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Sample records for onboard coronas-photon mission

  1. TESIS experiment on XUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bogachev, S. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Pertsov, A. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Slemzin, V. A.

    We present a brief description of new complex of space telescopes and spectrographs, TESIS, which will be placed aboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The complex is intended for high-resolution imaging observation of full Sun in the coronal spectral lines and in the spectral lines of the solar transition region. TESIS will be launched at the end of 2007 - early of 2008. About 25 % of the daily TESIS images will be free for use and for downloading from the TESIS data center that is planned to open 2 months before the TESIS launching at http://www.tesis.lebedev.ru

  2. The Soft X-ray Spectrophotometer SphinX for the CORONAS-Photon Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Szymon, Gburek; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Kuzin, Sergey; Kotov, Yury; Farnik, Frantisek; Reale, Fabio

    The purpose, construction details and calibration results of the new design, Polish-led solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX will be presented. The instrument constitutes a part of the Russian TESIS X-ray and EUV complex aboard the forthcoming CORONAS-Photon solar mission to be launched later in 2008. SphinX uses Si-PIN detectors for high time resolution (down to 0.01 s) measurements of solar spectra in the energy range between 0.5 keV and 15 keV. The spectral resolution allows separating 256 individual energy channels in this range with particular groups of lines clearly distinguishable. Unprecedented accuracy of the instrument calibration at the XACT (Palermo) and BESSY (Berlin) synchrotron will allow for establishing the solar soft X-ray photometric reference system. The cross-comparison between SphinX and the other instruments presently in orbit like XRT on Hinode, RHESSI and GOES X-ray monitor, will allow for a precise determination of the coronal emission measure and temperature during both very low and very high activity periods. Examples of the detectors' ground calibration results as well as the calculated synthetic spectra will be presented. The operation of the instrument while in orbit will be discussed allowing for suggestions from other groups to be still included in mission planning.

  3. Set of instruments for solar EUV and soft X-ray monitoring onboard satellite Coronas-Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yury; Kochemasov, Alexey; Kuzin, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Vladimir; Sylwester, Janusz; Yurov, Vitaly

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation. The main goal of the "Coronas-Photon" is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation (2000MeV). Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three types of instruments: Monitors (Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2, Penguin-M, BRM, PHOKA, Sphin-X, SOKOL spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation have timing in flare/burst mode up to one msec. Instruments Natalya-2M, Konus-RF, RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft gamma-rays (15keV to 2000MeV) and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations. Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators. For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors, gas proportional counter, CdZnTe assembly and filter-covered Si-diodes are used. Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays has angular resolution up to 1arcsec in three spectral lines. Satellite platform and scientific payload is under construction to be launched in autumn 2008. Satellite orbit is circular with initial height 550km and inclination 82.5degrees. Accuracy of the spacecraft orientation to the Sun is better 3arcmin. In the report the capability of PHOKA, SphinX, SOKOL and TESIS as well as the observation program are described and discussed.

  4. Instruments of RT-2 experiment onboard CORONAS-PHOTON and their test and evaluation II: RT-2/CZT payload

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotoch, Tilak B.; Nandi, Anuj; Debnath, D.; Malkar, J. P.; Rao, A. R.; Hingar, M. K.; Madhav, Vaibhav P.; Sreekumar, S.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2011-02-01

    Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors are high sensitivity and high resolution devices for hard X-ray imaging and spectroscopic studies. The new series of CZT detector modules (OMS40G256) manufactured by Orbotech Medical Solutions (OMS), Israel, are used in the RT-2/CZT payload onboard the CORONAS-PHOTON satellite. The CZT detectors, sensitive in the energy range of 20 to 150 keV, are used to image solar flares in hard X-rays. Since these modules are essentially manufactured for commercial applications, we have carried out a series of comprehensive tests on these modules so that they can be confidently used in space-borne systems. These tests lead us to select the best three pieces of the `Gold' modules for the RT-2/CZT payload. This paper presents the characterization of CZT modules and the criteria followed for selecting the ones for the RT-2/CZT payload. The RT-2/CZT payload carries, along with three CZT modules, a high spatial resolution CMOS detector for high resolution imaging of transient X-ray events. Therefore, we discuss the characterization of the CMOS detector as well.

  5. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Donald Thomas conducts the Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Japanese Newt in Space (AstroNewt) experiment at the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) science module. The AstroNewt experiment aims to know the effects of gravity on the early developmental process of fertilized eggs using a unique aquatic animal, the Japanese red-bellied newt. The newt egg is a large single cell at the begirning of development. The Japanese newt mates in spring and autumn. In late autumn, female newts enter hibernation with sperm in their body cavity and in spring lay eggs and fertilize them with the stored sperm. The experiment takes advantage of this feature of the newt. Groups of newts were sent to the Kennedy Space Center and kept in hibernation until the mission. The AAEU cassettes carried four newts aboard the Space Shuttle. Two newts in one cassette are treated by hormone injection on the ground to simulate egg laying. The other two newts are treated on orbit by the crew. The former group started maturization of eggs before launch. The effects of gravity on that early process were differentiated by comparison of the two groups. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed to conduct research by the international science community in a microgravity environment. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launched on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle mission, Orbiter Columbia.

  6. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Donald Thomas conducts the Fertilization and Embryonic Development of Japanese Newt in Space (AstroNewt) experiment at the Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) science module. The AstroNewt experiment aims to know the effects of gravity on the early developmental process of fertilized eggs using a unique aquatic animal, the Japanese red-bellied newt. The newt egg is a large single cell at the begirning of development. The Japanese newt mates in spring and autumn. In late autumn, female newts enter hibernation with sperm in their body cavity and in spring lay eggs and fertilized them with the stored sperm. The experiment takes advantage of this feature of the newt. Groups of newts were sent to the Kennedy Space Center and kept in hibernation until the mission. The AAEU cassettes carried four newts aboard the Space Shuttle. Two newts in one cassette are treated by hormone injection on the ground to simulate egg laying. The other two newts are treated on orbit by the crew. The former group started maturization of eggs before launch. The effects of gravity on that early process were differentiated by comparison of the two groups. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed to conduct research by the international science community in a microgravity environment. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launch on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia mission.

  7. STS-65 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In this photograph, astronaut Carl Walz performs the Performance Assessment Workstation (PAWS) experiment at the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia during the STS-65 mission. Present day astronauts are subject to a variety of stresses during spaceflight. These include microgravity, physical isolation, confinement, lack of privacy, fatigue, and changing work/rest cycles. The purpose of this experiment is to determine the effects of microgravity upon thinking skills critical to the success of operational tasks in space. The principle objective is to distinguish between the effects of microgravity on specific information-processing skills affecting performance and those of fatigue caused by long work periods. To measure these skills, the investigators use a set of computerized performance tests called the Performance Assessment Workstation, which is based on current theoretical models of human performance. The tests were selected by analyzing tasks related to space missions and their hypothesized sensitivity to microgravity. Multiple subjective measures of cumulative fatigue and changing mood states are also included for interpreting performance data.

  8. Skylab-4 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-4 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Ed Gibson getting ready to prepare his meal in the crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  9. L-shell bifurcation of electron outer belt at the recovery phase of geomagnetic storm as observed by STEP-F and SphinX instruments onboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Podgorski, Piotr

    2016-07-01

    Radiation belts and sporadically arising volumes comprising enhanced charged particle fluxes in the Earth's magnetosphere are typically studied by space-borne telescopes, semiconductor, scintillation, gaseous and other types of detectors. Ambient and internal electron bremsstrahlung in hard X-ray arises as a result of interaction of precipitating particles with the atmosphere (balloon experiments) and with the satellite's housings and instrument boxes (orbital experiments). Theses emissions provide a number of new information on the physics of radiation belts. The energies of primary electrons and their spectra responsible for measured X-ray emissions remain usually unknown. Combined measurements of particle fluxes, and their bremsstrahlung by individual satellite instruments placed next to each other provide insight to respective processes. The satellite telescope of electrons and protons STEP-F and the solar X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX were placed in close proximity to each other aboard CORONAS-Photon, the low, circular and highly inclined orbit satellite. Based on joint analysis of the data we detected new features in the high energy particle distributions of the Earth's magnetosphere during deep minimum of solar activity [1-3]. In this research the bifurcation of Van Allen outer electron radiation belt during the weak geomagnetic storm and during passage of interplanetary shock are discussed. Outer belt bifurcation and growth of electron fluxes in a wide energy range were recorded by both instruments during the recovery phase of May 8, 2009 substorm. STEP-F recorded also barely perceptible outer belt splitting on August 5, 2009, after arrival of interplanetary shock to the Earth's magnetosphere bowshock. The STEP-F and SphinX data are compared with the space weather indexes, and with relativistic electron fluxes observed at geostationary orbit. We discuss possible mechanism of the phenomena consisting in the splitting of drift shells because of Earth

  10. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Engelhardt, B.; Knight, R.; Rabideau, G.; Sherwood, R.

    2001-01-01

    Three Corner Sat (3CS) is a mission of three university nanosatellites scheduled for launch on September 2002. The 3CS misison will utilize significan onboard autonomy to perform onboard science data validation and replanning.

  11. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  12. Onboard autonomy on the Three Corner Sat mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S. A.; Sherwood, R.

    2002-01-01

    In 2003, the student-built three satellite constellation Three Corner Sat (3CS) Mission will demonstrate onboard autonomy including: science data validation and prioritization, mission re-planning, and robust execution. Future observations will be planned onboard based on the quality of aquired science, available memory and power, and anticipated downlinks. These capabilities will allow 3CS to aquire additional science data if resources are available and to return only the highest quality science data.

  13. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Meal Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This photograph was taken during the Skylab-3 mission (2nd marned mission), showing Astronaut Owen Garriott enjoying his meal in the Orbital Workshop crew wardroom. The tray contained heating elements for preparing the individual food packets. The food on Skylab was a great improvement over that on earlier spaceflights. It was no longer necessary to squeeze liquified food from plastic tubes. Skylab's kitchen was so equipped that each crewman could select his own menu and prepare it to his own taste.

  14. STS-109 Shuttle Mission Onboard Crew Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    On the Space Shuttle Columbia's mid deck, the STS-109 crew of seven pose for the traditional in-flight portrait. From the left (front row), are astronauts Nancy J. Currie, mission specialist; Scott D. Altman, mission commander; and Duane G. Carey, pilot. Pictured on the back row from left to right are astronauts John M. Grunsfield, payload commander; and Richard M. Lirneham, James H. Newman, and Michael J. Massimino, all mission specialists. The 108th flight overall in NASA's Space Shuttle Program, the STS-109 mission launched March 1, 2002, and lasted 10 days, 22 hours, and 11 minutes. The goal of the mission was the maintenance and upgrade of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Using Columbia's robotic arm, the telescope was captured and secured on a work stand in Columbia's payload bay where four members of the crew performed five space walks to complete system upgrades to the HST. The Marshall Space Flight Center had the responsibility for the design, development, and construction of the HST, which is the most complex and sensitive optical telescope ever made, to study the cosmos from a low-Earth orbit.

  15. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The laboratory module in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia was photographed during the Spacelab Life Science-1 (SLS-1) mission. SLS-1 was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and to bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones and cells. The five body systems being studied were: The Cardiovascular/Cardiopulmonary System (heart, lungs, and blood vessels), the Renal/Endocrine System (kidney and hormone-secreting organs), the Immune System (white blood cells), the Musculoskeletal System (muscles and bones), and the Neurovestibular System (brain and nerves, eyes, and irner ear). The SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  16. Onboard Autonomy on the Earth Observing One Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Sherwood, Robert L.; Tran, Daniel; Cichy, Benjamin; Rabideau, Gregg; Castano, Rebecca; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Trout, Bruce; Hengemihle, Jerry; D'Agostino, Jeff; Shulman, Seth; Ungar, Stephen; Brakke, Thomas; Boyer, Darrell; Van Gaasbeck, Jim; Greeley, Ronald; Doggett, Thomas; Baker, Victor; Dohm, James; Ip, Felipe

    2004-01-01

    The Earth Observing One Spacecraft is currently flying The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) - onboard autonomy software to improve science return. The ASE software enables the spacecraft to autonomously detect and respond to science events occurring on the Earth. ASE includes software systems that perform science data analysis, mission planning, and run-time robust execution. In this article we describe the autonomy flight software and how it enables a new paradigm of autonomous science and mission operations.

  17. Skylab-4 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Ed Gibson at Work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    This Skylab-4 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Ed Gibson at the complex control and display console for the Apollo Telescope Mount solar telescopes located in the Skylab Multiple Docking Adapter. Astronauts watched the Sun, and photographed and recorded the solar activities, such as the birth of a solar flare.

  18. Spacelab Life Science-1 Mission Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Spacelab Life Science -1 (SLS-1) was the first Spacelab mission dedicated solely to life sciences. The main purpose of the SLS-1 mission was to study the mechanisms, magnitudes, and time courses of certain physiological changes that occur during space flight, to investigate the consequences of the body's adaptation to microgravity and readjustment to Earth's gravity, and bring the benefits back home to Earth. The mission was designed to explore the responses of the heart, lungs, blood vessels, kidneys, and hormone-secreting glands to microgravity and related body fluid shifts; examine the causes of space motion sickness; and study changes in the muscles, bones, and cells. This photograph shows astronaut Rhea Seddon conducting an inflight study of the Cardiovascular Deconditioning experiment by breathing into the cardiovascular rebreathing unit. This experiment focused on the deconditioning of the heart and lungs and changes in cardiopulmonary function that occur upon return to Earth. By using noninvasive techniques of prolonged expiration and rebreathing, investigators can determine the amount of blood pumped out of the heart (cardiac output), the ease with which blood flows through all the vessels (total peripheral resistance), oxygen used and carbon dioxide released by the body, and lung function and volume changes. SLS-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-40) on June 5, 1995.

  19. Revolutionary Deep Space Science Missions Enabled by Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Debban, Theresa; Yen, Chen wan; Sherwood, Robert; Castano, Rebecca; Cichy, Benjamin; Davies, Ashley; Brul, Michael; Fukunaga, Alex; Fukunaga, Alex; Doggett, Thomas; Williams, Kevin; Dohm, James

    2003-01-01

    Breakthrough autonomy technologies enable a new range of spire missions that acquire vast amounts of data and return only the most scientifically important data to Earth. These missions would monitor science phenomena in great detail (either with frequent observations or at extremely high spatial resolution) and onboard analyze the data to detect specific science events of interest. These missions would monitor volcanic eruptions, formation and movement of aeolian features. and atmospheric phenomena. The autonomous spacecraft would respond to science events by planning its future operations to revisit or perform complementary observations. In this paradigm, the spacecraft represents the scientists agent enabling optimization of the downlink data volume resource. This paper describes preliminary efforts to define and design such missions.

  20. Onboard Systems Record Unique Videos of Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    Ecliptic Enterprises Corporation, headquartered in Pasadena, California, provided onboard video systems for rocket and space shuttle launches before it was tasked by Ames Research Center to craft the Data Handling Unit that would control sensor instruments onboard the Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) spacecraft. The technological capabilities the company acquired on this project, as well as those gained developing a high-speed video system for monitoring the parachute deployments for the Orion Pad Abort Test Program at Dryden Flight Research Center, have enabled the company to offer high-speed and high-definition video for geosynchronous satellites and commercial space missions, providing remarkable footage that both informs engineers and inspires the imagination of the general public.

  1. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Bean on Ergometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-3 onboard photograph shows Astronaut Allen Bean on the ergometer, breathing into the metabolic analyzer. Skylab's Metabolic Activity experiment (M171), a medical evaluation facility, was designed to measure astronauts' metabolic changes while on long-term space missions. The experiment obtained information on astronauts' physiological capabilities and limitations and provided data useful in the design of future spacecraft and work programs. Physiological responses to physical activity was deduced by analyzing inhaled and exhaled air, pulse rate, blood pressure, and other selected variables of the crew while they performed controlled amounts of physical work with a bicycle ergometer.

  2. Common observations of solar X-rays from SPHINX/CORONAS-PHOTON and XRS/MESSENGER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kepa, Anna; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara; Siarkowski, Marek; Mrozek, Tomasz; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Phillips, Kenneth

    SphinX was a soft X-ray spectrophotometer constructed in the Space Research Centre of Polish Academy of Sciences. The instrument was launched on 30 January 2009 aboard CORONAS-PHOTON satellite as a part of TESIS instrument package. SphinX measured total solar X-ray flux in the energy range from 1 to 15 keV during the period of very low solar activity from 20 February to 29 November 2009. For these times the solar detector (X-ray Spectrometer - XRS) onboard MESSENGER also observed the solar X-rays from a different vantage point. XRS measured the radiation in similar energy range. We present results of the comparison of observations from both instruments and show the preliminary results of physical analysis of spectra for selected flares.

  3. Scheduling Onboard Processing for the Proposed HyspIRI Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Mclaren, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Mandl, Daniel; Hengemihle, Jerry

    2011-01-01

    The proposed Hyspiri mission is evaluating a X-band Direct Broadcast (DB) capability that would enable data to be delivered to ground stations virtually as it is acquired. However the HyspIRI VSWIR and TIR instruments will produce 1 Gbps data while the DB capability is 15 M bps for a 60x oversubscription. In order to address this data volume mismatch a DB concept has been developed thatdetermines which data to downlink based on both: 1. The type of surface the spacecraft is overflying and 2. Onboard processing of the data to detect events. For example when the spacecraft is overflying polar regions it might downlink a snow/ice product. Additionally the onboard software will search for thermal signatures indicative of a volcanic event or wild fire and downlink summary information (extent, spectra) when detected. The process of determining which products to generate when, based on request prioritization and onboard processing and downlink constraints is inherently a prioritized scheduling problem - we describe work to develop an automated solution to this problem.

  4. Onboard Atmospheric Modeling and Prediction for Autonomous Aerobraking Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tolson, Robert H.; Prince, Jill L. H.

    2011-01-01

    Aerobraking has proven to be an effective means of increasing the science payload for planetary orbiting missions and/or for enabling the use of less expensive launch vehicles. Though aerobraking has numerous benefits, large operations cost have been required to maintain the aerobraking time line without violating aerodynamic heating or other constraints. Two operations functions have been performed on an orbit by orbit basis to estimate atmospheric properties relevant to aerobraking. The Navigation team typically solves for an atmospheric density scale factor using DSN tracking data and the atmospheric modeling team uses telemetric accelerometer data to recover atmospheric density profiles. After some effort, decisions are made about the need for orbit trim maneuvers to adjust periapsis altitude to stay within the aerobraking corridor. Autonomous aerobraking would reduce the need for many ground based tasks. To be successful, atmospheric modeling must be performed on the vehicle in near real time. This paper discusses the issues associated with estimating the planetary atmosphere onboard and evaluates a number of the options for Mars, Venus and Titan aerobraking missions.

  5. Autonomous Onboard Science Data Analysis for Comet Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Tran, Daniel Q.; McLaren, David; Chien, Steve A.; Bergman, Larry; Castano, Rebecca; Doyle, Richard; Estlin, Tara; Lenda, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Coming years will bring several comet rendezvous missions. The Rosetta spacecraft arrives at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in 2014. Subsequent rendezvous might include a mission such as the proposed Comet Hopper with multiple surface landings, as well as Comet Nucleus Sample Return (CNSR) and Coma Rendezvous and Sample Return (CRSR). These encounters will begin to shed light on a population that, despite several previous flybys, remains mysterious and poorly understood. Scientists still have little direct knowledge of interactions between the nucleus and coma, their variation across different comets or their evolution over time. Activity may change on short timescales so it is challenging to characterize with scripted data acquisition. Here we investigate automatic onboard image analysis that could act faster than round-trip light time to capture unexpected outbursts and plume activity. We describe one edge-based method for detect comet nuclei and plumes, and test the approach on an existing catalog of comet images. Finally, we quantify benefits to specific measurement objectives by simulating a basic plume monitoring campaign.

  6. Satellite project "CORONAS-PHOTON" for study of solar hard radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.; Cor-Phot Team

    "CORONAS-PHOTON" is the Russian mission for study of the solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the very wide energy range from Extreme UV up to high-energy gamma - radiation. GOAL OF PROJECT: The investigation of energy accumulation and its transformation into energy of accelerated particles processes during solar flares; the study of the acceleration mechanisms, propagation and interaction of fast particles in the solar atmosphere; the study of the solar activity correlation with physical-chemical processes in the Earth upper atmosphere. SCIENTIFIC PAYLOAD CAPABILITY Radiation / Energy region / Detector type: Full solar disk X- radiation / 2keV - 2000MeV / Prop. counter; NaI(Tl); Full solar disk X- and γ-radiation / NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) phoswich; Full solar disk X- and γ-radiation and solar neutrons / 20 - 300MeV / YalO_3(Ce); CsI(Tl); Hard X-ray polarization in large flares / 20 - 150keV / p-terphenyl scatterer and CsI(Na) absorbers; Full solar disk EUV-radiation monitoring / 6 spectral windows in <10 - 130nm / Filtered photodiodes; Solar images in narrow spectral bands and monochromatic emission lines of hot plasma / Emission of HeII, SiXI, FeXXI, FeXXIII, MgXII ions / Multi-layer and Bregg spherical crystal quartz mirrors with CCDs; Additionally, the temporal and energy spectra of electrons (0.2-14MeV), protons (1-61MeV) and nuclei (Z<26, 2-50MeV/nuclon) at the satellite orbit will be registrated by several instruments. MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF SPACECRAFT: Spacecraft weight: 1900 kg; Orbit type: Circular; Scientific payload weight: 540 kg; Height: 500 km; Orientation to the Sun [arc min]: better 5; Inclination: 82.5 degree; Instability of orientation [deg/s]: less 0.005; Solar - synchronous orbit is under study. Launching date of "CORONAS-PHOTON" spacecraft is 2006.

  7. Spacecraft autonomy using onboard processing for a SAR constellation mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattem recognition to radically increase science retum by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  8. NASA/GSFC Onboard Autonomy For The Swift Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ong, John

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work that NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is currently doing and has been involved in in developing onboard autonomy and automation. Emphasis is given to the work being done for the Swift observatory

  9. Onboard Classification of Hyperspectral Data on the Earth Observing One Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Schaffer, Steve; Rabideau, Gregg; Davies, Ashley Gerard; Doggett, Thomas; Greeley, Ronald; Ip, Felipe; Baker, Victor; Doubleday, Joshua; Castano, Rebecca; Mandl, Daniel; Frye, Stuart; Ong, Lawrence; Rogez, Francois; Oaida, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    Remote-sensed hyperspectral data represents significant challenges in downlink due to its large data volumes. This paper describes a research program designed to process hyperspectral data products onboard spacecraft to (a) reduce data downlink volumes and (b) decrease latency to provide key data products (often by enabling use of lower data rate communications systems). We describe efforts to develop onboard processing to study volcanoes, floods, and cryosphere, using the Hyperion hyperspectral imager and onboard processing for the Earth Observing One (EO-1) mission as well as preliminary work targeting the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission.

  10. High-cadence observations of CME initiation and plasma dynamics in the corona with TESIS on board CORONAS-Photon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Sergey; Kuzin, Sergey; Zhitnik, I. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Goncharov, A. L.; Ignatyev, A. P.; Krutov, V. V.; Lomkova, V. M.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Nasonkina, T. P.; Oparin, S. N.; Petzov, A. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Slemzin, V. A.; Soloviev, V. A.; Suhodrev, N. K.; Shergina, T. A.

    The TESIS is an ensemble of space instruments designed in Lebedev Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences for spectroscopic and imaging investigation of the Sun in EUV and soft X-ray spectral range with high spatial, temporal and spectral resolution. From 2009 January, when TESIS was launched onboard the Coronas-Photon satellite, it provided about 200 000 new images and spectra of the Sun, obtained during one of the deepest solar minimum in last century. Because of the wide field of view (4 solar radii) and high sensitivity, TESIS provided high-quality data on the origin and dynamics of eruptive prominences and CMEs in the low and intermediate solar corona. TESIS is also the first EUV instrument which provided high-cadence observations of coronal bright points and solar spicules with temporal resolution of a few seconds. We present first results of TESIS observations and discuss them from a scientific point of view.

  11. Spacecraft autonomy using onboard processing for a SAR constellation mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. In this paper we discuss how these AI technologies are synergistically integrated in a hybrid multi-layer control architecture to enable a virtual spacecruft science agent. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  12. Mission Operations of EO-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tran, Daniel Q.

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the prior, labor and knowledge intensive mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the new autonomous operations as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment.

  13. Evaluation of the use of on-board spacecraft energy storage for electric propulsion missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poeschel, R. L.; Palmer, F. M.

    1983-01-01

    On-board spacecraft energy storage represents an under utilized resource for some types of missions that also benefit from using relatively high specific impulse capability of electric propulsion. This resource can provide an appreciable fraction of the power required for operating the electric propulsion subsystem in some missions. The most probable mission requirement for utilization of this energy is that of geostationary satellites which have secondary batteries for operating at high power levels during eclipse. The study summarized in this report selected four examples of missions that could benefit from use of electric propulsion and on-board energy storage. Engineering analyses were performed to evaluate the mass saved and economic benefit expected when electric propulsion and on-board batteries perform some propulsion maneuvers that would conventionally be provided by chemical propulsion. For a given payload mass in geosynchronous orbit, use of electric propulsion in this manner typically provides a 10% reduction in spacecraft mass.

  14. Mission Operations of Earth Observing-1 with Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabideau, Gregg; Tran, Daniel Q.; Chien, Steve; Cichy, Benjamin; Sherwood, Rob; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Boyer, Darrell; VanGaasbeck, Jim

    2006-01-01

    Space mission operations are extremely labor and knowledge-intensive and are driven by the ground and flight systems. Inclusion of an autonomy capability can have dramatic effects on mission operations. We describe the past mission operations flow for the Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) spacecraft as well as the more autonomous operations to which we transferred as part of the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE).

  15. Onboard Processing of Electromagnetic Measurements for the Luna - Glob Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hruska, F.; Kolmasova, I.; Santolik, O.; Skalski, A.; Pronenko, V.; Belyayev, S.; Lan, R.; Uhlir, L.

    2013-12-01

    The LEMRA-L instrument (Long-wavelength Electro-Magnetic Radiation Analyzer) will be implemented on the LUNA-GLOB spacecraft. It will analyze the data of the three-axial flux gate (DC - 10Hz) and searchcoil (1Hz - 10kHz) magnetometers LEMI. It will measure intensity, polarization, and coherence properties of waves in plasmas of the solar wind, in the lunar wake and its boundaries, and study the magnetic anomalies. We will use new modern robust onboard analysis methods to estimate the wave coherence, sense of polarization, ellipticity, and wave-vector direction, and thus substantially compress the transmitted data volumes, while conserving the important scientific information. In the burst mode data set intended for studying nonlinear phenomena, we will conserve the continuous flux-gate magnetometer data and discrete snapshots of three axial waveform measurements. In the survey-mode data set, continuous flux-gate magnetometer data will be transmitted together with onboard analyzed and averaged spectral matrices from the higher-frequency wave measurements or with onboard calculated propagation and polarization parameters.

  16. The Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment (LAIME) for TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damé, L.; Koutchmy, S.; Kuzin, S.; Lamy, P.; Malherbe, J.-M.; Noëns, J.-C.

    LAIME the Lyman Alpha Imaging-Monitor Experiment is a remarkably simple no mechanisms and compact 100x100x400 mm full Sun imager to be flown with TESIS on the CORONAS-PHOTON mission launch expected before mid-2008 As such it will be the only true chromospheric imager to be flown in the next years supporting TESIS EUV-XUV imaging SDO and the Belgian LYRA Lyman Alpha flux monitor on the ESA PROBA-2 microsatellite launch expected in September 2007 We will give a short description of this unique O60 mm aperture imaging telescope dedicated to the investigating of the magnetic sources of solar variability in the UV and chromospheric and coronal disruptive events rapid waves Moreton waves disparitions brusques of prominences filaments eruptions and CMEs onset The resolution pixel is 2 7 arcsec the field of view 1 4 solar radius and the acquisition cadence could be as high as 1 image minute The back thinned E2V CCD in the focal plane is using frame transfer to avoid shutter and mechanisms Further more the double Lyman Alpha filtering allows a 40 AA FWHM bandwidth and excellent rejection yet providing a vacuum seal design of the telescope MgF2 entrance window Structural stability of the telescope focal length 1 m is preserved by a 4-INVAR bars design with Aluminium compensation in a large pm 10 o around 20 o

  17. On-board image compression for the RAE lunar mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, W. H.; Lynch, T. J.

    1976-01-01

    The requirements, design, implementation, and flight performance of an on-board image compression system for the lunar orbiting Radio Astronomy Explorer-2 (RAE-2) spacecraft are described. The image to be compressed is a panoramic camera view of the long radio astronomy antenna booms used for gravity-gradient stabilization of the spacecraft. A compression ratio of 32 to 1 is obtained by a combination of scan line skipping and adaptive run-length coding. The compressed imagery data are convolutionally encoded for error protection. This image compression system occupies about 1000 cu cm and consumes 0.4 W.

  18. Skylab-3 Mission Onboard Photograph - Astronaut Bean working on Experiment S019

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This Skylab-3 mission onboard photograph shows Astronaut Alan Bean operating the Ultraviolet (UV) Stellar Astronomy experiment (S019) in the Skylab Airlock Module. The S019, a camera with a prism for UV star photography, studied the UV spectra of early-type stars and galaxies.

  19. STS-64 Mission Onboard Photograph - Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Mark Lee (red stripe on extravehicular activity suit) tests the new backpack called Simplified Aid for EVA Rescue (SAFER), a system designed for use in the event a crew member becomes untethered while conducting an EVA. The Lidar-In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE) is shown in the foreground. The LITE payload employs lidar, which stands for light detection and ranging, a type of optical radar using laser pulses instead of radio waves to study Earth's atmosphere. Unprecedented views were obtained of cloud structures, storm systems, dust clouds, pollutants, forest burning, and surface reflectance. The STS-64 mission marked the first untethered U.S. EVA in 10 years, and was launched on September 9, 1994, aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery.

  20. Onboard Autonomy and Ground Operations Automation for the Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) CubeSat Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve; Doubleday, Joshua; Ortega, Kevin; Tran, Daniel; Bellardo, John; Williams, Austin; Piug-Suari, Jordi; Crum, Gary; Flatley, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The Intelligent Payload Experiment (IPEX) is a cubesat manifested for launch in October 2013 that will flight validate autonomous operations for onboard instrument processing and product generation for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the Hyperspectral Infra-red Imager (HyspIRI) mission concept. We first describe the ground and flight operations concept for HyspIRI IPM operations. We then describe the ground and flight operations concept for the IPEX mission and how that will validate HyspIRI IPM operations. We then detail the current status of the mission and outline the schedule for future development.

  1. Spacelab-2 (STS-51F Mission) Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    While instruments on the pallets in the payload bay observed the universe, biological experiments were performed in the middeck of the Shuttle Orbiter Challenger. Studying life processes in a microgravity environment can shed new light on the functioning of biological systems on Earth. These investigations can also help us understand how living organisms react to prolonged weightlessness. One such experiment was the vitamin D metabolites and bone demineralization experiment. This investigation measured the vitamin d metabolite levels of crew members to gain information on the cause of bone demineralization and mineral imbalance that occur during prolonged spaceflight as well as on Earth. Research into the biochemical nature of vitamin D has shown that the D-metabolites play a major role in regulating the body's calcium and phosphorus levels. One major function of the most biologically active vitamin D metabolite is to regulate the amount of calcium absorbed from the diet and taken out of bones. This investigation had two phases. The first was the developmental phase, which included extensive testing before flight, and the second, or final phase, involved the postflight analysis of the crew's blood samples. This photograph shows a blood draw test kit and centrifuge used for the experiment aboard the Spacelab-2. Marshall Space Flight Center had management responsibilities of all Spacelab missions.

  2. The CORONAS-Photon/TESIS experiment on EUV imaging spectroscopy of the Sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S.; Zhitnik, I.; Bogachev, S.; Bugaenko, O.; Ignat'ev, A.; Mitrofanov, A.; Perzov, A.; Shestov, S.; Slemzin, V.; Suhodrev, N.

    The new experiment TESIS is developent for russian CORONAS-Photon mission launch is planned on the end of 2007 The experiment is aimed on the study of activity of the Sun in the phases of minimum rise and maximum of 24 th cycle of Solar activity by the method of XUV imaging spectroscopy The method is based on the registration full-Sun monochromatic images with high spatial and temporal resolution The scientific tasks of the experiment are i Investigation dynamic processes in corona flares CME etc with high spatial up to 1 and temporal up to 1 second resolution ii determination of the main plasma parameters like plasma electron and ion density and temperature differential emission measure etc iii study of the processes of appearance and development large scale long-life magnetic structures in the solar corona study of the fluency of this structures on the global activity of the corona iv study of the mechanisms of energy accumulation and release in the solar flares and mechanisms of transformation of this energy into the heating of the plasma and kinematics energy To get the information for this studies the TESIS will register full-Sun images in narrow spectral intervals and the monochromatic lines of HeII SiXI FeXXI-FeXXIII MgXII ions The instrument includes 5 independent channels 2 telescopes for 304 and 132 A wide-field 2 5 degrees coronograph 280-330A and 8 42 A spectroheliographs The detailed description of the TESIS experiment and the instrument is presented

  3. On-board Attitude Determination System (OADS). [for advanced spacecraft missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carney, P.; Milillo, M.; Tate, V.; Wilson, J.; Yong, K.

    1978-01-01

    The requirements, capabilities and system design for an on-board attitude determination system (OADS) to be flown on advanced spacecraft missions were determined. Based upon the OADS requirements and system performance evaluation, a preliminary on-board attitude determination system is proposed. The proposed OADS system consists of one NASA Standard IRU (DRIRU-2) as the primary attitude determination sensor, two improved NASA Standard star tracker (SST) for periodic update of attitude information, a GPS receiver to provide on-board space vehicle position and velocity vector information, and a multiple microcomputer system for data processing and attitude determination functions. The functional block diagram of the proposed OADS system is shown. The computational requirements are evaluated based upon this proposed OADS system.

  4. Preliminary Operational Results of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) for the Terra Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gramling, Cheryl; Lorah, John; Santoro, Ernest; Work, Kevin; Chambers, Robert; Bauer, Frank H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Earth Observing System Terra spacecraft was launched on December 18, 1999, to provide data for the characterization of the terrestrial and oceanic surfaces, clouds, radiation, aerosols, and radiative balance. The Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (ONS) (TONS) flying on Terra provides the spacecraft with an operational real-time navigation solution. TONS is a passive system that makes judicious use of Terra's communication and computer subsystems. An objective of the ONS developed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Guidance, Navigation and Control Center is to provide autonomous navigation with minimal power, weight, and volume impact on the user spacecraft. TONS relies on extracting tracking measurements onboard from a TDRSS forward-link communication signal and processing these measurements in an onboard extended Kalman filter to estimate Terra's current state. Terra is the first NASA low Earth orbiting mission to fly autonomous navigation which produces accurate results. The science orbital accuracy requirements for Terra are 150 meters (m) (3sigma) per axis with a goal of 5m (1 sigma) RSS which TONS is expected to meet. The TONS solutions are telemetered in real-time to the mission scientists along with their science data for immediate processing. Once set in the operational mode, TONS eliminates the need for ground orbit determination and allows for a smooth flow from the spacecraft telemetry to planning products for the mission team. This paper will present the preliminary results of the operational TONS solution available from Terra.

  5. STS-65 crew onboard portrait in IML-2 spacelab module with mission flag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    In the spacelab science module aboard the Space Shuttle Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, the seven crewmembers pose for the traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait. Displayed in the background is a flag with the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) insignia and Columbia inscribed along the edge. In the front row (left to right) are Mission Specialist (MS) Carl E. Walz and MS Donald A. Thomas. Behind them (left to right) are Payload Commander (PLC) Richard J. Hieb, Payload Specialist Chiaki Mukai, Commander Robert D. Cabana, MS Leroy Chiao, and Pilot James D. Halsell, Jr. Mukai represents the National Space Development Agency (NASDA) of Japan. Crewmembers are wearing their mission polo shirts for the portrait. Inside this module, the crew conducted experiments in support of the IML-2 mission.

  6. The Envisat Mission Extension 2010- Implications for On-Ground and On-Board Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diekmann, Frank-Jugen; Mesples, Daniel; Ventimiglia, Luca; Milsson, M.; Kuijper, Dirk Berger, Jean-Noel

    2010-12-01

    ESA's Earth Observation (EO) satellite ENVISAT was launched in 2002 with a nominal mission lifetime of five years. Given the excellent performance of the platform and the nine actively controlled instruments, the mission was extended until the end of 2010, when most of the onboard hydrazine will be exhausted. A concept for extending the Envisat mission has been defined in 2008, which is based on an altitude lowering and a new orbit control concept which will allow a continuation of the routine operations until end of 2013. ESA's control centre ESOC in Darmstadt, Germany, will be responsible to implement the orbit change, conduct a mini-commissioning phase following the altitude lowering and resume nominal operations afterwards. The actual orbit change manoeuvres will be carefully planned and executed, aiming at an optimization of fuel consumption. The manoeuvre strategy will allow achieving a reliable estimate of the residual fuel after the thruster firing sequences. One of the immediate consequences after the Envisat orbit change will be S-Band interferences during overlapping ENVISAT and ERS-2 ground station passes, affecting commanding, telemetry and ranging for the two missions operated from ESOC. This will require a dynamic allocation of ground station facilities, also being used by other Earth Observation satellites operated from ESOC. The ENVISAT and ERS2 operators will be supported during this new operations phase by an automation tool taking care of a number of Envisat routine activities. This paper summarizes the Envisat orbit change activities, the impact on routine operations and the conflict resolution strategies.

  7. Processing method of images obtained during the TESIS/CORONAS-PHOTON experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.

    2011-04-01

    In January 2009, the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft was successfully launched. It includes a set of telescopes and spectroheliometers—TESIS—designed to image the solar corona in soft X-ray and EUV spectral ranges. Due to features of the reading system, to obtain physical information from these images, it is necessary to preprocess them, i.e., to remove the background, correct the white field, level, and clean. The paper discusses the algorithms and software developed and used for the preprocessing of images.

  8. RELEC mission: Relativistic electron precipitation and TLE study on-board small spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasyuk, M. I.; Svertilov, S. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Garipov, G. K.; Balan, E. A.; Barinova, V. O.; Bogomolov, A. V.; Golovanov, I. A.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kalegaev, V. V.; Khrenov, B. A.; Klimov, P. A.; Kovtyukh, A. S.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Morozenko, V. S.; Morozov, O. V.; Myagkova, I. N.; Osedlo, V. I.; Petrov, V. L.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Saleev, K. Yu.; Sigaeva, E. A.; Veden'kin, N. N.; Yashin, I. V.; Klimov, S. I.; Grechko, T. V.; Grushin, V. A.; Vavilov, D. I.; Korepanov, V. E.; Belyaev, S. V.; Demidov, A. N.; Ferencz, Cs.; Bodnár, L.; Szegedi, P.; Rothkaehl, H.; Moravski, M.; Park, I. H.; Lee, J.; Kim, J.; Jeon, J.; Jeong, S.; Park, A. H.; Papkov, A. P.; Krasnopejev, S. V.; Khartov, V. V.; Kudrjashov, V. A.; Bortnikov, S. V.; Mzhelskii, P. V.

    2016-02-01

    The main goal of the Vernov mission is the study of magnetospheric relativistic electron precipitation and its possible influence on the upper atmosphere as well as the observation of Transient Luminous Events (TLE) and Terrestrial Gamma Flashes (TGF) across a broad range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The RELEC (Relativistic Electrons) instrument complex onboard the Vernov spacecraft includes two identical X- and gamma-ray detectors of high temporal resolution and sensitivity (DRGE-1 and DRGE-2), three axis position detectors for high-energy electrons and protons (DRGE-3), a UV TLE imager (MTEL), a UV detector (DUV), a low frequency analyser (LFA), a radio frequency analyser (RFA), and AN electronics module responsible for control and data collection (BE).

  9. Radiometric model for the stereo camera STC onboard the BepiColombo ESA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, Vania; Martellato, Elena; Simioni, Emanuele; Naletto, Giampiero; Cremonese, Gabriele

    2016-08-01

    The STereoscopic imaging Channel (STC) is one of the instruments on-board the BepiColombo mission, which is an ESA/JAXA Cornerstone mission dedicated to the investigation of the Mercury planet. STC is part of the Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIO-SYS) suite. STC main scientific objective is the 3D global mapping of the entire surface of Mercury with a mean scale factor of 55 m per pixel at periherm. To determine the design requirements and to model the on-ground and in-flight performance of STC, a radiometric model has been developed. In particular, STC optical characteristics have been used to define the instrument response function. As input for the model, different sources can be taken into account depending on the applications, i.e. to simulate the in-flight or on-ground performances. Mercury expected radiance, the measured Optical Ground Support Equipment (OGSE) integrating sphere radiance, or calibrated stellar fluxes can be considered. Primary outputs of the model are the expected signal per pixel expressed in function of the integration time and its signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These outputs allow then to calculate the most appropriate integration times to be used during the different phases of the mission; in particular for the images taken during the calibration campaign on-ground and for the in-flight ones, i.e. surface imaging along the orbit around Mercury and stellar calibration acquisitions. This paper describes the radiometric model structure philosophy, the input and output parameters and presents the radiometric model derived for STC. The predictions of the model will be compared with some measurements obtained during the Flight Model (FM) ground calibration campaign. The results show that the model is valid, in fact the foreseen simulated values are in good agreement with the real measured ones.

  10. Updates on the background estimates for the X-IFU instrument onboard of the ATHENA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lotti, S.; Macculi, C.; D'Andrea, M.; Piro, L.; Molendi, S.; Gastaldello, F.; Mineo, T.; D'ai, A.; Bulgarelli, A.; Fioretti, V.; Jacquey, C.; Laurenza, M.; Laurent, P.

    2016-07-01

    ATHENA is the second large mission in ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025, with a launch foreseen in 2028 towards the L2 orbit. The mission addresses the science theme "The Hot and Energetic Universe", by coupling a high-performance X-ray Telescope with two complementary focal-plane instruments. One of these, the X-ray Integral Field Unit (X-IFU) is a TES based kilo-pixel array, providing spatially resolved high-resolution spectroscopy (2.5 eV at 6 keV) over a 5 arcmin FoV. The background for this kind of detectors accounts for several components: the diffuse Cosmic Xray Background, the low energy particles (< 100 keV) focalized by the mirrors and reaching the detector from inside the field of view, and the high energy particles (> 100 MeV) crossing the spacecraft and reaching the focal plane from every direction. In particular, these high energy particles lose energy in the materials they cross, creating secondaries along their path that can induce an additional background component. Each one of these components is under study of a team dedicated to the background issues regarding the X-IFU, with the aim to reduce their impact on the instrumental performances. This task is particularly challenging, given the lack of data on the background of X-ray detectors in L2, the uncertainties on the particle environment to be expected in such orbit, and the reliability of the models used in the Monte Carlo background computations. As a consequence, the activities addressed by the group range from the reanalysis of the data of previous missions like XMMNewton, to the characterization of the L2 environment by data analysis of the particle monitors onboard of satellites present in the Earth magnetotail, to the characterization of solar events and their occurrence, and to the validation of the physical models involved in the Monte Carlo simulations. All these activities will allow to develop a set of reliable simulations to predict, analyze and find effective solutions to reduce the

  11. Planetary protection on international waters: An onboard protocol for capsule retrieval and biosafety control in sample return mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Sekine, Yasuhito; Funase, Ryu; Takai, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Planetary protection has been recognized as one of the most important issues in sample return missions that may host certain living forms and biotic signatures in a returned sample. This paper proposes an initiative of sample capsule retrieval and onboard biosafety protocol in international waters for future biological and organic constituent missions to bring samples from possible habitable bodies in the solar system. We suggest the advantages of international waters being outside of national jurisdiction and active regions of human and traffic affairs on the condition that we accept the Outer Space Treaty. The scheme of onboard biological quarantine definitely reduces the potential risk of back-contamination of extraterrestrial materials to the Earth.

  12. MASCOT—The Mobile Asteroid Surface Scout Onboard the Hayabusa2 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Tra-Mi; Baturkin, Volodymyr; Grimm, Christian; Grundmann, Jan Thimo; Hobbie, Catherin; Ksenik, Eugen; Lange, Caroline; Sasaki, Kaname; Schlotterer, Markus; Talapina, Maria; Termtanasombat, Nawarat; Wejmo, Elisabet; Witte, Lars; Wrasmann, Michael; Wübbels, Guido; Rößler, Johannes; Ziach, Christian; Findlay, Ross; Biele, Jens; Krause, Christian; Ulamec, Stephan; Lange, Michael; Mierheim, Olaf; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Maier, Maximilian; Reill, Josef; Sedlmayr, Hans-Jürgen; Bousquet, Pierre; Bellion, Anthony; Bompis, Olivier; Cenac-Morthe, Celine; Deleuze, Muriel; Fredon, Stephane; Jurado, Eric; Canalias, Elisabet; Jaumann, Ralf; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; Glassmeier, Karl Heinz; Hercik, David; Grott, Matthias; Celotti, Luca; Cordero, Federico; Hendrikse, Jeffrey; Okada, Tatsuaki

    2016-04-01

    On December 3rd, 2014, the Japanese Space Agency (JAXA) launched successfully the Hayabusa2 (HY2) spacecraft to its journey to Near Earth asteroid (162173) Ryugu. Aboard this spacecraft is a compact landing package, MASCOT (Mobile Asteroid surface SCOuT), which was developed by the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) in collaboration with the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). Similar to the famous predecessor mission Hayabusa, Hayabusa2, will also study an asteroid and return samples to Earth. This time, however, the target is a C-type asteroid which is considered to be more primitive than (25143) Itokawa and provide insight into an even earlier stage of our Solar System. Upon arrival at asteroid Ryugu in 2018, MASCOT will be released from the HY2 spacecraft and gently descend by free fall from an altitude of about 100 m to the surface of the asteroid. After a few bounces, the lander will come to rest at the surface and perform its scientific investigations of the surface structure and mineralogical composition, the thermal behaviour and the magnetic properties by operating its four scientific instruments. Those include an IR imaging spectrometer (MicrOmega, IAS Paris), a camera (MASCAM, DLR Berlin), a radiometer (MARA, DLR Berlin) and a magnetometer (MASMAG, TU Braunschweig). In order to allow optimized payload operations the thermal design of MASCOT is required to cope with the contrasting requirements of the 4-year cruise in cold environment versus the hot conditions on the surface of the asteroid. Operations up to 2 asteroid days (˜16 hours) based on a primary battery are currently envisaged. A mobility mechanism allows locomotion on the surface. The mechanism is supported by an attitude and motion sensing system and an intelligent autonomy manager, which is implemented in the onboard software that enables MASCOT to operate fully independently when ground intervention is not available.

  13. Increasing Deep-Space Mission Science Return Through Onboard Identification of Dynamic Events: Examples from Planetary Volcanology.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, A. G.

    2006-05-01

    A new era in planetary exploration is dawning, with the promise of increased mission science return through use of onboard autonomy. Dynamic processes such as volcanism have shaped the evolution of the terrestrial planets and continue to play major roles in altering the surface of Earth, the jovian moon Io, the Saturn moon Enceladus, and the Neptune moon Triton. Other bodies may be volcanically active: the moons Europa and Titan are prime candidates for recent or current cryovolcanic activity. Deep-space missions require onboard autonomy and data processing to identify specific dynamic processes and react quickly enough to retask the spacecraft and instruments to obtain more data of what if often a transient phenomenon, thus overcoming communication delays. The potential for increased science return possible from such a capability has been successfully demonstrated by the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE), flying on the Earth Observing- 1 spacecraft in Earth orbit. ASE has demonstrated increased science return by monitoring volcanoes and retasking the spacecraft to obtain additional data when thermal activity is detected [1,2]. Onboard autonomy is a necessity for certain probe missions (aerobots, submersibles, balloons) merely to survive, and can increase science return through in situ detection of dynamic processes. Such technology exists, allowing a step in the normal planetary exploration timeline to be removed. Now, instead of a discovery being investigated by the next mission, further investigations can be performed on the spot, driven by onboard science data analysis applications controlling resource allocation. In particular, the proposed Europa Geophysical Explorer can use ASE-like data classifiers to search appropriate infrared data for tell-tale signs of active or recent cryovolcanic activity, thus identifying high-value sites for in situ investigation. Similar applications can be used on comet rendezvous missions to determine comet surface warm

  14. The WISDOM Radar onboard the Rover of the ExoMars mission (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciarletti, V.; Corbel, C.; Plettemeier, D.; Clifford, S. M.; Cais, P.; Hamran, S.

    2009-12-01

    The most fundamental and basic aspect of the geologic characterization of any environment is understanding its stratigraphy and structure - which provides invaluable insights into its origin, the processes and events by which it evolved, and (through the examination of superpositional and cross-cutting relationships) their relative timing. The WISDOM GPR onboard the Rover of the ESA ExoMars mission (2016) has the ability to investigate and characterize the nature of the subsurface remotely, providing high-resolution (several cm-scale) data on subsurface stratigraphy, structure, and the magnitude and scale of spatial heterogeneity, to depths in excess of 3 m. Unlike traditional imaging systems or spectrometers, which are limited to characterization of the visible surface, WISDOM can access what lies beneath - providing an understanding of the 3-dimensional geologic context of the landing site along the Rover path. WISDOM will address a variety of high-priority scientific objectives: (1) Understand the geology and geologic evolution of the landing site, including local lithology, stratigraphy and structure. (2) Characterize the 3-D electromagnetic properties of the Landing Site - including the scale and magnitude of spatial heterogeneity - for comparison with those measured at larger scales by MARSIS, SHARAD and any future orbital radars. (3) Understand the local distribution and state of shallow subsurface H2O and other volatiles, including the potential presence of segregated ground ice (as ice lenses and wedges), the persistent or transient occurrence of liquid water/brine, and deposits of methane hydrate and (4) identify the most promising locations for drilling that combine targets of high scientific interest. In addition to these objectives, there are also clear scientific and operational benefits when WISDOM is operated in concert with the rover’s drill and its associated analytical instruments, which will determine the compositional and physical properties

  15. Software design for the VIS instrument onboard the Euclid mission: a multilayer approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, E.; Di Giorgio, A. M.; Pezzuto, S.; Liu, S. J.; Giusi, G.; Li Causi, G.; Farina, M.; Cropper, M.; Denniston, J.; Niemi, S.

    2014-07-01

    The Euclid mission scientific payload is composed of two instruments: a VISible Imaging Instrument (VIS) and a Near Infrared Spectrometer and Photometer instrument (NISP). Each instrument has its own control unit. The Instrument Command and Data Processing Unit (VI-CDPU) is the control unit of the VIS instrument. The VI-CDPU is connected directly to the spacecraft by means of a MIL-STD-1553B bus and to the satellite Mass Memory Unit via a SpaceWire link. All the internal interfaces are implemented via SpaceWire links and include 12 high speed lines for the data provided by the 36 focal plane CCDs readout electronics (ROEs) and one link to the Power and Mechanisms Control Unit (VI-PMCU). VI-CDPU is in charge of distributing commands to the instrument sub-systems, collecting their housekeeping parameters and monitoring their health status. Moreover, the unit has the task of acquiring, reordering, compressing and transferring the science data to the satellite Mass Memory. This last feature is probably the most challenging one for the VI-CDPU, since stringent constraints about the minimum lossless compression ratio, the maximum time for the compression execution and the maximum power consumption have to be satisfied. Therefore, an accurate performance analysis at hardware layer is necessary, which could delay too much the design and development of software. In order to mitigate this risk, in the multilayered design of software we decided to design a middleware layer that provides a set of APIs with the aim of hiding the implementation of the HW connected layer to the application one. The middleware is built on top of the Operating System layer (which includes the Real-Time OS that will be adopted) and the onboard Computer Hardware. The middleware itself has a multi-layer architecture composed of 4 layers: the Abstract RTOS Adapter Layer (AOSAL), the Speci_c RTOS Adapter Layer (SOSAL), the Common Patterns Layer (CPL), the Service Layer composed of two subgroups which

  16. COVE, MARINA, and the Future of On-Board Processing (OBP) Platforms for CubeSat Science Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingree, P.; Bekker, D. L.; Bryk, M.; DeLucca, J.; Franklin, B.; Hancock, B.; Klesh, A. T.; Meehan, C.; Meshkaty, N.; Nichols, J.; Peay, C.; Rider, D. M.; Werne, T.; Wu, Y.

    2012-12-01

    The CubeSat On-board processing Validation Experiment (COVE), JPL's first CubeSat payload launched on October 28, 2011, features the Xilinx Virtex-5QV Single event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF). The technology demonstration mission was to validate the SIRF device running an on-board processing (OBP) algorithm developed to reduce the data set by 2-orders of magnitude for the Multi-angle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI), an instrument under development at JPL (PI: D. Diner). COVE has a single data interface to the CubeSat flight computer that is used to transfer a static image taken from the CubeSat camera and store it to local memory where the FPGA then reads it to run the algorithm on it. In the next generation COVE design, called MARINA, developed for the GRIFEX CubeSat project, the OBP board is extended, using rigid-flex PCB technology, to provide an interface to a JPL-developed Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) hybridized to a detector developed by Raytheon. In this configuration the focal plane array (FPA) data can be streamed directly to the FPGA for data processing or for storage to local memory. The MARINA rigid-flex PCB design is integrated with a commercial camera lens to create a 1U instrument payload for integration with a CubeSat under development by the University of Michigan and planned for launch in 2014. In the GRIFEX technology demonstration, the limited on-board storage capacity is filled by high-rate FPA data in less than a second. The system is also limited by the CubeSat downlink data rate and several ground station passes are required to transmit this limited amount of data. While this system is sufficient to validate the ROIC technology on-orbit, the system cannot be operated in a way to perform continuous science observations due to the on-board storage and data downlink constraints. In order to advance the current platform to support sustained science observations, more on-board storage is needed. Radiation tolerant memory

  17. Simultaneous Observation of High Temperature Plasma of Solar Corona By TESIS CORONAS-PHOTON and XRT Hinode.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reva, A.; Kuzin, S.; Bogachev, S.; Shestov, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Mg XII spectroheliograph is a part of instrumentation complex TESIS (satellite CORONAS-PHOTON). This instrument builds monochromatic images of hot plasma of the solar corona (λ = 8.42 Å, T>5 MK). The Mg XII spectroheliograph observed hot plasma in the non-flaring active-region NOAA 11019 during nine days. We reconstructed DEM of this active region with the help of genetic algorithm (we used data of the Mg XII spectroheliograph, XRT and EIT). Emission measure of the hot component amounts 1 % of the emission measure of the cool component.

  18. Technology Readiness Level (TRL) Advancement of the MSPI On-Board Processing Platform for the ACE Decadal Survey Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.; Wilson, Thor O.

    2011-01-01

    The Xilinx Virtex-5QV is a new Single-event Immune Reconfigurable FPGA (SIRF) device that is targeted as the spaceborne processor for the NASA Decadal Survey Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission's Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) instrument, currently under development at JPL. A key technology needed for MSPI is on-board processing (OBP) to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's ESTO1 AIST2 Program, JPL is demonstrating how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16 channels for each of the 9 multi-angle cameras can be reduced to 0.45 Mbytes/sec, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information. This is done via a least-squares fitting algorithm implemented on the Virtex-5 FPGA operating in real-time on the raw video data stream.

  19. DSPACE hardware architecture for on-board real-time image/video processing in European space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saponara, Sergio; Donati, Massimiliano; Fanucci, Luca; Odendahl, Maximilian; Leupers, Reiner; Errico, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The on-board data processing is a vital task for any satellite and spacecraft due to the importance of elaborate the sensing data before sending them to the Earth, in order to exploit effectively the bandwidth to the ground station. In the last years the amount of sensing data collected by scientific and commercial space missions has increased significantly, while the available downlink bandwidth is comparatively stable. The increasing demand of on-board real-time processing capabilities represents one of the critical issues in forthcoming European missions. Faster and faster signal and image processing algorithms are required to accomplish planetary observation, surveillance, Synthetic Aperture Radar imaging and telecommunications. The only available space-qualified Digital Signal Processor (DSP) free of International Traffic in Arms Regulations (ITAR) restrictions faces inadequate performance, thus the development of a next generation European DSP is well known to the space community. The DSPACE space-qualified DSP architecture fills the gap between the computational requirements and the available devices. It leverages a pipelined and massively parallel core based on the Very Long Instruction Word (VLIW) paradigm, with 64 registers and 8 operational units, along with cache memories, memory controllers and SpaceWire interfaces. Both the synthesizable VHDL and the software development tools are generated from the LISA high-level model. A Xilinx-XC7K325T FPGA is chosen to realize a compact PCI demonstrator board. Finally first synthesis results on CMOS standard cell technology (ASIC 180 nm) show an area of around 380 kgates and a peak performance of 1000 MIPS and 750 MFLOPS at 125MHz.

  20. Results of TLE and TGF Observation in RELEC Experiment onboard "Vernov" Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimov, Pavel; Garipov, Gali; Klimov, Stanislav; Rothkaehl, Hanna; Khrenov, Boris; Pozanenko, Alexei; Morozenko, Violetta; Iyudin, Anatoly; Bogomolov, Vitalij V.; Svertilov, Sergey; Panasyuk, Mikhail; Saleev, Kirill; Kaznacheeva, Margarita; Maximov, Ivan

    2016-07-01

    "Vernov" satellite with RELEC experiment onboard was launched on 2014 July, 8 into a polar solar-synchronous orbit. The payload includes DUV ultraviolet and red photometer and DRGE gamma-ray spectrometer providing measurements in 10-3000 keV energy range with four detectors. Both instruments directed to the atmosphere. Total area of DRGE detectors is ˜500 cm ^{2}. The data were recorded both in monitoring and gamma by gamma modes with timing accuracy ˜15 μs. Several TGF candidates with 10-40 gammas in a burst with duration <1 ms were detected. Analysis of data from other instruments on-board "Vernov" satellite shows the absence of significant electromagnetic pulses around correspondent time moments. Comparison with a world wide lightning location network (WWLLN) data base also indicates that there were no thunderstorms connected with most of detected TGF candidates. Possible connection of TGF candidates with electron precipitations is discussed. Observations of transient luminous events (TLEs) were made in UV (240-400 nm) and IR (>610 nm) wavelength bands. More than 8 thousands of flashes with duration between 1 and 128 ms were detected from the atmosphere. Time profiles of detected flashes are very diverse. There are single peak events with significant UV and IR signal, multi-peak structures visible in the both UV and IR channels and very complicated events mixed from UV and IR signals and UV flashes which can continue even during the whole waveform. In addition, there are flashes of various temporal duration and structure measured only in UV wavelength range. Number of UV photons released in the atmosphere varies in a wide range from 10 ^{20} to 10 ^{26}. Apart from the events detected in the thunderstorm regions over the continents, many flashes were observed outside of thunderstorm areas, above the ocean and even at rather high latitudes. Such events are not associated with the thunderstorm and lightning activity measured by WWLLN. Various types of UV and IR

  1. Recent Results from the Relativistic Electron Proton Telescope (REPT) onboard the Van Allen Probes Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanekal, S. G.; Baker, D. N.; Elkington, S. R.; Hoxie, V. C.; Li, X.; Spence, H. E.

    2013-05-01

    We describe recent results from the REPT instruments on board Van Allen Probes mission launched on 30 August 2012. The twin spacecraft comprising the Van Allen probes mission are identically instrumented and carry a comprehensive suite of sensors characterizing magnetospheric charged particle populations, electric and magnetic fields and plasma waves. The REPT instruments comprise a well-shielded silicon solid state detector stack, with a state of the art electronics and measure electrons of ~1.5 to > 20 MeV and protons of ~17 to > 100 MeV. The instruments were commissioned 3 days after launch and continue to provide high quality measurements. We describe the Van Allen probes and the REPT instrument and report on the new and unexpected features of the outer zone electron populations observed by REPT.

