Science.gov

Sample records for on-plant greenhouse selection

  1. Increased survival of western corn rootworm on transgenic corn within three generations of on-plant greenhouse selection.

    PubMed

    Meihls, Lisa N; Higdon, Matthew L; Siegfried, Blair D; Miller, Nicholas J; Sappington, Thomas W; Ellersieck, Mark R; Spencer, Terence A; Hibbard, Bruce E

    2008-12-09

    To delay evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, nearby "refuges" of host plants not producing Bt toxins are required in many regions. Such refuges are expected to be most effective in slowing resistance when the toxin concentration in Bt crops is high enough to kill all or nearly all insects heterozygous for resistance. However, Bt corn, Zea mays, introduced recently does not meet this "high-dose" criterion for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. A greenhouse method of rearing WCR on transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein was used in which approximately 25% of previously unexposed larvae survived relative to isoline survival (compared to 1-4% in the field). After three generations of full larval rearing on Bt corn (Constant-exposure colony), WCR larval survival was equivalent on Bt corn and isoline corn in greenhouse trials, and the LC(50) was 22-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than for the Control colony in diet bioassays with Cry3Bb1 protein on artificial diet. After six generations of greenhouse selection, the ratio of larval recovery on Bt corn to isoline corn in the field was 11.7-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than the Control colony. Removal from selection for six generations did not decrease survival on Bt corn in the greenhouse. The results suggest that rapid response to selection is possible in the absence of mating with unexposed beetles, emphasizing the importance of effective refuges for resistance management.

  2. Increased survival of western corn rootworm on transgenic corn within three generations of on-plant greenhouse selection

    PubMed Central

    Meihls, Lisa N.; Higdon, Matthew L.; Siegfried, Blair D.; Miller, Nicholas J.; Sappington, Thomas W.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Spencer, Terence A.; Hibbard, Bruce E.

    2008-01-01

    To delay evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, nearby “refuges” of host plants not producing Bt toxins are required in many regions. Such refuges are expected to be most effective in slowing resistance when the toxin concentration in Bt crops is high enough to kill all or nearly all insects heterozygous for resistance. However, Bt corn, Zea mays, introduced recently does not meet this “high-dose” criterion for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. A greenhouse method of rearing WCR on transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein was used in which approximately 25% of previously unexposed larvae survived relative to isoline survival (compared to 1–4% in the field). After three generations of full larval rearing on Bt corn (Constant-exposure colony), WCR larval survival was equivalent on Bt corn and isoline corn in greenhouse trials, and the LC50 was 22-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than for the Control colony in diet bioassays with Cry3Bb1 protein on artificial diet. After six generations of greenhouse selection, the ratio of larval recovery on Bt corn to isoline corn in the field was 11.7-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than the Control colony. Removal from selection for six generations did not decrease survival on Bt corn in the greenhouse. The results suggest that rapid response to selection is possible in the absence of mating with unexposed beetles, emphasizing the importance of effective refuges for resistance management. PMID:19047626

  3. Environmental optimal control strategies based on plant canopy photosynthesis responses and greenhouse climate model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Lujuan; Xie, Songhe; Cui, Jiantao; Liu, Tao

    2006-11-01

    It is the essential goal of intelligent greenhouse environment optimal control to enhance income of cropper and energy save. There were some characteristics such as uncertainty, imprecision, nonlinear, strong coupling, bigger inertia and different time scale in greenhouse environment control system. So greenhouse environment optimal control was not easy and especially model-based optimal control method was more difficult. So the optimal control problem of plant environment in intelligent greenhouse was researched. Hierarchical greenhouse environment control system was constructed. In the first level data measuring was carried out and executive machine was controlled. Optimal setting points of climate controlled variable in greenhouse was calculated and chosen in the second level. Market analysis and planning were completed in third level. The problem of the optimal setting point was discussed in this paper. Firstly the model of plant canopy photosynthesis responses and the model of greenhouse climate model were constructed. Afterwards according to experience of the planting expert, in daytime the optimal goals were decided according to the most maximal photosynthesis rate principle. In nighttime on plant better growth conditions the optimal goals were decided by energy saving principle. Whereafter environment optimal control setting points were computed by GA. Compared the optimal result and recording data in real system, the method is reasonable and can achieve energy saving and the maximal photosynthesis rate in intelligent greenhouse

  4. Natural selection on plant physiological traits in an urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, Susan C.; Mahieu, Stephanie; Cheptou, Pierre-Olivier

    2016-11-01

    Current rates of urbanization are creating new opportunities for studying urban plant ecology, but our knowledge of urban plant physiology lags behind that of other ecosystems. Moreover, higher temperatures, elevated CO2, and increased inorganic nitrogen deposition along with altered moisture regimes of urban as compared to rural areas creates a compelling analog for studying adaptations of plants to climate change. We grew plants under common conditions in a greenhouse to determine whether populations of Crepis sancta (Asteraceae) differed in phenological, morphological, and physiological traits. We also used a field experiment to test for natural selection on these traits in urban Montpellier, France. Urban plants flowered and senesced later than rural plants, and natural selection favored later phenology in the urban habitat. Natural selection also favored larger plants with more leaves, and increased photosynthesis and leaf nitrogen concentration. Ours is the first study to document selection on plant functional traits in an urban habitat and, as such, advances our understanding of urban plant ecology and possible adaptations to climate change.

  5. Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX). Selected data sets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olsen, Lola M.; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1992-01-01

    This CD-ROM contains selected data sets compiled by the participants of the Greenhouse Effect Detection Experiment (GEDEX) workshop on atmospheric temperature. The data sets include surface, upper air, and/or satellite-derived measurements of temperature, solar irradiance, clouds, greenhouse gases, fluxes, albedo, aerosols, ozone, and water vapor, along with Southern Oscillation Indices and Quasi-Biennial Oscillation statistics.

  6. Antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ken A; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-04-01

    While many studies demonstrate that herbivores alter selection on plant reproductive traits, little is known about whether antiherbivore defenses affect selection on these traits. We hypothesized that antiherbivore defenses could alter selection on reproductive traits by altering trait expression through allocation trade-offs, or by altering interactions with mutualists and/or antagonists. To test our hypothesis, we used white clover, Trifolium repens, which has a Mendelian polymorphism for the production of hydrogen cyanide-a potent antiherbivore defense. We conducted a common garden experiment with 185 clonal families of T. repens that included cyanogenic and acyanogenic genotypes. We quantified resistance to herbivores, and selection on six floral traits and phenology via male and female fitness. Cyanogenesis reduced herbivory but did not alter the expression of reproductive traits through allocation trade-offs. However, the presence of cyanogenic defenses altered natural selection on petal morphology and the number of flowers within inflorescences via female fitness. Herbivory influenced selection on flowers and phenology via female fitness independently of cyanogenesis. Our results demonstrate that both herbivory and antiherbivore defenses alter natural selection on plant reproductive traits. We discuss the significance of these results for understanding how antiherbivore defenses interact with herbivores and pollinators to shape floral evolution.

  7. Wavelength-Selective Photovoltaics for Power-generating Greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Sue; Loik, Michael; Shugar, David; Corrado, Carley; Wade, Catherine; Alers, Glenn

    2014-03-01

    While photovoltaic (PV) technologies are being developed that have the potential for meeting the cost target of 0.50/W per module, the cost of installation combined with the competition over land resources could curtail the wide scale deployment needed to generate the Terrawatts per year required to meet the world's electricity demands. To be cost effective, such large scale power generation will almost certainly require PV solar farms to be installed in agricultural and desert areas, thereby competing with food production, crops for biofuels, or the biodiversity of desert ecosystems. This requirement has put the PV community at odds with both the environmental and agricultural groups they would hope to support through the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. A possible solution to this challenge is the use of wavelength-selective solar collectors, based on luminescent solar concentrators, that transmit wavelengths needed for plant growth while absorbing the remaining portions of the solar spectrum and converting it to power. Costs are reduced through simultaneous use of land for both food and power production, by replacing the PV cells by inexpensive long-lived luminescent materials as the solar absorber, and by integrating the panels directly into existing greenhouse or cold frames. Results on power generation and crop yields for year-long trials done at academic and commercial greenhouse growers in California will be presented.

  8. Plant-herbivore synchrony and selection on plant flowering phenology.

    PubMed

    Fogelström, Elsa; Olofsson, Martin; Posledovich, Diana; Wiklund, Christer; Dahlgren, Johan P; Ehrlén, Johan

    2017-03-01

    Temporal variation in natural selection has profound effects on the evolutionary trajectories of populations. One potential source of variation in selection is that differences in thermal reaction norms and temperature influence the relative phenology of interacting species. We manipulated the phenology of the butterfly herbivore Anthocharis cardamines relative to genetically identical populations of its host plant, Cardamine pratensis, and examined the effects on butterfly preferences and selection acting on the host plant. We found that butterflies preferred plants at an intermediate flowering stage, regardless of the timing of butterfly flight relative to flowering onset of the population. Consequently, the probability that plant genotypes differing in timing of flowering should experience a butterfly attack depended strongly on relative phenology. These results suggest that differences in spring temperature influence the direction of herbivore-mediated selection on flowering phenology, and that climatic conditions can influence natural selection also when phenotypic preferences remain constant.

  9. The effects of becoming taller: direct and pleiotropic effects of artificial selection on plant height in Brassica rapa.

    PubMed

    Zu, Pengjuan; Schiestl, Florian P

    2017-03-01

    Plant height is an important trait for plant reproductive success. Plant height is often under pollinator-mediated selection, and has been shown to be correlated with various other traits. However, few studies have examined the evolutionary trajectory of plant height under selection and the pleiotropic effects of plant height evolution. We conducted a bi-directional artificial selection experiment on plant height with fast cycling Brassica rapa plants to estimate its heritability and genetic correlations, and to reveal evolutionary responses to artificial selection on height and various correlated traits. With the divergent lines obtained through artificial selection, we subsequently conducted pollinator-choice assays and investigated resource limitation of fruit production. We found that plant height variation is strongly genetically controlled (with a realized heritability of 41-59%). Thus, plant height can evolve rapidly under phenotypic selection. In addition, we found remarkable pleiotropic effects in phenology, morphology, floral scent, color, nectar and leaf glucosinolates. Most traits were increased in tall-line plants, but flower size, UV reflection and glucosinolates were decreased, indicating potential trade-offs. Pollinators preferred plants of the tall selection lines over the short selection lines in both greenhouse experiments with bumblebees and field experiment with natural pollinators. We did not detect any differences in resource limitation between plants of the different selection lines. Overall, our study predicts that increased height should evolve under positive pollinator-mediated directional selection with potential trade-offs in floral signals and herbivore defense.

  10. Toxicity and kinetics of methoxyfenozide in greenhouse-selected Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Smagghe, Guy; Pineda, Samuel; Carton, Bert; Del Estal, Pedro; Budia, Flor; Viñuela, Elisa

    2003-11-01

    Methoxyfenozide (RH-2485) was found to be 7.5-fold less toxic in terms of LD50 values against last-instar larvae of a greenhouse-selected strain of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) that was collected in July 2001 in an experimental greenhouse for resistance at Murcia in southern Spain, in comparison with a laboratory susceptible strain. To date, the compound is the newest member of this new group of moulting hormone accelerating IGRs to reach the marketplace against Lepidoptera. To understand this different potency in the greenhouse-selected S exigua, oxidative metabolism and acetylcholinesterase activities were measured in last-instar larvae and adults. In addition, we determined, by the use of 14C-labelled methoxyfenozide, the pattern of absorption in body tissues and excretion via faeces in last-instar larvae of the greenhouse-selected strain and compared the results with those from the laboratory susceptible strain. It was striking that the rate of excretion was about twice as high in the greenhouse-selected strain, resulting in a more rapid clearance of insecticide amounts from the insect body. Data are discussed in relation to mechanisms of lower toxicities for this new group of IGRs.

  11. Compared Biochar and Compost effects on plant growth and soil factors as reported for three consequent greenhouse trial setups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, H. S.; Glaser, B. G.

    2012-04-01

    Since ten years there is a major increase in research concerning biochar applications to soils trying to mimic effects known from Terra Preta do Indio (Glaser 2002). We conducted a preliminary study in which we analyzed the synergistic effects of biochar in combination with conventional and with organic fertilizers, whereas our latter experiments use biochar which was blended with fresh organic material and underwent the whole composting procedure leading to the first known composted biochars. Our first pot experiment (with two consequent growth periods without additional fertilization) helped to distinguish the effects from conventional and organic fertilizers in combination with biochar, where biochar revealed abilities for stabilizing carbon content (Total Organic and Black Carbon) and reducing nitrification. Plant weights were highest with pure compost, but biochar combined with compost (50:50) showed a sustained progression comparing second growth period's results. Those outcomes let us focus on biochar-compost-mixes. Our second greenhouse experiment concentrated on the question of the minimal biochar content to enhance plant growth and soil properties and was performed on a very poor sandy and on a richer loamy soil with rising concentrations between 0% and 1% biochar per compost. We could not find significant differences between the pure compost and the biochar amended pots. For our third experiment we tried to elevate the biochar share as high as possible and tested treatments with up to 200 Mg ha-1(eq.) in steps with up to 50% biochar content, again in poor sandy and richer loamy soil pots. The measured seed weight of applied Avena sativa L. plants showed very different results on sandy soil compared to the loamy soil. Whereas compost on loam showed a seed weight 2 times higher than on pure loam control and seed weights 1.6 times higher compared to compost with highest biochar amounts, on sand the pure compost was even slightly less productive than pure

  12. Natural selection on plant resistance to herbivores in the native and introduced range

    PubMed Central

    Valverde, Pedro L.; Arroyo, Juan; Núñez-Farfán, Juan; Castillo, Guillermo; Calahorra, Adriana; Pérez-Barrales, Rocío; Tapia-López, Rosalinda

    2015-01-01

    When plants are introduced into new regions, the absence of their co-evolved natural enemies can result in lower levels of attack. As a consequence of this reduction in enemy pressure, plant performance may increase and selection for resistance to enemies may decrease. In the present study, we compared leaf damage, plant size and leaf trichome density, as well as the direction and magnitude of selection on resistance and plant size between non-native (Spain) and native (Mexico) populations of Datura stramonium. This species was introduced to Spain about five centuries ago and constitutes an ideal system to test four predictions of the enemy release hypothesis. Compared with native populations, we expected Spanish populations of D. stramonium to have (i) lower levels of foliar damage; (ii) larger plant size; (iii) lower leaf trichome density that is unrelated to foliar damage by herbivores; and (iv) weak or no selection on resistance to herbivores but strong selection on plant size. Our results showed that, on average, plants from non-native populations were significantly less damaged by herbivores, were less pubescent and were larger than those from native populations. We also detected different selection regimes on resistance and plant size between the non-native and native ranges. Positive selection on plant size was detected in both ranges (though it was higher in the non-native area), but consistent positive selection on relative resistance was detected only in the native range. Overall, we suggest that changes in selection pressure on resistance and plant size in D. stramonium in Spain are a consequence of ‘release from natural enemies’. PMID:26205526

  13. Herbivores modify selection on plant functional traits in a temperate rainforest understory.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Luarte, Cristian; Gianoli, Ernesto

    2012-08-01

    There is limited evidence regarding the adaptive value of plant functional traits in contrasting light environments. It has been suggested that changes in these traits in response to light availability can increase herbivore susceptibility. We tested the adaptive value of plant functional traits linked with carbon gain in contrasting light environments and also evaluated whether herbivores can modify selection on these traits in each light environment. In a temperate rainforest, we examined phenotypic selection on functional traits in seedlings of the pioneer tree Aristotelia chilensis growing in sun (canopy gap) and shade (forest understory) and subjected to either natural herbivory or herbivore exclusion. We found differential selection on functional traits depending on light environment. In sun, there was positive directional selection on photosynthetic rate and relative growth rate (RGR), indicating that selection favors competitive ability in a high-resource environment. Seedlings with high specific leaf area (SLA) and intermediate RGR were selected in shade, suggesting that light capture and conservative resource use are favored in the understory. Herbivores reduced the strength of positive directional selection acting on SLA in shade. We provide the first demonstration that natural herbivory rates can change the strength of selection on plant ecophysiological traits, that is, attributes whose main function is resource uptake. Research addressing the evolution of shade tolerance should incorporate the selective role of herbivores.

  14. [Development of a cultivation technology and selection of leaf vegetable cultures for space greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Levinskikh, M A; Signalova, O B; Derendiaeva, T A; Livanskaia, O G; Nefedova, E L; Sychev, V N; Podo'skiĭ, I G

    2001-01-01

    We plan to perform space experiments on development of a technology for cultivation of leaf vegetables that might be a component of future life support systems for space crews. For this purpose, we are going to fly research greenhouses with the crop area from 0.03 up to 0.1 m2 inside the universal docking module of the ISS Russian segment. To prepare for future space experiments, ground investigations were made in order to compare crop capacity of various artificial soils used to grow leaf vegetables in greenhouse Svet. Useful life of root module Svet can be extended with a new technology based on resupply of fibrous substrate with nutrients. The most effective volume of soil per a plant was determined which sustains high productivity of leaf vegetables in Svet. To select leaf vegetables for in-space cultivation, we conducted investigations of productivity, morphometric and biochemical characteristics, and palatability of 18 cultures including alternative greens highly popular in Japan and China which have been earlier tested neither in laboratory nor in space within the closed eco-system projects. We would prioritize mizuna, pak choi, tatsoi, rapina or broccoli raab, and red giant mustard as objects for in-space investigations.

  15. [Low risk of reproductive disorders among female greenhouse workers--safe work conditions or health selection for the light work?].

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech; Makowiec-Dabrowska, Teresa

    2008-01-01

    There are two major potential hazards typical of work in greenhouses: hard physical work or exposure to pesticides. The aim of the study was to investigate whether the work in greenhouse during pregnancy have an adverse effect on its outcome (preterm delivery, spontaneous abortion and birth defects). The study was performed in a group of 460 women employed in 14 greenhouses involved in growing vegetables and flowers. The rate of spontaneous abortions was much elbeit insignificantly higher in the women working in greenhouses during pregnancy than in those employed out of them; that applied mostly to the women performing light jobs in greenhouses. An increased risk of preterm delivery and spontaneous abortion was also observed in women performing greenhouse light jobs. No significantly increased risk of birth defects was observed in children born to women working in greenhouses. Neither was there any relationship between exposure to RD or ED pesticides exposure--and the occurrence of preterm delivery, spontaneous abortion and birth defects. No higher risk of pathological pregnancy that could be associated with hard physical work and pesticide exposure was observed. This may result from the fact that women themselves select an appropriate kind of job during pregnancy and a possible removal of women with pathological pregnancy from jobs involving pesticide exposure, as well as from the promotion of biological protection. The greenhouse workers should be aware of the two typical hazards found in greenhouses (hard work and exposure to pesticides) and their potential negative effects on the reproduction. The results of this study warrant the need for further study of the effect of pesticide exposure and work load on the pregnancy outcome.

  16. Selection of appropriate calculators for landscape-scale greenhouse gas assessment for agriculture and forestry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colomb, Vincent; Touchemoulin, Ophélie; Bockel, Louis; Chotte, Jean-Luc; Martin, Sarah; Tinlot, Marianne; Bernoux, Martial

    2013-03-01

    This letter is intended to help potential users select the most appropriate calculator for a landscape-scale greenhouse gas (GHG) assessment of activities for agriculture and forestry. Eighteen calculators were assessed. These calculators were designed for different aims and to be used in different geographical areas and they use slightly different accounting methodologies. The classification proposed is based on the main aim of the assessment: raising awareness, reporting, project evaluation or product assessment. When the aims have been clearly formulated, the most suitable calculator can be selected from the comparison tables, taking account of the geographical area and the scope of the calculation as well as the time and skills required for the calculation. The main issues for interpreting GHG assessments are discussed, highlighting the difficulty of comparing the results obtained from different calculators, mainly owing to differences in scope, calculation methods and reporting units. A major problem is the poor accounting for land use change; the calculators are usually able to account satisfactorily for other emission sources. One of the main challenges at landscape-scale level is to produce a realistic assessment of the various production systems as the uncertainty levels are very high. The results should always give some indication of the link between GHG emissions and the productivity of the area, although no single indicator is able to encompass all the services produced by agriculture and forestry (e.g. food, goods, landscape value and revenue).

  17. Explaining phenotypic selection on plant attractive characters: male function, gender balance or ecological context?

    PubMed Central

    Ashman, Tia-Lynn; Morgan, Martin T.

    2004-01-01

    It is widely agreed that the flowers of hermaphrodite plants evolve in response to selection acting simultaneously through male and female sexual functions, but we know very little about the pattern of gender-specific selection. We review three current hypotheses for gender-specific selection by viewing them within a single phenotypic selection framework. We compile data from phenotypic selection and manipulative studies and evaluate the fit between empirical data and the hypotheses. In this preliminary analysis, we find that neither the male-function hypothesis nor the gender-balance hypothesis is well supported. However, the context-dependence hypothesis is supported by the documented diversity of gender-specific selection and by evidence that selection through female fertility is significantly correlated with pollen limitation of seed production. Future studies contributing to our understanding of selection through male and female function in plants need to quantify and manipulate the ecological context for reproduction, as well as describe male and female fitness responses to fine-scale trait manipulation. PMID:15156911

  18. Interaction of Calibrachoa and selected root and foliar pathogens in greenhouse settings

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calibrachoa (Calibrachoa x hybrida) is a popular annual ornamental that was introduced in the late 1990s by the greenhouse ornamental industry. Little is published about its interaction with pathogens commonly associated with greenhouse production. We report here for the first time the response of C...

  19. Interaction of Calibrachoa and Selected Root and Foliar Pathogens in Greenhouse Setting

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Calibrachoa (Calibrachoa x hybrida) is a popular annual ornamental that was introduced in the late 1990s by the greenhouse ornamental industry. Little is published about its interaction with pathogens commonly associated with greenhouse production. We report here for the first time the response of...

  20. Selection on Plant Male Function Genes Identifies Candidates for Reproductive Isolation of Yellow Monkeyflowers

    PubMed Central

    Aagaard, Jan E.; George, Renee D.; Fishman, Lila; MacCoss, Michael J.; Swanson, Willie J.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the genetic basis of reproductive isolation promises insight into speciation and the origins of biological diversity. While progress has been made in identifying genes underlying barriers to reproduction that function after fertilization (post-zygotic isolation), we know much less about earlier acting pre-zygotic barriers. Of particular interest are barriers involved in mating and fertilization that can evolve extremely rapidly under sexual selection, suggesting they may play a prominent role in the initial stages of reproductive isolation. A significant challenge to the field of speciation genetics is developing new approaches for identification of candidate genes underlying these barriers, particularly among non-traditional model systems. We employ powerful proteomic and genomic strategies to study the genetic basis of conspecific pollen precedence, an important component of pre-zygotic reproductive isolation among yellow monkeyflowers (Mimulus spp.) resulting from male pollen competition. We use isotopic labeling in combination with shotgun proteomics to identify more than 2,000 male function (pollen tube) proteins within maternal reproductive structures (styles) of M. guttatus flowers where pollen competition occurs. We then sequence array-captured pollen tube exomes from a large outcrossing population of M. guttatus, and identify those genes with evidence of selective sweeps or balancing selection consistent with their role in pollen competition. We also test for evidence of positive selection on these genes more broadly across yellow monkeyflowers, because a signal of adaptive divergence is a common feature of genes causing reproductive isolation. Together the molecular evolution studies identify 159 pollen tube proteins that are candidate genes for conspecific pollen precedence. Our work demonstrates how powerful proteomic and genomic tools can be readily adapted to non-traditional model systems, allowing for genome-wide screens towards the

  1. Modified Bacillus thuringiensis toxins and a hybrid B. thuringiensis strain counter greenhouse-selected resistance in Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed

    Franklin, Michelle T; Nieman, Christal L; Janmaat, Alida F; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra; Tabashnik, Bruce E; Myers, Judith H

    2009-09-01

    Resistance of greenhouse-selected strains of the cabbage looper, Trichoplusia ni, to Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. kurstaki was countered by a hybrid strain of B. thuringiensis and genetically modified toxins Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod, which lack helix alpha-1. Resistance to Cry1AbMod and Cry1AcMod was >100-fold less than resistance to native toxins Cry1Ab and Cry1Ac.

  2. Greenhouse-Selected Resistance to Cry3Bb1-Producing Corn in Three Western Corn Rootworm Populations

    PubMed Central

    Meihls, Lisa N.; Higdon, Matthew L.; Ellersieck, Mark R.; Tabashnik, Bruce E.; Hibbard, Bruce E.

    2012-01-01

    Transgenic corn producing the Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxin Cry3Bb1 has been useful for controlling western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, one of the most economically important crop pests in the United States. However, rapid evolution of resistance by this beetle to Bt corn producing Cry3Bb1 has been reported previously from the laboratory, greenhouse, and field. Here we selected in the greenhouse for resistance to Cry3Bb1 corn in three colonies of WCR derived from Kansas, Minnesota, and Wisconsin, respectively. Three generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn significantly increased larval survival on Cry3Bb1 corn, resulting in similar survival in the greenhouse for selected colonies on Cry3Bb1 corn and isoline corn that does not produce Bt toxin. After four to seven generations of rearing on Cry3Bb1 corn, survival in the field on Cry3Bb1 corn relative to isoline corn more than doubled for selected colonies (72%) compared with control colonies (33%). For both selected and control colonies, survival in the field was significantly lower on Cry3Bb1 corn than on isoline corn. On isoline corn, most fitness components were similar for selected colonies and control colonies. However, fecundity was significantly lower for selected colonies than control colonies, indicating a fitness cost associated with resistance. The rapid evolution of resistance by western corn rootworm to Bt corn reported here and previously underlines the importance of effective resistance management for this pest. PMID:23284656

  3. The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon…

  4. The Greenhouse Effect: A Selected Bibliography. Bibliography Series Twenty-two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, Gertrudis, Comp.

    The purpose of this bibliography is to provide listings of articles, books, and documents which are available in the Robert E. Kennedy Library, California Polytechnic State University, and other libraries on the problem of the greenhouse effect published since 1980. Listings are organized as: (1) "Subject Headings"; (2) "Carbon…

  5. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... and the Environment Greenhouse Gases Effect on the Climate Where Greenhouse Gases Come From Outlook for Future ... greenhouse effect that results in global warming and climate change. Many gases exhibit these greenhouse properties. Some ...

  6. Toxicological effects of selective herbicides on plant growth promoting activities of phosphate solubilizing Klebsiella sp. strain PS19.

    PubMed

    Ahemad, Munees; Saghir Khan, Md

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the effect of four herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, clodinafop, metribuzin and glyphosate, on plant growth promoting activities like phosphate solubilization, siderophores, indole acetic acid, exo-polysaccharides, hydrogen cyanide and ammonia production by herbicide tolerant Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. The strain was isolated from mustard rhizosphere. The selected herbicides were applied two to three times at the recommended rates. Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 tolerated a concentration of 1600 μg/ml each of quizalafop-p-ethyl and clodinafop, and 3200 and 2800 μg/ml of metribuzin and glyphosate, respectively. The activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 observed under in vitro environment were persistent in the presence of all herbicides at lower rates. The plant growth promoting activities even-though decreased regularly, but was not lost completely, as the concentration of each herbicide was increased from the recommended to three times of higher doses. Among all herbicides, quizalafop-p-ethyl, generally, showed maximum toxicity to plant growth promoting activities of Klebsiella sp. strain PS19. As an example, 40, 80 and 120 μg/l of quizalafop-p-ethyl added to liquid culture Pikovskaya medium, decreased phosphate solubilizing activity of strain PS19 by 93, 95 and 97%, respectively over untreated control. The study revealed that the higher rates of herbicides though decreased the plant growth promoting activity but it did not completely inhibit the metabolic activities of strain PS19. The herbicide tolerance together with growth promoting activities observed under herbicide stress suggests that Klebsiella sp. strain PS19 could be used as bacterial preparation for facilitating the growth and yields of crops even in soils polluted with herbicides.

  7. Greenhouse Evaluation of Selected Soybean Germplasm for Resistance to North Carolina Populations of Heterodera glycines, Rotylenchulus reniformis, and Meloidogyne Species

    PubMed Central

    Davis, E. L.; Koenning, S. R.; Burton, J. W.; Barker, K. R.

    1996-01-01

    Selected soybean genotypes were evaluated for resistance to North Carolina populations of the soybean cyst nematode Heterodera glycines, the root-knot nematodes Meloidogyne incognita races 3 and 4, M. arenaria races 1 and 2, M. javanica, and the reniform nematode Rotylenchulus reniformis in two greenhouse tests. Populations of cyst nematode used in the first test were cultures from field samples originally classified as races 1-5, and those used in the second test included inbred cyst lines that corresponded to races 1, 3, and 4. The original race classification of some cyst populations shifted after repeated culture on susceptible 'Lee 68' soybean. Most of the cyst-resistant soybean cultivars tested were susceptible to M. arenaria and M. javanica. Exceptionally large galls were induced by M. arenaria on roots of Asgrow 5979, Hartwig, and CNS soybean. Hartwig soybean and PI 437654 were resistant to all cultured field populations of cyst nematodes in a first greenhouse test. In the second test, cyst indices of 11.3% and 19.4% were observed on roots of PI 437654 and Hartwig, respectively, when infected with an inbred line (OP50) of H. glycines corresponding to race 4. The cyst-resistant soybean germplasm tested, including Hartwig and PI 437654, supported only low numbers of reniform nematodes. The most severe soybean root necrosis observed, however, was associated with reniform nematode infection. PMID:19277179

  8. Greenhouse gas production in wastewater treatment: process selection is the major factor.

    PubMed

    Keller, J; Hartley, K

    2003-01-01

    Many practical design and operating decisions on wastewater treatment plants can have significant impacts on the overall environmental performance, in particular the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The main factor in this regard is the use of aerobic or anaerobic treatment technology. This paper compares the GHG production of a number of case studies with aerobic or anaerobic main and sludge treatment of domestic wastewater and also looks at the energy balances and economics. This comparison demonstrates that major advantages can be gained by using primarily anaerobic processes as it is possible to largely eliminate any net energy input to the process, and therefore the production of GHG from fossil fuels. This is achieved by converting the energy of the incoming wastewater pollutants to methane which is then used to generate electricity. This is sufficient to power the aerobic processes as well as the mixing etc. of the anaerobic stages. In terms of GHG production, the total output (in CO2 equivalents) can be reduced from 2.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for fully aerobic treatment to 1.0 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) for primarily anaerobic processes. All of the CO2 produced in the anaerobic processes comes from the wastewater pollutants and is therefore greenhouse gas neutral, whereas up to 1.4 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) originates from power generation for the fully aerobic process. This means that considerably more CO2 is produced in power generation than in the actual treatment process, and all of this is typically from fossil fuels, whereas the energy from the wastewater pollutants comes primarily from renewable energy sources, namely agricultural products. Even a change from anaerobic to aerobic sludge treatment processes (for the same aerobic main process) has a massive impact on the CO2 production from fossil fuels. An additional 0.8 kg CO2/kg COD(removed) is produced by changing to aerobic sludge digestion, which equates for a typical 100,000 EP plant to an additional

  9. Measuring calcium, potassium, and nitrate in plant nutrient solutions using ion-selective electrodes in hydroponic greenhouse of some vegetables.

    PubMed

    Vardar, Gökay; Altıkatoğlu, Melda; Ortaç, Deniz; Cemek, Mustafa; Işıldak, İbrahim

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the life cycle of plants depends on the uptake of essential nutrients in a balanced manner and on toxic elements being under a certain concentration. Lack of control of nutrient levels in nutrient solution can result in reduced plant growth and undesired conditions such as blossom-end rot. In this study, sensitivity and selectivity tests for various polyvinylchloride (PVC)-based ion-selective membranes were conducted to identify those suitable for measuring typical concentration ranges of macronutrients, that is, NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+), in hydroponic solutions. The sensitivity and selectivity of PVC-membrane-based ion-selective sensors prepared with tetradodecylammoniumnitrate for NO(3-), valinomycin for K(+), and Ca ionophore IV for Ca(2+) were found to be satisfactory for measuring NO(3-), K(+), and Ca(2+) ions in nutrient solutions over typical ranges of hydroponic concentrations. Potassium, calcium, and nitrate levels that were utilized by cucumber and tomato seedlings in the greenhouse were different. The findings show that tomato plants consumed less amounts of nitrate than cucumber plants over the first 2 months of their growth. We also found that the potassium intake was higher than other nutritional elements tested for all plants.

  10. A novel dominant selectable system for the selection of transgenic plants under in vitro and greenhouse conditions based on phosphite metabolism.

    PubMed

    López-Arredondo, Damar L; Herrera-Estrella, Luis

    2013-05-01

    Antibiotic and herbicide resistance genes are currently the most frequently used selectable marker genes for plant research and crop development. However, the use of antibiotics and herbicides must be carefully controlled because the degree of susceptibility to these compounds varies widely among plant species and because they can also affect plant regeneration. Therefore, new selectable marker systems that are effective for a broad range of plant species are still needed. Here, we report a simple and inexpensive system based on providing transgenic plant cells the capacity to convert a nonmetabolizable compound (phosphite, Phi) into an essential nutrient for cell growth (phosphate) trough the expression of a bacterial gene encoding a phosphite oxidoreductase (PTXD). This system is effective for the selection of Arabidopsis transgenic plants by germinating T0 seeds directly on media supplemented with Phi and to select transgenic tobacco shoots from cocultivated leaf disc explants using nutrient media supplemented with Phi as both a source of phosphorus and selective agent. Because the ptxD/Phi system also allows the establishment of large-scale screening systems under greenhouse conditions completely eliminating false transformation events, it should facilitate the development of novel plant transformation methods.

  11. On-plant selection and genetic analysis of European corn borer (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) behavioral traits: plant abandonment versus plant establishment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Although some studies have investigated how insect behavior could influence resistance evolution to transgenic plants, none have determined if behavioral traits respond to selection pressure and how they may be inherited. We investigated plant establishment and plant abandonment traits for the Euro...

  12. A metabolic pathway assembled by enzyme selection may support herbivory of leaf-cutter ants on plant starch.

    PubMed

    Bacci, Maurício; Bueno, Odair Correa; Rodrigues, André; Pagnocca, Fernando Carlos; Somera, Alexandre Favarin; Silva, Aline

    2013-05-01

    Mutualistic associations shape the evolution in different organism groups. The association between the leaf-cutter ant Atta sexdens and the basidiomycete fungus Leucoagaricus gongylophorus has enabled them to degrade starch from plant material generating glucose, which is a major food source for both mutualists. Starch degradation is promoted by enzymes contained in the fecal fluid that ants deposit on the fungus culture in cut leaves inside the nests. To understand the dynamics of starch degradation in ant nests, we purified and characterized starch degrading enzymes from the ant fecal fluid and from laboratory cultures of L. gongylophorus and found that the ants intestine positively selects fungal α-amylase and a maltase likely produced by the ants, as a negative selection is imposed to fungal maltase and ant α-amylases. Selected enzymes are more resistant to catabolic repression by glucose and proposed to structure a metabolic pathway in which the fungal α-amylase initiates starch catalysis to generate byproducts which are sequentially degraded by the maltase to produce glucose. The pathway is responsible for effective degradation of starch and proposed to represent a major evolutionary innovation enabling efficient starch assimilation from plant material by leaf-cutters.

  13. Selective nature of end-Triassic tetrapod extinctions consistent with scenarios of extreme volcanic winters not a super-greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, P. E.

    2016-12-01

    Eruptions of the giant Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) are temporally linked to the end-Triassic extinction event (ETE). Continental tetrapod extinctions were highly selective affecting specific higher taxa and different latitudinal zones. The Late Triassic tropics were strongly dominated by diverse crocodile-line archosaurs while dinosaurs were rare, represented only by relatively small carnivores. Triassic high-latitudes had higher dinosaur diversity with abundant and often large dinosaurian herbivores. Only two small-bodied crocodile-line lineages survived the ETE, with a near-global homogenization of continental assemblages. Herbivorous dinosaurs spread globally while carnivorous dinosaurs became much larger. CAMP-sourced CO2 doublings (1,2) over 10s to 100s of thousands of years produced significant warming and some tropical lethality, but how this led to higher latitude extinctions is hard to see. In contrast, the taxonomic and geographic selectivity is consistent with many brief but severe sulfate "volcanic winters" (3) plausibly leading to freezing tropics. Crocodile-line archosaurs, dinosaurs, and pterosaurs and were relatively resistant to heat induced water stress, but the Crocodile-line archosaurs lacked insolation, while the latter had it. The lengthy super-greenhouse events allowed small crocodile-line archosaurs to escape to cooler climes or burrow, but during volcanic winters larger forms had nowhere to go. I hypothesize that crocodile-line and other herptile extinctions resulted from extreme cold events, for which they had no adaptations. In contrast, dinosaurs, other insulated forms, as well as burrowers survived the cold. This hypothesis is consistent with global post-ETE faunal homogenization, when the higher latitude dinosaurs spreading globally and becoming ecologically dominant. Tropical freezing predicts that ice crystal impressions should be found in facies that typically have reptile footprints in eastern North America deposited

  14. Effects of air pollution on plant-insect interactions: increased susceptibility of greenhouse-grown soybeans to the Mexican bean beetle after plant exposure to SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.R.; Potter, J.E.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-02-01

    Foliage from greenhouse-grown soybeans fumigated with 524 ..mu..g m/sup -3/ of SO/sub 2/ or from control plants held under the same conditions without fumigation was fed to Mexican bean beetle larvae and adults. The larvae developed faster and grew larger when fed on the fumigated leaves; larval mortality was consistently low and showed no apparent relationship to the type of leaves used as the food source. Adult females showed a significant feeding preference for discs cut from fumigated leaves and were more fecund when fed on the treated foliage than when fed on control leaves. A greater percentage of the females laid eggs, and the viability of the eggs was higher when the females were fed on fumigated leaves. These females produced more eggs per individual, with significant increases in both the number of eggs per mass and the number of masses per female. The longevity of egg-laying females did not differ significantly between the treatments.

  15. Effects of air pollution on plant-insect interactions: increased susceptibility of greenhouse-grown soybeans to the Mexican bean beetle after plant exposure to SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.R.; Potter, J.E.; Weinstein, L.H.

    1982-02-15

    Foliage from greenhouse-grown soybeans fumigated with 524 ..mu..g.m/sup -3/ of SO/sub 2/ or from control plants held under the same conditions without fumigation was fed to Mexican bean beetle larvae and adults. The larvae developed faster and grew larger when fed on the fumigated leaves; larva mortality was consistently low and showed no apparent relationship to the type of leaves used as the food source. Adult females showed a significant feeding preference for discs cut from fumigated leaves and were more fecund when fed on the treated foliage than when fed on control leaves. A greater percentage of the females laid eggs, and the viability of the eggs was higher when the females were fed on fumigated leaves. These females produced more eggs per individual, with significant increases in both the number of eggs per mass and the number of masses per female. The longevity of egg-laying females did not differ significantly between the treatments.

  16. Greenhouse Gases

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. and international estimates of greenhouse gas emissions: Carbon dioxide (CO2) Methane (CH4) Nitrous oxide (N2O) Industrial ... From Outlook for Future Emissions FAQs How much carbon dioxide is produced when different fuels are burned? — ...

  17. Biological control in greenhouses using entomopathogenic fungi

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The most important greenhouse (GH) pests, whiteflies, aphids, thrips, mealybugs, scales, and mites, all feed on plant saps via piercing-sucking mouthparts. This has important implications with respect to microbial biocontrol, as pathogens capable of invading their hosts via penetration of the body ...

  18. Gardening under cover: a northwest horticultural guide to solar greenhouses, coldframes and cloches

    SciTech Connect

    Head, W.

    1985-01-01

    Gardening in a solar greenhouse, coldframe, or cloche, which is a simple protective covering placed over a garden bed, is discussed, including the construction of two different types of cloche, identification of herbs and flowers, suitable for a solar greenhouse, forcing spring bulbs, and pests and diseases commonly found on plants growing in cold frames and greenhouses. (LEW)

  19. Is a diet low in greenhouse gas emissions a nutritious diet? - Analyses of self-selected diets in the LifeGene study.

    PubMed

    Bälter, Katarina; Sjörs, Camilla; Sjölander, Arvid; Gardner, Christopher; Hedenus, Fredrik; Tillander, Annika

    2017-01-01

    Climate change is an urgent global issue and the food sector is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE). Here we study if a diet low in GHGE could be a nutritious diet compared to the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations (NNR). The environmental impact of foods from Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) data was linked to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) filled out by 5,364 participants in the Swedish LifeGene study. Thereafter, we calculated the daily emission of CO2 equivalents (CO2e) as well as the intake of selected nutrients associated with vegetables, fruits, meat and dairy products. The CO2e was divided into quartiles were quartile 1 corresponds to a diet generating the lowest CO2e, and quartile 4 corresponds to a diet with the highest CO2e. The overall diet-related emission was 4.7 kg CO2e/day and person, corresponding to 1.7 ton CO2e/year. In general, there were only small differences in nutrient intake between groups of varying levels of CO2e, regardless if the intake was analyzed as absolute intake, energy percent or as nutrient density. Moreover, adherence to NNR was high for the group with the lowest CO2e, except for saturated fat where the intake was higher than recommended for all CO2e groups. On the other hand, only the group with the lowest CO2e fulfilled recommended intake of fiber. However, none of the CO2e groups reached the recommended intake of folate and vitamin D. Here we show that a self-selected diet low in CO2e provides comparable intake of nutrients as a diet high in in CO2e.

  20. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  1. Gardening with Greenhouses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeler, Rusty

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses come in all shapes, sizes, and price ranges: from simple hand-built plastic-covered frames to dazzling geodesic domes. Some child care centers install greenhouses as a part of their outdoor garden space. Other centers have incorporated a greenhouse into the building itself. Greenhouses provide a great opportunity for children to grow…

  2. Phyllotactic Patterns on Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shipman, Patrick D.; Newell, Alan C.

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate how phyllotaxis (the arrangement of leaves on plants) and the deformation configurations seen on plant surfaces may be understood as the energy-minimizing buckling pattern of a compressed shell (the plant's tunica) on an elastic foundation. The key new idea is that the strain energy is minimized by configurations consisting of special triads of almost periodic deformations. We reproduce a wide spectrum of plant patterns, all with the divergence angles observed in nature, and show how the occurrences of Fibonacci-like sequences and the golden angle are natural consequences.

  3. Agriculture: Nurseries and Greenhouses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nurseries and Greenhouses. Information about environmental requirements specifically relating to the production of many types of agricultural crops grown in nurseries and greenhouses, such as ornamental plants and specialty fruits and vegetables.

  4. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  5. Build a Solar Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Attached solar greenhouses are relatively inexpensive and easy to build; they can provide additional heat to homes all winter as well as fresh vegetables and flowers. This bulletin: (1) describes the characteristics of a solar greenhouse; (2) provides a checklist of five items to consider before building a solar greenhouse; (3) describes the four…

  6. The Dynamic Greenhouse Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2010-01-01

    Greenhouses are marvelous devices, allowing one to enjoy the flower spectacle of summer all year round. At night, greenhouses use supplemental heat to keep the fragile plants warm. Over the last 30 years, greenhouse technology has undergone many changes, with the structures being automated and monitored and low-cost plastic structures emerging as…

  7. Gardener's solar greenhouse: how to build and use a solar greenhouse for year-round gardening

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.

    1984-01-01

    The design of a solar greenhouse is presented. Subtleties of its use are discussed, and site selection criteria for it are discussed. Rather complete instructions for construction are presented in sections. Separate sections are included for foundation, framing, glazing and trim, and movable insulation. Recipes for using the goodies grown in the greenhouse are also included. 92 figures.

  8. Ascertaining Elk Impacts on Plant Communities

    Treesearch

    Charles G. Johnson; Marty Vavra; Mitch Willis; Catherine G. Parks

    2013-01-01

    Managers charged with managing landscapes influenced by elk are challenged to establish monitoring protocols that identify when impacts are responsible for declining ecological condition. We assessed the impact of elk herbivory on plant communities on an elk winter range by comparing canopy cover of common species that represented subjectively selected heavy and light...

  9. 4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Perspective view, greenhouse, from the southwest. The greenhouse is the portion of the seed house to the right (south) of the double doors. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. Thoughts from the Greenhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

  11. Thoughts from the Greenhouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sonstrom, Wendy Jean

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the functions of a graduate adult education program and a greenhouse. A graduate adult education program is a place where, like in a greenhouse, exciting new hybrids can be developed--working with people outside the school of education, in different disciplines and beyond the university's walls, sharing what…

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation options for Washington State

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia, N.

    1996-04-01

    President Clinton, in 1993, established a goal for the United States to return emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. One effort established to help meet this goal was a three part Environmental Protection Agency state grant program. Washington State completed part one of this program with the release of the 1990 greenhouse gas emissions inventory and 2010 projected inventory. This document completes part two by detailing alternative greenhouse gas mitigation options. In part three of the program EPA, working in partnership with the States, may help fund innovative greenhouse gas reduction strategies. The greenhouse gas control options analyzed in this report have a wide range of greenhouse gas reductions, costs, and implementation requirements. In order to select and implement a prudent mix of control strategies, policy makers need to have some notion of the potential change in climate, the consequences of that change and the uncertainties contained therein. By understanding the risks of climate change, policy makers can better balance the use of scarce public resources for concerns that are immediate and present against those that affect future generations. Therefore, prior to analyzing alternative greenhouse gas control measures, this report briefly describes the phenomenon and uncertainties of global climate change, and then projects the likely consequences for Washington state.

  13. Infrared and infrared emission spectroscopic study of selected magnesium carbonate minerals containing ferric iron--implications for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Bahfenne, Silmarilly; Graham, Jessica

    2008-12-15

    The proposal to remove greenhouse gases by pumping liquid carbon dioxide several kilometres below ground level implies that many carbonate containing minerals will be formed. Among these minerals, the formation of two hydrotalcite-like minerals coalingite and brugnatellite is possible, thus necessitating a study of such minerals and their thermal stability. The two such carbonate-bearing minerals brugnatellite and coalingite have been characterised by a combination of infrared and infrared emission spectroscopy. Infrared emission spectroscopy is most useful to determine the stability of these minerals. The infrared spectra of the OH stretching region are characterised by OH and water stretching vibrations. Intense (CO3)(2-) symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations support the concept that the carbonate ion is distorted in these minerals. The position of the water bending vibration indicates that the water is strongly hydrogen bonded in the mineral structure. IES spectra show the temperature range of the thermal stability of these minerals.

  14. Passive-solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    Our project objective was to design, construct, and operate a commercialized (16' x 50') passive, solar greenhouse. The structure was originally intended as a vegetable forcing facility to produce vegetable crops in the off-season. Building and size constraints and economic considerations convinced us to use the greenhouse for producing bedding plants and vegetable starts in the spring, high value vegetables (tomatoes, cucumbers) in the fall and forced bulbs in the winter. This crop sequence allows us to use the greenhouse all year without additional heat as the crops are adopted to the temperature regime of the greenhouse during each particular season. In our first season, the greenhouse performed beautifully. The lowest temperature recorded was 38/sup 0/F after 4 cold, cloudy days in February. The production of bedding plants has allowed us to diversify our products and the early transplants we produced were a great asset to our vegetable farming operation. Although construction cost (4.57 sq. ft.) is higher than that of a conventional polyethylene-covered, quonset-type greenhouse (approx. $1.92 sq. ft.), our annual operating cost is cheaper than that of a conventional greenhouse (0.49 cents sq. ft. versus 0.67 cents sq. ft.) due to a longer usable lifetime of the structure and the elimination of heating costs. Our structure has been toured by interested individuals, school and farm groups. We plan to publicize the structure and its advantages by promoting more visits to the site.

  15. Fort Yukon Greenhouse Project

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Tanana Chiefs Conference is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  16. Mid-infrared and near-infrared spectroscopic study of selected magnesium carbonate minerals containing ferric iron-Implications for the geosequestration of greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Frost, Ray L; Reddy, B Jagannadha; Bahfenne, Silmarilly; Graham, Jessica

    2009-04-01

    The proposal to remove greenhouse gases by pumping liquefied CO(2) several kilometres below the ground implies that many carbonate containing minerals will be formed. Among these minerals brugnatellite and coalingite are probable. Two ferric ion bearing minerals brugnatellite and coalingite with a hydrotalcite-like structure have been characterised by a combination of infrared and near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy. The infrared spectra of the OH stretching region are characterised by OH and water stretching vibrations. Both the first and second fundamental overtones of these bands are observed in the NIR spectra in the 7030-7235 cm(-1) and 10,490-10,570 cm(-1) regions. Intense (CO(3))(2-) symmetric and antisymmetric stretching vibrations support the concept that the carbonate ion is distorted. The position of the water bending vibration indicates the water is strongly hydrogen bonded in the mineral structure. Split NIR bands at around 8675 and 11,100 cm(-1) indicate that some replacement of magnesium ions by ferrous ions in the mineral structure has occurred. Near-infrared spectroscopy is ideal for the assessment of the formation of carbonate minerals.

