn intend to prevent serious injuries. However, in unusual circumstances (high velocity motor vehicle collisions) these safety measures (seat belts) can be the source and cause of serious injuries. The seat belt syndrome was first described as early by Garrett and Braunste in but the term “seat belt sign” was discussed by Doersch and Dozier. Medical personnel's involved in emergency care of trauma patients should be aware of seat belt sign and there should a higher index of suspicion to rule out underlying organ injuries. PMID:24479100

  17. Seat belt use on interstate highways.

    PubMed Central

    Wells, J K; Williams, A F; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    More than 5,000 miles of limited-access highways in the eastern United States and Canada were traveled to observe seat belt use. Overall belt use was 58 percent in the United States and 79 percent in Canada. The data indicate that belt use in the United States follows a different pattern on interstate highways than on other streets and roads, with relatively high belt use rates (over 50 percent) appearing to be somewhat independent of belt use law provisions. PMID:2343969

  18. The fossilized size distribution of the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, William F.; Durda, Daniel D.; Nesvorný, David; Jedicke, Robert; Morbidelli, Alessandro; Vokrouhlický, David; Levison, Hal

    2005-05-01

    Planet formation models suggest the primordial main belt experienced a short but intense period of collisional evolution shortly after the formation of planetary embryos. This period is believed to have lasted until Jupiter reached its full size, when dynamical processes (e.g., sweeping resonances, excitation via planetary embryos) ejected most planetesimals from the main belt zone. The few planetesimals left behind continued to undergo comminution at a reduced rate until the present day. We investigated how this scenario affects the main belt size distribution over Solar System history using a collisional evolution model (CoEM) that accounts for these events. CoEM does not explicitly include results from dynamical models, but instead treats the unknown size of the primordial main belt and the nature/timing of its dynamical depletion using innovative but approximate methods. Model constraints were provided by the observed size frequency distribution of the asteroid belt, the observed population of asteroid families, the cratered surface of differentiated Asteroid (4) Vesta, and the relatively constant crater production rate of the Earth and Moon over the last 3 Gyr. Using CoEM, we solved for both the shape of the initial main belt size distribution after accretion and the asteroid disruption scaling law QD∗. In contrast to previous efforts, we find our derived QD∗ function is very similar to results produced by numerical hydrocode simulations of asteroid impacts. Our best fit results suggest the asteroid belt experienced as much comminution over its early history as it has since it reached its low-mass state approximately 3.9-4.5 Ga. These results suggest the main belt's wavy-shaped size-frequency distribution is a "fossil" from this violent early epoch. We find that most diameter D≳120 km asteroids are primordial, with their physical properties likely determined during the accretion epoch. Conversely, most smaller asteroids are byproducts of fragmentation

  19. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  20. Fading of Jupiter's South Equatorial Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sola, Michael A.; Orton, Glenn; Baines, Kevin; Yanamandra-Fisher, Padma

    2011-01-01

    One of Jupiter's most dominant features, the South Equatorial Belt, has historically gone through a "fading" cycle. The usual dark, brownish clouds turn white, and after a period of time, the region returns to its normal color. Understanding this phenomenon, the latest occurring in 2010, will increase our knowledge of planetary atmospheres. Using the near infrared camera, NSFCAM2, at NASA's Infrared Telescope Facility in Hawaii, images were taken of Jupiter accompanied by data describing the circumstances of each observation. These images are then processed and reduced through an IDL program. By scanning the central meridian of the planet, graphs were produced plotting the average values across the central meridian, which are used to find variations in the region of interest. Calculations using Albert4, a FORTRAN program that calculates the upwelling reflected sunlight from a designated cloud model, can be used to determine the effects of a model atmosphere due to various absorption, scattering, and emission processes. Spectra that were produced show ammonia bands in the South Equatorial Belt. So far, we can deduce from this information that an upwelling of ammonia particles caused a cloud layer to cover up the region. Further investigations using Albert4 and other models will help us to constrain better the chemical make up of the cloud and its location in the atmosphere.

  1. Seat belt utilisation and awareness in UAE.

    PubMed

    Bendak, S; Al-Saleh, K

    2013-01-01

    Seat belts (SBs) are effective devices for reducing injury risk due to traffic accidents. Seat belt wearing was made compulsory in the United Arab Emirates (UAE) in January 1999 for drivers and front seat passengers (FSPs). No comprehensive study has ever assessed SB wearing rates across the country. Also, little is known on drivers' awareness of the importance of wearing seatbelts and how human factors affect wearing habits. This study aims to determine SB wearing rates for drivers and FSPs in UAE through an observational field study. It also aims to investigate perceptions and behaviour of drivers on this issue as well as human factors that affect wearing rate through a randomly distributed questionnaire. The results of the field study show that the overall SB wearing rate across the country was 61% for drivers and 43.4% for FSPs and that there were significant differences between the seven emirates that constitute the country. The questionnaire results show that age, education level, gender, marital status and nationality of drivers affect wearing habits and perceptions. Future implications in terms of improving traffic safety awareness are discussed.

  2. Benefits of Seat Belt Reminder Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fildes, Brian; Fitzharris, Michael; Koppel, Sjaanie; Vulcan, Peter; Brooks, Chris

    2003-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether fitting a more aggressive seat belt reminder system to new vehicles would be cost-beneficial for Australia. While seat belt wearing rates have been observed around 95% in the front seat, non-wearing rates in casualty crashes are as high as 33% among persons killed and 19% among seriously injured occupants. Benefits were computed for three device options (simple, simple-2 and complex) and three introduction scenarios (driver-only, front seat occupants and all occupants). Four levels of effectiveness were assumed, from 10% to 40%, depending on the type of device fitted. Unit benefits were computed assuming a 5% discount rate and a 15yr fleet life. Various industry experts provided the costs. The findings showed that Benefit-Cost-Ratios ranged from 4.0:1 at best (simple device for the driver only) to 0.9:1 for all seating positions. These figures are conservative, given the assumptions made and the discounted human capital methods used. PMID:12941229

  3. The Evolution of the Female Broadway Belt Voice: Implications for Teachers and Singers.

    PubMed

    Roll, Christianne

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, the female belt range extended to C5, but in current rock/pop Broadway productions, women are often required to belt up to an F5. This recent extension of the belt voice beyond C5 is a significant change, and female musical theater singers need effective strategies to produce these higher belt notes. The intent of this study was to gain a clear understanding of the strategies used to successfully teach and produce the higher range of the female musical theater belt voice. The study is a qualitative design composed of two data collection methods: interviews with four nationally recognized master musical theater voice teachers and 17 of their female belt students, and observations of the master teachers working with these students in their private studios. There was much consensus among the teachers and singers on the strategies of producing the higher belt range, such as incorporating more head voice involvement with closed vowels and maintaining a speech-like quality. Singers report that they produce high belt notes with more of a mix vocal approach. Teachers suggest that female voice type may determine the extent of a singer's ability in this high belt range. The high belt will be narrow, based on closed vowels, mixing in some degree of head voice function. Although this study has revealed some guidelines for the female musical theater high belt and similar strategies among master teachers, voice teachers should be aware of the variability of their female musical theater voice students. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Seat belt misuse among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Joseph; Daniels, Dawn M; Talty, Judith L; Bull, Marilyn J

    2009-05-01

    Observe and report seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. We conducted a cross-sectional, observational survey of children transported in motor vehicles between 2006 and 2007. While drivers completed a survey reporting the child's age, weight and gender, and the driver's age, gender, race, income, education, and relationship to the child; a child passenger safety technician recorded vehicle seating location, restraint type, and use of the car safety seat harness or seat belt as appropriate for the child. Twenty-five fast food restaurants and discount department stores throughout Indiana. A convenience sample of drivers transporting children younger than 16 years. Seat belt use among children transported in belt-positioning booster seats. Seat belt misuse. Overall, 1446 drivers participated, 2287 children were observed with 564 children in belt-positioning booster seats. At least one seat belt misuse was observed for 64.8% of the children transported. Common misuses were the shoulder belt being placed over the booster seat armrest (35.8%); shoulder belt not at mid-shoulder position (28.5%), seat belt was too loose (24.5%), and the shoulder belt was either behind the child's back (9.1%) or under their arm (10.0%). There is a high frequency of seat belt misuses among children transported in booster seats. Advice to parents on appropriate car seat selection, and encouragement to parents to supervise seat belt use may decrease misuse.

  5. NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sibeck, David G.

    2011-01-01

    NASA's Radiation Belt Storm Probe (RBSP) mission, comprising two identically-instrumented spacecraft, is scheduled for launch in May 2012. In addition to identifying and quantifying the processes responsible for energizing, transporting, and removing energetic particles from the Earth's Van Allen radiation, the mission will determine the characteristics of the ring current and its effect upon the magnetosphere as a whole. The distances separating the two RBSP spacecraft will vary as they move along their 1000 km altitude x 5.8 RE geocentric orbits in order to enable the spacecraft to separate spatial from temporal effects, measure gradients that help identify particle sources, and determine the spatial extent of a wide array of phenomena. This talk explores the scientific objectives of the mission and the manner by which the mission has been tailored to achieve them.

  6. Ring current and radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    Studies performed during 1983-1986 on the ring current, the injection boundary model, and the radiation belts are discussed. The results of these studies yielded the first observations on the composition and charge state of the ring current throughout the ring-current energy range, and strong observational support for an injection-boundary model accounting for the origins of radiation-belt particles, the ring current, and substorm particles observed at R less than about 7 earth radii. In addition, the results have demonstrated that the detection of energetic neutral atoms generated by charge-exchange interactions between the ring current and the hydrogen geocorona can provide global images of the earth's ring current and its spatial and temporal evolution.

  7. The Belt voice: Acoustical measurements and esthetic correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bounous, Barry Urban

    This dissertation explores the esthetic attributes of the Belt voice through spectral acoustical analysis. The process of understanding the nature and safe practice of Belt is just beginning, whereas the understanding of classical singing is well established. The unique nature of the Belt sound provides difficulties for voice teachers attempting to evaluate the quality and appropriateness of a particular sound or performance. This study attempts to provide answers to the question "does Belt conform to a set of measurable esthetic standards?" In answering this question, this paper expands on a previous study of the esthetic attributes of the classical baritone voice (see "Vocal Beauty", NATS Journal 51,1) which also drew some tentative conclusions about the Belt voice but which had an inadequate sample pool of subjects from which to draw. Further, this study demonstrates that it is possible to scientifically investigate the realm of musical esthetics in the singing voice. It is possible to go beyond the "a trained voice compared to an untrained voice" paradigm when evaluating quantitative vocal parameters and actually investigate what truly beautiful voices do. There are functions of sound energy (measured in dB) transference which may affect the nervous system in predictable ways and which can be measured and associated with esthetics. This study does not show consistency in measurements for absolute beauty (taste) even among belt teachers and researchers but does show some markers with varying degrees of importance which may point to a difference between our cognitive learned response to singing and our emotional, more visceral response to sounds. The markers which are significant in determining vocal beauty are: (1) Vibrancy-Characteristics of vibrato including speed, width, and consistency (low variability). (2) Spectral makeup-Ratio of partial strength above the fundamental to the fundamental. (3) Activity of the voice-The quantity of energy being produced. (4

  8. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

    PubMed Central

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q.-G.; Zhou, X.-Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y.-X.; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. Our results demonstrate that the ULF waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons. PMID:26690250

  9. The rock components and structures of Archean greenstone belts: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowe, D. R.; Byerly, G. R.

    1986-01-01

    Knowledge of the character and evolution of the Earth's early crust is derived from the studies of the rocks and structures in Archean greenstone belts. Ability to resolve the petrologic, sedimentological and structural histories of greenstone belts, however, hinges first on an ability to apply the concepts and procedures of classical stratigraphy. Unfortunately, early Precambrian greenstone terrains present particular problems to stratigraphic analysis. Many current controversies of greenstone belt petrogenesis, sedimentology, tectonics and evolution arise more from an inability to develop a clear stratigraphic picture of the belts than from ambiguities in interpretation. Four particular stratigraphic problems that afflict studies of Archean greenstone belts are considered: determination of facing directions, correlation of lithologic units, identification of primary lithologies and discrimination of stratigraphic versus structural contacts.

  10. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.

    PubMed

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q-G; Zhou, X-Z; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y-X; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D N; Spence, H E; Reeves, G D; Blake, J B; Wygant, J R

    2015-12-22

    Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. Our results demonstrate that the ULF waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.

  11. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

    DOE PAGES

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; ...

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. So, our results demonstrate that the ULFmore » waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.« less

  12. Ultra-low-frequency wave-driven diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Zhenpeng; Zhu, Hui; Xiao, Fuliang; Zong, Q. -G.; Zhou, X. -Z.; Zheng, Huinan; Wang, Yuming; Wang, Shui; Hao, Y. -X.; Gao, Zhonglei; He, Zhaoguo; Baker, D. N.; Spence, H. E.; Reeves, G. D.; Blake, J. B.; Wygant, J. R.

    2015-12-22

    The Van Allen radiation belts are typically two zones of energetic particles encircling the Earth separated by the slot region. How the outer radiation belt electrons are accelerated to relativistic energies remains an unanswered question. Recent studies have presented compelling evidence for the local acceleration by very-low-frequency (VLF) chorus waves. However, there has been a competing theory to the local acceleration, radial diffusion by ultra-low-frequency (ULF) waves, whose importance has not yet been determined definitively. Here we report a unique radiation belt event with intense ULF waves but no detectable VLF chorus waves. So, our results demonstrate that the ULF waves moved the inner edge of the outer radiation belt earthward 0.3 Earth radii and enhanced the relativistic electron fluxes by up to one order of magnitude near the slot region within about 10 h, providing strong evidence for the radial diffusion of radiation belt relativistic electrons.

  13. V-belt assembly for transmitting power

    SciTech Connect

    Okawa, S.; Ogino, I.; Okuwaki, S.

    1987-02-24

    This patent describes a V-belt assembly trained over V-belt wheels for transmitting power comprising: a flexible endless belt; rigid suspension members secured fixedly to the endless belt perpendicularly to the longitudinal direction of the endless belt and having pivotal projections extending from opposite sides thereof; substantially U-shaped rigid transmission pieces having holes formed therein wherein the pivotal projections extending from the respective suspension members extend in sidewise directions and into the holes so as to allow for relative movement between each of the pivotal projections and the hole for engaging V-shaped grooves of the V-belt wheels. A center axis of the pivotal projection passes through an approximately central portion of thickness of the endless belt. Each of the suspension members is substantially U-shaped so as to surround one bottom surface and opposite side surfaces of the endless belt and is secured fixedly to the endless belt; and an opposed plate connected to each of the suspension members and positioned against a bottom surface of the endless belt opposite the one bottom surface.

  14. Flight Investigation of the Effects of Pressure-Belt Tubing Size on Measured Pressure Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rivers, Natale A.; vanDam, Cornielious P.; Brown, Phillip W.; Rivers, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    The pressure-belt technique is commonly used to measure pressure distributions on lifting and nonlifting surfaces where flush, through-the-surface measurements are not possible. The belts, made from strips of small-bore, flexible plastic tubing, are surface-mounted by a simple, nondestructive method. Additionally, the belts require minimal installation time, thus making them much less costly to install than flush-mounted pressure ports. Although pressure belts have been used in flight research since the early 1950s, only recently have manufacturers begun to produce thinner, more flexible tubing, and thin, strong adhesive tapes that minimize the installation-induced errors on the measurement of surface pressures. The objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of pressure-belt tubing size on the measurement of pressure distributions. For that purpose, two pressure belts were mounted on the right wing of a single-engine, propeller-driven research airplane. The outboard pressure belt served as a baseline for the measurement and the comparison of effects. Each tube had an outer diameter (OD) of 0.0625 in. The inboard belt was used to evaluate three different tube sizes: 0.0625-, 0.1250-, and 0.1875-in. OD. A computational investigation of tube size on pressure distribution also was conducted using the two-dimensional Multielement Streamtube Euler Solver (MSES) code.

  15. Camouflaging Vehicles Using Field Expedient Materials, Commercial Hardware Store Materials, Camouflage Nets, and Rubber Conveyer Belt Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    Store Materials, Camouflage Nets, and Rubber Conveyer Belt Material Joseph W. Papa, George A. Fahlsing US Army Research Development and Engineering...materials were augmented with pieces of rubber conveyer belt material as observed being used on tanks in Serbia and Bosnia. The camouflage was placed...tanks with camouflage netting and a rubber material, determined to be conveyer belt material from local sand and gravel pits. The Serbians and

  16. Exploring the collisional evolution of the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottke, W.; Broz, M.; O'Brien, D.; Campo Bagatin, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-07-01

    families. The big question is how to use what we know to determine the main belt's original size and state. This work is ongoing, but dynamical models hint at many possibilities, including both the late arrival and late removal of material from the main belt. In addition, no model has yet properly accounted for the bombardment of the primordial main belt by leftover planetesimals in the terrestrial planet region. It is also possible to use additional constraints, such as the apparent paucity of Vesta-like or V-type objects in the outer main belt, to argue that the primordial main belt at best only 3--4 its current mass at its start. In our talk, we will review what is known, what has been predicted, and some intriguing directions for the future.

  17. Intelligent seat belt reminders-do they change driver seat belt use in Europe?

    PubMed

    Lie, Anders; Krafft, Maria; Kullgren, Anders; Tingvall, Claes

    2008-10-01

    Many modern cars have seat belt reminders (SBRs) using loud and clear sound and light signals. These systems have developed over the last few years. This study investigates how these modern systems influence the seat belt use in real-life traffic in built-up areas in some European cities. The data were collected by field observations in major cities in six European countries and in five cities around Sweden. A selection of car models having seat belt reminders (SBR) were compared to a fleet of similar car models without such reminders. A significant difference in seat belt wearing rate was found in the cars with seat belt reminders. For all observations, the total seat belt wearing rate was 97.5% +/- 0.5% in cars with SBR, while it was 85.8% +/- 0.8% in cars without. There were differences in seat belt use in the different observation locations. The lowest seat belt use was found in Brussels/Belgium with a use rate of 92.6 +/- 2.2% in cars with seat belt reminders and 69.6 +/- 3.1% in cars not fitted with reminders. The highest seat belt use was found in Paris/France where 99.8 +/- 0.4% of the drivers used the seat belt in cars with reminders and 96.9 +/-1.1% were belted in cars without reminders. Seat belt reminders fulfilling Euro NCAP's seat belt reminder protocol are increasing the seat belt use in daily traffic significantly. Around 80% (82.2% +/- 8.6%) of the drivers not putting the belt on without a seat belt reminder do so in cars equipped with an SBR that has a light signal and an associated loud and clear sound signal.

  18. Synchronous and Cogged Fan Belt Performance Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Cutler, D.; Dean, J.; Acosta, J.

    2014-02-01

    The GSA Regional GPG Team commissioned the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to perform monitoring of cogged V-belts and synchronous belts on both a constant volume and a variable air volume fan at the Byron G. Rodgers Federal Building and U.S. Courthouse in Denver, Colorado. These motor/fan combinations were tested with their original, standard V-belts (appropriately tensioned by an operation and maintenance professional) to obtain a baseline for standard operation. They were then switched to the cogged V-belts, and finally to synchronous belts. The power consumption by the motor was normalized for both fan speed and air density changes. This was necessary to ensure that the power readings were not influenced by a change in rotational fan speed or by the power required to push denser air. Finally, energy savings and operation and maintenance savings were compiled into an economic life-cycle cost analysis of the different belt options.

  19. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drive pulley if slippage could cause ignition of the belt. (c) A person shall attend the belt at the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt...

  20. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drive pulley if slippage could cause ignition of the belt. (c) A person shall attend the belt at the... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt...

  1. Workshop on Techtonic Evolution of Greenstone Belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dewit, M. J. (Editor); Ashwal, Lewis D. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    Topics addressed include: greenstone belt externalities; boundaries; rock terranes; synthesis and destiny; tectonic evolution; rock components and structure; sedimentology; stratigraphy; volcanism; metamorphism; and geophysics.

  2. Investigation of Moving Belt Radiator Technology Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teagan, W. Peter; Aguilar, Jerry L.

    1994-01-01

    The development of an advanced spacecraft radiator technology is reported. The moving belt radiator is a thermal radiator concept with the promise of lower specific mass (per kW rejected) than that afforded by existing technologies. The results of a parametric study to estimate radiator mass for future space power systems is presented. It is shown that this technology can be scaled up to 200 MW for higher rejection temperatures. Several aspects of the design concept are discussed, including the dynamics of a large rotating belt in microgravity. The results of a computer code developed to model the belt dynamics are presented. A series of one-g experiments to investigate the dynamics of small belts is described. A comprehensive test program to investigate belt dynamics in microgravity aboard the NASA KC-135 aircraft is discussed. It was found that the desired circular shape can readily be achieved in microgravity. It is also shown that a rotating belt is stable when subjected to simulated attitude control maneuvers. Heat exchanger design is also investigated. Several sealing concepts were examined experimentally, and are discussed. Overall heat transfer coefficients to the rotating belt are presented. Material properties for various belt materials, including screen meshes, are also presented. The results presented in this report indicate that the moving belt radiator concept is technically feasible.

  3. Seat belt use among rear passengers: validity of self-reported versus observational measures

    PubMed Central

    Zambon, Francesco; Fedeli, Ugo; Marchesan, Maria; Schievano, Elena; Ferro, Antonio; Spolaore, Paolo

    2008-01-01

    Background The effects of seat belt laws and public education campaigns on seat belt use are assessed on the basis of observational or self-reported data on seat belt use. Previous studies focusing on front seat occupants have shown that self-reports indicate a greater seat belt usage than observational findings. Whether this over-reporting in self reports applies to rear seat belt usage, and to what extent, have yet to be investigated. We aimed to evaluate the over-reporting factor for rear seat passengers and whether this varies by gender and under different compulsory seat belt use conditions. Methods The study was conducted in the Veneto Region, an area in the North-East of Italy with a population of 4.7 million. The prevalence of seat belt use among rear seat passengers was determined by means of a cross-sectional self-report survey and an observational study. Both investigations were performed in two time periods: in 2003, when rear seat belt use was not enforced by primary legislation, and in 2005, after rear seat belt use had become compulsory (June 2003). Overall, 8138 observations and 7902 interviews were recorded. Gender differences in the prevalence of rear seat belt use were examined using the chi-square test. The over-reporting factor, defined as the ratio of the self-reported to the observed prevalence of rear seat belt use, was calculated by gender before and after the rear seat belt legislation came into effect. Results Among rear seat passengers, self-reported rates were always higher than the observational findings, with an overall over-reporting factor of 1.4. We registered no statistically significant changes over time in the over-reporting factor, nor any major differences between genders. Conclusion Self-reported seat belt usage by rear passengers represents an efficient alternative to observational studies for tracking changes in actual behavior, although the reported figures need to be adjusted using an appropriate over-reporting factor in

  4. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Gidon; Schubert, Gerald; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  5. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Schubert, G.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Stofan, E. R.

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  6. Controls on Andean thrust belt development 15[degrees]-30[degrees]S

    SciTech Connect

    Allmendinger, R.W.; Gubbels, T.L. )

    1993-02-01

    The Andean foreland thrust belt would appear to be the perfect test locality for models of climatic control on thrust belt geometry and evolution. To evaluate this possibility, we examine three transects across the thrust belt: the Subandean belt at [approximately]15[degrees] and 20[degrees]S, and the Precordillera at 30[degrees]S, where current precipitation is 1000-2400 mm/yr, 400-800 mm/yr, and 200 mm/yr, respectively. Thrust belt width is directly correlated with average topographic slope and shortening. The northern Subandean belt and the Precordillera are both narrow (70 and 50 km), have high surface slopes of 2.5-3.5[degrees], and have net shortening >60% whereas the intervening southern Subandean belt is 90-110 km wide, has a slope of 0.5-1[degrees], and <50% shortening. Additional non-thrust belt shortening in the north occurs as major strike slip faults and in the south as basement uplifts. The formation of the Altiplano plateau west of the Subandean thrust belt required both Neogene and Quaternary magmatism and large magnitude shortening; neither alone would be sufficient to form the Altiplano. Second order plateau width variations may be climatically controlled. There are two significant controls on thrust belt geometry; the pre-existing basin architecture (i.e., width, thickness, number of competent units, pre-existing structures) and the Andean plate setting(arc magmatism, oblique shortening and strike-slip faulting, and basement up-lifts). The climatic influence is most clear in drainage and denudation patterns which determine the locus of sediment redistribution (i.e. piggyback basins, provenance of foreland basin fill), but otherwise climate remains an elusive control.

  7. Periodic responses of a pulley-belt system with one-way clutch under inertia excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Hu

    2015-09-01

    The stable steady-state periodic response of a two-pulley belt drive system coupled with an accessory by a one-way clutch is presented. For the first time, the pulley-belt system is studied under double excitations. Specifically, the dual excitations consist of harmonic motion of the driving pulley and inertia excitation. The belt spans are modeled as axially moving viscoelastic beams by considering belt bending stiffness. Therefore, integro-partial-differential equations are derived for governing the transverse vibrations of the belt spans. Moreover, the transverse vibrations of the moving belt are coupled with the rotation vibrations of the pulleys by nonlinear dynamic tension. For describing the unidirectional decoupling function of the one-way device, rotation vibrations of the driven pulley and accessory are modeled as coupled piecewise ordinary differential equations. In order to eliminate the influence of the boundary of the belt spans, the non-trivial equilibriums of the pulley-belt system are numerically determined. Furthermore, A nonlinear piecewise discrete-continuous dynamical system is derived by introducing a coordinate transform. Coupled vibrations of the pulley-belt system are investigated via the Galerkin truncation. The natural frequencies of the coupled vibrations are obtained by using the fast Fourier transform. Moreover, frequency-response curves are abstracted from time histories. Therefore, resonance areas of the belt spans, the driven pulley and the accessory are presented. Furthermore, validity of the Galerkin method is examined by comparing with the differential and integral quadrature methods (DQM & IQM). By comparing the results with and without one-way device, significant damping effect of clutch on the dynamic response is discovered. Furthermore, the effects of the intensity of the driving pulley excitation and the inertia excitation are studied. Moreover, numerical results demonstrate that the two excitations interact on the steady

  8. Initial rollover effectiveness evaluation of an alternative seat belt design for agricultural tractors.

    PubMed

    Rains, G C

    2000-02-01

    A test program was conducted to determine the effectiveness of a seat belt restraint in preventing occupant movement in a rollover accident. A baseline type-2 seat belt (pelvic and torso restraint), and an improved type-2 seat belt restraint, both designed to restrict occupant motion in a rollover accident, were tested in a rollover restraints tester (RRT). Each seat belt was placed on a H-III 50th percentile male dummy and testing conducted at a single roll rate and two D-ring adjustment positions. Each test simulated what was approximately a 260 degrees per second rollover parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tractor with the top of the ROPS impacting the ground after 180 degrees of roll. Forces on the dummy's head and neck were measured, and video was taken to measure the head motion in the x-, y-, and z-axis of the dummy. The average vertical, forward, and lateral head movement in the baseline seat belt was 144, 222, and 184 mm, respectively, when the adjustable D-ring anchorage supporting the shoulder belt was in its lowest position. At the lowest D-ring height, the shoulder belt became ineffective and the seat belt performance became similar to a type-1 restraint (required for tractors with ROPS) resulting in increased vertical, forward, and lateral movement. The improved restraint reduced vertical head movement by as much as 75% without increasing head and neck loads above established injury criteria. Testing seat belts for rollover effectiveness will become increasingly important as seat belt usage on tractors with ROPS increases.

