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Sample records for oncogene proteins

  1. The Oncogenic Palmitoyl-Protein Network in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-31

    fatty acid palmitate , or a closely related fatty acid , is affixed to proteins). Studies from our laboratory and others indicate that these lipid...an enzyme, fatty acid synthase (FASN), as a biochemically relevant protein in PCa. FASN has been described as a "metabolic oncogene," which operates...by an unknown mechanism to promote tumor growth. We know that FASN is the source of a class of lipids called long-chain fatty acids . Most of the long

  2. Abl: the prototype of oncogenic fusion proteins.

    PubMed

    Saglio, G; Cilloni, D

    2004-12-01

    Since it was first recognized, chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) has always represented a unique model to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying the onset and progression of a leukemic process. CML was the first recognized form of cancer to have a strong association with a recurrent chromosomal abnormality, the t(9;22) translocation, which generates the so-called Philadelphia (Ph)-chromosome. Twenty years later, this abnormality was shown to cover a specific molecular defect, a hybrid BCR-ABL gene, strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of the disease through the production of a protein with a constitutive tyrosine-kinase activity. Although we still lack a complete definition of all the transformation pathways activated by Bcr-Abl, the recent introduction into clinical practice of tyrosine kinase inhibitor represents a major breakthrough to the management of CML and, furthermore, promises to usher in molecularly targeted therapy for other types of leukemia, lymphoma and cancer.

  3. The activating transcription factor 3 protein suppresses the oncogenic function of mutant p53 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wei, Saisai; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Chunwan; Malmut, Sarah; Zhang, Jianqiao; Ren, Shumei; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Wei; Tang, Dale D; Yan, Chunhong

    2014-03-28

    Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer.

  4. An Interaction with Ewing's Sarcoma Breakpoint Protein EWS Defines a Specific Oncogenic Mechanism of ETS Factors Rearranged in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kedage, Vivekananda; Selvaraj, Nagarathinam; Nicholas, Taylor R; Budka, Justin A; Plotnik, Joshua P; Jerde, Travis J; Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2016-10-25

    More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation. Significantly, the EWS interacting region of ERG has no homology with that of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Therefore, this finding may explain how divergent ETS factors have a common oncogenic function. Strikingly, EWS is fused to various ETS factors by the chromosome translocations that cause Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, these findings link oncogenic ETS function in both prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma.

  5. FAM83 proteins: Fostering new interactions to drive oncogenic signaling and therapeutic resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bartel, Courtney A.; Parameswaran, Neetha; Cipriano, Rocky; Jackson, Mark W.

    2016-01-01

    The FAM83 proteins were recently identified as novel transforming oncogenes that function as intermediaries in EGFR/RAS signaling. Using two distinct forward genetics screens, the Bissell and Jackson laboratories uncovered the importance of the FAM83 proteins in promoting resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and therapies targeting downstream EGFR signaling effectors. The discovery of this novel oncogene family using distinct genetic screens provides compelling evidence that the FAM83 proteins are key oncogenic players in cancer-associated signaling when they are overexpressed or dysregulated. Consistent with a role in oncogenic transformation, the FAM83 genes are frequently overexpressed in diverse human cancer specimens. Importantly, ablation of numerous FAM83 members results in a marked suppression of cancer-associated signaling and loss of tumorigenic potential. Here, we review the current knowledge of the FAM83 proteins’ involvement in cancer signaling and discuss the potential mechanisms by which they contribute to tumorigenesis. Both redundant activities shared by all 8 FAM83 members and non-redundant activities unique to each member are highlighted. We discuss the promise and challenges of the FAM83 proteins as novel points of attack for future cancer therapies. PMID:27221039

  6. Netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activities through enhancing Yes-associated protein stability.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qi; Li, Dean Y; Luo, Hongbo R; Guan, Kun-Liang; Ye, Keqiang

    2015-06-09

    Yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcription coactivator, is the major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, which plays a critical role in organ size control and cancer development. However, how YAP is regulated by extracellular stimuli in tumorigenesis remains incompletely understood. Netrin-1, a laminin-related secreted protein, displays proto-oncogenic activity in cancers. Nonetheless, the downstream signaling mediating its oncogenic effects is not well defined. Here we show that netrin-1 via its transmembrane receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer and uncoordinated-5 homolog, up-regulates YAP expression, escalating YAP levels in the nucleus and promoting cancer cell proliferation and migration. Inactivating netrin-1, deleted in colorectal cancer, or uncoordinated-5 homolog B (UNC5B) decreases YAP protein levels, abrogating cancer cell progression by netrin-1, whereas knockdown of mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 1/2 (MST1/2) or large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (Lats1/2), two sets of upstream core kinases of the Hippo pathway, has no effect in blocking netrin-1-induced up-regulation of YAP. Netrin-1 stimulates phosphatase 1A to dephosphorylate YAP, which leads to decreased ubiquitination and degradation, enhancing YAP accumulation and signaling. Hence, our findings support that netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activity through YAP signaling, providing a mechanism coupling extracellular signals to the nuclear YAP oncogene.

  7. Major heat shock protein Hsp72 controls oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Various heat shock proteins, including Hsp72, are strongly upregulated in cancers, but their significance for tumor emergence and growth is poorly understood. Here we review recent data from several labs to indicate that Hsps, including Hsp72, are critical for growth of transformed but not normal cells. By manipulating expression and activity of Hsp72 and several oncogenes, it was shown that Hsp72 suppresses oncogene-induced senescence, thus allowing proliferation of cancer cells. Importantly, Hsp72 is able to suppress both p53-dependent and p53-independent senescence pathways. We propose that targeting Hsp72 may be a promising approach toward development of novel cancer therapies.

  8. Histone Code Modulation by Oncogenic PWWP-domain Protein in Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Hoffmann MJ. Transcription factor networks in embryonic stem cells and testicular cancer and the definition of epigenetics. Epigenetics 2007; 2(1): 37-42...PWWP-domain Protein in Breast Cancers PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zeng-Quan Yang, Ph.D...SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Histone Code Modulation by Oncogenic PWWP-domain Protein in Breast Cancers 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-09-1-0109 5c

  9. Oncogenic function and prognostic significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Shaowen; Wang, Kaimei; Xu, Kang; Xu, Junyao; Sun, Jian; Chu, Zhonghua; Lin, Dechen; Koeffler, Phillip H.; Wang, Jie; Yin, Dong

    2014-01-01

    Our SNP-Chip data demonstrated 7/60 (12%) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients had PRL-1 copy number amplification. However, its biological functions and signaling pathways in HCC are deficient. Here, we investigated its oncogenic function and prognostic significance in HCC. PRL-1 protein levels were examined in 167 HCC samples by immunohistochemisty (IHC). The relationship of PRL-1 expression and clinicopathological features was assessed by correlation, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC cells and its underlying mechanism were investigated by ectopic overexpression and knockdown model. PRL-1 levels in primary HCC and metastatic intravascular cancer thrombus were also determined by IHC. PRL-1 levels were frequently elevated in HCC tissues (81%), and elevated expression of PRL-1 was significantly associated with more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis in HCC patients (p<0.05). Ectopic overexpression of PRL-1 markedly enhanced HCC cells migration and invasion. Furthermore, the oncogenic functions of PRL-1 were mediated by PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway through inhibiting E-cadherin expression. Finally, PRL-1 protein levels in metastatic cancer thrombus were higher than that in primary HCC tissues (p<0.05). These data highlight the oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC invasion and metastasis implicating PRL-1 as a potential prognostic marker as well as therapeutic target in HCC. PMID:25003523

  10. Oncogenic function and prognostic significance of protein tyrosine phosphatase PRL-1 in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shaowen; Wang, Kaimei; Xu, Kang; Xu, Junyao; Sun, Jian; Chu, Zhonghua; Lin, Dechen; Koeffler, Phillip H; Wang, Jie; Yin, Dong

    2014-06-15

    Our SNP-Chip data demonstrated 7/60 (12%) hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients had PRL-1 copy number amplification. However, its biological functions and signaling pathways in HCC are deficient. Here, we investigated its oncogenic function and prognostic significance in HCC. PRL-1 protein levels were examined in 167 HCC samples by immunohistochemisty (IHC). The relationship of PRL-1 expression and clinicopathological features was assessed by correlation, Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression analyses. The oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC cells and its underlying mechanism were investigated by ectopic overexpression and knockdown model. PRL-1 levels in primary HCC and metastatic intravascular cancer thrombus were also determined by IHC. PRL-1 levels were frequently elevated in HCC tissues (81%), and elevated expression of PRL-1 was significantly associated with more aggressive phenotype and poorer prognosis in HCC patients (p<0.05). Ectopic overexpression of PRL-1 markedly enhanced HCC cells migration and invasion. Furthermore, the oncogenic functions of PRL-1 were mediated by PI3K/AKT/GSK3β signaling pathway through inhibiting E-cadherin expression. Finally, PRL-1 protein levels in metastatic cancer thrombus were higher than that in primary HCC tissues (p<0.05). These data highlight the oncogenic function of PRL-1 in HCC invasion and metastasis implicating PRL-1 as a potential prognostic marker as well as therapeutic target in HCC.

  11. The Oncogenic Palmitoyi-Protein Network in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-06-01

    Castrate-resistant prostate cancer, palmitoylation, signal transduction, S-acylation 14. ABSTRACT Epidemiologica l data indicate that cholesterol ...of circulating cholesterol . Specific Aims: We will challenge this hypothesis with the following specific A; Identify critical palmitoyl-proteins in the...of PCa cells is significantly increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids and cholesterol , mainly caused by increased expression of fatty acid

  12. The Oncogenic Palmitoyl-Protein Network in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    formation, secretion, and activity of oncosomes. We recently developed the technology to separate large oncosome EVs from small EVs ( exosomes ). In a...oncosomes in comparison to small EVs ( exosomes ). --Demonstrated that large oncosomes were relatively depleted in some key palmitoyl-proteins

  13. G protein-coupled receptors as oncogenic signals in glioma: emerging therapeutic avenues

    PubMed Central

    Cherry, Allison E; Stella, Nephi

    2014-01-01

    Gliomas are the most common malignant intracranial tumors. Newly developed targeted therapies for these cancers aim to inhibit oncogenic signals, many of which emanate from receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Unfortunately, the first generation treatments targeting these oncogenic signals provide little survival benefit in both mouse xenograft models and human patients. The search for new treatment options has uncovered several G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) candidates and generated a growing interest in this class of proteins as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cancers, including GBM. GPCRs constitute a large family of membrane receptors that influence oncogenic pathways through canonical and non-canonical signaling. Accordingly, evidence indicates that GPCRs display a unique ability to crosstalk with receptor tyrosine kinases, making them important molecular components controlling tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the current research on GPCR functionality in gliomas and explores the potential of modulating these receptors to treat this devastating disease. PMID:25158675

  14. CPI-17 drives oncogenic Ras signaling in human melanomas via Ezrin-Radixin-Moesin family proteins

    PubMed Central

    Riecken, Lars Björn; Zoch, Ansgar; Wiehl, Ulrike; Reichert, Sabine; Scholl, Ingmar; Cui, Yan; Ziemer, Mirjana; Anderegg, Ulf; Hagel, Christian; Morrison, Helen

    2016-01-01

    Hyperactive Ras signaling has strong oncogenic effects causing several different forms of cancer. Hyperactivity is frequently induced by mutations within Ras itself, which account for up to 30% of all human cancers. In addition, hyperactive Ras signaling can also be triggered independent of Ras by either mutation or by misexpression of various upstream regulators and immediate downstream effectors. We have previously reported that C-kinase potentiated protein phosphatase-1 inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17) can drive Ras activity and promote tumorigenic transformation by inhibition of the tumor suppressor Merlin. We now describe an additional element of this oncogenic mechanism in the form of the ezrin-radixin-moesin (ERM) protein family, which exhibits opposing roles in Ras activity control. Thus, CPI-17 drives Ras activity and tumorigenesis in a two-fold way; inactivation of the tumor suppressor merlin and activation of the growth promoting ERM family. The in vivo significance of this oncogenic switch is highlighted by demonstrating CPI-17's involvement in human melanoma pathogenesis. PMID:27793041

  15. G protein-coupled receptors as oncogenic signals in glioma: emerging therapeutic avenues.

    PubMed

    Cherry, A E; Stella, N

    2014-10-10

    Gliomas are the most common malignant intracranial tumors. Newly developed targeted therapies for these cancers aim to inhibit oncogenic signals, many of which emanate from receptor tyrosine kinases, including the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR). Unfortunately, the first-generation treatments targeting these oncogenic signals provide little survival benefit in both mouse xenograft models and human patients. The search for new treatment options has uncovered several G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) candidates and generated a growing interest in this class of proteins as alternative therapeutic targets for the treatment of various cancers, including glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). GPCRs constitute a large family of membrane receptors that influence oncogenic pathways through canonical and non-canonical signaling. Accordingly, evidence indicates that GPCRs display a unique ability to crosstalk with receptor tyrosine kinases, making them important molecular components controlling tumorigenesis. This review summarizes the current research on GPCR functionality in gliomas and explores the potential of modulating these receptors to treat this devastating disease.

  16. Protein turnover in 3T3 cells transformed with the oncogene c-H-ras1.

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, J M; James, G

    1992-01-01

    We have examined protein turnover, growth, DNA synthesis and proliferation in three independent clones of 3T3-NR6 cells transformed with the oncogene c-H-ras1. We find that, firstly, the half-maximum concentration of serum and insulin regulating protein turnover in ras-transformed cells is significantly reduced from 0.5 to 0.3% for serum and from 4 nM to 0.5 nM for insulin, and, secondly, ras-transformed cells consistently have lower rates of protein degradation. The catabolic effect of conditioned medium or serum withdrawal is attenuated in transformed lines by maintaining lower basal rates of protein breakdown and higher basal rates of DNA and protein synthesis. Serum stimulation of growth in transformed cells is achieved in the short term by lower rates of protein breakdown rather than higher rates of protein synthesis: rates of protein synthesis become significantly higher 24 h after serum stimulation. Therefore transformed cells have higher rates of proliferation and grow to higher densities, but display characteristics common to normal cells because rates of protein synthesis decrease and protein degradation increase as a function of cell density. We conclude that higher basal rates of protein synthesis and growth with retention of the normal proliferative response to serum result from the pleiotropic nature of ras transformation, whereas lower rates of protein degradation and increased sensitivity to serum and insulin imply a direct regulatory role for ras. PMID:1575687

  17. Three dimensional structure of the transmembrane region of the proto-oncogenic and oncogenic forms of the neu protein.

    PubMed Central

    Gullick, W J; Bottomley, A C; Lofts, F J; Doak, D G; Mulvey, D; Newman, R; Crumpton, M J; Sternberg, M J; Campbell, I D

    1992-01-01

    The neu proto-oncogene may be converted into a dominantly transforming oncogene by a single point mutation. Substitution of a valine residue at position 664 in the transmembrane region with glutamic acid activates the tyrosine kinase of the molecule and is associated with increased receptor dimerization. Previously we have proposed a model in which the glutamic acid side chain stabilizes receptor dimerization by hydrogen bonding. Other models have been proposed in which the mutation leads to a conformational change in the transmembrane region mimicking that assumed to occur following binding of a natural ligand. Synthetic peptides representing part of the transmembrane region were prepared. Some residues were replaced with serine in order to improve peptide solubility to allow purification and analysis. Both the peptides containing valine and glutamic acid dissolved in water and in an artificial lipid monolayer. The structures of the peptides were determined by NMR spectroscopy to be alpha-helical. No significant difference in conformation was observed between the two peptides. This result does not support the model proposing a conformational change. The receptor structures determined experimentally do allow alternative models involving receptor transmembrane region packing. Images PMID:1346763

  18. Atypical Protein Kinase Cι as a human oncogene and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Peter J.; Justilien, Verline; Riou, Philippe; Linch, Mark; Fields, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors represent a major class of targeted therapeutics that has made a positive impact on treatment of cancer and other disease indications. Among the promising kinase targets for further therapeutic development are members of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family.The PKCs are central components of many signaling pathways that regulate diverse cellular functions including proliferation, cell cycle, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and polarity. Genetic manipulation of individual PKC isozymes has demonstrated that they often fulfill distinct, nonredundant cellular functions.11 Participation of PKC members in different intracellular signaling pathways reflects responses to varying extracellular stimuli, intracellular localization, tissue distribution, phosphorylation status, and intermolecular interactions. PKC activity, localization, phosphorylation, and/or expression are often altered in human tumors, and PKC isozymes have been implicated in various aspects of transformation, including uncontrolled proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to apoptosis. Despite the strong relationship between PKC isozymes and cancer, to date only atypical PKCiota has been shown to function as a bona fide oncogene, and as such is a particularly attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the role of PKCiota in transformation and describe mechanism-based approaches to therapeutically target oncogenic PKCiota signaling in cancer. PMID:24231509

  19. One reporter for in-cell activity profiling of majority of protein kinase oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Gudernova, Iva; Foldynova-Trantirkova, Silvie; Ghannamova, Barbora El; Fafilek, Bohumil; Varecha, Miroslav; Balek, Lukas; Hruba, Eva; Jonatova, Lucie; Jelinkova, Iva; Kunova Bosakova, Michaela; Trantirek, Lukas; Mayer, Jiri; Krejci, Pavel

    2017-02-15

    In-cell profiling enables the evaluation of receptor tyrosine activity in a complex environment of regulatory networks that affect signal initiation, propagation and feedback. We used FGF-receptor signaling to identify EGR1 as a locus that strongly responds to the activation of a majority of the recognized protein kinase oncogenes, including 30 receptor tyrosine kinases and 154 of their disease-associated mutants. The EGR1 promoter was engineered to enhance trans-activation capacity and optimized for simple screening assays with luciferase or fluorescent reporters. The efficacy of the developed, fully synthetic reporters was demonstrated by the identification of novel targets for two clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and osimertinib. A universal reporter system for in-cell protein kinase profiling will facilitate repurposing of existing anti-cancer drugs and identification of novel inhibitors in high-throughput screening studies.

  20. One reporter for in-cell activity profiling of majority of protein kinase oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gudernova, Iva; Foldynova-Trantirkova, Silvie; Ghannamova, Barbora El; Fafilek, Bohumil; Varecha, Miroslav; Balek, Lukas; Hruba, Eva; Jonatova, Lucie; Jelinkova, Iva; Bosakova, Michaela Kunova; Trantirek, Lukas; Mayer, Jiri; Krejci, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    In-cell profiling enables the evaluation of receptor tyrosine activity in a complex environment of regulatory networks that affect signal initiation, propagation and feedback. We used FGF-receptor signaling to identify EGR1 as a locus that strongly responds to the activation of a majority of the recognized protein kinase oncogenes, including 30 receptor tyrosine kinases and 154 of their disease-associated mutants. The EGR1 promoter was engineered to enhance trans-activation capacity and optimized for simple screening assays with luciferase or fluorescent reporters. The efficacy of the developed, fully synthetic reporters was demonstrated by the identification of novel targets for two clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and osimertinib. A universal reporter system for in-cell protein kinase profiling will facilitate repurposing of existing anti-cancer drugs and identification of novel inhibitors in high-throughput screening studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21536.001 PMID:28199182

  1. Oncogenic potential of TAR RNA binding protein TRBP and its regulatory interaction with RNA-dependent protein kinase PKR.

    PubMed Central

    Benkirane, M; Neuveut, C; Chun, R F; Smith, S M; Samuel, C E; Gatignol, A; Jeang, K T

    1997-01-01

    TAR RNA binding protein (TRBP) belongs to an RNA binding protein family that includes the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), Drosophila Staufen and Xenopus xlrbpa. One member of this family, PKR, is a serine/threonine kinase which has anti-viral and anti-proliferative effects. In this study we show that TRBP is a cellular down-regulator of PKR function. Assaying expression from an infectious HIV-1 molecular clone, we found that PKR inhibited viral protein synthesis and that over-expression of TRBP effectively countered this inhibition. In intracellular and in cell-free assays we show that TRBP directly inhibits PKR autophosphorylation through an RNA binding-independent pathway. Biologically, TRBP serves a growth-promoting role; cells that overexpress TRBP exhibit transformed phenotypes. Our results demonstrate the oncogenic potential of TRBP and are consistent with the notion that intracellular PKR function contributes physiologically towards regulating cellular proliferation. PMID:9034343

  2. Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing.

    PubMed

    Selvanathan, Saravana P; Graham, Garrett T; Erkizan, Hayriye V; Dirksen, Uta; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G; Dakic, Aleksandra; Yu, Songtao; Liu, Xuefeng; Paulsen, Michelle T; Ljungman, Mats E; Wu, Cathy H; Lawlor, Elizabeth R; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A

    2015-03-17

    The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron-exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of γ-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4-279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4-279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code.

  3. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Contreras, Jorge R.; Fernando, Thilini R.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Rao, Dinesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia–rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26974154

  4. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M; Howard, Jonathan M; Contreras, Jorge R; Fernando, Thilini R; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Basso, Giuseppe; Pigazzi, Martina; Sanford, Jeremy R; Rao, Dinesh S

    2016-04-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia-rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease.

  5. Reduced stability of retinoblastoma protein by gankyrin, an oncogenic ankyrin-repeat protein overexpressed in hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Higashitsuji, H; Itoh, K; Nagao, T; Dawson, S; Nonoguchi, K; Kido, T; Mayer, R J; Arii, S; Fujita, J

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Asia and Africa, where hepatitis virus infection and exposure to specific liver carcinogens are prevalent. Although inactivation of some tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and p16INK4Ahas been identified, no known oncogene is commonly activated in hepatocellular carcinomas. Here we have isolated genes overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas by cDNA subtractive hybridization, and identified an oncoprotein consisting of six ankyrin repeats (gankyrin). The expression of gankyrin was increased in all 34 hepatocellular carcinomas studied. Gankyrin induced anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in NIH/3T3 cells. Gankyrin bound to the product of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1), increasing its phosphorylation and releasing the activity of the transcription factor E2F-1. Gankyrin accelerated the degradation of RB1 in vitro and in vivo, and was identical to or interacted with a subunit of the 26S proteasome. These results demonstrate the importance of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the regulation of cell growth and oncogenic transformation, and indicate that gankyrin overexpression contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis by destabilizing RB1.

  6. Osteofibrous dysplasia and adamantinoma: correlation of proto-oncogene product and matrix protein expression.

    PubMed

    Maki, Masahiiko; Athanasou, Nicholas

    2004-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between osteofibrous dysplasia (OFD) and adamantinoma, we analyzed the expression of several proto-oncogene products and extracellular matrix proteins by immunohistochemistry and correlated our results with histological and ultrastructural findings. C-fos and c-jun, but not c-Met, were observed in OFD and in the fibrous and epithelial components of differentiated and classical adamantinomas. Staining for collagen IV, laminin and galectin-3, a laminin binding protein was seen in OFD and around cell nests in adamantinoma. E-, P-, and N-cadherin expression was found in all cases of classical adamantinoma, but not in differentiated adamantinoma or OFD. Osteonectin was detected in both the epithelial and fibrous components of adamantinomas, but osteopontin and osteocalcin were not seen in classical adamantinomas. The results show common expression of a number of oncoproteins and bone matrix proteins in adamantinoma and OFD, some of which are associated with mesenchymal-to-epithelial cell transformation. These findings would be in keeping with the hypothesis that OFD represents a precursor lesion of adamantinoma. Differential expression of a number of bone matrix protein in adamantinoma may also be of diagnostic use in distinguishing these 2 lesions immunohistochemically.

  7. Histone Code Modulation by Oncogenic PWWP-Domain Protein in Breast Cancers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    amplicon for identifying candidate oncogenes in breast cancer. We identified Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) as a candidate...amplicon for identifying candidate oncogenes in breast cancer (4). We identified Wolf-Hirschhorn syndrome candidate 1-like 1 (WHSC1L1) as a candidate...oncogenes that are drugable targets for cancer therapy in the near future? Pharmacol Ther 2007; 115: 419-34. 16. Kim JK, Esteve PO, Jacobsen SE

  8. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  9. Characterization of the oncogenic function of centromere protein F in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yongdong; Liu, Lulu; Zeng, Tingting; Zhu, Ying-Hui; Li, Jiangchao; Chen, Leilei; Li, Yan; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Ma, Stephanie; Guan, Xin-Yuan

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Overexpression of CENPF is frequently detected in HCC. •Upregulation of CENPF serves as an independent prognosis factor in HCC patients. •CENPF functions as an oncogene in HCC by promoting cell G2/M transition. -- Abstract: Centromere protein F (CENPF) is an essential nuclear protein associated with the centromere-kinetochore complex and plays a critical role in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Up-regulation of CENPF expression has previously been detected in several solid tumors. In this study, we aim to study the expression and functional role of CENPF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found CENPF was frequently overexpressed in HCC as compared with non-tumor tissue. Up-regulated CENPF expression in HCC was positively correlated with serum AFP, venous invasion, advanced differentiation stage and a shorter overall survival. Cox regression analysis found that overexpression of CENPF was an independent prognosis factor in HCC. Functional studies found that silencing CENPF could decrease the ability of the cells to proliferate, form colonies and induce tumor formation in nude mice. Silencing CENPF also resulted in the cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint by down-regulating cell cycle proteins cdc2 and cyclin B1. Our data suggest that CENPF is frequently overexpressed in HCC and plays a critical role in driving HCC tumorigenesis.

  10. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells.

  11. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells. PMID:26009982

  12. Oncogenic role of rab escort protein 1 through EGFR and STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yun, Un-Jung; Sung, Jee Young; Park, Seog-Yun; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Shim, Jaegal; Lee, Jae-Seon; Hibi, Masahiko; Bae, Young-Ki; Kim, Yong-Nyun

    2017-02-23

    Rab escort protein-1 (REP1) is linked to choroideremia (CHM), an X-linked degenerative disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding REP1 (CHM). REP1 mutant zebrafish showed excessive cell death throughout the body, including the eyes, indicating that REP1 is critical for cell survival, a hallmark of cancer. In the present study, we found that REP1 is overexpressed in human tumor tissues from cervical, lung, and colorectal cancer patients, whereas it is expressed at relatively low levels in the normal tissue counterparts. REP1 expression was also elevated in A549 lung cancer cells and HT-29 colon cancer cells compared with BEAS-2B normal lung and CCD-18Co normal colon epithelial cells, respectively. Interestingly, short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated REP1 knockdown-induced growth inhibition of cancer cell lines via downregulation of EGFR and inactivation of STAT3, but had a negligible effect on normal cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of REP1 in BEAS-2B cells enhanced cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation with little increase in EGFR level and STAT3 activation. Furthermore, REP1 knockdown effectively reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model via EGFR downregulation and STAT3 inactivation in vivo. These data suggest that REP1 plays an oncogenic role, driving tumorigenicity via EGFR and STAT3 signaling, and is a potential therapeutic target to control cancers.

  13. A RAS oncogene imparts growth factor independence to myeloid cells that abnormally regulate protein kinase C: a nonautocrine transformation pathway.

    PubMed

    Boswell, H S; Nahreini, T S; Burgess, G S; Srivastava, A; Gabig, T G; Inhorn, L; Srour, E F; Harrington, M A

    1990-06-01

    The factor-dependent cell line FDC-P1 has been utilized as a model of interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent myeloid cell proliferation. However, it has been recently observed that active phorbol esters (e.g., phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) may entirely replace IL-3 to promote its proliferation. These observations reveal abnormal regulation of protein kinase C (pkC) (absence of downregulation or overexpression). This property allowed a test of the hypothesis that the T24 RAS (codon 12) oncogene acts by constitutive and persistent pkC activation, driving proliferation. FDC-P1 cells were transfected by electroporation with the T24 RAS-containing vector pAL 8, or with a control vector pSVX Zip Neo, and neomycin-resistant clones were selected. Multiple RAS-transfectant clones were categorized for their growth factor requirement and incorporation of the 6.6-kb human mutant H-RAS genome. IL-3-independent clones had incorporated multiple (more than two) copies of the entire 6.6-kb RAS genome. The incorporation of multiple 6.6-kb RAS genomes was correlated with high-level p21 RAS expression. No evidence for autostimulatory growth factor production by clones containing the RAS oncogene was observed. Thus, acquisition of growth factor independence in myeloid cells by abundant expression of a RAS oncogene is linked, in part, to abnormal regulation of pkC, which acts as a collaborating oncogene.

  14. Wrapping Effects within a Proposed Function-Rescue Strategy for the Y220C Oncogenic Mutation of Protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Accordino, Sebastián R.; Rodríguez Fris, J. Ariel; Appignanesi, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble proteins must protect their structural integrity from water attack by wrapping interactions which imply the clustering of nonpolar residues around the backbone hydrogen bonds. Thus, poorly wrapped hydrogen bonds constitute defects which have been identified as promoters of protein associations since they favor the removal of hydrating molecules. More specifically, a recent study of our group has shown that wrapping interactions allow the successful identification of protein binding hot spots. Additionally, we have also shown that drugs disruptive of protein-protein interfaces tend to mimic the wrapping behavior of the protein they replace. Within this context, in this work we study wrapping three body interactions related to the oncogenic Y220C mutation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Our computational results rationalize the oncogenic nature of the Y220C mutation, explain the binding of a drug-like molecule already designed to restore the function of p53 and provide clues to help improve this function-rescue strategy and to apply in other drug design or re-engineering techniques. PMID:23365691

  15. Yes-Associated Protein (YAP) Modulates Oncogenic Features and Radiation Sensitivity in Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tsujiura, Masahiro; Mazack, Virginia; Sudol, Marius; Kaspar, Hanna G.; Nash, John; Carey, David J.; Gogoi, Radhika

    2014-01-01

    Background Yes-associated protein (YAP) is a transcriptional co-activator and regulates cell proliferation and apoptosis. We investigated the clinical and biological significance of YAP in endometrial cancer (EMCA). Methods YAP expression in 150 primary tumor tissues from patients with EMCA was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and its association with clinicopathological data was assessed. The biological functions of YAP were determined in EMCA cell lines through knockdown/overexpression of YAP. The role of YAP in modulating radiation sensitivity was also investigated in EMCA cells. Results Increased nuclear YAP expression was significantly associated with higher grade, stage, lympho-vascular space invasion, postoperative recurrence/metastasis and overall survival in estrogen mediated EMCA, called type 1 cancer (p = 0.019,  = 0.028,  = 0.0008,  = 0.046 and  = 0.015, respectively). In multivariate analysis, nuclear YAP expression was confirmed as an independent prognostic factor for overall survival in type 1 EMCA. YAP knockdown by siRNA resulted in a significant decrease in cell proliferation (p<0.05), anchorage-dependent growth (p = 0.015) and migration/invasion (p<0.05), and a significant increase in the number of cells in G0/G1 phase (p = 0.002). Conversely, YAP overexpression promoted cell proliferation. Clonogenic assay demonstrated enhanced radiosensitivity by approximately 36% in YAP inhibited cells. Conclusions Since YAP functions as a transcriptional co-activator, its differential localization in the nucleus of cancer cells and subsequent impact on cell proliferation could have important consequences with respect to its role as an oncogene in EMCA. Nuclear YAP expression could be useful as a prognostic indicator or therapeutic target and predict radiation sensitivity in patients with EMCA. PMID:24972085

  16. Analysis of origin and protein-protein interaction maps suggests distinct oncogenic role of nuclear EGFR during cancer evolution

    PubMed Central

    Sharip, Ainur; Abdukhakimova, Diyora; Wang, Xiao; Kim, Alexey; Kim, Yevgeniy; Sharip, Aigul; Orakov, Askarbek; Miao, Lixia; Sun, Qinglei; Chen, Yue; Chen, Zhenbang; Xie, Yingqiu

    2017-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine kinase EGFR usually is localized on plasma membrane to induce progression of many cancers including cancers in children (Bodey et al. In Vivo. 2005, 19:931-41), but it contains a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that mediates EGFR nuclear translocation (Lin et al. Nat Cell Biol. 2001, 3:802-8). Here we report that NLS of EGFR has its old evolutionary origin. Protein-protein interaction maps suggests that nEGFR pathways are different from membrane EGFR and EGF is not found in nEGFR network while androgen receptor (AR) is found, which suggests the evolution of prostate cancer, a well-known AR driven cancer, through changes in androgen- or EGF-dependence. Database analysis suggests that nEGFR correlates with the tumor grades especially in prostate cancer patients. Structural predication analysis suggests that NLS can compromise the differential protein binding to EGFR through stretch linkers with evolutionary mutation from N to V. In experiment, elevation of nEGFR but not membrane EGFR was found in castration resistant prostate cancer cells. Finally, systems analysis of NLS and transmembrane domain (TM) suggests that NLS has old origin while NLS neighboring domain of TM has been undergone accelerated evolution. Thus nEGFR has an old origin resembling the cancer evolution but TM may interfere with NLS driven signaling for natural selection of survival to evade NLS induced aggressive cancers. Our data suggest NLS is a dynamic inducer of EGFR oncogenesis during evolution for advanced cancers. Our model provides novel insights into the evolutionary role of NLS of oncogenic kinases in cancers. PMID:28382154

  17. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Liu; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A.

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. {yields} The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. {yields} While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. {yields} This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  18. Strong HER-2/neu protein overexpression by immunohistochemistry often does not predict oncogene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Hammock, Lauren; Lewis, Melinda; Phillips, Carol; Cohen, Cynthia

    2003-10-01

    Breast cancer patients with HER-2/neu oncogene amplification by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) have been shown to have a better response to trastuzumab (Herceptin) therapy than those showing HER-2/neu protein overexpression only. Many centers currently perform FISH only on tumors showing 2+ HER-2/neu positivity by immunohistochemistry (IHC), with the assumption that 3+ positivity virtually equates with amplification. Results of FISH performed on 102 breast cancer cases over a 12-month period were correlated with HER-2/neu IHC results. FISH was performed using a ratio of HER-2/neu and chromosome 17 centromere signal counts (PathVysion; Vysis, Downers Grove, IL). Immunohistochemical expression of HER-2/neu was evaluated according to the published scoring guidelines of the HercepTest (Dako, Carpinteria, CA). Only 22 of 45 tumors with 3+ positivity (49%) showed amplification by FISH. Only 2 of 25 cases with 2+ staining by IHC (6%) showed gene amplification, and 1 of 25 cases with negative IHC staining (4%) showed weak amplification. Of the 25 cases showing oncogene amplification, 22 (88%) showed 3+ IHC positivity, 2 (8%) showed 2+ positivity, and 1 (4%) was negative by IHC. More than 50% of breast tumors showing strong 3+ HER-2/neu staining do not show oncogene amplification by FISH. Most tumors with 2+ and negative IHC also fail to amplify. In our experience, FISH studies should be performed on all 3+ and 2+ staining tumors to avoid inappropriate and toxic treatment. The decision to perform FISH on IHC-negative tumors should be guided by additional parameters, including tumor grade and estrogen receptor status.

  19. Acquisition of an oncogenic fusion protein serves as an initial driving mutation by inducing aneuploidy and overriding proliferative defects

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Elaine C.; Vijayaraghavan, Jyothi; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Taylor, Christopher M.; Tsien, Fern; Crabtree, Judy S.; Hollenbach, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    While many solid tumors are defined by the presence of a particular oncogene, the role that this oncogene plays in driving transformation through the acquisition of aneuploidy and overcoming growth arrest are often not known. Further, although aneuploidy is present in many solid tumors, it is not clear whether it is the cause or effect of malignant transformation. The childhood sarcoma, Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), is primarily defined by the t(2;13)(q35;q14) translocation, creating the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein. It is unclear what role PAX3-FOXO1 plays in the initial stages of tumor development through the acquisition and persistence of aneuploidy. In this study we demonstrate that PAX3-FOXO1 serves as a driver mutation to initiate a cascade of mRNA and miRNA changes that ultimately reprogram proliferating myoblasts to induce the formation of ARMS. We present evidence that cells containing PAX3-FOXO1 have changes in the expression of mRNA and miRNA essential for maintaining proper chromosome number and structure thereby promoting aneuploidy. Further, we demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters the expression of growth factor related mRNA and miRNA, thereby overriding aneuploid-dependent growth arrest. Finally, we present evidence that phosphorylation of PAX3-FOXO1 contributes to these changes. This is one of the first studies describing how an oncogene and post-translational modifications drive the development of a tumor through the acquisition and persistence of aneuploidy. This mechanism has implications for other solid tumors where large-scale genomics studies may elucidate how global alterations contribute to tumor phenotypes allowing the development of much needed multi-faceted tumor-specific therapeutic regimens. PMID:27588498

  20. Rationally designed aberrant kinase-targeted endogenous protein nanomedicine against oncogene mutated/amplified refractory chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Retnakumari, Archana P; Hanumanthu, Prasanna Lakshmi; Malarvizhi, Giridharan L; Prabhu, Raghuveer; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Thampi, Madhavan V; Menon, Deepthy; Mony, Ullas; Menon, Krishnakumar; Keechilat, Pavithran; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2012-11-05

    Deregulated protein kinases play a very critical role in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance of cancer. Although molecularly targeted small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI) are effective against many types of cancer, point mutations in the kinase domain impart drug resistance, a major challenge in the clinic. A classic example is chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) caused by BCR-ABL fusion protein, wherein a BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor, imatinib (IM), was highly successful in the early chronic phase of the disease, but failed in the advanced stages due to amplification of oncogene or point mutations in the drug-binding site of kinase domain. Here, by identifying critical molecular pathways responsible for the drug-resistance in refractory CML patient samples and a model cell line, we have rationally designed an endogenous protein nanomedicine targeted to both cell surface receptors and aberrantly activated secondary kinase in the oncogenic network. Molecular diagnosis revealed that, in addition to point mutations and amplification of oncogenic BCR-ABL kinase, relapsed/refractory patients exhibited significant activation of STAT5 signaling with correlative overexpression of transferrin receptors (TfR) on the cell membrane. Accordingly, we have developed a human serum albumin (HSA) based nanomedicine, loaded with STAT5 inhibitor (sorafenib), and surface conjugated the same with holo-transferrin (Tf) ligands for TfR specific delivery. This dual-targeted "transferrin conjugated albumin bound sorafenib" nanomedicine (Tf-nAlb-Soraf), prepared using aqueous nanoprecipitation method, displayed uniform spherical morphology with average size of ∼150 nm and drug encapsulation efficiency of ∼74%. TfR specific uptake and enhanced antileukemic activity of the nanomedicine was found maximum in the most drug resistant patient sample having the highest level of STAT5 and TfR expression, thereby confirming the accuracy of our rational design and potential of dual

  1. The Tax oncogene enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing protein complexes to activate transcription.

    PubMed

    Fufa, Temesgen D; Byun, Jung S; Wakano, Clay; Fernandez, Alfonso G; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Gardner, Kevin

    2015-09-11

    The eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia protein (ELL) is a key regulator of RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. ELL facilitates RNA polymerase II transcription pause site entry and release by dynamically interacting with p300 and the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). In this study, we investigated the role of ELL during the HTLV-1 Tax oncogene induced transactivation. We show that ectopic expression of Tax enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing transcriptional complexes and the subsequent recruitment of these complexes to target genes in vivo. Depletion of ELL abrogates Tax induced transactivation of the immediate early genes Fos, Egr2 and NF-kB, suggesting that ELL is an essential cellular cofactor of the Tax oncogene. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism of ELL-dependent transactivation of immediate early genes by Tax and provides the rational for further defining the genome-wide targets of Tax and ELL.

  2. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (AtmKD/-) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm-/-) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate AtmKD/-, but not Atm-proficientor Atm-/- leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14709.001 PMID:27304073

  3. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-06-15

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (Atm(KD/-)) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm(-/-)) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate Atm(KD/-), but not Atm-proficientor Atm(-/-) leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy.

  4. Genetic Modeling of PIM Proteins in Cancer: Proviral Tagging and Cooperation with Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Enara; Renner, Oliver; Narlik-Grassow, Maja; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney-murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anti-cancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim, and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1) as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate, and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all three isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis. PMID:24860787

  5. Retroviral Oncogenes: A Historical Primer

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses are the original source of oncogenes. The discovery and characterization of these genes were made possible by the introduction of quantitative cell biological and molecular techniques for the study of tumor viruses. Key features of all retroviral oncogenes were first identified in src, the oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus. These include non-involvement in viral replication, coding for a single protein, and cellular origin. The myc, ras and erbB oncogenes quickly followed src, and these together with pi3k are now recognized as critical driving forces in human cancer. PMID:22898541

  6. The preliminary solution structure of human p8MTCP1, a protein encoded by the putative MTCP1 oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthe, P.; Guignard, L.; Yang, Y.-S.; Chiche, L.; Strub, M.-P.; Hoh, F.; Stern, M.-H.; Roumestand, C.

    1998-02-01

    The NMR solution structure of the cystein-rich human p8 protein coded by the oncogene MTCP1 reveals an original scaffold consisting of three α-helices, two of them tightly held together by two disulphide bridges in an antiparallel α-hairpin. MTCP1 was found to be expressed in mature prolymphocytic leukemias. La structure RMN de la protéine humaine p8 en solution présente un repliement original en trois hélices α, deux d'entre elles étant étroitement maintenues dans une orientation antiparallèle par deux ponts disulfures. Cette protéine riche en cystéine est codée par l'oncogène MTCP1 qui est exprimé dans des leucémies prolymphocytaires de phénotype mature.

  7. HDGF-related protein-2 (HRP-2) acts as an oncogene to promote cell growth in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kun; Xu, Chen; Jin, Xiaofeng; Wumaier, Reziya; Ma, Jian; Peng, Jingtao; Wang, Yuqi; Tang, Yan; Yu, Long; Zhang, Pingzhao

    2015-03-20

    HDGFRP2 (HRP-2) belongs to the Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF)-related proteins (HRPs) family, which are characterized by a conserved HATH/PWWP domain at a well-conserved region of the N-terminus. However, the cellular function of HRP-2 remains unknown. In this study, we showed for the first time that HRP-2 is frequently overexpressed in human HCC tissues at mRNA and protein levels. We further showed that HRP-2 can promote HCC cells growth in vitro and xenograft tumors in vivo. Using protein affinity purification methods, we searched for functional partners of HRP-2, and found that HRP-2 interacts with various proteins known to be involved in transcription elongation and processing. Furthermore, we demonstrate HRP-2 interacts and co-localizes with RNA processing regulator IWS1, and positively regulated the mRNA level of Cyclin D1. Together, our study suggests HRP-2 may act as an mRNA processing co-factor to promote cells growth by regulating the mRNA of key oncogenes, which can be explored further for cancer treatment.

  8. Role of Virus Receptor Hyal2 in Oncogenic Transformation of Rodent Fibroblasts by Sheep Betaretrovirus Env Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shan-Lu; Duh, Fuh-Mei; Lerman, Michael I.; Miller, A. Dusty

    2003-01-01

    The ovine betaretroviruses jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) and enzootic nasal tumor virus (ENTV) cause contagious cancers in the lungs and upper airways of sheep and goats. Oncogenic transformation assays using mouse and rat fibroblasts have localized the transforming activity to the Env proteins encoded by these viruses, which require the putative lung and breast cancer tumor suppressor hyaluronidase 2 (Hyal2) to promote virus entry into cells. These results suggested the hypothesis that the JSRV and ENTV Env proteins cause cancer by inhibiting the tumor suppressor activity of Hyal2. Consistent with this hypothesis, we show that human Hyal2 and other Hyal2 orthologs that can promote virus entry, including rat Hyal2, can suppress transformation by the Env proteins of JSRV and ENTV. Furthermore, we provide direct evidence for binding of the surface (SU) region of JSRV Env to human and rat Hyal2. However, mouse Hyal2 did not mediate entry of virions bearing JSRV or ENTV Env proteins, bound JSRV SU poorly if at all, and did not suppress transformation by the JSRV or ENTV Env proteins, indicating that mouse Hyal2 plays no role in transformation of mouse fibroblasts and that the Env proteins can transform at least some cells by a Hyal2-independent mechanism. Expression of human Hyal2 in mouse cells expressing JSRV Env caused a marked reduction in Env protein levels, indicating that human Hyal2 suppresses Env-mediated transformation in mouse cells by increasing Env degradation rather than by exerting a more general Env-independent tumor suppressor activity. PMID:12584308

  9. Oncogenic activity of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is down-regulated by lytic LMP-1.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jyotsna; Walling, Dennis M

    2006-08-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is a viral oncogene that manifests its oncogenic phenotype through activation of cellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth, survival, differentiation, and transformation. Lytic LMP-1 (lyLMP-1) is a related EBV gene without oncogenic properties. The lyLMP-1 gene is found in 60% of the EBV strains circulating in nature, but it is not found in EBV strains associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We recently demonstrated that lyLMP-1 down-regulates the half-life of LMP-1 in epithelial cells. Therefore in this study, we tested the hypothesis that lyLMP-1 concomitantly down-regulates LMP-1 oncogenic activity. The results demonstrated that lyLMP-1 inhibits LMP-1-mediated intracellular signaling activation, epithelial cell growth and survival, and fibroblast cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Lytic LMP-1 manifested this effect through the promotion of LMP-1 degradation and a reduction in the expressed quantity of LMP-1. Thus, lyLMP-1 functions as a posttranslational negative regulator of LMP-1 oncogenesis. These results support a model of EBV-associated epithelial oncogenesis in which lyLMP-1 may act in vivo to reduce the risk of LMP-1-mediated transformation and is therefore subjected to negative selection in nasopharyngeal carcinoma pathogenesis.

  10. Identification of proteins suppressing the functions of oncogenic phosphatase of regenerating liver 1 and 3

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju-Dong; Jung, Haiyoung; Min, Sang-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    The phosphatase of regenerating liver (PRL) family, including PRL-1, PRL-2, and PRL-3, comprises protein tyrosine phosphatases whose deregulation is associated with the tumorigenesis and metastasis of many types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, aiming to increase understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the functions of PRL-1 and PRL-3, a yeast two-hybrid system was employed to screen for their interacting proteins. Alignment with the NCBI BLAST database revealed 12 interactive proteins: Synaptic nuclear envelope protein 2, emerin, mannose 6-phosphate receptor-binding protein 1, low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 10, Rab acceptor 1, tumor protein D52-like 2, selectin P ligand (SELPLG), guanylate binding protein 1, transmembrane and ubiquitin-like domain-containing 2, NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase subunit B8, syndecan 4 and FK506-binding protein 8 (FKBP8). These proteins are associated with cell proliferation, apoptosis, immune response, cell fate specification and metabolic process in biological process categories, and involved in various signaling pathways, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and cell adhesion molecules. Interactions of PRL-1 with the prey proteins SELPLG and FKBP8 were confirmed by immunoprecipitation or immunostaining. Furthermore, SELPLG and FKBP8 suppressed PRL-1− or PRL-3-mediated p53 activity. Identification of the proteins interacting with PRL family proteins may provide valuable information to better understand the mechanism of PRL-mediated signal transduction in cancer and other diverse diseases. PMID:27882103

  11. Oncogenic ALK regulates EMT in non-small cell lung carcinoma through repression of the epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1

    PubMed Central

    Menotti, Matteo; Poggio, Teresa; Panizza, Elena; Wang, Qi; Minero, Valerio G.; Fagoonee, Sharmila; Compagno, Mara; Altruda, Fiorella; Monti, Stefano; Chiarle, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A subset of Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma (NSCLC) carries chromosomal rearrangements involving the Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) gene. ALK-rearranged NSCLC are typically adenocarcinoma characterized by a solid signet-ring cell pattern that is frequently associated with a metastatic phenotype. Recent reports linked the presence of ALK rearrangement to an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype in NSCLC, but the extent and the mechanisms of an ALK-mediated EMT in ALK-rearranged NSCLC are largely unknown. We found that the ALK-rearranged H2228 and DFCI032, but not the H3122, cell lines displayed a mesenchymal phenotype. In these cell lines, oncogenic ALK activity dictated an EMT phenotype by directly suppressing E-cadherin and up-regulating vimentin expression, as well as expression of other genes involved in EMT. We found that the epithelial splicing regulatory protein 1 (ESRP1), a key regulator of the splicing switch during EMT, was repressed by EML4-ALK activity. The treatment of NSCLC cells with ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) led to up-regulation of ESRP1 and E-cadherin, thus reverting the phenotype from mesenchymal to epithelial (MET). Consistently, ESRP1 knock-down impaired E-cadherin up-regulation upon ALK inhibition, whereas enforced expression of ESRP1 was sufficient to increase E-cadherin expression. These findings demonstrate an ALK oncogenic activity in the regulation of an EMT phenotype in a subset of NSCLC with potential implications for the biology of ALK-rearranged NSCLC in terms of metastatic propensity and resistance to therapy. PMID:27119231

  12. Abrogation of the Brd4-Positive Transcription Elongation Factor b Complex by Papillomavirus E2 Protein Contributes to Viral Oncogene Repression▿

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Junpeng; Li, Qing; Lievens, Sam; Tavernier, Jan; You, Jianxin

    2010-01-01

    The cellular bromodomain protein Brd4 is a major interacting partner of the papillomavirus (PV) E2 protein. Interaction of E2 with Brd4 contributes to viral episome maintenance. The E2-Brd4 interaction also plays an important role in repressing viral oncogene expression from the integrated viral genome in human PV (HPV)-positive cancer cells. However, the underlying mechanism is not clearly understood. In host cells, Brd4 recruits positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb) to stimulate RNA polymerase II phosphorylation during cellular and viral gene expression. P-TEFb associates with the C terminus of Brd4, which largely overlaps with the E2 binding site on Brd4. In this study, we demonstrate that E2 binding to Brd4 inhibits the interaction of endogenous Brd4 and P-TEFb. P-TEFb is essential for viral oncogene E6/E7 transcription in both HeLa and CaSki cells that contain integrated HPV genomes. E2 binding to Brd4 abrogates the recruitment of P-TEFb to the integrated viral chromatin template, leading to inactivation of P-TEFb and repression of the viral oncogene E6/E7. Furthermore, dissociation of the Brd4-P-TEFb complex from the integrated viral chromatin template using a Brd4 bromodomain dominant-negative inhibitor also hampers HPV E6/E7 oncogene expression. Our data support that Brd4 recruitment of P-TEFb to the viral chromatin template is essential for viral oncogene expression. Abrogation of the interaction between P-TEFb and Brd4 thus provides a mechanism for E2-mediated repression of the viral oncogenes from the integrated viral genomes in cancer cells. PMID:19846528

  13. PTPN14 Forms a Complex with Kibra and LATS1 Proteins and Negatively Regulates the YAP Oncogenic Function*

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Kayla E.; Li, Ying-Wei; Yang, Nuo; Shen, He; Orillion, Ashley R.; Zhang, Jianmin

    2014-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and survival, thus exerting profound effects on normal cell fate and tumorigenesis. Pivotal effectors of this pathway are YAP/TAZ, transcriptional co-activators whose dysfunction contributes to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and malignant transformation. Therefore, it is of great importance to decipher the mechanisms underlying the regulations of YAP/TAZ at various levels. Here we report that non-receptor tyrosine phosphatase 14 (PTPN14) interacts with the Kibra protein. The interaction between PTPN14 and Kibra is through the PPXY domain of PTPN14 and WW domain of Kibra. PTPN14 and Kibra can induce the LATS1 activation independently and cooperatively. Interestingly, activation of LATS1 by PTPN14 is dependent on the C terminus of PTPN14 and independent of the upstream mammalian STE20-like kinase (MST) proteins. Furthermore, we demonstrate that PTPN14 increases the LAST1 protein stability. Last, overexpression of Kibra rescues the increased cell migration and aberrant three-dimensional morphogenesis induced by knockdown of PTPN14, and this rescue is mediated through the activation of the upstream LATS1 kinase and subsequent cytoplasmic sequestration of YAP. In summary, our results indicate a potential regulatory role of PTPN14 in the Hippo pathway and demonstrate another layer of regulation in the YAP oncogenic function. PMID:25023289

  14. Enhanced transcriptional activation by E2 proteins from the oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Kovelman, R; Bilter, G K; Glezer, E; Tsou, A Y; Barbosa, M S

    1996-01-01

    A systematic comparison of transcriptional activation by papillomavirus E2 proteins revealed that the E2 proteins from high-risk human papillomaviruses (human papillomavirus type 16 [HPV-16] and HPV-18) are much more active than are the E2 proteins from low-risk HPVs (HPV-6b and HPV-11). Despite the tropism of HPVs for particular epithelial cell types, this difference in transcriptional activation was observed in a number of different epithelial and nonepithelial cells. The enhanced activities of the E2 proteins from high-risk HPVs did not result from higher steady-state levels of protein in vivo, and in vitro DNA-binding assays revealed similar binding properties for these two classes of E2 proteins. These results demonstrate that the E2 proteins from high-risk HPVs have an intrinsically enhanced potential to activate transcription from promoters with E2-responsive elements. We found that there are also substantial differences between the activation properties of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein and those of either of the two classes of HPV E2 proteins, especially with regard to requirements for particular configurations of E2 binding sites in the target promoter. Our results indicate that there are at least three distinct functional classes of E2 proteins and that these classes of E2 proteins may perform different roles during the respective viral life cycles. PMID:8892874

  15. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53+/–), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r2 = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance. PMID:27660672

  16. Unraveling the Activation Mechanism of Taspase1 which Controls the Oncogenic AF4–MLL Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sabiani, Samaneh; Geppert, Tim; Engelbrecht, Christian; Kowarz, Eric; Schneider, Gisbert; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of the AF4–MLL oncoprotein results in the formation of a stable multiprotein complex which forms the key event for the onset of acute proB leukemia in mice. Therefore, Taspase1 represents a conditional oncoprotein in the context of t(4;11) leukemia. In this report, we used site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular events by which Taspase1 becomes sequentially activated. Monomeric pro-enzymes form dimers which are autocatalytically processed into the enzymatically active form of Taspase1 (αββα). The active enzyme cleaves only very few target proteins, e.g., MLL, MLL4 and TFIIA at their corresponding consensus cleavage sites (CSTasp1) as well as AF4–MLL in the case of leukemogenic translocation. This knowledge was translated into the design of a dominant-negative mutant of Taspase1 (dnTASP1). As expected, simultaneous expression of the leukemogenic AF4–MLL and dnTASP1 causes the disappearance of the leukemogenic oncoprotein, because the uncleaved AF4–MLL protein (328 kDa) is subject to proteasomal degradation, while the cleaved AF4–MLL forms a stable oncogenic multi-protein complex with a very long half-life. Moreover, coexpression of dnTASP1 with a BFP-CSTasp1-GFP FRET biosensor effectively inhibits cleavage. The impact of our findings on future drug development and potential treatment options for t(4;11) leukemia will be discussed. PMID:26137584

  17. Cellular Redox Imbalance and Changes of Protein S-glutathionylation Patterns Are Associated with Senescence Induced by Oncogenic H-Ras

    PubMed Central

    Urbanelli, Lorena; Magini, Alessandro; Magherini, Francesca; Pugnaloni, Armanda; Piva, Francesco; Modesti, Alessandra; Emiliani, Carla; Principato, Giovanni

    2012-01-01

    H-Ras oncogene requires deregulation of additional oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor proteins to increase cell proliferation rate and transform cells. In fact, the expression of the constitutively activated H-RasV12 induces cell growth arrest and premature senescence, which act like barriers in pre-neoplastic lesions. In our experimental model, human fibroblasts transfected with H-RasV12 show a dramatic modification of morphology. H-RasV12 expressing cells also show premature senescence followed by cell death, induced by autophagy and apoptosis. In this context, we provide evidence that in H-RasV12 expressing cells, the premature senescence is associated with cellular redox imbalance as well as with altered post-translation protein modification. In particular, redox imbalance is due to a strong reduction of total antioxidant capacity, and significant decrease of glutathione level. As the reversible addition of glutathione to cysteinyl residues of proteins is an important post-translational regulative modification, we investigated S-glutathionylation in cells expressing active H-Ras. In this contest we observed different S-glutathionylation patterns in control and H-RasV12 expressing cells. Particularly, the GAPDH enzyme showed S-glutathionylation increase and significant enzyme activity depletion in H-Ras V12 cells. In conclusion, we proposed that antioxidant defense reduction, glutathione depletion and subsequent modification of S-glutathionylation of target proteins contribute to arrest cell growth, leading to death of fibroblasts expressing constitutively active H-Ras oncogene, thus acting as oncogenic barriers that obstacle the progression of cell transformation. PMID:23284910

  18. The histone demethylase PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuzhou; Pan, Xufeng; Zhao, Heng

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PHF8 overexpresses in human NSCLC and predicts poor survival. • PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell growth and transformation. • PHF8 regulates apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. • PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer. • MiR-21 is critically essential for PHF8 function in human lung cancer cells. - Abstract: PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing protein and erases repressive histone marks including H4K20me1 and H3K9me1/2. It binds to H3K4me3, an active histone mark usually located at transcription start sites (TSSs), through its plant homeo-domain, and is thus recruited and enriched in gene promoters. PHF8 is involved in the development of several types of cancer, including leukemia, prostate cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Herein we report that PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PHF8 is up-regulated in human NSCLC tissues, and high PHF8 expression predicts poor survival. Our in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrate that PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation and cellular transformation. We found that PHF8 knockdown induces DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer, and miR-21 knockdown blocks the effects of PHF8 on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. In summary, PHF8 promotes lung cancer cell growth and survival by regulating miR-21.

  19. [Identification of a specific protein in flat revertant cell lines derived from ras oncogene-transformed cells].

    PubMed

    Fujita, H

    1990-03-01

    Total proteins from a mouse embryo fibroblast cell line NIH/3T3, NIH/3T3 cells transformed by human activated c-Ha-ras (EJ-ras) oncogene (EJ-NIH/3T3), and the two flat revertant cell lines, R1 and R2 were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (IEF and NEPHGE). Several hundred polypeptides were resolved as seen by silver staining. Common alterations in four polypeptide spots were observed in the revertants when compared with NIH/3T3 and EJ-NIH/3T3 cells. In these alterations, a new polypeptide spot p92-5.7 (designated by molecular weight X 10(-3) and pI) was detected only in the revertants, but not in NIH/3T3 and EJ-NIH/3T3 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of p92-5.7 seemed to be associated with the flat morphology and the reduced tumorigenicity of the revertants. The polypeptide p92-5.7 was also not detected in the total proteins extracted from BALB/3T3 cells, NIH Swiss mouse primary embryo fibroblasts. Subcellular fractionation of total protein from R1 cells revealed that the p92-5.7 was present in the cytosol. The p92-5.7 was not phosphorylated in the steady state of R1 cells. Western blot analysis using an anti-gelsolin antibody demonstrated that the p92-5.7 might be a variant form of gelsolin which is thought to be an actin regulatory protein or a gelsolin-like polypeptide. The expressions of gelsolin mRNA in the revertants were higher than in the EJ-NIH/3T3 cells. These results may suggest that the expression of p92-5.7 detected only in the revertants is associated, at least in part, with the reversion. This may be the first demonstration of the specific protein expression in the flat revertants.

  20. Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miR-21 maturation with designed RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fan; Zubovic, Lorena; Pavelitz, Tom; Yang, Wen; Godin, Katherine; Walker, Matthew; Zheng, Suxin; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    The RNA Recognition Motif (RRM) is the largest family of eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. Engineered RRMs with new specificity would provide valuable tools and an exacting test of our understanding of specificity. We have achieved the first successful re-design of the specificity of an RRM using rational methods and demonstrated re-targeting of activity in cells. We engineered the conserved RRM of human Rbfox proteins to specifically bind to the terminal loop of miR-21 precursor with high affinity and inhibit its processing by Drosha and Dicer. We further engineered Giardia Dicer by replacing its PAZ domain with the designed RRM. The reprogrammed enzyme degrades pre-miR-21 specifically in vitro and suppresses mature miR-21 levels in cells, which results in increased expression of PDCD4 and significantly decreased viability for cancer cells. The results demonstrate the feasibility of engineering the sequence-specificity of RRMs and of using this ubiquitous platform for diverse biological applications. PMID:27428511

  1. Epigenome Mapping Reveals Distinct Modes of Gene Regulation and Widespread Enhancer Reprogramming by the Oncogenic Fusion Protein EWS-FLI1

    PubMed Central

    Tomazou, Eleni M.; Sheffield, Nathan C.; Schmidl, Christian; Schuster, Michael; Schönegger, Andreas; Datlinger, Paul; Kubicek, Stefan; Bock, Christoph; Kovar, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcription factor fusion proteins can transform cells by inducing global changes of the transcriptome, often creating a state of oncogene addiction. Here, we investigate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in this process, focusing on Ewing sarcoma cells that are dependent on the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. We established reference epigenome maps comprising DNA methylation, seven histone marks, open chromatin states, and RNA levels, and we analyzed the epigenome dynamics upon downregulation of the driving oncogene. Reduced EWS-FLI1 expression led to widespread epigenetic changes in promoters, enhancers, and super-enhancers, and we identified histone H3K27 acetylation as the most strongly affected mark. Clustering of epigenetic promoter signatures defined classes of EWS-FLI1-regulated genes that responded differently to low-dose treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Furthermore, we observed strong and opposing enrichment patterns for E2F and AP-1 among EWS-FLI1-correlated and anticorrelated genes. Our data describe extensive genome-wide rewiring of epigenetic cell states driven by an oncogenic fusion protein. PMID:25704812

  2. Inhibition of the hTERT promoter by the proto-oncogenic protein TAL1.

    PubMed

    Terme, J-M; Mocquet, V; Kuhlmann, A-S; Zane, L; Mortreux, F; Wattel, E; Duc Dodon, M; Jalinot, P

    2009-11-01

    Telomerase activity, which has fundamental roles in development and carcinogenesis, strongly depends on the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), its catalytic subunit. In this report, we show that the basic helix-loop-helix factor, TAL1 (T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia 1), is a negative regulator of the hTERT promoter. Indeed, TAL1 overexpression leads to a decrease in hTERT mRNA abundance and hence to reduced telomerase activity. Conversely, suppression of TAL1 by RNA interference in Jurkat cells increases hTERT expression. Analysis by chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that TAL1 binds to the hTERT proximal promoter and recruits HDAC1. Considering the relationship recently established between TAL1 and the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax protein, which was confirmed in T lymphocyte clones derived from adult T-cell leukemia patients, we analyzed the effect of TAL1 with respect to the earlier characterized effects of Tax and HBZ (HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper) on hTERT expression. TAL1 was observed to reinforce the negative effect of Tax, whereas hTERT transactivation by the HBZ-JunD complex was repressed by TAL1 overexpression. Moreover, HBZ was found to induce proteasome-mediated degradation of TAL1. These observations support a model in which Tax and TAL1 by repressing hTERT would initially favor genomic instability, whereas expression of factors such as HBZ allows at a later stage an increase in hTERT production and consequently in telomerase activity.

  3. Oncogenic functions of secreted Frizzled-related protein 2 in human renal cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamamura, Soichiro; Kawakami, Kazumori; Hirata, Hiroshi; Ueno, Koji; Saini, Sharanjot; Majid, Shahana; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2010-06-01

    The secreted Frizzled-related proteins (sFRP) are modulators of the Wnt signaling pathway, which is involved in embryonic development and tumor progression. The functions of sFRP2 have not been studied in renal cancer. Transient transfection of sFRP2 promoted cell growth in renal carcinoma cells, whereby the largest effect was observed in A498 cells. To further study the functions of sFRP2 gene in renal carcinoma cells, we established A498 renal cancer cell lines, which stably expressed sFRP2. Stably expressed sFRP2 significantly promoted cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo tumor growth. The stably expressed sFRP2 cells were also found to have reduced UV-induced apoptosis and increased G(2) phase of the cell cycle. The phosphorylation level at Ser(33/37)/Thr(41) of beta-catenin was lower in the stable sFRP2 cell lines compared with the control cell line. sFRP2 significantly activated T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancer factor transcriptional activity. In the stable sFRP2 cell line, expression of c-Fos, Bcl2, Bcl-w, cyclin B2, and cyclin E2 genes was significantly increased and p53 expression was decreased. This is the first report documenting that sFRP2 activates the canonical Wnt pathway and promotes cell growth by evoking diverse signaling cascades in renal cancer cells. This study may provide better strategies for the management of renal cancer through regulation of sFRP2 pathways.