  17. Solar greenhouses in Minnesota

    SciTech Connect

    Polich, M.

    1981-12-01

    After a discussion of solar greenhouse phenomena and the potential for heat collection and food production, design recommendations are provided for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces and for attached food producing solar greenhouses. Also, design of a single solar structure to maximize heat collection and food production is considered. A method of predicting the performance for attached heat collecting solar sunspaces is given in which the solar savings fraction is calculated. (LEW)

  18. Inoculation of Acacia mangium with Alginate Beads Containing Selected Bradyrhizobium Strains under Field Conditions: Long-Term Effect on Plant Growth and Persistence of the Introduced Strains in Soil.

    PubMed

    Galiana, A; Prin, Y; Mallet, B; Gnahoua, G M; Poitel, M; Diem, H G

    1994-11-01

    The growth response of Acacia mangium Willd. to inoculation with selected Bradyrhizobium strains was investigated in two field trials in the Ivory Coast (West Africa). In the first trial (Anguededou), four provenances (i.e., trees originating from seeds harvested in different geographical areas) of A. mangium were inoculated with four Bradyrhizobium strains from different origins. Six months after being transplanted in the field, the heights of all inoculated trees showed a statistically significant increase of 9 to 26% compared with those of uninoculated trees, with the most effective strain being Aust 13c. After 19 months, the positive effect of inoculation on tree growth was confirmed. The effect of A. mangium provenance on tree growth was also highly significant. Trees from the Oriomo provenance of Papua New Guinea had a mean height that was 25% greater than those of other provenances. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect of interaction between strain and host provenance factors. Thus, most effective strain x provenance combinations could be proposed. Immunological identification of strains clearly showed that 90 to 100% of nodules from trees inoculated with three of the four Bradyrhizobium strains or from uninoculated trees contained exclusively Aust 13c 23 months after tree transplantation. This predominance of Aust 13c in nodules was still observed 42 months after tree transplantation. The second experiment (Port-Bouët), performed with a different soil, confirmed the long-term positive effect of Aust 13c on plant growth, its high competitive ability against indigenous strains, and its persistence in soil. Strain Aust 13c should thus be of great interest for inoculating A. mangium under a wide range of field conditions.

  19. Inoculation of Acacia mangium with Alginate Beads Containing Selected Bradyrhizobium Strains under Field Conditions: Long-Term Effect on Plant Growth and Persistence of the Introduced Strains in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Galiana, Antoine; Prin, Yves; Mallet, Bernard; Gnahoua, Guy-Modeste; Poitel, Mireille; Diem, Hoang Gia

    1994-01-01

    The growth response of Acacia mangium Willd. to inoculation with selected Bradyrhizobium strains was investigated in two field trials in the Ivory Coast (West Africa). In the first trial (Anguededou), four provenances (i.e., trees originating from seeds harvested in different geographical areas) of A. mangium were inoculated with four Bradyrhizobium strains from different origins. Six months after being transplanted in the field, the heights of all inoculated trees showed a statistically significant increase of 9 to 26% compared with those of uninoculated trees, with the most effective strain being Aust 13c. After 19 months, the positive effect of inoculation on tree growth was confirmed. The effect of A. mangium provenance on tree growth was also highly significant. Trees from the Oriomo provenance of Papua New Guinea had a mean height that was 25% greater than those of other provenances. Analysis of variance showed a highly significant effect of interaction between strain and host provenance factors. Thus, most effective strain × provenance combinations could be proposed. Immunological identification of strains clearly showed that 90 to 100% of nodules from trees inoculated with three of the four Bradyrhizobium strains or from uninoculated trees contained exclusively Aust 13c 23 months after tree transplantation. This predominance of Aust 13c in nodules was still observed 42 months after tree transplantation. The second experiment (Port-Bouët), performed with a different soil, confirmed the long-term positive effect of Aust 13c on plant growth, its high competitive ability against indigenous strains, and its persistence in soil. Strain Aust 13c should thus be of great interest for inoculating A. mangium under a wide range of field conditions. PMID:16349430

  20. Operating and Maintaining the Greenhouse.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresser, Priscilla A.

    This learning guide is designed to assist vocational agriculture students in mastering 20 tasks involved in the operation and maintenance of a greenhouse. Addressed in the individual sections of the guide are the following topics: identification of greenhouse designs, greenhouse construction, basic greenhouse maintenance to conserve energy,…

  1. BIOLOGICAL CONTROL OF WHEAT TAKE-ALL DISEASE: II – RAPID SELECTION OF BACTERIA SUPPRESSIVE TO GAEUMANNOMYCES GRAMINIS VAR. TRITICI IN LABORATORY WITH GREENHOUSE AND FIELD CONFIRMATION TRIALS

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Screening large collections of bacteria for potential biological control activity on economically important diseases is often difficult. A quick test tube assay was developed to rapidly screen selected bacterial isolates for their ability to suppress take-all disease of wheat, caused by Gaeumannomyc...

  2. Land Use and Management Practices Impact on Plant Biomass Carbon and Soil Carbon Dioxide Emission

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Land use and management practices may influence plant C input and soil CO2 emission, a greenhouse gas responsible for global warming. We evaluated the effect of a combination of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization on plant biomass (leaves + stems) C, soil temperature and water ...

  3. 15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view, greenhouse, from the northwest. The greenhouse interior was quite modest, the space between the floor of the lower level and the joists carrying the loft floor is only five-and-one-half feet. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. Greenhouse Gas Court Decision

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the June 26, 2012, U.S. Court of Appeals- D.C. Circuit's decision to uphold EPA's Endangerment Finding and greenhouse gas regulations issued under the Clean Air Act (CAA) for passenger vehicles and CAA permitting for stationary sources.

  5. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Berkhouse, L.; Davis, S.E.; Gladeck, F.R.; Hallowell, J.H.; Jones, C.B.

    1983-06-15

    GREENHOUSE was a four-detonation atmospheric nuclear weapon's test series conducted in the Marshall Islands at Enewetak Atoll in April and May 1951. This is a report of DOD personnel in GREENHOUSE with an emphasis on operational radiological safety.

  6. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual is presented in its first revision, providing a current, basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. Its fourteen chapters are: Overview of the Greenhouse Industry; Greenhouse Structures; Controlling the Greenhouse Environment; Greenhouse Equipment and Lighting; Greenhouse Irrigation Systems; Root Media…

  7. (Solar pods (greenhouses))

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    Detailed instructions for the construction of solar pads are presented. The materials necessary for constructing the solar pad are made available in kit form. A list of the materials includes: dome shaped double glazing; end plates and supports; 2 x 4's; a snow support rib; and pressure strips. Assembly of the structure is made easy with an electric drill and simple hand tools. The solar pads resemble miniature greenhouses and are used for year round horticulture. (BCS)

  8. Iron versus the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Monastersky, R.

    1995-09-30

    This paper reports on the possible repercussions of a Pacific Ocean experiment which demonstrated the effects of adding iron to the ocean. The plant growth stimulated was enough to use 350000 kilograms of carbon dioxide from the seawater. If performed on a large scale, fertilization of ocean water could absorb billions of tones of carbon dioxide from the air, enough to slow the rate of greenhouse warming. A variety of opinions are presented in the article.

  9. The greenhouse trap

    SciTech Connect

    Lyman, F.; Mintzer, I.; Courrier, K.; MacKenzie, J.

    1990-01-01

    This book describes evidence of global warming and the contributions of man's activities to the process. The impacts of greenhouse gases on climate and health are discussed and recommendations are made for mitigation of these effects. Changes in fuel use, expansion of carbon sinks through planting of trees, and personal commitments to energy conservation are among these recommendations. Individual chapters were indexed separately for the data base.

  10. Operation GREENHOUSE-1951

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-15

    potential for exposure of weapon diagnostics participants. 26 Effects Experiments All four GREENHOUSE shots tested new weapon developments. Priorities of...but crawling some of the way. Each round trip took about 15 minutes and was made in a different set of test trousers (Reference 72, p. 10). Th...aboard two VB -29s, and aboard an RB-29 from the Strategic Air Command (SAC). flown in specifically to participate in this S. experiment. The film was

  11. Mites (Acari) as a factor in greenhouse management.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Uri; Weintraub, Phyllis G

    2012-01-01

    This review discusses the economically important pest mites (Acari) of greenhouses, aspects of their biology, and the acarine predators that attack them as well as various insect pests. Greenhouse factors affect pest mites as well as their natural enemy populations and their interactions. Conversely, pest mites affect greenhouse management in terms of the chemical and biological methods required to control their populations. Structure affects heating, cooling, and light, which can be manipulated with suitable screens. Crops often select for pests and their mite enemies. Both groups may be affected in greenhouses by adding pollen and by a CO(2)-enriched atmosphere. These factors impact pest mite populations, the damage they cause, and the methods used to control them. The possibility of incipient evolution occurring in greenhouses, along with the benefits and consequences for pest control, is discussed. Copyright © 2012 by Annual Reviews. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of combined microbes on plant tolerance to Zn-Pb contaminations.

    PubMed

    Ogar, Anna; Sobczyk, Łukasz; Turnau, Katarzyna

    2015-12-01

    The presence and composition of soil microbial communities has been shown to have a large impact on plant-plant interactions and consequently plant diversity and composition. The goal of the present study was to evaluate impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which constitutes an essential link between the soil and the plant's roots. A greenhouse pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using selected microbes to improve Hieracium pilosella and Medicago sativa growth on Zn-Pb-rich site. Results of studies revealed that biomass, the dry mass of shoots and roots, increased significantly when plants were inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi and nitrogen-fixing bacteria. The addition of Azospirillum sp. and Nostoc edaphicum without mycorrhiza suppressed plant growth. Single bacterial inoculation alone does not have a positive effect on M. sativa growth, while co-inoculation with AMF improved plant growth. Plant vitality (expressed by the performance index) was improved by the addition of microbes. However, our results indicated that even dry heat sterilization of the substratum created imbalanced relationships between soil-plant and plants and associated microorganisms. The studies indicated that AMF and N2-fixers can improve revegetation of heavy metal-rich industrial sites, if the selection of interacting symbionts is properly conducted.

  13. Improving Empirical Approaches to Estimating Local Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackhurst, M.; Azevedo, I. L.; Lattanzi, A.

    2016-12-01

    Evidence increasingly indicates our changing climate will have significant global impacts on public health, economies, and ecosystems. As a result, local governments have become increasingly interested in climate change mitigation. In the U.S., cities and counties representing nearly 15% of the domestic population plan to reduce 300 million metric tons of greenhouse gases over the next 40 years (or approximately 1 ton per capita). Local governments estimate greenhouse gas emissions to establish greenhouse gas mitigation goals and select supporting mitigation measures. However, current practices produce greenhouse gas estimates - also known as a "greenhouse gas inventory " - of empirical quality often insufficient for robust mitigation decision making. Namely, current mitigation planning uses sporadic, annual, and deterministic estimates disaggregated by broad end use sector, obscuring sources of emissions uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity that influence mitigation opportunities. As part of AGU's Thriving Earth Exchange, Ari Lattanzi of City of Pittsburgh, PA recently partnered with Dr. Inez Lima Azevedo (Carnegie Mellon University) and Dr. Michael Blackhurst (University of Pittsburgh) to improve the empirical approach to characterizing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gas emissions. The project will produce first-order estimates of the underlying sources of uncertainty, variability, and exogeneity influencing Pittsburgh's greenhouse gases and discuss implications of mitigation decision making. The results of the project will enable local governments to collect more robust greenhouse gas inventories to better support their mitigation goals and improve measurement and verification efforts.

  14. The greenhouse gambit

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, D. . Environmental Information Service)

    1992-01-01

    While forecasts of the economic costs and benefits of ameliorating global warming remain speculative, so, too, are the climate change projections that gird the debate. The consensus among most of the scientific community is that a doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide is likely to raise the mean global temperature of the Earth 3 to 8 degrees Fahrenheit by 2050. To put this forecast in some perspective, the planet was about 10 degrees cooler during the last Great Ice Age and about 10 degrees warmer dozing the Age of the Dinsosaurs. Accordingly, the warming could bring about dramatic changes in climate. But a prudent investor must be careful not to invest too much in pat assumptions about the greenhouse effect. The climate may have many surprises in store. Indeed, it has surprised climate forecasters already by not warming nearly as fast as their general circulation models have suggested it would. This book examines four industries with the most at stake in the greenhouse debate: agriculture, forest products, automobiles and electric power. All of these industries essentially face two choices: Act now to blunt the possible momentum of climate change, or wait and see if the basic forecast is correct, accommodating any change as it occurs. These choices involve a trade-off between further information-gathering to ensure a proper course of action and implementing a strategy, quickly to its intended effect. Such a trade-off is the essence of risk, the stuff of investing. For the purposes of this book, it defines the greenhouse gambit.''

  15. Occupational asthma in greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Monsó, Eduard

    2004-03-01

    A prevalence of asthma over 5% has been reported in flower farmers,and work inside greenhouses has emerged as an additional risk factor. Workplace determinants behind this high prevalence has been examined, and a prevalence of sensitization to workplace allergens over 30% has been reported being pollens, moulds, and Tetranychus urticae allergens the main sensitizers. Bronchial challenge tests in the workplace have demonstrated occupational asthma in more than 20% of the sensitized greenhouse growers. Air contamination inside greenhouses is mainly related to moulds, and is facilitated by the high indoor temperature and humidity. Cladosporium, Penicillium, Aspergillus, and Alternaria and a wide range of flower pollens are able to sensitize the greenhouse worker and cause occupational asthma. Tetranychus urticae have allergens shared with other mites, but the low prevalence of cross-sensitization between them confirm that Tetranychus urticae contains species-specific allergens that may cause respiratory symptoms. Additionally, working inside greenhouses has been related to an increase in the prevalence of chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers. The cultivation of greenhouse crops may cause occupational asthma through sensitization to workplace pollens, moulds, and Tetranychus urticae allergens. In greenhouse flower growers, skin testing identifies sensitization to these allergens in one third of the growers, and more than one fifth of the sensitized workers will develop occupational asthma. Greenhouse work has also been related to chronic bronchitis in nonsmokers, suggesting a causal effect of greenhouse air contaminants on this disease as well.

  16. Has your greenhouse gone virtual?

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Virtual Grower is a free decision-support software program available from USDA-ARS that allows growers to build a virtual greenhouse. It was initially designed to help greenhouse growers estimate heating costs and conduct simple simulations to figure out where heat savings could be achieved. Featu...

  17. Mars inflatable greenhouse analog.

    PubMed

    Sadler, Philip D; Giacomelli, Gene A

    2002-01-01

    Light intensities on the Martian surface can possibly support a bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) utilizing natural sunlight for hydroponic crop production, if a suitable controlled environment can be provided. Inflatable clear membrane structures offer low mass, are more easily transported than a rigid structure, and are good candidates for providing a suitable controlled environment for crop production. Cable culture is one hydroponic growing system that can take advantage of the beneficial attributes of the inflatable structure. An analog of a Mars inflatable greenhouse can provide researchers data on issues such as crew time requirements for operation, productivity for BLSS, human factors, and much more at a reasonable cost. This is a description of one such design.

  18. The greenhouse of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagan, C.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis of non-gray radiative equilibrium and gray convective equilibrium on Titan suggests that a massive molecular-hydrogen greenhouse effect may be responsible for the disagreement between the observed IR temperatures and the equilibrium temperature of an atmosphereless Titan. Calculations of convection indicate a probable minimum optical depth of 14 which corresponds to a molecular hydrogen shell of substantial thickness with total pressures of about 0.1 bar. It is suggested that there is an equilibrium between outgassing and blow-off on the one hand and accretion from the protons trapped in a hypothetical Saturnian magnetic field on the other, in the present atmosphere of Titan. It is believed that an outgassing equivalent to the volatilization of a few kilometers of subsurface ice is required to maintain the present blow-off rate without compensation for all geological time. The presence of an extensive hydrogen corona around Titan is postulated, with surface temperatures up to 200 K.

  19. Biodiversity effects on plant stoichiometry.

    PubMed

    Abbas, Maike; Ebeling, Anne; Oelmann, Yvonne; Ptacnik, Robert; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate, the issue of multifunctionality of species communities has recently become a major focus. Elemental stoichiometry is related to a variety of processes reflecting multiple plant responses to the biotic and abiotic environment. It can thus be expected that the diversity of a plant assemblage alters community level plant tissue chemistry. We explored elemental stoichiometry in aboveground plant tissue (ratios of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and its relationship to plant diversity in a 5-year study in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). Species richness and functional group richness affected community stoichiometry, especially by increasing C:P and N:P ratios. The primacy of either species or functional group richness effects depended on the sequence of testing these terms, indicating that both aspects of richness were congruent and complementary to expected strong effects of legume presence and grass presence on plant chemical composition. Legumes and grasses had antagonistic effects on C:N (-27.7% in the presence of legumes, +32.7% in the presence of grasses). In addition to diversity effects on mean ratios, higher species richness consistently decreased the variance of chemical composition for all elemental ratios. The diversity effects on plant stoichiometry has several non-exclusive explanations: The reduction in variance can reflect a statistical averaging effect of species with different chemical composition or a optimization of nutrient uptake at high diversity, leading to converging ratios at high diversity. The shifts in mean ratios potentially reflect higher allocation to stem tissue as plants grew taller at higher richness. By showing a first link between plant diversity and stoichiometry in a multiyear experiment, our results indicate that losing plant species from grassland ecosystems will lead to less reliable chemical composition of forage for

  20. Biodiversity Effects on Plant Stoichiometry

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Maike; Ebeling, Anne; Oelmann, Yvonne; Ptacnik, Robert; Roscher, Christiane; Weigelt, Alexandra; Weisser, Wolfgang W.; Wilcke, Wolfgang; Hillebrand, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    In the course of the biodiversity-ecosystem functioning debate, the issue of multifunctionality of species communities has recently become a major focus. Elemental stoichiometry is related to a variety of processes reflecting multiple plant responses to the biotic and abiotic environment. It can thus be expected that the diversity of a plant assemblage alters community level plant tissue chemistry. We explored elemental stoichiometry in aboveground plant tissue (ratios of carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium) and its relationship to plant diversity in a 5-year study in a large grassland biodiversity experiment (Jena Experiment). Species richness and functional group richness affected community stoichiometry, especially by increasing C:P and N:P ratios. The primacy of either species or functional group richness effects depended on the sequence of testing these terms, indicating that both aspects of richness were congruent and complementary to expected strong effects of legume presence and grass presence on plant chemical composition. Legumes and grasses had antagonistic effects on C:N (−27.7% in the presence of legumes, +32.7% in the presence of grasses). In addition to diversity effects on mean ratios, higher species richness consistently decreased the variance of chemical composition for all elemental ratios. The diversity effects on plant stoichiometry has several non-exclusive explanations: The reduction in variance can reflect a statistical averaging effect of species with different chemical composition or a optimization of nutrient uptake at high diversity, leading to converging ratios at high diversity. The shifts in mean ratios potentially reflect higher allocation to stem tissue as plants grew taller at higher richness. By showing a first link between plant diversity and stoichiometry in a multiyear experiment, our results indicate that losing plant species from grassland ecosystems will lead to less reliable chemical composition of forage for

  1. Greenhouse Gas Data Publication Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This tool to gives you access to greenhouse gas data reported to EPA by large facilities and suppliers in the United States through EPA's Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program. The tool allows you to view data in several formats including maps, tables, charts and graphs for individual facilities or groups of facilities. You can search the data set for individual facilities by name or location or filter the data set by state or county, industry sectors and sub-sectors, annual facility emission thresholds, and greenhouse gas type. For more information on the GHG Reporting Program and this data, please visit https://www.epa.gov/ghgreporting

  2. Greenhouse gas trading starts up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    While nations decide on whether to sign on to the Kyoto Protocol on climate change, some countries and private companies are moving forward with greenhouse gas emissions trading.A 19 March report, "The Emerging International Greenhouse Gas Market," by the Pew Center on Global Climate Change, reports that about 65 greenhouse gas emissions trades for quantities above 1,000 metric tons of carbon dioxideequivalent already have occurred worldwide since 1996. Many of these trades have taken place under a voluntary, ad hoc framework, though the United Kingdom and Denmark have established their own domestic emissions trading programs.

  3. (Limiting the greenhouse effect)

    SciTech Connect

    Rayner, S.

    1991-01-07

    Traveler attended the Dahlem Research Conference organized by the Freien Universitat, Berlin. The subject of the conference was Limiting the Greenhouse Effect: Options for Controlling Atmospheric CO{sub 2} Accumulation. Like all Dahlem workshops, this was a meeting of scientific experts, although the disciplines represented were broader than usual, ranging across anthropology, economics, international relations, forestry, engineering, and atmospheric chemistry. Participation by scientists from developing countries was limited. The conference was divided into four multidisciplinary working groups. Traveler acted as moderator for Group 3 which examined the question What knowledge is required to tackle the principal social and institutional barriers to reducing CO{sub 2} emissions'' The working rapporteur was Jesse Ausubel of Rockefeller University. Other working groups examined the economic costs, benefits, and technical feasibility of options to reduce emissions per unit of energy service; the options for reducing energy use per unit of GNP; and the significant of linkage between strategies to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions and other goals. Draft reports of the working groups are appended. Overall, the conference identified a number of important research needs in all four areas. It may prove particularly important in bringing the social and institutional research needs relevant to climate change closer to the forefront of the scientific and policy communities than hitherto.

  4. SYMPOSIUM ON PLANT PROTEIN PHOSPHORYLATION

    SciTech Connect

    JOHN C WALKER

    2011-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation and dephosphorylation play key roles in many aspects of plant biology, including control of cell division, pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism, pattern formation, hormonal responses, and abiotic and biotic responses to environmental signals. A Symposium on Plant Protein Phosphorylation was hosted on the Columbia campus of the University of Missouri from May 26-28, 2010. The symposium provided an interdisciplinary venue at which scholars studying protein modification, as it relates to a broad range of biological questions and using a variety of plant species, presented their research. It also provided a forum where current international challenges in studies related to protein phosphorylation could be examined. The symposium also stimulated research collaborations through interactions and networking among those in the research community and engaged students and early career investigators in studying issues in plant biology from an interdisciplinary perspective. The proposed symposium, which drew 165 researchers from 13 countries and 21 States, facilitated a rapid dissemination of acquired knowledge and technical expertise regarding protein phosphorylation in plants to a broad range of plant biologists worldwide.

  5. Overview of global greenhouse effects

    SciTech Connect

    Reck, R.A.

    1993-09-01

    This report reviews the factors that influence the evolution of climate and climate change. Recent studies have confirmed that CO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, N{sub 2}O, CH{sub 4}, and chlorofluorocarbos are increasing in abundance in the atmosphere and can alter the radiation balance by means of the so-called greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is as well-accepted phenomenon, but the prediction of its consequences is much less certain. Attempts to detect a human-caused temperature change are still inconclusive. This report presents a discussion of the scientific basis for the greenhouse effect, its relationship to the abundances of greenhouse gases, and the evidence confirming the increases in the abundances. The basis for climate modeling is presented together with an example of the model outputs from one of the most sophisticated modeling efforts. Uncertainties in the present understanding of climate are outlined.

  6. Policy implications of greenhouse warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppock, Rob

    1992-03-01

    A study panel of the National Academy of Sciences, National Academy of Engineering, and Institute of Medicine recently issued the report Policy Implications of Greenhouse Warming. That report examined relevant scientific knowldeg and evidence about the potential of greenhouse warming, and assayed actions that could slow the onset of warming (mitigation policies) or help human and natural systems of plants and animals adapt to climatic changes (adaptation policies). The panel found that, even given the considerable uncertainties knowledge of the relevant phenomena, greenhouse warming poses a threat sufficient to merit prompt action. People in this country could probably adapt to the changes likely to accompany greenhouse warming. The costs, however, could be substantial. Investment in mitigation acts as insurance protection against the great uncertainties and the possibility of dramatic surprises. The panel found mitigation options that could reduce U.S. emissions by an estimated 10 to 40 percent at modest cost.

  7. Climate science: Agricultural greenhouse gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollock, Chris

    2011-05-01

    Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture is important and achievable. However, cutting emissions to meet the UK's legal targets for 2050 will bring technical and political challenges, and may affect food production.

  8. Greenhouses and their humanizing synergies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haeuplik-Meusburger, Sandra; Paterson, Carrie; Schubert, Daniel; Zabel, Paul

    2014-03-01

    Greenhouses in space will require advanced technical systems of automatic watering, soil-less cultivation, artificial lighting, and computerized observation of plants. Functions discussed for plants in space habitats include physical/health requirements and human psychology, social cohesion, as well as the complex sensorial benefits of plants for humans. The authors consider the role of plants in long-term space missions historically since 1971 (Salyut 1) and propose a set of priorities to be considered within the design requirements for greenhouses and constructed environments given a range of benefits associated with plant-human relationships. They cite recent research into the use of greenhouses in extreme environments to reveal the relative importance of greenhouses for people living in isolated locations. Additionally, they put forward hypotheses about where greenhouses might factor into several strata of human health. In a recent design-in-use study of astronauts' experiences in space habitats discussed in Architecture for Astronauts (Springer Press 2011) it was found that besides the basic advantages for life support there are clearly additional "side benefits" for habitability and physical wellbeing, and thus long-term mission success. The authors have composed several key theses regarding the need to promote plant-human relationships in space, including areas where synergy and symbiosis occur. They cite new comprehensive research into the early US Space Program to reveal where programmatic requirements could be added to space architecture to increase the less quantifiable benefits to astronauts of art, recreation, and poetic engagement with their existential condition of estrangement from the planet. Specifically in terms of the technological requirements, the authors propose the integration of a new greenhouse subsystem component into space greenhouses—the Mobile Plant Cultivation Subsystem—a portable, personal greenhouse that can be integrated

  9. Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition

    SciTech Connect

    Booth, W.H.; Caesar, S.

    1992-09-01

    The Franklin Institute Science Museum provided an exhibit entitled the Greenhouse Earth: A Traveling Exhibition. This 3500 square-foot exhibit on global climate change was developed in collaboration with the Association of Science-Technology Centers. The exhibit opened at The Franklin Institute on February 14, 1992, welcoming 291,000 visitors over its three-month stay. During its three-year tour, Greenhouse Earth will travel to ten US cities, reaching two million visitors. Greenhouse Earth aims to deepen public understanding of the scientific issues of global warming and the conservation measures that can be taken to slow its effects. The exhibit features hands-on exhibitry, interactive computer programs and videos, a theater production, a demonstration cart,'' guided tours, and lectures. supplemental educational programs at the Institute included a teachers preview, a symposium on climate change, and a satellite field trip.'' The development of Greenhouse Earth included front-end and formative evaluation procedures. Evaluation includes interviews with visitors, prototypes, and summative surveys for participating museums. During its stay in Philadelphia, Greenhouse Earth was covered by the local and national press, with reviews in print and broadcast media. Greenhouse Earth is the first large-scale museum exhibit to address global climate change.

  10. Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord

    SciTech Connect

    2007-07-01

    The Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Acccord, or Midwestern Greenhouse gas Accord (MGA), is a regional agreement by governors of the states in the US Midwest and one Canadian province to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to combat climate change. Signatories to the accord include the US states of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Michigan, Kansas, Ohio and South Dakota, and the Canadian Province of Manitoba. The accord, signed on November 15, 2007, established the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Program, which aims to: establish greenhouse gas reduction targets and timeframes consistent with MGA member states' targets; develop a market-based and multi-sector cap-and-trade mechanism to help achieve those reduction targets; establish a system to enable tracking, management, and crediting for entities that reduce greenhouse gas emissions; and develop and implement additional steps as needed to achieve the reduction targets, such as a low-carbon fuel standards and regional incentives and funding mechanisms. The GHG registry will be managed by the Climate Registry, which manages the registry for other US state schemes. One of the first actions was to convene an Energy Security under Climate Stewardship Platform to guide future development of the Midwest's energy economy.

  11. Recent Greenhouse Gas Concentrations

    DOE Data Explorer

    Blasing, T. J.

    2016-01-01

    Gases typically measured in parts per million (ppm), parts per billion (ppb) or parts per trillion (ppt) are presented separately to facilitate comparison of numbers. Global Warming Potentials (GWPs) and atmospheric lifetimes are from the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2013, Table 8.A.1), except for the atmospheric lifetime of carbon dioxide (CO2) which is explained in footnote 4. Additional material on greenhouse gases can be found in CDIAC's Reference Tools. To find out how CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and halons are named, see Name that compound: The numbers game for CFCs, HFCs, HCFCs, and Halons. Concentrations given apply to the lower 75-80 percent of the atmosphere, known as the troposphere. Sources of the current and preindustrial concentrations of the atmospheric gases listed in the table below are given in the footnotes. Investigators at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration have provided the recent concentrations. Much of the data provided results from the work of various investigators at institutions other than CDIAC, and represent considerable effort on their part. We ask as a basic professional courtesy that you acknowledge the primary sources, indicated in the footnotes below, or in the links given in the footnotes. Concentrations of ozone and water vapor are spatially and temporally variable due to their short atmospheric lifetimes. A vertically and horizontally averaged water vapor concentration is about 5,000 ppm. Globally averaged water vapor concentration is difficult to measure precisely because it varies from one place to another and from one season to the next. This precludes a precise determination of changes in water vapor since pre-industrial time. However, a warmer atmosphere will likely contain more water vapor than at present. For a more detailed statement on water vapor from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, see the "water vapor" page at http://lwf.ncdc.noaa.gov/oa/climate/gases.html

  12. Advancing agricultural greenhouse gas quantification*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olander, Lydia; Wollenberg, Eva; Tubiello, Francesco; Herold, Martin

    2013-03-01

    increased emissions unless we improve production efficiencies and management. Developing countries currently account for about three-quarters of direct emissions and are expected to be the most rapidly growing emission sources in the future (FAO 2011). Reducing agricultural emissions and increasing carbon sequestration in the soil and biomass has the potential to reduce agriculture's contribution to climate change by 5.5-6.0 gigatons (Gt) of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2eq)/year. Economic potentials, which take into account costs of implementation, range from 1.5 to 4.3 GT CO2eq/year, depending on marginal abatement costs assumed and financial resources committed, with most of this potential in developing countries (Smith et al 2007). The opportunity for mitigation in agriculture is thus significant, and, if realized, would contribute to making this sector carbon neutral. Yet it is only through a robust and shared understanding of how much carbon can be stored or how much CO2 is reduced from mitigation practices that informed decisions can be made about how to identify, implement, and balance a suite of mitigation practices as diverse as enhancing soil organic matter, increasing the digestibility of feed for cattle, and increasing the efficiency of nitrogen fertilizer applications. Only by selecting a portfolio of options adapted to regional characteristics and goals can mitigation needs be best matched to also serve rural development goals, including food security and increased resilience to climate change. Expansion of agricultural land also remains a major contributor of greenhouse gases, with deforestation, largely linked to clearing of land for cultivation or pasture, generating 80% of emissions from developing countries (Hosonuma et al 2012). There are clear opportunities for these countries to address mitigation strategies from the forest and agriculture sector, recognizing that agriculture plays a large role in economic and development potential. In this context

  13. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  14. The Greenhouse and Anti-Greenhouse Effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, C. P.; Cuzzi, Jeffrey N. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Titan is the largest moon of Saturn and is the only moon in the solar system with a substantial atmosphere. Its atmosphere is mostly made of nitrogen, with a few percent CH4, 0.1% H2 and an uncertain level of Ar (less than 10%). The surface pressure is 1.5 atms and the surface temperature is 95 K, decreasing to 71 at the tropopause before rising to stratospheric temperatures of 180 K. In pressure and composition Titan's atmosphere is the closest twin to Earth's. The surface of Titan remains unknown, hidden by the thick smog layer, but it may be an ocean of liquid methane and ethane. Titan's atmosphere has a greenhouse effect which is much stronger than the Earth's - 92% of the surface warming is due to greenhouse radiation. However an organic smog layer in the upper atmosphere produces an anti-greenhouse effect that cuts the greenhouse warming in half - removing 35% of the incoming solar radiation. Models suggest that during its formation Titan's atmosphere was heated to high temperatures due to accretional energy. This was followed by a cold Triton-like period which gradually warmed to the present conditions. The coupled greenhouse and haze anti-greenhouse may be relevant to recent suggestions for haze shielding of a CH4 - NH3 early atmosphere on Earth or Mars. When the NASA/ESA mission to the Saturn System, Cassini, launches in a few years it will carry a probe that will be sent to the surface of Titan and show us this world that is strange and yet in many ways similar to our own.

  15. Report urges greenhouse action now

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1988-07-01

    A recent report that is a product of a process initiated and monitored by three major international organizations, the United Nations Environmental Program, the World Meteorological Organization, and the International Council of Scientific Unions, brings the greenhouse effect into the public eye. The report estimates rates of temperature increase of the earth due to CO/sub 2/ plus the other greenhouse gases. Estimates of the greenhouse effect arising from unrestrained gas emissions and a highly sensitive climate or strong global restraint of emissions and a low climate sensitivity range from 0.8 to 0.06/sup 0/C per decade. Long term policies that the report recommends should be reexamined are increased efficiency in the consumption of energy and a shift toward alternative energy to reduce CO/sub 2/ emissions and reforestation to remove CO/sub 2/ from the atmosphere.

  16. Greenhouse-effect spurs legislation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    Senator Timothy E. Wirth (D-Colo.) reintroduced legislation on February 1, 1989, to establish a national energy policy that would slow down the emission of pollutants contributing to the greenhouse effect. Wirth's comprehensive bill to combat the greenhouse effect includes initiatives to: increase energy-efficiency in all sectors of the US economy; expand research and development of nonfossil fuel sources such as solar; encourage technologies to reduce carbon dioxide emission from coal-fired power plants and other sources; direct the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund to develop policies to stop tropical deforestation; and research the greenhouse effect, its causes, and the steps needed to cope with a changing climate.

  17. Retractable Roof Greenhouses and Shadehouses

    Treesearch

    Jr. Bartok

    2005-01-01

    Open-roof greenhouses provide a natural environment for plant growth when the outdoor weather is suitable and an artificial environment when it is too hot or cold. Opening the roof over the plants increases light intensity, which can help to control the growth habit, flowering, and crop timing. It also reduces electricity costs because expensive fan cooling is not...

  18. An Introduction to Greenhouse Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMahon, Robert W.

    This student manual provides a basic text for those preparing for greenhouse and floriculture work. At the beginning of each chapter, competencies are listed, along with related math and science concepts, and a list of "terms to know"; figures, tables, and photographs may be included. At the end of each chapter, a self-check can be made…

  19. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Pasture

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and methane are the primary greenhouse gases associated with global climate change. Livestock production’s contribution to carbon dioxide emissions is minimal, but it is a substantial contributor to both nitrous oxide and methane emissions. In both grazing and confin...

  20. 222Rn concentrations in greenhouses in Aomori Prefecture, Japan.

    PubMed

    Iyogi, T; Hisamatsu, S; Inaba, J

    2006-02-01

    Greenhouses are possible places with high 222Rn concentrations, since soil, the source of 222Rn, is directly exposed inside them. To examine this point, 222Rn concentrations in 28 greenhouses at five locations in Aomori Prefecture were measured for approximately 1 year with passive Rn detectors. For 1 week, measurements of 222Rn concentration and working level were also carried out with active detectors to get equilibrium factors and the ratio of 222Rn concentration in working time to non-working time in selected greenhouses. The geometric mean of annual 222Rn concentrations in greenhouses was 13 Bq m-3, and the same as that in dwellings and lower than that in indoor workplaces in the prefecture. However, variation of the 222Rn concentrations was far larger than in other environments, and ranged from the lowest level in outdoor workplaces to the highest level in indoor workplaces. Significant seasonal variation was also observed in 222Rn concentrations. The mean effective dose from 222Rn and its progenies was estimated to be 0.047 mSv year-1 for a farmer working in a greenhouse.

  1. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  2. The Greenhouse Effect: Science and Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Stephen H.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses many of the scientific questions surrounding the greenhouse effect debate and the issue of plausible responses. Discussion includes topics concerning projecting emissions and greenhouse gas concentrations, estimating global climatic response, economic, social, and political impacts, and policy responses. (RT)

  3. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  4. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes ...

  5. Building and using the solar greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    1983-01-01

    Thorough directions are given for planning, constructing and using a solar greenhouse attached to a house. Included is a method of calculating the savings accruing from the use of the greenhouse. (LEW)

  6. [Greenhouse gardeners and sickness absence. A questionnaire study among greenhouse gardeners in Aarhus region].

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Ellen; Nielsen, Claus Vinther; Drews, Birgit Mammen

    2007-02-26

    The aim of the study was to examine sickness absence and risk factors for sickness absence in a population of greenhouse gardeners in the county of Arhus. The study was cross sectional and based on data from questionnaires sent to all employees and greenhouse gardens in the county. Greenhouse gardeners had an average of four days of sickness absence a year. Self-rated health was poorer than average of the Danish population in general. Female gender, age below 40 years, troublesome relationships to family and friends, "poor" physical working environment and job insecurity were all predictors for increased risk of sickness absence lasting more than two weeks a year. Sickness absence was low compared to the average of the Danish labour market. Considering poorer self-rated health and frequent occurrence of some of the above-mentioned predictors for increased risk of sickness absence--female gender, age below 40 years and for women, high exposure to "poor" physical working environment--an average sickness absence of only four days was a puzzle. The data from the study were not sufficient to explain this paradox. It might be due to compensating factors at work or at a personal level. It might be due to information bias, as sickness absence could be underestimated, but agreement between reported sickness absence from employees and greenhouse gardens diminished that probability. It might have been a consequence of selection bias, the "healthy workers'" effect. Employees with considerable sickness absence might have been dismissed for long-term absence or might have quit the job because they were not able to cope with it.

  7. Physiological effects of Meloidogyne incognita infection on cotton genotypes with differing levels of resistance in the greenhouse

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Greenhouse tests were conducted to evaluate 1) the effect of Meloidogyne incognita infection in cotton on plant growth and physiology including the height-to-node ratio, chlorophyll content, dark adapted quantum yield of photosystem II, and leaf area, and 2) the extent to which moderate or high leve...

  8. Selective Effect of Pesticides on Plant--A Review.

    PubMed

    Parween, Talat; Jan, Sumira; Mahmooduzzafar, Sumira; Fatma, Tasneem; Siddiqui, Zahid Hameed

    2016-01-01

    This review represents systematic and integrated picture of pesticide exposure to plant and its effect on growth and metabolism. Decades ago, agrochemicals were introduced aiming at enhancing crop yields and protecting crops from pests. Due to adaptation and resistance developed by pests to chemicals, every year higher amounts and new chemical compounds are used to protect crops, causing undesired side effects and raising the costs of food production. Biological chemical free agriculture is gaining also more and more support but it is still not able to respond to the need for producing massive amounts of food. The use of agrochemicals, including pesticides, remains a common practice especially in tropical regions and South countries. Cheap compounds, such as DDT, HCH, and Lindane, that are environmentally persistent, are today banned from agriculture use in developed countries, but remain popular in developing countries. As a consequence, persistent residues of these chemicals contaminate food and disperse in the environment. Therefore, the thrust of this paper was to review the application of pesticides effect early from germination to growth of the plant, leading to alteration in biochemical, physiological and different enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants which ultimately affect the yield and resulted in residues in plant, vegetables, and fruits.

  9. Selective forces exerted by vertebrate herbivores on plants.

    PubMed

    Westoby, M

    1989-04-01

    The question of whether herbivory can benefit plants remains controversial. A series of papers on the effects of lesser snow geese grazing on grasses in northern Canada is throwing new light on this problem. Copyright © 1989. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Hublitz, I; Henninger, D L; Drake, B G; Eckart, P

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting.

  11. The Greenhouse Effect and Built Environment Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenall Gough, Annette; Gough, Noel

    The greenhouse effect has always existed. Without the greenhouse effect, Earth could well have the oven-like environment of Venus or the deep-freeze environment of Mars. There is some debate about how much the Earth's surface temperature will rise given a certain amount of increase in the amount of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, nitrous…

  12. Using waste oil to heat a greenhouse

    Treesearch

    Marla Schwartz

    2009-01-01

    During the winter of 1990, Northwoods Nursery (Elk River, ID) purchased a wood-burning system to heat the current greenhouses. This system burned slabs of wood to heat water that was then pumped into the greenhouses. The winter of 1990 was extremely harsh, requiring non-stop operation of the heating system. In order to keep seedlings in the greenhouse from freezing,...

  13. Volcanoes can muddle the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Kerr, R.A.

    1990-01-01

    As scientists and politicians anxiously eye signs of global greenhouse warming, climatologists are finding the best evidence yet that a massive volcanic eruption can temporarily bring the temperature down a notch or two. Such a cooling could be enough to set the current global warming back more than a decade, confusing any efforts to link it to the greenhouse effect. By effectively eliminating some nonvolcanic climate changes from the record of the past 100 years, researchers have detected drops in global temperature of several tenths of a degree within 1 to 2 years of volcanic eruptions. Apparently, the debris spewed into the stratosphere blocked sunlight and caused the temperature drops. For all their potential social significance, the climate effects of volcanoes have been hard to detect. The problem has been in identifying a volcanic cooling among the nearly continuous climate warmings and coolings of a similar size that fill the record. The paper reviews how this was done.

  14. Greenhouse Gas Reductions: SF6

    ScienceCinema

    Anderson, Diana

    2016-07-12

    Argonne National Laboratory is leading the way in greenhouse gas reductions, particularly with the recapture and recycling of sulfur hexafluoride (SF6). SF6 is a gas used in industry as an anti-arcing agent. It is an extremely potent greenhouse gas — one pound of SF6 is equivalent to 12 tons of carbon dioxide. While the U.S. does not currently regulate SF6 emissions, Argonne is proactively and voluntarily recovering and recycling to reduce SF6 emissions. Argonne saves over 16,000 tons of SF6 from being emitted into the atmosphere each year, and by recycling the gas rather than purchasing it new, we save taxpayers over $208,000 each year.

  15. Heat and mass transfer of a low-pressure Mars greenhouse: Simulation and experimental analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hublitz, Inka

    Biological life support systems based on plant growth offer the advantage of producing fresh food for the crew during a long surface stay on Mars. Greenhouses on Mars are also used for air and water regeneration and waste treatment. A major challenge in developing a Mars greenhouse is its interaction with the thin and cold Mars environment. Operating a Mars greenhouse at low interior pressure reduces the pressure differential across the structure and therefore saves structural mass as well as reduces leakage. Experiments were conducted to analyze the heating requirements as well as the temperature and humidity distribution within a small-scale greenhouse that was placed in a chamber simulating the temperatures, pressure and light conditions on Mars. Lettuce plants were successfully grown inside of the Mars greenhouse for up to seven days. The greenhouse atmosphere parameters, including temperature, total pressure, oxygen and carbon dioxide concentration were controlled tightly; radiation level, relative humidity and plant evapo-transpiration rates were measured. A vertical stratification of temperature and humidity across the greenhouse atmosphere was observed. Condensation formed on the inside of the greenhouse when the shell temperature dropped below the dew-point. During the night cycles frost built up on the greenhouse base plate and the lower part of the shell. Heat loss increased significantly during the night cycle. Due to the placement of the heating system and the fan blowing warm air directly on the upper greenhouse shell, condensation above the plants was avoided and therefore the photosynthetically active radiation at plant level was kept constant. Plant growth was not affected by the temperature stratification due to the tight temperature control of the warmer upper section of the greenhouse, where the lettuce plants were placed. A steady state and a transient heat transfer model of the low pressure greenhouse were developed for the day and the night

  16. The making of greenhouse policy

    SciTech Connect

    Bromley, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    The problem of anthropogenic climate change on a global scale has raised a public policy debate which has become the archetypical science policy issue. Against a background of natural changes in the earth's climate man has altered the surface of the earth and its atmosphere. We have evidence of increases in greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The computer models of the climate effect take into account this input, but do not adequately simulate fundamental aspects of the Earth system which may reduce or increase the predicted climate effects. The average global temperatures did not increase from 1979 to 1989 yet global increases in releases of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere were at unprecendented levels. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, an international body, has set up three working groups to investigate different aspects of climate change. Their reports were presented to the Second World Climate Conference in Geneva from October 29 to November 7, 1990. All three groups cited uncertainties in their assessments of effects of global climate change. A government wide U.S. Global Change Research Program has been formed to monitor and understand the Earth system and predict global change. President Bush has asked for over $1 billion to fund this research program. Social and economic factors will play a large role in any policy decisions that affect climate change. Policies have been instituted by this administration which will reduce greenhouse-gas-emissions. These include the phasing out of CFCs by the year 2000, The Clean Air Act being debated by Congress, and a National Energy Strategy. President Bush has proposed the U.S. host the first negotiating sessions leading to an international agreement on greenhouse policy.

  17. Greenhouse Gases Monitoring from Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moriyama, Takashi

    The role of greenhouse gases in global warming processes and an important element of the global carbon cycle is widely recognized. With the advent of the technical means to provide new monitoring and measurement of greenhouse gases (GHG) from space, JAXA has identified the coordination of these measurements and their application by cooperating with international space agencies. In order to foster the use of space-based GHG observations and consolidate data requirements for the next generation GHG monitoring mission from space, a synergetic strategy for easy access to GHG satellite observations, including GOSAT (Greenhouse Gases Monitoring Satellite, JAXA) and current observations should be developed, and also harmonizing the next generation of GHG satellite observations shoud be facilitated. The Paper describes the current status of international activities of GHG monitoring from space and relations with policy makers and stake holders. The long term GHG monitoring from space is also proposed by respecting the GEO Carbon Strategy which is published in March 2010. Also, GOSAT sample XCO2 and XCH4 global column amount datasets will be introduced with the avtivities of validation campaign.

  18. Impact of rhizobial inoculation on Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. growth in greenhouse and soil functioning in relation to seed provenance and soil origin.

    PubMed

    Bakhoum, Niokhor; Ndoye, Fatou; Kane, Aboubacry; Assigbetse, Komi; Fall, Dioumacor; Sylla, Samba Ndao; Noba, Kandioura; Diouf, Diégane

    2012-07-01

    Rhizobial inoculation has a positive impact on plants growth; however, there is little information about its effect on soil microbial communities and their activity in the rhizosphere. It was therefore necessary to test the effect of inoculation of Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. seedlings with selected rhizobia on plant growth, structure and diversity of soil bacterial communities and soil functioning in relation to plant provenance and soil origin. In order to carry out this experiment, three A. senegal seeds provenance from Kenya, Niger, and Senegal were inoculated with selected rhizobial strains. They have been further grown during 4 months in greenhouse conditions in two non-disinfected soils, Dahra and Goudiry coming respectively from arid and semi-arid areas. The principal component analysis (ACP) showed an inoculation effect on plant growth, rhizospheric bacterial diversity and soil functioning. However, the performances of the rhizobial strains varied in relation to the seed provenance and the soil origin. The selected rhizobial strains, the A. senegal provenance and the soil origin have modified the structure and the diversity of soil bacterial communities as measured by principal component analysis/denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis analyses. It is interesting to note that bacterial communities of Dahra soil were highly structured according to A. senegal provenance, whereas they were structured in relation to rhizobial inoculation in Goudiry soil. Besides, the impact of inoculation on soil microbial activities measured by fluorescein diacetate analyses varied in relation to plant provenance and soil origin. Nevertheless, total microbial activity was about two times higher in Goudiry, arid soil than in Dahra, semi-arid soil. Our results suggest that the rhizobial inoculation is a suitable tool for improving plants growth and soil fertility. Yet, the impact is dependent on inoculants, plant provenance and soil origin. It will, therefore, be crucial to

  19. The Influence of Microgravity on Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the studies and the use of plants in various space exploration scenarios. The current state of research on plant growth in microgravity is reviewed, with several questions that require research for answers to assist in our fundamental understanding of the influence of microgravity and the space environment on plant growth. These questions are posed to future Principal Investigators and Payload Developers, attending the meeting, in part, to inform them of NASA's interest in proposals for research on the International Space Station.

  20. Assessment of alternative disposal methods to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste in India.

    PubMed

    Yedla, Sudhakar; Sindhu, N T

    2016-06-01

    Open dumping, the most commonly practiced method of solid waste disposal in Indian cities, creates serious environment and economic challenges, and also contributes significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. The present article attempts to analyse and identify economically effective ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from municipal solid waste. The article looks at the selection of appropriate methods for the control of methane emissions. Multivariate functional models are presented, based on theoretical considerations as well as the field measurements to forecast the greenhouse gas mitigation potential for all the methodologies under consideration. Economic feasibility is tested by calculating the unit cost of waste disposal for the respective disposal process. The purpose-built landfill system proposed by Yedla and Parikh has shown promise in controlling greenhouse gas and saving land. However, these studies show that aerobic composting offers the optimal method, both in terms of controlling greenhouse gas emissions and reducing costs, mainly by requiring less land than other methods.