  9. The galactic 'belt of life'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marochnik, L. S.; Mukhin, L. M.

    1983-11-01

    A galactic anthropocentric principle is proposed according to which the terrestrial forms of life and civilization can arise only in galactic 'belts of life', i.e., in corotation tori. It is noted that this principle holds not only for the Milky Way but also for other spiral galaxies, and that the special position of the solar system in the corotation band of the Galaxy makes the proposed hypothesis especially appealing. Upper bounds to the possible number of technological civilizations in the framework of the proposed principle are calculated.

  10. Association of seat belt use with death: a comparison of estimates based on data from police and estimates based on data from trained crash investigators.

    PubMed

    Cummings, P

    2002-12-01

    Estimates of any protective effect of seat belts could be exaggerated if some crash survivors falsely claimed to police that they were belted in order to avoid a fine. The aim of this study was to determine whether estimates of seat belt effectiveness differed when based on belt use as recorded by the police and belt use determined by trained crash investigators. Matched cohort study. United States. Adult driver-passenger pairs in the same vehicle with at least one death (n=1689) sampled from crashes during 1988-2000; data from the National Accident Sampling System Crashworthiness Data System. Risk ratio for death among belted occupants compared with those not belted. Trained investigators determined post-crash seat belt use by vehicle inspections for 92% of the occupants, confidential interviews with survivors for 5%, and medical or autopsy reports for 3%. Using this information, the adjusted risk ratio for belted persons was 0.36 (95% confidence interval 0.29 to 0.46). The risk ratio was also 0.36 using police reported belt use for the same crashes. Estimates of seat belt effects based upon police data were not substantially different from estimates which used data obtained by trained crash investigators who were not police officers. These results were from vehicles in which at least one front seat occupant died; these findings may not apply to estimates which use data from crashes without a death.

  11. Isometric knee extension force measured using a handheld dynamometer with and without belt-stabilization.

    PubMed

    Bohannon, Richard W; Kindig, Jeffrey; Sabo, Gregory; Duni, Allison E; Cram, Peter

    2012-10-01

    Although evidence suggests that tester strength limits the magnitude of isometric force that can be measured using a handheld dynamometer (HHD), previous studies have not investigated the actual limits of force magnitude that can be measured by trained testers when a belt is or is not used to stabilize the dynamometer. Therefore, the primary aims of this study were to determine: 1) the magnitude of knee extension forces that could be measured with a HHD with and without belt-stabilization and 2) the relationship between tester characteristics and knee extension strength measured with and without belt-stabilization. The characteristics of 20 trained testers (10 men, 10 women) were determined. Thereafter, they measured isometric knee extension strength using the MicroFET HHD with and without belt-stabilization. Paired t-tests were used to compare maximal knee extension forces under two conditions. Pearson product-moment correlations were calculated to determine the relationship between tester characteristics and knee extension forces measured under the two conditions. Knee extension forces (Newtons) measured using the HHD without belt-stabilization (470.6 ± 179.8) were significantly lower (t= -7.968, p<0.001) than those measured with belt-stabilization (866.9 ± 131.7). Pearson correlations between tester characteristics and knee extension forces measured with no belt-stabilization were all statistically significant (p ≤ 0.002); however, the correlations were not statistically significant under the belt-stabilization condition. The forces that can be measured with a HHD are higher than those suggested by previous researchers. By rectifying limitations imposed by tester strength, use of a belt allows very high knee extension forces to be measured.

  12. Jupiter's radiation belts and atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Pater, I.; Dames, H. A. C.

    1979-01-01

    Maps and stripscans of the radio emission from Jupiter were made during the Pioneer 10 flyby in December 1973 at wavelengths of 6 cm, 21 cm, and 50 cm using the Westerbork telescope in the Netherlands. With this instrument the disk of the planet was resolved at 6 and 21 cm. The pictures are averaged over 15 deg of Jovian longitude. At 21 cm the stripscans clearly show the existence of a 'hot region' in the radiation belts at a System III longitude (1965.0) of 255 + or - 10 deg. Its flux is about 9% of the total nonthermal flux, and it has a volume emissivity enhanced by a factor of about 1.6 with respect to the general radiation belts. The temperature of the thermal disk at 21 cm appears to be 290 + or - 20 K. This is likely due to a high ammonia mixing ratio in the atmosphere, a factor of 4-5 larger than the expected solar value of 0.00015.

  13. 47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. INTERIOR VIEW, DETAIL OF CONVEYOR BELT SYSTEM SYSTEM WITH BACK BELT DROPPING HARDENED NAILS ON THE FRONT BELT TO BE TEMPERED; MOTION STOPPED - LaBelle Iron Works, Thirtieth & Wood Streets, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  14. 14 CFR 31.63 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 31.63 Section 31.63 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.63 Safety belts. (a) There must be a safety...

  15. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  16. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  17. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  18. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  19. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  20. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  1. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  2. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  3. 36 CFR 1004.15 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Safety belts. 1004.15 Section 1004.15 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST VEHICLES AND TRAFFIC SAFETY § 1004.15 Safety... administered by the Presidio Trust will have the safety belt or child restraint system properly fastened at...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1413 - Safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Safety belts. 27.1413 Section 27.1413 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Safety Equipment § 27.1413 Safety belts. Each safety...

  5. Seat Belts on School Buses: Some Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soule, David

    1982-01-01

    A representative of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration weighs advantages and discusses issues associated with installing seat belts in school buses. Federal regulations and research findings are considered. A list of guideline questions for school districts planning to install seat belts is included. (PP)

  6. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  7. Understanding Quaternions and the Dirac Belt Trick

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    The Dirac belt trick is often employed in physics classrooms to show that a 2n rotation is not topologically equivalent to the absence of rotation whereas a 4n rotation is, mirroring a key property of quaternions and their isomorphic cousins, spinors. The belt trick can leave the student wondering if a real understanding of quaternions and spinors…

  8. Combined Radiation Belt - Plasma Sheet System Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aseev, Nikita; Shprits, Yuri; Kellerman, Adam; Drozdov, Alexander; Zhu, Hui

    2017-04-01

    Recent years have given rise to numerous mathematical models of the Earth's radiation belt dynamics. Driven by observations at geosynchronous orbit (GEO) where satellites (e.g. GOES and LANL) provide extensive in-situ measurements, radiation belt models usually take into account only diffusion processes in the energetic electron belts (100 keV and greater), leaving aside the dynamics of colder source population (tens of keV). Such models are able to reconstruct the radiation belt state, but they are not capable of predicting the electron dynamics at GEO, where many communication and navigation satellites currently operate. In this work we present combined four-dimensional electron radiation belt - plasma sheet model accounting for adiabatic advective transport, radial diffusion due to interaction with ULF waves, local acceleration of electrons, scattering into the atmosphere, magnetopause shadowing, and adiabatic effects due to contraction and expansion of the magnetic field. The developed model is applicable to energetic, relativistic and ultrarelativistic electrons as well as to source electron population. The model provides spatial particle distribution allowing us to compare and validate the model with multiple satellite measurements at different MLT sectors (e.g. Van Allen Probes, GOES, LANL, THEMIS). The model can be helpful for the prediction of crucial for satellite operators geosynchronous electron fluxes and electron radiation belt dynamics including the heart of the outer belt, slot region and inner belt.

  9. The Administrator's "Handy Dandy" Tool Belt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Terry

    2012-01-01

    Every good leader needs a tool belt. Throughout the author's years of building early childhood programs, she has acquired a number of tools for her personal belt. These tools have helped her sharpen her skills in supporting teachers and staff, connecting with families, and educating children. This article focuses on those leadership skills that…

  10. Pregnancy: Should I Use a Seat Belt?

    MedlinePlus

    ... injury or death in the event of a car crash. You should wear a seat belt no matter where you sit in the car.How should I wear my seat belt?The ... together keep you from being thrown from the car during an accident. The shoulder strap also keeps ...

  11. Apparatus for heat treating plastic belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Topits, A., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    Apparatus performs programed rotating, stretching/shrinking and heat treatment necessary to fabrication of high-performance plastic belts. Belts can be treated in lengths varying from 7 to 48 in., in widths up to 1 in., and in thicknesses up to approximately 0.003 in.

  12. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-12-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection.

  13. Seat belt use in cars with air bags.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K

    1990-01-01

    Seat belt use was observed in 1,628 cars with air bags and manual belts and 34,223 cars with manual seat belts only. Sixty-six percent of drivers in cars with air bags wore seat belts compared to 63 percent of drivers in cars with manual belts only. The study found no evidence for the speculation that drivers with air bags will reduce their seat belt use because they believe an air bag alone provides sufficient protection. PMID:2240346

  14. Tensioning of a belt around a drum using membrane element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, C. H. S.

    1980-01-01

    An application of the membrane element to the problem of the tensioning of a conveyer belt which wraps around a drum is presented. Two cases were investigated: (1) belt tension increase due to drum edge wear; and (2) material trapped between the drum and the belt. In both cases it was found that the increase in belt tension was due to the additional stretching of the belt resulting from the drum radius change rather than from the transverse deflection of the belt.

  15. Abdominal Injuries in Belt-Positioning Booster Seats

    PubMed Central

    Arbogast, Kristy B.; Ghati, Yoganand

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that booster seats reduce the risk of abdominal injuries by improving the fit of the seat belt on young children and encouraging better posture and compatibility with the vehicle seat. Recently, several studies have reported cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children questioning the protective effects of these restraints. The objective of this study was to examine cases of abdominal injuries in booster seated children through parametric modeling to gain a thorough understanding of the injury causation scenarios. The Partners for Child Passenger Safety and CIREN in-depth crash investigation databases were queried to identify children in belt-positioning booster seats with abdominal injuries. The injury causation scenarios for these injuries were delineated using the CIREN Biotab method. The cases were modeled, using MADYMO with variations in key parameters, to determine the ranges of loads and loading rates for the abdomen and thorax. A parametric study was completed examining the influence of pretensioners and load limiters on the injury metrics obtained. Query of the two databases revealed three cases involving abdominal injuries to booster seated children. Children in two of the cases sustained a thoracic injury (AIS 3/AIS 4) in addition to their abdominal injuries (AIS 2) and review of these cases pointed to the role of shoulder belt loading in the injury causation. Modeling of these cases revealed chest compressions and accelerations of 30–53 mm and 41–89 g, respectively and abdominal deflection and velocity of 7.0–13.3 mm and 1.2–2.2 m/s, respectively. Parametric study suggested that coupling shoulder belt load limiting and lap belt buckle pretensioning resulted in improved chest and abdominal metrics while reducing head excursion, indicating that these technologies may provide injury reduction potential to pediatric rear seat occupants. PMID:20184845

  16. Pitch difference and belt tooth configuration effect on load distribution of timing belt using FEM analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Uchida, Takanao; Furukawa, Yoshihisa; Tomono, Kiyohisa; Takahashi, Hideaki

    1996-09-01

    A timing belt used for an automotive engine`s camshaft consists of a facing fabric, elastoeric body and glass fiber cords. These materials show significant non-linear characteristics. Therefore, a model of the timing belt was analyzed using ABAQUS (a general non-linear finite element program). As a result, the mechanism that generates the belt load distribution was successfully confirmed by calculation. It was found that the pitch difference existing between the timing belt and pulley, and belt tooth configuration both have a large affect on load distribution of toothed belts. This paper reports the development of an analytical model which shows the effects of pitch difference and pulley tooth configuration on belt contact pressure.

  17. Effectiveness of Ford's belt reminder system in increasing seat belt use

    PubMed Central

    Williams, A; Wells, J; Farmer, C

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: The study investigated the effectiveness in increasing seat belt use of Ford's belt reminder system, a supplementary system that provides intermittent flashing lights and chimes for five minutes if drivers are not belted. Methods: Seat belt use of drivers in relatively new cars with and without the reminder system was unobtrusively observed as vehicles were brought to dealerships for service. Results: Overall use rates were estimated at 71% for drivers in vehicles without the reminder system and 76% for drivers in vehicles with belt reminders (p<0.01). Conclusions: Seat belt use is relatively low in the United States. The present study showed that vehicle based reminder systems can be at least modestly effective in increasing belt use, which may encourage further development of such systems. PMID:12460965

  18. Radiation belt dynamics during solar minimum

    SciTech Connect

    Gussenhoven, M.S.; Mullen, E.G. ); Holeman, E. )

    1989-12-01

    Two types of temporal variation in the radiation belts are studied using low altitude data taken onboard the DMSP F7 satellite: those associated with the solar cycle and those associated with large magnetic storm effects. Over a three-year period from 1984 to 1987 and encompassing solar minimum, the protons in the heart of the inner belt increased at a rate of approximately 6% per year. Over the same period, outer zone electron enhancements declined both in number and peak intensity. During the large magnetic storm of February 1986, following the period of peak ring current intensity, a second proton belt with energies up to 50 MeV was found at magnetic latitudes between 45{degrees} and 55{degrees}. The belt lasted for more than 100 days. The slot region between the inner and outer electron belts collapsed by the merging of the two populations and did not reform for 40 days.

  19. Cable Belt Conveyors in mine haulage

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.E.

    1983-06-01

    The Cable Belt is not a conveyor in the conventional sense, but rather a continuous bulk handling system. It is custom built for the application. It may come as a surprise to some people to learn that the Cable Belt system is not new, having been invented in the requirements at that time for long-haul, high-lift, single-flight, heavy duty applications, primarily in the coal mining industry. In those days, belt conveyors of 200 HP were regarded as heavy duty units; it was therefore inevitable that, as mining progressed into the next decade and the demand for minerals increased, technology also had to keep pace to fulfill the industries' needs. With the simplicity of the Cable Belt design, this was achieved, a position which today is maintained by Cable Belt as leaders in long-distance, single-flight, single-drive conveyor applications.

  20. Inner Radiation Belt Dynamics and Climatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, P. P.; Looper, M. D.

    2012-12-01

    We present preliminary results of inner belt proton data assimilation using an augmented version of the Selesnick et al. Inner Zone Model (SIZM). By varying modeled physics parameters and solar particle injection parameters to generate many ensembles of the inner belt, then optimizing the ensemble weights according to inner belt observations from SAMPEX/PET at LEO and HEO/DOS at high altitude, we obtain the best-fit state of the inner belt. We need to fully sample the range of solar proton injection sources among the ensemble members to ensure reasonable agreement between the model ensembles and observations. Once this is accomplished, we find the method is fairly robust. We will demonstrate the data assimilation by presenting an extended interval of solar proton injections and losses, illustrating how these short-term dynamics dominate long-term inner belt climatology.

  1. Influence of the Centaurs and TNOs on the main belt and its families

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiazzo, Mattia A.; Wiegert, Paul; Aljbaae, Safwan

    2016-12-01

    Centaurs are objects whose orbits are found between those of the giant planets. They are supposed to originate mainly from the Trans-Neptunian objects, and they are among the sources of Near-Earth Objects. Trans-Neptunian Objects (TNOs) cross Neptune's orbit and produce the Centaurs. We investigate their interactions with main belt asteroids to determine if chaotic scattering caused by close encounters and impacts by these bodies may have played a role in the dynamical evolution of the main belt. We find that Centaurs and TNOs that reach the inner Solar System can modify the orbits of main belt asteroids, though only if their mass is of the order of 10^{-9} m_{⊙} for single encounters or, one order less in case of multiple close encounters. Centaurs and TNOs are unlikely to have significantly dispersed young asteroid families in the main belt, but they could have perturbed some old asteroid families. Current main belt asteroids that originated as Centaurs or Trans-Neptunian Objects may lie in the outer belt with short lifetime ≤ 4 My, most likely between 2.8 and 3.2 au at larger eccentricities than typical of main belt asteroids.

  2. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.

  3. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics Driven by Large-Amplitude Whistlers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khazanov, G. V.; Tel'nikhin, A. A.; Kronberg, T. K.

    2013-01-01

    Acceleration of radiation belt electrons driven by oblique large-amplitude whistler waves is studied. We show analytically and numerically that this is a stochastic process; the intensity of which depends on the wave power modified by Bessel functions. The type of this dependence is determined by the character of the nonlinear interaction due to coupling between action and phase. The results show that physically significant quantities have a relatively weak dependence on the wave power.

  4. Rotation Periods for Three Main-belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franco, Lorenzo; Baj, Giorgio; Tinella, Vito; Bachini, Mauro; Succi, Giacomo; Casalnuovo, Giovanni Battista; Bacci, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    Photometric observations of three main-belt asteroids were made from Italy in order to determine their synodic rotation periods. For 1022 Olympiada the period is 3.834 ± 0.001 hr, amplitude 0.66 mag. For 1602 Indiana the results are 2.601 ± 0.001 hr and 0.16 mag. and for 2501 Lohja we report 3.809 ± 0.001 hr and 0.44 mag.

  5. Paired Magmatic-Metallogenic Belts in Myanmar - an Andean Analogue?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardiner, Nicholas; Robb, Laurence; Searle, Michael; Morley, Christopher

    2015-04-01

    Myanmar (Burma) is richly endowed in precious and base metals, having one of the most diverse collections of natural resources in SE Asia. Its geological history is dominated by the staged closing of Tethys and the suturing of Gondwana-derived continental fragments onto the South China craton during the Mesozoic-Cenozoic. The country is located at a crucial geologic juncture where the main convergent Tethyan collision zone swings south around the Namche Barwa Eastern Himalayan syntaxis. However, despite recent work, the geological and geodynamic history of Myanmar remains enigmatic. Plate margin processes, magmatism, metasomatism and the genesis of mineral deposits are intricately linked, and there has long been recognized a relationship between the distribution of certain mineral deposit types, and the tectonic settings which favour their genesis. A better knowledge of the regional tectonic evolution of a potential exploration jurisdiction is therefore crucial to understanding its minerals prospectivity. This strong association between tectonics and mineralization can equally be applied in reverse. By mapping out the spatial, and temporal, distribution of presumed co-genetic mineral deposits, coupled with an understanding of their collective metallogenetic origin, a better appreciation of the tectonic evolution of a terrane may be elucidated. Identification and categorization of metallotects within a geodynamically-evolving terrane thus provides a complimentary tool to other methodologies (e.g. geochemical, geochronological, structural, geophysical, stratigraphical), for determining the tectonic history and inferred geodynamic setting of that terrane through time. Myanmar is one such study area where this approach can be undertaken. Here are found two near-parallel magmatic belts, which together contain a significant proportion of that country's mineral wealth of tin, tungsten, copper, gold and silver. Although only a few 100 km's apart, these belts exhibit a

  6. Compliance with Seat Belt Use in Makurdi, Nigeria: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Popoola, SO; Oluwadiya, KS; Kortor, JN; Denen-Akaa, P; Onyemaechi, NOC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Seat belts are designed to reduce injuries due to road crash among vehicle occupants. Aims: This study aims to determine the availability of seat belt in vehicles and compliance with seat belt use among vehicle occupants. Materials and methods: This was a 24-h direct observational study of seat belt usage among vehicle occupants in Makurdi, Benue State, Nigeria. By direct surveillance and using a datasheet, we observed 500 vehicles and their occupants for seat belt availability and compliance with its use. Chi-square test was used for test of significance between variables. Results: Twenty-five (5.0%) of the observed 500 vehicles had no seat belt at all. Overall, compliance was 277/486 (57.0%). Use of seat belt was highest in the afternoon with 124/194 (64.4%), followed by 111/188 (59.0%) in the morning and 42/95 (44.2%) at night. Compliance was highest among car occupants [209/308 (67.9%)] and private vehicles, and lowest among commercial vehicle occupants. Compliance among female drivers was 77.1% compared with 51.4% among male drivers. Among drivers, the mean age of seat belt users was 38.4 (7.7) years, which was significantly younger than the 41.3 (8.7) years mean age of non-users. Similar figures were obtained among other vehicle occupants. Conclusions: Compared with previous studies, seat belt usage has improved among Nigerian road users, but there is still room for improvement, especially early in the mornings and at nights. Since these were times when law enforcement agencies were not likely to be on the roads, we advocate for improved coverage by enforcement agents to enforce better compliance. PMID:24116327

  7. Observed use of automatic seat belts in 1987 cars.

    PubMed

    Williams, A F; Wells, J K; Lund, A K; Teed, N

    1989-10-01

    Usage of the automatic belt systems supplied by six large-volume automobile manufacturers to meet the federal requirements for automatic restraints were observed in suburban Washington, D.C., Chicago, Los Angeles, and Philadelphia. The different belt systems studied were: Ford and Toyota (motorized, nondetachable automatic shoulder belt), Nissan (motorized, detachable shoulder belt), VW and Chrysler (nonmotorized, detachable shoulder belt), and GM (nonmotorized detachable lap and shoulder belt). Use of automatic belts was significantly greater than manual belt use in otherwise comparable late-model cars for all manufacturers except Chrysler; in Chrysler cars, automatic belt use was significantly lower than manual belt use. The automatic shoulder belts provided by Ford, Nissan, Toyota, and VW increased use rates to about 90%. Because use rates were lower in Ford cars with manual belts, their increase was greater. GM cars had the smallest increase in use rates; however, lap belt use was highest in GM cars. The other manufacturers supply knee bolsters to supplement shoulder belt protection; all--except VW--also provide manual lap belts, which were used by about half of those who used the automatic shoulder belt. The results indicate that some manufacturers have been more successful than others in providing automatic belt systems that result in high use that, in turn, will mean fewer deaths and injuries in those cars.

  8. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1983-09-20

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched there between. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants. 4 figs.

  9. Electric filter with movable belt electrode

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1983-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing airborne contaminants entrained in a gas or airstream includes an electric filter characterized by a movable endless belt electrode, a grounded electrode, and a filter medium sandwiched therebetween. Inclusion of the movable, endless belt electrode provides the driving force for advancing the filter medium through the filter, and reduces frictional drag on the filter medium, thereby permitting a wide choice of filter medium materials. Additionally, the belt electrode includes a plurality of pleats in order to provide maximum surface area on which to collect airborne contaminants.

  10. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liou, Jer-Chyi; Malhotra, Renu

    1997-01-01

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  11. Depletion of the Outer Asteroid Belt

    PubMed

    Liou; Malhotra

    1997-01-17

    During the early history of the solar system, it is likely that the outer planets changed their distance from the sun, and hence, their influence on the asteroid belt evolved with time. The gravitational influence of Jupiter and Saturn on the orbital evolution of asteroids in the outer asteroid belt was calculated. The results show that the sweeping of mean motion resonances associated with planetary migration efficiently destabilizes orbits in the outer asteroid belt on a time scale of 10 million years. This mechanism provides an explanation for the observed depletion of asteroids in that region.

  12. 23 CFR 1240.14 - Determination of Federal medical savings and notification of proposed allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240..., due to the amount by which the State seat belt use rate for the previous calendar year— (1) Exceeds the national average seat belt use rate for that calendar year, for each State described in §...

  13. 23 CFR 1240.14 - Determination of Federal medical savings and notification of proposed allocations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... GRANTS FOR USE OF SEAT BELTS-ALLOCATIONS BASED ON SEAT BELT USE RATES Determination of Allocations § 1240..., due to the amount by which the State seat belt use rate for the previous calendar year— (1) Exceeds the national average seat belt use rate for that calendar year, for each State described in §...

  14. Optical spectroscopy and photometry of main-belt asteroids with a high orbital inclination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwai, Aya; Itoh, Yoichi; Terai, Tsuyoshi; Gupta, Ranjan; Sen, Asoke; Takahashi, Jun

    2017-02-01

    We carried out low-resolution optical spectroscopy of 51 main-belt asteroids, most of which have highly-inclined orbits. They are selected from D-type candidates in the SDSS-MOC 4 catalog. Using the University of Hawaii 2.2 m telescope and the Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics 2 m telescope in India, we determined the spectral types of 38 asteroids. Among them, eight asteroids were classified as D-type asteroids. Fractions of D-type asteroids are 3.0+/-1.1 for low orbital inclination main-belt asteroids and 7.3+/-2.0 for high orbital inclination main-belt asteroids. The results of our study indicate that some D-type asteroids were formed within the ecliptic region between the main belt and Jupiter, and were then perturbed by Jupiter.

  15. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  16. Sm-Nd dating of Fig Tree clay minerals of the Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toulkeridis, T.; Goldstein, S. L.; Clauer, N.; Kroner, A.; Lowe, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Sm-Nd isotopic data from carbonate-derived clay minerals of the 3.22-3.25 Ga Fig Tree Group, Barberton greenstone belt, South Africa, form a linear array corresponding to an age of 3102 +/- 64 Ma, making these minerals the oldest dated clays on Earth. The obtained age is 120-160 m.y. younger than the depositional age determined by zircon geochronology. Nd model ages for the clays range from approximately 3.39 to 3.44 Ga and almost cover the age variation of the Barberton greenstone belt rocks, consistent with independent evidence that the clay minerals are derived from material of the belt. The combined isotopic and mineralogical data provide evidence for a cryptic thermal overprint in the sediments of the belt. However, the highest temperature reached by the samples since the time of clay-mineral formation was <300 degrees C, lower than virtually any known early Archean supracrustal sequence.

  17. Analysing of critical force effects of aircraft seat belt using truss elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klemenc, Marek; Markopoulos, Alexandros; Maršálek, Pavel

    2017-07-01

    This paper deals with the mathematical modelling of an aircraft seat belt crash test. The main goal is determination of a time course of the reactions in a lap belt anchoring points and their maximum values. This work was created on the basis of practical requirements from industry. Results are going to be reflected in developing a new type of aircraft seats. We mainly focus on the mathematical modelling of dynamic problems using the finite element method (FEM). Derived procedures are implemented in the Python programming language and are verified by several examples. A final calculation algorithm is applied on the analysis of the safety belt. We consider that a seat belt bending stiffness is very small compared to a tensile stiffness, therefore we used a 2D plane truss element.