  2. Coupling characterization and noise studies of the optical metrology system onboard the LISA Pathfinder mission.

    PubMed

    Hechenblaikner, Gerald; Gerndt, Rüdiger; Johann, Ulrich; Luetzow-Wentzky, Peter; Wand, Vinzenz; Audley, Heather; Danzmann, Karsten; Garcia-Marin, Antonio; Heinzel, Gerhard; Nofrarias, Miquel; Steier, Frank

    2010-10-10

    We describe the first investigations of the complete engineering model of the optical metrology system (OMS), a key subsystem of the LISA Pathfinder science mission to space. The latter itself is a technological precursor mission to LISA, a spaceborne gravitational wave detector. At its core, the OMS consists of four heterodyne Mach-Zehnder interferometers, a highly stable laser with an external modulator, and a phase meter. It is designed to monitor and track the longitudinal motion and attitude of two floating test masses in the optical reference frame with (relative) precision in the picometer and nanorad range, respectively. We analyze sensor signal correlations and determine a physical sensor noise limit. The coupling parameters between motional degrees of freedom and interferometer signals are analytically derived and compared to measurements. We also measure adverse cross-coupling effects originating from system imperfections and limitations and describe algorithmic mitigation techniques to overcome some of them. Their impact on system performance is analyzed within the context of the Pathfinder mission.

  3. The camera of the Microchannel X-ray telescope onboard the SVOM mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuris, Aline; Pinsard, Frédéric; Doumayrou, Eric; Tourrette, Thierry; Götz, Diego; Carty, Mickael; Donati, Modeste; Dumaye, Luc; Goetschy, Alain; Nico, François; Meidinger, Norbert; Miessner, Danilo; Mercier, Karine

    2014-07-01

    The Microchannel X-Ray Telescope will be implemented on board the SVOM space mission to observe the afterglow of gamma-ray bursts and localize them with 2 arcmin precision. The optical system is based on microchannel plates assembling in Wolter-I configuration to focus the X-rays in the focal plane, like done for the MIXS telescope of the BepiColombo ESA mission. The sensor part is a 256 × 256 pixel pnCCD from the Max-Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics for high resolution spectroscopy and high quantum efficiency over 0.2 - 10 keV energy range, based on the same technology and design as the eROSITA telescopes for the Russian-German SRG mission. CEA-Irfu (Saclay) is in charge of the design and the realization of the camera, including the focal plane, the calibration wheel, the front-end electronics, the structure housing for background shielding and the active cooling system. A prototype of the full detection chain and the acquisition system was set up. The paper presents the preliminary design of the electrical, mechanical and thermal architectures of the camera. It focuses on the fabrication and testing of the critical elements of the design and concludes on the on-going developments.

  4. The High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC) Experiment onboard the European Mars Express (MEX) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neukum, G.; HRSC Team

    2003-04-01

    A major goal of the European Mars Express mission is to image the Martian surface at high spatial resolution, in stereo and in color. This task will be met by the High Resolution Stereo Camera (HRSC), a multiple-line pushbroom scanner. 9 CCD lines are mounted in parallel and simultaneously acquire images at high spatial resolution, in triple-stereo, in four colors and at five viewing angles. During the nominal mission, the HRSC will cover at least 50% of the Martian surface at 10-15 m/pixel, 70% at better than 30 m/pixel and 100% at better than 100 m/pixel resolution. The instrument is equipped with an additional super-resolution channel reaching a spatial resolution of up to 2 m/pixel. This channel is boresighted with the HRSC stereo scanner and will obtain nested-in images or image strips. Up to a few % of the Martian surface can be covered by the super-resolution channel during the mission. This channel will be of particular importance for highest-resolution coverage of landing sites such as planned for the Mars Express Beagle 2 site and the two Mars Surveyor 2003 rover sites. Scientifically, the HRSC experiment concentrates on the geological and climatological evolution of Mars with special emphasis on the role of water throughout the Martian history. An international team of 40 Co-Investigators from 28 scientific institutions and 10 countries will run the experiment and analyze the data over the two-year nominal mission with a possible extension over an additional two years. The data will be processed in such a way that they will be usable by the scientific community at large six months after receipt. The experiment hardware and software development is finished and the instrument is being assembled and tested at the ESA-MEX spacecraft. The launch of the mission is scheduled from Baikonur in late May 2003. First data from the cruise phase to Mars will be received in the June-July period of 2003.

  5. MOMA Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer onboard the 2018 ExoMars Mission: results and performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, A.; Pinnick, V. T.; Szopa, C.; Grand, N.; Humeau, O.; van Amerom, F. H.; Danell, R.; Freissinet, C.; Brinckerhoff, W.; Gonnsen, Z.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Coll, P.; Raulin, F.; Goesmann, F.

    2015-10-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a dual ion source linear ion trap mass spectrometer that was designed for the 2018 joint ESA-Roscosmos mission to Mars. The main scientific aim of the mission is to search for signs of extant or extinct life in the near subsurface of Mars by acquiring samples from as deep as 2 m below the surface. MOMA will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular and chiral) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. The MOMA instrument, itself, is a joint venture for NASA and ESA to develop a mass spectrometer capable of analyzing samples from pyrolysis/chemical derivatization gas chromatography (GC) as well as ambient pressure laser desorption ionization (LDI). The combination of the two analytical techniques allows for the chemical characterization of a broad range of compounds, including volatile and non-volatile species. Generally, MOMA can provide information on elemental and molecular makeup, polarity, chirality and isotopic patterns of analyte species. Here we report on the current performance of the MOMA prototype instruments, specifically the demonstration of the gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GC-MS) mode of operation.

  6. Development and demonstration of an on-board mission planner for helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Owen L.; Desai, Mukund

    1988-01-01

    Mission management tasks can be distributed within a planning hierarchy, where each level of the hierarchy addresses a scope of action, and associated time scale or planning horizon, and requirements for plan generation response time. The current work is focused on the far-field planning subproblem, with a scope and planning horizon encompassing the entire mission and with a response time required to be about two minutes. The far-feld planning problem is posed as a constrained optimization problem and algorithms and structural organizations are proposed for the solution. Algorithms are implemented in a developmental environment, and performance is assessed with respect to optimality and feasibility for the intended application and in comparison with alternative algorithms. This is done for the three major components of far-field planning: goal planning, waypoint path planning, and timeline management. It appears feasible to meet performance requirements on a 10 Mips flyable processor (dedicated to far-field planning) using a heuristically-guided simulated annealing technique for the goal planner, a modified A* search for the waypoint path planner, and a speed scheduling technique developed for this project.

  7. JANUS: the visible camera onboard the ESA JUICE mission to the Jovian system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, Pasquale; Jaumann, Ralf; Cremonese, Gabriele; Hoffmann, Harald; Debei, Stefano; Della Corte, Vincenzo; Holland, Andrew; Lara, Luisa Maria

    2014-05-01

    The JUICE (JUpiter ICy moons Explorer) mission [1] was selected in May 2012 as the first Large mission in the frame of the ESA Cosmic Vision 2015-2025 program. JUICE is now in phase A-B1 and its final adoption is planned by late 2014. The mission is aimed at an in-depth characterization of the Jovian system, with an operational phase of about 3.5 years. Main targets for this mission will be Jupiter, its satellites and rings and the complex relations within the system. Main focus will be on the detailed investigation of three of Jupiter's Galilean satellites (Ganymede, Europa, and Callisto), thanks to several fly-bys and 9 months in orbit around Ganymede. JANUS (Jovis, Amorum ac Natorum Undique Scrutator) is the camera system selected by ESA to fulfill the optical imaging scientific requirements of JUICE. It is being developed by a consortium involving institutes in Italy, Germany, Spain and UK, supported by respective Space Agencies, with the support of Co-Investigators also from USA, France, Japan and Israel. The Galilean satellites Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto show an increase in geologic activity with decreasing distance to Jupiter [e.g., 2]. The three icy Galilean satellites Callisto, Ganymede and Europa show a tremendous diversity of surface features and differ significantly in their specific evolutionary paths. Each of these moons exhibits its own fascinating geologic history - formed by competition and also combination of external and internal processes. Their origins and evolutions are influenced by factors such as density, temperature, composition (volatile compounds), stage of differentiation, volcanism, tectonism, the rheological reaction of ice and salts to stress, tidal effects, and interactions with the Jovian magnetosphere and space. These interactions are still recorded in the present surface geology. The record of geological processes spans from possible cryovolcanism through widespread tectonism to surface degradation and impact cratering

  8. Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor for the CALET Mission (CGBM) onboard ISS 2: Current Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakauchi, Yoko; Tsunasima, Kosuke; Yamamoto, Tatsuma; Yoshida, Atsumasa; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Torii, Shoji; Tomida, Hiroshi; Calet Team

    2010-12-01

    The Calorimetric Electron Telescope(CALET) is the experiment to observe high energy electrons and gamma-rays. The CALET is the second mission for "Kibo" Exposed Facility of the International Space Station. It will be launched by HVT and set on the ISS. We are developing the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (CGBM). It has four detectors. Three of them are the detector employing LaBr3(Ce) crystal and one is the phoswich detector which utilizes BGO crystal and plastic scintillator. Now, we are investigating detector's performance and if it can endure the space environment. We irradiated the gamma-rays and proton beams to study its durability to radiations. I will present development status and the outcome of the experiment.

  9. Performance of the MOMA Gas Chromatograph-Mass Spectrometer onboard the 2018 ExoMars Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buch, Arnaud; Pinnick, Veronica; Szopa, Cyril; Grand, Noël; Freissinet, Caroline; Danell, Ryan; van Ameron, Friso; Arevalo, Ricardo; Brinckerhoff, William; Raulin, François; Mahaffy, Paul; Goesmann, Fred

    2015-04-01

    The Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) is a dual ion source linear ion trap mass spectrometer that was designed for the 2018 joint ESA-Roscosmos mission to Mars. The main scientific aim of the mission is to search for signs of extant or extinct life in the near subsurface of Mars by acquir-ing samples from as deep as 2 m below the surface. MOMA will be a key analytical tool in providing chemical (molecular) information from the solid samples, with particular focus on the characterization of organic content. The MOMA instrument, itself, is a joint venture for NASA and ESA to develop a mass spectrometer capable of analyzing samples from pyrolysis gas chromatograph (GC) as well as ambient pressure laser desorption ionization (LDI). The combination of the two analytical techniques allows for the chemical characterization of a broad range of compounds, including volatile and non-volatile species. Generally, MOMA can provide in-formation on elemental and molecular makeup, po-larity, chirality and isotopic patterns of analyte spe-cies. Here we report on the current performance of the MOMA prototype instruments, specifically the demonstration of the gas chromatography-mass spec-trometry (GC-MS) mode of operation. Both instruments have been tested separately first and have been coupled in order to test the efficiency of the future MOMA GC-MS instrument. The main objective of the second step has been to test the quantitative response of both instruments while they are coupled and to characterize the combined instrument detection limit for several compounds. A final experiment has been done in order to test the feasibility of the separation and detection of a mixture contained in a soil sample introduced in the MOMA oven.

  10. Caliste-SO: the x-ray spectrometer unit of the STIX instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuris, Aline; Limousin, Olivier; Gevin, Olivier; Vassal, Marie-Cécile; Soufflet, Fabrice; Fiant, Nicolas; Bednarzik, Martin; Wild, Christopher; Stutz, Stefan; Birrer, Guy; Blondel, Claire; Le Mer, Isabelle; Huynh, Duc-Dat; Donati, Modeste; Grimm, Oliver; Commichau, Volker; Hurford, Gordon; Krucker, Säm.; Gonzalez, François; Billot, Marc

    2014-07-01

    Caliste-SO is a hybrid detector integrating in a volume of 12 × 14 × 18 mm3 a 1 mm-thick CdTe pixel detector, a frontend IDeF-X HD ASIC and passive parts to perform high resolution spectroscopy in the 4-200 keV energy range with high count rate capability (104-105 photons/s/cm2). The detector hybridization concept was designed by CEA and 3DPlus to realize CdTe cameras for space astronomy missions with various pixel patterns. For the STIX instrument onboard the Solar Orbiter mission, the imaging system is made by 32 collimators that sample the visibilities of the spatial Fourier transform and doesn't require fine pitch pixels. The Al-Schottky CdTe detectors produced by Acrorad are then patterned and tested by the Paul Scherrer Institute to produce 12 pixels surrounded by a guard ring within 1 cm2. Electrical and spectroscopic performance tests of the Caliste-SO samples are performed in France at key manufacturing steps, before sending the samples to the principal investigator to mount them in the Detector Electronics Module of STIX in front of each collimator. Four samples were produced in 2013 to be part of the STIX engineering model. Best pixels show an energy resolution of 0.7 keV FWHM at 6 keV (1 keV resolution requirement for STIX) and a low-level detection threshold below 3 keV (4 keV requirement for STIX). The paper describes the design and the production of Caliste-SO and focuses on main performance tests performed so far to characterize the spectrometer unit.

  11. Extra dose due to extravehicular activity during the NASA4 mission measured by an on-board TLD system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deme, S.; Apathy, I.; Hejja, I.; Lang, E.; Feher, I.

    1999-01-01

    A microprocessor-controlled on-board TLD system, 'Pille'96', was used during the NASA4 (1997) mission to monitor the cosmic radiation dose inside the Mir Space Station and to measure the extra dose to two astronauts in the course of their extravehicular activity (EVA). For the EVA dose measurements, CaSO4:Dy bulb dosemeters were located in specially designed pockets of the ORLAN spacesuits. During an EVA lasting 6 h, the dose ratio inside and outside Mir was measured. During the EVA, Mir crossed the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) three times. Taking into account the influence of these three crossings the mean EVA/internal dose rate ratio was 3.2. Internal dose mapping using CaSO4:Dy dosemeters gave mean dose rates ranging from 9.3 to 18.3 microGy h-1 at locations where the shielding effect was not the same. Evaluation results of the high temperature region of LiF dosemeters are given to estimate the mean LET.

  12. The pre-flight calibration setup of the instrument SIMBIO-SYS onboard the mission BepiColombo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, F.; Rodriguez-Ferreira, J.; Arondel, A.; Dassas, K.; Eng, P.; Lami, P.; Langevin, Y.; Longval, Y.; Pradel, P.; Dami, M.

    2015-11-01

    BepiColombo, an European Space Agency (ESA) mission being conducted in cooperation with the Japan space agency, will explore Mercury with a set of eleven instruments onboard the spacecraft Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO). Among them, SIMBIO-SYS (Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem) is a complex instrument that will provide images and spectra in the 400-2000 nm wavelength range of the entire surface of Mercury. Pre-flight calibration of the SYMBIO-SYS instrument is mandatory for reliable scientific interpretation of images and spectra returned from the planet Mercury. This paper presents the calibration device designed and implemented for the specific requirements of this instrument. It mainly consists of a thermal vacuum chamber simulating the space environment, an optical bench collecting calibration sources and optical elements that simulate the conditions of Mercury observations, mechanical interfaces used for positioning the three channels inside the vacuum chamber, thermal interfaces to explore the operating temperatures, computer interfaces that allow to communicate with both the instrument and the calibration elements and synchronize the calibrations sequences with the status of the calibration device. As the major goal is the characterization of the radiometric performances of the three channels of SIMBIO-SYS, radiometric performances of the test setup evaluated by simulations and measurements are emphasized.

  13. CLUPI: CLose-UP Imager on.board the ExoMars Mission Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josset, Jean-Luc

    The CLose-UP Imager (CLUPI) imaging experiment is designed to obtain high-resolution colour and stereo images of rocks from the ExoMars rover (Pasteur payload). The close-up imager is a robotic equivalent of one of the most useful instruments of the field geologist: the hand lens. Imaging of surfaces of rocks, soils and wind drift deposits is crucial for the understanding of the geological context of any site where the rover will be active on Mars. The purpose of the Close-up imager is to look an area of about 4 cm x 2.6 cm of the rocks at a focus distance of 10 cm. With a resolution of approx. 15 micrometer/pixel, many kinds of rock surface and internal structures can be visualized: crystals in igneous rocks, fracture mineralization, secondary minerals, details of the surface morphology, sediment components, sedimentary structures, soil particles. It is conceivable that even textures resulting from ancient biological activity can be seen, such as fine lamination due to microbial mats (stromatolites) and textures resulting from colonies of filamentous microbes. CLUPI is a powerful highly integrated miniaturized (¡208g) low-power robust imaging system with no mobile part, able to operate at very low temperature (-120° C). The opto-mechanical interfaces will be a smart assembly in titanium sustaining wide temperature range. The concept benefits from well-proven heritage: Proba, Rosetta, MarsExpress and Smart-1 missions. . . The close-up imager CLUPI on the ExoMars Rover will be described together with its capabilities to provide important information significantly contributing to the understanding of the geological environment and could identify outstanding potential biofabrics (stromatolites...) of past life on Mars.

  14. Summary of the results from the Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment (LADEE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horanyi, Mihaly

    2016-07-01

    The Lunar Dust Experiment (LDEX) onboard the Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) mission (9/2013 - 4/2014) discovered a permanently present dust cloud engulfing the Moon. The size, velocity, and density distributions of the dust particles are consistent with ejecta clouds generated from the continual bombardment of the lunar surface by sporadic interplanetary dust particles. Intermittent density enhancements were observed during several of the annual meteoroid streams, especially during the Geminids. LDEX found no evidence of the expected density enhancements over the terminators where electrostatic processes were predicted to efficiently loft small grains. LDEX is an impact ionization dust detector, it captures coincident signals and full waveforms to reliably identify dust impacts. LDEX recorded average impact rates of approximately 1 and 0.1 hits/minute of particles with impact charges of q > 0.5 and q > 5 fC, corresponding to particles with radii of a > 0.3 and a> 0.7~μm, respectively. Several of the yearly meteor showers generated sustained elevated levels of impact rates, especially if their radiant direction intersected the lunar surface near the equatorial plane, greatly enhancing the probability of crossing their ejecta plumes. The characteristic velocities of dust particles in the cloud are on the order of ~100 m/s which we neglect compared to the typical spacecraft speeds of 1.6 km/s. Hence, with the knowledge of the spacecraft orbit and attitude, impact rates can be directly turned into particle densities as functions of time and position. LDEX observations are the first to identify the ejecta clouds around the Moon sustained by the continual bombardment of interplanetary dust particles. Most of the dust particles generated in impacts have insufficient energy to escape and follow ballistic orbits, returning to the surface, 'gardening' the regolith. Similar ejecta clouds are expected to engulf all airless planetary objects, including

  15. The BepiColombo mission to Mercury: state of the art of the ISA accelerometer implementation onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, V.; Lucchesi, D.; Fiorenza, E.; Lefevre, C.; Lucente, M.; Magnafico, C.; Peron, R.; Santoli, F.; Nozzoli, S.; Argada, A.

    2012-04-01

    The Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) has been selected by ESA to fly onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the BepiColombo space mission. Mercury's exploration represents one of the most important challenges of modern planetary sciences and the mission aims to reach a much better understanding of the internal structure and composition of the planet, which in turn are needed for a deeper comprehension of the formation of the terrestrial planets, hence of that of our solar system. Moreover, because of its proximity to the Sun, Mercury represents a unique opportunity to test Einstein's theory for the gravitational interaction with respect to other proposed theories of gravitation. The BepiColombo Radio Science Experiments (RSE) are devoted to reach the above ambitious goals and the measurements of the onboard accelerometer are necessary to remove (a posteriori) the very complex to model, strong and subtle, non-gravitational accelerations due to the very strong radiation environment around Mercury. We focus on the accelerometer characteristics and performance, on the functional tests that are necessary for its implementation onboard the MPO and in the procedures that are necessary for the reduction of the accelerometer measurements in order to be used in the context of the RSE. We finally introduce the description of the accelerometer proof-masses non linearities, their impact in the measurements and the way to handle such effects.

  16. The EUV-observatory TESIS on board Coronas-Photon: scientific goals and initial plan of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Sergey

    The TESIS a EUV-observatory for solar research from space will be launched in 2008 September on board the satellite Coronas-Photon from cosmodrome Plesetsk. TESIS is a project of Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science with contribution from Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Science (the spectrometer SphinX). The experiment will focus on quasi-monochromatic imaging of the Sun and XUV spectroscopy of solar plasma. The scientific payload of TESIS contains five instruments: (1) Bragg crystal spectroheliometer for Sun monochromatic imaging in the line MgXII 8.42 A, (2) the normal-incidence Herschelian EUV telescopes with a resolution of 1.7 arc sec operated in lines FeXXII 133 A, FeIX 171 A and HeII 304 A, (3) the EUV imaging spectrometer, (4) the wide-field Ritchey-Chretien coronograph and (5) the X-ray spectrometer SphinX. The TESIS will focus on coordinated study of solar activity from the transition region to the outer corona up to 4 solar radii in wide temperature range from 5*104 to 2*107 K. We describe the scientific goals of the TESIS and its initial plan of observations.

  17. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -Overview and first mission results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitz, Guenther; Berger, Thomas; Kürner, Christine; Burmeister, Sünke; Hajek, Michael; Bilski, Pawel; Horwacik, Tomasz; Vanhavere, Filip; Spurny, Frantisek; Jadrnickova, Iva; Pálfalvi, József K.; O'Sullivan, Denis; Yasuda, Nakahiro; Uchihori, Yukio; Kitamura, Hisashi; Kodaira, Satoshi; Yukihara, Eduardo; Benton, Eric; Zapp, Neal; Gaza, Ramona; Zhou, Dazhuang; Semones, Edward; Roed, Yvonne; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. The DOSIS (Dose Distribution inside the ISS) experiment, under the project and science lead of DLR, aims for the spatial and tempo-ral measurement of the radiation field parameters inside the European Columbus laboratory onboard the International Space Station. This goal is achieved by applying a combination of passive (Thermo-and Optical luminescence detectors and Nuclear track etch detectors) and active (silicon telescope) radiation detectors. The passive radiation detectors -so called pas-sive detector packages (PDP) are mounted at eleven positions within the Columbus laboratory -aiming for a spatial dose distribution measurement of the absorbed dose, the linear energy transfer spectra and the dose equivalent with an average exposure time of six months. Two active silicon telescopes -so called Dosimetry Telescopes (DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2) together with a Data and Power Unit (DDPU) are mounted within the DOSIS Main Box at a fixed loca-tion beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) rack. The DOSTEL 1 and DOSTEL 2 detectors are positioned at a 90 angle to each other for a precise measurement of the temporal and spatial variation of the radiation field, especially during crossing of the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA). The DOSIS hardware was launched with the

  18. The E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA Euclid Dark Energy Mission: a general view after positive conclusion of the assessment phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenziano, L.; Zerbi, F. M.; Cimatti, A.; Bianco, A.; Bonoli, C.; Bortoletto, F.; Bulgarelli, A.; Butler, R. C.; Content, R.; Corcione, L.; de Rosa, A.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Gianotti, F.; Giro, E.; Grange, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Ligori, S.; Martin, L.; Mandolesi, N.; Morgante, G.; Nicastro, L.; Riva, M.; Robberto, M.; Sharples, R.; Spanò, P.; Talbot, G.; Trifoglio, M.; Wink, R.; Zamkotsian, F.

    2010-07-01

    The Euclid Near-Infrared Spectrometer (E-NIS) Instrument was conceived as the spectroscopic probe on-board the ESA Dark Energy Mission Euclid. Together with the Euclid Imaging Channel (EIC) in its Visible (VIS) and Near Infrared (NIP) declinations, NIS formed part of the Euclid Mission Concept derived in assessment phase and submitted to the Cosmic Vision Down-selection process from which emerged selected and with extremely high ranking. The Definition phase, started a few months ago, is currently examining a substantial re-arrangement of the payload configuration due to technical and programmatic aspects. This paper presents the general lines of the assessment phase payload concept on which the positive down-selection judgments have been based.

  19. Onboard Processing of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Data of Volcanic Activity for Future Earth-Orbiting and Planetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, Ashley Gerard; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel Q.; Doubleday, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    Autonomous onboard processing of data allows rapid response to detections of dynamic, changing processes. Software that can detect volcanic eruptions from thermal emission has been used to retask the Earth Observing 1 spacecraft to obtain additional data of the eruption. Rapid transmission of these data to the ground, and the automatic processing of the data to generated images, estimates of eruption parameters and maps of thermal structure, has allowed these products to be delivered rapidly to volcanologists to aid them in assessing eruption risk and hazard. Such applications will enhance science return from future Earth-orbiting spacecraft and also from spacecraft exploring the Solar System, or beyond, which hope to image dynamic processes. Especially in the latter case, long communication times between the spacecraft and Earth exclude a rapid response to what may be a transient process - only using onboard autonomy can the spacecraft react quickly to such an event.

  20. Onboard Navigation Systems Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The space shuttle onboard navigation systems characteristics are described. A standard source of equations and numerical data for use in error analyses and mission simulations related to space shuttle development is reported. The sensor characteristics described are used for shuttle onboard navigation performance assessment. The use of complete models in the studies depend on the analyses to be performed, the capabilities of the computer programs, and the availability of computer resources.

  1. On-Board and Ground-Based Complexes for Operating the Science Payload of the CORONAS-F Space Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, A. I.; Lisin, D. V.; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Afanas'ev, A. N.; Osin, A. I.; Schwarz, J.

    To ensure reliable operation of the science payload of the CORONAS-F satellite and to exercise its flexible control in the course of realization of the research program, an on-board and a specialized ground-based control complexes (GCCs) were designed and manufactured at the Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation (IZMIRAN). A demand for such systems arose because the service facilities of the satellite basic platform were unable to satisfy the requirements of the unique scientific experiments, i.e., an efficient on-line control of the variety of scientific instruments, managing large amounts of scientific information, etc.

  2. Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons Instrument Onboard MSL Mission: Selection of Landing Site from HEND/Odyssey Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, M. L.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mitrofanov, I. G.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Sanin, A. B.; Tretyakov, V. I.; Vostrukhin, A.

    2007-03-01

    This abstract contains description of DAN instrument selected for MSL mission and results of analysis of prioritized landing site selections (First MSL Landing Site Workshop) based on HEND/Odyssey data.

  3. Diffusing screen for on-board radiometric calibration of the stereo-spectral-imaging system ARGUS for Mars 94/96 mission.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozova, S. P.; Sapritsky, V. I.; Morozov, P. A.; Novitsky, A. V.; Khlevnoy, B. B.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Tarnopolsky, V. I.; Belousov, A. V.

    1996-05-01

    A new stereo-spectral-imaging system, ARGUS, has been developed for the Mars 94/96 mission and consists of three videospectrometers with a wide field-of-view covering the spectral range 320 nm to 5200 nm. The on-board radiometric calibration is based on a diffusing target illuminated by the Sun's radiation. The provision for a common target for all the videospectrometers of the ARGUS system allows an intercomparison of instruments to be carried out in addition to individual calibration verification. The development and testing of the target for on-board radiometric calibration is described and techniques for preparing the target surface are given. A brief description of the setup for measurements of the spectral and angular response of the target reflectivity is presented, together with results of the spectral and angular response of the target reflectivity, for an angle of incidence of -70° (relative to the normal) and at viewing angles from 0° to +60° at 2° intervals. The bidirectional reflectance factor of the target is reported for the spectral range 320 nm to 5200 nm at an angle of incidence of -70° and at a viewing angle of +20°.

  4. The DREAMS payload on-board the Entry and descent Demonstrator Module of the ExoMars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, F.; Montmessin, F.; Debei, S.; Colombatti, G.; Harri, A.-M.; Pommereau, J.-P.; Wilson, C.; Aboudan, A.; Molfese, C.; Zaccariotto, M.; Mugnuolo, R.

    2012-04-01

    DREAMS (Dust characterization, Risk assessment and Environment Analyser on the Martian Surface) is the scientific payload selected by ESA and NASA for the accommodation on the Entry and descent Demonstrator Module (EDM) of the ExoMars mission to be launched in 2016. It is a meteorological station with the additional capability to perform measurements of the electric fields close to the surface of Mars. It is an autonomous system that includes its own battery for power supply. It is constituted by the following subsystems: MarsTem (thermometer), MetBaro (pressure sensor), MetHumi (humidity sensor), MetWind (2-D wind sensor), MicroARES (electric field sensor), ODS (optical depth sensor), a triaxial accelerometer (for attitude measurements), a CEU (Central Electronic Unit) and a battery. All systems in DREAMS have a solid heritage from other missions and have very high TRL. The ExoMars 2016 EDM mission is foreseen to reach Mars during the climatological dust storm season. DREAMS will have the unique chance of making scientific measurements able to characterize the martian environment in this dust loaded scenario. Even with low resources (volume, mass, energy) DREAMS will be able to perform novel measurements that will improve our understanding of the martian environment and dust cycle. DREAMS will perform: • Meteorological measurements by monitoring pressure, temperature, wind speed and direction, humidity and dust opacity during a martian sol at its landing site. • Characterization of the martian boundary layer. • Hazard monitoring by providing a comprehensive dataset to help engineers to quantify hazards for equipments and human crew: velocity of windblown dust, electrostatic charging, existence of discharges, and electromagnetic noise potentially affecting communications. • The first ever investigation of atmospheric electric phenomena on Mars. The DREAMS experiment gathers a wide consortium of institutions led by Italy, reflecting the current involvement

  5. Simulation study for the determination of the lunar gravity field from PRARE-L tracking onboard the German LEO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flechtner, Frank; Neumayer, Karl Hans; Kusche, Jürgen; Schäfer, Wolfgang; Sohl, Frank

    2008-10-01

    A simulation study has been performed at GFZ Potsdam, which shows the anticipated improvement of the lunar gravity field model with respect to current (LP150Q model) or near-future (SELENE) knowledge in the framework of the planned German Lunar Explorations Orbiter (LEO) mission, based on PRARE-L (Precise Range And Range-rate Equipment - Lunar version) Satellite-to-Satellite (SST) and Satellite-Earth-Satellite (SEST) tracking observations. It is shown that the global mean error of the lunar gravity field can be reduced to less than 0.1 mGal at a spatial resolution of 50 km. In the spectral domain, this means a factor of 10 (long wavelengths) and some 100 (mid to short wavelengths) improvement as compared to predictions for SELENE or a factor of 1000 with respect to LP150Q. Furthermore, a higher spatial resolution of up to 28 km seems feasible and would correspond to a factor of 2-3 improvement of SELENE results. Moreover, PRARE-L is expected to derive the low-degree coefficients of the lunar gravity field with unprecedented accuracy. Considering long mission duration (at least 1 year is planned) this would allow for the first time a precise direct determination of the low-degree tidal Love numbers of the Moon and, in combination with high precision SEST, would provide an experimental basis to study relativistic effects such as the periselenium advance in the Earth-Moon system.

  6. Preliminary Results of the Optical Calibration for the Sterio Camera STC Onboard the BepiColonbo Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Deppo, V.; Martellato, E.; Simioni, E.; Borrelli, D.; Dami, M.; Aroldi, G.; Naletto, G.; Ficai Veltroni, I.; Cremonese, G.

    2014-10-01

    BepiColombo is one of the cornerstone missions of the European Space Agency dedicated to the exploration of the planet Mercury and it is expected to be launched in July 2016. One of the BepiColombo instruments is the STereoscopic imaging Channel (STC), which is a channel of the Spectrometers and Imagers for MPO BepiColombo Integrated Observatory SYStem (SIMBIOSYS) suite: an integrated system for imaging and spectroscopic investigation of the Mercury surface. STC main aim is the 3D global mapping of the entire surface of the planet Mercury during the BepiColombo one year nominal mission. The STC instrument consists in a novel concept of stereocamera: two identical cameras (sub-channels) looking at ±20° from nadir which share most of the optical components and the detector. Being the detector a 2D matrix, STC is able to adopt the push-frame acquisition technique instead of the much common push-broom one. The camera has the capability of imaging in five different spectral bands: one panchromatic and four intermediate bands, in the range between 410 and 930 nm. To avoid mechanisms, the technical solution chosen for the filters is the single substrate stripe-butted filter in which different glass pieces, with different transmission properties, are glued together and positioned just in front of the detector. The useful field of view (FoV) of each sub-channel, though divided in 3 strips, is about 5.3° × 3.2°. The optical design, a modified Schmidt layout, is able to guarantee that over all the FoV the diffraction Ensquared Energy inside one pixel of the detector is of the order of 70-80%. To effectively test and calibrate the overall STC channel, an ad hoc Optical Ground Support Equipment has been developed. Each of the sub-channels has to be separately calibrated, but also the data of one sub-channel have to be easily correlated with the other one. In this paper, the experimental results obtained by the analysis of the data acquired during the preliminary on

  7. Caliste-SO X-ray micro-camera for the STIX instrument on-board Solar Orbiter space mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meuris, A.; Hurford, G.; Bednarzik, M.; Limousin, O.; Gevin, O.; Le Mer, I.; Martignac, J.; Horeau, B.; Grimm, O.; Resanovic, R.; Krucker, S.; Orleański, P.

    2012-12-01

    The Spectrometer Telescope for Imaging X-rays (STIX) is an instrument on the Solar-Orbiter space mission that performs hard X-ray imaging spectroscopy of solar flares. It consists of 32 collimators with grids and 32 spectrometer units called Caliste-SO for indirect Fourier-transform imaging. Each Caliste-SO device integrates a 1 cm2 CdTe pixel sensor with a low-noise low-power analog front-end ASIC and circuits for supply regulation and filtering. The ASIC named IDeF-X HD is designed by CEA/Irfu (France) whereas CdTe-based semiconductor detectors are provided by the Laboratory for Micro- and Nanotechnology, Paul Scherrer Institute (Switzerland). The design of the hybrid, based on 3D Plus technology (France), is well suited for STIX spectroscopic requirements (1 keV FWHM at 6 keV, 4 keV low-level threshold) and system constraints (4 W power and 5 kg mass). The performance of the sub-assemblies and the design of the first Caliste-SO prototype are presented.

  8. Alignment procedure for detector integration and characterization of the CaSSIS instrument onboard the TGO mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Sio, Antonio; Da Deppo, Vania; Gambicorti, Lisa; Gerber, Michael; Ziethe, Ruth; Cremonese, Gabriele; Thomas, Nicolas

    2016-07-01

    The Colour and Stereo Surface Imaging System (CaSSIS) is a high-resolution camera for the ESA ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter mission launched in March 2016. CaSSIS is capable of acquiring color stereo images of features on the surface of Mars to better understand the processes related to trace gas emission. The optical configuration of CaSSIS is based on a three-mirror anastigmatic off-axis imager with a relay mirror; to attain telecentric features and to maintain compact the design, the relay mirror has power. The University of Bern had the task of detector integration and characterization of CaSSIS focal plane. An OGSE (Optical Ground Support Equipment) characterization facility was set up for this purpose. A pinhole, imaged through an off-axis paraboloidal mirror, is used to produce a collimated beam. In this work, the procedures to align the OGSE and to link together the positions of each optical element will be presented. A global Reference System (RS) has been defined using an optical cube placed on the optical bench (OB) and linked to gravity through its X component; this global RS is used to correlate the alignment of the optical components. The main steps to characterize the position of the object to that of the CaSSIS focal plane have been repeated to guide and to verify the operations performed during the alignment procedures. A calculation system has been designed to work on the optical setup and on the detector simultaneously, and to compute online the new position of the focus plane with respect to the detector. Final results will be shown and discussed.

  9. The DOSIS -Experiment onboard the Columbus Laboratory of the International Space Station -First Mission Results from the Active DOSTEL Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burmeister, Soenke; Berger, Thomas; Beaujean, Rudolf; Boehme, Matthias; Haumann, Lutz; Kortmann, Onno; Labrenz, Johannes; Reitz, Guenther

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long dura-tion human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Accurate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the space radiation field in dependence on the solar activity, the orbital parameters and the different shielding configurations of the International Space Station ISS is therefore needed. For the investigation of the spatial and temporal distribution of the radiation field inside the European COLUMBUS module the DLR experiment DOSIS (Dose Distribution Inside the ISS) was launched on July 15th 2009 with STS-127 to the ISS. The experimental package was transferred from the Space Shuttle into COLUMBUS on July 18th. It consists in a first part of a combination of passive detector packages (PDP) distributed at 11 locations inside the European Columbus Laboratory. The second part are two active radiation detectors (DOSTELs) with a DDPU (DOSIS Data and Power Unit) in a nomex pouch (DOSIS MAIN BOX) mounted at a fixed location beneath the European Physiology Module (EPM) inside COLUMBUS. After the successful installation the active part has been activated on the 18th July 2009. Each of the DOSTEL units consists of two 6.93 cm PIPS silicon detectors forming a telescope with an opening angle of 120. The two DOSTELs are mounted with their telescope axis perpendicular to each other to investigate anisotropies of the radiation field inside the COLUMBUS module especially during the passes through the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) and during Solar Particle Events (SPEs). The data from the DOSTEL units are transferred to ground via the EPM rack which is activated

  10. Mare Imbrium Regolith and Rock Information Retrieved from Imaging Spectrometer and Panorama Cameras onboard the Yutu Rover of Chang'E 3 Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hao; Jin, Weidong; Yuan, Ye; Yang, Yazhou; Wang, Ziwei; Xiao, Long

    2014-11-01

    The Chang’E 3 mission successfully landed on the Mare Imbrium region on December 14, 2013 and deployed the Yutu Rover to roam near the Chang’E A Crater. Although the rover roamed just over 100 meters before its premature failure, its onboard visible and near-infrared (VisNIR) imaging spectrometer was able to collect 4 spectra at 4 different sites which are the first in-situ lunar surface spectra ever taken. The onboard panorama cameras (PCAM) also photographed large amount of surface features since the Apollo era and some images have clearly shown the lunar opposition effect. The VisNIR spectrometer spans the wavelength from 450 to 2395 nm with a step of 5 nm. By performing radiometric and photometric calibrations, the absolute reflectance are obtained and it is found that the in-situ spectra are much bighter than that of the same area measured by the M3 instrument. The in-situ spectra also have a much deeper 1 μm absorption feature than that of the M3 spectra measured remotely. We conjecture that such differences are caused by the fact that the lander’s descent engines must have blown away the top-most layers which are much more mature than the exposed underlying layers. A comparison of the continuum-removed in-situ spectra with that of the mineral spectral library gives the concentrations of major lunar rock-forming minerals including olivine, pyroxenes and plagioclase at these 4 different sites. The phase curve retrieved from the PCAM shows a strong opposition surge below 10-deg phase angle and the phase reddening effect. We attempt to retrieve the regolith physical properties using both the Hapke and Shkuratov photometric models. At a close distance the PCAM also captured high resolution images of a 4-meter across boulder at the edge of the Chang’E A Crater. Centimeter-sized bright clasts on its surface may indicate its basaltic nature. By comparing the VisNIR spectra of its nearby regoliths with that of the Apollo samples, we believe this boulder

  11. SDO Onboard Ephemeris Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, Kevin E.; Liu, Kuo-Chia

    2008-01-01

    The Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) spacecraft is a sun-pointing, semi-autonomous satellite that will allow nearly continuous observations of the Sun with a continuous science data downlink. The science requirements for this mission necessitate very strict sun-pointing requirements, as well as continuous ground station connectivity through high gain antennas (HGAs). For SDO s onboard attitude control system to successfully point the satellite at the Sun and the HGAs at the ground stations with the desired accuracy, in addition to the need for accurate sensors it must have good onboard knowledge of the ephemerides of the Sun, the spacecraft, and the ground station. This paper describes the minimum force models necessary for onboard ephemeris generation in support of an attitude control system. The forces that were considered include the Sun s point mass, Moon s point mass, solar radiation pressure (SRP), and the Earth s gravity with varying degree and order of terms of the geopotential.

  12. X-ray spectrophotometer SphinX and particle spectrometer STEP-F of the satellite experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. Preliminary results of the joint data analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, O. V.; Podgorski, P.; Sylwester, J.; Gburek, S.; Kowalinski, M.; Siarkowski, M.; Plocieniak, S.; Bakala, J.

    2012-04-01

    A joint analysis is carried out of data obtained with the help of the solar X-ray SphinX spectrophotometer and the electron and proton satellite telescope STEP-F in May 2009 in the course of the scientific space experiment CORONAS-PHOTON. In order to determine the energies and particle types, in the analysis of spectrophotometer records data are used on the intensities of electrons, protons, and secondary γ-radiation, obtained by the STEP-F telescope, which was located in close proximity to the SphinX spectrophotometer. The identical reaction of both instruments is noted at the intersection of regions of the Brazilian magnetic anomaly and the Earth's radiation belts. It is shown that large area photodiodes, serving as sensors of the X-ray spectrometer, reliably record electron fluxes of low and intermediate energies, as well as fluxes of the secondary gamma radiation from construction materials of detector modules, the TESIS instrument complex, and the spacecraft itself. The dynamics of electron fluxes, recorded by the SphinX spectrophotometer in the vicinity of a weak geomagnetic storm, supplements the information about the processes of radial diffusion of electrons, which was studied using the STEP-F telescope.

  13. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-87) mid-deck, Leonid Kadenyuk, Ukrainian payload specialist, works with the Brassica rapa plants being grown for the Collaborative Ukrainian Experiment (CUE). Kadenyuk joined five astronauts for 16-days in Earth-orbit in support of the United States Microgravity Payload 4 (USMP-4) mission.

  14. Web Design for Space Operations: An Overview of the Challenges and New Technologies Used in Developing and Operating Web-Based Applications in Real-Time Operational Support Onboard the International Space Station, in Astronaut Mission Planning and Mission Control Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, Ahmed

    2010-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Operations Planning Team, Mission Control Centre and Mission Automation Support Network (MAS) have all evolved over the years to use commercial web-based technologies to create a configurable electronic infrastructure to manage the complex network of real-time planning, crew scheduling, resource and activity management as well as onboard document and procedure management required to co-ordinate ISS assembly, daily operations and mission support. While these Web technologies are classified as non-critical in nature, their use is part of an essential backbone of daily operations on the ISS and allows the crew to operate the ISS as a functioning science laboratory. The rapid evolution of the internet from 1998 (when ISS assembly began) to today, along with the nature of continuous manned operations in space, have presented a unique challenge in terms of software engineering and system development. In addition, the use of a wide array of competing internet technologies (including commercial technologies such as .NET and JAVA ) and the special requirements of having to support this network, both nationally among various control centres for International Partners (IPs), as well as onboard the station itself, have created special challenges for the MCC Web Tools Development Team, software engineers and flight controllers, who implement and maintain this system. This paper presents an overview of some of these operational challenges, and the evolving nature of the solutions and the future use of COTS based rich internet technologies in manned space flight operations. In particular this paper will focus on the use of Microsoft.s .NET API to develop Web-Based Operational tools, the use of XML based service oriented architectures (SOA) that needed to be customized to support Mission operations, the maintenance of a Microsoft IIS web server onboard the ISS, The OpsLan, functional-oriented Web Design with AJAX

  15. STS-80 Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    This STS-80 onboard photograph shows the Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite II (ORFEUS-SPAS II), photographed during approach by the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia for retrieval. Built by the German Space Agency, DARA, the ORFEUS-SPAS II, a free-flying satellite, was dedicated to astronomical observations at very short wavelengths to: investigate the nature of hot stellar atmospheres, investigate the cooling mechanisms of white dwarf stars, determine the nature of accretion disks around collapsed stars, investigate supernova remnants, and investigate the interstellar medium and potential star-forming regions. Some 422 observations of almost 150 astronomical objects were completed, including the Moon, nearby stars, distant Milky Way stars, stars in other galaxies, active galaxies, and quasar 3C273. The STS-80 mission was launched November 19, 1996.

  16. STS-65 onboard: IML-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia (STS-65) Mission specialist Leroy Chiao is seen in the International Microgravity Laboratory 2 (IML-2) spacelab science moduel in front of Rack 3 and above center aisle equipment. Chiao has just made an observation of the goldfish container (silver apparatus on left beween his right hand and knee) . The Rack 3 Aquatic Animal Experiment Unit (AAEU) also contains Medaka and newts. Chiao joined five other NASA astronauts and a Japanese payload specialist for two weeks of experimenting.

  17. The ground support equipment for the E-NIS instrument on-board the ESA-Euclid Dark Energy Mission in the baseline configuration presented in phase A

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifoglio, Massimo; Gianotti, Fulvio; Bulgarelli, Andrea; Franceschi, Enrico; Nicastro, Luciano; Valenziano, Luca; Zerbi, Filippo Maria; Cimatti, Andrea

    2010-07-01

    Euclid is a high-precision survey mission to map the geometry of the Dark Universe. The Euclid Mission concept presented in the Assessment Phase Study Report1 was selected by ESA on February 2010 to undergo a competitive Definition Phase. Euclid is a candidate for launch in the first slice of the Cosmic Vision Plan (M1/M2), with a possible launch date of 2018. In this paper we refer to the instrument baseline configuration identified in the Assessment Phase. It consisted of a Korsch telescope with a primary mirror of 1.2 m diameter and a focal plane hosting 3 scientific instruments, each with a field of view of 0.5 deg2: (1) E-VIS: a CCD based optical imaging channel, (2) E-NIP: a NIR imaging photometry channel, and (3) E-NIS: a NIR slitless spectral channel. We present the conceptual design developed in the Assessment Phase study for the Ground Support Equipment required to support the assembly, integration and verification operations at instrument level for the E-NIS baseline configuration, with particular regards to the scientific and calibration activities.

  18. Planning and implementation of the on-comet operations of the instrument SD2 onboard the lander Philae of Rosetta mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Lizia, P.; Bernelli-Zazzera, F.; Ercoli-Finzi, A.; Mottola, S.; Fantinati, C.; Remetean, E.; Dolives, B.

    2016-08-01

    The lander Philae of the Rosetta mission landed on the surface of the comet 67 P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on November 12, 2014. Among the specific subsystems and instruments carried on Philae, the sampling, drilling and distribution (SD2) subsystem had the role of providing in-situ operations devoted to soil drilling, sample collection, and their distribution to three scientific instruments. After landing, a first sequence of scientific activities was carried out, relying mainly on the energy stored in the lander primary battery. Due to the limited duration and the communication delay, these activities had to be carried out automatically, with a limited possibility of developing and uploading commands from the ground. Philae's landing was not nominal and SD2 was operated in unexpected conditions: the lander was not anchored to the soil and leant on the comet surface shakily. Nevertheless, one sampling procedure was attempted. This paper provides an overview of SD2 operation planning and on-comet operations, and analyses SD2 achievements during the first science sequence of Philae's on-comet operations.

  19. Design of the detector to observe the energetic charged particles: a part of the solar X-ray spectrophotometer ChemiX onboard Interhelio-Probe mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudnik, Oleksiy; Sylwester, Janusz; Kowalinski, Miroslaw; Bakala, Jaroslaw; Siarkowski, Marek; Evgen Kurbatov, mgr..

    2016-07-01

    Cosmic particle radiation may damages payload's electronics, optics, and sensors during of long-term scientific space mission especially the interplanetary ones. That is why it's extremely important to prevent failures of digital electronics, CCDs, semiconductor detectors at the times of passing through regions of enhanced charged particle fluxes. Well developed models of the Earth's radiation belts allow to predict and to protect sensitive equipment against disastrous influence of radiation due to energetic particle contained in the Van Allen belts. In the contrary interplanetary probes flying far away from our planet undergoes passages through clouds of plasma and solar cosmic rays not predictable by present models. Especially these concerns missions planned for non-ecliptic orbits. The practical approach to protect sensitive modules may be to measure the in situ particle fluxes with high time resolution and generation of alarm flags, which will switch off sensitive units of particular scientific equipment. The ChemiX (Chemical composition in X-rays) instrument is being developed by the Solar Physics Division of Polish Space Research Centre for the Interhelio-Probe interplanetary mission. Charged particle bursts can badly affect the regular measurements of X-ray spectra of solar origin. In order to detect presence of these enhanced particle fluxes the Background Particle Monitor (BPM) was developed constituting now a vital part of ChemiX. The BPM measurements of particle fluxes will assist to determine level of X-ray spectra contamination. Simultaneously BPM will measure the energy spectra of ambient particles. We present overall structure, design, technical and a scientific characteristic of BPM, particle sorts, and energy ranges to be registered. We describe nearly autonomous modular structure of BPM consisting of detector head, analogue and digital electronics modules, and of module of secondary power supply [1-3]. Detector head consists of three

  20. Spectrophotometry, colors, and photometric properties of the 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko nucleus from the OSIRIS instrument onboard the ROSETTA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornasier, Sonia; Hasselmann, Pedro; Feller, Clement; Barucci, Maria Antonietta; Lara, Luisa; Oklay, Nilda; Tubiana, Cecilia; Besse, Sebastien; Scholten, Frank; Sierks, Holger; Leyrat, Cedric; La Forgia, Fiorangela; Lazzarin, Monica; Pajola, Maurizio; Thomas, Nick; Pommerol, Antoine; Massironi, Matteo

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta is the cornerstone mission of the European Space Agency devoted to the study of Solar System minor bodies. Launched on 2 March 2004, Rosetta arrived on August 6, 2014, at the comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko after 10 years of interplanetary journey. Rosetta is now in the main science escort phase of the comet after the successful delivery of the lander Philae on its surface on November 12, 2014. In this work we present the results on the 67P nucleus physical properties derived from the OSIRIS imaging system observations obtained in July- mid August 2014, during the comet approach phase and the first bound orbits. In this timeframe, OSIRIS has mapped the comet surface with a resolution up to 2 m/px with several filters covering the 250-1000 nm range, and at different phase angles (1.3-54 degrees). The images have been reduced using the OSIRIS standard pipeline, and then transformed into I/F reflectance. A 3D shape model of the nucleus, determined from the images obtained during the mapping phase, has been used to retrieve the illumination and geometric conditions of each image. Color cubes of the surface have been hence produced by stacking registered and photometrically corrected images. Globally, the nucleus has spectrophotometric properties in the NUV-VIS-NIR range similar to those of bare cometary nuclei, of primitive D-type asteroids such us Jupiter Trojans, and of the moderately red Transneptunians and Centaurs. No clear absorption bands have been detected so far at the resolution of the used filters. The global spectral slope, evaluated in the 535-880 nm range, varies between 11 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 1.3 degrees and 16 %/(100 nm) at a phase angle of 52 degrees, implying a significant phase reddening. Despite the different types of terrains and morphological features seen on the comet (Thomas et al. 2015), the nucleus shows small color variations, with the notable exception of the Hapi region (Sierks et al., 2015). This region is located

  1. Onboard photo: Astronauts at work

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Onboard Space Shuttle Columbia's (STS-87) first ever Extravehicular Activity (EVA), astronaut Takao Doi works with a 156-pound crane carried onboard for the first time. The crane's inclusion and the work with it are part of a continuing preparation effort for future work on the International Space Station (ISS). The ongoing project allows for evaluation of tools and operating methods to be applied to the construction of the Space Station. This crane device is designed to aid future space walkers in transporting Orbital Replacement Units (ORU), with a mass up to 600 pounds (like the simulated battery pictured here), from translating carts on the exterior of ISS to various worksites on the truss structure. Earlier Doi, an international mission specialist representing Japan, and astronaut Winston E. Scott, mission specialist, had installed the crane in a socket along the middle port side of Columbia's cargo bay for the evaluation. The two began the crane operations after completing a contingency EVA to snag the free-flying Spartan 201 and berth it in the payload bay (visible in the background).

  2. Onboard hierarchical network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tunesi, Luca; Armbruster, Philippe

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate a suitable hierarchical networking solution to improve capabilities and performances of space systems, with significant recurrent costs saving and more efficient design & manufacturing flows. Classically, a satellite can be split in two functional sub-systems: the platform and the payload complement. The platform is in charge of providing power, attitude & orbit control and up/down-link services, whereas the payload represents the scientific and/or operational instruments/transponders and embodies the objectives of the mission. One major possibility to improve the performance of payloads, by limiting the data return to pertinent information, is to process data on board thanks to a proper implementation of the payload data system. In this way, it is possible to share non-recurring development costs by exploiting a system that can be adopted by the majority of space missions. It is believed that the Modular and Scalable Payload Data System, under development by ESA, provides a suitable solution to fulfil a large range of future mission requirements. The backbone of the system is the standardised high data rate SpaceWire network http://www.ecss.nl/. As complement, a lower speed command and control bus connecting peripherals is required. For instance, at instrument level, there is a need for a "local" low complexity bus, which gives the possibility to command and control sensors and actuators. Moreover, most of the connections at sub-system level are related to discrete signals management or simple telemetry acquisitions, which can easily and efficiently be handled by a local bus. An on-board hierarchical network can therefore be defined by interconnecting high-speed links and local buses. Additionally, it is worth stressing another important aspect of the design process: Agencies and ESA in particular are frequently confronted with a big consortium of geographically spread companies located in different countries, each one

  3. Using Onboard Telemetry for MAVEN Orbit Determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lam, Try; Trawny, Nikolas; Lee, Clifford

    2013-01-01

    Determination of the spacecraft state has been traditional done using radiometric tracking data before and after the atmosphere drag pass. This paper describes our approach and results to include onboard telemetry measurements in addition to radiometric observables to refine the reconstructed trajectory estimate for the Mars Atmosphere and Volatile Evolution Mission (MAVEN). Uncertainties in the Mars atmosphere models, combined with non-continuous tracking degrade navigation accuracy, making MAVEN a key candidate for using onboard telemetry data to help complement its orbit determination process.

  4. Spacecraft on-board SAR processing technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, K. Y.; Arens, W. E.

    1987-01-01

    This paper provides an assessment of the on-board SAR processing technology for Eos-type missions. The proposed Eos SAR sensor and flight data system are introduced, and the SAR processing requirements are described. The SAR on-board SAR processor architecture selection is discussed, and a baseline processor architecture using a frequency-domain processor for range correlation and a modular fault-tolerant VLSI time-domain parallel array for azimuth correlation are described. The mass storage and VLSI technologies needed for implementing the proposed SAR processing are assessed. It is shown that acceptable processor power and mass characteristics should be feasible for Eos-type applications. A proposed development strategy for the on-board SAR processor is presented.

  5. Onboard System Health Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barry, Tom; Cunningham, Harry

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs and discussion of onboard system health assessment are presented. Success of the space station program will be measured by how well it addresses the basic requirements for (1) maintaining the orbiting Space Station Freedom fully operational for its projected life of thirty years, and (2) the cost-effective execution of the overall space station program. Onboard system health assessment must provide complete and thorough testing capabilities along with effective associated redundancy/fault management.

  6. Rapid Diagnostics of Onboard Sequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Starbird, Thomas W.; Morris, John R.; Shams, Khawaja S.; Maimone, Mark W.

    2012-01-01

    Keeping track of sequences onboard a spacecraft is challenging. When reviewing Event Verification Records (EVRs) of sequence executions on the Mars Exploration Rover (MER), operators often found themselves wondering which version of a named sequence the EVR corresponded to. The lack of this information drastically impacts the operators diagnostic capabilities as well as their situational awareness with respect to the commands the spacecraft has executed, since the EVRs do not provide argument values or explanatory comments. Having this information immediately available can be instrumental in diagnosing critical events and can significantly enhance the overall safety of the spacecraft. This software provides auditing capability that can eliminate that uncertainty while diagnosing critical conditions. Furthermore, the Restful interface provides a simple way for sequencing tools to automatically retrieve binary compiled sequence SCMFs (Space Command Message Files) on demand. It also enables developers to change the underlying database, while maintaining the same interface to the existing applications. The logging capabilities are also beneficial to operators when they are trying to recall how they solved a similar problem many days ago: this software enables automatic recovery of SCMF and RML (Robot Markup Language) sequence files directly from the command EVRs, eliminating the need for people to find and validate the corresponding sequences. To address the lack of auditing capability for sequences onboard a spacecraft during earlier missions, extensive logging support was added on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) sequencing server. This server is responsible for generating all MSL binary SCMFs from RML input sequences. The sequencing server logs every SCMF it generates into a MySQL database, as well as the high-level RML file and dictionary name inputs used to create the SCMF. The SCMF is then indexed by a hash value that is automatically included in all command

  7. On-Board Rendezvous Targeting for Orion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weeks, Michael W.; DSouza, Christopher N.

    2010-01-01

    The Orion On-board GNC system is among the most complex ever developed for a space mission. It is designed to operate autonomously (independent of the ground). The rendezvous system in particular was designed to operate on the far side of the moon, and in the case of loss-of-communications with the ground. The vehicle GNC system is designed to retarget the rendezvous maneuvers, given a mission plan. As such, all the maneuvers which will be performed by Orion, have been designed and are being incorporated into the flight code.

  8. CCSDS Time-Critical Onboard Networking Service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkes, Steve; Schnurr, Rick; Marquart, Jane; Menke, Greg; Ciccone, Massimiliano

    2006-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is developing recommendations for communication services onboard spacecraft. Today many different communication buses are used on spacecraft requiring software with the same basic functionality to be rewritten for each type of bus. This impacts on the application software resulting in custom software for almost every new mission. The Spacecraft Onboard Interface Services (SOIS) working group aims to provide a consistent interface to various onboard buses and sub-networks, enabling a common interface to the application software. The eventual goal is reusable software that can be easily ported to new missions and run on a range of onboard buses without substantial modification. The system engineer will then be able to select a bus based on its performance, power, etc and be confident that a particular choice of bus will not place excessive demands on software development. This paper describes the SOIS Intra-Networking Service which is designed to enable data transfer and multiplexing of a variety of internetworking protocols with a range of quality of service support, over underlying heterogeneous data links. The Intra-network service interface provides users with a common Quality of Service interface when transporting data across a variety of underlying data links. Supported Quality of Service (QoS) elements include: Priority, Resource Reservation and Retry/Redundancy. These three QoS elements combine and map into four TCONS services for onboard data communications: Best Effort, Assured, Reserved, and Guaranteed. Data to be transported is passed to the Intra-network service with a requested QoS. The requested QoS includes the type of service, priority and where appropriate, a channel identifier. The data is de-multiplexed, prioritized, and the required resources for transport are allocated. The data is then passed to the appropriate data link for transfer across the bus. The SOIS supported data links may

  9. Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, Tim; LeBlanc, Troy; Ulman, Brian; McDonald, Aaron; Gramm, Paul; Chang, Li-Min; Keerthi, Suman; Kivlovitz, Dov; Hadlock, Jason

    2011-01-01

    Onboard Short Term Plan Viewer (OSTPV) is a computer program for electronic display of mission plans and timelines, both aboard the International Space Station (ISS) and in ISS ground control stations located in several countries. OSTPV was specifically designed both (1) for use within the limited ISS computing environment and (2) to be compatible with computers used in ground control stations. OSTPV supplants a prior system in which, aboard the ISS, timelines were printed on paper and incorporated into files that also contained other paper documents. Hence, the introduction of OSTPV has both reduced the consumption of resources and saved time in updating plans and timelines. OSTPV accepts, as input, the mission timeline output of a legacy, print-oriented, UNIX-based program called "Consolidated Planning System" and converts the timeline information for display in an interactive, dynamic, Windows Web-based graphical user interface that is used by both the ISS crew and ground control teams in real time. OSTPV enables the ISS crew to electronically indicate execution of timeline steps, launch electronic procedures, and efficiently report to ground control teams on the statuses of ISS activities, all by use of laptop computers aboard the ISS.

  10. Enhancing Science and Automating Operations using Onboard Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Davies, Ashley; Castano, Rebecca; Rabideau, Gregg; Mandl, Dan; Szwaczkowski, Joseph; Frye, Stuart; Shulman, Seth

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we will describe the evolution of the software from prototype to full time operation onboard Earth Observing One (EO-1). We will quantify the increase in science, decrease in operations cost, and streamlining of operations procedures. Included will be a description of how this software was adapted post-launch to the EO-1 mission, which had very limited computing resources which constrained the autonomy flight software. We will discuss ongoing deployments of this software to the Mars Exploration Rovers and Mars Odyssey Missions as well as a discussion of lessons learned during this project. Finally, we will discuss how the onboard autonomy has been used in conjunction with other satellites and ground sensors to form an autonomous sensor-web to study volcanoes, floods, sea-ice topography, and wild fires. As demonstrated on EO-1, onboard autonomy is a revolutionary advance that will change the operations approach on future NASA missions...