  1. The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Second International Symposium on Plant Cryopreservation was held in Fort Collins, Colorado, USA, from August 11-14, 2013, under the auspices of the International Society for Horticultural Science. The town of Fort Collins is home to the USDA-ARS, National Center for Genetic Resources Preservati...

  2. Ninth International Workshop on Plant Membrane Biology

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report is a compilation of abstracts from papers which were discussed at a workshop on plant membrane biology. Topics include: plasma membrane ATP-ases; plant-environment interactions, membrane receptors; signal transduction; ion channel physiology; biophysics and molecular biology; vaculor H+ pumps; sugar carriers; membrane transport; and cellular structure and function.

  3. Teleconsultations reduce greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago Cravo; Barlow, James; Gonçalves, Luís; Bayer, Steffen

    2013-10-01

    Health services contribute significantly to greenhouse gas emissions. New models of delivering care closer to patients have the potential to reduce travelling and associated emissions. We aimed to compare the emissions of patients attending a teleconsultation - an outpatient appointment using video-conferencing equipment - with those of patients attending a face-to-face appointment. We estimated the total distances travelled and the direct and indirect greenhouse gas emissions for 20,824 teleconsultations performed between 2004 and 2011 in Alentejo, a Portuguese region. These were compared to the distances and emissions that would have resulted if teleconsultations were not available and patients had to attend face-to-face outpatient appointments. Estimates were calculated using survey data on mode of transport, and national aggregate data for car engine size and fuel. A sensitivity analysis using the lower and upper quartiles for survey distances was performed. Teleconsultations led to reductions in distances and emissions of 95%. 2,313,819 km of travelling and 455 tonnes of greenhouse gas emissions were avoided (22 kg of carbon dioxide equivalent per patient). The incorporation of modes of transport and car engine size and fuel in the analysis led to emission estimates which were 12% smaller than those assuming all patients used an average car. The availability of remote care services can significantly reduce road travel and associated emissions. At a time when many countries are committed to reducing their carbon footprint, it is desirable to explore how these reductions could be incorporated into technology assessments and economic evaluations.

  4. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Precambrian

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Methane was arguably an important greenhouse gas during the Archean and early Paleoproterozoic Eras, prior to the rise of O2 at ~2.3 Ga (1,2). Atmospheric CH4 concentrations of 1000 ppmv or more are predicted, assuming that methanogenic bacteria evolved early and that they were widely distributed in the prevailing anaerobic biosphere (2,3). Indeed, previous models (1-3) may have underestimated both the concentration of CH4 and the greenhouse effect itself at this time. Knauth and Lowe (4) have used oxygen isotopes in cherts to argue that the mean surface temperature at 3.2-3.5 Ga was between 55oC and 85oC. The Sun is thought to have been some 23 percent dimmer at that time (5), so this would have required substantial greenhouse warming by both CH4 and CO2. Further constraints are imposed by the formation of hydrocarbon haze, and an accompanying "anti-greenhouse effect", if the CH4 concentration exceeds that of CO2 (2). Thus, only certain combinations of CH4 and CO2 are possible. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga destabilized the methane greenhouse, leading to widespread (possibly global) glaciation (1,6). The next 1.5 billion years were warm, however, as evidenced by the absence of glacial deposits and the continuing high temperatures implied by O isotopes in cherts (7). CH4 levels could have remained relatively high during this time, 20-100 ppmv, as a consequence of low concentrations of dissolved O2 and sulfate in the deep oceans, and increased recycling of organic matter by fermentation and methanogenesis (8,9). An increase in either O2 or dissolved sulfate at around 0.75 Ga may have once again decreased atmospheric CH4 levels and triggered the widespread Neoproterozoic glaciations. References: 1. Pavlov, A. A., Kasting, J. F., Brown, L. L., Rages, K. A. & Freedman, R. J. Geophys. Res. 105, 11,981-11,990 (2000). 2. Pavlov, A. A., Kasting, J. F. & Brown, L. L. J. Geophys. Res. 106, 23,267-23,287 (2001). 3. Kasting, J. F., Pavlov, A. A. & Siefert, J. L. Origins of Life

  5. Determining thresholds for mandatory reporting of greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    West, Tristram O; Peña, Naomi

    2003-03-15

    A number of countries are considering implementation of reporting requirements for greenhouse gases. Some reporting systems have been proposed that would require each entity or facility exceeding an annual emissions threshold to report their emissions to a governmental agency. The analysis presented here provides a first approximation of the number of facilities in selected U.S. economic sectors that would report under several different reporting thresholds. Results indicate that thresholds below 10,000 Mg of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2E) per year may bring in relatively large numbers of facilities while minimally increasing the percentage of reported emissions. None of the reporting thresholds considered in this analysis would account for the majority of greenhouse gas emissions from the U.S. agricultural, transportation, or residential and commercial building sectors. If these sectors, in which large numbers of farms, vehicles, and buildings each emit relatively small amounts of greenhouse gases, are to be included in a reporting framework, additional or alternative approaches to reporting should be considered. Alternative approaches may include creating separate thresholds for individual greenhouse gases instead of using an aggregated CO2E unit, creating separate reporting thresholds for individual sectors, or combining sources of small emissions into a single reporting entity.

  6. False advertising in the greenhouse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banse, K.

    1991-12-01

    Most scientists are convinced of the importance of their own research subjects. Broecker [1991] has deplored the temptation, if not the tendency, to go overboard and exaggerate this importance once funding enters the mind. In particular, he alleges inflated or even false claims by biological (and other) oceanographers regarding the relevance of their research to the "greenhouse effect," caused by the anthropogenic enhancement of the atmospheric CO2 content. He writes [Broecker, 1991, p. 191]: "In my estimation, on any list of subjects requiring intense study with regard to the prediction of the consequences of CO2 buildup in the atmosphere, I would place marine biological cycles near the bottom."

  7. Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledley, Tamara S.; Sundquist, Eric; Schwartz, Stephen; Hall, Dorothy K.; Fellows, Jack; Killeen, Timothy

    1999-01-01

    The American Geophysical Union (AGU), as a scientific organization devoted to research on the Earth and space sciences, provides current scientific information to the public on issues pertinent to geophysics. The Council of the AGU approved a position statement on Climate Change and Greenhouse Gases in December 1998. The statement, together with a short summary of the procedures that were followed in its preparation, review, and adoption were published in the February 2, 1999 issue of Eos ([AGU, 1999]. The present article reviews scientific understanding of this issue as presented in peer-reviewed publications that serves as the underlying basis of the position statement.

  8. Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Gerstell, M F; Francisco, J S; Yung, Y L; Boxe, C; Aaltonee, E T

    2001-02-27

    Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative "window" in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction.

  9. Keeping Mars warm with new super greenhouse gases

    PubMed Central

    Gerstell, M. F.; Francisco, J. S.; Yung, Y. L.; Boxe, C.; Aaltonee, E. T.

    2001-01-01

    Our selection of new super greenhouse gases to fill a putative “window” in a future Martian atmosphere relies on quantum-mechanical calculations. Our study indicates that if Mars could somehow acquire an Earth-like atmospheric composition and surface pressure, then an Earth-like temperature could be sustained by a mixture of five to seven fluorine compounds. Martian mining requirements for replenishing the fluorine could be comparable to current terrestrial extraction. PMID:11226208

  10. [Risk of reproductive disorders in greenhouse workers].

    PubMed

    Jurewicz, Joanna; Hanke, Wojciech

    2007-01-01

    This study reviews the evidence on the association between work in greenhouses and reproductive disorders. The analysis indicate that employment in greenhouses may increase the risk of birth defects, preterm delivery and spontaneous abortion, and also may affect birth weight. The obtained results showed that employment in the agriculture production sector (greenhouses) of more than 10 years decreased the median sperm concentration in men. The data on the effect of employment in greenhouses on the time to pregnancy are unequivocal, but most of them suggest that there is a relationship between the decreased fecundity ratio and greenhouse work, mostly due to exposure to pesticides. The literature review indicates a great need to increase awareness among greenhouse workers occupationally exposed to pesticides about potential negative effects of these chemicals on their health.

  11. THE GREENHOUSE EFFECT OF THE ARCTIC ATMOSPHERE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some of this absorbed heat is radiated back to the earth’s surface. This process is generally called the ’ greenhouse effect ’ of the atmosphere...of the terrestrial radiation escapes through the atmosphere. The values for two equations representing the ’ greenhouse effect ’ are discussed. Both...show very small geographical and temporal variations. The atmospheric greenhouse effect is remarkably stable in all latitudes and climatic zones

  12. Cascading effects of fire retardant on plant-microbe interactions, community composition, and invasion.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Abigail; Waller, Lauren; Lekberg, Ylva

    2016-06-01

    Climate change, historical fire suppression, and a rise in human movements in urban-forest boundaries have resulted in an increased use of long-term fire retardant (LTFR). While LTFR is an effective fire-fighting tool, it contains high concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus, and little is known about how this nutrient pulse affects terrestrial ecosystems. We used field surveys and greenhouse experiments to quantify effects of LTFR on plant productivity, community composition, and plant interactions with the ubiquitous root symbiont arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). In the field, LTFR applications were associated with persistent shifts in plant communities toward exotic annuals with little or no dependency of AMF. Plants exposed to LTFR were less colonized by AMF, both in field surveys and in the greenhouse, and this was most likely due to the substantial and persistent increase in soil available phosphorus. All plants grew bigger with LTFR in the greenhouse, but the invasive annual cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) benefitted most. While LTFR can control fires, it may cause long-term changes in soil nutrient availabilities, disrupt plant interactions with beneficial soil microbes, and exasperate invasion by some exotic plants.

  13. Observational determination of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raval, A.; Ramanathan, V.

    1989-01-01

    Satellite measurements are used to quantify the atmospheric greenhouse effect, defined here as the infrared radiation energy trapped by atmospheric gases and clouds. The greenhouse effect is found to increase significantly with sea surface temperature. The rate of increase gives compelling evidence for the positive feedback between surface temperature, water vapor and the greenhouse effect; the magnitude of the feedback is consistent with that predicted by climate models. This study demonstrates an effective method for directly monitoring, from space, future changes in the greenhouse effect.

  14. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D. L.; Drake, B. G.; Eckart, P.

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Engineering Concepts for Inflatable Mars Surface Greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D.; Drake, G.; Eckart, P.

    An inflatable greenhouse is an important component of the Mars mission infrastructure as plant -based life support systems offer self-sufficiency and possibly cost reduction. Resupply is prohibitive for long duration Mars missions as it increases the launching mass and consequently the launching costs. Risks for the astronauts are als o increased by relying on frequent resupply from Earth. Greenhouses are not only used for the production of edible biomass but also as air and water regeneration processors. This study provides designs and engineering considerations for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses including structural, material, lighting method and thermal aspects. Challenges for the thermal control system are presented by showing the diurnal heat gain/loss for the various greenhouse design options. Structural mass savings for operating greenhouses at lower pressures are investigated. The method of equivalent system mass is used in order to compare greenhouses operated at high pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. This method evaluates the impact of the greenhouse implementation to other systems by reducing the physical quantities mass, power, cooling and crew-time requirements to one single parameter mass, which is the primary driver of Mars mission costs. The design comparison evaluation is a further approach to compare the different greenhouse design options regarding not only the equivalent system mass but also other important factors such as the technology maturity, safety and flexibility to mission modifications. Alternative design ideas will be presented and future work issues will be defined.

  16. Engineering concepts for inflatable Mars surface greenhouses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hublitz, I.; Henninger, D. L.; Drake, B. G.; Eckart, P.

    2004-01-01

    A major challenge of designing a bioregenerative life support system for Mars is the reduction of the mass, volume, power, thermal and crew-time requirements. Structural mass of the greenhouse could be saved by operating the greenhouse at low atmospheric pressure. This paper investigates the feasibility of this concept. The method of equivalent system mass is used to compare greenhouses operated at high atmospheric pressure to greenhouses operated at low pressure for three different lighting methods: natural, artificial and hybrid lighting. c2004 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The Spacelab-Mir-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). "Greenhouse-2" will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. "Greenhouse-2" will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.].

  18. The spacelab-mir-1 ``greenhouse-2'' experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V. N.; Berkovitch, Yu. A.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 ``Greenhouse-2'' experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). ``Greenhouse-2'' will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. ``Greenhouse-2'' will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.

  19. The Spacelab-Mir-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment.

    PubMed

    Bingham, G E; Salisbury, F B; Campbell, W F; Carman, J G; Bubenheim, D L; Yendler, B; Sytchev, V N; Berkovitch YuA; Levinskikh, M A; Podolsky, I G

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). "Greenhouse-2" will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. "Greenhouse-2" will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.

  20. The Spacelab-Mir-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bingham, G. E.; Salisbury, F. B.; Campbell, W. F.; Carman, J. G.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Yendler, B.; Sytchev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Podolsky, I. G.

    1996-01-01

    The Spacelab-Mir-1 (SLM-1) mission is the first docking of the Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-71) with the Orbital Station Mir in June 1995. The SLM-1 "Greenhouse-2" experiment will utilize the Russian-Bulgarian-developed plant growth unit (Svet). "Greenhouse-2" will include two plantings (1) designed to test the capability of Svet to grow a crop of Superdwarf wheat from seed to seed, and (2) to provide green plant material for post-flight analysis. Protocols, procedures, and equipment for the experiment have been developed by the US-Russian science team. "Greenhouse-2" will also provide the first orbital test of a new Svet Instrumentation System (SIS) developed by Utah State University to provide near real time data on plant environmental parameters and gas-exchange rates. SIS supplements the Svet control and monitoring system with additional sensors for substrate moisture, air temperature, IR leaf temperature, light, oxygen, pressure, humidity, and carbon-dioxide. SIS provides the capability to monitor canopy transpiration and net assimilation of the plants growing in each vegetation unit (root zone) by enclosing the canopy in separate, retractable, ventilated leaf chambers. Six times during the seed-to-seed experiment, plant samples will be collected, leaf area measured, and plant parts fixed and/or dried for ground analysis. A second planting initiated 30 days before the arrival of a U.S. Shuttle [originally planned to be STS-71] is designed to provide green material at the vegetative development stage for ground analysis. [As this paper is being edited, the experiment has been delayed until after the arrival of STS-71.].

  1. Effect of microgravity on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, Norman G.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of this research is to determine the effect of microgravity proper on plant growth (metabolism and cell wall formation). In addressing this goal, the work conducted during this grant period was divided into three components: analyses of various plant tissues previously grown in space aboard MIR Space Station; analyses of wheat tissues grown on Shuttle flight STS-51; and Phenylpropanoid metabolism and plant cell wall synthesis (earth-based investigations).

  2. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-01-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown. PMID:27616203

  3. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-01

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth’s surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  4. Using a wood stove to heat greenhouses

    Treesearch

    Gloria Whitefeather-Spears

    2009-01-01

    The Red Lake Tribal Forestry Greenhouse in Red Lake, MN, utilizes four types of outdoor furnaces for heating through the fall, winter, and spring. The WoodMaster® is a highly efficient, wood-fired furnace that provides forced-air heat to the greenhouse. The HeatmorTM furnace is an economical wood-fired alternative that can provide lower...

  5. Solar Greenhouses and Sunspaces: Lessons Learned.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Stephen G.; And Others

    Solar technology systems are being studied, managed, built and offered as an effective alternative energy option. This publication presents background material for the building and operation of better sunspaces and greenhouses. Recent developments in solar technology are explained and information on solar greenhouse and sunspace is provided (in…

  6. Can we delay a greenhouse warming

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, A.M.

    1983-01-01

    The author comments on the EPA report dated September 1983 Can We Delay A Greenhouse Warming. He takes exception to the widely-held interpretation that the answer is not much. The contribution of other greenhouse gases such as methane and nitrous oxide to the EPA scenarios is pointed out, and the lack of understanding of their role is emphasised. (ACR)

  7. A Hiatus of the Greenhouse Effect.

    PubMed

    Song, Jinjie; Wang, Yuan; Tang, Jianping

    2016-09-12

    The rate at which the global average surface temperature is increasing has slowed down since the end of the last century. This study investigates whether this warming hiatus results from a change in the well-known greenhouse effect. Using long-term, reliable, and consistent observational data from the Earth's surface and the top of the atmosphere (TOA), two monthly gridded atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect parameters (Ga and Gs) are estimated to represent the radiative warming effects of the atmosphere and the surface in the infrared range from 1979 to 2014. The atmospheric and surface greenhouse effect over the tropical monsoon-prone regions is found to contribute substantially to the global total. Furthermore, the downward tendency of cloud activity leads to a greenhouse effect hiatus after the early 1990 s, prior to the warming pause. Additionally, this pause in the greenhouse effect is mostly caused by the high number of La Niña events between 1991 and 2014. A strong La Niña indicates suppressed convection in the tropical central Pacific that reduces atmospheric water vapor content and cloud volume. This significantly weakened regional greenhouse effect offsets the enhanced warming influence in other places and decelerates the rising global greenhouse effect. This work suggests that the greenhouse effect hiatus can be served as an additional factor to cause the recent global warming slowdown.

  8. Titan's greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1992-01-01

    Thermal mechanisms active in Titan's atmosphere are discussed in a brief review of data obtained during the Voyager I flyby in 1980. Particular attention is given to the greenhouse effect (GHE) produced by atmospheric H2, N2, and CH4; this GHE is stronger than that on earth, with CH4 and H2 playing roles similar to those of H2O and CO2 on earth. Also active on Titan is an antigreenhouse effect, in which dark-brown and orange organic aerosols block incoming solar light while allowing IR radiation from the Titan surface to escape. The combination of GHE and anti-GHE leads to a surface temperature about 12 C higher than it would be if Titan had no atmosphere.

  9. Simulation of Greenhouse Climate Monitoring and Control with Wireless Sensor Network and Event-Based Control

    PubMed Central

    Pawlowski, Andrzej; Guzman, Jose Luis; Rodríguez, Francisco; Berenguel, Manuel; Sánchez, José; Dormido, Sebastián

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring and control of the greenhouse environment play a decisive role in greenhouse production processes. Assurance of optimal climate conditions has a direct influence on crop growth performance, but it usually increases the required equipment cost. Traditionally, greenhouse installations have required a great effort to connect and distribute all the sensors and data acquisition systems. These installations need many data and power wires to be distributed along the greenhouses, making the system complex and expensive. For this reason, and others such as unavailability of distributed actuators, only individual sensors are usually located in a fixed point that is selected as representative of the overall greenhouse dynamics. On the other hand, the actuation system in greenhouses is usually composed by mechanical devices controlled by relays, being desirable to reduce the number of commutations of the control signals from security and economical point of views. Therefore, and in order to face these drawbacks, this paper describes how the greenhouse climate control can be represented as an event-based system in combination with wireless sensor networks, where low-frequency dynamics variables have to be controlled and control actions are mainly calculated against events produced by external disturbances. The proposed control system allows saving costs related with wear minimization and prolonging the actuator life, but keeping promising performance results. Analysis and conclusions are given by means of simulation results. PMID:22389597

  10. Greenhouse gases and agriculture. Book chapter

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.B.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture ranks third in its contribution to Earth's anthropogenically enhanced greenhouse effect. (Energy use and production and chlorofluorocarbons are ranked first and second, respectively.) Specifically, greenhouse gas sources and sinks are increased, and sinks are decreased, by conversion of land to agricultural use, using fertilizers, cultivating paddy rice, producing other plant and animal crops, and by creating and managing animal and plant wastes. However, some of these same activities increase greenhouse gas sinks and decrease greenhouse gas sources so the net effects are not obvious. The paper identifies the agricultural inputs, outputs, and wastes that alter atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxides, and discusses agriculture's net impact on greenhouse gas fluxes.

  11. Where do California's greenhouse gases come from?

    ScienceCinema

    Fischer, Marc

    2016-07-12

    Last March, more than two years after California passed legislation to slash greenhouse gas emissions 25 percent by 2020, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory scientist Marc Fischer boarded a Cessna loaded with air monitoring equipment and crisscrossed the skies above Sacramento and the Bay Area. Instruments aboard the aircraft measured a cocktail of greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide from fossil fuel use, methane from livestock and landfills, CO2 from refineries and power plants, traces of nitrous oxide from agriculture and fuel use, and industrially produced other gases like refrigerants. The flight was part of the Airborne Greenhouse Gas Emissions Survey, a collaboration between Berkeley Lab, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, and the University of California, and UC Davis to pinpoint the sources of greenhouse gases in central California. The survey is intended to improve inventories of the states greenhouse gas emissions, which in turn will help scientists verify the emission reductions mandated by AB-32, the legislation enacted by California in 2006.

  12. 13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The boardandbatten wall covers an opening ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Greenhouse, east elevation. The board-and-batten wall covers an opening that was originally fitted with windows which allowed sunlight into the greenhouse. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. A Greenhouse for Mars and Beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahaim, Christopher P.; Czysz, Paul A.

    2008-01-01

    A detailed design study for a deployable greenhouse for Mars mission is has been completed. The greenhouse has been designed so that it has a life span of at least 20 years, a leakage rate of no more that 1% of the total volume per day at the target working pressure of 50 kPa and provides at least six crewmembers with approximately twenty five percent of their food supply. Artificial light is provided by high intensity red and blue light emitting diodes, but sunlight is also used by installing small Lexan windows on the rooftop. The greenhouse structure is a rigid IM7/977-3 graphite/epoxy sandwich structure with a footprint of 38 m2. Radioisotope thermal electric generators are used to produce power for the greenhouse and its subsystems and the plants are grown in nested pockets located on vertical cylinders which allows for a growth area of 48 m2. An aeroponic water and nutrient delivery system is used in order to reduce the greenhouse water usage. Harvesting and planting is achieved through the use of robotics specifically designed for this mission. The greenhouse structure and subsystems have a total weight of less than 10 metric tons. In this paper the design highlights of several of the subsystems of the greenhouse design will be summarized.

  14. Scientists' internal models of the greenhouse effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libarkin, J. C.; Miller, H.; Thomas, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    A prior study utilized exploratory factor analysis to identify models underlying drawings of the greenhouse effect made by entering university freshmen. This analysis identified four archetype models of the greenhouse effect that appear within the college enrolling population. The current study collected drawings made by 144 geoscientists, from undergraduate geoscience majors through professionals. These participants scored highly on a standardized assessment of climate change understanding and expressed confidence in their understanding; many also indicated that they teach climate change in their courses. Although geoscientists held slightly more sophisticated greenhouse effect models than entering freshmen, very few held complete, explanatory models. As with freshmen, many scientists (44%) depict greenhouse gases in a layer in the atmosphere; 52% of participants depicted this or another layer as a physical barrier to escaping energy. In addition, 32% of participants indicated that incoming light from the Sun remains unchanged at Earth's surface, in alignment with a common model held by students. Finally, 3-20% of scientists depicted physical greenhouses, ozone, or holes in the atmosphere, all of which correspond to non-explanatory models commonly seen within students and represented in popular literature. For many scientists, incomplete models of the greenhouse effect are clearly enough to allow for reasoning about climate change. These data suggest that: 1) better representations about interdisciplinary concepts, such as the greenhouse effect, are needed for both scientist and public understanding; and 2) the scientific community needs to carefully consider how much understanding of a model is needed before necessary reasoning can occur.

  15. The greenhouse and antigreenhouse effects on Titan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckay, Christopher P.; Pollack, James B.; Courtin, Regis

    1991-01-01

    The parallels between the atmospheric thermal structure of the Saturnian satellite Titan and the hypothesized terrestrial greenhouse effect can serve as bases for the evaluation of competing greenhouse theories. Attention is presently drawn to the similarity between the roles of H2 and CH4 on Titan and CO2 and H2O on earth. Titan also has an antigreenhouse effect due to a high-altitude haze layer which absorbs at solar wavelengths, while remaining transparent in the thermal IR; if this haze layer were removed, the antigreenhouse effect would be greatly reduced, exacerbating the greenhouse effect and raising surface temperature by over 20 K.

  16. Volatile-Mediated Attraction of Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum to Tomato and Eggplant

    PubMed Central

    Darshanee, Hewa L. C.; Ren, Hui; Ahmed, Nazeer; Zhang, Zhan-Feng; Liu, Yan-Hong; Liu, Tong-Xian

    2017-01-01

    The behavior of the greenhouse whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is known to be affected by plant volatile cues, but its attraction or repellent to specific volatile cues has not been deeply studied yet. Therefore, the aim of our study was to identify the most attractive plant among cultivars of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) and eggplant (Solanum melongena) to evaluate the volatiles of plants to identify the chemical compound(s) that attract T. vaporariorum. We speculated that whitefly–host plant interaction primarily depends on plant volatile emissions and that once the plant is damaged, it might attract more whiteflies. Three intact (uninfested) tomato, four intact eggplant cultivars and whitefly infested plants of the most whitefly attractive tomato and eggplant cultivars were examined by behavioral assay experiments for attractiveness to T. vaporariorum and headspace volatile were determined by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Whiteflies had the highest preference for the intact eggplant Kuai Yuan Qie (KYQ) among the eggplant and the tomato plant cultivars in bioassay experiments. Although both male and female whiteflies were significantly more attracted to infested KYQ plants than to intact plants, whitefly females did not select conspecific-infested YG plants. The volatile emissions among different plant cultivars in individual species and infested versus intact plants were significantly different. Among these volatiles, identified major green leaf volatiles [(Z)-3-hexen-1-ol] and terpenoids [α-pinene, (E)-β-caryophyllene, α-humulene, azulene] showed a constitutive relationship with the most whitefly preference plants. Our findings provide new insights into the chemical compounds that attract or repel whiteflies. PMID:28775733

  17. Greenhouse gas mitigation in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Smith, Pete; Martino, Daniel; Cai, Zucong; Gwary, Daniel; Janzen, Henry; Kumar, Pushpam; McCarl, Bruce; Ogle, Stephen; O'Mara, Frank; Rice, Charles; Scholes, Bob; Sirotenko, Oleg; Howden, Mark; McAllister, Tim; Pan, Genxing; Romanenkov, Vladimir; Schneider, Uwe; Towprayoon, Sirintornthep; Wattenbach, Martin; Smith, Jo

    2008-02-27

    Agricultural lands occupy 37% of the earth's land surface. Agriculture accounts for 52 and 84% of global anthropogenic methane and nitrous oxide emissions. Agricultural soils may also act as a sink or source for CO2, but the net flux is small. Many agricultural practices can potentially mitigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, the most prominent of which are improved cropland and grazing land management and restoration of degraded lands and cultivated organic soils. Lower, but still significant mitigation potential is provided by water and rice management, set-aside, land use change and agroforestry, livestock management and manure management. The global technical mitigation potential from agriculture (excluding fossil fuel offsets from biomass) by 2030, considering all gases, is estimated to be approximately 5500-6000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1, with economic potentials of approximately 1500-1600, 2500-2700 and 4000-4300Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at carbon prices of up to 20, up to 50 and up to 100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively. In addition, GHG emissions could be reduced by substitution of fossil fuels for energy production by agricultural feedstocks (e.g. crop residues, dung and dedicated energy crops). The economic mitigation potential of biomass energy from agriculture is estimated to be 640, 2240 and 16 000Mt CO2-eq.yr-1 at 0-20, 0-50 and 0-100 US$ t CO2-eq.-1, respectively.

  18. Greenhouse Trace Gases in Deadwood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, Kristofer; Bueno de Mesquita, Cliff; Oberle, Brad; Maynard, Dan; Bettigole, Charles; Crowther, Thomas; Duguid, Marlyse; Steven, Blaire; Zanne, Amy; Lapin, Marc; Ashton, Mark; Oliver, Chad; Lee, Xuhui; Bradford, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Deadwood, long recognized as playing an important role in carbon cycling in forest ecosystems, is more recently drawing attention for its potential role in the cycling of other greenhouse trace gases. We report data from four independent studies measuring internal gas concentrations in deadwood in in three Quercus dominated upland forest systems in the Northeastern and Central United States. Mean methane concentrations in deadwood were 23 times atmospheric levels, indicating a lower bound, mean radial wood surface area flux of ~6 x 10-4 μmol CH4 m-2 s-1. Site, decay class, diameter, and species were all highly significant predictors of methane abundance in deadwood, and log diameter and decay stage interacted as important controls limiting methane concentrations in the smallest and most decayed logs. Nitrous oxide concentrations were negatively correlated with methane and on average ~25% lower than ambient, indicating net consumption of nitrous oxide. These data suggest nonstructural carbohydrates fuel archaeal methanogens and confirm the potential for widespread in situ methanogenesis in both living and deadwood. Applying this understanding to estimate methane emissions from microbial activity in living trees implies a potential global flux of 65.6±12.0 Tg CH4 yr-1, more than 20 times greater than currently considered.

  19. Methane Greenhouses and Anti-Greenhouses During the Archean Era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.; Pavlov, A. A.

    2002-12-01

    Climate and life are coupled today through the biogeochemical carbon cycle, but they may have been even more tightly coupled in the distant past when atmospheric O2 levels were lower. The finding of mass-independently fractionated S isotopes in Archean rocks confirms that pO2 was very low, probably <10-13 times the present level, prior to 2.3 Ga (1). The Sun was also some 20 percent less luminous at this time (2). High CO2 levels were initially proposed to solve this `faint young Sun problem' (3); however, these levels are in conflict in data from paleosols (4). CH4 is an alternative greenhouse gas which could have kept the Archean climate warm if present at concentrations of 0.01-0.1 percent by volume (5). The primary source of methane is biological. CH4 is produced by methanogenic bacteria that today live in anaerobic environments such as the intestines of ruminants and the water-logged soils underlying rice paddies. During the Archean, however, methanogens should have been widespread, and the methane they produced would have had a long photochemical lifetimes, around 10,000 years (6). Most methanogens are thermophiles or hyperthermophiles, and those which are more thermophilic have shorter doubling times than those that prefer cooler temperatures. This suggests that a positive feedback loop may have existed, whereby methanogens warmed the climate by releasing CH4, which in turn promoted the proliferation of faster-growing methanogens. This positive feedback would have been halted, however, once the ratio of CH4 to CO2 in the atmosphere exceeded unity. At this point, polymerization of CH4 by solar UV radiation would have caused the formation of an organic haze layer similar to that observed today on Titan. Such a haze layer would have cooled the climate by creating an `anti-greenhouse effect.' This creates an overall negative feedback loop that may have been responsible for maintaining a stable Archean climate. The rise of O2 at 2.3 Ga disrupted this equilibrium

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for farmer's lung in greenhouse farmers: an epidemiological study of 5,880 farmers from Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shuo; Chen, Donghong; Fu, Shuang; Ren, Yangang; Wang, Lingling; Zhang, Yibing; Zhao, Mingjing; He, Xiaoyu; Wang, Xiaoge

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this epidemiological study were to evaluate the prevalence of farmer's lung disease (FLD) and to explore the potential risk factors for FLD among Chinese greenhouse farmers. A total of 835 plastic film greenhouses, including 5,880 active farmers who engaged in crop cultivation or poultry farming, were randomly selected from the rural regions of Northeastern China. These farmers participated in the study by answering a medical questionnaire. 5,420 greenhouse farmers accepted and answered questionnaires in full (response rate, 92.18 %). Prevalence of FLD among these farmers was 5.7 % (308/5,420). Besides, a number of classic risk factors for FLD were identified, such as years of age, shorter time interval for re-entry greenhouse, ventilation frequency of greenhouse more than once per 4 h, the area of greenhouses greater than 30 m(2) but without a ventilation facility, ventilation duration less than 30 min every time, greenhouse with height less than 1.8 m, greenhouse with humidity greater than 65 %, frequent exposure to moldy materials in greenhouse, living inside greenhouse, and et al. FLD is and will continue to be a real health problem for Chinese farmers. If these preventive measures are implemented, the prevalence of FLD in Chinese greenhouse farmers might be greatly reduced.

  1. International workshop on greenhouse gas mitigation technologies and measures: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    More than 150 countries are now Party to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), which seeks to stabilize atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases at a level that would prevent dangerous human interference with the global climate system. Climate change country studies are a significant step for developing countries and countries with economies in transition to meet their national reporting commitments to the FCCC. These studies also provide the basis for preparation of National Climate Change Action Plans and implementation of technologies and practices which reduce greenhouse gas emissions or enhance carbon sinks. The broad goals of the workshop were to: (1) present results of country study mitigation assessments, (2) identify promising no-regrets greenhouse gas mitigation options in land-use and energy sectors, (3) share information on development of mitigation technologies and measures which contribute to improved National Climate Change Actions Plans, and (4) begin the process of synthesizing mitigation assessments for use by FCCC subsidiary bodies. The 59 papers are arranged into the following topical sections: (1) national mitigation assessments, technology priorities, and measures; (2) sector-specific mitigation assessment results, subdivided further into: energy sector; non-energy sector; renewable energy; energy efficiency in industry and buildings; transportation; electricity supply; forestry; and methane mitigation; (3) support for mitigation technologies and measures; and (4) activities implemented jointly. Selected papers are indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Effects of static magnetic fields on plants.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, O.

    In our recent experiment on STS-107 (MFA-Biotube) we took advantage of the magnetic heterogeneity of the gravity receptor cells of flax roots, namely stronger diamagnetism of starch-filled amyloplasts compared to cytoplasm (Δ ≊ < 0). High gradient magnetic fields (HGMF, grad(H2/2) up to 109-1010 Oe2/cm) of the experimental chambers (MFCs) repelled amyloplasts from the zones of stronger field thus providing a directional stimulus for plant gravisensing system in microgravity, and causing the roots to react. Such reaction was observed in the video downlink pictures. Unfortunately, the ``Columbia'' tragedy caused loss of the plant material and most of the images, thus preventing us from detailed studies of the results. Currently we are looking for a possibility to repeat this experiment. Therefore, it is very important to understand, what other effects (besides displacing amyloplasts) static magnetic fields with intensities 0 to 2.5104 Oe, and with the size of the area of non-uniformity 10-3 to 1 cm. These effects were estimated theoretically and tested experimentally. No statistically significant differences in growth rates or rates of gravicurvature were observed in experiments with Linum, Arabidopsis, Hordeum, Avena, Ceratodon and Chara between the plants grown in uniform magnetic fields of various intensities (102 to 2.5104 Oe) and those grown in the Earth's magnetic field. Microscopic studies also did not detect any structural differences between test and control plants. The magnitudes of possible effects of static magnetic fields on plant cells and organs (including effects on ion currents, magneto-hydrodynamic effects in moving cytoplasm, ponderomotive forces on other cellular structures, effects on some biochemical reactions and biomolecules) were estimated theoretically. The estimations have shown, that these effects are small compared to the thermodynamic noise and thus are insignificant. Both theoretical estimations and control experiments confirm, that

  3. Plant-soil feedbacks: a comparative study on the relative importance of soil feedbacks in the greenhouse versus the field.

    PubMed

    Heinze, Johannes; Sitte, M; Schindhelm, A; Wright, J; Joshi, J

    2016-06-01

    Interactions between plants and soil microorganisms influence individual plant performance and thus plant-community composition. Most studies on such plant-soil feedbacks (PSFs) have been performed under controlled greenhouse conditions, whereas no study has directly compared PSFs under greenhouse and natural field conditions. We grew three grass species that differ in local abundance in grassland communities simultaneously in the greenhouse and field on field-collected soils either previously conditioned by these species or by the general grassland community. As soils in grasslands are typically conditioned by mixes of species through the patchy and heterogeneous plant species' distributions, we additionally compared the effects of species-specific versus non-specific species conditioning on PSFs in natural and greenhouse conditions. In almost all comparisons PSFs differed between the greenhouse and field. In the greenhouse, plant growth in species-specific and non-specific soils resulted in similar effects with neutral PSFs for the most abundant species and positive PSFs for the less abundant species. In contrast, in the field all grass species tested performed best in non-specific plots, whereas species-specific PSFs were neutral for the most abundant and varied for the less abundant species. This indicates a general beneficial effect of plant diversity on PSFs in the field. Controlled greenhouse conditions might provide valuable insights on the nominal effects of soils on plants. However, the PSFs observed in greenhouse conditions may not be the determining drivers in natural plant communities where their effects may be overwhelmed by the diversity of abiotic and biotic above- and belowground interactions in the field.

  4. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program for greenhouse gases is part of an attempt by the U.S. Government to develop innovative, low-cost, and nonregulatory approaches to limit emissions of greenhouse gases. It is one element in an array of such programs introduced in recent years as part of the effort being made by the United States to comply with its national commitment to stabilize emissions of greenhouse gases under the Framework Convention on Climate Change. The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report to the Energy Information Administration (EIA) on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions of greenhouse gases.

  5. Multiagency Initiative to Provide Greenhouse Gas Information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, Stacey W.; Duren, Riley M.

    2009-11-01

    Global Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop; Albuquerque, New Mexico, 20-22 May 2009; The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was held at Sandia National Laboratories and organized by an interagency collaboration among NASA centers, Department of Energy laboratories, and the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales. Such an initiative could significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies.

  6. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  7. The Greenhouse Effect in a Vial.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golden, Richard; Sneider, Cary

    1989-01-01

    Presents an example of a greenhouse-effect experiment from the Climate Protection Institute. Analyzes the amount of carbon dioxide in ambient air, human exhalation, automobile exhaust, and nearly pure carbon dioxide by titrating with ammonia and bromthymol blue. (MVL)

  8. Non-Profit Greenhouse Gas Reductions Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Baltimore City, Maryland, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  9. Arctic climate change: Greenhouse warming unleashed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Human activity alters the atmospheric composition, which leads to global warming. Model simulations suggest that reductions in emission of sulfur dioxide from Europe since the 1970s could have unveiled rapid Arctic greenhouse gas warming.

  10. Advancing Greenhouse Gas Reductions through Affordable Housing

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    James City County, Virginia, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Reductions for Marginalized Communities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Honolulu, Hawaii, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  12. Reservoir Greenhouse Gas Emissions at Russian HPP

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, M. P.; Elistratov, V. V.; Maslikov, V. I.; Sidorenko, G. I.; Chusov, A. N.; Atrashenok, V. P.; Molodtsov, D. V.; Savvichev, A. S.; Zinchenko, A. V.

    2015-05-15

    Studies of greenhouse-gas emissions from the surfaces of the world’s reservoirs, which has demonstrated ambiguity of assessments of the effect of reservoirs on greenhouse-gas emissions to the atmosphere, is analyzed. It is recommended that greenhouse- gas emissions from various reservoirs be assessed by the procedure “GHG Measurement Guidelines for Fresh Water Reservoirs” (2010) for the purpose of creating a data base with results of standardized measurements. Aprogram for research into greenhouse-gas emissions is being developed at the St. Petersburg Polytechnic University in conformity with the IHA procedure at the reservoirs impounded by the Sayano-Shushenskaya and Mainskaya HPP operated by the RusHydro Co.

  13. Greenhouse Gas Endangerment Finding: Health Effects

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View English or Spanish-language version of a fact sheet that highlights key effects that support EPA’s determination that current and future concentrations of greenhouse gases endanger public health.

  14. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Aircraft

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  15. Bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Tompkins, M.M.; Mintz, M.M.

    1995-03-01

    A bibliography of greenhouse-gas reduction strategies has been compiled to assist the Climate change Action Plan Task Force in their consideration of strategies to reduce greenhouse-gas emissions from personal motor vehicles. The document contains a summary of the literature, including it major directions and implications; and annotated listing of 32 recent pertinent documents; and a listing of a larger group of related reports.

  16. Thyroid function in Danish greenhouse workers

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Gunnar; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Bonde, Jens Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background From animal studies it is known that currently used pesticides can disturb thyroid function. Methods In the present study we investigated the thyroid function in 122 Danish greenhouse workers, to evaluate if greenhouse workers classified as highly exposed to pesticides experiences altered thyroid levels compared to greenhouse workers with lower exposure. Serum samples from the greenhouse workers were sampled both in the spring and the fall to evaluate if differences in pesticide use between seasons resulted in altered thyroid hormone levels. Results We found a moderate reduction of free thyroxine (FT4) (10–16%) among the persons working in greenhouses with a high spraying load both in samples collected in the spring and the fall, but none of the other measured thyroid hormones differed significantly between exposure groups in the cross-sectional comparisons. However, in longitudinal analysis of the individual thyroid hormone level between the spring and the fall, more pronounced differences where found with on average 32% higher thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) level in the spring compared to the fall and at the same time a 5–9% lower total triiodthyroxin (TT3), free triiodthyroxine (FT3) and FT4. The difference between seasons was not consistently more pronounced in the group classified as high exposure compared to the low exposure groups. Conclusion The present study indicates that pesticide exposure among Danish greenhouse workers results in only minor disturbances of thyroid hormone levels. PMID:17147831

  17. Demonstration of a commercial solar greenhouse. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Figueras, A.

    1982-03-31

    The greenhouse is located in the town of Russell, in St. Lawrence County, New York. It was built to demonstrate the economics of using the solar greenhouse design as a commercial greenhouse growing vegetables for local sale. The design and construction of the greenhouse are briefly described. Records of temperatures monitored and produce grown and sold are included. (BCS)

  18. Performance of stem flow gauges in greenhouse and desert environments

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, D.G.; Simpson, J.R.; Tipton, J.L.

    1995-06-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the accuracy and general performance of a heat balance method for estimating transpirational sap flow through plant stems on two tree species in greenhouse and field experiments in Tucson, Arizona. Sap flow through 20-mm diameter stems of oak (Quercus virginiana `Heritage`) and mesquite (Prosopis alba `Colorado`.) trees in containers was measured using stem flow gauges and a precision balance, from January to October, 1991. Overall gauge accuracy, and the effects of gauge location on the tree stem, gauge ventilation, gauge insulation, sheath conductance factor (Ksh) selection method, and increased numbers of vertical thermocouple pairs on gauge performance were evaluated.

  19. Greenhouse Gas Abatement with Distributed Generation in California's Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Marnay, Chris; Stadler, Michael; Lipman, Tim; Lai, Judy; Cardoso, Goncalo; Megel, Olivier

    2009-09-01

    The motivation and objective of this research is to determine the role of distributed generation (DG) in greenhouse gas reductions by: (1) applying the Distributed Energy Resources Customer Adoption Model (DER-CAM); (2) using the California Commercial End-Use Survey (CEUS) database for commercial buildings; (3) selecting buildings with electric peak loads between 100 kW and 5 MW; (4) considering fuel cells, micro-turbines, internal combustion engines, gas turbines with waste heat utilization, solar thermal, and PV; (5) testing of different policy instruments, e.g. feed-in tariff or investment subsidies.

  20. Greenhouse as pert of a life support system for a martian crew

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sychev, V. N.; Levinskikh, M. A.; Grigorie, A. I.

    One of the most important problems in space exploration is the biomedical support of humans in a hostile environment that cannot sustain their life and development. An integral part of biomedical support is an adequate life support systems (LSS). In the visible future a manned flight to Mars can become a reality. When designing a LSS for a Martian Expedition, we assume that over the next 15-20 years we will be able to support the Martian crew using systems and hardware that have been in operation on the International Space Station (ISS). Their extended use on MIR and ISS has demonstrated their high reliability and provided detailed information about their operation in space. Today it is recognized that integration of a biological subsystem (at least, a greenhouse) in a LSS will enrich the Martian spacecraft environment and mitigate potential adverse effects of a long-term exposure to a man-made (abiogenic) environment. Our estimates show that an adequate amount of wet biomass of lettuce cultures can be produced in a greenhouse with a planting area of 10 m2. This means that a greenhouse of a sufficient size can be housed in 5 standard Space Shuttle racks. A greenhouse made of modules can be installed as a single unit in one area or as several subunits in different areas of the Martian vehicle. According to our calculations, a greenhouse of this capacity can provide a 6-member crew with adequate amounts of vitamins and minerals, as well as regenerate about 5% of oxygen, 3.6% of water and over 1% of food components. Incorporation of a greenhouse will make it necessary to redesign current LSSs by changing material flows and upgrading their components. Prior to this, we have to investigate operational characteristics of greenhouses on space vehicles, design systems capable of supporting continuous and prolonged operation of greenhouses, and select plants that can provide crews with required vitamins and minerals.

  1. Greenhouse-gas-trading markets.

    PubMed

    Sandor, Richard; Walsh, Michael; Marques, Rafael

    2002-08-15

    This paper summarizes the extension of new market mechanisms for environmental services, explains of the importance of generating price information indicative of the cost of mitigating greenhouse gases (GHGs) and presents the rationale and objectives for pilot GHG-trading markets. It also describes the steps being taken to define and launch pilot carbon markets in North America and Europe and reviews the key issues related to incorporating carbon sequestration into an emissions-trading market. There is an emerging consensus to employ market mechanisms to help address the threat of human-induced climate changes. Carbon-trading markets are now in development around the world. A UK market is set to launch in 2002, and the European Commission has called for a 2005 launch of an European Union (EU)-wide market, and a voluntary carbon market is now in formation in North America. These markets represent an initial step in resolving a fundamental problem in defining and implementing appropriate policy actions to address climate change. Policymakers currently suffer from two major information gaps: the economic value of potential damages arising from climate changes are highly uncertain, and there is a lack of reliable information on the cost of mitigating GHGs. These twin gaps significantly reduce the quality of the climate policy debate. The Chicago Climate Exchange, for which the authors serve as lead designers, is intended to provide an organized carbon-trading market involving energy, industry and carbon sequestration in forests and farms. Trading among these diverse sectors will provide price discovery that will help clarify the cost of combating climate change when a wide range of mitigation options is employed. By closing the information gap on mitigation costs, society and policymakers will be far better prepared to identify and implement optimal policies for managing the risks associated with climate change. Establishment of practical experience in providing

  2. Overview of ARB's Greenhouse Gas Research Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falk, M.; Chen, Y.; Kuwayama, T.; Vijayan, A.; Herner, J.; Croes, B.

    2015-12-01

    Since the passage of the California Global Warming Solutions Act (or AB32) in 2006, California Air Resources Board (ARB) has established and implemented a comprehensive plan to understand, quantify, and mitigate the various greenhouse gas (GHG) emission source sectors in the state. ARB has also developed a robust and multi-tiered in-house research effort to investigate methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and fluorinated gas emission sources. This presentation will provide an overview of ARB's monitoring and measurement research efforts to study the regional and local emission sources of these pollutants in California. ARB initiated the first subnational GHG Research Monitoring Network in 2010 to study the regional GHG emissions throughout the state. The network operates several high precision analyzers to study CH4, N2O, CO and CO2 emissions at strategically selected regional sites throughout California, and the resulting data are used to study the statewide emission trends and evaluate regional sources using statistical analyses and inverse modeling efforts. ARB is also collaborating with leading scientists to study important emission sources including agriculture, waste, and oil and gas sectors, and to identify "hot spot" methane sources through aerial surveys of high methane emitters in California. At the source level, ARB deploys Mobile Measurement Platforms (MMP) and flux chambers to measure local and source specific emissions, and uses the information to understand source characteristics and inform emissions inventories. Collectively, all these efforts are offering a comprehensive view of regional and local emission sources, and are expected to help in developing effective mitigation strategies to reduce GHG emissions in California.

  3. An environmental impact calculator for greenhouse production systems.

    PubMed

    Torrellas, Marta; Antón, Assumpció; Montero, Juan Ignacio

    2013-03-30

    Multiple web-based calculators have come on the market as tools to support sustainable decision making, but few are available to agriculture. Life cycle assessment (LCA) has proved to be an objective, transparent tool for calculating environmental impacts throughout the life cycle of products and services, but can often be too complex for non-specialists. The objective of this study was therefore to develop an environmental support tool to determine the environmental impacts of protected crops. An effort was made to provide an easy-to-use tool in order to reach a wide audience and help horticulture stakeholders choose efficient options to mitigate the environmental impacts of protected crops. Users can estimate the environmental performance of their crops by entering a limited amount of data and following a few easy steps. A questionnaire must be answered with data on the crop, greenhouse dimensions, substrate, waste management, and the consumption of water, energy, fertilisers and pesticides. The calculator was designed as a simplified LCA, based on two scenarios analysed in detail in previous tasks of the EUPHOROS project and used as reference systems in this study. Two spreadsheets were provided based on these reference scenarios: one for a tomato crop in a multi-tunnel greenhouse under Southern European climate conditions and the other for a tomato crop in a Venlo glass greenhouse under Central European climate conditions. The selected functional unit was one tonne of tomatoes. Default data were given for each reference system for users who did not have complete specific data and to provide results for comparison with users' own results. The results were presented for water use as an inventory indicator and for the impact categories abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, photochemical oxidation and cumulative energy demand. In the multi-tunnel greenhouse, the main contributors based on the default data were the structure, fertilisers

  4. Reporting emissions of greenhouse gases in Canada.

    PubMed

    Finlay, P; Stobbs, R

    1994-05-01

    Non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gases are considered in "Canada's National Report on Climate Change: Actions to Meet Commitments Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change". By including all major greenhouse gases and their anthropogenic sources and sinks using best available science, the Report provides a practical illustration of the "comprehensive approach" policy to implementing the Convention's requirements. In addition to carbon dioxide emissions from fossil fuel combustion, the Report includes information on other sources and sinks for carbon dioxide, and for methane and nitrous oxide. Other gases considered include polyflourocarbons, hydroflourocarbons, and the primary tropospheric ozone precursors, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds. Current Global Warming Potential indices are used to compare and integrate the best estimates of climate change impacts of the major greenhouse gases. The presentation of emission data is intended to be transparent and comparable. The relative quality of the data for various gases and sources is indicated. The existence of environmental, economic, and other benefits to limiting emissions of all greenhouse gases, in addition to carbon dioxide, should be recognized. Continuing assessments and actions on non-carbon dioxide greenhouse gas emissions, both nationally and internationally, are suggested.

