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Sample records for oncogene proteins

  1. Oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Compans, R.W.; Cooper, M.; Koprowski, H.; McConell, I.; Melchers, F.; Nussenzweig, V.; Oldstone, M.; Olsnes, S.; Saedler, H.; Vogt, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Roles of drosophila proto-oncogenes and growth factor homologs during development of the fly; Interaction of oncogenes with differentiation programs; Genetics of src: structure and functional organization of a protein tyrosine kinase; Structures and activities of activated abl oncogenes; Eukaryotic RAS proteins and yeast proteins with which they interact. This book presents up-to-data review articles on oncogenes. The editor includes five contributions which critically evaluate recent research in the field.

  2. Structure of mutant human oncogene protein determined

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, R.

    1989-01-16

    The protein encoded by a mutant human oncogene differs only slightly in structure from the native protein that initiates normal cell division, a finding that may complicate efforts to develop inhibitors of the mutant protein. Previously, the x-ray structure of the protein encoded by the normal c-Ha-ras gene, a protein believed to signal cells to start or stop dividing through its interaction with guanosine triphosphate (GTP), was reported. The structure of the protein encoded by a transforming c-Ha-ras oncogene, in which a valine codon replaces the normal glycine codon at position 12 in the gene, has now been determined. The differences in the structures of the mutant and normal proteins are located primarily in a loop that interacts with the /beta/-phosphate of a bound guanosine diphosphate (GDP) molecule.

  3. Identification of an Oncogenic RAB Protein

    PubMed Central

    Wheeler, Douglas B.; Zoncu, Roberto; Root, David E.; Sabatini, David M.; Sawyers, Charles L.

    2015-01-01

    In an shRNA screen for genes that affect AKT phosphorylation, we identified the RAB35 small GTPase—a protein previously implicated in endomembrane trafficking—as a new regulator of the PI3K pathway. Depletion of RAB35 suppresses AKT phosphorylation in response to growth factors, whereas expression of a dominant active GTPase-deficient mutant of RAB35 constitutively activates the PI3K/AKT pathway. RAB35 functions downstream of growth factor receptors and upstream of PDK1 and mTORC2 and co-purifies with PI3K in immunoprecipitation assays. Two somatic RAB35 mutations found in human tumors generate alleles that constitutively activate PI3K/AKT signaling, suppress apoptosis, and transform cells in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, oncogenic RAB35 is sufficient to drive PDGFRα to LAMP2-positive endomembranes in the absence of ligand, suggesting there may be latent oncogenic potential in dysregulated endomembrane trafficking. PMID:26338797

  4. Identification of an oncogenic RAB protein.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Douglas B; Zoncu, Roberto; Root, David E; Sabatini, David M; Sawyers, Charles L

    2015-10-01

    In a short hairpin RNA screen for genes that affect AKT phosphorylation, we identified the RAB35 small guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase)-a protein previously implicated in endomembrane trafficking-as a regulator of the phosphatidylinositol 3'-OH kinase (PI3K) pathway. Depletion of RAB35 suppresses AKT phosphorylation in response to growth factors, whereas expression of a dominant active GTPase-deficient mutant of RAB35 constitutively activates the PI3K/AKT pathway. RAB35 functions downstream of growth factor receptors and upstream of PDK1 and mTORC2 and copurifies with PI3K in immunoprecipitation assays. Two somatic RAB35 mutations found in human tumors generate alleles that constitutively activate PI3K/AKT signaling, suppress apoptosis, and transform cells in a PI3K-dependent manner. Furthermore, oncogenic RAB35 is sufficient to drive platelet-derived growth factor receptor α to LAMP2-positive endomembranes in the absence of ligand, suggesting that there may be latent oncogenic potential in dysregulated endomembrane trafficking.

  5. Suppression of Myc oncogenic activity by ribosomal protein haploinsufficiency.

    PubMed

    Barna, Maria; Pusic, Aya; Zollo, Ornella; Costa, Maria; Kondrashov, Nadya; Rego, Eduardo; Rao, Pulivarthi H; Ruggero, Davide

    2008-12-18

    The Myc oncogene regulates the expression of several components of the protein synthetic machinery, including ribosomal proteins, initiation factors of translation, RNA polymerase III and ribosomal DNA. Whether and how increasing the cellular protein synthesis capacity affects the multistep process leading to cancer remains to be addressed. Here we use ribosomal protein heterozygote mice as a genetic tool to restore increased protein synthesis in Emu-Myc/+ transgenic mice to normal levels, and show that the oncogenic potential of Myc in this context is suppressed. Our findings demonstrate that the ability of Myc to increase protein synthesis directly augments cell size and is sufficient to accelerate cell cycle progression independently of known cell cycle targets transcriptionally regulated by Myc. In addition, when protein synthesis is restored to normal levels, Myc-overexpressing precancerous cells are more efficiently eliminated by programmed cell death. Our findings reveal a new mechanism that links increases in general protein synthesis rates downstream of an oncogenic signal to a specific molecular impairment in the modality of translation initiation used to regulate the expression of selective messenger RNAs. We show that an aberrant increase in cap-dependent translation downstream of Myc hyperactivation specifically impairs the translational switch to internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent translation that is required for accurate mitotic progression. Failure of this translational switch results in reduced mitotic-specific expression of the endogenous IRES-dependent form of Cdk11 (also known as Cdc2l and PITSLRE), which leads to cytokinesis defects and is associated with increased centrosome numbers and genome instability in Emu-Myc/+ mice. When accurate translational control is re-established in Emu-Myc/+ mice, genome instability is suppressed. Our findings demonstrate how perturbations in translational control provide a highly specific outcome