  11. Standardized Spacecraft Onboard Interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Joseph F.; Plummer, Chris; Plancke, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), an international organization of national space agencies, is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of onboard spacecraft equipment and software. These Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF) standards will be, in part, based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by describing three orthogonal views: the Services View that describes data communications services, the Interoperability view shows how to exchange data and messages between different spacecraft elements, and the Protocol view, that describes the SOIF protocols and services. We will also provide a description of the present state of the services that will be provided to SOIF users, and are the basis of the utility of these standards.

  12. Two Years Onboard the MER Opportunity Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estlin, Tara; Anderson, Robert C.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Burl, Michael; Castano, Rebecca; Gaines, Daniel; Judd, Michele; Thompson, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science (AEGIS) system provides automated data collection for planetary rovers. AEGIS is currently being used onboard the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission's Opportunity to provide autonomous targeting of the MER Panoramic camera. Prior to AEGIS, targeted data was collected in a manual fashion where targets were manually identified in images transmitted to Earth and the rover had to remain in the same location for one to several communication cycles. AEGIS enables targeted data to be rapidly acquired with no delays for ground communication. Targets are selected by AEGIS through the use of onboard data analysis techniques that are guided by scientist-specified objectives. This paper provides an overview of the how AEGIS has been used on the Opportunity rover, focusing on usage that occurred during a 21 kilometer historic trek to the Mars Endeavour crater.

  13. Onboard Detection of Active Canadian Sulfur Springs: A Europa Analogue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Castano, Rebecca; Wagstaff, Kiri; Gleeson, Damhnait; Pappalardo, Robert; Chien, Steve; Tran, Daniel; Scharenbroich, Lucas; Moghaddam, Baback; Tang, Benyang; Bue, Brian; Doggett, Thomas; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stuart

    2008-01-01

    We discuss a current, ongoing demonstration of insitu onboard detection in which the Earth Observing-1 spacecraft detects surface sulfur deposits that originate from underlying springs by distinguishing the sulfur from the ice-rich glacial background, a good analogue for the Europan surface. In this paper, we describe the process of developing the onboard classifier for detecting the presence of sulfur in a hyperspectral scene, including the use of a training/testing set that is not exhaustively labeled, i.e.not all true positives are marked, and the selection of 12, out of 242, Hyperion instrument wavelength bands to use in the onboard detector. This study aims to demonstrate the potential for future missions to capture short-lived science events, make decisions onboard, identify high priority data for downlink and perform onboard change detection. In the future, such capability could help maximize the science return of downlink bandwidth-limited missions, addressing a significant constraint in all deep-space missions.

  14. STS-110 and Expedition Four Crews Pose for Onboard Portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Posed inside the Destiny Laboratory aboard the International Space Station (ISS) are the STS-110 and Expedition Four crews for a traditional onboard portrait From the left, bottom row, are astronauts Ellen Ochoa, STS mission specialist, Michael J. Bloomfield, STS mission commander, and Yury I Onufrienko, Expedition Four mission commander. From the left, middle row, are astronauts Daniel W. Bursch, Expedition Four flight engineer, Rex J. Walheim, STS mission specialist, and Carl E. Walz, Expedition Four flight engineer. From the left, top row, are astronauts Stephen N. Frick, STS pilot; Jerry L. Ross, Lee M.E. Morin, and Steven L. Smith, all mission specialists. Launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis on April 8, 2002, the STS-110 mission crew prepared the ISS for future space walks by installing and outfitting the 43-foot-long Starboard side S0 truss and preparing the Mobile Transporter. The mission served as the 8th ISS assembly flight.

  15. Onboard photo: Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Space Shuttle Endeavour (STS-47) onboard photo of Astronaut Mae Jemison working in Spacelab-J module. Spacelab-J is a combined National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) and NASA mission. The objectives included life sciences, microgravity and technology research.

  16. Onboard Science and Applications Algorithm for Hyperspectral Data Reduction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Davies, Ashley G.; Silverman, Dorothy; Mandl, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    An onboard processing mission concept is under development for a possible Direct Broadcast capability for the HyspIRI mission, a Hyperspectral remote sensing mission under consideration for launch in the next decade. The concept would intelligently spectrally and spatially subsample the data as well as generate science products onboard to enable return of key rapid response science and applications information despite limited downlink bandwidth. This rapid data delivery concept focuses on wildfires and volcanoes as primary applications, but also has applications to vegetation, coastal flooding, dust, and snow/ice applications. Operationally, the HyspIRI team would define a set of spatial regions of interest where specific algorithms would be executed. For example, known coastal areas would have certain products or bands downlinked, ocean areas might have other bands downlinked, and during fire seasons other areas would be processed for active fire detections. Ground operations would automatically generate the mission plans specifying the highest priority tasks executable within onboard computation, setup, and data downlink constraints. The spectral bands of the TIR (thermal infrared) instrument can accurately detect the thermal signature of fires and send down alerts, as well as the thermal and VSWIR (visible to short-wave infrared) data corresponding to the active fires. Active volcanism also produces a distinctive thermal signature that can be detected onboard to enable spatial subsampling. Onboard algorithms and ground-based algorithms suitable for onboard deployment are mature. On HyspIRI, the algorithm would perform a table-driven temperature inversion from several spectral TIR bands, and then trigger downlink of the entire spectrum for each of the hot pixels identified. Ocean and coastal applications include sea surface temperature (using a small spectral subset of TIR data, but requiring considerable ancillary data), and ocean color applications to track

  17. On-Board Preventive Maintenance: Analysis of Effectiveness Optimal Duty Period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tai, Ann T.; Chau, Savio N.; Alkalaj, Leon; Hecht, Herbert

    1996-01-01

    To maximize reliability of a spacecraft which performs long-life (over 10-year), deep-space mission (to outer planet), a fault-tolerant environment incorporating automatic on-board preventive maintenance is highly desirable.

  18. Landsat 2 on-board computer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lesko, J. G., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The Landsat Spacecraft Project (formerly known as ERTS) was based essentially on the use of Nimbus spacecraft hardware. It was soon recognized that the availability of only 30 stored command locations (which were sufficient for the Nimbus mission) would limit the operation of the Landsat 1 mission with much higher power sensors, recorders, and wideband communications being cycled on and off throughout the orbit. The solution described is a simple memory with hard wired logic, of a design that can interface with the existing hardware, without modifications. The design was implemented using an existing APO (Advanced Onboard Processor) and a 4096 word X 18 bit plated wire memory. (The AOP has been subsequently designated the NASA Standard Spacecraft Computer.)

  19. Automatic operations onboard the ISPM spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Components and operational characteristics of the International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) spacecraft are described. Placed into earth orbit by the Shuttle, an inertial upper stage will place the ISPM satellite on a trajectory to Jupiter, which will gravitationally deflect it out of the ecliptic plane into a polar orbit of the sun. Redundant systems are being included on the ISPM in all places where failure of a component could mean loss of contact with earth control which will have a fast lock response to transmitted telemetry signals. Configuring for eight hours of ground contact/day over the 4.5 yr mission requires on-board storage of commands for execution of scientific measurements and storage of data when contact is lost. An emergency program is included which can run for 48 days while either of two primary antennas or one low gain antenna offer means for reestablishing control. Bypass of failed systems or components will occur automatically.

  20. Rapid Onboard Trajectory Design for Autonomous Spacecraft in Multibody Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trumbauer, Eric Michael

    This research develops automated, on-board trajectory planning algorithms in order to support current and new mission concepts. These include orbiter missions to Phobos or Deimos, Outer Planet Moon orbiters, and robotic and crewed missions to small bodies. The challenges stem from the limited on-board computing resources which restrict full trajectory optimization with guaranteed convergence in complex dynamical environments. The approach taken consists of leveraging pre-mission computations to create a large database of pre-computed orbits and arcs. Such a database is used to generate a discrete representation of the dynamics in the form of a directed graph, which acts to index these arcs. This allows the use of graph search algorithms on-board in order to provide good approximate solutions to the path planning problem. Coupled with robust differential correction and optimization techniques, this enables the determination of an efficient path between any boundary conditions with very little time and computing effort. Furthermore, the optimization methods developed here based on sequential convex programming are shown to have provable convergence properties, as well as generating feasible major iterates in case of a system interrupt -- a key requirement for on-board application. The outcome of this project is thus the development of an algorithmic framework which allows the deployment of this approach in a variety of specific mission contexts. Test cases related to missions of interest to NASA and JPL such as a Phobos orbiter and a Near Earth Asteroid interceptor are demonstrated, including the results of an implementation on the RAD750 flight processor. This method fills a gap in the toolbox being developed to create fully autonomous space exploration systems.

  1. Digibaro pressure instrument onboard the Phoenix Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, A.-M.; Polkko, J.; Kahanpää, H. H.; Schmidt, W.; Genzer, M. M.; Haukka, H.; Savijarv1, H.; Kauhanen, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Phoenix Lander landed successfully on the Martian northern polar region. The mission is part of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA's) Scout program. Pressure observations onboard the Phoenix lander were performed by an FMI (Finnish Meteorological Institute) instrument, based on a silicon diaphragm sensor head manufactured by Vaisala Inc., combined with MDA data processing electronics. The pressure instrument performed successfully throughout the Phoenix mission. The pressure instrument had 3 pressure sensor heads. One of these was the primary sensor head and the other two were used for monitoring the condition of the primary sensor head during the mission. During the mission the primary sensor was read with a sampling interval of 2 s and the other two were read less frequently as a check of instrument health. The pressure sensor system had a real-time data-processing and calibration algorithm that allowed the removal of temperature dependent calibration effects. In the same manner as the temperature sensor, a total of 256 data records (8.53 min) were buffered and they could either be stored at full resolution, or processed to provide mean, standard deviation, maximum and minimum values for storage on the Phoenix Lander's Meteorological (MET) unit.The time constant was approximately 3s due to locational constraints and dust filtering requirements. Using algorithms compensating for the time constant effect the temporal resolution was good enough to detect pressure drops associated with the passage of nearby dust devils.

  2. Science Benefits of Onboard Spacecraft Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cangahuala, Al; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Owen, Bill

    2012-01-01

    Primitive bodies (asteroids and comets), which have remained relatively unaltered since their formation, are important targets for scientific missions that seek to understand the evolution of the solar system. Often the first step is to fly by these bodies with robotic spacecraft. The key to maximizing data returns from these flybys is to determine the spacecraft trajectory relative to the target body-in short, navigate the spacecraft- with sufficient accuracy so that the target is guaranteed to be in the instruments' field of view. The most powerful navigation data in these scenarios are images taken by the spacecraft of the target against a known star field (onboard astrometry). Traditionally, the relative trajectory of the spacecraft must be estimated hours to days in advance using images collected by the spacecraft. This is because of (1)!the long round-trip light times between the spacecraft and the Earth and (2)!the time needed to downlink and process navigation data on the ground, make decisions based on the result, and build and uplink instrument pointing sequences from the results. The light time and processing time compromise navigation accuracy considerably, because there is not enough time to use more accurate data collected closer to the target-such data are more accurate because the angular capability of the onboard astrometry is essentially constant as the distance to the target decreases, resulting in better "plane-of- sky" knowledge of the target. Excellent examples of these timing limitations are high-speed comet encounters. Comets are difficult to observe up close; their orbits often limit scientists to brief, rapid flybys, and their coma further restricts viewers from seeing the nucleus in any detail, unless they can view the nucleus at close range. Comet nuclei details are typically discernable for much shorter durations than the roundtrip light time to Earth, so robotic spacecraft must be able to perform onboard navigation. This onboard

  3. Verification of ICESat-2/ATLAS Science Receiver Algorithm Onboard Databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carabajal, C. C.; Saba, J. L.; Leigh, H. W.; Magruder, L. A.; Urban, T. J.; Mcgarry, J.; Schutz, B. E.

    2013-12-01

    NASA's ICESat-2 mission will fly the Advanced Topographic Laser Altimetry System (ATLAS) instrument on a 3-year mission scheduled to launch in 2016. ATLAS is a single-photon detection system transmitting at 532nm with a laser repetition rate of 10 kHz, and a 6 spot pattern on the Earth's surface. A set of onboard Receiver Algorithms will perform signal processing to reduce the data rate and data volume to acceptable levels. These Algorithms distinguish surface echoes from the background noise, limit the daily data volume, and allow the instrument to telemeter only a small vertical region about the signal. For this purpose, three onboard databases are used: a Surface Reference Map (SRM), a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), and a Digital Relief Maps (DRMs). The DEM provides minimum and maximum heights that limit the signal search region of the onboard algorithms, including a margin for errors in the source databases, and onboard geolocation. Since the surface echoes will be correlated while noise will be randomly distributed, the signal location is found by histogramming the received event times and identifying the histogram bins with statistically significant counts. Once the signal location has been established, the onboard Digital Relief Maps (DRMs) will be used to determine the vertical width of the telemetry band about the signal. University of Texas-Center for Space Research (UT-CSR) is developing the ICESat-2 onboard databases, which are currently being tested using preliminary versions and equivalent representations of elevation ranges and relief more recently developed at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). Global and regional elevation models have been assessed in terms of their accuracy using ICESat geodetic control, and have been used to develop equivalent representations of the onboard databases for testing against the UT-CSR databases, with special emphasis on the ice sheet regions. A series of verification checks have been implemented, including

  4. SE83-9 'Chix in Space' student experimenter monitors STS-29 onboard activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Student experimenter John C. Vellinger watches monitor in the JSC Mission Control Center (MCC) Bldg 30 Customer Support Room (CSR) during the STS-29 mission. Crewmembers are working with his Student Experiment (SE) 83-9 Chicken Embryo Development in Space or 'Chix in Space' onboard Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103. The student's sponsor is Kentucky Fried Chicken (KFC).

  5. STS-65 Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Astronaut Chiaki Mukai conducts the Lower Body Negative Pressure (LBNP) experiment inside the International Microgravity Laboratory-2 (IML-2) mission science module. Dr. Chiaki Mukai is one of the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) astronauts chosen by NASA as a payload specialist (PS). She was the second NASDA PS who flew aboard the Space Shuttle, and was the first female astronaut in Asia. When humans go into space, the lack of gravity causes many changes in the body. One change is that fluids normally kept in the lower body by gravity shift upward to the head and chest. This is why astronauts' faces appear chubby or puffy. The change in fluid volume also affects the heart. The reduced fluid volume means that there is less blood to circulate through the body. Crewmembers may experience reduced blood flow to the brain when returning to Earth. This leads to fainting or near-fainting episodes. With the use of the LBNP to simulate the pull of gravity in conjunction with fluids, salt tablets can recondition the cardiovascular system. This treatment, called 'soak,' is effective up to 24 hours. The LBNP uses a three-layer collapsible cylinder that seals around the crewmember's waist which simulates the effects of gravity and helps pull fluids into the lower body. The data collected will be analyzed to determine physiological changes in the crewmembers and effectiveness of the treatment. The IML-2 was the second in a series of Spacelab flights designed by the international science community to conduct research in a microgravity environment Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, the IML-2 was launched on July 8, 1994 aboard the STS-65 Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia mission.

  6. Small Body Landings Using Autonomous Onboard Optical Navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhaskaran, Shyam; Nandi, Sumita; Broschart, Stephen; Wallace, Mark; Cangahuala, L. Alberto; Olson, Corwin

    2011-07-01

    Spacecraft landings on small bodies (asteroids and comets) present special challenges from a navigation perspective as the size of the bodies is relatively small, with the resultant accuracy requirement to target landing areas fairly tight. Because the accuracies obtainable from ground-based navigation processes may not be sufficient, onboard navigation techniques are needed. Recent developments in deep space navigation capability include a self-contained autonomous navigation system (used in flight on three missions) and a landmark tracking system (used experimentally on the Japanese Hayabusa mission). The merging of these two technologies forms a methodology to perform autonomous onboard navigation around small bodies. This article presents an overview of these systems, as well as the results from Monte Carlo studies to quantify the achievable landing accuracies by using these methods. Two cases are presented, a landing on a small asteroid and on a mid-size comet.

  7. Integrated payload and mission planning, phase 3. Volume 3: Ground real-time mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. J.

    1977-01-01

    The payloads tentatively planned to fly on the first two Spacelab missions were analyzed to examine the cost relationships of providing mission operations support from onboard vs the ground-based Payload Operations Control Center (POCC). The quantitative results indicate that use of a POCC, with data processing capability, to support real-time mission operations is the most cost effective case.

  8. Onboard hydrogen generation for automobiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houseman, J.; Cerini, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Problems concerning the use of hydrogen as a fuel for motor vehicles are related to the storage of the hydrogen onboard a vehicle. The feasibility is investigated to use an approach based on onboard hydrogen generation as a means to avoid these storage difficulties. Two major chemical processes can be used to produce hydrogen from liquid hydrocarbons and methanol. In steam reforming, the fuel reacts with water on a catalytic surface to produce a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. In partial oxidation, the fuel reacts with air, either on a catalytic surface or in a flame front, to yield a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. There are many trade-offs in onboard hydrogen generation, both in the choice of fuels as well as in the choice of a chemical process. Attention is given to these alternatives, the results of some experimental work in this area, and the combustion of various hydrogen-rich gases in an internal combustion engine.

  9. STS-30 aft flight deck onboard view of overhead window, Earth limb, cow photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Since the beginning of manned space travel, astronauts have taken onboard with them items of person sentiment. During STS-30 onboard Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104, Mission Specialist Mark C. Lee brought along a photograph of a cow. The photo testifies to his background as one reared on a Wisconsin farm and is displayed on aft flight deck alongside an overhead window. Outside the window, some 160 nautical miles away, is the cloud-covered Earth surface.

  10. Onboard Experiment Data Support Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An onboard array structure has been devised for end to end processing of data from multiple spaceborne sensors. The array constitutes sets of programmable pipeline processors whose elements perform each assigned function in 0.25 microseconds. This space shuttle computer system can handle data rates from a few bits to over 100 megabits per second.

  11. Cooled scientific instrument assembly onboard SPICA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuhara, H.; Nakagawa, T.; Kawakatsu, Y.; Murakami, H.; Kawada, M.; Sugita, H.; Yamawaki, T.; Mitani, S.; Shinozaki, K.; Sato, Y.; Crone, G.; Isaak, K.; Heske, A.

    2012-09-01

    The Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA) is a 3.2m cooled (below 6K) telescope mission which covers mid- and far-IR waveband with unprecedented sensitivity. An overview of recent design updates of the Scientific Instrument Assembly (SIA), composed of the telescope assembly and the instrument optical bench equipped with Focal Plane Instruments (FPIs) are presented. The FPI international science and engineering review is on-going to determine the FPI suite onboard SPICA: at present the mandatory instruments and functions to perform the unique science objectives of the SPICA mission are now consolidated. The final decision on the composition of the FPI suite is expected in early 2013. Through the activities in the current pre-project phase, several key technical issues which impact directly on the instruments’ performances and the science requirements and the observing efficiency have been identified, and extensive works are underway both at instrument and spacecraft level to resolve these issues and to enable the confirmation of the SPICA FPI suite.

  12. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station ISS.

    PubMed

    Berger, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Besides the effects of the microgravity environment, and the psychological and psychosocial problems encountered in confined spaces, radiation is the main health detriment for long duration human space missions. The radiation environment encountered in space differs in nature from that on earth, consisting mostly of high energetic ions from protons up to iron, resulting in radiation levels far exceeding the ones encountered on earth for occupational radiation workers. Therefore the determination and the control of the radiation load on astronauts is a moral obligation of the space faring nations. The requirements for radiation detectors in space are very different to that on earth. Limitations in mass, power consumption and the complex nature of the space radiation environment define and limit the overall construction of radiation detectors. Radiation dosimetry onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is onboard the International Space Station (ISS) is accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry accomplished to one part as "operational" dosimetry aiming for area monitoring of the radiation environment as well as astronaut surveillance. Another part focuses on "scientific" dosimetry aiming for a better understanding of the radiation environment and its constitutes. Various research activities for a more detailed quantification of the radiation environment as well as its distribution in and outside the space station have been accomplished in the last years onboard the ISS. The paper will focus on the current radiation detectors onboard the ISS, their results, as well as on future planned activities.

  13. Training Concept for Long Duration Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Keefe, William

    2008-01-01

    There has been papers about maintenance and psychological training for Long Duration Space Mission (LDSM). There are papers on the technology needed for LDSMs. Few are looking at how groundbased pre-mission training and on-board in-transit training must be melded into one training concept that leverages this technology. Even more importantly, fewer are looking at how we can certify crews pre-mission. This certification must ensure, before the crew launches, that they can handle any problem using on-board assets without a large ground support team.

  14. Optical Payload for the STARE Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Simms, L; Riot, V; De Vries, W; Olivier, S S; Pertica, A; Bauman, B J; Phillion, D; Nikolaev, S

    2011-03-13

    Space-based Telescopes for Actionable Refinement of Ephemeris (STARE) is a nano-sat based mission designed to better determine the trajectory of satellites and space debris in orbit around earth. In this paper, we give a brief overview of the mission and its place in the larger context of Space Situational Awareness (SSA). We then describe the details of the central optical payload, touching on the optical design and characterization of the on-board image sensor used in our Cubesat based prototype. Finally, we discuss the on-board star and satellite track detection algorithm central to the success of the mission.

  15. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the station to perform these repairs. After the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for the ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained or for contingency operations has become a very critical subject. In many situations, the time between the last session of Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) training and an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) task might be 6 to 8 months. In order to help with training for contingency repairs and to maintain EVA proficiency while on flight, the Johnson Space Center Virtual Reality Lab (VRLab) designed an onboard immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT), incorporating a unique optical system and making use of the already successful Dynamic Onboard Ubiquitous Graphical (DOUG) graphics software, to assist crew members with current procedures and contingency EVAs while on flight. The VRT provides an immersive environment similar to the one experienced at the VRLab crew training facility at NASA Johnson Space Center. EVA tasks are critical for a mission since as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the ISS ages. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before.

  16. Onboard autonomous mineral detectors for Mars rovers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, M. S.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, R.; Merrill, M.; Greenwood, J.

    2005-12-01

    Mars rovers and orbiters currently collect far more data than can be downlinked to Earth, which reduces mission science return; this problem will be exacerbated by future rovers of enhanced capabilities and lifetimes. We are developing onboard intelligence sufficient to extract geologically meaningful data from spectrometer measurements of soil and rock samples, and thus to guide the selection, measurement and return of these data from significant targets at Mars. Here we report on techniques to construct mineral detectors capable of running on current and future rover and orbital hardware. We focus on carbonate and sulfate minerals which are of particular geologic importance because they can signal the presence of water and possibly life. Sulfates have also been discovered at the Eagle and Endurance craters in Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Opportunity and at other regions on Mars by the OMEGA instrument aboard Mars Express. We have developed highly accurate artificial neural network (ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based detectors capable of identifying calcite (CaCO3) and jarosite (KFe3(SO4)2(OH)6) in the visible/NIR (350-2500 nm) spectra of both laboratory specimens and rocks in Mars analogue field environments. To train the detectors, we used a generative model to create 1000s of linear mixtures of library end-member spectra in geologically realistic percentages. We have also augmented the model to include nonlinear mixing based on Hapke's models of bidirectional reflectance spectroscopy. Both detectors perform well on the spectra of real rocks that contain intimate mixtures of minerals, rocks in natural field environments, calcite covered by Mars analogue dust, and AVIRIS hyperspectral cubes. We will discuss the comparison of ANN and SVM classifiers for this task, technical challenges (weathering rinds, atmospheric compositions, and computational complexity), and plans for integration of these detectors into both the Coupled Layer

  17. Maximizing Rover Science Return Through Autonomous Onboard Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, R. C.; Castano, R.; Judd, M.; Estlin, T.; Gaines, D.; Mazzoni, D.; Fisher, F.; Bornstein, B.; Castano, A.; Scharenbroich, L.; Song, L.; Gilmore, M.

    2003-12-01

    There are three recognized approaches to maximizing the amount of science data in future missions: 1) return more data to Earth by increasing the capability of the Deep Space Network (DSN) to receive higher volumes of data, 2) develop data compression techniques to transmit more information per bit and, 3) increase the quality of the data returned to Earth by analyzing and prioritizing data onboard to identify key data for downlink. The goal of the Onboard Autonomous Science Investigation System (OASIS) is to increase the science return using onboard algorithms to evaluate and prioritize science information collected during a long traverse by a rover. The system has varying levels of autonomous operations. The least intrusive operational level provides two products: a prioritized list of images for downlink and a table summarizing the data collected between communication opportunities. In this scenario, the system analyzes rover data that are already collected for engineering purposes, such as navigation images, to determine what information is the most important to send back to Earth. The system's highest operational level autonomously directs the rover to select which surface targets to explore further, alter its path, and take additional measurements, which may even include contact measurements. In between these two extremes, a number of other system scenarios exist. It is not our intention to replace the scientists on robotic missions, but rather to improve the science return by making smart decisions regarding which data to collect and return.

  18. The SpaceCube Family of Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processors: An Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flatley, T.

    2012-12-01

    SpaceCube is an FPGA based on-board hybrid science data processing system developed at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The goal of the SpaceCube program is to provide 10x to 100x improvements in on-board computing power while lowering relative power consumption and cost. The SpaceCube design strategy incorporates commercial rad-tolerant FPGA technology and couples it with an upset mitigation software architecture to provide "order of magnitude" improvements in computing power over traditional rad-hard flight systems. Many of the missions proposed in the Earth Science Decadal Survey (ESDS) will require "next generation" on-board processing capabilities to meet their specified mission goals. Advanced laser altimeter, radar, lidar and hyper-spectral instruments are proposed for at least ten of the ESDS missions, and all of these instrument systems will require advanced on-board processing capabilities to facilitate the timely conversion of Earth Science data into Earth Science information. Both an "order of magnitude" increase in processing power and the ability to "reconfigure on the fly" are required to implement algorithms that detect and react to events, to produce data products on-board for applications such as direct downlink, quick look, and "first responder" real-time awareness, to enable "sensor web" multi-platform collaboration, and to perform on-board "lossless" data reduction by migrating typical ground-based processing functions on-board, thus reducing on-board storage and downlink requirements. This presentation will highlight a number of SpaceCube technology developments to date and describe current and future efforts, including the collaboration with the U.S. Department of Defense - Space Test Program (DoD/STP) on the STP-H4 ISS experiment pallet (launch June 2013) that will demonstrate SpaceCube 2.0 technology on-orbit.; ;

  19. Spacelab-2 (STS-51F Mission) Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    While instruments on the pallets in the payload bay observed the universe, biological experiments were performed in the middeck of the Shuttle Orbiter Challenger. Studying life processes in a microgravity environment can shed new light on the functioning of biological systems on Earth. These investigations can also help us understand how living organisms react to prolonged weightlessness. One such experiment was the vitamin D metabolites and bone demineralization experiment. This investigation measured the vitamin D metabolite levels of crew members to gain information on the cause of bone demineralization and mineral imbalance that occur during prolonged spaceflight as well as on Earth. Research into the biochemical nature of vitamin D has shown that the D-metabolites play a major role in regulating the body's calcium and phosphorus levels. One major function of the most biologically active vitamin D metabolite is to regulate the amount of calcium absorbed from the diet and taken out of bones. This investigation had two phases. The first was the developmental phase, which included extensive testing before flight, and the second, or final phase, involved the postflight analysis of the crew's blood samples. This photograph shows astronaut Story Musgrave in the middeck of the Shuttle Orbiter Challenger, attending to the blood samples he collected from crew members for the experiment.

  20. STS-44 onboard (in-space) crew portrait features 'Trash Man' Hennen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for a second onboard (in-space) portrait on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. This portrait was intended to focus on Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen, holding extended duration orbiter (EDO) trash compactor handles, who earned the nickname, 'Trash Man' during the flight. It was Hennen who 'starred' in a brief onboard video production about the disposal of trash and waste. Others in the picture are (front row) Commander Frederick D. Gregory (left) and Mission Specialist (MS) James S. Voss and (back row left to right) MS Mario Runco, Jr, MS F. Story Musgrave, and Pilot Terence T. Henricks.

  1. Real-Time On-Board HMS/Inspection Capability for Propulsion and Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barkhoudarian, Sarkis

    2005-01-01

    Presently, the evaluation of the health of space propulsion systems includes obtaining and analyzing limited flight data and extensive post flight performance, operational and inspection data. This approach is not practical for deep-space missions due to longer operational times, lack of in-space inspection facility, absence of timely ground commands and very long repair intervals. This paper identifies the on-board health- management/inspection needs of deep-space propulsion and thermodynamic power-conversion systems. It also describes technologies that could provide on-board inspection and more comprehensive health management for more successful missions.

  2. Space vehicle onboard command encoder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A flexible onboard encoder system was designed for the space shuttle. The following areas were covered: (1) implementation of the encoder design into hardware to demonstrate the various encoding algorithms/code formats, (2) modulation techniques in a single hardware package to maintain comparable reliability and link integrity of the existing link systems and to integrate the various techniques into a single design using current technology. The primary function of the command encoder is to accept input commands, generated either locally onboard the space shuttle or remotely from the ground, format and encode the commands in accordance with the payload input requirements and appropriately modulate a subcarrier for transmission by the baseband RF modulator. The following information was provided: command encoder system design, brassboard hardware design, test set hardware and system packaging, and software.

  3. HypsIRI On-Board Science Data Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Topics include On-board science data processing, on-board image processing, software upset mitigation, on-board data reduction, on-board 'VSWIR" products, HyspIRI demonstration testbed, and processor comparison.

  4. Onboard Algorithms for Data Prioritization and Summarization of Aerial Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; Hayden, David; Thompson, David R.; Castano, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Many current and future NASA missions are capable of collecting enormous amounts of data, of which only a small portion can be transmitted to Earth. Communications are limited due to distance, visibility constraints, and competing mission downlinks. Long missions and high-resolution, multispectral imaging devices easily produce data exceeding the available bandwidth. To address this situation computationally efficient algorithms were developed for analyzing science imagery onboard the spacecraft. These algorithms autonomously cluster the data into classes of similar imagery, enabling selective downlink of representatives of each class, and a map classifying the terrain imaged rather than the full dataset, reducing the volume of the downlinked data. A range of approaches was examined, including k-means clustering using image features based on color, texture, temporal, and spatial arrangement

  5. On-board multispectral classification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The factors relating to onboard multispectral classification were investigated. The functions implemented in ground-based processing systems for current Earth observation sensors were reviewed. The Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Return Beam Vidicon, and Heat Capacity Mapper were studied. The concept of classification was reviewed and extended from the ground-based image processing functions to an onboard system capable of multispectral classification. Eight different onboard configurations, each with varying amounts of ground-spacecraft interaction, were evaluated. Each configuration was evaluated in terms of turnaround time, onboard processing and storage requirements, geometric and classification accuracy, onboard complexity, and ancillary data required from the ground.

  6. Mars Methane Analogue Mission (M3): Near Subsurface Electromagnetic Techniques and Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boivin, A.; Samson, C.; Holladay, J. S.; Cloutis, E. A.; Ernst, R. E.

    2012-03-01

    As part of the Canadian Space Agency's Mars Methane Analogue Mission, a micro-rover mission, an Electromagnetic Induction Sounder (EMIS) was used with the goal of demonstrating its value as a potential science instrument onboard future rovers.

  7. Virtualizing Super-Computation On-Board Uas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salami, E.; Soler, J. A.; Cuadrado, R.; Barrado, C.; Pastor, E.

    2015-04-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UAS, also known as UAV, RPAS or drones) have a great potential to support a wide variety of aerial remote sensing applications. Most UAS work by acquiring data using on-board sensors for later post-processing. Some require the data gathered to be downlinked to the ground in real-time. However, depending on the volume of data and the cost of the communications, this later option is not sustainable in the long term. This paper develops the concept of virtualizing super-computation on-board UAS, as a method to ease the operation by facilitating the downlink of high-level information products instead of raw data. Exploiting recent developments in miniaturized multi-core devices is the way to speed-up on-board computation. This hardware shall satisfy size, power and weight constraints. Several technologies are appearing with promising results for high performance computing on unmanned platforms, such as the 36 cores of the TILE-Gx36 by Tilera (now EZchip) or the 64 cores of the Epiphany-IV by Adapteva. The strategy for virtualizing super-computation on-board includes the benchmarking for hardware selection, the software architecture and the communications aware design. A parallelization strategy is given for the 36-core TILE-Gx36 for a UAS in a fire mission or in similar target-detection applications. The results are obtained for payload image processing algorithms and determine in real-time the data snapshot to gather and transfer to ground according to the needs of the mission, the processing time, and consumed watts.

  8. Intelligent On-Board Processing in the Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, S.

    2005-12-01

    Most existing sensing systems are designed as passive, independent observers. They are rarely aware of the phenomena they observe, and are even less likely to be aware of what other sensors are observing within the same environment. Increasingly, intelligent processing of sensor data is taking place in real-time, using computing resources on-board the sensor or the platform itself. One can imagine a sensor network consisting of intelligent and autonomous space-borne, airborne, and ground-based sensors. These sensors will act independently of one another, yet each will be capable of both publishing and receiving sensor information, observations, and alerts among other sensors in the network. Furthermore, these sensors will be capable of acting upon this information, perhaps altering acquisition properties of their instruments, changing the location of their platform, or updating processing strategies for their own observations to provide responsive information or additional alerts. Such autonomous and intelligent sensor networking capabilities provide significant benefits for collections of heterogeneous sensors within any environment. They are crucial for multi-sensor observations and surveillance, where real-time communication with external components and users may be inhibited, and the environment may be hostile. In all environments, mission automation and communication capabilities among disparate sensors will enable quicker response to interesting, rare, or unexpected events. Additionally, an intelligent network of heterogeneous sensors provides the advantage that all of the sensors can benefit from the unique capabilities of each sensor in the network. The University of Alabama in Huntsville (UAH) is developing a unique approach to data processing, integration and mining through the use of the Adaptive On-Board Data Processing (AODP) framework. AODP is a key foundation technology for autonomous internetworking capabilities to support situational awareness by

  9. On-Board Mining in the Sensor Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, S.; Conover, H.; Graves, S.; Ramachandran, R.; Rushing, J.

    2004-12-01

    On-board data mining can contribute to many research and engineering applications, including natural hazard detection and prediction, intelligent sensor control, and the generation of customized data products for direct distribution to users. The ability to mine sensor data in real time can also be a critical component of autonomous operations, supporting deep space missions, unmanned aerial and ground-based vehicles (UAVs, UGVs), and a wide range of sensor meshes, webs and grids. On-board processing is expected to play a significant role in the next generation of NASA, Homeland Security, Department of Defense and civilian programs, providing for greater flexibility and versatility in measurements of physical systems. In addition, the use of UAV and UGV systems is increasing in military, emergency response and industrial applications. As research into the autonomy of these vehicles progresses, especially in fleet or web configurations, the applicability of on-board data mining is expected to increase significantly. Data mining in real time on board sensor platforms presents unique challenges. Most notably, the data to be mined is a continuous stream, rather than a fixed store such as a database. This means that the data mining algorithms must be modified to make only a single pass through the data. In addition, the on-board environment requires real time processing with limited computing resources, thus the algorithms must use fixed and relatively small amounts of processing time and memory. The University of Alabama in Huntsville is developing an innovative processing framework for the on-board data and information environment. The Environment for On-Board Processing (EVE) and the Adaptive On-board Data Processing (AODP) projects serve as proofs-of-concept of advanced information systems for remote sensing platforms. The EVE real-time processing infrastructure will upload, schedule and control the execution of processing plans on board remote sensors. These plans

  10. Maximizing Mission Science Return Through Use of Spacecraft Autonomy: Active Volcanism and the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, A. G.; Chien, S.; Baker, V.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Doggett, T.; Dohm, J. M.; Greeley, R.; Ip, F.; Rabideau, G.

    2005-01-01

    ASE has successfully demonstrated that a spacecraft can be driven by science analysis and autonomously controlled. ASE is available for flight on other missions. Mission hardware design should consider ASE requirements for available onboard data storage, onboard memory size and processor speed.

  11. IVIDIL experiment onboard the ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevtsova, Valentina

    2010-09-01

    The experiment IVIDIL (Influence of Vibrations on Diffusion in Liquids) is scheduled to be performed in forthcoming fall 2009 onboard the ISS, inside the SODI instrument mounted in the Glovebox on the ESA Columbus module. It is planned to carry out 39 experimental runs with each of them lasting 18 h. The objective of the experiment is threefold. After each space experiment there is a discussion about the role of onboard g-jitters. One objective is to identify the limit level of vibrations below which g-jitter does not play a role for onboard experiments. This objective will be fulfilled by observing diffusive process under different imposed controlled vibrations. Second, to perform precise measurements of diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients for two binary mixtures in the absence of buoyant convection. The measured values can be used as standards for ground experiments. Two aqueous solutions will be used as test fluids: two different concentrations of water-isopropanol (IPA) with positive and negative Soret effect. This objective also includes studying the influence of vibrations on the measured values of diffusion and thermodiffusion coefficients. Finally, to investigate vibration-induced convection and, particularly, heat and mass transfer under vibrations. Three International Teams are involved in the preparation of the experiment ( Shevtsova et al., 2007). ULB (MRC) is responsible for all aspects related to IVIDIL experimental definition, theoretical and numerical modeling and coordination of the entire project. Team from Ryerson University (led by Z. Saghir), Ontario, Canada and Russian team from Perm, ICMM UB RAS (led by T. Lyubimova) provide theoretical and numerical support. As being the coordinator, the author will present a general description of the experiment and outline some results obtained by MRC, ULB researchers only, i.e. by A. Mialdun, D. Melnikov, I. Ryzhkov, Yu. Gaponenko.

  12. On-Board Entry Trajectory Planning Expanded to Sub-orbital Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Ping; Shen, Zuojun

    2003-01-01

    A methodology for on-board planning of sub-orbital entry trajectories is developed. The algorithm is able to generate in a time frame consistent with on-board environment a three-degree-of-freedom (3DOF) feasible entry trajectory, given the boundary conditions and vehicle modeling. This trajectory is then tracked by feedback guidance laws which issue guidance commands. The current trajectory planning algorithm complements the recently developed method for on-board 3DOF entry trajectory generation for orbital missions, and provides full-envelope autonomous adaptive entry guidance capability. The algorithm is validated and verified by extensive high fidelity simulations using a sub-orbital reusable launch vehicle model and difficult mission scenarios including failures and aborts.

  13. Onboard near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A.; Cliff, G.; Kelley, H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper studies optimal and near-optimal trajectories of high-performance aircraft in symmetric flight. Onboard, real-time, near-optimal guidance is considered for the climb-dash mission, using some of the boundary-layer structure and hierarchical ideas from singular perturbations. In the case of symmetric flight, this resembles neighborhood-optimal guidance using energy-to-go as the running variable. However, extension to three-dimensional flight is proposed, using families of nominal paths with heading-to-go as the additional running variable. Some computational results are presented for the symmetric case.

  14. Recent results of the Cosmic Dust Analyzer onboard Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srama, Ralf; Gruen, Eberhard; Kempf, Sascha; Moragas-Klostermeyer, Georg; Beckmann, Uwe; Postberg, Frank; Hsu, Hsiang-Wen; Burton, Marcia; Spahn, Frank; Economou, Thanasis

    The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini mission measures the properties of micron sized dust particles in the planetary system. Since 2004 CDA performs successfully measurements in the Saturnian system and made several exciting discoveries and measurements: Dust streams from the inner and outer ring system, dust grain potentials, dust grain composition of ring particles, dust size and density distributions in the outer ring system, the G ring detection, the Enceladus dust plumes and significant dust fluxes outside the known E ring. This paper provides an overview about the recent achievement of the CDA instrument and presents the results of the dust composition measurements of the Enceladus flyby on March 12, 2008.

  15. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Randy; Frank, Jeremy; Garner, Larry; Haddock, Angie; Stetson, Howard; Wang, Lui

    2015-01-01

    The Autonomous Mission Operations project is investigating crew autonomy capabilities and tools for deep space missions. Team members at Ames Research Center, Johnson Space Center and Marshall Space Flight Center are using their experience with ISS Payload operations and TIMELINER to: move earth based command and control assets to on-board for crew access; safely merge core and payload command procedures; give the crew single action intelligent operations; and investigate crew interface requirements.

  16. STS-44 crew poses for their onboard (in-space) portrait on OV-104's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-44 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for their onboard (in-space) portrait on the middeck of Atlantis, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104. In the center with his arms outsearched is Commander Frederick D. Gregory. Clockwise from his position are Payload Specialist Thomas J. Hennen (mustache), Mission Specialist (MS) James S. Voss, MS Mario Runco, Jr, MS F. Story Musgrave, and Pilot Terence T. Henricks.

  17. STS-33 crewmember pose on Discovery, OV-103, middeck for onboard portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    STS-33 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose on the middeck of Discovery, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103, for onboard (in-space) crew portrait. Clockwise (starting at the top of the frame) are Commander Frederick D. Gregory, Mission Specialist (MS) Kathryn C. Thornton, Pilot John E. Blaha, MS Manley L. Carter, Jr, and MS F. Story Musgrave. Framing the crew are the airlock hatch (at the bottom) and the forward lockers (at the top).

  18. Modeling the Influences of Electrostatic Discharge in Materials on a Failures of Onboard Electronic Equipment in under Microgcrogravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grichshenko, Valentina; Zhantayev, Zhumabek; Mukushev, Acemhan

    2016-07-01

    It is known, that during SV exploitation failures of automated systems happens as the result of complex influence of Space leading to SV's shorter life span, sometimes to their lose. All of the SV, functioning in the near-Earth Space (NES), subjected to influence of different Space factors. Causes and character of failure onboard equipment are different. Many researchers think that failures of onboard electronics connected to changing solar activity level. However, by the numerous onboard experiments established that even in the absence of solar burst in magnetostatic days there are registered failures of onboard electronics. In this paper discussed the results of modeling the impact of electrostatic discharge (ESD), occurring in the materials, on a failures of electronic onboard equipment in microgravity. The paper discusses the conditions of formation and influence of electrostatic discharge in microgravity on the elements of the onboard electronics in Space. Developed technique using circuit simulation in ISIS Proteus environment is discussed. Developed the recommendations for noise immunity of on-board equipment from ESD in Space. The results are used to predict the failure rate on-board electronics with the long term of space mission. Key words: microgravity, materials, failures, onboard electronics, Space

  19. Onboard multichannel demultiplexer/demodulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Sayegh, Soheil

    1987-01-01

    An investigation performed for NASA LeRC by COMSAT Labs, of a digitally implemented on-board demultiplexer/demodulator able to process a mix of uplink carriers of differing bandwidths and center frequencies and programmable in orbit to accommodate variations in traffic flow is reported. The processor accepts high speed samples of the signal carried in a wideband satellite transponder channel, processes these as a composite to determine the signal spectrum, filters the result into individual channels that carry modulated carriers and demodulate these to recover their digital baseband content. The processor is implemented by using forward and inverse pipeline Fast Fourier Transformation techniques. The recovered carriers are then demodulated using a single digitally implemented demodulator that processes all of the modulated carriers. The effort has determined the feasibility of the concept with multiple TDMA carriers, identified critical path technologies, and assessed the potential of developing these technologies to a level capable of supporting a practical, cost effective on-board implementation. The result is a flexible, high speed, digitally implemented Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) bulk demultiplexer/demodulator.

  20. Onboard centralized frame tree database for intelligent space operations of the Mars Science Laboratory Rover.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won S; Diaz-Calderon, Antonio; Peters, Stephen F; Carsten, Joseph L; Leger, Chris

    2014-11-01

    Planetary surface science operations performed by robotic space systems frequently require pointing cameras at various objects and moving a robotic arm end effector tool toward specific targets. Earlier NASA Mars Exploration Rovers did not have the ability to compute actual coordinates for given object coordinate frame names and had to be provided with explicit coordinates. Since it sometimes takes hours to more than a day to get final approval of certain calculated coordinates for command uplink via the Earth-based mission operations procedures, a highly desired enhancement for future rovers was to have the onboard automated capability to compute the coordinates for a given frame name. The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is the first to have a centralized coordinate transform database to maintain the knowledge of spatial relations. This onboard intelligence significantly simplifies communication and control between Earth-based human mission operators and the robotic rover on Mars by supporting higher level abstraction of commands using object and target names instead of coordinates. More specifically, the spatial relations of many object frames are represented hierarchically in a tree data structure, called the frame tree. Individual frame transforms are populated by their respective modules that have specific knowledge of the frames. Through this onboard centralized frame tree database, client modules can query transforms between any two frames and support spacecraft commands that use any frames maintained in the frame tree. Various operational examples in the MSL mission that have greatly benefitted from this onboard centralized frame tree database are presented.

  1. STS-38 crewmembers pose on OV-104's middeck for onboard crew portrait

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    STS-38 crewmembers pose on Atlantis', Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 104's, middeck for traditional onboard (in-space) portrait. Wearing red, yellow, and orange crew polo shirts are (right to left) Mission Specialist (MS) Robert C. Springer, Pilot Frank L. Culbertson, Commander Richard O. Covey, MS Charles D. Gemar, and MS Carl J. Meade.

  2. Onboard utilization of ground control points for image correction. Volume 2: Analysis and simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    An approach to remote sensing that meets future mission requirements was investigated. The deterministic acquisition of data and the rapid correction of data for radiometric effects and image distortions are the most critical limitations of remote sensing. The following topics are discussed: onboard image correction systems, GCP navigation system simulation, GCP analysis, and image correction analysis measurement.

  3. On-board satellite radionavigation systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudriavtsev, Igor'v.; Mishchenko, Igor'n.; Volynkin, Anatolii I.; Shebshaevich, V. S.; Dubinko, Iu. S.

    Recent developments in the radionavigation equipment of ships are reviewed with particular reference to on-board satellite radionavigation systems. The Navstar navigation network is briefly characterized, and the general principles underlying the design of on-board navigation systems are reviewed. Particular attention is given to the software of on-board satellite navigation systems and their noise immunity characteristics. The accuracy of a navigation session is estimated, and some aspects of navigation equipment testing are discussed.

  4. Low Cost Missions Operations on NASA Deep Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, R. J.; Kusnierkiewicz, D. J.; Bowman, A.; Harvey, R.; Ossing, D.; Eichstedt, J.

    2014-12-01

    The ability to lower mission operations costs on any long duration mission depends on a number of factors; the opportunities for science, the flight trajectory, and the cruise phase environment, among others. Many deep space missions employ long cruises to their final destination with minimal science activities along the way; others may perform science observations on a near-continuous basis. This paper discusses approaches employed by two NASA missions implemented by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) to minimize mission operations costs without compromising mission success: the New Horizons mission to Pluto, and the Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatories (STEREO). The New Horizons spacecraft launched in January 2006 for an encounter with the Pluto system.The spacecraft trajectory required no deterministic on-board delta-V, and so the mission ops team then settled in for the rest of its 9.5-year cruise. The spacecraft has spent much of its cruise phase in a "hibernation" mode, which has enabled the spacecraft to be maintained with a small operations team, and minimized the contact time required from the NASA Deep Space Network. The STEREO mission is comprised of two three-axis stabilized sun-staring spacecraft in heliocentric orbit at a distance of 1 AU from the sun. The spacecraft were launched in October 2006. The STEREO instruments operate in a "decoupled" mode from the spacecraft, and from each other. Since STEREO operations are largely routine, unattended ground station contact operations were implemented early in the mission. Commands flow from the MOC to be uplinked, and the data recorded on-board is downlinked and relayed back to the MOC. Tools run in the MOC to assess the health and performance of ground system components. Alerts are generated and personnel are notified of any problems. Spacecraft telemetry is similarly monitored and alarmed, thus ensuring safe, reliable, low cost operations.

  5. Expected Navigation Flight Performance for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Wright, Cinnamon; Long, Anne

    2012-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four formation-flying spacecraft placed in highly eccentric elliptical orbits about the Earth. The primary scientific mission objective is to study magnetic reconnection within the Earth s magnetosphere. The baseline navigation concept is the independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements (referenced to an onboard Ultra Stable Oscillator) and accelerometer measurements during maneuvers. State estimation for the MMS spacecraft is performed onboard each vehicle using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System, which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the latest efforts to characterize expected navigation flight performance using upgraded simulation models derived from recent analyses.

  6. On-board attitude determination for the Topex satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennehy, C. J.; Ha, K.; Welch, R. V.; Kia, T.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an overall technical description of the on-board attitude determination system for The Ocean Topography Experiment (Topex) satellite. The stellar-inertial attitude determination system being designed for the Topex satellite utilizes data from a three-axis NASA Standard DRIRU-II as well as data from an Advanced Star Tracer (ASTRA) and a Digital Fine Sun Sensor (DFSS). This system is a modified version of the baseline Multimission Modular Spacecraft (MMS) concept used on the Landsat missions. Extensive simulation and analysis of the MMS attitude determination approach was performed to verify suitability for the Topex application. The modifications to this baseline attitude determination scheme were identified to satisfy the unique Topex mission requirements.

  7. On-Board Propulsion System Analysis of High Density Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Steven J.

    1998-01-01

    The impact of the performance and density of on-board propellants on science payload mass of Discovery Program class missions is evaluated. A propulsion system dry mass model, anchored on flight-weight system data from the Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous mission is used. This model is used to evaluate the performance of liquid oxygen, hydrogen peroxide, hydroxylammonium nitrate, and oxygen difluoride oxidizers with hydrocarbon and metal hydride fuels. Results for the propellants evaluated indicate that the state-of-art, Earth Storable propellants with high performance rhenium engine technology in both the axial and attitude control systems has performance capabilities that can only be exceeded by liquid oxygen/hydrazine, liquid oxygen/diborane and oxygen difluoride/diborane propellant combinations. Potentially lower ground operations costs is the incentive for working with nontoxic propellant combinations.

  8. Autonomous onboard crew operations: A review and developmental approach

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogers, J. G.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the literature generated by an intercenter mission approach and consolidation team and their contractors was performed to obtain background information on the development of autonomous operations concepts for future space shuttle and space platform missions. The Boeing 757/767 flight management system was examined to determine the relevance for transfer of the developmental approach and technology to the performance of the crew operations function. In specific, the engine indications and crew alerting system was studied to determine the relevance of this display for the performance of crew operations onboard the vehicle. It was concluded that the developmental approach and technology utilized in the aeronautics industry would be appropriate for development of an autonomous operations concept for the space platform.

  9. On-board sample cleaver.

    PubMed

    Månsson, Martin; Claesson, Thomas; Karlsson, Ulf O; Tjernberg, Oscar; Pailhés, Stéphane; Chang, Johan; Mesot, Joël; Shi, Ming; Patthey, Luc; Momono, Naoki; Oda, Migaku; Ido, Masayuki

    2007-07-01

    An on-board sample cleaver has been developed in order to cleave small and hard-to-cleave samples. To acquire good cleaves from rigid samples the alignment of the cleaving blade with respect to the internal crystallographic planes is crucial. To have the opportunity to mount the sample and align it to the blade ex situ has many advantages. The design presented has allowed us to cleave very tiny and rigid samples, e.g., the high-temperature superconductor La((2-x))Sr(x)CuO(4). Further, in this design the sample and the cleaver will have the same temperature, allowing us to cleave and keep the sample at low temperature. This is a big advantage over prior cleaver systems. As a result, better surfaces and alignments can be realized, which considerably simplifies and improves the experiments.

  10. MODIS On-Board Blackbody Function and Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiaoxiong, Xiong; Wenny, Brian N.; Wu, Aisheng; Barnes, William

    2009-01-01

    Two MODIS instruments are currently in orbit, making continuous global observations in visible to long-wave infrared wavelengths. Compared to heritage sensors, MODIS was built with an advanced set of on-board calibrators, providing sensor radiometric, spectral, and spatial calibration and characterization during on-orbit operation. For the thermal emissive bands (TEB) with wavelengths from 3.7 m to 14.4 m, a v-grooved blackbody (BB) is used as the primary calibration source. The BB temperature is accurately measured each scan (1.47s) using a set of 12 temperature sensors traceable to NIST temperature standards. The onboard BB is nominally operated at a fixed temperature, 290K for Terra MODIS and 285K for Aqua MODIS, to compute the TEB linear calibration coefficients. Periodically, its temperature is varied from 270K (instrument ambient) to 315K in order to evaluate and update the nonlinear calibration coefficients. This paper describes MODIS on-board BB functions with emphasis on on-orbit operation and performance. It examines the BB temperature uncertainties under different operational conditions and their impact on TEB calibration and data product quality. The temperature uniformity of the BB is also evaluated using TEB detector responses at different operating temperatures. On-orbit results demonstrate excellent short-term and long-term stability for both the Terra and Aqua MODIS on-board BB. The on-orbit BB temperature uncertainty is estimated to be 10mK for Terra MODIS at 290K and 5mK for Aqua MODIS at 285K, thus meeting the TEB design specifications. In addition, there has been no measurable BB temperature drift over the entire mission of both Terra and Aqua MODIS.

  11. Autonomous Mission Operations Roadmap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy David

    2014-01-01

    As light time delays increase, the number of such situations in which crew autonomy is the best way to conduct the mission is expected to increase. However, there are significant open questions regarding which functions to allocate to ground and crew as the time delays increase. In situations where the ideal solution is to allocate responsibility to the crew and the vehicle, a second question arises: should the activity be the responsibility of the crew or an automated vehicle function? More specifically, we must answer the following questions: What aspects of mission operation responsibilities (Plan, Train, Fly) should be allocated to ground based or vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control in the presence of significant light-time delay between the vehicle and the Earth?How should the allocated ground based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed across the flight control team and ground system automation? How should the allocated vehicle based planning, monitoring, and control be distributed between the flight crew and onboard system automation?When during the mission should responsibility shift from flight control team to crew or from crew to vehicle, and what should the process of shifting responsibility be as the mission progresses? NASA is developing a roadmap of capabilities for Autonomous Mission Operations for human spaceflight. This presentation will describe the current state of development of this roadmap, with specific attention to in-space inspection tasks that crews might perform with minimum assistance from the ground.

  12. Planning for the V&V of infused software technologies for the Mars Science Laboratory Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, Martin S.; Fesq, Lorraine M.; Ingham, Michel D.; Klein, Suzanne L.; Nelson, Stacy D.

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover mission is planning to make use of advanced software technologies in order to support fulfillment of its ambitious science objectives. The mission plans to adopt the Mission Data System (MDS) as the mission software architecture, and plans to make significant use of on-board autonomous capabilities for the rover software.

  13. Summary of observations of the infrared camera (IRC) onboard AKARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onaka, T.; Matsuhara, H.; Wada, T.; Ishihara, D.; Ohyama, Y.; Sakon, I.; Shimonishi, T.; Ohsawa, R.; Mori, T. I.; Egusa, F.; Usui, F.; Takita, S.; Murakami, H.; Oyabu, S.; Yamagishi, M.; Mori, T.; Mouri, A.; Kondo, T.; Suzuki, S.; Kaneda, H.; Ita, Y.; Ootsubo, T.

    2012-09-01

    AKARI, the Japanese satellite mission dedicated to infrared astronomy was launched in 2006 February and exhausted its liquid helium in 2007 August. During the cold mission phase, the Infrared Camera (IRC) onboard carried out an all-sky survey at 9 and 18µm with better spatial resolution and higher sensitivity than IRAS. Both bands also have slightly shorter wavelength coverage than IRAS 12 and 25μm bands and thus provide different information on the infrared sky. All-sky image data of the IRC are now in the final processing and will be released to the public within a year. After the exhaustion of the cryogen, the telescope and focal plane instruments of AKARI had still been kept at sufficiently low temperatures owing to the onboard cryocooler. Near-infrared (NIR) imaging and spectroscopic observations with the IRC had continued until 2011 May, when the spacecraft had a serious problem in the power supply system that forced us to terminate the observation. The IRC carried out nearly 20000 pointing observations in total despite of its near-earth orbit. About a half of them were performed after the exhaustion of the cryogen in the spectroscopic modes, which provided high-sensitivity NIR spectra from 2 to 5µm without disturbance of the terrestrial atmosphere. During the warm mission phase, the temperature of the instrument gradually increased and changed the array operation conditions. We present a summary of AKARI/IRC observations, including the all-sky mid-infrared diffuse data as well as the data taken in the warm mission phase.

  14. On-board fault management for autonomous spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fesq, Lorraine M.; Stephan, Amy; Doyle, Susan C.; Martin, Eric; Sellers, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the Cargo Transfer Vehicle's (CTV) mission and the high level of autonomy required mandate a complete fault management system capable of operating under uncertain conditions. Such a fault management system must take into account the current mission phase and the environment (including the target vehicle), as well as the CTV's state of health. This level of capability is beyond the scope of current on-board fault management systems. This presentation will discuss work in progress at TRW to apply artificial intelligence to the problem of on-board fault management. The goal of this work is to develop fault management systems. This presentation will discuss work in progress at TRW to apply artificial intelligence to the problem of on-board fault management. The goal of this work is to develop fault management systems that can meet the needs of spacecraft that have long-range autonomy requirements. We have implemented a model-based approach to fault detection and isolation that does not require explicit characterization of failures prior to launch. It is thus able to detect failures that were not considered in the failure and effects analysis. We have applied this technique to several different subsystems and tested our approach against both simulations and an electrical power system hardware testbed. We present findings from simulation and hardware tests which demonstrate the ability of our model-based system to detect and isolate failures, and describe our work in porting the Ada version of this system to a flight-qualified processor. We also discuss current research aimed at expanding our system to monitor the entire spacecraft.

  15. Onboard Data Processors for Planetary Ice-Penetrating Sounding Radars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, I. L.; Friesenhahn, R.; Gim, Y.; Wu, X.; Jordan, R.; Wang, C.; Clark, D.; Le, M.; Hand, K. P.; Plaut, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Among the many concerns faced by outer planetary missions, science data storage and transmission hold special significance. Such missions must contend with limited onboard storage, brief data downlink windows, and low downlink bandwidths. A potential solution to these issues lies in employing onboard data processors (OBPs) to convert raw data into products that are smaller and closely capture relevant scientific phenomena. In this paper, we present the implementation of two OBP architectures for ice-penetrating sounding radars tasked with exploring Europa and Ganymede. Our first architecture utilizes an unfocused processing algorithm extended from the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding (MARSIS, Jordan et. al. 2009). Compared to downlinking raw data, we are able to reduce data volume by approximately 100 times through OBP usage. To ensure the viability of our approach, we have implemented, simulated, and synthesized this architecture using both VHDL and Matlab models (with fixed-point and floating-point arithmetic) in conjunction with Modelsim. Creation of a VHDL model of our processor is the principle step in transitioning to actual digital hardware, whether in a FPGA (field-programmable gate array) or an ASIC (application-specific integrated circuit), and successful simulation and synthesis strongly indicate feasibility. In addition, we examined the tradeoffs faced in the OBP between fixed-point accuracy, resource consumption, and data product fidelity. Our second architecture is based upon a focused fast back projection (FBP) algorithm that requires a modest amount of computing power and on-board memory while yielding high along-track resolution and improved slope detection capability. We present an overview of the algorithm and details of our implementation, also in VHDL. With the appropriate tradeoffs, the use of OBPs can significantly reduce data downlink requirements without sacrificing data product fidelity. Through the development

  16. Extensibility of Human Asteroid Mission to Mars and Other Destinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark A.; Caram, Jose M.; Lopez, Pedro; Hinkel, Heather D.; Bowie, Jonathan T.; Abell, Paul A.; Drake, Bret G.; Martinez, Roland M.; Chodas, Paul W.; Hack, Kurt; Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the Asteroid Redirect Mission as an early mission in deep space, demonstrating solar electric propulsion, deep space robotics, ground and on-board navigation, docking, and EVA. The paper will also discuss how staging in trans-lunar space and the elements associated with this mission are excellent building blocks for subsequent deep space missions to Mars or other destinations.

  17. An on-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state. Feedback coefficients are found as functions of the remaining energy to go (dash energy less current energy) along the nominal path.

  18. On-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state.

  19. On-board near-optimal climb-dash energy management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weston, A. R.; Cliff, E. M.; Kelley, H. J.

    1983-01-01

    On-board real time flight control is studied in order to develop algorithms which are simple enough to be used in practice, for a variety of missions involving three-dimensional flight. The intercept mission in symmetric flight is emphasized. Extensive computation is required on the ground prior to the mission but the ensuing on-board exploitation is extremely simple. The scheme takes advantage of the boundary layer structure common in singular perturbations, arising with the multiple time scales appropriate to aircraft dynamics. Energy modelling of aircraft is used as the starting point for the analysis. In the symmetric case, a nominal path is generated which fairs into the dash or cruise state. Previously announced in STAR as N84-16116

  20. Grand Challenge Problems in Real-Time Mission Control Systems for NASA's 21st Century Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pfarr, Barbara B.; Donohue, John T.; Hughes, Peter M.