  5. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion.

    PubMed

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E; Grewell, Brenda J; D'Antonio, Carla M; Funk, Jennifer L; James, Jeremy J; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M; Richards, Christina L

    2012-07-01

    Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then 'scale up' to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels.

  6. A functional trait perspective on plant invasion

    PubMed Central

    Drenovsky, Rebecca E.; Grewell, Brenda J.; D'Antonio, Carla M.; Funk, Jennifer L.; James, Jeremy J.; Molinari, Nicole; Parker, Ingrid M.; Richards, Christina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Global environmental change will affect non-native plant invasions, with profound potential impacts on native plant populations, communities and ecosystems. In this context, we review plant functional traits, particularly those that drive invader abundance (invasiveness) and impacts, as well as the integration of these traits across multiple ecological scales, and as a basis for restoration and management. Scope We review the concepts and terminology surrounding functional traits and how functional traits influence processes at the individual level. We explore how phenotypic plasticity may lead to rapid evolution of novel traits facilitating invasiveness in changing environments and then ‘scale up’ to evaluate the relative importance of demographic traits and their links to invasion rates. We then suggest a functional trait framework for assessing per capita effects and, ultimately, impacts of invasive plants on plant communities and ecosystems. Lastly, we focus on the role of functional trait-based approaches in invasive species management and restoration in the context of rapid, global environmental change. Conclusions To understand how the abundance and impacts of invasive plants will respond to rapid environmental changes it is essential to link trait-based responses of invaders to changes in community and ecosystem properties. To do so requires a comprehensive effort that considers dynamic environmental controls and a targeted approach to understand key functional traits driving both invader abundance and impacts. If we are to predict future invasions, manage those at hand and use restoration technology to mitigate invasive species impacts, future research must focus on functional traits that promote invasiveness and invader impacts under changing conditions, and integrate major factors driving invasions from individual to ecosystem levels. PMID:22589328

  7. FETC Programs for Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Ruether, J.A.

    1998-02-01

    Mark Twain once quipped that everyone talks about the weather but no one does anything about it. With interest in global climate change on the rise, researchers in the fossil-energy sector are feeling the heat to provide new technology to permit continued use of fossil fuels but with reduced emissions of so-called `greenhouse gases.` Three important greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, are released to the atmosphere in the course of recovering and combusting fossil fuels. Their importance for trapping radiation, called forcing, is in the order given. In this report, we briefly review how greenhouse gases cause forcing and why this has a warming effect on the Earth`s atmosphere. Then we discuss programs underway at FETC that are aimed at reducing emissions of methane and carbon dioxide.

  8. The Greenhouse Effect and Climate Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covey, C.; Haberle, R. M.; McKay, C. P.; Titov, D. V.

    This chapter reviews the theory of the greenhouse effect and climate feedback. It also compares the theory with observations, using examples taken from all four known terrestrial worlds with substantial atmospheres: Venus, Earth, Mars, and Titan. The greenhouse effect traps infrared radiation in the atmosphere, thereby increasing surface temperature. It is one of many factors that affect a world's climate. (Others include solar luminosity and the atmospheric scattering and absorption of solar radiation.) A change in these factors — defined as climate forcing — may change the climate in a way that brings other processes — defined as feedbacks — into play. For example, when Earth's atmospheric carbon dioxide increases, warming the surface, the water vapor content of the atmosphere increases. This is a positive feedback on global warming because water vapor is itself a potent greenhouse gas. Many positive and negative feedback processes are significant in determining Earth's climate, and probably the climates of our terrestrial neighbors.

  9. Greenhouse Gas Analysis by GC/MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bock, E. M.; Easton, Z. M.; Macek, P.

    2015-12-01

    Current methods to analyze greenhouse gases rely on designated complex, multiple-column, multiple-detector gas chromatographs. A novel method was developed in partnership with Shimadzu for simultaneous quantification of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) in environmental gas samples. Gas bulbs were used to make custom standard mixtures by injecting small volumes of pure analyte into the nitrogen-filled bulb. Resulting calibration curves were validated using a certified gas standard. The use of GC/MS systems to perform this analysis has the potential to move the analysis of greenhouse gasses from expensive, custom GC systems to standard single-quadrupole GC/MS systems that are available in most laboratories, which wide variety of applications beyond greenhouse gas analysis. Additionally, use of mass spectrometry can provide confirmation of identity of target analytes, and will assist in the identification of unknown peaks should they be present in the chromatogram.

  10. Voluntary reporting of greenhouse gases 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    The Voluntary Reporting of Greenhouse Gases Program, required by Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, records the results of voluntary measures to reduce, avoid, or sequester greenhouse gas emissions. In 1998, 156 US companies and other organizations reported to the Energy information Administration that, during 1997, they had achieved greenhouse gas emission reductions and carbon sequestration equivalent to 166 million tons of carbon dioxide, or about 2.5% of total US emissions for the year. For the 1,229 emission reduction projects reported, reductions usually were measured by comparing an estimate of actual emissions with an estimate of what emissions would have been had the project not been implemented.

  11. Evaluation of disinfectants to prevent mechanical transmission of viruses and a viroid in greenhouse tomato production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In an effort to select disinfectant(s) with capability to deactivate infectivity from a broad range of viruses and viroids that are commonly observed in greenhouse tomato production systems, a total of 16 disinfectants were evaluated against Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV), Tomato mosaic virus (ToMV), T...

  12. Greenhouse gases and the metallurgical process industry

    SciTech Connect

    Lupis, C.H.P.

    1999-10-01

    The present lecture offers a brief review of the greenhouse effect, the sources of greenhouse gases, the potential effect of these gases on global warming, the response of the international community, and the probable cost of national compliance. The specific emissions of the metallurgical process industry, particularly those of the steel and aluminum sectors, are then examined. The potential applications of life-cycle assessments and of an input-output model in programs of emissions' abatement are investigated, and, finally, a few remarks on some implications for education are presented.

  13. Solar greenhouse project. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-03

    Three (3) passive solar greenhouses were constructed as lean-to attachment to the homes of three (3) low-income families in Mecklenburg County, North Carolina as a demonstration project. CETA labor was provided by a training and work experience project for home repair and construction skills. Some of the walls were constructed from old salvaged windows and a local block company donated blocks that were used for the foundation. Recipients of the greenhouses reported reduced air drafts and fuel consumption savings. Flowers and vegetables were successfully grown during the winter months.

  14. Greenhouse of the future. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cavin, B. III

    1998-07-03

    This greenhouse of the future is located at the Center for Regenerative Studies (CRS) at Cal Poly Pomona. The building design was driven by desired environmental conditions. The primary objective was to keep the interior space warm during winter for the breeding of fish and other greenhouse activities, especially in the winter. To do this, a highly insulating envelope was needed. Straw bales provide excellent insulation with an R-value of approximately 50 and also help solve the environmental problems associated with this agricultural waste product. A summary of the construction progress, construction costs and operating costs are included.

  15. Towards a Greenhouse Gas Lidar in Space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehret, Gerhard; Amediek, Axel; Quatrevalet, Mathieu

    Highly accurate measurements of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) by a space-borne lidar will help to substantially improve knowledge of greenhouse gas fluxes. The method of integrated-path differential-absorption lidar for total column measurements has proven to be a suitable means for CH4 detection in natural gas leak surveillance and active remote sensing of CO2. This pioneering work facilitated the instrument development of an advanced greenhouse gas lidar on HALO and set the stage for the development of a CH4-lidar in space instrument foreseen in the Franco-German climate mission MERLIN.

  16. Geothermal greenhouse heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the nursing home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the nursing home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the nursing home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the nursing home.

  17. [Effects of transplanting date and density on appearance quality of greenhouse single-flower cut chrysanthemum].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-mao; Dai, Jian-feng; Luo, Wei-hong; Chen, Fa-di; Gu, Jun-jie; Lu, Jin-hua

    2007-05-01

    Transplanting date and density are the important factors affecting the appearance quality of chrysanthemum. The study on the greenhouse single-flower cut chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium cv. Shenma) showed that within the ranges of test transplanting date and density, the plant height and neck length increased, while the leaf number per plant, stem diameter, plant fresh mass and flower diameter decreased with the delay of transplanting date and the increase of transplanting density. No effect of transplanting density was observed on plant height. For the production of single-flower cut chrysanthemum in non-heated greenhouse in Shanghai, the optimal transplanting date and density to achieve the top rank of quality (rank A) were the middle ten days of August and 64 plants x m(-2), and those to achieve the second rank of quality (rank B) were from mid August to early September and 72-80 plants x m(-2), respectively. The results obtained in this study offered references in establishing the prediction model of greenhouse single-flower cut chrysanthemum appearance quality based on light, temperature, and transplanting date and density.

  18. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  19. Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas mitigation options

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Economic outcomes of greenhouse gas (GHG) mitigation options are reviewed including reductions in tillage intensity, diversifying crop rotation, and N fertilizer management. The review indicates that, while reducing tillage can be a cost effective GHG mitigation practice, results vary by region and ...

  20. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  1. Greenhouse effect due to chlorofluorocarbons - Climatic implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    1975-01-01

    The infrared bands of chlorofluorocarbons and chlorocarbons enhance the atmospheric greenhouse effect. This enhancement may lead to an appreciable increase in the global surface temperature if the atmospheric concentrations of these compounds reach values of the order of 2 parts per billion.

  2. Joint Implementation: Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gas Offsets

    PubMed

    CUTRIGHT

    1996-11-01

    / One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled "Joint Implementation," whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.KEY WORDS: Joint implementation; Activities implemented jointly; Carbon sequestration; Carbon dioxide; Global climate change; Greenhouse gas; Belize

  3. Second Greenhouse Gas Information System Workshop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boland, S. W.; Duren, R. M.; Mitchiner, J.; Rotman, D.; Sheffner, E.; Ebinger, M. H.; Miller, C. E.; Butler, J. H.; Dimotakis, P.; Jonietz, K.

    2009-12-01

    The second Greenhouse Gas Information System (GHGIS) workshop was held May 20-22, 2009 at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The workshop brought together 74 representatives from 28 organizations including U.S. government agencies, national laboratories, and members of the academic community to address issues related to the understanding, operational monitoring, and tracking of greenhouse gas emissions and carbon offsets. The workshop was organized by an interagency collaboration between NASA centers, DOE laboratories, and NOAA. It was motivated by the perceived need for an integrated interagency, community-wide initiative to provide information about greenhouse gas sources and sinks at policy-relevant temporal and spatial scales in order to significantly enhance the ability of national and regional governments, industry, and private citizens to implement and evaluate effective climate change mitigation policies. This talk provides an overview of the second Greenhouse Gas Information System workshop, presents its key findings, and discusses current status and next steps in this interagency collaborative effort.

  4. Geological assessment of the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Crowley, T.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Geologic studies provide a valuable perspective on the importance of greenhouse forcing for climate change. On both Pleistocene and tectonic time scales, changes in climate are positively correlated with greenhouse gas variations. However, the sensitivity of the system to greenhouse gas changes cannot yet be constrained by paleoclimate data below its present large range. Geologic records do not support one of the major predictions of greenhouse models-namely, that tropical sea surface temperatures will increase. Geologic data also suggest that winter cooling in high-latitude land areas is less than predicted by models. As the above-mentioned predictions appear to be systemic features of the present generation of climate models, some significant changes in model design may be required to reconcile models and geologic data. However, full acceptance of this conclusion requires more measurements and more systematic compilations of existing geologic data. Since progress in data collection in this area has been quite slow, uncertainties associated with these conclusions may persist for some time. 106 refs., 6 figs.

  5. Greenhouse Management and Operations. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdy, Mary Ann Schwartz

    This document is the teacher's edition of a module containing 16 instructional units covering competencies for students with career aspirations in horticulture. It is designed to provide high school students with an in-depth perspective of both the technical and the commercial aspects of running a greenhouse. The 16 units cover the following…

  6. Off-season greenhouse strawberry production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Strawberry production in the mid-South is mostly done in the field with harvest from April to June. There is year-round demand for fruit with the highest prices from November through February. Our research is ongoing to evaluate off-season strawberry production in polyethylene-covered greenhouses....

  7. Greenhouse Management and Operations. Teacher Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowdy, Mary Ann Schwartz

    This document is the teacher's edition of a module containing 16 instructional units covering competencies for students with career aspirations in horticulture. It is designed to provide high school students with an in-depth perspective of both the technical and the commercial aspects of running a greenhouse. The 16 units cover the following…

  8. Robotic System For Greenhouse Or Nursery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gill, Paul; Montgomery, Jim; Silver, John; Heffelfinger, Neil; Simonton, Ward; Pease, Jim

    1993-01-01

    Report presents additional information about robotic system described in "Robotic Gripper With Force Control And Optical Sensors" (MFS-28537). "Flexible Agricultural Robotics Manipulator System" (FARMS) serves as prototype of robotic systems intended to enhance productivities of agricultural assembly-line-type facilities in large commercial greenhouses and nurseries.

  9. Malenchenko checks Lada Greenhouse in SM

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2008-03-06

    ISS016-E-031242 (6 March 2008) --- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition 16 flight engineer representing Russia's Federal Space Agency, checks the progress of pea plants growing in the Russian Lada greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module of the International Space Station.

  10. Optimization Model for Reducing Emissions of Greenhouse ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The EPA Vehicle Greenhouse Gas (VGHG) model is used to apply various technologies to a defined set of vehicles in order to meet a specified GHG emission target, and to then calculate the costs and benefits of doing so. To facilitate its analysis of the costs and benefits of the control of GHG emissions from cars and trucks.

  11. Assessing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from University Purchases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Matthew; Eckelman, Matthew J.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: A greenhouse gas (GHG) inventory was conducted for Yale University's procurement of goods and services over a one-year period. The goal of the inventory was to identify the financial expenditures resulting in the greatest "indirect" GHG emissions. This project is part of an ongoing effort to quantify and reduce the university's…

  12. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles and their roles in determining current continental-scale budgets and future trends in biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) for North America. Understanding the current magnitude and forecasting future trajectories of atmospheric GHG concent...

  13. Broader perspectives for comparing different greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Manning, Martin; Reisinger, Andy

    2011-05-28

    Over the last 20 years, different greenhouse gases have been compared, in the context of climate change, primarily through the concept of global warming potentials (GWPs). This considers the climate forcing caused by pulse emissions and integrated over a fixed time horizon. Recent studies have shown that uncertainties in GWP values are significantly larger than previously thought and, while past literature in this area has raised alternative means of comparison, there is not yet any clear alternative. We propose that a broader framework for comparing greenhouse gases has become necessary and that this cannot be addressed by using simple fixed exchange rates. From a policy perspective, the framework needs to be clearly aligned with the goal of climate stabilization, and we show that comparisons between gases can be better addressed in this context by the forcing equivalence index (FEI). From a science perspective, a framework for comparing greenhouse gases should also consider the full range of processes that affect atmospheric composition and how these may alter for climate stabilization at different levels. We cover a basis for a broader approach to comparing greenhouse gases by summarizing the uncertainties in GWPs, linking those to uncertainties in the FEIs consistent with stabilization, and then to a framework for addressing uncertainties in the corresponding biogeochemical processes.

  14. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  15. Modeling Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Dairy Farms

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Evaluation and mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions from dairy farms requires a comprehensive approach that integrates the impacts and interactions of all important sources and sinks. This approach requires some form of modeling. Types of models commonly used include empirical emission factors, pr...

  16. Measuring and managing reservoir greenhouse gas emissions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methane (CH4) is the second most important anthropogenic greenhouse gas with a heat trapping capacity 34 times greater than that of carbon dioxide on a 100 year time scale. Known anthropogenic CH4 sources include livestock production, rice agriculture, landfills, and natural gas...

  17. 78 FR 23149 - Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Greenhouse Gas Reporting CFR Correction In Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 96 to 99, revised as of July 1, 2012, on page 768, in Sec. 98.226, in...

  18. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  19. Mitigating Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Voluntary Reporting 1996

    EIA Publications

    1997-01-01

    Presents information on voluntary actions to reduce greenhouse gases or remove such gases from the atmosphere in 1995. It provides an overview of participation in the Voluntary Reporting Program, a perspective on the composition of activities reported, and a review of some key issues in interpreting and evaluating achievements associated with reported emissions mitigation initiatives.

  20. Pesticide exposure and sprayer's task goals: comparison between vineyards and greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Mandy; Richardson, James; Grimbuhler, Sonia

    2012-01-01

    Plant protection products are used in agriculture to improve yields, but this use can cause contamination of the environment and is also likely to have adverse short and long term effects on agricultural workers. The field study took place in greenhouses and vineyards where operators are involved in high levels of pesticide spraying. The objective of this intervention was to identify factors explaining the influence of task factors on the exposure of greenhouse growers and vineyard workers. Thirteen operators were selected for detailed observations during one session of spraying. Video recordings provide counts of physical contacts between the operator and all the surrounding surfaces during the spraying operation. Both in vineyards and in greenhouses, physical and temporal constraints are the predominant factors in establishing a specific spraying procedure. Every action taken by the operator is a result of a compromise between safety, task performance and quality.

  1. A suggestion to assess spilled hydrocarbons as a greenhouse gas source

    SciTech Connect

    McAlexander, Benjamin L.

    2014-11-15

    Petroleum-contaminated site management typically counts destruction of hydrocarbons by either natural or engineered processes as a beneficial component of remediation. While such oxidation of spilled hydrocarbons is often necessary for achieving risk reduction for nearby human and ecological receptors, site assessments tend to neglect that this also means that the pollutants are converted to greenhouse gases and emitted to the atmosphere. This article presents a suggestion that the current and long term greenhouse gas emissions from spilled hydrocarbons be incorporated to petroleum site assessments. This would provide a more complete picture of pollutant effects that could then be incorporated to remedial objectives. At some sites, this additional information may affect remedy selection. Possible examples include a shift in emphasis to remedial technologies that reduce pollutant greenhouse gas effects (e.g., by conversion of methane to carbon dioxide in the subsurface), and a more holistic context for considering remedial technologies with low emission footprints.

  2. Comparison of toxicological impacts of integrated and chemical pest management in Mediterranean greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Antón, A; Castells, F; Montero, J I; Huijbregts, M

    2004-02-01

    The goal of this paper is to assess the relative impacts of pest-control methods in greenhouses, based on current LCA tools. As a case study, the relative impacts of two tomato production methods, chemical pest management (CPM) and integrated pest management (IPM), are assessed. The amount of the active ingredients applied, the fate of the ingredients in the various greenhouse and environmental compartments, the human exposure routes via the various compartments and the inherent toxicity of the ingredients were taken into account in the relative impact calculations. To assess the importance of model selection in the assessment, pesticide-specific fate and exposure factors for humans and aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, used to aggregate pesticide emissions, were calculated with two different models: (1) the USES-LCA model, adapted in order to calculate the pesticide transfer from greenhouse air and soil to fruits, and (2) the empirical model critical surface time (CST). Impact scores have in general shown a higher level of potential contamination in greenhouses treated with CPM compared to IPM (a factor of 1.4 to 2.3). Relative impacts have been shown highly dependent on the selection of specific pesticides and crop stage development at the moment of pesticide application. This means that both CPM and IPM could be improved by a careful selection of pesticides. In order to improve the relative impact calculations, future research in pesticide transfer to food will be necessary.

  3. Non-CO2 Greenhouse Gases: International Emissions and Projections

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA August 2011 report on global non-CO2 emissions projections (1990-2030) for emissions of non-CO2 greenhouse gases (methane, nitrous oxide, and fluorinated greenhouse gases) from more than twenty emissions sources.

  4. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  5. 2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, LEANTO GREENHOUSES OF MAIN HEADHOUSE (BUILDINGS 22. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW SOUTHEAST, LEAN-TO GREENHOUSES OF MAIN HEADHOUSE (BUILDINGS 22. 23) - U.S. Plant Introduction Station, Main Headhouse & Lean-to Greenhouses, 11601 Old Pond Road, Glenn Dale, Prince George's County, MD

  6. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded Lands

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a method...

  7. Mars Greenhouses: Concepts and Challenges. Proceedings from a 1999 Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wheeler, Ray M. (Editor); Martin-Brennan, Cindy (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    Topic covered include :Plants on Mars: On the Next Mission and in the Long Term Future; Bubbles in the Rocks: Natural and Artificial Caves and Cavities as Like Support Structures; Challenges for Bioregenerative Life Support on Mars; Cost Effectiveness Issues; Low Pressure Systems for Plant Growth; Plant Responses to Rarified Atmospheres; Can CO2 be Used as a Pressurizing Gas for Mars Greenhouses?; Inflatable Habitats Technology Development; Development of an Inflatable Greenhouse for a Modular Crop Production System; Mars Inflatable Greenhouse Workshop; Design Needs for Mars Deployable Greenhouse; Preliminary Estimates of the Possibilities for Developing a Deployable Greenhouse for a Planetary Surface Mars; Low Pressure Greenhouse Concepts for Mars; Mars Greenhouse Study: Natural vs. Artificial Lighting; and Wire Culture for an Inflatable Mars Greenhouse and Other Future Inflatable Space Growth Chambers.

  8. Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Stuccoed building within greenhouse complex, north and west (front) sides, looking south towards building no. 121 (tennis courts) across W. Pennington Ave. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Greenhouse, West Pennington Avenue, East of Building No. 139, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  9. 22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Greenhouse, south elevation. This winter 2002 view was taken by Joseph Elliot while conducting photographic documentation of the landscape. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. The greenhouse effect: science and policy.

    PubMed

    Schneider, S H

    1989-02-10

    Global warming from the increase in greenhouse gases has become a major scientific and political issue during the past decade. That infrared radiation is trapped by greenhouse gases and particles in a planetary atmosphere and that the atmospheric CO(2) level has increased by some 25 percent since 1850 because of fossil fuel combustion and land use (largely deforestation) are not controversial; levels of other trace greenhouse gases such as methane and chlorofluorocarbons have increased by even larger factors. Estimates of present and future effects, however, have significant uncertainties. There have also recently been controversial claims that a global warming signal has been detected. Results from most recent climatic models suggest that global average surface temperatures will increase by some 2 degrees to 6 degrees C during the next century, but future changes in greenhouse gas concentrations and feedback processes not properly accounted for in the models could produce greater or smaller increases. Sea level rises of 0.5 to 1.5 meters are typically projected for the next century, but there is a small probability of greater or even negative change. Forecasts of the distribution of variables such as soil moisture or precipitation patterns have even greater uncertainties. Policy responses range from engineering countermeasures to passive adaptation to prevention and a "law of the atmosphere." One approach is to implement those policies now that will reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and have additional societal benefits. Whether the uncertainties are large enough to suggest delaying policy responses is not a scientific question per se, but a value judgment.

  11. Urban Options Solar Greenhouse Demonstration Project. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cipparone, L.

    1980-10-15

    The following are included: the design process, construction, thermal performance, horticulture, educational activities, and future plans. Included in appendices are: greenhouse blueprints, insulating curtain details, workshop schedules, sample data forms, summary of performance calculations on the Urban Options Solar Greenhouse, data on vegetable production, publications, news articles on th Solar Greenhouse Project, and the financial statement. (MHR)

  12. Runaway greenhouse atmospheres: Applications to Earth and Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kasting, James F.

    1991-01-01

    Runaway greenhouse atmospheres are discussed from a theoretical standpoint and with respect to various practical situation in which they might occur. The following subject areas are covered: (1) runaway greenhouse atmospheres; (2) moist greenhouse atmospheres; (3) loss of water from Venus; (4) steam atmosphere during accretion; and (5) the continuously habitable zone.

  13. Horticultural management of solar greenhouses in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.

    1980-01-01

    A manual on horticultural management of solar greenhouses in the Northeast is presented. The information it contains represents a combination of a number of people's experiences who have been operating solar greenhouses in the Northeast for a year or more. The focus of this manual is on how to produce food in a solar greenhouse using biological and ecological management methods.

  14. The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Emission Model: Reference Manual

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Dairy Greenhouse Gas Model (DairyGHG) is a software tool for estimating the greenhouse gas emissions and carbon footprint of dairy production systems. A relatively simple process-based model is used to predict the primary greenhouse gas emissions, which include the net emission of carbon dioxide...

  15. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards... and Related Requirements § 1036.108 Greenhouse gas emission standards. This section contains standards... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  16. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards... and Related Requirements § 1036.108 Greenhouse gas emission standards. This section contains standards... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  17. 5. Greenhouse and storeroom, west elevation. Portions of the storeroom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Greenhouse and storeroom, west elevation. Portions of the storeroom might predate the greenhouse construction (1760-1761), however the two structures were not linked until late in the eighteenth century or early in the nineteenth century. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. 10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These groundlevel openings were ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall. These ground-level openings were part of the original heating system used to warm the greenhouse. The openings were likely related to the flues, while a larger opening to the west (not in photograph) contained an exterior-fed iron stove. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. 40 CFR 1036.108 - Greenhouse gas emission standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Greenhouse gas emission standards... and Related Requirements § 1036.108 Greenhouse gas emission standards. This section contains standards... of six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  20. Greenhouse gas emission impacts of electric vehicles under varying driving cycles in various counties and US cities

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.Q.; Marr, W.W.

    1994-02-10

    Electric vehicles (EVs) can reduce greenhouse gas emissions, relative to emissions from gasoline-fueled vehicles. However, those studies have not considered all aspects that determine greenhouse gas emissions from both gasoline vehicles (GVs) and EVs. Aspects often overlooked include variations in vehicle trip characteristics, inclusion of all greenhouse gases, and vehicle total fuel cycle. In this paper, we estimate greenhouse gas emission reductions for EVs, including these important aspects. We select four US cities (Boston, Chicago, Los Angeles, and Washington, D.C.) and six countries (Australia, France, Japan, Norway, the United Kingdom, and the United States) and analyze greenhouse emission impacts of EVs in each city or country. We also select six driving cycles developed around the world (i.e., the US federal urban driving cycle, the Economic Community of Europe cycle 15, the Japanese 10-mode cycle, the Los Angeles 92 cycle, the New York City cycle, and the Sydney cycle). Note that we have not analyzed EVs in high-speed driving (e.g., highway driving), where the results would be less favorable to EVs; here, EVs are regarded as urban vehicles only. We choose one specific driving cycle for a given city or country and estimate the energy consumption of four-passenger compact electric and gasoline cars in the given city or country. Finally, we estimate total fuel cycle greenhouse gas emissions of both GVs and EVs by accounting for emissions from primary energy recovery, transportation, and processing; energy product transportation; and powerplant and vehicle operations.

  1. Magnetic field effects on plant growth, development, and evolution

    PubMed Central

    Maffei, Massimo E.

    2014-01-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) is a natural component of our environment. Plants, which are known to sense different wavelengths of light, respond to gravity, react to touch and electrical signaling, cannot escape the effect of GMF. While phototropism, gravitropism, and tigmotropism have been thoroughly studied, the impact of GMF on plant growth and development is not well-understood. This review describes the effects of altering magnetic field (MF) conditions on plants by considering plant responses to MF values either lower or higher than those of the GMF. The possible role of GMF on plant evolution and the nature of the magnetoreceptor is also discussed. PMID:25237317

  2. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  3. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandurski, R. S.; Schulze, A.

    1983-01-01

    Dolk's (1936) finding that more growth hormone diffuses from the lower side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot than from the upper side is presently confirmed by means of both an isotope dilution assay and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, and it is established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physicochemical demonstration that there is more IAA on the lower sides of a geostimulated plant shoot. It is also found that free IAA primarily occurs in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, while IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. A highly sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay shows that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the nonvascular tissue.

  4. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  5. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  6. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  7. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  8. 40 CFR 70.12 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). 70.12 Section 70.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... commitments for further actions addressing greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases... six greenhouse gases: carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, methane, hydrofluorocarbons,...

  9. Assessment of US, Indian and Chinese Middle School Students' Outlook on the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niyogi, D.; Ganesh, N.; Singh, D.; Liu, X.; Shepardson, D. P.; Roychoudhury, A.; Hirsch, A.; Halversen, C.

    2012-12-01

    When you think of the greenhouse effect and climate change what images and concepts come to mind? Answers to these questions are important to educators and policy makers as they wrestle with the issue of educating and conveying these concepts in class rooms and to the general public. The greenhouse effect (GHE) sustains life on the earth through regulating the temperatures on the planet. Well-mixed greenhouse gases (GHGs) such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide absorb outgoing (long wave) radiation from the Earth's surface while allowing passage without absorption of the incoming solar (shortwave) radiation. Increasing the GHG concentration in the atmosphere increases the absorption of long wavelength radiation thereby increasing global temperatures that result in changes in the atmospheric states consistently over multiple decades.The concept of the greenhouse effect is critical to the discussions underway pertaining to climate change and the controls on greenhouse emissions being proposed in different forums. This study sought to (1) investigate students' conceptions about the greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change; (2) determine if there are differences between perceptions for students in US, India and China (Asia)- where there are known differences in the political and scientific approaches; and (3) determine if there any differences, contextual or otherwise, in the way the greenhouse effect is taught in these countries. This study was conducted in select schools in the Midwest US, India and China that volunteered to work with this project. -For US, data from 51 secondary students from three different schools were analyzed, for India the number was 71 from 3 schools, while for China the number is over 100 (and being analyzed) from different classes within a school. Study Hypotheses: 1.Middle school students have a good scientific understanding of greenhouse gases. 2.The U.S and Asian students have the same outlook. Teachers

  10. Greenhouse Gas Management Program Overview (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-11-01

    Program fact sheet highlighting federal requirements for GHG emissions management, FEMP services to help agencies reduce emissions, and additional resources. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) assists Federal agencies with managing their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG management entails measuring emissions and understanding their sources, setting a goal for reducing emissions, developing a plan to meet this goal, and implementing the plan to achieve reductions in emissions. FEMP provides the following services to help Federal agencies meet the requirements of inventorying and reducing their GHG emissions: (1) FEMP offers one-on-one technical assistance to help agencies understand and implement the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance and fulfill their inventory reporting requirements. (2) FEMP provides training, tools, and resources on FedCenter to help agencies complete their annual inventories. (3) FEMP serves a leadership role in the interagency Federal Working Group on Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting that develops recommendations to the Council on Environmental Quality (CEQ) for the Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting Guidance. (4) As the focus continues to shift from measuring emissions (completing inventories) to mitigating emissions (achieving reductions), FEMP is developing a strategic planning framework and resources for agencies to prioritize among a variety of options for mitigating their GHG emissions, so that they achieve their reduction goals in the most cost-effective manner. These resources will help agencies analyze their high-quality inventories to make strategic decisions about where to use limited resources to have the greatest impact on reducing emissions. Greenhouse gases trap heat in the lower atmosphere, warming the earth's surface temperature in a natural process known as the 'greenhouse effect.' GHGs include carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), methane (CH{sub 4

  11. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  12. Demonstrating the Effects of Light Quality on Plant Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitesell, J. H.; Garcia, Maria

    1977-01-01

    Describes a lab demonstration that illustrates the effect of different colors or wavelengths of visible light on plant growth and development. This demonstration is appropriate for use in college biology, botany, or plant physiology courses. (HM)

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizas enhance nutrient uptake in different wheat genotypes at high salinity levels under field and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Mardukhi, Baran; Rejali, Farhad; Daei, Gudarz; Ardakani, Mohammad Reza; Malakouti, Mohammad Javad; Miransari, Mohammad

    2011-07-01

    Since most experiments regarding the symbiosis between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and their host plants under salinity stress have been performed only under greenhouse conditions, this research work was also conducted under field conditions. The effects of three AM species including Glomus mosseae, G. etunicatum and G. intraradices on the nutrient uptake of different wheat cultivars (including Roshan, Kavir and Tabasi) under field and greenhouse (including Chamran and Line 9) conditions were determined. At field harvest, the concentrations of N, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, and Mn, and at greenhouse harvest, plant growth, root colonization and concentrations of different nutrients including N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Na and Cl were determined. The effects of wheat cultivars on the concentrations of N, Ca, and Mn, and of all nutrients were significant at field and greenhouse conditions, respectively. In both experiments, AM fungi significantly enhanced the concentrations of all nutrients including N, K, P, Ca, Mg, Mn, Cu, Fe, Zn, Na and Cl. The synergistic and enhancing effects of co-inoculation of AM species on plant growth and the inhibiting effect of AM species on Na(+) rather than on Cl(-) uptake under salinity are also among the important findings of this research work. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Gravitational effects on plant growth hormone concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandurski, Robert S.; Schulze, Aga

    Numerous studies, particularly those of H. Dolk in the 1930's, established by means of bio-assay, that more growth hormone diffused from the lower, than from the upper side of a gravity-stimulated plant shoot. Now, using an isotope dilution assay, with 4,5,6,7 tetradeutero indole-3-acetic acid as internal standard, and selected ion monitoring-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as the method of determination, we have confirmed Dolk's finding and established that the asymmetrically distributed hormone is, in fact, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). This is the first physico-chemical demonstration that there is more free IAA on the lower sides of a geo-stimulated plant shoot. We have also shown that free IAA occurs primarily in the conductive vascular tissues of the shoot, whereas IAA esters predominate in the growing cortical cells. Now, using an especially sensitive gas chromatographic isotope dilution assay we have found that the hormone asymmetry also occurs in the non-vascular tissue. Currently, efforts are directed to developing isotope dilution assays, with picogram sensitivity, to determine how this asymmetry of IAA distribution is attained so as to better understand how the plant perceives the geo-stimulus.

  15. An overview on plant cuticle biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Eva; Cuartero, Jesús; Heredia, Antonio

    2011-08-01

    Plant biomechanics combines the principles of physics, chemistry and engineering to answer questions about plant growth, development and interaction with the environment. The epidermal-growth-control theory, postulated in 1867 and verified in 2007, states that epidermal cells determine the rate of organ elongation since they are under tension, while inner tissues are under compression. The lipid cuticle layer is deposited on the surface of outer epidermal cell walls and modifies the chemical and mechanical nature of these cell walls. Thus, the plant cuticle plays a key role in plant interaction with the environment and in controlling organ expansion. Rheological analyses indicate that the cuticle is a mostly viscoelastic and strain-hardening material that stiffens the comparatively more elastic epidermal cell walls. Cuticle stiffness can be attributed to polysaccharides and flavonoids present in the cuticle whereas a cutin matrix is mainly responsible for its extensibility. Environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity have a plasticizing effect on the mechanical properties of cuticle since they lower cuticle stiffness and strength. The external appearance of agricultural commodities, especially fruits, is of great economic value. Mechanical properties of the cuticle can have a positive or negative effect on disorders like fruit cracking, fungal pathogen penetration and pest infestation. Cuticle rheology has significant variability within a species and thus can be subjected to selection in order to breed cultivars resistant to pests, infestation and disorders.

  16. Energy demand hourly simulations and energy saving strategies in greenhouses for the Mediterranean climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priarone, A.; Fossa, M.; Paietta, E.; Rolando, D.

    2017-01-01

    This research has been devoted to the selection of the most favourable plant solutions for ventilation, heating and cooling, thermo-hygrometric control of a greenhouse, in the framework of the energy saving and the environmental protection. The identified plant solutions include shading of glazing surfaces, natural ventilation by means of controlled opening windows, forced convection of external air and forced convection of air treated by the HVAC system for both heating and cooling. The selected solution combines HVAC system to a Ground Coupled Heat Pump (GCHP), which is an innovative renewable technology applied to greenhouse buildings. The energy demand and thermal loads of the greenhouse to fulfil the requested internal design conditions have been evaluated through an hourly numerical simulation, using the Energy Plus (E-plus) software. The overall heat balance of the greenhouse also includes the latent heat exchange due to crop evapotranspiration, accounted through an original iterative calculation procedure that combines the E-plus dynamic simulations and the FAO Penman-Monteith method. The obtained hourly thermal loads have been used to size the borehole field for the geothermal heat pump by using a dedicated GCHP hourly simulation tool.

  17. Greenhouse effect simulator - An educational application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machado, Alan Freitas; Viveiros, Bruno Martins; da Silva, Claudio Elias

    2016-12-01

    Using the program "Modellus", we intend to create a simple simulation to show the impacts that the Greenhouse Effect might have, in a didactic and friendly way, in order to expose this notions to high and middle school students. In order to do so, we created a program that will simulate a sweep, through the Troposphere, and create two lines in a graphic, one showing the temperatures behavior, in normal conditions, and the other showing how the temperature behaves in the presence of excess of Greenhouse gases. The main purpose of the project is to use the model in schools and try to make kids more conscious of their roles in our so society, showing them the consequences of the tendency of our acts, stimulating them to be more proactives to change the future.

  18. Greenhouse role in reef stress unproven

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, L.

    1991-07-19

    In the late 1980s, as coral reefs throughout the Caribbean and elsewhere fell victim to a phenomenon known as bleaching, a few scientists stated that greenhouse warming is upon us and that the exquisitely sensitive corals, reacting to elevated water temperatures, are serving as biological sentinels. This stirred up so much concern that Congress assigned the National Science Foundation (NSF) to investigate the connection between coral bleaching and global warming. Late last month investigators at an NSF-sponsored meeting rendered their verdict. Following the Miami meeting, which brought together, for the first time, climatologists, oceanographers, and meteorologists with marine biologists, ecologists, and other reef experts, the participants issued a statement saying essentially that, yes, higher temperatures seem to be at least partly at fault but, no, greenhouse warming cannot be blamed.

  19. Greenhouse models of the atmosphere of Titan.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1973-01-01

    The greenhouse effect is calculated for a series of Titanian atmosphere models with different proportions of methane, hydrogen, helium, and ammonia. A computer program is used in temperature-structure calculations based on radiative-convective thermal transfer considerations. A brightness temperature spectrum is derived for Titan and is compared with available observational data. It is concluded that the greenhouse effect on Titan is generated by pressure-induced transitions of methane and hydrogen. The helium-to-hydrogen ratio is found to have a maximum of about 1.5. The surface pressure is estimated to be at least 0.4 atm, with a daytime temperature of about 155 K at the surface. The presence of methane clouds in the upper troposphere is indicated. The clouds have a significant optical depth in the visible, but not in the thermal, infrared.

  20. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-12-30

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region.

  1. Greenhouse effect due to atmospheric nitrous oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yung, Y. L.; Wang, W. C.; Lacis, A. A.

    1976-01-01

    The greenhouse effect due to nitrous oxide in the present atmosphere is about 0.8 K. Increase in atmospheric N2O due to perturbation of the nitrogen cycle by man may lead to an increase in surface temperature as large as 0.5 K by 2025, or 1.0 K by 2100. Other climatic effects of N2O are briefly discussed.

  2. Carbon dioxide enrichment of greenhouse crops

    SciTech Connect

    Enoch, H.Z.; Kimball, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    These volumes bring current information to growers, plant scientists, horticulturalists, and extension officers on the influence of atmospheric CO2 on greenhouse crops. Results of recent research and successful techniques in the US and Europe are reported. Discussions cover such practical topics as fossil and biological sources of CO2, control, strategies of choosing optimal concentration, effects of outdoor climate, and economic factors. Volume II will follow.

  3. Research on automatic control system of greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yi; Qi, Guoyang; Li, Zeyu; Wu, Qiannan; Meng, Yupeng

    2017-03-01

    This paper introduces a kind of automatic control system of single-chip microcomputer and a temperature and humidity sensor based on the greenhouse, describes the system's hardware structure, working principle and process, and a large number of experiments on the effect of the control system, the results show that the system can ideally control temperature and room temperature and humidity, can be used in indoor breeding and planting, and has the versatility and portability.

  4. Solar energy: the physics of the greenhouse effect.

    PubMed

    Young, M

    1975-07-01

    For practical reasons, it is likely that low-temperature solar collectors have a more immediate future than high-temperature or photovoltaic generation of electricity. This paper discusses the physics of bare and covered flat-plate collectors. The greenhouse effect is the result of reducing convection to the point that radiation trapping becomes important. Nevertheless, at collector temperatures within 20-30 degrees C of ambient, convection from the collector surface is so important that a special absorber with low ir emissivity may be no more efficient than a good, black absorber. At higher temperatures, selective absorbers are desirable. In the low temperature range, collection efficiency can be kept well over 80%, but falls rapidly with increasing collector temperature. This suggests that solar power may see early application in conjunction with heat pumps for heating and air conditioning.

  5. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    SciTech Connect

    Cutright, N.J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases form increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de janeiro during the June 19923 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled {open_quotes}Joint Implementation,{close_quotes} whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a JI project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically self-sustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits. 6 refs., 1 tab.

  6. Accouting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulieu, J. J.; Deemer, B. R.; Harrison, J. A.; Nietch, C. T.; Waldo, S.

    2016-12-01

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a `basis for future methodological development' due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions linked to the National Lakes Assessment.

  7. Joint implementation: Biodiversity and greenhouse gas offsets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cutright, Noel J.

    1996-11-01

    One of the most pressing environmental issues today is the possibility that projected increases in global emissions of greenhouse gases from increased deforestation, development, and fossil-fuel combustion could significantly alter global climate patterns. Under the terms of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, signed in Rio de Janeiro during the June 1992 Earth Summit, the United States and other industrialized countries committed to balancing greenhouse gas emissions at 1990 levels in the year 2000. Included in the treaty is a provision titled “Joint Implementation,” whereby industrialized countries assist developing countries in jointly modifying long-term emission trends, either through emission reductions or by protecting and enhancing greenhouse gas sinks (carbon sequestration). The US Climate Action Plan, signed by President Clinton in 1993, calls for voluntary climate change mitigation measures by various sectors, and the action plan included a new program, the US Initiative on Joint Implementation. Wisconsin Electric decided to invest in a Jl project because its concept encourages creative, cost-effective solutions to environmental problems through partnering, international cooperation, and innovation. The project chosen, a forest preservation and management effort in Belize, will sequester more than five million tons of carbon dioxide over a 40-year period, will become economically selfsustaining after ten years, and will have substantial biodiversity benefits.

  8. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  9. Accounting For Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Flooded ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the inundation of rivers and terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can lead to enhanced rates of greenhouse gas emissions, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. The research approaches include 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane emissions. To inform th

  10. Greenhouse gas emission reduction options and strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, R.L.; Klein, D.E.

    1994-12-31

    This paper describes the energy-related components of the Clinton Administration`s Climate Change Action Plan. The Action Plan was formulated to meet the Administration`s commitment of returning US emissions of greenhouse gases to 1990 levels by the year 2000. The paper discusses what the energy industry and energy consumers will be requested to do in order to meet this commitment. Several themes addressed in this paper include: (1) the largely voluntary nature of the actions identified in the Action Plan; (2) consideration of diverse opportunities to reduce emissions; (3) the outlook for US greenhouse gas emissions after 2000; and (4) actions involved for speeding the utilization of new, energy efficient technologies both domestically and abroad. The value of employing a diverse set of activities and the important role of technology improvements will be explored further in section 10 of this volume: ``Greenhouse Gas Emission Mitigation Strategies.`` Papers presented there include the utilization of more efficient fossil energy technologies, energy conservation and demand-side management programs, renewable energy and reforestation, and carbon dioxide capture and disposal.

  11. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  12. Accounting for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Reservoirs ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Nearly three decades of research has demonstrated that the impoundment of rivers and the flooding of terrestrial ecosystems behind dams can increase rates of greenhouse gas emission, particularly methane. The 2006 IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories includes a methodology for estimating methane emissions from flooded lands, but the methodology was published as an appendix to be used as a ‘basis for future methodological development’ due to a lack of data. Since the 2006 Guidelines were published there has been a 6-fold increase in the number of peer reviewed papers published on the topic including reports from reservoirs in India, China, Africa, and Russia. Furthermore, several countries, including Iceland, Switzerland, and Finland, have developed country specific methodologies for including flooded lands methane emissions in their National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. This presentation will include a review of the literature on flooded land methane emissions and approaches that have been used to upscale emissions for national inventories. We will also present ongoing research in the United States to develop a country specific methodology. In the U.S., research approaches include: 1) an effort to develop predictive relationships between methane emissions and reservoir characteristics that are available in national databases, such as reservoir size and drainage area, and 2) a national-scale probabilistic survey of reservoir methane em

  13. Transport of Greenhouse Gases in Trees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutschera, E.; Khalil, A. K.; Shearer, M.; Rosenstiel, T.

    2009-12-01

    Emissions of greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) have been measured in cultivated and natural regions, quantifying overall emissions for croplands, wetlands, and forests. However, segregation between soil and plant emissions is less clear, and the dynamics behind each respective emission type differs. Better defined plant transport mechanisms will yield more accurate determination of greenhouse gas flux, contributing to a comprehensive theory quantifying greenhouse gas emissions globally. While the mechanisms of CH4 and N2O emissions from rice have not been fully identified, for trees these mechanisms are virtually unknown. CH4 and N2O emissions from several species of tree (Alnus rubra, Populus trichocarpa, Thuja plicata, Fraxinus latifolia) native to the Pacific Northwest have been measured. To identify mechanisms of gas transport, correlation of emissions and stomatal conductance, transpiration, and photosynthesis has been tested. A synthesis between plant physiological data and emissions is sought to elucidate the role plant physiology plays in the production and transport of CH4 and N2O. This research was supported by the Office of Science (BER), U. S. Department of Energy, Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER64515.

  14. Supplemental photosynthetic lighting for greenhouse tomato production

    SciTech Connect

    Godfriaux, B.L.; Wittman, W.K. ); Janes, H.W.; McAvoy, R.J.; Putman, J.; Logendra, S. . Dept. of Horticulture and Forestry); Mears, D.R.; Giacommelli, G.; Giniger, M. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1989-12-01

    The influence of supplemental light on the growth and productivity of greenhouse tomatoes grown to a single cluster on movable benches is examined, and the economic feasibility of such a system is evaluated. Experiments were conducted to quantify the tomato plants' response to various levels of supplemental light in terms of growth rate and yield at various stages in their development (e.g., seedling, flowering plant, etc.). The 1984--85 experiments showed that supplemental photosynthetic lighting nearly doubled tomato yields, from 0.48 to 0.86 lbs/plant. Subsequent experiments in 1985--86 identified the best tomato varieties for this treatment and further increased yields to 1.3 lbs/plant. In addition, the use of supplemental lighting was found to hasten tomato crop maturity. An economic analysis was performed on the 1985--86 empirical data using the tax rates and provisions then in force. It indicated that a 10-acre greenhouse could provide an after-tax internal rate of return of 10% to 12% using only equity financing. This return could likely be increased to 15--18% with the use of combined debt/equity financing. Using supplemental lighting on 10,000 acres of greenhouse production would require an estimated 7.5 billion kWh of additional electricity per year and, at 4.7 cents/kWh, generate an estimated $350 million in additional utility revenues. 48 refs., 34 figs., 24 tabs.

  15. Microbial Population and Community Dynamics on Plant Roots and Their Feedbacks on Plant Communities

    PubMed Central

    Bever, James D.; Platt, Thomas G.; Morton, Elise R.

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the soil microbial community can be altered dramatically due to association with individual plant species, and these effects on the microbial community can have important feedbacks on plant ecology. Negative plant-soil feedback plays primary roles in maintaining plant community diversity, whereas positive plant-soil feedback may cause community conversion. Host-specific differentiation of the microbial community results from the trade-offs associated with overcoming plant defense and the specific benefits associated with plant rewards. Accumulation of host-specific pathogens likely generates negative feedback on the plant, while changes in the density of microbial mutualists likely generate positive feedback. However, the competitive dynamics among microbes depends on the multidimensional costs of virulence and mutualism, the fine-scale spatial structure within plant roots, and active plant allocation and localized defense. Because of this, incorporating a full view of microbial dynamics is essential to explaining the dynamics of plant-soil feedbacks and therefore plant community ecology. PMID:22726216

  16. Microbial population and community dynamics on plant roots and their feedbacks on plant communities.

    PubMed

    Bever, James D; Platt, Thomas G; Morton, Elise R

    2012-01-01

    The composition of the soil microbial community can be altered dramatically due to association with individual plant species, and these effects on the microbial community can have important feedbacks on plant ecology. Negative plant-soil feedback plays primary roles in maintaining plant community diversity, whereas positive plant-soil feedback may cause community conversion. Host-specific differentiation of the microbial community results from the trade-offs associated with overcoming plant defense and the specific benefits associated with plant rewards. Accumulation of host-specific pathogens likely generates negative feedback on the plant, while changes in the density of microbial mutualists likely generate positive feedback. However, the competitive dynamics among microbes depends on the multidimensional costs of virulence and mutualism, the fine-scale spatial structure within plant roots, and active plant allocation and localized defense. Because of this, incorporating a full view of microbial dynamics is essential to explaining the dynamics of plant-soil feedbacks and therefore plant community ecology.