  6. Intrinsic Structural Disorder Confers Cellular Viability on Oncogenic Fusion Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Hegyi, Hedi; Buday, László; Tompa, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations, which often generate chimeric proteins by fusing segments of two distinct genes, represent the single major genetic aberration leading to cancer. We suggest that the unifying theme of these events is a high level of intrinsic structural disorder, enabling fusion proteins to evade cellular surveillance mechanisms that eliminate misfolded proteins. Predictions in 406 translocation-related human proteins show that they are significantly enriched in disorder (43.3% vs. 20.7% in all human proteins), they have fewer Pfam domains, and their translocation breakpoints tend to avoid domain splitting. The vicinity of the breakpoint is significantly more disordered than the rest of these already highly disordered fusion proteins. In the unlikely event of domain splitting in fusion it usually spares much of the domain or splits at locations where the newly exposed hydrophobic surface area approximates that of an intact domain. The mechanisms of action of fusion proteins suggest that in most cases their structural disorder is also essential to the acquired oncogenic function, enabling the long-range structural communication of remote binding and/or catalytic elements. In this respect, there are three major mechanisms that contribute to generating an oncogenic signal: (i) a phosphorylation site and a tyrosine-kinase domain are fused, and structural disorder of the intervening region enables intramolecular phosphorylation (e.g., BCR-ABL); (ii) a dimerisation domain fuses with a tyrosine kinase domain and disorder enables the two subunits within the homodimer to engage in permanent intermolecular phosphorylations (e.g., TFG-ALK); (iii) the fusion of a DNA-binding element to a transactivator domain results in an aberrant transcription factor that causes severe misregulation of transcription (e.g. EWS-ATF). Our findings also suggest novel strategies of intervention against the ensuing neoplastic transformations. PMID:19888473

  7. RNF4-Dependent Oncogene Activation by Protein Stabilization.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Jane J; Abed, Mona; Heuberger, Julian; Novak, Rostislav; Zohar, Yaniv; Beltran Lopez, Angela P; Trausch-Azar, Julie S; Ilagan, Ma Xenia G; Benhamou, David; Dittmar, Gunnar; Kopan, Raphael; Birchmeier, Walter; Schwartz, Alan L; Orian, Amir

    2016-09-20

    Ubiquitylation regulates signaling pathways critical for cancer development and, in many cases, targets proteins for degradation. Here, we report that ubiquitylation by RNF4 stabilizes otherwise short-lived oncogenic transcription factors, including β-catenin, Myc, c-Jun, and the Notch intracellular-domain (N-ICD) protein. RNF4 enhances the transcriptional activity of these factors, as well as Wnt- and Notch-dependent gene expression. While RNF4 is a SUMO-targeted ubiquitin ligase, protein stabilization requires the substrate's phosphorylation, rather than SUMOylation, and binding to RNF4's arginine-rich motif domain. Stabilization also involves generation of unusual polyubiquitin chains and docking of RNF4 to chromatin. Biologically, RNF4 enhances the tumor phenotype and is essential for cancer cell survival. High levels of RNF4 mRNA correlate with poor survival of a subgroup of breast cancer patients, and RNF4 protein levels are elevated in 30% of human colon adenocarcinomas. Thus, RNF4-dependent ubiquitylation translates transient phosphorylation signal(s) into long-term protein stabilization, resulting in enhanced oncoprotein activation. PMID:27653698

  8. SUMOylation Confers Posttranslational Stability on NPM-ALK Oncogenic Protein.

    PubMed

    Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Curry, Choladda V; Shi, Ping; Alkan, Serhan; Amin, Hesham M

    2015-09-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase-expressing (NPM-ALK+) T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive form of cancer that commonly affects children and adolescents. The expression of NPM-ALK chimeric oncogene results from the chromosomal translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) that causes the fusion of the ALK and NPM genes. This translocation generates the NPM-ALK protein tyrosine kinase that forms the constitutively activated NPM-ALK/NPM-ALK homodimers. In addition, NPM-ALK is structurally associated with wild-type NPM to form NPM/NPM-ALK heterodimers, which can translocate to the nucleus. The mechanisms that sustain the stability of NPM-ALK are not fully understood. SUMOylation is a posttranslational modification that is characterized by the reversible conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) with target proteins. SUMO competes with ubiquitin for substrate binding and therefore, SUMOylation is believed to protect target proteins from proteasomal degradation. Moreover, SUMOylation contributes to the subcellular distribution of target proteins. Herein, we found that the SUMOylation pathway is deregulated in NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoma tumors from patients. We also identified Lys24 and Lys32 within the NPM domain as the sites where NPM-ALK conjugates with SUMO-1 and SUMO-3. Importantly, antagonizing SUMOylation by the SENP1 protease decreased the accumulation of NPM-ALK and suppressed lymphoma cell viability, proliferation, and anchorage-independent colony formation. One possible mechanism for the SENP1-mediated decrease in NPM-ALK levels was the increase in NPM-ALK association with ubiquitin, which facilitates its degradation. Our findings propose a model in which aberrancies in SUMOylation contribute to the pathogenesis of NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma. Unraveling such pathogenic mechanisms may lead to devising novel strategies to eliminate this aggressive neoplasm.

  9. MDMX exerts its oncogenic activity via suppression of retinoblastoma protein.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Hu, L; Qiu, W; Deng, T; Zhang, Y; Bergholz, J; Xiao, Z-X

    2015-10-29

    Inactivation of the retinoblastoma protein (RB) has a major role in the development of human malignancies. We have previously shown that MDM2, an ubiquitin E3 ligase and major negative regulator of p53, binds to and promotes proteasome-mediated degradation of RB. MDMX, a homolog of MDM2, also binds to and inhibits p53 transactivation activity, yet it does not possess intrinsic ubiquitin ligase activity. Here, we show that MDMX binds to and promotes RB degradation in an MDM2-dependent manner. Specifically, the MDMX C-terminal ring domain binds to the RB C-pocket and enhances MDM2-RB interaction. Silencing MDMX induces RB accumulation, cell cycle arrest and senescence-like phenotypes, which are reverted by simultaneous RB knockdown. Furthermore, MDMX ablation leads to significant retardation of xenograft tumor growth, concomitant with RB accumulation. These results demonstrate that MDMX exerts oncogenic activity via suppression of RB, and suggest that both MDM2 and MDMX could be chemotherapeutic targets. PMID:25703327