  4. Her2/neu Protein Expression and Oncogene Amplification in Gastric Carcinoma with Clinico-Pathological Correlation in Egyptian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Ahmed Abdel; Hindawi, Ali El; Hareedy, Amal; Khalil, Heba; Ashiry, Ranya Al; Elia, Shady; Sadek, Ahmed; Magdy, Mona; Atta, Rafatt; Anas, Amgad; Bakr, Hisham; Hammam, Olfat

    2016-01-01

    AIM: Amplification of the Her2/neu gene and overexpression of the Her2/neu protein in gastric carcinoma (GC) is a golden criterion for target therapy with trastuzumab (Herceptin). We aim to evaluate the immunohistochemical protein expression and amplification of the oncogene Her2/neu by FISH technique in the epithelial gastric carcinoma and to compare their association with different clinicopathologic parameters aiming at identifying positive cases that may benefit from targeted therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was done on eighty-five tumour tissue samples from patients with GC as well as thirty non-malignant lesions (Gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, adenoma with low-grade dysplasia, adenoma with high-grade dysplasia). All were immunohistochemically stained with Her2/neu antibody. RESULTS: All equivocal and some selected GC cases were submitted for FISH technique to detect Her2/neu gene amplification. By immunohistochemistry twenty-three cases (27%) were defined as positive for Her2/neu gene amplification and/or protein overexpression. The levels of Her2/neu positive (3+), Her2/neu equivocal (2+) and Her2/neu negative (1+/0) were measurable in 14.2%, 32.9% and 52.9% of the samples, respectively. FISH showed that Her2/neu gene was amplified in 22 cases, 10 Her2/neu positive (3+), 11 (39.3%) Her2/neu equivocal (2+) and 1 Her2/neu negative (1+) cases with IHC staining those who can benefit from anti Her2/neu target therapy. Her2/neu was overexpressed positivity (3+) more in intestinal type and mixed carcinoma, and moderately differentiated tumours. None of gastritis, intestinal metaplasia or adenoma with low-grade dysplasia cases showed positivity for Her2/neu (3+). The Her2/neu positivity (3+) was associated with both adenocarcinoma cases and high-grade dysplasia (P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The results highlight the necessity of FISH test for further categorization when gastric cancer cases are equivocal (2+) by IHC to determine eligibility for the targeted

  5. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1 globally alters mRNA and miRNA to enhance myoblast invasion

    PubMed Central

    Loupe, J M; Miller, P J; Bonner, B P; Maggi, E C; Vijayaraghavan, J; Crabtree, J S; Taylor, C M; Zabaleta, J; Hollenbach, A D

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, one of the most common childhood sarcomas, is comprised of two main subtypes, embryonal and alveolar (ARMS). ARMS, the more aggressive subtype, is primarily characterized by the t(2;13)(p35;p14) chromosomal translocation, which fuses two transcription factors, PAX3 and FOXO1 to generate the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Patients with PAX3-FOXO1-postitive tumors have a poor prognosis, in part due to the enhanced local invasive capacity of these cells, which leads to the increased metastatic potential for this tumor. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the role that the oncogenic fusion protein has in this increased invasive potential. In this report we use large-scale comparative transcriptomic analyses in physiologically relevant primary myoblasts to demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 is sufficient to alter the expression of 70 mRNA and 27 miRNA in a manner predicted to promote cellular invasion. In contrast the expression of PAX3 alters 60 mRNA and 23 miRNA in a manner predicted to inhibit invasion. We demonstrate that these alterations in mRNA and miRNA translate into changes in the invasive potential of primary myoblasts with PAX3-FOXO1 increasing invasion nearly 2-fold while PAX3 decreases invasion nearly 4-fold. Taken together, these results allow us to build off of previous reports and develop a more expansive molecular model by which the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters global gene regulatory networks to enhance the local invasiveness of cells. Further, the global nature of our observed changes highlights the fact that instead of focusing on a single-gene target, we must develop multi-faceted treatment regimens targeting multiple genes of a single oncogenic phenotype or multiple genes that target different oncogenic phenotypes for tumor progression. PMID:27454080

  6. A Hybrid Chalcone Combining the Trimethoxyphenyl and Isatinyl Groups Targets Multiple Oncogenic Proteins and Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lili; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors that can simultaneously inhibit multiple oncogenic proteins in essential pathways are promising therapeutic chemicals for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To combine the anticancer effects of combretastatins, chalcones and isatins, we synthesized a novel hybrid molecule 3’,4’,5’-trimethoxy-5-chloro-isatinylchalcone (3MCIC). 3MCIC inhibited proliferation of cultured HepG2 cells, causing rounding-up of the cells and massive vacuole accumulation in the cytoplasm. Paxillin and focal adhesion plaques were downregulated by 3MCIC. Surprisingly, unlike the microtubule (MT)-targeting agent CA-4 that inhibits tubulin polymerization, 3MCIC stabilized tubulin polymers both in living cells and in cell lysates. 3MCIC treatment reduced cyclin B1, CDK1, p-CDK1/2, and Rb, but increased p53 and p21. Moreover, 3MCIC caused GSK3β degradation by promoting GSK3β-Ser9 phosphorylation. Nevertheless, 3MCIC inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by downregulating β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and E2F1. 3MCIC treatment not only activated the caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway, but also caused massive autophagy evidenced by rapid and drastic changes of LC3 and p62. 3MCIC also promoted cleavage and maturation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin D. Using ligand-affinity chromatography (LAC), target proteins captured onto the Sephacryl S1000-C12-3MCIC resins were isolated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the LAC-MS identified targets, i.e., septin-2, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, nucleolin, EF1α1/2, EBP1 (PA2G4), cyclin B1 and GSK3β, were further detected by Western blotting. Moreover, both septin-2 and HIF-1α decreased drastically in 3MCIC-treated HepG2 cells. Our data suggest that 3MCIC is a promising anticancer lead compound with novel targeting mechanisms, and also demonstrate the efficiency of LAC-MS based target identification in anticancer drug development. PMID:27525972

  7. Osa Protein Constitutes a Strong Oncogenic Suppression System That Can Block vir-Dependent Transfer of IncQ Plasmids between Agrobacterium Cells and the Establishment of IncQ Plasmids in Plant Cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B.

    2004-01-01

    The osa (oncogenic suppressive activity) gene of the IncW group plasmid pSa is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. osa confers oncogenic suppression by inhibiting VirE2 protein export. This result is similar, but not identical, to that of oncogenic suppression by the IncQ plasmid RSF1010. We conducted a series of experiments to compare oncogenic suppression by these two systems. Agrobacterium strains harboring plasmids containing osa are more able to effect oncogenic suppression than are similar strains containing various RSF1010 derivatives. When osa is present within a donor Agrobacterium strain that also carries a derivative of RSF1010, the transfer of RSF1010 derivatives to recipient bacteria and their establishment in plants are blocked. Oncogenic suppression is still effected when the osa gene is integrated into the Agrobacterium chromosome, suggesting that it is the osa gene product that is active in suppression and that suppression does not require a protein-nucleic acid intermediate like that described for IncQ plasmids. Extracellular complementation experiments with tobacco leaf disks indicated that Osa blocks stable transfer of RSF1010 to plant cells by inhibiting transfer of VirE2, which is essential for the transfer of RSF1010 into plant cells, and not by inhibiting the actual transfer of RSF1010 itself. Our results suggest that Osa and RSF1010 cause oncogenic suppression by using different mechanisms. PMID:15489437

  8. Conversion of the LIMA1 tumour suppressor into an oncogenic LMO-like protein by API2-MALT1 in MALT lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Nie, Zilin; Du, Ming-Qing; McAllister-Lucas, Linda M; Lucas, Peter C; Bailey, Nathanael G; Hogaboam, Cory M; Lim, Megan S; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J

    2015-01-08

    MALT1 is the only known paracaspase and is a critical mediator of B- and T-cell receptor signalling. The function of the MALT1 gene is subverted by oncogenic chimeric fusions arising from the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) aberration, which is the most frequent translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. API2-MALT1-positive MALT lymphomas manifest antibiotic resistance and aggressive clinical behaviour with poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanisms underlying API2-MALT1-induced MALT lymphomagenesis are not fully understood. Here we show that API2-MALT1 induces paracaspase-mediated cleavage of the tumour suppressor protein LIMA1. LIMA1 binding by API2-MALT1 is API2 dependent and proteolytic cleavage is dependent on MALT1 paracaspase activity. Intriguingly, API2-MALT1-mediated proteolysis generates a LIM domain-only (LMO)-containing fragment with oncogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, primary MALT lymphomas harbouring the API2-MALT1 fusion uniquely demonstrate LIMA1 cleavage fragments. Our studies reveal a novel paracaspase-mediated oncogenic gain-of-function mechanism in the pathogenesis of MALT lymphoma.

  9. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP's functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP's co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  10. Effects of cellular non-protein sulfhydryl depletion in radiation induced oncogenic transformation and genotoxicity in mouse C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hei, T.K.; Geard, C.R.; Hall, E.J.

    1984-08-01

    A study was made of the effects of cellular non-protein sulfhydryl (NPSH) depletion on cytotoxicity, cell cycle kinetics, oncogenic transformation and sister chromatid exchange (SCE) in C/sub 3/H 10T1/2 cells. Using DL-Buthionine S-R-Sulfoximine (BSO) to deplete thiols, it was found spectrophotometrically that less than 5% of control NPSH level remained in the cells after 24-hour treatment under aerated conditions. Such NPSH depleted cells, when subject to a 3 Gy ..gamma..-ray treatment, were found to have no radiosensitizing response either in terms of cell survival or oncogenic transformation. In addition, decreased levels of NPSH had no effect on spontaneous or radiation-induced SCE nor were cell cycle kinetics additionally altered. Therefore, the inability of NPSH depletion to alter ..gamma..-ray induced cellular transformation was unrelated to any possible effect of BSO on the cell cycle. These results suggest that such depletion may result in little or no additional oncogenic or genotoxic effects on aerated normal tissues.

  11. Oncogenic K-Ras and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Prevent FAS-Mediated Apoptosis in Fibroblasts through Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin

    2000-01-01

    By an expression cloning method using Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells, we tried to obtain inhibitory genes against Fas-mediated apoptosis and identified proto-oncogene c-K-ras. Transient expression of K-Ras mutants revealed that oncogenic mutant K-Ras (RasV12) strongly inhibited, whereas dominant-inhibitory mutant K-Ras (RasN17) enhanced, Fas-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting Fas-triggered activation of caspases without affecting an expression level of Fas. Among the target molecules of Ras, including Raf (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase [MAPKKK]), phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RalGDS), only the constitutively active form of Raf (Raf-CAAX) could inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the constitutively active form of MAPKK (SDSE-MAPKK) suppressed Fas-mediated apoptosis, and MKP-1, a phosphatase specific for classical MAPK, canceled the protective activity of oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasV12), Raf-CAAX, and SDSE-MAPKK. Furthermore, physiological activation of Ras by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) protected Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis. bFGF protection was also dependent on the activation of the MAPK pathway through Ras. All the results indicate that the activation of MAPK through Ras inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in Balb3T3 cells, which may play a role in oncogenesis. PMID:10662780

  12. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits constitutively active YAP (5SA)-induced oncogenic cell transformation. •The PDZ-binding motif of YAP promotes its nuclear localization in cultured cells and mouse liver. •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF transcription in cultured cells and mouse liver. -- Abstract: YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP’s functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP’s co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  13. Dephosphorylation of Tyrosine 393 in Argonaute 2 by Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase 1B Regulates Gene Silencing in Oncogenic RAS-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming; Haase, Astrid D.; Huang, Fang-Ke; Coulis, Gérald; Rivera, Keith D.; Dickinson, Bryan C.; Chang, Christopher J.; Pappin, Darryl J.; Neubert, Thomas A.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Boivin, Benoit; Tonks, Nicholas K.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Oncogenic RAS (H-RASV12) induces premature senescence in primary cells by triggering production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), but the molecular role of ROS in senescence remains elusive. We investigated whether inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatases by ROS contributed to H-RASV12-induced senescence. We identified protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as a major target of H-RASV12-induced ROS. Inactivation of PTP1B was necessary and sufficient to induce premature senescence in H-RASV12-expressing IMR90 fibroblasts. We identified phospho-Tyr 393 of argonaute 2 (AGO2) as a direct substrate of PTP1B. Phosphorylation of AGO2 at Tyr 393 inhibited loading with microRNAs (miRNA) and thus miRNA-mediated gene silencing, which counteracted the function of H-RASV12-induced oncogenic miRNAs. Overall, our data illustrate that premature senescence in H-RASV12-transformed primary cells is a consequence of oxidative inactivation of PTP1B and inhibition of miRNA-mediated gene silencing. PMID:25175024

  14. TAT-CC fusion protein depresses the oncogenicity of BCR-ABL in vitro and in vivo through interrupting its oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-Lan; Gao, Miao; Ji, Mao-Sheng; Tao, Kun; Xiao, Qing; Zhong, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Ming; Feng, Wen-Li

    2013-02-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematologic malignancy characterized by the BCR-ABL protein. BCR-ABL is a constitutively active tyrosine kinase and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of CML. Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective in CML, but drug resistance and relapse occur. The coiled-coil (CC) domain located in BCR(1-72) mediates BCR-ABL tetramerization, which is essential for the activation of tyrosine kinase and transformation potential of BCR-ABL. CC domain is supposed to be a therapeutic target for CML. We purified a TAT-CC protein competively binding with the endogenous CC domain to reduce BCR-ABL kinase activity. We found that TAT-CC co-located and interacted with BCR-ABL in Ba/F3-p210 and K562 cells. It induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in these cells. It increased the sensitivity of these cells to imatinib and reduced the phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, CRKL and STAT5. We confirmed that TAT-CC could attenuate the oncogenicity of Ba/F3-p210 cells and diminish the volume of K562 solid tumor in mice. We conclude targeting the CC may provide a complementary therapy to inhibit BCR-ABL oncogenicity.

  15. Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway promotes cellular glucose uptake by downregulating the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Yee; Yu, Fa-Xing; Luo, Yan; Hagen, Thilo

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is known to play an important role to promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism through which the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway promotes glucose utilisation in cancer cells is still not well understood. It has recently been shown that the oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling in lung adenocarcinoma is important in promoting the localisation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) at the plasma membrane. We thus hypothesised that the effect of constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT signalling on glucose metabolism is mediated by thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), a known regulator of the GLUT1 plasma membrane localisation. Consistent with previous studies, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway decreased cellular glucose uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signalling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines using clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resulted in a decrease in GLUT1 membrane localisation. We also observed that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in various cell lines, including NSCLC cells, resulted in an increase in TXNIP expression. Importantly, knockdown of TXNIP using siRNA in the NSCLC cells promoted GLUT1 to be localised at the plasma membrane and reversed the effect of PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Together, our results suggest that the oncogenic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling promotes cellular glucose uptake, at least in part, through the regulation of TXNIP expression. This mechanism may contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer cells.

  16. Oncogenic nexus of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A): An oncoprotein with many hands

    PubMed Central

    De, Pradip; Carlson, Jennifer; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Dey, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Oncoprotein CIP2A a Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A forms an “oncogenic nexus” by virtue of its control on PP2A and MYC stabilization in cancer cells. The expression and prognostic function of CIP2A in different solid tumors including colorectal carcinoma, head & neck cancers, gastric cancers, lung carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, esophageal cancers, pancreatic carcinoma, brain cancers, breast carcinoma, bladder cancers, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinomas, tongue cancers, cervical carcinoma, prostate cancers, and oral carcinoma as well as a number of hematological malignancies are just beginning to emerge. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in our understanding of (1) how an “oncogenic nexus” of CIP2A participates in the tumorigenic transformation of cells and (2) how we can prospect/view the clinical relevance of CIP2A in the context of cancer therapy. The review will try to understand the role of CIP2A (a) as a biomarker in cancers and evaluate the prognostic value of CIP2A in different cancers (b) as a therapeutic target in cancers and (c) in drug response and developing chemo-resistance in cancers. PMID:25015035

  17. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-03-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors.

  18. Protein kinase C-independent expression of stromelysin by platelet-derived growth factor, ras oncogene, and phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Meco, M T; Quiñones, S; Municio, M M; Sanz, L; Bernal, D; Cabrero, E; Saus, J; Moscat, J

    1991-11-25

    Changes in the expression of several genes play critical roles in cell growth and tumor transformation. A number of proteases are increased in some tumors, and the level of these enzymes correlates with the metastatic potential of several cancer cell lines. Stromelysin, with the widest substrate specificity, can degrade the extracellular matrix conferring metastatic potential to tumor cells. The mechanisms whereby growth factors and oncogenes control the expression of stromelysin are beginning to be characterized. In the study shown here we also identify a region in the stromelysin promoter which is involved in the induction of stromelysin in response to platelet-derived growth factor, phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C, and ras oncogene. Our results are consistent with the notion that platelet-derived growth factor/phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C induces stromelysin gene expression through a phorbol myristate acetate/protein kinase C-independent mechanism by acting through elements in the stromelysin promoter distinct from the 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate-responsive element.

  19. Epitomics: IgG-epitome decoding of E6, E7 and L1 proteins from oncogenic human papillomavirus type 58

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wan-Xiang; Wang, Jian; Tang, Hai-Ping; He, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Qian-Xi; Gupta, Satish K.; Gu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Qiang; Ji, Chao-Neng; Liu, Ling-Feng; Li, Gui-Ling; Xu, Cong-Jian; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To enable rational multi-epitope vaccine and diagnostic antigen design, it is imperative to delineate complete IgG-epitome of the protein. Here, we describe results of IgG-epitome decoding of three proteins from high-risk (HR-) oncogenic human papillomavirus type 58 (HPV58). To reveal their entire epitomes, employing peptide biosynthetic approach, 30 precise linear B-cell epitopes (BCEs) were mapped on E6, E7 and L1 proteins using rabbits antisera to the respective recombinant proteins. Using sequence alignment based on BCE minimal motif, the specificity and conservativeness of each mapped BCE were delineated mainly among known HR-HPVs, including finding 3 broadly antibody cross-reactive BCEs of L1 that each covers almost all HR-HPVs. Western blots revealed that 13 of the 18 BCEs within L1-epitome were recognized by murine antisera to HPV58 virus-like particles, suggesting that these are antibody accessible BCEs. Also, a highly conserved epitope (YGD/XTL) of E6 was found to exist only in known common HR-HPVs, which could be used as the first peptide reference marker for judging HR-HPVs. Altogether, this study provides systemic and exhaustive information on linear BCEs of HR-HPV58 that will facilitate development of novel multi-epitope diagnostic reagents/chips for testing viral antibodies and ‘universal’ preventive HPV peptide vaccine based on L1 conserved BCEs. PMID:27708433

  20. Evi9 Encodes a Novel Zinc Finger Protein That Physically Interacts with BCL6, a Known Human B-Cell Proto-Oncogene Product

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Takuro; Yamazaki, Yukari; Saiki, Yuriko; Moriyama, Masatsugu; Largaespada, David A.; Jenkins, Nancy A.; Copeland, Neal G.

    2000-01-01

    Evi9 is a common site of retroviral integration in BXH2 murine myeloid leukemias. Here we show that Evi9 encodes a novel zinc finger protein with three tissue-specific isoforms: Evi9a (773 amino acids [aa]) contains two C2H2-type zinc finger motifs, a proline-rich region, and an acidic domain; Evi9b (486 aa) lacks the first zinc finger motif and part of the proline-rich region; Evi9c (239 aa) lacks all but the first zinc finger motif. Proviral integration sites are located in the first intron of the gene and lead to increased gene expression. Evi9a and Evi9c, but not Evi9b, show transforming activity for NIH 3T3 cells, suggesting that Evi9 is a dominantly acting proto-oncogene. Immunolocalization studies show that Evi9c is restricted to the cytoplasm whereas Evi9a and Evi9b are located in the nucleus, where they form a speckled localization pattern identical to that observed for BCL6, a human B-cell proto-oncogene product. Coimmunoprecipitation and glutathione S-transferase pull-down experiments show that Evi9a and Evi9b, but not Evi9c, physically interact with BCL6, while deletion mutagenesis localized the interaction domains in or near the second zinc finger and POZ domains of Evi9 and BCL6, respectively. These results suggest that Evi9 is a leukemia disease gene that functions, in part, through its interaction with BCL6. PMID:10757802

  1. Integrin α2β1 inhibits MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activates Yes-associated protein oncogenic signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Fai; Liu, Angela M.; Hong, Wanjin; Xu, Zhi; Luk, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that α2β1 integrin (but not other β1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities. Knockdown of integrin α2 gene (ITGA2) suppressed YAP targeted gene expression in vitro. α2β1 and collagen binding resulted in suppressing Hippo signaling of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and Large tumor suppressor homolog 1 (LATS1) with concomitant activation of YAP-mediated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression. In vitro kinase assay showed that MST1 is an immediate downstream target of integrin α2 with S1180 residue as the critical phosphorylation site. Clinical correlational analysis using a gene expression dataset of 228 HCC tumors revealed that ITGA2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, and co-expression with YAP targeted genes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, CTGF, cyclin D1, glypican 3, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, and SRY-box 4) correlated with survivals of HCC patients. In conclusion, α2β1 integrin activation through cellular adhesion impacts the Hippo pathway in solid tumors and modulates MST1-YAP signaling cascade. Targeting integrin α2 holds promises for treating YAP-positive HCC. PMID:27765911

  2. Integrin α2β1 inhibits MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activates Yes-associated protein oncogenic signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwong-Fai; Liu, Angela M; Hong, Wanjin; Xu, Zhi; Luk, John M

    2016-11-22

    The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that α2β1 integrin (but not other β1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities. Knockdown of integrin α2 gene (ITGA2) suppressed YAP targeted gene expression in vitro. α2β1 and collagen binding resulted in suppressing Hippo signaling of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and Large tumor suppressor homolog 1 (LATS1) with concomitant activation of YAP-mediated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression. In vitro kinase assay showed that MST1 is an immediate downstream target of integrin α2 with S1180 residue as the critical phosphorylation site. Clinical correlational analysis using a gene expression dataset of 228 HCC tumors revealed that ITGA2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, and co-expression with YAP targeted genes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, CTGF, cyclin D1, glypican 3, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, and SRY-box 4) correlated with survivals of HCC patients. In conclusion, α2β1 integrin activation through cellular adhesion impacts the Hippo pathway in solid tumors and modulates MST1-YAP signaling cascade. Targeting integrin α2 holds promises for treating YAP-positive HCC.

  3. A specific protein, p92, detected in flat revertants derived from NIH/3T3 transformed by human activated c-Ha-ras oncogene.

    PubMed

    Fujita, H; Suzuki, H; Kuzumaki, N; Müllauer, L; Ogiso, Y; Oda, A; Ebisawa, K; Sakurai, T; Nonomura, Y; Kijimoto-Ochiai, S

    1990-01-01

    Total proteins from a mouse embryo fibroblast cell line NIH/3T3, NIH/3T3 cells transformed by human activated c-Ha-ras (EJ-ras) oncogene (EJ-NIH/3T3), and the two flat revertant cell lines, R1 and R2, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (IEF and NEPHGE). Several hundred polypeptides were resolved as seen by silver staining. Common alterations in four polypeptide spots were observed in the revertants when compared with NIH/3T3 and EJ-NIH/3T3 cells. In these alterations, a new polypeptide spot p92-5.7 (designated by molecular weight x 10(-3) and pI) was detected only in the revertants and not in NIH/3T3 and EJ-NIH/3T3 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of p92-5.7 seemed to be associated with the flat morphology and the reduced tumorigenicity of the revertants. Polypeptide p92-5.7 was also not detected in the total proteins extracted from BALB/3T3 cells, NIH Swiss mouse primary embryo fibroblasts, NRK (normal rat kidney) cells, and L6 (rat myoblast). Subcellular fractionation of total protein from R1 cells revealed that the p92-5.7 was present in the cytosol. Western blot analysis using an anti-gelsolin antibody demonstrated that the p92-5.7 might be a variant form of gelsolin which is thought to be an actin regulatory protein or a gelsolin-like polypeptide. These results may suggest that the expression of p92-5.7 detected only in the revertants is associated, at least in part, with the reversion. This may be the first demonstration of specific protein expression in the flat revertants.

  4. Pro-oncogenic Roles of HLXB9 Protein in Insulinoma Cells through Interaction with Nono Protein and Down-regulation of the c-Met Inhibitor Cblb (Casitas B-lineage Lymphoma b).

    PubMed

    Desai, Shruti S; Kharade, Sampada S; Parekh, Vaishali I; Iyer, Sucharitha; Agarwal, Sunita K

    2015-10-16

    Pancreatic islet β-cells that lack the MEN1-encoded protein menin develop into tumors. Such tumors express the phosphorylated isoform of the β-cell differentiation transcription factor HLXB9. It is not known how phospho-HLXB9 acts as an oncogenic factor in insulin-secreting β-cell tumors (insulinomas). In this study we investigated the binding partners and target genes of phospho-HLXB9 in mouse insulinoma MIN6 β-cells. Co-immunoprecipitation coupled with mass spectrometry showed a significant association of phospho-HLXB9 with the survival factor p54nrb/Nono (54-kDa nuclear RNA-binding protein, non-POU-domain-containing octamer). Endogenous phospho-HLXB9 co-localized with endogenous Nono in the nucleus. Overexpression of HLXB9 decreased the level of overexpressed Nono but not endogenous Nono. Anti-phospho-HLXB9 chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq) identified the c-Met inhibitor, Cblb, as a direct phospho-HLXB9 target gene. Phospho-HLXB9 occupied the promoter of Cblb and reduced the expression of Cblb mRNA. Cblb overexpression or HLXB9 knockdown decreased c-Met protein and reduced cell migration. Also, increased phospho-HLXB9 coincided with reduced Cblb and increased c-Met in insulinomas of two mouse models of menin loss. These data provide mechanistic insights into the role of phospho-HLXB9 as a pro-oncogenic factor by interacting with a survival factor and by promoting the oncogenic c-Met pathway. These mechanisms have therapeutic implications for reducing β-cell proliferation in insulinomas by inhibiting phospho-HLXB9 or its interaction with Nono and modulating the expression of its direct (Cblb) or indirect (c-Met) targets. Our data also implicate the use of pro-oncogenic activities of phospho-HLXB9 in β-cell expansion strategies to alleviate β-cell loss in diabetes.

  5. Human cytomegalovirus and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Michael; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Allen, Carl M; Jaskoll, Tina

    2012-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection is common. Although still controversial, there is growing evidence that active hCMV infection is associated with a variety of malignancies, including brain, breast, lung, colon, and prostate. Given that hCMV is frequently resident in salivary gland (SG) ductal epithelium, we hypothesized that hCMV would be important to the pathogenesis of SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). This was initially supported by our finding that purified CMV induces malignant transformation in SG cells in an in vitro mouse model, and utilizes a pathogenic pathway previously reported for human MEC. Here we present the histologic and molecular characterizations of 39 human SG MECs selected randomly from a repository of cases spanning 2004-2011. Serial sections were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, tissue blocks from previous incisional or excisional biopsies. Immunohistochemical assays were performed for active hCMV proteins (IE1 and pp65) and the activated COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK signaling pathway. All four prospective causal criteria for viruses and cancer are fully satisfied: (1) protein markers for active hCMV are present in 97% of MECs; (2) markers of active hCMV are absent in non-neoplastic SG tissues; (3) hCMV-specific proteins (IE1, pp65) are in specific cell types and expression is positively correlated with severity; (4) hCMV correlates and colocalizes with an upregulation and activation of an established oncogenic signaling pathway (COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK). Thus, the evidential support reported here and previously in a mouse model is strongly confirmatory of a causal relationship between hCMV and SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of hCMV's role in human oncogenesis that fully responds to all of Koch's Postulates as revised for viruses and cancer. In the absence of any contrary evidence, hCMV can reasonably be designated an "oncovirus."

  6. microRNA-183 plays as oncogenes by increasing cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting protein phosphatase 2A in renal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Mingning Liu, Lei Chen, Lieqian Tan, Guobin Liang, Ziji Wang, Kangning Liu, Jianjun Chen, Hege

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues. • Inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed renal cancer cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 regulated renal cancer cell growth and metastasis via directly targeting tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-183 in renal cancer cells and the mechanisms miR-183 regulates this process. In this study, level of miR-183 in clinical renal cancer specimens was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. miR-183 was up- and down-regulated in two renal cancer cell lines ACHN and A498, respectively, and cell proliferation, Caspase 3/7 activity, colony formation, in vitro migration and invasion were measured; and then the mechanisms of miR-183 regulating was analyzed. We found that miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues; inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion and stimulated Caspase 3/7 activity; up-regulated miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis and suppressed Caspase 3/7 activity. We also found that miR-183 directly targeted tumor suppressor, specifically the 3′UTR of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Cα, PP2A-Cβ, and PP2A-B56-γ) transcripts, inhibiting their expression and regulated the downstream regulators p21, p27, MMP2/3/7 and TIMP1/2/3/4. These results revealed the oncogenes role of miR-183 in renal cancer cells via direct targeting protein phosphatase 2A.

  7. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces through STAT3 expression of immunosuppressive protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1)

    PubMed Central

    Marzec, Michal; Zhang, Qian; Goradia, Ami; Raghunath, Puthiyaveettil N.; Liu, Xiaobin; Paessler, Michele; Wang, Hong Yi; Wysocka, Maria; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce A.; Wasik, Mariusz A.

    2008-01-01

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation caused by the oncogenic, chimeric nucleophosmin (NPM)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) remain only partially understood, with most of the previous studies focusing mainly on the impact of NPM/ALK on cell survival and proliferation. Here we report that the NPM/ALK-carrying T cell lymphoma (ALK+TCL) cells strongly express the immunosuppressive cell-surface protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1), as determined on the mRNA and protein level. The CD274 expression is strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK, as demonstrated by inhibition of the NPM/ALK function in ALK+TCL cells by the small molecule ALK inhibitor CEP-14083 and by documenting CD274 expression in IL-3-depleted BaF3 cells transfected with the wild-type NPM/ALK, but not the kinase-inactive NPM/ALK K210R mutant or empty vector alone. NPM/ALK induces CD274 expression by activating its key signal transmitter, transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 binds to the CD274 gene promoter in vitro and in vivo, as shown in the gel electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and is required for the PD-L1 gene expression, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated STAT3 depletion. These findings identify an additional cell-transforming property of NPM/ALK and describe a direct link between an oncoprotein and an immunosuppressive cell-surface protein. These results also provide an additional rationale to therapeutically target NPM/ALK and STAT3 in ALK+TCL. Finally, they suggest that future immunotherapeutic protocols for this type of lymphoma may need to include the inhibition of NPM/ALK and STAT3 to achieve optimal clinical efficacy. PMID:19088198

  8. Cell cycle, oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways regulate numerous long and macro non-protein-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genome is pervasively transcribed but most transcripts do not code for proteins, constituting non-protein-coding RNAs. Despite increasing numbers of functional reports of individual long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), assessing the extent of functionality among the non-coding transcriptional output of mammalian cells remains intricate. In the protein-coding world, transcripts differentially expressed in the context of processes essential for the survival of multicellular organisms have been instrumental in the discovery of functionally relevant proteins and their deregulation is frequently associated with diseases. We therefore systematically identified lncRNAs expressed differentially in response to oncologically relevant processes and cell-cycle, p53 and STAT3 pathways, using tiling arrays. Results We found that up to 80% of the pathway-triggered transcriptional responses are non-coding. Among these we identified very large macroRNAs with pathway-specific expression patterns and demonstrated that these are likely continuous transcripts. MacroRNAs contain elements conserved in mammals and sauropsids, which in part exhibit conserved RNA secondary structure. Comparing evolutionary rates of a macroRNA to adjacent protein-coding genes suggests a local action of the transcript. Finally, in different grades of astrocytoma, a tumor disease unrelated to the initially used cell lines, macroRNAs are differentially expressed. Conclusions It has been shown previously that the majority of expressed non-ribosomal transcripts are non-coding. We now conclude that differential expression triggered by signaling pathways gives rise to a similar abundance of non-coding content. It is thus unlikely that the prevalence of non-coding transcripts in the cell is a trivial consequence of leaky or random transcription events. PMID:24594072

  9. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) in healthy carriers: Distribution of genotypes and 30 bp deletion in latent membrane protein-1 (LMP-1) oncogene.

    PubMed

    Correa, Rita Mariel; Fellner, María Dolores; Alonio, Lidia Virginia; Durand, Karina; Teyssié, Angélica R; Picconi, María Alejandra

    2004-08-01

    There are two types of Epstein Barr virus (EBV): EBV-1 and EBV-2, distinguished by genomic polymorphism in the genes encoding the nuclear antigens (EBNA-2, -3A, -3B, -3C). Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is an EBV protein with known oncogenic properties. Different variants had been described; among them, a 30 base pair (bp) deletion (del-LMP-1) had been reported in benign and malignant pathologies, but there is little information about its frequency in healthy populations. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of the EBV genotypes and the 30 bp deletion frequency, in EBV healthy carriers from Argentina. Analysis of EBNA-3C and LMP-1 genes were done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by Southern blot hybridization on DNA of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from blood bank donors. EBV-1 was present in 75.9% of samples, EBV-2 in 14.6%, and co-infections with both types in 6.5%. The deleted LMP-1 variant was found in 7.4% of analyzed samples, corresponding 3.2% to deleted variant alone and 4.2% to co-infections with non-deleted form. The non-deleted variant was found in 64.6% whereas in the remaining 28%, no PCR product was detected. These results showed that EBV-1 was the more prevalent type in healthy carriers of Argentina, similar to reports from others countries. A predominance of the non-deleted LMP-1 variant was observed. The presence of co-infections with both types and variants demonstrated that healthy individuals may also harbor multiple EBV infections.

  10. Salicylic Acid Based Small Molecule Inhibitor for the Oncogenic Src Homology-2 Domain Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-2 (SHP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xian; He, Yantao; Liu, Sijiu; Yu, Zhihong; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yang, Zhenyun; Dong, Yuanshu; Nabinger, Sarah C.; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Wang, Lina; Chan, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2010-08-13

    The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) plays a pivotal role in growth factor and cytokine signaling. Gain-of-function SHP2 mutations are associated with Noonan syndrome, various kinds of leukemias, and solid tumors. Thus, there is considerable interest in SHP2 as a potential target for anticancer and antileukemia therapy. We report a salicylic acid based combinatorial library approach aimed at binding both active site and unique nearby subpockets for enhanced affinity and selectivity. Screening of the library led to the identification of a SHP2 inhibitor II-B08 (compound 9) with highly efficacious cellular activity. Compound 9 blocks growth factor stimulated ERK1/2 activation and hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, providing supporting evidence that chemical inhibition of SHP2 may be therapeutically useful for anticancer and antileukemia treatment. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the structure of SHP2 in complex with 9 reveals molecular determinants that can be exploited for the acquisition of more potent and selective SHP2 inhibitors.

  11. PCAF-mediated acetylation of transcriptional factor HOXB9 suppresses lung adenocarcinoma progression by targeting oncogenic protein JMJD6

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Junhu; Xu, Weizhi; Zhan, Jun; Ma, Ji; Li, Xueying; Xie, Yuping; Wang, Jiadong; Zhu, Wei-guo; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhang, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    HOXB9 is a homeobox domain-containing transcription factor, playing an important role in embryonic development and cancer progression. However, the precise post-translational modifications (PTMs) of HOXB9 and the corresponding roles are unclear. Here, we report that acetyltransferase p300/CBP-associated factor (PCAF) interacts with and acetylates HOXB9 both in vivo and in vitro. Conversely, the acetylation of HOXB9 can be reversed by deacetylase SIRT1. Furthermore, we found that HOXB9 is acetylated at lysine 27 (AcK27). Functionally, in contrast to the wild type HOXB9, AcK27-HOXB9 decreased its capacity in promoting lung cancer cell migration and tumor growth in mice. Mechanistically, AcK27-HOXB9 suppresses the transcription of its target gene Jumonji domain-containing protein 6 (JMJD6) by direct occupying the promoter of JMJD6 gene. For clinical relevance, elevated HOXB9 acetylation at K27 predicts a better prognosis in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Taken together, we identified the first PTM of HOXB9 by demonstrating that HOXB9 can be acetylated and AcK27-HOXB9 counteracts the role of the wild-type HOXB9 in regulating lung adenocarcinoma progression. PMID:27613418

  12. Defining the oncogenic function of the TEL/AML1 (ETV6/RUNX1) fusion protein in a mouse model.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Meike; Schwieger, Maike; Horn, Stefan; Niebuhr, Birte; Ford, Anthony; Roscher, Susanne; Bergholz, Ulla; Greaves, Mel; Löhler, Jürgen; Stocking, Carol

    2005-11-17

    The t(12;21) translocation, generating the TEL/AML1 fusion protein, is the most common genetic lesion in childhood cancer. Using a bone marrow transplantation model, we demonstrate that TEL/AML1 expression impinges on normal hematopoietic differentiation, leading to the in vivo accumulation and persistence of an early progenitor compartment with a Sca1(+)/Kit(hi)/CD11b(+) phenotype and an increased self-renewal capacity, as documented by replating assays in vitro. Differentiation of these cells is not blocked, but the frequency of mature blood cells arising from TEL/AML1-transduced progenitors is low. Impaired differentiation is prominently observed in the pro-B-cell compartment, resulting in an proportional increase in early progenitors in vivo, consistent with the t(12;21) ALL phenotype. Despite the accumulation of both multipotent and B-cell progenitors in vivo, no leukemia induction was observed during an observation period of over 1 year. These results are consistent with findings in twins with concordant ALL, showing that TEL/AML1 generates a preleukemic clone in utero that persists for several years in a clinically covert fashion. Furthermore, our studies showed that the pointed domain of TEL/AML1, which recruits transcriptional repressors and directs oligomerization with either TEL/AML1 or wild-type TEL, was essential for the observed differentiation impairment and could not be replaced with another oligomerization domain.

  13. Genome-Wide Gene Expression Analysis Identifies the Proto-oncogene Tyrosine-Protein Kinase Src as a Crucial Virulence Determinant of Infectious Laryngotracheitis Virus in Chicken Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai; Wang, Fengjie; Han, Zongxi; Gao, Qi; Li, Huixin; Shao, Yuhao; Sun, Nana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Given the side effects of vaccination against infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), novel strategies for ILT control and therapy are urgently needed. The modulation of host-virus interactions is a promising strategy to combat the virus; however, the interactions between the host and avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) are unclear. Using genome-wide transcriptome studies in combination with a bioinformatic analysis, we identified proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (Src) to be an important modulator of ILTV infection. Src controls the virulence of ILTV and is phosphorylated upon ILTV infection. Functional studies revealed that Src prolongs the survival of host cells by increasing the threshold of virus-induced cell death. Therefore, Src is essential for viral replication in vitro and in ovo but is not required for ILTV-induced cell death. Furthermore, our results identify a positive-feedback loop between Src and the tyrosine kinase focal adhesion kinase (FAK), which is necessary for the phosphorylation of either Src or FAK and is required for Src to modulate ILTV infection. To the best of our knowledge, we are the first to identify a key host regulator controlling host-ILTV interactions. We believe that our findings have revealed a new potential therapeutic target for ILT control and therapy. IMPORTANCE Despite the extensive administration of live attenuated vaccines starting from the mid-20th century and the administration of recombinant vaccines in recent years, infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) outbreaks due to avian ILT herpesvirus (ILTV) occur worldwide annually. Presently, there are no drugs or control strategies that effectively treat ILT. Targeting of host-virus interactions is considered to be a promising strategy for controlling ILTV infections. However, little is known about the mechanisms governing host-ILTV interactions. The results from our study advance our understanding of host-ILTV interactions on a molecular level and provide experimental

  14. Oncogenic function of the homeobox A13-long noncoding RNA HOTTIP-insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 axis in human gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sophie S.W.; Wuputra, Kenly; Liu, Chung-Jung; Lin, Yin-Chu; Chen, Yi-Ting; Chai, Chee-Yin; Lin, Chen-Lung Steve; Kuo, Kung-Kai; Tsai, Ming-Ho; Wang, Shin-Wei; Chen, Ker-Kong; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Saito, Shigeo; Hanafusa, Tadashi; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Lin, Chang-Shen; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.

    2016-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of gastric tumorigenesis, we have established CSN cell line from human normal gastric mucosa, and CS12, a tumorigenic and invasive gastric cancer cell line from CSN passages. Many stem cell markers were expressed in both CSN and CS12 cells, but LGR5 and NANOG were expressed only in CS12 cells. Increased expression of homeobox A13 (HoxA13) and its downstream cascades was significant for the tumorigenic activity of CS12 cells, and was associated with recruitment of E2F-1 to HoxA13 promoter accompanied with increased trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3) at the hypomethylated E2F motifs. Knockdown of HoxA13 caused the downregulation of long non-coding RNA HOTTIP and insulin growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) genes, indicating that both were targets of HoxA13. Concurrent regulation of HoxA13-HOTTIP was mediated by the mixed lineage leukemia-WD repeat domain 5 complex, which caused the trimethylation of H3K4 and then stimulated cell proliferation. HoxA13 transactivated the IGFBP-3 promoter through the HOX-binding site. Activation of IGFBP-3 stimulated the oncogenic potential and invasion activity. Increased expression of HoxA13 (63.2%) and IGFBP-3 (28.6%) was detected in human gastric cancer tissues and was found in the gastric cancer data of The Cancer Genome Atlas. Taken together, the HoxA13–HOTTIP–IGFBP-3 cascade is critical for the carcinogenic characteristics of CS12 cells. PMID:27144338

  15. The Oncogenic Fusion Proteins SET-Nup214 and Sequestosome-1 (SQSTM1)-Nup214 Form Dynamic Nuclear Bodies and Differentially Affect Nuclear Protein and Poly(A)+ RNA Export.

    PubMed

    Port, Sarah A; Mendes, Adélia; Valkova, Christina; Spillner, Christiane; Fahrenkrog, Birthe; Kaether, Christoph; Kehlenbach, Ralph H

    2016-10-28

    Genetic rearrangements are a hallmark of several forms of leukemia and can lead to oncogenic fusion proteins. One example of an affected chromosomal region is the gene coding for Nup214, a nucleoporin that localizes to the cytoplasmic side of the nuclear pore complex (NPC). We investigated two such fusion proteins, SET-Nup214 and SQSTM1 (sequestosome)-Nup214, both containing C-terminal portions of Nup214. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies containing the nuclear export receptor CRM1 were observed in the leukemia cell lines LOUCY and MEGAL. Overexpression of SET-Nup214 in HeLa cells leads to the formation of similar nuclear bodies that recruit CRM1, export cargo proteins, and certain nucleoporins and concomitantly affect nuclear protein and poly(A)(+) RNA export. SQSTM1-Nup214, although mostly cytoplasmic, also forms nuclear bodies and inhibits nuclear protein but not poly(A)(+) RNA export. The interaction of the fusion proteins with CRM1 is RanGTP-dependent, as shown in co-immunoprecipitation experiments and binding assays. Further analysis revealed that the Nup214 parts mediate the inhibition of nuclear export, whereas the SET or SQSTM1 part determines the localization of the fusion protein and therefore the extent of the effect. SET-Nup214 nuclear bodies are highly mobile structures, which are in equilibrium with the nucleoplasm in interphase and disassemble during mitosis or upon treatment of cells with the CRM1-inhibitor leptomycin B. Strikingly, we found that nucleoporins can be released from nuclear bodies and reintegrated into existing NPC. Our results point to nuclear bodies as a means of preventing the formation of potentially insoluble and harmful protein aggregates that also may serve as storage compartments for nuclear transport factors.

  16. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  17. The mystery of oncogenic KRAS: Lessons from studying its wild-type counter part.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-I; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Kong, Guangyao; You, Xiaona; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-22

    Using conditional knock-in mouse models, we and others have shown that despite the very high sequence identity between Nras and Kras proteins, oncogenic Kras displays a much stronger leukemogenic activity than oncogenic Nras in vivo. In this manuscript, we will summarize our recent work of characterizing wild-type Kras function in adult hematopoiesis and in oncogenic Kras-induced leukemogenesis. We attribute the strong leukemogenic activity of oncogenic Kras to 2 unique aspects of Kras signaling. First, Kras is required in mediating cell type- and cytokine-specific ERK1/2 signaling. Second, oncogenic Kras, but not oncogenic Nras, induces hyperactivation of wild-type Ras, which significantly enhances Ras signaling in vivo. We will also discuss a possible mechanism that mediates oncogenic Kras-evoked hyperactivation of wild-type Ras and a potential approach to down-regulate oncogenic Kras signaling.

  18. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  19. Abrogation of a mitotic checkpoint by E2 proteins from oncogenic human papillomaviruses correlates with increased turnover of the p53 tumor suppressor protein.

    PubMed Central

    Frattini, M G; Hurst, S D; Lim, H B; Swaminathan, S; Laimins, L A

    1997-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) E2 and E1 proteins are required for the replication of viral genomes in vivo. We have examined the effects of increasing the level of E2 on viral and cellular replication using recombinant adenoviruses. Infection of cells which maintain HPV 31 DNA episomally with E2 recombinant adenoviruses resulted in a 5-fold increase in genome copy number as well as an S phase arrest allowing for the continued replication of cellular DNA. Similar effects on cell cycle progression were seen following infection of normal human foreskin keratinocytes, the natural host cell. The DNA content of these cells increased beyond 4N indicating that multiple rounds of replication had occurred without an intervening mitotic event. In addition, increased cyclin A and E associated kinase activity was observed, while no change was detected in cyclin B associated kinase activity or in the activation state of cdc2 kinase. Interestingly, the levels of the p53 tumor suppresser protein were dramatically reduced through a post-transcriptional mechanism following infection. These data suggest a role for E2 in regulating viral and cellular replication by abrogation of a mitotic checkpoint, which is, at least in part, controlled by p53. PMID:9029152

  20. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  1. Human papillomavirus oncogenic E6 protein regulates human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) expression via the tumor suppressor protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Liming; Jin, Jessica; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Kawsar, Hameem I.; Zender, Chad; Androphy, Elliot J.; Weinberg, Aaron; McCormick, Thomas S.; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Human β-defensin-3 (hBD3) is an epithelial cell-derived innate immune regulatory molecule overexpressed in oral dysplastic lesions and fosters a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Expression of hBD3 is induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Here we describe a novel pathway through which the high-risk human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) oncoprotein E6 induces hBD3 expression in mucosal keratinocytes. Ablation of E6 by siRNA induces the tumor suppressor p53 and diminishes hBD3 in HPV-16 positive CaSki cervical cancer cells and UM-SCC-104 head and neck cancer cells. Malignant cells in HPV-16-associated oropharyngeal cancer overexpress hBD3. HPV-16 E6 induces hBD3 mRNA expression, peptide production and gene promoter activity in mucosal keratinocytes. Reduction of cellular levels of p53 stimulates hBD3 expression, while activation of p53 by doxorubicin inhibits its expression in primary oral keratinocytes and CaSki cells, suggesting that p53 represses hBD3 expression. A p53 binding site in the hBD3 gene promoter has been identified by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the p63 protein isoform ΔNp63α, but not TAp63, stimulated transactivation of the hBD3 gene and was co-expressed with hBD3 in head and neck cancer specimens. Therefore, high-risk HPV E6 oncoproteins may stimulate hBD3 expression in tumor cells to facilitate tumorigenesis of HPV-associated head and neck cancer. PMID:27034006

  2. Adenovirus type 5 early encoded proteins of the E1 and E4 regions induce oncogenic transformation of primary rabbit cells.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Peter; Täuber, Birgit; Spruss, Thilo; Dobner, Thomas

    2010-07-01

    Analysis of the molecular mechanisms of viral-mediated oncogenesis has contributed enormously to the understanding of the basic principles of normal/malignant cell growth. Transformation by human adenoviruses is a multi-step process involving the modulation of numerous cellular pathways, leading to inhibition of apoptosis and growth arrest. However, the molecular mechanism of how the adenovirus oncogenes facilitate transformation of rodent cells, while concurrently failing to do so for human cells, remains elusive. In this report, we demonstrate for the first time that the transformation capabilities of adenovirus type 5 oncogenes are not restricted to rodent cells, but include cells of the related mammalian order Lagomorpha, inducing considerable morphological alterations, enhanced cell growth and tumour induction in vivo. Furthermore, the established cell lines may represent a suitable tool for further development to generate E4-mutated adenoviruses, which has so far been difficult as mutations within the E4 region often prove to be lethal without a helper-cell system.

  3. Eukaryotic translation initiator protein 1A isoform, CCS-3, enhances the transcriptional repression of p21CIP1 by proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yuri; Yu, Mi-young; Park, Jungeun; Lee, Choong-Eun; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    FBI-1, a member of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcription factors, plays a role in differentiation, oncogenesis, and adipogenesis. eEF1A is a eukaryotic translation elongation factor involved in several cellular processes including embryogenesis, oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization. CCS-3, a potential cervical cancer suppressor, is an isoform of eEF1A. We found that eEF1A forms a complex with FBI-1 by co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF Mass analysis of the immunoprecipitate. GST fusion protein pull-downs showed that FBI-1 directly interacts with eEF1A and CCS-3 via the zinc finger and POZ-domain of FBI-1. FBI-1 co-localizes with either eEF1A or CCS-3 at the nuclear periplasm. CCS-3 enhances transcriptional repression of the p21CIP1 gene (hereafter referred to as p21) by FBI-1. The POZ-domain of FBI-1 interacts with the co-repressors, SMRT and BCoR. We found that CCS-3 also interacts with the co-repressors independently. The molecular interaction between the co-repressors and CCS-3 at the POZ-domain of FBI-1 appears to enhance FBI-1 mediated transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that CCS-3 may be important in cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and oncogenesis by interacting with the proto-oncogene FBI-1 and transcriptional co-repressors.

  4. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30(II) accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30(II)/c-MYC.

    PubMed

    Romeo, Megan M; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-01

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30(II) protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30(II) interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30(II) and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30(II) induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30(II) in c-myc(-/-) HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30(II) is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30(II) inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30(II)/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis.

  5. Oncogenes in melanoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. BRAF, NRAS, and KIT are three well-known oncogenes involved in melanoma pathogenesis. Targeting of mutated BRAF kinase has recently been shown to significantly improve overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients, underscoring the particular role of this oncogene in melanoma biology. However, recurrences regularly occur within several months, which supposedly involve further oncogenes. Moreover, oncogenic driver mutations have not been described for up to 30% of all melanomas. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the mutational landscape of melanoma, more recent studies used high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. A number of new oncogene candidates such as MAPK1/2, ERBB4, GRIN2A, GRM3, RAC1, and PREX2 were identified. Their particular role in melanoma biology is currently under investigation. Evidence for the functional relevance of some of these new oncogene candidates has been provided in in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, these findings await further validation in clinical studies. This review provides an overview on well-known melanoma oncogenes and new oncogene candidates, based on recent high-throughput sequencing studies. The list of genes discussed herein is of course not complete but highlights some of the most significant of recent findings in this area. The new candidates may support more individualized treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma patients in the future.

  6. Activation of Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) C receptors enhances morphine-induced analgesia through modulation of coupling of μ-opioid receptor to Gi-protein in rat spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Chen, T; Zhou, X; Couture, R; Hong, Y

    2013-12-03

    Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) G protein-coupled receptors are exclusively expressed in small-sized neurons in trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in mammals. The present study investigated the effect of MrgC receptor activation on morphine analgesic potency and addressed its possible mechanisms. Intrathecal (i.t.) administration of the specific MrgC receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22, 3 nmol) increased morphine-induced analgesia and shifted the morphine dose-response curve to the left in rats. Acute morphine (5 μg) reduced the coupling of μ-opioid receptors (MORs) to Gi-, but not Gs-, protein in the spinal dorsal horn. The i.t. BAM8-22 (3 nmol) prevented this change of G-protein repertoire while the inactive MrgC receptor agonist BAM8-18 (3 nmol, i.t.) failed to do so. A double labeling study showed the co-localization of MrgC and MORs in DRG neurons. The i.t. BAM8-22 also increased the coupling of MORs to Gi-protein and recruited Gi-protein from cytoplasm to the cell membrane in the spinal dorsal horn. Application of BAM8-22 (10nM) in the cultured ganglion explants for 30 min increased Gi-protein mRNA, but not Gs-protein mRNA. The present study demonstrated that acute administration of morphine inhibited the repertoire of MOR/Gi-protein coupling in the spinal dorsal horn in vivo. The findings highlight a novel mechanism by which the activation of MrgC receptors can modulate the coupling of MORs with Gi-protein to enhance morphine-induced analgesia. Hence, adjunct treatment of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 may be of therapeutic value to relieve pain.

  7. Oncogenes: The Passport for Viral Oncolysis Through PKR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Janaina

    2016-01-01

    The transforming properties of oncogenes are derived from gain-of-function mutations, shifting cell signaling from highly regulated homeostatic to an uncontrolled oncogenic state, with the contribution of the inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes P53 and RB, leading to tumor resistance to conventional and target-directed therapy. On the other hand, this scenario fulfills two requirements for oncolytic virus infection in tumor cells: inactivation of tumor suppressors and presence of oncoproteins, also the requirements to engage malignancy. Several of these oncogenes have a negative impact on the main interferon antiviral defense, the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which helps viruses to spontaneously target tumor cells instead of normal cells. This review is focused on the negative impact of overexpression of oncogenes on conventional and targeted therapy and their positive impact on viral oncolysis due to their ability to inhibit PKR-induced translation blockage, allowing virion release and cell death. PMID:27486347

  8. The bcl-2 candidate proto-oncogene product is a 24-kilodalton integral-membrane protein highly expressed in lymphoid cell lines and lymphomas carrying the t(14;18) translocation.

    PubMed Central

    Chen-Levy, Z; Nourse, J; Cleary, M L

    1989-01-01

    We have identified a 24-kilodalton protein that is the product of the human bcl-2 gene, implicated as an oncogene because of its presence at the site of t(14;18) translocation breakpoints. The Bcl-2 protein was detected by specific, highly sensitive rabbit antibodies and was shown to be present in a number of human lymphoid cell lines and tissues, as well as in mouse B cells transfected with a bcl-2 cDNA construct. Characterization of the Bcl-2 protein demonstrated that it has a lipophilic nature and is associated with membrane structures, probably by means of its hydrophobic carboxy-terminal membrane-spanning domain. In t(14;18)-carrying cell lines, the protein is predominantly localized to the perinuclear endoplasmic reticulum, with a minor fraction in the plasma membrane. These properties, together with the observations that Bcl-2 does not have a characteristic signal peptide and is not glycosylated, suggest that it is an integral-membrane protein that spans the bilayer at its C-terminal hydrophobic region but is exposed only at the cytoplasmic surface. The relative abundance of the Bcl-2 protein in various human lymphoid cell lines correlated with transcription of the bcl-2 gene. The protein was abundant in all t(14;18)-carrying cell lines and lymphomas and was also found at lower levels in pre-B-cell lines and nonmalignant lymphoid tissues that do not carry t(14;18) translocations. These results suggest that the Bcl-2 protein is functional in normal B lymphocytes and that a quantitative difference in its expression may play a role in the pathogenesis of lymphomas carrying the t(14;18) translocation. Images PMID:2651903

  9. The RNA helicase/transcriptional co-regulator, p68 (DDX5), stimulates expression of oncogenic protein kinase, Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1), and is associated with elevated PLK1 levels in human breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, R Sumanth; Nicol, Samantha M; Quinlan, Philip R; Thompson, Alastair M; Meek, David W; Fuller-Pace, Frances V

    2014-01-01

    p68 (DDX5) acts both as an ATP-dependent RNA helicase and as a transcriptional co-activator of several cancer-associated transcription factors, including the p53 tumor suppressor. p68 is aberrantly expressed in a high proportion of cancers, but the oncogenic drive for, or the consequences of, these expression changes remain unclear. Here we show that elevated p68 expression in a cohort of human breast cancers is associated significantly with elevated levels of the oncogenic protein kinase, Polo-like kinase-1 (PLK1). Patients expressing detectable levels of both p68 and PLK1 have a poor prognosis, but only if they also have mutation in the TP53 gene (encoding p53), suggesting that p68 can regulate PLK1 levels in a manner that is suppressed by p53. In support of this hypothesis, we show that p68 stimulates expression from the PLK1 promoter, and that silencing of endogenous p68 expression downregulates endogenous PLK1 gene expression. In the absence of functional p53, p68 stimulates the expression of PLK1 both at basal levels and in response to the clinically relevant drug, etoposide. In keeping with a role as a transcriptional activator/co-activator, chromatin immuno-precipitation analysis shows that p68 is associated with the PLK1 promoter, irrespective of the p53 status. However, its recruitment is stimulated by etoposide in cells lacking p53, suggesting that p53 can oppose association of p68 with the PLK1 promoter. These data provide a model in which p68 and p53 interplay regulates PLK1 expression, and which describes the behavior of these molecules, and the outcome of their interaction, in human breast cancer. PMID:24626184

  10. The CD24 protein inducible expression system is an ideal tool to explore the potential of CD24 as an oncogene and a target for immunotherapy in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Shiran; Kazanov, Dina; Weisblatt, Samuel; Starr, Alex; Arber, Nadir; Kraus, Sarah

    2011-11-25

    CD24 is a cell surface, heavily glycosylated glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored mucin-like protein that is overexpressed in various human malignancies. To accurately analyze CD24 function and dissect its biological role in a defined genetic background, it is critical to tightly regulate its expression and be able to turn it on/off in a restricted environment and at a specific time. The tetracycline-induced expression system is most promising as it exhibits such regulation, lack of pleiotropic effects, and high and rapid induction levels. To evaluate the oncogenic and immunotherapeutic potential of CD24 by applying the Tet-On system, the human CD24 gene was cloned downstream to two tetracycline operator sequences, resulting in pCDNA4/TO-CD24, which was then transfected into tetracycline (Tet) repressor-expressing cells (293T-REx), allowing tight on/off regulation, thereby resulting in a very low background or leaky CD24 expression. Selected clones were chosen for further studies and characterized in vitro and in vivo, and several treatment modalities were examined. In addition, the role of CD24 in promoting cell proliferation and tumor growth was studied. The tetracycline-dependent system was successfully implemented. Tetracycline treatment induced CD24 expression in a dose- and time-dependent fashion, which was abrogated following treatment with anti-CD24 monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). CD24-induced expression led to an increased proliferation rate that was inhibited by mAb treatment. In vivo, significantly larger tumors were developed in tetracycline-fed mice. The CD24 Tet-On system is a good model to unravel the role and underlying CD24 pathogenesis in vivo. This valuable tool allows the successful study of novel treatment options, whose effectiveness depends on the CD24 expression level. This set of experiments supports CD24 oncogenic properties.

  11. In vivo evolution of c-rel oncogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Hrdlicková, R; Nehyba, J; Humphries, E H

    1994-04-01

    The c-rel proto-oncogene belongs to the NF-kappa B/rel and I kappa B gene families, which regulate several inducible processes, including self-defense/repair and embryogenesis. Transduction of the c-rel transcription factor by the avian retrovirus resulted in the formation of a highly oncogenic virus, reticuloendotheliosis virus strain T (REV-T), that encodes the oncogene v-rel. To examine the oncogenic potential of c-rel, we inserted it into a REV-T-based retroviral vector, rescued virus [REV-C(CSV)], and infected 1-day-old chicks. All birds developed tumors, and all cell lines established from REV-C-induced tumors expressed c-rel proteins that lacked C-terminal sequences. These proteins, responsible for both in vivo and in vitro cell proliferation, were apparently selected for their oncogenic potential. In order to examine the cooperation of C-terminal deletions with other oncogenic alterations in vivo, point mutations present in the N-terminal and middle regions of v-rel were analyzed by a similar protocol. The data obtained support four conclusions. (i) c-rel proteins bearing any of three single-amino-acid mutations present in the N-terminal portion of v-rel were sufficiently oncogenic to induce tumor development in the absence of additional mutations. (ii) Combining a mutation from the N-terminal region of v-rel with a deletion of the C-terminal sequences of c-rel increases the oncogenicity of the protein in an additive manner. (iii) Mutations present in the middle of v-rel cooperated synergistically with C-terminal deletions to produce highly transforming viruses. (iv) Deletion of c-rel produced a variety of transforming rel proteins with sizes that extended from 42 to 65 kDa. The most frequently isolated rel deletion was 62 kDa in size. To examine the basis for the selection of different rel mutants, their ability to induce immunoregulatory surface receptors was analyzed. The data revealed a correlation between the induction capacity of these mutants and

  12. HspB1, HspB5 and HspB4 in Human Cancers: Potent Oncogenic Role of Some of Their Client Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Arrigo, André-Patrick; Gibert, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Human small heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones that regulate fundamental cellular processes in normal unstressed cells as well as in many cancer cells where they are over-expressed. These proteins are characterized by cell physiology dependent changes in their oligomerization and phosphorylation status. These structural changes allow them to interact with many different client proteins that subsequently display modified activity and/or half-life. Nowdays, the protein interactomes of small Hsps are under intense investigations and will represent, when completed, key parameters to elaborate therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the functions of these chaperones. Here, we have analyzed the potential pro-cancerous roles of several client proteins that have been described so far to interact with HspB1 (Hsp27) and its close members HspB5 (αB-crystallin) and HspB4 (αA-crystallin). PMID:24514166

  13. Hyaluronic acid-fabricated nanogold delivery of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 siRNAs inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced oncogenic properties of lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Ming; Kao, Wei-Chien; Yeh, Chun-An; Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsu; Sun, Wei-Shen; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a component of cooking oil fumes (COF), promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and survival via the induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (IAP-2) proteins. Thus knockdown of IAP-2 would be a promising way to battle against lung cancer caused by COF. Functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is an effective delivery system for bio-active materials. Here, biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA) was fabricated into nanoparticles to increase the target specificity by binding to CD44-over-expressed cancer cells. IAP-2-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were then incorporated into AuNP-HA. Conjugation of IAP-2 siRNA into AuNPs-HA was verified by the UV-vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Further studies showed that AuNP-HA/FITC were effectively taken up by A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis. Incubation of BaP-challenged cells with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs silenced the expression of IAP-2, decreased cell proliferation and triggered pronounced cell apoptosis by the decrease in Bcl-2 protein and the increase in Bax protein as well as the active form of caspases-3. The BaP-elicited cell migration and enzymatic activity of the secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 were also substantially suppressed by treatment with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs. These results indicated that IAP-2 siRNAs can be efficiently delivered into A549 cells by functionalized AuNP-HA to repress the IAP-2 expression and BaP-induced oncogenic events, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of IAP-2 siRNA or other siRNA-conjugated AuNP-HA composites to COF-induced lung cancer and other gene-caused diseases in the future.

  14. Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger-Retinoic Acid Receptor α (PLZF-RARα), an Oncogenic Transcriptional Repressor of Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) and Tumor Protein p53 (TP53) Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Licht, Jonathan D.; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) is an oncogene transcriptional repressor that is generated by a chromosomal translocation between the PLZF and RARα genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL-type) patients. The molecular interaction between PLZF-RARα and the histone deacetylase corepressor was proposed to be important in leukemogenesis. We found that PLZF-RARα can repress transcription of the p21WAF/CDKN1A gene, which encodes the negative cell cycle regulator p21 by binding to its proximal promoter Sp1-binding GC-boxes 3, 4, 5/6, a retinoic acid response element (RARE), and distal p53-responsive elements (p53REs). PLZF-RARα also acts as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53, RARα, and Sp1. PLZF-RARα interacts with co-repressors such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating histones Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 at the CDKN1A promoter. PLZF-RARα also interacts with the MBD3-NuRD complex, leading to epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A through DNA methylation. Furthermore, PLZF-RARα represses TP53 and increases p53 protein degradation by ubiquitination, further repressing p21 expression. Resultantly, PLZF-RARα promotes cell proliferation and significantly increases the number of cells in S-phase. PMID:24821728

  15. EWS/FLI-1 silencing and gene profiling of Ewing cells reveal downstream oncogenic pathways and a crucial role for repression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Alexandre; Tirode, Franck; Cohen, Pinchas; Delattre, Olivier

    2004-08-01

    Ewing tumors are characterized by abnormal transcription factors resulting from the oncogenic fusion of EWS with members of the ETS family, most commonly FLI-1. RNA interference targeted to the junction between EWS and FLI-1 sequences was used to inactivate the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene in Ewing cells and to explore the resulting phenotype and alteration of the gene expression profile. Loss of expression of EWS/FLI-1 resulted in the complete arrest of growth and was associated with a dramatic increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Gene profiling of Ewing cells in which the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene had been inactivated identified downstream targets which could be grouped in two major functional clusters related to extracellular matrix structure or remodeling and regulation of signal transduction pathways. Among these targets, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 gene (IGFBP-3), a major regulator of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) proliferation and survival signaling, was strongly induced upon treating Ewing cells with EWS/FLI-1-specific small interfering RNAs. We show that EWS/FLI-1 can bind the IGFBP-3 promoter in vitro and in vivo and can repress its activity. Moreover, IGFBP-3 silencing can partially rescue the apoptotic phenotype caused by EWS/FLI-1 inactivation. Finally, IGFBP-3-induced Ewing cell apoptosis relies on both IGF-1-dependent and -independent pathways. These findings therefore identify the repression of IGFBP-3 as a key event in the development of Ewing's sarcoma.