  18. Precise Astrometry for Predicting Kuiper Belt Object Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Elliot, James; Kern, Susan; Zuluaga, Carlos; Gulbis, Amanda

    2008-08-01

    In order to observe an occultation of a bright star by a Kuiper Belt object the event must first be predicted as to where and when it will happen. These predictions require precise astrometry every few months of the largest Kuiper Belt objects. Through the occultation events the diameters, possible companions and possible tenuous atmospheres around these objects will be explored by examining how the light from the star varies as the KBO passes in front of it. This promises to be a completely new and powerful way of exploring the KBOs. We propose to continue to obtain very precise astrometry on the known brightest KBOs to determine more accurate orbits and thus reliable occultation predictions. In addition, we must also obtain accurate astrometry on faint field stars that the KBOs of interest may occult.

  19. Precise Astrometry for Predicting Kuiper Belt Object Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Elliot, James; Kern, Susan; Zuluaga, Carlos; Gulbis, Amanda

    2010-02-01

    In order to observe an occultation of a bright star by a Kuiper Belt object the event must first be predicted as to where and when it will happen. These predictions require precise astrometry every few months of the largest Kuiper Belt objects. Through the occultation events the diameters, possible companions and possible tenuous atmospheres around these objects will be explored by examining how the light from the star varies as the KBO passes in front of it. This promises to be a completely new and powerful way of exploring the KBOs. We propose to continue to obtain very precise astrometry on the known brightest KBOs to determine more accurate orbits and thus reliable occultation predictions. In addition, we must also obtain accurate astrometry on faint field stars that the KBOs of interest may occult. On October 9, 2009 we predict KBO 55636 will occult a 13th magnitude star and this will be our first attempt to observe such an event.

  20. Upper hybrid waves and energetic electrons in the radiation belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Peter H.; Kim, Sunjung; Hwang, Junga; Shin, Dae-Kyu

    2017-05-01

    Van Allen radiation belt is characterized by energetic electrons and ions trapped in the Earth's dipolar magnetic field lines and persisting for long periods. It is also permeated by high-frequency electrostatic fluctuations whose peak intensity occurs near the upper hybrid frequency. Such a phenomenon can be understood in terms of spontaneous emission of electrostatic multiple harmonic electron cyclotron waves by thermal plasmas. In the literature, the upper hybrid fluctuations are used as a proxy for determining the electron number density, but they also contain important information concerning the energetic electrons in the radiation belt and possibly the ring current electrons. The companion paper analyzes sample quiet time events and demonstrates that the upper hybrid fluctuations are predominantly emitted by tenuous population of energetic electrons. The present paper supplements detailed formalism of spontaneous thermal emission of multiple-harmonic cyclotron waves that include upper hybrid fluctuations.

  1. Statistical properties of the radiation belt seed population

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, A. J.; Spence, H. E.; Huang, C.-L.; Reeves, G. D.; Baker, D. N.; Turner, D. L.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Fennell, J. F.; Blake, J. B.; Shprits, Y. Y.

    2016-08-01

    We present a statistical analysis of phase space density data from the first 26 months of the Van Allen Probes mission. In particular, we investigate the relationship between the tens and hundreds of keV seed electrons and >1 MeV core radiation belt electron population. Using a cross-correlation analysis, we find that the seed and core populations are well correlated with a coefficient of ≈0.73 with a time lag of 10-15 h. We present evidence of a seed population threshold that is necessary for subsequent acceleration. The depth of penetration of the seed population determines the inner boundary of the acceleration process. However, we show that an enhanced seed population alone is not enough to produce acceleration in the higher energies, implying that the seed population of hundreds of keV electrons is only one of several conditions required for MeV electron radiation belt acceleration.

  2. The extreme Kuiper Belt binary 2001 QW322.

    PubMed

    Petit, J-M; Kavelaars, J J; Gladman, B J; Margot, J L; Nicholson, P D; Jones, R L; Parker, J Wm; Ashby, M L N; Bagatin, A Campo; Benavidez, P; Coffey, J; Rousselot, P; Mousis, O; Taylor, P A

    2008-10-17

    The study of binary Kuiper Belt objects helps to probe the dynamic conditions present during planet formation in the solar system. We report on the mutual-orbit determination of 2001 QW322, a Kuiper Belt binary with a very large separation whose properties challenge binary-formation and -evolution theories. Six years of tracking indicate that the binary's mutual-orbit period is approximately 25 to 30 years, that the orbit pole is retrograde and inclined 50 degrees to 62 degrees from the ecliptic plane, and, most surprisingly, that the mutual orbital eccentricity is <0.4. The semimajor axis of 105,000 to 135,000 kilometers is 10 times that of other near-equal-mass binaries. Because this weakly bound binary is prone to orbital disruption by interlopers, its lifetime in its present state is probably less than 1 billion years.

  3. Pioneer 10. [observations of Jupiter environment and asteroid belt hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C. F.

    1974-01-01

    On Dec. 4, 1973, after 21 months in flight, Pioneer 10 passed by Jupiter at a distance within 130,000 km of its cloud tops. During the month before and after, instrumentation on the spacecraft made a number of scientific measurements of the Jupiter environment, thus completing one of three scientific objectives of the mission. Previously, Pioneer 10 had explored the asteroid belt and had completed the second scientific objective by determining that the belt did not present a hazard to spacecraft passing through it. The third objective, the exploration of interplanetary phenomena, started with the launch of Pioneer 10 and will not be completed until 1977 when the spacecraft nears the orbit of Uranus and the signal from the spacecraft becomes too weak to be heard at ground receivers.

  4. A photoelectric lightcurve survey of small main belt asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Binzel, R. P.; Mulholland, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    A survey to obtain photoelectric lightcurves of small main-belt asteroids was conducted from November 1981 to April 1982 using the 0.91- and 2.1-m telescopes at the University of Texas McDonald Observatory. A total of 18 main-belt asteroids having estimated dimaters under 30 km were observed with over half of these being smaller than 15 km. Rotational periods were determined or estimated from multiple nights of observation for nearly all of these yielding a sample of 17 small main-belt asteroids which is believed to be free of observational selection effects. All but two of these objects were investigated for very short periods in the range of 1 min to 2 hr using power spectrum analysis of a continuous set of integrations. No evidence for such short periods was seen in this sample. Rotationally averaged B(1,0) magnitudes were determined for most of the surveyed asteroids, allowing diameter estimates to be made. Imposing the suspected selection effects of photogaphic photometry on the results of this survey gives excellent agreement with the results from that technique. This shows that the inability of photographic photometry to obtain results for many asteroids is indeed due to the rotational parameter of those asteroids.

  5. System identification of the radiation belts: How to model, forecast and understand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boynton, Richard

    System identification is a black box modelling technique that is able to determine a mathematical model from the input and output data. In the case of modelling the radiation belts, electron flux data is used as the output. However, the exact inputs to the highly complex radiation belt system is unknown. Many variables can possibly effect the radiation belts in some way, such as solar wind parameters or geomagnetic indices, but identifying which are the main control parameters can be problematic. Here, the Error Reduction Ratio (ERR) is employed to automatically determine these control parameters from the many possible combinations of variables, which could potentially effect the radiation belts. Models, and thus control parameters, were obtained for a range of electron flux energies from 24 keV to 3.5 MeV. Two of these models provide a real time forecast for the one day ahead electron fluxes at GEO, which can be found on the University of Sheffield Space Weather website. These are shown to provide a reliable forecast with excellent prediction efficiency. These models were then inspected, in some sense reverse engineered, to obtain some knowledge of the underlying radiation belt mechanisms and the processes involved. It is shown how the models helped illuminate the acceleration processes of the electrons in the radiation belts by revealing a relationship between the energy and velocity delay. Also, for 1.8-3.5 MeV electrons, density increases are shown to be an important factor in the loss of electrons.

  6. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  7. 30 CFR 56.14131 - Seat belts for haulage trucks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Seat belts for haulage trucks. 56.14131 Section... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14131 Seat belts for haulage trucks. (a) Seat belts shall be provided and worn in haulage trucks. (b) Seat belts shall be maintained in...

  8. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  9. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  10. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  11. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  12. 46 CFR 111.105-27 - Belt drives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Belt drives. 111.105-27 Section 111.105-27 Shipping... REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-27 Belt drives. Each belt drive in a hazardous location must have: (a) A conductive belt; and (b) Pulleys, shafts, and driving equipment grounded to meet NFPA...

  13. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors...

  14. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while temporarily... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors...

  15. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping...

  16. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping...

  17. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  1. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1403-5 - Criteria-Belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Criteria-Belt conveyors. 75.1403-5 Section 75... Criteria—Belt conveyors. (a) Positive-acting stop controls should be installed along all belt conveyors... can be stopped or started at any location. (b) Belt conveyors used for regularly scheduled...

  3. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while...

  4. 30 CFR 56.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 56.4503 Section 56.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 56.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. Belt conveyors within... shall attend the belt at the drive pulley when it is necessary to operate the conveyor while...

  5. 30 CFR 57.4503 - Conveyor belt slippage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Conveyor belt slippage. 57.4503 Section 57.4503... Control Installation/construction/maintenance § 57.4503 Conveyor belt slippage. (a) Surface belt conveyors...) Underground belt conveyors shall be equipped with a detection system capable of automatically stopping...

  6. Testing steel-cord belt splices with a magnetic conveyor belt monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, A.

    1985-03-01

    Steel-cord belt splices fail for a variety of reasons, including corrosion, poor vulcanising, and incorrect construction. The latter often leads to early failure. A conveyor belt monitor (CBM) has been used to evaluate the splice lay-up. The mass of the overlapping cords and their magnetic signature are used to rapidly locate suspect splices in the belt. The general shape of the magnetic signature for ideal splices will be discussed.

  7. Electron Flux of Radiation Belts Animation

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This animation shows meridional (from north-south) plane projections of the REPT-A and REPT-B electron flux values. The animation first shows the expected two-belt Van Allen zone structure; from Se...

  8. Seat Belt Usage on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Ernest

    1985-01-01

    Studies on seat belt usage conducted under contract with governmental organizations or prepared by professional societies, state and local organizations, and transportation specialists have made significant contributions, but none has successfully resolved the issue. (MLF)

  9. Visualization of Radiation Belts from REPT Data

    NASA Image and Video Library

    This visualization, created using actual data from the Relativistic Electron-Proton Telescopes (REPT) on NASA’s Van Allen Probes, clearly shows the emergence of new third belt and second slot reg...

  10. Congressional panel makes recommendations on belt safety

    SciTech Connect

    Fiscor, S.

    2007-12-15

    The Mine Improvement and New Emergency Response Act of 2006 (MINER Act) called for a Technical Study Panel to present a review and make recommendations on the use of belt air and the composition and fire retardant properties of belt materials in underground coal mining. In October 2007 the Panel released 20 recommendations publicly. These are presented in the article. Many recommendations encouraged the MSHA to enforce existing laws of maintenance and fire protection or example more vigorously. Maybe the biggest change recommended was that the industry should adopt the Belt Evaluation Laboratory Test (BELT) standard proposed in 1992. Another important recommendation was one that would help eliminate hazards associated with point feeding. 1 photo.

  11. The Possible Belts for Extrasolar Planetary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, I.-G.; Duncan, M.; Lin, D. N. C.

    2004-08-01

    More than 100 extrasolar planets have been discovered since the 1990s. Unlike those of the solar system, these planets' orbital eccentricities cover a huge range from 0 to 0.7. Incidentally, the first Kuiper belt object was discovered in 1992. Thus an interesting and important question will be whether extrasolar planetary systems could have structures like the Kuiper belt or asteroid belt. We investigate the stability of these planetary systems with different orbital eccentricities by similar procedures to Rabl & Dvorak (1988) and Holman & Wiegert (1999). We claim that most extrasolar planetary systems can have their own belts at the outer regions. However, we find that orbits with high eccentricity are very powerful in depletion of these populations.

  12. Equipment guide - stage loaders, conveyor belting, takeups

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-12-01

    Tables provide mine operators with a general guide to stageloaders, conveyor belting, and takeups. This is not a complete list of the models available, nor of the US manufacturers that produce this equipment.

  13. A repair of a charging belt

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, N.L.

    1989-01-01

    Accelerator charging belts are expensive, and sometimes delicate items. A means of repair of the rubber coating has been found that, when applied properly, should give extended lifetime to these items at minimal cost. 3 refs.

  14. Radiation Belt and Plasma Model Requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Janet L.

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: Radiation belt and plasma model environment. Environment hazards for systems and humans. Need for new models. How models are used. Model requirements. How can space weather community help?

  15. The Belt Method for Measuring Pressure Distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corson, Blake W , Jr

    1943-01-01

    The measurement of pressure distribution may be accomplished rapidly for any number of locations deemed necessary in model or full-scale investigations by use of the "belt" method. Reasonable accuracy may be obtained by careful use of this method.

  16. Seat-belt message and the law?

    PubMed

    Sengupta, S K; Patil, N G; Law, G

    1989-09-01

    This paper attempts to draw together available information on the use of seat belts, one of the most important safety devices for a person in a car. Considering the high rate of mortality and morbidity due to road traffic accidents in Papua New Guinea the authors strongly feel that seat-belt usage should be made compulsory. When one looks at the history of the implementation of such a successful countermeasure in other countries it seems that legislation is the only answer.

  17. How to evaluate belt conveyor idlers

    SciTech Connect

    Tomsky, E.H.

    1985-11-01

    This article discusses how to evaluate the relative merits of tapered roller-bearing vs. ball-bearing idlers for use in belt conveyors. Considered are: bearing load capacity; bearing life; bearing life under misalignment conditions; relubricatable vs. factory sealed idlers; relubrication frequency, and rotational resistance. Each of these factors are discussed and some criteria are provided for selecting the best belt conveyor idler for a material handling application.

  18. Eccentricity distribution in the main asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu; Wang, Xianyu

    2017-03-01

    The observationally complete sample of the main belt asteroids now spans more than two orders of magnitude in size and numbers more than 64 000 (excluding collisional family members). We undertook an analysis of asteroids' eccentricities and their interpretation with simple physical models. We find that a century old conclusion that the asteroids' eccentricities follow a Rayleigh distribution holds for the osculating eccentricities of large asteroids, but the proper eccentricities deviate from a Rayleigh distribution; there is a deficit of eccentricities smaller than ∼0.1 and an excess of larger eccentricities. We further find that the proper eccentricities do not depend significantly on asteroid size but have strong dependence on heliocentric distance; the outer asteroid belt follows a Rayleigh distribution, but the inner belt is strikingly different. Eccentricities in the inner belt can be modelled as a vector sum of a primordial eccentricity vector of random orientation and magnitude drawn from a Rayleigh distribution of parameter ∼0.06, and an excitation of random phase and magnitude ∼0.13. These results imply that when a late dynamical excitation of the asteroids occurred, it was independent of asteroid size and was stronger in the inner belt than in the outer belt. We discuss implications for the primordial asteroid belt and suggest that the observationally complete sample size of main belt asteroids is large enough that more sophisticated model-fitting of the eccentricities is warranted and could serve to test alternative theoretical models of the dynamical excitation history of asteroids and its links to the migration history of the giant planets.

  19. Jupiter's Radiation Belts: Can Pioneer 10 Survive?

    PubMed

    Hess, W N; Birmingham, T J; Mead, G D

    1973-12-07

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  20. Jupiter's radiation belts: Can Pioneer 10 survive?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, W. N.; Birmingham, T. J.; Mead, G. D.

    1973-01-01

    Model calculations of Jupiter's electron and proton radiation belts indicate that the Galilean satellites can reduce particle fluxes in certain regions of the inner magnetosphere by as much as six orders of magnitude. Average fluxes should be reduced by a factor of 100 or more along the Pioneer 10 trajectory through the heart of Jupiter's radiation belts in early December. This may be enough to prevent serious radiation damage to the spacecraft.

  1. Jupiter's magnetosphere and radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kennel, C. F.; Coroniti, F. V.

    1979-01-01

    Radioastronomy and Pioneer data reveal the Jovian magnetosphere as a rotating magnetized source of relativistic particles and radio emission, comparable to astrophysical cosmic ray and radio sources, such as pulsars. According to Pioneer data, the magnetic field in the outer magnetosphere is radially extended into a highly time variable disk-shaped configuration which differs fundamentally from the earth's magnetosphere. The outer disk region, and the energetic particles confined in it, are modulated by Jupiter's 10 hr rotation period. The entire outer magnetosphere appears to change drastically on time scales of a few days to a week. In addition to its known modulation of the Jovian decametric radio bursts, Io was found to absorb some radiation belt particles and to accelerate others, and most importantly, to be a source of neutral atoms, and by inference, a heavy ion plasma which may significantly affect the hydrodynamic flow in the magnetosphere. Another important Pioneer finding is that the Jovian outer magnetosphere generates, or permits to escape, fluxes of relativistic electrons of such intensities that Jupiter may be regarded as the dominant source of 1 to 30 MeV cosmic ray electrons in the heliosphere.

  2. Microdiamonds from the European Variscan Orogenic Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotkova, J.; Jakubova, P.; Whitehouse, M.; Fedortchouk, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Diamond, along with coesite, has been discovered recently in the continental crustal rocks of the European Variscan orogenic belt, namely the Bohemian Massif (BM). In addition to the garnet-phengite gneiss in Germany, western BM, microdiamond occurs in major rock forming minerals - garnet, kyanite - and in zircon in ultrahigh-pressure rocks overprinted under high-pressure granulite facies conditions (c. 16-20 kbar, c. 1000°C) in the northern and eastern BM. Well-preserved 10-30 μm-sized microdiamonds from northern BM exhibit diverse morphologies (SEM data) depending upon the host rock type. Octahedral diamond occurs in felsic garnet-kyanite-feldspar-quartz rock (metasediment), whereas intermediate garnet-clinopyroxene-feldspar-quartz rock contains a cubo-octahedral variety. Diamond morphology can be thus controlled by solid impurities available in the medium of crystallization (K- vs. Ca-bearing fluids or melts), as shown by experiments. Pointed-bottom negatively oriented trigonal etch pits on the octahedral diamond faces developed due to diamond resorption at CO2-dominated environment (less than 50 wt % of H2O, experimental data), possibly by action of a residual fluid. SIMS determined δ13C values range from -22 to -21 ‰ for the felsic rock and from - 26 to - 33 for the intermediate one, corresponding to the typical range of organic carbon δ13C and inconsistent with a significant mantle carbon (δ13C ~ - 5 ‰) input. Diamond-bearing domains in zircon, also analysed by SIMS, yielded a Variscan U-Pb age of c. 340 Ma. The present stage of knowledge allows us to conclude that (i) metamorphic diamonds in the BM occur in lithologies of metasedimentary character, and their carbon source was organic; (ii) crustal-derived CO2-rich fluids with impurities played an important role in diamond formation and dissolution; (iii) diamonds formed during the Variscan orogenic cycle and (iv) diamonds are best preserved in the external domain of the Variscan orogenic belt.

  3. The color of the Kuiper belt Core

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulbis, Amanda A. S.; Elliot, J. L.; Kane, Julia F.

    2006-07-01

    Recent dynamical analyses of the Kuiper belt have introduced a rigorous classification scheme, determined the mean orbital plane, and identified "Core" and "Halo" populations as a function of inclination with respect to this plane (Elliot, J.L., Kern, S.D., Clancy, K.B., Gulbis, A.A.S., Millis, R.L., Buie, M.W., Wasserman, L.H., Chiang, E.I., Jordan, A.B., Trilling, D.E., Meech, K.J., 2005. Astron. J. 129, 1117-1162). Here, we use new observations and existing data to investigate the colors of Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) within this framework. With respect to the bulk KBO color distribution (all objects for which we have B-V and V-R colors; median B-R=1.56), we find that the population of objects classified following (Elliot, J.L., Kern, S.D., Clancy, K.B., Gulbis, A.A.S., Millis, R.L., Buie, M.W., Wasserman, L.H., Chiang, E.I., Jordan, A.B., Trilling, D.E., Meech, K.J., 2005. Astron. J. 129, 1117-1162) as Classical tends to be red ( B-R>1.56) while the Scattered Near population is mostly neutral ( B-R<1.56). Colors of Scattered Extended and Resonant objects are consistent with the bulk distribution. Separating objects into specific resonances demonstrates that the color of the Resonant sample is dominated by KBOs in the 3:2 resonance, which is consistent with previous findings. Unlike the objects in the 3:2 resonance, however, the majority of objects in the 5:2 resonance are neutral and all but one of the objects in the 4:3, 5:3, 7:4, 2:1, and 7:3 resonances are red. In particular, the objects in the 7:4 resonance are remarkably red. We find that the colors of KBOs in the Core (low-inclination) and Halo (high-inclination) are statistically different, with Core objects being primarily red and Halo objects having a slight tendency to be neutral. Notably, virtually all of the non-Resonant Core objects are red. This combination of low inclination, unperturbed orbits and red colors in the Core may be indicative of a relic grouping of objects.

  4. Unraveling the drivers of the storm time radiation belt response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilpua, E. K. J.; Hietala, H.; Turner, D. L.; Koskinen, H. E. J.; Pulkkinen, T. I.; Rodriguez, J. V.; Reeves, G. D.; Claudepierre, S. G.; Spence, H. E.

    2015-05-01

    We present a new framework to study the time evolution and dynamics of the outer Van Allen belt electron fluxes. The framework is entirely based on the large-scale solar wind storm drivers and their substructures. The Van Allen Probe observations, revealing the electron flux behavior throughout the outer belt, are combined with continuous, long-term (over 1.5 solar cycles) geosynchronous orbit data set from GOES and solar wind measurements A superposed epoch analysis, where we normalize the timescales for each substructure (sheath, ejecta, and interface region) allows us to avoid smearing effects and to distinguish the electron flux evolution during various driver structures. We show that the radiation belt response is not random: The electron flux variations are determined by the combined effect of the structured solar wind driver and prestorm electron flux levels. In particular, we find that loss mechanisms dominate during stream interface regions, coronal mass ejection (CME) ejecta, and sheaths while enhancements occur during fast streams trailing the stream interface or the CME.

  5. An Experimental Concept for Probing Nonlinear Radiation Belt Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amatucci, Bill; Ganguli, Guru; Crabtree, Chris; Mithaiwala, Manish; Siefring, Carl; Tejero, Erik

    2014-10-01

    The SMART sounding rocket is designed to probe the nonlinear response of a known ionospheric stimulus. High-speed neutral barium atoms generated by a shaped charge explosion perpendicular to the magnetic field in the ionosphere form a ring velocity distribution of photo-ionized Ba+ that will generate lower hybrid waves. Induced nonlinear scattering of lower hybrid waves into whistler/magnetosonic waves has been theoretically predicted, confirmed by simulations, and observed in the lab. The effects of nonlinear scattering on wave evolution and whistler escape to the radiation belts have been studied and observable signatures quantified. The fraction of the neutral atom kinetic energy converted into waves is estimated at 10-12%. SMART will carry a Ba release module and an instrumented daughter section with vector wave magnetic and electric field sensors, Langmuir probes and energetic particle detectors to determine wave spectra in the source region and detect precipitated particles. The Van Allen Probes can detect the propagation of the scattered whistlers and their effects in the radiation belts. By measuring the radiation belt whistler energy density, SMART will confirm the nonlinear scattering process and the connection to weak turbulence. Supported by the Naval Research Laboratory Base Funds.

  6. Radiation Belt Electron Dynamics: Modeling Atmospheric Losses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Selesnick, R. S.

    2003-01-01

    The first year of work on this project has been completed. This report provides a summary of the progress made and the plan for the coming year. Also included with this report is a preprint of an article that was accepted for publication in Journal of Geophysical Research and describes in detail most of the results from the first year of effort. The goal for the first year was to develop a radiation belt electron model for fitting to data from the SAMPEX and Polar satellites that would provide an empirical description of the electron losses into the upper atmosphere. This was largely accomplished according to the original plan (with one exception being that, for reasons described below, the inclusion of the loss cone electrons in the model was deferred). The main concerns at the start were to accurately represent the balance between pitch angle diffusion and eastward drift that determines the dominant features of the low altitude data, and then to accurately convert the model into simulated data based on the characteristics of the particular electron detectors. Considerable effort was devoted to achieving these ends. Once the model was providing accurate results it was applied to data sets selected from appropriate periods in 1997, 1998, and 1999. For each interval of -30 to 60 days, the model parameters were calculated daily, thus providing good short and long term temporal resolution, and for a range of radial locations from L = 2.7 to 3.9. .

  7. The Walker Lane Belt in northeastern California

    SciTech Connect

    Grose, T.L.T. . Dept. of Geology and Geological Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    The Walker Lane Belt (WLB) has been suspected to significantly project NW-ward into NE CA from the Pyramid Lake-Honey Lake area which has been generally regarded as its northwestern terminus. Within the WLB, most of the exposed rocks are Miocene to Late Quaternary (10--0.1 Ma) volcanics, mainly andesitic, but significantly rhyolitic and basaltic. The Hayden Hill Au mine within a Mid-Miocene NNW-SSE volcanotectonic depression and the Quaternary NE-SW Eagle lake volcanotectonic depression are confined within the WLB. Most of the faults are high-angle normal and right normal, W-dipping, NW- to N-trending, and locally left-stepping en echelon, and 2 to 18 km long. Dip slip varies from 10 to 200 m. Strike slip across the entire zone seems impossible to determine, but probably is less than 20 km since Mid-Miocene. Many faults localize volcanic vents, though most do not appear to. Tectonic tilt of beds within fault blocks is less than 10[degree]. Fault activity and volcanism both continued at a slow rate from Mid-Miocene to Late Quaternary. The WLB in NE CA is a transitional boundary between the Sierra Nevada-Cascade arc on the southwest and the Basin and Range-Modoc Plateau on the northeast.