  10. Oncogenic activation of the human trk proto-oncogene by recombination with the ribosomal large subunit protein L7a.

    PubMed Central

    Ziemiecki, A; Müller, R G; Fu, X C; Hynes, N E; Kozma, S

    1990-01-01

    The trk-2h oncogene, isolated from the human breast carcinoma cell line MDA-MB 231 by genomic DNA-transfection into NIH3T3 cells, consists of the trk proto-oncogene receptor kinase domain fused to a N-terminal 41 amino acid activating sequence (Kozma, S.C., Redmond, S.M.S., Xiao-Chang, F., Saurer, S.M., Groner, B. and Hynes, N.E. (1988) EMBO J., 7, 147-154). Antibodies raised against a bacterially produced beta gal-trk receptor kinase fusion protein recognized a 44 kd phosphoprotein phosphorylated on serine, threonine and tyrosine in extracts of trk-2h transformed NIH3T3 cells. In vitro, in the presence of Mn2+/gamma ATP, this protein became phosphorylated extensively on tyrosine. Cells transformed by trk-2h did not, however, show an elevation in total phosphotyrosine. We have cloned and sequenced the cDNA encoding the amino terminal activating sequences of trk-2h (Kozma et al., 1988). The encoded protein has a high basic amino acid content and the gene is expressed as an abundant 1.2 kb mRNA in human, rat and mouse cells. Antipeptide antibodies raised against a C-terminal peptide recognized specifically a 30 kd protein on Western blots of human, rat and mouse cell extracts. Immunofluorescence revealed, in addition to granular cytoplasmic fluorescence, intense nucleolar staining. The high basic amino acid content and nucleolar staining prompted us to investigate whether the 30 kd protein could be a ribosomal protein. Western immunoblotting analysis of 2D-electrophoretically resolved ribosomal proteins indicated that the 30 kd protein is the ribosomal large subunit protein L7a.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 9. PMID:2403926

  11. Small-Molecule Protein-Protein Interaction Inhibitor of Oncogenic Rho Signaling.

    PubMed

    Diviani, Dario; Raimondi, Francesco; Del Vescovo, Cosmo D; Dreyer, Elisa; Reggi, Erica; Osman, Halima; Ruggieri, Lucia; Gonano, Cynthia; Cavin, Sabrina; Box, Clare L; Lenoir, Marc; Overduin, Michael; Bellucci, Luca; Seeber, Michele; Fanelli, Francesca

    2016-09-22

    Uncontrolled activation of Rho signaling by RhoGEFs, in particular AKAP13 (Lbc) and its close homologs, is implicated in a number of human tumors with poor prognosis and resistance to therapy. Structure predictions and alanine scanning mutagenesis of Lbc identified a circumscribed hot region for RhoA recognition and activation. Virtual screening targeting that region led to the discovery of an inhibitor of Lbc-RhoA interaction inside cells. By interacting with the DH domain, the compound inhibits the catalytic activity of Lbc, halts cellular responses to activation of oncogenic Lbc pathways, and reverses a number of prostate cancer cell phenotypes such as proliferation, migration, and invasiveness. This study provides insights into the structural determinants of Lbc-RhoA recognition. This is a successful example of structure-based discovery of a small protein-protein interaction inhibitor able to halt oncogenic Rho signaling in cancer cells with therapeutic implications.

  12. The Activating Transcription Factor 3 Protein Suppresses the Oncogenic Function of Mutant p53 Proteins*

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Saisai; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Chunwan; Malmut, Sarah; Zhang, Jianqiao; Ren, Shumei; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Wei; Tang, Dale D.; Yan, Chunhong

    2014-01-01

    Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer. PMID:24554706

  13. Suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 interacts with oncogenic lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Venkitachalam, Srividya; Chueh, Fu-Yu; Leong, King-Fu; Pabich, Samantha; Yu, Chao-Lan

    2011-03-01

    Lymphocyte-specific protein tyrosine kinase (Lck) plays a key role in T cell signal transduction and is tightly regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. Lck can function as an oncoprotein when overexpressed or constantly activated by mutations. Our previous studies showed that Lck-induced cellular transformation could be suppressed by enforced expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), a SOCS family member involved in the negative feedback control of cytokine signaling. We observed attenuated Lck kinase activity in SOCS1-expressing cells, suggesting an important role of SOCS in regulating Lck functions. It remains largely unknown whether and how SOCS proteins interact with the oncogenic Lck kinase. Here, we report that among four SOCS family proteins, SOCS1, SOCS2, SOCS3 and CIS (cytokine-inducible SH2 domain containing protein), SOCS1 has the highest affinity in binding to the oncogenic Lck kinase. We identified the positive regulatory phosphotyrosine 394 residue in the kinase domain as the key interacting determinant in Lck. Additionally, the Lck kinase domain alone is sufficient to bind SOCS1. While the SH2 domain in SOCS1 is important in its association with the oncogenic Lck kinase, other functional domains may also contribute to overall binding affinity. These findings provide important mechanistic insights into the role of SOCS proteins as tumor suppressors in cells transformed by oncogenic protein tyrosine kinases.

  14. Nuclear Localization and DNA Binding Properties of a Protein Expressed by Human c-myc Oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Persson, Hakan; Leder, Philip

    1984-08-01

    Antisera to the human cellular myc oncogene product were used to identify a human c-myc specific protein with a molecular weight of 65,000. Subcellular fractionation showed that the human c-myc protein is predominantly found in the cell nucleus. The p65 Kc-myc protein binds to double- and single-stranded DNA as measured by a DNA affinity chromatography assay.