  16. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis.

  17. Identifying Breast Cancer Oncogenes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    utilizing mouse intestinal cells and rat fibroblasts suggest that PTK6 may be required for cell death triggered by specific stimuli such as DNA damage [41...Parallel data of 12 normal breast organoids RNA samples and 7 bulk normal breast tissue specimens were used as normal control. Array probe data were...JJ, Tyner AL (2009) Induction of protein tyrosine kinase 6 in mouse intestinal crypt epithelial cells promotes DNA damage-induced apoptosis

  18. Developmental-stage-dependent transcriptional response to leukaemic oncogene expression

    PubMed Central

    Regha, Kakkad; Assi, Salam A.; Tsoulaki, Olga; Gilmour, Jane; Lacaud, Georges; Bonifer, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterized by a block in myeloid differentiation the stage of which is dependent on the nature of the transforming oncogene and the developmental stage of the oncogenic hit. This is also true for the t(8;21) translocation that gives rise to the RUNX1-ETO fusion protein and initiates the most common form of human AML. Here we study the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells expressing an inducible RUNX1-ETO gene into blood cells as a model, combined with genome-wide analyses of transcription factor binding and gene expression. RUNX1-ETO interferes with both the activating and repressive function of its normal counterpart, RUNX1, at early and late stages of blood cell development. However, the response of the transcriptional network to RUNX1-ETO expression is developmental stage specific, highlighting the molecular mechanisms determining specific target cell expansion after an oncogenic hit. PMID:26018585

  19. Mouse Elk oncogene maps to chromosome X and a novel Elk oncogene (Elk3) maps to chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tamai, Yoshitaka; Taketo, Makoto; Nozaki, Masami

    1995-03-20

    The Elk protein is a member of the Ets family found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Human ELK1 encoded by ELK1 binds alone or together with serum response factor to DNA and regulates gene expression in a variety of biological processes. Using a panel of interspecific backcross mice, we have mapped the Elk oncogene (Elk) and a novel type Elk oncogene (Elk3), closely related to ELK1. Elk maps to Chr X, and Elk3 maps to the proximal region of Chr 10. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  20. Hedgehog Cholesterolysis: Specialized Gatekeeper to Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Brian P.; Wang, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Discussions of therapeutic suppression of hedgehog (Hh) signaling almost exclusively focus on receptor antagonism; however, hedgehog’s biosynthesis represents a unique and potentially targetable aspect of this oncogenic signaling pathway. Here, we review a key biosynthetic step called cholesterolysis from the perspectives of structure/function and small molecule inhibition. Cholesterolysis, also called cholesteroylation, generates cholesterol-modified Hh ligand via autoprocessing of a hedgehog precursor protein. Post-translational modification by cholesterol appears to be restricted to proteins in the hedgehog family. The transformation is essential for Hh biological activity and upstream of signaling events. Despite its decisive role in generating ligand, cholesterolysis remains conspicuously unexplored as a therapeutic target. PMID:26473928

  1. Activation of the c-abl oncogene by viral transduction or chromosomal translocation generates altered c-abl proteins with similar in vitro kinase properties.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R L; Konopka, J B; Witte, O N

    1985-01-01

    The v-abl protein of Abelson murine leukemia virus is a tyrosine-specific kinase. Its normal cellular homolog, murine c-abl, does not possess detectable tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. Previously, we have detected tyrosine kinase activity in vitro for an altered c-abl gene product (c-abl P210) in the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. The expression of this variant c-abl gene product correlates with chromosomal translocation and amplification of the c-abl gene in K562 cells. Like v-abl, c-abl P210 is a fusion protein containing non-abl sequences near the amino terminus of c-abl. We compared the in vitro tyrosine kinase activity of c-abl P210 with that of wild-type murine v-abl. The remarkable similarities of these two proteins with respect to cis-acting autophosphorylation, trans-acting phosphorylation of exogenous substrates, and kinase inhibition, using site-directed abl-specific antisera, suggested that c-abl P210 could function similarly to v-abl in vivo. In addition, c-abl P210 possessed an associated serine kinase activity in immunoprecipitates. The serine kinase activity was not inhibited by site-directed, abl-specific antisera that inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting that the serine kinase activity is not an intrinsic property of c-abl P210. Thus, the activation of the c-abl gene in a human leukemia cell line may have functional consequences analogous to activation of the c-abl gene in Abelson murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:4039028

  2. Human Thyroid Cancer-1 (TC-1) is a vertebrate specific oncogenic protein that protects against copper and pro-apoptotic genes in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Natalie K.; Arab, Nagla T.; Eid, Rawan; Gharib, Nada; Sheibani, Sara; Vali, Hojatollah; Khoury, Chamel; Murray, Alistair; Boucher, Eric; Mandato, Craig A.; Young, Paul G.; Greenwood, Michael T.

    2015-01-01

    The human Thyroid Cancer-1 (hTC-1) protein, also known as C8orf4 was initially identified as a gene that was up-regulated in human thyroid cancer. Here we show that hTC-1 is a peptide that prevents the effects of over-expressing Bax in yeast. Analysis of the 106 residues of hTC-1 in available protein databases revealed direct orthologues in jawed-vertebrates, including mammals, frogs, fish and sharks. No TC-1 orthologue was detected in lower organisms, including yeast. Here we show that TC-1 is a general pro-survival peptide since it prevents the growth- and cell death-inducing effects of copper in yeast. Human TC-1 also prevented the deleterious effects that occur due to the over-expression of a number of key pro-apoptotic peptides, including YCA1, YBH3, NUC1, and AIF1. Even though the protective effects were more pronounced with the over-expression of YBH3 and YCA1, hTC-1 could still protect yeast mutants lacking YBH3 and YCA1 from the effects of copper sulfate. This suggests that the protective effects of TC-1 are not limited to specific pathways or processes. Taken together, our results indicate that hTC-1 is a pro-survival protein that retains its function when heterologously expressed in yeast. Thus yeast is a useful model to characterize the potential roles in cell death and survival of cancer related genes. PMID:28357300

  3. Prediction of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks based on network topology.

    PubMed

    Acencio, Marcio Luis; Bovolenta, Luiz Augusto; Camilo, Esther; Lemke, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a systems biology disease since many investigators have demonstrated that this malignant phenotype emerges from abnormal protein-protein, regulatory and metabolic interactions induced by simultaneous structural and regulatory changes in multiple genes and pathways. Therefore, the identification of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks is crucial for better understanding cancer. As experimental techniques for determining such interactions and signaling networks are labor-intensive and time-consuming, the development of a computational approach capable to accomplish this task would be of great value. For this purpose, we present here a novel computational approach based on network topology and machine learning capable to predict oncogenic interactions and extract relevant cancer-related signaling subnetworks from an integrated network of human genes interactions (INHGI). This approach, called graph2sig, is twofold: first, it assigns oncogenic scores to all interactions in the INHGI and then these oncogenic scores are used as edge weights to extract oncogenic signaling subnetworks from INHGI. Regarding the prediction of oncogenic interactions, we showed that graph2sig is able to recover 89% of known oncogenic interactions with a precision of 77%. Moreover, the interactions that received high oncogenic scores are enriched in genes for which mutations have been causally implicated in cancer. We also demonstrated that graph2sig is potentially useful in extracting oncogenic signaling subnetworks: more than 80% of constructed subnetworks contain more than 50% of original interactions in their corresponding oncogenic linear pathways present in the KEGG PATHWAY database. In addition, the potential oncogenic signaling subnetworks discovered by graph2sig are supported by experimental evidence. Taken together, these results suggest that graph2sig can be a useful tool for investigators involved in cancer research

  4. High-content image informatics of the structural nuclear protein NuMA parses trajectories for stem/progenitor cell lineages and oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Vega, Sebastián L; Liu, Er; Arvind, Varun; Bushman, Jared; Sung, Hak-Joon; Becker, Matthew L; Lelièvre, Sophie; Kohn, Joachim; Vidi, Pierre-Alexandre; Moghe, Prabhas V

    2017-02-01

    Stem and progenitor cells that exhibit significant regenerative potential and critical roles in cancer initiation and progression remain difficult to characterize. Cell fates are determined by reciprocal signaling between the cell microenvironment and the nucleus; hence parameters derived from nuclear remodeling are ideal candidates for stem/progenitor cell characterization. Here we applied high-content, single cell analysis of nuclear shape and organization to examine stem and progenitor cells destined to distinct differentiation endpoints, yet undistinguishable by conventional methods. Nuclear descriptors defined through image informatics classified mesenchymal stem cells poised to either adipogenic or osteogenic differentiation, and oligodendrocyte precursors isolated from different regions of the brain and destined to distinct astrocyte subtypes. Nuclear descriptors also revealed early changes in stem cells after chemical oncogenesis, allowing the identification of a class of cancer-mitigating biomaterials. To capture the metrology of nuclear changes, we developed a simple and quantitative "imaging-derived" parsing index, which reflects the dynamic evolution of the high-dimensional space of nuclear organizational features. A comparative analysis of parsing outcomes via either nuclear shape or textural metrics of the nuclear structural protein NuMA indicates the nuclear shape alone is a weak phenotypic predictor. In contrast, variations in the NuMA organization parsed emergent cell phenotypes and discerned emergent stages of stem cell transformation, supporting a prognosticating role for this protein in the outcomes of nuclear functions.

  5. Recent Advances on the Possible Neuroprotective Activities of Epstein-Barr Virus Oncogene BARF1 Protein in Chronic Inflammatory Disorders of Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Wynne, Alicia; Kanwar, Rupinder K; Khanna, Rajiv; Kanwar, Jagat R

    2010-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases in which cells of the central nervous system (CNS) are lost or damaged are rapidly increasing in frequency, and there is neither effective treatment nor cure to impede or arrest their destructive course. The Epstein-Barr virus is a human gamma-herpesvirus that infects more than 90% of the human population worldwide and persisting for the lifetime of the host. It is associated with numerous epithelial cancers, principally undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma and gastric carcinoma. Individuals with a history of symptomatic primary EBV infection, called infectious mononucleosis, carry a moderately higher risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). It is not known how EBV infection potentially promotes autoimmunity and central nervous system (CNS) tissue damage in MS. Recently it has been found that EBV isolates from different geographic regions have highly conserved BARF1 epitopes. BARF1 protein has the neuroprotective and mitogenic activity, thus may be useful to combat and overcome neurodegenerative disease. BARF1 protein therapy can potentially be used to enhance the neuroprotective activities by combinational treatment with anti-inflammatory antagonists and neuroprotectors in neural disorders. PMID:21358976

  6. Oncogenic regulation of tumor metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Tarrado-Castellarnau, Míriam; de Atauri, Pedro; Cascante, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Development of malignancy is accompanied by a complete metabolic reprogramming closely related to the acquisition of most of cancer hallmarks. In fact, key oncogenic pathways converge to adapt the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to the dynamic tumor microenvironment, conferring a selective advantage to cancer cells. Therefore, metabolic properties of tumor cells are significantly different from those of non-transformed cells. In addition, tumor metabolic reprogramming is linked to drug resistance in cancer treatment. Accordingly, metabolic adaptations are specific vulnerabilities that can be used in different therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy. In this review, we discuss the dysregulation of the main metabolic pathways that enable cell transformation and its association with oncogenic signaling pathways, focusing on the effects of c-MYC, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) on cancer cell metabolism. Elucidating these connections is of crucial importance to identify new targets and develop selective cancer treatments that improve response to therapy and overcome the emerging resistance to chemotherapeutics. PMID:28040803

  7. Epstein-Barr virus-associated primary central nervous system lymphomas in immunocompetent elderly patients: analysis for latent membrane protein-1 oncogene deletion and EBNA-2 strain typing.

    PubMed

    Sugita, Yasuo; Terasaki, Mizuhiko; Niino, Daisuke; Ohshima, Koichi; Fumiko, Arakawa; Shigemori, Minoru; Sato, Yasuharu; Asano, Naoko

    2010-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of primary central nervous system lymphomas (PCNLs) in immunocompetent hosts. To investigate the role of EBV in the pathogenesis of PCNLs in immunocompetent hosts, this study assessed six PCNL cases (elderly male immunocompetent patients; age ≥60 years) histologically and immunohistochemically, and an EBV genetic study was performed. Histologically, all cases were diagnosed as diffuse large B-cell lymphoma with extensive necrosis. In all six cases, PCNL cells showed immunohistochemical positivity for latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) and Epstein-Barr nuclear 2 (EBNA2). Lymphoma cells also showed positive signals for EBV-encoded small RNAs (EBERs) on in-situ hybridization. EBV subtyping-PCR analysis demonstrated that one case was EBNA 2B type and the other five cases were EBNA 2A type, and two cases were EBV wild-type and four cases showed 30-bp LMP-1 deletion by PCR analysis. It is therefore possible that LMP gene deletion or EBNA-2 strain type are important in the tumorigenesis of EBV-positive PCNLs. In addition, EBV-positive PCNLs in immunocompetent hosts may be related to immunological deterioration derived from the aging process.

  8. Cadherin-11 mRNA and protein expression in ovarian tumors of different malignancy: No evidence of oncogenic or tumor-suppressive function

    PubMed Central

    VON BÜLOW, CHARLOTTE; OLIVEIRA-FERRER, LETICIA; LÖNING, THOMAS; TRILLSCH, FABIAN; MAHNER, SVEN; MILDE-LANGOSCH, KARIN

    2015-01-01

    Cadherin-11 (CDH11, OB-cadherin) is a mesenchymal cadherin found to be upregulated in various types of tumors and implicated in tumor progression and metastasis. In order to determine the role of CDH11 expression in ovarian tumors, we performed a combined reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and immunohistochemical study on a large cohort of benign, borderline and invasive ovarian tumors. The RT-qPCR and western blot analysis demonstrated that the CDH11 expression was high in benign cystadenomas and decreased with increasing malignancy. This may be explained by the different tumor-stroma ratios, since immunohistochemistry revealed strong staining of stromal cells, particularly vascular smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells, but only weak cytoplasmic or nuclear immunoreactivity of cancer cells. Within the group of invasive carcinomas, high CDH11 protein expression, as detected by western blot analysis, was found to be significantly correlated with advanced stage and nodal involvement. However, the recurrence-free and overall survival analyses did not reveal any prognostic or predictive significance. In conclusion, in contrast to other tumor types, CDH11 does not play an important role in ovarian cancer progression. PMID:26623052

  9. The oncogenic fusion protein RUNX1-CBFA2T1 supports proliferation and inhibits senescence in t(8;21)-positive leukaemic cells

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Natalia; Drescher, Bettina; Riehle, Heidemarie; Cullmann, Claire; Vornlocher, Hans-Peter; Ganser, Arnold; Heil, Gerhard; Nordheim, Alfred; Krauter, Jürgen; Heidenreich, Olaf

    2004-01-01

    Background The fusion protein RUNX1-CBFA2T1 associated with t(8;21)-positive acute myeloid leukaemia is a potent inhibitor of haematopoetic differentiation. The role of RUNX1-CBFA2T1 in leukaemic cell proliferation is less clear. We examined the consequences of siRNA-mediated RUNX1-CBFA2T1 depletion regarding proliferation and clonogenicity of t(8;21)-positive cell lines. Methods The t(8;21)-positive cell line Kasumi-1 was electroporated with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 or control siRNAs followed by analysis of proliferation, colony formation, cell cycle distribution, apoptosis and senescence. Results Electroporation of Kasumi-1 cells with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 siRNAs, but not with control siRNAs, resulted in RUNX1-CBFA2T1 suppression which lasted for at least 5 days. A single electroporation with RUNX1-CBFA2T1 siRNA severely diminished the clonogenicity of Kasumi-1 cells. Prolonged RUNX1-CBFA2T1 depletion inhibited proliferation in suspension culture and G1-S transition during the cell cycle, diminished the number of apoptotic cells, but induced cellular senescence. The addition of haematopoetic growth factors could not rescue RUNX1-CBFA2T1-depleted cells from senescence, and could only partially restore their clonogenicity. Conclusions RUNX1-CBFA2T1 supports the proliferation and expansion of t(8;21)-positive leukaemic cells by preventing cellular senescence. These findings suggest a central role of RUNX1-CBFA2T1 in the maintenance of the leukaemia. Therefore, RUNX1-CBFA2T1 is a promising and leukaemia-specific target for molecularly defined therapeutic approaches. PMID:15298716

  10. Dana Farber Cancer Institute: Discovery of Novel Oncogenes | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Widespread recurrent copy number alterations are observed across the majority of human cancers, yet the specific targets of such amplified or deleted regions remain undefined. Here, the CTD2 Center at the Dana Farber Cancer Institute took a systematic approach using cDNA overexpression screening to identify and validate oncogenes residing in such amplified regions. In representative examples, these experiments have identified the adaptor proteins CRKL, GAB2, FRS2 and the TLOC and SKIL proteins as novel amplified oncogenes.

  11. CDC25 phosphatases as potential human oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K; Lee, A K; Eckstein, J; Draetta, G; Meckler, J; Loda, M; Beach, D

    1995-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are activated by CDC25 phosphatases, which remove inhibitory phosphate from tyrosine and threonine residues. In human cells, CDC25 proteins are encoded by a multigene family, consisting of CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C. In rodent cells, human CDC25A or CDC25B but not CDC25C phosphatases cooperate with either Ha-RASG12V or loss of RB1 in oncogenic focus formation. Such transformants were highly aneuploid, grew in soft agar, and formed high-grade tumors in nude mice. Overexpression of CDC25B was detected in 32 percent of human primary breast cancers tested. The CDC25 phosphatases may contribute to the development of human cancer.

  12. KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties

    PubMed Central

    White, Yasmine; Bagchi, Aditi; Van Ziffle, Jessica; Inguva, Anagha; Bollag, Gideon; Zhang, Chao; Carias, Heidi; Dickens, David; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Firestone, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations introduce discrete amino acid substitutions that reduce intrinsic Ras GTPase activity and confer resistance to GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. K-Ras proteins containing this tandem duplication or a similar five amino acid E62_A66dup mutation identified in lung and colon cancers transform the growth of primary myeloid progenitors and of Ba/F3 cells. Recombinant K-RasG60_A66dup and K-RasE62_A66dup proteins display reduced intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates, accumulate in the GTP-bound conformation and are resistant to GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Remarkably, K-Ras proteins with switch 2 insertions are impaired for PI3 kinase binding and Akt activation, and are hypersensitive to MEK inhibition. These studies illuminate a new class of oncogenic KRAS mutations and reveal unexpected plasticity in oncogenic Ras proteins that has diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26854029

  13. c-Abl antagonizes the YAP oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Keshet, R; Adler, J; Ricardo Lax, I; Shanzer, M; Porat, Z; Reuven, N; Shaul, Y

    2015-01-01

    YES-associated protein (YAP) is a central transcription coactivator that functions as an oncogene in a number of experimental systems. However, under DNA damage, YAP activates pro-apoptotic genes in conjunction with p73. This program switching is mediated by c-Abl (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene) via phosphorylation of YAP at the Y357 residue (pY357). YAP as an oncogene coactivates the TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) family transcription factors. Here we asked whether c-Abl regulates the YAP–TEAD functional module. We found that DNA damage, through c-Abl activation, specifically depressed YAP–TEAD-induced transcription. Remarkably, c-Abl counteracts YAP-induced transformation by interfering with the YAP–TEAD transcriptional program. c-Abl induced TEAD1 phosphorylation, but the YAP–TEAD complex remained unaffected. In contrast, TEAD coactivation was compromised by phosphomimetic YAP Y357E mutation but not Y357F, as demonstrated at the level of reporter genes and endogenous TEAD target genes. Furthermore, YAP Y357E also severely compromised the role of YAP in cell transformation, migration, anchorage-independent growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human mammary MCF10A cells. These results suggest that YAP pY357 lost TEAD transcription activation function. Our results demonstrate that YAP pY357 inactivates YAP oncogenic function and establish a role for YAP Y357 phosphorylation in cell-fate decision. PMID:25361080

  14. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels.

  15. (Oncogenic action of ionizing radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. The carcinogenicity of energetic electrons was determined for comparison with the neon ion results. As in past reports we will describe progress in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration; (3) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers. 72 refs., 6 tabs.

  16. SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun-Mi; Chae, Myounghee; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Seo, Taegun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Je-Ho; Park, Junsoo

    2010-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

  17. Role of ETS Oncogenes in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    EWS, on chromosome 22, solid tumors including Ewing sarcoma, related with either Fli-1 or erg genes, located on chromosomes 11 primitive ... neuroectodermal tumors , malignant and 21, respectively. The erg and Fli-I are members of the melanoma of soft parts and desmoplastic small round ets oncogene super...for these proteins in cell cycle regulation, tumor suppression, transcription activation, etc. Breast cancers have a reduced ability to undergo cell

  18. PERK Integrates Oncogenic Signaling and Cell Survival During Cancer Development.

    PubMed

    Bu, Yiwen; Diehl, J Alan

    2016-10-01

    Unfolded protein responses (UPR), consisting of three major transducers PERK, IRE1, and ATF6, occur in the midst of a variety of intracellular and extracellular challenges that perturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). ER stress occurs and is thought to be a contributing factor to a number of human diseases, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and various metabolic syndromes. In the context of neoplastic growth, oncogenic stress resulting from dysregulation of oncogenes such as c-Myc, Braf(V600E) , and HRAS(G12V) trigger the UPR as an adaptive strategy for cancer cell survival. PERK is an ER resident type I protein kinase harboring both pro-apoptotic and pro-survival capabilities. PERK, as a coordinator through its downstream substrates, reprograms cancer gene expression to facilitate survival in response to oncogenes and microenvironmental challenges, such as hypoxia, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Herein, we discuss how PERK kinase engages in tumor initiation, transformation, adaption microenvironmental stress, chemoresistance and potential opportunities, and potential opportunities for PERK targeted therapy. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2088-2096, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  20. Clinical correlates in acromegalic patients with pituitary tumors expressing GSP oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Buchfelder, M; Fahlbusch, R; Merz, T; Symowski, H; Adams, E F

    1999-05-01

    We herein review published findings on the clinical characteristics of acromegalic patients harboring pituitary somatotrophinomas expressing adenylyl cyclase activating gsp mutations and present an update of our own data on a large series of 176 patients with and without these oncogenes. Gsp oncogenes are the result of point mutations in either codon 201 or 227 of the Gs-alpha subunit of the Gs-protein which controls adenylyl cyclase. They result ultimately in increased intracellular cAMP levels and thus in excessive growth hormone (GH) secretion. Our large series has allowed us to characterise patients with mutations in codon 201 and the far rarer group possessing codon 227 defects. Both groups were compared with patients without gsp oncogenes. In accordance with previous findings, there was no statistically significant difference in age of the patients belonging to each group, the overall average tumor diameter nor in pre-operative serum GH levels, although the latter showed a tendency to be lower in patients with gsp oncogenes. The distribution of different types of response during an oral glucose tolerance test (no change, paradoxical rise or greater than 50% decrease in serum GH levels) did not differ between the 3 groups. However, the incidence of microadenomas was higher in acromegalics expressing gsp oncogenes in patients possessing mutations in codon 227. Additionally, the incidence of invasiveness was much lower (10% v. 33%) in those tumors with mutations in codon 227. Finally, previous in-vitro data indicating that gsp oncogene-expressing tumors may respond more efficiently to the somatostatin analogue, octreotide, have been confirmed by subsequent in-vivo studies showing a better reduction in serum GH levels in patients with gsp oncogenes. These latter findings suggest that presence of gsp oncogenes may be a marker for good reponsiveness to octreotide. Assessment of gsp oncogene status of surgically removed pituitary somatotrophinomas may thus be

  1. Pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS signaling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Hsiao-Ching; Huang, Po-Hsien; Kulp, Samuel K; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2017-03-01

    The clear importance of mutated KRAS as a therapeutic target has driven the investigation of multiple approaches to inhibit oncogenic KRAS signaling at different molecular levels. However, no KRAS-targeted therapy has reached the clinic to date, which underlies the intrinsic difficulty in developing effective, direct inhibitors of KRAS. Thus, this article provides an overview of the history and recent progress in the development of pharmacological strategies to target oncogenic KRAS with small molecule agents. Mechanistically, these KRAS-targeted agents can be classified into the following four categories. (1) Small-molecule RAS-binding ligands that prevent RAS activation by binding within or outside the nucleotide-binding motif. (2) Inhibitors of KRAS membrane anchorage. (3) Inhibitors that bind to RAS-binding domains of RAS-effector proteins. (4) Inhibitors of KRAS expression. The advantage and limitation of each type of these anti-KRAS agents are discussed.

  2. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  3. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  4. Oncogene addiction: sometimes a temporary slavery.

    PubMed

    Jonkers, Jos; Berns, Anton

    2004-12-01

    Tumors induced in conditional oncomice can show remarkable different responses to subsequent oncogene deprivation. Complete sustained regression, concomitant with massive differentiation and/or apoptosis, and partial regression are both observed. In the latter case, tumor growth either resumes without being dependent any longer on the oncogene, or requires reactivation of the oncogene in cells that have become dormant. These models reflect many of the features we also witness in human cancer and can therefore assist us in understanding the underlying mechanisms and in designing more effective treatment protocols.

  5. Human gene control by vital oncogenes: revisiting a theoretical model and its implications for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    An important assumption of our current understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis has been the belief that clarification of the cancer process would inevitably reveal some of the crucial mechanisms of normal human gene regulation. Since the momentous work of Bishop and Varmus, both the molecular and the biochemical processes underlying the events in the development of cancer have become increasingly clear. The identification of cellular signaling pathways and the role of protein kinases in the events leading to gene activation have been critical to our understanding not only of normal cellular gene control mechanisms, but also have clarified some of the important molecular and biochemical events occurring within a cancer cell. We now know that oncogenes are dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and that dysfunctional tumor suppressor genes contribute to the cancer process. Furthermore, Weinstein and others have hypothesized the phenomenon of oncogene addiction as a distinct characteristic of the malignant cell. It can be assumed that cancer cells, indeed, become dependent on such vital oncogenes. The products of these vital oncogenes, such as c-myc, may well be the Achilles heel by which targeted molecular therapy may lead to truly personalized cancer therapy. The remaining problem is the need to introduce relevant molecular diagnostic tests such as genome microarray analysis and proteomic methods, especially protein kinase identification arrays, for each individual patient. Genome wide association studies on cancers with gene analysis of single nucleotide and other mutations in functional proto-oncogenes will, hopefully, identify dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and allow the development of more specific targeted drugs directed against the protein products of these vital oncogenes. In 1984 Willis proposed a molecular and biochemical model for eukaryotic gene regulation suggesting how proto-oncogenes might function within the normal cell. That model predicted the

  6. Sec5 and Exo84 foster Oncogenic Ras-mediated Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Issaq, Sameer H.; Lim, Kian-Huat; Counter, Christopher M.

    2009-01-01

    The genes encoding the Ras family of small GTPases are mutated to yield constitutively active GTP-bound oncogenic proteins in one-third of all human cancers. Oncogenic Ras binds to and activates a number of proteins that promote tumorigenic phenotypes, including the family of Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factors, or RalGEFs. Activated RalGEFs convert the Ral family of small GTPases, comprised of RalA and RalB, from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state. As both RalA and RalB have been implicated in a variety of tumorigenic phenotypes, we sought to determine which proteins downstream of Rals promote transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we report that shRNA-mediated knockdown of the Ral effector proteins Sec5 and Exo84, but less so in the case of RalBP1, reduced oncogenic RalGEF-mediated transformation and oncogenic Ras-driven tumorigenic growth of human cells. These results suggest that Rals promote oncogenic Ras-mediated tumorigenesis through, at least in part, Sec5 and Exo84. PMID:20145037

  7. Oncogenic effects of evolutionarily conserved noncoding RNA ECONEXIN on gliomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Deguchi, S; Katsushima, K; Hatanaka, A; Shinjo, K; Ohka, F; Wakabayashi, T; Zong, H; Natsume, A; Kondo, Y

    2017-04-03

    Accumulating studies have demonstrated the importance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) during oncogenic transformation. However, because most lncRNAs are currently uncharacterized, the identification of novel oncogenic lncRNAs is difficult. Given that intergenic lncRNA have substantially less sequence conservation patterns than protein-coding genes across species, evolutionary conserved intergenic lncRNAs are likely to be functional. The current study identified a novel intergenic lncRNA, LINC00461 (ECONEXIN) using a combined approach consisting of searching lncRNAs by evolutionary conservation and validating their expression in a glioma mouse model. ECONEXIN was the most highly conserved intergenic lncRNA containing 83.0% homology with the mouse ortholog (C130071C03Rik) for a region over 2500 bp in length within its exon 3. Expressions of ECONEXIN and C130071C03Rik were significantly upregulated in both human and mouse glioma tissues. Moreover, the expression of C130071C03Rik was upregulated even in precancerous conditions and markedly increased during glioma progression. Functional analysis of ECONEXIN in glioma cell lines, U87 and U251, showed it was dominantly located in the cytoplasm and interacted with miR-411-5p via two binding sites within ECONEXIN. Inhibition of ECONEXIN upregulated miR-411-5p together with the downregulation of its target, Topoisomerase 2 alpha (TOP2A), in glioma cell lines, resulting in decreased cell proliferation. Our data demonstrated that ECONEXIN is a potential oncogene that regulates TOP2A by sponging miR-411-5p in glioma. In addition, our investigative approaches to identify conserved lncRNA and their molecular characterization by validation in mouse tumor models may be useful to functionally annotate novel lncRNAs, especially cancer-associated lncRNAs.Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.88.

  8. Oncogenic potential of bifunctional bioreductive drugs.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Liu, S X; Hall, E J

    1996-07-01

    Potential oncogenicity must be a factor of concern in the design and development of novel bioreductive drugs. In the present studies, the cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potential of a series of heterocyclic mono-N-oxides, designed to be used as bioreductive drugs, were examined using the mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell system. Exponential phase cultures of 10T1/2 cells were treated with graded doses of the bioreductive drugs for a 4 h period, either in air or hypoxia, at 37 degrees C. After treatment, cultures were replated for both survival and transformation assays. The fused pyrazine mono-N-oxide RB 90740 and its N-deoxy analogue, RB 92816, demonstrated a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potency under aerobic conditions. Similarly, the indoloquinone E09 and the structurally related mitomycin C demonstrated dose dependence in both toxicity and oncogenic transforming potential. The most cytotoxic aromatic-N-oxides tested, RB 92816, also demonstrated the highest oncogenic transformation incidence. In hypoxia, the bioreductive metabolites of RB 90740 were substantially more cytotoxic and induced a higher oncogenic transformation yield than the drug in air. These data are consistent with the structure-activity relationship for bioreductive drugs in that heterocyclic-N-oxides with reactive side chains such as RB 92816 are cytotoxic and potentially carcinogenic.

  9. LEO1 is regulated by PRL-3 and mediates its oncogenic properties in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Chong, Phyllis S Y; Zhou, Jianbiao; Cheong, Lip-Lee; Liu, Shaw-Cheng; Qian, Jingru; Guo, Tiannan; Sze, Siu Kwan; Zeng, Qi; Chng, Wee Joo

    2014-06-01

    PRL-3, an oncogenic dual-specificity phosphatase, is overexpressed in 50% of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and associated with poor survival. We found that stable expression of PRL-3 confers cytokine independence and growth advantage of AML cells. However, how PRL-3 mediates these functions in AML is not known. To comprehensively screen for PRL3-regulated proteins in AML, we performed SILAC-based quantitative proteomics analysis and discovered 398 significantly perturbed proteins after PRL-3 overexpression. We show that Leo1, a component of RNA polymerase II-associated factor (PAF) complex, is a novel and important mediator of PRL-3 oncogenic activities in AML. We described a novel mechanism where elevated PRL-3 protein increases JMJD2C histone demethylase occupancy on Leo1 promoter, thereby reducing the H3K9me3 repressive signals and promoting Leo1 gene expression. Furthermore, PRL-3 and Leo1 levels were positively associated in AML patient samples (N=24; P<0.01). On the other hand, inhibition of Leo1 reverses PRL-3 oncogenic phenotypes in AML. Loss of Leo1 leads to destabilization of the PAF complex and downregulation of SOX2 and SOX4, potent oncogenes in myeloid transformation. In conclusion, we identify an important and novel mechanism by which PRL-3 mediates its oncogenic function in AML.

  10. Oncogenes and inflammation rewire host energy metabolism in the tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Curry, Joseph M; Ko, Ying-Hui; Lin, Zhao; Tuluc, Madalina; Cognetti, David; Birbe, Ruth C; Pribitkin, Edmund; Bombonati, Alessandro; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-01-01

    Here, we developed a model system to evaluate the metabolic effects of oncogene(s) on the host microenvironment. A matched set of “normal” and oncogenically transformed epithelial cell lines were co-cultured with human fibroblasts, to determine the “bystander” effects of oncogenes on stromal cells. ROS production and glucose uptake were measured by FACS analysis. In addition, expression of a panel of metabolic protein biomarkers (Caveolin-1, MCT1, and MCT4) was analyzed in parallel. Interestingly, oncogene activation in cancer cells was sufficient to induce the metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts toward glycolysis, via oxidative stress. Evidence for “metabolic symbiosis” between oxidative cancer cells and glycolytic fibroblasts was provided by MCT1/4 immunostaining. As such, oncogenes drive the establishment of a stromal-epithelial “lactate-shuttle”, to fuel the anabolic growth of cancer cells. Similar results were obtained with two divergent oncogenes (RAS and NFκB), indicating that ROS production and inflammation metabolically converge on the tumor stroma, driving glycolysis and upregulation of MCT4. These findings make stromal MCT4 an attractive target for new drug discovery, as MCT4 is a shared endpoint for the metabolic effects of many oncogenic stimuli. Thus, diverse oncogenes stimulate a common metabolic response in the tumor stroma. Conversely, we also show that fibroblasts protect cancer cells against oncogenic stress and senescence by reducing ROS production in tumor cells. Ras-transformed cells were also able to metabolically reprogram normal adjacent epithelia, indicating that cancer cells can use either fibroblasts or epithelial cells as “partners” for metabolic symbiosis. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) selectively halted mitochondrial biogenesis in Ras-transformed cells, but not in normal epithelia. NAC also blocked stromal induction of MCT4, indicating that NAC effectively functions as an “MCT4

  11. Role of ets Oncogenes in the Progression of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-10-01

    4 Introduction 5-9 Body 9-17 Conclusion 17-18 Figures 19-31 References 32-36 Veena N. Rao, Ph.D. INTRODUCTION Majority of the ets-oncogene superfamily...threshold by BRCA 1/elk-I gene therapy may have the potential to prevent the progression of these malignancies. BODY Task 1 COMPLETED PREVIOUSLY Task 2...weights of ýý 175, 125 and BRCAI protein using several BRCA1 specific anti- 110 kD (Figure 2a). All these results suggest BRCA1 bodies in normal, breast

  12. Oncogenic PTEN functions and models in T-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tesio, M; Trinquand, A; Macintyre, E; Asnafi, V

    2016-07-28

    PTEN is a protein phosphatase that is crucial to prevent the malignant transformation of T-cells. Although a numerous mechanisms regulate its expression and function, they are often altered in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias and T-cell lymphomas. As such, PTEN inactivation frequently occurs in these malignancies, where it can be associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. Different Pten knockout models recapitulated the development of T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma, demonstrating that PTEN loss is at the center of a complex oncogenic network that sustains and drives tumorigenesis via the activation of multiple signalling pathways. These aspects and their therapeutic implications are discussed in this review.

  13. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    PubMed Central

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  14. Proteogenomic analysis reveals exosomes are more oncogenic than ectosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Michael; Fonseka, Pamali; Atukorala, Ishara; Ozcitti, Cemil; Mechler, Adam; Adda, Christopher G.; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes (30-100 nm) that are produced through the endocytic pathway via the multivesicular bodies and the ectosomes (100-1000 nm) that are released through the budding of the plasma membrane. Despite the differences in the mode of biogenesis and size, reliable markers that can distinguish between exosomes and ectosomes are non-existent. Moreover, the precise functional differences between exosomes and ectosomes remains poorly characterised. Here, using label-free quantitative proteomics, we highlight proteins that could be exploited as markers to discriminate between exosomes and ectosomes. For the first time, a global proteogenomics analysis unveiled the secretion of mutant proteins that are implicated in cancer progression through tumor-derived EVs. Follow up integrated bioinformatics analysis highlighted the enrichment of oncogenic cargo in exosomes and ectosomes. Interestingly, exosomes induced significant cell proliferation and migration in recipient cells compared to ectosomes confirming the oncogenic nature of exosomes. These findings ascertain that cancer cells facilitate oncogenesis by the secretion of mutant and oncoproteins into the tumor microenvironment via exosomes and ectosomes. The integrative proteogenomics approach utilized in this study has the potential to identify disease biomarker candidates which can be later assayed in liquid biopsies obtained from cancer patients. PMID:25944692

  15. Proteogenomic analysis reveals exosomes are more oncogenic than ectosomes.

    PubMed

    Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Gangoda, Lahiru; Liem, Michael; Fonseka, Pamali; Atukorala, Ishara; Ozcitti, Cemil; Mechler, Adam; Adda, Christopher G; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-06-20

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes (30-100 nm) that are produced through the endocytic pathway via the multivesicular bodies and the ectosomes (100-1000 nm) that are released through the budding of the plasma membrane. Despite the differences in the mode of biogenesis and size, reliable markers that can distinguish between exosomes and ectosomes are non-existent. Moreover, the precise functional differences between exosomes and ectosomes remains poorly characterised. Here, using label-free quantitative proteomics, we highlight proteins that could be exploited as markers to discriminate between exosomes and ectosomes. For the first time, a global proteogenomics analysis unveiled the secretion of mutant proteins that are implicated in cancer progression through tumor-derived EVs. Follow up integrated bioinformatics analysis highlighted the enrichment of oncogenic cargo in exosomes and ectosomes. Interestingly, exosomes induced significant cell proliferation and migration in recipient cells compared to ectosomes confirming the oncogenic nature of exosomes. These findings ascertain that cancer cells facilitate oncogenesis by the secretion of mutant and oncoproteins into the tumor microenvironment via exosomes and ectosomes. The integrative proteogenomics approach utilized in this study has the potential to identify disease biomarker candidates which can be later assayed in liquid biopsies obtained from cancer patients.

  16. Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Flavahan, William A; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B; Gillespie, Shawn M; Venteicher, Andrew S; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Suvà, Mario L; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2016-01-07

    Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas. Mutant IDH protein produces a new onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylases. TET enzymes catalyse a key step in the removal of DNA methylation. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), although the functional importance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that human IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hypermethylation at cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to interact aberrantly with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with a demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and downregulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wild-type gliomaspheres upregulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression.

  17. Activation of endogenous c-fos proto-oncogene expression by human T-cell leukemia virus type I-encoded p40 sup tax protein in the human T-cell line, Jurkat

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Kinya; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masataka; Sugamura, Kazuo )

    1989-08-01

    The authors examined the ability of the trans-acting factor p40{sup tax} of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), which is thought to be a crucial molecule in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I, to activate expression of a set of endogenous cellular genes related to T-cell proliferation. For this purpose, they established a subclone (JPX-9) of Jurkat cells that was stably transfected with an expression plasmid containing the p40{sup tax} gene, whose expression is definitively dependent on heavy-metal ions. Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor {alpha} chain in JPX-9 cells was induced in response to the induction of p40{sup tax} expression, as has been demonstrated by others in transient transfection experiments with Jurkat cells. In addition, they found that significant enhancement of expression of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos was closely associated with expression of p40{sup tax}. Continuous enhancement in the level of c-fos mRNA was observed in the presence of p40{sup tax}. These results suggest that (i) in addition to the interleukin-2-interleukin-2 receptor system, cellular genes such as c-fos, which regulate normal T-cell growth, are also activated directly or indirectly by p40{sup tax} and (ii) p40{sup tax}-induced modulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I.

  18. 40 CFR 798.3300 - Oncogenicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... clinical abnormalities), gross lesions, identified target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality... (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Chronic Exposure § 798.3300 Oncogenicity. (a) Purpose. The... of chronic effects. (ii) The high dose level should elicit signs of minimal toxicity...

  19. 40 CFR 798.3300 - Oncogenicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... clinical abnormalities), gross lesions, identified target organs, body weight changes, effects on mortality...) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Chronic Exposure § 798.3300 Oncogenicity. (a) Purpose. The objective of... of chronic effects. (ii) The high dose level should elicit signs of minimal toxicity...

  20. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal frame-shift mutant of the thyroid hormone receptor TRβ1, PV, functions as an oncogene. An important question is whether the oncogenic activity of mutated TRβ1 is uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Using four C-terminal frame-shift mutants—PV, Mkar, Mdbs, and AM—we examined that region in the oncogenic actions of TRβ1 mutants. Remarkably, these C-terminal mutants induced similar growth of tumors in mouse xenograft models. Molecular analyses showed that they physically interacted with the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K similarly in cells. In vitro GST-binding assay showed that they bound to the C-terminal Src-homology 2 (CSH2) of p85α with markedly higher avidity. The sustained association of mutants with p85α led to activation of the common PI3K-AKT-ERK/STAT3 signaling to promote cell proliferation and invasion and to inhibit apoptosis. Thus, these results argue against the oncogenic activity of PV being uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Rather, these four mutants could favor a C-terminal conformation that interacted with the CSH2 domain of p85α to initiate activation of PI3K to relay downstream signaling to promote tumorigenesis. Thus, we propose that the mutated C-terminal region of TRβ1 could function as an “onco-domain” and TRβ1 is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25924236

  1. Novel Oncogenes in Breast Cancer Development

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    determinants that contribute to the development of breast cancer remain unknown We have developed and applied a novel retrovirus-based library ... screening strategy coupled to a biological assay for growth transformation, to identify novel oncogenes in breast cancer development The approach involves the

  2. The HPV-16 E7 oncogene sensitizes malignant cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong

    2005-10-01

    Interferons (IFNs) exert antitumor effects in several human malignancies, but their mechanism of action is unclear. There is a great variability in sensitivity to IFN treatment depending on both tumor type and the individual patient. The reason for this variable sensitivity is not known. The fact that several IFN-induced anticellular effects are exerted through modulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may indicate that the malignant genotype may be decisive in the cell's sensitivity to IFN. To determine if a deregulated oncogene could alter the cellular response to IFN, a mouse lymphoma cell line (J3D) was stably transfected with the viral human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) E7 oncogene. The E7-transfected cells and their respective mock-transfected sister clones were treated with IFN-{alpha} and examined for possible IFN-induced anticellular effects. We found that the E7-transfected clones were greatly sensitized to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis compared with their mock-transfected counterparts. Induction of apoptosis in the transfected cells correlated with the ability of IFN to activate parts of the proapoptotic machinery specifically in these cells, including activation of caspases and the proapoptotic protein Bak. In summary, our data suggest that transfection of malignant cells with the E7 oncogene can sensitize them to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. This demonstrates that an oncogenic event may alter the cellular sensitivity to IFN and might also have implications for treatment of HPV related diseases with IFN.

  3. Viral oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and homoeotic genes related to cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Antohi, S; Antohi-Talle, O

    1987-01-01

    Molecular studies on viral oncogenes and their products have led to the discovery of physiological proto-oncogenes, involved in the control of cell proliferation and gene activation. Other genetic and molecular investigations, initiated in Drosophila melanogaster and continued in different multicellular eukaryotes, have made evident the homoeotic genes, which are directly correlated with cell specialization, in the complex processes of differentiation and morphogenesis. Both gene classes are conserved to a high extent during evolution. They are involved in the eukaryotic mechanisms of differentiation control and proto-oncogenes, in particular, are related to malignant transformation. Some available data suggest a certain extent of relatedness between the gene products of both gene classes. A differentiation trigger model, including retroviral transposition, homoeotic genes and proto-oncogenes is discussed.

  4. mTOR links oncogenic signaling to tumor cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yecies, Jessica L; Manning, Brendan D

    2011-03-01

    As a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) has been the subject of intense investigation for its role in tumor development and progression. This research has revealed a signaling network of oncogenes and tumor suppressors lying upstream of mTORC1, and oncogenic perturbations to this network result in the aberrant activation of this kinase complex in the majority of human cancers. However, the molecular events downstream of mTORC1 contributing to tumor cell growth and proliferation are just coming to light. In addition to its better-known functions in promoting protein synthesis and suppressing autophagy, mTORC1 has emerged as a key regulator of cellular metabolism. Recent studies have found that mTORC1 activation is sufficient to stimulate an increase in glucose uptake, glycolysis, and de novo lipid biosynthesis, which are considered metabolic hallmarks of cancer, as well as the pentose phosphate pathway. Here, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation by mTORC1 and the potential consequences for anabolic tumor growth and therapeutic strategies.

  5. Oncogenic mechanisms of HOXB13 missense mutations in prostate carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marta; Maia, Sofia; Paulo, Paula; Teixeira, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    The recurrent germline mutation HOXB13 p.(Gly84Glu) (G84E) has recently been identified as a risk factor for prostate cancer. In a recent study, we have performed full sequencing of the HOXB13 gene in 462 Portuguese prostate cancer patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary disease, and identified two novel missense mutations, p.(Ala128Asp) (A128D) and p.(Phe240Leu) (F240L), that were predicted to be damaging to protein function. In the present work we aimed to investigate the potential oncogenic role of these mutations, comparing to that of the recurrent G84E mutation and wild-type HOXB13. We induced site-directed mutagenesis in a HOXB13 expression vector and established in vitro cell models of prostate carcinogenesis with stable overexpression of either the wild-type or the mutated HOXB13 variants. By performing in vitro assays we observed that, while the wild-type promotes proliferation, also observed with the F240L variant along with a decrease in apoptosis, the A128D mutation decreases apoptosis and promotes anchorage independent growth. No phenotypic impact was observed for the G84E mutation in the cell line model used. Our data show that specific HOXB13 mutations are involved in the acquisition of different cancer-associated capabilities and further support an oncogenic role for HOXB13 in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:28050579

  6. Oncogenicity of the developmental transcription factor Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Collado, Manuel; Wise, Clare; Manterola, Lorea; Cekaite, Lina; Tye, Angela J.; Canamero, Marta; Bujanda, Luis; Schedl, Andreas; Cheah, Kathryn S.E.; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; de Munain, Adolfo López; Briscoe, James; Serrano, Manuel; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2012-01-01

    SOX9, a high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factor, plays critical roles during embryogenesis and its activity is required for development, differentiation and lineage commitment in various tissues including the intestinal epithelium. Here, we present functional and clinical data of a broadly important role for SOX9 in tumorigenesis. SOX9 was overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers, where its expression correlated with malignant character and progression. Gain of SOX9 copy number is detected in some primary colorectal cancers. SOX9 exhibited several pro-oncogenic properties, including the ability to promote proliferation, inhibit senescence and collaborate with other oncogenes in neoplastic transformation. In primary MEFs and colorectal cancer cells, SOX9 expression facilitated tumor growth and progression whilst its inactivation reduced tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, we have found that Sox9 directly binds and activates the promoter of the polycomb protein Bmi1, whose upregulation represses the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus. In agreement with this, human colorectal cancers showed a positive correlation between expression levels of SOX9 and BMI1 and a negative correlation between SOX9 and ARF in clinical samples. Taken together, our findings provide direct mechanistic evidence of the involvement of SOX9 in neoplastic pathobiology, particularly in colorectal cancer. PMID:22246670

  7. Control of autophagy by oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Maiuri, M C; Tasdemir, E; Criollo, A; Morselli, E; Vicencio, J M; Carnuccio, R; Kroemer, G

    2009-01-01

    Multiple oncogenes (in particular phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, PI3K; activated Akt1; antiapoptotic proteins from the Bcl-2 family) inhibit autophagy. Similarly, several tumor suppressor proteins (such as BH3-only proteins; death-associated protein kinase-1, DAPK1; the phosphatase that antagonizes PI3K, PTEN; tuberous sclerosic complex 1 and 2, TSC1 and TSC2; as well as LKB1/STK11) induce autophagy, meaning that their loss reduces autophagy. Beclin-1, which is required for autophagy induction acts as a haploinsufficient tumor suppressor protein, and other essential autophagy mediators (such as Atg4c, UVRAG and Bif-1) are bona fide oncosuppressors. One of the central tumor suppressor proteins, p53 exerts an ambiguous function in the regulation of autophagy. Within the nucleus, p53 can act as an autophagy-inducing transcription factor. Within the cytoplasm, p53 exerts a tonic autophagy-inhibitory function, and its degradation is actually required for the induction of autophagy. The role of autophagy in oncogenesis and anticancer therapy is contradictory. Chronic suppression of autophagy may stimulate oncogenesis. However, once a tumor is formed, autophagy inhibition may be a therapeutic goal for radiosensitization and chemosensitization. Altogether, the current state-of-the art suggests a complex relationship between cancer and deregulated autophagy that must be disentangled by further in-depth investigation.

  8. Function of oncogenes in cancer development: a changing paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2013-01-01

    Tumour-associated oncogenes induce unscheduled proliferation as well as genomic and chromosomal instability. According to current models, therapeutic strategies that block oncogene activity are likely to selectively target tumour cells. However, recent evidences have revealed that oncogenes are only essential for the proliferation of some specific tumour cell types, but not all. Indeed, the latest studies of the interactions between the oncogene and its target cell have shown that oncogenes contribute to cancer development not only by inducing proliferation but also by developmental reprogramming of the epigenome. This provides the first evidence that tumorigenesis can be initiated by stem cell reprogramming, and uncovers a new role for oncogenes in the origin of cancer. Here we analyse these evidences and propose an updated model of oncogene function that can explain the full range of genotype–phenotype associations found in human cancer. Finally, we discuss how this vision opens new avenues for developing novel anti-cancer interventions. PMID:23632857

  9. Dimerize RACK1 upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, L.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-05-06

    From our previous studies, we learned that syndecan-2/p120-GAP complex provided docking site for Src to prosecute tyrosine kinase activity upon transformation with oncogenic ras. And, RACK1 protein was reactive with syndecan-2 to keep Src inactivated, but not when Ras was overexpressed. In the present study, we characterized the reaction between RACK1 protein and Ras. RACK1 was isolated from BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus and RACK1 was revealed to react with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), not GDP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K). This selective interaction between RACK1 and GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) was further confirmed with RACK1 of human placenta and mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein. We found that RACK1 was dimerized upon reaction with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), as well as with 14-3-3{beta} and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, as revealed by phosphorylation with Src tyrosine kinase. We reported the complex of RACK1/GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) reacted selectively with p120-GAP. This interaction was sufficient to dissemble RACK1 into monomers, a preferred form to compete for the binding of syndecan-2. These data indicate that the reaction of GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) with RACK1 in dimers may operate a mechanism to deplete RACK1 from reaction with syndecan-2 upon transformation by oncogenic ras and the RACK1/GTP-Ras complex may provide a route to react with p120-GAP and recycle monomeric RACK1 to syndecan-2.

  10. CD3-epsilon overexpressed in prothymocytes acts as an oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, B.; She, J.; Salio, M.; Allen, D.; Lacy, E.; Lonberg, N.; Terhorst, C.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Upon engagement of the T cell receptor for antigen, its associated CD3 proteins recruit signal transduction molecules, which in turn regulate T lymphocyte proliferation, apoptosis, and thymocyte development. Because some signal transducing molecules recruited by CD3-epsilon, i.e., p56lck and p59fyn, are oncogenic and since we previously found that overexpression of CD3-epsilon transgenes causes a block in T lymphocyte and NK cell development, we tested the hypothesis that aberrant CD3-epsilon signaling leads both to abnormal T lymphocyte death and lymphomagenesis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten independently derived transgenic mouse lines were generated with four different genomic CD3-epsilon constructs. Mice either homozygous or hemizygous for each transgene were analyzed for an arrest in T lymphocyte development and for the occurrence of T cell lymphomas. RESULTS: Aggressive clonal T cell lymphomas developed at very high frequencies in seven mouse lines with intermediate levels of copies of CD3-epsilon derived transgenes. However, these lymphomas were not found when high copy numbers of CD3-epsilon transgenes caused a complete block in early thymic development or when a transgene was used in which the exons coding for the CD3-epsilon protein were deleted. Analyses of a series of double mutant mice, tgCD3-epsilon x RAG-2null, indicated that lymphomagenesis was initiated in lineage-committed prothymocytes, i.e., before rearrangement of the T cell receptor genes. In addition, the transgene coding for the CD3-epsilon cytoplasmic domain and its transmembrane region induced a T cell differentiation signal in premalignant tgCD3-epsilon x RAG-2null mice. CONCLUSION: The nonenzymatic CD3-epsilon protein acted as a potent oncogene when overexpressed early in T lymphocyte development. Lymphomagenesis was dependent on signal transduction events initiated by the cytoplasmic domain of CD3-epsilon. Images FIG. 2 FIG. 4 FIG. 5 PMID:9132282

  11. Ras oncogene and inflammation: partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Anke; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that Ras oncogenes facilitate neoplastic conversion by stimulating tumor cell growth, survival and motility. However, current studies have indicated that the role of Ras in malignant transformation extends beyond these cell-intrinsic effects to include the establishment of a pro-tumorigenic host environment. We have recently demonstrated that Ras-induced secretion of the chemokine Interleukin-8 (CXCL-8/IL-8) elicits a local inflammatory reaction that is critical for neo-vascularization and sustained tumor growth. Our data identify a novel mechanism by which the Ras oncogene promotes tumor-host interactions that are essential for cancer progression, and suggest that CXCL-8 could serve as a surrogate marker for in-vivo Ras activity.

  12. Power of PTEN/AKT: Molecular switch between tumor suppressors and oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YINGQIU; NAIZABEKOV, SANZHAR; CHEN, ZHANLIN; TOKAY, TURSONJAN

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that tumor suppressors can become oncogenes, or vice versa, but the mechanism behind this is unclear. Recent findings have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the powerful switches for the conversion between tumor suppressors and oncogenes. PTEN regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell death and proliferation, through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, a number of studies have suggested that PTEN deletions may alter various functions of certain tumor suppressor and oncogenic proteins. The aim of the present review was to analyze specific cases driven by PTEN loss/AKT activation, including aberrant signaling pathways and novel drug targets for clinical application in personalized medicine. The findings illustrate how PTEN loss and/or AKT activation switches MDM2-dependent p53 downregulation, and induces conversion between oncogene and tumor suppressor in enhancer of zeste homolog 2, BTB domain-containing 7A, alternative reading frame 2, p27 and breast cancer 1, early onset, through multiple mechanisms. This review highlights the genetic basis of complex drug targets and provides insights into the rationale of precision cancer therapy. PMID:27347153

  13. A high-content screening assay for small-molecule modulators of oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Benjamin G; Fink, Lauren S; Wei, Zhi; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Rugang

    2013-10-01

    Cellular senescence is a state of stable cell growth arrest. Activation of oncogenes such as RAS in mammalian cells typically triggers cellular senescence. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is an important tumor suppression mechanism, and suppression of OIS contributes to cell transformation. Oncogenes trigger senescence through a multitude of incompletely understood downstream signaling events that frequently involve protein kinases. To identify target proteins required for RAS-induced senescence, we developed a small-molecule screen in primary human fibroblasts undergoing senescence induced by oncogenic RAS (H-Ras(G12V)). Using a high-content imaging system to monitor two hallmarks of senescence, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity expression and inhibition of proliferation, we screened a library of known small-molecule kinase inhibitors for those that suppressed OIS. Identified compounds were subsequently validated and confirmed using a third marker of senescence, senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. In summary, we have established a novel high-content screening platform that may be useful for elucidating signaling pathways mediating OIS by targeting critical pathway components.

  14. Significance of hepatitis virus infection in the oncogenic initiation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sukowati, Caecilia HC; El-Khobar, Korri E; Ie, Susan I; Anfuso, Beatrice; Muljono, David H; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor in the development of the HCC, independently from excessive alcohol abuse and metabolic disease. Since the biology of HBV and HCV is different, their oncogenic effect may go through different mechanisms, direct and/or indirect. Viral hepatitis infection is associated with cellular inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage, that may lead to subsequent hepatic injuries such as chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally HCC. Direct oncogenic properties of these viruses are related with their genotypic characteristics and the ability of viral proteins to interact with host proteins, thus altering the molecular pathways balance of the cells. In addition, the integration of HBV DNA, especially the gene S and X, in a particular site of the host genome can disrupt chromosomal stability and may activate various oncogenic mechanisms, including those in hematopoietic cells. Recently, several studies also had demonstrated that viral hepatitis could trigger the population of hepatic cancer stem cells. This review summarize available pre-clinical and clinical data in literature regarding oncogenic properties of HBV and HCV in the early initiation of HCC. PMID:26819517

  15. Oncogenic viruses and tumor glucose metabolism: like kids in a candy store.

    PubMed

    Noch, Evan; Khalili, Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Oncogenic viruses represent a significant public health burden in light of the multitude of malignancies that result from chronic or spontaneous viral infection and transformation. Although many of the molecular signaling pathways that underlie virus-mediated cellular transformation are known, the impact of these viruses on metabolic signaling and phenotype within proliferating tumor cells is less well understood. Whether the interaction of oncogenic viruses with metabolic signaling pathways involves enhanced glucose uptake and glycolysis (both hallmark features of transformed cells) or dysregulation of molecular pathways that regulate oxidative stress, viruses are adept at facilitating tumor expansion. Through their effects on cell proliferation pathways, such as the PI3K and MAPK pathways, the cell cycle regulatory proteins p53 and ATM, and the cell stress response proteins HIF-1α and AMPK, viruses exert control over critical metabolic signaling cascades. Additionally, oncogenic viruses modulate the tumor metabolomic profile through direct and indirect interactions with glucose transporters, such as GLUT1, and specific glycolytic enzymes, including pyruvate kinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and hexokinase. Through these pathways, oncogenic viruses alter the phenotypic characteristics and energy-use methods of transformed cells; therefore, it may be possible to develop novel antiglycolytic therapies to target these dysregulated pathways in virus-derived malignancies.

  16. Oncogene amplification pattern in adenoid cystic carcinoma of the salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Sequeiros-Santiago, Guadalupe; García-Carracedo, Dario; Fresno, Manuel F; Suarez, Carlos; Rodrigo, Juan P; Gonzalez, M Victoria

    2009-05-01

    The aim of the present study was the search of molecular alterations (oncogene amplification or protein overexpression) that could have an impact on the outcome of ACC patients. For this purpose, paraffin-embedded tissue samples of primary ACC of 24 patients were collected. Oncogenic amplification status of six targets previously described to be involved in human carcinogenesis (ERBB1, KIT, PIK3CA, CCND1, MYC and MDM2) were studied by a PCR-based semiquantitative approach. C-Kit, cyclin D1 and EGFR protein levels were immunohistochemically assessed. ERBB1, CCND1 and PIK3CA were frequent targets of oncogene amplification (67, 46 and 38%, respectively). C-Kit and cyclin D1 were overexpressed in 57 and 82%, respectively. CCND1 amplification was associated with advanced tumour stage and ERBB1 amplification to distant metastasis. ERBB1/CCND1/PIK3CA coamplification was the most consistently observed pattern (29%). The cases with this amplification pattern presented a reduced survival. This study points to the importance of ERBB1, CCND1 and PIK3CA oncogenic amplification status in ACC carcinogenesis.

  17. BCL3 exerts an oncogenic function by regulating STAT3 in human cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hu; Wang, Wuliang; Zhao, Qinghe; Hu, Guiming; Deng, Kehong; Liu, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant expression of oncogenes and/or tumor suppressors play a fundamental effect on the pathogenesis and tumorigenicity of cervical cancer (CC). B-cell CLL/lymphoma 3 (BCL3) was previously found to be a putative proto-oncogene in human cancers and regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a critical oncogene, in CC cell line. However, its expression status, clinical significance and biological functions in CC remain largely unclear. The expressions of BCL3 and STAT3 in CC specimens were determined by immunohistochemistry. MTT, colony formation assays and flow cytometry analysis were carried out to test proliferation and cell cycle of CC cells. Here, the levels of BCL3 were overexpressed in CC compared to adjacent cervical tissues. Furthermore, high levels of BCL3 protein were confirmed by immunoblotting in CC cells as compared with normal cervical epithelial cells. The positive expression of BCL3 was correlated with adverse prognostic features and reduced survival rate. In addition, BCL3 regulated STAT3 abundance in CC cells. STAT3 was found to be upregulated and positively correlated with BCL3 expression in CC specimens. BCL3 overexpression resulted in prominent increased proliferation and cell cycle progression in Hela cells. By contrast, inhibition of BCL3 in CaSki cells remarkably suppressed proliferative ability and cell cycle progression. In vivo studies showed that knockdown of BCL3 inhibited tumor growth of CC in mice xenograft model. Notably, we confirmed that STAT3 mediated the oncogenic roles of BCL3 in CC. In conclusion, we suggest that BCL3 serves as an oncogene in CC by modulating proliferation and cell cycle progression, and its oncogenic effect is mediated by its downstream target gene, STAT3. PMID:27822067

  18. Induction of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) oncogenic domains (PODs) by papillomavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahara, Tomomi; Lambert, Paul F.

    2007-09-30

    Promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), are subnuclear structures that have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes as well as the life cycle of DNA viruses including papillomaviruses. In order to investigate the interplay between papillomaviruses and PODs, we analyzed the status of PODs in organotypic raft cultures of human keratinocytes harboring HPV genome that support the differentiation-dependent HPV life cycle. The number of PODs per nucleus was increased in the presence of HPV genomes selectively within the poorly differentiated layers but was absent in the terminally differentiated layers of the stratified epithelium. This increase in PODs was correlated with an increase in abundance of post-translationally modified PML protein. Neither the E2-dependent transcription nor viral DNA replication was reliant upon the presence of PML. Implications of these findings in terms of HPV's interaction with its host are discussed.

  19. A newly identified RET proto-oncogene polymorphism is found in a high number of endocrine tumor patients.

    PubMed

    Gartner, Wolfgang; Mineva, Ivelina; Daneva, Teodora; Baumgartner-Parzer, Sabina; Niederle, Bruno; Vierhapper, Heinrich; Weissel, Michael; Wagner, Ludwig

    2005-07-01

    Multiple RET proto-oncogene transcripts, due to genomic variations and alternate splicing, have been described. To investigate endocrine tumor tissue characteristic RET proto-oncogene expression, we performed quantitative RT-PCR, Northern blot and Southern blot analyses of benign and malignant endocrine-derived tissues. We newly describe RET proto-oncogene expression in carcinoid-, gastrinoma- and insulinoma-derived tissue samples. In addition, the presence of a 3'-terminally truncated RET proto-oncogene mRNA variant in benign and malignant thyroid neoplasias, as well as in a pheochromocytoma, an ovarian carcinoma and a medullary thyroid carcinoma, is demonstrated. Southern blot analysis revealed no evidence of gross RET proto-oncogene rearrangements or deletions. As the underlying cause for a bi-allelic TaqI restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), a C (allele 1)/T (allele 2) transition within intron 19, was characterized. This polymorphism is close to a recently described polyadenylation site and lies within a binding site for the nucleic acid binding protein Pbx-1. Screening of healthy subjects and of patients suffering from various endocrine malignancies revealed exclusively allele 1 homozygous and allele 1/allele 2 heterozygous genotypes. Heterozygous genotypes were found in a significantly higher percentage in samples derived from endocrine tumor patients when compared with those from healthy control subjects. Homozygosity for allele 2 was found exclusively in somatic DNA derived from endocrine tumors with high malignant potential. Analysis of DNA derived from varying regions within individual anaplastic thyroid carcinomas revealed an allele 1/allele 2 switch of the RFLP banding pattern, indicating loss of heterozygosity at the RET proto-oncogene locus. In conclusion, our data demonstrate presence of a 5'-terminal RET proto-oncogene transcript in endocrine tissues and reveal a bi-allelic RET proto-oncogene polymorphism. A heterozygous genotype for

  20. “Hit-and-Run” Transformation by Adenovirus Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Nevels, Michael; Täuber, Birgitt; Spruss, Thilo; Wolf, Hans; Dobner, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    According to classical concepts of viral oncogenesis, the persistence of virus-specific oncogenes is required to maintain the transformed cellular phenotype. In contrast, the “hit-and-run” hypothesis claims that viruses can mediate cellular transformation through an initial “hit,” while maintenance of the transformed state is compatible with the loss (“run”) of viral molecules. It is well established that the adenovirus E1A and E1B gene products can cooperatively transform primary human and rodent cells to a tumorigenic phenotype and that these cells permanently express the viral oncogenes. Additionally, recent studies have shown that the adenovirus E4 region encodes two novel oncoproteins, the products of E4orf6 and E4orf3, which cooperate with the viral E1A proteins to transform primary rat cells in an E1B-like fashion. Unexpectedly, however, cells transformed by E1A and either E4orf6 or E4orf3 fail to express the viral E4 gene products, and only a subset contain E1A proteins. In fact, the majority of these cells lack E4- and E1A-specific DNA sequences, indicating that transformation occurred through a hit-and-run mechanism. We provide evidence that the unusual transforming activities of the adenoviral oncoproteins may be due to their mutagenic potential. Our results strongly support the possibility that even tumors that lack any detectable virus-specific molecules can be of viral origin, which could have a significant impact on the use of adenoviral vectors for gene therapy. PMID:11238835

  1. The N-terminal part of TIF1, a putative mediator of the ligand-dependent activation function (AF-2) of nuclear receptors, is fused to B-raf in the oncogenic protein T18.