  8. Reference governors for controlled belt restraint systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Laan, E. P.; Heemels, W. P. M. H.; Luijten, H.; Veldpaus, F. E.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-07-01

    Today's restraint systems typically include a number of airbags, and a three-point seat belt with load limiter and pretensioner. For the class of real-time controlled restraint systems, the restraint actuator settings are continuously manipulated during the crash. This paper presents a novel control strategy for these systems. The control strategy developed here is based on a combination of model predictive control and reference management, in which a non-linear device - a reference governor (RG) - is added to a primal closed-loop controlled system. This RG determines an optimal setpoint in terms of injury reduction and constraint satisfaction by solving a constrained optimisation problem. Prediction of the vehicle motion, required to predict future constraint violation, is included in the design and is based on past crash data, using linear regression techniques. Simulation results with MADYMO models show that, with ideal sensors and actuators, a significant reduction (45%) of the peak chest acceleration can be achieved, without prior knowledge of the crash. Furthermore, it is shown that the algorithms are sufficiently fast to be implemented online.

  9. Trapped radiation belts of Saturn - First look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fillius, W.; Ip, W. H.; Mcilwain, C. E.

    1980-01-01

    Data on the magnetosphere of Saturn obtained with the trapped radiation detector package on board the Pioneer 11 spacecraft is reported. Radiation belt profiles determined by the trapped radiation detectors on Pioneer 10 and 11 indicate that Saturn's magnetosphere is intermediate in size between those of the earth and Jupiter, with particle intensities similar to those of the earth. The outer region of the Saturn magnetosphere is found to contain particles of lower energy than the outer region, being strongly influenced by the time-varying solar wind. The moons and rings of Saturn are observed to be effective absorbers of trapped particles, confirming the discoveries of the F ring, the Pioneer ring division and the moon 1979 S 2. Particle diffusion rates are used to estimate a cross-sectional area of greater than 7 x 10 to the 13th sq cm and an opacity greater than 0.00001 for the F ring. It is suggested that cosmic-ray albedo neutron decay be studied as a possible source of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere of Saturn.

  10. Stable Slivan states in the inner main belt?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vraštil, J.; Vokrouhlický, D.

    2014-07-01

    Slivan~(2002) derived spin states for ten asteroids in the Koronis family residing in the outer main belt. Surprisingly, all four asteroids with prograde sense of rotation were shown to have spin axes nearly parallel in the inertial space. All asteroids with retrograde sense of rotation had large obliquities and rotation periods either short or long. Vokrouhlický et al.~(2003) developed a model capable to explain this peculiar setup. Its key element was a capture in spin- orbital resonance (Cassini state 2) with planetary frequency s_6 assisted by evolution due to the Yarkovsky-O'Keefe-Radzievskii-Paddack (YORP) effect. These resonant configurations were dubbed ''Slivan states''. In this work, we analyze whether Slivan states can exist elsewhere in the main belt, focusing on its inner part (heliocentric distance < 2.5 au). We find that long-term stable Slivan states can indeed exist in this part of the main belt provided that the orbital inclination is low enough. This is because the low inclination allows for the separation of the Cassini zones associated with the proper frequency s and the planetary frequency s_6. As an example, the spin state of (20)~Massalia may be located inside, or very close, to a Slivan state. On the other hand, the orbital inclination of the members in the Flora family, or the region nearby, exceeds a critical value to maintain long-term stability of the Slivan states. For that reason, the spin states recently determined by Kryszczyńska~(2013) for a couple of asteroids in this innermost part of the main belt are not similar to the Slivan states in the Koronis family. Still, their proximity to the Cassini state of the s_6 frequency may require an explanation.

  11. Evidence for a complex archean deformational history; southwestern Michipicoten Greenstone Belt, Ontario

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgill, George E.; Shrady, Catherine H.

    1986-01-01

    The Michipicoten Greenstone Belt extends for about 150 km ENE from the northeastern angle of Lake Superior. In common with many other Archean greenstone belts, it is characterized by generally steep bedding dips and a distribution of major lithologic types suggesting a crudely synclinal structure for the belt as a whole. Detailed mapping and determination of structural sequence demonstrates that the structure is much more complex. The Archean history of the belt includes formation of at least three regionally significant cleavages, kilometer-scale overturning, extensive shearing, and diabase intrusion. Most well defined, mappable 'packages' of sedimentary rocks appear to be bounded by faults. These faults were active relatively early in the structural history of the belt, when extensive overturning also occurred. Steepening of dips, NW-SE shortening, development of steep NE cleavage, and pervasive shearing all postdate the early faulting and the regional overturning, obscuring much of the detail needed to define the geometry of the earlier structures. The results obtained so far suggest, however, that the Michipicoten Greenstone Belt underwent an early stage of thrusting and associated isoclinal folding, probably in a convergent tectonic environment.

  12. A comparison of safety belt use between commercial and noncommercial light-vehicle occupants.

    PubMed

    Eby, David W; Fordyce, Tiffani A; Vivoda, Jonathon M

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to conduct an observational survey of safety belt use to determine the use rate of commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicle occupants. Observations were conducted on front-outboard vehicle occupants in eligible commercial and noncommercial vehicles in Michigan (i.e.. passenger cars, vans/minivans, sport-utility vehicles, and pickup trucks). Commercial vehicles that did not fit into one of the four vehicle type categories, such as tractor-trailers, buses, or heavy trucks, were not included in the survey. The study found that the restraint use rate for commercial light-vehicle occupants was 55.8% statewide. The statewide safety belt use rate for commercial light-vehicles was significantly lower than the rate of 71.2% for noncommercial light-vehicles. The safety belt use rate for commercial vehicles was also significantly different as a function of region, vehicle type, seating position, age group, and road type. The results provide important preliminary data about safety belt use in commercial versus noncommercial light-vehicles and indicate that further effort is needed to promote safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population. The study also suggests that additional research is required in order to develop effective programs that address low safety belt use in the commercial light-vehicle occupant population.

  13. Fire detection for conveyor-belt entries. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Litton, C.D.; Lazzara, C.P.; Perzak, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The report details the results of a series of large-scale experiments where small coal fires were used to ignite conveyor belting at air velocities ranging from 0.76 m/s to 6.1 m/s. In the tests, electrical strip heaters imbedded within a pile of coal were used to heat the coal to a point of flaming ignition. The flaming coal subsequently ignited conveyor belting located approximately 5 to 10 cm above the coal pile. During the tests, temperature, CO, and smoke levels were continuously measured in order to determine both alarm time and level as the fire intensity progressed through the stages of smoldering coal, flame coal, and flaming coal plus flaming belt. Analysis of the data leads to certain conditions of air velocity and sensor alarm levels that are required for early detection of conveyor belt entry fires. Two nomographs are presented which define sensor alarm levels and sensor spacings as a function of belt entry cross-sectional area and belt entry air velocity.

  14. Using Enforcement and Adjudication Data to Assess the Impact of a Primary Safety Belt Law.

    PubMed

    Costich, Julia F; Slavova, Svetla S

    2015-01-01

    Identification of effective implementation strategies for motor vehicle injury prevention law is an important priority for research in public health law and policy. Extensive literature in related fields demonstrates the relationship between enforcement activities and achievement of safety objectives. We conducted this study to determine the role of enforcement and adjudication in the implementation of a primary safety belt law, including the level and sustainability of safety belt-related conviction rates, using newly available data from the state judicial administrative authority. A secondary goal was to assess the contribution of the administrative data set to the analysis of the primary safety belt law. The analysis used an interrupted time series design to evaluate the longitudinal effect of the primary safety belt law implementation in 2007 on safety belt infractions and convictions in Kentucky, 2003-2012. Segmented regression analysis was used to estimate changes in the level and trend of safety belt nonuse conviction rate after the full implementation of the law, while controlling for the baseline level and trend. The association between the safety belt-related conviction rates and other expected outcomes of the law's implementation was studied. Safety belt citations doubled and convictions nearly tripled during the decade studied, most dramatically in the first year. Increases were sustained throughout the study period. There was a strong positive linear association between the safety belt nonuse conviction rate and the observed safety belt use in the state, as well as a strong negative association between the safety belt nonuse conviction rate and the number of nonrestrained motor vehicle crash fatalities. Our analysis demonstrates that Kentucky's public safety and judicial systems took the new law seriously and enforced it effectively and that the increased level of enforcement persisted for at least 5 years after implementation. We also find that data

  15. "Inner electron" radiation belt: problems of model creation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temnyi, V.

    The contents of intensive fluxes of trapped electrons J_e with energies E_e>40 keV in center of the inner terrestrial radiation belt is remains uncertain in model Vette AE-8, 1991. It is explained by methodical difficulties of discrete measurements of electrons by narrow-angle spectrometers with background from omnidirectional penetrating protons with energies E_p>40 MeV and electrons with E_e>1 MeV after STARFISH burst. The results of integral measurements of trapped electrons by 2 groups: Krassovsky V.I. on III Soviet satellite (May 1958) and J. Van Allen on EXPLORER-IV (July-August 1958) and on INJUN-1 (1961) heave given a performances concerning electron energy fluxes I_e(E_e>20 keV) ˜ (20-100) erg cm-2 c-1 into inner radiation belt. Improved integral measurements of electrons by Krassovsky group on satellites KOSMOS-3,-5 and ELECTRON-1,-3 (1962-1964) allow to determine the distributions of their intensities in the whole inner belt. They can add the central part of inner belt of AE-8 model (see report Bolunova et al., COSPAR-1965, publ. in SPACE RESEARCH VI, 1967, p. 649-661). From these data a maximum of trapped electrons J_e(E_e>40 keV)=2\\cdot10^9 cm-2 c-1 is placed on L=1,6, B/B_0=1. Intensities up to 2\\cdot10^7 cm-2 c-1 are determined only by coordinates (L, B). For smaller intensities become essential dependence from longitude along a drift shell. So, in the center of the inner radiation belt the energy fluxes I_e(E_e>40 keV) reach 500 erg cm-2 c-1 and density n_e=0,2 cm-3 while for trapped protons I_p(E_p>40 MeV) is less than 3 erg cm-2 c-1 and n_p< 5\\cdot10-6 cm-3. It forces to search a more powerful sources trapped electron than beta-decay of neutrons albedo of cosmic rays.

  16. 49 CFR 393.93 - Seats, seat belt assemblies, and seat belt assembly anchorages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER... belt assembly that conforms to Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 209 1 (§ 571.209) installed at... requirements of Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard No. 210 1 (§ 571.210) for that seat belt assembly. 1...

  17. IDENTIFYING COLLISIONAL FAMILIES IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Marcus, Robert A.; Ragozzine, Darin; Murray-Clay, Ruth A.; Holman, Matthew J.

    2011-05-20

    The identification and characterization of numerous collisional families-clusters of bodies with a common collisional origin-in the asteroid belt has added greatly to the understanding of asteroid belt formation and evolution. More recent study has also led to an appreciation of physical processes that had previously been neglected (e.g., the Yarkovsky effect). Collisions have certainly played an important role in the evolution of the Kuiper Belt as well, though only one collisional family has been identified in that region to date, around the dwarf planet Haumea. In this paper, we combine insights into collisional families from numerical simulations with the current observational constraints on the dynamical structure of the Kuiper Belt to investigate the ideal sizes and locations for identifying collisional families. We find that larger progenitors (r {approx} 500 km) result in more easily identifiable families, given the difficulty in identifying fragments of smaller progenitors in magnitude-limited surveys, despite their larger spread and less frequent occurrence. However, even these families do not stand out well from the background. Identifying families as statistical overdensities is much easier than characterizing families by distinguishing individual members from interlopers. Such identification seems promising, provided the background population is well known. In either case, families will also be much easier to study where the background population is small, i.e., at high inclinations. Overall, our results indicate that entirely different techniques for identifying families will be needed for the Kuiper Belt, and we provide some suggestions.

  18. Stacked pneumatic cylinders automate conveyor belt operations

    SciTech Connect

    Thornton, G.

    1982-11-01

    Shows how clusters of remotely controlled pneumatic cylinders swing a hinged conveyor belt to 4 preselected vertical positions. Using a manual method to move the conveyor meant that the operator had to use a hand winch, sheaves, drums, and winch cable. There was a need to develop a simple, effective, and remotely controlled system which would perform 2 functions: eliminate the need for stopping the conveyor to reset the hinged belt, and not require the operator to leave the master control console. Using the developed system, the operator need only turn on the appropriate switching valves from the master console. Each pneumatic cylinder is actuated in sequence, on the retraction stroke only, through the elevating positions. To lower the conveyor belt, the head end of each cylinder is exhausted; the weight of the belt extends the cylinders, lowering the belt by gravity. Cylinder exhaust ports in the power valves are fitted with adjustable flow control valves to regulate cylinder speed; common exhaust ports in the interconnected manifolds are fitted with air silencers.

  19. Propagation of Uncertainties in Radiation Belt Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camporeale, E.; Shprits, Y. Y.; Chandorkar, M.; Drozdov, A.; Wing, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present the first study of the uncertainties associated with radiation belt simulations, performed in the standard quasi-linear diffusionframework. In particular, we estimate how uncertainties of some input parameters propagate through the nonlinear simulation, producing a distribution of outputs that can be quite broad. Here, we restrict our focus on two-dimensional simulations (in energy and pitch angle space) and to parallel chorus waves only, and we study as stochastic input parameters the geomagnetic index Kp (that characterize the time dependency of an idealized storm), the latitudinal extent of waves, and the average electron density. We employ a collocation method, thus performing an ensemble of simulations. The results of this work point to the necessity of shifting to a probabilistic interpretation of radiation belt simulation results, and suggest as an important research goal a less uncertain estimation of the electron density in the belts.

  20. Novel Solution for Leg Motion with 5-Link Belt Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E. Ch., Lovasz; Pop, C.; Pop, F.; Dolga, V.

    2014-11-01

    From the analysis of Theo Jansen walking mechanism and of the path curve that it describes the reduced capability for crossing over obstacles of the Jansen leg (1 DOF) is pointed out. By using a 5 link belt mechanism with 2 DOF can be adapted for generating similar Jansen mechanism path curve, where the step height of this path can be increased. For this purpose a mathematical model is conceived in order to analyse and determine the parameters for driving and control of the operation of the novel walking leg solution.

  1. Precise Astrometry for Predicting Kuiper Belt Object Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Person, Michael; Zuluaga, Carlos; Bosh, Amanda

    2011-08-01

    Occultations by Kuiper Belt objects remain elusive events, requiring precision astrometry for these faint bodies in the outer solar system. Monthly astrometry provides data that are crucial for our KBO ephemeris correction models, which then allow accurate shadow track predictions. Through the occultation events the diameters, possible companions and tenuous atmospheres around these objects will be explored by examining how the light from the star varies as the KBO passes in front of it. This promises to be a powerful way of exploring the KBOs. We propose to obtain very precise astrometry on 20 of the brightest known KBOs to determine more accurate orbits and thus reliable occultation predictions.

  2. Distribution of Dust from Kuiper Belt Objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorkavyi, Nick N.; Ozernoy, Leonid; Taidakova, Tanya; Mather, John C.; Fisher, Richard (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Using an efficient computational approach, we have reconstructed the structure of the dust cloud in the Solar system between 0.5 and 100 AU produced by the Kuiper belt objects. Our simulations offer a 3-D physical model of the 'kuiperoidal' dust cloud based on the distribution of 280 dust particle trajectories produced by 100 known Kuiper belt objects; the resulting 3-D grid consists of 1.9 x 10' cells containing 1.2 x 10" particle positions. The following processes that influence the dust particle dynamics are taken into account: 1) gravitational scattering on the eight planets (neglecting Pluto); 2) planetary resonances; 3) radiation pressure; and 4) the Poynting-Robertson (P-R) and solar wind drags. We find the dust distribution highly non-uniform: there is a minimum in the kuiperoidal dust between Mars and Jupiter, after which both the column and number densities of kuiperoidal dust sharply increase with heliocentric distance between 5 and 10 AU, and then form a plateau between 10 and 50 AU. Between 25 and 45 AU, there is an appreciable concentration of kuiperoidal dust in the form of a broad belt of mostly resonant particles associated with Neptune. In fact, each giant planet possesses its own circumsolar dust belt consisting of both resonant and gravitationally scattered particles. As with the cometary belts simulated in our related papers, we reveal a rich and sophisticated resonant structure of the dust belts containing families of resonant peaks and gaps. An important result is that both the column and number dust density are more or less flat between 10 and 50 AU, which might explain the surprising data obtained by Pioneers 10 & 11 and Voyager that the dust number density remains approximately distance-independent in this region. The simulated kuiperoidal dust, in addition to asteroidal and cometary dust, might represent a third possible source of the zodiacal light in the Solar system.

  3. Seating position, seat belt wearing, and the consequences in facial fractures in car occupants.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Alexandre Siqueira Franco; Goldenberg, Dov; Alonso, Nivaldo; Bastos, Endrigo; Stocchero, Guilherme; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2007-06-01

    Trauma caused by traffic accidents is among the main etiologies involved in the occurrence of facial fractures throughout the world. However, the trauma mechanisms involved are different according to the location where the study was performed, due to different conditions of development, legislation, and culture. A retrospective study was done between February 2001 and July 2006, with the purpose of determining the epidemiology and the mechanisms involved in the occurrence of facial fractures among car occupants in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. Data were collected from 297 patients admitted with facial fractures to the emergency room of the Hospital das Clínicas, São Paulo University Medical School. Within this period, 151 individuals had been involved in traffic accidents, among which 56 (37.08%) were inside passenger cars. These were grouped based on the seating position that they were occupying at the time of the accident and the wearing of seat belts. Data concerning the number and location of fracture lines were obtained from the different groups, and a fracture/patient index (F/P I) was calculated to compare and make reference to the impact energy among these groups, for subsequent analysis and discussion. 323 fracture lines occurred among 56 patients who were car occupants. By applying the F/P I, we obtained higher values in the group of rear-seat passengers who were not wearing seat belts (7.23 fractures per patient), followed by the group of drivers not wearing seat belts (6.33 fractures per patient), the group of front-seat passengers not wearing seat belts (5.58 fractures per patient), the group of drivers wearing seat belts (5.54 fractures per patient) and, finally, the group of front-seat passengers wearing seat belts (4.00 fractures per patient). None of the rear-seat passengers was wearing seat belts. The data collected indicate that the driver position shows a high incidence of facial fractures, not being effectively protected by the seat

  4. Ionospheric heating for radiation belt control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, William J.; Villalon, Elena

    1990-10-01

    Pitch-angle scattering interactions of electromagnetic waves in the ELF/VLF bands with trapped electrons describe the dynamics of the freshly filled radiation belts flux tubes. The natural existence of a 'slot' region with electron fluxes below the Kennel-Petschek limit requires non-local wave sources. A set of planned, active experiments is described in which VLF radiation is injected from ground and space band transmitters in conjunction with the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite in the radiation belts. These experiments can measure the intensity if waves driving pitch-angle diffusion and the electron energies in gyroresonance with the waves.

  5. Inner Radiation Belt Data / Model Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, Timothy; O'Brien, Paul; Selesnick, Richard

    We present detailed comparisons of a time-dependent inner radiation belt model with proton observations made by a variety of in-situ spacecraft during solar cycle 23. The recently-developed model (Selesnick et al., 2007) computes proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants in the inner belt, which we convert to the observable count rate at the location of the satellite by using a nominal instrument response function. These comparisons and initial data-assimilation efforts suggest that the model performance can be improved especially during intervals containing unmodeled processes such as trapped proton losses during geomagnetic storms.

  6. Inner Radiation Belt Data / Model Comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, T. B.; O'Brien, T. P.; Selesnick, R.; Looper, M.

    2008-12-01

    We present detailed comparisons of a time-dependent inner radiation belt model with in-situ proton observations made by a variety of spacecraft during solar cycle 23. The recently-developed model (Selesnick et al., 2007) computes proton intensities as a function of time and of the three adiabatic invariants in the inner belt, which we convert to the observable count rate in a detector at the location of the satellite by using instrument response functions. These comparisons and initial data-assimilation efforts suggest that the model performance can be improved especially during injections of solar protons, and at L-shells above 2.

  7. The Kerala Khondalite Belt (KKB) of Southern India: An ensialic mobile belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chacko, Thomas; Meen, James K.; Kumar, G. R. Ravindra; Rogers, John J. W.

    The Proterozoic Kerala Khondalite belt of the Southern Indian Shield is described, a belt dominated by granulite grade (750 C, 5 to 6 kbar) supracrustal rocks whose protoliths included arkoses and shales with cratonic provenances. Rare earth elements and other geochemical signatures suggest a granitic source for these metasediments, possibly the spatially associated charnockite massifs. The presence of intercalated mafic gneisses, interpreted as basalts, implies a cratonic rift basin rather than a foreland basin setting. It was argued that the Kerala, as well as other early Proterozoic mobile belts formed during abortive continental rifting without major additions of new crust.

  8. Application of electron spin resonance (ESR) dating to ductile shearing: Examples from the Qinling orogenic belt, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Shenglian; Song, Chuanzhong; Li, Jiahao

    2016-04-01

    Shear zones are common structures in orogenic belts and elucidation of the tectonic evolution of these orogenic belts to a large degree depends on understanding the kinematics and timing of shear deformation. However, there is a lack of an accurate, fast and convenient way to determine the timing of deformation. In this paper, we apply the ESR (electron spin-resonance spectroscopy) dating method to three syntectonic quartz veins from the Funiushan tectonic belt in the Qinling orogenic belt in central China. The results agree well with the available ages of deformation in the area obtained through other dating methods. This demonstrates the accuracy and feasibility of using the ESR method to date quartz crystals formed during deformation. The method is fast and convenient, and satisfies the accuracy requirement. It is an effective means for determining the timing of deformation, especially in areas with intensive fluid activity during deformation.

  9. Ultra-fast Electrons Explain Third Radiation Belt

    NASA Image and Video Library

    In September 2012, NASA's Van Allen Probes observed the radiation belts around Earth had settled into a new configuration, separating into three belts instead of two. Scientists think the unusual p...

  10. 29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Elevator no. 3: top floor, conveyor belt rollers for belt to gangway (in background) connecting with elevator no. 2, facing northwest - Washburn Crosby Company Elevators No. 2 & 3, 900 & 1000 Second Avenue, South, Minneapolis, Hennepin County, MN

  11. Seat Belt Use and its Effect on Abdominal Trauma: A National Trauma Databank Study.

    PubMed

    Nash, Nick A; Okoye, Obi; Albuz, Ozgur; Vogt, Kelly N; Karamanos, Efstathios; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-02-01

    We sought to use the National Trauma Databank to determine the demographics, injury distribution, associated abdominal injuries, and outcomes of those patients who are restrained versus unrestrained. All victims of motor vehicle collisions (MVCs) were identified from the National Trauma Databank and stratified into subpopulations depending on the use of seat belts. A total of 150,161 MVC victims were included in this study, 72,394 (48%) were belted. Young, male passengers were the least likely to be wearing a seat belt. Restrained victims were less likely to have severe injury as measured by Injury Severity Score and Abbreviated Injury Score. Restrained victims were also less likely to suffer solid organ injuries (9.7% vs 12%, P < 0.001), but more likely to have hollow viscous injuries (1.9% vs 1.3%, P < 0.001). The hospital and intensive care unit length of stay were significantly shorter in belted victims with adjusted mean difference: -1.36 (-1.45, -1.27) and -0.96 (-1.02, -0.90), respectively. Seat belt use was associated with a significantly lower crude mortality than unrestrained victims (1.9% vs 3.3%, P < 0.001), and after adjusting for differences in age, gender, position in vehicle, and deployment of air bags, the protective effect remained (adjusted odds ratio for mortality 0.50, 95% confidence interval 0.47, 0.54). In conclusion, MVC victims wearing seat belts have a significant reduction in the severity of injuries in all body areas, lower mortality, a shorter hospital stay, and decreased length of stay in the intensive care unit. The nature of abdominal injuries, however, was significantly different, with a higher incidence of hollow viscous injury in those wearing seat belts.

  12. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  13. Innermost Van Allen Radiation Belt for High Energy Protons at Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, John F.

    2008-01-01

    The high energy proton radiation belts of Saturn are energetically dominated by the source from cosmic ray albedo neutron decay (CRAND), trapping of protons from beta decay of neutrons emitted from galactic cosmic ray nuclear interactions with the main rings. These belts were originally discovered in wide gaps between the A-ring, Janus/Epimetheus, Mimas, and Enceladus. The narrow F and G rings significant affected the CRAND protons but did not produce total depletion. Voyager 2 measurements subsequently revealed an outermost CRAND proton belt beyond Enceladus. Although the source rate is small, the trapping times limited by radial magnetospheric diffusion are very long, about ten years at peak measured flux inwards of the G ring, so large fluxes can accumulate unless otherwise limited in the trapping region by neutral gas, dust, and ring body interactions. One proposed final extension of the Cassini Orbiter mission would place perikrone in a 3000-km gap between the inner D ring and the upper atmosphere of Saturn. Experience with CRAND in the Earth's inner Van Allen proton belt suggests that a similar innermost belt might be found in this comparably wide region at Saturn. Radial dependence of magnetospheric diffusion, proximity to the ring neutron source, and northward magnetic offset of Saturn's magnetic equator from the ring plane could potentially produce peak fluxes several orders of magnitude higher than previously measured outside the main rings. Even brief passes through such an intense environment of highly penetrating protons would be a significant concern for spacecraft operations and science observations. Actual fluxes are limited by losses in Saturn's exospheric gas and in a dust environment likely comparable to that of the known CRAND proton belts. The first numerical model of this unexplored radiation belt is presented to determine limits on peak magnitude and radial profile of the proton flux distribution.

  14. A joint econometric analysis of seat belt use and crash-related injury severity.

    PubMed

    Eluru, Naveen; Bhat, Chandra R

    2007-09-01

    This paper formulates a comprehensive econometric structure that recognizes two important issues in crash-related injury severity analysis. First, the impact of a factor on injury severity may be moderated by various observed and unobserved variables specific to an individual or to a crash. Second, seat belt use is likely to be endogenous to injury severity. That is, it is possible that intrinsically unsafe drivers do not wear seat belts and are the ones likely to be involved in high injury severity crashes because of their unsafe driving habits. The preceding issues are considered in the current research effort through the development of a comprehensive model of seat belt use and injury severity that takes the form of a joint correlated random coefficients binary-ordered response system. To our knowledge, this is the first instance of such a model formulation and application not only in the safety analysis literature, but in the econometrics literature in general. The empirical analysis is based on the 2003 General Estimates System (GES) data base. Several types of variables are considered to explain seat belt use and injury severity levels, including driver characteristics, vehicle characteristics, roadway design attributes, environmental factors, and crash characteristics. The results, in addition to confirming the effects of various explanatory variables, also highlight the importance of (a) considering the moderating effects of unobserved individual/crash-related factors on the determinants of injury severity and (b) seat belt use endogeneity. From a policy standpoint, the results suggest that seat belt non-users, when apprehended in the act, should perhaps be subjected to both a fine (to increase the chances that they wear seat belts) as well as mandatory enrollment in a defensive driving course (to attempt to change their aggressive driving behaviors).