  15. Netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activities through enhancing Yes-associated protein stability.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qi; Li, Dean Y; Luo, Hongbo R; Guan, Kun-Liang; Ye, Keqiang

    2015-06-01

    Yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcription coactivator, is the major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, which plays a critical role in organ size control and cancer development. However, how YAP is regulated by extracellular stimuli in tumorigenesis remains incompletely understood. Netrin-1, a laminin-related secreted protein, displays proto-oncogenic activity in cancers. Nonetheless, the downstream signaling mediating its oncogenic effects is not well defined. Here we show that netrin-1 via its transmembrane receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer and uncoordinated-5 homolog, up-regulates YAP expression, escalating YAP levels in the nucleus and promoting cancer cell proliferation and migration. Inactivating netrin-1, deleted in colorectal cancer, or uncoordinated-5 homolog B (UNC5B) decreases YAP protein levels, abrogating cancer cell progression by netrin-1, whereas knockdown of mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 1/2 (MST1/2) or large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (Lats1/2), two sets of upstream core kinases of the Hippo pathway, has no effect in blocking netrin-1-induced up-regulation of YAP. Netrin-1 stimulates phosphatase 1A to dephosphorylate YAP, which leads to decreased ubiquitination and degradation, enhancing YAP accumulation and signaling. Hence, our findings support that netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activity through YAP signaling, providing a mechanism coupling extracellular signals to the nuclear YAP oncogene.

  16. Menin-MLL inhibitors reverse oncogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins in leukemia.

    PubMed

    Grembecka, Jolanta; He, Shihan; Shi, Aibin; Purohit, Trupta; Muntean, Andrew G; Sorenson, Roderick J; Showalter, Hollis D; Murai, Marcelo J; Belcher, Amalia M; Hartley, Thomas; Hess, Jay L; Cierpicki, Tomasz

    2012-03-01

    Translocations involving the mixed lineage leukemia (MLL) gene result in human acute leukemias with very poor prognosis. The leukemogenic activity of MLL fusion proteins is critically dependent on their direct interaction with menin, a product of the multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN1) gene. Here we present what are to our knowledge the first small-molecule inhibitors of the menin-MLL fusion protein interaction that specifically bind menin with nanomolar affinities. These compounds effectively reverse MLL fusion protein-mediated leukemic transformation by downregulating the expression of target genes required for MLL fusion protein oncogenic activity. They also selectively block proliferation and induce both apoptosis and differentiation of leukemia cells harboring MLL translocations. Identification of these compounds provides a new tool for better understanding MLL-mediated leukemogenesis and represents a new approach for studying the role of menin as an oncogenic cofactor of MLL fusion proteins. Our findings also highlight a new therapeutic strategy for aggressive leukemias with MLL rearrangements.

  17. Src-like-adaptor protein (SLAP) differentially regulates normal and oncogenic c-Kit signaling.

    PubMed

    Kazi, Julhash U; Agarwal, Shruti; Sun, Jianmin; Bracco, Enrico; Rönnstrand, Lars

    2014-02-01

    The Src-like-adaptor protein (SLAP) is an adaptor protein sharing considerable structural homology with Src. SLAP is expressed in a variety of cells and regulates receptor tyrosine kinase signaling by direct association. In this report, we show that SLAP associates with both wild-type and oncogenic c-Kit (c-Kit-D816V). The association involves the SLAP SH2 domain and receptor phosphotyrosine residues different from those mediating Src interaction. Association of SLAP triggers c-Kit ubiquitylation which, in turn, is followed by receptor degradation. Although SLAP depletion potentiates c-Kit downstream signaling by stabilizing the receptor, it remains non-functional in c-Kit-D816V signaling. Ligand-stimulated c-Kit or c-Kit-D816V did not alter membrane localization of SLAP. Interestingly oncogenic c-Kit-D816V, but not wild-type c-Kit, phosphorylates SLAP on residues Y120, Y258 and Y273. Physical interaction between c-Kit-D816V and SLAP is mandatory for the phosphorylation to take place. Although tyrosine-phosphorylated SLAP does not affect c-Kit-D816V signaling, mutation of these tyrosine sites to phenylalanine can restore SLAP activity. Taken together the data demonstrate that SLAP negatively regulates wild-type c-Kit signaling, but not its oncogenic counterpart, indicating a possible mechanism by which the oncogenic c-Kit bypasses the normal cellular negative feedback control.

  18. Structure and transforming potential of the human cot oncogene encoding a putative protein kinase.

    PubMed Central

    Miyoshi, J; Higashi, T; Mukai, H; Ohuchi, T; Kakunaga, T

    1991-01-01

    A new transforming gene has been molecularly cloned from hamster SHOK cells transformed with DNA extracted from a human thyroid carcinoma cell line and named the cot (cancer Osaka thyroid) oncogene. cDNA sequencing disclosed that this oncogene codes for a protein with 415 amino acid residues, and computer matching showed 42 to 48% similarity matches with serine protein kinases. Its gene product was identified as a 52-kDa protein by transcription and translation in vitro. Expression of cot cDNA under transcriptional control by a retroviral long terminal repeat induced morphological transformation of NIH 3T3 cells as well as SHOK cells. Protein kinase activity associated with constructed p60gag-cot was detected by immune complex kinase assay with anti-gag antiserum. The cot oncogene was overexpressed in transformed SHOK cells and found to have a rearranged 3' end in the last coding exon, which probably resulted in a deletion and an altered C' terminus in the transforming protein. This DNA rearrangement appeared to have occurred during transfection of the tumor DNA into hamster SHOK cells and not in the original thyroid tumor. Images PMID:2072910

  19. Inhibition of Protein Synthesis by Y Box-Binding Protein 1 Blocks Oncogenic Cell Transformation†

    PubMed Central

    Bader, Andreas G.; Vogt, Peter K.