    PubMed Central

    Le Douarin, B; Zechel, C; Garnier, J M; Lutz, Y; Tora, L; Pierrat, P; Heery, D; Gronemeyer, H; Chambon, P; Losson, R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) bound to response elements mediate the effects of cognate ligands on gene expression. Their ligand-dependent activation function, AF-2, presumably acts on the basal transcription machinery through intermediary proteins/mediators. We have isolated a mouse nuclear protein, TIF1, which enhances RXR and RAR AF-2 in yeast and interacts in a ligand-dependent manner with several NRs in yeast and mammalian cells, as well as in vitro. Remarkably, these interactions require the amino acids constituting the AF-2 activating domain conserved in all active NRs. Moreover, the oestrogen receptor (ER) AF-2 antagonist hydroxytamoxifen cannot promote ER-TIF1 interaction. We propose that TIF1, which contains several conserved domains found in transcriptional regulatory proteins, is a mediator of ligand-dependent AF-2. Interestingly, the TIF1 N-terminal moiety is fused to B-raf in the mouse oncoprotein T18. Images PMID:7744009

  2. Oncogenes and inflammation rewire host energy metabolism in the tumor microenvironment: RAS and NFκB target stromal MCT4.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Curry, Joseph M; Ko, Ying-Hui; Lin, Zhao; Tuluc, Madalina; Cognetti, David; Birbe, Ruth C; Pribitkin, Edmund; Bombonati, Alessandro; Pestell, Richard G; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-08-15

    Here, we developed a model system to evaluate the metabolic effects of oncogene(s) on the host microenvironment. A matched set of "normal" and oncogenically transformed epithelial cell lines were co-cultured with human fibroblasts, to determine the "bystander" effects of oncogenes on stromal cells. ROS production and glucose uptake were measured by FACS analysis. In addition, expression of a panel of metabolic protein biomarkers (Caveolin-1, MCT1, and MCT4) was analyzed in parallel. Interestingly, oncogene activation in cancer cells was sufficient to induce the metabolic reprogramming of cancer-associated fibroblasts toward glycolysis, via oxidative stress. Evidence for "metabolic symbiosis" between oxidative cancer cells and glycolytic fibroblasts was provided by MCT1/4 immunostaining. As such, oncogenes drive the establishment of a stromal-epithelial "lactate-shuttle", to fuel the anabolic growth of cancer cells. Similar results were obtained with two divergent oncogenes (RAS and NFκB), indicating that ROS production and inflammation metabolically converge on the tumor stroma, driving glycolysis and upregulation of MCT4. These findings make stromal MCT4 an attractive target for new drug discovery, as MCT4 is a shared endpoint for the metabolic effects of many oncogenic stimuli. Thus, diverse oncogenes stimulate a common metabolic response in the tumor stroma. Conversely, we also show that fibroblasts protect cancer cells against oncogenic stress and senescence by reducing ROS production in tumor cells. Ras-transformed cells were also able to metabolically reprogram normal adjacent epithelia, indicating that cancer cells can use either fibroblasts or epithelial cells as "partners" for metabolic symbiosis. The antioxidant N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) selectively halted mitochondrial biogenesis in Ras-transformed cells, but not in normal epithelia. NAC also blocked stromal induction of MCT4, indicating that NAC effectively functions as an "MCT4 inhibitor". Taken

  3. The c-mos proto-oncogene protein kinase turns on and maintains the activity of MAP kinase, but not MPF, in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs.

    PubMed Central

    Nebreda, A R; Hunt, T

    1993-01-01

    During studies of the activation and inactivation of the cyclin B-p34cdc2 protein kinase (MPF) in cell-free extracts of Xenopus oocytes and eggs, we found that a bacterially expressed fusion protein between the Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein and the Xenopus c-mos protein kinase (malE-mos) activated a 42 kDa MAP kinase. The activation of MAP kinase on addition of malE-mos was consistent, whereas the activation of MPF was variable and failed to occur in some oocyte extracts in which cyclin A or okadaic acid activated both MPF and MAP kinase. In cases when MPF activation was transient, MAP kinase activity declined after MPF activity was lost, and MAP kinase, but not MPF, could be maintained at a high level by the presence of malE-mos. When intact oocytes were treated with progesterone, however, the activation of MPF and MAP kinase occurred simultaneously, in contrast to the behaviour of extracts. These observations suggest that one role of c-mos may be to maintain high MAP kinase activity in meiosis. They also imply that the activation of MPF and MAP kinase in vivo are synchronous events that normally rely on an agent that has still to be identified. Images PMID:8387916

  4. Assessing the subcellular distribution of oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase using microinjection into live cells

    PubMed Central

    Layton, Meredith J.; Rynkiewicz, Natalie K.; Ivetac, Ivan; Horan, Kristy A.; Mitchell, Christina A.; Phillips, Wayne A.

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA lead to an increase in intrinsic phosphoinositide kinase activity, but it is thought that increased access of PI3Kα (phosphoinositide 3-kinase α) to its PM (plasma membrane) localized substrate is also required for increased levels of downstream PIP3/Akt [phosphoinositide-3,4,5-trisphosphate/also called PKB (protein kinase B)] signalling. We have studied the subcellular localization of wild-type and the two most common oncogenic mutants of PI3Kα in cells maintained in growth media, and starved or stimulated cells using a novel method in which PI3Kα is pre-formed as a 1:1 p110α:p85α complex in vitro then introduced into live cells by microinjection. Oncogenic E545K and H1047R mutants did not constitutively interact with membrane lipids in vitro or in cells maintained in 10% (v/v) FBS. Following stimulation of RTKs (receptor tyrosine kinases), microinjected PI3Kα was recruited to the PM, but oncogenic forms of PI3Kα were not recruited to the PM to a greater extent and did not reside at the PM longer than the wild-type PI3Kα. Instead, the E545K mutant specifically bound activated Cdc42 in vitro and microinjection of E545K was associated with the formation of cellular protrusions, providing some preliminary evidence that changes in protein–protein interactions may play a role in the oncogenicity of the E545K mutant in addition to the well-known changes in lipid kinase activity. PMID:27919038

  5. Cyclic AMP restores a normal phenotype to sis oncogene transformed cells and inhibits inositol phospholipid turnover

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, S.K.; Lazarus, A.; Pendergas, M.; Lockwood, A.H.

    1987-05-01

    The sis oncogene encodes the A chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). NIH3T3 fibroblasts transfected with the cloned sis oncogene display a malignant phenotype and have enhanced turnover of the regulatory phospholipid phosphatidylinositol 4,5 biphosphate (PIP2). They have found that elevation of intracellular cyclic AMP can restore many aspects of normal growth and morphology to sis-transformed cells. Cells rapidly become less refractile, flatten on the substratum, develop actomyosin bundles, and acquire a more tranquil membrane. Growth rate and saturation density are reduced. Cultures become contact-inhibited and, at confluence, assume a normal fibrobastic morphology. The ability to grow in low serum or suspension is lost. Following addition of 8-Br-cAMP, cellular levels of PIP and PIP2 increase to those in untransformed cells. Concurrently, the steady-state levels of inositol phosphates are reduced to normal values. They have found a similar effect of cAMP on inositol phospholipid metabolism in cells transformed by the human H-ras oncogene. These results suggest that cAMP, acting through the cAMP-dependent protein kinase, antagonizes ras and sis oncogene expression by inhibiting polyphosphoinositide turnover. Such action might occur by phosphorylation of the PDGF (sis) receptor or of a ras-stimulated phospholipase C.

  6. How should we define STAT3 as an oncogene and as a potential target for therapy?

    PubMed

    Sellier, Hélène; Rébillard, Amélie; Guette, Catherine; Barré, Benjamin; Coqueret, Olivier

    2013-07-01

    Aberrant activation of the STAT3 transcription factor has been reported in a large group of tumors and a strong biological basis now defines this protein as an oncogenic driver. Consequently, STAT3 is considered to be a promising target in the field of cancer therapy. For its inhibition to result in a successful therapeutic approach, the definition of a target tumor population identified by specific and detectable alterations is critical. The canonical activation model of STAT3 relies on a constitutive phosphorylation on its 705 tyrosine site, resulting in its dimerization, nuclear translocation, and the consequent activation of cancer genes. Therefore, it is expected that tumors expressing this phosphorylated form are addicted to STAT3 and will be sensitive to existing drugs which are targeting this dimeric form. However, recent results have shown that STAT3 can function as an oncogene in the absence of this tyrosine phosphorylation. This indicates that different forms of the transcription factor also play an important role in tumor growth and chemotherapy resistance. This complicates the definition of STAT3 as an oncogene and as a potential prognosis and predictive biomarker. The obligation to target a defined tumor type implies that future clinical trials should use a precise definition of STAT3 activation. This will allow tumors addicted to this oncogene to be identified correctly, leading to a strong rationale for patient stratification.

  7. Melanoma: oncogenic drivers and the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; González-Cao, María; Riso, Aldo; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina, Miguel Angel; Chaib, Imane; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Richardet, Eduardo; Bria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma over the past 30 years have contributed to a change in the consideration of melanoma as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. The finding that oncogenic BRAF mutations drive tumor growth in up to 50% of melanomas led to a molecular therapy revolution for unresectable and metastatic disease. Moving beyond BRAF, inactivation of immune regulatory checkpoints that limit T cell responses to melanoma has provided targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the molecular biology of melanoma and we focus on the recent advances of molecularly targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:26605311

  8. Pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic pathways: opportunities and challenges of cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Yan-Hua; Lu, Qun

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is the uncontrolled growth of cells gaining the potential to invade and disrupt vital tissue functions. This malignant process includes the occurrence of ‘unwanted’ gene mutations that induce the transformation of normal cells, for example, by overactivation of pro-oncogenic pathways and inactivation of tumor-suppressive or anti-oncogenic pathways. It is now recognized that the number of major signaling pathways that control oncogenesis is not unlimited; therefore, suppressing these pathways can conceivably lead to a cancer cure. However, the clinical application of cancer intervention has not matched up to scientific expectations. Increasing numbers of studies have revealed that many oncogenic-signaling elements show double faces, in which they can promote or suppress cancer pathogenesis depending on tissue type, cancer stage, gene dosage and their interaction with other players in carcinogenesis. This complexity of oncogenic signaling poses challenges to traditional cancer therapy and calls for considerable caution when designing an anticancer drug strategy. We propose future oncology interventions with the concept of integrative cancer therapy. PMID:20373871

  9. Synthesizing oncogenic signal-processing systems that function as both "signal counters" and "signal blockers" in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchen; Huang, Weiren; Zhou, Dexi; Han, Yonghua; Duan, Yonggang; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hu; Jiang, Zhimao; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming

    2013-07-01

    RNA-protein interaction plays a significant role in regulating eukaryotic translation. This phenomenon raises questions about the ability of artificial biological systems to take the advantage of protein-RNA interaction. Here, we designed an oncogenic signal-processing system expressing both a Renilla luciferase reporter gene controlled by RNA-protein interaction in its 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a Firefly luciferase normalization gene. To test the ability of the designed system, we then constructed vectors targeting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or the β-catenin signal. We found that the inhibition (%) of luciferase expression was correlated to the targeted protein content, allowing quantitative measurement of oncogenic signal intensity in cancer cells. The systems inhibited the expression of oncogenic signal downstream genes and induced bladder cancer cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis without affecting normal urothelial cells. Compared to traditional methods (ELISA and quantitative immunoblotting), the bio-systems provided highly accurate, consistent, and reproducible quantification of protein signals and were able to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous cells. In conclusion, the synthetic systems function as both "signal counters" and "signal blockers" in cancer cells. This approach provides a synthetic biology platform for oncogenic signal measurement and cancer treatment.

  10. Oncogenic KRAS signalling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eser, S; Schnieke, A; Schneider, G; Saur, D

    2014-08-26

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost universally fatal. The annual number of deaths equals the number of newly diagnosed cases, despite maximal treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate of <5% has remained stubbornly unchanged over the last 30 years, despite tremendous efforts in preclinical and clinical science. There is unquestionably an urgent need to further improve our understanding of pancreatic cancer biology, treatment response and relapse, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. Rigorous research in the field has uncovered genetic aberrations that occur during PDAC development and progression. In most cases, PDAC is initiated by oncogenic mutant KRAS, which has been shown to drive pancreatic neoplasia. However, all attempts to target KRAS directly have failed in the clinic and KRAS is widely assumed to be undruggable. This has led to intense efforts to identify druggable critical downstream targets and nodes orchestrated by mutationally activated KRAS. This includes context-specific KRAS effector pathways, synthetic lethal interaction partners and KRAS-driven metabolic changes. Here, we review recent advances in oncogenic KRAS signalling and discuss how these might benefit PDAC treatment in the future.

  11. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Louis M

    2010-06-01

    Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-kappaB signaling in cancer. NF-kappaB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-kappaB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IkappaB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-kappaB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-kappaB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-kappaB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IkappaB kinases to activate NF-kappaB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-kappaB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

  12. Skp2 is oncogenic and overexpressed in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Gstaiger, M; Jordan, R; Lim, M; Catzavelos, C; Mestan, J; Slingerland, J; Krek, W

    2001-04-24

    Skp2 is a member of the F-box family of substrate-recognition subunits of SCF ubiquitin-protein ligase complexes that has been implicated in the ubiquitin-mediated degradation of several key regulators of mammalian G(1) progression, including the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27, a dosage-dependent tumor suppressor protein. In this study, we examined Skp2 and p27 protein expression by immunohistochemistry in normal oral epithelium and in different stages of malignant oral cancer progression, including dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We found that increased levels of Skp2 protein are associated with reduced p27 in a subset of oral epithelial dysplasias and carcinomas compared with normal epithelial controls. Tumors with high Skp2 (>20% positive cells) expression invariably showed reduced or absent p27 and tumors with high p27 (>20% positive cells) expression rarely showed Skp2 positivity. Increased Skp2 protein levels were not always correlated with increased cell proliferation (assayed by Ki-67 staining), suggesting that alterations of Skp2 may contribute to the malignant phenotype without affecting proliferation. Skp2 protein overexpression may lead to accelerated p27 proteolysis and contribute to malignant progression from dysplasia to oral epithelial carcinoma. Moreover, we also demonstrate that Skp2 has oncogenic potential by showing that Skp2 cooperates with H-Ras(G12V) to malignantly transform primary rodent fibroblasts as scored by colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in nude mice. The observations that Skp2 can mediate transformation and is up-regulated during oral epithelial carcinogenesis support a role for Skp2 as a protooncogene in human tumors.

  13. Activated Oncogenic Pathway Modifies Iron Network in Breast Epithelial Cells: A Dynamic Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lemler, Erica; Kochen, Michael A.; Akman, Steven A.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of iron metabolism in cancer is well documented and it has been suggested that there is interdependence between excess iron and increased cancer incidence and progression. In an effort to better understand the linkages between iron metabolism and breast cancer, a predictive mathematical model of an expanded iron homeostasis pathway was constructed that includes species involved in iron utilization, oxidative stress response and oncogenic pathways. The model leads to three predictions. The first is that overexpression of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) recapitulates many aspects of the alterations in free iron and iron-related proteins in cancer cells without affecting the oxidative stress response or the oncogenic pathways included in the model. This prediction was validated by experimentation. The second prediction is that iron-related proteins are dramatically affected by mitochondrial ferritin overexpression. This prediction was validated by results in the pertinent literature not used for model construction. The third prediction is that oncogenic Ras pathways contribute to altered iron homeostasis in cancer cells. This prediction was validated by a combination of simulation experiments of Ras overexpression and catalase knockout in conjunction with the literature. The model successfully captures key aspects of iron metabolism in breast cancer cells and provides a framework upon which more detailed models can be built. PMID:28166223

  14. Oncogenic signaling by Kit tyrosine kinase occurs selectively on the Golgi apparatus in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Obata, Y; Horikawa, K; Takahashi, T; Akieda, Y; Tsujimoto, M; Fletcher, J A; Esumi, H; Nishida, T; Abe, R

    2017-02-13

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Most primary GIST patients respond to the Kit inhibitor imatinib, but this drug often becomes ineffective because of secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. The characteristic intracellular accumulation of imatinib-sensitive and -resistant Kit protein is well documented, but its relationship to oncogenic signaling remains unknown. Here, we show that in cancer tissue from primary GIST patients as well as in cell lines, mutant Kit accumulates on the Golgi apparatus, whereas normal Kit localizes to the plasma membrane (PM). In imatinib-resistant GIST with a secondary Kit mutation, Kit localizes predominantly on the Golgi apparatus. Both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant Kit (Kit(mut)) become fully auto-phosphorylated only on the Golgi and only if in a complex-glycosylated form. Kit(mut) accumulates on the Golgi during the early secretory pathway, but not after endocytosis. The aberrant kinase activity of Kit(mut) prevents its export from the Golgi to the PM. Furthermore, Kit(mut) on the Golgi signals and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathway, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and the Mek-Erk pathway. Blocking the biosynthetic transport of Kit(mut) to the Golgi from the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits oncogenic signaling. PM localization of Kit(mut) is not required for its signaling. Activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases on the Golgi is essential for oncogenic Kit signaling. These results suggest that the Golgi apparatus serves as a platform for oncogenic Kit signaling. Our study demonstrates that Kit(mut)'s pathogenicity is related to its mis-localization, and may offer a new strategy for treating imatinib-resistant GISTs.Oncogene advance online publication, 13 February 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.519.

  15. Targeting CK2-driven non-oncogene addiction in B-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Mandato, E; Manni, S; Zaffino, F; Semenzato, G; Piazza, F

    2016-11-24

    Genetic mutations of oncogenes often underlie deranged cell growth and altered differentiation pathways leading to malignant transformation of B-lymphocytes. However, addiction to oncogenes is not the only drive to lymphoid tumor pathogenesis. Dependence on non-oncogenes, which act by propelling basic mechanisms of cell proliferation and survival, has also been recognized in the pathobiology of lymphoid leukemias, lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Among the growing number of molecules that may uphold non-oncogene addiction, a key place is increasingly being recognized to the serine-threonine kinase CK2. This enzyme is overexpressed and overactive in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, such as mantle cell, follicular, Burkitt's and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. In these tumors, CK2 may serve the activity of oncogenes, similar to BCR-ABL and c-MYC, control the activation of critical signaling cascades, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and PTEN/PI3K/AKT (phosphatase and tensin homolog protein/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKR thymoma), and sustain multiple cellular stress-elicited pathways, such as the proteotoxic stress, unfolded protein and DNA-damage responses. CK2 has also been shown to have an essential role in tuning signals derived from the stromal tumor microenvironment. Not surprisingly, targeting CK2 in lymphoid tumor cell lines or mouse xenograft models can boost the cytotoxic effects of both conventional chemotherapeutics and novel agents, similar to heat-shock protein 90, proteasome and tyrosine kinases inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the evidence indicating how CK2 embodies most of the features of a cancer growth-promoting non-oncogene, focusing on lymphoid tumors. We further discuss the preclinical data of the use of small ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitors, which hold the promise to be additional options in novel drug

  16. [Oncogenes and the origin of leukemia. Acute avian leukemia viruses].

    PubMed

    Graf, T

    1988-03-01

    Oncogenes have been intimately associated with the genesis of human neoplasms. A particularly useful system to study the mechanism of tumorigenesis is a small group of avian retroviruses that carry two oncogenes. These viruses causes acute leukemias and can transform hematopoietic cells in vitro. The mechanisms by which viral oncogenes affect the growth control and differentiation of their target cells is now understood in fair detail for two of these virus strains. In the avian erythroblastosis virus AEV, the v-erbB oncogene deregulates the growth control of erythroid precursors, while verbA blocks their terminal differentiation into erythrocytes. Based on the findings that v-erbB oncogene corresponds to a mutated growth factor receptor gene and that v-erbA corresponds to a mutated hormone receptor gene, models have been developed that explain the function of these two oncogenes on a molecular basis. The myelomonocytic leukemia virus MH2 acts by a completely different mechanism. In this case, the v-myc oncogene stimulates the proliferation of macrophage-like cells, while the v-mil gene stimulates them to produce their own growth factor, thus leading to autocrine growth. It will be interesting to determine whether the type of mechanisms of oncogene cooperativity elucidated for acute leukemia viruses are also operative during leukemogenesis in humans.

  17. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David J H; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary D; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimling, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-07-24

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.

  18. Pro-oncogenic role of alternative p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases p38γ and p38δ, linking inflammation and cancer in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Reino, Paloma; Alsina-Beauchamp, Dayanira; Escós, Alejandra; Cerezo-Guisado, Ma Isabel; Risco, Ana; Aparicio, Noelia; Zur, Rafal; Fernandez-Estévez, Marian; Collantes, Elena; Montans, Jose; Cuenda, Ana

    2014-11-01

    p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in the regulation of processes leading to cancer development and progression. Chronic inflammation is a known risk factor for tumorigenesis, yet the precise mechanism of this association remains largely unknown. The related p38αMAPK (MAPK14) proteins p38γ (MAPK12) and p38δ (MAPK13) were recently shown to modulate the immune response, although their role in tumorigenesis remains controversial and their function in inflammation-associated cancer has not been studied. We analyzed the role of p38γ and p38δ in colon cancer associated to colitis using the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate (AOM/DSS) colitis-associated colon cancer model in wild-type (WT), p38γ-, p38δ-, and p38γ/δ-deficient (p38γ/δ(-/-)) mice. We found that p38γ/δ deficiency significantly decreased tumor formation, in parallel with a decrease in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Analysis of leukocyte populations in p38γ/δ(-/-) mouse colon showed less macrophage and neutrophil recruitment than in WT mice. Furthermore, WT chimeric mice with transplanted p38γ/δ(-/-) bone marrow had less tumors than WT mice transplanted with WT bone marrow, whereas tumor number was significantly increased in p38γ/δ(-/-) chimeric mice with WT bone marrow compared with p38γ/δ(-/-) mice transplanted with p38γ/δ(-/-) bone marrow. Together, our results establish that p38γ and p38δ are central to colitis-associated colon cancer formation through regulation of hematopoietic cell response to injury, and validate p38γ and p38δ as potential targets for cancer therapy.

  19. CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Haitao; Yao, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are 8–12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of a variety of cellular, physiological, and developmental processes. Their aberrant expression can lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. CXCR4 also plays a role in the cell proliferation and migration of these cells. Recently, CXCR4 has been reported to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, as well as metastasis of several cancers including breast cancer. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role and potential drugs that target CXCR4 in breast cancer. Additionally, CXCR4 proangiogenic molecular mechanisms will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26356032

  20. CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Haitao; Yao, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are 8-12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of a variety of cellular, physiological, and developmental processes. Their aberrant expression can lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. CXCR4 also plays a role in the cell proliferation and migration of these cells. Recently, CXCR4 has been reported to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, as well as metastasis of several cancers including breast cancer. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role and potential drugs that target CXCR4 in breast cancer. Additionally, CXCR4 proangiogenic molecular mechanisms will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer.

  1. Oncogenic role of Merlin/NF2 in glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Guerrero, P A; Yin, W; Camacho, L; Marchetti, D

    2015-05-14

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with a poor prognosis because of its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Merlin/NF2 (moesin-ezrin-radixin-like protein/neurofibromatosis type 2) is a tumor suppressor found to be mutated in most nervous system tumors; however, it is not mutated in glioblastomas. Merlin associates with several transmembrane receptors and intracellular proteins serving as an anchoring molecule. Additionally, it acts as a key component of cell motility. By selecting sub-populations of U251 glioblastoma cells, we observed that high expression of phosphorylated Merlin at serine 518 (S518-Merlin), NOTCH1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlated with increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. These cells were defective in cell-contact inhibition with changes in Merlin phosphorylation directly affecting NOTCH1 and EGFR expression, as well as downstream targets HES1 (hairy and enhancer of split-1) and CCND1 (cyclin D1). Of note, we identified a function for S518-Merlin, which is distinct from what has been reported when the expression of Merlin is diminished in relation to EGFR and NOTCH1 expression, providing first-time evidence that demonstrates that the phosphorylation of S518-Merlin in glioblastoma promotes oncogenic properties that are not only the result of inactivation of the tumor suppressor role of Merlin but also an independent process implicating a Merlin-driven regulation of NOTCH1 and EGFR.

  2. Glycerophospholipid profile in oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Cadenas, Cristina; Vosbeck, Sonja; Hein, Eva-Maria; Hellwig, Birte; Langer, Alice; Hayen, Heiko; Franckenstein, Dennis; Büttner, Bettina; Hammad, Seddik; Marchan, Rosemarie; Hermes, Matthias; Selinski, Silvia; Rahnenführer, Jörg; Peksel, Begüm; Török, Zsolt; Vígh, László; Hengstler, Jan G

    2012-09-01

    Alterations in lipid metabolism and in the lipid composition of cellular membranes are linked to the pathology of numerous diseases including cancer. However, the influence of oncogene expression on cellular lipid profile is currently unknown. In this work we analyzed changes in lipid profiles that are induced in the course of ERBB2-expression mediated premature senescence. As a model system we used MCF-7 breast cancer cells with doxycycline-inducible expression of NeuT, an oncogenic ERBB2 variant. Affymetrix gene array data showed NeuT-induced alterations in the transcription of many enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, several of which (ACSL3, CHPT1, PLD1, LIPG, MGLL, LDL and NPC1) could be confirmed by quantitative realtime PCR. A study of the glycerophospholipid and lyso-glycerophospholipid profiles, obtained by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to Fourier-transform ion cyclotron resonance-mass spectrometry revealed senescence-associated changes in numerous lipid species, including mitochondrial lipids. The most prominent changes were found in PG(34:1), PG(36:1) (increased) and LPE(18:1), PG(40:7) and PI(36:1) (decreased). Statistical analysis revealed a general trend towards shortened phospholipid acyl chains in senescence and a significant trend to more saturated acyl chains in the class of phosphatidylglycerol. Additionally, the cellular cholesterol content was elevated and accumulated in vacuoles in senescent cells. These changes were accompanied by increased membrane fluidity. In mitochondria, loss of membrane potential along with altered intracellular distribution was observed. In conclusion, we present a comprehensive overview of altered cholesterol and glycerophospholipid patterns in senescence, showing that predominantly mitochondrial lipids are affected and lipid species less susceptible to peroxidation are increased.

  3. K-ras oncogene mutation in pterygium.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, B T; Yıldırım, M S; Zamani, A; Bozkurt, B

    2017-03-01

    PurposePterygium is claimed to be a benign proliferation triggered by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The frequency of K-ras oncogene mutation, which is among the initial mutations in tumorigenesis, is evaluated in this study.Patients and methodsIn this prospective randomized clinical, trial pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissue specimens are obtained from the superotemporal quadrant of patients who underwent primary pterygium excision with autograft transplantation. DNA extraction from tissues was performed using the QIAamp DNA FFPE tissue kit. A PCR reaction was performed to amplify sequences containing codons 12, 13, and 61 of the K-ras gene in DNA. These PCR products then underwent the 'pyrosequencing' procedure for mutations at these codons.ResultsPterygium and normal conjunctival tissue samples of 25 patients (10 females, 15 males) were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.54±13.13 years. Genetic analysis revealed no K-ras mutations in normal conjunctival tissues, whereas pterygium tissues of the same cases demonstrated mutation at codon 12 in one case and mutations at codon 61 in seven cases, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The point missense mutations at codon 61 were glutamine to arginine (Glu61Arg CAA>CGA) in four cases and glutamine to leucine (Glu61Leu CAA>CTA) in three cases.ConclusionThe significantly higher frequency of codon 61 mutation of the ras oncogene in primary and bilateral pterygium specimens compared with normal conjunctiva supports the tumoral origin of pterygium, and thus set the stage for research into a targeted therapy for pterygium with better outcomes than surgical excision.

  4. Identification of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus Fu-J carrying complete v-fps oncogene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixin; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Fang, Lichun; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    Transduction of oncogenes by ALVs and generation of acute transforming viruses is common in natural viral infections. In order to understand the molecular basis for the rapid oncogenicity of Fu-J, an acutely transforming avian leukosis virus isolated from fibrosarcomas in crossbreed broilers infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in China, complete genomic structure of Fu-J virus was determined by PCR amplification and compared with those of Fu-J1, Fu-J2, Fu-J3, Fu-J4, and Fu-J5 reported previously. The results showed that the genome of Fu-J was defective, with parts of gag gene replaced by the complete v-fps oncogene and encoded a 137 kDa Gag-fps fusion protein. Sequence analysis revealed that Fu-J and Fu-J1 to Fu-J5 were related quasi-species variants carrying different lengths of v-fps oncogenes generated from recombination between helper virus and c-fps gene. Comparison of virus carrying v-fps oncogene also gave us a glimpse of the molecular characterization and evolution process of the acutely transforming ALV.

  5. Cooperative integration between HEDGEHOG-GLI signalling and other oncogenic pathways: implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Silvia; Stecca, Barbara

    2015-02-09

    The HEDGEHOG-GLI (HH-GLI) signalling is a key pathway critical in embryonic development, stem cell biology and tissue homeostasis. In recent years, aberrant activation of HH-GLI signalling has been linked to several types of cancer, including those of the skin, brain, lungs, prostate, gastrointestinal tract and blood. HH-GLI signalling is initiated by binding of HH ligands to the transmembrane receptor PATCHED and is mediated by transcriptional effectors that belong to the GLI family, whose activity is finely tuned by a number of molecular interactions and post-translation modifications. Several reports suggest that the activity of the GLI proteins is regulated by several proliferative and oncogenic inputs, in addition or independent of upstream HH signalling. The identification of this complex crosstalk and the understanding of how the major oncogenic signalling pathways interact in cancer is a crucial step towards the establishment of efficient targeted combinatorial treatments. Here we review recent findings on the cooperative integration of HH-GLI signalling with the major oncogenic inputs and we discuss how these cues modulate the activity of the GLI proteins in cancer. We then summarise the latest advances on SMO and GLI inhibitors and alternative approaches to attenuate HH signalling through rational combinatorial therapies.

  6. A posttranslational modification cascade involving p38, Tip60, and PRAK mediates oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Seit-Nebi, Alim; Han, Xuemei; Aslanian, Aaron; Tat, John; Liao, Rong; Yates, John R; Sun, Peiqing

    2013-06-06

    Oncogene-induced senescence is an important tumor-suppressing defense mechanism. However, relatively little is known about the signaling pathway mediating the senescence response. Here, we demonstrate that a multifunctional acetyltransferase, Tip60, plays an essential role in oncogenic ras-induced senescence. Further investigation reveals a cascade of posttranslational modifications involving p38, Tip60, and PRAK, three proteins that are essential for ras-induced senescence. Upon activation by ras, p38 induces the acetyltransferase activity of Tip60 through phosphorylation of Thr158; activated Tip60 in turn directly interacts with and induces the protein kinase activity of PRAK through acetylation of K364 in a manner that depends on phosphorylation of both Tip60 and PRAK by p38. These posttranslational modifications are critical for the prosenescent function of Tip60 and PRAK, respectively. These results have defined a signaling pathway that mediates oncogene-induced senescence, and identified posttranslational modifications that regulate the enzymatic activity and biological functions of Tip60 and PRAK.

  7. Bim Regulation of Lumen Formation in Cultured Mammary Epithelial Acini Is Targeted by Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Mauricio J.; Mills, Kenna R.; Becker, Esther B. E.; Lynch, Danielle K.; Bonni, Azad; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Brugge, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into cyst-like structures that contain a spherical monolayer of cells that enclose a central lumen. Using a three-dimensional basement membrane culture model in which mammary epithelial cells form hollow, acinus-like structures, we previously demonstrated that lumen formation is achieved, in part, through apoptosis of centrally localized cells. We demonstrate that the proapoptotic protein Bim may selectively trigger apoptosis of the centrally localized acinar cells, leading to temporally controlled lumen formation. Bim is not detectable during early stages of three-dimensional mammary acinar morphogenesis and is then highly upregulated in all cells of acini, coincident with detection of apoptosis in the centrally localized acinar cells. Inhibition of Bim expression by RNA interference transiently blocks luminal apoptosis and delays lumen formation. Oncogenes that induce acinar luminal filling, such as ErbB2 and v-Src, suppress expression of Bim through a pathway dependent on Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase; however, HPV 16 E7, an oncogene that stimulates cell proliferation but not luminal filling, is unable to reduce Bim expression. Thus, Bim is a critical regulator of luminal apoptosis during mammary acinar morphogenesis in vitro and may be an important target of oncogenes that disrupt glandular epithelial architecture. PMID:15899862

  8. An oncogenic MYB feedback loop drives alternate cell fates in adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Drier, Yotam; Cotton, Matthew J.; Williamson, Kaylyn E.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Ryan, Russell J.H.; Kluk, Michael J.; Carey, Christopher D.; Rodig, Scott J.; Sholl, Lynette M; Afrogheh, Amir H.; Faquin, William C.; Queimado, Lurdes; Qi, Jun; Wick, Michael J.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Bradner, James E.; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Aster, Jon C.; Knoechel, Birgit; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2016-01-01

    Translocation events are frequent in cancer and may create chimeric fusions or ‘regulatory rearrangements’ that drive oncogene overexpression. Here we identify super-enhancer translocations that drive overexpression of the oncogenic transcription factor MYB as a recurrent theme in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Whole-genome sequencing data and chromatin maps reveal distinct chromosomal rearrangements that juxtapose super-enhancers to the MYB locus. Chromosome conformation capture confirms that the translocated enhancers interact with the MYB promoter. Remarkably, MYB protein binds to the translocated enhancers, creating a positive feedback loop that sustains its expression. MYB also binds enhancers that drive different regulatory programs in alternate cell lineages in ACC, cooperating with TP63 in myoepithelial cells and a Notch program in luminal epithelial cells. Bromodomain inhibitors slow tumor growth in ACC primagraft models in vivo. Thus, our study identifies super-enhancer translocations that drive MYB expression and provides insight into downstream MYB functions in the alternate ACC lineages. PMID:26829750

  9. Mutant calreticulin requires both its mutant C-terminus and the thrombopoietin receptor for oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Elf, Shannon; Abdelfattah, Nouran S.; Chen, Edwin; Perales-Patón, Javier; Rosen, Emily A.; Ko, Amy; Peisker, Fabian; Florescu, Natalie; Giannini, Silvia; Wolach, Ofir; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Tothova, Zuzana; Losman, Julie-Aurore; Schneider, Rebekka K.; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Mullally, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in calreticulin (CALR) are present in approximately 40% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) but the mechanism by which mutant CALR is oncogenic remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that expression of mutant CALR alone is sufficient to engender MPN in mice and recapitulates the disease phenotype of CALR-mutant MPN patients. We further show that the thrombopoietin receptor, MPL is required for mutant CALR-driven transformation through JAK-STAT pathway activation, thus rendering mutant CALR-transformed hematopoietic cells sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. Finally, we demonstrate that the oncogenicity of mutant CALR is dependent on the positive electrostatic charge of the C-terminus of the mutant protein, which is necessary for physical interaction between mutant CALR and MPL. Together, our findings elucidate a novel paradigm of cancer pathogenesis and reveal how CALR mutations induce MPN. PMID:26951227

  10. Dbl oncogene expression in MCF-10 A epithelial cells disrupts mammary acinar architecture, induces EMT and angiogenic factor secretion

    PubMed Central

    Vanni, Cristina; Ognibene, Marzia; Finetti, Federica; Mancini, Patrizia; Cabodi, Sara; Segalerba, Daniela; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Donnini, Sandra; Bosco, Maria Carla; Varesio, Luigi; Eva, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The proteins of the Dbl family are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of Rho GTPases and are known to be involved in cell growth regulation. Alterations of the normal function of these proteins lead to pathological processes such as developmental disorders, neoplastic transformation, and tumor metastasis. We have previously demonstrated that expression of Dbl oncogene in lens epithelial cells modulates genes encoding proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and induces angiogenesis in the lens. Our present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Dbl oncogene in epithelial cells transformation, providing new insights into carcinoma progression.To assess how Dbl oncogene can modulate EMT, cell migration, morphogenesis, and expression of pro-apoptotic and angiogenic factors we utilized bi- and 3-dimensional cultures of MCF-10 A cells. We show that upon Dbl expression MCF-10 A cells undergo EMT. In addition, we found that Dbl overexpression sustains Cdc42 and Rac activation inducing morphological alterations, characterized by the presence of lamellipodia and conferring a high migratory capacity to the cells. Moreover, Dbl expressing MCF-10 A cells form altered 3D structures and can induce angiogenesis by producing proangiogenic factors such as CCL2. These results support a role for Dbl oncogene in epithelial cell differentiation and transformation and suggest the relevance of GEF deregulation in tumor onset and progression. PMID:25723869

  11. Dbl oncogene expression in MCF-10 A epithelial cells disrupts mammary acinar architecture, induces EMT and angiogenic factor secretion.

    PubMed

    Vanni, Cristina; Ognibene, Marzia; Finetti, Federica; Mancini, Patrizia; Cabodi, Sara; Segalerba, Daniela; Torrisi, Maria Rosaria; Donnini, Sandra; Bosco, Maria Carla; Varesio, Luigi; Eva, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    The proteins of the Dbl family are guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) of Rho GTPases and are known to be involved in cell growth regulation. Alterations of the normal function of these proteins lead to pathological processes such as developmental disorders, neoplastic transformation, and tumor metastasis. We have previously demonstrated that expression of Dbl oncogene in lens epithelial cells modulates genes encoding proteins involved in epithelial-mesenchymal-transition (EMT) and induces angiogenesis in the lens. Our present study was undertaken to investigate the role of Dbl oncogene in epithelial cells transformation, providing new insights into carcinoma progression.To assess how Dbl oncogene can modulate EMT, cell migration, morphogenesis, and expression of pro-apoptotic and angiogenic factors we utilized bi- and 3-dimensional cultures of MCF-10 A cells. We show that upon Dbl expression MCF-10 A cells undergo EMT. In addition, we found that Dbl overexpression sustains Cdc42 and Rac activation inducing morphological alterations, characterized by the presence of lamellipodia and conferring a high migratory capacity to the cells. Moreover, Dbl expressing MCF-10 A cells form altered 3D structures and can induce angiogenesis by producing proangiogenic factors such as CCL2. These results support a role for Dbl oncogene in epithelial cell differentiation and transformation and suggest the relevance of GEF deregulation in tumor onset and progression.

  12. MUC1 alters oncogenic events and transcription in human breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hattrup, Christine L; Gendler, Sandra J

    2006-01-01

    Introduction MUC1 is an oncoprotein whose overexpression correlates with aggressiveness of tumors and poor survival of cancer patients. Many of the oncogenic effects of MUC1 are believed to occur through interaction of its cytoplasmic tail with signaling molecules. As expected for a protein with oncogenic functions, MUC1 is linked to regulation of proliferation, apoptosis, invasion, and transcription. Methods To clarify the role of MUC1 in cancer, we transfected two breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-468 and BT-20) with small interfering (si)RNA directed against MUC1 and analyzed transcriptional responses and oncogenic events (proliferation, apoptosis and invasion). Results Transcription of several genes was altered after transfection of MUC1 siRNA, including decreased MAP2K1 (MEK1), JUN, PDGFA, CDC25A, VEGF and ITGAV (integrin αv), and increased TNF, RAF1, and MMP2. Additional changes were seen at the protein level, such as increased expression of c-Myc, heightened phosphorylation of AKT, and decreased activation of MEK1/2 and ERK1/2. These were correlated with cellular events, as MUC1 siRNA in the MDA-MB-468 line decreased proliferation and invasion, and increased stress-induced apoptosis. Intriguingly, BT-20 cells displayed similar levels of apoptosis regardless of siRNA, and actually increased proliferation after MUC1 siRNA. Conclusion These results further the growing knowledge of the role of MUC1 in transcription, and suggest that the regulation of MUC1 in breast cancer may be more complex than previously appreciated. The differences between these two cell lines emphasize the importance of understanding the context of cell-specific signaling events when analyzing the oncogenic functions of MUC1, and caution against generalizing the results of individual cell lines without adequate confirmation in intact biological systems. PMID:16846534

  13. Biological basis of personalized anticoagulation in cancer: oncogene and oncomir networks as putative regulators of coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Rak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Activation of stromal response pathways in cancer is increasingly viewed as both a local and systemic extension of molecular alterations driving malignant transformation. Rather than reflecting passive and unspecific responses to anatomical abnormalities, the coagulation system is a target of oncogenic deregulation, impacting the role of clotting and fibrinolytic proteins, and integrating hemostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis and cellular growth effects in cancer. These processes signify, but do not depend on, the clinically manifest coagulopathy and thrombosis. In this regard, the role of driver mutations affecting oncoprotein coding genes such as RAS, EGFR or MET and tumour suppressors (PTEN, TP53) are well described as regulators of tissue factor (TF), protease activated receptors (PAR-1/2) and ectopic coagulation factors (FVII). Indeed, in both adult and pediatric brain tumours the expression patterns of coagulation and angiogenesis regulators (coagulome and angiome, respectively) reflect the molecular subtypes of the underlying diseases (glioblastoma or medulloblastoma) as defined by their oncogenic classifiers and clinical course. This emerging understanding is still poorly established in relation to the transforming effects of non-coding genes, including those responsible for the expression of microRNA (miR). Indeed, several miRs have been recently found to regulate TF and other effectors. We recently documented that in the context of the aggressive embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) the oncogenic driver miR (miR-520g) suppresses the expression of TF and correlates with hypocoagulant tumour characteristics. Unlike in adult cancers, the growth of pediatric embryonal brain tumour cells as spheres (to maintain stem cell properties) results in upregulation of miR-520g and downregulation of TF expression and activity. We postulate that oncogenic protein and miR coding genes form alternative pathways of coagulation system regulation in different

  14. v-myb transformation of Xeroderma pigmentosum human fibroblasts: Overexpression of the c-Ha-ras oncogene in the transformed cells

    SciTech Connect

    Michelin, S.; Varlet, I.; Sarasin, A.; Suarez, H.G. ); Martinerie, C.; Perbal, B. )

    1991-10-01

    Human Xeroderma pigmentosum normal' fibroblasts AS16 (XP4 VI) were transformed after transfection with a recombinant v-myb clone. In this clone (pKXA 3457) derived from avian myeloblastosis virus (AMV), the expression of the oncogene sequences is driven by the AMV U-5 LTR promoter. The transformed cells (ASKXA), which have integrated a rearranged v-myb oncogene, grow in agar, are not tumorigenic in nude mice, and express a 45-kDa v-myb protein. The HMW DNA of these cells transform chicken embryo fibroblasts. The c-Ha-ras oncogene is overexpressed in the ASKXA cells but not in the parental normal' AS16 cells and a revertant clone (ASKXA Cl 1.1 G). The results lead to the conclusion that the XP fibroblasts are phenotypically transformed by the presence of the transfected v-myb oncogene, which is able to induce an overexpression of the c-Ha-ras gene.

  15. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  16. LAPTM4B: an oncogene in various solid tumors and its functions

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Y; Wang, L; Chen, D; Chang, Y; Zhang, M; XU, J-J; Zhou, R; Zhang, Q-Y

    2016-01-01

    The oncogene Lysosome-associated protein transmembrane-4β (LAPTM4B) gene was identified, and the polymorphism region in the 5′-UTR of this gene was certified to be associated with tumor susceptibility. LAPTM4B-35 protein was found to be highly expressed in various solid tumors and could be a poor prognosis marker. The functions of LAPTM4B in solid tumors were also explored. It is suggested that LAPTM4B could promote the proliferation of tumor cells, boost invasion and metastasis, resist apoptosis, initiate autophagy and assist drug resistance. PMID:27212036

  17. Identification of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor as the c-met proto-oncogene product

    SciTech Connect

    Bottaro, D.P.; Rubin, J.S.; Chan, A.M.L.; Aaronson, S.A. ); Faletto, D.L.; Kmiecik, T.E.; Vande Woude, G.F. )

    1991-02-15

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a plasminogen-like protein thought to be a humoral mediator of liver regeneration. A 145-kilodalton tyrosyl phosphoprotein observed in rapid response to HGF treatment of intact target cells was identified by immunoblot analysis as the {beta} subunit of the c-met proto-oncogene product, a membrane-spanning tyrosine kinase. Covalent cross-linking of {sup 125}I-labeled ligand to cellular proteins of appropriate size that were recognized by antibodies to c-met directly established the c-met product as the cell-surface receptor for HGF.

  18. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  19. Therapeutic Potential of Targeting the Oncogenic SHP2 Phosphatase

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Src homology 2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) is an oncogenic phosphatase associated with various kinds of leukemia and solid tumors. Thus, there is substantial interest in developing SHP2 inhibitors as potential anticancer and antileukemia agents. Using a structure-guided and fragment-based library approach, we identified a novel hydroxyindole carboxylic acid-based SHP2 inhibitor 11a-1, with an IC50 value of 200 nM and greater than 5-fold selectivity against 20 mammalian PTPs. Structural and modeling studies reveal that the hydroxyindole carboxylic acid anchors the inhibitor to the SHP2 active site, while interactions of the oxalamide linker and the phenylthiophene tail with residues in the β5–β6 loop contribute to 11a-1’s binding potency and selectivity. Evidence suggests that 11a-1 specifically attenuates the SHP2-dependent signaling inside the cell. Moreover, 11a-1 blocks growth factor mediated Erk1/2 and Akt activation and exhibits excellent antiproliferative activity in lung cancer and breast cancer as well as leukemia cell lines. PMID:25003231

  20. A Computational Drug Repositioning Approach for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gayvert, Kaitlyn; Dardenne, Etienne; Cheung, Cynthia; Boland, Mary Regina; Lorberbaum, Tal; Wanjala, Jackline; Chen, Yu; Rubin, Mark; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Rickman, David; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mutations in transcription factors (TFs) genes are frequently observed in tumors, often leading to aberrant transcriptional activity. Unfortunately, TFs are often considered undruggable due to the absence of targetable enzymatic activity. To address this problem, we developed CRAFTT, a Computational drug-Repositioning Approach For Targeting Transcription factor activity. CRAFTT combines ChIP-seq with drug-induced expression profiling to identify small molecules that can specifically perturb TF activity. Application to ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets revealed known drug-TF interactions and a global drug-protein network analysis further supported these predictions. Application of CRAFTT to ERG, a pro-invasive, frequently over-expressed oncogenic TF predicted that dexamethasone would inhibit ERG activity. Indeed, dexamethasone significantly decreased cell invasion and migration in an ERG-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of Electronic Medical Record data indicates a protective role for dexamethasone against prostate cancer. Altogether, our method provides a broadly applicable strategy to identify drugs that specifically modulate TF activity. PMID:27264179

  1. Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants

    SciTech Connect

    Sichero, Laura; Simao Sobrinho, Joao; Lina Villa, Luisa

    2012-10-10

    We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.

  2. SBRT for oligoprogressive oncogene addicted NSCLC.

    PubMed

    Basler, L; Kroeze, S G C; Guckenberger, M

    2017-04-01

    Lung cancer is one of the leading causes of cancer death in men and women and treatment outcome continues to lag behind other common cancer types. A subset of lung adenocarcinoma patients exhibit a somatic mutation in EGFR or an ALK rearrangement. In these patients, targeted TKI therapy results in higher response rates, improved PFS and reduced side effects compared with platinum-based chemotherapy. Despite initial activity of the TKIs, ultimately all patients present with disease progression after about a year on TKI therapy due to resistance development. About 15-47% of patients present with limited oligoprogressive disease (OPD): such patients show only a limited number of metastases with progression in radiological imaging. Radical local treatment to all oligoprogressive lesions is thought to eradicate the de-differentiated clones and restore overall sensitivity of the metastatic disease. Retrospective studies suggest that aggressive local treatment using stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT), surgery or others can be used to eradicate TKI-resistant subpopulations enabling prolonged TKI treatment "beyond progression", which may lead to increased PFS and overall survival. This review focuses on the biological background of resistance development, systemic and local treatment options with a focus on SBRT, as well as challenges in defining the state of OPD and current clinical studies in oligoprogressive oncogene addicted NSCLC.

  3. Sensitizers, protectors and oncogenic transformation in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.C.; Osmak, R.; Zimmerman, M.; Hall, E.J.

    1982-03-01

    Systems developed to assay oncogenic transformation in vitro represent a rapid and powerful tool to screen and compare new radiosensitizers in their carcinogenic potential, and to search for compounds that reduce or inhibit carcinogenesis produced by both radiation and sensitizers. An established line of mouse embryo fibroblasts (C3H/10T1/2 cells) has been used to determine the incidence of transformation produced by a variety of 2 and 5 substituted nitroimidazoles; these include metronidazole, desmethylmisonidazle, misonidazole, SR 2508, SR 2555, R0-07-0741, RSU-1047 and RSU-1021. Most of these sensitizers produce a similar level of transformation; for example a three day exposure of aerated cells to a concentration of 1 mM of the drug results in a transformation incidence comparable to 1 Gy of X rays. The notable exception is SR 2508 which produces a five-fold higher incidence of transformation. The potential carcinogenicity of sensitizers must be considered in choosing which of the currently available new drugs is to be used in clinical trials as an alternative to misonidazle. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), a known free radical scavenger, has been shown to reduce the level of transformation produced by radiation and sensitizers. To be effective, SOD must be present for prolonged periods during the fixation and expression period of the transformation process.

  4. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:27412232

  5. Context-dependent signal integration by the GLI code: the oncogenic load, pathways, modifiers and implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Fritz; Ruiz I Altaba, Ariel

    2014-09-01

    Canonical Hedgehog (HH) signaling leads to the regulation of the GLI code: the sum of all positive and negative functions of all GLI proteins. In humans, the three GLI factors encode context-dependent activities with GLI1 being mostly an activator and GLI3 often a repressor. Modulation of GLI activity occurs at multiple levels, including by co-factors and by direct modification of GLI structure. Surprisingly, the GLI proteins, and thus the GLI code, is also regulated by multiple inputs beyond HH signaling. In normal development and homeostasis these include a multitude of signaling pathways that regulate proto-oncogenes, which boost positive GLI function, as well as tumor suppressors, which restrict positive GLI activity. In cancer, the acquisition of oncogenic mutations and the loss of tumor suppressors - the oncogenic load - regulates the GLI code toward progressively more activating states. The fine and reversible balance of GLI activating GLI(A) and GLI repressing GLI(R) states is lost in cancer. Here, the acquisition of GLI(A) levels above a given threshold is predicted to lead to advanced malignant stages. In this review we highlight the concepts of the GLI code, the oncogenic load, the context-dependency of GLI action, and different modes of signaling integration such as that of HH and EGF. Targeting the GLI code directly or indirectly promises therapeutic benefits beyond the direct blockade of individual pathways.

  6. Role of Notch and its oncogenic signaling crosstalk in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shanchun; Liu, Mingli; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R.

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling plays a key role in cell differentiation, survival, and proliferation through diverse mechanisms. Notch signaling is also involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Moreover, Notch expression is regulated by hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and leptin). Entangled crosstalk between Notch and other developmental signaling (Hedgehog and Wnt), and signaling triggered by growth factors, estrogens and oncogenic kinases, could impact on Notch targeted genes. Thus, alterations of the Notch signaling can lead to a variety of disorders, including human malignancies. Notch signaling is activated by ligand binding, followed by ADAM/Tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE) metalloprotease and γ-secretase cleavages that produce the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). Translocation of NICD into the nucleus induces the transcriptional activation of Notch target genes. The relationships between Notch deregulated signaling, cancer stem cells and the carcinogenesis process reinforced by Notch crosstalk with many oncogenic signaling pathways suggest that Notch signaling may be a critical drug target for breast and other cancers. Since current status of knowledge in this field changes quickly, our insight should be continuously revised. In this review, we will focus on recent advancements in identification of aberrant Notch signaling in breast cancer and the possible underlying mechanisms, including potential role of Notch in breast cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, as well as its crosstalk with other oncogenic signaling pathways in breast cancer. We will also discuss the prognostic value of Notch proteins and therapeutic potential of targeting Notch signaling for cancer treatment. PMID:21193018

  7. PIK3CA is implicated as an oncogene in ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shayesteh, Laleh; Lu, Yiling; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Baldocchi, Russell; Godfrey, Tony; Collins, Colin; Pinkel, Daniel; Powell, Bethan; Mills,Gordon B.; Gray, Joe W.

    1998-03-25

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer death among American women, yet little is known about its molecular aetiology. Studies using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have revealed several regions of recurrent, abnormal, DNA sequence copy number that may encode genes involved in the genesis or progression of the disease. One region at 3q26 found to be increased in copy number in approximately 40 percent of ovarian and other cancers contains PIK3CA, which encodes the p110 a catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3-kinase). The association between PIK3CA copy number and PI3-kinase activity makes PIK3CA a candidate oncogene because a broad range of cancer-related functions have been associated with PI3-kinase mediated signaling. These include proliferation, glucose transport and catabolism, cell adhesion, apoptosis, RAS signaling and oncogenic transformation. In addition, downstream effectors of PI3-kinase,AKT1 and AKT2, have been found to be amplified or activated in human tumors, including ovarian cancer. We show here that PIK3CA is frequently increased in copy number in ovarian cancers, that the increased copy number is associated with increased PIK3CA transcription, p110 a protein expression and PI3-kinase activity and that treatment with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 decreases proliferation and increases apoptosis. Our observations suggest PIK3CA is an oncogene that has an important role in ovarian cancer.

  8. Oncogenic Ras differentially regulates metabolism and anoikis in extracellular matrix-detached cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, J A; Davison-Versagli, C A; Leliaert, A K; Pape, D J; McCallister, C; Zuo, J; Durbin, S M; Buchheit, C L; Zhang, S; Schafer, Z T

    2016-08-01

    In order for cancer cells to survive during metastasis, they must overcome anoikis, a caspase-dependent cell death process triggered by extracellular matrix (ECM) detachment, and rectify detachment-induced metabolic defects that compromise cell survival. However, the precise signals used by cancer cells to facilitate their survival during metastasis remain poorly understood. We have discovered that oncogenic Ras facilitates the survival of ECM-detached cancer cells by using distinct effector pathways to regulate metabolism and block anoikis. Surprisingly, we find that while Ras-mediated phosphatidylinositol (3)-kinase signaling is critical for rectifying ECM-detachment-induced metabolic deficiencies, the critical downstream effector is serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (SGK-1) rather than Akt. Our data also indicate that oncogenic Ras blocks anoikis by diminishing expression of the phosphatase PHLPP1 (PH Domain and Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 1), which promotes anoikis through the activation of p38 MAPK. Thus, our study represents a novel paradigm whereby oncogene-initiated signal transduction can promote the survival of ECM-detached cells through divergent downstream effectors.

  9. DEK Proto-Oncogene Expression Interferes with the Normal Epithelial Differentiation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Morreale, Richard J.; Morris, Teresa A.; Mintz-Cole, Rachael A.; Hoskins, Elizabeth E.; Balsitis, Scott J.; Husseinzadeh, Nader; Witte, David P.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of the DEK gene is associated with multiple human cancers, but its specific roles as a putative oncogene are not well defined. DEK transcription was previously shown to be induced by the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncogene via E2F and Rb pathways. Transient DEK overexpression was able to inhibit both senescence and apoptosis in cultured cells. In at least the latter case, this mechanism involved the destabilization of p53 and the decreased expression of p53 target genes. We show here that DEK overexpression disrupts the normal differentiation program in a manner that is independent of either p53 or cell death. DEK expression was distinctly repressed upon the differentiation of cultured primary human keratinocytes, and stable DEK overexpression caused epidermal thickening in an organotypic raft model system. The observed hyperplasia involved a delay in keratinocyte differentiation toward a more undifferentiated state, and expansion of the basal cell compartment was due to increased proliferation, but not apoptosis. These phenotypes were accompanied by elevated p63 expression in the absence of p53 destabilization. In further support of bona fide oncogenic DEK activities, we report here up-regulated DEK protein levels in both human papilloma virus-positive hyperplastic murine skin and a subset of human squamous cell carcinomas. We suggest that DEK up-regulation may contribute to carcinoma development at least in part through increased proliferation and retardation of differentiation. PMID:19036808

  10. Transglutaminase 2 contributes to a TP53-induced autophagy program to prevent oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Yeo, Shi Yun; Itahana, Yoko; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Han, Rachel; Iwamoto, Kozue; Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Bao, Yi; Kleiber, Kai; Wu, Ya Jun; Bay, Boon Huat; Voorhoeve, Mathijs; Itahana, Koji

    2016-03-09

    Genetic alterations which impair the function of the TP53 signaling pathway in TP53 wild-type human tumors remain elusive. To identify new components of this pathway, we performed a screen for genes whose loss-of-function debilitated TP53 signaling and enabled oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. We identified transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) as a putative tumor suppressor in the TP53 pathway. TGM2 suppressed colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. The depletion of growth supplements induced both TGM2 expression and autophagy in a TP53-dependent manner, and TGM2 promoted autophagic flux by enhancing autophagic protein degradation and autolysosome clearance. Reduced expression of both CDKN1A, which regulates the cell cycle downstream of TP53, and TGM2 synergized to promote oncogenic transformation. Our findings suggest that TGM2-mediated autophagy and CDKN1A-mediated cell cycle arrest are two important barriers in the TP53 pathway that prevent oncogenic transformation.

  11. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Hein, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the stroma within carcinogenic lesions is known to be supportive and responsive to tumors, new data increasingly show that the stroma also has a more active, oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. Stromal cells and their products can transform adjacent tissues in the absence of pre-existing tumor cells by inciting phenotypic and genomic changes in the epithelial cells. The oncogenic action of distinctive stromal components has been demonstrated through a variety of approaches, which provide clues about the cellular pathways involved.

  12. In vivo quantification and perturbation of Myc-Max interactions and the impact on oncogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Raffeiner, Philipp; Röck, Ruth; Schraffl, Andrea; Hartl, Markus; Hart, Jonathan R; Janda, Kim D; Vogt, Peter K; Stefan, Eduard; Bister, Klaus

    2014-10-15

    The oncogenic bHLH-LZ transcription factor Myc forms binary complexes with its binding partner Max. These and other bHLH-LZ-based protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the Myc-Max network are essential for the physiological and oncogenic activities of Myc. We have generated a genetically determined and highly specific protein-fragment complementation assay based on Renilla luciferase to analyze the dynamic interplay of bHLH-LZ transcription factors Myc, Max, and Mxd1 in vivo. We also applied this PPI reporter to quantify alterations of nuclear Myc-Max complexes in response to mutational events, competitive binding by the transcriptional repressor Mxd1, or perturbations by small-molecule Myc inhibitors, including recently identified potent PPI inhibitors from a Kröhnke pyridine library. We show that the specificity of Myc-Max PPI reduction by the pyridine inhibitors directly correlates with their efficient and highly specific potential to interfere with the proliferation of human and avian tumor cells displaying deregulated Myc expression. In a direct comparison with known Myc inhibitors using human and avian cell systems, the pyridine compounds reveal a unique inhibitory potential even at sub-micromolar concentrations combined with remarkable specificity for the inhibition of Myc-driven tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show in direct comparisons using defined avian cell systems that different Max PPI profiles for the variant members of the Myc protein family (c-Myc, v-Myc, N-Myc, L-Myc) correlate with their diverse oncogenic potential and their variable sensitivity to the novel pyridine inhibitors.

  13. The Fanconi anemia pathway controls oncogenic response in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by regulating PRMT5-mediated p53 arginine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Amarachintha, Surya; Erden, Ozlem; Wilson, Andrew; Pang, Qishen

    2016-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is involved in DNA damage and other cellular stress responses. We have investigated the role of the FA pathway in oncogenic stress response by employing an in vivo stress-response model expressing the Gadd45β-luciferase transgene. Using two inducible models of oncogenic activation (LSL-K-rasG12D and MycER), we show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from mice deficient for the FA core complex components Fanca or Fancc exhibit aberrant short-lived response to oncogenic insults. Mechanistic studies reveal that FA deficiency in HSPCs impairs oncogenic stress-induced G1 cell-cycle checkpoint, resulting from a compromised K-rasG12D-induced arginine methylation of p53 mediated by the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). Furthermore, forced expression of PRMT5 in HSPCs from LSL-K-rasG12D/CreER-Fanca−/− mice prolongs oncogenic response and delays leukemia development in recipient mice. Our study defines an arginine methylation-dependent FA-p53 interplay that controls oncogenic stress response. PMID:27507053

  14. Effect of cellular determination on oncogenic transformation by chemicals and oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, M A; Gonzales, F; Jones, P A

    1988-01-01

    Three developmentally determined myogenic cell lines derived from C3H 10T1/2 C18 (10T1/2) mouse embryo cells treated with 5-azacytidine were compared with the parental 10T1/2 line for their susceptibility to oncogenic transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene or the activated human c-Ha-ras oncogene. Neither the 10T1/2 cells nor the myogenic derivatives grew in soft agar or formed tumors in nude mice. In contrast to 10T1/2 cells, the three myogenic derivatives were not susceptible to transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene, so that cellular determination altered the response of 10T1/2 cells to chemical carcinogen. On the other hand, all cell types were transformed to a tumorigenic phenotype following transfection with the activated c-Ha-ras gene. The transfected myogenic cells expressed both the c-Ha-ras gene and the muscle determination gene MyoD1. In contrast to other reports, the presence of as many as six copies of the c-Ha-ras gene per genome did not prevent the formation of striated muscle cells which expressed immunologically detectable muscle-specific myosin. The expression of the c-Ha-ras gene does not therefore necessarily preclude the expression of the determination gene for myogenesis or prevent end-stage myogenic differentiation. Images PMID:2460742

  15. Apoptosis and autophagy: BIM as a mediator of tumour cell death in response to oncogene-targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Annette S; Balmanno, Kathryn; Wiggins, Ceri M; Johnson, Mark; Cook, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    The BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) is a potent pro-apoptotic protein belonging to the B-cell lymphoma 2 protein family. In recent years, advances in basic biology have provided a clearer picture of how BIM kills cells and how BIM expression and activity are repressed by growth factor signalling pathways, especially the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase B pathways. In tumour cells these oncogene-regulated pathways are used to counter the effects of BIM, thereby promoting tumour cell survival. In parallel, a new generation of targeted therapeutics has been developed, which show remarkable specificity and efficacy in tumour cells that are addicted to particular oncogenes. It is now apparent that the expression and activation of BIM is a common response to these new therapeutics. Indeed, BIM has emerged from this marriage of basic and applied biology as an important mediator of tumour cell death in response to such drugs. The induction of BIM alone may not be sufficient for significant tumour cell death, as BIM is more likely to act in concert with other BH3-only proteins, or other death pathways, when new targeted therapeutics are used in combination with traditional chemotherapy agents. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding BIM regulation and review the role of BIM as a mediator of tumour cell death in response to novel oncogene-targeted therapeutics.

  16. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S; Carlomagno, Francesca; Santoro, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the 'DFG-out' inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the 'gatekeeper' V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET.

  17. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the ‘DFG-out’ inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the ‘gatekeeper’ V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET. PMID:26046350

  18. Different Roles of Negative and Positive Components of the Circadian Clock in Oncogene-induced Neoplastic Transformation.

    PubMed

    Katamune, Chiharu; Koyanagi, Satoru; Shiromizu, Shoya; Matsunaga, Naoya; Shimba, Shigeki; Shibata, Shigenobu; Ohdo, Shigehiro

    2016-05-13

    In mammals, circadian rhythms in physiological function are generated by a molecular oscillator driven by transcriptional-translational feedback loop consisting of negative and positive regulators. Disruption of this circadian clock machinery is thought to increase the risk of cancer development, but the potential contributions of each component of circadian clock to oncogenesis have been little explored. Here we reported that negative and positive transcriptional regulators of circadian feedback loop had different roles in oncogene-induced neoplastic transformation. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from animals deficient in negative circadian clock regulators, Period2 (Per2) or Cryptochrome1/2 (Cry1/2), were prone to transformation induced by co-expression of H-ras(V12) and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT). In contrast, mouse embryonic fibroblasts prepared from mice deficient in positive circadian clock regulators, Bmal1 or Clock, showed resistance to oncogene-induced transformation. In Per2 mutant and Cry1/2-null cells, the introduction of oncogenes induced expression of ATF4, a potent repressor of cell senescence-associated proteins p16INK4a and p19ARF. Elevated levels of ATF4 were sufficient to suppress expression of these proteins and drive oncogenic transformation. Conversely, in Bmal1-null and Clock mutant cells, the expression of ATF4 was not induced by oncogene introduction, which allowed constitutive expression of p16INK4a and p19ARF triggering cellular senescence. Although genetic ablation of either negative or positive transcriptional regulators of the circadian clock leads to disrupted rhythms in physiological functions, our findings define their different contributions to neoplastic cellular transformation.