  15. Children's and Adults' Comfort Experience of Extra Seat Belts When Riding in the Rear Seat of a Passenger Car.

    PubMed

    Osvalder, Anna-Lisa; Hansson, Ida; Bohman, Katarina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to explore passengers' comfort experience of extra seat belts during on-road driving in the rear seat of a passenger car and to investigate how the use of extra belts affects children's and adults' attitudes to the product. Two different seat belt systems were tested, criss-cross (CC) and backpack (BP), consisting of the standard 3-point belt together with an additional 2-point belt. In total, 32 participants (15 children aged 6-10, 6 youths aged 11-15, and 11 adults aged 20-79, who differed considerably in size, shape, and proportions) traveled for one hour with each system, including city traffic and highway driving. Four video cameras monitored the test subject during the drive. Subjective data regarding emotions and perceived discomfort were collected in questionnaires every 20 min. A semistructured interview was held afterwards. All participant groups accepted the new products and especially the increased feeling of safety (P <.01); 56% preferred CC and 44% preferred BP but the difference was not significant. In total, 81% wanted to have extra seat belts in their family car. CC was appreciated for its symmetry, comfort, and the perceived feeling of safety. Some participants found CC unpleasant because the belts tended to slip close to the neck, described as a strangling feeling. BP was simpler to use and did not cause annoyance to the neck in the way CC did. Instead, it felt asymmetric and to some extent less safe than CC. Body size and shape affected seat belt fit to a great extent, which in turn affected the experience of comfort, both initially and over time. Perceived safety benefit and experienced comfort were the most determinant factors for the attitude toward the extra seat belts. The extra seat belts were perceived as being better than the participants had expected before the test, and they became more used to them over time. This exploratory study provided valuable knowledge from a user perspective for further

  16. The Rematee Bumper Belt® positional therapy device for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea: Positional effectiveness in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Les; Fortier, Normand

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate body position changes resulting from wearing a Rematee Bumper Belt (Rematee, Canada) during sleep. The majority of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients will experience up to two times as many apneas and hypopneas while supine relative to lateral or prone body positions during sleep. It has been suggested that a positional therapy device could reduce the number of apneas and hypopneas in such patients. The present study was conducted to determine whether the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device could prevent healthy subjects from sleeping in the supine position. Test subjects wore the belt for one to two nights. Each belt was equipped with an accelerometer that was used to measure the orientation of the belt relative to the horizontal plane. The results suggest that the belt creates an exclusion zone approximately 80° wide centred near the supine orientation, where subjects are effectively prevented to enter. Results of the present preliminary study suggests that the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device is effective at limiting healthy subjects from sleeping in a supine position. The device appears to be most effective between 150° and 230°. A device with this capability may provide an inexpensive and potentially effective alternative treatment option for patients with OSA. This device has the capacity for reducing snoring and the apnea-hypopnea index in individuals with positional OSA. PMID:26078596

  17. The Rematee Bumper Belt(®) positional therapy device for snoring and obstructive sleep apnea: Positional effectiveness in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Les; Fortier, Normand

    2013-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate body position changes resulting from wearing a Rematee Bumper Belt (Rematee, Canada) during sleep. The majority of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patients will experience up to two times as many apneas and hypopneas while supine relative to lateral or prone body positions during sleep. It has been suggested that a positional therapy device could reduce the number of apneas and hypopneas in such patients. The present study was conducted to determine whether the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device could prevent healthy subjects from sleeping in the supine position. Test subjects wore the belt for one to two nights. Each belt was equipped with an accelerometer that was used to measure the orientation of the belt relative to the horizontal plane. The results suggest that the belt creates an exclusion zone approximately 80° wide centred near the supine orientation, where subjects are effectively prevented to enter. Results of the present preliminary study suggests that the Rematee Bumper Belt positional therapy device is effective at limiting healthy subjects from sleeping in a supine position. The device appears to be most effective between 150° and 230°. A device with this capability may provide an inexpensive and potentially effective alternative treatment option for patients with OSA. This device has the capacity for reducing snoring and the apnea-hypopnea index in individuals with positional OSA.

  18. High-resolution maps of the 1.5 GHz emission from Jupiter's disk and radiation belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, J. A.; Berge, G. L.; Bignell, R. C.

    1984-01-01

    VLA maps of four different faces of Jupiter made with a resolution of about 0.3 Jovian radius show new features of the radiation belt emission. A synchrotron model which reproduces these features serves to define the major characteristics of the relativistic electrons in the radiation belt. The observations provide the best determination to date of the atmospheric emission at 1.5 GHz and yield a disk brightness temperature of 425 + or - 100 K.

  19. Contribution of Neutron Beta Decay to Radiation Belt Pumping from High Altitude Nuclear Explosion

    SciTech Connect

    Marrs, R

    2002-11-13

    fission products to belt pumping (e.g., the SNRTACS code system [2]). It is a daunting task because multiple, difficult-to-model plasma processes must be included, and existing belt pumping models cannot reproduce the trapped electron numbers, spectra, and spatial distributions observed following the 1962 tests. Neutrons are not affected by the earth's magnetic field or by plasma electric and magnetic fields, so their contribution to belt pumping can in principle be calculated more accurately than that of fission products. Those neutrons emitted in an upward direction from a high altitude nuclear explosion travel in straight lines. They beta decay and contribute a trapped energetic electron to the earth's radiation belts at a rate determined by the 900-second neutron lifetime (which is much longer than the {approx}2-second flight time of a fast neutron through the radiation belts). Neutrons emitted in a downward direction will scatter in the atmosphere. Most of them will diffuse out of the atmosphere and travel up through the earth's radiation belts, where their probability of injecting a trapped electron is now greater because of their lower velocity. This albedo effect increases the amount of belt pumping from neutron beta decay by several fold. In the present work, we use Monte Carlo neutron transport techniques to account for the albedo effect of the earth's atmosphere and obtain accurate values for the magnitude and distribution of trapped electrons from neutron beta decay.

  20. The Medical Case for Seat Belts on School Buses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeager, Arthur

    1985-01-01

    A group is actively supporting legislation to require seat belts on only newly manufactured school buses. However, misinformation is being circulated to oppose the installation of seat belts in school buses. If the industry continues to block the installation of seat belts, punitive legislation may be passed. (MLF)

  1. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  2. 14 CFR 125.211 - Seat and safety belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Seat and safety belts. 125.211 Section 125... Requirements § 125.211 Seat and safety belts. (a) No person may operate an airplane unless there are available... share one approved safety belt and two persons occupying a multiple lounge or divan seat may share...

  3. Effect of enhanced seat belt reminders on driver fatality risk.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Charles M; Wells, Joann K

    2010-02-01

    Enhanced seat belt reminders in automobiles have been shown to increase belt use rates by approximately 3 percentage points. The objective of this study was to estimate the effect of enhanced seat belt reminders on driver fatality risk. Data included all passenger vehicle driver deaths and vehicle registration counts in the United States for calendar years 2000-2007. Driver fatality rates per vehicle registration per year were compared for otherwise identical vehicle models with and without enhanced seat belt reminders. Driver fatality rates were 6% lower for vehicles with enhanced seat belt reminders compared with vehicles without enhanced belt reminders. After adjusting for vehicle age differences, the estimated effect of enhanced belt reminders on driver fatality risk ranged from a 9% reduction for General Motors vehicles to a 2% increase for Honda vehicles. Combining all manufacturers, enhanced belt reminders reduced fatality risk by approximately 2%. Although not statistically significant, the 2% reduction in fatality risk agrees with what should be expected from a 3 percentage point increase in seat belt use rates. Enhanced seat belt reminders have raised driver belt use rates and reduced fatality rates, but more aggressive systems may be needed for some drivers. It can be inferred that nonfatal injury rates also have been reduced. Manufacturers should be encouraged to put enhanced seat belt reminders on all vehicles as soon as possible. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  5. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  6. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  7. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  8. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  9. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  10. 45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. July 1974. BLACKSMITH SHOP, VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING BELT CHASE FOR TWO BELTS FROM THE BASEMENT, THE W. E. & J. BARNES CO. DRILL PRESS, AND THE DRILL PRESS USED FOR REAMING. THE BELT PASSING THROUGH THE WALL POWERS THE SANDER IN THE WOOD SHOP. - Gruber Wagon Works, Pennsylvania Route 183 & State Hill Road at Red Bridge Park, Bernville, Berks County, PA

  11. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  12. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  13. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  14. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  15. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  16. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  17. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  19. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  20. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 56.14212... Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 56.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or drums...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14108 - Overhead drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Overhead drive belts. 56.14108 Section 56.14108 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE... Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14108 Overhead drive belts. Overhead drive belts...

  4. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  5. 30 CFR 57.14212 - Chains, ropes, and drive belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Chains, ropes, and drive belts. 57.14212... and Equipment Safety Practices and Operational Procedures § 57.14212 Chains, ropes, and drive belts. Chains, ropes, and drive belts shall be guided mechanically onto moving pulleys, sprockets, or...

  6. 30 CFR 75.350 - Belt air course ventilation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Belt air course ventilation. 75.350 Section 75... HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Ventilation § 75.350 Belt air course ventilation. (a) The belt air course must not be used as a return air course; and except as provided in...

  7. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall be... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section...

  8. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is...

  9. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger from...

  10. The state of knowledge concerning the Kuiper belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levison, Harold F.

    1992-01-01

    The arguments for and against the idea that most short-period comets originate in the Kuiper belt are discussed. Observational constraints on the distribution of mass in the Kuiper belt are reviewed as well as a model of the physical conditions that now exist. Finally, predictions from this model about the detectability of the Kuiper belt are compared to optical surveys.

  11. A comparison of soft start mechanisms for mining belt conveyors

    SciTech Connect

    Nave, M.L.

    1996-12-31

    Belt Conveyors are an important method for transportation of bulk material in the mining industry. The control of the application of the starting torque from the belt drive system to the belt fabric effects the performance, life cost, and reliability of the conveyor. This paper examines application of each starting method within the coal mining industry.

  12. Conveyor belt scale certification: weighing the various systems

    SciTech Connect

    Carpentier, P.T.

    1983-11-01

    The mechanics of belt weighing are explained. The author stresses the need for better and more consistent guidelines for the testing and certification of belt weighing systems, particularly in the US where more than one body issues these guidelines. Several recognised tests for conveyor belt scale systems are described.

  13. 30 CFR 56.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 56.15020 Section 56.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there is danger...

  14. 30 CFR 57.15020 - Life jackets and belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Life jackets and belts. 57.15020 Section 57.15020 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface Only § 57.15020 Life jackets and belts. Life jackets or belts shall be worn where there...

  15. ScienceCast 76: The Radiation Belt Storm Probes

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2012-08-30

    This morning NASA launched two heavily-shielded spacecraft directly into the Van Allen Belts. The Radiation Belt Storm Probes are on a two-year mission to study the Van Allen Belts and to unravel the mystery of their unpredictability.

  16. 30 CFR 56.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 56.15005 Section 56.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... § 56.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn when persons work where there...

  17. 30 CFR 57.15005 - Safety belts and lines.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Safety belts and lines. 57.15005 Section 57.15005 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL... Protection Surface and Underground § 57.15005 Safety belts and lines. Safety belts and lines shall be worn...

  18. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  19. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  3. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  4. 30 CFR 57.4263 - Underground belt conveyors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Underground belt conveyors. 57.4263 Section 57... and Control Firefighting Equipment § 57.4263 Underground belt conveyors. Fire protection shall be provided at the head, tail, drive, and take-up pulleys of underground belt conveyors. Provisions shall...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1108 - Approved conveyor belts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Approved conveyor belts. 75.1108 Section 75... Fire-Resistant Hydraulic Fluids on Underground Equipment § 75.1108 Approved conveyor belts. (a) Until December 31, 2009 conveyor belts placed in service in underground coal mines shall be: (1) Approved...

  6. Radiation Belts Throughout the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, B. H.

    2008-12-01

    The several preceding decades of deep space missions have demonstrated that the generation of planetary radiation belts is a universal phenomenon. All strongly magnetized planets show well developed radiation regions, specifically Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. The similarities occur despite the tremendous differences between the planets in size, levels of magnetization, external environments, and most importantly, in the fundamental processes that power them. Some planets like Jupiter are powered overwhelmingly by planetary rotation, much like astrophysical pulsars, whereas others, like Earth and probably Uranus, are powered externally by the interplanetary environment. Uranus is a particularly interesting case in that despite the peculiarities engendered by its ecliptic equatorial spin axis orientation, its magnetosphere shows dynamical behavior similar to that of Earth as well as radiation belt populations and associated wave emissions that are perhaps more intense than expected based on Earth-derived theories. Here I review the similarities and differences between the radiation regions of radiation belts throughout the solar system. I discuss the value of the comparative approach to radiation belt physics as one that allows critical factors to be evaluated in environments that are divorced from the special complex conditions that prevail in any one environment, such as those at Earth.

  7. Green Belt Europe - borders separate, nature unites

    Treesearch

    Uwe Friedel

    2015-01-01

    During the period of the Cold War between 1945 and 1989, a "Green Belt" of valuable pristine landscapes developed along the border line between Eastern and Western Europe, the intensively fortified and guarded so called Iron Curtain. Due to the remoteness of the border areas, a high number of national parks and other large conservation areas can be found...

  8. School Buses & Seat Belts: A Discussion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaska State Dept. of Education, Juneau.

    Safety belts are not installed in school buses for several reasons. School buses are constructed differently from automobiles in terms of (1) the locations of doors and instrument panels relative to passengers, (2) outer construction, (3) seat design and padding, and (4) visibility on the road. Under current regulations, bus seats are constructed…

  9. The Case for School Bus Seat Belts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corda, Salvatore J.

    1987-01-01

    Argues for seat belt installation on school buses and forced retirement of vehicles manufactured prior to 1977, when federal safety standards were upgraded to include compartmentalization features. Discredits a Transport Canada study for improper design and methodology used. Advises communities to examine research, consult experts, and visit…

  10. Hydrocarbon maturation in thrust belts: Thermal considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furlong, Kevin P.; Edman, Janell D.

    Sedimentary strata within thrust belts experience transient thermal histories which perturb the maturation paths of organic material contained within the rocks. Calculation of the thermal history, including perturbations which occur with overthrusting, for a particular sequence of tectonic events, allows us to evaluate the timing of maturation reactions and the remaining generative potential in the source rock during the evolution of the geologic terrain. In addition, thermal-maturation indicators can be used to constrain tectonic models for a region and eliminate nonviable geologic interpretations. We have utilized a numerical model to evaluate the thermal response to burial, erosion and thrusting. This model allows us to specify reasonably complex (and geologically reasonable) tectonic histories, including time varying erosion and sedimentation, syn-thrusting erosion, and multiple thrusting events. Such complexities are not easily incorporated in analytic thermal models of thrust belt evolution. In case studies of the western overthrust belt of Wyoming, thermal modeling of geologic histories provides insight into maturation processes, timing and geometries of thrust sheets, and pre-thrusting tectonism. In particular, the timing of thrust sheet motion in the Wyoming portion of the thrust belt appears to be younger than normally thought. Much of the thin skinned thrusting evaluated here appears (from a thermal perspective) to be of similar age to Laramide thrusting in the region.

  11. Glauconite from the precambrian belt series, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulbrandsen, R.A.; Goldich, S.S.; Thomas, H.H.

    1963-01-01

    Glauconite from the upper part of the Missoula Group of the Belt Series, Flathead County, Montana, has been dated at 1070 million years by potassium-argon and rubidium-strontium analyses. This is the first glauconite of Precambrian age reported in North America.

  12. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  13. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  14. How to install main belts efficiently

    SciTech Connect

    Ketz, J.

    1985-03-01

    Belt conveyors and mine cars form an integral part of the connecting link between an underground working area and the preparation plant. Problems in the link are sometimes neglected while attention is centered on the face. Eventually the neglect may cause the mine to shut down because its operating costs are too high. Mine operators can reduce the chances of such a calamity by correctly installing one of those key links, the main haulage belt conveyors. The following recommendations are based on the author's engineering experience in deep mines. The drive is the heart of the belt conveyor. Five components must be installed properly so that the mechanics can fine tune the belt conveyor drive. A concrete base is essential for a main haulage conveyor projected to be in service for more than 10 years. Beams with 6-in.-wide flanges should be welded to rails embedded in the concrete base. The drive is welded to the 6-in. beams for a permanent installation, and the beams allow dust to be cleaned from under the drive.

  15. Belts and Chains. FOS: Fundamentals of Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John Deere Co., Moline, IL.

    This manual on belts and chain drives is one of a series of power mechanics texts and visual aids on theory, of operation, diagnosis, and repair of automotive and off-the-road agricultural and construction equipment. Materials provide basic information and illustrations for use by vocational students and teachers as well as shop servicemen and…

  16. The thrust belts of Western North America

    SciTech Connect

    Moulton, F.C.

    1993-08-01

    Most of the Basin and Range physiographic province of western North America is now believed to be part of the overthrust. The more obvious overthrust belt along the eastern edge of the Basin and Range Province is named the Sevier orogenic belt, where older rocks are observed thrust onto younger rocks. More detailed surface geological mapping, plus deep multiple-fold geophysical work and many oil and gas wildcat wells, have confirmed an east-vergent shortened and stacked sequence is present in many places in the Basin and Range. This western compressive deformed area in east central Nevada is now named the Elko orogenic belt by the U.S. Geological Survey. This older compressed Elko orogenic belt started forming approximately 250 m.y. ago when the North American plate started to move west as the Pangaea supercontinent started to fragment. The North American plate moved west under the sediments of the Miogeocline that were also moving west. Surface-formed highlands and oceanic island arcs on the west edge of the North American plate restricted the westward movement of the sediments in the Miogeocline, causing east-vergent ramp thrusts to form above the westward-moving North American plate. The flat, eastward-up-cutting thrust assemblages moved on the detachment surfaces.

  17. Uterine rupture. A seat belt hazard.

    PubMed

    van Enk, A; van Zwam, W

    1994-05-01

    A case is described of a uterine rupture resulting from a car accident occurring in a woman who was wearing a seat belt as generally recommended. The rupture was initially not recognised and only became apparent after attempts to induce labor which led to expulsion of the fetus into the abdominal cavity.

  18. Electron Radiation Belts of the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauk, Barry; Fox, Nicola

    To address the question of what factors dictate similarities and differences between radiation belts, we present comparisons between the electron radiation belt spectra of all five strongly magnetized planets within the solar system: Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. We choose the highest intensity observed electron spectrum within each system (highest specifically near 1 MeV) and compare them against expectations based on the so-called Kennel-Petschek limit (KP; 1966) for each system. For evaluating the KP limit, we begin with the new relativis-tically correct formulation of Summers et al. (2009) but then add several refinements of our own. Specifically, we: 1) utilized a much more flexible analytic spectral shape that allows us to accurately fit observed radiation belt spectra; 2) adopt the point of view that the anisotropy parameter is not a free parameter but must take on a minimal value, as originally proposed by Kennel and Petschek (1966); and 3) examine the differential characteristics of the KP limit along the lines of what Schulz and Davidson (1988) performed for the non-relativistic formula-tion. We find that three factors limit the highest electron radiation belt intensities within solar system planetary magnetospheres: a) whistler mode interactions that limit spectral intensities to a differential Kennel-Petschek limit (3 planets); b) the absence of robust acceleration pro-cesses associated with injection dynamics (1 planet); and c) material interactions between the radiation particles and clouds of gas and dust (1 planet).

  19. Is the Cameron River greenstone belt allochthonous?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kusky, T. M.

    1986-01-01

    Many tectonic models for the Slave Province, N.W.T., Canada, and for Archean granite - greenstone terranes in general, are implicitly dependent on the assumption that greenstone belt lithologies rest unconformably upon older gneissic basement. Other models require originally large separations between gneissic terranes and greenstone belts. A key question relating to the tectonics of greenstone belts is therefore the original spatial relationship between the volcanic assemblages and presumed-basement gneisses, and how this relationship has been modified by subsequent deformation. What remains unclear in these examples is the significance of the so-called later faulting of the greenstone - gneiss contacts. Where unconformities between gneisses and overlying sediments are indisputable, such as at Point Lake, the significance of faults which occur below the base of the volcanic succession also needs to be evaluated. As part of an on-going investigation aimed at answering these and other questions, the extremely well-exposed Cameron River Greenstone Belt and the Sleepy Dragon Metamorphic Complex in the vicinity of Webb Lake and Sleepy Dragon Lake was mapped.

  20. Lightcurve Analysis for Ten Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casalnuovo, Giovanni Battista

    2017-07-01

    Photometric observations of ten main-belt asteroids, 2854 Rawson, 3113 Chizhevskij, 5318 Dientzenhofer, (5563) 1991 VZ1, 7143 Haramura, 10421 Dalmatin, (11386) 1998 TA18, (18429) 1994 AO1, (23496) 1991 VN3, and (31782) 1999 KM6 were made at the Eurac Observatory (MPC C62). Results of lightcurve analysis are presented.

  1. Belt fires and mine escape problems

    SciTech Connect

    Kovac, J.G.; Lazzara, C.P.; Kravitz, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    A conveyor belt fire in an underground coal mine is a serious threat to life and property. About 30% of the reportable underground coal mine fires from 1988 through 1992 occurred in belt entries. In one instance, a fire started in the drive area of a belt line, spread rapidly, and resulted in seating of the entire mine. Large-scale studies conducted by the U.S. Bureau of Mines in an aboveground fire gallery at Lake Lynn Laboratory clearly show the hazards of conveyor belt fires. Mine conveyor belt formulations which passed the current Federal acceptance test for fire-resistant betting were completely consumed by propagating fires or propagated flame, with flame spread rates ranging from 0.3 to 9 m/min. High downstream temperatures and large quantities of smoke and toxic gases, such as carbon monoxide, were generated as the belting burned. The smoke and gases can be spread by the mine`s ventilation system and can create significant problems for miners in the process of evacuation, such as reduction in visibility and incapacitation. In the aftermath of a belt fire, the atmosphere inside of the mine can become smoke filled or unbreathable, forcing miners to evacuate while wearing Self-Contained Self-Rescuers (SCSR`s), Sometimes there is confusion about how to regard the rated duration of an MSHA/NIOSH-approved 60-min. SCSR, especially when an SCSR is used in a way which takes it outside of the test conditions under which it was approved. As examples, for a mine escape that takes a miner from the deepest point of penetration in the mine to the surface: How long will a 60-min. SCSR actually last? and How many SCSR`s will a miner need? To answer these kinds of questions, in-mine data being gathered on escape times, distance and heart rates using miners escaping on foot and under oxygen. A model will be developed and validated which predicts how much oxygen is actually needed for a mine escape, and compares oxygen consumption bare faced versus wearing an SCSR.

  2. Depiction of Kuiper Belt World

    NASA Image and Video Library

    Planets in our own solar system have a wide range of properties. They are distinguished by two basic properties, their size and their orbit. The size determines if the planet can have a life-sustai...

  3. Imaging Jupiter Radiation Belts At Low Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girard, J. N.; de Pater, I.; Zarka, P.; Santos-Costa, D.; Sault, R.; Hess, S.; Cecconi, B.; Fender, R.; Pewg, Lofar

    2014-04-01

    The ultra-relativistic electrons, trapped in the inner radiation belts of Jupiter, generates a strong synchrotron radio emission (historically known as the jovian decimeter radiation (DIM)) which is beamed, polarized (~20% linear, ~1% circular) and broadband. It has been extensively observed by radio telescopes/ probes and imaged by radio interferometers over a wide frequency spectrum (from >300 MHz up to 22 GHz). This extended emission presents two main emission peaks constantly located on both sides of the planet close to the magnetic plane. High latitude emissions were also regularly observed at particular frequencies, times and in particular observational configurations. This region of the magnetosphere is "frozen" due to the strong magnetic field (~4.2 G as the equator) and therefore is forced to rotate at the planetary period (T≈9h55m). Due to the tilt (~ 10o) between the spin axis of the planet and the magnetic axis (which can be seen as dipolar in first approximation), the belts and the associated radio emission wobble around the planet center. The analysis of the flux at different frequencies highlighted spatial, temporal and spectral variabilities which origins are now partly understood. The emission varies at different time scales (short-time variations of hours to long-term variation over decades) due to the combination of visibility effect (wobbling, beaming, position of the observer in the magnetic rotating reference frame) [1], [2] and intrinsic local variations (interaction between relativistic electrons and satellites/dust, delayed effect of the solar wind ram pressure, impacts events) [3], [4], [5]. A complete framework is necessary to fully understand the source, loss and transport processes of the electrons originating from outside the belt, migrating by inward diffusion and populating the inner region of the magnetosphere. Only a few and unresolved measurements were made below 300 MHz and the nonsystematic observation of this radio emission

  4. On the asteroid belt's orbital and size distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladman, Brett J.; Davis, Donald R.; Neese, Carol; Jedicke, Robert; Williams, Gareth; Kavelaars, J. J.; Petit, Jean-Marc; Scholl, Hans; Holman, Matthew; Warrington, Ben; Esquerdo, Gil; Tricarico, Pasquale

    2009-07-01

    For absolute magnitudes greater than the current completeness limit of H-magnitude ∼15 the main asteroid belt's size distribution is imperfectly known. We have acquired good-quality orbital and absolute H-magnitude determinations for a sample of small main-belt asteroids in order to study the orbital and size distribution beyond H = 15, down to sub-kilometer sizes (H > 18). Based on six observing nights over a 11-night baseline we have detected, measured photometry for, and linked observations of 1087 asteroids which have one-week time baselines or more. The linkages allow the computation of full heliocentric orbits (as opposed to statistical distances determined by some past surveys). Judged by known asteroids in the field the typical uncertainty in the (a / e / i) orbital elements is less than 0.03 AU/0.03/0.5°. The distances to the objects are sufficiently well known that photometric uncertainties (of 0.3 magnitudes or better) dominate the error budget of their derived H-magnitudes. The detected asteroids range from HR = 12- 22 and provide a set of objects down to sizes below 1 km in diameter. We find an on-sky surface density of 210 asteroids per square degree in the ecliptic with opposition magnitudes brighter than mR = 23, with the cumulative number of asteroids increasing by a factor of 100.27/mag from mR = 18 down to the mR ≃ 23.5 limit of our survey. In terms of absolute H magnitudes, we find that beyond H = 15 the belt exhibits a constant power-law slope with the number increasing proportional to 100.30H from H ≃ 15 to 18, after which incompleteness begins in the survey. Examining only the subset of detections inside 2.5 AU, we find weak evidence for a mildly shallower slope for H = 15- 19.5. We provide the information necessary such that anyone wishing to model the main asteroid belt can compare a detailed model to our detected sample.