    2005-01-01

    The multifunctional Y box-binding protein 1 (YB-1) is transcriptionally repressed by the oncogenic phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway (with P3K as an oncogenic homolog of the catalytic subunit) and, when reexpressed with the retroviral vector RCAS, interferes with P3K- and Akt-induced transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts. Retrovirally expressed YB-1 binds to the cap of mRNAs and inhibits cap-dependent and cap-independent translation. To determine the requirements for the inhibitory role of YB-1 in P3K-induced transformation, we conducted a mutational analysis, measuring YB-1-induced interference with transformation, subcellular localization, cap binding, mRNA binding, homodimerization, and inhibition of translation. The results show that (i) interference with transformation requires RNA binding and a C-terminal domain that is distinct from the cytoplasmic retention domain, (ii) interference with transformation is tightly correlated with inhibition of translation, and (iii) masking of mRNAs by YB-1 is not sufficient to block transformation or to inhibit translation. We identified a noncanonical nuclear localization signal (NLS) in the C-terminal half of YB-1. A mutant lacking the NLS retains its ability to interfere with transformation, indicating that a nuclear function is not required. These results suggest that YB-1 interferes with P3K-induced transformation by a specific inhibition of translation through its RNA-binding domain and a region in the C-terminal domain. Potential functions of the C-terminal region are discussed. PMID:15743808

  20. Induction of a secreted protein by the myxoid liposarcoma oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Kuroda, Masahiko; Wang, XiaoZhong; Sok, John; Yin, Yin; Chung, Peter; Giannotti, JoAnn W.; Jacobs, Kenneth A.; Fitz, Lori J.; Murtha-Riel, Patricia; Turner, Katherine J.; Ron, David

    1999-01-01

    The TLS-CHOP oncoprotein, found in the majority of human myxoid liposarcomas, consists of a fusion between the transcription factor CHOP/GADD153 and the N terminus of an RNA-binding protein TLS/FUS. Clinical correlation and in vitro transformation assays indicate that the N terminus of TLS plays an important role in oncogenesis by TLS-CHOP. Until now, however, the only activity attributed to the oncoprotein is that of inhibiting the binding of transcription factors of the C/EBP class to certain adipogenic target genes, a function that TLS-CHOP shares with the nononcogenic CHOP protein. Here we report the isolation of a gene, DOL54, that is activated in primary fibroblasts by the expression of TLS-CHOP. DOL54 is expressed in the neoplastic component of human myxoid liposarcomas and increases the tumorigenicity of cells injected in nude mice. Activation of DOL54 requires an intact DNA-binding and dimerization domain in TLS-CHOP, a suitable cellular dimerization partner, and depends on the TLS N terminus. Normal adipocytic differentiation is associated with an early and transient expression of DOL54, and the gene encodes a secreted protein that is tightly associated with the cell surface or extracellular matrix. TLS-CHOP thus leads to the unscheduled expression of a gene that is normally associated with adipocytic differentiation. PMID:10220412

  1. Mas Oncogene Signaling and Transformation Require the Small GTP-Binding Protein Rac

    PubMed Central

    Zohn, Irene E.; Symons, Marc; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; Westwick, John K.; Der, Channing J.

    1998-01-01

    The Mas oncogene encodes a novel G-protein-coupled receptor that was identified originally as a transforming protein when overexpressed in NIH 3T3 cells. The mechanism and signaling pathways that mediate Mas transformation have not been determined. We observed that the foci of transformed NIH 3T3 cells caused by Mas were similar to those caused by activated Rho and Rac proteins. Therefore, we determined if Mas signaling and transformation are mediated through activation of a specific Rho family protein. First, we observed that, like activated Rac1, Mas cooperated with activated Raf and caused synergistic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells. Second, both Mas- and Rac1-transformed NIH 3T3 cells retained actin stress fibers and showed enhanced membrane ruffling. Third, like Rac, Mas induced lamellipodium formation in porcine aortic endothelial cells. Fourth, Mas and Rac1 strongly activated the JNK and p38, but not ERK, mitogen-activated protein kinases. Fifth, Mas and Rac1 stimulated transcription from common DNA promoter elements: NF-κB, serum response factor (SRF), Jun/ATF-2, and the cyclin D1 promoter. Finally, Mas transformation and some of Mas signaling (SRF and cyclin D1 but not NF-κB activation) were blocked by dominant negative Rac1. Taken together, these observations suggest that Mas transformation is mediated in part by activation of Rac-dependent signaling pathways. Thus, Rho family proteins are common mediators of transformation by a diverse variety of oncogene proteins that include Ras, Dbl family, and G-protein-coupled oncogene proteins. PMID:9488437

  2. Cinnamic Acid Derivatives as Inhibitors of Oncogenic Protein Kinases--Structure, Mechanisms and Biomedical Effects.

    PubMed

    Mielecki, Marcin; Lesyng, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Cinnamic acid belongs to phenolic-acid class of polyphenols, one of the most abundant plant secondary metabolites. These substances are widely studied because of plethora of their biological activities. In particular, their inhibition of protein kinases contributes to the pleiotropic effects in the cell. Protein kinases are essential in controlling cell signaling networks. Selective targeting of oncogenic protein kinases increases clinical anticancer efficacy. Cinnamic acid and related compounds have inspired researchers in the design of numerous synthetic and semisynthetic inhibitors of oncogenic protein kinases for the past three decades. Interest in cinnamoyl-scaffold-containing compounds revived in recent years, which was stimulated by modern drug design and discovery methodologies such as in vitro and in silico HTS. This review presents cinnamic acid derivatives and analogs for which direct inhibition of protein kinases was identified. We also summarize significance of the above protein kinase families - validated or promising targets for anticancer therapies. The inhibition mode may vary from ATP-competitive, through bisubstrate-competitive and mixedcompetitive, to non-competitive one. Kinase selectivity is often correlated with subtle chemical modifications, and may also be steered by an additional non-cinnamoyl fragment of the inhibitor. Specific cinnamic acid congeners may synergize their effects in the cell by a wider range of activities, like suppression of additional enzymes, e.g. deubiquitinases, influencing the same signaling pathways (e.g. JAK2/STAT). Cinnamic acid, due to its biological and physicochemical properties, provides nature-inspired ideas leading to novel inhibitors of oncogenic protein kinases and related enzymes, capable to target a variety of cancer cells.

  3. Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Leinhäuser, Ines; Richter, Andrea; Lee, Misu; Höfig, Ines; Anastasov, Nataša; Fend, Falko; Ercolino, Tonino; Mannelli, Massimo; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald; Beuschlein, Felix; Atkinson, Michael J.; Pellegata, Natalia S.