  19. Oncogenic and oncosuppressive signal transduction at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Oparka, Monika; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The different mechanisms employed by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors to regulate cell death pathways are strictly linked to their localization. In addition to the canonical control of apoptosis at a transcriptional/nuclear level, intracellular zones are emerging as pivotal sites for the activities of several proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors. Here, we review the function of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interface as a primary platform for decoding danger signals as well as a structural accommodation for several regulator or effector proteins. PMID:27308328

  20. The Homeodomain Transcription Factor Cdx1 Does Not Behave as an Oncogene in Normal Mouse Intestine1

    PubMed Central

    Crissey, Mary Ann S; Guo, Rong-Jun; Fogt, Franz; Li, Hong; Katz, Jonathan P; Silberg, Debra G; Suh, Eun Ran; Lynch, John P

    2008-01-01

    The Caudal-related homeobox genes Cdx1 and Cdx2 are intestine-specific transcription factors that regulate differentiation of intestinal cell types. Previously, we have shown Cdx1 to be antiproliferative and to promote cell differentiation. However, other studies have suggested that Cdx1 may be an oncogene. To test for oncogenic behavior, we used the murine villin promoter to ectopically express Cdx1 in the small intestinal villi and colonic surface epithelium. No changes in intestinal architecture, cell differentiation, or lineage selection were observed with expression of the transgene. Classic oncogenes enhance proliferation and induce tumors when ectopically expressed. However, the Cdx1 transgene neither altered intestinal proliferation nor induced spontaneous intestinal tumors. In a murine model for colitis-associated cancer, the Cdx1 transgene decreased, rather than increased, the number of adenomas that developed. In the polyps, the expression of the endogenous and the transgenic Cdx1 proteins was largely absent, whereas endogenous Villin expression was retained. This suggests that transgene silencing was specific and not due to a general Villin inactivation. In conclusion, neither the ectopic expression of Cdx1 was associated with changes in intestinal cell proliferation or differentiation nor was there increased intestinal cancer susceptibility. Our results therefore suggest that Cdx1 is not an oncogene in normal intestinal epithelium. PMID:18231635

  1. Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Munoz, Denise; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2008-10-24

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial-mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment.

  2. Heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor, a v-Jun target gene, induces oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Shu-ling; Bottoli, Ivan; Goller, Martin; Vogt, Peter K.

    1999-01-01

    Jun is a transcription factor belonging to the activator protein 1 family. A mutated version of Jun (v-Jun) transduced by the avian retrovirus ASV17 induces oncogenic transformation in avian cell cultures and sarcomas in young galliform birds. The oncogenicity of Jun probably results from transcriptional deregulation of v-Jun-responsive target genes. Here we describe the identification and characterization of a growth-related v-Jun target, a homolog of heparin-binding epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB-EGF). HB-EGF is strongly expressed in chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) transformed by v-Jun. HB-EGF expression is not detectable or is marginal in nontransformed CEF. Using a hormone-inducible Jun-estrogen receptor chimera, we found that HB-EGF expression is correlated with v-Jun activity. In this system, induction of v-Jun is followed within 1 hr by elevated levels of HB-EGF. In CEF infected with various Jun mutants, HB-EGF expression is correlated with the oncogenic potency of the mutant. Constitutive expression of HB-EGF conveys to CEF the ability to grow in soft agar and to form multilayered foci of transformed cells on a solid substrate. These observations suggest that HB-EGF is an effector of Jun-induced oncogenic transformation. PMID:10318950

  3. Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Sun, Yu; Muñoz, Denise P; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter S; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2008-01-01

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial–mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment. PMID:19053174

  4. Beyond ALK-RET, ROS1 and other oncogene fusions in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoku, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Fusions of the RET and ROS1 protein tyrosine kinase oncogenes with several partner genes were recently identified as new targetable genetic aberrations in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lacking activating EGFR, KRAS, ALK, BRAF, or HER2 oncogene aberrations. RET and ROS1 fusion-positive tumors are mainly observed in young, female, and/or never smoking patients. Studies based on in vitro and in vivo (i.e., mouse) models and studies of several fusion-positive patients indicate that inhibiting the kinase activity of the RET and ROS1 fusion proteins is a promising therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, there are several ongoing clinical trials aimed at examining the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against RET and ROS1 proteins in patients with fusion-positive lung cancer. Other gene fusions (NTRK1, NRG1, and FGFR1/2/3) that are targetable by existing TKIs have also been identified in NSCLCs. Options for personalized lung cancer therapy will be increased with the help of multiplex diagnosis systems able to detect multiple druggable gene fusions. PMID:25870798

  5. Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, D; Magalon, K; Pertuit, M; Rasolonjanahary, R; Barlier, A; Enjalbert, A; Gerard, C

    2007-06-01

    In pituitary cells, activation of the cAMP pathway by specific G protein-coupled receptors controls differentiative functions and proliferation. Constitutively active forms of the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G(s) protein resulting from mutations at codon 201 or 227 (gsp oncogene) were first identified in 30-40% of human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. This rate of occurrence suggests that the gsp oncogene is not responsible for initiating the majority of these tumors. Moreover, there is a large overlap between the clinical phenotypes observed in patients with tumors bearing the gsp oncogene and those devoid of this oncogene. To explore the role of G(s)alpha in GH-secreting adenomas, we obtained somatolactotroph GH4C1 cell lines by performing doxycycline-dependent conditional overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein and expression of the gsp oncogene. Although the resulting adenylyl cyclase and cAMP levels were 10-fold lower in the wild-type G(s)alpha-overexpressing cell line, a sustained MAPK ERK1/2 activation was observed in both cell lines. Overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein as the gsp oncogene initiated chronic activation of endogenous prolactin synthesis and release, as well as chronic activation of ERK1/2-sensitive human prolactin and GH promoters.

  6. ENL links histone acetylation to oncogenic gene expression in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liling; Wen, Hong; Li, Yuanyuan; Lyu, Jie; Xi, Yuanxin; Hoshii, Takayuki; Joseph, Julia K; Wang, Xiaolu; Loh, Yong-Hwee E; Erb, Michael A; Souza, Amanda L; Bradner, James E; Shen, Li; Li, Wei; Li, Haitao; Allis, C David; Armstrong, Scott A; Shi, Xiaobing

    2017-03-09

    Cancer cells are characterized by aberrant epigenetic landscapes and often exploit chromatin machinery to activate oncogenic gene expression programs. Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins constitutes a key mechanism underlying these processes; therefore, targeting such pathways holds clinical promise, as exemplified by the development of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors. We recently identified the YEATS domain as an acetyl-lysine-binding module, but its functional importance in human cancer remains unknown. Here we show that the YEATS domain-containing protein ENL, but not its paralogue AF9, is required for disease maintenance in acute myeloid leukaemia. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated depletion of ENL led to anti-leukaemic effects, including increased terminal myeloid differentiation and suppression of leukaemia growth in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and crystal structural studies and chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing analyses revealed that ENL binds to acetylated histone H3, and co-localizes with H3K27ac and H3K9ac on the promoters of actively transcribed genes that are essential for leukaemia. Disrupting the interaction between the YEATS domain and histone acetylation via structure-based mutagenesis reduced the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to ENL-target genes, leading to the suppression of oncogenic gene expression programs. Notably, disrupting the functionality of ENL further sensitized leukaemia cells to BET inhibitors. Together, our data identify ENL as a histone acetylation reader that regulates oncogenic transcriptional programs in acute myeloid leukaemia, and suggest that displacement of ENL from chromatin may be a promising epigenetic therapy, alone or in combination with BET inhibitors, for aggressive leukaemia.

  7. The gsp oncogene disrupts Ras/ERK-dependent prolactin gene regulation in gsp inducible somatotroph cell line.

    PubMed

    Pertuit, M; Romano, D; Zeiller, C; Barlier, A; Enjalbert, A; Gerard, C

    2011-04-01

    The MAPK ERK1/2 cascade regulates all the critical cellular functions, and in many pathological situations, these regulatory processes are perturbed. It has been clearly established that this cascade is an integrative point in the control of the pituitary functions exerted by various extracellular signals. In particular, ERK1/2 cross talk with the cAMP pathway is determinant in the control of somatolactotroph hormonal secretion exerted via neuropeptide receptors. GH-secreting adenomas are characterized by frequent cAMP pathway alterations, such as constitutive activation of the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric Gs protein (the gsp oncogene), overexpression of Gsα, and changes in the protein kinase A regulatory subunits. However, it has not yet been established exactly how these alterations result in GH-secreting adenomas or how the ERK1/2 cascade contributes to the process of GH-secreting adenoma tumorigenesis. In this study on the conditional gsp-oncogene-expressing GH4C1 cell line, expression of the gsp oncogene, which was observed in up to 40% of GH-secreting adenomas, was found to induce sustained ERK1/2 activation, which required activation of the protein kinase A and the GTPases Ras and Rap1. All these signaling components contribute to the chronic activation of the human prolactin promoter. The data obtained here show that Ras plays a crucial role in these processes: in a physiopathological context, i.e. in the presence of the gsp oncogene, it switched from being a repressor of the cAMP/ protein kinase A ERK-sensitive prolactin gene control exerted by neuropeptides to an activator of the prolactin promoter.

  8. Oncogene addiction: pathways of therapeutic response, resistance, and road maps toward a cure

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Raymond; Shao, Wenlin; Sellers, William R

    2015-01-01

    A key goal of cancer therapeutics is to selectively target the genetic lesions that initiate and maintain cancer cell proliferation and survival. While most cancers harbor multiple oncogenic mutations, a wealth of preclinical and clinical data supports that many cancers are sensitive to inhibition of single oncogenes, a concept referred to as ‘oncogene addiction’. Herein, we describe the clinical evidence supporting oncogene addiction and discuss common mechanistic themes emerging from the response and acquired resistance to oncogene-targeted therapies. Finally, we suggest several opportunities toward exploiting oncogene addiction to achieve curative cancer therapies. PMID:25680965

  9. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  10. Avian oncogenic virus differential diagnosis in chickens using oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Huang, Dean; Pu, Chang-En; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2014-12-15

    Avian oncogenic viruses include the avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV). Multiple oncogenic viral infections are frequently seen, with even Marek's disease vaccines reported to be contaminated with ALV and REV. The gross lesions caused by avian oncogenic viruses often overlap, making differentiation diagnosis based on histopathology difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid approach to simultaneously differentiate, subgroup and pathotype the avian oncogenic viruses. The oligonucleotide microarray was employed in this study. Particular DNA sequences were recognized using specific hybridization between the DNA target and probe on the microarray, followed with colorimetric development through enzyme reaction. With 10 designed probes, ALV-A, ALV-E, ALV-J, REV, MDV pathogenic and vaccine strains were clearly discriminated on the microarray with the naked eyes. The detection limit was 27 copy numbers, which was 10-100 times lower than multiplex PCR. Of 102 field samples screened using the oligonucleotide microarray, 32 samples were positive for ALV-E, 17 samples were positive for ALV-J, 6 samples were positive for REV, 4 samples were positive for MDV, 7 samples were positive for both ALV-A and ALV-E, 5 samples were positive for ALV-A, ALV-E and ALV-J, one sample was positive for both ALV-J and MDV, and 3 samples were positive for both REV and MDV. The oligonucleotide microarray, an easy-to-use, high-specificity, high-sensitivity and extendable assay, presents a potent technique for rapid differential diagnosis of avian oncogenic viruses and the detection of multiple avian oncogenic viral infections under field conditions.

  11. Noxa upregulation by oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK through CREB promotes autophagy in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, James S.; Yan, Xu Guang; Liu, Xiao Ying; Luan, Qi; Guo, Su Tang; Jiang, Chen Chen; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Scolyer, Richard A.; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in the expression of the anti-survival BH3-only proteins PUMA and Bim is associated with the pathogenesis of melanoma. However, we have found that the expression of the other BH3-only protein Noxa is commonly upregulated in melanoma cells, and that this is driven by oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that Noxa was expressed at higher levels in melanomas than nevi. Moreover, the expression of Noxa was increased in metastatic compared to primary melanomas, and in thick primaries compared to thin primaries. Inhibition of oncogenic BRAFV600E or MEK downregulated Noxa, whereas activation of MEK/ERK caused its upregulation. In addition, introduction of BRAFV600E increased Noxa expression in melanocytes. Upregulation of Noxa was due to a transcriptional increase mediated by cAMP responsive element binding protein, activation of which was also increased by MEK/ERK signaling in melanoma cells. Significantly, Noxa appeared necessary for constitutive activation of autophagy, albeit at low levels, by MEK/ERK in melanoma cells. Furthermore, it was required for autophagy activation that delayed apoptosis in melanoma cells undergoing nutrient deprivation. These results reveal that oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK drives Noxa expression to promote autophagy, and suggest that Noxa has an indirect anti-apoptosis role in melanoma cells under nutrient starvation conditions. PMID:25365078

  12. Oncogenic forms of the neu/HER2 tyrosine kinase are permanently coupled to phospholipase C gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Peles, E; Levy, R B; Or, E; Ullrich, A; Yarden, Y

    1991-01-01

    The neu/HER2 proto-oncogene encodes a transmembrane tyrosine kinase homologous to receptors for polypeptide growth factors. The oncogenic potential for the presumed receptor is released through multiple genetic mechanisms including a specific point mutation, truncation at the extracellular domain and overexpression of the protooncogene. Here we show that all these modes of oncogenic activation result in a constitutively phosphorylated neu protein and an increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of a phosphatidylinositol-specific phospholipase (PLC gamma). The examined transforming neu/HER2 proteins, unlike the normal gene product, also co-immunoprecipitated with PLC gamma molecules. A kinase-defective mutant of a transforming neu failed to mediate both tyrosine phosphorylation and association with PLC gamma, suggesting direct interaction of the neu kinase with PLC gamma. This possibility was examined by employing a chimeric protein composed of the extracellular ligand-binding domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor and the neu cytoplasmic portion. The chimeric receptor mediated rapid ligand-dependent modification of PLC gamma on tyrosine residues. It also physically associated, in a ligand-dependent manner, with the phosphoinositidase. Based on the presented results we suggest that the mechanism of cellular transformation by the neu/HER2 receptor involves tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of PLC gamma. Images PMID:1676673

  13. Lovastatin, a cholesterol biosynthesis inhibitor, inhibits the growth of human H-ras oncogene transformed cells in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Sebti, S M; Tkalcevic, G T; Jani, J P

    1991-05-01

    Post-translational modification of oncogenic p21ras proteins with farnesyl, a lipid intermediate in cholesterol biosynthesis, is required for p21ras membrane association and for the ability of p21ras to transform cultured cells. We have tested the ability of lovastatin, a specific inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, to inhibit the growth of ras oncogene-transformed cells in vivo. Balb/c mouse 3T3 cells, transfected with H-ras oncogene from human EJ bladder carcinoma, were highly tumorigenic in nude mice. Immunoprecipitation studies with transformed EJ cells showed that lovastatin (1-100 microM) inhibited p21ras membrane association in a concentration-dependent manner and that a 10 microM concentration reduced the amount of p21ras bound to the membrane by 50%. Lovastatin also inhibited EJ cell growth in a concentration range that closely paralleled that required for inhibition of p21ras membrane association. Treatment of nude mice bearing subcutaneous (s.c.) EJ tumors with lovastatin (50 mg/kg) significantly inhibited the abilities of these tumors to grow as early as four days and, by day 12, the lovastatin treated group of animals had tumors with an average size that was 3-fold smaller than those in the saline treated group. Western blotting studies showed that lovastatin (50 mg/kg) was also able to inhibit p21ras membrane association in EJ tumors implanted s.c. in nude mice. These results demonstrate that lovastatin, an inhibitor of cholesterol biosynthesis, inhibited in vivo tumor growth of H-ras oncogene transformed cells. The results also suggest that inhibition of p21ras membrane association, an essential step in ras oncogene neoplastic transformation, is one mechanism by which lovastatin may express its antitumor activity.

  14. An Adenoviral Vaccine Encoding Full-Length Inactivated Human HER2 Exhibits Potent Immunogenicty and Enhanced Therapeutic Efficacy Without Oncogenicity

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Zachary; Wei, Junping; Osada, Takuya; Glass, Oliver; Lei, Gangjun; Yang, Xiao-Yi; Peplinski, Sharon; Kim, Dong-Wan; Xia, Wenle; Spector, Neil; Marks, Jeffrey; Barry, William; Hobeika, Amy; Devi, Gayathri; Amalfitano, Andrea; Morse, Michael A.; Lyerly, H. Kim; Clay, Timothy M.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Overexpression of the breast cancer oncogene HER2 correlates with poor survival. Current HER2-directed therapies confer limited clinical benefits and most patients experience progressive disease. Because refractory tumors remain strongly HER2+, vaccine approaches targeting HER2 have therapeutic potential, but wild type (wt) HER2 cannot safely be delivered in imunogenic viral vectors because it is a potent oncogene. We designed and tested several HER2 vaccines devoid of oncogenic activity to develop a safe vaccine for clinical use. Experimental Design We created recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing the extracellular domain of HER2 (Ad-HER2-ECD), ECD plus the transmembrane domain (Ad-HER2-ECD-TM) and full length HER2 inactivated for kinase function (Ad-HER2-ki) and determined their immunogenicity and anti-tumor effect in wild type (WT) and HER2 tolerant mice. To assess their safety, we compared their effect on the cellular transcriptome, cell proliferation, anchorage-dependent growth, and transformation potential in vivo. Results Ad-HER2-ki was the most immunogenic vector in WT animals, retained immunogenicity in HER2-transgenic tolerant animals, and showed strong therapeutic efficacy in treatment models. Despite being highly expressed, HER2-ki protein was not phosphorylated and did not produce an oncogenic gene signature in primary human cells. And, in contrast to HER2-wt, cells overexpressing HER2-ki were less proliferative, displayed less anchorage independent growth and were not transformed in vivo. Conclusions Vaccination with mutationally inactivated, non-oncogenic Ad-HER2-ki results in robust polyclonal immune responses to HER2 in tolerant models, which translates into strong and effective anti-tumor responses in vivo. Ad-HER2-ki is thus a safe and promising vaccine for evaluation in clinical trials. PMID:20179231

  15. Ret Receptor: Functional Consequences of Oncogenic Rearrangements.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-10-01

    cMAP mains cAMP is bound in a syn conforma- tion. The phosphate and the ribose ring GIL - 209_ý Gl 200 interact with the protein through several...Bongarzonell and nonsense point mutations leading to truncation of the Marco A. Pierottil, and Susan S. Taylor expressed protein (3, 4). Also, three mutations...Bongarzone, I., Luo, Y., Mondellini, P., Rol ofTyrsins n R T~pc2-o ienifyposibl SI12 Alberti, L., Miranda , C., Arighi, Wl ,Bocciardi, R., Seri, M

  16. Antineoplastic Effects of siRNA against TMPRSS2-ERG Junction Oncogene in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Giorgia; Ali, Hafiz Muhammad; Rousseau, Quentin; Chapuis, Hubert; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick; Massaad-Massade, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    TMPRSS2-ERG junction oncogene is present in more than 50% of patients with prostate cancer and its expression is frequently associated with poor prognosis. Our aim is to achieve gene knockdown by siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG and then to assess the biological consequences of this inhibition. First, we designed siRNAs against the two TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variants (III and IV), most frequently identified in patients’ biopsies. Two of the five siRNAs tested were found to efficiently inhibit mRNA of both TMPRSS2-ERG variants and to decrease ERG protein expression. Microarray analysis further confirmed ERG inhibition by both siRNAs TMPRSS2-ERG and revealed one common down-regulated gene, ADRA2A, involved in cell proliferation and migration. The siRNA against TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variant IV showed the highest anti-proliferative effects: Significantly decreased cell viability, increased cleaved caspase-3 and inhibited a cluster of anti-apoptotic proteins. To propose a concrete therapeutic approach, siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG IV was conjugated to squalene, which can self-organize as nanoparticles in water. The nanoparticles of siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG-squalene injected intravenously in SCID mice reduced growth of VCaP xenografted tumours, inhibited oncoprotein expression and partially restored differentiation (decrease in Ki67). In conclusion, this study offers a new prospect of treatment for prostate cancer based on siRNA-squalene nanoparticles targeting TMPRSS2-ERG junction oncogene. PMID:25933120

  17. PPM1D exerts its oncogenic properties in human pancreatic cancer through multiple mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bo; Guo, Bo-Min; Kang, Jie; Deng, Xian-Zhao; Fan, You-Ben; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Ai, Kai-Xing

    2016-03-01

    Protein phosphatase, Mg(2+)/Mn(2+) dependent, 1D (PPM1D) is emerging as an oncogene by virtue of its negative control on several tumor suppressor pathways. However, the clinical significance of PPM1D in pancreatic cancer (PC) has not been defined. In this study, we determined PPM1D expression in human PC tissues and cell lines and their irrespective noncancerous controls. We subsequently investigated the functional role of PPM1D in the migration, invasion, and apoptosis of MIA PaCa-2 and PANC-1 PC cells in vitro and explored the signaling pathways involved. Furthermore, we examined the role of PPM1D in PC tumorigenesis in vivo. Our results showed that PPM1D is overexpressed in human PC tissues and cell lines and significantly correlated with tumor growth and metastasis. PPM1D promotes PC cell migration and invasion via potentiation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway through downregulation of apoptosis-stimulating of p53 protein 2 (ASPP2). In contrast to PPM1D, our results showed that ASPP2 is downregulated in PC tissues. Additionally, PPM1D suppresses PC cell apoptosis via inhibition of the p38 MAPK/p53 pathway through both dephosphorylation of p38 MAPK and downregulation of ASPP2. Furthermore, PPM1D promotes PC tumor growth in vivo. Our results demonstrated that PPM1D is an oncogene in PC.

  18. Oncogenic transformation of Drosophila somatic cells induces a functional piRNA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fagegaltier, Delphine; Falciatori, Ilaria; Czech, Benjamin; Castel, Stephane; Perrimon, Norbert; Simcox, Amanda; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Germline genes often become re-expressed in soma-derived human cancers as “cancer/testis antigens” (CTAs), and piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway proteins are found among CTAs. However, whether and how the piRNA pathway contributes to oncogenesis in human neoplasms remain poorly understood. We found that oncogenic Ras combined with loss of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway reactivates a primary piRNA pathway in Drosophila somatic cells coincident with oncogenic transformation. In these cells, Piwi becomes loaded with piRNAs derived from annotated generative loci, which are normally restricted to either the germline or the somatic follicle cells. Negating the pathway leads to increases in the expression of a wide variety of transposons and also altered expression of some protein-coding genes. This correlates with a reduction in the proliferation of the transformed cells in culture, suggesting that, at least in this context, the piRNA pathway may play a functional role in cancer. PMID:27474441

  19. Activation of the JNK pathway is essential for transformation by the Met oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, G A; Park, M; Schlessinger, J

    1997-01-01

    The Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase is oncogenically activated through a rearrangement that creates a hybrid gene Tpr-Met. The resultant chimeric p65(Tpr-Met) protein is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and associates with a number of SH2-containing signaling molecules including the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase and the Grb2 adaptor protein, which couples receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. Mutation of the binding site for Grb2 impairs the ability of Tpr-Met oncoprotein to transform fibroblasts, suggesting that the activation of the Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway through Grb2 may be essential for cellular transformation. To test this hypothesis dominant-negative mutants of Grb2 with deletions of the SH3 domains were introduced into Tpr-Met transformed fibroblasts. Cells overexpressing the mutants were found to be morphologically reverted and exhibited reduced growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, the Grb2 mutants blocked activation of the JNK/SAPK but not MAP kinase activity induced by the Tpr-Met oncoprotein. Additionally, cells expressing dominant-negative Grb2 mutants had reduced PI-3-kinase activity and dominant-negative mutants of Rac1 blocked both Tpr-Met-induced transformation and activation of JNK. These experiments reveal a novel link between Met and the JNK pathway, which is essential for transformation by this oncogene. PMID:9184210

  20. Strategies of oncogenic microbes to deal with WW domain-containing oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yu-Yan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a well-documented tumor suppressor protein that controls growth, survival, and metastasis of malignant cells. To counteract WWOX’s suppressive effects, cancer cells have developed many strategies either to downregulate WWOX expression or to functionally inactivate WWOX. Relatively unknown is, in the context of those cancers associated with certain viruses or bacteria, how the oncogenic pathogens deal with WWOX. Here we review recent studies showing different strategies utilized by three cancer-associated pathogens. Helicobactor pylori reduces WWOX expression through promoter hypermethylation, an epigenetic mechanism also occurring in many other cancer cells. WWOX has a potential to block canonical NF-κB activation and tumorigenesis induced by Tax, an oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus. Tax successfully overcomes the blockage by inhibiting WWOX expression through activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. On the other hand, latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein–Barr virus physically interacts with WWOX and redirects its function to trigger a signaling pathway that upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cancer cell invasion. These reports may be just “the tip of the iceberg” regarding multiple interactions between WWOX and oncogenic microbes. Further studies in this direction should expand our understanding of infection-driven oncogenesis. PMID:25488911

  1. The histone demethylase LSD1 is a novel oncogene and therapeutic target in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Zhu, Yumin; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Huijun; Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Dongmiao; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Bin; Ye, Jinhai; Wu, Heming; Jiang, Hongbing; Liu, Laikui; Yang, Jianrong; Cheng, Jie

    2016-04-28

    The histone demethylase LSD1 functions as a key pro-oncogene and attractive therapeutic target in human cancer. Here we sought to interrogate the oncogenic roles of LSD1 in OSCC tumorigenesis and therapeutic intervention by integrating chemical-induced OSCC model, genetic and pharmacological loss-of-function approaches. Our data revealed that aberrant LSD1 overexpression in OSCC was significantly associated with tumor aggressiveness and shorter overall survival. Increased abundance of LSD1 was detected along with disease progression in DMBA- or 4NQO-induced OSCC animal models. LSD1 depletion via siRNA-mediated knockdown in OSCC cells resulted in impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion, tumorsphere formation and reduced xenograft growth while inducing cell apoptosis and enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU. Moreover, treatments of LSD1 chemical inhibitors (pargyline and tranylcypromine) induced its protein reduction probably via enhanced protein degradation and produced similar phenotypic changes resembling LSD1 silencing in OSCC cells. Pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 by intraperitoneal delivery of these inhibitors resulted in impaired xenograft overgrowth. Taken together, our data reveal the tumorigenic roles of LSD1 and identified LSD1 as a novel biomarker with diagnostic and prognostic significance, and also establish that targeting LSD1 by chemical inhibitors is a viable therapeutic strategy against OSCC.

  2. Regulation of oncogene expression in T-DNA-transformed host plant cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lee, Chil-Woo; Wehner, Nora; Imdahl, Fabian; Svetlana, Veselova; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Deeken, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase), which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM) and cytokinin (Ipt). Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs) between the coding sequences (CDS) of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and balance

  3. A novel oncogene, v-ryk, encoding a truncated receptor tyrosine kinase is transduced into the RPL30 virus without loss of viral sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, R; Mayer, B J; Hanafusa, T; Hanafusa, H

    1992-01-01

    The RPL viruses are acute oncogenic avian retroviruses isolated from chicken tumors. We carried out a genetic analysis of three of the viruses, RPL25, RPL28, and RPL30. While RPL25 and RPL28 were shown to contain the erbB oncogene, RPL30 appeared to contain a novel protein tyrosine kinase oncogene. This gene, v-ryk, was cloned and sequenced. The v-ryk oncogene contains a 1.39-kb nonretroviral sequence that includes a tyrosine kinase domain which was inserted into the viral envelope protein gp37-coding region and fused in frame with upstream gp37 to generate a P69gp37-ryk fusion oncoprotein. Unlike that of other acutely transforming retroviruses, transduction of the v-ryk gene into RPL30 did not result in deletion of viral sequences. Sequence analysis suggested that v-Ryk is more homologous to receptor-type tyrosine kinases than to nonreceptor-type kinases. By reconstitution of a virus from its cDNA, the v-ryk oncogene has been shown to be fully responsible for the transforming activity of the RPL30 virus. Antibodies specific to v-Ryk immunoprecipitated the v-Ryk oncoprotein from cells transformed by the RPL30 virus. The v-Ryk protein was shown to be first synthesized as a 150-kDa precursor and then cleaved into the mature 69-kDa gp37-Ryk fusion protein, both parts of which were found to be localized to the membrane fraction. As expected from the sequence of v-Ryk, immunoprecipitates of v-Ryk from RPL30-transformed cells were found to display a protein tyrosine kinase activity in vitro, and the levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins are elevated in v-ryk-transformed cells. Images PMID:1527848

  4. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens: prime candidates for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-06-30

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer/testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival.

  5. Folate levels modulate oncogene-induced replication stress and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Noa; Maoz, Karin; Bester, Assaf C; Im, Michael M; Shewach, Donna S; Karni, Rotem; Kerem, Batsheva

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by replication stress. One mechanism by which oncogene expression induces replication stress is to drive cell proliferation with insufficient nucleotide levels. Cancer development is driven by alterations in both genetic and environmental factors. Here, we investigated whether replication stress can be modulated by both genetic and non-genetic factors and whether the extent of replication stress affects the probability of neoplastic transformation. To do so, we studied the effect of folate, a micronutrient that is essential for nucleotide biosynthesis, on oncogene-induced tumorigenicity. We show that folate deficiency by itself leads to replication stress in a concentration-dependent manner. Folate deficiency significantly enhances oncogene-induced replication stress, leading to increased DNA damage and tumorigenicity in vitro. Importantly, oncogene-expressing cells, when grown under folate deficiency, exhibit a significantly increased frequency of tumor development in mice. These findings suggest that replication stress is a quantitative trait affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors and that the extent of replication stress plays an important role in cancer development. PMID:26197802

  6. Oncogenic KRAS Regulates Tumor Cell Signaling via Stromal Reciprocation

    PubMed Central

    Tape, Christopher J.; Ling, Stephanie; Dimitriadi, Maria; McMahon, Kelly M.; Worboys, Jonathan D.; Leong, Hui Sun; Norrie, Ida C.; Miller, Crispin J.; Poulogiannis, George; Lauffenburger, Douglas A.; Jørgensen, Claus

    2016-01-01

    Summary Oncogenic mutations regulate signaling within both tumor cells and adjacent stromal cells. Here, we show that oncogenic KRAS (KRASG12D) also regulates tumor cell signaling via stromal cells. By combining cell-specific proteome labeling with multivariate phosphoproteomics, we analyzed heterocellular KRASG12D signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) cells. Tumor cell KRASG12D engages heterotypic fibroblasts, which subsequently instigate reciprocal signaling in the tumor cells. Reciprocal signaling employs additional kinases and doubles the number of regulated signaling nodes from cell-autonomous KRASG12D. Consequently, reciprocal KRASG12D produces a tumor cell phosphoproteome and total proteome that is distinct from cell-autonomous KRASG12D alone. Reciprocal signaling regulates tumor cell proliferation and apoptosis and increases mitochondrial capacity via an IGF1R/AXL-AKT axis. These results demonstrate that oncogene signaling should be viewed as a heterocellular process and that our existing cell-autonomous perspective underrepresents the extent of oncogene signaling in cancer. Video Abstract PMID:27087446

  7. IL-33 Facilitates Oncogene Induced Cholangiocarcinoma in Mice by an IL-6 Sensitive Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisaku; Rizvi, Sumera; Razumilava, Nataliya; Bronk, Steven F.; Davila, Jaime I.; Champion, Mia D.; Borad, Mitesh J.; Bezerra, Jorge A.; Chen, Xin; Gores, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a lethal hepatobiliary neoplasm originating from the biliary apparatus. In humans, CCA risk factors include hepatobiliary inflammation and fibrosis. The recently identified IL-1 family member, IL-33, has been shown to be a biliary mitogen which also promotes liver inflammation and fibrosis. Our aim was to generate a mouse model of CCA mimicking the human disease. Ectopic oncogene expression in the biliary tract was accomplished by the Sleeping Beauty transposon transfection system with transduction of constitutively active AKT (myr-AKT) and Yes-associated protein (YAP). Intrabiliary instillation of the transposon-transposase complex was coupled with lobar bile duct ligation in CL57BL/6 mice, followed by administration of IL-33 for three consecutive days. Tumors developed in 72% of the male mice receiving both oncogenes plus IL-33 by 10 weeks, but in only 20% of the male mice transduced with the oncogenes alone. Tumors expressed SOX9 and pancytokeratin (PanCK) [features of cholangiocarcinoma] but were negative for HepPar1 [a marker of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC)]. RNA profiling revealed substantive overlap with human CCA specimens. Not only did IL-33 induce IL-6 expression by human cholangiocytes, but IL-33 likely facilitated tumor development in vivo by an IL-6 sensitive process, as tumor development was significantly attenuated in Il-6 -/- male animals. Furthermore, tumor formation occurred at a similar rate when IL-6 was substituted for IL-33 in this model. In conclusion, the transposase-mediated transduction of constitutively active AKT and YAP in the biliary epithelium coupled with lobar obstruction and IL-33 administration results in the development of CCA with morphological and biochemical features of the human disease. This model highlights the role of inflammatory cytokines in CCA oncogenesis. PMID:25580681

  8. Syndecan-1 alterations during the tumorigenic progression of human colonic Caco-2 cells induced by human Ha-ras or polyoma middle T oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Levy, P.; Munier, A.; Baron-Delage, S.; Di Gioia, Y.; Gespach, C.; Capeau, J.; Cherqui, G.

    1996-01-01

    The products of ras and src proto-oncogenes are frequently activated in a constitutive state in human colorectal cancer. In this study we attempted to establish whether the tumorigenic progression induced by oncogenic activation of p21ras and pp60c-src in human colonic Caco-2 cells is associated with specific alterations of syndecan-1, a membrane-anchored proteoglycan playing a role in cell-matrix interaction and neoplastic growth control. To this end, we used Caco-2 cells made highly tumorigenic by transfection with an activated (Val 12) human Ha-ras gene or with the polyoma middle T (Py-MT) oncogene, a constitutive activator of pp60c-src tyrosine kinase activity. Compared with control vector-transfected Caco-2 cells, both oncogene-transfected cell lines (1) contained smaller amounts of membrane-anchored PGs; (2) exhibited decreased syndecan-1 expression at the protein but not the mRNA level; (3) synthesized 35S-labelled syndecan-1 with decreased specific activity; (4) produced a syndecan-1 ectodomain with a lower molecular mass and reduced GAG chain size and sulphation; and (5) expressed heparanase degradative activity. These results show that the dramatic activation of the tumorigenic potential induced by oncogenic p21ras or Py-MT/pp60c-src in Caco-2 cells is associated with marked alterations of syndecan-1 expression at the translational and post-translational levels. Images Figure 2 PMID:8695359

  9. Rb-dependent cellular senescence, multinucleation and susceptibility to oncogenic transformation through PKC scaffolding by SSeCKS/AKAP12

    PubMed Central

    Akakura, Shin; Nochajski, Peter; Gao, Lingqiu; Sotomayor, Paul; Matsui, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    A subset of AKAPs (A Kinase Anchoring Proteins) regulate signaling and cytoskeletal pathways through the spaciotemporal scaffolding of multiple protein kinases (PK), such as PKC and PKA, and associations with the plasma membrane and the actin-based cytoskeleton. SSeCKS/Gravin/Akap12 expression is severely downregulated in many advanced cancers and exhibits tumor- and metastasis-suppressing activity. akap12-null (KO) mice develop prostatic hyperplasia with focal dysplasia, but the precise mechanism how Akap12 prevents oncogenic progression remains unclear. Here, we show that KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibit premature senescence marked by polyploidy and multinucleation, and by increased susceptibility to oncogenic transformation. Although p53 and Rb pathways are activated in the absence of Akap12, senescence is dependent on Rb. Senescence is driven by the activation of PKCα, which induces p16Ink4a/Rb through a MEK-dependent downregulation of Id1, and PKCδ, which downregulates Lats1/Warts, a mitotic exit network kinase required for cytokinesis. Our data strongly suggest that Akap12 controls Rb-mediated cell aging and oncogenic progression by directly scaffolding and attenuating PKCα/δ. PMID:21099353

  10. The nucleotide sequence of the human int-1 mammary oncogene; evolutionary conservation of coding and non-coding sequences.

    PubMed Central

    van Ooyen, A; Kwee, V; Nusse, R

    1985-01-01

    The mouse mammary tumor virus can induce mammary tumors in mice by proviral activation of an evolutionarily conserved cellular oncogene called int-1. Here we present the nucleotide sequence of the human homologue of int-1, and compare it with the mouse gene. Like the mouse gene, the human homologue contains a reading frame of 370 amino acids, with only four substitutions. The amino acid changes are all in the hydrophobic leader domain of the int-1 encoded protein, and do not significantly alter its hydropathic index. The conservation between the mouse and the human int-1 genes is not restricted to exons; extensive parts of the introns are also homologous. Thus, int-1 ranks among the most conserved genes known, a property shared with other oncogenes. PMID:2998762

  11. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes. Part 2, Progress report, July 1989--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  12. The PDRG1 is an oncogene in lung cancer cells, promoting radioresistance via the ATM-P53 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zheng; Chen, Shaomu; Mao, Guocai; Xia, Haifeng; Huang, Haitao; Ma, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    PDRG1, is short for P53 and DNA damage-regulated gene, which have been found over 10 years. Although severe studies have described the roles of PDRG1 separately in many kinds of tumors, how to act as an oncogene are unclear. To better verify the function of PDRG1 in lung cancer, both loss-function and gain-function of PDRG1 studies based on two human lung cancer lines were performed. Following the transfection of PDRG1, both A549 and 95-D cells showed significant changes in cell viability, the expression of some protein and apoptosis, which were all implied the PDRG1 is an oncogene. Another interesting finding is PDRG1 could promote radioresistance involved the ATM-p53 signaling pathway in lung cancer. If we combine radiotherapy with gene-targeted therapy together effectively, predominant effect may be acquired, which is a huge milestone in clinical cure about lung cancer.

  13. ELF4/MEF activates MDM2 expression and blocks oncogene-induced p16 activation to promote transformation.

    PubMed

    Sashida, Goro; Liu, Yan; Elf, Shannon; Miyata, Yasuhiko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Izumi, Miki; Menendez, Silvia; Nimer, Stephen D

    2009-07-01

    Several ETS transcription factors, including ELF4/MEF, can function as oncogenes in murine cancer models and are overexpressed in human cancer. We found that Elf4/Mef activates Mdm2 expression; thus, lack of or knockdown of Elf4/Mef reduces Mdm2 levels in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mef's), leading to enhanced p53 protein accumulation and p53-dependent senescence. Even though p53 is absent in Elf4(-/-) p53(-/-) mef's, neither oncogenic H-Ras(V12) nor c-myc can induce transformation of these cells. This appears to relate to the INK4a/ARF locus; both p19(ARF) and p16 are increased in Elf4(-/-) p53(-/-) mef's, and expression of Bmi-1 or knockdown of p16 in this context restores H-Ras(V12)-induced transformation. Thus, ELF4/MEF promotes tumorigenesis by inhibiting both the p53 and p16/Rb pathways.

  14. KSHV ORF K9 (vIRF) is an oncogene which inhibits the interferon signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, S J; Boshoff, C; Jayachandra, S; Weiss, R A; Chang, Y; Moore, P S

    1997-10-16

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and a rare B cell lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma. The KSHV gene ORF K9 encodes vIRF which is a protein with low but significant homology to members of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) family responsible for regulating intracellular interferon signal transduction (Moore PS, Boshoff C, Weiss RA and Chang Y. (1996). Science, 274, 1739-1744). vIRF inhibits IFN-beta signal transduction as measured using an IFN-responsive ISG54 reporter construct co-transfected with ORF K9 into HeLa and 293 cells. vIRF also suppresses genes under IFN regulatory control as shown by inhibition of the IFN-beta inducibility of p21WAF1/CIP1, however, no direct DNA-binding or protein-protein interactions characteristic for IRF repressor proteins were identified. Stable transfectant NIH3T3 clones expressing vIRF grew in soft agar and at low serum concentrations, lost contact inhibition and formed tumors after injection into nude mice indicating that vIRF has the properties of a viral oncogene. Since vIRF is primarily expressed in KSHV-infected B cells, not KS spindle cells, this study suggests that vIRF is a transforming oncogene active in B cell neoplasias that may provide a unique immune escape mechanism for infected cells. This data is consistent with tumor suppressor pathways serving a dual function as host cell antiviral pathways.

  15. Computational Design of Selective Peptides to Discriminate Between Similar PDZ Domains in an Oncogenic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Jewell, Heather; Fitzpatrick, Jeremy; Zhang, Jian; Mierke, Dale F.; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2016-01-01

    Reagents that target protein-protein interactions to rewire signaling are of great relevance in biological research. Computational protein design may offer a means of creating such reagents on demand, but methods for encoding targeting selectivity are sorely needed. This is especially challenging when targeting interactions with ubiquitous recognition modules—e.g., PDZ domains, which bind C-terminal sequences of partner proteins. Here we consider the problem of designing selective PDZ inhibitor peptides in the context of an oncogenic signaling pathway, in which two PDZ domains (NHERF-2 PDZ2—N2P2 and MAGI-3 PDZ6—M3P6) compete for a receptor C-terminus to differentially modulate oncogenic activities. Because N2P2 increases tumorigenicity and M3P6 decreases it, we sought to design peptides that inhibit N2P2 without affecting M3P6. We developed a structure-based computational design framework that models peptide flexibility in binding, yet is efficient enough to rapidly analyze tradeoffs between affinity and selectivity. Designed peptides showed low-micromolar inhibition constants for N2P2 and no detectable M3P6 binding. Peptides designed for reverse discrimination bound M3P6 tighter than N2P2, further testing our technology. Experimental and computational analysis of selectivity determinants revealed significant indirect energetic coupling in the binding site. Successful discrimination between N2P2 and M3P6, despite their overlapping binding preferences, is highly encouraging for computational approaches to selective PDZ targeting, especially because design relied on a homology model of M3P6. Still, we demonstrate specific deficiencies of structural modeling that must be addressed to enable truly robust design. The presented framework is general and can be applied in many scenarios to engineer selective targeting. PMID:25451599

  16. Computational design of selective peptides to discriminate between similar PDZ domains in an oncogenic pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Jewell, Heather; Fitzpatrick, Jeremy; Zhang, Jian; Mierke, Dale F; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2015-01-30

    Reagents that target protein-protein interactions to rewire signaling are of great relevance in biological research. Computational protein design may offer a means of creating such reagents on demand, but methods for encoding targeting selectivity are sorely needed. This is especially challenging when targeting interactions with ubiquitous recognition modules--for example, PDZ domains, which bind C-terminal sequences of partner proteins. Here we consider the problem of designing selective PDZ inhibitor peptides in the context of an oncogenic signaling pathway, in which two PDZ domains (NHERF-2 PDZ2-N2P2 and MAGI-3 PDZ6-M3P6) compete for a receptor C-terminus to differentially modulate oncogenic activities. Because N2P2 has been shown to increase tumorigenicity and M3P6 to decreases it, we sought to design peptides that inhibit N2P2 without affecting M3P6. We developed a structure-based computational design framework that models peptide flexibility in binding yet is efficient enough to rapidly analyze tradeoffs between affinity and selectivity. Designed peptides showed low-micromolar inhibition constants for N2P2 and no detectable M3P6 binding. Peptides designed for reverse discrimination bound M3P6 tighter than N2P2, further testing our technology. Experimental and computational analysis of selectivity determinants revealed significant indirect energetic coupling in the binding site. Successful discrimination between N2P2 and M3P6, despite their overlapping binding preferences, is highly encouraging for computational approaches to selective PDZ targeting, especially because design relied on a homology model of M3P6. Still, we demonstrate specific deficiencies of structural modeling that must be addressed to enable truly robust design. The presented framework is general and can be applied in many scenarios to engineer selective targeting.

  17. Focal amplification and oncogene dependency of GAB2 in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bocanegra, M; Bergamaschi, A; Kim, Y H; Miller, M A; Rajput, A B; Kao, J; Langerød, A; Han, W; Noh, D-Y; Jeffrey, S S; Huntsman, D G; Børresen-Dale, A-L; Pollack, J R

    2010-02-04

    DNA amplifications in breast cancer are frequent on chromosome 11q, in which multiple driver oncogenes likely reside in addition to cyclin D1 (CCND1). One such candidate, the scaffolding adapter protein, GRB2-associated binding protein 2 (GAB2), functions in ErbB signaling and was recently shown to enhance mammary epithelial cell proliferation, and metastasis of ERBB2 (HER2/neu)-driven murine breast cancer. However, the amplification status and function of GAB2 in the context of amplification remain undefined. In this study, by genomic profiling of 172 breast tumors, and fluorescence in situ hybridization validation in an independent set of 210 scorable cases, we observed focal amplification spanning GAB2 (11q14.1) independent of CCND1 (11q13.2) amplification, consistent with a driver role. Further, small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of GAB2 in breast cancer lines (SUM52, SUM44PE and MDA468) with GAB2 amplification revealed a dependency on GAB2 for cell proliferation, cell-cycle progression, survival and invasion, likely mediated through altered phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. GAB2 knockdown also reduced proliferation and survival in a cell line (BT474) with ERBB2 amplification, consistent with the possibility that GAB2 can function downstream of ERBB2. Our studies implicate focal amplification of GAB2 in breast carcinogenesis, and underscore an oncogenic role of scaffolding adapter proteins, and a potential new point of therapeutic intervention.

  18. HMG-I/Y, a New c-Myc Target Gene and Potential Oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Lisa J.; Mukherjee, Mita; Dolde, Christine E.; Xu, Yi; Maher, Joseph F.; Bunton, Tracie E.; Williams, John B.; Resar, Linda M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The HMG-I/Y gene encodes the HMG-I and HMG-Y proteins, which function as architectural chromatin binding proteins important in the transcriptional regulation of several genes. Although increased expression of the HMG-I/Y proteins is associated with cellular proliferation, neoplastic transformation, and several human cancers, the role of these proteins in the pathogenesis of malignancy remains unclear. To better understand the role of these proteins in cell growth and transformation, we have been studying the regulation and function of HMG-I/Y. The HMG-I/Y promoter was cloned, sequenced, and subjected to mutagenesis analysis. A c-Myc–Max consensus DNA binding site was identified as an element important in the serum stimulation of HMG-I/Y. The oncoprotein c-Myc and its protein partner Max bind to this site in vitro and activate transcription in transfection experiments. HMG-I/Y expression is stimulated by c-Myc in a Myc-estradiol receptor cell line in the presence of the protein synthesis inhibitor cycloheximide, indicating that HMG-I/Y is a direct c-Myc target gene. HMG-I/Y induction is decreased in Myc-deficient fibroblasts. HMG-I/Y protein expression is also increased in Burkitt's lymphoma cell lines, which are known to have increased c-Myc protein. Like Myc, increased expression of HMG-I protein leads to the neoplastic transformation of both Rat 1a fibroblasts and CB33 cells. In addition, Rat 1a cells overexpressing HMG-I protein form tumors in nude mice. Decreasing HMG-I/Y proteins using an antisense construct abrogates transformation in Burkitt's lymphoma cells. These findings indicate that HMG-I/Y is a c-Myc target gene involved in neoplastic transformation and a member of a new class of potential oncogenes. PMID:10891489

  19. Ubiquitin hydrolase Dub3 promotes oncogenic transformation by stabilizing Cdc25A.

    PubMed

    Pereg, Yaron; Liu, Bob Y; O'Rourke, Karen M; Sagolla, Meredith; Dey, Anwesha; Komuves, Laszlo; French, Dorothy M; Dixit, Vishva M

    2010-04-01

    The dual specificity (Tyr/Thr) phosphatase Cdc25A activates cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks) to promote cell-cycle progression and has significant oncogenic potential. Cdc25A protein levels are regulated tightly in normal tissues, but many human cancers overexpress Cdc25A. The underlying mechanism for overexpression has been enigmatic. Here we show that Cdc25A is stabilized by the ubiquitin hydrolase Dub3. Upon binding Cdc25A, Dub3 removes the polyubiquitin modifications that mark Cdc25A for proteasomal degradation. Dub3 knockdown in cells increased Cdc25A ubiquitylation and degradation, resulting in reduced Cdk/Cyclin activity and arrest at G1/S and G2/M phases of the cell cycle. In contrast, acute Dub3 overexpression produced a signature response to oncogene induction: cells accumulated in S and G2 because of replication stress, and activated a DNA damage response. Dub3 also transformed NIH-3T3 cells and cooperated with activated H-Ras to promote growth in soft agar. Importantly, we show that Dub3 overexpression is responsible for an abnormally high level of Cdc25A in a subset of human breast cancers. Moreover, Dub3 knockdown significantly retarded the growth of breast tumour xenografts in nude mice. As a major regulator of Cdc25A, Dub3 is an example of a transforming ubiquitin hydrolase that subverts a key component of the cell cycle machinery.

  20. The APC/C E3 Ligase Complex Activator FZR1 Restricts BRAF Oncogenic Function.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lixin; Chen, Ming; Cao, Juxiang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Yin, Qing; Zhang, Jinfang; Song, Su-Jung; Lu, Ying; Liu, Jing; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Katon, Jesse M; Berry, Kelsey; Fung, Jacqueline; Ng, Christopher; Liu, Pengda; Song, Min Sup; Xue, Lian; Bronson, Roderick T; Kirschner, Marc W; Cui, Rutao; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Wei, Wenyi

    2017-02-07

    BRAF drives tumorigenesis by coordinating the activation of RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK oncogenic signaling cascade. However, upstream pathway(s) governing BRAF kinase activity and protein stability remains undefined. Here, we report that in primary cells with active APCFZR1, APCFZR1 earmarks BRAF for ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis, while in cancer cells with APC-free FZR1, FZR1 suppresses BRAF through disrupting BRAF dimerization. Moreover, we identified FZR1 as a direct target of ERK and CYCLIN D1/CDK4 kinases. Phosphorylation of FZR1 inhibits APCFZR1, leading to elevation of a cohort of oncogenic APCFZR1 substrates to facilitate melanomagenesis. Importantly, CDK4 and/or BRAF/MEK inhibitors restore APCFZR1 E3 ligase activity, which might be critical for their clinical effects. Furthermore, FZR1 depletion co-operates with AKT hyper-activation to transform primary melanocytes, while genetic ablation of Fzr1 synergizes with Pten loss, leading to aberrant co-activation of BRAF/ERK and AKT signaling in mice. Our findings therefore reveal a reciprocal suppression mechanism between FZR1 and BRAF in controlling tumorigenesis.

  1. Oncogenic herpesvirus KSHV Hijacks BMP-Smad1-Id signaling to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Deguang; Hu, Hao; Li, Shasha; Dong, Jiazhen; Wang, Xing; Wang, Yuhan; He, Li; He, Zhiheng; Gao, Yuan; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Lan, Ke

    2014-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. Whether KS is a true neoplasm or hyperplasia has been a subject of intensive debate until recently when KSHV is unequivocally shown to efficiently infect, immortalize and transform rat primary mesenchymal precursor cells (MM). Moreover, KSHV-transformed MM cells (KMM) efficiently induce tumors with hallmark features of KS when inoculated into nude mice. Here, we showed Smad1 as a novel binding protein of KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA interacted with and sustained BMP-activated p-Smad1 in the nucleus and enhanced its loading on the Id promoters. As a result, Ids were significantly up-regulated in KMM cells and abundantly expressed in human KS lesions. Strikingly, genetic and chemical inhibition of the BMP-Smad1-Id pathway blocked the oncogenic phenotype of KSHV-transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which a tumor virus hijacks and converts a developmental pathway into an indispensable oncogenic pathway for tumorigenesis. Importantly, our results demonstrate the efficacy of targeting the BMP-Smad1-Id pathway for inhibiting the growth of KSHV-induced tumors, and therefore identify the BMP pathway as a promising therapeutic target for KS.

  2. Retargeted Foamy Virus Vectors Integrate Less Frequently Near Proto-oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Hocum, Jonah D.; Linde, Ian; Rae, Dustin T.; Collins, Casey P.; Matern, Lindsay K.; Trobridge, Grant D.

    2016-01-01

    Retroviral gene therapy offers immense potential to treat many genetic diseases and has already shown efficacy in clinical trials. However, retroviral vector mediated genotoxicity remains a major challenge and clinically relevant approaches to reduce integration near genes and proto-oncogenes are needed. Foamy retroviral vectors have several advantages over gammaretroviral and lentiviral vectors including a potentially safer integration profile and a lower propensity to activate nearby genes. Here we successfully retargeted foamy retroviral vectors away from genes and into satellite regions enriched for trimethylated histone H3 at lysine 9 by modifying the foamy virus Gag and Pol proteins. Retargeted foamy retroviral vectors integrated near genes and proto-oncogenes less often (p < 0.001) than controls. Importantly, retargeted foamy retroviral vectors can be produced at high, clinically relevant titers (>107 transducing units/ml), and unlike other reported retargeting approaches engineered target cells are not needed to achieve retargeting. As proof of principle for use in the clinic we show efficient transduction and retargeting in human cord blood CD34+ cells. The modified Gag and Pol helper constructs we describe will allow any investigator to simply use these helper plasmids during vector production to retarget therapeutic foamy retroviral vectors. PMID:27812034

  3. Epigenetics provides a new generation of oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Esteller, M

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is nowadays recognised as a genetic and epigenetic disease. Much effort has been devoted in the last 30 years to the elucidation of the ‘classical' oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes involved in malignant cell transformation. However, since the acceptance that major disruption of DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin compartments are a common hallmark of human cancer, epigenetics has come to the fore in cancer research. One piece is still missing from the story: are the epigenetic genes themselves driving forces on the road to tumorigenesis? We are in the early stages of finding the answer, and the data are beginning to appear: knockout mice defective in DNA methyltransferases, methyl-CpG-binding proteins and histone methyltransferases strongly affect the risk of cancer onset; somatic mutations, homozygous deletions and methylation-associated silencing of histone acetyltransferases, histone methyltransferases and chromatin remodelling factors are being found in human tumours; and the first cancer-prone families arising from germline mutations in epigenetic genes, such as hSNF5/INI1, have been described. Even more importantly, all these ‘new' oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes provide novel molecular targets for designed therapies, and the first DNA-demethylating agents and inhibitors of histone deacetylases are reaching the bedside of patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:16404435

  4. Drosophila PRL-1 is a growth inhibitor that counteracts the function of the Src oncogene.

    PubMed

    Pagarigan, Krystle T; Bunn, Bryce W; Goodchild, Jake; Rahe, Travis K; Weis, Julie F; Saucedo, Leslie J

    2013-01-01

    Phosphatase of Regenerating Liver (PRL) family members have emerged as molecular markers that significantly correlate to the ability of many cancers to metastasize. However, contradictory cellular responses to PRL expression have been reported, including the inhibition of cell cycle progression. An obvious culprit for the discrepancy is the use of dozens of different cell lines, including many isolated from tumors or cultured cells selected for immortalization which may have missing or mutated modulators of PRL function. We created transgenic Drosophila to study the effects of PRL overexpression in a genetically controlled, organismal model. Our data support the paradigm that the normal cellular response to high levels of PRL is growth suppression and furthermore, that PRL can counter oncogenic activity of Src. The ability of PRL to inhibit growth under normal conditions is dependent on a CAAX motif that is required to localize PRL to the apical edge of the lateral membrane. However, PRL lacking the CAAX motif can still associate indiscriminately with the plasma membrane and retains its ability to inhibit Src function. We propose that PRL binds to other membrane-localized proteins that are effectors of Src or to Src itself. This first examination of PRL in a model organism demonstrates that PRL performs as a tumor suppressor and underscores the necessity of identifying the conditions that enable it to transform into an oncogene in cancer.

  5. Oncogene MYCN regulates localization of NKT cells to the site of disease in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Song, Liping; Ara, Tasnim; Wu, Hong-Wei; Woo, Chan-Wook; Reynolds, C Patrick; Seeger, Robert C; DeClerck, Yves A; Thiele, Carol J; Sposto, Richard; Metelitsa, Leonid S

    2007-09-01

    Valpha24-invariant natural killer T (NKT) cells are potentially important for antitumor immunity. We and others have previously demonstrated positive associations between NKT cell presence in primary tumors and long-term survival in distinct human cancers. However, the mechanism by which aggressive tumors avoid infiltration with NKT and other T cells remains poorly understood. Here, we report that the v-myc myelocytomatosis viral related oncogene, neuroblastoma derived (MYCN), the hallmark of aggressive neuroblastoma, repressed expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CC chemokine ligand 2 (MCP-1/CCL2), a chemokine required for NKT cell chemoattraction. MYCN knockdown in MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines restored CCL2 production and NKT cell chemoattraction. Unlike other oncogenes, MYCN repressed chemokine expression in a STAT3-independent manner, requiring an E-box element in the CCL2 promoter to mediate transcriptional repression. MYCN overexpression in neuroblastoma xenografts in NOD/SCID mice severely inhibited their ability to attract human NKT cells, T cells, and monocytes. Patients with MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma metastatic to bone marrow had 4-fold fewer NKT cells in their bone marrow than did their nonamplified counterparts, indicating that the MYCN-mediated immune escape mechanism, which we believe to be novel, is operative in metastatic cancer and should be considered in tumor immunobiology and for the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  6. Activation of diverse signaling pathways by oncogenic PIK3CA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyan; Renuse, Santosh; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A.; Zahari, Muhammad Saddiq; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Kim, Min-Sik; Nirujogi, Raja S.; Mohseni, Morassa; Kumar, Praveen; Raju, Rajesh; Zhong, Jun; Yang, Jian; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Jeong, Jun-Seop; Newman, Robert; Powers, Maureen A.; Somani, Babu Lal; Gabrielson, Edward; Sukumar, Saraswati; Stearns, Vered; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng; Vogelstein, Bert; Park, Ben Ho; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    The PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in human cancers. Here we carry out a SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis using isogenic knockin cell lines containing ‘driver’ oncogenic mutations of PIK3CA to dissect the signaling mechanisms responsible for oncogenic phenotypes induced by mutant PIK3CA. From 8,075 unique phosphopeptides identified, we observe that aberrant activation of PI3K pathway leads to increased phosphorylation of a surprisingly wide variety of kinases and downstream signaling networks. Here, by integrating phosphoproteomic data with human protein microarray-based AKT1 kinase assays, we discover and validate six novel AKT1 substrates, including cortactin. Through mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of cortactin by AKT1 is important for mutant PI3K enhanced cell migration and invasion. Our study describes a quantitative and global approach for identifying mutation-specific signaling events and for discovering novel signaling molecules as readouts of pathway activation or potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25247763

  7. Primary structure of the human fgr proto-oncogene product p55/sup c-fgr/

    SciTech Connect

    Katamine, S.; Notario, V.; Rao, C.D.; Miki, T.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Tronick, S.R.; Robbins, K.C.

    1988-01-01

    Normal human c-fgr cDNA clones were constructed by using normal peripheral blood mononuclear cell mRNA as a template. Nucleotide sequence analysis of two such clones revealed a 1,587-base-pair-long open reading frame which predicted the primary amino acid sequence of the c-fgr translational product. Homology of this protein with the v-fgr translational product stretched from codons 128 to 516, where 32 differences among 388 codons were observed. Sequence similarity with human c-src, c-yes, and fyn translations products began at amino acid position 76 of the predicted c-fgr protein and extended nearly to its C-terminus. In contrast, the stretch of 75 amino acids at the N-terminus demonstrated a greatly reduced degree of relatedness to these same proteins. To verify the deduced amino acid sequence, antibodies were prepared against peptides representing amino- and carboxy-terminal regions of the predicted c-fgr translational product. Both antibodies specifically recognized a 55-kilodalton protein expressed in COS-1 cells transfected with a c-fgr cDNA expression plasmid. Moreover, the same protein was immunoprecipitated from an Epstein-Barr virus-infected Burkitt's lymphoma cell line which expressed c-fgr mRNA but not in its uninfected fgr mRNA-negative counterpart. These findings identified the 55-kilodalton protein as the product of the human fgr proto-oncogene.

  8. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  9. Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Liu, Rui; Moore, Claire E.; Xie, Jianling; Lanucara, Francesco; Agarwala, Usha; Pyr dit Ruys, Sébastien; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an atypical calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, slowing down translation elongation. eEF2K contains an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal α-helical region and a linker containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. eEF2K is expressed at high levels in certain cancers, where it may act to help cell survival, e.g., during nutrient starvation. However, it is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and thus cell growth, suggesting that cancer cells may possess mechanisms to inhibit eEF2K under good growth conditions, to allow protein synthesis to proceed. We show here that the mTORC1 pathway and the oncogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway cooperate to restrict eEF2K activity. We identify multiple sites in eEF2K whose phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 and/or ERK, including new ones in the linker region. We demonstrate that certain sites are phosphorylated directly by mTOR or ERK. Our data reveal that glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling also regulates eEF2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that phosphorylation sites remote from the N-terminal calmodulin-binding motif regulate the phosphorylation of N-terminal sites that control CaM binding. Mutations in the former sites, which occur in cancer cells, cause the activation of eEF2K. eEF2K is thus regulated by a network of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25182533

  10. Small genomic insertions form enhancers that misregulate oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Brian J.; Hnisz, Denes; Weintraub, Abraham S.; Kwiatkowski, Nicholas; Li, Charles H.; Li, Zhaodong; Weichert-Leahey, Nina; Rahman, Sunniyat; Liu, Yu; Etchin, Julia; Li, Benshang; Shen, Shuhong; Lee, Tong Ihn; Zhang, Jinghui; Look, A. Thomas; Mansour, Marc R.; Young, Richard A.

    2017-01-01

    The non-coding regions of tumour cell genomes harbour a considerable fraction of total DNA sequence variation, but the functional contribution of these variants to tumorigenesis is ill-defined. Among these non-coding variants, somatic insertions are among the least well characterized due to challenges with interpreting short-read DNA sequences. Here, using a combination of Chip-seq to enrich enhancer DNA and a computational approach with multiple DNA alignment procedures, we identify enhancer-associated small insertion variants. Among the 102 tumour cell genomes we analyse, small insertions are frequently observed in enhancer DNA sequences near known oncogenes. Further study of one insertion, somatically acquired in primary leukaemia tumour genomes, reveals that it nucleates formation of an active enhancer that drives expression of the LMO2 oncogene. The approach described here to identify enhancer-associated small insertion variants provides a foundation for further study of these abnormalities across human cancers. PMID:28181482

  11. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. Progress is described in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; (3) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration. 59 refs., 4 tabs.

  12. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Lindor, N.M.; Honchel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have recently been demonstrated in kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B. Both of these autosomal dominant disorders are characterized by the development of neoplasia in cell lines of neural crest origin, such as medullary throid carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Individuals with MEN 2B have, in addition, ganglioneuromas of the lips, tongue and colon, a marfanoid habitus, and corneal nerve thickening. Approximately 90% of patients with MEN 2A have a germline mutation in exons 10 or 11, while 95% of patients with MEN 2B have a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 of exon 16. In this study, pheochromocytomas from 29 individuals who had no clinical evidence of MEN 2A or 2B (sporadic) were examined for the presence of either germline or somatic mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Of the 29 tumors examined, 3 (10%) were found to have a mutation in one of the three exons. One tumor had a G{yields}A transition in codon 609 (exon 10), another had a 6 bp deletion encompassing codons 632 & 633 (exon 11), and the final tumor had a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 (exon 16). These mutations were not found in the corresponding normal DNA from these individuals, indicating that the mutation were somatic in origin. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of mutations in other regions of the RET proto-oncogene, our data suggests that: (1) individuals presenting with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas are not likely to have undiagnosed MEN 2A or 2B; and (2) somatic mutations in the RET proto-oncogene contribute to the process of tumorigenesis in a small percentage of sporadic pheochromocytomas.

  13. Serum antibodies to some oncogenic viruses in the child.

    PubMed

    Arnaudova, V; Nastac, E; Predescu, E

    1978-01-01

    The presence of complement fixing antibodies to four viruses with oncogenic potential for animals was studied in children (including neonates and infants). Antibodies to herpes, adenovirus and avian "gs" sarcoma-leukosis antigens were detected, but there were no antibodies to SV-40. Positivity percentages varied with age and with the antigen used. Possible explanations of the appearance of these antibodies in the child are provided.