  17. Space and time variability of heating requirements for greenhouse tomato production in the Euro-Mediterranean area.

    PubMed

    Mariani, Luigi; Cola, Gabriele; Bulgari, Roberta; Ferrante, Antonio; Martinetti, Livia

    2016-08-15

    The Euro-Mediterranean area is the seat of a relevant greenhouse activity, meeting the needs of important markets. A quantitative assessment of greenhouse energy consumption and of its variability in space and time is an important decision support tool for both greenhouse-sector policies and farmers. A mathematical model of greenhouse energy balance was developed and parameterized for a state-of-the-art greenhouse to evaluate the heating requirements for vegetables growing. Tomato was adopted as reference crop, due to its high energy requirement for fruit setting and ripening and its economic relevance. In order to gain a proper description of the Euro-Mediterranean area, 56 greenhouse areas located within the ranges 28°N-72°N and 11°W-55°E were analyzed over the period 1973-2014. Moreover, the two 1973-1987 and 1988-2014 sub-periods were separately studied to describe climate change effects on energy consumption. Results account for the spatial variability of energy needs for tomato growing, highlighting the strong influence of latitude on the magnitude of heat requirements. The comparison between the two selected sub-periods shows a decrease of energy demand in the current warm phase, more relevant for high latitudes. Finally, suggestions to reduce energy consumptions are provided.

  18. Greenhouses in extreme environments: The Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse design and operation overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giroux, Richard; Berinstain, Alain; Braham, Stephen; Graham, Thomas; Bamsey, Matthew; Boyd, Keegan; Silver, Matthew; Lussier-Desbiens, Alexis; Lee, Pascal; Boucher, Marc; Cowing, Keith; Dixon, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Since its deployment on Devon Island, Canadian High Arctic, in 2002, the Haughton Mars Project's Arthur Clarke Mars Greenhouse (ACMG) has supported extreme environment related scientific and operation research that is relevant to Mars analogue studies - each at a specific level of fidelity and complexity. The Greenhouse serves as an initial experimental test-bed supporting field research, from which lessons may be learned to support the design and implementation of future field facilities, and enabling higher fidelity demonstrations. This paper provides an overall description of the ACMG, describes the different subsystems, explains its operational modes, details some results over the three years of operation and discusses future development plans.

  19. Improving greenhouse gas reduction calculations for bioenergy systems: Incremental life cycle analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ney, Richard A.

    There are many scales that can be employed to calculate net greenhouse gas emissions from bioenergy systems, ranging from single point source (stack gas) measurement, to full, multi-layered life cycle analyses considering all of the inputs and outputs throughout the economy. At an appropriate scale within these extremes, a method can be selected to support verification activities related to project-based trading of greenhouse gas emissions. The boundaries of the analysis must be carefully selected in order to meet the twin goals of the verification activity: (1) to meet scientific standards for emission balance quantification; and (2) to meet cost-effectiveness criteria of the emission trading community. The Incremental Life Cycle Analysis (ILCA) methodology is proposed and implemented for the quantification of greenhouse gas emission reductions arising from substitution of switchgrass for coal in electricity generation. The method utilizes an incremental progression through the fuel life cycle, evaluating each level of the life cycle for the quality the emission estimate produced. The method also reviews the scientific uncertainty underlying emission estimation procedures so that areas of relative weakness can be targeted and improved. The ILCA methodology is applied to the Chariton Valley Biomass Project (CVBP) for case study and evaluation. The CVBP is seeking to replace coal combustion in an existing 650-MW generation facility with switchgrass, cofired at a rate of 5 percent switchgrass to 95 percent coal. When the project reaches full capacity, the ILCA estimates that 239 pounds of carbon dioxide-equivalent (CO2-eq) emissions will be reduced and/or removed from the atmosphere for every million Btu of switchgrass utilized, generating annual greenhouse gas reductions of 305,000 tons CO2-eq, leading to revenue for the project totaling over $1.5 million annually through trading of greenhouse gas emission reduction credits.

  20. Legacy effects of drought on plant growth and the soil food web.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Franciska Trijntje; Liiri, Mira E; Bjørnlund, Lisa; Setälä, Heikki M; Christensen, Søren; Bardgett, Richard D

    2012-11-01

    Soils deliver important ecosystem services, such as nutrient provision for plants and the storage of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), which are greatly impacted by drought. Both plants and soil biota affect soil C and N availability, which might in turn affect their response to drought, offering the potential to feed back on each other's performance. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared legacy effects of repeated drought on plant growth and the soil food web in two contrasting land-use systems: extensively managed grassland, rich in C and with a fungal-based food web, and intensively managed wheat lower in C and with a bacterial-based food web. Moreover, we assessed the effect of plant presence on the recovery of the soil food web after drought. Drought legacy effects increased plant growth in both systems, and a plant strongly reduced N leaching. Fungi, bacteria, and their predators were more resilient after drought in the grassland soil than in the wheat soil. The presence of a plant strongly affected the composition of the soil food web, and alleviated the effects of drought for most trophic groups, regardless of the system. This effect was stronger for the bottom trophic levels, whose resilience was positively correlated to soil available C. Our results show that plant belowground inputs have the potential to affect the recovery of belowground communities after drought, with implications for the functions they perform, such as C and N cycling.

  1. Stimulatory Effects of Arsenic-Tolerant Soil Fungi on Plant Growth Promotion and Soil Properties

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Pankaj Kumar; Shenoy, Belle Damodara; Gupta, Manjul; Vaish, Aradhana; Mannan, Shivee; Singh, Nandita; Tewari, Shri Krishna; Tripathi, Rudra Deo

    2012-01-01

    Fifteen fungi were obtained from arsenic-contaminated agricultural fields in West Bengal, India and examined for their arsenic tolerance and removal ability in our previous study. Of these, the four best arsenic-remediating isolates were tested for plant growth promotion effects on rice and pea in the present study. A greenhouse-based pot experiment was conducted using soil inocula of individual fungi. The results indicated a significant (P<0.05) increase in plant growth and improvement of soil properties in inoculated soils compared to the control. A significant increase in plant growth was recorded in treated soils and varied from 16–293%. Soil chemical and enzymatic properties varied from 20–222% and 34–760%, respectively, in inoculated soil. Plants inoculated with inocula of Westerdykella and Trichoderma showed better stimulatory effects on plant growth and soil nutrient availability than Rhizopus and Lasiodiplodia. These fungi improved soil nutrient content and enhanced plant growth. These fungi may be used as bioinoculants for plant growth promotion and improved soil properties in arsenic-contaminated agricultural soils. PMID:23047145

  2. [Prototype of space vitamin greenhouse "Phytoconveyor"].

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Iu A; Erokhin, A N; Krivobok, N M; Smolianina, S O; Baranov, A V; Shanturin, N A; Droniaev, V P; Radostin, A V; Trofimov, Iu V; Sivenkov, V K

    2007-01-01

    Installation of a greens production system on the International space station will mean a leap toward biological regeneration of food in long-duration space mission. Today, priority is given to green cultures as supplements of space rations and a psychological support to crews in exploration missions to Mars, and also as least resource-intensive. Cylindrical salad greenhouse "Phytoconveyor" designed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems is highly productive, energy-efficient, and requires minimum of crew time for. Dimensions of the greenhouse are 540 x 590 x 400 mm, power demand is 0.25 kW, and the Plant chamber volume is about 0.09 m3. 'Phytoconveyor" has a planting unit with six cylindrical root modules. The total illuminated crop area is about 0.4 m2. The lighting unit consists of red (660 nm) and blue (470 nm) light-emitting diodes on the inner surface of a spiral cylinder coaxial with the roots module unit that generate the photon flux density 350 micromol x M(-2) x s(-1) at a distance of 4 cm. Each root module has a porous tube wrapped up in a fiber substrate with ion-exchange resins and is covered with a lightproof plastic with seed slits. The "Phytoconveyor" design includes a programmable reverse watering system. Given the 24-hr light period, the laboratory model of "Phytoconveyor" can produce up to 300 gram of fresh greens every 4-5 days. The greenhouse was designed with due account of resource limitations on the ISS Russian orbital segment.

  3. Accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Lu, Anxiang; Wang, Jihua; Ma, Zhihong; Pan, Ligang; Feng, Xiaoyuan; Luan, Yunxia

    2015-12-01

    The accumulation status, sources and phytoavailability of selected metals in greenhouse vegetable production systems in peri-urban areas of Beijing were investigated. The mean concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg and Pb in greenhouse soils were 8.44, 0.25, 69.0, 0.09 and 22.0 mg kg(-1), dw, respectively. According to principal component analysis, As, Cd, Cr and Hg are mainly from anthropogenic source, but Pb is likely from natural source. Metal concentrations in all vegetable samples were decreased in the order of Cr>As>Pb>Cd>Hg. Compared with root and fruit vegetables, leaf vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals, except for Cd. By including soil pH, OM and greenhouse soil metals, 10 empirical models were derived using stepwise multiple linear regression analysis to predict heavy metal concentrations in the edible parts of different vegetables. Among the different vegetable groups, the highest intakes of metals occurred through consumption of leaf vegetables for the two age groups, except for Cd. The HI value of the studied metals were all below 1, indicating that consumption of vegetables grown in greenhouse soils was of low risk to consumers in our study area. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Veracruz State Preliminary Greenhouse Gases Emissions Inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh Rodriguez, C.; Rodriquez Viqueira, L.; Guzman Rojas, S.

    2007-05-01

    At recent years, the international organisms such as United Nations, has discussed that the temperature has increased slightly and the pattern of precipitations has changed in different parts of the world, which cause either extreme droughts or floods and that the extreme events have increased. These are some of the risks of global climate change because of the increase of gas concentration in the atmosphere such as carbon dioxides, nitrogen oxides and methane - which increase the greenhouse effect. Facing the consequences that could emerge because of the global temperature grown, there is a genuine necessity in different sectors of reduction the greenhouse gases and reduced the adverse impacts of climate change. To solve that, many worldwide conventions have been realized (Rio de Janeiro, Kyoto, Montreal) where different countries have established political compromises to stabilize their emissions of greenhouse gases. The mitigation and adaptation policies merge as a response to the effects that the global climate change could have, on the humans as well as the environment. That is the reason to provide the analysis of the areas and geographic zones of the country that present major vulnerability to the climate change. The development of an inventory of emissions that identifies and quantifies the principal sources of greenhouse gases of a country, and also of a region is basic to any study about climate change, also to develop specific political programs that allow to preserve and even improve a quality of the atmospheric environment, and maybe to incorporate to international mechanisms such as the emissions market. To estimate emissions in a systematic and consistent way on a regional, national and international level is a requirement to evaluate the feasibility and the cost-benefit of instrumented possible mitigation strategies and to adopt politics and technologies to reduce emissions. Mexico has two national inventories of emissions, 1990 and 1995, now it is

  5. Managing biogeochemical cycles to reduce greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Post, Wilfred M; Venterea, Rodney

    2012-01-01

    This special issue focuses on terrestrial biogeochemical cycles as they relate to North America-wide budgeting and future projection of biogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs). Understanding the current magnitude and providing guidance on the future trajectories of atmospheric concentrations of these gases requires investigation of their (i) biogeochemical origins, (ii) response to climate feedbacks and other environmental factors, and (iii) susceptibility to management practices. This special issue provides a group of articles that present the current state of continental scale sources and sinks of biogenic GHGs and the potential to better manage them in the future.

  6. Effect of Greenhouse Gases Dissolved in Seawater

    PubMed Central

    Matsunaga, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A molecular dynamics simulation has been performed on the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide and methane dissolved in a sodium chloride aqueous solution, as a simple model of seawater. A carbon dioxide molecule is also treated as a hydrogen carbonate ion. The structure, coordination number, diffusion coefficient, shear viscosity, specific heat, and thermal conductivity of the solutions have been discussed. The anomalous behaviors of these properties, especially the negative pressure dependence of thermal conductivity, have been observed in the higher-pressure region. PMID:26729101

  7. Solar energy utilization in a greenhouse/animal shelter combination

    SciTech Connect

    Spillman, C.K.; Greig, J.K.; Johnson, G.A.; Hartford, J.R.; Koch, B.A.; Hines, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Two greenhouses are being used at Kansas State Univesity to evaluate use of exhaust air from an animal shelter and its effect on greenhouse production. The control greenhouse is attached to the headquarters building and operated conventionally. The experimental house is attached to a swine finishing building and has air handling equipment to introduce hoghouse air to the greenhouse at 680 m/sup 3//h (400 cfm) or 1200 m/sup 3//h (700 cfm) and has a rock storage system with about 1 m/sup 3/ of rock for each 2 m/sup 2/ of greenhouse floor space. Cucumber, tomato, and broccoli plants in the experimental greenhouse have darker green foliage than plants in the control house regardless of nitrogen levels. The fall cucumber study indicated a 31 percent increase in number of marketable fruits from the experimental house. Marketable fruits from the experimental house weighed 40 percent more than those from the control house.

  8. Innovative empirical approaches for inferring climate-warming impacts on plants in remote areas.

    PubMed

    De Frenne, Pieter

    2015-02-01

    The prediction of the effects of climate warming on plant communities across the globe has become a major focus of ecology, evolution and biodiversity conservation. However, many of the frequently used empirical approaches for inferring how warming affects vegetation have been criticized for decades. In addition, methods that require no electricity may be preferred because of constraints of active warming, e.g. in remote areas. Efforts to overcome the limitations of earlier methods are currently under development, but these approaches have yet to be systematically evaluated side by side. Here, an overview of the benefits and limitations of a selection of innovative empirical techniques to study temperature effects on plants is presented, with a focus on practicality in relatively remote areas without an electric power supply. I focus on methods for: ecosystem aboveground and belowground warming; a fuller exploitation of spatial temperature variation; and long-term monitoring of plant ecological and microevolutionary changes in response to warming. An evaluation of the described methodological set-ups in a synthetic framework along six axes (associated with the consistency of temperature differences, disturbance, costs, confounding factors, spatial scale and versatility) highlights their potential usefulness and power. Hence, further developments of new approaches to empirically assess warming effects on plants can critically stimulate progress in climate-change biology.

  9. Browns Ferry waste heat greenhouse environmental control system design

    SciTech Connect

    Olszewski, M.; Stovall, T.K.; Hicks, N.G.; Pile, R.S.; Burns, E.R.; Waddell, E.L. Jr.

    1980-03-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee Valley Authority and the Environmental Research Laboratory at the University of Arizona cooperated on the design of an experimental greenhouse located at TVA's Browns Ferry Nuclear Generating Station. Two greenhouse zones are heated by waste heat from the plant's condenser effluent. For comparison, a third greenhouse zone is heated conventionally (fossil-fueled burners) as a control. Design specifics for each of the three zones and a qualitative operating evaluation are presented.

  10. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  11. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  12. Human pathogens on plants: designing a multidisciplinary strategy for research.

    PubMed

    Fletcher, Jacqueline; Leach, Jan E; Eversole, Kellye; Tauxe, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Recent efforts to address concerns about microbial contamination of food plants and resulting foodborne illness have prompted new collaboration and interactions between the scientific communities of plant pathology and food safety. This article provides perspectives from scientists of both disciplines and presents selected research results and concepts that highlight existing and possible future synergisms for audiences of both disciplines. Plant pathology is a complex discipline that encompasses studies of the dissemination, colonization, and infection of plants by microbes such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and oomycetes. Plant pathologists study plant diseases as well as host plant defense responses and disease management strategies with the goal of minimizing disease occurrences and impacts. Repeated outbreaks of human illness attributed to the contamination of fresh produce, nuts and seeds, and other plant-derived foods by human enteric pathogens such as Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. have led some plant pathologists to broaden the application of their science in the past two decades, to address problems of human pathogens on plants (HPOPs). Food microbiology, which began with the study of microbes that spoil foods and those that are critical to produce food, now also focuses study on how foods become contaminated with pathogens and how this can be controlled or prevented. Thus, at the same time, public health researchers and food microbiologists have become more concerned about plant-microbe interactions before and after harvest. New collaborations are forming between members of the plant pathology and food safety communities, leading to enhanced research capacity and greater understanding of the issues for which research is needed. The two communities use somewhat different vocabularies and conceptual models. For example, traditional plant pathology concepts such as the disease triangle and the disease cycle can help to define

  13. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Bolin, B; Kheshgi, H S

    2001-04-24

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO(2) emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO(2) at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO(2) emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO(2) concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them.

  14. Mitigating greenhouse gas emissions: Voluntary reporting

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-01

    The Voluntary Reporting Program, developed pursuant to Section 1605(b) of the Energy Policy Act of 1992, permits corporations, government agencies, households, and voluntary organizations to report on their emissions of greenhouse gases, and on actions taken that have reduced or avoided emissions or sequestered carbon, to the Energy Information Administration (EIA). This, the second annual report of the Voluntary Reporting Program, describes information provided by the participating organizations on their aggregate emissions and emissions reductions, as well as their emissions reduction or avoidance projects, through 1995. This information has been compiled into a database that includes reports from 142 organizations and descriptions of 967 projects that either reduced greenhouse gas emissions or sequestered carbon. Fifty-one reporters also provided estimates of emissions, and emissions reductions achieved, for their entire organizations. The projects described actions taken to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide from energy production and use; to reduce methane and nitrous oxide emissions from energy use, waste management, and agricultural processes; to reduce emissions of halocarbons, such as CFCs and their replacements; and to increase carbon sequestration.

  15. On strategies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions

    PubMed Central

    Bolin, Bert; Kheshgi, Haroon S.

    2001-01-01

    Equity is of fundamental concern in the quest for international cooperation to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations by the reduction of emissions. By modeling the carbon cycle, we estimate the global CO2 emissions that would be required to stabilize the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at levels ranging from 450 to 1,000 ppm. These are compared, on both an absolute and a per-capita basis, to scenarios for emissions from the developed and developing worlds generated by socio-economic models under the assumption that actions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions are not taken. Need and equity have provided strong arguments for developing countries to request that the developed world takes the lead in controlling its emissions, while permitting the developing countries in the meantime to use primarily fossil fuels for their development. Even with major and early control of CO2 emissions by the developed world, limiting concentration to 450 ppm implies that the developing world also would need to control its emissions within decades, given that we expect developing world emissions would otherwise double over this time. Scenarios leading to CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm exhibit a reduction of the developed world's per-capita emission by about 50% over the next 50 years. Even for the higher stabilization levels considered, the developing world would not be able to use fossil fuels for their development in the manner that the developed world has used them. PMID:11296250

  16. Greenhouse gas exchange over grazed systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felber, R.; Ammann, C.; Neftel, A.

    2012-04-01

    Grasslands act as sinks and sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) and are, in conjunction with livestock production systems, responsible for a large share of GHG emissions. Whereas ecosystem scale flux measurements (eddy covariance) are commonly used to investigate CO2 exchange (and is becoming state-of-the-art for other GHGs, too), GHG emissions from agricultural animals are usually investigated on the scale of individual animals. Therefore eddy covariance technique has to be tested for combined systems (i.e. grazed systems). Our project investigates the ability of field scale flux measurements to reliably quantify the contribution of grazing dairy cows to the net exchange of CO2 and CH4. To quantify the contribution of the animals to the net flux the position, movement, and grazing/rumination activity of each cow are recorded. In combination with a detailed footprint analysis of the eddy covariance fluxes, the animal related CO2 and CH4 emissions are derived and compared to standard emission values derived from respiration chambers. The aim of the project is to test the assumption whether field scale CO2 flux measurements adequately include the respiration of grazing cows and to identify potential errors in ecosystem Greenhouse gas budgets.

  17. Evolving Views on a Dynamic Greenhouse Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollis, Chris; Huber, Matthew

    2009-06-01

    Climatic and Biotic Events of the Paleogene (CBEP 2009) Conference; Wellington, New Zealand, 12-15 January 2009; The Paleogene (65-24 million years ago) was a dynamic period in Earth's history in which major mammal groups became established and diversified, rapid and repeated extreme global warming events occurred, and climate began its stuttering progression from a greenhouse to an icehouse climate state. With atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations in the range projected to occur over the next several centuries (>1000 parts per million), the Paleogene is also a window into our future (see J. C. Zachos et al., Nature, 451, 279-283, 2008). Long-standing interest in understanding the causes and consequences of global change in the Paleogene and the current timeliness of greenhouse climate research explain why conferences are periodically devoted to the climatic and biotic events of the Paleogene. The 2009 conference, held in New Zealand, attracted 130 participants from 20 countries. Presentations demonstrated substantial progress in new climate proxy development, new multiproxy approaches, and closer integration of paleoclimate records with climate models, consolidating around three main issues.

  18. Increasing Pacific decadal variability under greenhouse forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, G.; Di Lorenzo, E.

    2016-12-01

    Decadal changes in Pacific climate impact long-term transitions in marine ecosystems and influence the statistics of weather including ocean and atmosphere extremes such as strong droughts , hurricanes and marine heatwaves. Using observational analyses of basin-scale sea surface temperatures (SST) we show that the variance of the El Niño-like decadal variability is increasing over the period 1940-2016 by 30%, along with an intensification of the coupling (e.g. lag correlation) between major climate modes of the Pacific. The significance of these trends, and their link to greenhouse forcing, is confirmed by examining an ensemble of 30 simulations of the Community Earth System Model (CESM) over the period 1920-2100 forced with the RCP8.5 radiative forcing scenario. In the CESM-LE, we find that a significant trend in the strength the winds-evaporation- SST (WES) thermodynamics feedback leads to an intensification of the low-frequency variance of the North Pacific Meridional Mode (NPMM), which in turn energizes the El Niño-like Pacific decadal variability through its El Niño precursor dynamics. The stronger SST anomalies associated with the NPMM also reinforce the coupling with El Niño and the climate coupling between tropics and extra-tropics, suggesting that an important fraction of the observed and modeled trends in ENSO variance may be caused by stronger thermodynamics coupling and meridional modes under greenhouse forcing.

  19. HYDROGEN GREENHOUSE PLANETS BEYOND THE HABITABLE ZONE

    SciTech Connect

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond; Gaidos, Eric E-mail: gaidos@hawaii.edu

    2011-06-10

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H{sub 2}-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the 'classical' habitable zone defined for CO{sub 2} greenhouse atmospheres. Using a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, we find that 40 bars of pure H{sub 2} on a three Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280 K out to 1.5 AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H{sub 2}, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H{sub 2}-He are possible and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protecting magnetic fields. We predict that the microlensing planet OGLE-05-390Lb could have retained an H{sub 2}-He atmosphere and be habitable at {approx}2.6 AU from its host M star.

  20. Greenhouse gas balance for composting operations.

    PubMed

    Brown, Sally; Kruger, Chad; Subler, Scott

    2008-01-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) impact of composting a range of potential feedstocks was evaluated through a review of the existing literature with a focus on methane (CH(4)) avoidance by composting and GHG emissions during composting. The primary carbon credits associated with composting are through CH(4) avoidance when feedstocks are composted instead of landfilled (municipal solid waste and biosolids) or lagooned (animal manures). Methane generation potential is given based on total volatile solids, expected volatile solids destruction, and CH(4) generation from lab and field incubations. For example, a facility that composts an equal mixture of manure, newsprint, and food waste could conserve the equivalent of 3.1 Mg CO(2) per 1 dry Mg of feedstocks composted if feedstocks were diverted from anaerobic storage lagoons and landfills with no gas collection mechanisms. The composting process is a source of GHG emissions from the use of electricity and fossil fuels and through GHG emissions during composting. Greenhouse gas emissions during composting are highest for high-nitrogen materials with high moisture contents. These debits are minimal in comparison to avoidance credits and can be further minimized through the use of higher carbon:nitrogen feedstock mixtures and lower-moisture-content mixtures. Compost end use has the potential to generate carbon credits through avoidance and sequestration of carbon; however, these are highly project specific and need to be quantified on an individual project basis.

  1. Promoting international deployment of greenhouse gas technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.A.; Kelley, J.S.; Voss, M.K.

    1995-12-31

    Increasing emission of greenhouse gases from human activities are predicted to lead to significant global warming and possible undesirable Environmental effects by the middle of the next century. These gases trap solar energy that is reradiated from the earth`s surface, raising its temperature. The gases-carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs)-are emitted as the result of a wide range of anthropogenic activities, including the production and conversion of energy from fossil fuels, the operation of air conditioning and refrigeration equipment, and coal mining, domestic sewage treatment, and the manufacture of cement and nylon. To slow global warming, technologies are being developed, promoted, and deployed to reduce these emissions. To make a practical response to global environmental issues such as greenhouse gas emissions, it is recognized that international collaboration is needed. Because of the accelerating pace of technology innovation and the increasingly interconnected world economy, national efforts to adapt to global environmental challenges are no longer sufficient. Through international collaboration, scarce resources can be shared and technological solutions can be adapted and replicated. ORNL is responsible for managing and supporting the U.S, involvement in many of the implementing agreements. In addition to collaborating with GREENTIE, ORNL is involved with the following other IEA implementing agreements, either as executive committee members, national team leaders, or operating agents: the Center for the Analysis and Dissemination of Demonstrated Energy Technologies, Heat Pump Program, Buildings and Community Systems, Alternative Motor Fuels, and Fusion Energy Stellerator Concept.

  2. Environment resistant windows for space greenhouses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gan, B. K.; Kondyurin, A.; Bilek, M.; Latella, B. A.

    One of the ways of providing a self-sustainable environment in space is to provide food and life support systems through bio-regenerative power i e a greenhouse It is an essential structure because it provides oxygen and food in a controlled environment The windows and frames of a greenhouse are generally made from glass or polymer panels which allow sunlight to enter Polymers are useful because they are lightweight transparent corrosion resistant and inexpensive However windows which are made from polymeric materials or polymer-based composites suffer from accelerated erosion due to the presence of atomic oxygen in space environment A metal oxide deposited on the surface of the polymer will aid in the resistance of these polymers to chemical attack as well as improving surface hardness and wear resistance characteristics In this study we modified the surfaces of polycarbonate PC by deposition and implantation of thin and transparent aluminium oxide Al 2 O 3 coatings The Al 2 O 3 plasma was produced using a cathodic arc deposition system with a combination of plasma immersion ion implantation PIII The coatings were then tested for resistance to atomic oxygen environment These were carried out by monitoring the mass loss of the deposited samples exposed to an rf oxygen plasma The morphology and optical properties of the coatings before and after exposure to oxygen plasma were then examined using electron microscopy profilometry and ellipsometry Mechanical properties and adhesion characteristics of the coatings

  3. Sensitivity of greenhouse summer dryness to changes in plant rooting characteristics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A possible consequence of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is "summer dryness," a decrease of summer plant-available soil water in middle latitudes, caused by increased availability of energy to drive evapotranspiration. Results from a numerical climate model indicate that summer dryness and related changes of land-surface water balances are highly sensitive to possible concomitant changes of plant-available water-holding capacity of soil, which depends on plant rooting depth and density. The model suggests that a 14% decrease of the soil volume whose water is accessible to plant roots would generate the same summer dryness, by one measure, as an equilibrium doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Conversely, a 14% increase of that soil volume would be sufficient to offset the summer dryness associated with carbon-dioxide doubling. Global and regional changes in rooting depth and density may result from (1) plant and plant-community responses to greenhouse warming, to carbon-dioxide fertilization, and to associated changes in the water balance and (2) anthropogenic deforestation and desertification. Given their apparently critical role, heretofore ignored, in global hydroclimatic change, such changes of rooting characteristics should be carefully evaluated using ecosystem observations, theory, and models.

  4. Sensitivity of greenhouse summer dryness to changes in plant rooting characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milly, P. C. D.

    A possible consequence of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is “summer dryness,” a decrease of summer plant-available soil water in middle latitudes, caused by increased availability of energy to drive evapotranspiration. Results from a numerical climate model indicate that summer dryness and related changes of land-surface water balances are highly sensitive to possible concomitant changes of plant-available water-holding capacity of soil, which depends on plant rooting depth and density. The model suggests that a 14% decrease of the soil volume whose water is accessible to plant roots would generate the same summer dryness, by one measure, as an equilibrium doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Conversely, a 14% increase of that soil volume would be sufficient to offset the summer dryness associated with carbon-dioxide doubling. Global and regional changes in rooting depth and density may result from (1) plant and plant-community responses to greenhouse warming, to carbon-dioxide fertilization, and to associated changes in the water balance and (2) anthropogenic deforestation and desertification. Given their apparently critical role, heretofore ignored, in global hydroclimatic change, such changes of rooting characteristics should be carefully evaluated using ecosystem observations, theory, and models.

  5. A Greenhouse Assay on the Effect of Applied Urea Amount on the Rhizospheric Soil Bacterial Communities.

    PubMed

    Shang, Shuanghua; Yi, Yanli

    2015-12-01

    The rhizospheric bacteria play key role in plant nutrition and growth promotion. The effects of increased nitrogen inputs on plant rhizospheric soils also have impacted on whole soil microbial communities. In this study, we analyzed the effects of applied nitrogen (urea) on rhizospheric bacterial composition and diversity in a greenhouse assay using the high-throughput sequencing technique. To explore the environmental factors driving the abundance, diversity and composition of soil bacterial communities, the relationship between soil variables and the bacterial communities were also analyzed using the mantel test as well as the redundancy analysis. The results revealed significant bacterial diversity changes at different amounts of applied urea, especially between the control treatment and the N fertilized treatments. Mantel tests showed that the bacterial communities were significantly correlated with the soil nitrate nitrogen, available nitrogen, soil pH, ammonium nitrogen and total organic carbon. The present study deepened the understanding about the rhizospheric soil microbial communities under different amounts of applied urea in greenhouse conditions, and our work revealed the environmental factors affecting the abundance, diversity and composition of rhizospheric bacterial communities.

  6. Biological control and plant growth promoting capacity of rhizobacteria on pepper under greenhouse and field conditions.

    PubMed

    Hahm, Mi-Seon; Sumayo, Marilyn; Hwang, Ye-Ji; Jeon, Seon-Ae; Park, Sung-Jin; Lee, Jai Youl; Ahn, Joon-Hyung; Kim, Byung-Soo; Ryu, Choong-Min; Ghim, Sa-Youl

    2012-06-01

    Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria Ochrobactrum lupini KUDC1013 and Novosphingobium pentaromativorans KUDC1065 isolated from Dokdo Island, S. Korea are capable of eliciting induced systemic resistance (ISR) in pepper against bacterial spot disease. The present study aimed to determine whether plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) strains including strain KUDC1013, strain KUDC1065, and Paenibacillus polymyxa E681 either singly or in combinations were evaluated to have the capacity for potential biological control and plant growth promotion effect in the field trials. Under greenhouse conditions, the induced systemic resistance (ISR) effect of treatment with strains KUDC1013 and KUDC1065 differed according to pepper growth stages. Drenching of 3-week-old pepper seedlings with the KUDC-1013 strain significantly reduced the disease symptoms. In contrast, treatment with the KUDC1065 strain significantly protected 5-week-old pepper seedlings. Under field conditions, peppers treated with PGPR mixtures containing E681 and KUDC1013, either in a two-way combination, were showed greater effect on plant growth than those treated with an individual treatment. Collectively, the application of mixtures of PGPR strains on pepper might be considered as a potential biological control under greenhouse and field conditions.

  7. Honeybee interference as a novel aid to reduce pollen exposure and nasal symptoms among greenhouse workers allergic to sweet bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) pollen.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Nicolette W; van der Steen, Josef J M; Smeekens, Christ C; Blacquière, Tjeerd; Mulder, Paul G H; van Wijk, Roy Gerth; de Groot, Hans

    2006-01-01

    In 1999, an extensive study among bell pepper growers showed a prevalence of 53.8% work-related symptoms and 35.4% sensitisation to bell pepper pollen. Experiments with bees to remove pollen from bell pepper flowers have been done for a few years. It was the aim of this study to investigate whether bees can reduce the pollen exposure in bell pepper greenhouses and whether this reduction results in a decrease in allergic complaints in the greenhouse workers. Eighteen greenhouses were selected for the study. In each greenhouse, pollen exposure was estimated. In 6 and 3 of the greenhouses, high, respectively low, numbers of honeybees were placed throughout the pollen season of the sweet bell pepper plant. Nine greenhouses without honeybees were used as control. At baseline, as well as after 4 and 8 months, nasal symptoms assessed with a visual analogue score and lung function parameters were used as outcome measure. Forty-four of the 133 employees invited reported work-related symptoms. High numbers of bees reduced the pollen amount in a dose-dependent way to 18% of the baseline exposure. A significant trend relationship between the visual analogue scale in nasal symptoms and the number of colonies of bees was seen. The interference of bees in bell pepper greenhouses significantly reduces the pollen amount. This reduction is associated with less work-related rhinitis symptoms in allergic greenhouse workers. This intervention study supports the hypothesis that allergic work-related complaints of greenhouse workers, sensitised to bell pepper pollen, are caused by occupational exposure to this pollen in the greenhouse.

  8. Final Report: 17th international Symposium on Plant Lipids

    SciTech Connect

    Christoph Benning

    2007-03-07

    This meeting covered several emerging areas in the plant lipid field such as the biosynthesis of cuticle components, interorganelle lipid trafficking, the regulation of lipid homeostasis, and the utilization of algal models. Stimulating new insights were provided not only based on research reports based on plant models, but also due to several excellent talks by experts from the yeast field.

  9. Population of North American elk: effects on plant diversity

    Treesearch

    Kelley M. Stewart; R. Terry Bowyer; John G. Kier; Brian L. Dick; Roger W. Ruess

    2009-01-01

    We tested for indirect effects of population density of large herbivores on plant species richness and diversity in a montane ecosystem, where increased net aboveground primary productivity (NAPP) in response to low levels of herbivory has been reported. We documented a positive, linear relationship between plant-species diversity and richness with NAPP. Structural...

  10. Focus on food safety: Human pathogens on plants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This article introduces the first Focus Issue of Phytopathology, a dedicated issue of the journal that highlights a topic of significant interest to our readership. This first Focus Issue addresses the topic of food safety and the biology of human pathogens on plants, a relatively new problem in pla...

  11. Forest Conversion: Impact on Total Greenhouse Gas Balance and Mitigation Strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papen, H.; Brueggemann, N.; Gasche, R.; Butterbach-Bahl, K.

    2006-12-01

    At present, large efforts are undertaken in wide parts of Germany and Europe to create the scientific and socio-economic data basis that can be used by political decision makers and foresters for developing and implementing a future-oriented forestry allowing a sustainable use of forests under changing environmental conditions (e.g. climate change and increasing N-deposition). Different forest management strategies are available to initiate forest conversion, in particular "clear-cutting" and "selective cutting". Although these forest conversion strategies are widely used, little information is available about their individual effects on the biosphere-atmosphere greenhouse gas exchange and on the total greenhouse gas balance (CO2 + N2O + CH4) of the system. The results obtained from continuous long-term measurements (1999-2005) of N2O and CH4 fluxes from the soil of different experimental sites (untreated spruce control site, selective-cutting site, clear-cut site) at the Höglwald Forest, Bavaria, Germany show that conversion of N-affected forest plantations by clear-cutting leads to an enormous release of N2O from the soil into the atmosphere, not only during the first year after treatment, but for several consecutive years, and simultaneously to a marked reduction in the uptake capacity of the soil for CH4. Although selective cutting also enhances the source strength for N2O and reduces the CH4 sink strength, respectively, the effects are by far less pronounced as compared to clear-cutting. Establishing the total greenhouse gas balance (CH4, N2O, CO2) for a forest rotation time of 80 years by considering the huge differences in global warming potentials of these greenhouse gases revealed that the enhanced N2O emissions and reduced CH4 deposition rates due to different forest conversion practices can compensate CO2 sequestration benefits to a significant extent.

  12. Sustainability assessment of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanqin; Huang, Biao; Mao, Mingcui; Yao, Lipeng; Niedermann, Silvana; Hu, Wenyou; Chen, Yong

    2016-09-01

    To provide growing population with sufficient food, greenhouse vegetable production has expanded rapidly in recent years in China and sustainability of its farming practices is a major concern. Therefore, this study assessed the sustainability of greenhouse vegetable farming practices from environmental, economic, and socio-institutional perspectives in China based on selected indicators. The empirical data were collected through a survey of 91 farm households from six typical greenhouse vegetable production bases and analysis of environmental material samples. The results showed that heavy fertilization in greenhouse vegetable bases of China resulted in an accumulation of N, P, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil, nutrient eutrophication in irrigation water, and high Cd in some leaf vegetables cultivated in acidic soil. Economic factors including decreased crop yield in conventional farming bases, limited and site-dependent farmers' income, and lack of complete implementation of subsidy policies contributed a lot to adoption of heavy fertilization by farmers. Also, socio-institutional factors such as lack of unified management of agricultural supplies in the bases operated in cooperative and small family business models and low agricultural extension service efficiency intensified the unreasonable fertilization. The selection of cultivated vegetables was mainly based on farmers' own experience rather than site-dependent soil conditions. Thus, for sustainable development of greenhouse vegetable production systems in China, there are two key aspects. First, it is imperative to reduce environmental pollution and subsequent health risks through integrated nutrient management and the planting strategy of selected low metal accumulation vegetable species especially in acidic soil. Second, a conversion of cooperative and small family business models of greenhouse vegetable bases to enterprises should be extensively advocated in future for the unified agricultural supplies

  13. Abiotic stress QTL in lettuce crop–wild hybrids: comparing greenhouse and field experiments

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Yorike; Hooftman, Danny A P; Uwimana, Brigitte; Schranz, M Eric; van de Wiel, Clemens C M; Smulders, Marinus J M; Visser, Richard G F; Michelmore, Richard W; van Tienderen, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    The development of stress-tolerant crops is an increasingly important goal of current crop breeding. A higher abiotic stress tolerance could increase the probability of introgression of genes from crops to wild relatives. This is particularly relevant to the discussion on the risks of new GM crops that may be engineered to increase abiotic stress resistance. We investigated abiotic stress QTL in greenhouse and field experiments in which we subjected recombinant inbred lines from a cross between cultivated Lactuca sativa cv. Salinas and its wild relative L. serriola to drought, low nutrients, salt stress, and aboveground competition. Aboveground biomass at the end of the rosette stage was used as a proxy for the performance of plants under a particular stress. We detected a mosaic of abiotic stress QTL over the entire genome with little overlap between QTL from different stresses. The two QTL clusters that were identified reflected general growth rather than specific stress responses and colocated with clusters found in earlier studies for leaf shape and flowering time. Genetic correlations across treatments were often higher among different stress treatments within the same experiment (greenhouse or field), than among the same type of stress applied in different experiments. Moreover, the effects of the field stress treatments were more correlated with those of the greenhouse competition treatments than to those of the other greenhouse stress experiments, suggesting that competition rather than abiotic stress is a major factor in the field. In conclusion, the introgression risk of stress tolerance (trans-)genes under field conditions cannot easily be predicted based on genomic background selection patterns from controlled QTL experiments in greenhouses, especially field data will be needed to assess potential (negative) ecological effects of introgression of these transgenes into wild relatives. PMID:25360276

  14. Managing honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) for greenhouse tomato pollination.

    PubMed

    Sabara, Holly A; Winston, Mark L

    2003-06-01

    Although commercially reared colonies of bumble bees (Bombus sp.) are the primary pollinator world-wide for greenhouse tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) previous research indicates that honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) might be a feasible alternative or supplement to bumble bee pollination. However, management methods for honey bee greenhouse tomato pollination scarcely have been explored. We 1) tested the effect of initial amounts of brood on colony population size and flight activity in screened greenhouses during the winter, and 2) compared foraging from colonies with brood used within screened and unscreened greenhouses during the summer. Brood rearing was maintained at low levels in both brood and no-brood colonies after 21 d during the winter, and emerging honey bees from both treatments had significantly lower weights than bees from outdoor colonies. Honey bee flight activity throughout the day and over the 21 d in the greenhouse was not influenced by initial brood level. In our summer experiment, brood production in screened greenhouses neared zero after 21 d but higher levels of brood were reared in unscreened greenhouses with access to outside forage. Flower visitation measured throughout the day and over the 21 d the colonies were in the greenhouse was not influenced by screening treatment. An economic analysis indicated that managing honey bees for greenhouse tomato pollination would be financially viable for both beekeepers and growers. We conclude that honey bees can be successfully managed for greenhouse tomato pollination in both screened and unscreened greenhouses if the foraging force is maintained by replacing colonies every 3 wk.

  15. Year-round Application of Water Curtain for Environmental Control in Greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibuki, R.; Sugita, E.

    2011-12-01

    covering way to realize higher water covering ratio. With this way selective reduction effect of water curtain, which reduce infrared more than visible light is quantitatively measured. Also small greenhouse to growth plants under it is settled to measure thermal net, heat absorption, water and air temperature variation and yields growth. From measurements way of making water membrane influenced water temperature elevation.

  16. Greenhouse gas budgets of managed European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ammann, C.; Horváth, L.; Jones, S. K.

    2012-04-01

    Greenhouse gas exchange of grasslands are directly and indirectly related to the respective carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) budget. Within the framework of the NitroEurope project we investigated the greenhouse gas, carbon, and nitrogen budgets of four European grassland systems over several years: Easter Bush (UK), Oensingen intensive and extensive (CH), and Bugac (HU). They span contrasting climatic conditions, management types (grazing, cutting) and intensity. While Easter Bush (pasture) and Oensingen int. (meadow) were intensively managed and received a considerable amount of fertiliser, the unfertilised sites Bugac (pasture) and Oensingen ext. (meadow) depended on atmospheric N input (wet and dry deposition) and biological N fixation. The experimental results of the four sites were also compared to published GHG fluxes of other European grasslands. While the ecosystem CO2 exchange was measured on the field scale with the eddy covariance method, the soil fluxes of the other greenhouse gases CH4 and N2O have been detected generally by means of static chambers (only occasional application of eddy covariance). The emission of CH4 by grazing ruminant resulting from enteric fermentation was estimated by animal type specific emission factors. For characterizing the total GHG effect of the grassland sites, the contributions of the different GHGs were normalised to CO2-equivalents. Except for Oensingen ext., all sites showed positive C budgets (sequestration). The observed positive correlation between C and N sequestration (with a ratio between 10 and 20) agrees with studies reported in the literature. The magnitude of N2O emission depended mainly on management intensity (fertiliser input) and on the soil moisture conditions. Whereas for the Oensingen and the Bugac sites, the total GHG budget was dominated by the carbon budget, for Easter Bush the combined effect of N2O and CH4 emission (including animal enteric fermentation) was in the same order of magnitude as the

  17. Direct Demonstration of the Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, D. A.; Malashanka, S.; Call, K.; Bernays, N.

    2012-12-01

    Consider these three "theories:" climate change, evolution, and gravity. Why are two of them hotly debated by non-scientists, but not gravity? In part, the answer is that climate change and evolution are more complex processes and not readily observable over short time scales to most people. In contrast, the "theory of gravity" is tested every day by billions of people world-wide and is therefore not challenged. While there are numerous "demonstrations" of the greenhouse effect available online, unfortunately, many of them are based on poor understanding of the physical principles involved. For this reason, we sought to develop simple and direct experiments that would demonstrate aspects of the greenhouse effect that would be suitable for museums, K-12, and/or college classrooms. We will describe two experiments. In the first, we use a simple plexiglass tube, approximately 12 cm long, with IR transparent windows. The tube is first filled with dry nitrogen and exposed to an IR heat lamp. Following this, the tube is filled with pure, dry CO2. Both tubes warm up, but the tube filled with CO2 ends up about 0.7 degrees C warmer. It is useful to compare this 12 cm column of CO2 to the column in the earth's atmosphere, which is equivalent to approximately 2.7 meters of pure CO2. This demonstration would be suitable for museum exhibits to demonstrate the physical basis of CO2 heating in the atmosphere. In the second experiment, we use FTIR spectroscopy to quantify the CO2 content of ambient air and indoor/classroom air. For this experiment, we use a commercial standard of 350 ppm CO2 to calibrate the absorption features. Once the CO2 content of ambient air is found, it is useful for students to compare their observed value to background data (e.g. NOAA site in Hawaii) and/or the "Keeling Curve". This leads into a discussion on causes for local variations and the long-term trends. This experiment is currently used in our general chemistry class but could be used in many

  18. The Germination of Several Tree Species in Plastic Greenhouses

    Treesearch

    Howard M. Phipps

    1969-01-01

    The technique of growing tree seedlings in plastic greenhouses is being evaluated for red pine, jack pine, white spruce, and yellow birch at the Chittenden Nursery in northern Lower Michigan. Both a long growing season and a normal-length growing season in plastic greenhouses were compared with standard outdoor nursery beds (control). First-year results showed that...

  19. USDA Northeast climate hub greenhouse gas mitigation workshop technical report

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In April 2015, USDA Secretary Vilsack announced the Greenhouse Gas Building Blocks for Climate Smart Agriculture and Forestry in an effort to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, increase carbon sequestration, and expand renewable energy production in the agricultural and forestry sectors. This initiati...

  20. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  1. Net global warming potential and greenhouse gas intensity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Various methods exist to calculate global warming potential (GWP) and greenhouse gas intensity (GHG) as measures of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from agroecosystems. Little is, however, known about net GWP and GHGI that account for all sources and sinks of GHG emissions. Sources of GHG include...

  2. Ideas of Elementary Students about Reducing the "Greenhouse Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a questionnaire given to 563 elementary students to study their ideas of actions that would reduce the greenhouse effect. Most of the children (87%) appreciated that planting trees would help reduce global warming. During interviews it was discovered that children were confused between the greenhouse effect and ozone layer…

  3. Ideas of Elementary Students about Reducing the "Greenhouse Effect."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francis, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Presents the results of a questionnaire given to 563 elementary students to study their ideas of actions that would reduce the greenhouse effect. Most of the children (87%) appreciated that planting trees would help reduce global warming. During interviews it was discovered that children were confused between the greenhouse effect and ozone layer…

  4. Greenhouse Production: A Series of Learning Activity Packages.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, J. C.; And Others

    Designed for use when the student or the class is expected to grow a crop using the high school greenhouse, these learning activity packages are sequenced in typical greenhouse cropping fashion: (1) poinsettias in the fall, (2) Easter lilies (bulb crop) in the winter, (3) bedding plants (seed crop) in the spring, and (4) a nursery crop (from…

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions from soil under changing environmental conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This manuscript is the Guest Editors’ Introduction to a special issue on greenhouse gas emissions from agriculture. The papers were assembled following presentation at EuroSoil 2012. Exchange of greenhouse gases between soils and the atmosphere is a natural consequence of several ecosystem process...

  6. An integrated study of nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emissions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Nutrient leaching and greenhouse gas emission are two of the primary environmental impacts of crop production. These processes have been studied at great length separately, but few integrated studies of leaching and greenhouse gas emission have been conducted. We measured nutrient leaching and green...

  7. Nursery and Greenhouse Worker. Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Diana

    This secondary-level, competency-based curriculum contains 11 modules for Nursery and Greenhouse Worker. A companion teacher's guide is available separately--see note. Each module contains a number of West Virginia-validated Nursery and Greenhouse Worker tasks/competencies with a performance guide listing the steps needed to perform each task,…

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from traditional and biofuels cropping systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Cropping systems can have a tremendous effect on the greenhouse gas emissions from soils. The objectives of this study were to compare greenhouse gas emissions from traditional (continuous corn or corn/soybean rotation) and biomass (miscanthus, sorghum, switchgrass) cropping systems. Biomass croppin...

  9. Microtrap assembly for greenhouse gas and air pollution monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Mitra, Somenath; Saridara, Chutarat

    2015-08-25

    A microtrap assembly includes a carbon nanotube sorbent. The microtrap assembly may be employed as a preconcentrator operable to deliver a sample to an analytical device to measure the concentrations of greenhouse gases. A system includes a microtrap having a carbon nanotube sorbent for measuring the concentrations of greenhouse gases in a sample.

  10. Greenhouse gas emissions related to ethanol produced from corn

    SciTech Connect

    Marland, G.

    1994-04-01

    This report confers the details of a panel meeting discussion on greenhouse gases. The topic of this discussion was ethanol. Members discussed all aspects of growing corn and producing ethanol. Then the question was raised as to whether or not this is a suitable substitute to fossil fuel usage in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

  11. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  12. Greenhouses for Schools. Educational Facility Series. A Guide to Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Jersey State Dept. of Education, Trenton. Bureau of Facility Planning.