    1999-01-01

    Space missions of the 21st Century will be characterized by constellations of distributed spacecraft, miniaturized sensors and satellites, increased levels of automation, intelligent onboard processing, and mission autonomy. Programmatically, these missions will be noted for dramatically decreased budgets and mission development lifecycles. Current progress towards flexible, scaleable, low-cost, reusable mission control systems must accelerate given the current mission deployment schedule, and new technology will need to be infused to achieve desired levels of autonomy and processing capability. This paper will discuss current and future missions being managed at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. It will describe the current state of mission control systems and the problems they need to overcome to support the missions of the 21st Century.

  1. STS-57 traditional onboard crew portrait on flight deck of Endeavour, OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right in the front row are Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff, Pilot Brian J. Duffy, MS4 Janice E. Voss with Commander Ronald J. Grabe, MS2 Nancy J. Sherlock, and Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low in the back (left to right). The window shades are in place on overhead windows W7 and W8.

  2. STS-57 traditional onboard crew portrait on flight deck of Endeavour, OV-105

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-57 crewmembers, wearing mission polo shirts, pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) crew portrait on the aft flight deck of Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right in the front are Payload Commander (PLC) and Mission Specialist (MS) G. David Low (left) and Mission Specialist 3 (MS3) Peter J.K. Wisoff. Behind them (left to right) are Commander Ronald J. Grabe, Pilot Brian J. Duffy, MS4 Janice E. Voss, and MS2 Nancy J. Sherlock. Sunlight shines through overhead windows W7 and W8.

  3. An Onboard ISS Virtual Reality Trainer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miralles, Evelyn

    2013-01-01

    Prior to the retirement of the Space Shuttle, many exterior repairs on the International Space Station (ISS) were carried out by shuttle astronauts, trained on the ground and flown to the Station to perform these specific repairs. With the retirement of the shuttle, this is no longer an available option. As such, the need for ISS crew members to review scenarios while on flight, either for tasks they already trained for on the ground or for contingency operations has become a very critical issue. NASA astronauts prepare for Extra-Vehicular Activities (EVA) or Spacewalks through numerous training media, such as: self-study, part task training, underwater training in the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL), hands-on hardware reviews and training at the Virtual Reality Laboratory (VRLab). In many situations, the time between the last session of a training and an EVA task might be 6 to 8 months. EVA tasks are critical for a mission and as time passes the crew members may lose proficiency on previously trained tasks and their options to refresh or learn a new skill while on flight are limited to reading training materials and watching videos. In addition, there is an increased need for unplanned contingency repairs to fix problems arising as the Station ages. In order to help the ISS crew members maintain EVA proficiency or train for contingency repairs during their mission, the Johnson Space Center's VRLab designed an immersive ISS Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT). The VRT incorporates a unique optical system that makes use of the already successful Dynamic On-board Ubiquitous Graphics (DOUG) software to assist crew members with procedure reviews and contingency EVAs while on board the Station. The need to train and re-train crew members for EVAs and contingency scenarios is crucial and extremely demanding. ISS crew members are now asked to perform EVA tasks for which they have not been trained and potentially have never seen before. The Virtual Reality Trainer (VRT

  4. Approach guidance for outer planet pioneer missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1975-01-01

    Onboard optical approach guidance measurements for spin-stabilized Pioneer-type spacecraft are discussed. Approach guidance measurement accuracy requirements are outlined. The application concept and operation principle of the V-slit star tracker are discussed within the context of approach guidance measurements and measurables. It is shown that the accuracy of onboard optical approach guidance measurements is inherently coupled to the stability characteristics of the spacecraft spin axis. Geometrical and physical measurement parameters are presented for Pioneer entry probe missions to Uranus via Jupiter or Saturn flyby. The impact of these parameters on both sensor instrumentation and measurement system design is discussed. The need for sensing extended objects is shown. The feasibility of implementing an onboard approach guidance measurement system for Pioneer-type spacecraft is indicated. Two Pioneer 10 onboard measurement experiments performed in May-June 1974 are described.

  5. Mission Level Autonomy for USSV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry; Stirb, Robert C.; Brizzolara, Robert

    2011-01-01

    On-water demonstration of a wide range of mission-proven, advanced technologies at TRL 5+ that provide a total integrated, modular approach to effectively address the majority of the key needs for full mission-level autonomous, cross-platform control of USV s. Wide baseline stereo system mounted on the ONR USSV was shown to be an effective sensing modality for tracking of dynamic contacts as a first step to automated retrieval operations. CASPER onboard planner/replanner successfully demonstrated realtime, on-water resource-based analysis for mission-level goal achievement and on-the-fly opportunistic replanning. Full mixed mode autonomy was demonstrated on-water with a seamless transition between operator over-ride and return to current mission plan. Autonomous cooperative operations for fixed asset protection and High Value Unit escort using 2 USVs (AMN1 & 14m RHIB) were demonstrated during Trident Warrior 2010 in JUN 2010

  6. The TESIS experiment on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.; Slemzin, V. A.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Goncharov, L. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Popov, S. G.; Shergina, T. A.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Oparin, S. N.; Zykov, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    On February 26, 2009, the first data was obtained in the TESIS experiment on the research of the solar corona using imaging spectroscopy. The TESIS is a part of the scientific equipment of the CORONAS-PHO-TON spacecraft and is designed for imaging the solar corona in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet regions of the spectrum with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions at altitudes from the transition region to three solar radii. The article describes the main characteristics of the instrumentation, management features, and operation modes.

  7. Optimization of Planck-LFI on-board data handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maris, M.; Tomasi, M.; Galeotta, S.; Miccolis, M.; Hildebrandt, S.; Frailis, M.; Rohlfs, R.; Morisset, N.; Zacchei, A.; Bersanelli, M.; Binko, P.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R. C.; Cuttaia, F.; Chulani, H.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Fogliani, S.; Franceschi, E.; Gasparo, F.; Gomez, F.; Gregorio, A.; Herreros, J. M.; Leonardi, R.; Leutenegger, P.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Malaspina, M.; Mandolesi, N.; Manzato, P.; Meharga, M.; Meinhold, P.; Mennella, A.; Pasian, F.; Perrotta, F.; Rebolo, R.; Türler, M.; Zonca, A.

    2009-12-01

    To asses stability against 1/f noise, the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) on-board the Planck mission will acquire data at a rate much higher than the data rate allowed by the science telemetry bandwith of 35.5 Kbps. The data are processed by an on-board pipeline, followed on-ground by a decoding and reconstruction step, to reduce the volume of data to a level compatible with the bandwidth while minimizing the loss of information. This paper illustrates the on-board processing of the scientific data used by Planck/LFI to fit the allowed data-rate, an intrinsecally lossy process which distorts the signal in a manner which depends on a set of five free parameters (Naver, r1, r2, q, Script O) for each of the 44 LFI detectors. The paper quantifies the level of distortion introduced by the on-board processing as a function of these parameters. It describes the method of tuning the on-board processing chain to cope with the limited bandwidth while keeping to a minimum the signal distortion. Tuning is sensitive to the statistics of the signal and has to be constantly adapted during flight. The tuning procedure is based on a optimization algorithm applied to unprocessed and uncompressed raw data provided either by simulations, pre-launch tests or data taken in flight from LFI operating in a special diagnostic acquisition mode. All the needed optimization steps are performed by an automated tool, OCA2, which simulates the on-board processing, explores the space of possible combinations of parameters, and produces a set of statistical indicators, among them: the compression rate Cr and the processing noise epsilonQ. For Planck/LFI it is required that Cr = 2.4 while, as for other systematics, epsilonQ would have to be less than 10% of rms of the instrumental white noise. An analytical model is developed that is able to extract most of the relevant information on the processing errors and the compression rate as a function of the signal statistics and the processing parameters

  8. Mission engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrus, Paul; Fatig, Michael

    1993-01-01

    Goddard Space Flight Center's projects are facing new challenges with respect to the cost effective development and operation of spaceflight missions. Challenges, such as cost limits, compression of schedules, rapidly changing technology, and increasing mission complexity are making the mission development process more dynamic. A concept of 'Mission Engineering' as a means of addressing these challenges is proposed. It is an end-to-end, multimission development methodology that seeks to integrate the development processes between the space, ground, science, and operations segments of a mission. It thereby promotes more mission-oriented system solutions, within and across missions.

  9. Autonomous operations through onboard artificial intelligence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, R. L.; Chien, S.; Castano, R.; Rabideau, G.

    2002-01-01

    The Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) will fly onboard the Air Force TechSat 21 constellation of three spacecraft scheduled for launch in 2006. ASE uses onboard continuous planning, robust task and goal-based execution, model-based mode identification and reconfiguration, and onboard machine learning and pattern recognition to radically increase science return by enabling intelligent downlink selection and autonomous retargeting. Demonstration of these capabilities in a flight environment will open up tremendous new opportunities in planetary science, space physics, and earth science that would be unreachable without this technology.

  10. Advanced stellar compass onboard autonomous orbit determination, preliminary performance.

    PubMed

    Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, John L; Jørgensen, Peter S; Denver, Troelz

    2004-05-01

    Deep space exploration is in the agenda of the major space agencies worldwide; certainly the European Space Agency (SMART Program) and the American NASA (New Millennium Program) have set up programs to allow the development and the demonstration of technologies that can reduce the risks and the cost of deep space missions. From past experience, it appears that navigation is the Achilles heel of deep space missions. Performed on ground, this imposes considerable constraints on the entire system and limits operations. This makes it is very expensive to execute, especially when the mission lasts several years and, furthermore, it is not failure tolerant. Nevertheless, to date, ground navigation has been the only viable solution. The technology breakthrough of advanced star trackers, like the advanced stellar compass (ASC), might change this situation. Indeed, exploiting the capabilities of this instrument, the authors have devised a method to determine the orbit of a spacecraft autonomously, onboard, and without a priori knowledge of any kind. The solution is robust and fast. This paper presents the preliminary performance obtained during the ground testing in August 2002 at the Mauna Kea Observatories. The main goals were: (1) to assess the robustness of the method in solving autonomously, onboard, the position lost-in-space problem; (2) to assess the preliminary accuracy achievable with a single planet and a single observation; (3) to verify the autonomous navigation (AutoNav) module could be implemented into an ASC without degrading the attitude measurements; and (4) to identify the areas of development and consolidation. The results obtained are very encouraging.

  11. An integrated medical system for long-duration space missions.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pool, S. L.; Belasco, N.

    1972-01-01

    A description is given of the Integrated Medical and Behavioral Laboratory Measurement System (IMBLMS) being developed for onboard medical support of the crew and for medical research during space missions. The system is suitable for use during early extended space flights and for accommodating measurement and diagnostic apparatus as well as treatment and surgical facilities developed for later missions.

  12. On-board Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Steve; Stein, Cara; Graves, Sara J.

    Networks of remote sensors are becoming more common as technology improves and costs decline. In the past, a remote sensor was usually a device that collected data to be retrieved at a later time by some other mechanism. This collected data were usually processed well after the fact at a computer greatly removed from the in situ sensing location. This has begun to change as sensor technology, on-board processing, and network communication capabilities have increased and their prices have dropped. There has been an explosion in the number of sensors and sensing devices, not just around the world, but literally throughout the solar system. These sensors are not only becoming vastly more sophisticated, accurate, and detailed in the data they gather but they are also becoming cheaper, lighter, and smaller. At the same time, engineers have developed improved methods to embed computing systems, memory, storage, and communication capabilities into the platforms that host these sensors. Now, it is not unusual to see large networks of sensors working in cooperation with one another. Nor does it seem strange to see the autonomous operation of sensorbased systems, from space-based satellites to smart vacuum cleaners that keep our homes clean and robotic toys that help to entertain and educate our children. But access to sensor data and computing power is only part of the story. For all the power of these systems, there are still substantial limits to what they can accomplish. These include the well-known limits to current Artificial Intelligence capabilities and our limited ability to program the abstract concepts, goals, and improvisation needed for fully autonomous systems. But it also includes much more basic engineering problems such as lack of adequate power, communications bandwidth, and memory, as well as problems with the geolocation and real-time georeferencing required to integrate data from multiple sensors to be used together.

  13. The onboard control system of "Navigator" platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrov, A. S.; Smirnov, V. V.; Sokolov, V. N.; Iodko, G. S.; Mischikhin, V. V.; Kosobokov, V. N.; Shatskii, M. A.; Dobrynin, D. A.

    2016-12-01

    A brief description of the design concept, structure and performance of the onboard control system (AOCS) of the "Navigator" satellite platform, on the basis of which the spacecraft "Electro-L' and "Spektr-R" are designed, is presented. The test-flight results of the AOCS attitude accuracy are given. Approaches to the further development of the onboard control equipment for advanced spacecraft are determined and presented.

  14. Autonomy enables new science missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, Richard J.; Gor, Victoria; Man, Guy K.; Stolorz, Paul E.; Chapman, Clark; Merline, William J.; Stern, Alan

    1997-01-01

    The challenge of space flight in NASA's future is to enable smaller, more frequent and intensive space exploration at much lower total cost without substantially decreasing mission reliability, capability, or the scientific return on investment. The most effective way to achieve this goal is to build intelligent capabilities into the spacecraft themselves. Our technological vision for meeting the challenge of returning quality science through limited communication bandwidth will actually put scientists in a more direct link with the spacecraft than they have enjoyed to date. Technologies such as pattern recognition and machine learning can place a part of the scientist's awareness onboard the spacecraft to prioritize downlink or to autonomously trigger time-critical follow-up observations-particularly important in flyby missions-without ground interaction. Onboard knowledge discovery methods can be used to include candidate discoveries in each downlink for scientists' scrutiny. Such capabilities will allow scientists to quickly reprioritize missions in a much more intimate and efficient manner than is possible today. Ultimately, new classes of exploration missions will be enabled.

  15. Lunar Landing Trajectory Design for Onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschall, Steve; Brady, Tye; Sostaric, Ron

    2009-01-01

    The Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) Project is developing the software and hardware technology needed to support a safe and precise landing for the next generation of lunar missions. ALHAT provides this capability through terrain-relative navigation measurements to enhance global-scale precision, an onboard hazard detection system to select safe landing locations, and an Autonomous Guidance, Navigation, and Control (AGNC) capability to process these measurements and safely direct the vehicle to a landing location. This paper focuses on the key trajectory design issues relevant to providing an onboard Hazard Detection and Avoidance (HDA) capability for the lander. Hazard detection can be accomplished by the crew visually scanning the terrain through a window, a sensor system imaging the terrain, or some combination of both. For ALHAT, this hazard detection activity is provided by a sensor system, which either augments the crew s perception or entirely replaces the crew in the case of a robotic landing. Detecting hazards influences the trajectory design by requiring the proper perspective, range to the landing site, and sufficient time to view the terrain. Following this, the trajectory design must provide additional time to process this information and make a decision about where to safely land. During the final part of the HDA process, the trajectory design must provide sufficient margin to enable a hazard avoidance maneuver. In order to demonstrate the effects of these constraints on the landing trajectory, a tradespace of trajectory designs was created for the initial ALHAT Design Analysis Cycle (ALDAC-1) and each case evaluated with these HDA constraints active. The ALHAT analysis process, described in this paper, narrows down this tradespace and subsequently better defines the trajectory design needed to support onboard HDA. Future ALDACs will enhance this trajectory design by balancing these issues and others in an overall system

  16. Biological quarantine on international waters: an initiative for onboard protocols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takano, Yoshinori; Yano, Hajime; Funase, Ryu; Sekine, Yasuhito; Takai, Ken

    2012-07-01

    The research vessel Chikyu is expanding new frontiers in science, technology, and international collaboration through deep-sea expedition. The Chikyu (length: 210 m, gross tonnage: 56752 tons) has advanced and comprehensive scientific research facilities. One of the scientific purposes of the vessel is to investigate into unexplored biosphere (i.e., undescribed extremophiles) on the Earth. Therefore, "the onboard laboratory" provides us systematic microbiological protocols with a physical containment situation. In parallel, the onboard equipments provide sufficient space for fifty scientists and technical support staff. The helicopter deck also supports various logistics through transporting by a large scale helicopter (See, http://www.jamstec.go.jp/chikyu/eng/). Since the establishment of Panel on Planetary Protection (PPP) in Committee on Space Research (COSPAR), we have an international consensus about the development and promulgation of planetary protection knowledge, policy, and plans to prevent the harmful effects of biological contamination on the Earth (e.g., Rummel, 2002). However, the matter to select a candidate location of initial quarantine at BSL4 level is often problematic. To answer the key issue, we suggest that international waters can be a meaningful option with several advantages to conduct initial onboard-biological quarantine investigation. Hence, the research vessel Chikyu is promising for further PPP requirements (e.g., Enceladus sample return project: Tsou et al., 2012). Rummel, J., Seeking an international consensus in planetary protection: COSPAR's planetary protection panel. Advances in Space Research, 30, 1573-1575 (2002). Tsou, P. et al. LIFE: Life Investigation For Enceladus - A Sample Return Mission Concept in Search for Evidence of Life. Astrobiology, in press.

  17. TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) flight qualification experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramling, C. J.; Hart, R. C.; Folta, D. C.; Long, A. C.

    1994-05-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) to provide realtime, autonomous, high-accuracy navigation products to users of TDRSS. A TONS experiment was implemented on the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft, launched June 7, 1992, to flight qualify the TONS operational system using TDRSS forward-link communications services. This paper provides a detailed evaluation of the flight hardware, an ultrastable oscillator (USO) and Doppler extractor (DE) card in one of the TDRSS user transponders and the ground-based prototype flight software performance, based on the 1 year of TONS experiment operation. The TONS experiment results are used to project the expected performance of the TONS 1 operational system. TONS 1 processes Doppler data derived from scheduled forward-link S-band services using a sequential estimation algorithm enhanced by a sophisticated process noise model to provide onboard orbit and frequency determination and time maintenance. TONS 1 will be the prime navigation system on the Earth Observing System (EOS)-AM1 spacecraft, currently scheduled for launch in 1998. Inflight evaluation of the USO and DE short-term and long-term stability indicates that the performance is excellent. Analysis of the TONS prototype flight software performance indicates that realtime onboard position accuracies of better than 25 meters root-mean-square are achievable with one tracking contact every one to two orbits for the EP/EUVE 525-kilometer altitude, 28.5 degree inclination orbit. The success of the TONS experiment demonstrates the flight readiness of TONS to support the EOS-AM1 mission.

  18. Fuel-Cell Power Source Based on Onboard Rocket Propellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ganapathi, Gani; Narayan, Sri

    2010-01-01

    The use of onboard rocket propellants (dense liquids at room temperature) in place of conventional cryogenic fuel-cell reactants (hydrogen and oxygen) eliminates the mass penalties associated with cryocooling and boil-off. The high energy content and density of the rocket propellants will also require no additional chemical processing. For a 30-day mission on the Moon that requires a continuous 100 watts of power, the reactant mass and volume would be reduced by 15 and 50 percent, respectively, even without accounting for boiloff losses. The savings increase further with increasing transit times. A high-temperature, solid oxide, electrolyte-based fuel-cell configuration, that can rapidly combine rocket propellants - both monopropellant system with hydrazine and bi-propellant systems such as monomethyl hydrazine/ unsymmetrical dimethyl hydrazine (MMH/UDMH) and nitrogen tetroxide (NTO) to produce electrical energy - overcomes the severe drawbacks of earlier attempts in 1963-1967 of using fuel reforming and aqueous media. The electrical energy available from such a fuel cell operating at 60-percent efficiency is estimated to be 1,500 Wh/kg of reactants. The proposed use of zirconia-based oxide electrolyte at 800-1,000 C will permit continuous operation, very high power densities, and substantially increased efficiency of conversion over any of the earlier attempts. The solid oxide fuel cell is also tolerant to a wide range of environmental temperatures. Such a system is built for easy refueling for exploration missions and for the ability to turn on after several years of transit. Specific examples of future missions are in-situ landers on Europa and Titan that will face extreme radiation and temperature environments, flyby missions to Saturn, and landed missions on the Moon with 14 day/night cycles.

  19. Onboard Interferometric SAR Processor for the Ka-Band Radar Interferometer (KaRIn)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esteban-Fernandez, Daniel; Rodriquez, Ernesto; Peral, Eva; Clark, Duane I.; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2011-01-01

    An interferometric synthetic aperture radar (SAR) onboard processor concept and algorithm has been developed for the Ka-band radar interferometer (KaRIn) instrument on the Surface and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission. This is a mission- critical subsystem that will perform interferometric SAR processing and multi-look averaging over the oceans to decrease the data rate by three orders of magnitude, and therefore enable the downlink of the radar data to the ground. The onboard processor performs demodulation, range compression, coregistration, and re-sampling, and forms nine azimuth squinted beams. For each of them, an interferogram is generated, including common-band spectral filtering to improve correlation, followed by averaging to the final 1 1-km ground resolution pixel. The onboard processor has been prototyped on a custom FPGA-based cPCI board, which will be part of the radar s digital subsystem. The level of complexity of this technology, dictated by the implementation of interferometric SAR processing at high resolution, the extremely tight level of accuracy required, and its implementation on FPGAs are unprecedented at the time of this reporting for an onboard processor for flight applications.

  20. The Gamma-Ray Burst On-board Trigger ECLAIRs of SVOM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schanne, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    SVOM, the Space-based multi-band astronomical Variable Objects Monitor, is a French-Chinese satellite mission for Gamma-Ray Burst studies. The conclusion of the Phase B studies is scheduled in 2016 and the launch is foreseen in 2021. With its set of 4 on-board instruments as well as dedicated ground instruments, SVOM will study GBRs in great detail, including their temporal and spectral properties from visible to gamma-rays. The coded-mask telescope ECLAIRs on-board SVOM with its Burst On-board Trigger system analyzes in real-time a 2 sr portion of the sky in the 4-120 keV energy range to detect and localize the GRBs. It then requests the spacecraft slew to allow GRB follow-up observations by the on-board narrow field-of-view telescopes MXT in X-rays and VT in the visible, and informs the community of observers via a dedicated ground network. This paper gives an update on the status of ECLAIRs and its Burst On-board Trigger system.

  1. On-board data management study for EOPAP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davisson, L. D.

    1975-01-01

    The requirements, implementation techniques, and mission analysis associated with on-board data management for EOPAP were studied. SEASAT-A was used as a baseline, and the storage requirements, data rates, and information extraction requirements were investigated for each of the following proposed SEASAT sensors: a short pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a long pulse 13.9 GHz radar, a synthetic aperture radar, a multispectral passive microwave radiometer facility, and an infrared/visible very high resolution radiometer (VHRR). Rate distortion theory was applied to determine theoretical minimum data rates and compared with the rates required by practical techniques. It was concluded that practical techniques can be used which approach the theoretically optimum based upon an empirically determined source random process model. The results of the preceding investigations were used to recommend an on-board data management system for (1) data compression through information extraction, optimal noiseless coding, source coding with distortion, data buffering, and data selection under command or as a function of data activity, (2) for command handling, (3) for spacecraft operation and control, and (4) for experiment operation and monitoring.

  2. Onboard Radar Processing Development for Rapid Response Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lou, Yunling; Chien, Steve; Clark, Duane; Doubleday, Josh; Muellerschoen, Ron; Wang, Charles C.

    2011-01-01

    We are developing onboard processor (OBP) technology to streamline data acquisition on-demand and explore the potential of the L-band SAR instrument onboard the proposed DESDynI mission and UAVSAR for rapid response applications. The technology would enable the observation and use of surface change data over rapidly evolving natural hazards, both as an aid to scientific understanding and to provide timely data to agencies responsible for the management and mitigation of natural disasters. We are adapting complex science algorithms for surface water extent to detect flooding, snow/water/ice classification to assist in transportation/ shipping forecasts, and repeat-pass change detection to detect disturbances. We are near completion of the development of a custom FPGA board to meet the specific memory and processing needs of L-band SAR processor algorithms and high speed interfaces to reformat and route raw radar data to/from the FPGA processor board. We have also developed a high fidelity Matlab model of the SAR processor that is modularized and parameterized for ease to prototype various SAR processor algorithms targeted for the FPGA. We will be testing the OBP and rapid response algorithms with UAVSAR data to determine the fidelity of the products.

  3. Human thermohomeostasis onboard "Mir" and in simulated microgravity studies.

    PubMed

    Polyakov, V V; Lacota, N G; Gundel, A

    2001-01-01

    Significant changes of thermogomeostatic parameters was obtained by thermotopometric method using the techniques simulate of microgravity effects: bed rest, pressurized isolation, suit immersion (SI). However, each of ground models made rectal temperature (T) trend downward. The autothermometric study (24 and 12 sessions, 2-13th and 6-174th flight days) was carried out onboard "Mir" by two flight engineers who had preliminary tested at SI (1-2 days). Studies of German investigators onboard "Mir" confirmed: rectal T must be higher in space flight as compared to the normal environment (n=4). Comparative studies suggest that microgravity is a key factor for the human body surface T raise and abolishment of the external/internal T-gradient. T-homeostasis was not really changing during missions and could be regarded as acute effect of microgravity. After delineation of changes in body surface T--by Carnot's thermodynamic law--rectal T raise should have been anticipated. Facts pointing to the excess entropy of human body must not be passed over.

  4. Mariner Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, C.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Mariner was the name given to the earliest set of American space missions to explore the planets and to the spacecraft developed to carry them out. The missions were planned and executed by the JET PROPULSION LABORATORY (JPL) of the California Institute of Technology, which had been designated by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) as its lead center for planetary missions....

  5. A ground-based memory state tracker for satellite on-board computer memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quan, Alan; Angelino, Robert; Hill, Michael; Schwuttke, Ursula; Hervias, Felipe

    1993-01-01

    The TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite, currently in Earth orbit, will use radar altimetry to measure sea surface height over 90 percent of the world's ice-free oceans. In combination with a precise determination of the spacecraft orbit, the altimetry data will provide maps of ocean topography, which will be used to calculate the speed and direction of ocean currents worldwide. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) has primary responsibility for mission operations for TOPEX/POSEIDON. Software applications have been developed to automate mission operations tasks. This paper describes one of these applications, the Memory State Tracker, which allows the ground analyst to examine and track the contents of satellite on-board computer memory quickly and efficiently, in a human-readable format, without having to receive the data directly from the spacecraft. This process is accomplished by maintaining a groundbased mirror-image of spacecraft On-board Computer memory.

  6. An analysis of the Kalman filter in the Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) onboard attitude determination subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, Frank; Harman, Richard; Garrick, Joseph

    1988-01-01

    The Gamma Ray Observatory (GRO) spacecraft needs a highly accurate attitude knowledge to achieve its mission objectives. Utilizing the fixed-head star trackers (FHSTs) for observations and gyroscopes for attitude propagation, the discrete Kalman Filter processes the attitude data to obtain an onboard accuracy of 86 arc seconds (3 sigma). A combination of linear analysis and simulations using the GRO Software Simulator (GROSS) are employed to investigate the Kalman filter for stability and the effects of corrupted observations (misalignment, noise), incomplete dynamic modeling, and nonlinear errors on Kalman filter. In the simulations, on-board attitude is compared with true attitude, the sensitivity of attitude error to model errors is graphed, and a statistical analysis is performed on the residuals of the Kalman Filter. In this paper, the modeling and sensor errors that degrade the Kalman filter solution beyond mission requirements are studied, and methods are offered to identify the source of these errors.

  7. Integrated extension board for on-board computer (OBDH) of SSETI ESEO satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cichocki, Andrzej; Graczyk, Rafal

    2008-01-01

    This paper holds an information about an extension module for Single Board Computer (MIP405), which is the heart of On-board Data Handling Module (OBDH) of student Earth's microsatellite - SSETI ESEO. OBDH is a PC104 stack of four boards electrically connected and mechanically fixed. On-Board Computer is a key subsystem to the mission success - it is responsible for distribution of control signals to each module of the spacecraft. It is also expected to gather critical data for an appropriate mission progress, implementation of a part of algorithms used for satellite stabilization and orbit control and, at last, processing telecommands. Since whole system should meet spaceborne application requirements, it must be exceptionally reliable.

  8. Safe Onboard Guidance and Control Under Probabilistic Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackmore, Lars James

    2011-01-01

    An algorithm was developed that determines the fuel-optimal spacecraft guidance trajectory that takes into account uncertainty, in order to guarantee that mission safety constraints are satisfied with the required probability. The algorithm uses convex optimization to solve for the optimal trajectory. Convex optimization is amenable to onboard solution due to its excellent convergence properties. The algorithm is novel because, unlike prior approaches, it does not require time-consuming evaluation of multivariate probability densities. Instead, it uses a new mathematical bounding approach to ensure that probability constraints are satisfied, and it is shown that the resulting optimization is convex. Empirical results show that the approach is many orders of magnitude less conservative than existing set conversion techniques, for a small penalty in computation time.

  9. First use of SAM onboard calibration gas cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malespin, C.; Trainer, M. G.; Manning, H. L.; Franz, H. B.; Conrad, P. G.; Raaen, E.; Webster, C. R.; Flesch, G.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Wong, M. H.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2015-12-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument (Mahaffy et al 2012) suite on Curiosity completed its first measurement of the onboard calibration gas cell on MSL Mission Sol 1042. The cell consists of a gas mixture of four primary gases, along with trace fluorinated hydrocarbon high mass calibrants. The mix is comprised of approximately 25% CO2, N2, Xe and Ar, where the 129Xe has been given a three times enrichment relative to terrestrial xenon in order to distinguish it isotopically from Martian atmospheric Xe. Analysis of the calibration cell is intended to identify changes in instrument performance between pre-launch calibrations and operations on Mars, for any of the three main subsystems in SAM: the Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (QMS), Tunable Laser Spectrometer (TLS), and Gas Chromatograph (GC). Here we present the experimental approach, results, and implications for instrument performance after almost three years of measurements on Mars.

  10. Simplified interplanetary guidance procedures using onboard optical measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamer, H. A.; Johnson, K. G.

    1972-01-01

    Simplified guidance procedures have been developed which are based on preflight determination of the characteristics of perturbed trajectories. The results are devoted primarily to planetary approach guidance; however, some considerations for midcourse guidance are included. The methods are studied for an Earth-to-Mars trajectory but would be applicable to Grand Tour and other types of missions. Generally requiring only a single onboard optical angular measurement, the approach procedure predicts guidance corrections for the control of periapsis radius as well as orbital plane orientation. An error analysis has shown that the periapsis radius at Mars can be controlled to a 1 sigma accuracy of about 20 km if the guidance is performed 1/2 day before periapsis passage. If the guidance is performed at the Martian sphere of influence (2.2 days before periapsis), the error doubles because of the increased effect of measurement and maneuvering errors.

  11. DAMPE silicon tracker on-board data compression algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Yi-Fan; Zhang, Fei; Qiao, Rui; Peng, Wen-Xi; Fan, Rui-Rui; Gong, Ke; Wu, Di; Wang, Huan-Yu

    2015-11-01

    The Dark Matter Particle Explorer (DAMPE) is an upcoming scientific satellite mission for high energy gamma-ray, electron and cosmic ray detection. The silicon tracker (STK) is a subdetector of the DAMPE payload. It has excellent position resolution (readout pitch of 242 μm), and measures the incident direction of particles as well as charge. The STK consists of 12 layers of Silicon Micro-strip Detector (SMD), equivalent to a total silicon area of 6.5 m2. The total number of readout channels of the STK is 73728, which leads to a huge amount of raw data to be processed. In this paper, we focus on the on-board data compression algorithm and procedure in the STK, and show the results of initial verification by cosmic-ray measurements. Supported by Strategic Priority Research Program on Space Science of Chinese Academy of Sciences (XDA040402) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (1111403027)

  12. Mars Exploration Rover mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crisp, Joy A.; Adler, Mark; Matijevic, Jacob R.; Squyres, Steven W.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Kass, David M.

    2003-10-01

    In January 2004 the Mars Exploration Rover mission will land two rovers at two different landing sites that show possible evidence for past liquid-water activity. The spacecraft design is based on the Mars Pathfinder configuration for cruise and entry, descent, and landing. Each of the identical rovers is equipped with a science payload of two remote-sensing instruments that will view the surrounding terrain from the top of a mast, a robotic arm that can place three instruments and a rock abrasion tool on selected rock and soil samples, and several onboard magnets and calibration targets. Engineering sensors and components useful for science investigations include stereo navigation cameras, stereo hazard cameras in front and rear, wheel motors, wheel motor current and voltage, the wheels themselves for digging, gyros, accelerometers, and reference solar cell readings. Mission operations will allow commanding of the rover each Martian day, or sol, on the basis of the previous sol's data. Over a 90-sol mission lifetime, the rovers are expected to drive hundreds of meters while carrying out field geology investigations, exploration, and atmospheric characterization. The data products will be delivered to the Planetary Data System as integrated batch archives.

  13. Activities During Spacelab-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This STS-9 mission (Spacelab-1) onboard photograph shows astronaut Owen Garriott drawing a blood sample from astronaut Byron Lichtenberg inside Spacelab-1 science module for one of the life sciences experiments, called 'Effects of Prolonged Weightlessness on the Humoral Immune Response of Humans.' The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effect of weightlessness on the body's immune response or ability to resist disease. Blood samples were obtained from crewmembers at designated times before, during, and after flight. These specimens were analyzed for changes in antibody levels. More than 70 experiments in 5 disciplines from 14 nations were conducted during the mission. The five disciplines included Astronomy and Solar Physics, Space Plasma Physics, Atmospheric Physics and Earth Observations, Life Sciences, and Materials Science. The Spacelab mission (STS-9), managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center, was launched on November 28, 1983.

  14. ISA accelerometer onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter: error budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iafolla, Valerio; Lucchesi, David M.; Nozzoli, Sergio; Santoli, Francesco

    2007-03-01

    We have estimated a preliminary error budget for the Italian Spring Accelerometer (ISA) that will be allocated onboard the Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) of the European Space Agency (ESA) space mission to Mercury named BepiColombo. The role of the accelerometer is to remove from the list of unknowns the non-gravitational accelerations that perturb the gravitational trajectory followed by the MPO in the strong radiation environment that characterises the orbit of Mercury around the Sun. Such a role is of fundamental importance in the context of the very ambitious goals of the Radio Science Experiments (RSE) of the BepiColombo mission. We have subdivided the errors on the accelerometer measurements into two main families: (i) the pseudo-sinusoidal errors and (ii) the random errors. The former are characterised by a periodic behaviour with the frequency of the satellite mean anomaly and its higher order harmonic components, i.e., they are deterministic errors. The latter are characterised by an unknown frequency distribution and we assumed for them a noise-like spectrum, i.e., they are stochastic errors. Among the pseudo-sinusoidal errors, the main contribution is due to the effects of the gravity gradients and the inertial forces, while among the random-like errors the main disturbing effect is due to the MPO centre-of-mass displacements produced by the onboard High Gain Antenna (HGA) movements and by the fuel consumption and sloshing. Very subtle to be considered are also the random errors produced by the MPO attitude corrections necessary to guarantee the nadir pointing of the spacecraft. We have therefore formulated the ISA error budget and the requirements for the satellite in order to guarantee an orbit reconstruction for the MPO spacecraft with an along-track accuracy of about 1 m over the orbital period of the satellite around Mercury in such a way to satisfy the RSE requirements.

  15. Human and Robotic Space Mission Use Cases for High-Performance Spaceflight Computing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard; Bergman, Larry; Some, Raphael; Whitaker, William; Powell, Wesley; Johnson, Michael; Goforth, Montgomery; Lowry, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Spaceflight computing is a key resource in NASA space missions and a core determining factor of spacecraft capability, with ripple effects throughout the spacecraft, end-to-end system, and the mission; it can be aptly viewed as a "technology multiplier" in that advances in onboard computing provide dramatic improvements in flight functions and capabilities across the NASA mission classes, and will enable new flight capabilities and mission scenarios, increasing science and exploration return per mission-dollar.

  16. STS-26 crewmembers pose for onboard portrait on middeck with 51L mementos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    STS-26 crewmembers, each wearing a red, white, or blue polo shirt, pose for onboard crew portrait on Discovery's, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 103's, middeck with STS-51L crew portrait, its flight (crew) insignia, and the STS-26 flight (crew) insignia. Left to right are Mission Specialist (MS) David C. Hilmers, MS George D. Nelson, Commander Frederick H. Hauck, MS John M. Lounge, and Pilot Richard O. Covey (front). The crewmembers pose in front of the port side wall.

  17. STS-47 crew poses for Official onboard (in space) portrait in SLJ module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 crewmembers assemble for their traditional onboard (in-flight) portrait in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Left to right (front) are Mission Specialist N. Jan Davis, MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee, and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri; and (rear) Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr, MS Jerome Apt, Commander Robert L. Gibson, and MS Mae C. Jemison.

  18. An intelligent, onboard signal processing payload concept

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, P. M.; Harikumar, J.; Briles, S. C.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    Our approach to onboard processing will enable a quicker return and improved quality of processed data from small, remote-sensing satellites. We describe an intelligent payload concept which processes RF lightning signal data onboard the spacecraft in a power-aware manner. Presently, onboard processing is severely curtailed due to the conventional management of limited resources and power-unaware payload designs. Delays of days to weeks are commonly experienced before raw data is received, processed into a human-usable format, and finally transmitted to the end-user. We enable this resource-critical technology of onboard processing through the concept of Algorithm Power Modulation (APM). APM is a decision process used to execute a specific software algorithm, from a suite of possible algorithms, to make the best use of the available power. The suite of software algorithms chosen for our application is intended to reduce the probability of false alarms through postprocessing. Each algorithm however also has a cost in energy usage. A heuristic decision tree procedure is used which selects an algorithm based on the available power, time allocated, algorithm priority, and algorithm performance. We demonstrate our approach to power-aware onboard processing through a preliminary software simulation.

  19. Guidance and Navigation Requirements for Unmanned Flyby and Swingby Missions to the Outer Planets. Volume 3; Low Thrust Missions, Phase B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned missions to the outer planets, assuming constant, low thrust, ion propulsion are discussed. The navigational capability of the ground based Deep Space Network is compared to the improvements in navigational capability brought about by the addition of guidance and navigation related onboard sensors. Relevant onboard sensors include: (1) the optical onboard navigation sensor, (2) the attitude reference sensors, and (3) highly sensitive accelerometers. The totally ground based, and the combination ground based and onboard sensor systems are compared by means of the estimated errors in target planet ephemeris, and the spacecraft position with respect to the planet.

  20. GIADA - Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator - Onboard Rosetta spacecraft: Extended calibrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Della Corte, V.; Sordini, R.; Accolla, M.; Ferrari, M.; Ivanovski, S.; Rotundi, A.; Rietmeijer, F. J. M.; Fulle, M.; Mazzotta-Epifani, E.; Palumbo, P.; Colangeli, L.; Lopez-Moreno, J. J.; Rodriguez, J.; Morales, R.; Cosi, M.

    2016-09-01

    Despite a long tradition of dust instruments flown on-board space mission, the largest number of these can be considered unique as they used different detection techniques. GIADA (Grain Impact Analyzer and Dust Accumulator), is one of the dust instruments on-board the Rosetta spacecraft and is devoted to measure the dust dynamical parameters in the coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. It couples two different techniques to measure the mass and speed of individual dust particles. We report here the results of an extended calibration activity carried-out, during the hibernation phase of the Rosetta mission, on the GIADA Proto Flight Model (PFM) operative in a clean room in our laboratory. The main aims of an additional calibration campaign are: to verify the algorithms and procedures for data calibration developed before Rosetta launch; to improve the comprehension of GIADA response after the increased knowledge on cometary dust, e.g. the composition of dust particles after Stardust mission. These calibration improvements implied a final step, which consisted in defining transfer functions to correlate the new calibration curves obtained for the GIADA PFM to those to be used for GIADA onboard the Rosetta spacecraft. The extended calibration activity allowed us to analyze GIADA data acquired in the 67P/C-G coma permitting to infer additional information on cometary dust particles, e.g. density and tensile strength.

  1. Onboard tagging for smart medical devices.

    PubMed

    Li, Kejia; Warren, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Most medical devices are 'dumb:' their role is to acquire, display, and forward data. They make few if any operational decisions based on those data. Onboard tagging is a means whereby a device can embed information about itself, its data, and the sensibility of those data into its data stream. This diagnostic add-on offers a move toward 'smart' devices that will have the ability to affect changes in operational modes based on onboard contextual decision making, such as decisions to avoid needless wireless transmission of corrupt data. This paper presents a description of three types of onboard tags that relate to device hardware (type I tag), signal statistics (type II tag), and signal viability for the intended application (type III tag). A custom wireless pulse oximeter is presented as a use case to show how type II and III tags that convey photoplethysmogram (PPG) statistics and usability specifiers can be calculated and embedded into the data stream without degrading performance.

  2. Ptolemy: Operations at 21 Lutetia as part of the Rosetta Mission and Future Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, D. J.; Morse, A. D.; Barber, S. J.; Leese, M. R.; Morgan, G. H.; Sheridan, S.; Wright, I. P.; Pillinger, C. T.

    2012-03-01

    Ptolemy is an evolved gas analyzer onboard the Philae lander of the Rosetta mission. Attempts were made to detect the exosphere of asteroid 21 Lutetia during a July 2010 targeted flyby; the results are presented here and future implications discussed.

  3. Day 4 activities in the MOCR during STS-5 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Day 4 activities in the mission operations control room (MOCR) during STS-5 mission. Scott Thomas, a freshman at Utah State University, watches the television monitor in front of him in the mission operations control room (MOCR) at JSC's mission control center. Astronaut Joseph P. Allen, STS-5 mission specialist, conducts an experiment - a study of convection in zero gravity - onboard the Columbia. The experiment is part of the student experiments program and was conceived by Thomas. Also at the payloads console with Thomas is Robert M. Kelso, of the Flight Operations Directorate. The stuffed mascot for the payloads team, a kangaroo, sits atop the payloads team console.

  4. Laboratory measurements of on-board subsystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuspl, P. P.; Dong, G.; Seran, H. C.

    1991-01-01

    Good progress was achieved on the test bed for on-board subsystems for future satellites. The test bed is for subsystems developed previously. Four test setups were configured in the INTELSAT technical labs: (1) TDMA on-board modem; (2) multicarrier demultiplexer demodulator; (3) IBS/IDR baseband processor; and (4) baseband switch matrix. The first three series of tests are completed and the tests on the BSM are in progress. Descriptions of test setups and major test results are included; the format of the presentation is outlined.

  5. Automation of On-Board Flightpath Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Erzberger, H.

    1981-01-01

    The status of concepts and techniques for the design of onboard flight path management systems is reviewed. Such systems are designed to increase flight efficiency and safety by automating the optimization of flight procedures onboard aircraft. After a brief review of the origins and functions of such systems, two complementary methods are described for attacking the key design problem, namely, the synthesis of efficient trajectories. One method optimizes en route, the other optimizes terminal area flight; both methods are rooted in optimal control theory. Simulation and flight test results are reviewed to illustrate the potential of these systems for fuel and cost savings.

  6. Automated Planning of Science Products Based on Nadir Overflights and Alerts for Onboard and Ground Processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, Steve A.; McLaren, David A.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Mandl, Daniel; Hengemihle, Jerry

    2013-01-01

    A set of automated planning algorithms is the current operations baseline approach for the Intelligent Payload Module (IPM) of the proposed Hyper spectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission. For this operations concept, there are only local (e.g. non-depletable) operations constraints, such as real-time downlink and onboard memory, and the forward sweeping algorithm is optimal for determining which science products should be generated onboard and on ground based on geographical overflights, science priorities, alerts, requests, and onboard and ground processing constraints. This automated planning approach was developed for the HyspIRI IPM concept. The HyspIRI IPM is proposed to use an X-band Direct Broadcast (DB) capability that would enable data to be delivered to ground stations virtually as it is acquired. However, the HyspIRI VSWIR and TIR instruments will produce approximately 1 Gbps data, while the DB capability is 15 Mbps for a approx. =60X oversubscription. In order to address this mismatch, this innovation determines which data to downlink based on both the type of surface the spacecraft is overflying, and the onboard processing of data to detect events. For example, when the spacecraft is overflying Polar Regions, it might downlink a snow/ice product. Additionally, the onboard software will search for thermal signatures indicative of a volcanic event or wild fire and downlink summary information (extent, spectra) when detected, thereby reducing data volume. The planning system described above automatically generated the IPM mission plan based on requested products, the overflight regions, and available resources.

  7. Cassini Mission

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Robert

    2005-08-10

    The Cassini/Huygens mission is a joint NASA/European Space Agency/Italian Space Agency project which has a spacecraft currently in orbit about Saturn, and has successfully sent an atmospheric probe through the atmosphere of Saturn's largest moon Titan and down to its previously hidden surface. This presentation will describe the overall mission, how it got a rather massive spacecraft to Saturn, and will cover some of the scientific results of the mission to date.

  8. Navigation Operations for the Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Anne; Farahmand, Mitra; Carpenter, Russell

    2015-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission employs four identical spinning spacecraft flying in highly elliptical Earth orbits. These spacecraft will fly in a series of tetrahedral formations with separations of less than 10 km. MMS navigation operations use onboard navigation to satisfy the mission definitive orbit and time determination requirements and in addition to minimize operations cost and complexity. The onboard navigation subsystem consists of the Navigator GPS receiver with Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS) software, and an Ultra-Stable Oscillator. The four MMS spacecraft are operated from a single Mission Operations Center, which includes a Flight Dynamics Operations Area (FDOA) that supports MMS navigation operations, as well as maneuver planning, conjunction assessment and attitude ground operations. The System Manager component of the FDOA automates routine operations processes. The GEONS Ground Support System component of the FDOA provides the tools needed to support MMS navigation operations. This paper provides an overview of the MMS mission and associated navigation requirements and constraints and discusses MMS navigation operations and the associated MMS ground system components built to support navigation-related operations.

  9. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Michael Anderson, Mission Specialist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 3 and Payload Commander Michael Anderson is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research, MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Anderson also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.

  10. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Ilan Ramon, Mission Specialist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist Ilan Ramon is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting on-board science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research), MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Ramon also mentions on-board activities during launch and reentry, mission training and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.

  11. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Michael Anderson, Mission Specialist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-06-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 3 and Payload Commander Michael Anderson is seen during this preflight interview, where he gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about his inspiration to become an astronaut and his career path. He outlines his role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. He discusses the following instruments and sets of experiments in detail: CM2 (Combustion Module 2), FREESTAR (Fast Reaction Enabling Science Technology and Research, MEIDEX (Mediterranean Israeli Dust Experiment) and MGM (Mechanics of Granular Materials). Anderson also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, he touches on the dual work-shift nature of the mission, the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety during training and the value of international cooperation.

  12. Bion 11 mission: primate experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ilyin, E. A.; Korolkov, V. I.; Skidmore, M. G.; Viso, M.; Kozlovskaya, I. B.; Grindeland, R. E.; Lapin, B. A.; Gordeev, Y. V.; Krotov, V. P.; Fanton, J. W.; Bielitzki, J. T.; Golov, V. K.; Magedov, V. S.; Hines, J. W.

    2000-01-01

    A summary is provided of the major operations required to conduct the wide range of primate experiments on the Bion 11 mission, which flew for 14 days beginning December 24, 1996. Information is given on preflight preparations, including flight candidate selection and training; attachment and implantation of bioinstrumentation; flight and ground experiment designs; onboard life support and test systems; ground and flight health monitoring; flight monkey selection and transport to the launch site; inflight procedures and data collection; postflight examinations and experiments; and assessment of results.

  13. Fuel cells going on-board

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattler, Gunter

    Fuel cells provide great potential for use on-board ships. Possible fields of application for fuel cells on merchant ships and naval surface ships can generally be summarised as: (1) emergency power supply; (2) electric energy generation, especially in waters and harbours prescribing particular environmental regulations; (3) small power output for propulsion at special operating modes (e.g., very quiet run); and (4) electric power generation for the ship's network and, if required, the propulsion network on vessels equipped with electric power plants (e.g., naval vessels as all-electric ships, AES). In addition, the fuel cell has special importance for realising air-independent propulsion (AIP) on submarines. In the 1970s, the PEMFC system was chosen for AIP on German Navy submarines. Subsequently, this system underwent advanced development up to series maturity including storage on-board of the energy needed. This publication illustrates worldwide activities in this field, taking the various fuel cell system requirements for operation on-board merchant ships, naval surface ships and submarines into consideration. The focus is especially on AIP systems for German submarines because these have already gone into series production. Further developments are discussed which aim to improve the efficiency of hydrogen storage or to generate hydrogen on-board.

  14. STS-66 Mission Highlights Resource Tape

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    This video contains the mission highlights of the STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis Mission in November 1994. Astronauts included: Don McMonagle (Mission Commander), Kurt Brown, Ellen Ochoa (Payload Commander), Joe Tanner, Scott Parazynski, and Jean-Francois Clervoy (collaborating French astronaut). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup, entering Space Shuttle, countdown and launching of Shuttle, EVA activities (ATLAS-3, CRISTA/SPAS, SSBUV/A, ESCAPE-2), on-board experiments dealing with microgravity and its effects, protein crystal growth experiments, daily living and sleeping compartment footage, earthviews of various meteorological processes (dust storms, cloud cover, ocean storms), pre-landing and land footage (both from inside the Shuttle and from outside with long range cameras), and tracking and landing shots from inside Mission Control Center. Included is air-to-ground communication between Mission Control and the Shuttle. This Shuttle was the last launch of 1994.

  15. STS-66 mission highlights resource tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-04-01

    This video contains the mission highlights of the STS-66 Space Shuttle Atlantis Mission in November 1994. Astronauts included: Don McMonagle (Mission Commander), Kurt Brown, Ellen Ochoa (Payload Commander), Joe Tanner, Scott Parazynski, and Jean-Francois Clervoy (collaborating French astronaut). Footage includes: pre-launch suitup, entering Space Shuttle, countdown and launching of Shuttle, EVA activities (ATLAS-3, CRISTA/SPAS, SSBUV/A, ESCAPE-2), on-board experiments dealing with microgravity and its effects, protein crystal growth experiments, daily living and sleeping compartment footage, earthviews of various meteorological processes (dust storms, cloud cover, ocean storms), pre-landing and land footage (both from inside the Shuttle and from outside with long range cameras), and tracking and landing shots from inside Mission Control Center. Included is air-to-ground communication between Mission Control and the Shuttle. This Shuttle was the last launch of 1994.

  16. On-board Science Understanding: NASA Ames' Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roush, Ted L.; Cheeseman, Peter; Gulick, Virginia; Wolf, David; Gazis, Paul; Benedix, Gretchen; Buntine, Wray; Glymour, Clark; Pedersen, Liam; Ruzon, Mark

    1998-01-01

    In the near future NASA intends to explore various regions of our solar system using robotic devices such as rovers, spacecraft, airplanes, and/or balloons. Such platforms will likely carry imaging devices, and a variety of analytical instruments intended to evaluate the chemical and mineralogical nature of the environment(s) that they encounter. Historically, mission operations have involved: (1) return of scientific data from the craft; (2) evaluation of the data by space scientists; (3) recommendations of the scientists regarding future mission activity; (4) commands for achieving these activities being transmitted to the craft; and (5) the activity being undertaken. This cycle is then repeated for the duration of the mission with command opportunities once or perhaps twice per day. In a rapidly changing environment, such as might be encountered by a rover traversing hundreds of meters a day or a spacecraft encountering an asteroid, this historical cycle is not amenable to rapid long range traverses, discovery of novelty, or rapid response to any unexpected situations. In addition to real-time response issues, the nature of imaging and/or spectroscopic devices are such that tremendous data volumes can be acquired, for example during a traverse. However, such data volumes can rapidly exceed on-board memory capabilities prior to the ability to transmit it to Earth. Additionally, the necessary communication band-widths are restrictive enough so that only a small portion of these data can actually be returned to Earth. Such scenarios clearly require the enabling of some crucial decisions to be made on-board by these robotic explorers. These decisions transcend the electromechanical control, health, and navigation issues associated with robotic operations. Instead they focus upon a long term goal of automating scientific discovery based upon data returned by sensors of the robot craft. Such an approach would eventually enable it to understand what is interesting

  17. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Harrison, Wallace

    2014-01-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented in this paper. The project is called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on a high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this paper.

  18. High-Speed on-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyon, J.; Ng, T. K.; Davis, M. J.; Lin, B.

    2014-12-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented. The project is called High-Speed OnBoard Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on an air/space-borne high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this presentation.

  19. High-speed on-board data processing for science instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Ng, Tak-Kwong; Lin, Bing; Hu, Yongxiang; Harrison, Wallace

    2014-06-01

    A new development of on-board data processing platform has been in progress at NASA Langley Research Center since April, 2012, and the overall review of such work is presented in this paper. The project is called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) and focuses on a high-speed scalable data processing platform for three particular National Research Council's Decadal Survey missions such as Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS), Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystems (ACE), and Doppler Aerosol Wind Lidar (DAWN) 3-D Winds. HOPS utilizes advanced general purpose computing with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based algorithm implementation techniques. The significance of HOPS is to enable high speed on-board data processing for current and future science missions with its reconfigurable and scalable data processing platform. A single HOPS processing board is expected to provide approximately 66 times faster data processing speed for ASCENDS, more than 70% reduction in both power and weight, and about two orders of cost reduction compared to the state-of-the-art (SOA) on-board data processing system. Such benchmark predictions are based on the data when HOPS was originally proposed in August, 2011. The details of these improvement measures are also presented. The two facets of HOPS development are identifying the most computationally intensive algorithm segments of each mission and implementing them in a FPGA-based data processing board. A general introduction of such facets is also the purpose of this paper.

  20. An Integrated Architecture for Onboard Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueiredo, Marco A.; Stakem, Patrick H.; Flatley, Thomas P.; Hines, Tonjua M.

    1999-01-01

    As increasingly complex scientific and environmental observation spacecraft are deployed, the burden on the downlink assets, and ground-based systems complexity and cost is becoming a major problem. Already, the limitations of communications bandwidth and processing throughput limit the science data gathering, both in volume and in rate. This poses a dilemma to the scientist experimenter forcing choices between data collection and bandwidth/processing/archiving. Advances in ground based processing and space-to-Earth links have fallen behind the requirements for observation data, at increasing rates, over the last few decades. As NASA achieves its 40th anniversary, the ability to observe and capture phenomena of theoretical and practical interest to life on Earth far outstrips the ability to transfer, process, or store these data. NASA recognizes the need to invest on technological advancements that will enable both the space and ground systems to address the limitations. Spacecraft onboard computing power is a clear one. The capability of creating data products onboard the spacecraft adds a new level of flexibility to address the more demanding observation needs. Current spacecraft computing power is limited and incapable of addressing the needs of the new generation of observation satellites because extensive onboard data processing is required. Traditional spacecraft architectures only collect, package, and transmit to Earth the data acquired by multiple instruments. Conversely, the experience on developing ground data systems shows the need for high performance computing systems to process and create information from the instrumentation data. The expectation is that supercomputing technology is required to enable spacecraft to create information onboard. Moving supercomputing capability onboard spacecraft requires an approach that considers an integrated data architecture. Otherwise, it may simply convert a compute-bound problem into a communications bound

  1. IMP mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    The program requirements and operations requirements for the IMP mission are presented. The satellite configuration is described and the missions are analyzed. The support equipment, logistics, range facilities, and responsibilities of the launching organizations are defined. The systems for telemetry, communications, satellite tracking, and satellite control are identified.

  2. STS-54 Mission Insignia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Designed by the crewmembers, the STS-54 crew patch depicts the Amefican bald eagle soaring above Earth and is emblematic of the Space Shuttle Endeavour in service to the United States and the world. The eagle is clutching an eightpointed star in its talons and is placing this larger star among a constellation of four others, representing the placement of the fifth Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) into orbit to join the four already in service. The blackness of space -- with stars conspicuously absent -- represents the crew's other primary mission in carrying the Diffuse X-ray Spectrometer to orbit to conduct astronomical observations of invisible x-ray sources within the Milky Way Galaxy. The depiction of Earth showing North America is an expression of the crewmembers and NASA's intention that the medical and scientific experiments conducted onboard be for the benefit of mankind. The clouds and blue of Earth represent the crew's part in NASA's Mission to Planet Earth in conducting Earthobseation photography.

  3. Onboard Data Compression of Synthetic Aperture Radar Data: Status and Prospects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew A.; Moision, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments on spacecraft are capable of producing huge quantities of data. Onboard lossy data compression is commonly used to reduce the burden on the communication link. In this paper an overview is given of various SAR data compression techniques, along with an assessment of how much improvement is possible (and practical) and how to approach the problem of obtaining it. Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) instruments on spacecraft are capable of acquiring huge quantities of data. As a result, the available downlink rate and onboard storage capacity can be limiting factors in mission design for spacecraft with SAR instruments. This is true both for Earth-orbiting missions and missions to more distant targets such as Venus, Titan, and Europa. (Of course for missions beyond Earth orbit downlink rates are much lower and thus potentially much more limiting.) Typically spacecraft with SAR instruments use some form of data compression in order to reduce the storage size and/or downlink rate necessary to accommodate the SAR data. Our aim here is to give an overview of SAR data compression strategies that have been considered, and to assess the prospects for additional improvements.

  4. Onboard experiment data support facility, task 1 report. [space shuttles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The conceptual design and specifications are developed for an onboard experiment data support facility (OEDSF) to provide end to end processing of data from various payloads on board space shuttles. Classical data processing requirements are defined and modeled. Onboard processing requirements are analyzed. Specifications are included for an onboard processor.

  5. The Kaguya Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Manabu; Sasaki, Susumu; Takizawa, Yoshisada

    2010-07-01

    The Japanese lunar orbiter Kaguya (SELENE) was successfully launched by an H2A rocket on September 14, 2007. On October 4, 2007, after passing through a phasing orbit 2.5 times around the Earth, Kaguya was inserted into a large elliptical orbit circling the Moon. After the apolune altitude was lowered, Kaguya reached its nominal 100 km circular polar observation orbit on October 19. During the process of realizing the nominal orbit, two subsatellites Okina (Rstar) and Ouna (Vstar) were released into elliptical orbits with 2400 km and 800 km apolune, respectively; both elliptical orbits had 100 km perilunes. After the functionality of bus system was verified, four radar antennas and a magnetometer boom were extended, and a plasma imager was deployed. Acquisition of scientific data was carried out for 10 months of nominal mission that began in mid-December 2007. During the 8-month extended mission, magnetic fields and gamma-rays from lower orbits were measured; in addition to this, low-altitude observations were carried out using a Terrain Camera, a Multiband Imager, and an HDTV camera. New data pertaining to an intense magnetic anomaly and GRS data with higher spatial resolution were acquired to study magnetism and the elemental distribution of the Moon. After some orbital maneuvers were performed by using the saved fuel, the Kaguya spacecraft finally impacted on the southeast part of the Moon. The Kaguya team has archived the initial science data, and since November 2, 2009, the data has been made available to public, and can be accessed at the Kaguya homepage of JAXA. The team continues to also study and publish initial results in international journals. Science purposes of the mission and onboard instruments including initial science results are described in this overview.

  6. Autonomous Science on the EO-1 Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chien, S.; Sherwood, R.; Tran, D.; Castano, R.; Cichy, B.; Davies, A.; Rabideau, G.; Tang, N.; Burl, M.; Mandl, D.; Frye, S.; Hengemihle, J.; Agostino, J. D.; Bote, R.; Trout, B.; Shulman, S.; Ungar, S.; Gaasbeck, J. Van; Boyer, D.; Griffin, M.; Burke, H.; Greeley, R.; Doggett, T.; Williams, K.; Baker, V.

    2003-01-01

    In mid-2003, we will fly software to detect science events that will drive autonomous scene selectionon board the New Millennium Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) spacecraft. This software will demonstrate the potential for future space missions to use onboard decision-making to detect science events and respond autonomously to capture short-lived science events and to downlink only the highest value science data.