    2015-01-01

    BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy. PMID:26337467

  4. Oncogenic features of the bone morphogenic protein 7 (BMP7) in pheochromocytoma.

    PubMed

    Leinhäuser, Ines; Richter, Andrea; Lee, Misu; Höfig, Ines; Anastasov, Nataša; Fend, Falko; Ercolino, Tonino; Mannelli, Massimo; Gimenez-Roqueplo, Anne-Paule; Robledo, Mercedes; de Krijger, Ronald; Beuschlein, Felix; Atkinson, Michael J; Pellegata, Natalia S

    2015-11-17

    BMP7 is a growth factor playing pro- or anti-oncogenic roles in cancer in a cell type-dependent manner. We previously reported that the BMP7 gene is overexpressed in pheochromocytomas (PCCs) developing in MENX-affected rats and human patients. Here, analyzing a large cohort of PCC patients, we found that 72% of cases showed elevated levels of the BMP7 protein. To elucidate the role of BMP7 in PCC, we modulated its levels in PCC cell lines (overexpression in PC12, knockdown in MPC and MTT cells) and conducted functional assays. Active BMP signaling promoted cell proliferation, migration, and invasion, and sustained survival of MENX rat primary PCC cells. In PCC, BMP7 signals through the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway and causes integrin β1 up-regulation. Silencing integrin β1 in PC12 cells suppressed BMP7-mediated oncogenic features. Treatment of MTT cells with DMH1, a novel BMP antagonist, suppressed proliferation and migration. To verify the clinical applicability of our findings, we evaluated a dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor (NVP-BEZ235) in MENX-affected rats in vivo. PCCs treated with NVP-BEZ235 had decreased proliferation and integrin β1 levels, and higher apoptosis. Altogether, BMP7 activates pro-oncogenic pathways in PCC. Downstream effectors of BMP7-mediated signaling may represent novel targets for treating progressive/inoperable PCC, still orphan of effective therapy. PMID:26337467

  5. Modulation of maturation and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation in Xenopus oocytes by microinjection of oncogenic ras protein and protein kinase C.

    PubMed Central

    Kamata, T; Kung, H F

    1990-01-01

    Using Xenopus oocytes as a model system, we investigated the possible involvement of ras proteins in the pathway leading to phosphorylation of ribosomal protein S6. Our results indicate that microinjection of oncogenic T24 H-ras protein (which contains valine at position 12) markedly stimulated S6 phosphorylation on serine residues in oocytes, whereas normal ras protein (which contains glycine at position 12) was without effect. The S6 phosphorylation activity in the cell extract from T24 ras protein-injected oocytes was increased significantly. In addition, injection of protein kinase C potentiated the induction of maturation and S6 phosphorylation by the oncogenic ras protein. A similar potentiation was detected when T24 ras protein-injected oocytes were incubated with active phorbol ester. These findings suggest that ras proteins activate the pathway linked to S6 phosphorylation and that protein kinase C has a synergistic effect on the ras-mediated pathway. Images PMID:2406569

  6. pSa causes oncogenic suppression of Agrobacterium by inhibiting VirE2 protein export.

    PubMed

    Lee, L Y; Gelvin, S B; Kado, C I

    1999-01-01

    When coresident with the Ti (tumor-inducing) plasmid, the 21-kDa product of the osa gene of the plasmid pSa can suppress crown gall tumorigenesis incited by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. Neither T-DNA processing nor vir (virulence) gene induction is affected by the presence of osa in the bacterium. We used Arabidopsis thaliana root segments and tobacco leaf discs to demonstrate that Osa inhibits A. tumefaciens from transforming these plants to the stable phenotypes of tumorigenesis, kanamycin resistance, and stable beta-glucuronidase (GUS) expression. When A. tumefaciens contained osa, the lack of expression of transient GUS activity in infected plant tissues, as well as the lack of systemic viral symptoms following agroinfection of Nicotiana benthamiana by tomato mottle virus, suggested that oncogenic suppression by Osa occurs before T-DNA enters the plant nucleus. The extracellular complementation of an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant (the T-DNA donor strain) by an A. tumefaciens strain lacking T-DNA but containing a wild-type virE2 gene (the VirE2 donor strain) was blocked when osa was present in the VirE2 donor strain, but not when osa was present in the T-DNA donor strain. These data indicate that osa inhibits VirE2 protein, but not T-DNA export from A. tumefaciens. These data further suggest that VirE2 protein and T-DNA are separately exported from the bacterium. The successful infection of Datura stramonium plants and leaf discs of transgenic tobacco plants expressing VirE2 protein by an A. tumefaciens virE2 mutant carrying osa confirmed that oncogenic suppression by osa does not occur by blocking T-DNA transfer. Overexpression of virB9, virB10, and virB11 in A. tumefaciens did not overcome oncogenic suppression by osa. The finding that the expression of the osa gene by itself, rather than the formation of a conjugal intermediate with pSa, blocks transformation suggests that the mechanism of oncogenic suppression by osa may differ from that of the IncQ plasmid RSF

  7. Posttranslational modification of the Ha-ras oncogene protein: evidence for a third class of protein carboxyl methyltransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, S; Vogel, J P; Deschenes, R J; Stock, J

    1988-01-01

    The ras oncogene products require membrane localization for their function, and this is thought to be accomplished by the addition of a palmitoyl group to a cysteine residue near the carboxyl terminus of the nascent chain. A lipidated carboxyl-terminal cysteine residue is also found in sequence-related yeast sex factors, and in at least two cases, the alpha-carboxyl group is also methyl esterified. To determine if ras proteins are themselves modified by a similar type of methylation reaction, we incubated rat embryo fibroblasts transformed with p53 and activated Ha-ras oncogenes with L-[methyl-3H]methionine under conditions in which the isotope was converted to the methyl donor S-adenosyl-L-[methyl-3H]methionine. By using an assay that detects methyl ester linkages, we found that immunoprecipitated ras proteins are in fact esterified and that the stability of these esters is consistent with a carboxyl-terminal localization. This methylation reaction may be important in regulating the interaction of ras proteins with plasma membrane components. The presence of analogous carboxyl-terminal tetrapeptide sequences in other proteins may provide a general recognition sequence for lipidation and methylation modification reactions. Images PMID:3290900