  14. Detecting and Targeting Oncogenic Myc in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    androgen response genes in prostate cancer cells by coupling chromatin immunoprecipitation and genomic microarray analysis. Oncogene 2007. 18. Guo QM...have found that a non-coding RNA, H19, is a transcriptional target of MYC, and the inhibition of H19 transcription in cancer cells suppresses certain...morpholino oligomer (PMO), in the Le- wis lung carcinoma model [156]. AVI-4126 also inhibited growth of a murine prostate cancer xenograft by inducing

  15. Genome-Wide Chromosomal Targets of Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    cancer. Cancer involves, at least in part, aberrant programs of gene expression often mediated by oncogenic transcription factors activating downstream...networks that underlie complex gene expression programs that are activated in cancer. Indeed, transcription factors have been proposed as targets of...some of the limitations of ChIP-chip analysis and can be applied to transcription factors important in breast cancer such as c-myc and ER ( estrogen

  16. Oncogenes induce the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lisanti, Michael P; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Sotgia, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic coupling, between mitochondria in cancer cells and catabolism in stromal fibroblasts, promotes tumor growth, recurrence, metastasis, and predicts anticancer drug resistance. Catabolic fibroblasts donate the necessary fuels (such as L-lactate, ketones, glutamine, other amino acids, and fatty acids) to anabolic cancer cells, to metabolize via their TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). This provides a simple mechanism by which metabolic energy and biomass are transferred from the host microenvironment to cancer cells. Recently, we showed that catabolic metabolism and “glycolytic reprogramming” in the tumor microenvironment are orchestrated by oncogene activation and inflammation, which originates in epithelial cancer cells. Oncogenes drive the onset of the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype in adjacent normal fibroblasts via paracrine oxidative stress. This oncogene-induced transition to malignancy is “mirrored” by a loss of caveolin-1 (Cav-1) and an increase in MCT4 in adjacent stromal fibroblasts, functionally reflecting catabolic metabolism in the tumor microenvironment. Virtually identical findings were obtained using BRCA1-deficient breast and ovarian cancer cells. Thus, oncogene activation (RAS, NFkB, TGF-β) and/or tumor suppressor loss (BRCA1) have similar functional effects on adjacent stromal fibroblasts, initiating “metabolic symbiosis” and the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype. New therapeutic strategies that metabolically uncouple oxidative cancer cells from their glycolytic stroma or modulate oxidative stress could be used to target this lethal subtype of cancers. Targeting “fibroblast addiction” in primary and metastatic tumor cells may expose a critical Achilles’ heel, leading to disease regression in both sporadic and familial cancers. PMID:23860382

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mediates a Ski oncogene-induced shift from glycolysis to oxidative energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fang; Lemieux, Hélène; Hoppel, Charles L; Hanson, Richard W; Hakimi, Parvin; Croniger, Colleen M; Puchowicz, Michelle; Anderson, Vernon E; Fujioka, Hisashi; Stavnezer, Ed

    2011-11-18

    Overexpression of the Ski oncogene induces oncogenic transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). However, unlike most other oncogene-transformed cells, Ski-transformed CEFs (Ski-CEFs) do not display the classical Warburg effect. On the contrary, Ski transformation reduced lactate production and glucose utilization in CEFs. Compared with CEFs, Ski-CEFs exhibited enhanced TCA cycle activity, fatty acid catabolism through β-oxidation, glutamate oxidation, oxygen consumption, as well as increased numbers and mass of mitochondria. Interestingly, expression of PPARγ, a key transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, was dramatically elevated at both the mRNA and protein levels in Ski-CEFs. Accordingly, PPARγ target genes that are involved in lipid uptake, transport, and oxidation were also markedly up-regulated by Ski. Knocking down PPARγ in Ski-CEFs by RNA interference reversed the elevated expression of these PPARγ target genes, as well as the shift to oxidative metabolism and the increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, we found that Ski co-immunoprecipitates with PPARγ and co-activates PPARγ-driven transcription.

  18. Activated neu oncogene sequences in primary tumors of the peripheral nervous system induced in rats by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea

    SciTech Connect

    Perantoni, A.O.; Rice, J.M.; Reed, C.D.; Watatani, M.; Wenk, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    Neurogenic tumors were selectively induced in high incidence in F344 rats by a single transplacental exposure to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors prepared DNA for transfection of NIH 3T3 cells from primary glial tumors of the brain and form schwannomas of the cranial and spinal nerves that developed in the transplacentally exposed offspring between 20 and 40 weeks after birth. DNA preparations from 6 of 13 schwannomas, but not from normal liver, kidney, or intestine of tumor-bearing rats, transformed NIH 3T3 cells. NIH 3T3 clones transformed by schwannoma DNA contained rat repetitive DNA sequences, and all isolates contained rat neu oncogene sequences. A point mutation in the transmembrane region of the putative protein product of neu was identified in all six transformants and in the primary tumors from which they were derived as well as in 5 of 6 schwannomas tested that did not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Of 59 gliomas, only one yielded transforming DNA, and an activated N-ras oncogen was identified. The normal cellular neu sequence for the transmembrane region, but not the mutated sequence, was identified in DNA from all 11 gliomas surveyed by oligonucleotide hybridization. Activation of the neu oncogene, originally identified in cultured cell lines derived from EtNU-induced neurogenic tumors appears specifically associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system in the F344 inbred strain.

  19. Oncogenic transformation of diverse gastrointestinal tissues in primary organoid culture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingnan; Nadauld, Lincoln; Ootani, Akifumi; Corney, David C.; Pai, Reetesh K.; Gevaert, Olivier; Cantrell, Michael A.; Rack, Paul G.; Neal, James T.; Chan, Carol W-M.; Yeung, Trevor; Gong, Xue; Yuan, Jenny; Wilhelmy, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Attardi, Laura D.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Hung, Kenneth E.; Chen, Chang-Zheng; Ji, Hanlee P.; Kuo, Calvin J.

    2014-01-01

    The application of primary organoid cultures containing epithelial and mesenchymal elements to cancer modeling holds promise for combining the accurate multilineage differentiation and physiology of in vivo systems with the facile in vitro manipulation of transformed cell lines. Here, a single air-liquid interface culture method was used without modification to engineer oncogenic mutations into primary epithelial/mesenchymal organoids from mouse colon, stomach and pancreas. Pancreatic and gastric organoids exhibited dysplasia upon KrasG12D expression and/or p53 loss, and readily generated adenocarcinoma upon in vivo transplantation. In contrast, primary colon organoids required combinatorial Apc, p53, KrasG12D and Smad4 mutations for progressive transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma-like histology in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, recapitulating multi-hit models of colorectal cancer (CRC), and versus more promiscuous transformation of small intestinal organoids. Colon organoid culture functionally validated the microRNA miR-483 as a dominant driver oncogene at the Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) 11p15.5 CRC amplicon, inducing dysplasia in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. These studies demonstrate the general utility of a highly tractable primary organoid system for cancer modeling and driver oncogene validation in diverse gastrointestinal tissues. PMID:24859528

  20. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells toward the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected cells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. Progress is described. 121 refs.

  1. PRG3 induces Ras-dependent oncogenic cooperation in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yakubov, Eduard; Chen, Daishi; Broggini, Thomas; Sehm, Tina; Majernik, Gökce Hatipoglu; Hock, Stefan W.; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y.; Savaskan, Nicolai E.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are one of the most devastating cancers in humans. One characteristic hallmark of malignant gliomas is their cellular heterogeneity with frequent genetic lesions and disturbed gene expression levels conferring selective growth advantage. Here, we report on the neuronal-associated growth promoting gene PRG3 executing oncogenic cooperation in gliomas. We have identified perturbed PRG3 levels in human malignant brain tumors displaying either elevated or down-regulated PRG3 levels compared to non-transformed specimens. Further, imbalanced PRG3 levels in gliomas foster Ras-driven oncogenic amplification with increased proliferation and cell migration although angiogenesis was unaffected. Hence, PRG3 interacts with RasGEF1 (RasGRF1/CDC25), undergoes Ras-induced challenges, whereas deletion of the C-terminal domain of PRG3 (PRG3ΔCT) inhibits Ras. Moreover PRG3 silencing makes gliomas resistant to Ras inhibition. In vivo disequilibrated PRG3 gliomas show aggravated proliferation, invasion, and deteriorate clinical outcome. Thus, our data show that the interference with PRG3 homeostasis amplifies oncogenic properties and foster the malignancy potential in gliomas. PMID:27058420

  2. CRAF R391W is a melanoma driver oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Mohammad; Titz, Bjoern; Tsoi, Jennifer; Avramis, Earl; Le, Allison; Ng, Charles; Lomova, Anastasia; Lassen, Amanda; Friedman, Michael; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Ribas, Antoni; Graeber, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of melanomas have known driver oncogenic mutations in BRAF, NRAS, GNA11 or GNAQ, while the mutations providing constitutive oncogenic signaling in the remaining melanomas are not known. We established a melanoma cell line from a tumor with none of the common driver mutations. This cell line demonstrated a signaling profile similar to BRAF-mutants, but lacked sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. RNA-seq mutation data implicated CRAF R391W as the alternative driver mutation of this melanoma. CRAF R391W was homozygous and over expressed. These melanoma cells were highly sensitive to CRAF, but not BRAF knockdown. In reconstitution experiments, CRAF R391W, but not CRAF WT, transformed NIH3T3 cells in soft-agar colony formation assays, increased kinase activity in vitro, induced MAP kinase signaling and conferred vemurafenib resistance. MAP kinase inducing activity was dependent on CRAF dimerization. Thus, CRAF is a bona fide alternative oncogene for BRAF/NRAS/GNAQ/GNA11 wild type melanomas. PMID:27273450

  3. High incidence of lung, bone, and lymphoid tumors in transgenic mice overexpressing mutant alleles of the p53 oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Lavigueur, A; Maltby, V; Mock, D; Rossant, J; Pawson, T; Bernstein, A

    1989-01-01

    We have investigated the role of the p53 gene in oncogenesis in vivo by generating transgenic mice carrying murine p53 genomic fragments isolated from a mouse Friend erythroleukemia cell line or BALB/c mouse liver DNA. Elevated levels of p53 mRNA were detected in several tissues of two transgenic lines tested. Increased levels of p53 protein were also detected in most of the tissues analyzed by Western blotting (immunoblotting). Because both transgenes encoded p53 proteins that were antigenically distinct from wild-type p53, it was possible to demonstrate that overexpression of the p53 protein was mostly, if not entirely, due to the expression of the transgenes. Neoplasms developed in 20% of the transgenic mice, with a high incidence of lung adenocarcinomas, osteosarcomas, and lymphomas. Tissues such as ovaries that expressed the transgene at high levels were not at higher risk of malignant transformation than tissues expressing p53 protein at much lower levels. The long latent period and low penetrance suggest that overexpression of p53 alone is not sufficient to induce malignancies and that additional events are required. These observations provide direct evidence that mutant alleles of the p53 oncogene have oncogenic potential in vivo and that different cell types show intrinsic differences in susceptibility to malignant transformation by p53. Since recent data suggest that p53 may be a recessive oncogene, it is possible that the elevated tumor incidence results from functional inactivation of endogenous p53 by overexpression of the mutant transgene. The high incidence of lung and bone tumors suggests that p53 transgenic mice may provide a useful model to investigate the molecular events that underlie these malignancies in humans. Images PMID:2476668

  4. Oncogenic role of EAPII in lung cancer development and its activation of the MAPK–ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Fan, S; Owonikoko, T K; Khuri, F R; Sun, S-Y; Li, R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer progression involves multiple complex and interdependent steps, including progressive proliferation, angiogenesis and metastases. The complexity of these processes requires a comprehensive elucidation of the integrated signaling networks for better understanding. EAPII interacts with multiple cancer-related proteins, but its biological significance in cancer development remains unknown. In this report we identified the elevated level of EAPII protein in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and NSCLC cell lines in culture. The oncogenic role of EAPII in lung cancer development was demonstrated using NSCLC cells with genetic manipulations that influence EAPII expression: EAPII overexpression increases proliferation of NSCLC cells with an accelerated transition of cell cycle and facilitates xenograft tumor growth in vivo; EAPII knockdown results in apoptosis of NSCLC cells and reduces xenograft tumor formation. To further explore the mechanism of EAPII's oncogenic role in lung cancer development and to elucidate the potential signaling pathway(s) that EAPII may impact, we employed antibody array to investigate the alternation of the major signaling pathways in NSCLC cells with altered EAPII level. We found that EAPII overexpression significantly activated Raf1 and ERK1/2, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 pathways. Consistently, the protein and mRNA levels of MYC and cyclin D1, which are targets of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK–ERK) pathway, are significantly increased by EAPII overexpression. Taken together, we demonstrated that EAPII is an oncogenic factor and the activation of MAPK–ERK signaling pathway by EAPII may contribute to lung cancer development. PMID:21478903

  5. Oncogenic CARMA1 couples NF-κB and β-catenin signaling in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bognar, M K; Vincendeau, M; Erdmann, T; Seeholzer, T; Grau, M; Linnemann, J R; Ruland, J; Scheel, C H; Lenz, P; Ott, G; Lenz, G; Hauck, S M; Krappmann, D

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the antiapoptotic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is a hallmark of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Recurrent oncogenic mutations are found in the scaffold protein CARMA1 (CARD11) that connects B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling to the canonical NF-κB pathway. We asked how far additional downstream processes are activated and contribute to the oncogenic potential of DLBCL-derived CARMA1 mutants. To this end, we expressed oncogenic CARMA1 in the NF-κB negative DLBCL lymphoma cell line BJAB. By a proteomic approach we identified recruitment of β-catenin and its destruction complex consisting of APC, AXIN1, CK1α and GSK3β to oncogenic CARMA1. Recruitment of the β-catenin destruction complex was independent of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 complex formation or constitutive NF-κB activation and promoted the stabilization of β-catenin. The β-catenin destruction complex was also recruited to CARMA1 in ABC DLBCL cell lines, which coincided with elevated β-catenin expression. In line, β-catenin was frequently detected in non-GCB DLBCL biopsies that rely on chronic BCR signaling. Increased β-catenin amounts alone were not sufficient to induce classical WNT target gene signatures, but could augment TCF/LEF-dependent transcriptional activation in response to WNT signaling. In conjunction with NF-κB, β-catenin enhanced expression of immunosuppressive interleukin-10 and suppressed antitumoral CCL3, indicating that β-catenin can induce a favorable tumor microenvironment. Thus, parallel activation of NF-κB and β-catenin signaling by gain-of-function mutations in CARMA1 augments WNT stimulation and is required for regulating the expression of distinct NF-κB target genes to trigger cell-intrinsic and extrinsic processes that promote DLBCL lymphomagenesis. PMID:26776161

  6. Mos oncogene product associates with kinetochores in mammalian somatic cells and disrupts mitotic progression.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X M; Yew, N; Peloquin, J G; Vande Woude, G F; Borisy, G G

    1994-01-01

    The mos protooncogene has opposing effects on cell cycle progression. It is required for reinitiation of meiotic maturation and for meiotic progression through metaphase II, yet it is an active component of cytostatic factor. mos is a potent oncogene in fibroblasts, but high levels of expression are lethal. The lethality of mos gene expression in mammalian cells could be a consequence of a blockage induced by its cytostatic factor-related activity, which may appear at high dosage in mitotic cells. We have directly tested whether expression of the Mos protein can block mitosis in mammalian cells by microinjecting a fusion protein between Escherichia coli maltose-binding protein and Xenopus c-Mos into PtK1 epithelial cells and analyzing the cells by video time-lapse and immunofluorescence microscopy. Time-course analyses showed that Mos blocked mitosis by preventing progression to a normal metaphase. Chromosomes frequently failed to attain a bipolar orientation and were found near one pole. Injection of a kinase-deficient mutant Mos had no effect on mitosis, indicating that the blockage of mitotic progression required Mos kinase activity. Antitubulin immunostaining of cells blocked by Mos showed that microtubules were present but that spindle morphology was abnormal. Immunostaining for the Mos fusion protein showed that both wild-type and kinase mutant proteins localized at the kinetochores. Our results suggest that mitotic blockage by Mos may result from an action of the Mos kinase on the kinetochores, thus increasing chromosome instability and preventing normal congression. Images PMID:8078882

  7. Genetic variations and alternative splicing: the Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1

    PubMed Central

    Zaphiropoulos, Peter G.

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma-associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation. PMID:22833753

  8. Tandem duplication producing a novel oncogenic BRAF fusion gene defines the majority of pilocytic astrocytomas

    PubMed Central

    Jones, David T. W.; Kocialkowski, Sylvia; Liu, Lu; Pearson, Danita M.; Bäcklund, L. Magnus; Ichimura, Koichi; Collins, V. Peter

    2008-01-01

    Brain tumours are the commonest solid tumours of childhood, and pilocytic astrocytomas (PAs) are the most common central nervous system tumour in 5-19 year-olds. Little is known about the genetic alterations underlying their development. Here we describe a tandem duplication of ∼2Mb at 7q34 occurring in 66% of pilocytic astrocytomas. This rearrangement, which was not observed in a series of 244 higher-grade astrocytomas, results in an in-frame fusion gene incorporating the kinase domain of the BRAF oncogene. We further show that the resulting fusion protein has constitutive BRAF kinase activity, and is able to transform NIH3T3 cells. This is the first report of BRAF activation through rearrangement as a frequent feature in a sporadic tumor. The frequency and specificity of this change underline its potential both as a therapeutic target and a diagnostic tool. PMID:18974108

  9. Genetic variations and alternative splicing: the Glioma associated oncogene 1, GLI1.

    PubMed

    Zaphiropoulos, Peter G

    2012-01-01

    Alternative splicing is a post-transcriptional regulatory process that is attaining stronger recognition as a modulator of gene expression. Alternative splicing occurs when the primary RNA transcript is differentially processed into more than one mature RNAs. This is the result of a variable definition/inclusion of the exons, the sequences that are excised from the primary RNA to form the mature RNAs. Consequently, RNA expression can generate a collection of differentially spliced RNAs, which may distinctly influence subsequent biological events, such as protein synthesis or other biomolecular interactions. Still the mechanisms that control exon definition and exon inclusion are not fully clarified. This mini-review highlights advances in this field as well as the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in affecting splicing decisions. The Glioma-associated oncogene 1, GLI1, is taken as an example in addressing the role of nucleotide substitutions for splicing regulation.

  10. Oncogene-Selective Sensitivity to Synchronous Cell Death following Modulation of the Amino Acid Nutrient Cystine.

    PubMed

    Poursaitidis, Ioannis; Wang, Xiaomeng; Crighton, Thomas; Labuschagne, Christiaan; Mason, David; Cramer, Shira L; Triplett, Kendra; Roy, Rajat; Pardo, Olivier E; Seckl, Michael J; Rowlinson, Scott W; Stone, Everett; Lamb, Richard F

    2017-03-14

    Cancer cells reprogram their metabolism, altering both uptake and utilization of extracellular nutrients. We individually depleted amino acid nutrients from isogenic cells expressing commonly activated oncogenes to identify correspondences between nutrient supply and viability. In HME (human mammary epithelial) cells, deprivation of cystine led to increased cell death in cells expressing an activated epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutant. Cell death occurred via synchronous ferroptosis, with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hydrogen peroxide promoted cell death, as both catalase and inhibition of NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) blocked ferroptosis. Blockade of EGFR or mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling similarly protected cells from ferroptosis, whereas treatment of xenografts derived from EGFR mutant non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a cystine-depleting enzyme inhibited tumor growth in mice. Collectively, our results identify a potentially exploitable sensitization of some EGFR/MAPK-driven tumors to ferroptosis following cystine depletion.

  11. IκB-α: At the crossroad between oncogenic and tumor-suppressive signals

    PubMed Central

    Morotti, Alessandro; Crivellaro, Sabrina; Panuzzo, Cristina; Carrà, Giovanna; Guerrasio, Angelo; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) is an essential component of tumorigenesis and resistance to cancer treatments. NFKB inhibitor α (IκB-α) acts as a negative regulator of the classical NF-κB pathway through its ability to maintain the presence of NF-κB in the cytoplasm. However, IκB-α is also able to form a complex with tumor protein p53, promoting its inactivation. Recently, we demonstrated that IκB-α is able to mediate p53 nuclear exclusion and inactivation in chronic myeloid leukemia, indicating that IκB-α can modulate either oncogenic or tumor-suppressive functions, with important implications for cancer treatment. The present review describes the role of IκB-α in cancer pathogenesis, with particular attention to hematological cancers, and highlights the involvement of IκB-α in the regulation of p53 tumor-suppressive functions. PMID:28356925

  12. The TRE17/USP6 oncogene: a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andre M; Chou, Margaret M

    2012-01-01

    De-ubiquitinating enzymes (DUBs) play critical roles in diverse cellular processes, including intracellular trafficking, protein turnover, inflammatory signaling, and cell transformation. The first DUB to be identified as an oncogene was TRE17/Ubiquitin-specific protease 6 (USP6)/Tre-2. In addition to encoding a USP, TRE17 also contains a TBC (Tre-2/Bub2/Cdc16) domain implicated in GTPase regulation and trafficking. Though first described almost two decades ago, remarkably little has been elucidated regarding TRE17's molecular and cellular functions. However, recent work has implicated TRE17 as a key etiological factor in aneurysmal bone cyst (ABC), a locally recurrent pediatric bone tumor, and identified potential pathways through which it acts. In this review, we discuss the most up-to-date findings on the molecular functions of TRE17, the role of its USP and TBC domains, and potential models for how it contributes to transformation and ABC pathogenesis.

  13. Expression of cellular oncogenes in primary cells from human acute leukemias.

    PubMed Central

    Mavilio, F; Sposi, N M; Petrini, M; Bottero, L; Marinucci, M; De Rossi, G; Amadori, S; Mandelli, F; Peschle, C

    1986-01-01

    The structure and the expression of 11 cellular oncogenes (protooncogenes) were analyzed in primary cells from 20 acute lymphocytic (ALL) and 31 acute myelogenous (AML) leukemia patients. Neoplastic cells, obtained prior to initiation of therapy, were purified and classified, on the basis of both surface antigen pattern and morphology, into pre-B, B, and T ALL and M1-M5 AML. RNA was extracted and analyzed for expression of cellular oncogenes coding for nuclear proteins (c-myc, c-myb, c-fos), the beta-chain of platelet-derived growth factor (c-sis), growth factor receptors or related proteins (c-src, c-abl, c-fes, c-erbB), or putative intermediate transducers of mitogenic signals (c-Ha-ras, c-Ki-ras, c-N-ras). Quantitative analysis of total RNA was carried out by dot blot hybridization to specific cDNA or genomic probes. Number and size of transcripts were evaluated by blot hybridization of electrophoretically fractionated poly(A)+ RNA. Expression of c-myc and c-myb was detected in all leukemic cells at variable levels and was characterized by well-defined patterns within ALL subtypes. Conversely, significant levels of c-fos transcripts were detected only in myelomonocytic (M4) and monocytic (M5) leukemias. Among the "src-family," c-fes was expressed more in AML than ALL, and c-abl was expressed at variable but not elevated levels in all leukemia types. c-Ha-ras was uniformly expressed at low levels, as in non-neoplastic cells. c-Ki-ras transcription was detected only in T ALL; N-ras expression was barely demonstrable. The structure of these protooncogenes was not grossly modified, as evaluated by Southern analysis, except for c-myc rearrangement in B ALL. These studies indicate that cellular oncogene expression in specific subtypes of leukemic cells may relate to either the proliferative activity (c-myc, c-myb) or the differentiation state (c-fos) of the cells, or possibly to expression of receptors for putative hemopoiesis-related growth factors (c-fes, c

  14. Can plant oncogenes inhibit programmed cell death? The rolB oncogene reduces apoptosis-like symptoms in transformed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Gorpenchenko, Tatiana Y; Aminin, Dmitry L; Vereshchagina, Yuliya V; Shkryl, Yuri N; Veremeichik, Galina N; Tchernoded, Galina K; Bulgakov, Victor P

    2012-09-01

    The rolB oncogene was previously identified as an important player in ROS metabolism in transformed plant cells. Numerous reports indicate a crucial role for animal oncogenes in apoptotic cell death. Whether plant oncogenes such as rolB can induce programmed cell death (PCD) in transformed plant cells is of particular importance. In this investigation, we used a single-cell assay based on confocal microscopy and fluorescent dyes capable of discriminating between apoptotic and necrotic cells. Our results indicate that the expression of rolB in plant cells was sufficient to decrease the proportion of apoptotic cells in steady-state conditions and diminish the rate of apoptotic cells during induced PCD. These data suggest that plant oncogenes, like animal oncogenes, may be involved in the processes mediating PCD.

  15. XPO1 (CRM1) inhibition represses STAT3 activation to drive a survivin-dependent oncogenic switch in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Holloway, Michael P; Nguyen, Kevin; McCauley, Dilara; Landesman, Yosef; Kauffman, Michael G; Shacham, Sharon; Altura, Rachel A

    2014-03-01

    Inhibition of XPO1 (CRM1)-mediated nuclear export of multiple tumor suppressor proteins has been proposed as a novel cancer therapeutic strategy to turn off oncogenic signals and enhance tumor suppression. Survivin is a multifunctional protein with oncogenic properties when expressed in the cytoplasm that requires the XPO1-RanGTP complex for its nuclear export. We investigated the antitumor mechanisms of the drug-like selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) XPO1 antagonists KPT-185, KPT-251 KPT-276, and KPT-330 in estrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines and xenograft models of human breast tumors. KPT compounds significantly inhibited breast cancer cell growth and induced tumor cell death, both in vitro and in vivo. These drugs initially promoted survivin accumulation within tumor cell nuclei. However, their major in vitro effect was to decrease survivin cytoplasmic protein levels, correlating with the onset of apoptosis. XPO1 inhibition repressed Survivin transcription by inhibiting CREB-binding protein-mediated STAT3 acetylation, and blocking STAT3 binding to the Survivin promoter. In addition, caspase-3 was activated to cleave survivin, rendering it unavailable to bind X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and block the caspase cascade. Collectively, these data demonstrate that XPO1 inhibition by SINE compounds represses STAT3 transactivation to block the selective oncogenic properties of survivin and supports their clinical use in TNBC.

  16. A ubiquitin-specific protease possesses a decisive role for adenovirus replication and oncogene-mediated transformation.

    PubMed

    Ching, Wilhelm; Koyuncu, Emre; Singh, Sonia; Arbelo-Roman, Christina; Hartl, Barbara; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Speiseder, Thomas; Meier, Chris; Dobner, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Adenoviral replication depends on viral as well as cellular proteins. However, little is known about cellular proteins promoting adenoviral replication. In our screens to identify such proteins, we discovered a cellular component of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway interacting with the central regulator of adenoviral replication. Our binding assays mapped a specific interaction between the N-terminal domains of both viral E1B-55K and USP7, a deubiquitinating enzyme. RNA interference-mediated downregulation of USP7 severely reduced E1B-55K protein levels, but more importantly negatively affected adenoviral replication. We also succeeded in resynthesizing an inhibitor of USP7, which like the knockdown background reduced adenoviral replication. Further assays revealed that not only adenoviral growth, but also adenoviral oncogene-driven cellular transformation relies on the functions of USP7. Our data provide insights into an intricate mechanistic pathway usurped by an adenovirus to promote its replication and oncogenic functions, and at the same time open up possibilities for new antiviral strategies.

  17. A Ubiquitin-specific Protease Possesses a Decisive Role for Adenovirus Replication and Oncogene-mediated Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Arbelo-Roman, Christina; Hartl, Barbara; Kremmer, Elisabeth; Speiseder, Thomas; Meier, Chris; Dobner, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adenoviral replication depends on viral as well as cellular proteins. However, little is known about cellular proteins promoting adenoviral replication. In our screens to identify such proteins, we discovered a cellular component of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway interacting with the central regulator of adenoviral replication. Our binding assays mapped a specific interaction between the N-terminal domains of both viral E1B-55K and USP7, a deubiquitinating enzyme. RNA interference-mediated downregulation of USP7 severely reduced E1B-55K protein levels, but more importantly negatively affected adenoviral replication. We also succeeded in resynthesizing an inhibitor of USP7, which like the knockdown background reduced adenoviral replication. Further assays revealed that not only adenoviral growth, but also adenoviral oncogene-driven cellular transformation relies on the functions of USP7. Our data provide insights into an intricate mechanistic pathway usurped by an adenovirus to promote its replication and oncogenic functions, and at the same time open up possibilities for new antiviral strategies. PMID:23555268

  18. Oncogenic Intra-p53 Family Member Interactions in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ferraiuolo, Maria; Di Agostino, Silvia; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The p53 gene family members p53, p73, and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologs but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73, and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic “gain of function” activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance, and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53) with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP) or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response and DNA double-strand breaks response), enhanced invasion, and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild-type p53 (wt-p53) protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73, and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers. PMID:27066457

  19. Discovery of a Selective Inhibitor of Oncogenic B-Raf Kinase With Potent Antimelanoma Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, J.; Lee, J.T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Cho, H.; Mamo, S.; Bremer, R.; Gillette, S.; Kong, J.; Haass, N.K.; Sproesser, K.; Li, L.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Fong, D.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Marimuthu, A.; Nguyen, H.; Lam, B.; Liu, J.; Cheung, I.; Rice, J.

    2009-05-26

    BRAF{sup V600E} is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting 'active' protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a structure-guided discovery approach, a potent and selective inhibitor of active B-Raf has been discovered. PLX4720, a 7-azaindole derivative that inhibits B-Raf{sup V600E} with an IC{sub 50} of 13 nM, defines a class of kinase inhibitor with marked selectivity in both biochemical and cellular assays. PLX4720 preferentially inhibits the active B-Raf{sup V600E} kinase compared with a broad spectrum of other kinases, and potent cytotoxic effects are also exclusive to cells bearing the V600E allele. Consistent with the high degree of selectivity, ERK phosphorylation is potently inhibited by PLX4720 in B-Raf{sup V600E}-bearing tumor cell lines but not in cells lacking oncogenic B-Raf. In melanoma models, PLX4720 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis exclusively in B-Raf{sup V600E}-positive cells. In B-Raf{sup V600E}-dependent tumor xenograft models, orally dosed PLX4720 causes significant tumor growth delays, including tumor regressions, without evidence of toxicity. The work described here represents the entire discovery process, from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-Raf{sup V600E}-driven tumors.

  20. Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Neil S.; scopton, Alex P.; Dar, Arvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the Ras–mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies1. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes2. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold3–5 that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF6,7. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function. Guided by KSR mutations that selectively suppress oncogenic, but not wild-type, Ras signalling, we developed a class of compounds that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR. These compounds, exemplified by APS-2-79, modulate KSR-dependent MAPK signalling by antagonizing RAF heterodimerization as well as the conformational changes required for phosphorylation and activation of KSR-bound MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). Furthermore, APS-2-79 increased the potency of several MEK inhibitors specifically within Ras-mutant cell lines by antagonizing release of negative feedback signalling, demonstrating the potential of targeting KSR to improve the efficacy of current MAPK inhibitors. These results reveal conformational switching in KSR as a druggable regulator of oncogenic Ras, and further suggest co-targeting of enzymatic and scaffolding activities within Ras–MAPK signalling complexes as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming Ras-driven cancers. PMID:27556948

  1. Structural Basis of the Oncogenic Interaction of Phosphatase PRL-1 with the Magnesium Transporter CNNM2.

    PubMed

    Giménez-Mascarell, Paula; Oyenarte, Iker; Hardy, Serge; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Stuiver, Marchel; Kostantin, Elie; Diercks, Tammo; Pey, Angel L; Ereño-Orbea, June; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Khalaf-Nazzal, Reham; Claverie-Martin, Felix; Müller, Dominik; Tremblay, Michel L; Martínez-Cruz, Luis Alfonso

    2017-01-20

    Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), the most oncogenic of all protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), play a critical role in metastatic progression of cancers. Recent findings established a new paradigm by uncovering that their association with magnesium transporters of the cyclin M (CNNM) family causes a rise in intracellular magnesium levels that promote oncogenic transformation. Recently, however, essential roles for regulation of the circadian rhythm and reproduction of the CNNM family have been highlighted. Here, we describe the crystal structure of PRL-1 in complex with the Bateman module of CNNM2 (CNNM2BAT), which consists of two cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domains (IPR000664) and represents an intracellular regulatory module of the transporter. The structure reveals a heterotetrameric association, consisting of a disc-like homodimer of CNNM2BAT bound to two independent PRL-1 molecules, each one located at opposite tips of the disc. The structure highlights the key role played by Asp-558 at the extended loop of the CBS2 motif of CNNM2 in maintaining the association between the two proteins and proves that the interaction between CNNM2 and PRL-1 occurs via the catalytic domain of the phosphatase. Our data shed new light on the structural basis underlying the interaction between PRL phosphatases and CNNM transporters and provides a hypothesis about the molecular mechanism by which PRL-1, upon binding to CNNM2, might increase the intracellular concentration of Mg(2+) thereby contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. The availability of this structure sets the basis for the rational design of compounds modulating PRL-1 and CNNM2 activities.

  2. Oncogenic mutations in intestinal adenomas regulate Bim-mediated apoptosis induced by TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Zoltán; Band, Arja M.; Kallio, Pauliina; Högström, Jenny; Hyvönen, Ville; Kaijalainen, Seppo; Ritvos, Olli; Haglund, Caj; Kruuna, Olli; Robine, Sylvie; Louvard, Daniel; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers (CRCs), an initiating mutation occurs in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or β-catenin gene, activating the β-catenin/TCF pathway. The progression of resulting adenomas is associated with oncogenic activation of KRas and inactivation of the p53 and TGF-β/Smad functions. Most established CRC cell lines contain mutations in the TGF-β/Smad pathway, but little is known about the function of TGF-β in the early phases of intestinal tumorigenesis. We used mouse and human ex vivo 3D intestinal organoid cultures and in vivo mouse models to study the effect of TGF-β on the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and their progeny in intestinal adenomas. We found that the TGF-β–induced apoptosis in Apc-mutant organoids, including the Lgr5+ stem cells, was mediated by up-regulation of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bcl-2–like protein 11 (Bim). BH3-mimetic compounds recapitulated the effect of Bim not only in the adenomas but also in human CRC organoids that had lost responsiveness to TGF-β–induced apoptosis. However, wild-type intestinal crypts were markedly less sensitive to TGF-β than Apc-mutant adenomas, whereas the KRas oncogene increased resistance to TGF-β via the activation of the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, leading to Bim down-regulation. Our studies identify Bim as a critical mediator of TGF-β–induced apoptosis in intestinal adenomas and show that the common progression mutations modify Bim levels and sensitivity to TGF-β during intestinal adenoma development. PMID:24825889

  3. [RXR, a key member of the oncogenic complex in acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Halftermeyer, Juliane; Le Bras, Morgane; De Thé, Hugues

    2011-11-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is induced by fusion proteins always implying the retinoic acid receptor RARa. Although PML-RARa and other fusion oncoproteins are able to bind DNA as homodimers, in vivo they are always found in association with the nuclear receptor RXRa (Retinoid X Receptor). Thus, RXRa is an essential cofactor of the fusion protein for the transformation. Actually, RXRa contributes to several aspects of in vivo -transformation: RARa fusion:RXRa hetero-oligomeric complexes bind DNA with a much greater affinity than RARa fusion homodimers. Besides, PML-RARa:RXRa recognizes an enlarged repertoire of DNA binding sites. Thus the association between fusion proteins and RXRa regulates more genes than the homodimer alone. Titration of RXRa by the fusion protein may also play a role in the transformation process, as well as post-translational modifications of RXRa in the complex. Finally, RXRa is required for rexinoid-induced APL differentiation. Thus, RXRa is a key member of the oncogenic complex.

  4. The Mutational Landscape of the Oncogenic MZF1 SCAN Domain in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Mads; Terkelsen, Thilde; Vidas Olsen, André; Sora, Valentina; Salamanca Viloria, Juan; Rizza, Fabio; Bergstrand-Poulsen, Sanne; Di Marco, Miriam; Vistesen, Mette; Tiberti, Matteo; Lambrughi, Matteo; Jäättelä, Marja; Kallunki, Tuula; Papaleo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    SCAN domains in zinc-finger transcription factors are crucial mediators of protein-protein interactions. Up to 240 SCAN-domain encoding genes have been identified throughout the human genome. These include cancer-related genes, such as the myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1), an oncogenic transcription factor involved in the progression of many solid cancers. The mechanisms by which SCAN homo- and heterodimers assemble and how they alter the transcriptional activity of zinc-finger transcription factors in cancer and other diseases remain to be investigated. Here, we provide the first description of the conformational ensemble of the MZF1 SCAN domain cross-validated against NMR experimental data, which are probes of structure and dynamics on different timescales. We investigated the protein-protein interaction network of MZF1 and how it is perturbed in different cancer types by the analyses of high-throughput proteomics and RNASeq data. Collectively, we integrated many computational approaches, ranging from simple empirical energy functions to all-atom microsecond molecular dynamics simulations and network analyses to unravel the effects of cancer-related substitutions in relation to MZF1 structure and interactions. PMID:28018905

  5. The ZNF217 oncogene is a candidate organizer of repressive histone modifiers

    PubMed Central

    Banck, Michaela S.; Li, Side; Nishio, Hitomi; Wang, Cheng; Beutler, Andreas S.; Walsh, Martin J.

    2010-01-01

    The zinc finger protein 217 (ZNF217) is an important oncogene based on the high frequency of amplification and overexpression in many cancer types, but its molecular mode of gene regulation is poorly understood. We purified a complex of nuclear ZNF217-binding proteins by affinity chromatography and identified its components by mass spectrometry as Jarid1b/Plu-1, G9a, LSD1, CoREST and CtBP1. Individual binding of these with ZNF217 was confirmed by co-immunoprecipiation (IP). Known activities of these proteins suggested a role of the ZNF217 complex in histone modification. Using in vitro assays the following activities were demonstrated: Histone H3 lysine 4 trimethyl (H3K4me3) demethylase activity, which co-fractionated with Jarid1b/Plu-1 in anion-exchange chromatography; H3K9 methylation, the known principal activity of G9a; and H3K27 methylation. The latter suggested EZH2 as another ZNF217 binding candidate, which could be confirmed by co-IP. Taken together, these findings suggest that ZNF217 assembles a distinct set of histone modifying proteins at target DNA sites that act synergistically in transcriptional repression. PMID:19242095

  6. Risk assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to improve food security by assuring good harvest, however, they can have harmful effects in human beings and animals. One of the harmful effects of pesticides is their carcinogenicity. Exposure to oncogenic compounds may result in cancer to the exposed animal or person. In this paper, exposure assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticides was performed from raw and processed fruits and vegetables. The oncogenic risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the pesticide residue with the oncogenic potency factor (Q*) of the concerned pesticide. The total potential oncogenic risk was calculated to be 2.76 x 10(-3) before processing and 8.97 x 10(-4) after processing. The risk was higher than the EPA acceptable limit of 1 x10(-6). Despite the calculated levels exceeding the EPA acceptable limit, food processing activities reduced the dietary oncogenic risk to an average 33.8%.

  7. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth.

    PubMed

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-03-10

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog.

  8. EGFR/ARF6 regulation of Hh signalling stimulates oncogenic Ras tumour overgrowth

    PubMed Central

    Chabu, Chiswili; Li, Da-Ming; Xu, Tian

    2017-01-01

    Multiple signalling events interact in cancer cells. Oncogenic Ras cooperates with Egfr, which cannot be explained by the canonical signalling paradigm. In turn, Egfr cooperates with Hedgehog signalling. How oncogenic Ras elicits and integrates Egfr and Hedgehog signals to drive overgrowth remains unclear. Using a Drosophila tumour model, we show that Egfr cooperates with oncogenic Ras via Arf6, which functions as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. Oncogenic Ras induces the expression of Egfr ligands. Egfr then signals through Arf6, which regulates Hh transport to promote Hh signalling. Blocking any step of this signalling cascade inhibits Hh signalling and correspondingly suppresses the growth of both, fly and human cancer cells harbouring oncogenic Ras mutations. These findings highlight a non-canonical Egfr signalling mechanism, centered on Arf6 as a novel regulator of Hh signalling. This explains both, the puzzling requirement of Egfr in oncogenic Ras-mediated overgrowth and the cooperation between Egfr and Hedgehog. PMID:28281543

  9. Adriamycin resistance-associated prohibitin gene inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells by interacting with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Du, Min-Dong; He, Kai-Yi; Qin, Gang; Chen, Jin; Li, Jin-Yi

    2016-09-01

    The resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy, and the mechanism of chemoresistance remains unclear. The present study developed an adriamycin-resistant human osteosarcoma MG-63 sub-line (MG-63/ADR), and identified differentially expressed proteins that may be associated with adriamycin resistance. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and a protein identification assay were performed. Western blot analysis was used to examine the prohibitin (PHB) levels in the MG-63/ADR cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to detect adriamycin resistant-associated genes. Laser-scanning confocal microscope was employed to examine the colocalization of PHB with v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-myc), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-fos), tumor protein p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (Rb). In addition, the full length of the open reading frame of human PHB was subcloned into a lentiviral vector pLVX-puro. The proliferative rate of MG-63 cells was also investigated. The overall protein expression in MG-63/ADR cells was clearly suppressed. Three notable protein regions, representing high mobility group box 1, Ras homolog gene family, member A, and PHB, were identified to be significantly altered in MG-63/ADR cells when compared with its parental cells. Therefore, PHB modulated the chemoresistance of MG-63/ADR cells by interacting with multiple oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (c-myc, c-fos, p53 and Rb). In addition, overexpression of PHB decreases the proliferative rate of MG-63 cells. In conclusion, PHB is an adriamycin resistance-associated gene, which may inhibit the proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by interacting with the oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, c-myc, c-fos, p53 and Rb.

  10. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA–DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix–loop–helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt–β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK–ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous “cancer cells”. PMID:25883792

  11. Hedgehog Signal Transduction: Key Players, Oncogenic Drivers, and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pak, Ekaterina; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-08-22

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs complex developmental processes, including proliferation and patterning within diverse tissues. These activities rely on a tightly regulated transduction system that converts graded Hh input signals into specific levels of pathway activity. Uncontrolled activation of Hh signaling drives tumor initiation and maintenance. However, recent entry of pathway-specific inhibitors into the clinic reveals mixed patient responses and thus prompts further exploration of pathway activation and inhibition. In this review, we share emerging insights into regulated and oncogenic Hh signaling, supplemented with updates on the development and use of Hh pathway-targeted therapies.

  12. A novel oncogene, ost, encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that potentially links Rho and Rac signaling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Y; Beeler, J F; Sakaguchi, K; Tachibana, M; Miki, T

    1994-01-01

    Transfection of NIH3T3 cells with an osteosarcoma expression cDNA library led to the appearance of foci of morphologically transformed cells which were found to harbor a novel oncogene, ost. The ost product was activated by truncation of the N-terminal domain of the ost proto-oncogene and was highly tumorigenic in nude mouse assays. The proto-ost cDNA, isolated subsequently, encodes a predicted protein of 100 kDa containing DH (Db1 homology) and PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. Ost is mainly phosphorylated on serine and localized in the cytoplasm. Purified Ost protein catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange on RhoA and Cdc42 among the Rho and Ras family members tested, indicating that Ost can activate these small GTP-binding proteins. Ost did not detectably associate with RhoA or Cdc42, but interacted specifically with the GTP-bound form of Rac1, suggesting that Ost can function as an effector of Rac1. These results suggest that Ost is a critical regulatory component which links pathways that signal through Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42. Of the tissues examined, expression of ost was the highest in brain and could be localized to neurons and alpha-tanycytes, suggesting that Ost may participate in axonal transport in these specialized cells. Images PMID:7957046

  13. From General Aberrant Alternative Splicing in Cancers and Its Therapeutic Application to the Discovery of an Oncogenic DMTF1 Isoform

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Na; Li, Jialiang; Shi, Jinming; Sui, Guangchao

    2017-01-01

    Alternative pre-mRNA splicing is a crucial process that allows the generation of diversified RNA and protein products from a multi-exon gene. In tumor cells, this mechanism can facilitate cancer development and progression through both creating oncogenic isoforms and reducing the expression of normal or controllable protein species. We recently demonstrated that an alternative cyclin D-binding myb-like transcription factor 1 (DMTF1) pre-mRNA splicing isoform, DMTF1β, is increasingly expressed in breast cancer and promotes mammary tumorigenesis in a transgenic mouse model. Aberrant pre-mRNA splicing is a typical event occurring for many cancer-related functional proteins. In this review, we introduce general aberrant pre-mRNA splicing in cancers and discuss its therapeutic application using our recent discovery of the oncogenic DMTF1 isoform as an example. We also summarize new insights in designing novel targeting strategies of cancer therapies based on the understanding of deregulated pre-mRNA splicing mechanisms. PMID:28257090

  14. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  15. Mitochondrial clearance by the STK38 kinase supports oncogenic Ras-induced cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Bettoun, Audrey; Surdez, Didier; Vallerand, David; Gundogdu, Ramazan; Sharif, Ahmad A.D.; Gomez, Marta; Cascone, Ilaria; Meunier, Brigitte; White, Michael A.; Codogno, Patrice; Parrini, Maria Carla; Camonis, Jacques H.; Hergovich, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras signalling occurs frequently in many human cancers. However, no effective targeted therapies are currently available to treat patients suffering from Ras-driven tumours. Therefore, it is imperative to identify downstream effectors of Ras signalling that potentially represent promising new therapeutic options. Particularly, considering that autophagy inhibition can impair the survival of Ras-transformed cells in tissue culture and mouse models, an understanding of factors regulating the balance between autophagy and apoptosis in Ras-transformed human cells is needed. Here, we report critical roles of the STK38 protein kinase in oncogenic Ras transformation. STK38 knockdown impaired anoikis resistance, anchorage-independent soft agar growth, and in vivo xenograft growth of Ras-transformed human cells. Mechanistically, STK38 supports Ras-driven transformation through promoting detachment-induced autophagy. Even more importantly, upon cell detachment STK38 is required to sustain the removal of damaged mitochondria by mitophagy, a selective autophagic process, to prevent excessive mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production that can negatively affect cancer cell survival. Significantly, knockdown of PINK1 or Parkin, two positive regulators of mitophagy, also impaired anoikis resistance and anchorage-independent growth of Ras-transformed human cells, while knockdown of USP30, a negative regulator of PINK1/Parkin-mediated mitophagy, restored anchorage-independent growth of STK38-depleted Ras-transformed human cells. Therefore, our findings collectively reveal novel molecular players that determine whether Ras-transformed human cells die or survive upon cell detachment, which potentially could be exploited for the development of novel strategies to target Ras-transformed cells. PMID:27283898

  16. Lipid phosphatase SHIP2 functions as oncogene in colorectal cancer by regulating PKB activation

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Elmer; Das, Asha M.; Willemsen, Marcella; Swets, Marloes; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van der Woude, Christien J.; Bruno, Marco J.; Shah, Jigisha P.; Hagen, Timo L.M. ten; Chisholm, John D.; Kerr, William G.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, encouraging the search for novel therapeutic targets affecting tumor cell proliferation and migration. These cellular processes are under tight control of two opposing groups of enzymes; kinases and phosphatases. Aberrant activity of kinases is observed in many forms of cancer and as phosphatases counteract such “oncogenic” kinases, it is generally assumed that phosphatases function as tumor suppressors. However, emerging evidence suggests that the lipid phosphatase SH2-domain-containing 5 inositol phosphatase (SHIP2), encoded by the INPPL1 gene, may act as an oncogene. Just like the well-known tumor suppressor gene Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) it hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). However, unlike PTEN, the reaction product is PI(3,4)P2, which is required for full activation of the downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), suggesting that SHIP2, in contrast to PTEN, could have a tumor initiating role through PKB activation. In this work, we investigated the role of SHIP2 in colorectal cancer. We found that SHIP2 and INPPL1 expression is increased in colorectal cancer tissue in comparison to adjacent normal tissue, and this is correlated with decreased patient survival. Moreover, SHIP2 is more active in colorectal cancer tissue, suggesting that SHIP2 can induce oncogenesis in colonic epithelial cells. Furthermore, in vitro experiments performed on colorectal cancer cell lines shows an oncogenic role for SHIP2, by enhancing chemoresistance, cell migration, and cell invasion. Together, these data indicate that SHIP2 expression contributes to the malignant potential of colorectal cancer, providing a possible target in the fight against this devastating disease. PMID:27716613

  17. Characterization and immunotherapeutic potential of a monoclonal antibody against a ras oncogene transformed cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Transformed cells express cell surface antigens not present, or present in diminished amounts on normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to identify and biochemically characterize tumor-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 45-2D9 was produced by immunization of BALB/c mice with a transformed cell line (45-2D9) induced by transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a c-H-ras oncogene in DNA isolated from a human lung carcinoma. By immunoperoxidase staining, this antibody binds to the 45-342 cells as well as to the ras transformed primary and 3 secondary transfectants, including the one used to induce 45-342, but not to other ras transformed cell lines. Murine tumors as well as human fetal and most normal adult tissues are not stained. This antibody does bind to a variety of human tumors, including lung adenocarcinomas, as well as breast, colon and esophageal carcinomas. The ability of MoAb 45-2D9 to target ricin toxin A chain (RTA) and radio-isotopes to gp74 expressing cells was investigated. An immunotoxin generated by conjugating RTA to MoAb 45-2D9 inhibits protein and DNA synthesis by the 45-342 cells. Radiolabeled antibody specifically localizes to and can be used to image subcutaneous and pulmonary gp74 expressing tumors in nu/nu mice. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene transformed cell lines may be useful for the detection and characterization of tumor-associated antigens as well as for the development of new tumor therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.

  18. Oncogenic Ras promotes butyrate-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gelsolin expression.

    PubMed

    Klampfer, Lidija; Huang, Jie; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2004-08-27

    Activation of Ras promotes oncogenesis by altering a multiple of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. Oncogenic Ras can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cell type and the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The response of normal and transformed colonic epithelial cells to the short chain fatty acid butyrate, a physiological regulator of epithelial cell maturation, is also divergent: normal epithelial cells proliferate, and transformed cells undergo apoptosis in response to butyrate. To investigate the role of k-ras mutations in butyrate-induced apoptosis, we utilized HCT116 cells, which harbor an oncogenic k-ras mutation and two isogenic clones with targeted inactivation of the mutant k-ras allele, Hkh2, and Hke-3. We demonstrated that the targeted deletion of the mutant k-ras allele is sufficient to protect epithelial cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this, we showed that apigenin, a dietary flavonoid that has been shown to inhibit Ras signaling and to reverse transformation of cancer cell lines, prevented butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. To investigate the mechanism whereby activated k-ras sensitizes colonic cells to butyrate, we performed a genome-wide analysis of Ras target genes in the isogenic cell lines HCT116, Hkh2, and Hke-3. The gene exhibiting the greatest down-regulation by the activating k-ras mutation was gelsolin, an actin-binding protein whose expression is frequently reduced or absent in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We demonstrated that silencing of gelsolin expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cells to butyrate-induced apoptosis through amplification of the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7. These data therefore demonstrate that gelsolin protects cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis and suggest that Ras promotes apoptosis, at least in part, through its ability to down-regulate the expression of gelsolin.

  19. P53 Modulates The Activity Of The GLI1 Oncogene Through Interactions With The Shared Coactivator TAF9

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Joon Won; Lamm, Marilyn; Iannaccone, Stephen; Higashiyama, Nicole; Leong, King Fu; Iannaccone, Philip; Walterhouse, David

    2015-01-01

    The GLI1 oncogene and p53 tumor suppressor gene function in an inhibitory loop that controls stem cell and tumor cell numbers. Since GLI1 and p53 both interact with the coactivator TATA Binding Protein Associated Factor 9 (TAF9), we hypothesized that competition between these transcription factors for TAF9 in cancer cells may contribute to the inhibitory loop and directly affect GLI1 function and cellular phenotype. We showed that TAF9 interacts with the oncogenic GLI family members GLI1 and GLI2 but not GLI3 in cell-free pull-down assays and with GLI1 in rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. Removal of the TAF9-binding acidic alpha helical transactivation domain of GLI1 produced a significant reduction in the ability of GLI1 to transform cells. We then introduced a point mutation into GLI1 (L1052I) that eliminates TAF9 binding and a point mutation into GLI3 (I1510L) that establishes binding. Wild-type and mutant GLI proteins that bind TAF9 showed enhanced transactivating and cell transforming activity compared with those that did not. Therefore, GLI-TAF9 binding appears important for oncogenic activity. We then determined whether wild-type p53 down-regulates GLI function by sequestering TAF9. We showed that p53 binds TAF9 with greater affinity than does GLI1 and that co-expression of p53 with GLI1 or GLI2 down-regulated GLI-induced transactivation, which could be abrogated using mutant forms of GLI1 or p53. This suggests that p53 sequesters TAF9 from GLI1, which may contribute to inhibition of GLI1 activity by p53 and potentially impact therapeutic success of agents targeting GLI-TAF9 interactions in cancer. PMID:26282181

  20. Transcription-induced DNA double strand breaks: both oncogenic force and potential therapeutic target?

    PubMed

    Haffner, Michael C; De Marzo, Angelo M; Meeker, Alan K; Nelson, William G; Yegnasubramanian, Srinivasan

    2011-06-15

    An emerging model of transcriptional activation suggests that induction of transcriptional programs, for instance by stimulating prostate or breast cells with androgens or estrogens, respectively, involves the formation of DNA damage, including DNA double strand breaks (DSB), recruitment of DSB repair proteins, and movement of newly activated genes to transcription hubs. The DSB can be mediated by the class II topoisomerase TOP2B, which is recruited with the androgen receptor and estrogen receptor to regulatory sites on target genes and is apparently required for efficient transcriptional activation of these genes. These DSBs are recognized by the DNA repair machinery triggering the recruitment of repair proteins such as poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1), ATM, and DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK). If illegitimately repaired, such DSBs can seed the formation of genomic rearrangements like the TMPRSS2-ERG fusion oncogene in prostate cancer. Here, we hypothesize that these transcription-induced, TOP2B-mediated DSBs can also be exploited therapeutically and propose that, in hormone-dependent tumors like breast and prostate cancers, a hormone-cycling therapy, in combination with topoisomerase II poisons or inhibitors of the DNA repair components PARP1 and DNA-PK, could overwhelm cancer cells with transcription-associated DSBs. Such strategies may find particular utility in cancers, like prostate cancer, which show low proliferation rates, in which other chemotherapeutic strategies that target rapidly proliferating cells have had limited success.

  1. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  2. Novel small molecules targeting ciliary transport of Smoothened and oncogenic Hedgehog pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bomi; Messias, Ana C.; Schorpp, Kenji; Geerlof, Arie; Schneider, Günter; Saur, Dieter; Hadian, Kamyar; Sattler, Michael; Wanker, Erich E.; Hasenöder, Stefan; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Smoothened (Smo) to the primary cilium (PC) is a potential target to inhibit oncogenic Hh pathway activation in a large number of tumors. One drawback is the appearance of Smo mutations that resist drug treatment, which is a common reason for cancer treatment failure. Here, we undertook a high content screen with compounds in preclinical or clinical development and identified ten small molecules that prevent constitutive active mutant SmoM2 transport into PC for subsequent Hh pathway activation. Eight of the ten small molecules act through direct interference with the G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2 (Gprasp2)-SmoM2 ciliary targeting complex, whereas one antagonist of ionotropic receptors prevents intracellular trafficking of Smo to the PC. Together, these findings identify several compounds with the potential to treat drug-resistant SmoM2-driven cancer forms, but also reveal off-target effects of established drugs in the clinics. PMID:26931153

  3. Oncogenic Sox2 regulates and cooperates with VRK1 in cell cycle progression and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Moura, David S.; Fernández, Isabel F.; Marín-Royo, Gema; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Martín-Doncel, Elena; Vega, Francisco M.; Lazo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Sox2 is a pluripotency transcription factor that as an oncogene can also regulate cell proliferation. Therefore, genes implicated in several different aspects of cell proliferation, such as the VRK1 chromatin-kinase, are candidates to be targets of Sox2. Sox 2 and VRK1 colocalize in nuclei of proliferating cells forming a stable complex. Sox2 knockdown abrogates VRK1 gene expression. Depletion of either Sox2 or VRK1 caused a reduction of cell proliferation. Sox2 up-regulates VRK1 expression and both proteins cooperate in the activation of CCND1. The accumulation of VRK1 protein downregulates SOX2 expression and both proteins are lost in terminally differentiated cells. Induction of neural differentiation with retinoic acid resulted in downregulation of Sox2 and VRK1 that inversely correlated with the expression of differentiation markers such as N-cadherin, Pax6, mH2A1.2 and mH2A2. Differentiation-associated macro histones mH2A1.2and mH2A2 inhibit CCND1 and VRK1 expression and also block the activation of the VRK1 promoter by Sox2. VRK1 is a downstream target of Sox2 and both form an autoregulatory loop in epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:27334688

  4. GEP oncogene promotes cell proliferation through YAP activation in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yagi, H; Asanoma, K; Ohgami, T; Ichinoe, A; Sonoda, K; Kato, K

    2016-08-25

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands function in the progression of human malignancies. Gα12 and Gα13, encoded by GNA12 and GNA13, respectively, are referred to as the GEP oncogene and are implicated in tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Gα12/13 activation promotes cancer progression are not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate elevated expression of Gα12/13 in human ovarian cancer tissues. Gα12/13 activation did not promote cellular migration in the ovarian cancer cell lines examined. Rather, Gα12/13 activation promoted cell growth. We used a synthetic biology approach using chimeric G proteins and GPCRs activated solely by artificial ligands to selectively trigger signaling pathways downstream of specific G proteins. We found that Gα12/13 promotes proliferation of ovarian cancer cells by activating the transcriptional coactivator YAP, a critical component of the Hippo signaling pathway. Furthermore, we reveal that inhibition of YAP by short hairpin RNA or a specific inhibitor prevented the growth of ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, YAP may be a suitable therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.

  5. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  6. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Arsenic trioxide (As2O3) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As2O3 induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As2O3 on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As2O3 than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As2O3 than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As2O3 treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As2O3 is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  7. Oncogenic Sox2 regulates and cooperates with VRK1 in cell cycle progression and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Moura, David S; Fernández, Isabel F; Marín-Royo, Gema; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Martín-Doncel, Elena; Vega, Francisco M; Lazo, Pedro A

    2016-06-23

    Sox2 is a pluripotency transcription factor that as an oncogene can also regulate cell proliferation. Therefore, genes implicated in several different aspects of cell proliferation, such as the VRK1 chromatin-kinase, are candidates to be targets of Sox2. Sox 2 and VRK1 colocalize in nuclei of proliferating cells forming a stable complex. Sox2 knockdown abrogates VRK1 gene expression. Depletion of either Sox2 or VRK1 caused a reduction of cell proliferation. Sox2 up-regulates VRK1 expression and both proteins cooperate in the activation of CCND1. The accumulation of VRK1 protein downregulates SOX2 expression and both proteins are lost in terminally differentiated cells. Induction of neural differentiation with retinoic acid resulted in downregulation of Sox2 and VRK1 that inversely correlated with the expression of differentiation markers such as N-cadherin, Pax6, mH2A1.2 and mH2A2. Differentiation-associated macro histones mH2A1.2and mH2A2 inhibit CCND1 and VRK1 expression and also block the activation of the VRK1 promoter by Sox2. VRK1 is a downstream target of Sox2 and both form an autoregulatory loop in epithelial cell differentiation.

  8. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'.

  9. Expression of hpttg proto-oncogene in lymphoid neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carmen; Pereda, Teresa; Borrero, Juan J; Espina, Agueda; Romero, Francisco; Tortolero, María; Pintor-Toro, José A; Segura, Dolores I; Japón, Miguel A

    2002-11-21

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene (pttg) is a distinct proto-oncogene which is expressed in certain normal tissues with high proliferation rate and in a variety of tumors. PTTG is the vertebrate analog of yeast securins Pds1 and Cut2 with a key role in the regulation of sister chromatid separation during mitosis. Impairment of PTTG regulated functions is expected to lead to chromosomal instability and aneuploidy. Human pttg (hpttg) is abundantly expressed in Jurkat T lymphoblastic lymphoma cells but not in normal peripheral blood leukocytes. To obtain additional data on the potential role of hpttg in lymphomagenesis we selected 150 cases of lymphoid tumors for the assessment of hpttg expression in tumor tissues. Immunohistochemical studies on formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues revealed hPTTG in 38.8% of B-cell lymphomas, 70.2% of T-cell lymphomas, and 73.1% of Hodgkin's lymphomas. Among B-cell lymphomas, the most frequently immunostained tumors were plasma cell tumors, diffuse large cell lymphomas, and follicle center cell lymphomas. In Hodgkin's disease, immunoreactivity was mainly noted in Reed-Sternberg cells. In conclusion, the frequent overexpression of hpttg in many histological subtypes of lymphoma suggests the involvement of this proto-oncogene in lymphomagenesis.

  10. Extrachromosomal oncogene amplification drives tumour evolution and genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Turner, Kristen M; Deshpande, Viraj; Beyter, Doruk; Koga, Tomoyuki; Rusert, Jessica; Lee, Catherine; Li, Bin; Arden, Karen; Ren, Bing; Nathanson, David A; Kornblum, Harley I; Taylor, Michael D; Kaushal, Sharmeela; Cavenee, Webster K; Wechsler-Reya, Robert; Furnari, Frank B; Vandenberg, Scott R; Rao, P Nagesh; Wahl, Geoffrey M; Bafna, Vineet; Mischel, Paul S

    2017-03-02

    Human cells have twenty-three pairs of chromosomes. In cancer, however, genes can be amplified in chromosomes or in circular extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA), although the frequency and functional importance of ecDNA are not understood. We performed whole-genome sequencing, structural modelling and cytogenetic analyses of 17 different cancer types, including analysis of the structure and function of chromosomes during metaphase of 2,572 dividing cells, and developed a software package called ECdetect to conduct unbiased, integrated ecDNA detection and analysis. Here we show that ecDNA was found in nearly half of human cancers; its frequency varied by tumour type, but it was almost never found in normal cells. Driver oncogenes were amplified most commonly in ecDNA, thereby increasing transcript level. Mathematical modelling predicted that ecDNA amplification would increase oncogene copy number and intratumoural heterogeneity more effectively than chromosomal amplification. We validated these predictions by quantitative analyses of cancer samples. The results presented here suggest that ecDNA contributes to accelerated evolution in cancer.

  11. REST regulates oncogenic properties of glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Mohamed M.; Sathyan, Pratheesh; Singh, Sanjay K.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Marisetty, Anantha L.; Liang, Shoudan; Gumin, Joy; El-Mesallamy, Hala Osman; Suki, Dima; Colman, Howard; Fuller, Gregory N.; Lang, Frederick F.; Majumder, Sadhan

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors are the most common malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Although many GBM tumors are believed to be caused by self-renewing, glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells (GSCs), the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs are only now being unraveled. Here we showed that GSCs derived from GBM patient specimens express varying levels of the transcriptional repressor REST, suggesting heterogeneity across different GSC lines. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments indicated that REST maintains self-renewal of GSCs. High REST-expressing GSCs (HR-GSCs) produced tumors histopathologically distinct from those generated by low REST-expressing GSCs (LR-GSCs) in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models. Knockdown of REST in HR-GSCs resulted in increased survival in GSC-transplanted mice and produced tumors with higher apoptotic and lower invasive properties. Conversely, forced expression of exogenous REST in LR-GSCs produced decreased survival in mice and produced tumors with lower apoptotic and higher invasive properties, similar to HR-GSCs. Thus, based on our results, we propose that a novel function of REST is to maintain self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs and that REST can play a major role in mediating tumorigenicity in GBM. PMID:22228704

  12. Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer Is Dependent on Oncogenic Kras in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Zhang, Yaqing; Bednar, Filip; Pierre, Josette; Heist, Kevin A.; Galbán, Craig J.; Galbán, Stefanie; di Magliano, Marina Pasca

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest human malignancies, and its prognosis has not improved over the past 40 years. Mouse models that spontaneously develop pancreatic adenocarcinoma and mimic the progression of the human disease are emerging as a new tool to investigate the basic biology of this disease and identify potential therapeutic targets. Here, we describe a new model of metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma based on pancreas-specific, inducible and reversible expression of an oncogenic form of Kras, together with pancreas-specific expression of a mutant form of the tumor suppressor p53. Using high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging to follow individual animals in longitudinal studies, we show that both primary and metastatic lesions depend on continuous Kras activity for their maintenance. However, re-activation of Kras* following prolonged inactivation leads to rapid tumor relapse, raising the concern that Kras*-resistance might eventually be acquired. Thus, our data identifies Kras* as a key oncogene in pancreatic cancer maintenance, but raises the possibility of acquired resistance should Kras inhibitors become available for use in pancreatic cancer. PMID:23226501

  13. Oncogenic mutations as predictive factors in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lièvre, A; Blons, H; Laurent-Puig, P

    2010-05-27

    The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab have been demonstrated to be new therapeutic options for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Oncogenic activation of intracellular signalling pathways downstream of EGFR has a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis but has also been reported to be an important mechanism of resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies. Among the activating mutations found in colorectal cancers, tumour KRAS mutations, which are found in approximately 40% of the cases, have been widely demonstrated as a major predictive marker of resistance to cetuximab or panitumumab, therefore, opening the way to individualized treatment for patients with mCRC. Other oncogenic mutations, such as BRAF or PIK3CA mutations or loss of PTEN expression, may also be additional interesting predictive markers of response to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies but required further evaluation before being incorporated in clinical practice. The identification of these molecular markers involved in the resistance of anti-EGFR antibodies will allow the development of new therapies that should target 'escape mechanisms' used by tumours to circumvent a pathway that has been pharmacologically blocked by anti-EGFR.