  7. AMO EXPRESS: A Command and Control Experiment for Crew Autonomy Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stetson, Howard K.; Frank, Jeremy; Cornelius, Randy; Haddock, Angie; Wang, Lui; Garner, Larry

    2015-01-01

    NASA is investigating a range of future human spaceflight missions, including both Mars-distance and Near Earth Object (NEO) targets. Of significant importance for these missions is the balance between crew autonomy and vehicle automation. As distance from Earth results in increasing communication delays, future crews need both the capability and authority to independently make decisions. However, small crews cannot take on all functions performed by ground today, and so vehicles must be more automated to reduce the crew workload for such missions. NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program funded Autonomous Mission Operations (AMO) project conducted an autonomous command and control experiment on-board the International Space Station that demonstrated single action intelligent procedures for crew command and control. The target problem was to enable crew initialization of a facility class rack with power and thermal interfaces, and involving core and payload command and telemetry processing, without support from ground controllers. This autonomous operations capability is enabling in scenarios such as initialization of a medical facility to respond to a crew medical emergency, and representative of other spacecraft autonomy challenges. The experiment was conducted using the Expedite the Processing of Experiments for Space Station (EXPRESS) rack 7, which was located in the Port 2 location within the U.S Laboratory onboard the International Space Station (ISS). Activation and deactivation of this facility is time consuming and operationally intensive, requiring coordination of three flight control positions, 47 nominal steps, 57 commands, 276 telemetry checks, and coordination of multiple ISS systems (both core and payload). Utilization of Draper Laboratory's Timeliner software, deployed on-board the ISS within the Command and Control (C&C) computers and the Payload computers, allowed development of the automated procedures specific to ISS without having to certify

  8. Geospace Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spann, James

    2005-01-01

    Geospace Missions - Understanding and being able to predict the behavior of the Earth's near space environment, called Geospace, is important for several reasons. These include the fact that most of the space-based commercial, military, and space research assets are exposed to this environment and that investigating fundamental plasma processes at work through out the solar system can most readily be accomplished in Geospace, the only place we can access the processes. NASA missions that are directed toward understanding, characterizing, and predicting the Geospace environment are described in this presentation. Emphasis is placed on those missions that investigate those phenomena that most affect life and society. The significance of investigating ionospheric irregularities, the radiation belt dynamics with the LWS Geospace Mission will be discussed.

  9. Mission scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspin, Christine

    1989-01-01

    How a neural network can work, compared to a hybrid system based on an operations research and artificial intelligence approach, is investigated through a mission scheduling problem. The characteristic features of each system are discussed.

  10. MODIS On-board Blackbody Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xiong, Xiaoxiong; Chen, N.; Wu, A.; Wenny, B.; Dodd, J.

    2008-01-01

    Currently, there are two MODIS instruments operated on-orbit: one on-board the Terra spacecraft launched in December 1999 and the other on-board the Aqua spacecraft launched in May 2002. MODIS is a scanning radiometer that has 16 thermal emissive bands (TEBs) in the MWIR and LWIR regions. The remaining spectral bands are in the VISINIR and SWIR regions. The TEBs have a total of 160 detectors (10 detectors per band), which are calibrated on-orbit using an on-board blackbody (BB). MODIS TEB calibration is performed via a quadratic algorithm with its linear calibration coefficients updated on a scan-by-scan basis using each detector's response to the BB. The offset and nonlinear terms of the quadratic calibration equation are stored in a look-up table (LUT). The LUT parameters are derived from pre-launch calibration and updated on-orbit from BB observations, as needed. Typically, the BB is set at a fixed temperature. Periodically, a warm-up and cool-down activity is performed, which enables the BB temperature to be varied from instrument ambient up to 315K. The temperature of the BB is measured each scan using 12 thermistors, which were fully characterized pre-launch with reference to the NIST temperature scale. This paper describes MODIS on-board BB operational activities and performance. The TEB detector response (short-term stability and long-term changes) and noise characterization results derived from BB observations and their impact on the TEB calibration uncertainty are also presented.

  11. CMOS Camera Array With Onboard Memory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2009-01-01

    A compact CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) camera system has been developed with high resolution (1.3 Megapixels), a USB (universal serial bus) 2.0 interface, and an onboard memory. Exposure times, and other operating parameters, are sent from a control PC via the USB port. Data from the camera can be received via the USB port and the interface allows for simple control and data capture through a laptop computer.

  12. On-board computers for control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scull, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    On-board computers for control and sequencing from Apollo to Voyager are described along with future trends and recent design examples. Consideration is given to a high-order language for the Space Shuttle program. Emphasis is placed on the usage of modern LSI and new distributed architectural approaches. The distributed computer of the Galileo spacecraft and the data processing system for the Shuttle Orbiter are outlined.

  13. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 2: impulsive high thrust missions, phase A

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1969-01-01

    The impulsive, high thrust missions portion of a study on guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planet is presented. The proper balance between groundbased navigational capability, using the deep space network (DSN) alone, and an onboard navigational capability with and without supplemental use of DSN tracking, for unmanned missions to the outer planets of the solar system is defined. A general guidance and navigation requirements program is used to survey parametrically the characteristics associated with three types of navigation systems: (1) totally onboard, (2) totally Earth-based, and (3) a combination of these two.

  14. Psychological Support Operations and the ISS One-Year Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beven, G.; Vander Ark, S. T.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    Since NASA began human presence on the International Space Station (ISS) in November 1998, crews have spent two to seven months onboard. In March 2015 NASA and Russia embarked on a new era of ISS utilization, with two of their crewmembers conducting a one-year mission onboard ISS. The mission has been useful for both research and mission operations to better understand the human, technological, mission management and staffing challenges that may be faced on missions beyond Low Earth Orbit. The work completed during the first 42 ISS missions provided the basis for the pre-flight, in-flight and post-flight work completed by NASA's Space Medicine Operations Division, while our Russian colleagues provided valuable insights from their long-duration mission experiences with missions lasting 10-14 months, which predated the ISS era. Space Medicine's Behavioral Health and Performance Group (BHP) provided pre-flight training, evaluation, and preparation as well as in-flight psychological support for the NASA crewmember. While the BHP team collaboratively planned for this mission with the help of all ISS international partners within the Human Behavior and Performance Working Group to leverage their collective expertise, the US and Russian BHP personnel were responsible for their respective crewmembers. The presentation will summarize the lessons and experience gained within the areas identified by this Working Group as being of primary importance for a one-year mission.

  15. The Advanced On-board Processor (AOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartenstein, R. G.; Trevathan, C. E.; Stewart, W. N.

    1971-01-01

    The goal of the Advanced On-Board Processor (AOP) development program is to design, build, and flight qualify a highly reliable, moderately priced, digital computer for application on a variety of spacecraft. Included in this development program is the preparation of a complete support software package which consists of an assembler, simulator, loader, system diagnostic, operational executive, and many useful subroutines. The AOP hardware/software system is an extension of the On-Board Processor (OBP) which was developed for general purpose use on earth orbiting spacecraft with its initial application being on-board the fourth Orbiting Astronomical Observatory (OAO-C). Although the OBP possesses the significant features that are required for space application, however, when operating at 100% duty cycle the OBP is too power-consuming for use on many smaller spacecraft. Computer volume will be minimized by implementing the processor and input/output portions of the machine with large scale integrated circuits. Power consumption will be reduced through the use of plated wire and, in some cases, semiconductor memory elements.

  16. On-Board Training for US Payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Benjamin; Meacham, Steven (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) crew follows a training rotation schedule that puts them in the United States about every three months for a three-month training window. While in the US, the crew receives training on both ISS systems and payloads. Crew time is limited, and system training takes priority over payload training. For most flights, there is sufficient time to train all systems and payloads. As more payloads are flown, training time becomes a more precious resource. Less training time requires payload developers (PDs) to develop alternatives to traditional ground training. To ensure their payloads have sufficient training to achieve their scientific goals, some PDs have developed on-board trainers (OBTs). These OBTs are used to train the crew when no or limited ground time is available. These lessons are also available on-orbit to refresh the crew about their ground training, if it was available. There are many types of OBT media, such as on-board computer based training (OCBT), video/photo lessons, or hardware simulators. The On-Board Training Working Group (OBTWG) and Courseware Development Working Group (CDWG) are responsible for developing the requirements for the different types of media.

  17. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor.

    PubMed

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-09-25

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS's performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost.

  18. Onboard Image Processing System for Hyperspectral Sensor

    PubMed Central

    Hihara, Hiroki; Moritani, Kotaro; Inoue, Masao; Hoshi, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Akira; Takada, Jun; Inada, Hitomi; Suzuki, Makoto; Seki, Taeko; Ichikawa, Satoshi; Tanii, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Onboard image processing systems for a hyperspectral sensor have been developed in order to maximize image data transmission efficiency for large volume and high speed data downlink capacity. Since more than 100 channels are required for hyperspectral sensors on Earth observation satellites, fast and small-footprint lossless image compression capability is essential for reducing the size and weight of a sensor system. A fast lossless image compression algorithm has been developed, and is implemented in the onboard correction circuitry of sensitivity and linearity of Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor (CMOS) sensors in order to maximize the compression ratio. The employed image compression method is based on Fast, Efficient, Lossless Image compression System (FELICS), which is a hierarchical predictive coding method with resolution scaling. To improve FELICS’s performance of image decorrelation and entropy coding, we apply a two-dimensional interpolation prediction and adaptive Golomb-Rice coding. It supports progressive decompression using resolution scaling while still maintaining superior performance measured as speed and complexity. Coding efficiency and compression speed enlarge the effective capacity of signal transmission channels, which lead to reducing onboard hardware by multiplexing sensor signals into a reduced number of compression circuits. The circuitry is embedded into the data formatter of the sensor system without adding size, weight, power consumption, and fabrication cost. PMID:26404281

  19. AutoNav Mark3: Engineering the Next Generation of Autonomous Onboard Navigation and Guidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riedel, Joseph Ed; Bhaskaran, Shyam; Eldred, Dan B.; Gaskell, Robert A.; Grasso, Christopher A.; Kennedy, Brian; Kubitscheck, Daniel; Mastrodemos, Nickolaos; Synnott, Stephen. P.; Vaughan, Andrew; Werner, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The success of JPL's AutoNav system at comet Tempel-1 on July 4, 2005, demonstrated the power of autonomous navigation technology for the Deep Impact Mission. This software is being planned for use as the onboard navigation, tracking and rendezvous system for a Mars Sample Return Mission technology demonstration, and several mission proposals are evaluating its use for rendezvous with, and landing on asteroids. Before this however, extensive re-engineering of AutoNav will take place. This paper describes the AutoNav systems-engineering effort in several areas: extending the capabilities, improving operability, utilizing new hardware elements, and demonstrating the new possibilities of AutoNav in simulations.

  20. Deployment of the MARSIS Radar Antennas On-Board Mars Express

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Denis, Michel; Moorhouse, A.; Smith, A.; McKay, Mike; Fischer, J.; Jayaraman, P.; Mounzer, Z.; Schmidt, R.; Reddy, J.; Ecale, E.; Horttor, R.; Adams, D.; Flamini, E.

    2006-01-01

    On the first European planetary mission, the deployment of the two 20-meter long MARSIS antennas onboard the ESA Mars Express spacecraft has represented an unprecedented technological challenge, in the middle of a successful science mission. While Mars Express was already performing regular observations at Mars, a complex process has been performed on Earth, involving the ESA Project, coordination between ESA, NASA and ASI, the Mars Science community, the spacecraft manufacturer EADS Astrium and the Mission Control Centre at ESOC. This paper describes the steps that led from an initial nogo in 2004 to deployment one year later, as well as the conditions and difficulties encountered during the actual deployment. It provides insights in the technical and managerial processes that made it a success, and analyses the rationale behind the decisions.

  1. Microgravity Crystallization of Alpha-Crustacyanin Onboard the Unmanned Carrier, EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggon, T. J.; Snell, E. H.; Helliwell, J. R.; Chayen, N. E.; Zagalsky, P. F.

    1998-01-01

    alpha-Crustacyanin, the lobster carapace astaxanthin-protein, was crystallized using the European Space Agency's (ESA) automated Protein Crystallization Facility (PCF) which flew onboard the unmanned EUropean REtrievable CArrier (EURECA). A free interface linear, liquid - liquid diffusion, method was used. Crystals grew larger and thicker in the microgravity case compared to the biggest crystals grown on earth. Video observation on EURECA revealed variations in crystal sizes through-out the reactor neatly correlated with depletion of this coloured protein from the solution. The video observations most importantly revealed no visible movement of crystals over the initial 7 weeks of the experiment, although an obvious temperature induced jump occurred at that time in a mission spanning 11 months. An important observation from this mission, over the first 7 weeks, of completely stationary crystal growth contrasts with crystal motions viewed on manned microgravity missions, even using linear liquid - liquid geometries, and much shorter flights (eg. 12 to 16 days).

  2. Generic supervisor: A knowledge-based tool for control of space station on-board systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carnes, J. R.; Nelson, R.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of a generic module for management of onboard systems grew out of the structured analysis effort for the Space Station software. Hierarchical specification of subsystems software revealed that nontrivial supervisory elements are required at all levels. The number of supervisors (and subsequent software) required to implement the hierarchical control over onboard functions comprise a large portion of the Space Station software. Thus, a generic knowledge based supervisory module significantly reduces the amount of software developed. This module, the Generic Supervisor, depends on its knowledge of control to provide direction for subordinates and feedback to superiors within a specific subsystem area. The Generic Supervisor provides an adaptable and maintainable control system. A portion of the Space Station Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) was implemented as a hierarchy of supervisors. This prototype implementation demonstrates the feasibility of a generic knowledge based supervisor, and its facility to meet complex mission requirements.

  3. Hyperspectral Feature Detection Onboard the Earth Observing One Spacecraft using Superpixel Segmentation and Endmember Extraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin; Bue, Brian D.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Chien, Steve A.; Castano, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    We present a demonstration of onboard hyperspectral image processing with the potential to reduce mission downlink requirements. The system detects spectral endmembers and then uses them to map units of surface material. This summarizes the content of the scene, reveals spectral anomalies warranting fast response, and reduces data volume by two orders of magnitude. We have integrated this system into the Autonomous Science craft Experiment for operational use onboard the Earth Observing One (EO-1) Spacecraft. The system does not require prior knowledge about spectra of interest. We report on a series of trial overflights in which identical spacecraft commands are effective for autonomous spectral discovery and mapping for varied target features, scenes and imaging conditions.

  4. Longwave Infrared Camera onboard the Venus Climate Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, M.; Fukuhara, T.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Iwagami, N.; Ueno, M.; Suzuki, M.; Hashimoto, G. L.; Mitsuyama, K.

    The Longwave Infrared Camera (LIR) onboard the first Japanese Venus mission, PLANET-C, or the Venus Climate Orbiter, operates in the middle infrared region with a single bandpass filter of 8-12 μm, measuring thermal radiation emitted from the cloud tops of the Venusian atmosphere. A horizontal wind vector field at the cloud-top height will be retrieved by means of a cloud tracking method. In addition, absolute temperature will be determined with an accuracy of 3 K. Since solar irradiation scattered by the atmosphere is much weaker than the atmospheric thermal radiation, LIR can continuously monitor a hemispheric wind field independent of the local time of the apocenter throughout the mission life. Wind and temperature fields obtained by LIR will provide key parameters to solve climatological issues related to the Venusian atmosphere. The use of an uncooled micro-bolometer array (UMBA), which requires no cryogenic apparatus, as an image sensor contributes to the reduction of power consumption and the weight of the LIR imager. An instrumental field-of-view of 12° is equal to the angle subtended by Venus when observed from a height of 9.5 Rv. The pixel field-of-view corresponds to a spatial resolution of 70 km viewed from the apocenter. A mechanical shutter functions not only as an optical shutter but also as a reference blackbody. The temperature stability of the sensor is especially important, because fluctuation of thermal radiation from the internal environment of the sensor itself causes background noise. Therefore, the temperature of the UMBA package is stabilized at 313 ± 0.1 K with a feedback controlled Peltier cooler/heater, and a NETD of 0.3 K, which is required for this infrared imager, will be achieved. Flat field images are taken with the shutter closed several seconds before and after 1 s exposure for a Venus thermal image. After a Venus image is taken, the LIR imager takes a cold calibration image of deep space. This measurement sequence is repeated

  5. STS-107 Crew Interviews: Laurel Clark, Mission Specialist

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    STS-107 Mission Specialist 4 Laurel Clark is seen during this preflight interview, where she gives a quick overview of the mission before answering questions about her inspiration to become an astronaut and her career path. Clark outlines her role in the mission in general, and specifically in conducting onboard science experiments. She discusses the following suite of experiments and instruments in detail: ARMS (Advanced Respiratory Monitoring System) and the European Space Agency's Biopack. Clark also mentions on-board activities and responsibilities during launch and reentry, mission training, and microgravity research. In addition, she touches on the use of crew members as research subjects including pre and postflight monitoring activities, the emphasis on crew safety and the value of international cooperation.

  6. The SAX Italian scientific satellite. The on-board implemented automation as a support to the ground control capability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martelli, Andrea

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the capabilities implemented in the SAX system for an efficient operations management during its in-flight mission. SAX is an Italian scientific satellite for x-ray astronomy whose major mission objectives impose quite tight constraints on the implementation of both the space and ground segment. The most relevant mission characteristics require an operative lifetime of two years, performing scientific observations both in contact and in noncontact periods, with a low equatorial orbit supported by one ground station, so that only a few minutes of communications are available each orbit. This operational scenario determines the need to have a satellite capable of performing the scheduled mission automatically and reacting autonomously to contingency situations. The implementation approach of the on-board operations management, through which the necessary automation and autonomy are achieved, follows a hierarchical structure. This has been achieved adopting a distributed avionic architecture. Nine different on-board computers, in fact, constitute the on-board data management system. Each of them performs the local control and monitors its own functions while the system level control is performed at a higher level by the data handling applications software. The SAX on-board architecture provides the ground operators with different options of intervention by three classes of telecommands. The management of the scientific operations will be scheduled by the operation control center via dedicated operating plans. The SAX satellite flight mode is presently being integrated at Alenia Spazio premises in Turin for a launch scheduled for the end of 1995. Once in orbit, the SAX satellite will be subject to intensive check-out activities in order to verify the required mission performances. An overview of the envisaged procedure and of the necessary on-ground activities is therefore depicted as well.

  7. Small Explorer for Advanced Missions - cubesat for scientific mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pronenko, Vira; Ivchenko, Nickolay

    2015-04-01

    A class of nanosatellites is defined by the cubesat standard, primarily setting the interface to the launcher, which allows standardizing cubesat preparation and launch, thus making the projects more affordable. The majority of cubesats have been launched are demonstration or educational missions. For scientific and other advanced missions to fully realize the potential offered by the low cost nanosatellites, there are challenges related to limitations of the existing cubesat platforms and to the availability of small yet sufficiently sensitive sensors. The new project SEAM (Small Explorer for Advanced Missions) was selected for realization in frames of FP-7 European program to develop a set of improved critical subsystems and to construct a prototype nanosatellite in the 3U cubesat envelope for electromagnetic measurements in low Earth orbit. The SEAM consortium will develop and demonstrate in flight for the first time the concept of an electromagnetically clean nanosatellite with precision attitude determination, flexible autonomous data acquisition system, high-bandwidth telemetry and an integrated solution for ground control and data handling. As the first demonstration, the satellite is planned to perform the Space Weather (SW) mission using novel miniature electric and magnetic sensors, able to provide science-grade measurements. To enable sensitive magnetic measurements onboard, the sensors must be deployed on booms to bring them away from the spacecraft body. Also other thorough yet efficient procedures will be developed to provide electromagnetic cleanliness (EMC) of the spacecraft. This work is supported by EC Framework 7 funded project 607197.

  8. Flight Software for the LADEE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Howard N.

    2015-01-01

    The Lunar Atmosphere and Dust Environment Explorer (LADEE) spacecraft was launched on September 6, 2013, and completed its mission on April 17, 2014 with a directed impact to the Lunar Surface. Its primary goals were to examine the lunar atmosphere, measure lunar dust, and to demonstrate high rate laser communications. The LADEE mission was a resounding success, achieving all mission objectives, much of which can be attributed to careful planning and preparation. This paper discusses some of the highlights from the mission, and then discusses the techniques used for developing the onboard Flight Software. A large emphasis for the Flight Software was to develop it within tight schedule and cost constraints. To accomplish this, the Flight Software team leveraged heritage software, used model based development techniques, and utilized an automated test infrastructure. This resulted in the software being delivered on time and within budget. The resulting software was able to meet all system requirements, and had very problems in flight.

  9. Physical and Molecular Biosignature Preservation in Hydrous Ferric Oxides: Implications for Detection wtih MSL and Future Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, A. J.; Sumner, D. Y.; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Wilhelm, M. B.; Cook, C. L.; Mahaffy, P. R.

    2016-05-01

    Physical and molecular biosignature preservation in modern to 1000s-of-years-old iron-bearing environments and their potential for detection by instruments onboard the Curiosity rover and future surface missions.

  10. LISA Pathfinder: mission and status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonucci, F.; Armano, M.; Audley, H.; Auger, G.; Benedetti, M.; Binetruy, P.; Boatella, C.; Bogenstahl, J.; Bortoluzzi, D.; Bosetti, P.; Caleno, M.; Cavalleri, A.; Cesa, M.; Chmeissani, M.; Ciani, G.; Conchillo, A.; Congedo, G.; Cristofolini, I.; Cruise, M.; Danzmann, K.; De Marchi, F.; Diaz-Aguilo, M.; Diepholz, I.; Dixon, G.; Dolesi, R.; Dunbar, N.; Fauste, J.; Ferraioli, L.; Fertin, D.; Fichter, W.; Fitzsimons, E.; Freschi, M.; García Marin, A.; García Marirrodriga, C.; Gerndt, R.; Gesa, L.; Gilbert, F.; Giardini, D.; Grimani, C.; Grynagier, A.; Guillaume, B.; Guzmán, F.; Harrison, I.; Heinzel, G.; Hewitson, M.; Hollington, D.; Hough, J.; Hoyland, D.; Hueller, M.; Huesler, J.; Jeannin, O.; Jennrich, O.; Jetzer, P.; Johlander, B.; Killow, C.; Llamas, X.; Lloro, I.; Lobo, A.; Maarschalkerweerd, R.; Madden, S.; Mance, D.; Mateos, I.; McNamara, P. W.; Mendes, J.; Mitchell, E.; Monsky, A.; Nicolini, D.; Nicolodi, D.; Nofrarias, M.; Pedersen, F.; Perreur-Lloyd, M.; Perreca, A.; Plagnol, E.; Prat, P.; Racca, G. D.; Rais, B.; Ramos-Castro, J.; Reiche, J.; Romera Perez, J. A.; Robertson, D.; Rozemeijer, H.; Sanjuan, J.; Schleicher, A.; Schulte, M.; Shaul, D.; Stagnaro, L.; Strandmoe, S.; Steier, F.; Sumner, T. J.; Taylor, A.; Texier, D.; Trenkel, C.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wanner, G.; Ward, H.; Waschke, S.; Wass, P.; Weber, W. J.; Zweifel, P.

    2011-05-01

    LISA Pathfinder, the second of the European Space Agency's Small Missions for Advanced Research in Technology (SMART), is a dedicated technology demonstrator for the joint ESA/NASA Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) mission. The technologies required for LISA are many and extremely challenging. This coupled with the fact that some flight hardware cannot be fully tested on ground due to Earth-induced noise led to the implementation of the LISA Pathfinder mission to test the critical LISA technologies in a flight environment. LISA Pathfinder essentially mimics one arm of the LISA constellation by shrinking the 5 million kilometre armlength down to a few tens of centimetres, giving up the sensitivity to gravitational waves, but keeping the measurement technology: the distance between the two test masses is measured using a laser interferometric technique similar to one aspect of the LISA interferometry system. The scientific objective of the LISA Pathfinder mission consists then of the first in-flight test of low frequency gravitational wave detection metrology. LISA Pathfinder is due to be launched in 2013 on-board a dedicated small launch vehicle (VEGA). After a series of apogee raising manoeuvres using an expendable propulsion module, LISA Pathfinder will enter a transfer orbit towards the first Sun-Earth Lagrange point (L1). After separation from the propulsion module, the LPF spacecraft will be stabilized using the micro-Newton thrusters, entering a 500 000 km by 800 000 km Lissajous orbit around L1. Science results will be available approximately 2 months after launch.

  11. Earth Observing-1 Extended Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2003-01-01

    From its beginning in November 2000, the NASA Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission demonstrated the feasibility and performance of a dozen innovative sensor, spacecraft, and operational technologies. The 1-year mission tested a variety of technologies, some of which may be included on the planned 2007 Landsat Data Continuity Mission. Onboard the spacecraft are two land remote sensing instruments: the Advanced Land Imager (ALI), which acquires data in spectral bands and at resolutions similar to Landsat, and Hyperion, which acquires data in 220 10-nanometer-wide bands covering the visible, near-, and shortwave-infrared bands. Recognizing the remarkable performance of the satellite's instruments and the exceptional value of the data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA agreed in December 2001 to share responsibility for operating EO-1 on a cost-reimbursable basis as long as customer sales are sufficient to recover flight and ground operations costs. The EO-1 extended mission operates within constraints imposed by its technology-pioneering origins, but it also provides unique and valuable capabilities. The spacecraft can acquire a target scene three times in a 16-day period. The ALI instrument has additional spectral coverage and greater radiometric dynamic range compared with the sensors on Landsat 7. Hyperion is the first civilian spaceborne hyperspectral imager. As of January 2003, more than 5,000 scenes had been acquired, indexed, and archived.

  12. Mission to Jupiter. [Pioneer 10 and 11 space probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 space probes and their missions to Jupiter are discussed along with the experiments and investigations which will be conducted onboard. Jupiter's atmosphere, its magnetic fields, radiation belts, the spacecraft instruments, and the Jovian system will be investigated. Educational study projects are also included.

  13. Subsystem radiation susceptibility analysis for deep-space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, W. S.; Poch, W.; Holmes-Siedle, A.; Bilsky, H. W.; Carroll, D.

    1971-01-01

    Scientific, unmanned spacecraft on mission to Jupiter and beyond will be subjected to nuclear radiation from the natural environment and onboard nuclear power sources which may be harmful to subsystems. This report postulates these environments and discusses practical considerations to ensure confidence that the spacecraft's materials and subsystems will withstand the effects of anticipated radiation. Degradation mechanisms are discussed.

  14. The Impact of Autonomous Systems Technology on JPL Mission Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doyle, Richard J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the following topics: (1) Autonomy for Future Missions- Mars Outposts, Titan Aerobot, and Europa Cryobot / Hydrobot; (2) Emergence of Autonomy- Remote Agent Architecture, Closing Loops Onboard, and New Millennium Flight Experiment; and (3) Software Engineering Challenges- Influence of Remote Agent, Scalable Autonomy, Autonomy Software Validation, Analytic Verification Technology, and Autonomy and Software Software Engineering.

  15. The Longwave Infrared Imager onboard the Venus Climate Orbiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, M.; Imamura, T.; Nakamura, M.; Iwagami, N.; Ueno, M.; Suzuki, M.; Hashimoto, G.

    The Longwave Infrared Imager LIR onboard the first Japanese Venus mission PLANET-C or Venus Climate Orbiter operates in the middle infrared region measuring thermal radiation emitted from the cloud-top of the Venusian atmosphere A horizontal wind vector field at the cloud-top height will be retrieved by means of a cloud tracking method Absolute temperature will be also determined with an accuracy of 3K Since solar irradiation scattered by the atmosphere is much weaker than the atmospheric thermal radiation LIR can continuously monitor a hemispheric wind field independent of local time of the apocenter throughout the mission life Wind and temperature fields obtained by LIR will provide key parameters to solve climatological issues on the Venusian atmosphere Use of an uncooled microbolometer array UMBA which needs no cryogenic apparatus as an image sensor contributes to reduction of power consumption and weight of LIR The instrumental field-of-view of 12 degrees is equal to the angle subtended by Venus when observed from a nominal height of the apocenter of 10 Rv The pixel field-of-view corresponds to a spatial resolution of 70 km seen from the apocenter A mechanical shutter functions not only as an optical shutter but also as a reference blackbody Temperature stability of the sensor is especially important because fluctuation of thermal radiation from the internal environment of the sensor itself causes background noise Therefore temperature of the UMBA package is stabilized at 313 -0 1K with a feedback controlled Peltier cooler heater and NETD of 0 3K

  16. The hard x-ray imager onboard IXO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakazawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tadayuki; Limousin, Olivier; Kokubun, Motohide; Watanabe, Shin; Laurent, Philippe; Arnaud, Monique; Tajima, Hiroyasu

    2010-07-01

    The Hard X-ray Imager (HXI) is one of the instruments onboard International X-ray Observatory (IXO), to be launched into orbit in 2020s. It covers the energy band of 10-40 keV, providing imaging-spectroscopy with a field of view of 8 x 8 arcmin2. The HXI is attached beneath the Wide Field Imager (WFI) covering 0.1-15 keV. Combined with the super-mirror coating on the mirror assembly, this configuration provides observation of X-ray source in wide energy band (0.1-40.0 keV) simultaneously, which is especially important for varying sources. The HXI sensor part consists of the semiconductor imaging spectrometer, using Si in the medium energy detector and CdTe in the high energy detector as its material, and an active shield covering its back to reduce background in orbit. The HXI technology is based on those of the Japanese-lead new generation X-ray observatory ASTRO-H, and partly from those developed for Simbol-X. Therefore, the technological development is in good progress. In the IXO mission, HXI will provide a major assets to identify the nature of the object by penetrating into thick absorbing materials and determined the inherent spectral shape in the energy band well above the structure around Fe-K lines and edges.

  17. STS-54 Onboard Photograph-External Tank Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    This STS-54 mission onboard photograph shows the external tank (ET) falling toward the Earth following its jettisoning from the Shuttle orbiter Endeavour. The giant cylinder, higher than a 15-story building, with a length of 154-feet (47-meters) and a diameter of 27.5-feet (8.4-meters), is the largest single piece of the Space Shuttle. During launch, the ET also acts as a backbone for the orbiter and solid rocket boosters. In separate, internal pressurized tank sections, the ET holds the liquid hydrogen fuel and liquid oxygen oxidizer for the Shuttle's three main engines. During launch, the ET feeds the fuel under pressure through 17-inch (43.2- centimeter) ducts that branch off into smaller lines that feed directly into the main engines. Some 64,000 gallons (242,260 liters) of fuel are consumed by the main engines each minute. Machined from aluminum alloys, the Space Shuttle's external tank is the only part of the launch vehicle that currently is not reused. After its 526,000 gallons (1,991,071 liters) of propellants are consumed during the first 8.5 minutes of flight, it is jettisoned from the orbiter and breaks up in the upper atmosphere, its pieces falling into remote ocean waters. The Marshall Space Flight Center was responsible for developing the ET.

  18. STS-104 Onboard Photograph-ISS Airlock Installation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The Quest Airlock is in the process of being installed onto the starboard side of the Unity Node 1 of the International Space Station (ISS). Astronaut Susan J. Helms, Expedition Two flight engineer, used controls onboard the station to maneuver the Airlock into place with the Canadarm2, or Space Station Remote Manipulator System (SSRMS). The Joint Airlock is a pressurized flight element consisting of two cylindrical chambers attached end-to-end by a cornecting bulkhead and hatch. Once installed and activated, the ISS Airlock becomes the primary path for ISS space walk entry and departure for U.S. spacesuits, which are known as Extravehicular Mobility Units (EMUs). In addition, it is designed to support the Russian Orlan spacesuit for extravehicular activity (EVA). The Joint Airlock is 20-feet long, 13-feet in diameter and weighs 6.5 tons. It was built at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) by the Space Station prime contractor Boeing. The ISS Airlock has two main components: a crew airlock and an equipment airlock for storing EVA and EVA preflight preps. The Airlock was launched on July 21, 2001 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis for the STS-104 mission.

  19. Onboard connectivity network for command-and-control aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artz, Timothy J.

    1993-02-01

    Command and control (C2) aircraft are host to an array of communications, information processing, and electronic control systems. The previous method of interconnecting this equipment involves point-to-point wiring harnesses between devices. A fiber optic broadband bus can be used to improve this situation by consolidating equipment connections on a shared medium. This network, known as the Onboard Connectivity Network (OCN), is being prototypes for application on the U.S. Government's Special Air Mission aircraft. Significant weight reduction and simplified future systems integration are the primary benefits of the OCN. The OCN design integrates voice, data, control, and video communications on a 3GHZ single mode fiber backbone. Communications within the aircraft use 500 MHz coaxial cable subnetworks connected to the backbone. The entire network is a dual redundant system for enhanced reliability. Node topologies are based on VMEbus to encourage use of commercial products and facilitate future evolution of the backbone topology. Network encryption technologies are being developed for OCN communications security. Automated workstations will be implemented to control and switch communications assets and to provide a technical control, test, and monitoring function.

  20. Onboard pattern recognition for autonomous UAV landing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Chen-Ko; Segor, Florian

    2012-10-01

    The civil security and supervision system AMFIS was developed at the Fraunhofer IOSB as a mobile support system using multiple UAVs for rescue forces in accidents or disasters. To gain a higher level of autonomy for these UAVs, different onboard process chains of image exploitation for tracking landmarks and of control technologies for UAV navigation were implemented and examined to achieve a redundant and reliable UAV precision landing. First experiments have allowed to validate the process chains and to develop a demonstration system for the tracking of landmarks in order to prevent and to minimize any confusion on landing.

  1. On-board processing for telecommunications satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuspl, P. P.; Dong, G.

    1991-01-01

    In this decade, communications satellite systems will probably face dramatic challenges from alternative transmission means. To balance and overcome such competition, and to prepare for new requirements, INTELSAT has developed several on-board processing techniques, including Satellite-Switched TDMA (SS-TDMA), Satellite-Switched FDMA (SS-FDMA), several Modulators/Demodulators (Modem), a Multicarrier Multiplexer and Demodulator MCDD), an International Business Service (IBS)/Intermediate Data Rate (IDR) BaseBand Processor (BBP), etc. Some proof-of-concept hardware and software were developed, and tested recently in the INTELSAT Technical Laboratories. These techniques and some test results are discussed.

  2. Hipparcos: mission accomplished

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-08-01

    During the last few months of its life, as the high radiation environment to which the satellite was exposed took its toll on the on-board system, Hipparcos was operated with only two of the three gyroscopes normally required for such a satellite, following an ambitious redesign of the on-board and on-ground systems. Plans were in hand to operate the satellite without gyroscopes at all, and the first such "gyro- less" data had been acquired, when communication failure with the on-board computers on 24 June 1993 put an end to the relentless flow of 24000 bits of data that have been sent down from the satellite each second, since launch. Further attempts to continue operations proved unsuccessful, and after a short series of sub-systems tests, operations were terminated four years and a week after launch. An enormous wealth of scientific data was gathered by Hipparcos. Even though data analysis by the scientific teams involved in the programme is not yet completed, it is clear that the mission has been an overwhelming success. "The ESA advisory bodies took a calculated risk in selecting this complex but fundamental programme" said Dr. Roger Bonnet, ESA's Director of Science, "and we are delighted to have been able to bring it to a highly successful conclusion, and to have contributed unique information that will take a prominent place in the history and development of astrophysics". Extremely accurate positions of more than one hundred thousand stars, precise distance measurements (in most cases for the first time), and accurate determinations of the stars' velocity through space have been derived. The resulting HIPPARCOS Star Catalogue, expected to be completed in 1996, will be of unprecedented accuracy, achieving results some 10-100 times more accurate than those routinely determined from ground-based astronomical observatories. A further star catalogue, the Thyco Star Catalogue of more than a million stars, is being compiled from additional data accumulated by the

  3. STS-47 crew poses for Official onboard (in space) portrait in SLJ module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    STS-47 crewmembers assemble for their traditional onboard (in-flight) portrait in the Spacelab Japan (SLJ) science module aboard the Earth-orbiting Endeavour, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 105. Pictured, left to right, back row are Commander Robert L. Gibson and Pilot Curtis L. Brown, Jr; middle row Mission Specialist (MS) N. Jan Davis, MS Jerome Apt, and MS Mae C. Jemison; and front row MS and Payload Commander (PLC) Mark C. Lee and Payload Specialist Mamoru Mohri. Mohri represents Japan's National Space Development Agency (NASDA).

  4. STS-55 Columbia, OV-102, crew poses for onboard portrait in SL-D2 module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    STS-55 Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, crewmembers pose for their traditional onboard (inflight) portrait in the Spacelab Deutsche 2 (SL-D2) science module. Front (left to right) are Pilot Terence T. Henricks, Commander Steven R. Nagel, German Payload Specialist 1 Ulrich Walter, and Mission Specialist 2 (MS2) Charles J. Precourt. In the rear (left to right) are MS3 Bernard A. Harris, Jr, German Payload Specialist 2 Hans Schlegel, and MS1 and Payload Commander (PLC) Jerry L. Ross. Walter and Schlegel represent the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DLR).

  5. Optimization of the computational load of a hypercube supercomputer onboard a mobile robot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barhen, Jacob; Toomarian, N.; Protopopescu, V.

    1987-01-01

    A combinatorial optimization methodology is developed, which enables the efficient use of hypercube multiprocessors onboard mobile intelligent robots dedicated to time-critical missions. The methodology is implemented in terms of large-scale concurrent algorithms based either on fast simulated annealing, or on nonlinear asynchronous neural networks. In particular, analytic expressions are given for the effect of single-neuron perturbations on the systems' configuration energy. Compact neuromorphic data structures are used to model effects such as precedence constraints, processor idling times, and task-schedule overlaps. Results for a typical robot-dynamics benchmark are presented.

  6. Mapping distortion of detectors in UVIT onboard AstroSat observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girish, V.; Tandon, Shyam N.; Sriram, S.; Kumar, Amit; Postma, Joe

    2017-02-01

    Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (UVIT) is one of the payloads onboard AstroSat, India's first multi-wavelength Astronomy mission. UVIT is primarily designed to make high resolution images in wide field, in three wavelength channels simultaneously: FUV (130-180 nm), NUV (200-300 nm) and VIS (320-550 nm). The intensified imagers used in UVIT suffer from distortions, and a correction is necessary for these to achieve good astrometry. In this article we describe the methodology and calculations used to estimate the distortions in ground calibrations.

  7. Robotic experiment with a force reflecting handcontroller onboard MIR space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delpech, M.; Matzakis, Y.

    1994-01-01

    During the French CASSIOPEE mission that will fly onboard MIR space station in 1996, ergonomic evaluations of a force reflecting handcontroller will be performed on a simulated robotic task. This handcontroller is a part of the COGNILAB payload that will be used also for experiments in neurophysiology. The purpose of the robotic experiment is the validation of a new control and design concept that would enhance the task performances for telemanipulating space robots. Besides the handcontroller and its control unit, the experimental system includes a simulator of the slave robot dynamics for both free and constrained motions, a flat display screen and a seat with special fixtures for holding the astronaut.

  8. STS-100 Onboard Photograph-International Space Station Remote Manipulator System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This is a Space Shuttle STS-100 mission onboard photograph. Astronaut Scott Parazynski totes a Direct Current Switching Unit while anchored on the end of the Canadian-built Remote Manipulator System (RMS) robotic arm. The RMS is in the process of moving Parazynski to the exterior of the Destiny laboratory (right foreground), where he will secure the spare unit, a critical part of the station's electrical system, to the stowage platform in case future crews will need it. Also in the photograph are the Italian-built Raffaello multipurpose Logistics Module (center) and the new Canadarm2 (lower right) or Space Station Remote Manipulator System.

  9. Habitability during long-duration space missions - Key issues associated with a mission to Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuster, Jack

    1989-01-01

    Isolation and confinement conditions similar to those of a long-duration mission to Mars are examined, focusing on 14 behavioral issues with design implications. Consideration is given to sleep, clothing, exercise, medical support, personal hygiene, food preparation, group interaction, habitat aesthetics, outside communications, recreational opportunities, privacy, waste disposal, onboard training, and the microgravity environment. The results are used to develop operational requirements and habitability design guidelines for interplanetary spacecraft.

  10. Space shuttle propulsion systems on-board checkout and monitoring system development study (extension). Volume 1: Summary and technical results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    An analysis was conducted of the space shuttle propulsion systems to define the onboard checkout and monitoring function. A baseline space shuttle vehicle and mission were used to establish the techniques and approach for defining the requirements. The requirements were analyzed to formulate criteria for implementing the functions of preflight checkout, performance monitoring, fault isolation, emergency detection, display, data storage, postflight evaluation, and maintenance retest.

  11. Demonstrating a Realistic IP Mission Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Ferrer, Arturo B.; Goodman, Nancy; Ghazi-Tehrani, Samira; Polk, Joe; Johnson, Lorin; Menke, Greg; Miller, Bill; Criscuolo, Ed; Hogie, Keith

    2003-01-01

    Flight software and hardware and realistic space communications environments were elements of recent demonstrations of the Internet Protocol (IP) mission concept in the lab. The Operating Missions as Nodes on the Internet (OMNI) Project and the Flight Software Branch at NASA/GSFC collaborated to build the prototype of a representative space mission that employed unmodified off-the-shelf Internet protocols and technologies for end-to-end communications between the spacecraft/instruments and the ground system/users. The realistic elements used in the prototype included an RF communications link simulator and components of the TRIANA mission flight software and ground support system. A web-enabled camera connected to the spacecraft computer via an Ethernet LAN represented an on-board instrument creating image data. In addition to the protocols at the link layer (HDLC), transport layer (UDP, TCP), and network (IP) layer, a reliable file delivery protocol (MDP) at the application layer enabled reliable data delivery both to and from the spacecraft. The standard Network Time Protocol (NTP) performed on-board clock synchronization with a ground time standard. The demonstrations of the prototype mission illustrated some of the advantages of using Internet standards and technologies for space missions, but also helped identify issues that must be addressed. These issues include applicability to embedded real-time systems on flight-qualified hardware, range of applicability of TCP, and liability for and maintenance of commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) products. The NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) funded the collaboration to build and demonstrate the prototype IP mission.

  12. On-board demux/demod

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayegh, S.; Kappes, M.; Thomas, J.; Snyder, J.; Eng, M.; Poklemba, John J.; Steber, M.; House, G.

    1991-01-01

    To make satellite channels cost competitive with optical cables, the use of small, inexpensive earth stations with reduced antenna size and high powered amplifier (HPA) power will be needed. This will necessitate the use of high e.i.r.p. and gain-to-noise temperature ratio (G/T) multibeam satellites. For a multibeam satellite, onboard switching is required in order to maintain the needed connectivity between beams. This switching function can be realized by either an receive frequency (RF) or a baseband unit. The baseband switching approach has the additional advantage of decoupling the up-link and down-link, thus enabling rate and format conversion as well as improving the link performance. A baseband switching satellite requires the demultiplexing and demodulation of the up-link carriers before they can be switched to their assigned down-link beams. Principles of operation, design and implementation issues of such an onboard demultiplexer/demodulator (bulk demodulator) that was recently built at COMSAT Labs. are discussed.

  13. On-Board Chemical Propulsion Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    On-board propulsion functions include orbit insertion, orbit maintenance, constellation maintenance, precision positioning, in-space maneuvering, de-orbiting, vehicle reaction control, planetary retro, and planetary descent/ascent. This paper discusses on-board chemical propulsion technology, including bipropellants, monopropellants, and micropropulsion. Bipropellant propulsion has focused on maximizing the performance of Earth storable propellants by using high-temperature, oxidation-resistant chamber materials. The performance of bipropellant systems can be increased further, by operating at elevated chamber pressures and/or using higher energy oxidizers. Both options present system level difficulties for spacecraft, however. Monopropellant research has focused on mixtures composed of an aqueous solution of hydroxl ammonium nitrate (HAN) and a fuel component. HAN-based monopropellants, unlike hydrazine, do not present a vapor hazard and do not require extraordinary procedures for storage, handling, and disposal. HAN-based monopropellants generically have higher densities and lower freezing points than the state-of-art hydrazine and can higher performance, depending on the formulation. High-performance HAN-based monopropellants, however, have aggressive, high-temperature combustion environments and require advances in catalyst materials or suitable non-catalytic ignition options. The objective of the micropropulsion technology area is to develop low-cost, high-utility propulsion systems for the range of miniature spacecraft and precision propulsion applications.

  14. Standardization activity for the spacecraft onboard interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J. F.; Plummer, C.; Plancke, P.

    2003-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization of national space agencies that is organized to promote theinterchange of space related information. CCSDS is branching out to provide new standards to enhanced reuse of spacecraft equipment and software onboard of a spacecraft. This effort is know as Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF). SOIF expects that these standards will be well used within the space community, and that they will be based on the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by reviewing this work with three orthogonal views. The Services View describes the data communications services that are provided to the users. The Interoperability view provides a description to users on how to use SOIF to interchange between different spacecraft data busses. And finally, the Protocol view, describes the protocols and services that are to be implemented in order to provide the users with the advantages of the SOIF architecture. This paper will give the reader an excellent introduction to the work of the international SOIF team.

  15. The spacecraft onboard interface standardization activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, J.; Plummer, C.; Plancke, P.

    2002-01-01

    The Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) is an international organization of national space agencies (such as NASA in the United States) that is organized to promote the interchange of space related information. Now, CCSDS is branching out to provide new standards for the interchange of information, and the interconnection of subsystems and devices onboard of a spacecraft. This effort is know as Spacecraft Onboard Interface (SOIF). SOIF will publish standards that will allow for the enhanced reuse of spacecraft equipment and software. SOIF expects that these standards will be well known and used within the space community, and that they will be based on or similar to the well-known Internet protocols. This paper will provide a description of the SOIF work by reviewing this work with three orthogonal views. The first of these views is the Protocol view, which describes the protocols and services that are to be implemented in order to provide the users with the advantages of the SOIF architecture. The second of these views is the Services View, which describes the data communications services that are provided to the users. And finally, the Interoperability view provides a description to users how SOIF can be used to interchange between different spacecraft data busses. This paper will give the reader an excellent introduction to the work of the international SOIF team.

  16. On-board processing satellite network architectures for broadband ISDN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Inukai, Thomas; Faris, Faris; Shyy, Dong-Jye

    1992-01-01

    Onboard baseband processing architectures for future satellite broadband integrated services digital networks (B-ISDN's) are addressed. To assess the feasibility of implementing satellite B-ISDN services, critical design issues, such as B-ISDN traffic characteristics, transmission link design, and a trade-off between onboard circuit and fast packet switching, are analyzed. Examples of the two types of switching mechanisms and potential onboard network control functions are presented. A sample network architecture is also included to illustrate a potential onboard processing system.

  17. Reactive Goal Decomposition Hierarchies for On-Board Autonomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, L.

    2002-01-01

    to state and environment and in general can terminate the execution of a decomposition and attempt a new decomposition at any level in the hierarchy. This goal decomposition system is suitable for workstation, microprocessor and fpga implementation and thus is able to support the full range of prototyping activities, from mission design in the laboratory to development of the fpga firmware for the flight system. This approach is based on previous artificial intelligence work including (1) Brooks' subsumption architecture for robot control, (2) Firby's Reactive Action Package System (RAPS) for mediating between high level automated planning and low level execution and (3) hierarchical task networks for automated planning. Reactive goal decomposition hierarchies can be used for a wide variety of on-board autonomy applications including automating low level operation sequences (such as scheduling prerequisite operations, e.g., heaters, warm-up periods, monitoring power constraints), coordinating multiple spacecraft as in formation flying and constellations, robot manipulator operations, rendez-vous, docking, servicing, assembly, on-orbit maintenance, planetary rover operations, solar system and interstellar probes, intelligent science data gathering and disaster early warning. Goal decomposition hierarchies can support high level fault tolerance. Given models of on-board resources and goals to accomplish, the decomposition hierarchy could allocate resources to goals taking into account existing faults and in real-time reallocating resources as new faults arise. Resources to be modeled include memory (e.g., ROM, FPGA configuration memory, processor memory, payload instrument memory), processors, on-board and interspacecraft network nodes and links, sensors, actuators (e.g., attitude determination and control, guidance and navigation) and payload instruments. A goal decomposition hierarchy could be defined to map mission goals and tasks to available on-board resources. As

  18. Performance assessment of the TDRSS Onboard Navigation System (TONS) experiment on EP/EUVE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gramling, C. J.; Hart, R. C.; Teles, Jerome; Long, A. C.; Maher, M. J.

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is currently developing an operational Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) System (TDRSS) Onboard Navigation System (TONS) to provide onboard knowledge of high-accuracy navigation products autonomously to users of TDRSS and its successor, TDRS-2. A TONS experiment has been implemented on the Explorer Platform/Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EP/EUVE) spacecraft, launched June 7, 1992, to flight qualify the TONS operational system using TDRSS forward-link communications services. This paper assesses the performance of the TONS flight hardware, an ultrastable oscillator (USO) and Doppler extractor (DE) card in one of the TDRSS user transponders, and the protoype flight software, based on the TONS experiment results. An overview of onboard navigation via TDRSS is also presented for both the EP/EUVE experiment and for future users of TONS. USO and DE short-term and long-term stability performance has been excellent. TONS Flight Software analysis indicates that position accuracies of better than 25 meters root-mean-square are achievable with tracking every one to two orbits, for the EP/EUVE 525-kilometer altitudes, 28.5-degree inclination orbit. The success of the TONS experiment demonstrates the flight readiness of TONS, which is scheduled to provide autonomous navigation for the Earth Observing System (EOS)-AM mission.

  19. Can SAPHIR Instrument Onboard MEGHATROPIQUES Retrieve Hydrometeors and Rainfall Characteristics ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goyal, J. M.; Srinivasan, J.; Satheesh, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    MEGHATROPIQUES (MT) is an Indo-French satellite launched in 2011 with the main intention of understanding the water cycle in the tropical region and is a part of GPM constellation. MADRAS was the primary instrument on-board MT to estimate rainfall characteristics, but unfortunately it's scanning mechanism failed obscuring the primary goal of the mission.So an attempt has been made to retrieve rainfall and different hydrometeors using other instrument SAPHIR onboard MT. The most important advantage of using MT is its orbitography which is specifically designed for tropical regions and can reach up to 6 passes per day more than any other satellite currently in orbit. Although SAPHIR is an humidity sounder with six channels centred around 183 GHz channel, it still operates in the microwave region which directly interacts with rainfall, especially wing channels and thus can pick up rainfall signatures. Initial analysis using radiative transfer models also establish this fact .To get more conclusive results using observations, SAPHIR level 1 brightness temperature (BT) data was compared with different rainfall products utilizing the benefits of each product. SAPHIR BT comparison with TRMM 3B42 for one pass clearly showed that channel 5 and 6 have a considerable sensitivity towards rainfall. Following this a huge database of more than 300000 raining pixels of spatially and temporally collocated 3B42 rainfall and corresponding SAPHIR BT for an entire month was created to include all kinds of rainfall events, to attain higher temporal resolution collocated database was also created for SAPHIR BT and rainfall from infrared sensor on geostationary satellite Kalpana 1.These databases were used to understand response of various channels of SAPHIR to different rainfall regimes . TRMM 2A12 rainfall product was also used to identify capabilities of SAPHIR to retrieve cloud and ice water path which also gave significant correlation. Conclusively,we have shown that SAPHIR has

  20. SEQUOIA mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsh, Barry Y.; Carone, Timothy; Siegmund, Oswald H.; Jelinsky, Patrick N.; Polidan, Ronald S.

    1995-06-01

    We describe a mission concept for the SEQUOIA instrument, which would carry out the first wide-field, far ultraviolet, photometric all-sky survey. SEQUOIA will image the astronomical sky in the 912-1050 angstrom spectral region to a limiting magnitude of 19.5(superscript m) over a one degree field of view with a spatial resolution of less than 30 arc seconds. This mission was proposed to the USRA STEDI program in late 1994, and has been designed as a low cost, fast-track program for launch within 3 years. The spacecraft bus is being provided by Orbital Sciences Corporation (Dulles) and since the entire payload weighs less than 100kg, it can be launched using either a Minuteman or Pegasus rocket.

  1. Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) Mission Attitude Ground System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sedlak, Joseph E.; Superfin, Emil; Raymond, Juan C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the attitude ground system (AGS) currently under development for the Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission. The primary responsibilities for the MMS AGS are definitive attitude determination, validation of the onboard attitude filter, and computation of certain parameters needed to improve maneuver performance. For these purposes, the ground support utilities include attitude and rate estimation for validation of the onboard estimates, sensor calibration, inertia tensor calibration, accelerometer bias estimation, center of mass estimation, and production of a definitive attitude history for use by the science teams. Much of the AGS functionality already exists in utilities used at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center with support heritage from many other missions, but new utilities are being created specifically for the MMS mission, such as for the inertia tensor, accelerometer bias, and center of mass estimation. Algorithms and test results for all the major AGS subsystems are presented here.

  2. Compaction of Space Mission Wastes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, John; Pisharody, Suresh; Wignarajah, K.

    2004-01-01

    The current solid waste management system employed on the International Space Station (ISS) consists of compaction, storage, and disposal. Wastes such plastic food packaging and trash are compacted manually and wrapped in duct tape footballs by the astronauts. Much of the waste is simply loaded either into the empty Russian Progress vehicle for destruction on reentry or into Shuttle for return to Earth. This manual method is wasteful of crew time and does not transition well to far term missions. Different wastes onboard spacecraft vary considerably in their characteristics and in the appropriate method of management. In advanced life support systems for far term missions, recovery of resources such as water from the wastes becomes important. However waste such as plastic food packaging, which constitutes a large fraction of solid waste (roughly 21% on ISS, more on long duration missions), contains minimal recoverable resource. The appropriate management of plastic waste is waste stabilization and volume minimization rather than resource recovery. This paper describes work that has begun at Ames Research Center on development of a heat melt compactor that can be used on near term and future missions, that can minimize crew interaction, and that can handle wastes with a significant plastic composition. The heat melt compactor takes advantage of the low melting point of plastics to compact plastic materials using a combination of heat and pressure. The US Navy has demonstrated successful development of a similar unit for shipboard application. Ames is building upon the basic approach demonstrated by the Navy to develop an advanced heat melt type compactor for space mission type wastes.

  3. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In this photograph, astronaut Eugene Trinh, a payload specialist for this mission, is working at the Drop Physics Module (DPM), and mission specialist Carl Meade is working on the experiment at the Glovebox inside the first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) Science Module. The USML-1 was one of NASA's missions dedicated to scientific investigations in a microgravity environment inside the Spacelab module. Investigations aboard the USML-1 included: materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology (crystal growth), and combustion science. The DPM is dedicated to the detailed study of the dynamics of fluid drops in microgravity. The Glovebox offers experimenters new capabilities and technologies in microgravity with a clean working space and minimizes contamination risks to both Spacelab and experiment samples. Payload specialists are professional scientists or engineers whose only assignment on a space flight is to carry out scientific and technological experiments. Their specific training for a space flight is usually limited to a short period of learning how to live and work in weightlessness. Mission Specialists are both professional scientists and career astronauts. Thus they are a link or bridge between the other crew members, and combine the functions of resident maintenance engineers, in-space counterparts of flight engineers in aircraft, and fully qualified scientists. The USML-1 flew aboard the STS-50 mission on June 1992, and was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  4. Earth Observing-1 Extended Mission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2005-01-01

    Since November 2000, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Earth Observing-1 (EO-1) mission has demonstrated the capabilities of a dozen spacecraft sensor and communication innovations. Onboard the EO-1 spacecraft are two land remote sensing instruments. The Advanced Land Imager (ALI) acquires data in spectral bands and at resolutions similar to Landsat. The Hyperion instrument, which is the first civilian spaceborne hyperspectral imager, acquires data in 220 10-nanometer bands covering the visible, near, and shortwave-infrared bands. The initial one-year technology demonstration phase of the mission included a detailed comparison of ALI with the Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument. Specifications for the Operational Land Imager (OLI), the planned successor to ETM+, were formulated in part from performance characteristics of ALI. Recognizing the remarkable performance of the satellite's instruments and the exceptional value of the data, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and NASA agreed in December 2001 to share responsibility for operating EO-1. The extended mission continues, on a cost-reimbursable basis, as long as customer sales fully recover flight and ground operations costs. As of May 2005, more than 17,800 scenes from each instrument have been acquired, indexed, archived, and made available to the public.

  5. The Miniaturized Mossbauer Spectrometer MIMOS II for the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM): Quantitative Iron Mineralogy and Oxidation States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroder, Christian; Klingelhofer, Gostar; Morris, Richard V.; Yen, Albert S.; Renz, Franz; Graff, Trevor G.

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturized Mossbauer spectrometer MIMOS II is an off-the-shelf instrument, which has been successfully deployed during NASA's Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and was on-board the ESA/UK Beagle 2 Mars lander and the Russian Phobos-Grunt sample return mission. We propose to use a fully-qualified flight-spare MIMOS II instrument available from these missions for in situ asteroid characterization with the Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM).

  6. MDD3-EMI's Upcoming Meteoroid and Space Debris Detector Experiment Onboard Russian Spektr-R Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimmerohn, Martin; Schafer, Frank; Lomakin, Ilya; Willemsen, Philip

    2009-03-01

    The Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI) is currently developing its next meteoroid and space debris detector experiment, referred to as MDD3, which will be integrated onboard the Russian Spektr-R satellite. Taking this flight opportunity supported by the German Aerospace Center, MDD3 will be operated in a highly elliptical orbit, allowing for in-situ measurements of impact events in various Earth orbit particle environments. The detector system is equipped with several sensors, thus contributing to both the on-orbit verification of a robust impact detection system and the enhancement of knowledge about micrometeoroid and space debris populations. This paper addresses scientific and technical aspects of the MDD3 mission in a general overview. The status of MDD3 implementation, as well as facts on the Spektr-R mission and orbit environment are outlined for background information.

  7. Detection of Organics at Mars: How Wet Chemistry Onboard SAM Helps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buch, A.; Freissinet, Caroline; Szopa, C.; Glavin, D.; Coll, P.; Cabane, M.; Eigenbrode, J.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Coscia, D.; Teinturier, S.; Mahaffy, P.

    2013-01-01

    For the first time in the history of space exploration, a mission of interest to astrobiology could be able to analyze refractory organic compounds in the soil of Mars. Wet chemistry experiment allow organic components to be altered in such a way that improves there detection either by releasing the compounds from sample matricies or by changing the chemical structure to be amenable to analytical conditions. The latter is particular important when polar compounds are present. Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM), on the Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission, has onboard two wet chemistry experiments: derivatization and thermochemolysis. Here we report on the nature of the MTBSTFA derivatization experiment on SAM, the detection of MTBSTFA in initial SAM results, and the implications of this detection.

  8. The bering small vehicle asteroid mission concept.

    PubMed

    Michelsen, Rene; Andersen, Anja; Haack, Henning; Jørgensen, John L; Betto, Maurizio; Jørgensen, Peter S

    2004-05-01

    The study of asteroids is traditionally performed by means of large Earth based telescopes, by means of which orbital elements and spectral properties are acquired. Space borne research, has so far been limited to a few occasional flybys and a couple of dedicated flights to a single selected target. Although the telescope based research offers precise orbital information, it is limited to the brighter, larger objects, and taxonomy as well as morphology resolution is limited. Conversely, dedicated missions offer detailed surface mapping in radar, visual, and prompt gamma, but only for a few selected targets. The dilemma obviously being the resolution versus distance and the statistics versus DeltaV requirements. Using advanced instrumentation and onboard autonomy, we have developed a space mission concept whose goal is to map the flux, size, and taxonomy distributions of asteroids. The main focus is on main belt objects, but the mission profile will enable mapping of objects inside the Earth orbit as well.