  8. Oncogenic fusion protein EWS-FLI1 is a network hub that regulates alternative splicing

    PubMed Central

    Selvanathan, Saravana P.; Erkizan, Hayriye V.; Dirksen, Uta; Natarajan, Thanemozhi G.; Dakic, Aleksandra; Yu, Songtao; Liu, Xuefeng; Paulsen, Michelle T.; Ljungman, Mats E.; Wu, Cathy H.; Lawlor, Elizabeth R.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based on proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncoprotein with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate the effect of EWS-FLI1 on posttranscriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis, including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT, validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. In a CLIP-seq experiment, we find that EWS-FLI1 RNA-binding motifs most frequently occur adjacent to intron–exon boundaries. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNP K, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of γ-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared with wild-type (WT) TERT. The small molecule YK-4–279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions, including helicases DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA-splicing ratios. As such, YK-4–279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1, showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC). Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples shows similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing toward oncogenesis, and, reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code. PMID:25737553

  9. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M.; Howard, Jonathan M.; Contreras, Jorge R.; Fernando, Thilini R.; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Sanford, Jeremy R.; Rao, Dinesh S.

    2016-01-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia–rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3′ untranslated regions (3′UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease. PMID:26974154

  10. RNA-binding protein IGF2BP3 targeting of oncogenic transcripts promotes hematopoietic progenitor proliferation.

    PubMed

    Palanichamy, Jayanth Kumar; Tran, Tiffany M; Howard, Jonathan M; Contreras, Jorge R; Fernando, Thilini R; Sterne-Weiler, Timothy; Katzman, Sol; Toloue, Masoud; Yan, Weihong; Basso, Giuseppe; Pigazzi, Martina; Sanford, Jeremy R; Rao, Dinesh S

    2016-04-01

    Posttranscriptional control of gene expression is important for defining both normal and pathological cellular phenotypes. In vitro, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have recently been shown to play important roles in posttranscriptional regulation; however, the contribution of RBPs to cell specification is not well understood. Here, we determined that the RBP insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein 3 (IGF2BP3) is specifically overexpressed in mixed lineage leukemia-rearranged (MLL-rearranged) B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), which constitutes a subtype of this malignancy associated with poor prognosis and high risk of relapse. IGF2BP3 was required for the survival of B-ALL cell lines, as knockdown led to decreased proliferation and increased apoptosis. Enforced expression of IGF2BP3 provided murine BM cells with a strong survival advantage, led to proliferation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, and skewed hematopoietic development to the B cell/myeloid lineage. Cross-link immunoprecipitation and high throughput sequencing uncovered the IGF2BP3-regulated transcriptome, which includes oncogenes MYC and CDK6 as direct targets. IGF2BP3 regulated transcripts via targeting elements within 3' untranslated regions (3'UTR), and enforced IGF2BP3 expression in mice resulted in enhanced expression of Myc and Cdk6 in BM. Together, our data suggest that IGF2BP3-mediated targeting of oncogenic transcripts may represent a critical pathogenetic mechanism in MLL-rearranged B-ALL and support IGF2BP3 and its cognate RNA-binding partners as potential therapeutic targets in this disease.

  11. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  12. A new generation of proto-oncogenes: cold-inducible RNA binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Lleonart, M E

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the roles of two major cold-inducible RNA binding proteins known in human cells: CIRP and RBM3. Both proteins were discovered when they were shown to be induced after exposure to a moderate cold-shock and other cellular stresses such as UV radiation and hypoxia. Initially, it was suggested that these proteins have a suppressive rather stimulatory effect on proliferation; however, proliferative and/or proto-oncogenic functions have recently been assigned to CIRP and RBM3. In a high throughput genetic screen, we recently identified CIRP as an immortalized gene in murine primary cells. On the other hand, the role of RBM3 in transformation has already been demonstrated. Interestingly, both CIRP and RBM3 have been found to be up-regulated in human tumors. This article highlights the roles of CIRP and RBM3 in tumorigenesis, and proposes a model by which CIRP might contribute to senescence bypass by counteracting the deleterious effects of oxidative damage.

  13. Characterization of the oncogenic function of centromere protein F in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yongdong; Liu, Lulu; Zeng, Tingting; Zhu, Ying-Hui; Li, Jiangchao; Chen, Leilei; Li, Yan; Yuan, Yun-Fei; Ma, Stephanie; Guan, Xin-Yuan

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Overexpression of CENPF is frequently detected in HCC. •Upregulation of CENPF serves as an independent prognosis factor in HCC patients. •CENPF functions as an oncogene in HCC by promoting cell G2/M transition. -- Abstract: Centromere protein F (CENPF) is an essential nuclear protein associated with the centromere-kinetochore complex and plays a critical role in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Up-regulation of CENPF expression has previously been detected in several solid tumors. In this study, we aim to study the expression and functional role of CENPF in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found CENPF was frequently overexpressed in HCC as compared with non-tumor tissue. Up-regulated CENPF expression in HCC was positively correlated with serum AFP, venous invasion, advanced differentiation stage and a shorter overall survival. Cox regression analysis found that overexpression of CENPF was an independent prognosis factor in HCC. Functional studies found that silencing CENPF could decrease the ability of the cells to proliferate, form colonies and induce tumor formation in nude mice. Silencing CENPF also resulted in the cell cycle arrest at G2/M checkpoint by down-regulating cell cycle proteins cdc2 and cyclin B1. Our data suggest that CENPF is frequently overexpressed in HCC and plays a critical role in driving HCC tumorigenesis.