  5. Impact of Selected Parameters on the Fatigue Strength of Splices on Multiply Textile Conveyor Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bajda, Mirosław; Błażej, Ryszard; Hardygóra, Monika

    2016-10-01

    Splices are the weakest points in the conveyor belt loop. The strength of these joints, and thus their design as well as the method and quality of splicing, determine the strength of the whole conveyor belt loop. A special zone in a splice exists, where the stresses in the adjacent plies or cables differ considerably from each other. This results in differences in the elongation of these elements and in additional shearing stresses in the rubber layer. The strength of the joints depends on several factors, among others on the parameters of the joined belt, on the connecting layer and the technology of joining, as well as on the materials used to make the joint. The strength of the joint constitutes a criterion for the selection of a belt suitable for the operating conditions, and therefore methods of testing such joints are of great importance. This paper presents the method of testing fatigue strength of splices made on multi-ply textile conveyor belts and the results of these studies.

  6. A Seroepidemiological Study of Serogroup A Meningococcal Infection in the African Meningitis Belt

    PubMed Central

    Manigart, Olivier; Trotter, Caroline; Findlow, Helen; Assefa, Abraham; Mihret, Wude; Moti Demisse, Tesfaye; Yeshitela, Biruk; Osei, Isaac; Hodgson, Abraham; Quaye, Stephen Laryea; Sow, Samba; Coulibaly, Mamadou; Diallo, Kanny; Traore, Awa; Collard, Jean-Marc; Moustapha Boukary, Rahamatou; Djermakoye, Oumarou; Mahamane, Ali Elhaji; Jusot, Jean-François; Sokhna, Cheikh; Alavo, Serge; Doucoure, Souleymane; Ba, El Hadj; Dieng, Mariétou; Diallo, Aldiouma; Daugla, Doumagoum Moto; Omotara, Babatunji; Chandramohan, Daniel; Hassan-King, Musa; Nascimento, Maria; Woukeu, Arouna; Borrow, Ray; Stuart, James M.; Greenwood, Brian

    2016-01-01

    The pattern of epidemic meningococcal disease in the African meningitis belt may be influenced by the background level of population immunity but this has been measured infrequently. A standardised enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for measuring meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibodies was established at five centres within the meningitis belt. Antibody concentrations were then measured in 3930 individuals stratified by age and residence from six countries. Seroprevalence by age was used in a catalytic model to determine the force of infection. Meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high in each country but showed heterogeneity across the meningitis belt. The geometric mean concentration (GMC) was highest in Ghana (9.09 μg/mL [95% CI 8.29, 9.97]) and lowest in Ethiopia (1.43 μg/mL [95% CI 1.31, 1.57]) on the margins of the belt. The force of infection was lowest in Ethiopia (λ = 0.028). Variables associated with a concentration above the putative protective level of 2 μg/mL were age, urban residence and a history of recent vaccination with a meningococcal vaccine. Prior to vaccination with the serogroup A meningococcal conjugate vaccine, meningococcal serogroup A IgG antibody concentrations were high across the African meningitis belt and yet the region remained susceptible to epidemics. PMID:26872255

  7. Transverse hysteretic damping characteristics of a serpentine belt: Modeling and experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Hao; Hu, Yumei; Pi, Yangjun

    2014-12-01

    In this paper, the transverse dynamic hysteretic damping characteristics (HDC) of a serpentine belt are investigated. The variable stiffness and variable damping model (VSDM) constituted of a variable-stiffness spring and a variable-damping damper is developed to estimate the HDC of the belt. A test rig is designed to test the force-displacement hysteresis damping curve and resonance frequencies of serpentine belts with different lengths under diverse loading conditions. The force-displacement hysteresis damping curve getting from the experiment is then used to determine the transverse stiffness and damping coefficients needed for the VSDM. The experiment particularly shows that the orientation of the hysteresis curve swings left and right around each natural frequency as it is a symmetrical point. This interesting phenomenon is explicated in detail with the loss angle which is calculated by two methods. Moreover, two sub-analytical models included in the VSDM are proposed to model the dependence of transverse dynamic stiffness and damping coefficient of a belt on belt length, pretension and excitation frequency. A comparison of the hysteresis curves obtained from the VSDM and experiment indicates that they are in good agreement.

  8. MAIN BELT ASTEROIDS WITH WISE/NEOWISE. I. PRELIMINARY ALBEDOS AND DIAMETERS

    SciTech Connect

    Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; DeBaun, E.; Elsbury, D.; Gautier, T. IV; Gomillion, S.; Wilkins, A.; Cutri, R. M.; Dailey, J.; McMillan, R. S.; Spahr, T. B.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Tholen, D.; Walker, R. G.; Wright, E. L.

    2011-11-10

    We present initial results from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), a four-band all-sky thermal infrared survey that produces data well suited for measuring the physical properties of asteroids, and the NEOWISE enhancement to the WISE mission allowing for detailed study of solar system objects. Using a NEATM thermal model fitting routine, we compute diameters for over 100,000 Main Belt asteroids from their IR thermal flux, with errors better than 10%. We then incorporate literature values of visible measurements (in the form of the H absolute magnitude) to determine albedos. Using these data we investigate the albedo and diameter distributions of the Main Belt. As observed previously, we find a change in the average albedo when comparing the inner, middle, and outer portions of the Main Belt. We also confirm that the albedo distribution of each region is strongly bimodal. We observe groupings of objects with similar albedos in regions of the Main Belt associated with dynamical breakup families. Asteroid families typically show a characteristic albedo for all members, but there are notable exceptions to this. This paper is the first look at the Main Belt asteroids in the WISE data, and only represents the preliminary, observed raw size, and albedo distributions for the populations considered. These distributions are subject to survey biases inherent to the NEOWISE data set and cannot yet be interpreted as describing the true populations; the debiased size and albedo distributions will be the subject of the next paper in this series.

  9. Albedo Properties of Small (0.5 to 20 km) Main Belt Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Erin L.; Woodward, C. E.

    2010-01-01

    Serendipitous observations of main belt asteroids by the Spitzer Space Telescope have enabled determination of main belt asteroid albedos and diameters for targets as small as 0.5 km (eg., Ryan et al. 2009, AJ, 137, 5134). We have used multi-epoch data at 5.8, 8.0 and 24 microns from the MIPSGAL and Taurus Legacy Surveys to obtain diameters and albedos for a sample of approximately 2000 main belt asteroids. Using STM and NEATM, we have obtained diameters ranging from 0.5 to 30 km and albedos ranging from 0.02 to 0.5. Results of this program reveal an albedo distribution that is more diverse in range than the albedo distribution seen in the IRAS and MSX surveys. This diversity may reflect effects of space weathering reddening which is selectively reddening larger asteroids. This reddening effect may reinforce the findings from accretion models that indicate that asteroids in the early solar system were 100 km and larger (Morbidelli et al., 2009, Icarus, in press), by suggesting that the larger asteroids are indeed the oldest members of the main belt. We will present results on the albedo distribution as a function of semi-major axis and new analysis of the mean albedo of dynamical families within the main belt. Support for this work provided in part by a National Science Foundation grant AST-0706980 to the University of Minnesota.

  10. The Role of ULF Driven Radial Transport in Rebuilding the Earth's Outer Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, B. T.; Hudson, M. K.; Paral, J.; Selesnick, R.; Claudepierre, S. G.

    2015-12-01

    An outstanding question addressed by recent studies of the Earth's radiation belts is, what are the physical processes responsible rapid recovery of MeV electrons in the outer belt during geomagnetic storms? Rapid rebuilding of the ~1 MeV electron population near geosynchronous during periods of strongly southward IMF BZ is well modeled by computing test-particle trajectories in MHD magnetospheric model fields. The build up of ~2 MeV electrons at lower L, observed by the Van Allen Probes, is also reproduced in the test-particle model. It is not known however to what extent adiabatic transport is sufficient to produce the observed multi-MeV flux enhancements in the outer belt. By comparing observations with model results, we can determine the inward extent and high energy limit of radiation belt rebuilding due to ULF driven radial transport alone. Results from case studies of several recent geomagnetic storms occurring in conjunction with recovery of the outer radiation belts will be presented.

  11. Ice Caps and Ice Belts: The Effects of Obliquity on Ice‑Albedo Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, Brian E. J.; Cronin, Timothy W.; Bitz, Cecilia M.

    2017-09-01

    Planetary obliquity determines the meridional distribution of the annual mean insolation. For obliquity exceeding 55°, the weakest insolation occurs at the equator. Stable partial snow and ice cover on such a planet would be in the form of a belt about the equator rather than polar caps. An analytical model of planetary climate is used to investigate the stability of ice caps and ice belts over the widest possible range of parameters. The model is a non-dimensional diffusive Energy Balance Model, representing insolation, heat transport, and ice‑albedo feedback on a spherical planet. A complete analytical solution for any obliquity is given and validated against numerical solutions of a seasonal model in the “deep-water” regime of weak seasonal ice line migration. Multiple equilibria and unstable transitions between climate states (ice-free, Snowball, or ice cap/belt) are found over wide swaths of parameter space, including a “Large Ice-Belt Instability” and “Small Ice-Belt Instability” at high obliquity. The Snowball catastrophe is avoided at weak radiative forcing in two different scenarios: weak albedo feedback and inefficient heat transport (favoring stable partial ice cover), or efficient transport at high obliquity (favoring ice-free conditions). From speculative assumptions about distributions of planetary parameters, three-fourths to four-fifths of all planets with stable partial ice cover should be in the form of Earth-like polar caps.

  12. International survey of seat belt use exemptions.

    PubMed

    Weiss, H; Sirin, H; Levine, J A; Sauber, E

    2006-08-01

    Substantial evidence of seatbelt efficacy has been shown by several studies, and it is widely recommended that motor vehicle occupants use properly fitted seat belts. However, some (but a heretofore unknown number of) countries with national seat belt laws permit various exemptions which may lower use rates. The aim of this study was to survey the variety of exemptions to national seat belt laws. This investigation relied on identifying respondents from national traffic safety agencies, other governmental and non-governmental organizations, Internet searches, personal contacts, and other sources. Questionnaires were deployed through a web based survey supplemented by email and postal versions. Responses were received from 30 countries of which 28 (93.7%) had a national seat belt law. About two thirds (63.7%) of the 28 national laws applied to both front and back seat passengers. The leading exemption types included vehicles made before a certain year (n = 13), antique vehicles (n = 12), military vehicles (n = 11), buses (n = 9), and emergency vehicles (n = 8). Most responding countries reported one or more specific categories of individuals as exempt including those with medical exemptions (n = 20), taxi drivers (n = 11), police (n = 9), emergency medical personnel (n = 8), physically disabled people (n = 6), and pregnant women (n = 6). Out of 26 responses to the question regarding current level of enforcement, 42.3% felt enforcement was "very good or good" and 57.7% characterized it as "fair or poor". This study represents one of the largest international traffic law surveys reported. Most national seatbelt laws offer perilous exemptions to a broad array of vehicle types and road user groups. These findings, coupled with concern over the level of enforcement in the majority of countries surveyed, suggest that international road safety efforts have a long way to go to improve coverage and enforcement of national seat belt laws.

  13. Motor Vehicle Crash Fatalities in States With Primary Versus Secondary Seat Belt Laws: A Time-Series Analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lois K; Monuteaux, Michael C; Burghardt, Lindsey C; Fleegler, Eric W; Nigrovic, Lise E; Meehan, William P; Schutzman, Sara A; Mannix, Rebekah

    2015-08-04

    Motor vehicle crashes (MVCs) remain a leading cause of injury-related deaths in the United States. Primary seat belt laws allow vehicle occupants to be ticketed solely for not wearing seat belts, and secondary laws allow ticketing only for failure to wear seat belts in the setting of other violations. To determine the association between MVC fatality rates and primary versus secondary seat belt laws. Retrospective time-series analysis. United States, 2001 to 2010. MVC fatalities in occupants aged 10 years or older identified in the Fatality Analysis Reporting System. Population-based rates of fatal crashes. There were 283 183 MVC fatalities in occupants aged 10 years or older from 2001 to 2010 (overall rate, 13.0 per 100 000 persons). In 2001, the mean fatality rate was 14.6 per 100 000 persons, 16 states had primary seat belt laws, and 33 states had secondary laws. In 2010, the mean fatality rate was 9.7 per 100 000 persons, 30 states had primary seat belt laws, and 19 states had secondary laws. In the multivariate regression model, states with primary seat belt laws had lower MVC fatality rates than states with secondary laws (adjusted incidence rate ratio, 0.83 [95% CI, 0.78 to 0.90]). Only fatalities were analyzed from the database, and the degree of law enforcement could not be ascertained. States with primary seat belt laws had lower rates of MVC fatalities than those with secondary laws. Adoption of primary seat belt laws may offer optimal occupant protection. None.

  14. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Kun, Alejandra

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications. PMID:25332845

  15. VERO cells harbor a poly-ADP-ribose belt partnering their epithelial adhesion belt.

    PubMed

    Lafon-Hughes, Laura; Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C; Kun, Alejandra; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2014-01-01

    Poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) is a polymer of up to 400 ADP-ribose units synthesized by poly-ADP-ribose-polymerases (PARPs) and degraded by poly-ADP-ribose-glycohydrolase (PARG). Nuclear PAR modulates chromatin compaction, affecting nuclear functions (gene expression, DNA repair). Diverse defined PARP cytoplasmic allocation patterns contrast with the yet still imprecise PAR distribution and still unclear functions. Based on previous evidence from other models, we hypothesized that PAR could be present in epithelial cells where cadherin-based adherens junctions are linked with the actin cytoskeleton (constituting the adhesion belt). In the present work, we have examined through immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy, the subcellular localization of PAR in an epithelial monkey kidney cell line (VERO). PAR was distinguished colocalizing with actin and vinculin in the epithelial belt, a location that has not been previously reported. Actin filaments disruption with cytochalasin D was paralleled by PAR belt disruption. Conversely, PARP inhibitors 3-aminobenzamide, PJ34 or XAV 939, affected PAR belt synthesis, actin distribution, cell shape and adhesion. Extracellular calcium chelation displayed similar effects. Our results demonstrate the existence of PAR in a novel subcellular localization. An initial interpretation of all the available evidence points towards TNKS-1 as the most probable PAR belt architect, although TNKS-2 involvement cannot be discarded. Forthcoming research will test this hypothesis as well as explore the existence of the PAR belt in other epithelial cells and deepen into its functional implications.

  16. Meningococcal carriage in the African meningitis belt

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A meningococcal serogroup A polysaccharide/tetanus toxoid conjugate vaccine (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac#x2122;) is being deployed in countries of the African meningitis belt. Experience with other polysaccharide/protein conjugate vaccines has shown that an important part of their success has been their ability to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage and hence to stop transmission and induce herd immunity. If PsA-TT is to achieve the goal of preventing epidemics, it must be able to prevent the acquisition of pharyngeal carriage as well as invasive meningococcal disease and whether PsA-TT can prevent pharyngeal carriage needs to be determined. To address this issue, a consortium (the African Meningococcal Carriage (MenAfriCar) consortium) was established in 2009 to investigate the pattern of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt prior to and after the introduction of PsA-TT. This article describes how the consortium was established, its objectives and the standardised field and laboratory methods that were used to achieve these objectives. The experience of the MenAfriCar consortium will help in planning future studies on the epidemiology of meningococcal carriage in countries of the African meningitis belt and elsewhere. Un vaccin conjugué contenant un polysaccharide du sérogroupe A méningococcique et une anatoxine du tétanos (PsA-TT) (MenAfriVac™) est en cours de déploiement dans les pays de la ceinture africaine de la méningite. L’ expérience avec d’ autres vaccins conjugués polysaccharide/protéine a montré qu’ une partie importante de leur succès a été leur capacité à empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé et donc à arrêter la transmission et à induire une immunité de group. Si PsA-TT doit d’ atteindre l’ objectif de prévenir les épidémies, il devrait être en mesure d’ empêcher l’ acquisition du portage pharyngé ainsi que la méningococcie invasive et le fait que PsA-TT puisse emp

  17. Economic geology of the Copper Mountain Supracrustal Belt, Owl Creek Mountains, Fremont County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hausel, W.D.; Graff, P.J.; Albert, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    The Archean stratigraphy and associated mineral deposits at Copper Mountain were investigated to determine if this supracrustal belt has potential commercial mineral deposits. It was concluded Copper Mountain lacks the stratigraphic and structural character of a classical greenstone belt, exhibits higher metamorphic grade, and may be better classified as a high-grade terrain. However, potential is noted for stratiform Au associated with iron formation, stratiform W associated with gneiss, and Cu-Au mineralization in strike veins. 63 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs. (ACR)

  18. Age constraints of the Wassa and Benso mesothermal gold deposits, Ashanti Belt, Ghana, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parra-Avila, Luis A.; Bourassa, Yan; Miller, John; Perrouty, Stéphane; Fiorentini, Marco L.; Campbell McCuaig, T.

    2015-12-01

    The Ashanti Belt in Ghana hosts numerous multi-million ounce gold deposits and is one of the most richly gold endowed Paleoproterozoic belts of the West African Craton. This work shows that the Wassa mineralized intrusion is part of the Sefwi Group. This unit at Wassa is strongly magnetic and show a distinctly high response in regional magnetic data sets compared to other units of equivalent age within the belt. The unit is inferred to be a lateral extension of an exposed fragment of what defines the substrate to the Tarkwa Basin sediments. The Wassa deposit, located in the eastern limb of the belt, is hosted within mafic to intermediate volcanic flows that are interbedded with minor horizons of volcaniclastics, clastic sediments. The clastic sediments include wackes and magnetite rich sedimentary layers, presumably derived from banded iron formations. The previously described sequence is intruded by syn-volcanic mafic intrusives and felsic porphyries rocks that are all part of the Birimian stratigraphy. Two new key SHRIMP II U-Pb ages were determined as part of this study: a new age of 2191 ± 6 Ma was determined on magmatic zircon grains of the Wassa porphyry host rock, which now represents the oldest known felsic intrusion hosting gold mineralization in the Ashanti Belt region. The Benso gold deposit system, which is located in the eastern limb of the Ashanti Belt approximately 38 km southwest of Wassa is hosted within a series of volcanic units intruded by mafic to intermediate units. A SHRIMP II U-Pb age of 2157 ± 5 Ma was determined from magmatic zircons obtained from a granodiorite of the G-Zone of the Benso deposit. This granodiorite is the main host rock for gold mineralization and thus the age provides an upper constraint for mineral emplacement. The newly determined ages provide an upper constraint for the gold mineralization within this region of the Ashanti Belt. They also support recent structural studies that have interpreted that the Wassa

  19. Non-Vestoid candidates in the inner Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskovitz, Nicholas; Oszkiewicz, Dagmara; Skiff, Brian; Kankiewicz, Pawel; Licandro, Javier; Galiazzo, Mattia; Zeilinger, Werner

    2016-10-01

    Most Howardite-Eucrite-Diogenite (HED) meteorites (analogues to V-type asteroids) are thought to originate from asteroid (4) Vesta. However some HEDs show distinct oxygen isotope ratios and therefore are thought to originate from other asteroids. In this study we try to identify asteroids that may represent parent bodies of those mismatching HEDs. In particular the origin of the anomalous Bunburra Rockhole meteorite was traced back to the inner main asteroid belt, showing that there might be asteroids that are not genetically linked to the asteroid (4) Vesta (the main source of V-type asteroids and HED meteorites) in the inner main belt. In this work we identify V-type asteroids outside the dynamical Vesta family whose rotational properties (retrograde vs prograde rotation) suggest the direction of Yarkovsky drift that sets them apart from typical Vestoids and Vesta fugitives. Specificly Nesvorny et al. 2008 simulated escapes paths from the Vesta family and showed that typical Vesta fugitives in the inner main asteroid belt at semi-major axis a < 2.3 AU have to have retrograde rotations and physical and thermal parameters that maximize the Yarkovsky force in order to evolve to scattered orbits within 1-2 Gys (age of the Vesta collisional family). Therefore large asteroids outside the Vesta family and with a < 2.3 AU and having thermal and rotational properties minimizing the Yarkovsky drift or showing Yarkovsky drift direction towards (4) Vesta are the best candidates for non-Vestoidal V-type asteroids and therefore parent bodies of anomalous HED. In this study we have performed accurate photometric observations and determined sense of rotation for several asteroids testing their links to Vesta and anomalous HED. We have found several potential non-Vestoid candidates. Those objects have to be studied in more detail to fully confirm their link to anomalous HEDs.

  20. Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anhaeusser, Carl R.

    2014-12-01

    Archaean greenstone belts and associated granitic rocks comprise some of the most diverse rock types on the Earth's surface and were formed during the early stages of the development of the planet from Eoarchaean to Neoarchaean times - a period extending back from about 4000 to 2500 million years ago. Because of their great age, these rocks have received unprecedented attention from a wide spectrum of Earth scientists striving to learn more about the evolution of the Earth, including its crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, the commencement of life, and the nature and distribution of mineral deposits. The knowledge gained thus far has accumulated incrementally, beginning with solid field-based studies, the latter being supplemented with increasingly advanced technological developments that have enabled scientists to probe fundamental questions of Earth history. Archaean granite-greenstone terranes display considerable variability of lithologies and geotectonic events, yet there are unifying characteristics that distinguish them from other geological environments. Most greenstone belts consist of a wide variety of volcanic and sedimentary rocks that reflect different evolutionary conditions of formation and all have invariably been influenced by subsequent geotectonic factors, including the intrusion of ultramafic, mafic and granitic complexes, resulting in widespread deformation, metamorphism, metasomatism, as well as mineralization. Geochemical and isotopic age determinations have shown how complex these ancient rocks are and efforts at understanding the nature and evolution of the hydrosphere, atmosphere and primitive life have made Archaean terranes exciting environments in which to study. Conflicting views as to the nature, history and origin of many of the rock types and events in Archaean terranes has been ongoing and stimulating. This review attempts to describe the main lithotypes and other characteristics of granite-greenstone belt geology and points to some

  1. Do seat belts and air bags reduce mortality and injury severity after car accidents?

    PubMed

    Cummins, Justin S; Koval, Kenneth J; Cantu, Robert V; Spratt, Kevin F

    2011-03-01

    We studied National Trauma Data Bank data to determine the effectiveness of car safety devices in reducing mortality and injury severity in 184,992 patients between 1988 and 2004. Safety device variables were seat belt used plus air bag deployed; only seat belt used; only air bag deployed; and, as explicitly coded, no device used. Overall mortality was 4.17%. Compared with the no-device group, the seat-belt-plus-air-bag group had a 67% reduction in mortality (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.33; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.28-0.39), the seatbelt- only group had a 51% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.49; 99% CI, 0.45-0.52), and the air-bag-only group had a 32% mortality reduction (AOR, 0.68, 99% CI, 0.57-0.80). Injury Severity Scores showed a similar pattern.

  2. Solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration: A superposed epoch analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Li, W.; Thorne, R. M.; Bortnik, J.; Baker, D. N.; Reeves, G. D.; Kanekal, S. G.; Spence, H. E.; Green, J. C.

    2015-09-07

    In this study by determining preferential solar wind conditions leading to efficient radiation belt electron acceleration is crucial for predicting radiation belt electron dynamics. Using Van Allen Probes electron observations (>1 MeV) from 2012 to 2015, we identify a number of efficient and inefficient acceleration events separately to perform a superposed epoch analysis of the corresponding solar wind parameters and geomagnetic indices. By directly comparing efficient and inefficient acceleration events, we clearly show that prolonged southward Bz, high solar wind speed, and low dynamic pressure are critical for electron acceleration to >1 MeV energies in the heart of the outer radiation belt. We also evaluate chorus wave evolution using the superposed epoch analysis for the identified efficient and inefficient acceleration events and find that chorus wave intensity is much stronger and lasts longer during efficient electron acceleration events, supporting the scenario that chorus waves play a key role in MeV electron acceleration.

  3. Middle atmosphere NO/x/ production due to ion propulsion induced radiation belt proton precipitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aikin, A. C.; Jackman, C. H.

    1980-01-01

    The suggestion that keV Ar(+) resulting from ion propulsion operations during solar power satellite construction could cause energetic proton precipitation from the inner radiation belt is examined to determine if such precipitation could cause significant increases in middle atmosphere nitric oxide concentrations thereby adversely affecting stratospheric ozone. It is found that the initial production rate of NO (mole/cu cm-sec) at 50 km is 130 times that due to nitrous oxide reacting with excited oxygen. However, since the time required to empty the inner belt of protons is about 1 sec and short compared to the replenishment time due to neutron decay, precipitation of inner radiation belt protons will have no adverse atmospheric environmental effect.

  4. The long-term dynamical behavior of small bodies in the Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, Harold F.

    1991-08-01

    The results are presented from a new numerical technique to determine the long-term dynamical behavior of objects in the Kuiper belt. According to this model, it is possible for some objects that formed in a well-defined region of the Kuiper belt to have lifetimes of approximately 5 x 10 to the 9th yr, after which they leave the region between 30 and 100 AU. Therefore, the Kuiper belt can be the source of short-period comets. Objects tend to diffuse through a region 70 AU in extent on timescales that are on the order of the age of the solar system. Objects that form close to the orbit of Neptune have a significant chance of evolving to orbits with a greater than 100 AU. These objects can be effectively stored in these orbits for a very long time.

  5. Fore and aft elastic response characteristics of size 34x9.9, type 7, 14 ply-rated aircraft tires of bias ply, bias belted, and radial belted design. M.S. Thesis - George Washington Univ., Washington, D. C.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanner, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the fore-and-aft elastic response characteristics of aircraft tires of bias ply, bias-belted, and radial-belted design. The investigation consisted of: (1)static and rolling tests, (2)a statistical analysis which related the measured tire elastic characteristics to variations in the vertical load, inflation pressure, braking force and/or tire vertical deflection, and (3) a semi-empirical analysis which related the tire elastic behavior to measured wheel slippage during a steady-state braking. The results of this investigation indicate that the bias-belted tire has the largest spring constant value for most loading conditions and the radial-belted tire has the smallest spring constant value.

  6. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... occupying the berth during emergency conditions. (f) Each seat or berth, and its supporting structure, and... supporting structures may be determined by assuming that the critical load in the forward, sideward, downward... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support...