  9. The Deep Space Atomic Clock Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ely, Todd A.; Koch, Timothy; Kuang, Da; Lee, Karen; Murphy, David; Prestage, John; Tjoelker, Robert; Seubert, Jill

    2012-01-01

    The Deep Space Atomic Clock (DSAC) mission will demonstrate the space flight performance of a small, low-mass, high-stability mercury-ion atomic clock with long term stability and accuracy on par with that of the Deep Space Network. The timing stability introduced by DSAC allows for a 1-Way radiometric tracking paradigm for deep space navigation, with benefits including increased tracking via utilization of the DSN's Multiple Spacecraft Per Aperture (MSPA) capability and full ground station-spacecraft view periods, more accurate radio occultation signals, decreased single-frequency measurement noise, and the possibility for fully autonomous on-board navigation. Specific examples of navigation and radio science benefits to deep space missions are highlighted through simulations of Mars orbiter and Europa flyby missions. Additionally, this paper provides an overview of the mercury-ion trap technology behind DSAC, details of and options for the upcoming 2015/2016 space demonstration, and expected on-orbit clock performance.

  10. STS-99 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 1 of 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    An overview of the STS-99 Endeavour mission is given through footage of each flight day. Scenes from flight days one through ten show activities such as astronaut prelaunch procedures (breakfast, suit-up, and boarding Endeavour), launch, and on-orbit activities such as the deployment of the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) instrument. Crewmembers are seeing during such everyday activities as brushing their teeth, exercising (bicycle), and emerging from their sleeping bunks. One of the crewmembers shows the contents of the onboard medical kit. See 'STS-99 Mission Highlights Resource Tape, Part 2 of 2' for the activities of flight days 11-12 and the landing of Endeavour.

  11. Guidance and navigation requirements for unmanned flyby and swingby missions to the outer planets. Volume 4: High thrust mission, part 2, phase C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The guidance and navigation requirements for a set of impulsive thrust missions involving one or more outer planets or comets. Specific missions considered include two Jupiter entry missions of 800 and 1200 day duration, two multiple swingby missions with the sequences Jupiter-Uranus-Neptune and Jupiter-Saturn-Pluto, and two comets rendezvous missions involving the short period comets P/Tempel 2 and P/Tuttle-Giacobini-Kresak. Results show the relative utility of onboard and Earth-based DSN navigation. The effects of parametric variations in navigation accuracy, measurement rate, and miscellaneous constraints are determined. The utility of a TV type onboard navigation sensor - sighting on planetary satellites and comets - is examined. Velocity corrections required for the nominal and parametrically varied cases are tabulated.

  12. Onboard Image Registration from Invariant Features

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Yi; Ng, Justin; Garay, Michael J.; Burl, Michael C

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a feature-based image registration technique that is potentially well-suited for onboard deployment. The overall goal is to provide a fast, robust method for dynamically combining observations from multiple platforms into sensors webs that respond quickly to short-lived events and provide rich observations of objects that evolve in space and time. The approach, which has enjoyed considerable success in mainstream computer vision applications, uses invariant SIFT descriptors extracted at image interest points together with the RANSAC algorithm to robustly estimate transformation parameters that relate one image to another. Experimental results for two satellite image registration tasks are presented: (1) automatic registration of images from the MODIS instrument on Terra to the MODIS instrument on Aqua and (2) automatic stabilization of a multi-day sequence of GOES-West images collected during the October 2007 Southern California wildfires.

  13. Worry and its correlates onboard cruise ships.

    PubMed

    Wolff, Katharina; Larsen, Svein; Marnburg, Einar; Øgaard, Torvald

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined job-specific worry, as well as possible predictors of such worry, namely job-specific self-efficacy and supervisor dispositionism. 133 non-supervising crew members at different departments onboard upmarket cruise ships filled in a questionnaire during one of their journeys. Findings show that employees report moderate amounts of job-specific worry and the galley crew reports significantly greater amounts of worry than the other departments. Results also indicate that cruise ship crews worry somewhat more than workers in the land based service sector. Furthermore it was found that supervisor dispositionism, i.e. supervisors with fixed mindsets, was related to greater amounts of worry among the crew. Surprisingly, job-specific self-efficacy was unrelated to job-specific worry.

  14. Summary of experiments onboard Soviet biosatellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolaev, S. O.; Ilyin, E. A.

    Physiological, morphological and biochemical studies of mammals flown onboard biosatellites of the series Cosmos revealed changes in their cardiovascular, musculoskeletal, endocrine and vestibular systems. Space flight resulted in moderate stress reactions, intralabyrinthine conflict information during movements and changes in fluid-electrolyte metabolism. Exposure to artificial gravity (1 g) decreased the level of myocardial, musculoskeletal and excretory changes, but disturbed the function of equilibrium. Studies with combined weightlessness and ionizing radiation demonstrated that weightlessness did not produce a significant modifying effect on radiation damage and postradiation recovery. Consistent changes in certain systems of animals and humans in weightlessness confirm the practical importance of biosatellite studies, which also contribute to the solution of general biology problems associated with gravity effects on life processes.

  15. Situation Awareness of Onboard System Autonomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schreckenghost, Debra; Thronesbery, Carroll; Hudson, Mary Beth

    2005-01-01

    We have developed intelligent agent software for onboard system autonomy. Our approach is to provide control agents that automate crew and vehicle systems, and operations assistants that aid humans in working with these autonomous systems. We use the 3 Tier control architecture to develop the control agent software that automates system reconfiguration and routine fault management. We use the Distributed Collaboration and Interaction (DCI) System to develop the operations assistants that provide human services, including situation summarization, event notification, activity management, and support for manual commanding of autonomous system. In this paper we describe how the operations assistants aid situation awareness of the autonomous control agents. We also describe our evaluation of the DCI System to support control engineers during a ground test at Johnson Space Center (JSC) of the Post Processing System (PPS) for regenerative water recovery.

  16. Onboard Processor for Compressing HSI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, Sid; Harsanyi, Joe; Day, John H. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    With EO-1 Hyperion and MightySat in orbit NASA and the DoD are showing their continued commitment to hyperspectral imaging (HSI). As HSI sensor technology continues to mature, the ever-increasing amounts of sensor data generated will result in a need for more cost effective communication and data handling systems. Lockheed Martin, with considerable experience in spacecraft design and developing special purpose onboard processors, has teamed with Applied Signal & Image Technology (ASIT), who has an extensive heritage in HSI, to develop a real-time and intelligent onboard processing (OBP) system to reduce HSI sensor downlink requirements. Our goal is to reduce the downlink requirement by a factor greater than 100, while retaining the necessary spectral fidelity of the sensor data needed to satisfy the many science, military, and intelligence goals of these systems. Our initial spectral compression experiments leverage commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) spectral exploitation algorithms for segmentation, material identification and spectral compression that ASIT has developed. ASIT will also support the modification and integration of this COTS software into the OBP. Other commercially available COTS software for spatial compression will also be employed as part of the overall compression processing sequence. Over the next year elements of a high-performance reconfigurable OBP will be developed to implement proven preprocessing steps that distill the HSI data stream in both spectral and spatial dimensions. The system will intelligently reduce the volume of data that must be stored, transmitted to the ground, and processed while minimizing the loss of information.

  17. Expedition Three Crew Onboard Photograph of Sunset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The setting sun and the thin blue airglow line at Earth's horizon was captured by the International Space Station's (ISS) Expedition Three crewmembers with a digital camera. Some of the Station's components are silhouetted in the foreground. The crew was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Discovery STS-105 mission, on August 10, 2001, replacing the Expedition Two crew. After marning the orbiting ISS for 128 consecutive days, the three returned to Earth on December 17, 2001, aboard the STS-108 mission Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour.

  18. Onboard Prediction of Propagation Loss in Shallow Water

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-09-16

    substrate roughn*p, (4) modal coupling, and (6) biologia scAtterers;,6. Grain asiz distribution Is not an adequate predctor of acoustical properties; heuce...INTRODUCTION ......................................... 1 GENERAL COMMENTS ................................... 2 SEDIMENT SOUND SPEED AND DENSITY...for an onboard perfor- mance prediction capability in shallow water. There is a general requirement for an onboard performance prediction capability

  19. A Novel Method for Precise Onboard Real-Time Orbit Determination with a Standalone GPS Receiver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuhong; Gong, Xuewen; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-01-01

    Satellite remote sensing systems require accurate, autonomous and real-time orbit determinations (RTOD) for geo-referencing. Onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) has widely been used to undertake such tasks. In this paper, a novel RTOD method achieving decimeter precision using GPS carrier phases, required by China’s HY2A and ZY3 missions, is presented. A key to the algorithm success is the introduction of a new parameter, termed pseudo-ambiguity. This parameter combines the phase ambiguity, the orbit, and clock offset errors of the GPS broadcast ephemeris together to absorb a large part of the combined error. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the orbit and clock offset errors, the pseudo-ambiguity can be modeled as a random walk, and estimated in an extended Kalman filter. Experiments of processing real data from HY2A and ZY3, simulating onboard operational scenarios of these two missions, are performed using the developed software SATODS. Results have demonstrated that the position and velocity accuracy (3D RMS) of 0.2–0.4 m and 0.2–0.4 mm/s, respectively, are achieved using dual-frequency carrier phases for HY2A, and slightly worse results for ZY3. These results show it is feasible to obtain orbit accuracy at decimeter level of 3–5 dm for position and 0.3–0.5 mm/s for velocity with this RTOD method. PMID:26690149

  20. A Novel Method for Precise Onboard Real-Time Orbit Determination with a Standalone GPS Receiver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fuhong; Gong, Xuewen; Sang, Jizhang; Zhang, Xiaohong

    2015-12-04

    Satellite remote sensing systems require accurate, autonomous and real-time orbit determinations (RTOD) for geo-referencing. Onboard Global Positioning System (GPS) has widely been used to undertake such tasks. In this paper, a novel RTOD method achieving decimeter precision using GPS carrier phases, required by China's HY2A and ZY3 missions, is presented. A key to the algorithm success is the introduction of a new parameter, termed pseudo-ambiguity. This parameter combines the phase ambiguity, the orbit, and clock offset errors of the GPS broadcast ephemeris together to absorb a large part of the combined error. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the orbit and clock offset errors, the pseudo-ambiguity can be modeled as a random walk, and estimated in an extended Kalman filter. Experiments of processing real data from HY2A and ZY3, simulating onboard operational scenarios of these two missions, are performed using the developed software SATODS. Results have demonstrated that the position and velocity accuracy (3D RMS) of 0.2-0.4 m and 0.2-0.4 mm/s, respectively, are achieved using dual-frequency carrier phases for HY2A, and slightly worse results for ZY3. These results show it is feasible to obtain orbit accuracy at decimeter level of 3-5 dm for position and 0.3-0.5 mm/s for velocity with this RTOD method.

  1. Onboard experiment data support facility. Task 2 report: Definition of onboard processing requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    The onboard experiment data support facility (OEDSF) will provide data processing support to various experiment payloads on board the space shuttle. The OEDSF study will define the conceptual design and generate specifications for an OEDSF which will meet the following objectives: (1) provide a cost-effective approach to end-to-end processing requirements, (2) service multiple disciplines (3) satisfy user needs, (4) reduce the amount and improve the quality of data collected, stored and processed, and (5) embody growth capacity.

  2. Systems Architecture for Fully Autonomous Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esper, Jamie; Schnurr, R.; VanSteenberg, M.; Brumfield, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Space Flight Center is working to develop a revolutionary new system architecture concept in support of fully autonomous missions. As part of GSFC's contribution to the New Millenium Program (NMP) Space Technology 7 Autonomy and on-Board Processing (ST7-A) Concept Definition Study, the system incorporates the latest commercial Internet and software development ideas and extends them into NASA ground and space segment architectures. The unique challenges facing the exploration of remote and inaccessible locales and the need to incorporate corresponding autonomy technologies within reasonable cost necessitate the re-thinking of traditional mission architectures. A measure of the resiliency of this architecture in its application to a broad range of future autonomy missions will depend on its effectiveness in leveraging from commercial tools developed for the personal computer and Internet markets. Specialized test stations and supporting software come to past as spacecraft take advantage of the extensive tools and research investments of billion-dollar commercial ventures. The projected improvements of the Internet and supporting infrastructure go hand-in-hand with market pressures that provide continuity in research. By taking advantage of consumer-oriented methods and processes, space-flight missions will continue to leverage on investments tailored to provide better services at reduced cost. The application of ground and space segment architectures each based on Local Area Networks (LAN), the use of personal computer-based operating systems, and the execution of activities and operations through a Wide Area Network (Internet) enable a revolution in spacecraft mission formulation, implementation, and flight operations. Hardware and software design, development, integration, test, and flight operations are all tied-in closely to a common thread that enables the smooth transitioning between program phases. The application of commercial software

  3. STS-106 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was taken during the STS-106 mission. The ISS component nearest the camera is the U.S. built Node 1 or Unity module, which cornected with the Russian built Functional Cargo Block (FGB) or Zarya. The FGB was linked with the Service Module or Zvezda. On the far end is the Russian Progress supply ship.

  4. Kepler Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borucki, William J.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The first step in discovering, the extent of life in our galaxy is to determine the number of terrestrial planets in the habitable zone (HZ). The Kepler Mission is a 0.95 m aperture photometer scheduled to be launched in 2006. It is designed to continuously monitor the brightness of 100,000 solar-like stars to detect the transits of Earth-size and larger planets. The depth and repetition time of transits provide the size of the planet relative to the star and its orbital period. When combined with ground-based spectroscopy of these stars to fix the stellar parameters, the true planet radius and orbit scale, hence the relation to the HZ are determined. These spectra are also used to discover the relationships between the characteristics of planets and the stars they orbit. In particular, the association of planet size and occurrence frequency with stellar mass and metallicity will be investigated. Based on the results of the current Doppler - velocity discoveries, over a thousand giant planets will be found. Information on the albedos and densities of those giants showing transits will be obtained. At the end of the four year mission, hundreds of terrestrial planets should be discovered in and near the HZ of their stars if such planets are common. A null result would imply that terrestrial planets in the HZ occur in less than 1% of the stars and that life might be quite rare.

  5. Fast and Adaptive Lossless Onboard Hyperspectral Data Compression System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aranki, Nazeeh I.; Keymeulen, Didier; Kimesh, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern hyperspectral imaging systems are able to acquire far more data than can be downlinked from a spacecraft. Onboard data compression helps to alleviate this problem, but requires a system capable of power efficiency and high throughput. Software solutions have limited throughput performance and are power-hungry. Dedicated hardware solutions can provide both high throughput and power efficiency, while taking the load off of the main processor. Thus a hardware compression system was developed. The implementation uses a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). The implementation is based on the fast lossless (FL) compression algorithm reported in Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data (NPO-42517), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 30, No. 8 (August 2006), page 26, which achieves excellent compression performance and has low complexity. This algorithm performs predictive compression using an adaptive filtering method, and uses adaptive Golomb coding. The implementation also packetizes the coded data. The FL algorithm is well suited for implementation in hardware. In the FPGA implementation, one sample is compressed every clock cycle, which makes for a fast and practical realtime solution for space applications. Benefits of this implementation are: 1) The underlying algorithm achieves a combination of low complexity and compression effectiveness that exceeds that of techniques currently in use. 2) The algorithm requires no training data or other specific information about the nature of the spectral bands for a fixed instrument dynamic range. 3) Hardware acceleration provides a throughput improvement of 10 to 100 times vs. the software implementation. A prototype of the compressor is available in software, but it runs at a speed that does not meet spacecraft requirements. The hardware implementation targets the Xilinx Virtex IV FPGAs, and makes the use of this compressor practical for Earth satellites as well as beyond-Earth missions with hyperspectral instruments.

  6. Onboard Sensor Data Qualification in Human-Rated Launch Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, Edmond; Melcher, Kevin J.; Maul, William A.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Sowers, Thomas S.; Fulton, Christopher; Bickford, Randall

    2012-01-01

    The avionics system software for human-rated launch vehicles requires an implementation approach that is robust to failures, especially the failure of sensors used to monitor vehicle conditions that might result in an abort determination. Sensor measurements provide the basis for operational decisions on human-rated launch vehicles. This data is often used to assess the health of system or subsystem components, to identify failures, and to take corrective action. An incorrect conclusion and/or response may result if the sensor itself provides faulty data, or if the data provided by the sensor has been corrupted. Operational decisions based on faulty sensor data have the potential to be catastrophic, resulting in loss of mission or loss of crew. To prevent these later situations from occurring, a Modular Architecture and Generalized Methodology for Sensor Data Qualification in Human-rated Launch Vehicles has been developed. Sensor Data Qualification (SDQ) is a set of algorithms that can be implemented in onboard flight software, and can be used to qualify data obtained from flight-critical sensors prior to the data being used by other flight software algorithms. Qualified data has been analyzed by SDQ and is determined to be a true representation of the sensed system state; that is, the sensor data is determined not to be corrupted by sensor faults or signal transmission faults. Sensor data can become corrupted by faults at any point in the signal path between the sensor and the flight computer. Qualifying the sensor data has the benefit of ensuring that erroneous data is identified and flagged before otherwise being used for operational decisions, thus increasing confidence in the response of the other flight software processes using the qualified data, and decreasing the probability of false alarms or missed detections.

  7. A systems analysis of the impact of navigation instrumentation on-board a Mars rover, based on a covariance analysis of navigation performance. M.S. Thesis, Massachusetts Inst. of Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leber, Douglas Eric

    1992-01-01

    As part of the Space Exploration Initiative, the exploration of Mars will undoubtedly require the use of rovers, both manned and unmanned. Many mission scenarios have been developed, incorporating rovers which range in size from a few centimeters to ones large enough to carry a manned crew. Whatever the mission, accurate navigation of the rover on the Martian surface will be necessary. This thesis considers the initial rover missions, where minimal in-situ navigation aids will be available on Mars. A covariance analysis of the rover's navigation performance is conducted, assuming minimal on-board instrumentation (gyro compass and speedometer), a single orbiting satellite, and a surface beacon at the landing site. Models of the on-board instruments are varied to correspond to the accuracy of various levels of these instruments currently available. A comparison is made with performance of an on-board IMU. Landing location and satellite orbits are also varied.

  8. Technology demonstration by the BIRD-mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brieß, K.; Bärwald, W.; Gill, E.; Kayal, H.; Montenbruck, O.; Montenegro, S.; Halle, W.; Skrbek, W.; Studemund, H.; Terzibaschian, T.; Venus, H.

    2005-01-01

    Small satellites have to meet a big challenge: to answer high-performance requirements by means of small equipment and especially of small budgets. Out of all aspects the cost aspect is one of the most important driver for small satellite missions. To keep the costs within the low-budget frame (in comparison to big missions) the demonstration of new and not space-qualified technologies for the spacecraft is one key point in fulfilling high-performance mission requirements. Taking this into account the German DLR micro-satellite mission BIRD (Bi-spectral Infra-Red Detection) has to demonstrate a high-performance capability of spacecraft bus by using and testing new technologies basing on a mixed parts and components qualification level. The basic approach for accomplishing high-performance capability for scientific mission objectives under low-budget constraints is characterized by using state-of-the-art technologies, a mixed strategy in the definition of the quality level of the EEE parts and components, a tailored quality management system according to ISO 9000 and ECSS, a risk management system, extensive redundancy strategies, extensive tests especially on system level, large designs margins (over-design), robust design principles. The BIRD-mission is dedicated to the remote sensing of hot spot events like vegetation fires, coal seam fires or active volcanoes from space and to the space demonstration of new technologies. For these objectives a lot of new small satellite technologies and a new generation of cooled infrared array sensors suitable for small satellite missions are developed to fulfil the high scientific requirements of the mission. Some basic features of the BIRD spacecraft bus are compact micro satellite structure with high mechanical stability and stiffness, envelope qualification for several launchers, cubic shape in launch configuration with dimensions of about 620×620×550mm3 and variable launcher interface, mass ratio bus:payload = 62 kg:30

  9. NASA 2007 Western States Fire Missions (WSFM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buoni, Greg

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the Western states Fire Missions (WSFM) that occurred in 2007. The objectives of this mission are: (1) Demonstrate capabilities of UAS to overfly and collect sensor data on widespread fires throughout Western US. (1) Demonstrate long-endurance mission capabilities (20-hours+). (2) Image multiple fires (greater than 4 fires per mission), to showcase extendable mission configuration and ability to either linger over key fires or station over disparate regional fires. (3) Demonstrate new UAV-compatible, autonomous sensor for improved thermal characterization of fires. (4) Provide automated, on-board, terrain and geo-rectified sensor imagery over OTH satcom links to national fire personnel and Incident commanders. (5) Deliver real-time imagery to (within 10-minutes of acquisition). (6) Demonstrate capabilities of OTS technologies (GoogleEarth) to serve and display mission-critical sensor data, coincident with other pertinent data elements to facilitate information processing (WX data, ground asset data, other satellite data, R/T video, flight track info, etc).

  10. Rheometry and numerical simulations of antennas onboard the Resonance spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampl, M.; Macher, W.; Gruber, Ch.; Oswald, Th.; Rucker, H. O.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the calibration effort for the monopole antennas onboard the Resonance spacecraft which will be launched in the middle of the next decade. The Resonance mission is dedicated to the study of the wave-particle interactions and plasma dynamics in the inner magnetosphere and the auroral region. It is intended to fly four spacecrafts on specific trajectories, so that on parts of the orbits the four spacecraft fly along the same field line (precisely speaking in the same flux tube) of the geomagnetic field. Time and space correlated measurements are planned which will reveal new insights into processes propagating along the field lines and phenomena which span large parts of the flux tubes. The calibration is performed for four boom antennas and four cylindrical sensors at the boom tips. These antennas are devised for the measurement of electric fields and plasma parameters. We apply two methods for the antenna analysis: First, electrolytic tank measurements (rheometry), which is a method to determine the effective length vectors of electrically short antennas (in this context up to about 1MHz); second, numerical computer simulations which enable us to study also the transition to higher frequencies. The accuracy of the applied methods is about 1 degree for directions of effective axes and some percent for effective lengths and capacitances. With both methods we determined the following antenna parameters which are most relevant in the present context: The effective length vectors (comprising effective axes and effective lengths), and the antenna capacitance matrix. For that purpose the whole antenna-spacecraft system is treated as an 8-port antenna. For the first time this kind of analysis is performed for a spaceborne antenna system consisting of boom monopoles and cylindrical tip antennas. The results show that the effective antenna lengths do not coincide with the physical ones but are tilted away from the solar panels by several degrees. The numerical

  11. Advanced Hybrid On-Board Science Data Processor - SpaceCube 2.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flatley, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Topics include an overview of On-board science data processing, software upset mitigation, on-board data reduction, on-board products, HyspIRI demonstration testbed, SpaceCube 2.0 block diagram, and processor comparison.

  12. Mission specification for three generic mission classes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Mission specifications for three generic mission classes are generated to provide a baseline for definition and analysis of data acquisition platform system concepts. The mission specifications define compatible groupings of sensors that satisfy specific earth resources and environmental mission objectives. The driving force behind the definition of sensor groupings is mission need; platform and space transportation system constraints are of secondary importance. The three generic mission classes are: (1) low earth orbit sun-synchronous; (2) geosynchronous; and (3) non-sun-synchronous, nongeosynchronous. These missions are chosen to provide a variety of sensor complements and implementation concepts. Each mission specification relates mission categories, mission objectives, measured parameters, and candidate sensors to orbits and coverage, operations compatibility, and platform fleet size.

  13. Memory-Efficient Onboard Rock Segmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burl, Michael C.; Thompson, David R.; Bornstein, Benjamin J.; deGranville, Charles K.

    2013-01-01

    Rockster-MER is an autonomous perception capability that was uploaded to the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in December 2009. This software provides the vision front end for a larger software system known as AEGIS (Autonomous Exploration for Gathering Increased Science), which was recently named 2011 NASA Software of the Year. As the first step in AEGIS, Rockster-MER analyzes an image captured by the rover, and detects and automatically identifies the boundary contours of rocks and regions of outcrop present in the scene. This initial segmentation step reduces the data volume from millions of pixels into hundreds (or fewer) of rock contours. Subsequent stages of AEGIS then prioritize the best rocks according to scientist- defined preferences and take high-resolution, follow-up observations. Rockster-MER has performed robustly from the outset on the Mars surface under challenging conditions. Rockster-MER is a specially adapted, embedded version of the original Rockster algorithm ("Rock Segmentation Through Edge Regrouping," (NPO- 44417) Software Tech Briefs, September 2008, p. 25). Although the new version performs the same basic task as the original code, the software has been (1) significantly upgraded to overcome the severe onboard re source limitations (CPU, memory, power, time) and (2) "bulletproofed" through code reviews and extensive testing and profiling to avoid the occurrence of faults. Because of the limited computational power of the RAD6000 flight processor on Opportunity (roughly two orders of magnitude slower than a modern workstation), the algorithm was heavily tuned to improve its speed. Several functional elements of the original algorithm were removed as a result of an extensive cost/benefit analysis conducted on a large set of archived rover images. The algorithm was also required to operate below a stringent 4MB high-water memory ceiling; hence, numerous tricks and strategies were introduced to reduce the memory footprint. Local filtering

  14. Onboard Plasmatron Hydrogen Production for Improved Vehicles

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel R. Cohn; Leslie Bromberg; Kamal Hadidi

    2005-12-31

    A plasmatron fuel reformer has been developed for onboard hydrogen generation for vehicular applications. These applications include hydrogen addition to spark-ignition internal combustion engines, NOx trap and diesel particulate filter (DPF) regeneration, and emissions reduction from spark ignition internal combustion engines First, a thermal plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. This plasmatron used an electric arc with relatively high power to reform fuels such as gasoline, diesel and biofuels at an oxygen to carbon ratio close to 1. The draw back of this device was that it has a high electric consumption and limited electrode lifetime due to the high temperature electric arc. A second generation plasmatron fuel reformer was developed. It used a low-current high-voltage electric discharge with a completely new electrode continuation. This design uses two cylindrical electrodes with a rotating discharge that produced low temperature volumetric cold plasma., The lifetime of the electrodes was no longer an issue and the device was tested on several fuels such as gasoline, diesel, and biofuels at different flow rates and different oxygen to carbon ratios. Hydrogen concentration and yields were measured for both the thermal and non-thermal plasmatron reformers for homogeneous (non-catalytic) and catalytic reforming of several fuels. The technology was licensed to an industrial auto part supplier (ArvinMeritor) and is being implemented for some of the applications listed above. The Plasmatron reformer has been successfully tested on a bus for NOx trap regeneration. The successful development of the plasmatron reformer and its implementation in commercial applications including transportation will bring several benefits to the nation. These benefits include the reduction of NOx emissions, improving engine efficiency and reducing the nation's oil consumption. The objective of this program has been to develop attractive applications of plasmatron fuel reformer

  15. Sentinel-3 Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, U.; Berruti, B.; Donlon, C.; Frerick, J.; Mavrocordatos, C.; Nieke, J.; Seitz, B.; Stroede, J.; Rebhan, H.

    2009-04-01

    The series of Sentinel-3 satellites will provide global, frequent and near-realtime ocean, ice and land monitoring. Sentinel-3 will be particularly devoted to the provision of observation data in routine, long term (20 years of operations) and continuous fashion with a consistent quality and a very high level of availability. It will continue the successful observations of similar predecessor instruments onboard Envisat from 2012 onwards. The Ocean and Land Colour Instrument (OLCI) is based on the Envisat MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer Instrument (MERIS) instrument. It fulfils ocean-colour and land-cover objectives with a larger swath and additional spectral bands. The Sea and Land Surface Temperature radiometer (SLSTR) is based on Envisat's Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR). SLSTR has a double-scanning mechanism, yielding a wider swath and a complete overlap with OLCI. This enables the generation of a synergy product with a total of 30 spectral bands, fully co-registered for new and innovative ocean and land products. The topography mission has the primary objective of providing accurate, closely spaced altimetry measurements from a high-inclination orbit with a long repeat cycle. It will complement the Jason ocean altimeter series monitoring mid-scale circulation and sea levels. The altimeter will be operated in two different modes, a classical low resolution mode and a synthetic aperture mode similar to CryoSat for increased along-track resolution and improved performance. Accompanying the altimeter will be a Precise Orbit Determination system and microwave radiometer (MWR) for removing the errors related to the altimeter signals being delayed by water vapour in the atmosphere. The altimeter will track over a variety of surfaces: Open ocean, coastal zones, sea ice and inland waters. The conceptual designs of the major instruments and their basic performance parameters will be introduced together with the expected accuracies of the main

  16. Mars mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    To mark the 10th anniversary of the Apollo-Soyuz joint space mission, a recent conference examined the prospects for human exploration of Mars and for international cooperation in space. Most of the participants at the conference, which was jointly sponsored by the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics and The Planetary Society, seemed to agree that some sort of collaboration like that between the United States and Soviet Union a decade ago would be desirable, and probably necessary, if humans are ever to reach Mars. Sen. Spark Matsunaga (D-Hawaii) extended the idea by saying that to gain the support of Congress, plans for future space exploration should be tied to international cooperation.

  17. Biomedical program of the ALTAÏR french russian flight onboard the MIR station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    André-Deshays, C.; Haigneré, J. P.; Guell, A.; Marsal, O.; Suchet, L.; Kotovskaya, A.; Gratchev, V.; Noskin, A.; Grigoriev, A.

    One year after the achievemant of the 2 weeks ANTARES french-russian mission in the MIR station in July 1992, a 22 days ALTAÏR mission with a french cosmonaut has been performed in July 1993, making use of the scientific payload remaining on board. Taking benefit of the analysis of the previous mission, the experimental protocols were adapted to refine scientific objectives and gave to the scientists the opportunity to enhance quantitatively and qualitatively their results. The french biomedical program, conducted in close scientific cooperation with IMBP and associated laboratories, was composed of 8 experiments out of which 2 were new with regards to the ANTARES program. In the field of cardio-vascular physiology and fluid regulation, the experiments: ORTHOSTATISME, DIURESE have been renewed and complemented by the TISSU experiment (proposed by a german scientist) and a real-time tele-assistance program using US echography technic and ground support from the french CADMOS support control center located in Toulouse. With respect to neurosciences objectives, to the experiments VIMINAL (cognitive processes) and ILLUSIONS (study of proprioceptives cues), was added the SYNERGIES experiment to analyse the postural adjustements during movement. The IMMUNOLOGIE experiment carried on and the radiobiological experiment BIODOSE ended. Adding the results of the 2 missions ANTARES and ALTAÏR, and the data obtained in between onboard with russian cosmonauts, the scientists have received a wealth of physiological data and gained reproducibility and confidence in their results.

  18. Spacecraft Onboard Software Maintenance: An Effective Approach which Reduces Costs and Increases Science Return

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shell, Elaine M.; Lue, Yvonne; Chu, Martha I.

    1999-01-01

    Flight software (FSW) is a mission critical element of spacecraft functionality and performance. When ground operations personnel interface to a spacecraft, they are dealing almost entirely with onboard software. This software, even more than ground/flight communications systems, is expected to perform perfectly at all times during all phases of on-orbit mission life. Due to the fact that FSW can be reconfigured and reprogrammed to accommodate new spacecraft conditions, the on-orbit FSW maintenance team is usually significantly responsible for the long-term success of a science mission. Failure of FSW can result in very expensive operations work-around costs and lost science opportunities. There are three basic approaches to staffing on-orbit software maintenance, namely: (1) using the original developers, (2) using mission operations personnel, or (3) assembling a Center of Excellence for multi-spacecraft on-orbit FSW support. This paper explains a National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC) experience related to the roles of on-orbit FSW maintenance personnel. It identifies the advantages and disadvantages of each of the three approaches to staffing the FSW roles, and demonstrates how a cost efficient on-orbit FSW Maintenance Center of Excellence can be established and maintained with significant return on the investment.

  19. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) flew in orbit inside the Spacelab science module for extended periods, providing scientists and researchers greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology (crystal growth), and combustion science. This photograph shows Astronaut Larry De Lucas wearing a stocking plethysmograph during the mission. Muscle size in the legs changes with exposure to microgravity. A stocking plethysmograph, a device for measuring the volume of a limb, was used to help determine these changes. Several times over the course of the mission, an astronaut will put on the plethysmograph, pull the tapes tight and mark them. By comparing the marks, changes in muscle volume can be measured. The USML-1 was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-50) on June 25, 1992.

  20. Reference Architecture for High Dependability On-Board Computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, Nuno; Esper, Alexandre; Zandin, Johan; Barbosa, Ricardo; Monteleone, Claudio

    2014-08-01

    The industrial process in the area of on-board computers is characterized by small production series of on- board computers (hardware and software) configuration items with little recurrence at unit or set level (e.g. computer equipment unit, set of interconnected redundant units). These small production series result into a reduced amount of statistical data related to dependability, which influence on the way on-board computers are specified, designed and verified. In the context of ESA harmonization policy for the deployment of enhanced and homogeneous industrial processes in the area of avionics embedded systems and on-board computers for the space industry, this study aimed at rationalizing the initiation phase of the development or procurement of on-board computers and at improving dependability assurance. This aim was achieved by establishing generic requirements for the procurement or development of on-board computers with a focus on well-defined reliability, availability, and maintainability requirements, as well as a generic methodology for planning, predicting and assessing the dependability of on- board computers hardware and software throughout their life cycle. It also provides guidelines for producing evidence material and arguments to support dependability assurance of on-board computers hardware and software throughout the complete lifecycle, including an assessment of feasibility aspects of the dependability assurance process and how the use of computer-aided environment can contribute to the on-board computer dependability assurance.

  1. The Cassini/Huygens mission to Saturn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, Robert T.

    2003-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the mission but focuses primarily on the activities over the past year in preparation for Saturn arrival and beginning the scientific observations to be made in orbit. Details are provided on the completion, validation, and uplink of new on-board flight software, development and testing of the sequences to be used for orbit insertion and relay of the data stream from the Huygens probe as it descends through the atmosphere of Titan, and design and preparation of the science sequences to be performed by the orbiter.

  2. The OLVE-HERO mission current status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podorozhny, Dmitry; Turundaevskiy, Andrey; Chubenko, Alexander; Mukhamedshin, Rauf; Sveshnikova, Lubov; Tkachev, Leonid

    The High-Energy Ray Observatory (OLVE-HERO) is planned to be launched onboard a heavy satellite. This experiment is based on the application of wide aperture (>2π) deep (~5 λ) ionization calorimeter. The effective geometrical factor of the apparatus is 8-16 m2sr depending on the type of particles. Under the long exposure (>7 years), this mission will make it possible to solve the most actual problems of high energy astrophysics by direct investigation of cosmic rays up to 10^17 eV.

  3. STS-106 Onboard Photograph - International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image of the International Space Station (ISS) was taken when Space Shuttle Atlantis (STS-106 mission) approached the ISS for docking. At the top is the Russian Progress supply ship that is linked with the Russian built Service Module or Zvezda. The Zvezda is cornected with the Russian built Functional Cargo Block (FGB) or Zarya. The U.S. built Node 1 or Unity module is seen at the bottom.

  4. STS-47 Spacelab-J, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Japanese astronaut, Mamoru Mohri, talks to Japanese students from the aft flight deck of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour during the Spacelab-J (SL-J) mission. The SL-J mission was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a marned Spacelab module. The mission conducted 24 materials science and 20 life science experiments, of which 35 were sponsored by NASDA, 7 by NASA, and two collaborative efforts. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Test subjects included the crew, Japanese koi fish (carp), cultured animal and plant cells, chicken embryos, fruit flies, fungi and plant seeds, and frogs and frog eggs. Spacelab-J was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour on September 12, 1992.

  5. STS-112 Onboard Photograph of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This view of the International Space Station (ISS) was photographed by an STS-112 crew member aboard the Space Shuttle Atlantis during rendezvous and docking operations. Launched October 7, 2002 aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Atlantis, the STS-112 mission lasted 11 days and performed three sessions of Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA). Its primary mission was to install the Starboard (S1) Integrated Truss Structure and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart to the ISS. The S1 truss provides structural support for the orbiting research facility's radiator panels, which use ammonia to cool the Station's complex power system. The S1 truss, attached to the S0 (S Zero) truss, installed by the previous STS-110 mission, flows 637 pounds of anhydrous ammonia through three heat rejection radiators. The truss is 45-feet long, 15-feet wide, 10-feet tall, and weighs approximately 32,000 pounds. The CETA is the first of two human-powered carts that will ride along the railway on the ISS providing a mobile work platform for future extravehicular activities by astronauts.

  6. International Microgravity Laboratory-1 Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The IML-1 mission was the first in a series of Shuttle flights dedicated to fundamental materials and life sciences research with the international partners. The participating space agencies included: NASA, the 14-nation European Space Agency (ESA), the Canadian Space Agency (CSA), The French National Center of Space Studies (CNES), the German Space Agency and the German Aerospace Research Establishment (DAR/DLR), and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA). Dedicated to the study of life and materials sciences in microgravity, the IML missions explored how life forms adapt to weightlessness and investigated how materials behave when processed in space. Both life and materials sciences benefited from the extended periods of microgravity available inside the Spacelab science module in the cargo bay of the Space Shuttle Orbiter. This photograph shows Astronaut Norman Thagard performing the fluid experiment at the Fluid Experiment System (FES) facility inside the laboratory module. The FES facility had sophisticated optical systems for imaging fluid flows during materials processing, such as experiments to grow crystals from solution and solidify metal-modeling salts. A special laser diagnostic technique recorded the experiments, holograms were made for post-flight analysis, and video was used to view the samples in space and on the ground. Managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the IML-1 mission was launched on January 22, 1992 aboard the Shuttle Orbiter Discovery (STS-42).

  7. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) provided scientific research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science in a weightless environment inside the Spacelab module. This photograph is a close-up view of the Glovebox in operation during the mission. The Spacelab Glovebox, provided by the European Space Agency, offers experimenters new capabilities to test and develop science procedures and technologies in microgravity. It enables crewmembers to handle, transfer, and otherwise manipulate materials in ways that are impractical in the open Spacelab. The facility is equipped with three doors: a central port through which experiments are placed in the Glovebox and two glovedoors on both sides with an attachment for gloves or adjustable cuffs and adapters for cameras. The Glovebox has an enclosed compartment that offers a clean working space and minimizes the contamination risks to both Spacelab and experiment samples. Although fluid containment and ease of cleanup are major benefits provided by the facility, it can also contain powders and bioparticles; toxic, irritating, or potentially infectious materials; and other debris produced during experiment operations. The facility is equipped with photographic/video capabilities and permits mounting a microscope. For the USML-1 mission, the Glovebox experiments fell into four basic categories: fluid dynamics, combustion science, crystal growth, and technology demonstration. The USML-1 flew aboard the STS-50 mission in June 1992.

  8. EDOS Evolution to Support NASA Future Earth Sciences Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cordier, Guy R.; McLemore, Bruce; Wood, Terri; Wilkinson, Chris

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a ground system architecture to service future NASA decadal missions and in particular, the high rate science data downlinks, by evolving EDOS current infrastructure and upgrading high rate network lines. The paper will also cover EDOS participation to date in formulation and operations concepts for the respective missions to understand the particular mission needs and derived requirements such as data volumes, downlink rates, data encoding, and data latencies. Future decadal requirements such as onboard data recorder management and file protocols drive the need to emulate these requirements within the ground system. The EDOS open system modular architecture is scalable to accommodate additional missions using the current sites antennas and future sites as well and meet the data security requirements and fulfill mission's objectives

  9. Management of the Space Station Freedom onboard local area network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Frank W.; Mitchell, Randy C.

    1991-01-01

    An operational approach is proposed to managing the Data Management System Local Area Network (LAN) on Space Station Freedom. An overview of the onboard LAN elements is presented first, followed by a proposal of the operational guidelines by which management of the onboard network may be effected. To implement the guidelines, a recommendation is then presented on a set of network management parameters which should be made available in the onboard Network Operating System Computer Software Configuration Item and Fiber Distributed Data Interface firmware. Finally, some implications for the implementation of the various network management elements are discussed.

  10. Portable Simulator for On-Board International Space Station Emergency Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolt, Kathy; Root, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The crew on-board the International Space Station (ISS) have to be prepared for any possible emergency. The emergencies of most concern are a fire, depressurization or a toxic atmosphere. The crew members train on the ground before launch but also need to practice their emergency response skills while they are on orbit for 6 months. On-Board Training (OBT) events for emergency response proficiency used to require the crew and ground teams to use paper "scripts" that showed the path through the emergency procedures. This was not very realistic since the participants could read ahead and never deviate from this scripted path. The new OBT emergency simulator allows the crew to view dynamic information on an iPad only when it would become available during an event. The simulator interface allows the crew member to indicate hatch closures, don and doff masks, read pressures, and sample smoke or atmosphere levels. As the crew executes their actions using the on-board simulator, the ground teams are able to monitor those actions via ground display data flowing through the ISS Ku Band communication system which syncs the on-board simulator software with a ground simulator which is accessible in all the control centers. The OBT Working Group (OBT WG), led by the Chief Training Office (CTO) at Johnson Space center is a Multilateral working group with partners in Russia, Japan, Germany and U.S.A. The OBTWG worked together to create a simulator based on these principles: (a) Create a dynamic simulation that gives real-time data feedback; (b) Maintain real-time interface between Mission Control Centers and crew during OBTs; (c) Provide flexibility for decision making during drill execution; (d) Materially reduce Instructor and Flight Control Team man-hour costs involved with developing, updating, and maintaining emergency OBT cases/scenarios; and (e) Introduce an element of surprise to emergency scenarios so the team can't tell the outcome of the case by reading ahead in a

  11. On-board Payload Data Processing from Earth to Space Segment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tragni, M.; Abbattista, C.; Amoruso, L.; Cinquepalmi, L.; Bgongiari, F.; Errico, W.

    2013-09-01

    Matching the users application requirements with the more and more huge data streaming of the satellite missions is becoming very complex. But we need both of them. To face both the data management (memory availability) and their transmission (band availability) many recent R&D activities are studying the right way to move the data processing from the ground segment to the space segment by the development of the so-called On-board Payload Data Processing (OPDP). The space designer are trying to find new strategies to increase the on board computation capacity and its viability to overcome such limitations, memory and band, focusing the transmission of remote sensing information (not only data) towards their final use. Some typical applications which can benefit of the on board payload data processing include the automatic control of a satellites constellation which can modify its scheduled acquisitions directly on-board and according to the information extracted from the just acquired data, increasing, for example, the capability of monitoring a specific objective (such as oil spills, illegal traffic) with a greater versatility than a traditional ground segment workflow. The authors and their companies can count on a sound experience in design and development of open, modular and compact on-board processing systems. Actually they are involved in a program, the Space Payload Data Processing (SpacePDP) whose main objective is to develop an hardware and a software framework able to perform both the space mission standard tasks (sensors control, mass storage devices management, uplink and downlink) and the specific tasks required by each mission. SpacePDP is an Open and modular Payload Data Processing system, composed of Hardware and Software modules included a SDK. The whole system is characterised by flexible and customizable building blocks that form the system architectures and by a very easy way to be integrated in the missions by the SDK (a development

  12. The CRYSTAL-FACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, P.

    2005-01-01

    The Cirrus Regional Study of Tropical Anvils and Cirrus Layers - Florida Area Cirrus Experiment (CRYSTAL-FACE) was a measurement campaign designed to investigate tropical cirrus cloud physical properties and formation processes. Understanding the production of upper tropospheric cirrus clouds is essential for the successful modeling of the Earth's climate. The mission was staged in July 2002 with flights of 6 aircraft from Key West, Florida. Several aircraft were used for in situ and remote sensing of aerosols, ice crystals, meteorological fields, radiative fluxes, and gas concentrations. The NASA ER-2 and WB-57, the Proteus aircraft, owned by Northrop Grumman and operated by Scaled Composites, CIRPAS provided the DeHavilland UV-l8A, "Twin Otter" aircraft, the University of North Dakota provided a Cessna Citation II aircraft , and NSF supported the ELDORA radar onboard the Naval Research Laboratory P-3 aircraft. In this presentation, I will describe some of the flights, the conditions, and some of the results from the mission.

  13. Astrium spaceplane for scientific missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chavagnac, Christophe; Gai, Frédéric; Gharib, Thierry; Mora, Christophe

    2013-12-01

    Since years Novespace and Astrium are discussing mutual interest in cooperating together when considering Novespace well established capabilities and the ongoing development of the Astrium Spaceplane and its unique features. Indeed both companies are proposing service for non-public missions which require microgravity environment especially. It relies on assets of both parties: Novespace in operating 0-G aircraft platforms for the sake of the European scientific community for decades; Astrium and its Spaceplane currently in pre-development phase. Novespace and its Airbus A300 Zero-G exhibit a unique know-how in Europe for operating scientific payload on aeronautic platform(s). Moreover Astrium is preparing the development of a safe and passenger friendly Spaceplane, taking off and landing from a standard airport runway powered by turbofans and using a rocket engine of proven design to reach 100 km altitude. The paper details the joint service offered and the added value of the partnership of Novespace and Astrium for various end-users. In addition longer duration of on-board microgravity periods and ultra high altitude features of the Astrium Spaceplane mission expand the scope of possible non-public applications which includes e.g.: Earth system science and probing of uncharted layers of Earth atmosphere on a regular basis and in various locations worldwide; Spaceflight crew training.

  14. Low Cost Mission Operations Workshop. [Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The presentations given at the Low Cost (Space) Mission Operations (LCMO) Workshop are outlined. The LCMO concepts are covered in four introductory sections: Definition of Mission Operations (OPS); Mission Operations (MOS) Elements; The Operations Concept; and Mission Operations for Two Classes of Missions (operationally simple and complex). Individual presentations cover the following topics: Science Data Processing and Analysis; Mis sion Design, Planning, and Sequencing; Data Transport and Delivery, and Mission Coordination and Engineering Analysis. A list of panelists who participated in the conference is included along with a listing of the contact persons for obtaining more information concerning LCMO at JPL. The presentation of this document is in outline and graphic form.

  15. Advances of Flash LIDAR Development Onboard Uav

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, G.; Yang, J.; Li, X.; Yang, X.

    2012-07-01

    A small cost-low civilian UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - UAV) platform usually requests that all carried components should be light in weight, small in volume, and efficient in energy. This paper presents the advance of a pre-mature of flash LiDAR system including laser emitting system, associate with the pulsed voltage technology. A complete laser emitting system, including laser diode, conic lens, alignment, divergence angle, etc., has been designed and implemented. The laser emitting system is first simulated and tested using 3D-Tool software, and then manufactured by an industrial company. In addition, a novel power supply topology based on two coupled coils, pulse generator circuit, and a fast switch, is proposed since several 100 V in voltage, 10-100 A in current, several hundred millisecond in pulse width is needed for flash LiDAR system onboard a small low-cost civilian UAV platform, and the traditional power supply had problems in efficiency and bulk. Finally, laser emitting and the power supply are assembled and tested. The size of laser footprint is 4398.031 mm x 4398.031 mm in x and y axes, respectively, when shitting from a flight height of 300 m, which is close to the theoretic size of 4.5 m x 4.5 m. The difference of 102 mm can meet the requirement of flash LiDAR data collection at a flight height of 300 m. Future work on extensive and on-going investigation and investments for a prototype of flash LiDAR system is drawn up as well.

  16. XMM instrument on-board software maintenance concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peccia, N.; Giannini, F.

    1994-01-01

    While the pre-launch responsibility for the production, validation and maintenance of instrument on-board software traditionally lies with the experimenter, the post-launch maintenance has been the subject of ad hoc arrangements with the responsibility shared to different extent between the experimenter, ESTEC and ESOC. This paper summarizes the overall design and development of the instruments on-board software for the XMM satellite, and describes the concept adopted for the maintenance of such software post-launch. The paper will also outline the on-board software maintenance and validation facilities and the expected advantages to be gained by the proposed strategy. Conclusions with respect to adequacy of this approach will be presented as well as recommendations for future instrument on-board software developments.

  17. A guide to onboard checkout. Volume 3: Electrical power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The baseline electrical power subsystem for a space station is considered. The subsystem was anlayzed in order to define onboard checkout requirements. Reliability, failure effects, and maintenance are discussed.

  18. On-board congestion control for satellite packet switching networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Pong P.

    1991-01-01

    It is desirable to incorporate packet switching capability on-board for future communication satellites. Because of the statistical nature of packet communication, incoming traffic fluctuates and may cause congestion. Thus, it is necessary to incorporate a congestion control mechanism as part of the on-board processing to smooth and regulate the bursty traffic. Although there are extensive studies on congestion control for both baseband and broadband terrestrial networks, these schemes are not feasible for space based switching networks because of the unique characteristics of satellite link. Here, we propose a new congestion control method for on-board satellite packet switching. This scheme takes into consideration the long propagation delay in satellite link and takes advantage of the the satellite's broadcasting capability. It divides the control between the ground terminals and satellite, but distributes the primary responsibility to ground terminals and only requires minimal hardware resource on-board satellite.

  19. STS-8 onboard crew press conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Six news reporters listen to a response from Astronaut Guion S. Bluford (note TV monitor) in a rare space-to-Earth press conference involving all the STS-8 crew. The participants are, left to right, Gary Schwitzer, Cable News Network; Morton Dean, CBS; Roy Neal, NBC; Lynn Sherr, ABC; Howard Benedict, Associated Press; Al Rossiter, United Press International. The astronauts on the monitor are Richard H. Truly, cneter left, crew commander; Daniel C. Brandenstein, lower left, pilot; and Dr. William E. Thornton, upper left, Guion S. Bluford, upper right; and Dale E. Gardner, all mission specialists.

  20. Realtime Decision Making on EO-1 Using Onboard Science Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherwood, Robert; Chien, Steve; Davies, Ashley; Mandl, Dan; Frye, Stu

    2004-01-01

    Recent autonomy experiments conducted on Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) using the Autonomous Sciencecraft Experiment (ASE) flight software has been used to classify key features in hyperspectral images captured by EO-1. Furthermore, analysis is performed by this software onboard EO-1 and then used to modify the operational plan without interaction from the ground. This paper will outline the overall operations concept and provide some details and examples of the onboard science processing, science analysis, and replanning.

  1. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility was investigated of an on-board earth resources data processor launched during the 1980-1990 time frame. Projected user applications were studied to define the data formats and the information extraction algorithms that the processor must execute. Based on these constraints, and the constraints imposed by the available technology, on-board processor systems were designed and their feasibility evaluated. Conclusions and recommendations are given.

  2. The EXIST Mission Concept Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Gerald J.; Grindlay, J.; Hong, J.

    2008-01-01

    EXIST is a mission designed to find and study black holes (BHs) over a wide range of environments and masses, including: 1) BHs accreting from binary companions or dense molecular clouds throughout our Galaxy and the Local Group, 2) supermassive black holes (SMBHs) lying dormant in galaxies that reveal their existence by disrupting passing stars, and 3) SMBHs that are hidden from our view at lower energies due to obscuration by the gas that they accrete. 4) the birth of stellar mass BHs which is accompanied by long cosmic gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) which are seen several times a day and may be associated with the earliest stars to form in the Universe. EXIST will provide an order of magnitude increase in sensitivity and angular resolution as well as greater spectral resolution and bandwidth compared with earlier hard X-ray survey telescopes. With an onboard optical-infra red (IR) telescope, EXIST will measure the spectra and redshifts of GRBs and their utility as cosmological probes of the highest z universe and epoch of reionization. The mission would retain its primary goal of being the Black Hole Finder Probe in the Beyond Einstein Program. However, the new design for EXIST proposed to be studied here represents a significant advance from its previous incarnation as presented to BEPAC. The mission is now less than half the total mass, would be launched on the smallest EELV available (Atlas V-401) for a Medium Class mission, and most importantly includes a two-telescope complement that is ideally suited for the study of both obscured and very distant BHs. EXIST retains its very wide field hard X-ray imaging High Energy Telescope (HET) as the primary instrument, now with improved angular and spectral resolution, and in a more compact payload that allows occasional rapid slews for immediate optical/IR imaging and spectra of GRBs and AGN as well as enhanced hard X-ray spectra and timing with pointed observations. The mission would conduct a 2 year full sky survey in

  3. OAO-3 end of mission tests report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalil, F.; Kull, F. J.; Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Margolies, D. L.; Gemmell, J.; Tasevoli, C. M.; Polidan, R. S.; Kochevar, H.; Chapman, C.

    1981-01-01

    Twelve engineering type tests were performed on several subsystems and experiment(s) of the OAO 3 spacecraft near its end of mission. The systems tested include: Princeton experiment package (PEP), fine error system guidance, inertial reference unit, star trackers, heat pipes, thermal control coatings, command and data handling, solar array; batteries, and onboard processor/power boost regulator. Generally, the systems performed well for the 8 1/2 years life of OAO 3, although some degradation was noted in the sensitivity of PEP and in the absorptivity of the skin coatings. Battery life was prolonged during the life of the mission in large part by carefully monitoring the charge-discharge cycle with careful attention not to overcharge.

  4. Automation of Hubble Space Telescope Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burley, Richard; Goulet, Gregory; Slater, Mark; Huey, William; Bassford, Lynn; Dunham, Larry

    2012-01-01

    On June 13, 2011, after more than 21 years, 115 thousand orbits, and nearly 1 million exposures taken, the operation of the Hubble Space Telescope successfully transitioned from 24x7x365 staffing to 815 staffing. This required the automation of routine mission operations including telemetry and forward link acquisition, data dumping and solid-state recorder management, stored command loading, and health and safety monitoring of both the observatory and the HST Ground System. These changes were driven by budget reductions, and required ground system and onboard spacecraft enhancements across the entire operations spectrum, from planning and scheduling systems to payload flight software. Changes in personnel and staffing were required in order to adapt to the new roles and responsibilities required in the new automated operations era. This paper will provide a high level overview of the obstacles to automating nominal HST mission operations, both technical and cultural, and how those obstacles were overcome.

  5. Long duration mission support operations concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eggleston, T. W.

    1990-01-01

    It is suggested that the system operations will be one of the most expensive parts of the Mars mission, and that, in order to reduce their cost, they should be considered during the conceptual phase of the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) program. System operations of Space Station Freedom, Lunar outpost, and Mars Rover Sample Return are examined in order to develop a similar concept for the manned Mars mission. Factors that have to be taken into account include: (1) psychological stresses caused by long periods of isolation; (2) the effects of boredom; (3) the necessity of onboard training to maintain a high level of crew skills; and (4) the 40-min time delays between issuing and receiving a command, which make real-time flight control inoperative and require long-term decisions to be made by the ground support.

  6. Novel processor architecture for onboard infrared sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hihara, Hiroki; Iwasaki, Akira; Tamagawa, Nobuo; Kuribayashi, Mitsunobu; Hashimoto, Masanori; Mitsuyama, Yukio; Ochi, Hiroyuki; Onodera, Hidetoshi; Kanbara, Hiroyuki; Wakabayashi, Kazutoshi; Tada, Munehiro

    2016-09-01

    Infrared sensor system is a major concern for inter-planetary missions that investigate the nature and the formation processes of planets and asteroids. The infrared sensor system requires signal preprocessing functions that compensate for the intensity of infrared image sensors to get high quality data and high compression ratio through the limited capacity of transmission channels towards ground stations. For those implementations, combinations of Field Programmable Gate Arrays (FPGAs) and microprocessors are employed by AKATSUKI, the Venus Climate Orbiter, and HAYABUSA2, the asteroid probe. On the other hand, much smaller size and lower power consumption are demanded for future missions to accommodate more sensors. To fulfill this future demand, we developed a novel processor architecture which consists of reconfigurable cluster cores and programmable-logic cells with complementary atom switches. The complementary atom switches enable hardware programming without configuration memories, and thus soft-error on logic circuit connection is completely eliminated. This is a noteworthy advantage for space applications which cannot be found in conventional re-writable FPGAs. Almost one-tenth of lower power consumption is expected compared to conventional re-writable FPGAs because of the elimination of configuration memories. The proposed processor architecture can be reconfigured by behavioral synthesis with higher level language specification. Consequently, compensation functions are implemented in a single chip without accommodating program memories, which is accompanied with conventional microprocessors, while maintaining the comparable performance. This enables us to embed a processor element on each infrared signal detector output channel.

  7. The XGS instrument on-board THESEUS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuschino, F.; Campana, R.; Labanti, C.; Marisaldi, M.; Amati, L.; Fiorini, M.; Uslenghi, M.; Baldazzi, G.; Evangelista, Y.; Elmi, I.; Feroci, M.; Frontera, F.; Rachevski, A.; Rignanese, L. P.; Vacchi, A.; Zampa, G.; Zampa, N.; Rashevskaya, I.; Bellutti, P.; Piemonte, C.

    2016-10-01

    Consolidated techniques used for space-borne X-ray and gamma-ray instruments are based on the use of scintillators coupled to Silicon photo-detectors. This technology associated with modern very low noise read-out electronics allows the design of innovative architectures able to reduce drastically the system complexity and power consumption, also with a moderate-to-high number of channels. These detector architectures can be exploited in the design of space instrumentation for gamma-spectroscopy with the benefit of possible smart background rejection strategies. We describe a detector prototype with 3D imaging capabilities to be employed in future gamma-ray and particle space missions in the 0.002-100 MeV energy range. The instrument is based on a stack of scintillating bars read out by Silicon Drift Detectors (SDDs) at both ends. The spatial segmentation and the crystal double-side readout allow a 3D position reconstruction with ∼3 mm accuracy within the full active volume, using a 2D readout along the two external faces of the detector. Furthermore, one of the side of SDDs can be used simultaneously to detect X-rays in the 2-30 keV energy range. The characteristics of this instrument make it suitable in next generation gamma-ray and particle space missions for Earth or outer space observations, and it will be briefly illustrated.

  8. STS-47 Spacelab-J Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Spacelab-J (SL-J) mission was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a marned Spacelab module. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Before long-term space ventures are attempted, numerous questions must be answered: how will gravity play in the early development of an organism, and how will new generations of a species be conceived and develop normally in microgravity. The Effects of Weightlessness on the Development of Amphibian Eggs Fertilized in Space experiment aboard SL-J examined aspects of these questions. To investigate the effect of microgravity on amphibian development, female frogs carried aboard SL-J were induced to ovulate and shed eggs. These eggs were then fertilized in the microgravity environment. Half were incubated in microgravity, while the other half were incubated in a centrifuge that spins to simulate normal gravity. This photograph shows astronaut Mark Lee working with one of the adult female frogs inside the incubator. The mission also examined the swimming behavior of tadpoles grown in the absence of gravity. The Spacelab-J was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour on September 12, 1992.

  9. STS-47 Spacelab-J, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The Spacelab-J (SL-J) mission was a joint venture between NASA and the National Space Development Agency of Japan (NASDA) utilizing a marned Spacelab module. Materials science investigations covered such fields as biotechnology, electronic materials, fluid dynamics and transport phenomena, glasses and ceramics, metals and alloys, and acceleration measurements. Life sciences included experiments on human health, cell separation and biology, developmental biology, animal and human physiology and behavior, space radiation, and biological rhythms. Before long-term space ventures are attempted, numerous questions must be answered: how will gravity play in the early development of an organism, and how will new generations of a species be conceived and develop normally in microgravity. The Effects of Weightlessness on the Development of Amphibian Eggs Fertilized in Space experiment aboard SL-J examined aspects of these questions. To investigate the effect of microgravity on amphibian development, female frogs carried aboard SL-J were induced to ovulate and shed eggs. These eggs were then fertilized in the microgravity environment. Half were incubated in microgravity, while the other half were incubated in a centrifuge that spins to simulate normal gravity. This photograph shows an astronaut working with one of the adult female frogs inside the incubator. The mission also examined the swimming behavior of tadpoles grown in the absence of gravity. The Spacelab-J was launched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Endeavour on September 12, 1992.

  10. Spacecraft Trajectory Analysis and Mission Planning Simulation (STAMPS) Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puckett, Nancy; Pettinger, Kris; Hallstrom,John; Brownfield, Dana; Blinn, Eric; Williams, Frank; Wiuff, Kelli; McCarty, Steve; Ramirez, Daniel; Lamotte, Nicole; Vu, Tuan

    2014-01-01

    STAMPS simulates either three- or six-degree-of-freedom cases for all spacecraft flight phases using translated HAL flight software or generic GN&C models. Single or multiple trajectories can be simulated for use in optimization and dispersion analysis. It includes math models for the vehicle and environment, and currently features a "C" version of shuttle onboard flight software. The STAMPS software is used for mission planning and analysis within ascent/descent, rendezvous, proximity operations, and navigation flight design areas.