  14. Endogenous Retrotransposition Activates Oncogenic Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ruchi; Upton, Kyle R.; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Nguyen, Thu; Brennan, Paul M.; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Collino, Agnese; Ghisletti, Serena; Sinha, Shruti; Iannelli, Fabio; Radaelli, Enrico; Dos Santos, Alexandre; Rapoud, Delphine; Guettier, Catherine; Samuel, Didier; Natoli, Gioacchino; Carninci, Piero; Ciccarelli, Francesca D.; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Faivre, Jamila; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements comprising ∼17% of the human genome. New L1 insertions can profoundly alter gene function and cause disease, though their significance in cancer remains unclear. Here, we applied enhanced retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) to 19 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) genomes and elucidated two archetypal L1-mediated mechanisms enabling tumorigenesis. In the first example, 4/19 (21.1%) donors presented germline retrotransposition events in the tumor suppressor mutated in colorectal cancers (MCC). MCC expression was ablated in each case, enabling oncogenic β-catenin/Wnt signaling. In the second example, suppression of tumorigenicity 18 (ST18) was activated by a tumor-specific L1 insertion. Experimental assays confirmed that the L1 interrupted a negative feedback loop by blocking ST18 repression of its enhancer. ST18 was also frequently amplified in HCC nodules from Mdr2−/− mice, supporting its assignment as a candidate liver oncogene. These proof-of-principle results substantiate L1-mediated retrotransposition as an important etiological factor in HCC. PMID:23540693

  15. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D.; Haga, Christopher L.; Rosenberg, Laura H.; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R.; Phinney, Donald G.; Disney, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif–small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm. PMID:27170187

  16. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D; Haga, Christopher L; Rosenberg, Laura H; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R; Phinney, Donald G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-05-24

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif-small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm.

  17. Oncogenes Activate an Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit That Drives Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh K; Kollipara, Rahul K; Vemireddy, Vamsidara; Yang, Xiao-Li; Sun, Yuxiao; Regmi, Nanda; Klingler, Stefan; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Raisanen, Jack; Cho, Steve K; Sirasanagandla, Shyam; Nannepaga, Suraj; Piccirillo, Sara; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Wang, Shan; Humphries, Caroline G; Mickey, Bruce; Maher, Elizabeth A; Zheng, Hongwu; Kim, Ryung S; Kittler, Ralf; Bachoo, Robert M

    2017-01-24

    Efforts to identify and target glioblastoma (GBM) drivers have primarily focused on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Clinical benefits, however, have been elusive. Here, we identify an SRY-related box 2 (SOX2) transcriptional regulatory network that is independent of upstream RTKs and capable of driving glioma-initiating cells. We identified oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which are frequently co-expressed irrespective of driver mutations, as potential SOX2 targets. In murine glioma models, we show that different combinations of tumor suppressor and oncogene mutations can activate Sox2, Olig2, and Zeb1 expression. We demonstrate that ectopic co-expression of the three transcription factors can transform tumor-suppressor-deficient astrocytes into glioma-initiating cells in the absence of an upstream RTK oncogene. Finally, we demonstrate that the transcriptional inhibitor mithramycin downregulates SOX2 and its target genes, resulting in markedly reduced proliferation of GBM cells in vivo.

  18. The DNA rearrangement that generates the TRK-T3 oncogene involves a novel gene on chromosome 3 whose product has a potential coiled-coil domain.

    PubMed Central

    Greco, A; Mariani, C; Miranda, C; Lupas, A; Pagliardini, S; Pomati, M; Pierotti, M A

    1995-01-01

    Oncogenic rearrangements of the NTRK1 gene (also designated TRKA), encoding one of the receptors for the nerve growth factor, are frequently detected in thyroid carcinomas. Such rearrangements fuse the NTRK1 tyrosine kinase domain to 5'-end sequences belonging to different genes. In previously reported studies we have demonstrated that NTRK1 oncogenic activation involves two genes, TPM3 and TPR, both localized similarly to the receptor tyrosine kinase, on the q arm of chromosome 1. Here we report the characterization of a novel NTRK1-derived thyroid oncogene, named TRK-T3. A cDNA clone, capable of transforming activity, was isolated from a transformant cell line. Sequence analysis revealed that TRK-T3 contains 1,412 nucleotides of NTRK1 preceded by 598 nucleotides belonging to a novel gene that we have named TFG (TRK-fused gene). The TRK-T3 amino acid sequence displays, within the TFG region, a coiled-coil motif that could endow the oncoprotein with the capability to form complexes. The TRK-T3 oncogene encodes a 68-kDa cytoplasmic protein reacting with NTRK1-specific antibodies. By sedimentation gradient experiments the TRK-T3 oncoprotein was shown to form, in vivo, multimeric complexes, most likely trimers or tetramers. The TFG gene is ubiquitously expressed and is located on chromosome 3. The breakpoint producing the TRK-T3 oncogene occurs within exons of both the TFG gene and the NTRK1 gene and produces a chimeric exon that undergoes alternative splicing. Molecular analysis of the NTRK1 rearranged fragments indicated that the chromosomal rearrangement is reciprocal and balanced and involves loss of a few nucleotides of germ line sequences. PMID:7565764

  19. Oncogenic RAS alters the global and gene-specific histone modification pattern during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Ignacio Mazón; Kalogeropoulou, Margarita; Ferraro, Angelo; Voulgari, Angeliki; Pankotai, Tibor; Boros, Imre; Pintzas, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    The presence of different forms of histone covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation in localized promoter regions are markers for chromatin packing and transcription. Activation of RAS signalling pathways through oncogenic RAS mutations is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Overexpression of Harvey-Ras oncogene induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Caco-2 cells. We focused on the role of epigenetic modifications of histone H3 and its dependence on RAS signal transduction pathways and oncogenic transformation. Using cell lines stably overexpressing oncogenic Harvey-RAS with EMT phenotype, we studied the acquired changes in the H3 histone modification patterns. Two genes show inverse protein expression patterns after Ha-RAS overexpression: Cyclin D1, a cell cycle-related gene, and the EMT marker-gene E-cadherin. We report that these two genes demonstrate matching inverse histone repression patterns on their promoter, while histone markers associated with an active state of genes were affected by the RAS-activated signalling pathway MEK-ERK-MSK1. Furthermore, we show that though the level of methyltransferases enzymes was increased, the status of H3 three-methylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me(3)), associated with gene repression on the promoter of Cyclin D1, was lower. Together, these results suggest that histone covalent modifications can be affected by oncogenic RAS pathways to regulate the expression of target genes like Cyclin D1 or E-cadherin and that the dynamic balance of opposing histone-modifying enzymes is critical for the regulation of cell proliferation.

  20. Oncogenic truncation of the first repeat of c-Myb decreases DNA binding in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Dini, P W; Lipsick, J S

    1993-01-01

    Oncogenic activation of c-Myb in both avian and murine systems often involves N-terminal truncation. In particular, the first of three DNA-binding repeats in c-Myb has been largely deleted during the genesis of the v-myb oncogenes of avian myeloblastosis virus and E26 avian leukemia virus. This finding suggests that the first DNA-binding repeat may have an important role in cell growth control. We demonstrate that truncation of the first DNA-binding repeat of c-Myb is sufficient for myeloid transformation in culture, but deletion of the N-terminal phosphorylation site and adjacent acidic region is not. Truncation of the first repeat decreases the ability of a Myb-VP16 fusion protein to trans activate the promoter of a Myb-inducible gene (mim-1) involved in differentiation. Moreover, truncation of the first repeat decreases the ability of the Myb protein to bind DNA both in vivo and in vitro. These results suggest that N-terminal mutants of c-Myb may transform by regulating only a subset of those genes normally regulated by c-Myb. Images PMID:8246954

  1. Targeting oncogenic KRAS in non-small cell lung cancer cells by phenformin inhibits growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi Dong; Wei, Sheng Quan; Wang, Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    Tumors require a vascular supply to grow and can achieve this via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors. Many potential oncogenic mutations have been identified in tumor angiogenesis. Somatic mutations in the small GTPase KRAS are the most common activating lesions found in human cancer, and are generally associated with poor response to standard therapies. Biguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have demonstrated anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. The extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling is known to be a major cellular target of biguanides. Based on KRAS activates several down-stream effectors leading to the stimulation of the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (RAF/MEK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of biguanides on the proliferation of KRAS-mutated tumor cells in vitro and on KRAS-driven tumor growth in vivo. In cancer cells harboring oncogenic KRAS, phenformin switches off the ERK pathway and inhibit the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules. In tumor xenografts harboring the KRAS mutation, phenformin extensively modifies the tumor growth causing abrogation of angiogenesis. These results strongly suggest that significant therapeutic advantage may be achieved by phenformin anti-angiogenesis for the treatment of tumor. PMID:26807315

  2. Herpesvirus saimiri strains from three DNA subgroups have different oncogenic potentials in New Zealand white rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Medveczky, M M; Szomolanyi, E; Hesselton, R; DeGrand, D; Geck, P; Medveczky, P G

    1989-01-01

    Herpesvirus saimiri is a primate tumor virus that induces acute T-cell lymphomas in New World monkeys. Strains of this virus have been previously classified into three groups on the basis of extreme DNA variability of the rightmost region of unique L-DNA. To compare the oncogenic potentials of various strains, we inoculated New Zealand White rabbits with viruses representing groups A, B, and C of herpesvirus saimiri. The results showed that a group C strain were highly oncogenic in New Zealand White rabbits; however, group A or B viruses were not oncogenic in these rabbits. Analysis of DNAs of tumor tissues and lymphoid cell lines established from tumors showed that the viral genome exists in circular episomal form. To identify which part of the genome of the group C strain is responsible for the highly oncogenic phenotype, group B-C recombinant strains were constructed by an efficient drug selection technique. Two group B recombinant strains in which the right-end 9.2 kilobase pairs of unique DNA is replaced by group C virus DNA were oncogenic in rabbits, indicating that the rightmost sequences contribute to the oncogenic properties of the group C strain. Oncogenicity of herpesvirus saimiri has been traditionally evaluated in New World monkeys; infection of rabbits with group C strain 484-77 offers a much more accessible animal model to study the mechanism of oncogenicity of this virus. Images PMID:2547988

  3. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  4. Dexamethasone-dependent inhibition of differentiation of C2 myoblasts bearing steroid-inducible N-ras oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    ras proteins are localized to the plasma membrane where they are postulated to interact with growth factor receptors and other proximal elements in intracellular cascades triggered by growth factors. The molecular events associated with terminal differentiation of certain skeletal myoblasts are inhibited by specific polypeptide growth factors and by constitutive expression of transforming ras oncogenes. To determine whether the inhibitory effects of ras on myogenic differentiation were reversible and to investigate whether muscle- specific genes remained susceptible to ras-dependent repression in terminally differentiated myotubes, the murine myoblast cell line, C2, was transfected with a plasmid containing a mutationally activated human N-ras oncogene under transcriptional control of the steroid- sensitive promoter of the mouse mammary tumor virus long terminal repeat. Addition of dexamethasone to myoblasts bearing steroid- inducible ras oncogenes prevented myotube formation and induction of muscle creatine kinase and acetylcholine receptors. Inhibition of differentiation by dexamethasone occurred in a dose-dependent manner and was a titratable function of ras expression. In the presence of dexamethasone, myoblasts bearing steroid-inducible ras genes retained their dependence on exogenous growth factors to divide and exhibited contact inhibition of growth at confluent densities, indicating that the inhibitory effects of ras on differentiation were independent of cell proliferation. Removal of dexamethasone from N-ras-transfected myoblasts led to fusion and induction of muscle-specific gene products in a manner indistinguishable from control C2 cells. Examination of the effects of culture media conditioned by ras-transfected myoblasts on differentiation of normal C2 cells yielded no evidence for inhibition of differentiation via an autocrine mechanism. In contrast to the ability of N-ras to prevent up-regulation of muscle-specific gene products in myoblasts

  5. Effect of gsp oncogene on somatostatin receptor subtype 1 and 2 mRNA levels in GHRH-responsive GH3 cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunhee; Sohn, Sookjin; Lee, Mina; Park, Cheolyoung; Jung, Jeechang; Park, Seungjoon

    2005-01-01

    Growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH) signals via G protein-coupled receptors (GHRH-R) to enhance intracellular Galphas/adenylyl cyclase/cAMP signaling, which in turn has positive effects on GH synthesis and release, as well as proliferation of the GH-producing cells of the anterior pituitary gland. Some GH-producing pituitary tumors express a constitutively active mutant form of Galphas (gsp oncogene). It has been reported that these tumors are more responsive to octreotide therapy. In this study we used a rat GH-producing cell line (GH3) stably transfected with the human GHRH-R cDNA (GH3-GHRHR cells) as a model to study the effects of gsp oncogene on somatostatin (SRIH) receptor subtype 1 and 2 (sst1 and sst2) mRNA levels. Transient transfection of gsp oncogene in GH3-GHRHR cells for 48 h increased intracellular cAMP levels and GH release. Phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4, sst1 and sst2 mRNA levels were increased by G protein mutation as assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Increased PDE mRNA levels in gsp-transfected cells may be a compensatory mechanism to the constitutive activation of cAMP-dependent pathway by G protein mutation and is consistent with reports of higher PDE expression in human pituitary tumor that express gsp. Our data suggest that higher expression of sst1 and sst2 mRNA induced by the gsp oncogene may be a mechanism by which gsp-positive tumors show a greater response to SRIH. GH3 cells permanently transfected with GHRH-R can be used for in vitro studies of actions of GHRH.

  6. TRKing down an old oncogene in a new era of targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Vaishnavi, Aria; Le, Anh; Doebele, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    The employment of high-throughput next-generation sequencing techniques in multiple tumor types during the last few years has identified NTRK1, 2, and 3 gene rearrangements encoding novel oncogenic fusions in 19 different tumor types to date. These recent developments have led us to revisit an old oncogene, Trk, (originally identified as OncD), which encodes the TPM3-NTRK1 gene fusion and was one of the first transforming chromosomal rearrangements identified 32 years ago. However, no drug has yet been approved by the US FDA for cancers harboring this oncogene. This review will discuss the biology of the Trk family of receptors, their role in human cancer, the types of oncogenic alterations, and drugs that are currently in development for this family of oncogene targets. PMID:25527197

  7. RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2008-04-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the target for molecularly designed drug therapy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting activated RET are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with MTC. This review will provide a brief overview of MTC and the associated RET oncogenic mutations, and will summarize the therapies designed to strategically interfere with the pathologic activation of the RET oncogene.

  8. Tumor-derived exosomes in oncogenic reprogramming and cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Saleem, Sarmad N; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B

    2015-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, effective communication between cells is a crucial part of cellular and tissue homeostasis. This communication mainly involves direct cell-cell contact as well as the secretion of molecules that bind to receptors at the recipient cells. However, a more recently characterized mode of intercellular communication-the release of membrane vesicles known as exosomes-has been the subject of increasing interest and intensive research over the past decade. Following the discovery of the exosome-mediated immune activation, the pathophysiological roles of exosomes have been recognized in different diseases, including cancer. In this review, we describe the biogenesis and main physical characteristics that define exosomes as a specific population of secreted vesicles, with a special focus on their role in oncogenic transformation and cancer progression.

  9. Structural Effects of Oncogenic PI3K alpha Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    S Gabelli; C Huang; D Mandelker; O Schmidt-Kittler; B Vogelstein; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    Physiological activation of PI3K{alpha} is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3K{alpha} result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  10. Structural effects of oncogenic PI3Kα mutations.

    PubMed

    Gabelli, Sandra B; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Mandelker, Diana; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Vogelstein, Bert; Amzel, L Mario

    2010-01-01

    Physiological activation of PI3Kα is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3Kα result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  11. An identity crisis for fps/fes: oncogene or tumor suppressor?

    PubMed

    Sangrar, Waheed; Zirgnibl, Ralph A; Gao, Yan; Muller, William J; Jia, Zongchao; Greer, Peter A

    2005-05-01

    Fps/Fes proteins were among the first members of the protein tyrosine kinase family to be characterized as dominant-acting oncoproteins. Addition of retroviral GAG sequences or other experimentally induced mutations activated the latent transforming potential of Fps/Fes. However, activating mutations in fps/fes had not been found in human tumors until recently, when mutational analysis of a panel of colorectal cancers identified four somatic mutations in sequences encoding the Fps/Fes kinase domain. Here, we report biochemical and theoretical structural analysis demonstrating that three of these mutations result in inactivation, not activation, of Fps/Fes, whereas the fourth mutation compromised in vivo activity. These results did not concur with a classic dominant-acting oncogenic role for fps/fes involving activating somatic mutations but instead raised the possibility that inactivating fps/fes mutations might promote tumor progression in vivo. Consistent with this, we observed that tumor onset in a mouse model of breast epithelial cancer occurred earlier in mice targeted with either null or kinase-inactivating fps/fes mutations. Furthermore, a fps/fes transgene restored normal tumor onset kinetics in targeted fps/fes null mice. These data suggest a novel and unexpected tumor suppressor role for Fps/Fes in epithelial cells.

  12. Acetylation directs survivin nuclear localization to repress STAT3 oncogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijuan; Holloway, Michael P; Ma, Li; Cooper, Zachary A; Riolo, Matthew; Samkari, Ayman; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Chin, Y Eugene; Altura, Rachel A

    2010-11-12

    The multiple functions of the oncofetal protein survivin are dependent on its selective expression patterns within immunochemically distinct subcellular pools. The mechanism by which survivin localizes to these compartments, however, is only partly understood. Here we show that nuclear accumulation of survivin is promoted by CREB-binding protein (CBP)-dependent acetylation on lysine 129 (129K, Lys-129). We demonstrate a mechanism by which survivin acetylation at this position results in its homodimerization, while deacetylation promotes the formation of survivin monomers that heterodimerize with CRM1 and facilitate its nuclear export. Using proteomic analysis, we identified the oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 as a binding partner of nuclear survivin. We show that acetylated survivin binds to the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain of the STAT3 dimer and represses STAT3 transactivation of target gene promoters. Using multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing, we identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (A → G) at Lys-129 that exists as a homozygous mutation in a neuroblastoma cell line and corresponds with a defect in survivin nuclear localization. Our results demonstrate that the dynamic equilibrium between survivin acetylation and deacetylation at amino acid 129 determines its interaction with CRM1, its subsequent subcellular localization, and its ability to inhibit STAT3 transactivation, providing a potential route for therapeutic intervention in STAT3-dependent tumors.

  13. Mitochondrial division is requisite to RAS-induced transformation and targeted by oncogenic MAPK pathway inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Serasinghe, Madhavika N.; Weider, Shira Y.; Renault, Thibaud T.; Elkholi, Rana; Asciolla, James J.; Yao, Jonathon L.; Jabado, Omar; Hoehn, Kyle; Kageyama, Yusuke; Sesaki, Hiromi; Chipuk, Jerry E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial division is essential for mitosis and metazoan development, but a mechanistic role in cancer biology remains unknown. Here, we examine the direct effects of oncogenic RASG12V mediated cellular transformation on the mitochondrial dynamics machinery and observe a positive selection for dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1), a protein required for mitochondrial network division. Loss of DRP1 prevents RASG12V-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and renders cells resistant to transformation. Conversely, in human tumor cell lines with activating MAPK mutations, inhibition of these signals leads to robust mitochondrial network reprogramming initiated by DRP1 loss resulting in mitochondrial hyper-fusion and increased mitochondrial metabolism. These phenotypes are mechanistically linked by ERK1/2 phosphorylation of DRP1 serine 616; DRP1S616 phosphorylation is sufficient to phenocopy transformation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and DRP1S616 phosphorylation status dichotomizes BRAFWt from BRAFV600E positive lesions. These findings implicate mitochondrial division and DRP1 as crucial regulators of transformation with unexpected leverage in chemotherapeutic success. PMID:25658204

  14. Satellite RNAs promote pancreatic oncogenic processes via the dysfunction of YBX1

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Takahiro; Otsuka, Motoyuki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Motoko; Ijichi, Hideaki; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Highly repetitive tandem arrays at the centromeric and pericentromeric regions in chromosomes, previously considered silent, are actively transcribed, particularly in cancer. This aberrant expression occurs even in K-ras-mutated pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues, which are precancerous lesions. To examine the biological roles of the satellite RNAs in carcinogenesis, we construct mouse PanIN-derived cells expressing major satellite (MajSAT) RNA and show increased malignant properties. We find an increase in frequency of chromosomal instability and point mutations in both genomic and mitochondrial DNA. We identify Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) as a protein that binds to MajSAT RNA. MajSAT RNA inhibits the nuclear translocation of YBX1 under stress conditions, thus reducing its DNA-damage repair function. The forced expression of YBX1 significantly decreases the aberrant phenotypes. These findings indicate that during the early stage of cancer development, satellite transcripts may act as ‘intrinsic mutagens' by inducing YBX1 dysfunction, which may be crucial in oncogenic processes. PMID:27667193

  15. Factors affecting responses to murine oncogenic viral infections.

    PubMed Central

    Harvey, J. J.; Rager-Zisman, B.; Wheelock, E. F.; Nevin, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Silica specifically kills macrophages in vitro, and in vivo has been used as a method of determining the possible immunological or other roles of macrophages in a number of viral infections. In experiments reported here, injection of 30 or 50 mg silica i.p. increased the severity of the oncogenic effects of the murine sarcoma virus (MSV) and Friend virus (FV) in BALB/c mice. Unlike Herpes simplex and Coxsackie B-3 infections, however, passive transfer of adult macrophages to suckling mice did not protect the latter against MSV. In mice injected with silica, histological evidence of the compensatory proliferation of macrophages suggests that precursors of these cells may act as target cells for the virus and that this may override any immunosuppressive response effected by the silica. In addition, there was a considerable enhancing effect on the erythroproliferative response to both MSV and FV by injection of saline 5 h before the virus, and indeed to FV after only a simple abdominal needle puncture. We attributed this to the lymphopenic immunodepressive effects of stress, and our data may explain previously published findings of augmented oncogenic responses in mice after "normal" serum injections. Newborn BALB/c (FV-1b) mice were susceptible to N-tropic FV, but developed resistance by 29 days of age. Antithymocyte serum (ATS) but not silica injections or adult thymectomy ablated this resistance. C57BL (FV-2r) mice were completely resistant to FV; however, those receiving FV and ATS developed late-onset leukaemia histologically characteristic of that produced by the helper component of the FV complex. Images Fig. PMID:6248095

  16. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Leonardi, Simona; Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela; Tanori, Mirella; De Stefano, Ilaria; Casciati, Arianna; Naus, Christian C.; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1{sup +/−}) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1{sup +/−} and Cx43{sup +/−} mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1{sup +/−} mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases.

  17. Reduced expression of AMPK-β1 during tumor progression enhances the oncogenic capacity of advanced ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a key energy sensor that is involved in regulating cell metabolism. Our previous study revealed that the subunits of the heterotimeric AMPK enzyme are diversely expressed during ovarian cancer progression. However, the impact of the variable expression of these AMPK subunits in ovarian cancer oncogenesis remains obscure. Here, we provide evidence to show that reduced expression of the AMPK-β1 subunit during tumor progression is associated with the increased oncogenic capacity of advanced ovarian cancer cells. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that AMPK-β1 levels were reduced in advanced-stage (P = 0.008), high-grade (P = 0.013) and metastatic ovarian cancers (P = 0.008). Intriguingly, down-regulation of AMPK-β1 was progressively reduced from tumor stages 1 to 3 of ovarian cancer. Functionally, enforced expression of AMPK-β1 inhibited ovarian-cancer-cell proliferation, anchorage-independent cell growth, cell migration and invasion. Conversely, depletion of AMPK-β1 by siRNA enhanced the oncogenic capacities of ovarian cancer cells, suggesting that the loss of AMPK-β1 favors the aggressiveness of ovarian cancer. Mechanistically, enforced expression of AMPK-β1 increased AMPK activity, which, in turn, induced cell-cycle arrest via inhibition of AKT/ERK signaling activity as well as impaired cell migration/invasion through the suppression of JNK signaling in ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that the reduced expression of AMPK-β1 confers lower AMPK activity, which enhances the oncogenic capacity of advanced-stage ovarian cancer. PMID:24602453

  18. Activated neu oncogene sequences in primary tumors of the peripheral nervous system induced in rats by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea.

    PubMed Central

    Perantoni, A O; Rice, J M; Reed, C D; Watatani, M; Wenk, M L

    1987-01-01

    Neurogenic tumors were selectively induced in high incidence in F344 rats by a single transplacental exposure to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). We prepared DNA for transfection of NIH 3T3 cells from primary glial tumors of the brain and from schwannomas of the cranial and spinal nerves that developed in the transplacentally exposed offspring between 20 and 40 weeks after birth. DNA preparations from 6 of 13 schwannomas, but not from normal liver, kidney, or intestine of tumor-bearing rats, transformed NIH 3T3 cells. NIH 3T3 clones transformed by schwannoma DNA contained rat repetitive DNA sequences, and all isolates contained rat neu oncogene sequences. One schwannoma yielded a transformant with rat-specific sequences for both neu and N-ras. A point mutation in the transmembrane region of the putative protein product of neu was identified in all six transformants and in the primary tumors from which they were derived as well as in 5 of 6 schwannomas tested that did not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Of 59 gliomas, only one yielded transforming DNA, and an activated N-ras oncogene was identified. The normal cellular neu sequence for the transmembrane region, but not the mutated sequence, was identified in DNA from all 11 gliomas surveyed by oligonucleotide hybridization. Activation of the neu oncogene, originally identified [Schechter, A.L., Stern, D.F., Vaidyanathan, L., Decker, S.J., Drebin, J.A., Greene, M.I. & Weinberg, R.A. (1984) Nature (London) 312, 513-516] in cultured cell lines derived from EtNU-induced neurogenic tumors that by biochemical but not histologic criteria were thought to originate in the central nervous system in BD-IX rats, appears specifically associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system in the F344 inbred strain. Images PMID:3476947

  19. Oncogenic function and clinical implications of SLC3A2-NRG1 fusion in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Dong Hoon; Lee, Donghoon; Wan Hong, Dong; Hyun Hong, Seung; Hwang, Jung-Ah; Il Lee, Byung; You, Hye Jin; Kook Lee, Geon; Kim, In-Hoo; Lee, Yeon-Su; Han, Ji-Youn

    2016-01-01

    The neuregulin 1 (NRG1) fusion is a recently identified novel driver oncogene in invasive mucinous adenocarcinoma of the lung (IMA). After identification of a case of SLC3A2-NRG1 in a patient with IMA, we verified this fusion gene in a cohort of 59 patients with IMA. Targeted cancer panel sequencing and RT-PCR identified the possible coexistence of other driver oncogenes. Among 59 IMAs, we found 16 NRG1 fusions (13 SLC3A2-NRG1 and 3 CD74-NRG1). Of 16 patients with NRG1 fusions, concurrent KRAS codon 12 mutations were found in 10 cases. We also found concurrent NRAS Q61L mutation and EML4-ALK fusion in additional two cases with NRG1 fusions. When comparing overall survival (OS) according to the presence of NRG1 fusions showed that patients harboring NRG1 fusions had significantly inferior OS than those without NRG1 fusions (hazard ratio = 0.286; 95% confidence interval, .094 to .865). Ectopic expression of the SLC3A2-NRG1 fusion in lung cancer cells increased cell migration, proliferation and tumor growth in vitro and in xenograft models, suggesting oncogenic function for the fusion protein. We found that the SLC3A2-NRG1 fusion promoted ERBB2-ERBB3 phosphorylation and heteroduplex formation and activated the downstream PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway through paracrine signaling. These findings suggested that the SLC3A2-NRG1 fusion was a driver in IMA with an important prognostic impact. SLC3A2-NRG1 should be considered a therapeutic target for patients with IMA. PMID:27626312

  20. CHK2-BRCA1 tumor-suppressor axis restrains oncogenic Aurora-A kinase to ensure proper mitotic microtubule assembly.

    PubMed

    Ertych, Norman; Stolz, Ailine; Valerius, Oliver; Braus, Gerhard H; Bastians, Holger

    2016-02-16

    BRCA1 (breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein) is a multifunctional tumor suppressor involved in DNA damage response, DNA repair, chromatin regulation, and mitotic chromosome segregation. Although the nuclear functions of BRCA1 have been investigated in detail, its role during mitosis is little understood. It is clear, however, that loss of BRCA1 in human cancer cells leads to chromosomal instability (CIN), which is defined as a perpetual gain or loss of whole chromosomes during mitosis. Moreover, our recent work has revealed that the mitotic function of BRCA1 depends on its phosphorylation by the tumor-suppressor kinase Chk2 (checkpoint kinase 2) and that this regulation is required to ensure normal microtubule plus end assembly rates within mitotic spindles. Intriguingly, loss of the positive regulation of BRCA1 leads to increased oncogenic Aurora-A activity, which acts as a mediator for abnormal mitotic microtubule assembly resulting in chromosome missegregation and CIN. However, how the CHK2-BRCA1 tumor suppressor axis restrains oncogenic Aurora-A during mitosis to ensure karyotype stability remained an open question. Here we uncover a dual molecular mechanism by which the CHK2-BRCA1 axis restrains oncogenic Aurora-A activity during mitosis and identify BRCA1 itself as a target for Aurora-A relevant for CIN. In fact, Chk2-mediated phosphorylation of BRCA1 is required to recruit the PP6C-SAPS3 phosphatase, which acts as a T-loop phosphatase inhibiting Aurora-A bound to BRCA1. Consequently, loss of CHK2 or PP6C-SAPS3 promotes Aurora-A activity associated with BRCA1 in mitosis. Aurora-A, in turn, then phosphorylates BRCA1 itself, thereby inhibiting the mitotic function of BRCA1 and promoting mitotic microtubule assembly, chromosome missegregation, and CIN.

  1. Simultaneous inhibition of multiple oncogenic miRNAs by a multi-potent microRNA sponge.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaeyun; Yeom, Chanjoo; Choi, Yeon-Sook; Kim, Sinae; Lee, EunJi; Park, Min Ji; Kang, Sang Wook; Kim, Sung Bae; Chang, Suhwan

    2015-08-21

    The roles of oncogenic miRNAs are widely recognized in many cancers. Inhibition of single miRNA using antagomiR can efficiently knock-down a specific miRNA. However, the effect is transient and often results in subtle phenotype, as there are other miRNAs contribute to tumorigenesis. Here we report a multi-potent miRNA sponge inhibiting multiple miRNAs simultaneously. As a model system, we targeted miR-21, miR-155 and miR-221/222, known as oncogenic miRNAs in multiple tumors including breast and pancreatic cancers. To achieve efficient knockdown, we generated perfect and bulged-matched miRNA binding sites (MBS) and introduced multiple copies of MBS, ranging from one to five, in the multi-potent miRNA sponge. Luciferase reporter assay showed the multi-potent miRNA sponge efficiently inhibited 4 miRNAs in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, a stable and inducible version of the multi-potent miRNA sponge cell line showed the miRNA sponge efficiently reduces the level of 4 target miRNAs and increase target protein level of these oncogenic miRNAs. Finally, we showed the miRNA sponge sensitize cells to cancer drug and attenuate cell migratory activity. Altogether, our study demonstrates the multi-potent miRNA sponge is a useful tool to examine the functional impact of simultaneous inhibition of multiple miRNAs and proposes a therapeutic potential.

  2. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search for: Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health Email People Departments Calendar Careers Give my.harvard ... Nutrition Source Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health > The Nutrition Source > What Should I Eat? > Protein ...

  3. Protein

    MedlinePlus

    ... Go lean with protein. • Choose lean meats and poultry. Lean beef cuts include round steaks (top loin, ... main dishes. • Use nuts to replace meat or poultry, not in addition to meat or poultry (i. ...

  4. miR-31 targets ARID1A and enhances the oncogenicity and stemness of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Wen-Cheng; Liu, Chung-Ji; Tu, Hsi-Feng; Chung, Yu-Tung; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Kao, Shou-Yen; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Lin, Shu-Chun

    2016-01-01

    miR-31 is oncogenic for head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Proteins containing the AT-rich interacting domain (ARID) modulate the accessibility of chromatin to the transcription machinery needed for gene expression. In this study, we showed that miR-31 was able to target ARID1A in HNSCC. HNSCC tumors had an inverse miR-31 and ARID1A expression. miR-31 associated oncogenicities were rescued by ARID1A expression in HNSCC cells. Furthermore, ARID1A repressed the stemness properties and transcriptional activity of Nanog/OCT4/Sox2/EpCAM via the protein's affinity for AT-rich sites within promoters. HNSCC patients with tumors having high level of miR-31 expression and high levels of Nanog/OCT4/Sox2/EpCAM expression, together with low level of ARID1A expression, were found to have the worst survival. This study provides novel mechanistic clues demonstrating that miR-31 inhibits ARID1A and that this enriches the oncogenicity and stemness of HNSCC. PMID:27528032

  5. A G-Rich Sequence within the c-kit Oncogene Promoter Forms a Parallel G-Quadruplex Having Asymmetric G-Tetrad Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P.; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  6. The relationship between expressions of N-myc and c-myc oncogenes in neuroblastoma: an in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical study.

    PubMed

    Zhe, X; Chen, J; Liu, T; Zhang, L; Li, P; Wang, D

    1999-06-01

    N-myc gene amplification is the most characteristic feature of neuroblastoma. c-myc oncogene, another member of myc gene family, plays an important role in cell proliferation and differentiation. Both of them may contribute to tumorigenesis of neuroblastoma. In this study we use the in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods to test the frequencies of N-myc and c-myc expressions in 20 cases of human neuroblastoma at mRNA and protein levels. The positive rates of the expression of N-myc are 90% and 100% detected by in situ hybridization and immunocytochemical methods respectively. The positive rates of c-myc are 80% and 85% respectively. Sixty percent of the 20 specimens tested by in situ hybridization and 55% by immunocytochemistry show an inverse relationship between the expressions of these two oncogenes and this may indicate that there are different gene expression controlling mechanisms in different cases.

  7. Platelet-derived growth factor agonist activity of a secreted form of the v-sis oncogene product

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, A.; Betsholtz, C.; von der Helm, K.; Heldin, C.H.; Westermark, B.

    1985-03-01

    The authors have compared the functional properties of a growth factor partially purified from medium conditioned by simian sarcoma virus-transformed cells with those of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The factor mimicked the effects induced by PDGF: it bound to and activated human fibroblast PDGF receptors and stimulated DNA synthesis. The factor behaved as a secretory protein, since about 95% of the receptor-binding activity was found in the medium after a 48-hr serum-free incubation. Structural characterization of the PDGF-like activity revealed a M/sub r/ 24,000 intracellular protein and two polypeptides of M/sub r/ 13,000 and 11,500 released into the medium. The M/sub r/ 13,000 component bound to human fibroblasts; this binding was competitively inhibited by PDGF. The data support the possibility that oncogene products may elicit transforming activity by interacting with the normal cellular mitogenic pathway.

  8. Long-term exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to ethanol stimulates oncogenic features

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Robert; Vernet, Dolores; Bruhn, Kevin W.; Sarkissyan, Suren; Heber, David; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F.

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for breast cancer. Little is known regarding the mechanism, although it is assumed that acetaldehyde or estrogen mediated pathways play a role. We previously showed that long-term exposure to 2.5 mM ethanol (blood alcohol ~0.012%) of MCF-12A, a human normal epithelial breast cell line, induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and oncogenic transformation. In this study, we investigated in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, whether a similar exposure to ethanol at concentrations ranging up to peak blood levels in heavy drinkers would increase malignant progression. Short-term (1-week) incubation to ethanol at as low as 1–5 mM (corresponding to blood alcohol concentration of ~0.0048–0.024%) upregulated the stem cell related proteins Oct4 and Nanog, but they were reduced after exposure at 25 mM. Long-term (4-week) exposure to 25 mM ethanol upregulated the Oct4 and Nanog proteins, as well as the malignancy marker Ceacam6. DNA microarray analysis in cells exposed for 1 week showed upregulated expression of metallothionein genes, particularly MT1X. Long-term exposure upregulated expression of some malignancy related genes (STEAP4, SERPINA3, SAMD9, GDF15, KRT15, ITGB6, TP63, and PGR, as well as the CEACAM, interferon related, and HLA gene families). Some of these findings were validated by RT-PCR. A similar treatment also modulated numerous microRNAs (miRs) including one regulator of Oct4 as well as miRs involved in oncogenesis and/or malignancy, with only a few estrogen-induced miRs. Long-term 25 mM ethanol also induced a 5.6-fold upregulation of anchorage-independent growth, an indicator of malignant-like features. Exposure to acetaldehyde resulted in little or no effect comparable to that of ethanol. The previously shown alcohol induction of oncogenic transformation of normal breast cells is now complemented by the current results suggesting alcohol's potential involvement in malignant progression of breast cancer

  9. Long-term exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to ethanol stimulates oncogenic features.

    PubMed

    Gelfand, Robert; Vernet, Dolores; Bruhn, Kevin W; Sarkissyan, Suren; Heber, David; Vadgama, Jaydutt V; Gonzalez-Cadavid, Nestor F

    2017-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is a risk factor for breast cancer. Little is known regarding the mechanism, although it is assumed that acetaldehyde or estrogen mediated pathways play a role. We previously showed that long-term exposure to 2.5 mM ethanol (blood alcohol ~0.012%) of MCF-12A, a human normal epithelial breast cell line, induced epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and oncogenic transformation. In this study, we investigated in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7, whether a similar exposure to ethanol at concentrations ranging up to peak blood levels in heavy drinkers would increase malignant progression. Short-term (1-week) incubation to ethanol at as low as 1-5 mM (corresponding to blood alcohol concentration of ~0.0048-0.024%) upregulated the stem cell related proteins Oct4 and Nanog, but they were reduced after exposure at 25 mM. Long-term (4-week) exposure to 25 mM ethanol upregulated the Oct4 and Nanog proteins, as well as the malignancy marker Ceacam6. DNA microarray analysis in cells exposed for 1 week showed upregulated expression of metallothionein genes, particularly MT1X. Long-term exposure upregulated expression of some malignancy related genes (STEAP4, SERPINA3, SAMD9, GDF15, KRT15, ITGB6, TP63, and PGR, as well as the CEACAM, interferon related, and HLA gene families). Some of these findings were validated by RT-PCR. A similar treatment also modulated numerous microRNAs (miRs) including one regulator of Oct4 as well as miRs involved in oncogenesis and/or malignancy, with only a few estrogen-induced miRs. Long-term 25 mM ethanol also induced a 5.6-fold upregulation of anchorage-independent growth, an indicator of malignant-like features. Exposure to acetaldehyde resulted in little or no effect comparable to that of ethanol. The previously shown alcohol induction of oncogenic transformation of normal breast cells is now complemented by the current results suggesting alcohol's potential involvement in malignant progression of breast cancer.

  10. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  11. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta; Delogu, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giampiero; Farace, Cristiano; Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Olivero, Martina; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT.

  12. Minimal contribution of ERK1/2-MAPK signalling towards the maintenance of oncogenic GNAQQ209P-driven uveal melanomas in zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Mouti, Mai Abdel; Dee, Christopher; Coupland, Sarah E.; Hurlstone, Adam F.L.

    2016-01-01

    Mutations affecting Gαq proteins are pervasive in uveal melanoma (UM), suggesting they ‘drive’ UM pathogenesis. The ERK1/2-MAPK pathway is critical for cutaneous melanoma development and consequently an important therapeutic target. Defining the contribution of ERK1/2-MAPK signalling to UM development has been hampered by the lack of an informative animal model that spontaneously develops UM. Towards this end, we engineered transgenic zebrafish to express oncogenic GNAQQ209P in the melanocyte lineage. This resulted in hyperplasia of uveal melanocytes, but with no evidence of malignant progression, nor perturbation of skin melanocytes. Combining expression of oncogenic GNAQQ209P with p53 inactivation resulted in earlier onset and even more extensive hyperplasia of uveal melanocytes that progressed to UM. Immunohistochemistry revealed only weak immunoreactivity to phosphorylated (p)ERK1/2 in established uveal tumours—in contrast to strong immunoreactivity in oncogenic RAS-driven skin lesions—but ubiquitous positive staining for nuclear Yes-associated protein (YAP). Moreover, no changes were observed in pERK1/2 levels upon transient knockdown of GNAQ or phospholipase C-beta (PLC-β) inhibition in the majority of human UM cell lines we tested harbouring GNAQ mutations. In summary, our findings demonstrate a weak correlation between oncogenic GNAQQ209P mutation and sustained ERK1/2-MAPK activation, implying that ERK1/2 signalling is unlikely to be instrumental in the maintenance of GNAQQ209P-driven UMs. PMID:27166257

  13. Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Toll, Agustí; Fernández-Casado, Alejandro; Earl, Julie; Marqués, Miriam; Acquadro, Francesco; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Urioste, Miguel; Malats, Núria; Burns, Julie E.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Hartmann, Arndt; Vogt, Thomas; Landthaler, Michael; Pujol, Ramón M.; Real, Francisco X.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona fide oncogenic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, EGFR, and AKT1 oncogenes but not in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and PTEN. Despite the occurrence of oncogenic mutations and the evidence for downstream ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling, we did not find induction of senescence or a DNA damage response. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed that SK are genetically stable. The pattern of oncogenic mutations and X chromosome inactivation departs significantly from randomness and indicates that spatially independent lesions from a given patient share a clonal relationship. Our findings show that multiple oncogenic mutations in the major signaling pathways involved in cancer are not sufficient to drive malignant tumor progression. Furthermore, our data provide clues on the origin and spread of oncogenic mutations in tissues, suggesting that apparently independent (multicentric) adult benign tumors may have a clonal origin. PMID:21078999

  14. DNA damage and repair in oncogenic transformation by heavy ion radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. One of the most important late effects in risk assessment is carcinogenesis. We have studied the carcinogenic effects of heavy ions at the cellular and molecular levels and have obtained quantitative data on dose-response curves and on the repair of oncogenic lesions for heavy particles with various charges and energies. Studies with repair inhibitors and restriction endonucleases indicated that for oncogenic transformation DNA is the primary target. Results from heavy ion experiments showed that the cross section increased with LET and reached a maximum value of about 0.02 micrometer2 at about 500 keV/micrometer. This limited size of cross section suggests that only a fraction of cellular genomic DNA is important in radiogenic transformation. Free radical scavengers, such as DMSO, do not give any effect on induction of oncogenic transformation by 600 MeV/u iron particles, suggesting most oncogenic damage induced by high-LET heavy ions is through direct action. Repair studies with stationary phase cells showed that the amount of reparable oncogenic lesions decreased with an increase of LET and that heavy ions with LET greater than 200 keV/micrometer produced only irreparable oncogenic damage. An enhancement effect for oncogenic transformation was observed in cells irradiated by low-dose-rate argon ions (400 MeV/u; 120 keV/micrometer). Chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation and deletion, but not sister chromatid exchange, are essential for heavy-ion-induced oncogenic transformation. The basic mechanism(s) of misrepair of DNA damage, which form oncogenic lesions, is unknown.

  15. Positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling mediates oncogenic property of RARα in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gui-Li; Liu, Yu; Shen, Jin-Xing; Zhou, Pan; Liu, Wen-Ming; Shen, Dong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal expression and function of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) have been reported to be associated with various cancers including acute promyelocytic leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role and the mechanism of RARα in gastric carcinoma (GC) were unknown. Here, the expression of RARα was frequently elevated in human GC tissues and cell lines, and its overexpression was closely correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and clinical stages in GC patients. Moreover, RARα overexpression was related with pathological differentiation. Functionally, RARα knockdown inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of GC cells, as well as enhanced drug susceptibility both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, RARα knockdown suppressed GC progression through regulating the expression of cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and drug resistance associated proteins, such as PCNA, CyclinB1, CyclinD2, CyclinE, p21, MMP9 and MDR1. Mechanistically, the above oncogenic properties of RARα in GC were closely associated with Akt signaling activation. Moreover, overexpression of RARα was induced by IL-1β/Akt signaling activation, which suggested a positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling in GC. Taken together, we demonstrated that RARα was frequently elevated in GC and exerted oncogenic properties. It might be a potential molecular target for GC treatment. PMID:28035062

  16. The Oncogenic Lung Cancer Fusion Kinase CD74-ROS Activates a Novel Invasiveness Pathway Through E-Syt1 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun Jung; Johnson, Hannah; Bronson, Roderick T.; de Feraudy, Sebastien; White, Forest; Charest, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer often present with metastatic disease and therefore have a very poor prognosis. The recent discovery of several novel ROS receptor tyrosine kinase molecular alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a therapeutic opportunity for the development of new targeted treatment strategies. Here, we report that the NSCLC-derived fusion CD74-ROS, which accounts for 30% of all ROS fusion kinases in NSCLC, is an active and oncogenic tyrosine kinase. We found that CD74-ROS expressing cells were highly invasive in vitro and metastatic in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of CD74-ROS kinase activity reversed its transforming capacity by attenuating downstrream signaling networks. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics, we uncovered a mechanism by which CD74-ROS activates a novel pathway driving cell invasion. Expression of CD74-ROS resulted in the phosphorylation of the extended synaptotagmin-like protein E-Syt1. Elimination of E-Syt1 expression drastically reduced invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo without modifying the oncogenic activity of CD74-ROS. Furthermore, expression of CD74-ROS in non-invasive NSCLC cell lines readily confered invasive properties that paralleled the acquisition of E-Syt1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings indicate that E-Syt1 is a mediator of cancer cell invasion and molecularly define ROS fusion kinases as therapeutic targets in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:22659450

  17. The EBV oncogene LMP1 protects lymphoma cells from cell death through the collagen-mediated activation of DDR1.

    PubMed

    Cader, Fathima Zumla; Vockerodt, Martina; Bose, Shikha; Nagy, Eszter; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Kearns, Pamela; Murray, Paul G

    2013-12-19

    The malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma are surrounded by a tumor microenvironment that is composed of a variety of cell types, as well as noncellular components such as collagen. Although HRS cells harbor oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in approximately 50% of cases, it is not known if the tumor microenvironment contributes to EBV-driven lymphomagenesis. We show that expression of the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) in primary human germinal center B cells, the presumed progenitors of HRS cells, upregulates discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by collagen. We also show that HRS cells intimately associated with collagen frequently overexpress DDR1 and that short-term exposure to collagen is sufficient to activate DDR1 in Hodgkin lymphoma-derived cell lines. The ectopic expression of DDR1 significantly increased the survival of collagen-treated DG75 Burkitt lymphoma cells, following etoposide treatment. Conversely, knockdown of DDR1 significantly decreased the survival of collagen-treated L428 Hodgkin lymphoma cells in the absence of specific apoptotic stimulus, suggesting that DDR1 also influences baseline survival. Our results identify a hitherto unknown function for collagen in protecting Hodgkin lymphoma cells from apoptosis and suggest an important contribution of the tumor microenvironment in promoting the oncogenic effects of EBV.

  18. Estrogen receptor alpha inhibits senescence-like phenotype and facilitates transformation induced by oncogenic ras in human mammary epithelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhao; Wang, Long; Yang, Junhua; Bandyopadhyay, Abhik; Kaklamani, Virginia; Wang, Shui; Sun, Lu-Zhe

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to estrogen has long been associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer. However, how estrogen signaling promotes breast carcinogenesis remains elusive. Senescence is known as an important protective response to oncogenic events. We aimed to elucidate the role of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) on senescence in transformed human mammary epithelial cells and breast cancer cells. Our results show that ectopic expression of oncoprotein H-ras-V12 in immortalized human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC) significantly inhibited the phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (Rb) and increased the activity of the senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-β-Gal). These senescence-like phenotypes were reversed by ectopic expression of ERα. Similar inhibition of the H-ras-V12-induced SA-β-Gal activity by ERα was also observed in the human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells. Co-expression of ERα and H-ras-V12 resulted in HMEC anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in vivo. Furthermore, inhibition of ERα expression induced senescence-like phenotypes in ERα positive human breast cancer cells such as increased activity of SA-β-Gal, decreased phosphorylation of RB, and loss of mitogenic activity. Thus, the suppression of cellular senescence induced by oncogenic signals may be a major mechanism by which ERα promotes breast carcinogenesis. PMID:27259243

  19. RUNX3 is oncogenic in natural killer/T-cell lymphoma and is transcriptionally regulated by MYC.

    PubMed

    Selvarajan, V; Osato, M; Nah, G S S; Yan, J; Chung, T-H; Voon, D C-C; Ito, Y; Ham, M F; Salto-Tellez, M; Shimizu, N; Choo, S-N; Fan, S; Chng, W-J; Ng, S-B

    2017-02-17

    RUNX3, runt-domain transcription factor, is a master regulator of gene expression in major developmental pathways. It acts as a tumor suppressor in many cancers but is oncogenic in certain tumors. We observed upregulation of RUNX3 mRNA and protein expression in nasal-type extranodal natural killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma (NKTL) patient samples and NKTL cell lines compared to normal NK cells. RUNX3 silenced NKTL cells showed increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation. Potential binding sites for MYC were identified in the RUNX3 enhancer region. Chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative PCR revealed binding activity between MYC and RUNX3. Co-transfection of the MYC expression vector with RUNX3 enhancer reporter plasmid resulted in activation of RUNX3 enhancer indicating that MYC positively regulates RUNX3 transcription in NKTL cell lines. Treatment with a small-molecule MYC inhibitor (JQ1) caused significant downregulation of MYC and RUNX3, leading to apoptosis in NKTL cells. The growth inhibition resulting from depletion of MYC by JQ1 was rescued by ectopic MYC expression. In summary, our study identified RUNX3 overexpression in NKTL with functional oncogenic properties. We further delineate that MYC may be an important upstream driver of RUNX3 upregulation and since MYC is upregulated in NKTL, further study on the employment of MYC inhibition as a therapeutic strategy is warranted.Leukemia advance online publication, 17 February 2017; doi:10.1038/leu.2017.40.

  20. Oncogenic signals of HER-2/neu in regulating the stability of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27.

    PubMed

    Yang, H Y; Zhou, B P; Hung, M C; Lee, M H

    2000-08-11

    Overexpression and activation of HER-2/neu, a proto-oncogene, play a pivotal role in cancer formation. Strong expression of HER-2/neu in cancers has been associated with poor prognosis. Reduced expression of p27(Kip1), a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, correlates with poor clinical outcome in many types of carcinomas. Because many cancers with the overexpression of HER-2/neu overlap with those affected by reduced p27 expression, we studied the link between HER-2/neu oncogenic signals and p27 regulation. We found that down-regulation of p27 correlates with HER-2/neu overexpression. To address the molecular mechanism of this inverse correlation, we found that reduction of p27 is caused by enhanced ubiquitin-mediated degradation, and the HER-2/Grb2/MAPK pathway is involved in the decrease of p27 stability. Also, HER-2/neu activity causes mislocation of p27 and Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (JAB1), an exporter of p27, into the cytoplasm, thereby facilitating p27 degradation. These results reveal that HER-2/neu signals reduce p27 stability and thus present potential points for therapeutic intervention in HER-2/neu-associated cancers.

  1. HPV positive neuroendocrine cervical cancer cells are dependent on Myc but not E6/E7 viral oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Hang; Krawczyk, Ewa; Blancato, Jan; Albanese, Christopher; Zhou, Dan; Wang, Naidong; Paul, Siddartha; Alkhilaiwi, Faris; Palechor-Ceron, Nancy; Dakic, Aleksandra; Fang, Shuang; Choudhary, Sujata; Hou, Tung-Wei; Zheng, Yun-Ling; Haddad, Bassem R.; Usuda, Yukari; Hartmann, Dan; Symer, David; Gillison, Maura; Agarwal, Seema; Wangsa, Danny; Ried, Thomas; Liu, Xuefeng; Schlegel, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Using conditional cell reprogramming, we generated a stable cell culture of an extremely rare and aggressive neuroendocrine cervical cancer. The cultured cells contained HPV-16, formed colonies in soft agar and rapidly produced tumors in immunodeficient mice. The HPV-16 genome was integrated adjacent to the Myc gene, both of which were amplified 40-fold. Analysis of RNA transcripts detected fusion of the HPV/Myc genes, arising from apparent microhomologous recombination. Spectral karyotyping (SKY) and fluorescent-in-situ hybridization (FISH) demonstrated coordinate localization and translocation of the amplified Myc and HPV genes on chromosomes 8 and 21. Similar to the primary tumor, tumor cell cultures expressed very high levels of the Myc protein and, in contrast to all other HPV-positive cervical cancer cell lines, they harbored a gain-of-function mutation in p53 (R273C). Unexpectedly, viral oncogene knockdown had no effect on the growth of the cells, but it did inhibit the proliferation of a conventional HPV-16 positive cervical cancer cell line. Knockdown of Myc, but not the mutant p53, significantly inhibited tumor cell proliferation. On the basis of these data, we propose that the primary driver of transformation in this aggressive cervical cancer is not HPV oncogene expression but rather the overexpression of Myc. PMID:28378747

  2. Resistance to oncogenic transformation in revertant R1 of human ras-transformed NIH 3T3 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzumaki, N.; Ogiso, Y.; Oda, A.; Fujita, H.; Suzuki, H.; Sato, C.; Mullauer, L.

    1989-05-01

    A flat revertant, R1, was isolated from human activated c-Ha-ras-1 (hu-ac-Ha-ras) gene-transformed NIH 3T3 cells (EJ-NIH 3T3) treated with mutagens. R1 contained unchanged transfected hu-ac-Ha-ras DNA and expressed high levels of hu-ac-Ha-ras-specific mRNA and p21 protein. Transfection experiments revealed that NIH 3T3 cells could be transformed by DNA from R1 cells but R1 cells could not be retransformed by Kirsten sarcoma virus, DNA from EJ-NIH 3T3 cells, hu-ac-Ha-ras, v-src, v-mos, simian virus 40 large T antigen, or polyomavirus middle T antigen. Somatic cell hybridization studies showed that R1 was not retransformed by fusion with NIH 3T3 cells and suppressed anchorage independence of EJ-NIH 3T3 and hu-ac-Ha-ras gene-transformed rat W31 cells in soft agar. These results suggest that the reversion and resistance to several oncogenes in R1 is due n not to cellular defects in the production of the transformed phenotype but rather to enhancement of cellular mechanisms that suppress oncogenic transformation.

  3. An in vivo screen identifies ependymoma oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Currle, David S; White, Elsie; Boulos, Nidal; Dapper, Jason; Eden, Christopher; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Thiruvenkatam, Radhika; Connelly, Michele; Kranenburg, Tanya A; Neale, Geoffrey; Olsen, Scott; Wang, Yong-Dong; Finkelstein, David; Wright, Karen; Gupta, Kirti; Ellison, David W; Thomas, Arzu Onar; Gilbertson, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Cancers are characterized by non-random chromosome copy number alterations that presumably contain oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes (TSGs). The affected loci are often large, making it difficult to pinpoint which genes are driving the cancer. Here we report a cross-species in vivo screen of 84 candidate oncogenes and 39 candidate TSGs, located within 28 recurrent chromosomal alterations in ependymoma. Through a series of mouse models, we validate eight new ependymoma oncogenes and ten new ependymoma TSGs that converge on a small number of cell functions, including vesicle trafficking, DNA modification and cholesterol biosynthesis, identifying these as potential new therapeutic targets.

  4. An in vivo screen identifies ependymoma oncogenes and tumor-suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M.; Currle, David S.; White, Elsie; Boulos, Nidal; Dapper, Jason; Eden, Christopher; Nimmervoll, Birgit; Thiruvenkatam, Radhika; Connelly, Michele; Kranenburg, Tanya A.; Neale, Geoffrey; Olsen, Scott; Wang, Yong-Dong; Finkelstein, David; Wright, Karen; Gupta, Kirti; Ellison, David W.; Thomas, Arzu Onar; Gilbertson, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancers are characterized by non-random, chromosome copy number alterations that presumably contain oncogenes and tumor–suppressor genes (TSGs). The affected loci are often large, making it difficult to pinpoint which genes are driving the cancer. Here, we report a cross-species in vivo screen of 84 candidate oncogenes and 39 candidate TSGs, located within 28 recurrent chromosomal alterations in ependymoma. Through a series of mouse models we validate eight new ependymoma oncogenes and 10 ependymoma TSGs that converge on a small number of cell functions including vesicle trafficking, DNA modification and cholesterol biosynthesis, pinpointing these as potential new therapeutic targets. PMID:26075792

  5. Cancer genes: rare recombinants instead of activated oncogenes (a review).

    PubMed Central

    Duesberg, P H

    1987-01-01

    The 20 known transforming (onc) genes of retroviruses are defined by sequences that are transduced from cellular genes termed protooncogenes or cellular oncogenes. Based on these sequences, viral onc genes have been postulated to be transduced cellular cancer genes, and proto-onc genes have been postulated to be latent cancer genes that can be activated from within the cell to cause virus-negative tumors. The hypothesis is popular because it promises direct access to cellular cancer genes. However, the existence of latent cancer genes presents a paradox, since such genes are clearly undesirable. The hypothesis predicts that viral onc genes and proto-onc genes are isogenic; that expression of proto-onc genes induces tumors; that activated proto-onc genes transform diploid cells upon transfection, like viral onc genes; and that diploid tumors exist. As yet, none of these predictions is confirmed. Instead: Structural comparisons between viral onc genes, essential retroviral genes, and proto-onc genes show that all viral onc genes are indeed new genes, rather than transduced cellular cancer genes. They are recombinants put together from truncated viral and truncated proto-onc genes. Proto-onc genes are frequently expressed in normal cells. To date, not one activated proto-onc gene has been isolated that transforms diploid cells. Above all, no diploid tumors with activated proto-onc genes have been found. Moreover, the probability of spontaneous transformation in vivo is at least 10(9) times lower than predicted from the mechanisms thought to activate proto-onc genes. Therefore, the hypothesis that proto-onc genes are latent cellular oncogenes appears to be an overinterpretation of sequence homology to structural and functional homology with viral onc genes. Here it is proposed that only rare truncations and illegitimate recombinations that alter the germ-line configuration of cellular genes generate viral and possibly cellular cancer genes. The clonal chromosome

  6. PUMA and BIM are required for oncogene inactivation-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bean, Gregory R; Ganesan, Yogesh Tengarai; Dong, Yiyu; Takeda, Shugaku; Liu, Han; Chan, Po M; Huang, Yafen; Chodosh, Lewis A; Zambetti, Gerard P; Hsieh, James J-D; Cheng, Emily H-Y

    2013-03-26

    The clinical efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors supports the dependence of distinct subsets of cancers on specific driver mutations for survival, a phenomenon called "oncogene addiction." We demonstrate that PUMA and BIM are the key apoptotic effectors of tyrosine kinase inhibitors in breast cancers with amplification of the gene encoding human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and lung cancers with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutants. The BH3 domain containing proteins BIM and PUMA can directly activate the proapoptotic proteins BAX and BAK to permeabilize mitochondria, leading to caspase activation and apoptosis. We delineated the signal transduction pathways leading to the induction of BIM and PUMA by tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Inhibition of the mitogen-activated or extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase kinase (MEK)-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway caused increased abundance of BIM, whereas antagonizing the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathway triggered nuclear translocation of the FOXO transcription factors, which directly activated the PUMA promoter. In a mouse breast tumor model, the abundance of PUMA and BIM was increased after inactivation of HER2. Moreover, deficiency of Bim or Puma impaired caspase activation and reduced tumor regression caused by inactivation of HER2. Similarly, deficiency of Puma impeded the regression of EGFR(L858R)-driven mouse lung tumors upon inactivation of the EGFR-activating mutant. Overall, our study identified PUMA and BIM as the sentinels that interconnect kinase signaling networks and the mitochondrion-dependent apoptotic program, which offers therapeutic insights for designing novel cell death mechanism-based anticancer strategies.

  7. AN ENZYMATIC FUNCTION ASSOCIATED WITH TRANSFORMATION OF FIBROBLASTS BY ONCOGENIC VIRUSES

    PubMed Central

    Ossowski, L.; Unkeless, J. C.; Tobia, A.; Quigley, J. P.; Rifkin, D. B.; Reich, E.