  7. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... occupying the berth during emergency conditions. (f) Each seat or berth, and its supporting structure, and... supporting structures may be determined by assuming that the critical load in the forward, sideward, downward... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support...

  8. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... occupying the berth during emergency conditions. (f) Each seat or berth, and its supporting structure, and... supporting structures may be determined by assuming that the critical load in the forward, sideward, downward... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support...

  9. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... occupying the berth during emergency conditions. (f) Each seat or berth, and its supporting structure, and... supporting structures may be determined by assuming that the critical load in the forward, sideward, downward... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support...

  10. 14 CFR 25.785 - Seats, berths, safety belts, and harnesses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... occupying the berth during emergency conditions. (f) Each seat or berth, and its supporting structure, and... supporting structures may be determined by assuming that the critical load in the forward, sideward, downward... must be protected from head injury by a safety belt and an energy absorbing rest that will support...

  11. Crop advisor perceptions of giant ragweed distribution, herbicide-resistance, and management in the Corn Belt

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Giant ragweed has been increasing as a major weed of row crops in North America. We conducted a web-based survey of Certified Crop Advisors in the Corn Belt to determine the current distribution of giant ragweed, the distribution of herbicide resistant populations, and management and ecological fact...

  12. Genetic structure of Dendroctonus mexicanus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) in the trans-Mexican volcanic belt.

    Treesearch

    Gerardo Zúniga; Ramón Cisneros; Yolanda Salinas-Moreno; Jane L. Hayes; John E. Rinehart

    2006-01-01

    It is assumed that geographic isolation of Dendroctonus Erichson species populations or their plant hosts determines genetic structure. This structure can be analyzed with respect to the biogeographic pattern that describes the species in a region. The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) is located between the Neartic and Neotropical regions and is...

  13. Rivet-fastener belt splices reduce conveyor downtime

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-11-01

    At Sahara Coal Co's No. 21 Mine in Illinois some 18 miles of conveyor belting are in underground use bringing coal from the faces to a main haulage conveyor which transports the coal to the surface. The belt material is nylon carcass with rubber cover. Because of relatively low roof clearance, thinner belt than is typically used underground is employed, since a 500 ft roll of thicker belting would be unable to negotiate low-clearance entries. This thinner belt material could not be spliced using conventional fasteners, but solid-plate rivetted splicing has been found to be satisfactory.

  14. Rear seat belt use as an indicator of safe road behaviour in a rapidly developing country.

    PubMed

    McIlvenny, Shirley; Al Mahrouqi, Fatma; Al Busaidi, Thuraiya; Al Nabhani, Ahmed; Al Hikmani, Fatma; Al Kharousi, Zaher; Al Mammari, Salima; Al Hoti, Anwaral; Al Shihi, Aysha; Al Lawati, Anwar; Al Kharousi, Ibtisam

    2004-11-01

    Injuries from road traffic accidents are set to become the second highest cause of disability-adjusted life years lost in developing countries by 2020. The number of injuries and deaths are disproportionately high in low income countries, which account for only 40% of all motor vehicles. Human behaviour is thought to be a major factor in most accidents. In Oman wearing a seat belt is compulsory in the front seats but not in the rear. Wearing a seat belt can reduce the severity of injuries when sitting in rear seats. This study examines the use of seat belts in cars entering a university and hospital campus in Oman to determine the degree of seat belt wearing in the rear. At peak times on a selected day, cars were stopped at the university's entrance barrier. The type of driver was identified - student, employee, hospital patient or visitor - and the degree of seat belt wearing among driver and passengers was noted. A total of 1,066 cars were stopped. Of this total, 90.1% of drivers and 80.9% of front seat passengers were wearing a restraint complying with Local traffic regulations. However, only 1.4% of back seat passengers wore a seat belt. Only 3.7% of children under the age of five were restrained in a child seat and only 16.7% of five- to 12-year-olds were strapped in. A third (34.6%) of under-fives were sitting in the front seat. In cars with child occupants, 40% of the time parents wore seat belts but the children did not. Occupants conformed to the law but behaviour indicated a lack of awareness of the dangers of not wearing seat belts, especially towards children. Traffic regulations need to be updated and the public educated about the need to wear seat belts. Health agencies could be more active in educating the public about road safety behaviour and should also be involved in the overall strategy to reduce injuries and deaths.

  15. The prediction of filter belt press dewatering efficiency for activated sludge by experimentation on filtration compression cells.

    PubMed

    Olivier, J; Vaxelaire, J

    2004-12-01

    The filter belt press is commonly used to dewater activated sludge. However, little research has been done on this process and the prediction of its efficiency. Experimentation has been carried out in a filtration compression cell (FCC) and in a pilot scale filter belt press. It offers a way of determining filter belt press efficiency thanks to simple laboratory research. The pressure distribution around the pressing roller was measured inside the pilot scale filter belt press. It showed progressive increase (up to a certain maximum value: plateau), which was followed by a rapid decrease. The impact of the progressive increase of applied pressure onto the dry solid sludge content was observed in FCC. Similar dry solid contents were obtained from both the above laboratory devices when the application of the pressure is comparable (in time and increasing rate).

  16. Seat Belt Use Among Adult Workers - 21 States, 2013.

    PubMed

    Boal, Winifred L; Li, Jia; Rodriguez-Acosta, Rosa L

    2016-06-17

    Roadway incidents involving motorized vehicles accounted for 24% of fatal occupational injuries in the United States during 2013 and were the leading cause of fatal injuries among workers.* In 2013, workers' compensation costs for serious, nonfatal injuries among work-related roadway incidents involving motorized land vehicles were estimated at $2.96 billion.(†) Seat belt use is a proven method to reduce injuries to motor vehicle occupants (1). Use of lap/shoulder seat belts reduces the risk for fatal injuries to front seat occupants of cars by 45% and the risk to light truck occupants by 60%.(§) To characterize seat belt use among adult workers by occupational group, CDC analyzed data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and found that not always using a seat belt was significantly associated with occupational group after controlling for factors known to influence seat belt use. Occupational groups with the highest prevalences of not always using a seat belt included construction and extraction; farming, fishing, and forestry; and installation, maintenance, and repair. To increase seat belt use among persons currently employed, states can enact and enforce primary seat belt laws, employers can set and enforce safety policies requiring seat belt use by all vehicle occupants, and seat belt safety advocates can target interventions to workers in occupational groups with lower reported seat belt use.

  17. The chemical structure of the Main-Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carry, Benoit; DeMeo, Francesca

    2015-08-01

    The asteroid main belt between Mars and Jupiter holds evidences from the early Solar System history. The original chemical stratification of the accretion disk has been scrambled by planetary migrations, resulting in a radial mixing of compositions. Since the 1970s, spectral surveys have characterized the surface compositions of the largest members first, then of smaller bodies, slowly tapering into the size-frequency distribution. These surveys led to major discoveries, including the succession of dominating taxonomic classes along heliocentric distances, stained by the presence of interlopers in this over-arching structure. In the 2000s, these results have sustained the emergence of the current paradigm of Solar System formation: the Nice model, in which planets migrated from their formation locations to their current orbits.Since then, all-sky surveys in the visible and mid-infrared, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and NASA WISE mission, have observed tens of thousands of asteroids, allowing characterization of their surface composition and estimation of their diameter. Simultaneously, our knowledge on asteroid density greatly improved: the sample of density determinations presented a tenfold increase. Such a rich dataset opened the possibility to scrutinize asteroid compositions to smaller sizes and to study the distribution of material in the main belt by mass, rather than by numbers. The picture resulting from these data go back over the previous view, and the few interlopers seem to be rule. The large scale structure seen on the largest bodies holds, but mixing increases at smaller sizes. This detailed picture supports the main results from recent dynamical models of planetary migration and radial mixing of smaller bodies, albeit several observed structures remain yet to be explained: numerous primitive D-type in the inner belt, apparently missing mantle counterpart (A-types) to the crustal and iron core-like (V- and M-types) material.Observational evidences

  18. Optimization of measurements of the Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Podzolko, M. V.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Brilkov, I. A.; Vlasova, N. A.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Osedlo, V. I.; Tulupov, V. I.; Yashin, I. V.

    2017-03-01

    The Earth's radiation belts discovered at the end of the 1950s have great scientific and practical interest. Their main characteristics in magnetically quiet periods are well known. However, the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts during magnetic storms and substorms, particularly the dynamics of relativistic electrons of the outer belt, when Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes undergo significant time variations, is studied insufficiently. At present, principally new experiments have been performed and planned with the intention to better study the dynamics of the Earth's radiation belts and to operationally control the space-energy distributions of the Earth's radiation belt particle fluxes. In this paper, for spacecraft designed to measure the fluxes of electrons and protons of the Earth's radiation belts at altitudes of 0.5-10000 km, the optimal versions for detector orientation and orbital parameters have been considered and selected.

  19. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, James C.; Simpson, Robert W.

    2013-01-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  20. Clustering of velocities in a GPS network spanning the Sierra Nevada Block, the Northern Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt, California-Nevada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, J. C.; Simpson, R. W.

    2013-09-01

    The deformation across the Sierra Nevada Block, the Walker Lane Belt, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt (CNSB) between 38.5°N and 40.5°N has been analyzed by clustering GPS velocities to identify coherent blocks. Cluster analysis determines the number of clusters required and assigns the GPS stations to the proper clusters. The clusters are shown on a fault map by symbols located at the positions of the GPS stations, each symbol representing the cluster to which the velocity of that GPS station belongs. Fault systems that separate the clusters are readily identified on such a map. Four significant clusters are identified. Those clusters are strips separated by (from west to east) the Mohawk Valley-Genoa fault system, the Pyramid Lake-Wassuk fault system, and the Central Nevada Seismic Belt. The strain rates within the westernmost three clusters approximate simple right-lateral shear (~13 nstrain/a) across vertical planes roughly parallel to the cluster boundaries. Clustering does not recognize the longitudinal segmentation of the Walker Lane Belt into domains dominated by either northwesterly trending, right-lateral faults or northeasterly trending, left-lateral faults.

  1. Subaru Main Belt Asteroid Survey (SMBAS)—Size and color distributions of small main-belt asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, F.; Nakamura, T.

    2007-06-01

    Since February, 2001, we have been conducting a series of survey observations to investigate the physical property of very small Main Belt Asteroids (sub-km MBAs) using the Subaru prime-focus camera (Suprime-Cam) attached to the 8.2 m Subaru telescope. We call our surveys "SMBAS: Subaru Main-Belt Asteroids Survey". This paper presents the results of the second SMBAS (SMBAS-II) which was performed in October 2001. In SMBAS-II, a˜4.0deg2 sky area near the opposition and near the ecliptic was surveyed with the R- and B-bands. We detected 1838 moving objects up to R˜25mag. In SMBAS-II, we could not determine the exact orbits of the objects, because of the short observational arc of only ˜40min. Instead, we statistically estimated the semi-major axis ( a) of each moving object from its apparent sky-motion vector assuming its circular orbit and then, we used the a's to select MBAs and to estimate their absolute magnitudes ( H). The limiting magnitude of SMBAS-II for MBAs was R˜24.2 mag. It corresponds to H˜20 mag at the outer edge of main belt. Thus, assuming their mean albedos, down to D˜0.3 km of S-type asteroids and 0.6 km of C-type asteroids were detected in SMBAS-II. We found that the slopes ( b) of the cumulative size distribution (CSD) (i.e. N(>D)∝D, D: diameter) for sub-km MBAs ranging from 0.6 to 1 km in diameter is 1.29±0.02. Our b value (1.29) is much shallower than those ( ˜ 1.8) of the Palomer Leiden Survey (PLS) [van Houten, C.J., van Houten, G.I., Herget, P., Gehrels, T., 1970. The Palomar-Leiden survey of faint minor planets. Astr. Astrophys. Suppl. 2, 339-448] and Spacewatch surveys [Jedicke, R., Metcalfe, T.S., 1998. The orbital and absolute magnitude distributions of main belt asteroids. Icarus 131, 245-260.] for larger asteroids ( D>5 km) and almost consistent with that (1.3) of SDSS [Ivezić, Ž., Tabachnik, S., Rafikov, R., Lupton, R.H., Quinn, T., Hammergren, M., Eyer, L., Chu, J., Armstrong, J.C., Fan, X., Finlator, K., Geballe, T

  2. Dynamic load sharing for conveyor belts with multiple drive stations

    SciTech Connect

    Churchill, F.T.

    1995-05-01

    The characteristics and limitations of multiple drive station belt conveyors are explored and a computational method is presented as a means of providing drive coordination which can skirt some of the limitations. This paper will describe some of the design parameters of concern for belt conveyors, including belt tension and how it varies with load, how the unpredictably non-uniform loading of the belt affects performance, and will explore the relationship of friction between the belt and a drive pulley and how this limits the amount of horsepower which can be transmitted to the belt. The way in which these parameters change in configurations with multiple drives and multiple drive stations is outlined. The two main means of employing booster drives are presented; tripper booster and linear booster. The tripper booster technology is amenable to tension control, in which the torque provided by each drive station is controlled by the tension in the belt measured immediately downstream of the drive station. This approach has proved successful in belt systems with as many as four booster drive stations, operating at belt loads in excess of 3200 tons per hour over 12,000 ft of belt. The linear booster arrangement does not allow a convenient method of measuring belt tension, thus a computational algorithm was devised to take advantage of the geometry of the belt system to control tension of the belt within certain limits without the use of tension feedback. This approach has proven useful in 10,000 foot belt system which has a single booster drive station, operating at loads up to 4000 tons per hour.

  3. MEMS pressure belt with sensor interface and communication architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eccles, Lee H.; Catlin, Wayne; Holland, Mark J.; Kim, Namsoo P.; Malchodi, Larry

    2001-08-01

    Boeing utilizes many different sensor types and their associated electronic systems for aircraft testing. An array of sensors are being used to determine the load on the wings of an aircraft. We have developed a MEMS sensor network, which takes advantage of this technology. In this paper, we report the development of a 'pressure belt' containing a electronic packaging configuration incorporating MEMS pressure sensors and multi-chip modules. A thin profile of less than 0.070 inch was required for aerodynamic reasons. The MCM substrate was fabricated on oxidized silicon using copper as the conductor and photo-sensitive polyimide as the dielectric material. Direct-chip-attachment (flip chip) process was used to bond the MEMS device to the module and the bus connection was conducted through embedded copper on a flex PCB to the host computer. An encapsulation material for the protection of the bare electronic components was selected for improving the reliability of the module. Improvements in the signal conditioning and processing are being incorporated into the pressure belt. The design includes a signal conditioning unit that includes analog to digital conversion, a digital filter, temperature compensation and conversion to engineering units.

  4. Future Rangeland Ecosystems in the Dryland Belt of Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Jiaguo

    2015-04-01

    One of the greatest challenges humans are facing is sustainably managing water and land resources under changing global environment. This issue is especially pertinent in dryland belt in Asia where freshwater is scarce and shared among many nations. The region is heavily dependent on the diminishing Himalayan glaciers and limited and changing precipitation patterns. With increasing climate variability and a regional warming trend water security issues are acute and if not properly addressed could affect regional stability and lead to international conflicts. Solutions to these urgent regional issues are lacking and further research efforts are needed. Adaptive strategies addressing the complex and multifaceted water resource issues in the region will require a co-design and co-delivery of knowledge specific to the region and must consider exogenous factors such as policies of neighbouring countries and changing precipitation patterns due to climate change. There is a need to determine and fund scientific research priorities and practical approaches co-developed by local stakeholders and scientists to change the region's paradigm to "science for society". This presentation will summarize the collective outcome from a focused group discussion at the international workshop on "Future Earth and Science for Society" to be held from February 25-27, 2015 at Michigan State University, including knowledge gaps, research priorities, a general framework and international collaborations to move forward to addressing the future of the dyrland belt of Asia.

  5. Recent Arecibo Radar Observations of Main-Belt Asteroids.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shepard, Michael K.; Howell, Ellen; Nolan, Michael; Taylor, Patrick; Springmann, Alessondra; Giorgini, Jon; Benner, Lance; Magri, Christopher

    2014-11-01

    We recently observed main-belt asteroids 12 Victoria (Tholen S-class, Bus L-class), 246 Asporina (A-class), and 2035 Stearns with the S-band (12 cm) Arecibo radar. Signal-to-noise ratios for Asporina and Stearns were only strong enough for continuous-wave (CW) analysis. Signal-to-noise ratios for Victoria were high enough for delay-Doppler imaging. Stearns exhibited a high radar polarization ratio of unity, higher than any other main-belt E-class, but similar to near-Earth E-class asteroids [Benner et al. Icarus 198, 294-304, 2008; Shepard et al. Icarus 215, 547-551, 2011]. The A-class asteroids show spectral absorption features consistent with olivine and have been suggested as the source of pallasite meteorites or the rare brachinites [Cruikshank and Hartmann, Science 223, 281-283, 1984]. The radar cross-section measured for Asporina leads to a radar albedo estimate of 0.11, suggesting a low near-surface bulk density, and by inference, a low metal content. This suggests that the brachinites are a better analog for Asporina than the iron-rich pallasites. Victoria has been observed by radar in the past and the continuous-wave echoes suggest it has a large concavity or is a contact binary [Mitchell et al. Icarus 118, 105-131, 1995]. Our new imaging observations should determine which is more likely.

  6. Precise Astrometry for Predicting Kuiper Belt Object Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Person, Michael; Zuluaga, Carlos; Bosh, Amanda

    2012-08-01

    Occultations by Kuiper Belt objects remain elusive events, requiring precision astrometry for these faint bodies in the outer solar system. Routine astrometry provides data that are crucial for our KBO ephemeris correction models, which then allow accurate shadow track predictions. Through the occultation events the diameters, possible companions and tenuous atmospheres around these objects will be explored by examining how the light from the star varies as the KBO passes in front of it. This is a powerful way to determine the physical characteristics of the KBOs. We propose to obtain very precise astrometry on 20 of the brightest known KBOs to determine more accurate orbits and thus reliable occultation predictions. We also require telescope time to obtain precise astrometry on possible stars that will be occulted by a KBO in the future.

  7. Precise Astrometry for Predicting Kuiper Belt Object Occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, Scott; Person, Michael; Zuluaga, Carlos; Bosh, Amanda

    2013-02-01

    Occultations by Kuiper Belt objects remain elusive events, requiring precision astrometry for these faint bodies in the outer solar system. Routine astrometry provides data that are crucial for our KBO ephemeris correction models, which then allow accurate shadow track predictions. Through the occultation events the diameters, possible companions and tenuous atmospheres around these objects will be explored by examining how the light from the star varies as the KBO passes in front of it. This is a powerful way to determine the physical characteristics of the KBOs. We propose to obtain very precise astrometry on 10 of the brightest known KBOs to determine more accurate orbits and thus reliable occultation predictions. We also require telescope time to obtain precise astrometry on possible stars that will be occulted by a KBO in the future.

  8. Quaoar: A Rock in the Kuiper Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-05-01

    Here we report Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the Quaoar-Weywot Kuiper Belt binary. From these observations, we find that Weywot is on an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.14 ± 0.04, a period of 12.438 ± 0.005 days, and a semimajor axis of 1.45 ± 0.08 × 104 km. The orbit reveals a surprisingly high-Quaoar-Weywot system mass of (1.6 ± 0.3) × 1021 kg. Using the surface properties of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites as a proxy for Quaoar's surface, we reanalyze the size estimate from Brown & Trujillo. We find, from a mean of available published size estimates, a diameter for Quaoar of 890 ± 70 km. We find Quaoar's density to be ρ = 4.2 ± 1.3gcm-3, possibly the highest density in the Kuiper Belt.

  9. A belted kingfisher flies above KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A belted kingfisher soars over the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The pigeon-sized, blue-gray male is identified by the blue-gray breast band; females show a chestnut belly band. The belted kingfisher ranges throughout the United States and Canada, wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. They dive into the water for fish and may also take crabs, crayfish, salamanders, lizards, mice and insects. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  10. QUAOAR: A ROCK IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Fraser, Wesley C.; Brown, Michael E.

    2010-05-10

    Here we report Wide-Field Planetary Camera 2 observations of the Quaoar-Weywot Kuiper Belt binary. From these observations, we find that Weywot is on an elliptical orbit with an eccentricity of 0.14 {+-} 0.04, a period of 12.438 {+-} 0.005 days, and a semimajor axis of 1.45 {+-} 0.08 x 10{sup 4} km. The orbit reveals a surprisingly high-Quaoar-Weywot system mass of (1.6 {+-} 0.3) x 10{sup 21} kg. Using the surface properties of the Uranian and Neptunian satellites as a proxy for Quaoar's surface, we reanalyze the size estimate from Brown and Trujillo. We find, from a mean of available published size estimates, a diameter for Quaoar of 890 {+-} 70 km. We find Quaoar's density to be {rho} = 4.2 {+-} 1.3gcm{sup -3}, possibly the highest density in the Kuiper Belt.

  11. Potential Greenstone Belt Continuity Undercover, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Álvarez, I.; Aurore, J.; McCuaig, C. T.; Alok, P.

    2009-05-01

    The Zimbabwean craton is one of the most metal-endowed cratons on the Earth with abundant deposits of Au, Ni, Cr and PGE that are spatially and genetically associated with greenstone belts. This study aims at tracing the possible undercover continuity of these greenstone belts. A conjunctive interpretation of regional-scale geological, gravity and magnetic data was carried out, focusing on the Harare-Shamva region, NE Zimbabwe. The datasets used in the study included: (1) public geological maps and reports; (2) Zimbabwean Government aeromagnetic surveys (1983-1992) with line spacing and terrain clearance ranging 250-1000 m, and 120-305 m, respectively; and (3) the national gravity dataset of Zimbabwe (1996) with >12,000 gravity measurements. The Harare-Shamva gravity coverage corresponds to one station per ˜10 km2. A digital elevation model was generated from the NASA's Shuttle Radar Topography Mission data (90m resolution) to preprocess the gravity data. Standard gravity corrections, namely, the latitude, free-air, Bouguer- slab and terrain corrections, were applied to the observed gravity data. A distance of 167 km was used for the terrain correction, and an average density value of 2.67 g.cm3 (expected granite density) was used for the Bouguer-slab correction. In the Harare-Shamva area, long wavelength Bouguer anomalies were filtered out by applying a second-order polynomial and extracting the residual anomalies interpreted as representing the effect of density heterogeneities located below the surface down to a depth of ˜10 km. These residual gravity anomalies are used to characterize the geometry of the greenstone bodies in the area. Based on the composite Bouguer map, positive anomalies are associated with the geometry of the Harare, Shamva, Mutoko, Guruve, Filabusi, Masvingo, Fort Rixon, Shangani, Bulawayo and Gwanda greenstone belts. These greenstone belts comprise metamorphosed ultramafic-mafic suites that are intercalated with felsic volcanics

  12. A belted kingfisher flies above KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    A belted kingfisher soars over the Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, which shares a boundary with Kennedy Space Center. The pigeon-sized, blue-gray male is identified by the blue-gray breast band; females show a chestnut belly band. The belted kingfisher ranges throughout the United States and Canada, wintering south to Panama and the West Indies. They dive into the water for fish and may also take crabs, crayfish, salamanders, lizards, mice and insects. The 92,000-acre refuge is a habitat for more than 310 species of birds, 25 mammals, 117 fishes and 65 amphibians and reptiles. The marshes and open water of the refuge also provide wintering areas for 23 species of migratory waterfowl, as well as a year-round home for great blue herons, great egrets, wood storks, cormorants, brown pelicans and other species of marsh and shore birds.

  13. High-energy proton radiation belt.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    The experiments and theories to explain the high-energy protons trapped in the earth's radiation belt are reviewed. The theory of cosmic ray albedo neutron decay injection of protons into the radiation belt is discussed. Radial diffusion and change in the earth's dipole moment are considered along with losses of protons by ionization and nuclear collision. It is found that the measured albedo neutron escape current is sufficient to supply trapped protons above 30 MeV. The theoretical calculations of the trapped protons are in agreement with the measurements for L less than or equal to 1.7 both on and off the equator. For L greater than or equal to 1.7, additional trapped proton differential energy measurements should be made before the theory can be adequately tested. It appears that an additional loss mechanism such as pitch angle scattering may be required.

  14. Ionic composition of the earth's radiation belts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spjeldvik, W. N.

    1983-01-01

    Several different ion species have been positively identified in the earth's radiation belts. Besides protons, there are substantial fluxes of helium, carbon and oxygen ions, and there are measurable quantities of even heavier ions. European, American and Soviet space experimenters have reported ion composition measurements over wide ranges of energies: at tens of keV (ring-current energies) and below, and at hundreds of keV and above. There is still a gap in the energy coverage from several tens to several hundreds of keV where little observational data are available. In this review emphasis is placed on the radiation belt ionic structure above 100 keV. Both quiet time conditions and geomagnetic storm periods are considered, and comparison of the available space observations is made with theoretical analysis of geomagnetically trapped ion spatial, energy and charge state distributions.

  15. Habitat Suitability Index Models: Belted kingfisher

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prose, Bart L.

    1985-01-01

    A review and synthesis of existing information were used to develop a Habitat Suitability Index (HSI) model for the belted kingfisher (Ceryle alcyon). The model consolidates habitat use information into a framework appropriate for field application, and is scaled to produce an index between 0.0 (unsuitable habitat) to 1.0 (optimum habitat). HSI models are designed to be used with Habitat Evaluation Procedures previously developed by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service.

  16. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison

    This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1).

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present.

    The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight.

    In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.)

    In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  17. Alien Asteroid Belt Compared to our Own

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1: Band of Light Comparison

    This artist's concept illustrates what the night sky might look like from a hypothetical alien planet in a star system with an asteroid belt 25 times as massive as the one in our own solar system (alien system above, ours below; see Figure 1).

    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope found evidence for such a belt around the nearby star called HD 69830, when its infrared eyes spotted dust, presumably from asteroids banging together. The telescope did not find any evidence for a planet in the system, but astronomers speculate one or more may be present.

    The movie begins at dusk on the imaginary world, when HD 69830, like our Sun, has begun to set over the horizon. Time is sped up to show the onset of night and the appearance of a brilliant band of light. This light comes from dust in a massive asteroid belt, which scatters sunlight.

    In our solar system, anybody observing the skies on a moonless night far from city lights can see the sunlight that is scattered by dust in our asteroid belt. Called zodiacal light and sometimes the 'false dawn,' this light appears as a dim band stretching up from the horizon when the Sun is about to rise or set. The light is faint enough that the disk of our Milky Way galaxy remains the most prominent feature in the sky. (The Milky Way disk is shown perpendicular to the zodiacal light in both pictures.)