    This bulletin has been designed to provide assistance to boards of education, school administrators, teachers, and architects in planning various types of greenhouses and related facilities. Topics discussed include the numerous uses of greenhouses, ideas on design and construction, the growing demand for primary and supporting facilities,…

  13. Valuation of carbon capture and sequestration under Greenhouse gas regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Lokey, Elizabeth

    2009-05-15

    The value assigned to CCS depends on the type of greenhouse gas regulation chosen and details of how the market is implemented. This article describes some ways in which CCS can be incorporated into greenhouse gas regulations, together with their implications, and how CCS is treated in current regulations for regulated entities. (author)

  14. Energy-efficient LED irradiator for greenhouse cropping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grechkina, T. V.; Korepanov, V. I.; Omarkhan, A. Sh; Turanov, S. B.

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents the results of modeling and calculation of highly directional optimal light intensity curve (LIC). The authors proved the effectiveness of using the calculated LIC for lighting of greenhouse plants. A method for placing fixtures with LIC in a typical greenhouse was recommended

  15. Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator for Grain and Biofuel Farming Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSwiney, Claire P.; Bohm, Sven; Grace, Peter R.; Robertson, G. Philip

    2010-01-01

    Opportunities for farmers to participate in greenhouse gas (GHG) credit markets require that growers, students, extension educators, offset aggregators, and other stakeholders understand the impact of agricultural practices on GHG emissions. The Farming Systems Greenhouse Gas Emissions Calculator, a web-based tool linked to the SOCRATES soil…

  16. 40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. 1036.530 Section 1036.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to...

  17. 40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. 1036.530 Section 1036.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to...

  18. 17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior view, greenhouse, north wall taken from the ground. Stucco-painted white-covered the interior walls in order to seal-off any drafts and to reflect the sunlight entering through the east-facing windows. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  19. A Simple Experiment to Demonstrate the Effects of Greenhouse Gases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keating, C. F.

    2007-01-01

    The role of greenhouse gases in our atmosphere is the subject of considerable discussion and debate. Global warming is well-documented, as is the continually increasing amount of greenhouse gases that human activity puts in the air. Is there a relationship between the two? The simple experiment described in this paper provides a good demonstration…

  20. 9. Detail view, greenhouse, fragment of Doric frieze located in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Detail view, greenhouse, fragment of Doric frieze located in the south wall (Note the decorative mortar work known as galleting in which small stones are imbedded on the surface of the mortar. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. 16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view, greenhouse, south wall taken from the ground. The original floor height is indicated by the joists on the left. The large opening on the right was formerly fitted with an exterior-fed iron stove used to heat the space on particularly cold days. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  2. 14. Interior view, greenhouse, from the door in the west ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view, greenhouse, from the door in the west wall. The timbers extending horizontally across the east wall and pocketed into the stone north and south walls would have originally supported the window sash. - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. 18. Detail view, greenhouse, north wall (Note the type of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Detail view, greenhouse, north wall (Note the type of stone used in the wall construction, the degradation of the interior stucco, and one of the pockets for a former floor joist). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 40 CFR 1036.530 - Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. 1036.530 Section 1036.530 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Procedures § 1036.530 Calculating greenhouse gas emission rates. This section describes how to...

  5. Nursery and Greenhouse Worker. Student Material. Competency Based Education Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Diana

    This secondary-level, competency-based curriculum contains 11 modules for Nursery and Greenhouse Worker. A companion teacher's guide is available separately--see note. Each module contains a number of West Virginia-validated Nursery and Greenhouse Worker tasks/competencies with a performance guide listing the steps needed to perform each task,…

  6. Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Doležal, Jiří; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30%. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions.

  7. Communities of different plant diversity respond similarly to drought stress: experimental evidence from field non-weeded and greenhouse conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanta, Vojtěch; Doležal, Jiří; Zemková, Lenka; Lepš, Jan

    2012-06-01

    Accelerating rate of species loss has prompted researchers to study the role of species diversity in processes that control ecosystem functioning. Although negative impact of species loss has been documented, the evidence concerning its impact on ecosystem stability is still limited. Here, we studied the effects of declining species and functional diversity on plant community responses to drought in the field (open to weed colonization) and greenhouse conditions. Both species and functional diversity positively affected the average yields of field communities. However, this pattern was similar in both drought-stressed and control plots. No effect of diversity on community resistance, biomass recovery after drought and resilience was found because drought reduced biomass production similarly at each level of diversity by approximately 30 %. The use of dissimilarity (characterized by Euclidean distance) revealed higher variation under changing environments (drought-stressed vs. control) in more diverse communities compared to less species-rich assemblages. In the greenhouse experiment, the effect of species diversity affected community resistance, indicating that more diverse communities suffered more from drought than species-poor ones. We conclude that our study did not support the insurance hypothesis (stability properties of a community should increase with species richness) because species diversity had an equivocal effect on ecosystem resistance and resilience in an environment held under non-weeded practice, regardless of the positive relationship between sown species diversity and community biomass production. More species-rich communities were less resistant against drought-stressed conditions than species-poor ones grown in greenhouse conditions.

  8. Greenhouse gas emissions from global cities.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, Christopher; Steinberger, Julia; Gasson, Barrie; Hansen, Yvonne; Hillman, Timothy; Havránek, Miroslav; Pataki, Diane; Phdungsilp, Aumnad; Ramaswami, Anu; Villalba Mendez, Gara

    2009-10-01

    The world's population is now over 50% urban, and cities make an important contribution to national greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Many cities are developing strategies to reduce their emissions. Here we ask how and why emissions differ between cities. Our study often global cities shows how a balance of geophysical factors (climate, access to resources, and gateway status) and technical factors (power generation, urban design, and waste processing) determine the GHGs attributable to cities. Within the overall trends, however, there are differences between cities with more or less public transit while personal income also impacts heating and industrial fuel use. By including upstream emissions from fuels, GHG emissions attributable to cities exceed those from direct end use by upto 25%. Our findings should help foster intercity learning on reducing GHG emissions.

  9. Greenhouse gas emissions in Hong Kong

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leung, D. Y. C.; Lee, Y. T.

    This study provides a quantitative review of the emissions of carbon dioxide (CO 2) and methane (CH 4), the two most significant greenhouse gases (GHGs) in Hong Kong. Study indicated that CO 2 accounts for 90% of the local GHG emissions in Hong Kong. Among the different types of fuels coal is identified as the major source of CO 2, which constitutes about 50% by fuel type. On the other hand, CH 4, which mainly comes from waste decomposition, contributes to 5% of the total GHG emissions. Correlation study revealed that energy consumption and waste quantity were strongly correlated with population and gross domestic products (GDP), implying that not much has been done in Hong Kong to re-mediate GHG emissions. Regression analysis concluded that supply side management (fuel switch) was more effective than demand side management (energy conservation) in mitigating CO 2 emissions in Hong Kong.

  10. Minerals, metal production and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Themelis, N.J.; Wernick, I.

    1997-12-31

    The construction minerals, industrial minerals, and metals used in the U.S. annually amount to about 2.3 billion tons or 72% of all materials produced by industry, agriculture and forestry, excluding the bulk of the fossil fuel production (about 1.9 billion tons) which is used for electricity, heating and transportation. On a global scale, the consumption of minerals and metals has increased by a factor of ten in the 20th century and is an important contributor to the generation of greenhouse gases. As the grades of mined ores diminish, the energy units required to produce minerals and metals, and the corresponding emissions to the atmosphere, will increase substantially. The current emissions of the dominant production technologies and the prospects for reducing emissions, by means of recycling and technological advances, will be discussed.

  11. [Seeping irrigation effect in sunlight greenhouse].

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuoxin; Du, Yaodong; Cai, Chongguang; Wang, Jian

    2002-04-01

    The differences of soil and air environments, crop growth, development and diseases, and water use efficiency of seeping irrigation from furrow irrigation were studied. Results indicated that compared with furrow irrigation, seeping irrigation could increase soil waterstable granular by 81.4%, soil porosity by 29.0% and soil temperature by 1.1-1.7 degrees C respectively, decrease bulk density by 21.2% and relative air humidity by 13.4% respectively, and save irrigation water by 36.7%. In addition, seeping irrigation could also accelerate crop maturity and increase yield, reduce crop diseases and production cost. Therefore, seeping irrigation was an ideal irrigation technique in sunlight greenhouse at present.

  12. Greenhouse effect may not be all bad

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1990-10-01

    Evidence is presented that indicates US temperatures decreased by a fraction of a degree during the past 70 years contrary to the estimates of some researchers concerned with the greenhouse effect. There is general agreement that the carbon dioxide concentrations in the atmosphere will double by the late or mid 21st century. Experiments on cotton growth under increased temperature and carbon dioxide concentrations indicate sizeable gains in yield. This increased yield is exhibited by citrus trees and is projected for other crops. There is a concomitant need for more water and fertilizer. Increased populations of parasitic mites and insects also occur. Climatic changes are seen as being more gradual than previously thought. The possible increases in food production under these changes in climate are one positive element in the emerging scenario.

  13. Performance of an energy conserving greenhouse with solar heated plant-root-soil

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, A.C.; Hammer, P.A.

    1983-06-01

    This project was initiated in October 1980 with the goal of the development of an energy efficient greenhouse with a south front solar energy collector which, when combined with an active air fluid solar heat collector for heating the plant soil, would reduce the need for fossil fuels by about 85 percent. The experimental greenhouse selected is 7.32 m wide by 10.97 long. It has a single-sloped roof with a 4.88 m high south front and a 2.44 m high north wall. It also has a permanently insulated north wall, a removable insulated ceiling, and openable and closeable insulating curtains (drapes) over the south, east and west walls. Three crops of tomatoes were grown in the greenhouse. In the first trial in 1981-1982, a too low minimum ambient temperature was selected for supplementary heat to be added, thus tomato production was low. In the second crop in 1982 Cultivar-Tropic tomatoes were grown and production was excellent exceeding normal production for the period in which the tomatoes were harvested. Production in the fall of 1982 with Cultivar-Dombito tomatoes was low with yields about one-half as good as the spring, 1982 production. Supplementary energy requirements were low with solar energy supplying about 45 percent of all heat required for all crops.

  14. An Impact Triggered Runaway Greenhouse on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Segura, T. L.; McKay, C. P.; Toon, O. B.

    2004-01-01

    When a planet is in radiative equilibrium, the incoming solar flux balances the outgoing longwave flux. If something were to perturb the system slightly, say the incoming solar flux increased, the planet would respond by radiating at a higher surface temperature. Since any radiation that comes in must go out, if the incoming is increased, the outgoing must also increase, and this increase manifests itself as a warmer equilibrium temperature. The increase in solar flux would correspond to an increase in temperature, which would increase the amount of water vapor in the atmosphere due to increased evaporation. Since water vapor is a greenhouse gas, it would absorb more radiation in the atmosphere leading to a yet warmer equilibrium temperature. The planet would reach radiative equilibrium at this new temperature. There exists a point, however, past which this positive feedback leads to a "runaway" situation. In this case, the planet does not simply evaporate a little more water and eventually come to a slightly higher equilibrium temperature. Instead, the planet keeps evaporating more and more water until all of the planet's available liquid and solid water is in the atmosphere. The reason for this is generally understood. If the planet's temperature increases, evaporation of water increases, and the absorption of radiation increases. This increases the temperature and the feedback continues until all water is in the atmosphere. The resulting equilibrium temperature is very high, much higher than the equilibrium temperature of a point with slightly lower solar flux. One can picture that as solar flux increases, planetary temperature also increases until the runaway point where temperature suddenly "jumps" to a higher value, in response to all the available water now residing in the atmosphere. This new equilibrium is called a "runaway greenhouse" and it has been theorized that this is what happened to the planet Venus, where the surface temperature is more than 700 K

  15. Non-CO2 greenhouse gases and climate change.

    PubMed

    Montzka, S A; Dlugokencky, E J; Butler, J H

    2011-08-03

    Earth's climate is warming as a result of anthropogenic emissions of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide (CO(2)) from fossil fuel combustion. Anthropogenic emissions of non-CO(2) greenhouse gases, such as methane, nitrous oxide and ozone-depleting substances (largely from sources other than fossil fuels), also contribute significantly to warming. Some non-CO(2) greenhouse gases have much shorter lifetimes than CO(2), so reducing their emissions offers an additional opportunity to lessen future climate change. Although it is clear that sustainably reducing the warming influence of greenhouse gases will be possible only with substantial cuts in emissions of CO(2), reducing non-CO(2) greenhouse gas emissions would be a relatively quick way of contributing to this goal.

  16. Rapid evolution and the cost of resistance to Bacillus thuringiensis in greenhouse populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni.

    PubMed Central

    Janmaat, Alida F; Myers, Judith

    2003-01-01

    The microbial insecticide Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) has become the mainstay of non-chemical control of Lepidopteran pests, either as sprays or through the incorporation of Bt toxins into transgenic crops. Given the wide use of Bt, it is striking that currently only one pest species, Plutella xylostella, has been reported to have developed significant resistance to Bt outside the laboratory. By contrast, we report here the frequent and rapid development of resistance to B. thuringiensis kurstaki (Dipel, Abbott) in populations of cabbage loopers, Trichoplusia ni, in commercial greenhouses. Resistance to Bt appears to be costly and there is a rapid decline of resistance in populations collected from greenhouses and maintained in the laboratory without selection. Management of pests resistant to Bt in vegetable greenhouses will require sporadic use of Bt-based sprays or alternatively use of sprays containing other Bt toxins. PMID:14613613

  17. Geothermal greenhouse-heating facilities for the Klamath County Nursing Home, Klamath Falls, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-02-01

    The Klamath County Nursing Home, located in Klamath Falls, Oregon, was constructed in 1976. The building of 55,654 square feet currently houses care facilities for approximately 120 persons. During the initial planning for the Nursing Home, the present site was selected primarily on the basis of its geothermal resource. This resource (approx. 190/sup 0/F) currently provides space and domestic hot water heating for the Nursing Home, Merle West Medical Center and the Oregon Institute of Technology. The feasibility of installing a geothermal heating system in a planned greenhouse for the Nursing Home is explored. The greenhouse system would be tied directly to the existing hot water heating system for the Nursing Home.

  18. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues

    PubMed Central

    LEILI, Mostafa; PIRMOGHANI, Amin; SAMADI, Mohammad Taghi; SHOKOOHI, Reza; ROSHANAEI, Ghodratollah; POORMOHAMMADI, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Methods: Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. Results: One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. Conclusion: The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption. PMID:28032066

  19. Determination of Pesticides Residues in Cucumbers Grown in Greenhouse and the Effect of Some Procedures on Their Residues.

    PubMed

    Leili, Mostafa; Pirmoghani, Amin; Samadi, Mohammad Taghi; Shokoohi, Reza; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah; Poormohammadi, Ali

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual concentrations of ethion and imidacloprid in cucumbers grown in greenhouse. The effect of some simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were also studied. Ten active greenhouses that produce cucumber were randomly selected. Ethion and imidacloprid as the most widely used pesticides were measured in cucumber samples of studied greenhouses. Moreover, the effect of storing, washing, and peeling as simple processing procedures on both ethion and imidacloprid residues were investigated. One hour after pesticide application; the maximum residue levels (MRLs) of ethion and imidacloprid were higher than that of Codex standard level. One day after pesticide application, the levels of pesticides were decreased about 35 and 31% for ethion and imidacloprid, respectively, which still were higher than the MRL. Washing procedure led to about 51 and 42.5% loss in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. Peeling procedure also led to highest loss of 93.4 and 63.7% in ethion and imidacloprid residues, respectively. The recovery for both target analytes was in the range between 88 and 102%. The residue values in collected samples one hour after pesticides application were higher than standard value. The storing, washing, and peeling procedures lead to the decrease of pesticide residues in greenhouse cucumbers. Among them, the peeling procedure has the greatest impact on residual reduction. Therefore, these procedures can be used as simple and effective processing techniques for reducing and removing pesticides from greenhouse products before their consumption.

  20. 75 FR 63823 - Final Guidance, “Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-18

    ... QUALITY Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' AGENCY: Council on... agency operations. This Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting,'' is available... . DATES: The Final Guidance, ``Federal Greenhouse Gas Accounting and Reporting'' is available as of...

  1. 75 FR 26904 - Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default Emission Factors...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Mandatory Reporting of Greenhouse Gases: Notice of Data Availability; Default... of Greenhouse Gases: Additional Sources of Fluorinated GHGs (75 FR 18652) which included proposed methods for monitoring and reporting greenhouse gases (GHGs) from electronics manufacturing....

  2. Stakeholder Workshop Presentations: EPA Greenhouse Gas Data on Petroleum and Natural Gas Systems

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View the summary and presentations from the November 2015 stakeholder workshop on greenhouse gas data on petroleum and natural gas systems from the Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program and U.S. Greenhouse Gas Inventory of Emissions and Sinks.

  3. 75 FR 57275 - Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... ADMINISTRATION Information Collection; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot AGENCY: Federal... Supplier Greenhouse Gas (GHG) Emissions Inventory pilot. Public comments are particularly invited on... Information Collection 3090- 00XX; Supplier Greenhouse Gas Emissions Inventory Pilot, by any of the...

  4. 77 FR 69585 - Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 98 Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality... rule titled ``Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program: Proposed Amendments and Confidentiality Determinations....gov . For technical questions, please see the ] Greenhouse Gas Reporting Program Web site...

  5. Effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shinsaku; Yazawa, Satoru; Nakagawa, Yasutaka; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Yajima, Shunsuke

    2015-04-15

    Alkyl parabens are used as antimicrobial preservatives in cosmetics, food, and pharmaceutical products. However, the mode of action of these chemicals has not been assessed thoroughly. In this study, we determined the effects of alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi. All the fungi tested, were susceptible to parabens. The effect of linear alkyl parabens on plant pathogenic fungi was related to the length of the alkyl chain. In addition, the antifungal activity was correlated with the paraben-induced inhibition of oxygen consumption. The antifungal activity of linear alkyl parabens likely originates, at least in part, from their ability to inhibit the membrane respiratory chain, especially mitochondrial complex II. Additionally, we determined that some alkyl parabens inhibit Alternaria brassicicola infection of cabbage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Alum sludge land application and its effect on plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.B. ); Dillaha, T.A.; Reneau, R.B.; Novak, J.T.; Knocke, W.R. )

    1994-11-01

    These investigators conducted three greenhouse experiments to determine the impact of alum sludge from the Harwood's Mill water treatment plant, newport News, Va., on the growth and chemical composition of fescue grass. Fescue yields decreased with increased sludge addition, a trend that was attributed to reductions in plant-available phosphorus (P) at higher loadings. Supplemental P fertilization corrected this deficiency. Lime addition did not affect yield. The presence of manganese and copper in the sludge increased metal uptake by the plants but did not affect yield.

  7. Herbivory: effects on plant abundance, distribution and population growth

    PubMed Central

    Maron, John L; Crone, Elizabeth

    2006-01-01

    Plants are attacked by many different consumers. A critical question is how often, and under what conditions, common reductions in growth, fecundity or even survival that occur due to herbivory translate to meaningful impacts on abundance, distribution or dynamics of plant populations. Here, we review population-level studies of the effects of consumers on plant dynamics and evaluate: (i) whether particular consumers have predictably more or less influence on plant abundance, (ii) whether particular plant life-history types are predictably more vulnerable to herbivory at the population level, (iii) whether the strength of plant–consumer interactions shifts predictably across environmental gradients and (iv) the role of consumers in influencing plant distributional limits. Existing studies demonstrate numerous examples of consumers limiting local plant abundance and distribution. We found larger effects of consumers on grassland than woodland forbs, stronger effects of herbivory in areas with high versus low disturbance, but no systematic or unambiguous differences in the impact of consumers based on plant life-history or herbivore feeding mode. However, our ability to evaluate these and other patterns is limited by the small (but growing) number of studies in this area. As an impetus for further study, we review strengths and challenges of population-level studies, such as interpreting net impacts of consumers in the presence of density dependence and seed bank dynamics. PMID:17002942

  8. The impact of herbivore–plant coevolution on plant community structure

    PubMed Central

    Becerra, Judith X.

    2007-01-01

    Coevolutionary theory proposes that the diversity of chemical structures found in plants is, in large part, the result of selection by herbivores. Because herbivores often feed on chemically similar plants, they should impose selective pressures on plants to diverge chemically or bias community assembly toward chemical divergence. Using a coevolved interaction between a group of chrysomelid beetles and their host plants, I tested whether coexisting plants of the Mexican tropical dry forest tend to be chemically more dissimilar than random. Results show that some of the communities are chemically overdispersed and that overdispersion is related to the tightness of the interaction between plants and herbivores and the spatial scale at which communities are measured. As coevolutionary specialization increases and spatial scale decreases, communities tend to be more chemically dissimilar. At fairly local scales and where herbivores have tight, one-to-one interactions with plants, communities have a strong pattern of chemical disparity. PMID:17456606

  9. EDITORIAL: Tropical deforestation and greenhouse gas emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibbs, Holly K.; Herold, Martin

    2007-10-01

    Carbon emissions from tropical deforestation have long been recognized as a key component of the global carbon budget, and more recently of our global climate system. Tropical forest clearing accounts for roughly 20% of anthropogenic carbon emissions and destroys globally significant carbon sinks (IPCC 2007). Global climate policy initiatives are now being proposed to address these emissions and to more actively include developing countries in greenhouse gas mitigation (e.g. Santilli et al 2005, Gullison et al 2007). In 2005, at the Conference of the Parties (COP) in Montreal, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) launched a new initiative to assess the scientific and technical methods and issues for developing policy approaches and incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation and degradation (REDD) in developing countries (Gullison et al 2007). Over the last two years the methods and tools needed to estimate reductions in greenhouse gas emissions from deforestation have quickly evolved, as the scientific community responded to the UNFCCC policy needs. This focus issue highlights those advancements, covering some of the most important technical issues for measuring and monitoring emissions from deforestation and forest degradation and emphasizing immediately available methods and data, as well as future challenges. Elements for effective long-term implementation of a REDD mechanism related to both environmental and political concerns are discussed in Mollicone et al. Herold and Johns synthesize viewpoints of national parties to the UNFCCC on REDD and expand upon key issues for linking policy requirements and forest monitoring capabilities. In response to these expressed policy needs, they discuss a remote-sensing-based observation framework to start REDD implementation activities and build historical deforestation databases on the national level. Achard et al offer an assessment of remote sensing measurements across the world

  10. The Effect of Nitrogen Deposition on Plant Performance and Community Structure: Is It Life Stage Specific?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is a key global change factor that is increasing and affecting the structure and function of many ecosystems. To determine the influence of N deposition on specific systems, however, it is crucial to understand the temporal and spatial patterns of deposition as well as the response to that deposition. Response of the receiving plant communities may depend on the life stage-specific performance of individual species. We focus on the California oak savanna because N deposition to this system is complex—characterized by hotspots on the landscape and seasonal pulses. In a greenhouse experiment, we investigated the relative influence of N deposition on plant performance during early growth, peak biomass, and senescent life stages across different soil types, light, and community compositions. To represent the community we used three grass species—a native, naturalized exotic, and invasive exotic. At early growth and peak biomass stages performance was measured as height, and shoot and root biomass, and at the senescent stage as seed production. Simulated N deposition 1) increased shoot biomass and height of the native and, even more so, the naturalized exotic during early growth, 2) positively affected root biomass in all species during peak biomass, and 3) had no influence on seed production at the senescent stage. Alone, N deposition was not a strong driver of plant performance; however, small differences in performance among species in response to N deposition could affect community composition in future years. In particular, if there is a pulse of N deposition during the early growth stage, the naturalized exotic may have a competitive advantage that could result in its spread. Including spatial and temporal heterogeneity in a complex, manipulative experiment provides a clearer picture of not only where N management efforts should be targeted on the landscape, but also when. PMID:27253718

  11. Effects of compost and phosphate on plant arsenic accumulation from soils near pressure-treated wood.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xinde; Ma, Lena Q

    2004-12-01

    Leaching of arsenic (As) from chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood may elevate soil arsenic levels. Thus, an environmental concern arises regarding accumulation of As in vegetables grown in these soils. In this study, a greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate As accumulation by vegetables from the soils adjacent to the CCA-treated utility poles and fences and examine the effects of soil amendments on plant As accumulation. Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) were grown for ten weeks in the soil with or without compost and phosphate amendments. As expected, elevated As concentrations were observed in the pole soil (43 mg kg(-1)) and in the fence soil (27 mg kg(-1)), resulting in enhanced As accumulation of 44 mg kg(-1) in carrot and 32 mg kg(-1) in lettuce. Addition of phosphate to soils increased As accumulation by 4.56-9.3 times for carrot and 2.45-10.1 for lettuce due to increased soil water-soluble As via replacement of arsenate by phosphate in soil. However, biosolid compost application significantly reduced plant As uptake by 79-86%, relative to the untreated soils. This suppression is possibly because of As adsorbed by biosolid organic mater, which reduced As phytoavailability. Fractionation analysis showed that biosolid decreased As in soil water-soluble, exchangeable, and carbonate fraction by 45%, whereas phosphate increased it up to 2.61 times, compared to the untreated soils. Our results indicate that growing vegetables in soils near CCA-treated wood may pose a risk of As exposure for humans. Compost amendment can reduce such a risk by reducing As accumulation by vegetables and can be an important strategy for remediating CCA-contaminated soils. Caution should be taken for phosphate application since it enhances As accumulation.

  12. Phyto-rhizoremediation of polychlorinated biphenyl contaminated soils: An outlook on plant-microbe beneficial interactions.

    PubMed

    Vergani, Lorenzo; Mapelli, Francesca; Zanardini, Elisabetta; Terzaghi, Elisa; Di Guardo, Antonio; Morosini, Cristiana; Raspa, Giuseppe; Borin, Sara

    2017-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are toxic chemicals, recalcitrant to degradation, bioaccumulative and persistent in the environment, causing adverse effects on ecosystems and human health. For this reason, the remediation of PCB-contaminated soils is a primary issue to be addressed. Phytoremediation represents a promising tool for in situ soil remediation, since the available physico-chemical technologies have strong environmental and economic impacts. Plants can extract and metabolize several xenobiotics present in the soil, but their ability to uptake and mineralize PCBs is limited due to the recalcitrance and low bioavailability of these molecules that in turn impedes an efficient remediation of PCB-contaminated soils. Besides plant degradation ability, rhizoremediation takes into account the capability of soil microbes to uptake, attack and degrade pollutants, so it can be seen as the most suitable strategy to clean-up PCB-contaminated soils. Microbes are in fact the key players of PCB degradation, performed under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. In the rhizosphere, microbes and plants positively interact. Microorganisms can promote plant growth under stressed conditions typical of polluted soils. Moreover, in this specific niche, root exudates play a pivotal role by promoting the biphenyl catabolic pathway, responsible for microbial oxidative PCB metabolism, and by improving the overall PCB degradation performance. Besides rhizospheric microbial community, also the endophytic bacteria are involved in pollutant degradation and represent a reservoir of microbial resources to be exploited for bioremediation purposes. Here, focusing on plant-microbe beneficial interactions, we propose a review of the available results on PCB removal from soil obtained combining different plant and microbial species, mainly under simplified conditions like greenhouse experiments. Furthermore, we discuss the potentiality of "omics" approaches to identify PCB

  13. Abattoir Wastewater Irrigation Increases the Availability of Nutrients and Influences on Plant Growth and Development.

    PubMed

    Matheyarasu, Raghupathi; Bolan, Nanthi S; Naidu, Ravi

    This study evaluated the effects of abattoir wastewater irrigation on plant growth and development. The soils used in this study were collected from Primo Smallgoods Abattoir (Port Wakefield, South Australia) at different sites such as currently irrigated (CI), currently not irrigated (CNI) and soil outside the irrigation area as control (CTRL). A completely randomised block design was employed for the plant growth experiment, where four crops (Pennisetum purpureum, Medicago sativa, Sinapis alba and Helianthus annuus) were grown separately on three different soils (CI, CNI and CTRL) in plastic pots. Two types of water (tap water and wastewater) and two loadings were applied throughout the planting period based on the field capacity (FC 100 and 150 %). The overall dry matter yield was compared between the soils and treatments. Under wastewater irrigation, among the four species grown in the CI soil, P. purpureum (171 g) and H. annuus (151 g) showed high biomass yields, followed by S. alba (115 g) and M. sativa (31 g). The plants grown under tap water showed about 70 % lower yields compared to the abattoir wastewater irrigation (AWW). Similar trends in the biomass yields were observed for CNI and CTRL soils under the two water treatments, with the biomass yields in the following order CI > CNI > CTRL soils. The results confirm the beneficial effects of AWW at the greenhouse level. However, a proper cropping pattern and wastewater irrigation management plan is essential to utilise the nutrients available in the wastewater-irrigated land treatment sites. The increase in fertility is evident from the effects of wastewater on biomass growth and also the abundance of nutrients accumulated in plants. A mass balance calculation on the applied, residual and the plant-accumulated nutrients over a few cropping periods will help us in understanding the nutrient cycling processes involved in the abattoir-irrigated land treatment sites, which will serve as an effective tool

  14. The Effect of Nitrogen Deposition on Plant Performance and Community Structure: Is It Life Stage Specific?

    PubMed

    Tulloss, Elise M; Cadenasso, Mary L

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) deposition is a key global change factor that is increasing and affecting the structure and function of many ecosystems. To determine the influence of N deposition on specific systems, however, it is crucial to understand the temporal and spatial patterns of deposition as well as the response to that deposition. Response of the receiving plant communities may depend on the life stage-specific performance of individual species. We focus on the California oak savanna because N deposition to this system is complex-characterized by hotspots on the landscape and seasonal pulses. In a greenhouse experiment, we investigated the relative influence of N deposition on plant performance during early growth, peak biomass, and senescent life stages across different soil types, light, and community compositions. To represent the community we used three grass species-a native, naturalized exotic, and invasive exotic. At early growth and peak biomass stages performance was measured as height, and shoot and root biomass, and at the senescent stage as seed production. Simulated N deposition 1) increased shoot biomass and height of the native and, even more so, the naturalized exotic during early growth, 2) positively affected root biomass in all species during peak biomass, and 3) had no influence on seed production at the senescent stage. Alone, N deposition was not a strong driver of plant performance; however, small differences in performance among species in response to N deposition could affect community composition in future years. In particular, if there is a pulse of N deposition during the early growth stage, the naturalized exotic may have a competitive advantage that could result in its spread. Including spatial and temporal heterogeneity in a complex, manipulative experiment provides a clearer picture of not only where N management efforts should be targeted on the landscape, but also when.

  15. Rice management interventions to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions: a review.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Saddam; Peng, Shaobing; Fahad, Shah; Khaliq, Abdul; Huang, Jianliang; Cui, Kehui; Nie, Lixiao

    2015-03-01

    Global warming is one of the gravest threats to crop production and environmental sustainability. Rice, the staple food of more than half of the world's population, is the most prominent cause of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in agriculture and gives way to global warming. The increasing demand for rice in the future has deployed tremendous concerns to reduce GHG emissions for minimizing the negative environmental impacts of rice cultivation. In this review, we presented a contemporary synthesis of existing data on how crop management practices influence emissions of GHGs in rice fields. We realized that modifications in traditional crop management regimes possess a huge potential to overcome GHG emissions. We examined and evaluated the different possible options and found that modifying tillage permutations and irrigation patterns, managing organic and fertilizer inputs, selecting suitable cultivar, and cropping regime can mitigate GHG emissions. Previously, many authors have discussed the feasibility principle and the influence of these practices on a single gas or, in particular, in the whole agricultural sector. Nonetheless, changes in management practices may influence more than one gas at the same time by different mechanisms or sometimes their effects may be antagonistic. Therefore, in the present attempt, we estimated the overall global warming potential of each approach to consider the magnitude of its effects on all gases and provided a comprehensive assessment of suitable crop management practices for reducing GHG emissions in rice culture.

  16. Greenhouse gases: What is their role in climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Edmonds, J.A.; Chandler, W.U. ); Wuebbles, D. )

    1990-12-01

    This paper summarizes information relevant to understanding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. It examines the nature of the greenhouse effect, the Earth's radiation budget, the concentrations of these gases in the atmosphere, how these concentrations have been changing, natural processes which regulate these concentrations of greenhouse gases, residence times of these gases in the atmosphere, and the rate of release of gases affecting atmospheric composition by human activities. We address the issue of the greenhouse effect itself in the first section. In the second section we examine trends in atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases and emissions sources. In the third section, we examine the natural carbon cycle and its role in determining the atmospheric residence time of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). In the fourth section, we examine the role atmospheric chemistry plays in the determining the concentrations of greenhouse gases. This paper is not intended to be an exhaustive treatment of these issues. Exhaustive treatments can be found in other volumes, many of which are cited throughout this paper. Rather, this paper is intended to summarize some of the major findings, unknowns, and uncertainties associated with the current state of knowledge regarding the role of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 57 refs., 11 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Low Simulated Radiation Limit for Runaway Greenhouse Climates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldblatt, Colin; Robinson, Tyler D.; Zahnle, Kevin J.; Crisp, David

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial planet atmospheres must be in long-term radiation balance, with solar radiation absorbed matched by thermal radiation emitted. For hot moist atmospheres, however, there is an upper limit on the thermal emission which is decoupled from the surface temperature. If net absorbed solar radiation exceeds this limit the planet will heat uncontrollably, the so-called \\runaway greenhouse". Here we show that a runaway greenhouse induced steam atmosphere may be a stable state for a planet with the same amount of incident solar radiation as Earth has today, contrary to previous results. We have calculated the clear-sky radiation limits at line-by-line spectral resolution for the first time. The thermal radiation limit is lower than previously reported (282 W/sq m rather than 310W/sq m) and much more solar radiation would be absorbed (294W/sq m rather than 222W/sq m). Avoiding a runaway greenhouse under the present solar constant requires that the atmosphere is subsaturated with water, and that cloud albedo forcing exceeds cloud greenhouse forcing. Greenhouse warming could in theory trigger a runaway greenhouse but palaeoclimate comparisons suggest that foreseeable increases in greenhouse gases will be insufficient to do this.

  18. Sonic anemometry to measure natural ventilation in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego Luis; Molina-Aiz, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The present work has developed a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses by means of sonic anemometry. In addition, specific calculation programmes have been designed to enable processing and analysis of the data recorded during the experiments. Sonic anemometry allows us to study the direction of the airflow at all the greenhouse vents. Knowing through which vents the air enters and leaves the greenhouse enables us to establish the airflow pattern of the greenhouse under natural ventilation conditions. In the greenhouse analysed in this work for Poniente wind (from the southwest), a roof vent designed to open towards the North (leeward) could allow a positive interaction between the wind and stack effects, improving the ventilation capacity of the greenhouse. The cooling effect produced by the mass of turbulent air oscillating between inside and outside the greenhouse at the side vents was limited to 2% (for high wind speed, u(o) ≥ 4 m s(-1)) reaching 36.3% when wind speed was lower (u(o) = 2 m s(-1)).

  19. Application Problem of Biomass Combustion in Greenhouses for Crop Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Atsuhiro; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    It is consumed much energy in fossil fuels to production crops in greenhouses in Japan. And fl ue gas as CO2 fertilization is used for growing crops in modern greenhouses. If biomass as renewable energy can use for production vegetables in greenhouses, more than 800,000 kl of energy a year (in crude oil equivalent) will be saved. In this study, at fi rst, we made the biomass combustion equipment, and performed fundamental examination for various pellet fuel. We performed the examination that considered an application to a real greenhouse next. We considered biomass as both a source of energy and CO2 gas for greenhouses, and the following fi ndings were obtained: 1) Based on the standard of CO2 gas fertilization to greenhouses, it is diffi cult to apply biomass as a CO2 fertilizer, so that biomass should be applied to energy use only, at least for the time being. 2) Practical biomass energy machinery for economy, high reliability and greenhouses satisfying the conservatism that it is easy is necessary. 3) It is necessary to develop crop varieties and cultivation systems requiring less strict environmental control. 4) Disposal of combustion ash occurring abundantly, effective practical use is necessary.

  20. [Effects of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation on soil physical quality].

    PubMed

    Sun, Yan; Wang, Yi-quan; Liu, Jun; Xia, Fa-sheng; Wang, Jin-gui; Li, Jian-bo

    2011-08-01

    Taking the solar greenhouse heavy loam soil having been planted vegetables for different years at Yunyang Town in Jingyang County of Shaanxi Province as test objects, and with the uncovered vegetable soil adjacent to the greenhouse as the control, this paper studied the effects of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation on soil physical quality. Solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation had greater effects on the bulk density of 0-30 cm soil layer (an increase in 0-10 cm soil layer and a decrease in 10-30 cm soil layer), but little effects on that of 30-40 cm soil layer. In 0-40 cm solar greenhouse soil profile, the contents of < 0.01 mm physical clay and < 0.001 mm clay were lower in upper layer than in deeper layer, indicating their downward movement, and this phenomenon was more obvious with increasing year of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation. Within the first 5 years of solar greenhouse vegetable cultivation, soil field water capacity decreased significantly, with a decrement of 13.8%, but remained relatively stable after then.

  1. Sonic Anemometry to Measure Natural Ventilation in Greenhouses

    PubMed Central

    López, Alejandro; Valera, Diego Luis; Molina-Aiz, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The present work has developed a methodology for studying natural ventilation in Mediterranean greenhouses by means of sonic anemometry. In addition, specific calculation programmes have been designed to enable processing and analysis of the data recorded during the experiments. Sonic anemometry allows us to study the direction of the airflow at all the greenhouse vents. Knowing through which vents the air enters and leaves the greenhouse enables us to establish the airflow pattern of the greenhouse under natural ventilation conditions. In the greenhouse analysed in this work for Poniente wind (from the southwest), a roof vent designed to open towards the North (leeward) could allow a positive interaction between the wind and stack effects, improving the ventilation capacity of the greenhouse. The cooling effect produced by the mass of turbulent air oscillating between inside and outside the greenhouse at the side vents was limited to 2% (for high wind speed, uo ≥ 4 m s−1) reaching 36.3% when wind speed was lower (uo = 2 m s−1). PMID:22163728

  2. Greenhouse gas emissions from a managed grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, S. K.; Rees, R. M.; Skiba, U. M.; Ball, B. C.

    2005-07-01

    Managed grasslands contribute to global warming by the exchange of the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane. To reduce uncertainties of the global warming potential of European grasslands and to assess potential mitigation options, an integrated approach quantifying fluxes from all three gases is needed. Greenhouse gas emissions from a grassland site in the SE of Scotland were measured in 2002 and 2003. Closed static chambers were used for N 2O and CH 4 flux measurements, and samples were analysed by gas chromatography. Closed dynamic chambers were used for soil respiration measurements, using infrared gas analysis. Three organic manures and two inorganic fertilizers were applied at a rate of 300 kg N ha -1 a -1 (available N) and compared with a zero-N control on grassland plots in a replicated experimental design. Soil respiration from plots receiving manure was up to 1.6 times larger than CO 2 release from control plots and up to 1.7 times larger compared to inorganic treatments ( p<0.05). A highly significant ( p<0.001) effect of fertilizer and manure treatments on N 2O release was observed. Release of N 2O from plots receiving inorganic fertilizers resulted in short term peaks of up to 388 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1. However losses from plots receiving organic manures were both longer lasting and greater in magnitude, with an emission of up to 3488 g N 2O-N ha -1 day -1 from the sewage sludge treatments. During the 2002 growing season the cumulative total N 2O flux from manure treatments was 25 times larger than that from mineral fertilizers. CH 4 emissions were only significantly increased ( p<0.001) for a short period following applications of cattle slurry. Although soil respiration in manure plots was high, model predictions and micrometeorological flux measurements at an adjacent site suggest that all plots receiving fertilizer or manure acted as a sink for CO 2. Therefore in terms of global warming potentials the contribution of N 2O from

  3. Greenhouse Models of Early Mars Climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasting, J. F.

    2002-12-01

    Nearly all authors agree that Mars early (pre-3.8 Ga) surface was wet, as evidenced by many signs of flowing water on its heavily cratered southern highlands. Exactly what this implies about the early martian climate is a topic of ongoing debate. Some authors (1) have argued for a warm, nearly Earth-like climate; others (2) have suggested that the mean surface temperature could have been significantly below freezing. Here, I argue that the wetter early Mars was, the higher its mean surface temperature must have been in order to create the observed fluvial features. A planet with a large ocean, like Earth, would need to have a mean surface temperature at or above 0oC in order to avoid freezing over entirely. For a low-obliquity planet like Earth, ice albedo feedback causes the climate to become unstable when the polar caps extend equatorward of 30o (3). Mars has a highly variable obliquity, but the same reasoning is still likely to apply. If, indeed, Mars had an Earth-like early climate, then it must have had a substantial atmospheric greenhouse effect. Solar luminosity increased from about 70 percent of its present value at 4.6 Ga to 0.75 times present at 3.8 Ga (4). Gaseous CO2-H2O atmospheres can produce surface temperatures no higher than 225 K during this time (5). Radiative heating by CO2 ice clouds might raise this temperature somewhat (6). Obtaining surface temperatures above freezing with this mechanism, though, requires nearly 100 percent cloud cover, which is highly unlikely for condensation clouds. A methane greenhouse is a more attractive mechanism. The combination of a few bars of CO2, along with a few tenths of a percent CH4, could have kept early martian surface temperatures above freezing. This would probably have required a biogenic source for methane, however, as abiogenic sources are unlikely to have been strong enough to maintain such concentrations in the face of photolysis by solar UV radiation. Although admittedly speculative, such a

  4. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Brazilian Sugarcane Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, J.; Pitombo, L.; Cantarella, H.; Rosseto, R.; Andrade, C.; Martinelli, L.; Gava, G.; Vargas, V.; Sousa-Neto, E.; Zotelli, L.; Filoso, S.; Neto, A. E.

    2012-04-01

    Bioethanol from sugarcane is increasingly seen as a sustainable alternative energy source. Besides having high photosynthetic efficiency, sugarcane is a perennial tropical grass crop that can re-grow up to five or more years after being planted. Brazil is the largest producer of sugarcane in the world and management practices commonly used in the country lead to lower rates of inorganic N fertilizer application than sugarcane grown elsewhere, or in comparison to other feedstocks such as corn. Therefore, Brazilian sugarcane ethanol potentially promotes greenhouse gas savings. For that reason, several recent studies have attempted to assess emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG) during sugarcane production in the tropics. However, estimates have been mainly based on models due to a general lack of field data. In this study, we present data from in situ experiments on emission of three GHG (CO2, N2O, and CH4) in sugarcane fields in Brazil. Emissions are provided for sugarcane in different phases of the crop life cycle and under different management practices. Our results show that the use of nitrogen fertilizer in sugarcane crops resulted in an emission factor for N2O similar to those predicted by IPCC (1%), ranging from 0.59% in ratoon cane to 1.11% in plant cane. However, when vinasse was applied in addition to mineralN fertilizer, emissions of GHG increased in comparison to those from the use of mineral N fertilizer alone. Emissions increased significantly when experiments mimicked the accumulation of cane trash on the soil surface with 14 tons ha-1and 21 tons ha-1, which emission factor were 1.89% and 3.03%, respectively. This study is representative of Brazilian sugarcane systems under specific conditions for key factors affecting GHG emissions from soils. Nevertheless, the data provided will improve estimates of GHG from Brazilian sugarcane, and efforts to assess sugarcane ethanol sustainability and energy balance. Funding provided by the São Paulo Research

  5. Animated simulation of greenhouse internal transport using Siman/Cinema

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, W.; Ting, K.C.; Giacomelli, G.A. . Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering)

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on an animated computer model developed using a simulation language Sinman/Cinema to simulate greenhouse internal transport systems. The model can be used as a tool to study the performance of materials handling operations within a greenhouse. The potential bottleneck of a transport system can be visually detected on the computer monitor. Statistical analyses on the system parameters, such as the status and utilization of machines, workers and waiting lines, and throughput time of an operation, are performed during the simulation. From these data, the interaction between machines and workers within a greenhouse system can be studied.

  6. Estimation of greenhouse impacts of continuous regional emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Sinisalo, J.

    1998-03-27

    In this thesis, a method to calculate the greenhouse impact of continuous, time-dependent, non-global greenhouse gas emissions is used to estimate the impact of estimated anthropogenic pre-1990 and future (post 1990) emissions of CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O of Finland and Nordic countries. Estimates for the impact of Finnish CFCs and their substitutes and the significance of Finnnish forests as carbon sink are also calculated. The method is also used to compare several different wood and peat energy production schemes with fossil fuel use, in terms of caused greenhouse impact. The uncertainty of the results is examined.

  7. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification.

    PubMed

    Burney, Jennifer A; Davis, Steven J; Lobell, David B

    2010-06-29

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here we estimate the net effect on GHG emissions of historical agricultural intensification between 1961 and 2005. We find that while emissions from factors such as fertilizer production and application have increased, the net effect of higher yields has avoided emissions of up to 161 gigatons of carbon (GtC) (590 GtCO(2)e) since 1961. We estimate that each dollar invested in agricultural yields has resulted in 68 fewer kgC (249 kgCO(2)e) emissions relative to 1961 technology ($14.74/tC, or approximately $4/tCO(2)e), avoiding 3.6 GtC (13.1 GtCO(2)e) per year. Our analysis indicates that investment in yield improvements compares favorably with other commonly proposed mitigation strategies. Further yield improvements should therefore be prominent among efforts to reduce future GHG emissions.

  8. Greenhouse gas emission inventory for Senegal, 1991.

    PubMed

    Sokona, Y

    1995-01-01

    The first greenhouse gas (GHG) emission estimates for Senegal, for the year 1991, were produced according to the draft IPCC/OECD guidelines for national inventories of GHGs. Despite certain discrepancies, nonavailability of data, the quality of some of the data collected, and the methodology, the estimates provide a provisional basis for Senegal to fulfill its obligations under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change. This inventory reveals that GHG emissions in Senegal, like those in many developing countries, can mainly be attributed to the use of biomass for energy, land-use change and forestry, and savanna burning. Taking into account the direct global warming potential of the main GHGs (CO2, CH4, and N2O), Senegal's emissions are estimated at 17.6 Tg ECO2. The major gases emitted are CO2 (61% of GHG emissions), followed by CH4 (35%) and N2O (4%). Energy accounts for 45% of total emissions (12% from fossil energy and 33% from traditional biomass energy); land-use change and forests, 18%; agriculture, 24%; waste, 12%; and industry, 1%.

  9. Embodied greenhouse gas emissions in diets.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E; Kropp, Juergen P

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to >3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7-6.1 kg CO(2eq.)/day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO(2eq.)/yr by 2050.

  10. Embodied Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Diets

    PubMed Central

    Pradhan, Prajal; Reusser, Dominik E.; Kropp, Juergen P.

    2013-01-01

    Changing food consumption patterns and associated greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions have been a matter of scientific debate for decades. The agricultural sector is one of the major GHG emitters and thus holds a large potential for climate change mitigation through optimal management and dietary changes. We assess this potential, project emissions, and investigate dietary patterns and their changes globally on a per country basis between 1961 and 2007. Sixteen representative and spatially differentiated patterns with a per capita calorie intake ranging from 1,870 to 3,400 kcal/day were derived. Detailed analyses show that low calorie diets are decreasing worldwide, while in parallel diet composition is changing as well: a discernable shift towards more balanced diets in developing countries can be observed and steps towards more meat rich diets as a typical characteristics in developed countries. Low calorie diets which are mainly observable in developing countries show a similar emission burden than moderate and high calorie diets. This can be explained by a less efficient calorie production per unit of GHG emissions in developing countries. Very high calorie diets are common in the developed world and exhibit high total per capita emissions of 3.7–6.1 kg CO2eq./day due to high carbon intensity and high intake of animal products. In case of an unbridled demographic growth and changing dietary patterns the projected emissions from agriculture will approach 20 Gt CO2eq./yr by 2050. PMID:23700408

  11. Greenhouse gas accounting and waste management.

    PubMed

    Gentil, Emmanuel; Christensen, Thomas H; Aoustin, Emmanuelle

    2009-11-01

    Accounting of emissions of greenhouse gas (GHG) is a major focus within waste management. This paper analyses and compares the four main types of GHG accounting in waste management including their special features and approaches: the national accounting, with reference to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the corporate level, as part of the annual reporting on environmental issues and social responsibility, life-cycle assessment (LCA), as an environmental basis for assessing waste management systems and technologies, and finally, the carbon trading methodology, and more specifically, the clean development mechanism (CDM) methodology, introduced to support cost-effective reduction in GHG emissions. These types of GHG accounting, in principle, have a common starting point in technical data on GHG emissions from specific waste technologies and plants, but the limited availability of data and, moreover, the different scopes of the accounting lead to many ways of quantifying emissions and producing the accounts. The importance of transparency in GHG accounting is emphasised regarding waste type, waste composition, time period considered, GHGs included, global warming potential (GWP) assigned to the GHGs, counting of biogenic carbon dioxide, choice of system boundaries, interactions with the energy system, and generic emissions factors. In order to enhance transparency and consistency, a format called the upstream-operating-downstream framework (UOD) is proposed for reporting basic technology-related data regarding GHG issues including a clear distinction between direct emissions from waste management technologies, indirect upstream (use of energy and materials) and indirect downstream (production of energy, delivery of secondary materials) activities.