    1973-01-01

    Chick, hamster, mouse, and rat embryo fibroblast cultures, transformed by either DNA or RNA viruses, show fibrinolytic activity under suitable conditions of growth and in appropriate media; normal counterpart cultures do not. The fibrinolysin is produced by the interaction of two protein factors: one of these, a cell factor, is released by transformed cells and accumulates in the medium when cultures are incubated in the absence of scrum. The second factor, the serum factor, is a specific protein that is present in sera of many avian and mammalian species, including man. Not all sera yield fibrinolysin on interaction with any given transformed cell factor, and the spectrum of activating sera is distinctive for each cell factor. This pattern appears to be determined by the cell type, rather than by the transforming virus. An important role for the fibrinolysin in oncogenic transformation is suggested by the following correlations. (a) The initial appearance of fibrinolysin precedes the morphological change after the transfer to permissive temperatures of chick fibroblast cultures infected with a temperature-sensitive mutant of RSV. (b) The initiation of fibrinolysis and of morphological change both require the synthesis of new protein, but not the synthesis of either DNA or rRNA. (c) The activity of the fibrinolysin is correlated with the retention of abnormal morphology in hamster cells transformed by SV-40. (d) The sera of normal chicks effectively activate fibrinolysis with the cell factor from transformed chick cells. In contrast the sera of chicks with RSV tumors do not; these contain an inhibitor of the fibrinolytic activity. PMID:4347288

  8. The role of homeostatic regulation between tumor suppressor DAB2IP and oncogenic Skp2 in prostate cancer growth

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Yuh-Shyan; Lai, Chen-Li; Lai, Chih-Ho; Chang, Kai-Hsiung; Wu, Kaijie; Tseng, Shu-Fen; Fazli, Ladan; Gleave, Martin; Xiao, Guanghua; Gandee, Leah; Sharifi, Nima; Moro, Loredana; Tzai, Tzong-Shin; Hsieh, Jer-Tsong

    2014-01-01

    Altered DAB2IP gene expression often detected in prostate cancer (PCa) is due to epigenetic silencing. In this study, we unveil a new mechanism leading to the loss of DAB2IP protein; an oncogenic S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) as E3 ubiquitin ligase plays a key regulator in DAB2IP degradation. In order to unveil the role of Skp2 in the turnover of DAB2IP protein, both prostate cell lines and prostate cancer specimens with a variety of molecular and cell biologic techniques were employed. We demonstrated that DAB2IP is regulated by Skp2-mediated proteasome degradation in the prostate cell lines. Further analyses identified the N-terminal DAB2IP containing the ubiquitination site. Immunohistochemical study exhibited an inverse correlation between DAB2IP and Skp2 protein expression in the prostate cancer tissue microarray. In contrast, DAB2IP can suppress Skp2 protein expression is mediated through Akt signaling. The reciprocal regulation between DAB2IP and Skp2 can impact on the growth of PCa cells. This reciprocal regulation between DAB2IP and Skp2 protein represents a unique homeostatic balance between tumor suppressor and oncoprotein in normal prostate epithelia, which is apparently altered in cancer cells. The outcome of this study has identified new potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategy for PCa. PMID:25115390

  9. Biologically active mutants with deletions in the v-mos oncogene assayed with retroviral vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Bold, R J; Donoghue, D J

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed retroviral expression vectors by manipulation of the Moloney murine leukemia virus genome such that an exogenous DNA sequence may be inserted and subsequently expressed when introduced into mammalian cells. A series of N-terminal deletions of the v-mos oncogene was constructed and assayed for biological activity with these retroviral expression vectors. The results of the deletion analysis demonstrate that the region of p37mos coding region upstream of the third methionine codon is dispensable with respect to transformation. However, deletion mutants of v-mos which allow initiation of translation at the fourth methionine codon have lost the biological activity of the parental v-mos gene. Furthermore, experiments were also carried out to define the C-terminal limit of the active region of p37mos by the construction of premature termination mutants by the insertion of a termination oligonucleotide. Insertion of the oligonucleotide just 69 base pairs upstream from the wild-type termination site abolished the focus-forming ability of v-mos. Thus, we have shown the N-terminal limit of the active region of p37mos to be between the third and fourth methionines, while the C-terminal limit is within the last 23 amino acids of the protein. PMID:3018503

  10. Small Molecules Targeting c-Myc Oncogene: Promising Anti-Cancer Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bing-Jia; Wu, Yan-Ling; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear transcription factor c-Myc is a member of the Myc gene family with multiple functions and located on band q24.1 of chromosome 8. The c-Myc gene is activated by chromosomal translocation, rearrangement, and amplification. Its encoded protein transduces intracellular signals to the nucleus, resulting in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and has the ability to transform cells and bind chromosomal DNA. c-Myc also plays a critical role in malignant transformation. The abnormal over-expression of c-Myc is frequently observed in some tumors, including carcinomas of the breast, colon, and cervix, as well as small-cell lung cancer, osteosarcomas, glioblastomas, and myeloid leukemias, therefore making it a possible target for anticancer therapy. In this minireview, we summarize unique characteristics of c-Myc and therapeutic strategies against cancer using small molecules targeting the oncogene, and discuss the prospects in the development of agents targeting c-Myc, in particular G-quadruplexes formed in c-Myc promoter and c-Myc/Max dimerization. Such information will be of importance for the research and development of c-Myc-targeted drugs. PMID:25332683

  11. Targeting the epigenetic readers in Ewing Sarcoma inhibits the oncogenic transcription factor EWS/Fli1

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Camille; Lamoureux, François; Baud’huin, Marc; Calleja, Lidia Rodriguez; Quillard, Thibaut; Amiaud, Jérôme; Tirode, Franck; Rédini, Françoise; Bradner, James E.; Heymann, Dominique; Ory, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Ewing Sarcoma is a rare bone and soft tissue malignancy affecting children and young adults. Chromosomal translocations in this cancer produce fusion oncogenes as characteristic molecular signatures of the disease. The most common case is the translocation t (11; 22) (q24;q12) which yields the EWS-Fli1 chimeric transcription factor. Finding a way to directly target EWS-Fli1 remains a central therapeutic approach to eradicate this aggressive cancer. Here we demonstrate that treating Ewing Sarcoma cells with JQ1(+), a BET bromodomain inhibitor, represses directly EWS-Fli1 transcription as well as its transcriptional program. Moreover, the Chromatin Immuno Precipitation experiments demonstrate for the first time that these results are a consequence of the depletion of BRD4, one of the BET bromodomains protein from the EWS-Fli1 promoter. In vitro, JQ1(+) treatment reduces the cell viability, impairs the cell clonogenic and the migratory abilities, and induces a G1-phase blockage as well as a time- and a dose-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, in our in vivo model, we observed a tumor burden delay, an inhibition of the global vascularization and an increase of the mice overall survival. Taken together, our data indicate that inhibiting the BET bromodomains interferes with EWS-FLi1 transcription and could be a promising strategy in the Ewing tumors context. PMID:27006472

  12. INPP4B is an oncogenic regulator in human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, S T; Chi, M N; Yang, R H; Guo, X Y; Zan, L K; Wang, C Y; Xi, Y F; Jin, L; Croft, A; Tseng, H-Y; Yan, X G; Farrelly, M; Wang, F H; Lai, F; Wang, J F; Li, Y P; Ackland, S; Scott, R; Agoulnik, I U; Hondermarck, H; Thorne, R F; Liu, T; Zhang, X D; Jiang, C C

    2016-01-01

    Inositol polyphosphate 4-phosphatase type II (INPP4B) negatively regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling and is a tumor suppressor in some types of cancers. However, we have found that it is frequently upregulated in human colon cancer cells. Here we show that silencing of INPP4B blocks activation of Akt and serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 3 (SGK3), inhibits colon cancer cell proliferation and retards colon cancer xenograft growth. Conversely, overexpression of INPP4B increases proliferation and triggers anchorage-independent growth of normal colon epithelial cells. Moreover, we demonstrate that the effect of INPP4B on Akt and SGK3 is associated with inactivation of phosphate and tensin homolog through its protein phosphatase activity and that the increase in INPP4B is due to Ets-1-mediated transcriptional upregulation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that INPP4B may function as an oncogenic driver in colon cancer, with potential implications for targeting INPP4B as a novel approach to treat this disease. PMID:26411369

  13. Phosphorylation-dependent regulation cytosolic localization and oncogenic function of Skp2 by Akt/PKB

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hui-Kuan; Wang, Guocan; Chen, Zhenbang; Teruya-Feldstein, Julie; Liu, Yan; Chan, Chia-Hsin; Yang, Wei-Lei; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Nakayama, Keiichi I.; Nimer, Stephen; Tempst, Paul; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Skp2 is an F-box protein that forms the SCF complex with Skp1 and Cullin-1 to constitute an E3 ligase for ubiquitylation. Ubiquitylation and degradation of the p27 is critical for Skp2-mediated cell cycle entry, and overexpression and cytosolic accumulation of Skp2 have been clearly associated with tumorigenesis although the functional significance of the latter has remained elusive. Here we show that the Akt/PKB interacts with and directly phosphorylates Skp2. We find that Skp2 phosphorylation by Akt triggers SCF complex formation and E3 ligase activity. Importantly, a phosphorylation-defective Skp2 mutant is drastically impaired in its ability to promote cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. Furthermore, we show that Akt-mediated phosphorylation triggers 14-3-3-β-dependent Skp2 relocalization to the cytosol, and we attribute a specific role to cytosolic Skp2 in the positive regulation of cell migration. Finally, we demonstrate that high levels of Akt activation correlate with Skp2 cytosolic accumulation in human cancer specimens. Our results therefore define a novel proto-oncogenic Akt/PKB-dependent signaling pathway. PMID:19270694

  14. Gene Essentiality Profiling Reveals Gene Networks and Synthetic Lethal Interactions with Oncogenic Ras.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tim; Yu, Haiyan; Hughes, Nicholas W; Liu, Bingxu; Kendirli, Arek; Klein, Klara; Chen, Walter W; Lander, Eric S; Sabatini, David M

    2017-02-23

    The genetic dependencies of human cancers widely vary. Here, we catalog this heterogeneity and use it to identify functional gene interactions and genotype-dependent liabilities in cancer. By using genome-wide CRISPR-based screens, we generate a gene essentiality dataset across 14 human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. Sets of genes with correlated patterns of essentiality across the lines reveal new gene relationships, the essential substrates of enzymes, and the molecular functions of uncharacterized proteins. Comparisons of differentially essential genes between Ras-dependent and -independent lines uncover synthetic lethal partners of oncogenic Ras. Screens in both human AML and engineered mouse pro-B cells converge on a surprisingly small number of genes in the Ras processing and MAPK pathways and pinpoint PREX1 as an AML-specific activator of MAPK signaling. Our findings suggest general strategies for defining mammalian gene networks and synthetic lethal interactions by exploiting the natural genetic and epigenetic diversity of human cancer cells.

  15. Selection and Application of DNA Aptamer Against Oncogene Amplified in Breast Cancer 1.

    PubMed

    An, Yuan; Wu, Jie; Yang, Bo; Zhu, Zhi; Gao, Mingxuan; Yu, Chundong; Yang, Chaoyong James

    2015-12-01

    Amplified in breast cancer 1 (AIB1), also known as steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3), is a transcriptional coactivator that interacts with nuclear receptors and other transcription factors to enhance their effects on target gene transcription. AIB1, which acts as a major oncogene, is highly expressed in many human cancers, and has been demonstrated to be a key regulator for tumor initiation, progression, metastasis, invasion, and survival. Recruitment of the transcriptional factor CBP/p300 by CBP/p300-interaction domain (CID) of AIB1 is essential for its transcriptional activation function. In this research, we isolated a DNA aptamer AY-3 that binds to AIB1-CID from a random oligonucleotide library using in vitro screening technology-Systematic Evolution of Ligands by EXponential enrichment (SELEX). The binding affinity of the aptamer to AIB1-CID fusion protein is in the nanomolar range. More importantly, the aptamer was found to disrupt in the interaction between p300 and AIB1. This aptamer has great potential to serve as a therapeutic agent for cancer by inhibiting the coactivation of AIB1.

  16. HOTTIP and HOXA13 are oncogenes associated with gastric cancer progression.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shuai; Liu, Junsong; Guo, Shaochun; He, Shicai; Qiu, Guanglin; Lu, Jing; Wang, Jin; Fan, Lin; Zhao, Wei; Che, Xiangming

    2016-06-01

    A long non-coding RNA named HOTTIP (HOXA transcript at the distal tip) coordinates the activation of various 5' HOXA genes which encode master regulators of development through targeting the WDR5/MLL complex. HOTTIP acts as an oncogene in several types of cancers, whereas its biological function in gastric cancer has never been studied. In the present study, we investigated the role of HOTTIP in gastric cancer. We found that HOTTIP was upregulated in gastric cancer cell lines. Knockdown of HOTTIP in gastric cancer cells inhibited cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Moreover, downregulation of HOTTIP led to decreased expression of homeobox protein Hox-A13 (HOXA13) in gastric cancer cell lines. HOXA13 was involved in HOTTIP‑induced malignant phenotypes of gastric cancer cells. Our data showed that the levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both markedly upregulated in gastric cancer tissues compared with their counterparts in non-tumorous tissues. Furthermore, the expression levels of HOTTIP and HOXA13 were both higher in gastric cancer which was poorly differentiated, at advanced TNM stages and exhibited lymph node-metastasis. Spearman analyses indicated that HOTTIP and HOXA13 had a highly positive correlation both in non-tumor mucosae and cancer lesions. Collectively, these findings suggest that HOTTIP and HOXA13 play important roles in gastric cancer progression and provide a new insight into therapeutic treatment for the disease.

  17. Small molecules targeting c-Myc oncogene: promising anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bing-Jia; Wu, Yan-Ling; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Zhang, Wen

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear transcription factor c-Myc is a member of the Myc gene family with multiple functions and located on band q24.1 of chromosome 8. The c-Myc gene is activated by chromosomal translocation, rearrangement, and amplification. Its encoded protein transduces intracellular signals to the nucleus, resulting in the regulation of cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, and has the ability to transform cells and bind chromosomal DNA. c-Myc also plays a critical role in malignant transformation. The abnormal over-expression of c-Myc is frequently observed in some tumors, including carcinomas of the breast, colon, and cervix, as well as small-cell lung cancer, osteosarcomas, glioblastomas, and myeloid leukemias, therefore making it a possible target for anticancer therapy. In this minireview, we summarize unique characteristics of c-Myc and therapeutic strategies against cancer using small molecules targeting the oncogene, and discuss the prospects in the development of agents targeting c-Myc, in particular G-quadruplexes formed in c-Myc promoter and c-Myc/Max dimerization. Such information will be of importance for the research and development of c-Myc-targeted drugs.

  18. Downregulation of Critical Oncogenes by the Selective SK2 Inhibitor ABC294640 Hinders Prostate Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Schrecengost, Randy S.; Keller, Staci N.; Schiewer, Matthew J.; Knudsen, Karen E.; Smith, Charles D.

    2015-01-01

    The bioactive sphingolipid sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) drives several hallmark processes of cancer, making the enzymes that synthesize S1P, i.e. sphingosine kinase 1 and 2 (SK1 and SK2), important molecular targets for cancer drug development. ABC294640 is a first-in-class SK2 small-molecule inhibitor that effectively inhibits cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo. Given that AR and Myc are two of the most widely implicated oncogenes in prostate cancer (PCa), and that sphingolipids impact signaling by both proteins, the therapeutic potential for using ABC294640 in the treatment of PCa was evaluated. This study demonstrates that ABC294640 abrogates signaling pathways requisite for PCa growth and proliferation. Key findings validate that ABC294640 treatment of early stage and advanced PCa models downregulate Myc and AR expression and activity. This corresponds with significant inhibition of growth, proliferation, and cell cycle progression. Finally, oral administration of ABC294640 was found to dramatically impede xenograft tumor growth. Together, these pre-clinical findings support the hypotheses that SK2 activity is required for PCa function and that ABC294640 represents a new pharmacological agent for treatment of early stage and aggressive PCa. PMID:26271487

  19. Immune responsive gene 1, a novel oncogene, increases the growth and tumorigenicity of glioma.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jun; Zhao, Xiaoyong; Lin, Chunnan; Xu, Hongchao; Yin, Zhilin; Liu, Tianzhu; Zhang, Shizhong

    2014-11-01

    Immune responsive gene 1 (IRG1) is highly expressed in mammalian macrophages during inflammation. However, the role of IRG1 in tumorigenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we aimed to clarify the epigenetic regulation and biological functions of IRG1 in glioma. We found that the expression level of IRG1 influenced the WHO stage in 140 glioma patients. Overexpression of IRG1 increased the growth, invasion, and tumorigenesis in U251 and SHG-44 glioma cells both in vitro and in vivo. Suppression of IRG1 expression by si-IRG1 decreased the levels of cell cycle regulatory proteins, namely, E2F1, p21, CDK4, CDK6 and cyclin D1. Knockdown of IRG1 expression by RNA interference increased E-cadherin expression and decreased the amounts of snail and vimentin. Furthermore, the suppression of IRG1 expression inhibited the expression of NF-κB and STAT3, suggesting a role of IRG1 in regulating the genes associated with these factors and thereby contributing to a decrease in glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Collectively, our findings revealed that IRG1 is a candidate oncogene that is amplified in glioma and is involved in novel mechanisms that influence glioma pathogenesis.

  20. Excess of NPM-ALK oncogenic signaling promotes cellular apoptosis and drug dependency

    PubMed Central

    Mologni, Luca; Poggio, Teresa; Varesio, Lydia M.; Menotti, Matteo; Bombelli, Silvia; Rigolio, Roberta; Manazza, Andrea D.; Di Giacomo, Filomena; Ambrogio, Chiara; Giudici, Giovanni; Casati, Cesare; Mastini, Cristina; Compagno, Mara; Turner, Suzanne D.; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Chiarle, Roberto; Voena, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Most of Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma (ALCL) cases carry the t(2;5; p23;q35) that produces the fusion protein NPM-ALK. NPM-ALK deregulated kinase activity drives several pathways that support malignant transformation of lymphoma cells. We found that in ALK-rearranged ALCL cell lines NPM-ALK was distributed in equal amounts between the cytoplasm and the nucleus. Only the cytoplasmic portion was catalytically active in both cell lines and primary ALCL, whereas the nuclear portion was inactive due to heterodimerization with NPM1. Thus, about 50% of the NPM-ALK is not active and sequestered as NPM-ALK/NPM1 heterodimers in the nucleus. Overexpression or re-localization of NPM-ALK to the cytoplasm by NPM genetic knock-out or knock-down caused ERK1/2 increased phosphorylation and cell death through the engagement of an ATM/Chk2 and γH2AX mediated DNA damage response. Remarkably, human NPM-ALK amplified cell lines resistant to ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) underwent apoptosis upon drug withdrawal as a consequence of ERK1/2 hyperactivation. Altogether, these findings indicate that an excess of NPM-ALK activation and signaling induces apoptosis via oncogenic stress responses. A “drug holiday” where the ALK TKI treatment is suspended could represent a therapeutic option in cells that become resistant by NPM-ALK amplification. PMID:26657151

  1. Physical Interaction between MYCN Oncogene and Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) in Neuroblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Corvetta, Daisy; Chayka, Olesya; Gherardi, Samuele; D'Acunto, Cosimo W.; Cantilena, Sandra; Valli, Emanuele; Piotrowska, Izabela; Perini, Giovanni; Sala, Arturo

    2013-01-01

    CLU (clusterin) is a tumor suppressor gene that we have previously shown to be negatively modulated by the MYCN proto-oncogene, but the mechanism of repression was unclear. Here, we show that MYCN inhibits the expression of CLU by direct interaction with the non-canonical E box sequence CACGCG in the 5′-flanking region. Binding of MYCN to the CLU gene induces bivalent epigenetic marks and recruitment of repressive proteins such as histone deacetylases and Polycomb members. MYCN physically binds in vitro and in vivo to EZH2, a component of the Polycomb repressive complex 2, required to repress CLU. Notably, EZH2 interacts with the Myc box domain 3, a segment of MYC known to be essential for its transforming effects. The expression of CLU can be restored in MYCN-amplified cells by epigenetic drugs with therapeutic results. Importantly, the anticancer effects of the drugs are ablated if CLU expression is blunted by RNA interference. Our study implies that MYC tumorigenesis can be effectively antagonized by epigenetic drugs that interfere with the recruitment of chromatin modifiers at repressive E boxes of tumor suppressor genes such as CLU. PMID:23362253

  2. NUP160-SLC43A3 is a novel recurrent fusion oncogene in angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Naoki; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Masuzawa, Mamiko; Masuzawa, Mikio; Wang, Zhongzhi; Hirano, Ayaka; Tomizawa, Yukiko; Etoh-Kira, Tomomi; Kajihara, Ikko; Harada, Miho; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Angiosarcoma is a malignant vascular tumor originating from endothelial cells of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. The specific driver mutations in angiosarcoma remain unknown. In this study, we investigated this issue by transcriptome sequencing of patient-derived angiosarcoma cells (ISO-HAS), identifying a novel fusion gene NUP160-SLC43A3 found to be expressed in 9 of 25 human angiosarcoma specimens that were examined. In tumors harboring the fusion gene, the duration between the onset of symptoms and the first hospital visit was significantly shorter, suggesting more rapid tumor progression. Stable expression of the fusion gene in nontransformed human dermal microvascular endothelial cells elicited a gene-expression pattern mimicking ISO-HAS cells and increased cell proliferation, an effect traced in part to NUP160 truncation. Conversely, RNAi-mediated attenuation of NUP160 in ISO-HAS cells decreased cell number. Confirming the oncogenic effects of the fusion protein, subcutaneous implantation of NUP160-SLC43A3-expressing fibroblasts induced tumors resembling human angiosarcoma. Collectively, our findings advance knowledge concerning the genetic causes of angiosarcoma, with potential implications for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  3. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy.

  4. Posttranscriptional regulation of cellular gene expression by the c-myc oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Prendergast, G.C.; Cole, M.D. . Dept. of Biology)

    1989-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been implicated in the development of many different cancers, yet the mechanism by which the c-myc protein alters cellular growth control has proven elusive. The authors used a cDNA hybridization difference assay to isolate two genes, mr1 and mr2, that were constitutively expressed (i.e., deregulated) in rodent fibroblast cell lines immortalized by transfection of a viral promoter-linked c-myc gene. Both cDNAs were serum inducible in quiescent G/sub o/ fibroblasts, suggesting that they are functionally related to cellular proliferative processes. Although there were significant differences in cytoplasmic mRNA levels between myc-immortalized and control cells, the rates of transcription and mRNA turnover of both genes were similar, suggesting that c-myc regulates mr1 and mr2 expression by some nuclear posttranscriptional mechanism. Their results provide evidence that c-myc can rapidly modulate cellular gene expression and suggest that c-myc may function in gene regulation at the level of RNA export, splicing, or nuclear RNA turnover.

  5. [Genetic tests in oncology practice with emphasis on the RET oncogene and VHL tumor suppressor gene].

    PubMed

    Nesković, Gorana; Stanojević, Boban; Palmar, Ivan; Dimitrijević, Bogomir

    2002-07-01

    Molecular oncogenetics is the study of two distinct gene classes participating in the pathogenesis of malignant diseases: proto-oncogenes and tumour suppressors genes. Stepwise alterations in their structure are the basis of malignancy. Structural abnormalities range widely: gross genetic rearrangements including insertions, deletions, gene amplifications and single nucleotide deleotide deletions and substitutions. These gene alterations are determined by gene testing that increasingly are part of clinical diagnosis. Among many applications of oncogene testing is detection of hereditary forms of malignant disease with outstanding prophylactic and therapeutic importance. Along this line, gene testing provided for effective prevention of specific hereditary tumour types. Analysis of hereditary pheochromocytoma two gene tests are established: detection of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) using mutational analysis of RET gene and detection of von Hippel-Lindau syndrome using mutational analysis of VHL gene. These genes were characterized about a decade ago and their structure determined in detail. Numerous studies focus on expression of these genes in different tissues and the function of respective proteins. In extensive epidemiology the following facts are established: hereditary mutations in the RET gene in > 92% of cases with MEN 2 syndrome while in patients with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome hereditary mutations were detected in VHL gene in > 95% of cases. Such a high genotype--phenotype correlation forms the basis for clinical applications. Gene testing in oncology offers numerous advantages. If a patient with pheochromocytoma presents with hereditary mutation in the RET or VHL gene, family gene testing is recommended. Family member with hereditary gene mutation is indicative of the risk level of nearly 100% for MEN 2 or von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. In such cases surgery is warranted (e.g. in MEN 2 total thyroidectomy by the age of (6). Negative findings

  6. Separase: Function Beyond Cohesion Cleavage and an Emerging Oncogene.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ravinder

    2016-12-14

    Proper and timely segregation of genetic endowment is necessary for survival and perpetuation of every species. Mis-segregation of chromosomes and resulting aneuploidy leads to genetic instability, which can jeopardize the survival of an individual or population as a whole. Abnormality with segregation of genetic contents has been associated with several medical consequences including cancer, sterility, mental retardation, spontaneous abortion, miscarriages, and other birth related defects. Separase, by irreversible cleavage of cohesin complex subunit, paves the way for metaphase/anaphase transition during the cell cycle. Both over or reduced expression and altered level of separase have been associated with several medical consequences including cancer, as a result separase now emerges as an important oncogene and potential molecular target for medical intervenes. Recently, separase is also found to be essential in separation and duplication of centrioles. Here, I review the role of separase in mitosis, meiosis, non-canonical roles of separase, separase regulation, as a regulator of centriole disengagement, nonproteolytic roles, diverse substrates, structural insights, and association of separase with cancer. At the ends, I proposed a model which showed that separase is active throughout the cell cycle and there is a mere increase in separase activity during metaphase contrary to the common believes that separase is inactive throughout cell cycle except for metaphase. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1-17, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Oncogenic bystander radiation effects in Patched heterozygous mouse cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Pasquali, Emanuela; Leonardi, Simona; Tanori, Mirella; Rebessi, Simonetta; Di Majo, Vincenzo; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Toni, Maria Pia; Pimpinella, Maria; Covelli, Vincenzo; Saran, Anna

    2008-08-26

    The central dogma of radiation biology, that biological effects of ionizing radiation are a direct consequence of DNA damage occurring in irradiated cells, has been challenged by observations that genetic/epigenetic changes occur in unexposed "bystander cells" neighboring directly-hit cells, due to cell-to-cell communication or soluble factors released by irradiated cells. To date, the vast majority of these effects are described in cell-culture systems, while in vivo validation and assessment of biological consequences within an organism remain uncertain. Here, we describe the neonatal mouse cerebellum as an accurate in vivo model to detect, quantify, and mechanistically dissect radiation-bystander responses. DNA double-strand breaks and apoptotic cell death were induced in bystander cerebellum in vivo. Accompanying these genetic events, we report bystander-related tumor induction in cerebellum of radiosensitive Patched-1 (Ptch1) heterozygous mice after x-ray exposure of the remainder of the body. We further show that genetic damage is a critical component of in vivo oncogenic bystander responses, and provide evidence supporting the role of gap-junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) in transmission of bystander signals in the central nervous system (CNS). These results represent the first proof-of-principle that bystander effects are factual in vivo events with carcinogenic potential, and implicate the need for re-evaluation of approaches currently used to estimate radiation-associated health risks.

  8. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  9. Copper is required for oncogenic BRAF signaling and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Donita C.; Crowe, Matthew S.; Turski, Michelle L.; Hobbs, G. Aaron; Yao, Xiaojie; Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Xiao, Kunhong; Campbell, Sharon L.; Thiele, Dennis J.; Counter, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The BRAF kinase is mutated, typically V600E, to induce an active oncogenic state in a large fraction of melanoma, thyroid, hairy cell leukemia, and to a lesser extent, a wide spectrum of other cancers1,2. BRAFV600E phosphorylates and activates the kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate and activate the kinases ERK1 and ERK2, stimulating the MAPK pathway to promote cancer3. Targeting MEK1/2 is proving to be an important therapeutic strategy, as a MEK1/2 inhibitor provides a survival advantage in metastatic melanoma4, which is increased when co-administered with a BRAFV600E inhibitor5. In this regard, we previously found that copper (Cu) influx enhances MEK1 phosphorylation of ERK1/2 through a Cu-MEK1 interaction6. We now show that genetic loss of the high affinity Cu transporter Ctr1 or mutations in MEK1 that disrupt Cu binding reduced BRAFV600E-driven signaling and tumorigenesis. Conversely, a MEK1-MEK5 chimera that phosphorylates ERK1/2 independent of Cu or an active ERK2 restored tumor growth to cells lacking Ctr1. Importantly, Cu chelators used in the treatment of Wilson disease7 reduced tumor growth of both BRAFV600E-transformed cells and cells resistant to BRAF inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that Cu-chelation therapy could be repurposed to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive cancers. PMID:24717435

  10. Papillomavirus sequences integrate near cellular oncogenes in some cervical carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Duerst, M.; Croce, C.M.; Gissmann, L.; Schwarz, E.; Huebner, K.

    1987-02-01

    The chromosomal locations of cellular sequences flanking integrated papillomavirus DNA in four cervical cell lines and a primary cervical carcinoma have been determined. The two human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 flanking sequences derived from the tumor were localized to chromosomes regions 20pter..-->..20q13 and 3p25..-->..3qter, regions that also contain the protooncogenes c-src-1 and c-raf-1, respectively. The HPV 16 integration site in the SiHa cervical carcinoma-derived cell line is in chromosome region 13q14..-->..13q32. The HPV 18 integration site in SW756 cervical carcinoma cells is in chromosome 12 but is not closely linked to the Ki-ras2 gene. Finally, in two cervical carcinoma cell lines, HeLa and C4-I, HPV 18 DNA is integrated in chromosome 8, 5' of the c-myc gene. The HeLaHPV 18 integration site is within 40 kilobases 5' of the c-myc gene, inside the HL60 amplification unit surrounding and including the c-myc gene. Additionally, steady-state levels of c-myc mRNA are elevated in HeLa and C4-I cells relative to other cervical carcinoma cell lines. Thus, in at least some genital tumors, cis-activation of cellular oncogenes by HPV may be involved in malignant transformation of cervical cells.

  11. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells

    PubMed Central

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F. T.; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, EL Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression. PMID:26764384

  12. The LMO2 oncogene regulates DNA replication in hematopoietic cells.

    PubMed

    Sincennes, Marie-Claude; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Lisi, Véronique; Veiga, Diogo F T; Haman, André; Cazaux, Christophe; Mashtalir, Nazar; Affar, El Bachir; Verreault, Alain; Hoang, Trang

    2016-02-02

    Oncogenic transcription factors are commonly activated in acute leukemias and subvert normal gene expression networks to reprogram hematopoietic progenitors into preleukemic stem cells, as exemplified by LIM-only 2 (LMO2) in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Whether or not these oncoproteins interfere with other DNA-dependent processes is largely unexplored. Here, we show that LMO2 is recruited to DNA replication origins by interaction with three essential replication enzymes: DNA polymerase delta (POLD1), DNA primase (PRIM1), and minichromosome 6 (MCM6). Furthermore, tethering LMO2 to synthetic DNA sequences is sufficient to transform these sequences into origins of replication. We next addressed the importance of LMO2 in erythroid and thymocyte development, two lineages in which cell cycle and differentiation are tightly coordinated. Lowering LMO2 levels in erythroid progenitors delays G1-S progression and arrests erythropoietin-dependent cell growth while favoring terminal differentiation. Conversely, ectopic expression in thymocytes induces DNA replication and drives these cells into cell cycle, causing differentiation blockade. Our results define a novel role for LMO2 in directly promoting DNA synthesis and G1-S progression.

  13. Oncogenic and mutagenic effects of UV in mammalian cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    Ultraviolet light is present in the solar system and can cause major biological effects. The potential cytotoxic, mutagenic, and carcinogenic effects of UV have been studied at cellular and molecular level. Using cultured mouse embryonic fibroblasts (C3H10T1/2), we investigated the induction of mutation and transformation by UV and/or X-rays. Studies were also done with normal human mammary epithelial cells for cell inactivation and mutation induction. Curvlinear dose-response curves were observed for mutation and oncogenic transformation. The interaction between UV and X-rays depends on the sequence of exposure. When UV was given following X-irradiation, there was an additive effect. When UV was given prior to X-irradiation, however, there was a synergistic effect for both cell inactivation and transformation. The basic lesion(s) important for somatic mutation and transformation remains to be determined, and the fundamental mechanism(s) of UV and ionizing radiation interaction remains to be elucidated.

  14. Genomic and oncogenic preference of HBV integration in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Ling-Hao; Liu, Xiao; Yan, He-Xin; Li, Wei-Yang; Zeng, Xi; Yang, Yuan; Zhao, Jie; Liu, Shi-Ping; Zhuang, Xue-Han; Lin, Chuan; Qin, Chen-Jie; Zhao, Yi; Pan, Ze-Ya; Huang, Gang; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Jin; Wang, Ruo-Yu; Yang, Yun; Wen, Wen; Lv, Gui-Shuai; Zhang, Hui-Lu; Wu, Han; Huang, Shuai; Wang, Ming-Da; Tang, Liang; Cao, Hong-Zhi; Wang, Ling; Lee, Tin-Lap; Jiang, Hui; Tan, Ye-Xiong; Yuan, Sheng-Xian; Hou, Guo-Jun; Tao, Qi-Fei; Xu, Qin-Guo; Zhang, Xiu-Qing; Wu, Meng-Chao; Xu, Xun; Wang, Jun; Yang, Huan-Ming; Zhou, Wei-Ping; Wang, Hong-Yang

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) can integrate into the human genome, contributing to genomic instability and hepatocarcinogenesis. Here by conducting high-throughput viral integration detection and RNA sequencing, we identify 4,225 HBV integration events in tumour and adjacent non-tumour samples from 426 patients with HCC. We show that HBV is prone to integrate into rare fragile sites and functional genomic regions including CpG islands. We observe a distinct pattern in the preferential sites of HBV integration between tumour and non-tumour tissues. HBV insertional sites are significantly enriched in the proximity of telomeres in tumours. Recurrent HBV target genes are identified with few that overlap. The overall HBV integration frequency is much higher in tumour genomes of males than in females, with a significant enrichment of integration into chromosome 17. Furthermore, a cirrhosis-dependent HBV integration pattern is observed, affecting distinct targeted genes. Our data suggest that HBV integration has a high potential to drive oncogenic transformation. PMID:27703150

  15. Oncogenic ras-induced expression of cytokines: a new target of anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ancrile, Brooke B; O'Hayer, Kevin M; Counter, Christopher M

    2008-02-01

    The Ras family of small guanosine triphosphatases normally transmit signals from cell surface receptors to the interior of the cell. Stimulation of cell surface receptors leads to the activation of guanine exchange factors, which, in turn, convert Ras from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state. However, in one third of human cancers, RAS is mutated and remains in the constitutively active GTP-bound state. In this oncogenic state, RAS activates a constellation of signaling that is known to promote tumorigenesis. One consequence of this oncogenic RAS signal in cancer cells is the upregulation of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine growth-regulated oncogene 1 (GRO-1). We review the evidence supporting a role for these cytokines in oncogenic RAS-driven solid tumors.

  16. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    phenotype. Oncogenes, such as Her2 , play important roles in uncontrolled proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells. However, cancer cells must...transforming roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this... signaling in aggressive forms of human breast cancer . Accordingly, we propose that ERLIN2 represents a novel class of oncogenic factors and that

  17. In Vivo p53 Signaling in Breast Epithelial Cells After Oncogenic Stimulus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-09-01

    AD Award Number: DAMD17-02-1-0605 TITLE: In Vivo p53 Signaling in Breast Epithelial Cells After Oncogenic Stimulus PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Jamie M...SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS In Vivo p53 Signaling in Breast Epithelial Cells After DAMD17-02-1-0605 Oncogenic Stimulus 6. A UTHOR(S) Jamie M. Hearnes...NUMBER Atlanta, Georgia 31192-0303 E-Mail: Jamie . hearnes@vanderbilt. edu 9. SPONSORING / MONITORING 10. SPONSORING / MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND

  18. Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic Activation of the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    progesterone (PR) receptor positive), basal ( triple negative : ER/PER/Her2 negative ) and the Her2 (ER/PR negative , Her2 amplification and/or overexpression...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0392 TITLE: Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic...CONTRACT NUMBER Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic Activation of the Met Receptor 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0392 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  19. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen

    2017-04-04

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  20. State of the art address oncogenes and tumor-suppressing genes

    SciTech Connect

    Frazier, M.E.

    1989-05-01

    Cancer has a myriad of causes but, whatever the cause, the changes that result in neoplasia are usually genetic. Although not all DNA damage results in cancer, evidence implicates two broad classes of genes in carcinogenesis. The first class, oncogenes are genes that cause cancer. An oncogene results when there is increased and/or changed expression of the proto-oncogene. Oncogenes are dominant: when activated, they predominate over the activity of any normal alleles in the cell. Thus oncogenes act directly to cause cancer. The second class of genes associated with cancer are tumor-suppressing genes, which either code directly for, or control expression of a wide spectrum of tissue-specific differentiation antigens. Malignancy occurs in a specific cell type when expression of an appropriate tumor-suppressing gene is, homozygously, seriously distorted or completely lacking. Tumor suppressing genes also appear to regulate expression of a third, uncharacterized group of cancer-related genes that act in a recessive manner and are not expressed in the presence of the tumor-suppressing genes. We will first discuss oncogenes, then the tumor-suppressing genes. Experimental data will be used to illustrate key features of the carcinogenic process.

  1. Translation Start Sequences Affect the Efficiency of Silencing of Agrobacterium tumefaciens T-DNA Oncogenes1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyewon; Humann, Jodi L.; Pitrak, Jennifer S.; Cuperus, Josh T.; Parks, T. Dawn; Whistler, Cheryl A.; Mok, Machteld C.; Ream, L. Walt

    2003-01-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenes cause transformed plant cells to overproduce auxin and cytokinin. Two oncogenes encode enzymes that convert tryptophan to indole-3-acetic acid (auxin): iaaM (tryptophan mono-oxygenase) and iaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase). A third oncogene (ipt) encodes AMP isopentenyl transferase, which produces cytokinin (isopentenyl-AMP). Inactivation of ipt and iaaM (or iaaH) abolishes tumorigenesis. Because adequate means do not exist to control crown gall, we created resistant plants by introducing transgenes designed to elicit posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) of iaaM and ipt. Transgenes that elicit silencing trigger sequence-specific destruction of the inducing RNA and messenger RNAs with related sequences. Although PTGS has proven effective against a variety of target genes, we found that a much higher percentage of transgenic lines silenced iaaM than ipt, suggesting that transgene sequences influenced the effectiveness of PTGS. Sequences required for oncogene silencing included a translation start site. A transgene encoding a translatable sense-strand RNA from the 5′ end of iaaM silenced the iaaM oncogene, but deletion of the translation start site abolished the ability of the transgene to silence iaaM. Silencing A. tumefaciens T-DNA oncogenes is a new and effective method to produce plants resistant to crown gall disease. PMID:12972655

  2. ZFP91: A Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway Regulator with Oncogenic Properties Is Overexpressed in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jopek, Karol; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Malendowicz, Ludwik K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being searched to aid in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recently, ZFP91 zinc finger protein has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer cell lines. It is a potentially important oncogenic protein; however only limited data regarding its biological function and expression patterns are available. To date, ZFP91 has been shown to be a key factor in activation of noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway as well as to be involved in HIF-1α signaling in cancer cells. The present study aimed to characterize ZFP91 expression in prostate cancer specimens. Furthermore, since our earlier reports showed discrepancies between ZFP91 mRNA and protein levels, we studied this interrelationship in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines using siRNA mediated knockdown. QPCR analysis revealed marked upregulation of ZFP91 mRNA in the majority of prostate cancer specimens. Transfection of prostate cancer cells with ZFP91 siRNA resulted in a 10-fold decrease in mRNA levels. On a protein level, however, no inhibitory effect was observed over the time of the cell culture. We conclude that ZFP91 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and that potential accumulation of the ZFP91 protein in studied cells may be of importance in prostate cancer biology. PMID:27975057

  3. Complementation of temperature tolerance by rat Rgl-1 recessive oncogene in the absence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sop genes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yu-Kyung; Kim, Yong-Soo; Chung, Hyung-Min; Baek, Kwang-Hyun

    2004-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that homozygous mutations at the L(2)gl locus in Drosophila result in the development of tumor in the presumptive adult optic centers of the larval brain and of the imaginal discs. We previously cloned an L(2)gl homologue, Rgl-1, in the rat brain. In this study, we analyzed the capability of Rgl-1 in recovering temperature tolerance in the absence of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sop genes, yeast homologues of the Drosophila recessive oncogene Lethal (2) giant larvae. The expression of Rgl-1 revealed the recovery of temperature tolerance at 20 degrees C in the absence of Sop genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This indicates that the Rgl-1 cDNA we isolated from the rat brain is highly homologous to Lgl family members and can also substitute the function of Sop proteins for temperature tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  4. HuR knockdown changes the oncogenic potential of oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kakuguchi, Wataru; Kitamura, Tetsuya; Kuroshima, Takeshi; Ishikawa, Makoto; Kitagawa, Yoshimasa; Totsuka, Yasunori; Shindoh, Masanobu; Higashino, Fumihiro

    2010-04-01

    HuR binds to AU-rich element-containing mRNA to protect them from rapid degradation. Here, we show that knockdown of HuR changes the oncogenic properties of oral cancer cells. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, HSC-3 and Ca9.22, which express HuR protein and cytoplasmic AU-rich element mRNA more abundantly than normal cells, were subjected to HuR knockdown. In the HuR-knockdown cancer cells, the cytoplasmic expression of c-fos, c-myc, and COX-2 mRNAs was inhibited compared with those in cells that had been transfected with a control small interfering RNA, and the half-lives of these mRNAs were shorter than those of their counterparts in the control cells. HuR-knockdown cells failed to make colonies in soft agar, suggesting that the cells had lost their ability for anchorage-independent cell growth. Additionally, the motile and invasive activities of the cells decreased remarkably by HuR knockdown. Furthermore, the expression of cell cycle-related proteins, such as cyclin A, cyclin B1, cyclin D1, and cyclin-dependent kinase 1, was reduced in HuR-knockdown cancer cells, and HuR bound to cdk1 mRNA to stabilize it. These findings suggest that HuR knockdown changes the features of oral cancer cells, at least in part, by affecting their cell cycle and shows potential as an effective therapeutic approach.

  5. Oncogenic effects of urotensin-II in cells lacking tuberous sclerosis complex-2

    PubMed Central

    Goldberg, Alexander A.; Joung, Kwang-Bo; Mansuri, Asma; Kang, Yujin; Echavarria, Raquel; Nikolajev, Ljiljana; Sun, Yang; Yu, Jane J.; Laporte, Stephane A.; Schwertani, Adel; Kristof, Arnold S.

    2016-01-01

    Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a destructive lung disease that can arise sporadically or in adults suffering from the tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC). Microscopic tumors (‘LAM nodules’) in the lung interstitium arise from lymphatic invasion and metastasis. These consist of smooth muscle-like cells (LAM cells) that exhibit markers of neural crest differentiation and loss of the tumor suppressor protein ‘tuberous sclerosis complex-2’ (TSC2). Consistent with a neural phenotype, expression of the neuropeptide urotensin-II and its receptor was detected in LAM nodules. We hypothesized that loss of TSC2 sensitizes cells to the oncogenic effects of urotensin-II. TSC2-deficient Eker rat uterine leiomyoma ELT3 cells were stably transfected with empty vector or plasmid for the expression of TSC2. Urotensin-II increased cell viability and proliferation in TSC2-deficient cells, but not in TSC2-reconstituted cells. When exposed to urotensin-II, TSC2-deficient cells exhibited greater migration, anchorage-independent cell growth, and matrix invasion. The effects of urotensin-II on TSC2-deficient cells were blocked by the urotensin receptor antagonist SB657510, and accompanied by activation of Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase and focal adhesion kinase. Urotensin-II-induced proliferation and migration were reproduced in TSC2-deficient human angiomyolipoma cells, but not in those stably expressing TSC2. In a mouse xenograft model, SB657510 blocked the growth of established ELT3 tumors, reduced the number of circulating tumor cells, and attenuated the production of VEGF-D, a clinical biomarker of LAM. Urotensin receptor antagonists may be selective therapeutic agents for the treatment of LAM or other neural crest-derived neoplasms featuring loss of TSC2 or increased expression of the urotensin receptor. PMID:27458154

  6. The Oncogene PDRG1 Is an Interaction Target of Methionine Adenosyltransferases

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Francisco; Reytor, Edel; Portillo, Francisco; Pajares, María A.

    2016-01-01

    Methionine adenosyltransferases MAT I and MAT III (encoded by Mat1a) catalyze S-adenosylmethionine synthesis in normal liver. Major hepatic diseases concur with reduced levels of this essential methyl donor, which are primarily due to an expression switch from Mat1a towards Mat2a. Additional changes in the association state and even in subcellular localization of these isoenzymes are also detected. All these alterations result in a reduced content of the moderate (MAT I) and high Vmax (MAT III) isoenzymes, whereas the low Vmax (MAT II) isoenzyme increases and nuclear accumulation of MAT I is observed. These changes derive in a reduced availability of cytoplasmic S-adenosylmethionine, together with an effort to meet its needs in the nucleus of damaged cells, rendering enhanced levels of certain epigenetic modifications. In this context, the putative role of protein-protein interactions in the control of S-adenosylmethionine synthesis has been scarcely studied. Using yeast two hybrid and a rat liver library we identified PDRG1 as an interaction target for MATα1 (catalytic subunit of MAT I and MAT III), further confirmation being obtained by immunoprecipitation and pull-down assays. Nuclear MATα interacts physically and functionally with the PDRG1 oncogene, resulting in reduced DNA methylation levels. Increased Pdrg1 expression is detected in acute liver injury and hepatoma cells, together with decreased Mat1a expression and nuclear accumulation of MATα1. Silencing of Pdrg1 expression in hepatoma cells alters their steady-state expression profile on microarrays, downregulating genes associated with tumor progression according to GO pathway analysis. Altogether, the results unveil the role of PDRG1 in the control of the nuclear methylation status through methionine adenosyltransferase binding and its putative collaboration in the progression of hepatic diseases. PMID:27548429

  7. MicroRNA-205 inhibits Src-mediated oncogenic pathways in renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Dar, Altaf A; Hirata, Hiroshi; Shahryari, Varahram; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Yamamura, Soichiro; Ueno, Koji; Zaman, Mohd Saif; Singh, Kamaldeep; Chang, Inik; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    The Src family of protein kinases (SFKs) plays key roles in regulating fundamental cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, cell shape, migration and survival, and specialized cell signals in various malignancies. The pleotropic functions of SFKs in cancer make them promising targets for intervention. Here we sought to investigate the role of miR-205 in inhibition of Src-mediated oncogenic pathways in renal cancer. We report that expression of miR-205 was significantly suppressed in renal cancer cell lines and tumors when compared with normal tissues and a non-malignant cell line, and is correlated inversely with the expression of SFKs. miR-205 significantly suppressed the luciferase activity of reporter plasmids containing the 3’UTR sequences complementary to either Src, Lyn or Yes, which was abolished by mutations in these 3’UTR regions. Over-expression of miR-205 in A498 cells reduced Src, Lyn and Yes expression both at mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of renal cancer cells was suppressed by miR-205, mediated by the phosphoSrc-regulated ERK1/2 pathway. Cell motility factor- FAK and STAT3 activation was also inhibited by miR-205. Transient as well as stable over-expression of miR-205 in A498 cells resulted in induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as indicated by decreased levels of cyclin D1 and cMyc, suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in renal cancer cells. miR-205 also inhibited tumor cell growth in vivo. This is the first study demonstrating that miRNA-205 inhibits protooncogenic Src family of kinases indicating a therapeutic potential of miR-205 in the treatment of renal cancer. PMID:21330408

  8. Characterization of a cluster of oncogenic mutations in E6 of a human papillomavirus 83 variant isolated from a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, Isabelle; Benchetrit, Maxime; Loubatier, Céline; Michel, Gregory; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2011-10-01

    We previously isolated human papillomavirus 83 (HPV83m) from a cervical smear. Sequence analysis of E6 and E7 proteins highlighted five mutations located in the second putative zinc-finger region of E6 (E6m), an important domain for protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Here, we show that E6m of HPV83m can trigger human primary cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth properties, similarly to E6 of HPV16, a high-risk HPV (HR-HPV). Interestingly, we demonstrate that, in contrast to E6 of HPV16, E6m corrupts neither p53 stability nor telomerase activity, but acts as a specific modulator of the transcriptional machinery. By studying E6m reversion mutants, we confirmed the importance of the second zinc-finger domain in triggering the observed upregulation of cell growth and of the transcriptional machinery. Reversion of these mutations in E6m (to yield strain E6r) fully abolished the oncogenic potential of E6m, transforming the phenotype of E6 from a high-risk to a low-risk phenotype. Importantly, our data define the importance of a cluster of mutations in the second zinc finger of E6m in increasing the oncogenic potential of HPV83.

  9. Human papillomavirus DNA and oncogene alterations in colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; Barbisan, Gisela; Ottino, Anabel; Pianzola, Horacio; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the presence and molecular integrity of high-risk HPV types in colorectal adenocarcinomas and to assess whether viral DNA is related to common proto-oncogene alterations, such as k-ras mutations and c-myc gene amplification, in colorectal cancer. Seventy-five colorectal adenocarcinomas were screened for HPV infection using nested-PCR (MY09/11-GP5+/6+). HPV typing was performed by type-specific PCR for HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA. Unidentified samples were subsequently sequenced to determine the viral genotype. The physical status of HPV was determined by a nested PCR approach for type-specific E2 sequences. C-myc amplification was assessed by co-amplification with β-globin as control locus, and mutation in k-ras codons 12 and 13 by ARMS-PCR. Overall, HPV was detected in thirty-three colorectal specimens (44%). HPV 16 was the prevalent type (16/75), followed by HPV 18 (15/75), HPV 31 (1/75) and HPV 66 (1/75). E2 disruption was detected in 56.3% of HPV 16 and in 40% of HPV 18 positive tumors. C-myc amplification was detected in 29.4% of cases, while k-ras mutations in 30.7%. There was no significant trend for HPV infection in tumors harboring either k-ras or c-myc alterations. This study demonstrates HPV DNA and viral integration in colorectal tumors, suggesting a potential role of this virus in colorectal carcinogenesis. There was no concurrence, however, of k-ras and c-myc activation with viral infection.

  10. Immunoprevention of Chemical Carcinogenesis through Early Recognition of Oncogene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nasti, Tahseen H.; Rudemiller, Kyle J.; Cochran, J. Barry; Kim, Hee Kyung; Tsuruta, Yuko; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of tumors induced by environmental carcinogens has not been achieved. Skin tumors produced by polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), often harbor an H-ras point mutation, suggesting that it is a poor target for early immunosurveillance. The application of pyrosequencing and allele-specific PCR techniques established that mutations in the genome and expression of the Mut H-ras gene could be detected as early as 1 d after DMBA application. Further, DMBA sensitization raised Mut H-ras epitope–specific CTLs capable of eliminating Mut H-ras+ preneoplastic skin cells, demonstrating that immunosurveillance is normally induced but may be ineffective owing to insufficient effector pool size and/or immunosuppression. To test whether selective pre-expansion of CD8 T cells with specificity for the single Mut H-ras epitope was sufficient for tumor prevention, MHC class I epitope–focused lentivector-infected dendritic cell– and DNA-based vaccines were designed to bias toward CTL rather than regulatory T cell induction. Mut H-ras, but not wild-type H-ras, epitope-focused vaccination generated specific CTLs and inhibited DMBA-induced tumor initiation, growth, and progression in preventative and therapeutic settings. Transferred Mut H-ras–specific effectors induced rapid tumor regression, overcoming established tumor suppression in tumor-bearing mice. These studies support further evaluation of oncogenic mutations for their potential to act as early tumor-specific, immunogenic epitopes in expanding relevant immunosurveillance effectors to block tumor formation, rather than treating established tumors. PMID:25694611

  11. Novel Oncogenic PDGFRA Mutations in Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Paugh, Barbara S.; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Qu, Chunxu; Endersby, Raelene; Diaz, Alexander K.; Zhang, Junyuan; Bax, Dorine A.; Carvalho, Diana; Reis, Rui M.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Broniscer, Alberto; Wetmore, Cynthia; Zhang, Jinghui; Jones, Chris; Ellison, David W.; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2013-01-01

    The outcome for children with high-grade gliomas (HGG) remains dismal, with a two-year survival rate of only 10–30%. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) comprise a subset of HGG that arise in brainstem almost exclusively in children. Genome-wide analyses of copy number imbalances previously showed that platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is the most frequent target of focal amplification in pediatric HGGs, including DIPGs. To determine whether PDGFRA is also targeted by more subtle mutations missed by copy number analysis, we sequenced all PDGFRA coding exons from a cohort of pediatric HGGs. Somatic activating mutations were identified in 14.4% (13/90) of non-brainstem pediatric HGGs and 4.7% (2/43) of DIPGs, including missense mutations and in-frame deletions and insertions not previously described. 40% of tumors with mutation showed concurrent amplification, while 60% carried heterozygous mutations. Six different mutations impacting different domains all resulted in ligand-independent receptor activation that was blocked by small molecule inhibitors of PDGFR. Expression of mutants in p53-null primary mouse astrocytes conferred a proliferative advantage in vitro, and generated HGGs in vivo with complete penetrance when implanted into brain. The gene expression signatures of these murine HGGs reflected the spectrum of human diffuse HGGs. PDGFRA intragenic deletion of exons 8 and 9 were previously shown in adult HGG, but were not detected in 83 non-brainstem pediatric HGG and 57 DIPGs. Thus, a distinct spectrum of mutations confers constitutive receptor activation and oncogenic activity to PDGFRα in childhood HGG. PMID:23970477

  12. Structural Basis of the Oncogenic Interaction of Phosphatase PRL-1 with the Magnesium Transporter CNNM2*♦

    PubMed Central

    Giménez-Mascarell, Paula; Oyenarte, Iker; Hardy, Serge; Breiderhoff, Tilman; Stuiver, Marchel; Kostantin, Elie; Diercks, Tammo; Pey, Angel L.; Ereño-Orbea, June; Martínez-Chantar, María Luz; Khalaf-Nazzal, Reham; Claverie-Martin, Felix; Müller, Dominik; Tremblay, Michel L.

    2017-01-01

    Phosphatases of regenerating liver (PRLs), the most oncogenic of all protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), play a critical role in metastatic progression of cancers. Recent findings established a new paradigm by uncovering that their association with magnesium transporters of the cyclin M (CNNM) family causes a rise in intracellular magnesium levels that promote oncogenic transformation. Recently, however, essential roles for regulation of the circadian rhythm and reproduction of the CNNM family have been highlighted. Here, we describe the crystal structure of PRL-1 in complex with the Bateman module of CNNM2 (CNNM2BAT), which consists of two cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) domains (IPR000664) and represents an intracellular regulatory module of the transporter. The structure reveals a heterotetrameric association, consisting of a disc-like homodimer of CNNM2BAT bound to two independent PRL-1 molecules, each one located at opposite tips of the disc. The structure highlights the key role played by Asp-558 at the extended loop of the CBS2 motif of CNNM2 in maintaining the association between the two proteins and proves that the interaction between CNNM2 and PRL-1 occurs via the catalytic domain of the phosphatase. Our data shed new light on the structural basis underlying the interaction between PRL phosphatases and CNNM transporters and provides a hypothesis about the molecular mechanism by which PRL-1, upon binding to CNNM2, might increase the intracellular concentration of Mg2+ thereby contributing to tumor progression and metastasis. The availability of this structure sets the basis for the rational design of compounds modulating PRL-1 and CNNM2 activities. PMID:27899452

  13. Overexpression of C-terminally but not N-terminally truncated Myb induces fibrosarcomas: a novel nonhematopoietic target cell for the myb oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Press, R D; Reddy, E P; Ewert, D L

    1994-01-01

    The myb oncogene encodes a DNA-binding transcriptional transactivator which can become a hematopoietic cell-transforming protein following the deletion of amino acid sequences from either its amino or carboxyl terminus. Although a number of hematopoietic tumors express terminally deleted variants of Myb, the involvement of truncated Myb in nonhematopoietic tumors has not been adequately investigated. To assess the full spectrum of Myb's oncogenic capability, a replication-competent retroviral vector (RCAMV) was used to express a full-length protein (C-Myb), an amino-terminally truncated protein (VCC- or delta N-Myb), a carboxyl-terminally truncated protein (T-Myb), or a doubly truncated protein (VCT-Myb) in vivo. These viruses were injected intravenously into 10-day chicken embryos, and the infected chicks were monitored for tumors. Approximately 4 to 8 weeks after hatching, the majority (30 of 39 [77%]) of animals infected with the T-Myb retrovirus (without 214 carboxyl-terminal residues) developed nodular muscle tumors which could be identified by both morphologic and immunohistochemical criteria as fibrosarcomas. Identically appearing tumors could also be found in the kidney of some T-Myb-infected animals. The T-Myb-induced fibrosarcomas expressed the appropriately sized T-Myb protein, contained an unaltered proviral T-myb gene, and showed clonal proviral integration sites. In comparison, no sarcomas were observed in any of the animals infected with the amino-terminally truncated (VCC- and delta N-Myb) or doubly truncated (VCT-Myb) viruses. A loss of carboxyl-terminal but not amino-terminal sequences can thus convert Myb into a potent in vivo transforming protein for nonhematopoietic mesenchymal cells. In comparison, a truncation of either or both ends of the protein can activate Myb into a hematopoietic cell-transforming protein. Images PMID:8139533

  14. Spi-1, Fli-1 and Fli-3 (miR-17-92) Oncogenes Contribute to a Single Oncogenic Network Controlling Cell Proliferation in Friend Erythroleukemia

    PubMed Central

    Kayali, Samer; Giraud, Guillaume; Morlé, François; Guyot, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Clonal erythroleukemia developing in susceptible mice infected by Friend virus complex are associated with highly recurrent proviral insertions at one of three loci called Spi-1, Fli-1 or Fli-3, leading to deregulated expression of oncogenic Spi-1 or Fli-1 transcription factors or miR-17-92 miRNA cluster, respectively. Deregulated expression of each of these three oncogenes has been independently shown to contribute to cell proliferation of erythroleukemic clones. Previous studies showed a close relationship between Spi-1 and Fli-1, which belong to the same ETS family, Spi-1 activating fli-1 gene, and both Spi-1 and Fli-1 activating multiple common target genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that Spi-1 and Fli-1 are also involved in direct miR-17-92 transcriptional activation through their binding to a conserved ETS binding site in its promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that physiological re-expression of exogenous miR-17 and miR-20a are able to partially rescue the proliferation loss induced by Fli-1 knock-down and identified HBP1 as a target of these miRNA in erythroleukemic cells. These results establish that three of the most recurrently activated oncogenes in Friend erythroleukemia are actually involved in a same oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation. The putative contribution of a similar ETS-miR-17-92 network module in other normal or pathological proliferative contexts is discussed. PMID:23056458

  15. Spi-1, Fli-1 and Fli-3 (miR-17-92) oncogenes contribute to a single oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation in friend erythroleukemia.

    PubMed

    Kayali, Samer; Giraud, Guillaume; Morlé, François; Guyot, Boris

    2012-01-01

    Clonal erythroleukemia developing in susceptible mice infected by Friend virus complex are associated with highly recurrent proviral insertions at one of three loci called Spi-1, Fli-1 or Fli-3, leading to deregulated expression of oncogenic Spi-1 or Fli-1 transcription factors or miR-17-92 miRNA cluster, respectively. Deregulated expression of each of these three oncogenes has been independently shown to contribute to cell proliferation of erythroleukemic clones. Previous studies showed a close relationship between Spi-1 and Fli-1, which belong to the same ETS family, Spi-1 activating fli-1 gene, and both Spi-1 and Fli-1 activating multiple common target genes involved in ribosome biogenesis. In this study, we demonstrated that Spi-1 and Fli-1 are also involved in direct miR-17-92 transcriptional activation through their binding to a conserved ETS binding site in its promoter. Moreover, we demonstrated that physiological re-expression of exogenous miR-17 and miR-20a are able to partially rescue the proliferation loss induced by Fli-1 knock-down and identified HBP1 as a target of these miRNA in erythroleukemic cells. These results establish that three of the most recurrently activated oncogenes in Friend erythroleukemia are actually involved in a same oncogenic network controlling cell proliferation. The putative contribution of a similar ETS-miR-17-92 network module in other normal or pathological proliferative contexts is discussed.

  16. Inhibition of TWIST1 leads to activation of oncogene-induced senescence in oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Burns, Timothy F; Dobromilskaya, Irina; Murphy, Sara C; Gajula, Rajendra P; Thiyagarajan, Saravanan; Chatley, Sarah N H; Aziz, Khaled; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tran, Phuoc T; Rudin, Charles M

    2013-04-01

    A large fraction of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are dependent on defined oncogenic driver mutations. Although targeted agents exist for EGFR- and EML4-ALK-driven NSCLCs, no therapies target the most frequently found driver mutation, KRAS. Furthermore, acquired resistance to the currently targetable driver mutations is nearly universally observed. Clearly a novel therapeutic approach is needed to target oncogene-driven NSCLCs. We recently showed that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 cooperates with mutant Kras to induce lung adenocarcinoma in transgenic mouse models and that inhibition of Twist1 in these models led to Kras-induced senescence. In the current study, we examine the role of TWIST1 in oncogene-driven human NSCLCs. Silencing of TWIST1 in KRAS-mutant human NSCLC cell lines resulted in dramatic growth inhibition and either activation of a latent oncogene-induced senescence program or, in some cases, apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in EGFR mutation-driven and c-Met-amplified NSCLC cell lines. Growth inhibition by silencing of TWIST1 was independent of p53 or p16 mutational status and did not require previously defined mediators of senescence, p21 and p27, nor could this phenotype be rescued by overexpression of SKP2. In xenograft models, silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of KRAS-mutant, EGFR-mutant, and c-Met-amplified NSCLCs. Remarkably, inducible silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of established KRAS-mutant tumors. Together these findings suggest that silencing of TWIST1 in oncogene driver-dependent NSCLCs represents a novel and promising therapeutic strategy.

  17. Oncogenic EWS-Fli1 interacts with hsRPB7, a subunit of human RNA polymerase II.

    PubMed

    Petermann, R; Mossier, B M; Aryee, D N; Khazak, V; Golemis, E A; Kovar, H

    1998-08-06

    As a result of the t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal translocation characterizing the Ewing family of tumors (ET), the amino terminal portion of EWS, an RNA binding protein of unknown function, is fused to the DNA-binding domain of the ets transcription factor Fli1. The hybrid EWS-Fli1 protein acts as a strong transcriptional activator and, in contrast to wildtype Fli1, is a potent transforming agent. Similar rearrangements involving EWS or the highly homologous TLS with various transcription factors have been found in several types of human tumors. Employing yeast two-hybrid cloning we isolated the seventh largest subunit of human RNA polymerase II (hsRPB7) as a protein that specifically interacts with the amino terminus of EWS. This association was confirmed by in vitro immunocoprecipitation. In nuclear extracts, hsRPB7 was found to copurify with EWS-Fli1 but not with Fli1. Overexpression of recombinant hsRPB7 specifically increased gene activation by EWS-chimeric transcription factors. Replacement of the EWS portion by hsRPB7 in the oncogenic fusion protein restored the transactivating potential of the chimera. Our results suggest that the interaction of the amino terminus of EWS with hsRPB7 contributes to the transactivation function of EWS-Fli1 and, since hsRPB7 has characteristics of a regulatory subunit of RNA polymerase II, may influence promoter selectivity.

  18. Targeting the function of the HER2 oncogene in human cancer therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Moasser, Mark M.

    2011-01-01

    The year 2007 marks exactly two decades since HER2 was functionally implicated in the pathogenesis of human breast cancer (Slamon et al. 1987). This finding established the HER2 oncogene hypothesis for the development of some human cancers. An abundance of experimental evidence compiled over the past two decades now solidly supports the HER2 oncogene hypothesis. A direct consequence of this hypothesis was the promise that inhibitors of oncogenic HER2 would be highly effective treatments for HER2-driven cancers. This treatment hypothesis has led to the development and widespread use of anti-HER2 antibodies (trastuzumab) in clinical management resulting in significantly improved clinical anti-tumor efficacies that have transformed the clinical practice of oncology. In the shadows of this irrefutable clinical success, scientific studies have not yet been able to mechanistically validate that trastuzumab inhibits oncogenic HER2 function and it remains possible that the current clinical advances are a consequence of the oncogene hypothesis but not a translation of it. These looming scientific uncertainties suggest that the full promise of the treatment hypothesis may not yet have been realized. The coming decade will see a second generation of HER2 targeting agents brought into clinical testing and a renewed attempt to treat HER2-driven cancers through the inactivation HER2. Here I review the development of treatments that target HER2 in the context of the HER2 oncogene hypothesis, and where we stand with regards to the clinical translation of the HER2 oncogene hypothesis. PMID:17486079

  19. The roles of oncogenic miRNAs and their therapeutic importance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    O'Bryan, Samia; Dong, Shengli; Mathis, J Michael; Alahari, Suresh K

    2017-02-01

    Since the discovery of tumour suppressive miRNA in 2002, the dysregulation of miRNAs was implicated in many cancers, exhibiting both tumour suppressive and oncogenic roles. Dysregulation of miRNAs was found to be involved in the initiation of oncogenesis, as well as the progression, invasion and metastasis of cancers. While normal miRNA inhibitory functions help regulate gene expression in the cell, oncogenic miRNA, when dysregulated can lead to suppression of critical pathways that control apoptosis, cell cycle progression, growth and proliferation. This suppression allows for the upregulation of pro-oncogenic factors that drive cell survival, growth and proliferation. Due to emerging discoveries, oncogenic miRNAs are proving to be a critical component in cancers, such as breast cancer, and may provide novel avenues for cancer treatment. In this article, we discuss the roles of the most studied oncogenic miRNAs in breast cancer including clusters and families involved as well as the less studied and recently discovered oncogenic miRNAs. These miRNAs provide valuable information into the complexity of regulatory elements affected by their overexpression and the overall impact in the progression of breast cancer. Also, identifying miRNAs causing or leading to resistance or sensitivity to current anti-cancer drugs prior to treatment may lead to an improvement in treatment selection and overall patient response. This review summarizes known and recently discovered miRNAs in literature found to have oncogenic roles in breast cancer initiation and the progression, invasion and metastasis of the disease.

  20. Enhanced Degradation of Misfolded Proteins Promotes Tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Liang; Brewer, Michael D; Guo, Lili; Wang, Ruoxing; Jiang, Peng; Yang, Xiaolu

    2017-03-28

    An adequate cellular capacity to degrade misfolded proteins is critical for cell survival and organismal health. A diminished capacity is associated with aging and neurodegenerative diseases; however, the consequences of an enhanced capacity remain undefined. Here, we report that the ability to clear misfolded proteins is increased during oncogenic transformation and is reduced upon tumor cell differentiation. The augmented capacity mitigates oxidative stress associated with oncogenic growth and is required for both the initiation and maintenance of malignant phenotypes. We show that tripartite motif-containing (TRIM) proteins select misfolded proteins for proteasomal degradation. The higher degradation power in tumor cells is attributed to the upregulation of the proteasome and especially TRIM proteins, both mediated by the antioxidant transcription factor Nrf2. These findings establish a critical role of TRIMs in protein quality control, connect the clearance of misfolded proteins to antioxidant defense, and suggest an intrinsic characteristic of tumor cells.

  1. Testing the Oncogenic Relevance of Cell Adhesion and Cytosketal Genes Affected by DNA Deletions in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-07-01

    and hair follicle derived cells as targets for the v-rasHa oncogene in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis 12, 1119–1124. Wicki, A., Lehembre, F...potential oncogenic significance of genes directly involved in cell adhesion and the cytoskeleton. The aim of this study was therefore to directly test ...expression of candidate cancer genes belonging to the cytoskeletal/cell adhesion category, (2) use these tools to test the oncogenic significance of

  2. Activation of c-myc and c-K