    In contrast, the zodiacal light in the HD 69830 system would be 1,000 times brighter than our own, outshining even the Milky Way.

  18. Greenstone belts: Their components and structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vearncombe, J. R.; Barton, J. M., Jr.; Vanreenen, D. D.; Phillips, G. N.; Wilson, A. H.

    1986-01-01

    Greenstone sucessions are defined as the nongranitoid component of granitoid-greenstone terrain and are linear to irregular in shape and where linear are termed belts. The chemical composition of greenstones is described. Also discussed are the continental environments of greenstone successions. The effects of contact with granitoids, geophysical properties, recumbent folds and late formation structures upon greenstones are examined. Large stratigraphy thicknesses are explained.

  19. Controlled Precipitation of Radiation Belt Particles

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-08-23

    in support of the Air Force’s TIPER program, as well AFRL/NRL’s Injected whistler Precipitating HAARP facility in Gakona,waves Electrons Alaska. The...does LEP play in the losses of >100 keV radiation belt particles? (I A II II. Amplitude Data for 28- Mar -2001 47 N A A -LV t 9.." - 9.52" ---(b) -- SA

  20. The Kuiper Belt of Four Gigayears Ago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhotra, Renu

    2008-09-01

    The Kuiper belt is largely dynamically stable on gigayear timescales, but weak orbital instabilities - also known as chaotic diffusion - have eroded its population by several tens of percent over the past 4 gigayears. Each of the dynamical subclasses in the Kuiper belt has slightly different loss rates. In this paper, I reconstruct the populations of the different subclasses as they were 4 gigayears ago, an epoch when the presently observed dynamical structure is thought to have been established. This exercise shows that the resonant/classical population ratio was significantly higher in the past, as also the scattered/classical population ratio; the resonant Twotino/Plutino population ratio was also much greater in the past. Such a historical projection is necessary for testing and constraining theories for the origin of the dynamical structure of the Kuiper belt. The differential loss rates of the various KB dynamical classes are also of interest for understanding the sources of impactors that are recorded in the impact craters on solid planetary bodies, as well as for establishing the provenance of transient small bodies, such as the Centaurs and the Jupiter family comets. This research was supported in part by grants from NASA's Origins of Solar Systems and Outer Planets Research programs.

  1. CHAOTIC DIFFUSION OF RESONANT KUIPER BELT OBJECTS

    SciTech Connect

    Tiscareno, Matthew S.; Malhotra, Renu

    2009-09-15

    We carried out extensive numerical orbit integrations to probe the long-term chaotic dynamics of the two strongest mean-motion resonances of Neptune in the Kuiper Belt, the 3:2 (Plutinos) and 2:1 (Twotinos). Our primary results include a computation of the relative volumes of phase space characterized by large- and small-resonance libration amplitudes, and maps of resonance stability measured by mean chaotic diffusion rate. We find that Neptune's 2:1 resonance has weaker overall long-term stability than the 3:2-only {approx}15% of Twotinos are projected to survive for 4 Gyr, compared to {approx}27% of Plutinos, based on an extrapolation from our 1-Gyr integrations. We find that Pluto has only a modest effect, causing a {approx}4% decrease in the Plutino population that survives to 4 Gyr. Given current observational estimates, and assuming an initial distribution of particles proportional to the local phase-space volume in the resonance, we conclude that the primordial populations of Plutinos and Twotinos formerly made up more than half the population of the classical and resonant Kuiper Belt. We also conclude that Twotinos were originally nearly as numerous as Plutinos; this is consistent with predictions from early models of smooth giant planet migration and resonance sweeping of the Kuiper Belt and provides a useful constraint for more detailed models.

  2. Are the main belt comets, comets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Licandro, Javier; Campins, Humberto

    We present the visible spectrum of asteroid-comet transition object 133P/Elst-Pizarro (7968), the first member of the new population of objects called Main Belt Comets (Hsieh & Jewitt 2006). The spectrum was obtained with the 4.2m William Herschel Telescope at the “Roque de los Muchachos” observatory. The orbital elements of 133P place it within the Themis collisional family, but the observed cometary activity during it last 3 perihelion passages also suggest a possible origin in the trans-Neptunian belt or the Oort Cloud, the known sources of comets. We found a clear similarity between our spectrum of 133P and those of other members of the Themis family such as 62 Erato, and a strong contrast with those of cometary nuclei, such as 162P/Siding-Spring. This spectral comparison leads us to conclude that 133P is unlikely to have a cometary origin. This conclusion is strengthened by spectral similarities with activated near-Earth asteroid 3200 Phaethon, and suggest that there are activated asteroids in the near-Earth asteroid and main belt populations with similar surface properties.

  3. A binary main-belt comet.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Mutchler, Max; Weaver, Harold; Larson, Stephen

    2017-09-20

    Asteroids are primitive Solar System bodies that evolve both collisionally and through disruptions arising from rapid rotation. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids and to the release of dust, both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a subset of the asteroids called main-belt comets, the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei. The kilometre-sized main-belt asteroid 288P (300163) showed activity for several months around its perihelion 2011 (ref. 11), suspected to be sustained by the sublimation of water ice and supported by rapid rotation, while at least one component rotates slowly with a period of 16 hours (ref. 14). The object 288P is part of a young family of at least 11 asteroids that formed from a precursor about 10 kilometres in diameter during a shattering collision 7.5 million years ago. Here we report that 288P is a binary main-belt comet. It is different from the known asteroid binaries in its combination of wide separation, near-equal component size, high eccentricity and comet-like activity. The observations also provide strong support for sublimation as the driver of activity in 288P and show that sublimation torques may play an important part in binary orbit evolution.

  4. What is a radiation belt enhancement event?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reeves, G. D.; Niehof, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Statistical studies of radiation belt enhancement events typically rely on other observations to define an "event". Those other observations could be based on Dst, solar wind speed, CME or CIR occurrence, etc. It is also interesting to start with an electron event and ask which geomagnetic or solar wind driving conditions are (or are not) related to those events. However, such studies have been hindered by the absence of a uniform, quantitative definition of "events". This is particularly true in phases of the solar cycle where background radiation belt fluxes are low but relative changes are large. Such events would be missed by picking an arbitrary flux threshold to define events. We examine two solar cycles of geosynchronous measurements to define the probability distribution of events with both fixed and solar cycle-dependent event criteria. These distributions allow us to define events based on radiation belt electron data alone, to classify types of enhancement events, and to ask: What conditions produced that class of events? The same distributions have important space weather forecasting applications as well. We can now quantify the criteria that define enhancement events that can be expected to occur once per month, once per year, or once per solar cycle.

  5. EMIC Waves in the Radiation Belts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usanova, M.; Mann, I. R.; Drozdov, A.; Orlova, K.; Shprits, Y.; Darrouzet, F.; Ergun, R.

    2014-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) waves are believed to be important for influencing the dynamics of energetic particles in the inner magnetosphere - both ring current ions and radiation belt electrons - causing particle precipitation into the atmosphere. EMIC waves are generated from unstable ion distributions as a result of ion temperature anisotropy, with the ion dynamics being modified self-consistently by the growth of the EMIC instability. EMIC waves are also thought to influence higher energy electrons in the Van Allen belts through a Doppler shifted cyclotron resonance, including changes in electron pitch-angle distributions and electron scattering loss into the atmosphere. We will present some of the latest results addressing EMIC wave distribution, solar wind and magnetospheric conditions favorable for their generation and their role in energetic particle loss in the inner magnetosphere. We will focus on results from recent satellite missions including THEMIS and Cluster, as well as some of the latest results from the Van Allen Probes. We will also highlight the value of data from networks of modern ground-based magnetometers in providing continuous monitoring over global scales, especially in conjunction with in-situ measurements from satellites. Such coordinated ground-satellite conjunction studies represent a powerful tool for understanding the self-consistent and cross-energy coupling in the inner magnetosphere between ring current ions and radiation belt electrons via the intermediary of EMIC waves.

  6. Perceptual findings on the broadway belt voice.

    PubMed

    DeLeo LeBorgne, Wendy; Lee, Linda; Stemple, Joseph C; Bush, Heather

    2010-11-01

    The present study required raters (casting directors) to evaluate the belt voice quality of 20 musical theater majors who were proficient in the singing style referred to as belting. Two specified vocalizes and six short excerpts from the belting repertoire were used for rating purposes. The raters were asked to judge the belters on a set of seven perceptual parameters (loudness, vibrato, ring, timbre, focus, nasality, and registration breaks), and then report an overall score for these student belters. The four highest and lowest average scores were used to establish the elite and average student belters. A correlation analysis and linear regression analysis provided insight regarding which perceptual judgments correlated most highly with the elite and average scores. The present study found the perceptual ratings of vibrato and ring to be most highly correlated to the elite student belter. In addition, vibrato and ring were found to highly correlate with perceived loudness. Copyright © 2010 The Voice Foundation. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Substyles of belting: phonatory and resonatory characteristics.

    PubMed

    Sundberg, Johan; Thalén, Margareta; Popeil, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Belting has been described as speechlike, yell-like, or shouting voice production commonly used in contemporary commercial music genres and substantially differing from the esthetic of the Western classical voice tradition. This investigation attempts to describe phonation and resonance characteristics of different substyles of belting (heavy, brassy, ringy, nasal, and speechlike) and the classical style. A professional singer and voice teacher, skilled in these genres, served as the single subject. The recorded material was found representative according to a classification test performed by an expert panel. Subglottal pressure was measured as the oral pressure during the occlusion for the consonant /p/. The voice source and formant frequencies were analyzed by inverse filtering the audio signal. The subglottal pressure and measured flow glottogram parameters differed clearly between the styles heavy and classical assuming opposite extremes in most parameters. The formant frequencies, by contrast, showed fewer less systematic differences between the substyles but were clearly separated from the classical style with regard to the first formant. Thus, the differences between the belting substyles mainly concerned the voice source.

  8. The atmospheric implications of radiation belt remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodger, C. J.; Clilverd, M. A.; Ulich, Th.; Verronen, P. T.; Turunen, E.; Thomson, N. R.

    2006-08-01

    High altitude nuclear explosions (HANEs) and geomagnetic storms can produce large scale injections of relativistic particles into the inner radiation belts. It is recognised that these large increases in >1 MeV trapped electron fluxes can shorten the operational lifetime of low Earth orbiting satellites, threatening a large, valuable population. Therefore, studies are being undertaken to bring about practical human control of the radiation belts, termed "Radiation Belt Remediation" (RBR). Here we consider the upper atmospheric consequences of an RBR system operating over either 1 or 10 days. The RBR-forced neutral chemistry changes, leading to NOx enhancements and Ox depletions, are significant during the timescale of the precipitation but are generally not long-lasting. The magnitudes, time-scales, and altitudes of these changes are no more significant than those observed during large solar proton events. In contrast, RBR-operation will lead to unusually intense HF blackouts for about the first half of the operation time, producing large scale disruptions to radio communication and navigation systems. While the neutral atmosphere changes are not particularly important, HF disruptions could be an important area for policy makers to consider, particularly for the remediation of natural injections.

  9. Rapid Rebuilding of the Outer Radiation Belt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glocer, A.; Fok, M.-C.; Nagai, T.; Toth, G.; Guild, T.; Bkake, J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent observations by the radiation monitor (RDM) on the spacecraft Akebono have shown several cases of greater than 2.5 MeV radiation belt electron enhancements occurring on timescales of less than a few hours. Similar enhancements are also seen in detectors on board the NOAA/POES and TWINS 1 satellites. These intervals are shorter than typical radial diffusion or wave-particle interactions can account for. We choose two so-called "rapid rebuilding" events that occur during high speed streams (4 September 2008 and 22 July 2009) and simulated them with the Space Weather Modeling Framework configured with global magnetosphere, radiation belt, ring current, and ionosphere electrodynamics model. Our simulations produce a weaker and delayed dipolarization as compared to observations, but the associated inductive electric field in the simulations is still strong enough to rapidly transport and accelerate MeV electrons resulting in an energetic electron flux enhancement that is somewhat weaker than is observed. Nevertheless, the calculated flux enhancement and dipolarization is found to be qualitatively consistent with the observations. Taken together, the modeling results and observations support the conclusion that storm-time dipolarization events in the magnetospheric magnetic field result in strong radial transport and energization of radiation belt electrons.

  10. The gravitational sculpting of the Kuiper belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levison, H. F.; Duncan, M. J.

    1993-03-01

    Results are presented of numerical integrations over billion year time scales of the orbital evolution of more than one thousand test particles on initially low-inclination, low-eccentricity orbits within the proposed Kuiper belt beyond Neptune. Particles which eventually crossed Neptune's orbit often showed long periods (up to several billion years) of relatively low-eccentricity oscillations punctuated by a very rapid jump to Neptune-crossing eccentricity. This flux may be the ultimate source of present-day short-period comets. It is found here that there exists a correlation between Liapunov and crossing times in the Kuiper belt. None of the particles in the study with Liapunov time scales greater than about 1 Myr actually became a Neptune-crosser in 4 Gyr. An intricate structure to the region between 35 and 45 AU is found at the end of the billion year simulation. Implications for the origins of short-period comets and the detectability of objects currently in the Kuiper belt are discussed.

  11. A binary main-belt comet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agarwal, Jessica; Jewitt, David; Mutchler, Max; Weaver, Harold; Larson, Stephen

    2017-09-01

    Asteroids are primitive Solar System bodies that evolve both collisionally and through disruptions arising from rapid rotation. These processes can lead to the formation of binary asteroids and to the release of dust, both directly and, in some cases, through uncovering frozen volatiles. In a subset of the asteroids called main-belt comets, the sublimation of excavated volatiles causes transient comet-like activity. Torques exerted by sublimation measurably influence the spin rates of active comets and might lead to the splitting of bilobate comet nuclei. The kilometre-sized main-belt asteroid 288P (300163) showed activity for several months around its perihelion 2011 (ref. 11), suspected to be sustained by the sublimation of water ice and supported by rapid rotation, while at least one component rotates slowly with a period of 16 hours (ref. 14). The object 288P is part of a young family of at least 11 asteroids that formed from a precursor about 10 kilometres in diameter during a shattering collision 7.5 million years ago. Here we report that 288P is a binary main-belt comet. It is different from the known asteroid binaries in its combination of wide separation, near-equal component size, high eccentricity and comet-like activity. The observations also provide strong support for sublimation as the driver of activity in 288P and show that sublimation torques may play an important part in binary orbit evolution.

  12. Mantle conveyor beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccenna, C.; Becker, T. W.

    2012-04-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic. While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing, in spite of large collisional resisting forces, and in the absence of a substantial, upper mantle slab driving force at present-day. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale, convective "conveyor belt" with an active upwelling component is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia

  13. Mantle conveyor beneath the Tethyan collisional belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Thorsten W.; Faccenna, Claudio

    2011-10-01

    Collisional belts are generated by the arrival of continental lithosphere into a subduction zone. The Tethyan suture from the Bitlis to the Himalayas is a prime example where the Arabian and Indian plates collided with Eurasia during the Cenozoic. While the kinematics of this process are well established, its dynamics are more uncertain. India and Arabia intriguingly keep advancing, in spite of large collisional resisting forces, and in the absence of a substantial, upper mantle slab driving force at present-day. We perform global mantle circulation computations to test the role of deep mantle flow as a driving force for the kinematics of the Tethyan collisional belt, evaluating different boundary conditions and mantle density distributions as inferred from seismic tomography or slab models. Our results show that mantle drag exerted on the base of the lithosphere by a large-scale, convective "conveyor belt" with an active upwelling component is likely the main cause for the ongoing indentation of the Indian and Arabian plates into Eurasia.

  14. Collisional parameters of planetesimal belts, precursor of debris discs, perturbed by a nearby giant planet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzari, F.; Dell'Oro, A.

    2017-04-01

    Planetesimal belts are invoked to explain the prolonged existence of debris discs. Important parameters to model their collisional evolution and to compute the dust production rate are the intrinsic probability of collision Pi and the mean impact velocity Uc. If a planet orbits close to the belt, the values of both these parameters are affected by its secular perturbations yielding a strong correlation between eccentricity e and pericentre longitude ϖ. We adopt a new algorithm to compute both Pi and Uc in the presence of various levels of secular correlation due to different ratios between proper and forced eccentricity. We tested this algorithm in a standard case with a Jupiter-sized planet orbiting inside a putative planetesimal belt finding that it is less collisionally active compared to a self-stirred belt because of the e-ϖ coupling. The eccentricity of the planet is an important parameter in determining the amount of dust production since the erosion rate is 10 times faster when the planet eccentricity increases from 0.1 to 0.6. Also the initial conditions of the belt (either warm or cold) and its average inclination strongly affect Pi and Uc and then its long-term collisional evolution in the presence of the planet. We finally apply our method to the planetesimal belts supposedly refilling the dust discs around HD 38529 and ɛ Eridani. In the most collisionally active configurations, only a small fraction of bodies smaller than 100 km are expected to be fragmented over a time-span of 4 Gyr.

  15. STIS Coronagraphic Imaging of Fomalhaut: Main Belt Structure and the Orbit of Fomalhaut b

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Clampin, Mark

    2013-01-01

    We present new optical coronagraphic data of Fomalhaut obtained with HST/STIS in 2010 and 2012. Fomalhaut b is recovered at both epochs to high significance. The observations include the discoveries of tenuous nebulosity beyond the main dust belt detected to at least 209AU projected radius, and a approx. 50AU wide azimuthal gap in the belt northward of Fomalhaut b. The two epochs of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) photometry exclude optical variability greater than 35%. A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis demonstrates that the orbit of Fomalhaut b is highly eccentric, with e = 0.8 +/- 0.1, a = 177 +/- 68AU, and q = 32 +/- 24AU. Fomalhaut b is apsidally aligned with the belt and 90% of allowed orbits have mutual inclination <=36 deg. Fomalhaut b's orbit is belt crossing in the sky plane projection, but only 12% of possible orbits have ascending or descending nodes within a 25AU wide belt annulus. The high eccentricity invokes a dynamical history where Fomalhaut b may have experienced a significant dynamical interaction with a hypothetical planet Fomalhaut c, and the current orbital configuration may be relatively short-lived. The Tisserand parameter with respect to a hypothetical Fomalhaut planet at 30AU or 120AU lies in the range 2-3, similar to highly eccentric dwarf planets in our solar system. We argue that Fomalhaut b's minimum mass is that of a dwarf planet in order for a circumplanetary satellite system to remain bound to a sufficient radius from the planet to be consistent with the dust scattered light hypothesis. In the coplanar case, Fomalhaut b will collide with the main belt around 2032, and the subsequent emergent phenomena may help determine its physical nature.

  16. STIS CORONAGRAPHIC IMAGING OF FOMALHAUT: MAIN BELT STRUCTURE AND THE ORBIT OF FOMALHAUT b

    SciTech Connect

    Kalas, Paul; Graham, James R.; Fitzgerald, Michael P.; Clampin, Mark

    2013-09-20

    We present new optical coronagraphic data of Fomalhaut obtained with HST/STIS in 2010 and 2012. Fomalhaut b is recovered at both epochs to high significance. The observations include the discoveries of tenuous nebulosity beyond the main dust belt detected to at least 209 AU projected radius, and a ∼50 AU wide azimuthal gap in the belt northward of Fomalhaut b. The two epochs of Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) photometry exclude optical variability greater than 35%. A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis demonstrates that the orbit of Fomalhaut b is highly eccentric, with e = 0.8 ± 0.1, a = 177 ± 68 AU, and q = 32 ± 24 AU. Fomalhaut b is apsidally aligned with the belt and 90% of allowed orbits have mutual inclination ≤36°. Fomalhaut b's orbit is belt crossing in the sky plane projection, but only 12% of possible orbits have ascending or descending nodes within a 25 AU wide belt annulus. The high eccentricity invokes a dynamical history where Fomalhaut b may have experienced a significant dynamical interaction with a hypothetical planet Fomalhaut c, and the current orbital configuration may be relatively short-lived. The Tisserand parameter with respect to a hypothetical Fomalhaut planet at 30 AU or 120 AU lies in the range 2-3, similar to highly eccentric dwarf planets in our solar system. We argue that Fomalhaut b's minimum mass is that of a dwarf planet in order for a circumplanetary satellite system to remain bound to a sufficient radius from the planet to be consistent with the dust scattered light hypothesis. In the coplanar case, Fomalhaut b will collide with the main belt around 2032, and the subsequent emergent phenomena may help determine its physical nature.

  17. Quantitative Comparison of Mountain Belt Topographic Profiles on Earth and Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, P. R.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's mountain belts result from interactions between tectonic plates. Several styles of belts reflect the differing nature of those interactions: The narrow spine of the Andes results from subduction of the oceanic Nazca plate under the continental South American plate, the soaring Himalayas from the collision of India and Asia, the broad Rockies and Alaskan cordillera from multiple collisions, and the gentle Appalachians and Urals are remnants from ancient collisions. Venus' mountain chains - Maxwell, Freyja, Akna and Danu - surround Lakshmi Planum, a highland with an elevation of 4 km. These make up Ishtar Terra. Maxwell Montes ascends to over 11 km, the highest elevation on the planet. Freyja rises just over 7 km and Akna to about 6 km. The arcuate Danu belt on Ishtar's western boundary comes up to only 1.5 km over the planum. No other mountain belts exist on Venus. The origins of these venusian orogenic belts remain unknown. Earliest explanations invoked subduction around Lakshmi Planum; subsequent models included either up- or down-welling of the mantle, horizontal convergence, or crustal thickening. We quantitatively compare topography of Venus' mountain chains with Earth's for similarities and differences. Patterns may provide clues to the dynamics forming venusian orogenic belts. To do this, we find topographic profiles across the various chains, determine average profiles for each, and then correlate averages to establish the degree of similarity. From this correlation we construct a covariance matrix, diagonalized for eigenvalues, or principal components. These can be displayed as profiles. Correlations and principal components allow us to assess the degree of similarity and variability of the shapes of the average profiles. These analyses thus offer independent and objective modes of comparison; for example, with respect to terrestrial mid-ocean ridges, some Venus chasmata were shown to most closely resemble the ultra-slow Arctic spreading center.

  18. Dynamical studies of Centaurs and their sources: interactions with the Main Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galiazzo, Mattia; Carruba, Valerio; Wiegert, Paul

    2015-08-01

    Centaurs are objects whose orbits are found between those of the giant planets. Their main source is presumed to be the Trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs), and they are among the sources of Near-Earth Objects. Their dynamical evolution is heavily influenced by close encounters with giant planets and some of them were most likely scattered into their current orbits. After experiencing close encounters with the giant planets, Centaurs may have their eccentricity increased to values large enough to reach the main belt (a<3.8 au) and even the region of the Near-Earth asteroids, with a perihelion, (q<1.3 au). Some may become short-period comets and a fraction falls into the Sun or become sun-grazers. In this work we propose to investigate the interactions of dynamically evolving Centaurs and other members of the outer Solar System (i.e. Plutinos and Trans-Neptunian objects which cross the orbit of Neptune) with main belt asteroids to determine if chaotic scattering caused by close encounters and impacts may have played (and/or still play) a role in the dynamical evolution of the main belt. Preliminary results show already that TNOs (larger than 100 km size) are capable of reaching the inner solar system and may cross the main belt several times during an interval of time at least of ~10 kyrs. Centaurs such as 1995 S1 can generate significant deflections to the orbits of main belt asteroids after close encounters. In particular, we plan to investigate if close encounters with large (diameters larger than 100 km) outer Solar System bodies could have been responsible for the scattering of V-type asteroids from the Vesta family beyond the 3J:1 mean motion resonance, into the central and outer main belt.

  19. Strain geometry, microstructure and metamorphism in the dextral transpressional Mubarak Shear Belt, Central Eastern Desert, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd El-Wahed, M. A.; Thabet, I. A.

    2017-07-01

    Mubarak shear belt provides an opportunity to investigate quantitative finite strain (Rs), proportions of pure shear and simple shear components, sense of shear indicators, subhorizontal to steeply plunging mineral lineations, in a dextral transpressional zone. The structural style of the Mubarak shear belt is consistent with dextral transpression within the Central Eastern Desert where dextral and reverse shear have developed simultaneously with the regional foliation. The high strain zone of the Mubarak shear belt is characterized by steeply dipping foliation with sub-horizontal stretching lineation (simple shear) surrounded by thrust imbrications with slightly plunging stretching lineations. Strain estimates from the Mubarak shear belt are used to determine how pure and simple shear components of deformation are partitioned. The axial ratios in XZ sections range from 1.16 to 2.33 with the maximum stretch, S X , ranges from 1.06 to 1.48. The minimum stretch, S Z , ranges from 0.65 to 0.92 indicating a moderate variation in vertical shortening. Volcaniclastic metasediments and metagabbros were subjected to prograde low-grade regional metamorphism in the range of greenschist to lower amphibolite facies (450-650°C at 2-4 kbar). Medium pressure (6-8 kbar at 530°C) was estimated from the high strain zone within the dextral strike-slip shear zones. Retrograde metamorphism occurred at a temperature range of 250-280°C. There is a trend towards decreasing the ratio of 100Mg/(Mg + Fetot + Mn) away from the high strain zone of the Mubarak shear belt. Integrated strain and temperature estimates indicate that the simple shear (non-coaxial) components of deformation played a significant role in formation and exhumation of the Mubarak shear belt during the accumulation of finite strain and consequently during progressive transpression and thrusting.

  20. Surface testing and evaluation of the conveyor belt service machine

    SciTech Connect

    Jaspal, J.S.; Miller, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    In underground room-and-pillar mining methods, the sectional conveyor belts are extended or retracted periodically to maintain shuttle car tramming distance to a minimum. A conventional conveyor belt extension or retraction is a heavy, arduous job that, if mechanized, has the potential to improve productivity and safety. This book presents a Bureau of Mines conveyor belt service machine (CBSM) reduced the burden of heavy work of this activity and mechanize it. The CBSM is a self-contained, battery-powered, rubber-tired vehicle capable of handling, storing, and transporting conveyor belting, wire rope, and associated belt structures in seams as low as 48 in. Belt extensions and retractions are accomplished by moving the tailpiece of a belt conveyor with the CBSM to the next position while dispensing or retrieving the belt, wire rope, and associated belt structures. The CBSM improves the belt extensions and retractions by making them easier and faster, and it utilizes fewer workers. The CBSM was surface tested at the Bureau's Mining Equipment Test Facility to evaluate its performance and reliability. Modifications were made to the CBSM to correct deficiencies found during surface testing.