  12. Greenhouse gas mitigation by agricultural intensification

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Jennifer A.; Davis, Steven J.; Lobell, David B.

    2010-01-01

    As efforts to mitigate climate change increase, there is a need to identify cost-effective ways to avoid emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). Agriculture is rightly recognized as a source of considerable emissions, with concomitant opportunities for mitigation. Although future agricultural productivity is critical, as it will shape emissions from conversion of native landscapes to food and biofuel crops, investment in agricultural research is rarely mentioned as a mitigation strategy. Here we estimate the net effect on GHG emissions of historical agricultural intensification between 1961 and 2005. We find that while emissions from factors such as fertilizer production and application have increased, the net effect of higher yields has avoided emissions of up to 161 gigatons of carbon (GtC) (590 GtCO2e) since 1961. We estimate that each dollar invested in agricultural yields has resulted in 68 fewer kgC (249 kgCO2e) emissions relative to 1961 technology ($14.74/tC, or ∼$4/tCO2e), avoiding 3.6 GtC (13.1 GtCO2e) per year. Our analysis indicates that investment in yield improvements compares favorably with other commonly proposed mitigation strategies. Further yield improvements should therefore be prominent among efforts to reduce future GHG emissions. PMID:20551223

  13. Wind pumps for irrigating greenhouse crops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peillón, M.; Sánchez, R.; Tarquis, A. M.; García, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    Agriculture is a major consumer of energy in many countries of the world. Only a few of these countries are self-sufficient in conventional energy sources, which are also exhaustible. Fortunately, there are other sources of energy, such as wind, which has experienced recent developments in the area of wind power generation. From irrigation projects to power supply in remote farms, wind power generation can play a vital role. A simple methodology for technical evaluation of windmills for irrigation water pumping has been developed in this study to determine the feasibility per unit amount of water supplied and the levels of daily irrigation demand satisfied by windmill irrigation system at various levels of risk (probability of failure). For this purpose, a series of three hourly wind-speed data over a period of 38 years at Ciego de Ávila, Cuba, were analyzed to compute the diurnal wind pump discharge at varying levels of risk. The sizes of reservoirs required to modulate fluctuating discharge and to satisfy the levels of irrigation demand, on function of crop development dates, cultivated area and water elevation height, were computed by cumulative deficit water budgeting. An example is given illustrating the use of the methodology on tomato crop (Licopersicon esculentum Mill) under greenhouse.

  14. A greenhouse gas emissions inventory for Pennsylvania.

    PubMed

    Rose, Adam; Neff, Rob; Yarnal, Brent; Greenberg, Howard

    2005-08-01

    The Pennsylvania greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions inventory presented in this paper provides detailed estimates of emissions and their sources for the six major categories of GHGs. The inventory was compiled using the current U.S. Environment Protection Agency methodology, which applies emissions factors to socioeconomic data, such as fossil energy use, vehicle miles traveled, and industrial production. The paper also contains an assessment of the methodology and suggestions for improving accounting with respect to process, sectoral, and geographic considerations. The study found that Pennsylvania emitted 77.4 million metric tons carbon equivalent of GHGs in 1990 and that this total increased by 3% to 79.8 million metric tons carbon equivalent by 1999. Despite this increase, however, the state's percentage contribution to the United States total declined during the decade. Pennsylvania's carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from fossil fuels represented 92.4% of 1990 totals and declined to 90.5% in 1999. Electricity generation was the largest single source of CO2 emissions, being responsible for 38% of fossil fuel CO2 emissions in 1990 and 40% of the total in 1999. Transportation emissions accounted for the largest increases in emissions between 1990 and 1999, whereas industrial emissions accounted for the largest decrease. The overall trend indicates that Pennsylvania has been able to weaken the relationship between GHG emissions and economic growth.

  15. Transient reducing greenhouse warming on early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wordsworth, R.; Kalugina, Y.; Lokshtanov, S.; Vigasin, A.; Ehlmann, B.; Head, J.; Sanders, C.; Wang, H.

    2017-01-01

    The evidence for abundant liquid water on early Mars despite the faint young Sun is a long-standing problem in planetary research. Here we present new ab initio spectroscopic and line-by-line climate calculations of the warming potential of reduced atmospheres on early Mars. We show that the strength of both CO2-H2 and CO2-CH4 collision-induced absorption (CIA) has previously been significantly underestimated. Contrary to previous expectations, methane could have acted as a powerful greenhouse gas on early Mars due to CO2-CH4 CIA in the critical 250-500 cm-1 spectral window region. In atmospheres of 0.5 bar CO2 or more, percent levels of H2 or CH4 raise annual mean surface temperatures by tens of degrees, with temperatures reaching 273 K for pressures of 1.25-2 bars and 2-10% of H2 and CH4. Methane and hydrogen produced following aqueous alteration of Mars' crust could have combined with volcanically outgassed CO2 to form transient atmospheres of this composition 4.5-3.5 Ga. Our results also suggest that inhabited exoplanets could retain surface liquid water at significant distances from their host stars.

  16. California's new mandatory greenhouse gas reporting regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Gaffney; Doug Thompson; Richard Bode

    2008-11-15

    Beginning in early 2009, approximately 1000 California businesses will begin reporting their greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions based on the requirements of a new regulation adopted by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) in December 2007. California's mandatory GHG reporting regulation is the first rule adopted as a requirement of the Global Warming Solutions Act of 2006, passed by the California Legislature as Assembly Bill 32 (AB 32; Nunez, Chapter 488, Statutes of 2006) and signed by Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger in September 2006. The regulation is the first of its kind in the United States to require facilities to report annual GHG emissions. In general, all facilities subject to reporting are required to report their on-site stationary source combustion emissions of CO{sub 2}, nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and methane (CH{sub 4}). Some industrial sectors, such as cement producers and oil refineries, also must report their process emissions, which occur from chemical or other noncombustion activities. Fugitive emissions from facilities are required to be reported when specified in the regulation. Sulfur hexafluoride (SF{sub 6}) and hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) use is prevalent in electricity facilities and must be reported. CO{sub 2} emissions from biomass-derived fuels must be separately identified during reporting, and reporters must also provide their consumption of purchased or acquired electricity and thermal energy; these requirements will assist facilities in evaluating changes in their fossil fuel carbon footprints. 1 tab.

  17. Estonian greenhouse gas emissions inventory report

    SciTech Connect

    Punning, J.M.; Ilomets, M.; Karindi, A.; Mandre, M.; Reisner, V.; Martins, A.; Pesur, A.; Roostalu, H.; Tullus, H.

    1996-07-01

    It is widely accepted that the increase of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere due to human activities would result in warming of the Earth`s surface. To examine this effect and better understand how the GHG increase in the atmosphere might change the climate in the future, how ecosystems and societies in different regions of the World should adapt to these changes, what must policymakers do for the mitigation of that effect, the worldwide project within the Framework Convention on Climate Change was generated by the initiative of United Nations. Estonia is one of more than 150 countries, which signed the Framework Convention on Climate Change at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development held in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992. In 1994 a new project, Estonian Country Study was initiated within the US Country Studies Program. The project will help to compile the GHG inventory for Estonia, find contemporary trends to investigate the impact of climate change on the Estonian ecosystems and economy and to formulate national strategies for Estonia addressing to global climate change.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from municipal wastewater treatment plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parravicini, Vanessa; Svardal, Karl

    2016-04-01

    Operating wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) represent a source of greenhouse gases (GHG). Direct GHG emissions include emissions of methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) that can be biologically produced during wastewater and sewage sludge treatment. This is also highlighted in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC 2006) guidelines used for national GHG inventories. Indirect GHG emissions occur at WWTPs mainly by the consumption of electricity, fossil fuel for transportation and by the use of chemicals (e.g. coagulants). In this study, the impact of direct and indirect GHG emissions was quantified for two model WWTPs of 50.000 person equivalents (p.e.) using carbon footprint analyses. It was assumed that at one WWTP sewage sludge is digested anaerobically, at the other one it is aerobically stabilised in the activated sludge tank. The carbon footprint analyses were performed using literature emission factors. A new estimation model based on measurements at eight Austrian WWTPs was used for the assessment of N2O direct emissions (Parravicini et al., 2015). The results of the calculations show that, under the selected assumptions, the direct N2O emission from the activated sludge tank can dominate the carbon footprint of WWTP with a poor nitrogen removal efficiency. Through an improved operation of nitrogen removal several advantages can be gained: direct N2O emissions can be reduced, the energy demand for aeration can be decreased and a higher effluent quality can be achieved. Anaerobic digesters and anaerobic sludge storage tanks can become a relevant source of direct CH4 emissions. Minimising of CH4 losses from these sources improves the carbon footprint of the WWTP also increasing the energy yield achievable by combusting this renewable energy carrier in a combined heat and power unit. The estimated carbon footprint of the model WWTPs lies between 20 and 40 kg CO2e/p.e./a. This corresponds to 0.2 to 0.4% of the CO2e average emission caused yearly

  19. [Greenhouse tomato transpiration and its affecting factors: correlation analysis and model simulation].

    PubMed

    Yao, Yong-Zhe; Li, Jian-Ming; Zhang, Rong; Sun, San-Jie; Chen, Kai-Li

    2012-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the correlations between the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato and the related affecting factors such as total leaf area per plant, soil relative moisture content, air temperature, relative humidity, and solar radiation under different treatments of supplementary irrigation. A regression model for the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato was established. There existed significant linear correlations between the daily transpiration and the test affecting factors, and the affecting factors had complicated mutual effects. Soil relative moisture content was the main decision factor of the transpiration, with the decision coefficient being 27.4%, and daily minimum relative humidity was the main limiting factor, with the decision coefficient being -119.7%. The square value of the regression coefficient (R2) between the predicted and measured tomato daily transpiration was 0.81, root mean squared error (RMSE) was 68.52 g, and relative prediction error (RE) was 19.4%, suggesting that the regression model established by using the main affecting factors selected through path analysis could better simulate the daily transpiration of greenhouse tomato.

  20. Measurements of Greenhouse Gases around the Sacramento Area: The Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karion, A.; Fischer, M. L.; Turnbull, J. C.; Sweeney, C.; Faloona, I. C.; Zagorac, N.; Guilderson, T. P.; Saripalli, S.; Sherwood, T.

    2009-12-01

    The state of California is leading the United States by enacting legislation (AB-32) to reduce greenhouse gas emissions to 1990 levels by 2020. The success of reduction efforts can be gauged with accurate emissions inventories and potentially verified with atmospheric measurements of greenhouse gases (GHGs) over time. Measurements of multiple GHGs and associated trace gas species in a specific region also provide information on emissions ratios for source apportionment. We conducted the Airborne Greenhouse Emissions Survey (AGES) campaign to determine emissions signature ratios for the sources that exist in the San Francisco Bay and Sacramento Valley areas. Specifically, we attempt to determine the emissions signatures of sources that influence ongoing measurements made at a tall-tower measurement site near Walnut Grove, CA. For two weeks in February and March of 2009, a Cessna 210 was flown throughout the Sacramento region, making continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, and CO while also sampling discrete flasks for a variety of additional tracers, including SF6, N2O, and 14C in CO2 (Δ14CO2). Flight paths were planned using wind predictions for each day to maximize sampling of sources whose emissions would also be sampled contemporaneously by the instrumentation at the Walnut Grove tower (WGC), part of the ongoing California Greenhouse Gas Emissions Measurement (CALGEM) project between NOAA/ESRL’s Carbon Cycle group and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). Flights were performed in two distinct patterns: 1) flying across a plume upwind and downwind of the Sacramento urban area, and 2) flying across the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta from Richmond to Walnut Grove, a region consisting of natural wetlands as well as several power plants and refineries. Results show a variety of well-correlated mixing ratio signals downwind of Sacramento, documenting the urban signature emission ratios, while emissions ratios in the Delta region were more variable, likely due

  1. Mass loading of soil particles on plant surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Pinder, J.E. III; McLeod, K.W. )

    1989-12-01

    Radionuclide-bearing soil particles on plant surfaces can be ingested and contribute to human dose, but evaluating the potential dose is limited by the relatively few data available on the masses of soil particles present on plant surfaces. This report summarizes mass loading data (i.e., mass of soil per unit of vegetation) for crops in the southeastern United States and compares these data to (1) those from other regions and (2) the mass loadings used in radionuclide transfer models to predict soil contamination of plant surfaces. Mass loadings were estimated using the 238Pu content of crops as an indicator of soil on plant surfaces. Crops were grown in two soils: a sandy clay loam soil and a loamy sand soil. Concentrations of soil on southeastern crops (i.e., mg soil g-1 plant) differed by more than a factor of 100 due to differences in crop growth form and biomass. Mean concentrations ranged from 1.7 mg g-1 for corn to 260 mg g-1 for lettuce. Differences in mass loadings between soils were less than those among crops. Concentrations differed by less than a factor of two between the two soil types. Because of (1) the differences among crops and (2) the limited data available from other systems, it is difficult to draw conclusions regarding regional or climatic variation in mass loadings. There is, however, little evidence to suggest large differences among regions. The mass loadings used to predict soil contamination in current radionuclide transfer models appear to be less than those observed for most crops.

  2. Reply [to Comments on “The greenhouse debate: Time for action?”] Greenhouse economics and policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlesinger, Michael E.

    In their comments, Harvey [1992], Oeschger et al. [1992], and Bolin [1992] raise the intertwined issues of greenhouse economics and policy, particularly the economic and environmental costs of a 10-year delay in action and the need for the natural and socioeconomic sciences to define future scenarios. In the following I address these concerns by summarizing recent research conducted on greenhouse economics and policy by Peck and Teisberg [1992a, b], W.D. Nordhaus (Rolling the “DICE”: An optimal transition path for controlling greenhouse gases, submitted to the Quarterly Journal of Economics, 1992; hereinafter, referred to as Nordhaus, 1992), and Hammitt, Lempert, and Schlesinger [1992], followed by conclusions and recommendations.

  3. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Commercial Trucks & Buses

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  4. Integrated Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options and Related Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution (combined with detrimental health effects) and climate change have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies for criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. However, stringent regulatory policies can possibly have a...

  5. Solar effect: sunspaces and greenhouses, behavior and health

    SciTech Connect

    Moskal, S.; Brandt, B.

    1981-01-01

    Sunspaces and solar greenhouses can be low-cost additions to existing buildings which by their very nature add to the living space of the dwelling unit into which they are incorporated, thereby influencing the residents' lifestyle. The implications of these solar spaces for their users and the larger community are our focus. Solar greenhouses and sunspaces influence the physical and mental health of the resident, particularly persons who can use the space during the day and those on fixed incomes. Increased sunlight and warmth, and in greenhouses, humidity and food production, directly influence health, while changes in interaction patterns, social status, independence and self-esteem are indirect results. These factors have a beneficial effect on the individual, the family, and the community. With increasing availability and use of solar sunspaces and greenhouses, these wide-ranging benefits could result in changes in demand for human services and have definite implications for public policy.

  6. Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    1999-01-01

    Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)

  7. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  8. Elementary Pre-Service Teacher Perceptions of the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Groves, Fred H.; Pugh, Ava F.

    1999-01-01

    Expands on earlier work to examine pre-service teachers' views on environmental issues, especially global warming and the related term "greenhouse effect." Suggests that pre-service elementary teachers hold many misconceptions about environmental issues. (DDR)

  9. Passive solar renovation of an existing commercial greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, J.W.; Whitehead, N.

    1980-01-01

    The renovation of an existing 1800 square foot commercial greenhouse to incorporate passive solar reliant and energy conserving features is detailed. The Aquatic-Agriculture Institute for Research, a non-profit group, sponsored the project to develop efficient production methods to raise vegetables and fish at the community level. The performance of the remodeled greenhouse will be compared to the performance of the same greenhouse as it was originally designed. The restored greenhouse began operation in September 1979. Accurate fuel and temperature records maintained through-out the past winter, show the cost of back-up heating under operating conditions to be approximately $150.00. Old fuel receipts dating back into the 1940's show an average use of 2000 gallons of heating fuel each winter prior to remodeling. This would indicate a yearly fuel savings of better than 90% through the use of passive solar techniques.

  10. Detection of Greenhouse-Gas-Induced Climatic Change

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.D.; Wigley, T.M.L.

    1998-05-26

    The objective of this report is to assemble and analyze instrumental climate data and to develop and apply climate models as a basis for (1) detecting greenhouse-gas-induced climatic change, and (2) validation of General Circulation Models.

  11. Regulations for Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Passenger Cars and Trucks

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA and the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) are taking coordinated steps to enable the production of a new generation of clean vehicles, through reduced greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and improved fuel use from onroad vehicles.

  12. Interagency Pilot of Greenhouse Gas Accounting Tools: Lessons Learned

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, A.; Hotchkiss, E.; Kandt, A.

    2013-02-01

    The Greater Yellowstone Area (GYA) and Tongass National Forest (Tongass) partnered with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to conduct a pilot study of three greenhouse gas (GHG) inventorying tools.

  13. Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda).

    PubMed

    Decker, Peter; Reip, Hans Simon; Voigtländer, Karin

    2014-01-01

    A review is given of all the literature records of millipedes and centipedes that have been found in German greenhouses together with additional records for 29 such sites. Species lists are given for 46 greenhouses investigated throughout Germany. Thirty-five diplopod and 18 chilopod species were found to occur in greenhouses, of which 15 (3 Chilopoda, 12 Diplopoda) are restricted to this type of habitat. First records for Germany include Anadenobolusmonilicornis (Porat, 1876), Epinannolenecf.trinidadensis Chamberlin, 1918, Epinannolene sp., Mesoiulusgridellii Strasser, 1934, Leptogoniulussorornus (Butler, 1876), Rhinotuspurpureus (Pocock, 1894), Cryptopsdoriae Pocock, 1891, Lamyctescoeculus (Brölemann, 1889) and Tygarrupjavanicus (Attems, 1907). The millipedes Oxidusgracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847) and Amphitomeusattemsi (Schubart, 1934) and the centipedes Lithobiusforficatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cryptopshortensis (Donovan, 1810) are the species most frequently found in greenhouses.

  14. Integrated Analysis of Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Options and Related Impacts

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased concerns over air pollution (combined with detrimental health effects) and climate change have called for more stringent emission reduction strategies for criteria air pollutants and greenhouse gas emissions. However, stringent regulatory policies can possibly have a...

  15. An Initial Study of the Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchon, A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the life cycle and control of the greenhouse whitefly. Explains the culture of the whitefly for school use and presents a list of laboratory exercises that can be done in a double period. (GS)

  16. Atmospheric greenhouse effect and climates on various planets

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratev, K.Y.; Moskalenko, N.I.

    1985-01-01

    The greenhouse effect of the planetary atmospheres is considered and its evolution as a result of variations in the chemical composition and in gas abundances of the atmospheres as well as in the chemical composition, size distribution and concentration of aerosol components. A computer modelling gave the values of the greenhouse effect of the atmospheres of the Earth, Mars, Venus, Jupiter, and Titan. It is shown that the atmospheric greenhouse effect plays a decisive role in the formation of the planetary climates and that it has substantially changed in the process of the planetary evolution. The greenhouse effect mechanism has always been and still is a major factor of the mean global planetary climate.

  17. CDR Malenchenko removes pea pods from Lada greenhouse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-05-15

    ISS007-E-05458 (15 May 2003) --- Cosmonaut Yuri I. Malenchenko, Expedition Seven mission commander, works with the Russian Lada greenhouse in the Zvezda Service Module on the International Space Station (ISS). Malenchenko represents Rosaviakosmos.

  18. View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of EPA Farm storage shed, facing north. Greenhouse is in background - Nevada Test Site, Environmental Protection Agency Farm, Storage Shed, Area 15, Yucca Flat, 10-2 Road near Circle Road, Mercury, Nye County, NV

  19. Passive solar greenhouse, middle earth farms. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    Results are given on the development of a commercial solar greenhouse operation using solar heat, local organic fertilizer, rainwater, and biological control of insects to produce low energy cost, high quality plants and fish.

  20. The Greenhouse: A Place for Year-Round Plant Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1989-01-01

    Activities that may take place in a greenhouse are discussed. Included are learning how to grow plants, plant growth, soil, vegetative reproduction, and plant habitat adaptations. Materials, procedures, and results are presented for the activities. (CW)

  1. Maximizing Greenhouse Gas Emissions Reductions through Food Waste Diversion

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Humboldt County, California, is an EPA Climate Showcase Community. EPA’s Climate Showcase Communities Program helps local governments and tribal nations pilot innovative, cost-effective and replicable community-based greenhouse gas reduction projects.

  2. Impact Delivery of Reduced Greenhouse Gases on Early Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberle, R. M.; Zahnle, K.; Barlow, N.

    2017-10-01

    Impacts may be a significant source of reduced greenhouse gases on Early Mars. A simple model suggests that during the Noachian they may raise surface temperatures near the melting point for a total of tens of millions of years.

  3. An Initial Study of the Greenhouse Whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum Westwood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hitchon, A.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the life cycle and control of the greenhouse whitefly. Explains the culture of the whitefly for school use and presents a list of laboratory exercises that can be done in a double period. (GS)

  4. Plant growth experiment inside the Russian Lada greenhouse

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-07-01

    ISS007-E-10348 (July 2003) --- This view of a plant growth experiment inside the Russian Lada greenhouse, located in the Zvezda Service Module, was taken by an Expedition 7 crewmember onboard the International Space Station (ISS).

  5. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Module

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  6. Request for Correction 10008 Endangerment Findings for Greenhouse Gases

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Request for correction by Peabody Energy Company for the EPA to correct temperature data in Endangerment and Cause or Contribute Findings for Greenhouse Gases under Section 202(a) of the Clean Air Act

  7. Millipedes and centipedes in German greenhouses (Myriapoda: Diplopoda, Chilopoda)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A review is given of all the literature records of millipedes and centipedes that have been found in German greenhouses together with additional records for 29 such sites. Species lists are given for 46 greenhouses investigated throughout Germany. Thirty-five diplopod and 18 chilopod species were found to occur in greenhouses, of which 15 (3 Chilopoda, 12 Diplopoda) are restricted to this type of habitat. First records for Germany include Anadenobolus monilicornis (Porat, 1876), Epinannolene cf. trinidadensis Chamberlin, 1918, Epinannolene sp., Mesoiulus gridellii Strasser, 1934, Leptogoniulus sorornus (Butler, 1876), Rhinotus purpureus (Pocock, 1894), Cryptops doriae Pocock, 1891, Lamyctes coeculus (Brölemann, 1889) and Tygarrup javanicus (Attems, 1907). The millipedes Oxidus gracilis (C. L. Koch, 1847) and Amphitomeus attemsi (Schubart, 1934) and the centipedes Lithobius forficatus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Cryptops hortensis (Donovan, 1810) are the species most frequently found in greenhouses. PMID:24891823

  8. World Energy Projection System Plus Model Documentation: Greenhouse Gases Model

    EIA Publications

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the objectives, analytical approach and development of the World Energy Projection System Plus (WEPS ) Greenhouse Gases Model. It also catalogues and describes critical assumptions, computational methodology, parameter estimation techniques, and model source code.

  9. Energy Market Impacts of Alternative Greenhouse Gas Intensity Reduction Goals

    EIA Publications

    2006-01-01

    This report responds to a request from Senator Ken Salazar that the Energy Information Administration (EIA) analyze the impacts of implementing alternative variants of an emissions cap-and-trade program for greenhouse gases (GHGs).

  10. Trace Gases, CO2, Climate, and the Greenhouse Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aubrecht, Gordon J., II

    1988-01-01

    Reports carbon dioxide and other trace gases can be the cause of the Greenhouse Effect. Discusses some effects of the temperature change and suggests some solutions. Included are several diagrams, graphs, and a table. (YP)

  11. Uncertainties in the attribution of greenhouse gas warming and implications for climate prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Gareth S.; Stott, Peter A.; Mitchell, John F. B.

    2016-06-01

    Using optimal detection techniques with climate model simulations, most of the observed increase of near-surface temperatures over the second half of the twentieth century is attributed to anthropogenic influences. However, the partitioning of the anthropogenic influence to individual factors, such as greenhouse gases and aerosols, is much less robust. Differences in how forcing factors are applied, in their radiative influence and in models' climate sensitivities, substantially influence the response patterns. We find that standard optimal detection methodologies cannot fully reconcile this response diversity. By selecting a set of experiments to enable the diagnosing of greenhouse gases and the combined influence of other anthropogenic and natural factors, we find robust detections of well-mixed greenhouse gases across a large ensemble of models. Of the observed warming over the twentieth century of 0.65 K/century we find, using a multimodel mean not incorporating pattern uncertainty, a well-mixed greenhouse gas warming of 0.87 to 1.22 K/century. This is partially offset by cooling from other anthropogenic and natural influences of -0.54 to -0.22 K/century. Although better constrained than recent studies, the attributable trends across climate models are still wide, with implications for observational constrained estimates of transient climate response. Some of the uncertainties could be reduced in future by having more model data to better quantify the simulated estimates of the signals and natural variability, by designing model experiments more effectively and better quantification of the climate model radiative influences. Most importantly, how model pattern uncertainties are incorporated into the optimal detection methodology should be improved.

  12. Can greenhouses eliminate the development of cold resistance of the leafminers?

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing; Kang, Le

    2005-06-01

    Latitudinal patterns for quantitative traits in insect are commonly used to investigate climatic adaptation. We compare the cold resistance of the leafminer (Liriomyza sativae) pupa among populations distributed from tropical to temperate regions, incorporating the thermal overwintering limit of the insect's range. The patterns of cold resistance for northern and southern populations differ. The southern populations significantly increased their cold resistance with latitude, showing a latitudinal pattern independent of seasons, acclimation regimes, and assay methods. In contrast, the northern populations showed no stable patterns; they were always intermediate in cold hardiness between the low-latitude and high-latitude populations within the overwintering limit. Integration of these data with those of the biologically similar congeneric leafminer, L. huidobrensis, suggests that a pattern shift in stress tolerance associated with the overwintering range limit is probably a general adaptive strategy adopted by freeze-intolerant species that have a high-latitude boundary of distribution, but can only overwinter and develop in protected greenhouses in harsh seasons. Considering the widespread availability of greenhouses for overwintering insects in northern China, we speculated that the large-scale existence of thermally-buffered microhabitats in greenhouses might eliminate the development of cold resistance of the leafminer populations. However, results suggest a strong selection for increased cold resistance for natural populations of Liriomyza species at higher latitudes that can overwinter in the field, but not for populations at latitudes above the thermal limit. Thus, habitat modification associated with greenhouses can limit gene flow and reduce cold tolerances even at latitudes above where the leafminers can overwinter in the field.

  13. Effects of plant density on plant growth before and after recurrent selection in maize

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Breeding for higher grain yield in Maize (Zea mays L.) has produced varieties that are adapted to grow at higher population densities. While the effects of density on final grain yield and plant phenotypes are well known, how density affects the early development of the plant has been less studied....

  14. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  15. Empirical Quantification of the Runaway Greenhouse Limit on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldblatt, C.; Dewey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been many modeling studies of the runaway greenhouse effect and the conditions required to produce one on an Earth-like planet, however these models have not been verified with empirical evidence. It has been suggested that the Earth's tropics may be near a state of localized runaway greenhouse, meaning the surface temperature and atmospheric composition in those areas could cause runaway greenhouse, were it not for the tempering effects of meridional heat transport and circulation (Pierrehumbert, 1995). Using the assumption that some areas of the Earth's tropics may be under these conditions, this study uses measurements of the atmospheric properties, surface properties, and radiation budgets of these areas to quantify a radiation limit for runaway greenhouse on Earth, by analyzing the dependence of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere on surface temperature and total column water vapour. An upper limit on OLR for clear-sky conditions was found between 289.8 W/m2 and 292.2 W/m2, which occurred at surface temperatures near 300K. For surface temperatures above this threshold, total column water vapour increased, but OLR initially decreased and then remained relatively constant, between 273.6 W/m2 and 279.7 W/m2. These limits are in good agreement with recent modeling results (Goldblatt et al., 2013), supporting the idea that some of the Earth's tropics may be in localized runaway greenhouse, and that radiation limits for runaway greenhouse on Earth can be empirically derived. This research was done as part of Maura Dewey's undergraduate honours thesis at the University of Victoria. Refs: Robert T. Pierrehumbert. Thermostats, radiator fins, and the local runaway greenhouse. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 52(10):1784-1806, 1995. Colin Goldblatt, Tyler D. Robinson, Kevin J. Zahnle, and David Crisp. Low simulated radiation limit for runaway greenhouse climates. Nature Geoscience, 6:661-667, 2013.

  16. Greenhouse effect of chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James; Lacis, Andrew; Prather, Michael

    1989-01-01

    A comparison is made of the radiative (greenhouse) forcing of the climate system due to changes of atmospheric chlorofluorocarbons and other trace gases. It is found that CFCs, defined to include chlorofluorocarbons, chlorocarbons, and fluorocarbons, now provide about one-quater of current annual increases in anthropogenic greenhouse climate forcing. If the growth rates of CFC production in the early 1970s had continued to the present, current annual growth of climate forcing due to CFCs would exceed that due to CO2.

  17. 8. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall (Note the fragments of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail view, greenhouse, south wall (Note the fragments of carved frieze and the construction seam running across the upper-right-hand corner of the photograph. The south wall was extended eastward and upward in the nineteenth century in order to accommodate the a new all-encompassing roof for the four adjacent units). - John Bartram House & Garden, Greenhouse, 54th Street & LIndbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Extratropical influence of upper tropospheric water vapor on Greenhouse warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Hu, Hua

    1997-01-01

    Despite its small quantity, the importance of upper tropospheric water vapor is its ability to trap the longwave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface, namely the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is defined quantitatively as the difference between the longwave flux emitted by the Earth's surface and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) flux emitted from the top of the atmosphere (TOA) (Raval and Ramanathan 1989).

  19. Extratropical influence of upper tropospheric water vapor on Greenhouse warming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, W. Timothy; Hu, Hua

    1997-01-01

    Despite its small quantity, the importance of upper tropospheric water vapor is its ability to trap the longwave radiation emitted from the Earth's surface, namely the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is defined quantitatively as the difference between the longwave flux emitted by the Earth's surface and the outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) flux emitted from the top of the atmosphere (TOA) (Raval and Ramanathan 1989).

  20. Sulfur dioxide effects on plants exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Olszyk, D M; Bytnerowicz, A; Fox, C A

    1987-01-01

    The effects of SO(2) on species exhibiting Crassulacean Acid Metabolism (CAM) were determined with short term-high concentration 'acute' greenhouse exposures (0.6 to 3.0 microl liter(-1) (ppm) SO(2) for 2 and 8 h), and long term-low concentration 'chronic' field exposures (0.35 to 0.90 microl liter(-1) SO(2) for 32 to 79 h periodically over 7 to 13 days). In the acute greenhouse exposures, visible injury was observed on Opuntia basilaris Engelm. & Bigel., exposed to 2.0 microl liter(-1) SO(2), but no injury was observed on Ananas comosus (L.) Merr., Bryophyllum blossfeldiana Poelln., Bryophyllum pinnata (Lam.) Pers., or Bryophyllum tubiflora (Harv.) Hamet, exposed to up to 2.8 microl liter(-1) SO(2) for 8 h. Stomatal conductance during the exposures averaged 0.067+/-0.021mol(-2)s(-1) for Opuntia basilaris, 0.029+/-0.008mol(-2)s(-1) for Ananas comosus, and 0.029+/-0.008mol m(-2)s(-1) for Bryophyllum pinnata. Opuntia basilaris was injured early during the day, but not at night; with the injury appearing as a white necrotic banding across just fully expanded pads. Moderately injured pads would regreen beginning 1 to 2 weeks after exposure. In chronic field exposures, no visible injury from SO(2) was observed on Opuntia basilaris, Dudleya arizonica Rose or Agave deserti Engelm. plants, grown either with supplemental irrigation or natural rainfall. In addition, in the field SO(2) had no effect on CO(2) uptake, total sulfur content, transpiration, or tissue acidity in either the light or the dark, or in irrigated vs natural rainfall plots.

  1. Inventory of Alabama greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Chumeng; Herz, W.J.; Griffin, R.A.

    1996-12-31

    Greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere have been increasing since the industrial revolution. Worldwide efforts are being made to study anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. This study quantified the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions in Alabama in 1990. Alabama anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks from 13 sources were studied. 1990 Alabama total anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions and sinks were estimated to be 153.42 and 21.66 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. As a result, the net total greenhouse gas emissions were estimated to be 131.76 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. Fossil fuel combustion is the major source of emissions, representing approximately 78 percent. Coal mining and landfills are other two significant emission sources, representing approximately 10 and 6 percent of the total emissions respectively. Forests in Alabama represent the major sink, offsetting approximately 14 percent of the total emissions. On a per capita basis, Alabama`s emission rate is 32.3 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per capita in 1990, compared to the national per capita average of 23.4 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent. The high emission rate is attributed to higher emissions than the national average from fossil fuel combustion, from coal mining and landfills in Alabama.

  2. Variations in the tropical greenhouse effect during El Nino

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, B.J.

    1997-05-01

    Observations of the clear-sky outgoing longwave radiation and sea surface temperature are combined to examine the evolution of the tropical greenhouse effect from colder La Nina conditions in early 1985 to warmer El Nino conditions in late 1987. Although comparison of individual months can suggest a decrease in greenhouse trapping from cold to warm conditions, when the entire 4-yr record is considered a distinct increase in tropical-mean greenhouse trapping of {approximately}2 W m{sup -2} is observed in conjunction with a {approximately}0.4 K increase in tropical-mean sea surface temperature. This observed increase compares favorably with GCM simulations of the change in the clear-sky greenhouse effect during El Nifio-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Superimposed on top of the SST-driven change in greenhouse trapping are dynamically induced changes in tropical moisture apparently associated with a redistribution of SST during ENSO. The GCM simulations also successfully reproduce this feature, providing reassurance in the ability of GCMs to predict both dynamically and thermodynamically driven changes in greenhouse trapping. 25 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  3. The erythemal ultraviolet exposure for humans in greenhouses.

    PubMed

    Parisi, A V; Wong, J C

    1997-12-01

    A spectrum evaluator has been employed to evaluate the erythemal exposure in late spring and late summer at three sites and five orientations at each site inside a glass greenhouse with black shadecloth over the glass roof. The maximum in the erythemal irradiance in the greenhouse is not necessarily at noon. Over a day, the maximum erythemal exposure occurred on the eastern side of the greenhouse in the morning and on the western side in the afternoon. The erythemal irradiance on the eastern side in the morning was higher by 26% and 50% for horizontal and vertical surfaces respectively compared with the same site at noon. On the western side the irradiance was higher by 45% and 78% for the horizontal and vertical surfaces respectively compared with the same site at noon. The erythemal irradiance inside the greenhouse does not vary as much during the day as it does outside; for example, for horizontal surfaces, the ratio of the erythemal irradiance outside to the average inside the greenhouse varies from 66 to 112 to 74 for the morning, noon and afternoon periods respectively. Over a 6 h period, the erythemal exposure to the shoulder for a standing posture in the greenhouse was 5 mJ cm-2.

  4. Manure management for greenhouse gas mitigation.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S O; Blanchard, M; Chadwick, D; Del Prado, A; Edouard, N; Mosquera, J; Sommer, S G

    2013-06-01

    Ongoing intensification and specialisation of livestock production lead to increasing volumes of manure to be managed, which are a source of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O). Net emissions of CH4 and N2O result from a multitude of microbial activities in the manure environment. Their relative importance depends not only on manure composition and local management practices with respect to treatment, storage and field application, but also on ambient climatic conditions. The diversity of livestock production systems, and their associated manure management, is discussed on the basis of four regional cases (Sub-Saharan Africa, Southeast Asia, China and Europe) with increasing levels of intensification and priorities with respect to nutrient management and environmental regulation. GHG mitigation options for production systems based on solid and liquid manure management are then presented, and potentials for positive and negative interactions between pollutants, and between management practices, are discussed. The diversity of manure properties and environmental conditions necessitate a modelling approach for improving estimates of GHG emissions, and for predicting effects of management changes for GHG mitigation, and requirements for such a model are discussed. Finally, we briefly discuss drivers for, and barriers against, introduction of GHG mitigation measures for livestock production. There is no conflict between efforts to improve food and feed production, and efforts to reduce GHG emissions from manure management. Growth in livestock populations are projected to occur mainly in intensive production systems where, for this and other reasons, the largest potentials for GHG mitigation may be found.

  5. Greenhouse gas emissions intensity of global croplands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Gerber, James S.; Mueller, Nathaniel D.; Herrero, Mario; MacDonald, Graham K.; Brauman, Kate A.; Havlik, Petr; O'Connell, Christine S.; Johnson, Justin A.; Saatchi, Sassan; West, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Stabilizing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from croplands as agricultural demand grows is a critical component of climate change mitigation. Emissions intensity metrics--including carbon dioxide equivalent emissions per kilocalorie produced (`production intensity’)--can highlight regions, management practices, and crops as potential foci for mitigation. Yet the spatial and crop-wise distribution of emissions intensity has been uncertain. Here, we develop global crop-specific circa 2000 estimates of GHG emissions and GHG intensity in high spatial detail, reporting the effects of rice paddy management, peatland draining, and nitrogen (N) fertilizer on CH4, CO2 and N2O emissions. Global mean production intensity is 0.16 Mg CO2e M kcal-1, yet certain cropping practices contribute disproportionately to emissions. Peatland drainage (3.7 Mg CO2e M kcal-1)--concentrated in Europe and Indonesia--accounts for 32% of these cropland emissions despite peatlands producing just 1.1% of total crop kilocalories. Methane emissions from rice (0.58 Mg CO2e M kcal-1), a crucial food staple supplying 15% of total crop kilocalories, contribute 48% of cropland emissions, with outsized production intensity in Vietnam. In contrast, N2O emissions from N fertilizer application (0.033 Mg CO2e M kcal-1) generate only 20% of cropland emissions. We find that current total GHG emissions are largely unrelated to production intensity across crops and countries. Climate mitigation policies should therefore be directed to locations where crops have both high emissions and high intensities.

  6. Greenhouse gas fluxes over Central European grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, L. J.; Bahn, M.; Barthel, M.; Eugster, W.; Klumpp, K.; Ladreiter-Knauss, T.; Merbold, L.; Wohlfahrt, G.; Buchmann, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    The uptake of carbon dioxide (CO2) by grassland ecosystems can be offset by the concurrent emission of the greenhouse gases methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in terms of CO2-equivalents. As a consequence, CH4 and N2O emissions can contribute to an increase of the global warming potential (GWP) of the respective study site. For a full assessment of the climatic impact of grassland ecosystems it is therefore necessary to quantify fluxes of these two compounds in combination with CO2 exchange. Since agricultural management practices and land use change at a given site can have a strong impact on annual CH4 and N2O budgets, both compounds are a frequent topic of discussion when planning GHG mitigation strategies.Here we present an overview of the GHG exchange of eight managed Central European grassland sites along a gradient of elevation and land use intensity. Fluxes of the three major GHGs CO2, CH4 and N2O were quantified using the eddy covariance or chamber technique. The grasslands differed with regard to the amount of fertilizer input, frequency of cuts and grazing duration and intensity, ranging from more intensively managed to very lightly managed and abandoned grassland. In this presentation we focus on time periods when measurements of all three compounds were available for all sites. We investigate common features among observed CH4 and N2O exchange patterns at the different grassland sites in relation to management activities and concurrently measured biotic / abiotic parameters. In addition, we evaluate the impact of CH4 and N2O fluxes on the annual GWP of field sites for which long-term measurements are available.

  7. Scaling Potential Evapotranspiration with Greenhouse Warming (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheff, J.; Frierson, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Potential evapotranspiration (PET) is a supply-independent measure of the evaporative demand of a terrestrial climate, of basic importance in climatology, hydrology, and agriculture. Future increases in PET from greenhouse warming are often cited as key drivers of global trends toward drought and aridity. The present work computes recent and business-as-usual-future Penman-Monteith (i.e. physically-based) PET fields at 3-hourly resolution in 14 modern global climate models. The %-change in local annual-mean PET over the upcoming century is almost always positive, modally low double-digit in magnitude, usually increasing with latitude, yet quite divergent between models. These patterns are understood as follows. In every model, the global field of PET %-change is found to be dominated by the direct, positive effects of constant-relative-humidity warming (via increasing vapor pressure deficit and increasing Clausius-Clapeyron slope.) This direct-warming term very accurately scales as the PET-weighted (warm-season daytime) local warming, times 5-6% per degree (related to the Clausius-Clapeyron equation), times an analytic factor ranging from about 0.25 in warm climates to 0.75 in cold climates, plus a small correction. With warming of several degrees, this product is of low double-digit magnitude, and the strong temperature dependence gives the latitude dependence. Similarly, the inter-model spread in the amount of warming gives most of the spread in this term. Additional spread in the total change comes from strong disagreement on radiation, relative-humidity, and windspeed changes, which make smaller yet substantial contributions to the full PET %-change fields.

  8. Analysis of air pollution and greenhouse gases

    SciTech Connect

    Benkovitz, C.M.

    1992-03-01

    The current objective of the project Analysis of Air Pollution and Greenhouse Gases'' is to develop a study of emissions and emission sources that could easily be linked to models of economic activity. Initial studies were conducted to evaluate data currently available linking activity rates and emissions estimates. The emissions inventory developed for the National Acid Precipitation Assessment Program (NAPAP) presents one of the most comprehensive data sets, and was chosen for our initial studies, which are described in this report. Over 99% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 98% of the NO{sub x} emission and 57% of the VOC emissions from area sources are related to fuel combustion. The majority of emission from these sources are generated by the transportation sector. Activity rates for area sources are not archived with the NAPAP inventory; alternative derivations of these data will be part of the future activities of this project. The availability and completeness of the fuel heat content data in the NAPAP inventory were also studied. Approximately 10% of the SO{sub 2} emissions, 13% of the NO{sub x} emissions and 46% of the VOC emissions are generated by sources with unavailable data for fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content. Initial estimates of pollutant emission rate per unit fuel heat content were generated. Future studies for this project include the derivation of activity rates for area sources, improved explanations for the default fuel parameters defined in the NAPAP inventory and the development of links to data bases of economic activity.

  9. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Instructor Guide and Student Reference. Missouri Agricultural Education. Volume 21, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Judith A.; And Others

    These student and instructor materials for a one-semester course intended for high school juniors and seniors teach the following 24 lessons: (1) the scope and development of greenhouse production; (2) the economic importance of greenhouse crops; (3) careers in greenhouse operation and management; (4) greenhouse parts, structures, and coverings;…

  10. Greenhouse Operation and Management. Instructor Guide and Student Reference. Missouri Agricultural Education. Volume 21, Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Judith A.; And Others

    These student and instructor materials for a one-semester course intended for high school juniors and seniors teach the following 24 lessons: (1) the scope and development of greenhouse production; (2) the economic importance of greenhouse crops; (3) careers in greenhouse operation and management; (4) greenhouse parts, structures, and coverings;…

  11. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  12. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  13. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  14. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  15. 40 CFR 52.22 - Enforceable commitments for further actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... actions addressing the pollutant greenhouse gases (GHGs). 52.22 Section 52.22 Protection of Environment... greenhouse gases (GHGs). (a) Definitions. (1) Greenhouse Gases (GHGs) means the air pollutant as defined in § 86.1818-12(a) of this chapter as the aggregate group of six greenhouse gases: Carbon dioxide,...

  16. Technology Opportunities to Reduce U.S. Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    National Lab Directors, . .

    2001-04-05

    The rise in greenhouse gas emissions from fossil fuel combustion and industrial and agricultural activities has aroused international concern about the possible impacts of these emissions on climate. Greenhouse gases--mostly carbon dioxide, some methane, nitrous oxide and other trace gases--are emitted to the atmosphere, enhancing an effect in which heat reflected from the earth's surface is kept from escaping into space, as in a greenhouse. Thus, there is concern that the earth's surface temperature may rise enough to cause global climate change. Approximately 90% of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions from anthropogenic sources come from energy production and use, most of which are a byproduct of the combustion of fossil fuels. On a per capita basis, the United States is one of the world's largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, comprising 4% of the world's population, yet emitting 23% of the world's greenhouse gases. Emissions in the United States are increasing at around 1.2% annually, and the Energy Information Administration forecasts that emissions levels will continue to increase at this rate in the years ahead if we proceed down the business-as-usual path. President Clinton has presented a two-part challenge for the United States: reduce greenhouse gas emissions and grow the economy. Meeting the challenge will mean that in doing tomorrow's work, we must use energy more efficiently and emit less carbon for the energy expended than we do today. To accomplish these goals, President Clinton proposed on June 26, 1997, that the United States ''invest more in the technologies of the future''. In this report to Secretary of Energy Pena, 47 technology pathways are described that have significant potential to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. The present study was completed before the December 1997 United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change and is intended to provide a basis to evaluate technology feasibility and options to reduce greenhouse gas emissions

  17. Emission of greenhouse gases from waste incineration in Korea.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kum-Lok; Choi, Sang-Min; Kim, Moon-Kyung; Heo, Jong-Bae; Zoh, Kyung-Duk

    2017-07-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) emission factors previously reported from various waste incineration plants have shown significant variations according to country-specific, plant-specific, and operational conditions. The purpose of this study is to estimate GHG emissions and emission factors at nine incineration facilities in Korea by measuring the GHG concentrations in the flue gas samples. The selected incineration plants had different operation systems (i.e., stoker, fluidized bed, moving grate, rotary kiln, and kiln & stoker), and different nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal systems (i.e., selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR)) to treat municipal solid waste (MSW), commercial solid waste (CSW), and specified waste (SW). The total mean emission factors for A and B facilities for MSW incineration were found to be 134 ± 17 kg CO2 ton(-1), 88 ± 36 g CH4 ton(-1), and 69 ± 16 g N2O ton(-1), while those for CSW incineration were 22.56 g CH4 ton(-1) and 259.76 g N2O ton(-1), and for SW incineration emission factors were 2959 kg CO2 ton(-1), 43.44 g CH4 ton(-1) and 401.21 g N2O ton(-1), respectively. Total emissions calculated using annual incineration for MSW were 3587 ton CO2-eq yr(-1) for A facility and 11,082 ton CO2-eq yr(-1) for B facility, while those of IPCC default values were 13,167 ton CO2-eq yr(-1) for A facility and 32,916 ton CO2-eq yr(-1), indicating that the emissions of IPCC default values were estimated higher than those of the plant-specific emission factors. The emission of CSW for C facility was 1403 ton CO2-eq yr(-1), while those of SW for D to I facilities was 28,830 ton CO2-eq yr(-1). The sensitivity analysis using a Monte Carlo simulation for GHG emission factors in MSW showed that the GHG concentrations have a greater impact than the incineration amount and flow rate of flue gas. For MSW incineration plants using the same stoker type in operation, the estimated emissions and emission factors of CH4

  18. Editorial and Introduction of the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

    SciTech Connect

    Dooley, James J.; Benson, Sally M.; Karimjee, Anhar; Rubin, Edward S.

    2010-03-01

    Short one page editorial to introduce the +30 peer reviewed papers contained within the Special Issue for the Ninth International Conference on Greenhouse Gas Control Technologies in the International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control

  19. Could plants help tame the greenhouse

    SciTech Connect

    Baskin, Y.

    1993-03-19

    It's easy to see how climate change might affect the globe's vegetation, driving hardwood forests into regions now covered with evergreens and causing deserts to shift. It's less easy to picture the other side of the coin: biology's impact on the atmosphere. So mathematician Berrien Moore III of the University of New Hampshire, who heads the International Geosphere-Biosphere Program task force on global analysis, interpretation, and modeling, staged a simple demonstration. He modeled the effects of a biosphere fertilized by increased CO[sub 2] - and found that it could first help, then hinder, human efforts to slow the buildup of greenhouse gases. To simulate such a biotic carbon sink, Moore combined a simple model of CO[sub 2] uptake by the ocean with an equally simple model of its uptake by photosynthesis on land and its release by deforestation and plant decay. He then forced this simple ocean-atmosphere-vegetation model with fossil fuel CO[sub 2] emissions from 1860 to the present. As expected, his model ended up with too much carbon in the atmosphere. So he turned up photosynthesis, fertilizing plant growth in his model, until the rate of CO[sub 2] buildup just matched the observed increase. Moore then explored how this terrestrial carbon sink would respond if the CO[sub 2] buildup slowed. The result: If you were to cap the rate of CO[sub 2] emissions from fossil fuel burning, [this terrestrial] sink would reduce the atmospheric lifetime of CO[sub 2] by a factor of four or five. This cleansing effect would operate on timescales of years or decades, compared with centuries for the ocean, says Moore - fast enough to aid human efforts to slow the CO[sub 2] buildup. However, it doesn't do it forever. If at some point emissions cuts and the terrestrial sink succeeded in reducing atmospheric CO[sub 2], plant growth would drop and CO[sub 2] levels would bounce back up as all the extra biomass rotted away.