  11. The Voyager Spacecraft. [Jupiter-Saturn mission investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The configuration of the Voyager spacecraft is described as well as the subsystems for power, temperature control, attitude control, and propulsion. Major features of Jupiter and Saturn including their atmospheres, surfaces, and natural satellites are discussed. The 13 onboard experiments and their scientific objectives are explained. Other aspects covered include tracking, data acquisition, and the mission control and computing center. Members of the Voyager team and subcontractors are listed.

  12. MAIGRET instrument onboard Surface Platform of the ExoMars 2018 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolmasova, Ivana; Santolik, Ondrej; Uhlir, Ludek; Skalsky, Alexander; Pronenko, Vira; Korepanov, Valery; Lan, Radek

    2016-07-01

    The MAIGRET instrument which is composed from the search-coil magnetometer and wave analyzer module will be placed on the EXOMARS Surface platform. The wave analyser module is dedicated to the measurement of magnetic field fluctuations in the frequency band from 100 Hz to 20 kHz. The scientific objectives of the wave analyser module will mainly concentrate on electromagnetic emissions of atmospheric origin and possible wave activity originated in electrical discharges in dust storms. The wave activity linked to the interactions of interplanetary plasma medium with Martian ionosphere and Martian magnetic anomalies at the surface and the ionosphere-atmosphere-lithosphere interactions on Mars related to space weather effects will be also investigated. The scientific questions which we plan to address have never been answered by measurements of the fluctuating magnetic fields in the appropriate range of frequencies directly on the surface of the planet. Other tentative goal is to detect the magnetic field variations connected with electromagnetic induction in Martian ground with the aim to carry out deep sounding of Mars crust. The immediate questions related to these targets are: i) Can we observe electromagnetic radiation propagating from the interplanetary space down to the surface of the planet? ii) Can we observe electromagnetic radiation from electric discharges in the Martian dust storms? iii) Can we use the measured variations of the magnetic field to estimate, though roughly, deep structure of Mars' crust?

  13. Thermochemolysis and the Search for Organic Material on Mars Onboard the MOMA Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morisson, Marietta; Buch, Arnaud; Szopa, Cyril; Glavin, Daniel; Freissinet, Carolinette; Pinnick, Veronica; Goetz, Walter; Stambouli, Moncef; Belmahdi, Imene; Coll, Patrice; Stalport, Fabien; Grand, Noël; Brinckerhoff, William; Goesmann, Fred; Raulin, François; Mahaffy, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Following the Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) experiment onboard the Curiosity rover, the Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer (MOMA) experiment onboard the future ExoMars 2018 mission will continue to investigate the organic composition of the martian subsurface. MOMA will have the advantage of extracting the sample from as deep as 2 meters below the martian surface where the deleterious effects of radiation and oxidation on organic matter are minimized. To analyse the wide range of organic compounds (volatile and non-volatile compounds) potentially present in the martian soil, MOMA includes two operational modes: UV laser desorption / ionization ion trap mass spectrometry (LDI-ITMS) and pyrolysis gas chromatography ion trap mass spectrometry (pyr-GC-ITMS). In order to analyse refractory organic compounds and chirality, samples which undergo GC-ITMS analysis may be derivatized beforhands, consisting in the reaction of the sample components with specific chemical reagents (MTBSTFA [1], DMF-DMA [2] or TMAH [3]). To prove the feasibility of the derivatization within the MOMA conditions we have adapated our laboratory procedure for the space conditions (temperature, time, pressure and size). Goal is optimize our detection limits and increase the range of the organic compounds that MOMA will be able to detect. Results of this study, show that Thermochemolysis is one of the most promising technique onboard MOMA to detect organic material. References : [1] Buch, A. et al. (2009) J Chrom. A, 43, 143-151. [2] Freissinet, C. et al. (2013) J Chrom. A, 1306, 731-740. [3] Geffroy-Rodier, C. et al. (2009) JAAP, 85, 454-459.

  14. Integration of On-board EOS Schedule Revision with Space Communication Emulation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Robert

    2004-01-01

    The need for on-board decision-making for planning science observations on Earth Observing Satellites is based on the fact that the desirability of acquiring an image can change dynamically, because of changes in meteorological conditions (e.g. cloud cover), unforeseen events such as fires, floods, or volcanic eruptions, or unexpected changes in satellite or ground station capability. In such cases, satellite resources, such as power and SSR capacity can potentially be better utilized taking another image that is of higher quality. Currently, typical Earth observing satellites cannot communicate directly with each other, and can only communicate with ground stations about 5% to 10% of the time. Because of the limited communication windows, as well as the cost and effort that would need to be expended in revising a mission schedule, a ground-based scheduler would have little or no opportunity to revise the schedule in response to the contingencies that may arise. For this reason, a distributed science planning system combining a ground-based scheduler with on-board schedule revision capabilities is warranted. This paper will describe algorithms for on-board decision-making for science planning and their integration with the advanced satellite control and communications technology developed at the Space Communication Emulation Facility (SCEF) at NASA Glenn Research Center. Our objective of demonstrating how advanced communications and scheduling technology can be combined to improve the scientific utility of images acquired by Earth observing systems will be discussed via a description of a number of realistic flight scenarios.

  15. Interplanetary mission planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    A long range plan for solar system exploration is presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) science payload for first Jupiter orbiters, (2) Mercury orbiter mission study, (3) preliminary analysis of Uranus/Neptune entry probes for Grand Tour Missions, (4) comet rendezvous mission study, (5) a survey of interstellar missions, (6) a survey of candidate missions to explore rings of Saturn, and (7) preliminary analysis of Venus orbit radar missions.

  16. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 1; General Technology Capabilities for NASA Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    The changes in the scope of NASA s mission in the coming decade are profound and demand nimble, yet insightful, responses. On-board clinical and environmental diagnostics must be available for both mid-term lunar and long-term Mars exploration missions in an environment marked by scarce resources. Miniaturization has become an obvious focus. Despite solid achievements in lab-based devices, broad-based, robust tools for application in the field are not yet on the market. The confluence of rapid, wide-ranging technology evolution and internal planning needs are the impetus behind this work. This report presents an analytical tool for the ongoing evaluation of promising technology platforms based on mission- and application-specific attributes. It is not meant to assess specific devices, but rather to provide objective guidelines for a rational down-select of general categories of technology platforms. In this study, we have employed our expertise in the microgravity operation of fluidic devices, laboratory diagnostics for space applications, and terrestrial research in biochip development. A rating of the current state of technology development is presented using the present tool. Two mission scenarios are also investigated: a 30-day lunar mission using proven, tested technology in 5 years; and a 2- to 3-year mission to Mars in 10 to 15 years.

  17. Arctic summer school onboard an icebreaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexeev, Vladimir A.; Repina, Irina A.

    2014-05-01

    The International Arctic Research Center (IARC) of the University of Alaska Fairbanks conducted a summer school for PhD students, post-docs and early career scientists in August-September 2013, jointly with an arctic expedition as a part of NABOS project (Nansen and Amundsen Basin Observational System) onboard the Russian research vessel "Akademik Fedorov". Both the summer school and NABOS expedition were funded by the National Science Foundation. The one-month long summer school brought together graduate students and young scientists with specialists in arctic oceanography and climate to convey to a new generation of scientists the opportunities and challenges of arctic climate observations and modeling. Young scientists gained hands-on experience during the field campaign and learned about key issues in arctic climate from observational, diagnostic, and modeling perspectives. The summer school consisted of background lectures, participation in fieldwork and mini-projects. The mini-projects were performed in collaboration with summer school instructors and members of the expedition. Key topics covered in the lectures included: - arctic climate: key characteristics and processes; - physical processes in the Arctic Ocean; - sea ice and the Arctic Ocean; - trace gases, aerosols, and chemistry: importance for climate changes; - feedbacks in the arctic system (e.g., surface albedo, clouds, water vapor, circulation); - arctic climate variations: past, ongoing, and projected; - global climate models: an overview. An outreach specialist from the Miami Science Museum was writing a blog from the icebreaker with some very impressive statistics (results as of January 1, 2014): Total number of blog posts: 176 Blog posts written/contributed by scientists: 42 Blog views: 22,684 Comments: 1,215 Number of countries who viewed the blog: 89 (on 6 continents) The 33-day long NABOS expedition started on August 22, 2013 from Kirkenes, Norway. The vessel ("Akademik Fedorov") returned to

  18. Intelligent, onboard signal processing payload concept, addendum :

    SciTech Connect

    Shriver, P. M.; Harikumar, J.; Briles, S. C.; Gokhale, M.

    2003-01-01

    This document addresses two issues in the original paper entitled 'An Intelligent, Onboard Signal Processing Payload Concept' submitted to the SPIE AeroSense 2003 C0nference.l Since the original paper submission, and prior to the scheduled presentation, a correction has been made to one of the figures in the original paper and an update has been performed to the software simulation of the payload concept. The figure, referred to as Figure 8. Simulation Results in the original paper, contains an error in the voltage versus the capacity drained chart. This chart does not correctly display the voltage changes experienced by the battery module due to the varying discharge rates. This error is an artifact of the procedure used to graph the data. Additionally, the original version of the Simulation related the algorithm execution rate to the lightning event rate regardless of the number of events in the ring buffer. This feature was mentioned in section 5. Simulation Results of the original paper. A correction was also made to the size of the ring buffer. Incorrect information was provided to the authors that placed the number of possible events at 18,310. Corrected information has since been obtained that specifies the ring buffer can typically hold only 1,000 events. This has a significant impact on the APM process and the number of events lost when the size of the ring buffer is exceeded. Also, upon further analysis, it was realized that the simulation contained an error in the recording of the number of events in the ring buffer. The faster algorithms, LMS and ML, should have been able to process all events during the simulation time interval, but the initial results did not reflect this characteristic. The updated version of the simulation appropriately handles the number of algorithm executions and recording of events in the ring buffer as well as uses the correct size for the ring buffer. These improvements to the simulation and subsequent results are discussed in

  19. The mass spectrum analyzer (MSA) onboard BEPI COLOMBO MMO: Scientific objectives and prototype results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delcourt, D.; Saito, Y.; Illiano, J.-M.; Krupp, N.; Berthelier, J.-J.; Fontaine, D.; Fraenz, M.; Leblanc, F.; Fischer, H.; Yokota, S.; Michalik, H.; Godefroy, M.; Saint-Jacques, E.; Techer, J.-D.; Fiethe, B.; Covinhes, J.; Gastou, J.; Attia, D.

    2009-03-01

    BEPI COLOMBO is a joint mission between ESA and JAXA that is scheduled for launch in 2014 and arrival at Mercury in 2020. A comprehensive set of ion sensors will be flown onboard the two probes that form BEPI COLOMBO. These ion sensors combined with electron analyzers will allow a detailed investigation of the structure and dynamics of the charged particle environment at Mercury. Among the ion sensors, the Mass Spectrum Analyzer (MSA) is the experiment dedicated to composition analysis onboard the Mercury Magnetospheric Orbiter (MMO). It consists of a top-hat for energy analysis followed by a Time-Of-Flight (TOF) section to derive the ion mass. A notable feature of MSA is that the TOF section is polarized with a linear electric field that provides an enhanced mass resolution, a capability that is of importance at Mercury since a variety of species originating from the planet surface and exosphere is expected. MSA exhibits two detection planes: (i) one with moderate mass resolution but a high count rate making MSA appropriate for plasma analysis, (ii) another with a high (above 40) mass resolution though a low count rate making it appropriate for planetology science. Taking advantage of the spacecraft rotation, MSA will provide three-dimensional distribution functions of magnetospheric ions, from energies characteristic of exospheric populations (a few eVs or a few tens of eVs) up to the plasma sheet energy range (up to ˜40 keV/q) in one spin (4 s).

  20. Enhanced flyby science with onboard computer vision: Tracking and surface feature detection at small bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuchs, Thomas J.; Thompson, David R.; Bue, Brian D.; Castillo-Rogez, Julie; Chien, Steve A.; Gharibian, Dero; Wagstaff, Kiri L.

    2015-10-01

    Spacecraft autonomy is crucial to increase the science return of optical remote sensing observations at distant primitive bodies. To date, most small bodies exploration has involved short timescale flybys that execute prescripted data collection sequences. Light time delay means that the spacecraft must operate completely autonomously without direct control from the ground, but in most cases the physical properties and morphologies of prospective targets are unknown before the flyby. Surface features of interest are highly localized, and successful observations must account for geometry and illumination constraints. Under these circumstances onboard computer vision can improve science yield by responding immediately to collected imagery. It can reacquire bad data or identify features of opportunity for additional targeted measurements. We present a comprehensive framework for onboard computer vision for flyby missions at small bodies. We introduce novel algorithms for target tracking, target segmentation, surface feature detection, and anomaly detection. The performance and generalization power are evaluated in detail using expert annotations on data sets from previous encounters with primitive bodies.

  1. Real-Time On-Board Processing Validation of MSPI Ground Camera Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pingree, Paula J.; Werne, Thomas A.; Bekker, Dmitriy L.

    2010-01-01

    The Earth Sciences Decadal Survey identifies a multiangle, multispectral, high-accuracy polarization imager as one requirement for the Aerosol-Cloud-Ecosystem (ACE) mission. JPL has been developing a Multiangle SpectroPolarimetric Imager (MSPI) as a candidate to fill this need. A key technology development needed for MSPI is on-board signal processing to calculate polarimetry data as imaged by each of the 9 cameras forming the instrument. With funding from NASA's Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) Program, JPL is solving the real-time data processing requirements to demonstrate, for the first time, how signal data at 95 Mbytes/sec over 16-channels for each of the 9 multiangle cameras in the spaceborne instrument can be reduced on-board to 0.45 Mbytes/sec. This will produce the intensity and polarization data needed to characterize aerosol and cloud microphysical properties. Using the Xilinx Virtex-5 FPGA including PowerPC440 processors we have implemented a least squares fitting algorithm that extracts intensity and polarimetric parameters in real-time, thereby substantially reducing the image data volume for spacecraft downlink without loss of science information.

  2. Atmospheric correction for sea surface temperature retrieval from single thermal channel radiometer data onboard Kalpana satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahi, Naveen R.; Agarwal, Neeraj; Mathur, Aloke K.; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2011-06-01

    An atmospheric correction method has been applied on sea surface temperature (SST) retrieval algorithm using Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) single window channel radiance data onboard Kalpana satellite (K-SAT). The technique makes use of concurrent water vapour fields available from Microwave Imager onboard Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM/TMI) satellite. Total water vapour content and satellite zenith angle dependent SST retrieval algorithm has been developed using Radiative Transfer Model [MODTRAN ver3.0] simulations for Kalpana 10.5-12.5 μm thermal window channel. Retrieval of Kalpana SST (K-SST) has been carried out for every half-hourly acquisition of Kalpana data for the year 2008 to cover whole annual cycle of SST over Indian Ocean (IO). Validation of the retrieved corrected SST has been carried out using near-simultaneous observations of ship and buoys datasets covering Arabian Sea, Bay of Bengal and IO regions. A significant improvement in Root Mean Square Deviation (RMSD) of K-SST with respect to buoy (1.50-1.02 K) and to ship datasets (1.41-1.19 K) is seen with the use of near real-time water vapour fields of TMI. Furthermore, comparison of the retrieved SST has also been carried out using near simultaneous observations of TRMM/TMI SST over IO regions. The analysis shows that K-SST has overall cold bias of 1.17 K and an RMSD of 1.09 K after bias correction.

  3. Wireless Network Communications Overview for Space Mission Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fink, Patrick W.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of the On-Board Wireless Working Group (WWG) is to serve as a general CCSDS focus group for intra-vehicle wireless technologies. The WWG investigates and makes recommendations pursuant to standardization of applicable wireless network protocols, ensuring the interoperability of independently developed wireless communication assets. This document presents technical background information concerning uses and applicability of wireless networking technologies for space missions. Agency-relevant driving scenarios, for which wireless network communications will provide a significant return-on-investment benefiting the participating international agencies, are used to focus the scope of the enclosed technical information.

  4. Far-field mission planning for nap-of-the-earth flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, Owen L.; Desai, Mukund; Mcgee, Leonard A.

    1987-01-01

    In the face of numerically superior hostile forces, deployment of individual vehicles to the right place, at the right time, and the ability to plan missions with less conservatism, will become significant force multipliers. Far-field mission planning is one of the enabling technologies that will facilitate force coordination through management of mission timeline, vehicle survivability and fuel constraints. On-board replanning is required to deal responsively with departures from nominal plan execution that result from imperfect knowledge of and temporal variability in the mission environment. The far-field planning problem is posed as a constrained optimization problem and algorithms and structural organization are proposed for the solution.

  5. Solar modulation of the neutron component of the radiation background observed simultaneously in different space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Litvak, Maxim; Mitrofanov, Igor; Nuzhdin, Igor; Sanin, Anton; Fedosov, Fedor; Golovin, Dmitry

    2016-04-01

    We have studied variability of neutron component of radiation environment at Earth, Moon and Mars vicinities over a long period of time produced by the solar modulation of the GCR flux in the 23rd and 24th solar cycles. The global behavior of the neutron flux is in relatively good agreement with different observations performed simultaneously onboard various space missions, including instruments HEND onboard Mars Odyssey orbiter, BTN onboard International Space Station and LEND onboard Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter as well as with the modeled behavior of the GCR flux derived from a global network of neutron monitors on the Earth. The local differences in the time history and character of different observations have been also evaluated. The joint analysis of different data sets, where some of them are gathered far away from the Earth, reveals a multi-dimensional view and new patterns of the solar modulation of GCRs within current unusual solar cycle.

  6. PROBA-3: Precise formation flying demonstration mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llorente, J. S.; Agenjo, A.; Carrascosa, C.; de Negueruela, C.; Mestreau-Garreau, A.; Cropp, A.; Santovincenzo, A.

    2013-01-01

    Formation Flying (FF) has generated a strong interest in many space applications, most of them involving a significant complexity for building for example on-board large "virtual structures or distributed observatories". The implementation of these complex formation flying missions with critical dependency on this new, advanced and critical formation technology requires a thorough verification of the system behaviour in order to provide enough guarantees for the target mission success. A significant number of conceptual or preliminary designs, analyses, simulations, and HW on-ground testing have been performed during the last years, but still the limitations of the ground verification determine that enough confidence of the behaviour of the formation flying mission will only be possible by demonstration in flight of the concept and the associated technologies. PROBA-3 is the mission under development at ESA for in-flight formation flying demonstration, dedicated to obtain that confidence and the necessary flight maturity level in the formation flying technologies for those future target missions. PROBA-3 will demonstrate technologies such as formation metrology sensors (from very coarse to highest accuracy), formation control and GNC, system operability, safety, etc. During the last years, PROBA-3 has evolved from the initial CDF study at ESA, to two parallel phase A studies, followed by a change in the industrial configuration for the Bridging step between A and B phases. Currently the SRR consolidation has been completed, and the project is in the middle of the phase B. After the phase A study SENER and GMV were responsible for the Formation Flying System, within a mission core team completed by OHB-Sweden, QinetiQ Space and CASA Espacio. In this paper an overview of the PROBA-3 mission is provided, with a more detailed description of the formation flying preliminary design and results.

  7. An onboard data analysis method to track the seasonal polar caps on Mars

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagstaff, K.L.; Castano, R.; Chien, S.; Ivanov, A.B.; Pounders, E.; Titus, T.N.; ,

    2005-01-01

    The Martian seasonal CO2 ice caps advance and retreat each year. They are currently studied using instruments such as the THermal EMission Imaging System (THEMIS), a visible and infra-red camera on the Mars Odyssey spacecraft [1]. However, each image must be downlinked to Earth prior to analysis. In contrast, we have developed the Bimodal Image Temperature (BIT) histogram analysis method for onboard detection of the cap edge, before transmission. In downlink-limited scenarios when the entire image cannot be transmitted, the location of the cap edge can still be identified and sent to Earth. In this paper, we evaluate our method on uncalibrated THEMIS data and find 1) agreement with manual cap edge identifications to within 28.2 km, and 2) high accuracy even with a smaller analysis window, yielding large reductions in memory requirements. This algorithm is currently being considered as a capability enhancement for the Odyssey second extended mission, beginning in fall 2006.

  8. Water vapor diffusion membrane development. [for water recovery purposes onboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The phase separator component used as a membrane in the vapor diffusion process (VRD) for the recovery of potable water from urine on manned space missions of extended duration was investigated, with particular emphasis on cation-selective membranes because of their noted mechanical strength, superior resistance to acids, oxidants, and germicides, and their potential resistance to organic foulants. Two of the membranes were tested for 700 hours continuously, and were selected on the basis of criteria deemed important to an effective water reclamation system onboard spacecraft. The samples of urine were successfully processed by removing 93 percent of their water content in 70 hours using the selected membranes. Pretreatment with an acid-oxidant formulation improved product quality. Cation exchange membranes were shown to possess superior mechanical strength and chemical resistance, as compared to cellulosic membranes.

  9. Power and On-Board Propulsion System Benefit Studies at NASA GRC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, David J.

    2000-01-01

    This paper discusses the value of systems studies that provide unbiased 'honest broker' assessments of the quantified benefits afforded by advanced technologies for specific missions. The organization, format, and approach used by the NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) Systems Assessment Team (SAT) to perform system studies for the GRC advanced power and on-board propulsion technology development program is described. Three levels of assessments and a sensitivity analysis are explained and example results are presented. The impact of system studies results and some of the main challenges associated with systems studies are identified. A call for collaboration is made where system studies of all types from all organizations can be reviewed, providing a forum for the widest peer review to ensure accurate and unbiased technical content, and to avoid needless duplication.

  10. Characterization of a diffuse target for on-board calibration of space multiwavelength imaging spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Pavel A.; Morozova, Svetlana P.; Lisiansky, B. E.; Sapritsky, Victor I.; Tarnopolsky, Vladimir I.; Carsenty, Uri

    1995-06-01

    A diffuse target illuminated by the sun radiation is used for on-board calibration of a new stereo-spectral-imaging system ARGUS developed in the frame of the International project for MARS 94/96 missions. The target manufacturing technique is described. The experimental procedure used for getting the spectral and angular responses of target reflectivity is presented. The diffuse target was tested for the spectral properties at angle illumination -70 degree(s) (relative to the normal of the target) and angle of viewing +20 degree(s). A brief description of the setup for measurements of the spectral and angular responses of the target reflectivity is given. Results of the diffuse target calibration in the spectral range from 320 nm to 5200 nm are presented.

  11. Research and Development of Electrothermal Pulsed Plasma Thrusters onboard PROITERES Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahara, Hirokazu; Naka, Masamichi; Takagi, Hiroki; Ikeda, Tomoyuki; Watanabe, Yosuke

    2010-10-01

    The Project of Osaka Institute of Technology Electric-Rocket-Engine onboard Small Space Ship (PROITERES) was started at Osaka Institute of Technology. In PROITERES, a small satellite with electrothermal pulsed plasma thrusters (PPTs) will be launched in 2010. The main mission is powered flight of small satellite by electric thruster. This study aims at improvement in performance by changing configuration of PPTs. The total impulse of about 5 Ns was achieved with a Teflon® (poly-tetrafluoroethylene: PTFE) cylindrical discharge room of 9.0 mm in length and 1.0 mm in diameter in 53,000-shot operation with 2.43 J/shot. Finally, the engineering model of the PPT system was developed, and it is under operation as final test.

  12. STS-40 crewmembers pose for onboard (in space) portrait on OV-102's middeck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    STS-40 crewmembers pose for onboard (in space) portrait on the middeck of Columbia, Orbiter Vehicle (OV) 102, with various university and military decals and insignias displayed on the port side wall behind them. In the front row (left to right) are Payload Specialist F. Drew Gaffney, Pilot Sidney M. Gutierrez, Mission Specialist (MS) M. Rhea Seddon, and MS James P. Bagian. Behind them (left to right) are Commander Bryan D. O'Connor, MS Tamara E. Jernigan, and Payload Specialist Millie Hughes-Fulford. The various decals include the University of California, United States Air Force (USAF) Academy Parachute Team, University of Tennessee, Air Force, Stanford University, Marines, Air Force Reserves (AFRES), and Colorado State University. The open airlock hatch and air revitalization system (ARS) duct appear on the left and the forward middeck lockers and the orbiter refrigerator freezer (ORF) on the right.

  13. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; Spina, Danny C.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  14. Characterization and selection of CZT detector modules for HEX experiment onboard Chandrayaan-1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadawale, S. V.; Purohit, S.; Shanmugam, M.; Acharya, Y. B.; Goswami, J. N.; Sudhakar, M.; Sreekumar, P.

    2009-01-01

    We present the results of characterization of a large sample of Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detector modules planned to be used for the HEX (High Energy X-ray spectrometer) experiment onboard India's first mission to the Moon, Chandrayaan-1. We procured forty modules from Orbotech Medical Solutions Ltd. and carried out a detailed characterization of each module at various temperatures and selected final nine detector modules for the flight model of HEX. Here we present the results of the characterization of all modules and the selection procedure for the HEX flight detector modules. These modules show 5-6% energy resolution (at 122 keV, for best 90% of pixels) at room temperature which is improved to ˜4% when these modules are cooled to sub-0 °C temperature. The gain and energy resolution were stable during the long duration tests.

  15. Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) Experiment Onboard NASA's Mars Science Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitrofanov, I. G.; Litvak, M. L.; Varenikov, A. B.; Barmakov, Y. N.; Behar, A.; Bobrovnitsky, Y. I.; Bogolubov, E. P.; Boynton, W. V.; Harshman, K.; Kan, E.; Kozyrev, A. S.; Kuzmin, R. O.; Malakhov, A. V.; Mokrousov, M. I.; Ponomareva, S. N.; Ryzhkov, V. I.; Sanin, A. B.; Smirnov, G. A.; Shvetsov, V. N.; Timoshenko, G. N.; Tomilina, T. M.; Tret'yakov, V. I.; Vostrukhin, A. A.

    2012-09-01

    The description of Dynamic Albedo of Neutrons (DAN) experiment is presented, as a part of the NASA's Mars Science Laboratory mission onboard the mars rover Curiosity. The instrument DAN includes Pulsing Neutron Generator (PNG) producing pulses of 14.1 MeV neutrons for irradiation of subsurface material below the rover, and Detectors and Electronics (DE) unit, which operates the instrument itself and measures the die-away time profiles of epithermal and thermal neutrons following each neutron pulse. It is shown that the DAN investigation will measure a content of hydrogen along the path of the MSL rover, and it will also provide information about a depth distribution of hydrogen at 10-20 regions selected for the detailed studies and sampling analysis.

  16. Summary Report of Mission Acceleration Measurements for STS-95

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McPherson, Kevin; Hrovat, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    John H. Glenn's historic return to space was a primary focus of the STS-95 mission. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Orbital Systems Test (HOST). an STS-95 payload, was an in-flight demonstration of HST components to be installed during the next HST servicing mission. One of the components under evaluation was the cryocooler for the Near Infrared Camera and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS). Based on concerns about vibrations from the operation of the NICMOS cryocooler affecting the overall HST line-of-sight requirements, the Space Acceleration Measurement System for Free-Flyers (SAMS-FF) was employed to measure the vibratory environment of the STS-95 mission, including any effects introduced by the NICMOS cryocooler. The STS-95 mission represents the first STS mission supported by SAMS-FF. Utilizing a Control and Data Acquisition Unit (CDU) and two triaxial sensor heads (TSH) mounted on the HOST support structure in Discovery's cargo bay, the SAMS-FF and the HOST project were able to make vibratory measurements both on-board the vibration-isolated NICMOS cryocooler and off-board the cryocooler mounting plate. By comparing the SAMS-FF measured vibrations on-board and off-board the NICMOS cryocooler, HST engineers could assess the cryocooler g-jitter effects on the HST line-of-sight requirements. The acceleration records from both SAMS-FF accelerometers were analyzed and significant features of the microgravity environment are detailed in this report.

  17. Advancing Lidar Sensors Technologies for Next Generation Landing Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Hines, Glenn D.; Roback, Vincent E.; Petway, Larry B.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Brewster, Paul F.; Pierrottet, Diego F.; Bulyshev, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Missions to solar systems bodies must meet increasingly ambitious objectives requiring highly reliable "precision landing", and "hazard avoidance" capabilities. Robotic missions to the Moon and Mars demand landing at pre-designated sites of high scientific value near hazardous terrain features, such as escarpments, craters, slopes, and rocks. Missions aimed at paving the path for colonization of the Moon and human landing on Mars need to execute onboard hazard detection and precision maneuvering to ensure safe landing near previously deployed assets. Asteroid missions require precision rendezvous, identification of the landing or sampling site location, and navigation to the highly dynamic object that may be tumbling at a fast rate. To meet these needs, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) has developed a set of advanced lidar sensors under the Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT) project. These lidar sensors can provide precision measurement of vehicle relative proximity, velocity, and orientation, and high resolution elevation maps of the surface during the descent to the targeted body. Recent flights onboard Morpheus free-flyer vehicle have demonstrated the viability of ALHAT lidar sensors for future landing missions to solar system bodies.

  18. The on-board software of the HERSCHEL/PACS instrument: three successful years of in-flight operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pezzuto, Stefano; Ottensamer, Roland; Mazy, Alain; Feuchtgruber, Helmut; Di Giorgio, Anna Maria; Vandenbussche, Bart; Benedettini, Milena; Liu, Scige John; Molinari, Sergio; Schito, Daniele

    2012-09-01

    PACS is one of the three instruments of the ESA space mission Herschel. Its warm electronics consists of 4 computers connected through 1355 links. Each computer is equipped with a DSP-21020 microprocessor, each running its own software. In this poster we describe the main features of the dierent software with some emphasis on the FDIR (Failure Detection Isolation and Recovery) procedures implemented on-board: we describe the FDIR design and we show how the few anomalies that occurred since the Herschel launch three years ago, have been succesfully handled autonomously by the instrument.

  19. The Hinode(Solar-B)Mission: An Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosugi, T.; Matsuzaki, K.; Sakao, T.; Shimizu, T.; Sone, Y.; Tachikawa, S.; Minesugi, K.; Ohnishi, A.; Yamada, T.; Tsuneta, S.; Hara, H.; Ichimoto, K.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimojo, M.; Watanabe, T.; Shimada, S.; Davis, J. M.; Hill, L. D.; Owens, J. K.; Title, A. M.; Culhane, J. L.; Harra, L. K.; Doschek, G. A.; Golub, L.

    2007-01-01

    The Hinode satellite (formerly Solar-B) of the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency's Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS/JAXA) was successfully launched in September 2006. As the successor to the Yohkoh mission, it aims to understand how magnetic energy is transferred from the photosphere to the upper atmospheres and resulting in explosive energy releases. Hinode is an observatory style mission, with all the instruments being designed and built to work together to address the science aims. There are three instruments onboard: the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT), the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), and the X-ray Telescope (XRT). This paper overviews the mission, including the satellite, the scientific payload and operations. It will conclude with discussions on how the international science community can participate in the analysis of the mission data.

  20. Expert systems and advanced automation for space missions operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrani, Sajjad H.; Perkins, Dorothy C.; Carlton, P. Douglas

    1990-10-01

    Increased complexity of space missions during the 1980s led to the introduction of expert systems and advanced automation techniques in mission operations. This paper describes several technologies in operational use or under development at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Goddard Space Flight Center. Several expert systems are described that diagnose faults, analyze spacecraft operations and onboard subsystem performance (in conjunction with neural networks), and perform data quality and data accounting functions. The design of customized user interfaces is discussed, with examples of their application to space missions. Displays, which allow mission operators to see the spacecraft position, orientation, and configuration under a variety of operating conditions, are described. Automated systems for scheduling are discussed, and a testbed that allows tests and demonstrations of the associated architectures, interface protocols, and operations concepts is described. Lessons learned are summarized.

  1. The INCO Expert System Project: CLIPS in Shuttle mission control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rasmussen, Arthur N.; Muratore, John F.; Heindel, Troy A.

    1990-01-01

    The INCO (Integrated Communications Officer) Expert System Project (IESP) was undertaken in 1987 by the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD) at NASA's Johnson Space Center (JSC) to explore the use of advanced automation in the mission operations arena. One of MOD's primary responsibilities in the space shuttle program is the manning of the flight control positions in the Mission Control Center (MCC) at JSC. The MCC is the central hub for all ground support activities in support of Space Shuttle missions. Its responsibility extends from the moment of lift-off from the launch pad though the completion of landing. The flight controllers in the MCC are tasked with monitoring the health and status of all on-board systems and payloads, detecting and remedying errors and failures, and modifying flight activity plans accordingly.

  2. Ikhana: A NASA UAS Supporting Long Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Ikhana unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a General Atomics Aeronautical Systems Inc. (San Diego, California) MQ-9 Predator-B modified to support the conduct of Earth science missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate and, through partnerships, other government agencies and universities. It can carry over 2000 lb of experiment payloads in the avionics bay and external pods and is capable of mission durations in excess of 24 hours at altitudes above 40,000 ft. The aircraft is remotely piloted from a mobile ground control station (GCS) that is designed to be deployable by air, land, or sea. On-board support capabilities include an instrumentation system and an Airborne Research Test System (ARTS). The Ikhana project will complete GCS development, science support systems integration, external pod integration and flight clearance, and operations crew training in early 2007. A large-area remote sensing mission is currently scheduled for Summer 2007.

  3. On-board autonomous attitude maneuver planning for planetary spacecraft using genetic algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kornfeld, Richard P.

    2003-01-01

    A key enabling technology that leads to greater spacecraft autonomy is the capability to autonomously and optimally slew the spacecraft from and to different attitudes while operating under a number of celestial and dynamic constraints. The task of finding an attitude trajectory that meets all the constraints is a formidable one, in particular for orbiting or fly-by spacecraft where the constraints and initial and final conditions are of time-varying nature. This paper presents an approach for attitude path planning that makes full use of a priori constraint knowledge and is computationally tractable enough to be executed on-board a spacecraft. The approach is based on incorporating the constraints into a cost function and using a Genetic Algorithm to iteratively search for and optimize the solution. This results in a directed random search that explores a large part of the solution space while maintaining the knowledge of good solutions from iteration to iteration. A solution obtained this way may be used 'as is' or as an initial solution to initialize additional deterministic optimization algorithms. A number of example simulations are presented including the case examples of a generic Europa Orbiter spacecraft in cruise as well as in orbit around Europa. The search times are typically on the order of minutes, thus demonstrating the viability of the presented approach. The results are applicable to all future deep space missions where greater spacecraft autonomy is required. In addition, onboard autonomous attitude planning greatly facilitates navigation and science observation planning, benefiting thus all missions to planet Earth as well.

  4. Advanced Liquid Natural Gas Onboard Storage System

    SciTech Connect

    Greg Harper; Charles Powars

    2003-10-31

    Cummins Westport Incorporated (CWI) has designed and developed a liquefied natural gas (LNG) vehicle fuel system that includes a reciprocating pump with the cold end submerged in LNG contained in a vacuum-jacketed tank. This system was tested and analyzed under the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Advanced LNG Onboard Storage System (ALOSS) program. The pumped LNG fuel system developed by CWI and tested under the ALOSS program is a high-pressure system designed for application on Class 8 trucks powered by CWI's ISX G engine, which employs high-pressure direct injection (HPDI) technology. A general ALOSS program objective was to demonstrate the feasibility and advantages of a pumped LNG fuel system relative to on-vehicle fuel systems that require the LNG to be ''conditioned'' to saturation pressures that exceeds the engine fuel pressure requirements. These advantages include the capability to store more fuel mass in given-size vehicle and station tanks, and simpler lower-cost LNG refueling stations that do not require conditioning equipment. Pumped LNG vehicle fuel systems are an alternative to conditioned LNG systems for spark-ignition natural gas and port-injection dual-fuel engines (which typically require about 100 psi), and they are required for HPDI engines (which require over 3,000 psi). The ALOSS program demonstrated the feasibility of a pumped LNG vehicle fuel system and the advantages of this design relative to systems that require conditioning the LNG to a saturation pressure exceeding the engine fuel pressure requirement. LNG tanks mounted on test carts and the CWI engineering truck were repeatedly filled with LNG saturated at 20 to 30 psig. More fuel mass was stored in the vehicle tanks as well as the station tank, and no conditioning equipment was required at the fueling station. The ALOSS program also demonstrated the general viability and specific performance of the CWI pumped LNG fuel system design. The system tested as part of this program is

  5. Space physics missions handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Robert A. (Compiler); Burks, David H. (Compiler); Hayne, Julie A. (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this handbook is to provide background data on current, approved, and planned missions, including a summary of the recommended candidate future missions. Topics include the space physics mission plan, operational spacecraft, and details of such approved missions as the Tethered Satellite System, the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory, and the Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science.

  6. Mir Mission Chronicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Sue

    1998-01-01

    Dockings, module additions, configuration changes, crew changes, and major mission events are tracked for Mir missions 17 through 21 (November 1994 through August 1996). The international aspects of these missions are presented, comprising joint missions with ESA and NASA, including three U.S. Space Shuttle dockings. New Mir modules described are Spektr, the Docking Module, and Priroda.

  7. Review on PHOBOS sample retrieval mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagaoka, Nobuaki

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of the Phobos sample collection mission is to rendezvous with the Mars satellite Phobos, conduct observation of its surface, and collect and return samples to the Earth. The sample return satellite for achieving the mission will be injected into the Mars revolving orbit by a H-2 launch vehicle and an Orbit Transfer Vehicle (OTV). The satellite will stay on the Phobos surface till the Earth and Mars are in favorable positions relative to each other. Reviews are conducted on the following items: (1) onboard mission equipment; (2) the mission profile of injection into the revolving orbit of Mars, access to and landing on Phobos, and sample return to the Earth; (3) methods of fixing the satellite on the surface of Phobos; and (4) sample retrieving to the Earth. The following subsystems of the satellite system are reviewed: (1) the electric power subsystem; (2) the data processing communication subsystem; (3) the attitude and orbit control subsystem; (4) the propulsion subsystem; (5) the thermal control subsystem; (6) the structure subsystem; (7) the sample retrieving probe; and (8) the satellite configuration.

  8. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Hogie, Keith; Casasanta, Ralph; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents work being done at NASA/GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center) on applying standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols (IP) can provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, and constellations of spacecraft. A primary component of this work is to design and demonstrate automated end-to-end transport of files in a dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. These functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both Earth and space science missions fly more sensors and the present labor-intensive, mission-specific techniques for processing and routing data become prohibitively expensive. This paper describes how an IP-based communication architecture can support existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end file transfers all the way from instruments to control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with data rates and downlink capabilities from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Many examples are based on designs currently being investigated for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission.

  9. Mission Operations with an Autonomous Agent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pell, Barney; Sawyer, Scott R.; Muscettola, Nicola; Smith, Benjamin; Bernard, Douglas E.

    1998-01-01

    The Remote Agent (RA) is an Artificial Intelligence (AI) system which automates some of the tasks normally reserved for human mission operators and performs these tasks autonomously on-board the spacecraft. These tasks include activity generation, sequencing, spacecraft analysis, and failure recovery. The RA will be demonstrated as a flight experiment on Deep Space One (DSI), the first deep space mission of the NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). As we moved from prototyping into actual flight code development and teamed with ground operators, we made several major extensions to the RA architecture to address the broader operational context in which PA would be used. These extensions support ground operators and the RA sharing a long-range mission profile with facilities for asynchronous ground updates; support ground operators monitoring and commanding the spacecraft at multiple levels of detail simultaneously; and enable ground operators to provide additional knowledge to the RA, such as parameter updates, model updates, and diagnostic information, without interfering with the activities of the RA or leaving the system in an inconsistent state. The resulting architecture supports incremental autonomy, in which a basic agent can be delivered early and then used in an increasingly autonomous manner over the lifetime of the mission. It also supports variable autonomy, as it enables ground operators to benefit from autonomy when L'@ey want it, but does not inhibit them from obtaining a detailed understanding and exercising tighter control when necessary. These issues are critical to the successful development and operation of autonomous spacecraft.

  10. On-board target acquisition for CHEOPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loeschl, P.; Ferstl, R.; Kerschbaum, F.; Ottensamer, R.

    2016-07-01

    The CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS) is the first ESA S-class and exoplanetary follow-up mission headed for launch in 2018. It will perform ultra-high-precision photometry of stars hosting confirmed exoplanets on a 3-axis stabilised sun-synchronous orbit that is optimised for uninterrupted observations at minimum stray light and thermal variations. Nevertheless, due to the satellites structural design, the alignment of the star trackers and the payload instrument telescope is affected by thermo-elastic deformations. This causes a high pointing uncertainty, which requires the payload instrument to provide an additional acquisition system for distinct target identification. Therefor a star extraction software and two star identification algorithms, originally designed for star trackers, were adapted and optimised for the special case of CHEOPS. In order to evaluate these algorithms reliability, thousands of random star configurations were analysed in Monte-Carlo simulations. We present the implemented identification methods and their performance as well as recommended parameters that guarantee a successful identification under all conditions.

  11. The infrared camera onboard JEM-EUSO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    The Extreme Universe Space Observatory on the Japanese Experiment Module (JEM-EUSO) on board the International Space Station (ISS) is the first space-based mission worldwide in the field of Ultra High-Energy Cosmic Rays (UHECR). For UHECR experiments, the atmosphere is not only the showering calorimeter for the primary cosmic rays, it is an essential part of the readout system, as well. Moreover, the atmosphere must be calibrated and has to be considered as input for the analysis of the fluorescence signals. Therefore, the JEM-EUSO Space Observatory is implementing an Atmospheric Monitoring System (AMS) that will include an IR-Camera and a LIDAR. The AMS Infrared Camera is an infrared, wide FoV, imaging system designed to provide the cloud coverage along the JEM-EUSO track and the cloud top height to properly achieve the UHECR reconstruction in cloudy conditions. In this paper, an updated preliminary design status, the results from the calibration tests of the first prototype, the simulation of the instrument, and preliminary cloud top height retrieval algorithms are presented.

  12. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) was one of NASA's science and technology programs and provided scientists an opportunity to research various scientific investigations in a weightless environment inside the Spacelab module. It also provided demonstrations of new equipment to help prepare for advanced microgravity research and processing aboard the Space Station. The USML-1 flew in orbit for extended periods, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology, and combustion science. In this photograph, astronaut Carl Meade is reviewing the manual to activate the Generic Bioprocessing Apparatus (GBA) inside the Spacelab module. The GBA for the USML-1 mission was a multipurpose facility that could help us answer important questions about the relationship between gravity and biology. This unique facility allowed scientists to study biological processes in samples ranging from molecules to small organisms. For example, scientists would examine how collagen, a protein substance found in cornective tissue, bones, and cartilage, forms fibers. In microgravity, it might be possible to alter collagen fiber assembly so that this material could be used more effectively as artificial skin, blood vessels, and other parts of the body. The USML-1 was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center and waslaunched aboard the Space Shuttle Orbiter Columbia (STS-50) on June 25, 1992.

  13. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) was one of NASA's science and technology programs that provided scientists an opportunity to research various scientific investigations in a weightless environment inside the Spacelab module. It also provided demonstrations of new equipment to help prepare for advanced microgravity research and processing aboard the Space Station. The USML-1 flew in orbit for extended periods, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology (crystal growth), and combustion science. This is a close-up view of the Astroculture experiment rack in the middeck of the orbiter. The Astroculture experiment was to evaluate and find effective ways to supply nutrient solutions for optimizing plant growth and avoid releasing solutions into the crew quarters in microgravity. Since fluids behave differently in microgravity, plant watering systems that operate well on Earth do not function effectively in space. Plants can reduce the costs of providing food, oxygen, and pure water, as well as lower the costs of removing carbon dioxide in human space habitats. The USML-1 flew aboard the STS-50 mission on June 1992 and was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  14. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) was one of NASA's science and technology programs that provided scientists an opportunity to research various scientific investigations in a weightlessness environment inside the Spacelab module. It also provided demonstrations of new equipment to help prepare for advanced microgravity research and processing aboard the Space Station. The USML-1 flew in orbit for extended periods, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology (crystal growth), and combustion science. This is a close-up view of the Drop Physics Module (DPM) in the USML science laboratory. The DPM was dedicated to the detailed study of the dynamics of fluid drops in microgravity: their equilibrium shapes, the dynamics of their flows, and their stable and chaotic behaviors. It also demonstrated a technique known as containerless processing. The DPM and microgravity combine to remove the effects of the container, such as chemical contamination and shape, on the sample being studied. Sound waves, generating acoustic forces, were used to suspend a sample in microgravity and to hold a sample of free drops away from the walls of the experiment chamber, which isolated the sample from potentially harmful external influences. The DPM gave scientists the opportunity to test theories of classical fluid physics, which have not been confirmed by experiments conducted on Earth. This image is a close-up view of the DPM. The USML-1 flew aboard the STS-50 mission on June 1992, and was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  15. STS-50 USML-1, Onboard Photograph

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The first United States Microgravity Laboratory (USML-1) was one of NASA's science and technology programs that provided scientists an opportunity to research various scientific investigations in a weightless environment inside the Spacelab module. It also provided demonstrations of new equipment to help prepare for advanced microgravity research and processing aboard the Space Station. The USML-1 flew in orbit for extended periods, providing greater opportunities for research in materials science, fluid dynamics, biotechnology (crystal growth), and combustion science. This photograph shows astronaut Ken Bowersox conducting the Astroculture experiment in the middeck of the orbiter Columbia. This experiment was to evaluate and find effective ways to supply nutrient solutions for optimizing plant growth and avoid releasing solutions into the crew quarters in microgravity. Since fluids behave differently in microgravity, plant watering systems that operate well on Earth do not function effectively in space. Plants can reduce the costs of providing food, oxygen, and pure water as well as lower the costs of removing carbon dioxide in human space habitats. The Astroculture experiment flew aboard the STS-50 mission in June 1992 and was managed by the Marshall Space Flight Center.

  16. The Magnetospheric Multiscale Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burch, James

    Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS), a NASA four-spacecraft mission scheduled for launch in November 2014, will investigate magnetic reconnection in the boundary regions of the Earth’s magnetosphere, particularly along its dayside boundary with the solar wind and the neutral sheet in the magnetic tail. Among the important questions about reconnection that will be addressed are the following: Under what conditions can magnetic-field energy be converted to plasma energy by the annihilation of magnetic field through reconnection? How does reconnection vary with time, and what factors influence its temporal behavior? What microscale processes are responsible for reconnection? What determines the rate of reconnection?
In order to accomplish its goals the MMS spacecraft must probe both those regions in which the magnetic fields are very nearly antiparallel and regions where a significant guide field exists. From previous missions we know the approximate speeds with which reconnection layers move through space to be from tens to hundreds of km/s. For electron skin depths of 5 to 10 km, the full 3D electron population (10 eV to above 20 keV) has to be sampled at rates greater than 10/s. The MMS Fast-Plasma Instrument (FPI) will sample electrons at greater than 30/s. Because the ion skin depth is larger, FPI will make full ion measurements at rates of greater than 6/s. 3D E-field measurements will be made by MMS once every ms. MMS will use an Active Spacecraft Potential Control device (ASPOC), which emits indium ions to neutralize the photoelectron current and keep the spacecraft from charging to more than +4 V. Because ion dynamics in Hall reconnection depend sensitively on ion mass, MMS includes a new-generation Hot Plasma Composition Analyzer (HPCA) that corrects problems with high proton fluxes that have prevented accurate ion-composition measurements near the dayside magnetospheric boundary. Finally, Energetic Particle Detector (EPD) measurements of electrons and

  17. Backup Crew of the first manned Apollo mission practice water egress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Backup crew for Apollo/Saturn Mission 204, the first manned Apollo space flight, onboard the NASA Motor Vessel Retriever during water egress training activity in the Gulf of Mexico. Left to right, are Astronauts James A. McDivitt, Russell L. Schwickart, and David R. Scott.

  18. The Black Hull Fleet: Multi-Function Assets for Multi-Mission Duty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    all of the Coast Guard’s statutory mission areas, and carry specialized equipment to fulfill those functions. For example, as a result of the Exxon ... Valdez oil spill in 1989, the Oil Pollution Act of 1990 mandated that they be outfittedwith an onboard spilled oil recovery system (SORS) comprised of

  19. Astronaut Mario Runco Jr., mission specialist, looks through the second view port inside the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-77 ESC VIEW --- Astronaut Mario Runco Jr., mission specialist, looks through the second view port inside the Spacehab Module onboard the Earth-orbiting Space Shuttle Endeavour. Runco was documenting Spartan 207/Inflatable Antenna Experiment (IAE) activities at the time. The scene was recorded with an Electronic Still Camera (ESC).

  20. Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    STS-75 ONBOARD VIEW --- Astronaut Andrew M. Allen, mission commander, sets up systems for a television downlink on the flight deck of the Space Shuttle Columbia. Allen was joined by four other astronauts and an international payload specialist for more than 16 days of research aboard Columbia. The photograph was taken with a 70mm handheld camera.

  1. Ikhana: A NASA UAS Supporting Long Duration Earth Science Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cobleigh, Brent R.

    2006-01-01

    NASA's Ikhana unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) is a General Atomics MQ-9 Predator-B modified to support the conduct of Earth science missions for the NASA Science Mission Directorate through partnerships, other government agencies and universities. Ikhana, a Native American word meaning 'intelligence', can carry over 2000 lbs of atmospheric and remote sensing instruments in the payload bay and external pods. The aircraft is capable of mission durations in excess of 24 hours at altitudes above 40,000 ft. Redundant flight control, avionics, power, and network systems increase the system reliability and allow easier access to public airspace. The aircraft is remotely piloted from a mobile ground control station (GCS) using both C-band line-of-sight and Ku-band over-the-horizon satellite datalinks. NASA's GCS has been modified to support on-site science monitoring, or the downlink data can be networked to remote sites. All ground support systems are designed to be deployable to support global Eart science investigations. On-board support capabilities include an instrumentation system and an Airborne Research Test System (ARTS). The ARTS can host research algorithms that will autonomously command and control on-board sensors, perform sensor health monitoring, conduct data analysis, and request changes to the flight plan to maximize data collection. The ARTS also has the ability to host algorithms that will autonomously control the aircraft trajectory based on sensor needs, (e.g. precision trajectory for repeat pass interferometry) or to optimize mission objectives (e.g. search for specific atmospheric conditions). Standard on-board networks will collect science data for recording and for inclusion in the aircraft's high bandwidth downlink. The Ikhana project will complete GCS development, science support systems integration, external pod integration and flight clearance, and operations crew training in early 2007. A large-area remote sensing mission is currently scheduled

  2. Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Urbina, Michelle; Rubin, D.; Hailey, M.; Reyes, D.; Antonsen, Eric

    2017-01-01

    Future exploration missions will be the first time humanity travels beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO) since the Apollo program, taking us to cis-lunar space, interplanetary space, and Mars. These long-duration missions will cover vast distances, severely constraining opportunities for emergency evacuation to Earth and cargo resupply opportunities. Communication delays and blackouts between the crew and Mission Control will eliminate reliable, real-time telemedicine consultations. As a result, compared to current LEO operations onboard the International Space Station, exploration mission medical care requires an integrated medical system that provides additional in-situ capabilities and a significant increase in crew autonomy. The Medical System Concept of Operations for Mars Exploration Missions illustrates how a future NASA Mars program could ensure appropriate medical care for the crew of this highly autonomous mission. This Concept of Operations document, when complete, will document all mission phases through a series of mission use case scenarios that illustrate required medical capabilities, enabling the NASA Human Research Program (HRP) Exploration Medical Capability (ExMC) Element to plan, design, and prototype an integrated medical system to support human exploration to Mars.

  3. The APIES mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2006-01-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation & Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to the European Space Agency (ESA) recent Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. APIES is intended to be the first interplanetary swarm mission, designed to explore the asteroid main belt. This is one of the least known parts of the Solar System, yet holding vital information about its evolution and planet formation. APIES aims to characterize a statistically significant sample of asteroids, exploring the main belt in great detail, measuring mass & density and imaging over 100 of these objects, at a stroke more than doubling the number of Solar System bodies visited by man-made spacecraft. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve these ambitious goals within the framework of a standard ESA mission. APIES has completed a mission feasibility study as part of the general studies programme (GSP) of ESA, whose purpose is to evaluate novel missions, concepts, methods, and to identify their research and development needs beyond the programmes currently running.

  4. The APIES mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation & Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to an European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. APIES is intended to be the first interplanetary swarm mission, designed to explore the asteroid main belt. This is one the least known parts of the Solar System, yet holding vital information about its evolution and planet formation. APIES aims to characterize a statistically significant sample of asteroids, exploring the main belt in great detail, measuring mass & density and imaging over 100 of these objects, at a stroke more than doubling the number of Solar System bodies visited by man-made spacecraft. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve these ambitious goals within the framework of a standard ESA mission. APIES has completed a Mission Feasibility Study as part of the General Studies Programme (GSP) of ESA, whose purpose is to evaluate novel missions, concepts, methods, and to identify their research and development needs beyond the programmes currently running.

  5. Predicting Mission Success in Small Satellite Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saunders, Mark; Richie, Wayne; Rogers, John; Moore, Arlene

    1992-01-01

    In our global society with its increasing international competition and tighter financial resources, governments, commercial entities and other organizations are becoming critically aware of the need to ensure that space missions can be achieved on time and within budget. This has become particularly true for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Office of Space Science (OSS) which has developed their Discovery and Explorer programs to meet this need. As technologies advance, space missions are becoming smaller and more capable than their predecessors. The ability to predict the mission success of these small satellite missions is critical to the continued achievement of NASA science mission objectives. The NASA Office of Space Science, in cooperation with the NASA Langley Research Center, has implemented a process to predict the likely success of missions proposed to its Discovery and Explorer Programs. This process is becoming the basis for predicting mission success in many other NASA programs as well. This paper describes the process, methodology, tools and synthesis techniques used to predict mission success for this class of mission.

  6. Fiber-Optic Network Architectures for Onboard Avionics Applications Investigated

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Hung D.; Ngo, Duc H.

    2003-01-01

    This project is part of a study within the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies program undertaken at the NASA Glenn Research Center. The main focus of the program is the improvement of air transportation, with particular emphasis on air transportation safety. Current and future advances in digital data communications between an aircraft and the outside world will require high-bandwidth onboard communication networks. Radiofrequency (RF) systems, with their interconnection network based on coaxial cables and waveguides, increase the complexity of communication systems onboard modern civil and military aircraft with respect to weight, power consumption, and safety. In addition, safety and reliability concerns from electromagnetic interference between the RF components embedded in these communication systems exist. A simple, reliable, and lightweight network that is free from the effects of electromagnetic interference and capable of supporting the broadband communications needs of future onboard digital avionics systems cannot be easily implemented using existing coaxial cable-based systems. Fiber-optical communication systems can meet all these challenges of modern avionics applications in an efficient, cost-effective manner. The objective of this project is to present a number of optical network architectures for onboard RF signal distribution. Because of the emergence of a number of digital avionics devices requiring high-bandwidth connectivity, fiber-optic RF networks onboard modern aircraft will play a vital role in ensuring a low-noise, highly reliable RF communication system. Two approaches are being used for network architectures for aircraft onboard fiber-optic distribution systems: a hybrid RF-optical network and an all-optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) network.

  7. Phootprint - A Phobos sample return mission study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koschny, Detlef; Svedhem, Håkan; Rebuffat, Denis

    Introduction ESA is currently studying a mission to return a sample from Phobos, called Phootprint. This study is performed as part of ESA’s Mars Robotic Exploration Programme. Part of the mission goal is to prepare technology needed for a sample return mission from Mars itself; the mission should also have a strong scientific justification, which is described here. 1. Science goal The main science goal of this mission will be to Understand the formation of the Martian moons Phobos and put constraints on the evolution of the solar system. Currently, there are several possibilities for explaining the formation of the Martian moons: (a) co-formation with Mars (b) capture of objects coming close to Mars (c) Impact of a large body onto Mars and formation from the impact ejecta The main science goal of this mission is to find out which of the three scenarios is the most probable one. To do this, samples from Phobos would be returned to Earth and analyzed with extremely high precision in ground-based laboratories. An on-board payload is foreseen to provide information to put the sample into the necessary geological context. 2. Mission Spacecraft and payload will be based on experience gained from previous studies to Martian moons and asteroids. In particular the Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R asteroid sample return mission studies performed at ESA were used as a starting point. Currently, industrial studies are ongoing. The initial starting assumption was to use a Soyuz launcher. Uunlike the initial Marco Polo and MarcoPolo-R studies to an asteroid, a transfer stage will be needed. Another main difference to an asteroid mission is the fact that the spacecraft actually orbits Mars, not Phobos or Deimos. It is possible to select a spacecraft orbit, which in a Phobos- or Deimos-centred reference system would give an ellipse around the moon. The following model payload is currently foreseen: - Wide Angle Camera, - Narrow Angle Camera, - Close-Up Camera, - Context camera for

  8. The Mission Transcript Collection: U.S. Human Spaceflight Missions from Mercury Redstone 3 to Apollo 17

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Aboard every U.S. piloted spacecraft, from Mercury through Apollo, NASA installed tape recorders that captured nearly every word spoken by the astronauts during their history-making flights into space. For the first time ever, NASA has digitally scanned all of the transcripts made from both the onboard tapes and those tape recordings made on the ground from the air-to-ground transmissions and placed them on this two CD-ROM set. Gathered in this special collection are 80 transcripts totaling nearly 45,000 pages of text that cover every US human spaceflight from the first human Mercury mission through the last lunar landing flight of Apollo 17. Users of this CD will note that the quantity and type of transcripts made for each mission vary. For example, the Mercury flights each had one transcript whereas the Gemini missions produced several. Starting with the Gemini flights, NASA produced a Public Affairs Office (PAO) commentary version, as well as at least one "technical" air-to-ground transcript version, per mission. Most of the Apollo missions produced four transcripts per flight. These included the onboard voice data recorder transcripts made from the Data Storage Equipment (DSE) on the Command Module (CM), and the Data Storage Electronics Assembly (DSEA) onboard the Lunar Module (LM), in addition to the PAO commentary and air-to-ground technical transcripts. The CD set includes an index listing each transcript file by name. Some of the transcripts include a detailed explanation of their contents and how they were made. Also included in this collection is a listing of all the original air-to-ground audiotapes housed in NASA's archives from which many of these transcripts were made. We hope you find this collection of transcripts interesting and useful.

  9. Scientific investigations of the Mars Express mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicarro, A. F.

    2003-04-01

    The ESA Mars Express mission will be launched in May 2003 from Baikonur onboard a Russian Soyuz/Fregat launcher. The mission comprises an orbiter spacecraft to be placed in a quasi-polar martian orbit, with closest approach at 250 km and a mission lifetime of one martian year (687 days), and the small Beagle-2 probe to land at Isidis Planitia in December 2003 and operate on the martian surface for about six months. In addition to studying the surface, subsurface and atmosphere of Mars, the main themes of the mission are the search for water at present and the search for possible signs of life in the history of the planet. The specific scientific objectives and experiments of the orbiter are: global high-resolution imaging and imaging of selected areas with super-resolution (HRSC), global IR mineralogical mapping (OMEGA), sounding of the subsurface structure down to a few km (MARSIS), global atmospheric circulation study and mapping of the atmospheric composition (PFS, SPICAM), study of the interaction of the interplanetary medium with the upper atmosphere (ASPERA), as well as radio science (MaRS). The goals of the Beagle-2 lander are: geology, geochemistry, meteorology and exobiology of the landing site. Beagle-2 will use a suite of imagers, organic and mineral chemistry analysers, environmental sensors and robotic devices to sample soil and rocks on and below the surface. Collaboration with the Japanese Nozomi mission will diversify the scope and enhance the scientific return of both missions, as they are complementary to each other in terms of orbits and science goals. For more details on Mars Express and its Beagle-2 lander: http://sci.esa.int/marsexpress/ and http://www.beagle2.com

  10. NASA's Planetary Science Missions and Participations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, James

    2016-04-01

    NASA's Planetary Science Division (PSD) and space agencies around the world are collaborating on an extensive array of missions exploring our solar system. Planetary science missions are conducted by some of the most sophisticated robots ever built. International collaboration is an essential part of what we do. NASA has always encouraged international participation on our missions both strategic (ie: Mars 2020) and competitive (ie: Discovery and New Frontiers) and other Space Agencies have reciprocated and invited NASA investigators to participate in their missions. NASA PSD has partnerships with virtually every major space agency. For example, NASA has had a long and very fruitful collaboration with ESA. ESA has been involved in the Cassini mission and, currently, NASA funded scientists are involved in the Rosetta mission (3 full instruments, part of another), BepiColombo mission (1 instrument in the Italian Space Agency's instrument suite), and the Jupiter Icy Moon Explorer mission (1 instrument and parts of two others). In concert with ESA's Mars missions NASA has an instrument on the Mars Express mission, the orbit-ground communications package on the Trace Gas Orbiter (launched in March 2016) and part of the DLR/Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer instruments going onboard the ExoMars Rover (to be launched in 2018). NASA's Planetary Science Division has continuously provided its U.S. planetary science community with opportunities to include international participation on NASA missions too. For example, NASA's Discovery and New Frontiers Programs provide U.S. scientists the opportunity to assemble international teams and design exciting, focused planetary science investigations that would deepen the knowledge of our Solar System. Last year, PSD put out an international call for instruments on the Mars 2020 mission. This procurement led to the selection of Spain and Norway scientist leading two instruments and French scientists providing a significant portion of

  11. Feasibility of an onboard wake vortex avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bilanin, Alan J.; Teske, Milton E.; Curtiss, Howard C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    It was determined that an onboard vortex wake detection system using existing, proven instrumentation is technically feasible. This system might be incorporated into existing onboard systems such as a wind shear detection system, and might provide the pilot with the location of a vortex wake, as well as an evasive maneuver so that the landing separations may be reduced. It is suggested that this system might be introduced into our nation's commuter aircraft fleet and major air carrier fleet and permit a reduction of current landing separation standards, thereby reducing takeoff and departure delays.

  12. Detection of weak frequency jumps for GNSS onboard clocks.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xinming; Gong, Hang; Ou, Gang

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a weak frequency jump detection method is developed for onboard clocks in global navigation satellite systems (GNSS). A Kalman filter is employed to facilitate the onboard real-time processing of atomic clock measurements, whose N-step prediction residuals are used to construct the weak frequency jump detector. Numerical simulations show that the method can successfully detect weak frequency jumps. The detection method proposed in this paper is helpful for autonomous integrity monitoring of GNSS satellite clocks, and can also be applied to other frequency anomalies with an appropriately modified detector.

  13. An innovative on-board processor for lightsats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henshaw, R. M.; Ballard, B. W.; Hayes, J. R.; Lohr, D. A.

    1990-01-01

    The Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) has developed a flightworthy custom microprocessor that increases capability and reduces development costs of lightsat science instruments. This device, called the FRISC (FORTH Reduced Instruction Set Computer), directly executes the high-level language called FORTH, which is ideally suited to the multitasking control and data processing environment of a spaceborne instrument processor. The FRISC will be flown as the onboard processor in the Magnetic Field Experiment on the Freja satllite. APL has achieved a significant increase in onboard processing capability with no increase in cost when compared to the magnetometer instrument on Freja's predecessor, the Viking satellite.

  14. On-Board Spaceborne Real-time Digital Signal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, G.; Long, F.; Liu, L.

    begin center Abstract end center This paper reports a preliminary study result of an on-board digital signal processing system It consists of the on-board processing requirement analysis functional specifications and implementation with the radiation tolerant field-programmable gate array FPGA technology The FPGA program is designed in the VHDL hardware description language and implemented onto a high density F PGA chip The design takes full advantage of the massively parallel architecture of the VirtexII FPGA logic slices to achieve real-time processing at a big data rate Further more an FFT algorithm s implementation with the system is provided as an illustration

  15. On-board data recorder for hard-target weapons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niven, W. A.; Jaroska, M. F.

    1981-03-01

    A small, rugged, solid state onboard recorder was developed to capture dynamic data for testing hard target penetration weapons. The onboard recorder that was developed is illustrated. The transient recorder electronics is packaged so that it will fit in the fuze well of the bomb or warhead. Special techniques were used to package the recorder's electronics to allow it to survive the high shock levels associated with the impact with the hard target. Accelerometers measure the accelerations of the warhead. The warhead is recovered after the test, a memory readout system is connected to the transient recorder's memory, and the information is read out for display and analysis.

  16. A suborbital IMU test mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawman, Adam; Straub, Jeremy; Kerlin, Scott

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents work conducted in preparation for a suborbital test flight to test an inertial measurement unit's (IMU's) ability to serve as a position determination mechanism in a GPS-denied environment. Because the IMU could potentially be used at several points during flight, it is not guaranteed that a GPS fix can be used to reset the IMU after the stresses of launch. Due to this, the specific goal of this work is to characterize whether a rocket launch disrupts the IMU-based position knowledge to the extent that it is unusable. This paper discusses preparations for a sub-orbital launch mission to this end. It include a description of the hardware and software used. A discussion of the data logging mechanism and the onboard and post-flight processing which is required to compare the GPS fixes and IMU-generated positions is also presented. Finally, the utility of an IMU capable of maintaining position awareness during launch is discussed.

  17. Potential Mission Scenarios Post Asteroid Crewed Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lopez, Pedro, Jr.; McDonald, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    A deep-space mission has been proposed to identify and redirect an asteroid to a distant retrograde orbit around the moon, and explore it by sending a crew using the Space Launch System and the Orion spacecraft. The Asteroid Redirect Crewed Mission (ARCM), which represents the third segment of the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), could be performed on EM-3 or EM-4 depending on asteroid return date. Recent NASA studies have raised questions on how we could progress from current Human Space Flight (HSF) efforts to longer term human exploration of Mars. This paper will describe the benefits of execution of the ARM as the initial stepping stone towards Mars exploration, and how the capabilities required to send humans to Mars could be built upon those developed for the asteroid mission. A series of potential interim missions aimed at developing such capabilities will be described, and the feasibility of such mission manifest will be discussed. Options for the asteroid crewed mission will also be addressed, including crew size and mission duration.

  18. Mission design options for human Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, Paul D.; Braun, Robert D.; Ahn, Jaemyung; Putnam, Zachary R.

    Trajectory options for conjunction-class human Mars missions are examined, including crewed Earth-Mars trajectories with the option for abort to Earth, with the intent of serving as a resource for mission designers. An analysis of the impact of Earth and Mars entry velocities on aeroassist systems is included, and constraints are suggested for interplanetary trajectories based upon aeroassist system capabilities.

  19. Galileo mission planning for Low Gain Antenna based operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gershman, R.; Buxbaum, K. L.; Ludwinski, J. M.; Paczkowski, B. G.

    1994-01-01

    The Galileo mission operations concept is undergoing substantial redesign, necessitated by the deployment failure of the High Gain Antenna, while the spacecraft is on its way to Jupiter. The new design applies state-of-the-art technology and processes to increase the telemetry rate available through the Low Gain Antenna and to increase the information density of the telemetry. This paper describes the mission planning process being developed as part of this redesign. Principal topics include a brief description of the new mission concept and anticipated science return (these have been covered more extensively in earlier papers), identification of key drivers on the mission planning process, a description of the process and its implementation schedule, a discussion of the application of automated mission planning tool to the process, and a status report on mission planning work to date. Galileo enhancements include extensive reprogramming of on-board computers and substantial hard ware and software upgrades for the Deep Space Network (DSN). The principal mode of operation will be onboard recording of science data followed by extended playback periods. A variety of techniques will be used to compress and edit the data both before recording and during playback. A highly-compressed real-time science data stream will also be important. The telemetry rate will be increased using advanced coding techniques and advanced receivers. Galileo mission planning for orbital operations now involves partitioning of several scarce resources. Particularly difficult are division of the telemetry among the many users (eleven instruments, radio science, engineering monitoring, and navigation) and allocation of space on the tape recorder at each of the ten satellite encounters. The planning process is complicated by uncertainty in forecast performance of the DSN modifications and the non-deterministic nature of the new data compression schemes. Key mission planning steps include

  20. STS-83 Onboard Photo: Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This is a Microgravity Science Laboratory-1 (MLS-1) onboard STS-83 photo of the most recent comet to date, Hale-Bopp, which passed by Earth during the spring and summer of 1997. In this view, the comet is visible during sunset. The streaks and distorted lights seen in the bottom of the photo are city lights and petroleum fires.

  1. Intelligent Sensors and Components for On-Board ISHM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Figueroa, Jorge; Morris, Jon; Nickles, Donald; Schmalzel, Jorge; Rauth, David; Mahajan, Ajay; Utterbach, L.; Oesch, C.

    2006-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on the development of intelligent sensors and components for on-board Integrated Systems Health Health Management (ISHM) is shown. The topics include: 1) Motivation; 2) Integrated Systems Health Management (ISHM); 3) Intelligent Components; 4) IEEE 1451; 5)Intelligent Sensors; 6) Application; and 7) Future Directions

  2. Real-time Java for on-board systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cechticky, V.; Pasetti, A.

    2002-07-01

    The Java language has several attractive features but cannot at present be used in on-board systems primarily because it lacks support for hard real-time operation. This shortcoming is in being addressed: some suppliers are already providing implementations of Java that are RT-compliant; Sun Microsystem has approved a formal specification for a real-time extension of the language; and an independent consortium is working on an alternative specification for real-time Java. It is therefore expected that, within a year or so, standardized commercial implementations of real-time Java will be on the market. Availability of real-time implementations now opens the way to its use on-board. Within this context, this paper has two objectives. Firstly, it discusses the suitability of Java for on-board applications. Secondly, it reports the results of an ESA study to port a software framework for on-board control systems to a commercial real-time version of Java.

  3. On-board processing satellite network architecture and control study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campanella, S. Joseph; Pontano, B.; Chalmers, H.

    1987-01-01

    For satellites to remain a vital part of future national and international communications, system concepts that use their inherent advantages to the fullest must be created. Network architectures that take maximum advantage of satellites equipped with onboard processing are explored. Satellite generations must accommodate various services for which satellites constitute the preferred vehicle of delivery. Such services tend to be those that are widely dispersed and present thin to medium loads to the system. Typical systems considered are thin and medium route telephony, maritime, land and aeronautical radio, VSAT data, low bit rate video teleconferencing, and high bit rate broadcast of high definition video. Delivery of services by TDMA and FDMA multiplexing techniques and combinations of the two for individual and mixed service types are studied. The possibilities offered by onboard circuit switched and packet switched architectures are examined and the results strongly support a preference for the latter. A detailed design architecture encompassing the onboard packet switch and its control, the related demand assigned TDMA burst structures, and destination packet protocols for routing traffic are presented. Fundamental onboard hardware requirements comprising speed, memory size, chip count, and power are estimated. The study concludes with identification of key enabling technologies and identifies a plan to develop a POC model.

  4. Dual Accelerometer Usage Strategy for Onboard Space Navigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanetti, Renato; D'Souza, Chris

    2012-01-01

    This work introduces a dual accelerometer usage strategy for onboard space navigation. In the proposed algorithm the accelerometer is used to propagate the state when its value exceeds a threshold and it is used to estimate its errors otherwise. Numerical examples and comparison to other accelerometer usage schemes are presented to validate the proposed approach.

  5. Economic Comparison of On-Board Module Builder Harvest Methods

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton pickers with on-board module builders (OBMB) eliminates the need for boll buggies, module builders, the tractors, and labor needed to operate this machinery. Additionally, field efficiency may be increased due to less stoppage for unloading and/or waiting to unload. This study estimates the ...

  6. 40 CFR 86.005-17 - On-board diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for a multiple number of driving cycles (i.e., more than one) due to the continued presence of extreme... Network Interface,” (Revised, May 2001) shall be used as the on-board to off-board communications protocol... section according to the phase-in schedule in paragraph (k) of this section. All monitored systems...

  7. 40 CFR 85.2222 - Onboard diagnostic test procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Tests § 85.2222 Onboard diagnostic test procedures. The test sequence for the OBD inspection shall consist of the following steps: (a) The OBD inspection shall be conducted with the key-on/engine running... Mode $01, PID $01 request in accordance with 40 CFR 86.1806 to determine the OBD evaluation status....

  8. Effective On-Board Diagnostics for electronic engine controls

    SciTech Connect

    Florence, D.E.; Michel, M.F.

    1985-01-01

    Properly implemented, On-Board Diagnostic (OBD) Systems fill the gap in sophistication between computer based fuel injection engine controls and a carburetor oriented service industry. By emphasizing simplicity and credibility, inexpensive OBD systems make electronic engine controls a desirable feature to the service technician.

  9. 40 CFR 85.2207 - Onboard diagnostic test standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Tests § 85.2207 Onboard diagnostic test standards. (a) A vehicle shall fail the OBD test if it is a 1996... inoperable. (b) A vehicle shall fail the OBD test if the malfunction indicator light (MIL) is commanded to be... OBD test if the MIL is commanded to be illuminated for one or more diagnostic trouble codes (DTCs),...

  10. On-Board Software Reference Architecture for Payloads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bos, Victor; Trcka, Adam

    2015-09-01

    This abstract summarizes the On-board Reference Architecture for Payloads activity carried out by Space Systems Finland (SSF) and Evolving Systems Consulting (ESC) under ESA contract. At the time of writing, the activity is ongoing. This abstract discusses study objectives, related activities, study approach, achieved and anticipated results, and directions for future work.

  11. 40 CFR 85.2231 - Onboard diagnostic test equipment requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF AIR POLLUTION FROM MOBILE SOURCES Emission Control System Performance Warranty Short Tests § 85.2231 Onboard diagnostic test equipment requirements. (a) The test system interface to the vehicle shall include a plug that conforms to the requirements and specifications of 40...

  12. 40 CFR 86.1806-17 - Onboard diagnostics.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Complete Otto-Cycle Heavy-Duty Vehicles § 86.1806-17 Onboard diagnostics. Model year 2017 and later... this paragraph (a)(8). (b) The following additional provisions apply: (1) Model year 2017 and later... paragraph (b)(1) in model year 2017 by substituting model year 2016 vehicles on an equal-percentage...

  13. LYRA and SWAP, the two Solar Instruments on-board PROBA2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominique, M.; Berghmans, D.; Schmutz, W. K.; Dammasch, I.; De Groof, A.; Halain, J.; Hochedez, J.; Kretzschmar, M.; Seaton, D. B.

    2011-12-01

    PROBA2 (http://proba2.sidc.be) is an ESA micro-satellite that was launched in November 2009. Two instruments on-board, SWAP and LYRA, are devoted to solar observations. SWAP (PI: D. Berghmans) is an EUV imager observing the corona with a bandpass centered on 174 Å at a cadence of 1-2 min. Its high contrast images, large FOV and flexible off-pointing capabilities make SWAP particularly well suited for the study of coronal eruptions. LYRA (PI: M. Dominique) is a UV-EUV radiometer observing in four spectral channels, chosen for their relevance in solar physics and aeronomy. Its very fast acquisition cadence (up to 100 Hz) allows scientists to perform detailed analysis of solar flares. We discuss the characteristics of both instruments, review their performance and evolution, and highlight their complementarity to other missions. We also present the data products that can be downloaded from the mission website and give an overview of the various investigations for which SWAP and LYRA data are currently used (CMEs, flares, solar variability, and many others).

  14. FPGA Based On-Board Computer System for the "Flying Laptop" Micro-Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, F.; Behr, P.; Röser, H.-P.; Pletner, S.

    2007-08-01

    The availability of new high density FPGA technologies enables innovative approaches to the architecture of onboard computer systems (OBCS) for demanding small satellite applications. In the paper, we present the architecture of a highly integrated satellite computer exploit- ing the powerful features of Xilinx's Virtex-II Pro FPGA technology. The computing resources of the "Flying Laptop" satellite are provided by a single OBCS performing the control functions of a traditional satellite bus controller (SBC) as well as all tasks of the payload data handling and processing system (PDH). The unification of the different computing functions on board the satellite onto a single but highly redundant computer system results in clear-cut system structure and provides a high degree of fault tolerance with minimal resource requirements. The "Flying Laptop" micro satellite is under development at the Institute of Space Systems at the Universität Stuttgart. The primary mission objective is to demonstrate and qualify new small-satellite technologies for the future projects. In addition, the three main scientific payloads of the satellite will allow performing a number of ambitious earth observation experiments. According to the primary mission objectives, the OBCS itself will be a subject for evaluations of its innovative concepts and for qualification of its underlying hardware.

  15. SpaceCube 2.0: An Advanced Hybrid Onboard Data Processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Michael; Flatley, Thomas; Godfrey, John; Geist, Alessandro; Espinosa, Daniel; Petrick, David

    2011-01-01

    The SpaceCube 2.0 is a compact, high performance, low-power onboard processing system that takes advantage of cutting-edge hybrid (CPU/FPGA/DSP) processing elements. The SpaceCube 2.0 design concept includes two commercial Virtex-5 field-programmable gate array (FPGA) parts protected by gradiation hardened by software" technology, and possesses exceptional size, weight, and power characteristics [5x5x7 in., 3.5 lb (approximately equal to 12.7 x 12.7 x 17.8 cm, 1.6 kg) 5-25 W, depending on the application fs required clock rate]. The two Virtex-5 FPGA parts are implemented in a unique back-toback configuration to maximize data transfer and computing performance. Draft computing power specifications for the SpaceCube 2.0 unit include four PowerPC 440s (1100 DMIPS each), 500+ DSP48Es (2x580 GMACS), 100+ LVDS high-speed serial I/Os (1.25 Gbps each), and 2x190 GFLOPS single-precision (65 GFLOPS double-precision) floating point performance. The SpaceCube 2.0 includes PROM memory for CPU boot, health and safety, and basic command and telemetry functionality; RAM memory for program execution; and FLASH/EEPROM memory to store algorithms and application code for the CPU, FPGA, and DSP processing elements. Program execution can be reconfigured in real time and algorithms can be updated, modified, and/or replaced at any point during the mission. Gigabit Ethernet, Spacewire, SATA and highspeed LVDS serial/parallel I/O channels are available for instrument/sensor data ingest, and mission-unique instrument interfaces can be accommodated using a compact PCI (cPCI) expansion card interface. The SpaceCube 2.0 can be utilized in NASA Earth Science, Helio/Astrophysics and Exploration missions, and Department of Defense satellites for onboard data processing. It can also be used in commercial communication and mapping satellites.

  16. Initial Considerations for Navigation and Flight Dynamics of a Crewed Near-Earth Object Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Greg N.; Getchius, Joel; Tracy, William H.

    2011-01-01

    A crewed mission to a Near-Earth Object (NEO) was recently identified as a NASA Space Policy goal and priority. In support of this goal, a study was conducted to identify the initial considerations for performing the navigation and flight dynamics tasks of this mission class. Although missions to a NEO are not new, the unique factors involved in human spaceflight present challenges that warrant special examination. During the cruise phase of the mission, one of the most challenging factors is the noisy acceleration environment associated with a crewed vehicle. Additionally, the presence of a human crew necessitates a timely return trip, which may need to be expedited in an emergency situation where the mission is aborted. Tracking, navigation, and targeting results are shown for sample human-class trajectories to NEOs. Additionally, the benefit of in-situ navigation beacons on robotic precursor missions is presented. This mission class will require a longer duration flight than Apollo and, unlike previous human missions, there will likely be limited communication and tracking availability. This will necessitate the use of more onboard navigation and targeting capabilities. Finally, the rendezvous and proximity operations near an asteroid will be unlike anything previously attempted in a crewed spaceflight. The unknown gravitational environment and physical surface properties of the NEO may cause the rendezvous to behave differently than expected. Symbiosis of the human pilot and onboard navigation/targeting are presented which give additional robustness to unforeseen perturbations.

  17. HTML 5 Displays for On-Board Flight Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Silva, Chandika

    2016-01-01

    During my Internship at NASA in the summer of 2016, I was assigned to a project which dealt with developing a web-server that would display telemetry and other system data using HTML 5, JavaScript, and CSS. By doing this, it would be possible to view the data across a variety of screen sizes, and establish a standard that could be used to simplify communication and software development between NASA and other countries. Utilizing a web- approach allowed us to add in more functionality, as well as make the displays more aesthetically pleasing for the users. When I was assigned to this project my main task was to first establish communication with the current display server. This display server would output data from the on-board systems in XML format. Once communication was established I was then asked to create a dynamic telemetry table web page that would update its header and change as new information came in. After this was completed, certain minor functionalities were added to the table such as a hide column and filter by system option. This was more for the purpose of making the table more useful for the users, as they can now filter and view relevant data. Finally my last task was to create a graphical system display for all the systems on the space craft. This was by far the most challenging part of my internship as finding a JavaScript library that was both free and contained useful functions to assist me in my task was difficult. In the end I was able to use the JointJs library and accomplish the task. With the help of my mentor and the HIVE lab team, we were able to establish stable communication with the display server. We also succeeded in creating a fully dynamic telemetry table and in developing a graphical system display for the advanced modular power system. Working in JSC for this internship has taught me a lot about coding in JavaScript and HTML 5. I was also introduced to the concept of developing software as a team, and exposed to the different

  18. Editing the Mission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walsh, Sharon; Fogg, Piper

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the decision by Columbia University's new president to reevaluate the mission of its journalism school before naming a new dean, in order to explore how the journalism school fits into the mission of a research university. (EV)

  19. Soviet Mission Control Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This photo is an overall view of the Mission Control Center in Korolev, Russia during the Expedition Seven mission. The Expedition Seven crew launched aboard a Soyez spacecraft on April 26, 2003. Photo credit: NASA/Bill Ingalls

  20. Space missions to comets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, M. (Editor); Yeomans, D. K. (Editor); Brandt, J. C. (Editor); Hobbs, R. W. (Editor)

    1979-01-01

    The broad impact of a cometary mission is assessed with particular emphasis on scientific interest in a fly-by mission to Halley's comet and a rendezvous with Tempel 2. Scientific results, speculations, and future plans are discussed.

  1. The APIES microsatellite mission to explore the asteroid belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arrigo, P.; Santandrea, S.

    2004-11-01

    APIES (Asteroid Population Investigation &Exploration Swarm) is a mission developed by EADS Astrium in response to a European Space Agency (ESA) Call for Ideas for "swarm" missions, based on the utilisation of a large number of spacecraft working cooperatively to achieve the mission objectives. The APIES baseline concept is centred on a "swarm" of 19 BElt Explorer (BEE) identical microsatellites, weighting less than 45 kg each, including their scientific payload, visiting over 100 Main Belt asteroids in multiple flybys. The BEEs are carried to the asteroid belt by a Hub and Interplanetary VEhicle (HIVE), a conventional spacecraft launched with a Soyuz-Fregat rocket, using solar electric propulsion for the transfer to the asteroid belt and acting as communication hub and control centre for the mission after the swarm deployment. Using the latest advances in systems miniaturization, propulsion, onboard autonomy and communications, the APIES mission can achieve its ambitious goal within the framework of a standard ESA mission, representing a novel mission concept example, whose feasibility is essentially linked to the use of microsatellite technology, enabling the achievement of science objectives unattainable with conventional spacecraft.

  2. PUS Services Software Building Block Automatic Generation for Space Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candia, S.; Sgaramella, F.; Mele, G.

    2008-08-01

    The Packet Utilization Standard (PUS) has been specified by the European Committee for Space Standardization (ECSS) and issued as ECSS-E-70-41A to define the application-level interface between Ground Segments and Space Segments. The ECSS-E- 70-41A complements the ECSS-E-50 and the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) recommendations for packet telemetry and telecommand. The ECSS-E-70-41A characterizes the identified PUS Services from a functional point of view and the ECSS-E-70-31 standard specifies the rules for their mission-specific tailoring. The current on-board software design for a space mission implies the production of several PUS terminals, each providing a specific tailoring of the PUS services. The associated on-board software building blocks are developed independently, leading to very different design choices and implementations even when the mission tailoring requires very similar services (from the Ground operative perspective). In this scenario, the automatic production of the PUS services building blocks for a mission would be a way to optimize the overall mission economy and improve the robusteness and reliability of the on-board software and of the Ground-Space interactions. This paper presents the Space Software Italia (SSI) activities for the development of an integrated environment to support: the PUS services tailoring activity for a specific mission. the mission-specific PUS services configuration. the generation the UML model of the software building block implementing the mission-specific PUS services and the related source code, support documentation (software requirements, software architecture, test plans/procedures, operational manuals), and the TM/TC database. The paper deals with: (a) the project objectives, (b) the tailoring, configuration, and generation process, (c) the description of the environments supporting the process phases, (d) the characterization of the meta-model used for the generation, (e) the

  3. Mission objectives and trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The present state of the knowledge of asteroids was assessed to identify mission and target priorities for planning asteroidal flights in the 1980's and beyond. Mission objectives, mission analysis, trajectory studies, and cost analysis are discussed. A bibliography of reports and technical memoranda is included.

  4. A Neptune Orbiter Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wallace, R. A.; Spilker, T. R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the results of new analyses and mission/system designs for a low cost Neptune Orbiter mission. Science and measurement objectives, instrumentation, and mission/system design options are described and reflect an aggressive approach to the application of new advanced technologies expected to be available and developed over the next five to ten years.

  5. Threads of Mission Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gavin, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the many parts of the JPL mission planning process that the project manager has to work with. Some of them are: NASA & JPL's institutional requirements, the mission systems design requirements, the science interactions, the technical interactions, financial requirements, verification and validation, safety and mission assurance, and independent assessment, review and reporting.

  6. Mission operations management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rocco, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Redefining the approach and philosophy that operations management uses to define, develop, and implement space missions will be a central element in achieving high efficiency mission operations for the future. The goal of a cost effective space operations program cannot be realized if the attitudes and methodologies we currently employ to plan, develop, and manage space missions do not change. A management philosophy that is in synch with the environment in terms of budget, technology, and science objectives must be developed. Changing our basic perception of mission operations will require a shift in the way we view the mission. This requires a transition from current practices of viewing the mission as a unique end product, to a 'mission development concept' built on the visualization of the end-to-end mission. To achieve this change we must define realistic mission success criteria and develop pragmatic approaches to achieve our goals. Custom mission development for all but the largest and most unique programs is not practical in the current budget environment, and we simply do not have the resources to implement all of our planned science programs. We need to shift our management focus to allow us the opportunity make use of methodologies and approaches which are based on common building blocks that can be utilized in the space, ground, and mission unique segments of all missions.

  7. Internet Data Delivery for Future Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rash, James; Casasanta, Ralph; Hogie, Keith; Hennessy, Joseph F. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ongoing work at National Aeronautics and Space Administration Goddard Space Flight Center (NASA/GSFC), seeks to apply standard Internet applications and protocols to meet the technology challenge of future satellite missions. Internet protocols and technologies are under study as a future means to provide seamless dynamic communication among heterogeneous instruments, spacecraft, ground stations, constellations of spacecraft, and science investigators. The primary objective is to design and demonstrate in the laboratory the automated end-to-end transport of files in a simulated dynamic space environment using off-the-shelf, low-cost, commodity-level standard applications and protocols. The demonstrated functions and capabilities will become increasingly significant in the years to come as both earth and space science missions fly more sensors and as the need increases for more network-oriented mission operations. Another element of increasing significance will be the increased cost effectiveness of designing, building, integrating, and operating instruments and spacecraft that will come to the fore as more missions take up the approach of using commodity-level standard communications technologies. This paper describes how an IP (Internet Protocol)-based communication architecture can support all existing operations concepts and how it will enable some new and complex communication and science concepts. The authors identify specific end-to-end data flows from the instruments to the control centers and scientists, and then describe how each data flow can be supported using standard Internet protocols and applications. The scenarios include normal data downlink and command uplink as well as recovery scenarios for both onboard and ground failures. The scenarios are based on an Earth orbiting spacecraft with downlink data rates from 300 Kbps to 4 Mbps. Included examples are based on designs currently being investigated for potential use by the Global Precipitation

  8. On-board multispectral classification study. Volume 2: Supplementary tasks. [adaptive control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The operational tasks of the onboard multispectral classification study were defined. These tasks include: sensing characteristics for future space applications; information adaptive systems architectural approaches; data set selection criteria; and onboard functional requirements for interfacing with global positioning satellites.

  9. A Conceptual Titan Orbiter Mission Using Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abelson, Robert D.; Shirley, James H.; Spilker, Thomas R.

    2006-01-01

    This study details a conceptual follow-on Titan orbiter mission that would provide full global topographic coverage. surface imaging, and meteorological characterization of the atmosphere over a nominal 5-year science mission duration. The baseline power requirement is approx.1 kWe at EOM and is driven by a high power radar instrument that would provide 3-dimensional measurements of atmospheric clouds, precipitation, and surface topography. While this power level is moderately higher than that of the Cassini spacecraft. higher efficiency advanced RPSs could potentially reduce the plutonium usage to less than 1/3rd of that used on the Cassini spacecraft. The Titan Orbiter mission is assumed to launch in 2015. It would utilize advanced RPSs to provide all on-board power.

  10. View of Mission Control Center during Apollo 13 splashdown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1970-01-01

    Overall view of Mission Operations Control Room in Mission Control Center at the Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) during the ceremonies aboard the U.S.S. Iwo Jima, prime recovery ship for the Apollo 13 mission. Dr. Donald K. Slayton (in black shirt, left of center), Director of Flight Crew Operations at MSC, and Chester M. Lee of the Apollo Program Directorate, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters, shake hands, while Dr. Rocco A. Petrone, Apollo Program Director, Office of Manned Space Flight, NASA Headquarters (standing, near Lee), watches the large screen showing Astronaut James A. Lovell Jr., Apollo 13 commander, during the on-board ceremonies. In the foreground, Glynn S. Lunney (extreme left) and Eugene F. Kranz (smoking a cigar), two Apollo 13 Flight Directors, view the activity from their consoles.

  11. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Flames from Space Shuttle Endeavour light up the clouds as the Shuttle races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11- day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  12. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour races into space, springing forth from clouds of smoke and steam, on mission STS-100. Liftoff of the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  13. A perfect liftoff of Space Shuttle Endeavour on mission STS-100

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - Space Shuttle Endeavour leaps from Launch Pad 39A amid billows of smoke and steam as it races into space on mission STS-100. Liftoff of Endeavour on the ninth flight to the International Space Station occurred at 2:40:42 p.m. EDT. The 11-day mission will deliver and integrate the Spacelab Logistics Pallet/Launch Deployment Assembly, which includes the Space Station Remote Manipulator System and the UHF Antenna. The mission includes two planned spacewalks for installation of the SSRMS on the Station. Also onboard is the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello, carrying resupply stowage racks and resupply/return stowage platforms.

  14. Portable Diagnostics Technology Assessment for Space Missions. Part 2; Market Survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Chait, Arnon

    2010-01-01

    A mission to Mars of several years duration requires more demanding standards for all onboard instruments than a 6-month mission to the Moon or the International Space Station. In Part 1, we evaluated generic technologies and suitability to NASA needs. This prior work considered crew safety, device maturity and flightworthiness, resource consumption, and medical value. In Part 2, we continue the study by assessing the current marketplace for reliable Point-of-Care diagnostics. The ultimate goal of this project is to provide a set of objective analytical tools to suggest efficient strategies for reaching specific medical targets for any given space mission as program needs, technological development, and scientific understanding evolve.

  15. Parametric Study of Radiator Concepts for a Stirling Radioisotope Power System Applicable to Deep Space Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juhasz, Albert J.; Tew, Roy C.; Thieme, Lanny G.

    2000-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) and the NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a Stirling converter for an advanced radioisotope power system to provide spacecraft onboard electric power for NASA deep space missions. This high-efficiency converter is being evaluated as an alternative to replace the much lower efficiency radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG). The current power requirement (six years after beginning of mission (BOM) for a mission to Jupiter) is 210 W(sub e) (watts electric) to be generated by two separate power systems, one on each side of the spacecraft. Both two-converter and four-converter system designs are being considered, depending on the amount of required redundancy.

  16. Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Evaluation of Maximal Oxygen Uptake and Submaximal Estimates of VO2max Before, During, and After Long Duration International Space Station Missions (VO2max) will document changes in maximum oxygen uptake for crewmembers onboard the International Space Station (ISS) on long-duration missions, greater than 90 days. This investigation will establish the characteristics of VO2max during flight and assess the validity of the current methods of tracking aerobic capacity change during and following the ISS missions.

  17. Global mapping of the surface of Titan through the haze with VIMS onboard Cassini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mouélic, Stéphane; Cornet, Thomas; Rodriguez, Sébastien; Sotin, Christophe; Barnes, Jason W.; Brown, Robert H.; Lasue, Jérémie; Baines, K. H.; Buratti, Bonnie; Clark, Roger Nelson; Nicholson, Philip D.

    2016-10-01

    The Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) onboard Cassini observes the surface of Titan through the atmosphere in seven narrow spectral windows in the infrared at 0.93, 1.08, 1.27, 1.59, 2.01, 2.68-2.78, and 4.9-5.1 microns. We have produced a global hyperspectral mosaic at 32 pixels per degrees of the complete VIMS data set of Titan between T0 (July 2004) and T120 (June 2016) flybys. We merged all the data cubes sorted by increasing spatial resolution, with the high resolution images on top of the mosaic and the low resolution images used as background. One of the main challenge in producing global spectral composition maps is to remove the seams between individual frames taken throughout the entire mission. These seams are mainly due to the widely varying viewing angles between data acquired during the different Titan flybys. These angles induce significant surface photometric effects and a strongly varying atmospheric (absorption and scattering) contribution, the scattering of the atmosphere being all the more present than the wavelength is short. We have implemented a series of empirical corrections to homogenize the maps, by correcting at first order for photometric and atmospheric scattering effects. Recently, the VIMS' IR wavelength calibration has been observed to be drifting from a total of a few nm toward longer wavelengths, the drift being almost continuously present over the course of the mission. Whereas minor at first order, this drift has implications on the homogeneity of the maps when trying to fit images taken at the beginning of the mission with images taken near the end, in particular when using channels in the narrowest atmospheric spectral windows. A correction scheme has been implemented to account for this subtle effect.

  18. Statistical studies of electron density around lunar wake boundary derived from WFC observation onboard KAGUYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasahara, Y.; Kanatani, K.; Goto, Y.; Hashimoto, K.; Omura, Y.; Kumamoto, A.; Ono, T.; Nishino, M. N.; Saito, Y.; Tsunakawa, H.

    2011-12-01

    The waveform capture (WFC) [1,2] onboard KAGUYA measured two components of electric wave signals detected by the two orthogonal 30 m tip-to-tip antennas from 100Hz to 1MHz during the mission period of KAGUYA from November, 2007 to June 2009. By taking advantage of a moon orbiter, the WFC was expected to measure plasma waves related to solar wind-moon interaction, mini-magnetospheres caused by magnetic anomaly on the lunar surface, and radio emissions to be observed from the moon. Because the moon is basically non-magnetized, the solar wind particles directly hit the lunar surface and a plasma cavity called the "lunar wake" is created behind the moon. We investigated electron density profile around the terminator of the moon from the local plasma frequency obtained by WFC. Because our measurement is a direct method measuring the local plasma frequency, we expect absolute density can be derived. KAGUYA experienced encounters with the lunar wake every 2 hours at an altitude of ~100km in the nominal mission, we first analyzed electron density statistically when KAGUYA was located in the solar wind comparing with the data from WIND. Using these observation data, we constructed an electron density model around the lunar wake boundary region. We also report several interesting feature in the profile such as asymmetric structure depending on the direction of interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). KAGUYA was descended to the 50 km altitude and was descended again down to 10-30km in lower altitude (perilune). Electron density in the lower altitude region is also studied using the data obtained in the extended mission. We found electron density slightly increases in the lower altitude region. [1] Y. Kasahara et al., Earth, Planets and Space, 60, 341-351, 2008. [2] T. Ono et al., Space Science Review, doi:10.1007/s11214-010-9673-8, 2010.

  19. The GIS data model of the Visible and Infrared mapping spectrometer (VIR) onboard NASA/Dawn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frigeri, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Maria Cristina; Ammannito, Eleonora; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; VIR Team

    2016-10-01

    The spectrometer onboard Dawn mission to Vesta and Ceres (Russell et al., Earth Moon Planet (2007) 101:65-91) is a hyperspectral spectrometer with imaging capability which returns data useful for the determination of the mineral composition of surface materials in their geologic context. The VIR Spectrometer—covering the range from the near UV (0.25 μm) to the near IR (5.0 μm) and having moderate to high spectral resolution and imaging capabilities—is the appropriate instrument for the determination of Vesta's and Ceres' global and local properties (De Sanctis et al., SSR 2011). VIR combines two data channels in one compact instrument. The visible channel covers 0.25-1.05 μm and the infrared channel covers 1-5.0 μm. VIR is inherited from the VIRTIS mapping spectrometer (Coradini et al. in Planet. Space Sci. 46:1291-1304, 1998; Reininger et al. in Proc. SPIE 2819:66-77, 1996) on board the ESA Rosetta mission.Since the beginning of the scientific campaign, VIR calibrated data have been converted into a Geographic Information System (GIS) compatible format. Here we present the GIS data model we developed for VIR, which presents some unique peculiarities due to the specific NASA/Dawn mission design. The model has been developed starting from an object oriented modeling. This object oriented design gives the flexibility which is necessary to face, time to time, the unexpected aspects of remote sensing over planetary surfaces unobserved before with this kind of instruments.

  20. Applications Spacelab missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pellerin, C. J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The paper presents the plans of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications for the Shuttle/Spacelab missions. It is reported that the current program contains dedicated low-gravity mission (Spacelab 3 mission) and several minor missions planned for flight during 1980-1982. It is noted that these missions have either Materials Processing or Earth viewing emphasis. Finally, several representative experiments are used to illustrate the Applications Spacelab Program, such as the Materials Experiment Assembly (MEA), and the Atmospheric Trace Molecule Measured by Spectroscopy (ATMOS) experiment.

  1. The Ulysses mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsden, R. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The Ulysses mission to explore the heliosphere within a few astronomical units of the sun over the full range of heliographic latitudes, thereby providing the first characterization of the uncharted third heliospheric dimension, is discussed. The scientific objectives of the mission are reviewed, and the nine flight experiments which make up the spacecraft payload are summarized. The Ulysses trajectory and mission timeline are described, as are the spacecraft itself and the mission operations. The timing of the mission with the solar cycle is discussed.

  2. Computer graphics aid mission operations. [NASA missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeletic, James F.

    1990-01-01

    The application of computer graphics techniques in NASA space missions is reviewed. Telemetric monitoring of the Space Shuttle and its components is discussed, noting the use of computer graphics for real-time visualization problems in the retrieval and repair of the Solar Maximum Mission. The use of the world map display for determining a spacecraft's location above the earth and the problem of verifying the relative position and orientation of spacecraft to celestial bodies are examined. The Flight Dynamics/STS Three-dimensional Monitoring System and the Trajectroy Computations and Orbital Products System world map display are described, emphasizing Space Shuttle applications. Also, consideration is given to the development of monitoring systems such as the Shuttle Payloads Mission Monitoring System and the Attitude Heads-Up Display and the use of the NASA-Goddard Two-dimensional Graphics Monitoring System during Shuttle missions and to support the Hubble Space Telescope.

  3. Sensitivity of Magnetospheric Multi-Scale (MMS) Mission Navigation Accuracy to Major Error Sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, Corwin; Long, Anne; Car[emter. Russell

    2011-01-01

    The Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission consists of four satellites flying in formation in highly elliptical orbits about the Earth, with a primary objective of studying magnetic reconnection. The baseline navigation concept is independent estimation of each spacecraft state using GPS pseudorange measurements referenced to an Ultra Stable Oscillator (USO) with accelerometer measurements included during maneuvers. MMS state estimation is performed onboard each spacecraft using the Goddard Enhanced Onboard Navigation System (GEONS), which is embedded in the Navigator GPS receiver. This paper describes the sensitivity of MMS navigation performance to two major error sources: USO clock errors and thrust acceleration knowledge errors.

  4. Austrian dose measurements onboard space station MIR and the International Space Station - overview and comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T.; Hajek, M.; Summerer, L.; Vana, N.; Akatov, Y.; Shurshakov, V.; Arkhangelsky, V.

    2004-01-01

    The Atominstitute of the Austrian Universities has conducted various space research missions in the last 12 years in cooperation with the Institute for Biomedical Problems in Moscow. They dealt with the exact determination of the radiation hazards for cosmonauts and the development of precise measurement devices. Special emphasis will be laid on the last experiment on space station MIR the goal of which was the determination of the depth distribution of absorbed dose and dose equivalent in a water filled Phantom. The first results from dose measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS) will also be discussed. The spherical Phantom with a diameter of 35 cm was developed at the Institute for Biomedical Problems and had 4 channels where dosemeters can be exposed in different depths. The exposure period covered the timeframe from May 1997 to February 1999. Thermoluminescent dosemeters (TLDs) were exposed inside the Phantom, either parallel or perpendicular to the hull of the spacecraft. For the evaluation of the linear energy transfer (LET), the high temperature ratio (HTR) method was applied. Based on this method a mean quality factor and, subsequently, the dose equivalent is calculated according to the Q(LET ∞) relationship proposed in ICRP 26. An increased contribution of neutrons could be detected inside the Phantom. However the total dose equivalent did not increase over the depth of the Phantom. As the first Austrian measurements on the ISS dosemeter packages were exposed for 248 days, starting in February 2001 at six different locations onboard the ISS. The Austrian dosemeter sets for this first exposure on the ISS contained five different kinds of passive thermoluminescent dosemeters. First results showed a position dependent absorbed dose rate at the ISS.

  5. High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments: HOPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyon, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    The project called High-Speed On-Board Data Processing for Science Instruments (HOPS) has been funded by NASA Earth Science Technology Office (ESTO) Advanced Information Systems Technology (AIST) program during April, 2012 â€" April, 2015. HOPS is an enabler for science missions with extremely high data processing rates. In this three-year effort of HOPS, Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) and 3-D Winds were of interest in particular. As for ASCENDS, HOPS replaces time domain data processing with frequency domain processing while making the real-time on-board data processing possible. As for 3-D Winds, HOPS offers real-time high-resolution wind profiling with 4,096-point fast Fourier transform (FFT). HOPS is adaptable with quick turn-around time. Since HOPS offers reusable user-friendly computational elements, its FPGA IP Core can be modified for a shorter development period if the algorithm changes. The FPGA and memory bandwidth of HOPS is 20 GB/sec while the typical maximum processor-to-SDRAM bandwidth of the commercial radiation tolerant high-end processors is about 130-150 MB/sec. The inter-board communication bandwidth of HOPS is 4 GB/sec while the effective processor-to-cPCI bandwidth of commercial radiation tolerant high-end boards is about 50-75 MB/sec. Also, HOPS offers VHDL cores for the easy and efficient implementation of ASCENDS and 3-D Winds, and other similar algorithms. A general overview of the 3-year development of HOPS is the goal of this presentation.

  6. Innovative Imagery System for Enhanced Habitability Onboard ISS: Desired Features and Possible Hardware Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitmore, Mihriban; Baggerman, Susan; Byrne, Vicky

    2004-01-01

    With the advent of the ISS and the experience of Russian, European, and US crewmembers on Mir, the importance of the psychological element in long duration missions is increasingly recognized. An integrated imagery system or Magic Window System could enhance the habitability, performance, and productivity for long term stays in space. Because this is type of system is a new concept for space, functional and technical requirements need to be determined. As part of a three-year project, the functional and technical requirements for an Imagery System onboard the International Space Station (ISS) have been explored. Valuable information was gathered from a survey completed by participants that had been in analog environments (remote/isolated) such as Antarctica, Aquarius, ISS crewmember debriefs, and crew support meetings to identify key functions desired for an integrated Magic Window System. Exercise and medical care activities were identified as areas that could benefit from such a system. It was determined that for exercise, it was worth exploring the concept of displaying a dynamic screen that changes as the crewmember's speed changes while showing physiological measures in a combined display. In terms of enhancing the interfaces for medical care activities, the Magic Window System could show video clips along side procedures for just-in-time training scenarios through a heads-up display. In addition, the portability, usability, and reliability were stressed as important considerations for an integrated system of technologies or Magic Window System. In addition, a review of state-of-the-art screens and other existing technologies such as tablet PCs and Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) was conducted and contributed to defining technical requirements and feasibility of systems. Some heuristic evaluations of large displays and PDAs were conducted. Finally, feasibility for implementation onboard ISS has been considered. Currently, specific headset units are

  7. Improved spacecraft radio science using an on-board atomic clock: Application to gravitational wave searches

    SciTech Connect

    Tinto, Massimo; Dick, George J.; Prestage, John D.; Armstrong, J. W.

    2009-05-15

    Recent advances in space-qualified atomic clocks (low-mass, low power-consumption, frequency stability comparable to that of ground-based clocks) can enable interplanetary spacecraft radio science experiments at unprecedented Doppler sensitivities. The addition of an on-board digital receiver would allow the up- and down-link Doppler frequencies to be measured separately. Such separate, high-quality measurements allow optimal data combinations that suppress the currently leading noise sources: phase scintillation noise from the Earth's atmosphere and Doppler noise caused by mechanical vibrations of the ground antenna. Here we provide a general expression for the optimal combination of ground and on-board Doppler data and compute the sensitivity such a system would have to low-frequency gravitational waves (GWs). Assuming a plasma scintillation noise calibration comparable to that already demonstrated with the multilink CASSINI radio system, the space-clock/digital-receiver instrumentation enhancements would give GW strain sensitivity of 3.7x10{sup -14} Hz{sup -1/2} for randomly polarized, monochromatic GW signals isotropically distributed over the celestial sphere, over a two-decade ({approx}0.0001-0.01 Hz) region of the low-frequency band. This is about an order of magnitude better than currently achieved with traditional two-way coherent Doppler experiments. The utility of optimally combining simultaneous up- and down-link observations is not limited to GW searches. The Doppler tracking technique discussed here could be performed at minimal incremental cost to improve also other radio science experiments (i.e., tests of relativistic gravity, planetary and satellite gravity field measurements, atmospheric and ring occultations) on future interplanetary missions.

  8. Orion Exploration Mission Entry Interface Target Line

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rea, Jeremy R.

    2016-01-01

    The Orion Multi-Purpose Crew Vehicle is required to return to the continental United States at any time during the month. In addition, it is required to provide a survivable entry from a wide range of trans-lunar abort trajectories. The Entry Interface (EI) state must be targeted to ensure that all requirements are met for all possible return scenarios, even in the event of no communication with the Mission Control Center to provide an updated EI target. The challenge then is to functionalize an EI state constraint manifold that can be used in the on-board targeting algorithm, as well as the ground-based trajectory optimization programs. This paper presents the techniques used to define the EI constraint manifold and to functionalize it as a set of polynomials in several dimensions.

  9. GPD+ wet tropospheric correctionsfor eight altimetric missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, Joana; Benveniste, Jérôme; Lázaro, Clara

    2016-07-01

    Due to its large space-temporal variability, the delay induced by the water vapour and liquid water content of the atmosphere in the altimeter signal or wet tropospheric delay (WTD) is still one of the largest sources of uncertainty in satellite altimetry. In the scope of the Sea Level Climate Change Initiative (SL-cci) project, the University of Porto (UPorto) has been developing methods to improve the wet tropospheric correction (WTC), which corrects for the effect of the WPD in the altimetric measurements. Developed as a coastal algorithm to remove land effects in the microwave radiometers (MWR) on board altimeter missions, the GNSS-derived Path Delay (GPD) methodology evolved over time, currently correcting for invalid observations due to land, ice and rain contamination, band instrument malfunction in open ocean, coastal and polar regions. The most recent version of the algorithm, GPD Plus (GPD+) computes wet path delays based on: i) WTC from the on-board MWR measurements, whenever they exist and are valid; ii) new WTC values estimated through space-time objective analysis of all available data sources, whenever the previous are considered invalid. In the estimation of the new WTC values, the following data sets are used: valid measurements from the on-board MWR, water vapour products derived from a set of 17 scanning imaging radiometers (SI-MWR) on board various remote sensing satellites and tropospheric delays derived from Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) coastal and island stations. In the estimation process, WTC derived from an atmospheric model such as the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) ReAnalysis (ERA) Interim or the operational (Op) model are used as first guess, which is the adopted value in the absence of measurements. The corrections are provided for the most recent products of all missions used to generate the SL Essential Climate Variable (ECV): TOPEX/Poseidon- T/P, Jason-1, Jason-2, ERS-1, ERS-2, CryoSat-2

  10. Power beaming: Mission enabling for lunar exploration

    SciTech Connect

    Bamberger, J.A.

    1992-01-01

    This paper explores several beam power concepts proposed for powering either lunar base or rover vehicles. At present, power requirements to support lunar exploration activity are met by integral self-contained power system designs. To provide requisite energy flexibility for human expansion into space, an innovative approach to replace on-board self-contained power systems is needed. Power beaming provides an alternative approach to supplying power that would ensure increased mission flexibility while reducing total mass launched into space. Providing power to the moon presents significant design challenges because of the duration of the lunar night. Power beaming provides an alternative to solar photovoltaic systems coupled with battery storage, radioisotope thermoelectric generation, and surface nuclear power. The Synthesis Group describes power beaming as a technology supporting lunar exploration. In this analysis beam power designs are compared to conventional power generation methods.

  11. The Miniaturized Moessbauer Spectrometer MIMOS II for the Asteroid Redirect Mission(ARM): Quantative Iron Mineralogy And Oxidation States

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schroeder, C.; Klingelhoefer, G; Morris, R. V.; Yen, A. S.; Renz, F.; Graff, T. G.

    2016-01-01

    The miniaturized Moessbauer spectrometer MIMOS II is an off-the-shelf instrument with proven flight heritage. It has been successfully deployed during NASA’s Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission and was on-board the UK-led Beagle 2 Mars lander and the Russian Phobos-Grunt sample return mission. A Moessbauer spectrometer has been suggested for ASTEX, a DLR Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) mission study, and the potential payload to be hosted by the Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM). Here we make the case for in situ asteroid characterization with Moessbauer spectroscopy on the ARM employing one of three available fully-qualified flight-spare Moessbauer instruments.

  12. Applications Explorer Missions (AEM): Mission planners handbook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, S. R. (Editor)

    1974-01-01

    The Applications Explorer Missions (AEM) Program is a planned series of space applications missions whose purpose is to perform various tasks that require a low cost, quick reaction, small spacecraft in a dedicated orbit. The Heat Capacity Mapping Mission (HCMM) is the first mission of this series. The spacecraft described in this document was conceived to support a variety of applications instruments and the HCMM instrument in particular. The maximum use of commonality has been achieved. That is, all of the subsystems employed are taken directly or modified from other programs such as IUE, IMP, RAE, and Nimbus. The result is a small versatile spacecraft. The purpose of this document, the AEM Mission Planners Handbook (AEM/MPH) is to describe the spacecraft and its capabilities in general and the HCMM in particular. This document will also serve as a guide for potential users as to the capabilities of the AEM spacecraft and its achievable orbits. It should enable each potential user to determine the suitability of the AEM concept to his mission.

  13. Re-Engineering the ISS Payload Operations Control Center During Increased Utilization and Critical Onboard Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marsh, Angela L.; Dudley, Stephanie R. B.

    2014-01-01

    With an increase in the utilization and hours of payload operations being executed onboard the International Space Station (ISS), upgrading the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) ISS Payload Control Area (PCA) was essential to gaining efficiencies and assurance of current and future payload health and science return. PCA houses the Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) responsible for the execution of all NASA payloads onboard the ISS. POIC Flight Controllers are responsible for the operation of voice, stowage, command, telemetry, video, power, thermal, and environmental control in support of ISS science experiments. The methodologies and execution of the PCA refurbishment were planned and performed within a four month period in order to assure uninterrupted operation of ISS payloads and minimal impacts to payload operations teams. To vacate the PCA, three additional HOSC control rooms were reconfigured to handle ISS realtime operations, Backup Control Center (BCC) to Mission Control in Houston, simulations, and testing functions. This involved coordination and cooperation from teams of ISS operations controllers, multiple engineering and design disciplines, management, and construction companies performing an array of activities simultaneously and in sync delivering a final product with no issues that impacted the schedule. For each console operator discipline, studies of Information Technology (IT) tools and equipment layouts, ergonomics, and lines of sight were performed. Infusing some of the latest IT into the project was an essential goal in ensuring future growth and success of the ISS payload science returns. Engineering evaluations led to a state of the art media wall implementation and more efficient ethernet cabling distribution providing the latest products and the best solution for the POIC. These engineering innovations led to cost savings for the project. Constraints involved in the management

  14. Process for Upgrading Cognitive Assessment Capabilities Onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Picano, J. J.; Seaton, K. A.; Holland, A. W.

    2016-01-01

    MOTIVATION: Spaceflight poses varied and unique risks to the brain and cognitive functioning including radiation exposure, sleep disturbance, fatigue, fluid shifts (increased intracranial pressure), toxin exposure, elevated carbon dioxide, and traumatic brain injury, among others. These potential threats to cognitive functioning are capable of degrading performance and compromising mission success. Furthermore, the threats may increase in severity, and new types of threats may emerge for longer duration exploration missions. This presentation will describe the process used to identify gaps in our current approach, evaluate best practices in cognitive assessment, and transition new cognitive assessment tools to operational use. OVERVIEW: Risks to brain health and performance posed by spaceflight missions require sensitive tools to assess cognitive functioning of astronauts in flight. The Spaceflight Cognitive Assessment Tool for Windows (WinSCAT) is the automated cognitive assessment tool currently deployed onboard the International Space Station (ISS). WinSCAT provides astronauts and flight surgeons with objective data to monitor neurocognitive functioning. WinSCAT assesses 5 discrete cognitive domains, is sensitive to changes in cognitive functioning, and was designed to be completed in less than 15 minutes. However, WinSCAT does not probe other areas of cognitive functioning that might be important to mission success. Researchers recently have developed batteries that may expand current capabilities, such as increased sensitivity to subtle fluctuations in cognitive functioning. Therefore, we engaged in a systematic process review in order to improve upon our current capabilities and incorporate new advances in cognitive assessment. This process included a literature review on newer measures of neurocognitive assessment, surveys of operational flight surgeons at NASA regarding needs and gaps in our capabilities, and expert panel review of candidate cognitive

  15. The Alfvén Mission for the ESA M5 Call: Mission Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fazakerley, Andrew; Berthomier, Matthieu; Pottelette, Raymond; Forsyth, Colin

    2016-04-01

    This poster will present the proposed Alfvén mission concept and is complemented by a presentation of the mission scientific goals planned for the ST1.5 session. The Alfvén mission has the scientific objective of studying particle acceleration and other forms of electromagnetic energy conversion in a collisionless low beta plasma. The mission is proposed to operate in the Earth's Auroral Acceleration Region (AAR), the most accessible laboratory for investigating plasmas at an interface where ideal magneto-hydrodynamics does not apply. Alfvén is designed to answer questions about where and how the particles that create the aurorae are accelerated, how and why they emit auroral kilometric radiation, what creates and maintains large scale electric fields aligned with the magnetic field, and to elucidate the ion outflow processes which are slowly removing the Earth's atmosphere. The mission will provide the required coordinated two-spacecraft observations within the AAR several times a day. From well designed separations along or across the magnetic field lines, using a comprehensive suite of inter-calibrated particles and field instruments, it will measure the parallel electric fields, variations in particle flux, and wave energy that will answer open questions on energy conversion. It will use onboard auroral imagers to determine how this energy conversion occurs in the regional context and, together with its orbit design, this makes the mission ideally suited to resolving spatio-temporal ambiguities that have plagued previous auroral satellite studies. The spacecraft observations will be complemented by coordinated observations with the existing dense network of ground based observatories, for more detailed ionospheric and auroral information when Alfvén overflights occur.

  16. Mission Control Technologies: A New Way of Designing and Evolving Mission Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trimble, Jay; Walton, Joan; Saddler, Harry

    2006-01-01

    Current mission operations systems are built as a collection of monolithic software applications. Each application serves the needs of a specific user base associated with a discipline or functional role. Built to accomplish specific tasks, each application embodies specialized functional knowledge and has its own data storage, data models, programmatic interfaces, user interfaces, and customized business logic. In effect, each application creates its own walled-off environment. While individual applications are sometimes reused across multiple missions, it is expensive and time consuming to maintain these systems, and both costly and risky to upgrade them in the light of new requirements or modify them for new purposes. It is even more expensive to achieve new integrated activities across a set of monolithic applications. These problems impact the lifecycle cost (especially design, development, testing, training, maintenance, and integration) of each new mission operations system. They also inhibit system innovation and evolution. This in turn hinders NASA's ability to adopt new operations paradigms, including increasingly automated space systems, such as autonomous rovers, autonomous onboard crew systems, and integrated control of human and robotic missions. Hence, in order to achieve NASA's vision affordably and reliably, we need to consider and mature new ways to build mission control systems that overcome the problems inherent in systems of monolithic applications. The keys to the solution are modularity and interoperability. Modularity will increase extensibility (evolution), reusability, and maintainability. Interoperability will enable composition of larger systems out of smaller parts, and enable the construction of new integrated activities that tie together, at a deep level, the capabilities of many of the components. Modularity and interoperability together contribute to flexibility. The Mission Control Technologies (MCT) Project, a collaboration of

  17. On-Board Switching and Routing Advanced Technology Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yegenoglu, F.; Inukai, T.; Kaplan, T.; Redman, W.; Mitchell, C.

    1998-01-01

    Future satellite communications is expected to be fully integrated into National and Global Information Infrastructures (NII/GII). These infrastructures will carry multi gigabit-per-second data rates, with integral switching and routing of constituent data elements. The satellite portion of these infrastructures must, therefore, be more than pipes through the sky. The satellite portion will also be required to perform very high speed routing and switching of these data elements to enable efficient broad area coverage to many home and corporate users. The technology to achieve the on-board switching and routing must be selected and developed specifically for satellite application within the next few years. This report presents evaluation of potential technologies for on-board switching and routing applications.

  18. Satellite on-board processing for earth resources data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bodenheimer, R. E.; Gonzalez, R. C.; Gupta, J. N.; Hwang, K.; Rochelle, R. W.; Wilson, J. B.; Wintz, P. A.

    1975-01-01

    Results of a survey of earth resources user applications and their data requirements, earth resources multispectral scanner sensor technology, and preprocessing algorithms for correcting the sensor outputs and for data bulk reduction are presented along with a candidate data format. Computational requirements required to implement the data analysis algorithms are included along with a review of computer architectures and organizations. Computer architectures capable of handling the algorithm computational requirements are suggested and the environmental effects of an on-board processor discussed. By relating performance parameters to the system requirements of each of the user requirements the feasibility of on-board processing is determined for each user. A tradeoff analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of results to each of the system parameters. Significant results and conclusions are discussed, and recommendations are presented.

  19. On-board processing concepts for future satellite communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brandon, W. T. (Editor); White, B. E. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The initial definition of on-board processing for an advanced satellite communications system to service domestic markets in the 1990's is discussed. An exemplar system with both RF on-board switching and demodulation/remodulation baseband processing is used to identify important issues related to system implementation, cost, and technology development. Analyses of spectrum-efficient modulation, coding, and system control techniques are summarized. Implementations for an RF switch and baseband processor are described. Among the major conclusions listed is the need for high gain satellites capable of handling tens of simultaneous beams for the efficient reuse of the 2.5 GHz 30/20 frequency band. Several scanning beams are recommended in addition to the fixed beams. Low power solid state 20 GHz GaAs FET power amplifiers in the 5W range and a general purpose digital baseband processor with gigahertz logic speeds and megabits of memory are also recommended.

  20. Development of Onboard Computer Complex for Russian Segment of ISS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Branets, V.; Brand, G.; Vlasov, R.; Graf, I.; Clubb, J.; Mikrin, E.; Samitov, R.

    1998-01-01

    Report present a description of the Onboard Computer Complex (CC) that was developed during the period of 1994-1998 for the Russian Segment of ISS. The system was developed in co-operation with NASA and ESA. ESA developed a new computation system under the RSC Energia Technical Assignment, called DMS-R. The CC also includes elements developed by Russian experts and organizations. A general architecture of the computer system and the characteristics of primary elements of this system are described. The system was integrated at RSC Energia with the participation of American and European specialists. The report contains information on software simulators, verification and de-bugging facilities witch were been developed for both stand-alone and integrated tests and verification. This CC serves as the basis for the Russian Segment Onboard Control Complex on ISS.