  20. Greenhouse Gas Fluxes from Peatland Pools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, E.; Baird, A. J.; Billett, M. F.; Chapman, P. J.; Dinsmore, K. J.; Holden, J.

    2015-12-01

    Peatlands contain around one third of the global soil carbon (C) stock. Understanding the processes in peatland C cycling, and in particular those involved in the release of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) CO2 and CH4 to the atmosphere, is a current research priority. Natural open-water pools are a common feature of many peatlands, and previous research suggests pools can be strong sources of atmospheric GHGs, particularly CH4, and thus have the potential to play an important role in global radiative forcing. The area of open-water in peatlands is rapidly expanding in a warming Arctic (e.g. Walter et al., 2007) while artificially created pools are becoming more commonplace in the recent drive to restore the hydrological functioning of drained peatlands by blocking ditches. We present the results of >2 years of comprehensive field monitoring from pool complexes in the Flow Country of northern Scotland, the largest expanse (c.4000 km2) of blanket bog in Europe. Concentrations and fluxes of CO2 and CH4 are presented from 12 intensively monitored pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. We examined both natural (n = 6) and artificial (n = 6) pools, which allowed us to quantify how pools created during restoration compare to undisturbed sites. C and hydrology budgets were determined for the study pools and the adjacent terrestrial surface. Dissolved concentrations of GHGs ranged from 0.08-4.68 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.01-731 µg CH4-C L-1 in natural pools, and 0.29-10.38 mg CO2-C L-1 and 0.04-239 µg CH4-C L-1 in artificial pools. GHG fluxes from natural pool surfaces ranged between -2.47-653 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -31.7-14.8 g CO2 m-2 d-1. Artificial pool GHG fluxes were -8.19-581 mg CH4 m-2 d-1 and -7.66-34.9 g CO2 m-2 d-1. We provide more accurate GHG budgets for peatlands with natural pool complexes by considering their relative importance at the landscape-scale, and outline the potential effect on GHG fluxes when creating artificial pools during peatland restoration

  1. The greenhouse gas balance of European grasslands.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jinfeng; Ciais, Philippe; Viovy, Nicolas; Vuichard, Nicolas; Sultan, Benjamin; Soussana, Jean-François

    2015-10-01

    The greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of European grasslands (EU-28 plus Norway and Switzerland), including CO2 , CH4 and N2 O, is estimated using the new process-based biogeochemical model ORCHIDEE-GM over the period 1961-2010. The model includes the following: (1) a mechanistic representation of the spatial distribution of management practice; (2) management intensity, going from intensively to extensively managed; (3) gridded simulation of the carbon balance at ecosystem and farm scale; and (4) gridded simulation of N2 O and CH4 emissions by fertilized grassland soils and livestock. The external drivers of the model are changing animal numbers, nitrogen fertilization and deposition, land-use change, and variable CO2 and climate. The carbon balance of European grassland (NBP) is estimated to be a net sink of 15 ± 7 g C m(-2 ) year(-1) during 1961-2010, equivalent to a 50-year continental cumulative soil carbon sequestration of 1.0 ± 0.4 Pg C. At the farm scale, which includes both ecosystem CO2 fluxes and CO2 emissions from the digestion of harvested forage, the net C balance is roughly halved, down to a small sink, or nearly neutral flux of 8 g C m(-2 ) year(-1) . Adding CH4 and N2 O emissions to net ecosystem exchange to define the ecosystem-scale GHG balance, we found that grasslands remain a net GHG sink of 19 ± 10 g C-CO2 equiv. m(-2 ) year(-1) , because the CO2 sink offsets N2 O and grazing animal CH4 emissions. However, when considering the farm scale, the GHG balance (NGB) becomes a net GHG source of -50 g C-CO2 equiv. m(-2 ) year(-1) . ORCHIDEE-GM simulated an increase in European grassland NBP during the last five decades. This enhanced NBP reflects the combination of a positive trend of net primary production due to CO2 , climate and nitrogen fertilization and the diminishing requirement for grass forage due to the Europe-wide reduction in livestock numbers. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Strong Equatorial Seasonality during Early Eocene greenhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samanta, Arpita; Sarkar, Anindya

    2017-04-01

    A warm greenhouse climate, punctuated by a series of rapid warming events (known as hyperthermals), is characteristic of the Late Paleocene to Early Eocene period. Rapid addition of 13C depleted carbon to the exogenic carbon cycle, in an otherwise overall higher atmospheric CO2 level, is thought to set off the hyperthermal events. For understanding the fate of ongoing global warming and response of the climate system and biota, researchers for past few decades are paying more attention to comprehend this climatic enigma. Existing proxies from the most distinct hyperthermal event i.e., PETM indicate that the mean annual sea surface temperature (MASST) was comparatively higher (by ˜8 ˚ C) at high latitude and to a lesser extent towards the equator. Apart from the prominent hyperthermal events the rest of the Early Eocene was significantly warmer and thought to be more equable compare to present. Terrestrial proxy records from the mid-latitude regions indicated that the Mean Annual Temperature (MAT) and Minimum Winter Temperature (MWT) was high, thus reducing the seasonality or difference between MWT and Maximum Summer Temperature (MST). In absence of proxy data from the low latitude region, a ≥40 ˚ C summer temperature was predicted assuming a mild Eocene temperature gradient of ˜0.4 ˚ C/ ˚ latitude and mid-latitude temperature data. Even question was raised about the existence of the tropical rain forest in such climatic extreme. Recent pollen census data, on contrary, suggest proliferation of the tropical rain forest during this climatic extreme. Important in this context is that there is a very few direct evidence of Late Paleocene-Early Eocene MAT and seasonality data from the low latitude/equatorial regions. To resolve this issue, oxygen and carbon isotope ratios of larger benthic foraminifera (Nummulites burdigalensis) were measured in laser based carbonate device attached with the Delta V advantage continuous flow stable isotope ratio mass spectrometer

  3. Air Pollution, Greenhouse Gases and Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramanathan, V.

    2007-12-01

    The global build up of greenhouse gases (GHGs), is the most significant environmental issue facing the planet. GHGs warm the surface and the atmosphere with significant implications for, rainfall, retreat of glaciers and sea ice, sea level, among other factors. What is less recognized, however, is a comparably major global problem dealing with air pollution. Until about ten years ago, air pollution was thought to be just an urban or a local problem. But new data have revealed that, due to fast long range transport, air pollution is transported across continents and ocean basins, resulting in trans-oceanic and trans-continental plumes of atmospheric brown clouds (ABCs) containing sub micron size particles, i.e, aerosols. ABCs intercept sunlight by absorbing as well as reflecting it, both of which lead to a large surface dimming. The dimming effect is enhanced further because aerosols nucleate more cloud drops which makes the clouds reflect more solar radiation. While the solar heating at the surface is reduced by aerosols in ABCs, the atmospheric solar heating increases due to soot solar absorption. The net difference between the dimming and the atmospheric solar heating is estimated be negative which contributes to a global cooling effect. The global cooling from this negative ABC forcing may have masked as much as 50% of the warming due to GHGs. We will identify regional and mega-city hot spots of ABCs. Long range transport from these hot spots gives rise to wide spread plumes over the adjacent oceans. Such a pattern of regionally concentrated surface dimming and atmospheric solar heating, accompanied by wide spread dimming over the oceans, gives rise to large regional effects. Only during the last decade, we have begun to comprehend the surprisingly large regional impacts. The large north-south gradient in the ABC dimming has altered the north-south gradients in sea surface temperatures, which in turn has been shown by models to decrease rainfall over the

  4. Mexico joins the venture: Joint Implementation and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Imaz, M.; Gay, C.; Friedmann, R.; Goldberg, B.

    1998-11-01

    Joint Implementation (JI) and its pilot phase of Activities Implemented Jointly (AIJ) are envisioned as an economic way of reducing global emissions of greenhouse gases. This paper draws upon the Mexican experience with AIJ to identify Mexican concerns with AIJ/JI and proposed solutions to these. Three approved Mexican AIJ projects (Ilumex, Scolel Te, and Salicornia) are described in detail. The Ilurnex project promotes the use of compact fluorescent lamps in Mexican homes of the States of Jalisco and Nuevo Leon, to reduce electric demand. Scolel Te is a sustainable forest management project in Chiapas. Salicornia examines the potential for carbon sequestration with a Halophyte-based crop irrigated with saline waters in Sonora. These three projects are reviewed to clarify the issues and concerns that Mexico has with AIJ and JI and propose measures to deal with them. These initial Mexican AIJ projects show that there is a need for creation of standard project evaluation procedures, and criteria and institutions to oversee project design, selection, and implementation. Further JI development will be facilitated by national and international clarification of key issues such as additionality criteria, carbon-credit sharing, and valuation of non-GHG environmental and/or social benefits and impacts for AIJ projects. Mexico is concerned that JI funding could negatively impact official development assistance or that OECD countries will use JI to avoid taking significant GHG mitigation actions in their own countries. The lack of carbon credit trading in the AIJ stage must be removed to provide useful experience on how to share carbon credits. National or international guidelines are needed to ensure that a portion of the carbon credits is allocated to Mexico.

  5. Browns Ferry waste heat greenhouse. Progress report. Circular Z-117

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, E.R.; Carter, J.; Pile, R.S.; Roetheli, J.C.

    1980-08-01

    A 25,000-ft/sup 2/ experimental greenhouse at Browns Ferry Nuclear Plant was divided into three sections to compare two heat exchange systems using waste heat in condenser cooling water (CCW) with a conventionally heated zone. A 125-hp pump at each of the three power plant units provides a 3000 gal/min pumping capacity for the CCW which is pumped about 2000 ft through a 12-in. pipe to the greenhouse. Construction was completed in November 1978; initial engineering tests were not conducted on system performance until January 1979; and the first tomato crop was planted January 10, 1979. Harvest was completed in July 1979; and cucumbers, chrysanthemums, poinsettias, and gloxinias were grown during the following summer and fall. Low winter greenhouse temperatures reduced the yield and quality of tomatoes in the two waste heat sections which averaged 13.0 lbs/plant. The conventionally heated zone produced 15.4 lbs/plant. In January and February, temperatures of the CCW were sometimes as low as 52/sup 0/F, or 18/sup 0/F below the predicted 70/sup 0/F which was the minimum simulated CCW temperature used to develop the pilot greenhouse heating system at Muscle Shoals. The two heat exchange systems using CCW performed near design expectations - keeping the greenhouse air temperature within 10/sup 0/ to 12/sup 0/F of the incoming water temperature. Summer and fall production of cucumbers and ornamental crops was successful in all three sections, which were conventionally cooled. Production budgets indicated a greater potential for ornamental production than vegetable production in waste heat greenhouses. Economic studies showed that heat exchange systems using waste heat from CCW will require higher capital investment and greater electrical consumption than a conventionally heated greenhouse. However, depending upon the costs charged for CCW, the waste heat systems may show potential economic advantages as a result of reduced heating costs.

  6. Heavy metals in intensive greenhouse vegetable production systems along Yellow Sea of China: Levels, transfer and health risk.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wenyou; Huang, Biao; Tian, Kang; Holm, Peter E; Zhang, Yanxia

    2017-01-01

    Recently, greenhouse vegetable production (GVP) has grown rapidly and counts a large proportion of vegetable production in China. In this study, the accumulation, health risk and threshold values of selected heavy metals were evaluated systematically. A total of 120 paired soil and vegetable samples were collected from three typical intensive GVP systems along the Yellow Sea of China. Mean concentrations of Cd, As, Hg, Pb, Cu and Zn in greenhouse soils were 0.21, 7.12, 0.05, 19.81, 24.95 and 94.11 mg kg(-1), respectively. Compared to rootstalk and fruit vegetables, leafy vegetables had relatively high concentrations and transfer factors of heavy metals. The accumulation of heavy metals in soils was affected by soil pH and soil organic matter. The calculated hazard quotients (HQ) of the heavy metals by vegetable consumption decreased in the order of leafy > rootstalk > fruit vegetables with hazard index (HI) values of 0.61, 0.33 and 0.26, respectively. The HI values were all below 1, which indicates that there is a low risk of greenhouse vegetable consumption. Soil threshold values (STVs) of heavy metals in GVP system were established according to the health risk assessment. The relatively lower transfer factors of rootstalk and fruit vegetables and higher STVs suggest that these types of vegetables are more suitable for cultivation in greenhouse soils. This study will provide an useful reference for controlling heavy metals and developing sustainable GVP.

  7. Induction of plant defense gene expression by plant activators and Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato in greenhouse-grown tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Herman, M A B; Davidson, J K; Smart, C D

    2008-11-01

    Plant activators provide an appealing management option for bacterial diseases of greenhouse-grown tomatoes. Two types of plant activators, one that induces systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and a second that activates induced systemic resistance (ISR), were evaluated for control of Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato and effect on plant defense gene activation. Benzothiadiazole (BTH, SAR-inducing compound) effectively reduced bacterial speck incidence and severity, both alone and in combination with the ISR-inducing product. Application of BTH also led to elevated activation of salicylic acid and ethylene-mediated responses, based on real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of marker gene expression levels. In contrast, the ISR-inducing product (made up of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria) inconsistently modified defense gene expression and did not provide disease control to the same level as did BTH. No antagonism was observed by combining the two activators as control of bacterial speck was similar to or better than BTH alone.

  8. The effects of solar radiation on plant growth

    SciTech Connect

    Agard, J.

    1995-09-01

    This phase of this continuing project was completed in April, 1994, using Dahlgren No. 855 hybrid sunflower seeds and Park Seeds No. 0950 non-hybrid sunflower seeds in both the control groups and the tests groups. The control groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were grown under normal, un-radiated, conditions. The tests groups (1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a) were grown onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-60 flight in February 1994. All data from this experiment (both control and test groups) will be taken and recorded in a data log and compared against each other to determine the radiation effects of solar radiation on plant germination and growth.

  9. The effects of solar radiation on plant growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agard, Joslyn

    1995-01-01

    This phase of this continuing project was completed in April, 1994, using Dahlgren #855 hybrid sunflower seeds and Park Seeds #0950 non-hybrid sunflower seeds in both the control groups and the tests groups. The control groups (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6) were grown under normal, un-radiated, conditions. The tests groups (1a, 2a, 3a, 4a, 5a, and 6a) were grown onboard the Space Shuttle Discovery on the STS-60 flight in February 1994. All data from this experiment (both control and test groups) will be taken and recorded in a data log and compared against each other to determine the radiation effects of solar radiation on plant germination and growth.

  10. Interactive effects of nutrient and mechanical stresses on plant morphology.

    PubMed

    Puijalon, Sara; Lena, Jean-Paul; Bornette, Gudrun

    2007-12-01

    Plant species frequently encounter multiple stresses under natural conditions, and the way they cope with these stresses is a major determinant of their ecological breadth. The way mechanical (e.g. wind, current) and resource stresses act simultaneously on plant morphological traits has been poorly addressed, even if both stresses often interact. This paper aims to assess whether hydraulic stress affects plant morphology in the same way at different nutrient levels. An examination was made of morphological variations of an aquatic plant species growing under four hydraulic stress (flow velocity) gradients located in four habitats distributed along a nutrient gradient. Morphological traits covering plant size, dry mass allocation, organ water content and foliage architecture were measured. Significant interactive effects of flow velocity and nutrient level were observed for all morphological traits. In particular, increased flow velocity resulted in size reductions under low nutrient conditions, suggesting an adaptive response to flow stress (escape strategy). On the other hand, moderate increases in flow velocity resulted in increased size under high nutrient conditions, possibly related to an inevitable growth response to a higher nutrient supply induced by water renewal at the plant surface. For some traits (e.g. dry mass allocation), a consistent sense of variation as a result of increasing flow velocity was observed, but the amount of variation was either reduced or amplified under nutrient-rich compared with nutrient-poor conditions, depending on the traits considered. These results suggest that, for a given species, a stress factor may result, in contrasting patterns and hence strategies, depending on a second stress factor. Such results emphasize the relevance of studies on plant responses to multiple stresses for understanding the actual ecological breadth of species.

  11. The greenhouse gas emissions performance of cellulosic ethanol supply chains in Europe

    PubMed Central

    Slade, Raphael; Bauen, Ausilio; Shah, Nilay

    2009-01-01

    Background Calculating the greenhouse gas savings that may be attributed to biofuels is problematic because production systems are inherently complex and methods used to quantify savings are subjective. Differing approaches and interpretations have fuelled a debate about the environmental merit of biofuels, and consequently about the level of policy support that can be justified. This paper estimates and compares emissions from plausible supply chains for lignocellulosic ethanol production, exemplified using data specific to the UK and Sweden. The common elements that give rise to the greatest greenhouse gas emissions are identified and the sensitivity of total emissions to variations in these elements is estimated. The implications of including consequential impacts including indirect land-use change, and the effects of selecting alternative allocation methods on the interpretation of results are discussed. Results We find that the most important factors affecting supply chain emissions are the emissions embodied in biomass production, the use of electricity in the conversion process and potentially consequential impacts: indirect land-use change and fertiliser replacement. The large quantity of electricity consumed during enzyme manufacture suggests that enzymatic conversion processes may give rise to greater greenhouse gas emissions than the dilute acid conversion process, even though the dilute acid process has a somewhat lower ethanol yield. Conclusion The lignocellulosic ethanol supply chains considered here all lead to greenhouse gas savings relative to gasoline An important caveat to this is that if lignocellulosic ethanol production uses feedstocks that lead to indirect land-use change, or other significant consequential impacts, the benefit may be greatly reduced. Co-locating ethanol, electricity generation and enzyme production in a single facility may improve performance, particularly if this allows the number of energy intensive steps in enzyme

  12. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect - A pedagogic explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2016-01-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  13. Enhanced chemistry-climate feedbacks in past greenhouse worlds

    PubMed Central

    Beerling, David J.; Fox, Andrew; Stevenson, David S.; Valdes, Paul J.

    2011-01-01

    Trace greenhouse gases are a fundamentally important component of Earth’s global climate system sensitive to global change. However, their concentration in the pre-Pleistocene atmosphere during past warm greenhouse climates is highly uncertain because we lack suitable geochemical or biological proxies. This long-standing issue hinders assessment of their contribution to past global warmth and the equilibrium climate sensitivity of the Earth system (Ess) to CO2. Here we report results from a series of three-dimensional Earth system modeling simulations indicating that the greenhouse worlds of the early Eocene (55 Ma) and late Cretaceous (90 Ma) maintained high concentrations of methane, tropospheric ozone, and nitrous oxide. Modeled methane concentrations were four- to fivefold higher than the preindustrial value typically adopted in modeling investigations of these intervals, even after accounting for the possible high CO2-suppression of biogenic isoprene emissions on hydroxyl radical abundance. Higher concentrations of trace greenhouse gases exerted marked planetary heating (> 2 K), amplified in the high latitudes (> 6 K) by lower surface albedo feedbacks, and increased Ess in the Eocene by 1 K. Our analyses indicate the requirement for including non-CO2 greenhouse gases in model-based Ess estimates for comparison with empirical paleoclimate assessments, and point to chemistry-climate feedbacks as possible amplifiers of climate sensitivity in the Anthropocene. PMID:21628580

  14. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria

    PubMed Central

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country. PMID:24039530

  15. Micrometeorites in the Post-lunar Greenhouse Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurette, Michel

    On the Earth, an astonishing balance between the absorption and scattering of solar radiation by the early Earth produced the remarkable benign greenhouse effect favourable to the origin and evolution of life. Indeed, the first constraint on any scenario is that the early oceans were not boiling or freezing! It is generally considered that the temperature has to be sufficiently high to prevent freezing at a time when the solar luminosity was smaller than today. But it has to be kept sufficiently low by some mysterious feedback effect, in order to protect the Earth from a runaway greenhouse effect, which led to a surface temperature of about 450 °C on Venus. In fact, the long-lasting micrometeorite thermospheric volcanism effective after the Moon-forming impact, should have ruled the post-lunar greenhouse effect that was critical for the birth of life. Indeed, this impact eradicated at once all atmospheric ingredients of the pre-lunar greenhouse effect at a time when the young Earth was already almost fully outgassed. Subsequently, micrometeorites released simultaneously greenhouse gases for heating and smoke particles for cooling. These micrometeorite ashes resided temporarily within a kind of giant thermospheric cocoon, which might have functioned as a self-regulating IR heater during the period of low solar luminosity. Indeed, it was simultaneously heated up from the inside through the aerodynamical braking of micrometeorites.

  16. Aphids (Hemiptera, Aphididae) on ornamental plants in greenhouses in Bulgaria.

    PubMed

    Yovkova, Mariya; Petrović-Obradović, Olivera; Tasheva-Terzieva, Elena; Pencheva, Aneliya

    2013-01-01

    Investigations on the species composition and host range of aphids on ornamental greenhouse plants in Bulgaria was conducted over a period of five years, from 2008 to 2012. Twenty greenhouses, growing ornamentals for landscaping, plant collections and other purposes were observed. They were located in the regions of Sofia, Plovdiv, Smolyan, Pavlikeni, Varna and Burgas. The total number of collected aphid samples was 279. Their composition included 33 aphid species and one subspecies from 13 genera and 5 subfamilies. Twenty-eight species were found to belong to subfamily Aphidinae. Almost 70 % of all recorded species were polyphagous. The most widespread aphid species was Myzus persicae, detected in 13 greenhouses all year round, followed by Aulacorthum solani (10 greenhouses) and Aphis gossypii (9 greenhouses). The widest host range was shown by Myzus persicae (43 hosts), Aulacorthum solani (32 hosts) and Aulacorthum circumflexum (23 hosts). The list of host plants includes 114 species from 95 genera and 58 families. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Out of all aphid samples 12.9 % were collected on Hibiscus and 6.8 %, on Dendranthema. The greatest variety of aphid species was detected on Hibiscus (9 species). Periphyllus californiensis and Aphis (Aphis) fabae mordvilkoi are reported for the first time for Bulgaria. Furthermore, Aphis spiraecola has been found in new localities and has widened its host range in this country.

  17. Microbiological profile of greenhouses in a farm producing hydroponic tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Orozco, Leopoldo; Rico-Romero, Leticia; Escartín, Eduardo F

    2008-01-01

    Produce, including tomatoes, has been implicated in several outbreaks of foodborne illness. A number of the sources of contamination for produce grown in open fields are known. However, as an alternative agricultural system, hydroponic greenhouses are reasonably expected to reduce some of these sources. The objective of the present study was to determine the microbiological profile of tomatoes grown in greenhouses at a Mexican hydroponic farm with a high technological level and sanitary agricultural practices (SAPs) in place. Tomatoes and other materials associated with the farm were analyzed for the presence of Salmonella enterica and populations of Escherichia coli, coliforms, and Enterobacteriaceae. Tomatoes showed median levels of 0.8 log CFU per tomato for Enterobacteriaceae, < 0.5 log CFU per tomato for coliforms, and 0.5 most probable number per tomato for E. coli. Despite the physical barriers that the facilities provide and the implemented SAPs, we found that 2.8% of tomatoes were contaminated with Salmonella and 0.7% with E. coli. Other Salmonella-positive materials were puddles, soil, cleaning cloths, and sponges. Samples from the nursery and greenhouses were positive for E. coli, whereas Salmonella was found only in the latter. Although hydroponic greenhouses provide physical barriers against some sources of enteric bacterial contamination, these results show that sporadic evidence of fecal contamination and the presence of Salmonella can occur at the studied greenhouse farm.

  18. A mental picture of the greenhouse effect. A pedagogic explanation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benestad, Rasmus E.

    2017-05-01

    The popular picture of the greenhouse effect emphasises the radiation transfer but fails to explain the observed climate change. An old conceptual model for the greenhouse effect is revisited and presented as a useful resource in climate change communication. It is validated against state-of-the-art data, and nontraditional diagnostics show a physically consistent picture. The earth's climate is constrained by well-known and elementary physical principles, such as energy balance, flow, and conservation. Greenhouse gases affect the atmospheric optical depth for infrared radiation, and increased opacity implies higher altitude from which earth's equivalent bulk heat loss takes place. Such an increase is seen in the reanalyses, and the outgoing long-wave radiation has become more diffuse over time, consistent with an increased influence of greenhouse gases on the vertical energy flow from the surface to the top of the atmosphere. The reanalyses further imply increases in the overturning in the troposphere, consistent with a constant and continuous vertical energy flow. The increased overturning can explain a slowdown in the global warming, and the association between these aspects can be interpreted as an entanglement between the greenhouse effect and the hydrological cycle, where reduced energy transfer associated with increased opacity is compensated by tropospheric overturning activity.

  19. Improved stereo matching applied to digitization of greenhouse plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Lihong; Li, Dawei; Gu, Xiaomeng

    2015-03-01

    The digitization of greenhouse plants is an important aspect of digital agriculture. Its ultimate aim is to reconstruct a visible and interoperable virtual plant model on the computer by using state-of-the-art image process and computer graphics technologies. The most prominent difficulties of the digitization of greenhouse plants include how to acquire the three-dimensional shape data of greenhouse plants and how to carry out its realistic stereo reconstruction. Concerning these issues an effective method for the digitization of greenhouse plants is proposed by using a binocular stereo vision system in this paper. Stereo vision is a technique aiming at inferring depth information from two or more cameras; it consists of four parts: calibration of the cameras, stereo rectification, search of stereo correspondence and triangulation. Through the final triangulation procedure, the 3D point cloud of the plant can be achieved. The proposed stereo vision system can facilitate further segmentation of plant organs such as stems and leaves; moreover, it can provide reliable digital samples for the visualization of greenhouse tomato plants.

  20. Reproductive disorders among male and female greenhouse workers.

    PubMed

    Bretveld, Reini W; Hooiveld, Mariëtte; Zielhuis, Gerhard A; Pellegrino, Annelies; van Rooij, Iris A L M; Roeleveld, Nel

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate reproductive disorders in male and female greenhouse workers. In 2002, data were collected from 4872 Dutch greenhouse workers and 8133 referents through postal questionnaires with detailed questions on reproductive disorders of the most recent pregnancy, lifestyle habits, and occupational exposures (e.g. pesticides) prior to conception. Different reproductive outcome measures were compared between 957 male and 101 female greenhouse workers and 1408 referents by means of logistic regression analyses. The analyses of primigravidous couples showed a slightly elevated risk of prolonged TTP (OR(women)=1.9; 95% CI: 0.8-4.4) and an increased risk of spontaneous abortion among female greenhouse workers (OR(women)=4.0; 95% CI: 1.1-14.0). A decreased risk of preterm birth was found among male greenhouse workers (OR(men)=0.1; 95% CI: 0.03-0.5). This study may offer some evidence for the hypothesis that pesticide exposure affects human reproduction leading to spontaneous abortion and possibly to prolonged time-to-pregnancy.

  1. Low back pain related to bowing posture of greenhouse farmers.

    PubMed

    Maeda, K; Okazaki, F; Suenaga, T; Sakurai, T; Takamatsu, M

    1980-12-01

    Farming by means of greenhouses has spread in different parts of Japan during the past 20 years. Low back pain, an important health problem for farmers, affects those working inside a greenhouse as a result of their taking up particular postures. In order to analyze ergonomic problems of greenhouse farming relevant to low back pain, localized fatigue complaints and parts of the body where fatigue was felt during fruit picking were studied among 49 female farmers engaged in greenhouse strawberry culture and 53 female farmers engaged in greenhouse eggplant culture. Furthermore, the bowing posture for strawberry picking was compared with that of eggplant picking using newly devised posture-pattern recording equipment. More than 50% of strawberry or eggplant farmers complained of fatigue in the lower back and shoulders. The prevalence of low back pain was significantly higher among strawberry farmers than among eggplant farmers, probably due to the deep bowing posture of the farmer during picking work. The new posture-pattern recording equipment proved useful for investigating changes of work postures.

  2. [Evaluation indices of greenhouse gas mitigation technologies in cropland ecosystem].

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-zheng; Wang, Ying-chun; Wang, Li-gang; Li, Hu; Qiu, Jian-jun; Wang, Dao-long

    2015-01-01

    In spite of the increasing studies on greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions mitigation technologies, there is still a lack of systematic indices for evaluation of their overall impacts in croplands. In this study, we collected all the indices relating to greenhouse gas emissions and analyzed each index following the principles of representativeness, objectivity, completeness, dominance and operability. Finally, we proposed evaluation indices for mitigation technologies based on the current situation of China. Crop yield per unit area was proposed as a constrained index, and greenhouse gas emissions intensity, defined as GHG emissions per unit of produced yield, was proposed as comprehensive index to evaluate the greenhouse effect of various croplands mitigation technologies. Calculation of GHG emissions intensity involved yield, change of soil organic carbon, direct N2O emissions, paddy CH4 emissions and direct and indirect emissions from inputs into croplands. By following these evaluation indices, the greenhouse effect of the technologies could be well evaluated, which could provide scientific basis for their further adoption.

  3. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments.

    PubMed

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-03-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm(2)); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm(2) on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest.

  4. Pathogenicity of Two Species of Entomopathogenic Nematodes Against the Greenhouse Whitefly, Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), in Laboratory and Greenhouse Experiments

    PubMed Central

    Rezaei, Nastaran; Karimi, Javad; Hosseini, Mojtaba; Goldani, Morteza; Campos-Herrera, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a polyphagous pest in greenhouse crops. The efficacy of two entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN), Steinernema feltiae and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora, as biological control agents against T. vaporariorum was evaluated using two model crops typical of vegetable greenhouse productions: cucumber and pepper. Laboratory tests evaluated adults and second nymphal instars for pest susceptibility to different EPN species at different concentrations of infective juveniles (IJ; 0, 25, 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 IJ per cm2); subsequent greenhouse trials against second nymphal instars on cucumber and pepper plants evaluated more natural conditions. Concentrations were applied in combination with Triton X-100 (0.1% v/v), an adjuvant for increasing nematode activity. In laboratory studies, both life stages were susceptible to infection by the two nematode species, but S. feltiae recorded a lower LC50 than H. bacteriophora for both insect stages. Similarly, in greenhouse experiments, S. feltiae required lower concentrations of IJ than H. bacteriophora to reach the same mortality in nymphs. In greenhouse trials, a significant difference was observed in the triple interaction among nematode species × concentration × plant. Furthermore, the highest mortality rate of the second nymphal instars of the T. vaporariorum was obtained from the application of S. feltiae concentrated to 250 IJ/cm2 on cucumber (49 ± 1.23%). The general mortality caused by nematodes was significantly higher in cucumber than in pepper. These promising results support further investigation for the optimization of the best EPN species/concentration in combination with insecticides or adjuvants to reach a profitable control of this greenhouse pest. PMID:25861117

  5. On-Plant Larval Movement and Feeding Behavior of Fall Armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on Reproductive Corn Stages.

    PubMed

    Pannuti, L E R; Baldin, E L L; Hunt, T E; Paula-Moraes, S V

    2016-02-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith (fall armyworm) is considered one of the most destructive pests of corn throughout the Americas. Although this pest has been extensively studied, little is known about its larval movement and feeding behavior on reproductive compared to vegetative corn stages. Thus, we conducted studies with two corn stages (R1 and R3) and four corn plant zones (tassel, above ear, ear zone, and below ear) in the field at Concord, NE (USA), and in the field and greenhouse at Botucatu, SP (Brazil), to investigate on-plant larval movement. The effects of different corn tissues (opened tassel, closed tassel, silk, kernel, and leaf), two feeding sequence scenarios (closed tassel-leaf-silk-kernel and leaf-silk-kernel), and artificial diet (positive control) on larval survival and development were also evaluated in the laboratory. Ear zone has a strong effect on feeding choice and survival of fall armyworm larvae regardless of reproductive corn stage. Feeding site choice is made by first-instar. Corn leaves of reproductive plants were not suitable for early instar development, but silk and kernel tissues had a positive effect on survival and development of fall armyworm larvae on reproductive stage corn. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Integrated Belowground Greenhouse Gas Flux Modeling (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, E. A.; Savage, K. E.

    2013-12-01

    Soil greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions play a significant role as biotic feedbacks to climate change. However, these complex processes, involving C, N, and O2 substrates and inhibitors, interactions with plant processes, and environmental influences of temperature, moisture, and gas transport, remain challenging to simulate in process models. Because CO2, CH4, and N2O production and consumption processes are inter-linked through common substrates and the contrasting effects of O2 as either an essential substrate or a potential inhibitor, the simulation of fluxes of any one gas must be consistent with mechanistic simulations and observations of fluxes of the other gases. Simulating the fluxes of one gas alone is a simpler task, but simulating all three gases simultaneously would provide multiple constraints and would afford greater confidence that the most important mechanisms are aptly simulated. A case in point is the challenge of resolving the apparent paradox of observed simultaneous CO2 production by aerobic respiration, CH4 uptake (oxidation), CH4 production, and N2O uptake (reduction) in the same soil profile. Consumption of atmospheric N2O should occur only under reducing conditions, and yet we have observed uptake of atmospheric CH4 (oxidation) and N2O (reduction) simultaneously. One of the great challenges of numerical modeling is determining the appropriate level of complexity when representing the most important environmental controllers. Ignoring complexity, such as simulating microbial processes with only simple Q10 functions, often results in poor model performance, because soil moisture and substrate supply can also be important factors. On the other hand, too much complexity, while perhaps mechanistically compelling, may result in too many poorly constrained parameters. Here we explore a parsimonious modeling framework for consistently integrated mechanistic and mathematical representation of the biophysical processes of belowground GHG production and

  7. Host selection by an insect herbivore with spatially variable density dependence.

    PubMed

    Wetzel, William C; Strong, Donald R

    2015-11-01

    Many species of phytophagous insects do not oviposit preferentially on plants that yield high offspring performance. One proposed explanation is that negatively density-dependent offspring performance would select for females that disperse eggs among plants to minimize competition. Recent work showing larval density dependence often varies substantially among plants suggests that ovipositing females should not only respond to the density of competitors but also to traits predictive of the strength of density dependence mediated by plants. In this study, we used field and greenhouse experiments to examine oviposition behavior in an insect herbivore that experiences density-dependent larval performance and variability in the strength of that density dependence among host-plant individuals. We found females moved readily among plants in the field and had strong preferences for plants that mediate weak offspring density dependence. Females, however, did not avoid plants with high densities of competitors, despite the fact that offspring performance declines steeply with density on most plants in natural populations. This means females minimize the effects of density dependence on their offspring by choosing plants that mediate only weak larval density dependence, not by choosing plants with low densities of competitors. Our results suggest that explaining the lack of positive preference-performance correlations in many systems may not be as simple as invoking density dependence. Resource selection behavior may depend not just on the presence or absence of density-dependent offspring performance but also on variation in the strength of offspring density dependence among sites within populations.

  8. Yields and Nutritional of Greenhouse Tomato in Response to Different Soil Aeration Volume at two depths of Subsurface drip irrigation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Wenquan; Dyck, Miles; Wang, Jingwei; Zou, Xiaoyang

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 4 aeration levels (varied by injection of air to the soil through subsurface irrigation lines) at two subsurface irrigation line depths (15 and 40 cm) on plant growth, yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse tomato. In all experiments, fruit number, width and length, yield, vitamin C, lycopene and sugar/acid ratio of tomato markedly increased in response to the aeration treatments. Vitamin C, lycopene, and sugar/acid ratio increased by 41%, 2%, and 43%, respectively, in the 1.5 times standard aeration volume compared with the no-aeration treatment. An interaction between aeration level and depth of irrigation line was also observed with yield, fruit number, fruit length, vitamin C and sugar/acid ratio of greenhouse tomato increasing at each aeration level when irrigation lines were placed at 40 cm depth. However, when the irrigation lines were 15 cm deep, the trend of total fruit yields, fruit width, fruit length and sugar/acid ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing aeration level. Total soluble solids and titrable acid decreased with increasing aeration level both at 15 and 40 cm irrigation line placement. When all of the quality factors, yields and economic benefit are considered together, the combination of 40 cm line depth and “standard” aeration level was the optimum combination. PMID:27995970

  9. Yields and Nutritional of Greenhouse Tomato in Response to Different Soil Aeration Volume at two depths of Subsurface drip irrigation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yuan; Niu, Wenquan; Dyck, Miles; Wang, Jingwei; Zou, Xiaoyang

    2016-12-20

    This study investigated the effects of 4 aeration levels (varied by injection of air to the soil through subsurface irrigation lines) at two subsurface irrigation line depths (15 and 40 cm) on plant growth, yield and nutritional quality of greenhouse tomato. In all experiments, fruit number, width and length, yield, vitamin C, lycopene and sugar/acid ratio of tomato markedly increased in response to the aeration treatments. Vitamin C, lycopene, and sugar/acid ratio increased by 41%, 2%, and 43%, respectively, in the 1.5 times standard aeration volume compared with the no-aeration treatment. An interaction between aeration level and depth of irrigation line was also observed with yield, fruit number, fruit length, vitamin C and sugar/acid ratio of greenhouse tomato increasing at each aeration level when irrigation lines were placed at 40 cm depth. However, when the irrigation lines were 15 cm deep, the trend of total fruit yields, fruit width, fruit length and sugar/acid ratio first increased and then decreased with increasing aeration level. Total soluble solids and titrable acid decreased with increasing aeration level both at 15 and 40 cm irrigation line placement. When all of the quality factors, yields and economic benefit are considered together, the combination of 40 cm line depth and "standard" aeration level was the optimum combination.

  10. Overexpression of antimicrobial lytic peptides protects grapevine from Pierce's disease under greenhouse but not field conditions.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijian T; Hopkins, Donald L; Gray, Dennis J

    2015-10-01

    Pierce's disease (PD) caused by Xylella fastidiosa prevents cultivation of grapevine (Vitis vinifera) and susceptible hybrids in the southeastern United States and poses a major threat to the grape industry of California and Texas. Genetic resistance is the only proven control of X. fastidiosa. Genetic engineering offers an alternative to heretofore ineffective conventional breeding in order to transfer only PD resistance traits into elite cultivars. A synthetic gene encoding lytic peptide LIMA-A was introduced into V. vinifera and a Vitis hybrid to assess in planta inhibition of X. fastidiosa. Over 1050 independent transgenic plant lines were evaluated in the greenhouse, among which nine lines were selected and tested under naturally-inoculated field conditions. These selected plant lines in the greenhouse remain disease-free for 10 years, to date, even with multiple manual pathogen inoculations. However, all these lines in the field, including a grafted transgenic rootstock, succumbed to PD within 7 years. We conclude that in planta production of antimicrobial lytic peptides does not provide durable PD resistance to grapevine under field conditions.

  11. Biodiversity and Greenhouse Gases in Grasslands: A Flux Network along Climate and Management Gradients in the Pyrenees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sebastia, M. T.; Debouk, H.; Ibañez, M.; Llurba, R.; Ribas, A.; Altimir, N.

    2016-12-01

    Grassland in the Pyrenees is critically threatened by climate and land use changes. Ecologically, these ecosystems contain a rich biodiversity and contribute many ecosystem services, including feed production, soil carbon storage and water regulation. Socioeconomically, grasslands fuel the rural economy in the Pyrenees, including organic stockbreeding, outdoor activities and recreation. Three eddy covariance stations were established in the Eastern Pyrenees between 2009 and 2011 along altitudinal and climatic gradients by the FLUXPYR project (EU INTERREG IV-A-POCTEFA). The network of flux towers on climatically diverse grasslands is included in the European Fluxes Database Cluster. The three locations are representative of the typical managements in the region: Pla de Riart (ES-PRt, 1000 m a.s.l.), intensively managed sown grassland grazed in the fall; La Bertolina (ES-LBr, 1300 m a.s.l.), montane grassland grazed from spring to fall; and Castellar de n'Hug (ES-Cst, 2000 m a.s.l.), subalpine grassland grazed in summer. The flux studies are completed by chamber measurements of CO2, CH4, and N2O fluxes by photoacoustic. The focus of study is the relationship biodiversity-ecosystem function in response to climate, management and other environmental changes. Results show how sown and spontaneous plant diversity regulates grassland functioning including greenhouse gas fluxes. Polycultures in particular have a tendency to increase NEE and Reco compared to monocultures, enhancing CO2 uptake. Grasses are less efficient photosynthetically per biomass unit than other plant functional types, but this is not reflected at the ecosystem scale, where they are dominant. N2O is a greenhouse gas particularly dependent on plant functional diversity and climatic conditions. Soil function responds to changes in plant functional type distribution within the grassland. In conclusion, biodiversity regulates greenhouse gas fluxes in many ways in grasslands in the Pyrenees, through multiple

  12. [Progress in research of urban greenhouse gas emission inventory].

    PubMed

    Chen, Cao-Cao; Liu, Chun-Lan; Tian, Gang; Wang, Hai-Hua; Li, Zheng

    2010-11-01

    Urban areas carry main responsibility for consuming massive energy sources and make great contribution to global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. City and local governments are seen to have a key role in climate mitigation. Hence,one of the important work concerns accounting for city greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, because it plays significant role in setting reduction targets and evaluating success of local measures. However, open system architectures like city face many challenges for greenhouse gas accounting. Based on the review in details the methodology and case study, our study focuses on the difference and interconnection between country and city GHG accounts,and uncertainty of accounts. Further, we propose the valuable experience in order to improve domestic research on city GHG emission inventory.

  13. Wellbeing impacts of city policies for reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

    PubMed

    Hiscock, Rosemary; Mudu, Pierpaolo; Braubach, Matthias; Martuzzi, Marco; Perez, Laura; Sabel, Clive

    2014-11-28

    To mitigate climate change, city authorities are developing policies in areas such as transportation, housing and energy use, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. In addition to their effects on greenhouse gas emissions, these policies are likely to have consequences for the wellbeing of their populations for example through changes in opportunities to take physical exercise. In order to explore the potential consequences for wellbeing, we first explore what 'wellbeing' is and how it can be operationalised for urban planners. In this paper, we illustrate how wellbeing can be divided into objective and subjective aspects which can be measured quantitatively; our review of measures informs the development of a theoretical model linking wellbeing to policies which cities use to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Finally, we discuss the extent to which the links proposed in the conceptual model are supported by the literature and how cities can assess wellbeing implications of policies.

  14. Gauging the biological impacts of the greenhouse effect

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For years some climatologists have warned that greenhouse gases, by preventing excess solar energy from radiating back into space, could raise average global temperatures 3/degree/ to 5/degree/C within the next century, change rainfall patterns, melt some glaciers and polar ice, raise sea levels, flood low-lying coasts, and otherwise alter climate and environment. Only recently, however, have biologists begun to ask how the greenhouse effect might affect living organisms. How, for example, will individual species respond to changing climate. will they adapt to new conditions or migrate to new environs. Which species might benefit and which might go extinct. Will communities of plants and animals remain intact. What are the implications for wildlife managers and park planners. Such questions were addressed at a recent conference on biological consequences of the greenhouse effect.

  15. Global warming description using Daisyworld model with greenhouse gases.

    PubMed

    Paiva, Susana L D; Savi, Marcelo A; Viola, Flavio M; Leiroz, Albino J K

    2014-11-01

    Daisyworld is an archetypal model of the earth that is able to describe the global regulation that can emerge from the interaction between life and environment. This article proposes a model based on the original Daisyworld considering greenhouse gases emission and absorption, allowing the description of the global warming phenomenon. Global and local analyses are discussed evaluating the influence of greenhouse gases in the planet dynamics. Numerical simulations are carried out showing the general qualitative behavior of the Daisyworld for different scenarios that includes solar luminosity variations and greenhouse gases effect. Nonlinear dynamics perspective is of concern discussing a way that helps the comprehension of the global warming phenomenon. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mechatronic description of a laser autoguided vehicle for greenhouse operations.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; González, Ramón; Rodríguez, Francisco; Donaire, Julián G

    2013-01-08

    This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout, and avoiding having to bury metallic pipes in the greenhouse floor. The designed vehicle can operate different tools, e.g., a spray system for applying plant-protection product, a lifting platform to reach the top part of the plants to perform pruning and harvesting tasks, and a trailer to transport fruits, plants, and crop waste. Regarding autonomous navigation, it follows the idea of AGVs, but now laser emitters are used to mark the desired route. The vehicle development is analyzed from a mechatronic standpoint (mechanics, electronics, and autonomous control).

  17. Treatment of drainage solution from hydroponic greenhouse production with microalgae.

    PubMed

    Hultberg, Malin; Carlsson, Anders S; Gustafsson, Susanne

    2013-05-01

    This study investigated treatment of the drainage solution from greenhouse production with microalgae, through inoculation with Chlorella vulgaris or through growth of the indigenous microalgal community. A significant reduction in nitrogen, between 34.7 and 73.7 mg L(-1), and particularly in phosphorus concentration, between 15.4 and 15.9 mg L(-1), was observed in drainage solution collected from commercial greenhouse production. The large reduction in nutrients was achieved through growth of the indigenous microalgal community i.e., without pre-treatment of the drainage solution or inoculation with the fast growing green microalgae C. vulgaris. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the algal biomass revealed that compared with a standard growth medium for green algae, the drainage solution was inferior for lipid production. Despite the biorefinery concept being less promising, microalgae-based treatment of drainage solution from greenhouse production is still of interest considering the urgent need for phosphorus recycling.

  18. Sub-tropical freshwater storage catchments: major greenhouse gas sinks?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2013-04-01

    The relatively unstudied catchments and freshwater storages of the sub-tropics represent a potentially important gap in understanding global greenhouse gas cycling. The low number of studies may bias attempts to include this region's contribution to global greenhouse gas cycling, as very few studies have examined the major drivers behind terrestrial and aquatic greenhouse cycling in such sub-tropical areas. In addition, the uncertainty associated in quantifying greenhouse gas emission rates is relatively unknown. This information is crucial to determine whether freshwater storages and their associated catchments are net sources or sinks of greenhouse gas. Here, we present a greenhouse gas audit of the catchment and freshwater storage of Little Nerang Dam to determine the greenhouse gas status of the system as a whole. Little Nerang Dam is a sub-tropical freshwater storage located in Southeast Queensland, Australia. The catchment is in a relatively pristine condition with over 85% native forest remaining dominated by carbon dense Eucalypt species trees. Aquatic surface area is approximately 0.5 km2 in contrast to the terrestrial surface area of 35 km2. This system is an ideal model to investigate drivers behind greenhouse cycling in a relatively undisturbed catchment. A comprehensive field survey was conducted to estimate the major pools of carbon including terrestrial above and belowground fractions as well as the aquatic sediment and water column fractions. Greenhouse rates of emissions and sequestration were monitored over an annual cycle; parameters included tree growth rates, soil respiration, forest litter fall rates and aquatic methane and nitrous oxide fluxes. Results demonstrated the terrestrial carbon pool exceeded the aquatic pool by at least 2 orders of magnitude. When emission and sequestration rates were expressed as CO2 equivalents per unit area catchment sequestration was approximately double that of catchment and storage emissions. When rates were

  19. Micropropagation, Acclimatization, and Greenhouse Culture of Veratrum californicum.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah A; Adelberg, Jeffrey; Naylor-Adelberg, Jacqueline; Mann, David A; Song, Ju Yeon; Sun, Youping

    2016-01-01

    Micropropagation and production of Veratrum californicum is most successful when using a premixed Murishage and Skoog basal medium with vitamins and a 5-week subculture cycle at 16 °C for multiplication. These culture conditions provide the best percent survival after acclimatization in the greenhouse. However, clone response to temperature and light quality within culture conditions varies. Micropropagated plants have mass and morphology similar to 2- or 3-year-old seedlings. Acclimatized plantlets can then be grown in the greenhouse using sub-irrigation (ebb and flood) to maintain substrate volumetric water content > 44 %. Growth cycle in the greenhouse must be about 100 days, followed by dormancy for 5 months at 5 °C.

  20. Mechatronic Description of a Laser Autoguided Vehicle for Greenhouse Operations

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Hermosilla, Julián; González, Ramón; Rodríguez, Francisco; Donaire, Julián G.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for guiding mobile robots inside greenhouses demonstrated by promising preliminary physical experiments. It represents a comprehensive attempt to use the successful principles of AGVs (auto-guided vehicles) inside greenhouses, but avoiding the necessity of modifying the crop layout, and avoiding having to bury metallic pipes in the greenhouse floor. The designed vehicle can operate different tools, e.g., a spray system for applying plant-protection product, a lifting platform to reach the top part of the plants to perform pruning and harvesting tasks, and a trailer to transport fruits, plants, and crop waste. Regarding autonomous navigation, it follows the idea of AGVs, but now laser emitters are used to mark the desired route. The vehicle development is analyzed from a mechatronic standpoint (mechanics, electronics, and autonomous control). PMID:23299624