  14. Expression of Id proteins is regulated by the Bcl-3 proto-oncogene in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Ahlqvist, K; Saamarthy, K; Syed Khaja, A S; Bjartell, A; Massoumi, R

    2013-03-21

    B-cell leukemia 3 (Bcl-3) is a member of the inhibitor of κB family, which regulates a wide range of biological processes by functioning as a transcriptional activator or as a repressor of target genes. As high levels of Bcl-3 expression and activation have been detected in different types of human cancer, Bcl-3 has been labeled a proto-oncogene. Our study uncovered a markedly upregulated Bcl-3 expression in human prostate cancer (PCa), where inflammatory cell infiltration was observed. Elevated Bcl-3 expression in PCa was dependent on the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6-mediated STAT3 activation. Microarray analyses, using Bcl-3 knockdown in PCa cells, identified the inhibitor of DNA-binding (Id) family of helix-loop-helix proteins as potential Bcl-3-regulated genes. Bcl-3 knockdown reduced the abundance of Id-1 and Id-2 proteins and boosted PCa cells to be more receptive to undergoing apoptosis following treatment with anticancer drug. Our data imply that inactivation of Bcl-3 may lead to sensitization of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic drug-induced apoptosis, thus suggesting a potential therapeutic strategy in PCa treatment.

  15. Characterization of protein tyrosine kinases from human breast cancer: involvement of the c-src oncogene product.

    PubMed

    Ottenhoff-Kalff, A E; Rijksen, G; van Beurden, E A; Hennipman, A; Michels, A A; Staal, G E

    1992-09-01

    Tyrosine phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism in response to the action of growth factors and oncogenes. Since many oncogenes code for tyrosine kinases, increased or altered oncogene expression may be reflected in increased tyrosine kinase activity. In a recent study (Hennipman et al., Cancer Res., 49: 516-521, 1989), we found that the tyrosine kinase activity of the cytosolic and membrane fractions of malignant human breast tissue was significantly higher compared to the benign or the normal breast tissue. Moreover, the increase in the cytosolic fractions was found to be of prognostic value. In the present study we determined the protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity of another 72 breast cancer specimens, and it could be shown again that the PTK activity in all 72 of these tumors was elevated compared to normal controls. We characterized these cytosolic PTKs by anion exchange chromatography using fast protein liquid chromatography, and it could be shown that at least two different forms of PTK exist. Using antibodies against a number of known oncogene products, we could determine that at least 70% of the PTK activity in the cytosol originated from the presence of the c-src oncogene product. Both of the PTK activity peaks seen in the fast protein liquid chromatography patterns could be precipitated with the anti-Src antibody. Furthermore, using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, it could be shown that the antibody against c-src also precipitated a part of the cytosolic PTK activity. In normal human peripheral lymphocytes, no precipitation of the cytosolic and membrane PTK activity could be achieved using the anti-Src antibody. Inasmuch as the cytosolic PTK activity parallels the malignancy in breast tumors (Hennipman et al., Cancer Res., 49: 516-521, 1989), and the majority of this activity is precipitated by anti-Src antibodies, the c-src protooncogene may play a key role in the manifestation of breast cancer.

  16. SUMOylation Confers Posttranslational Stability on NPM-ALK Oncogenic Protein1

    PubMed Central

    Vishwamitra, Deeksha; Curry, Choladda V.; Shi, Ping; Alkan, Serhan; Amin, Hesham M.

    2015-01-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase–expressing (NPM-ALK+) T-cell lymphoma is an aggressive form of cancer that commonly affects children and adolescents. The expression of NPM-ALK chimeric oncogene results from the chromosomal translocation t(2;5)(p23;q35) that causes the fusion of the ALK and NPM genes. This translocation generates the NPM-ALK protein tyrosine kinase that forms the constitutively activated NPM-ALK/NPM-ALK homodimers. In addition, NPM-ALK is structurally associated with wild-type NPM to form NPM/NPM-ALK heterodimers, which can translocate to the nucleus. The mechanisms that sustain the stability of NPM-ALK are not fully understood. SUMOylation is a posttranslational modification that is characterized by the reversible conjugation of small ubiquitin-like modifiers (SUMOs) with target proteins. SUMO competes with ubiquitin for substrate binding and therefore, SUMOylation is believed to protect target proteins from proteasomal degradation. Moreover, SUMOylation contributes to the subcellular distribution of target proteins. Herein, we found that the SUMOylation pathway is deregulated in NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma cell lines and primary lymphoma tumors from patients. We also identified Lys24 and Lys32 within the NPM domain as the sites where NPM-ALK conjugates with SUMO-1 and SUMO-3. Importantly, antagonizing SUMOylation by the SENP1 protease decreased the accumulation of NPM-ALK and suppressed lymphoma cell viability, proliferation, and anchorage-independent colony formation. One possible mechanism for the SENP1-mediated decrease in NPM-ALK levels was the increase in NPM-ALK association with ubiquitin, which facilitates its degradation. Our findings propose a model in which aberrancies in SUMOylation contribute to the pathogenesis of NPM-ALK+ T-cell lymphoma. Unraveling such pathogenic mechanisms may lead to devising novel strategies to eliminate this aggressive neoplasm. PMID:26476082

  17. Drosophila actin-Capping Protein limits JNK activation by the Src proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Fernández, B G; Jezowska, B; Janody, F

    2014-04-17

    The Src family kinases c-Src, and its downstream effectors, the Rho family of small GTPases RhoA and Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) have a significant role in tumorigenesis. In this report, using the Drosophila wing disc epithelium as a model system, we demonstrate that the actin-Capping Protein (CP) αβ heterodimer, which regulates actin filament (F-actin) polymerization, limits Src-induced apoptosis or tissue overgrowth by restricting JNK activation. We show that overexpressing Src64B drives JNK-independent loss of epithelial integrity and JNK-dependent apoptosis via Btk29A, p120ctn and Rho1. However, when cells are kept alive with the Caspase inhibitor P35, JNK acts as a potent inducer of proliferation via activation of the Yorkie oncogene. Reducing CP levels direct apoptosis of overgrowing Src64B-overexpressing tissues. Conversely, overexpressing capping protein inhibits Src64B and Rho1, but not Rac1-induced JNK signaling. CP requires the actin-binding domain of the α-subunit to limit Src64B-induced apoptosis, arguing that the control of F-actin mediates this effect. In turn, JNK directs F-actin accumulation. Moreover, overexpressing capping protein also prevents apoptosis induced by ectopic JNK expression. Our data are consistent with a model in which the control of F-actin by CP limits Src-induced apoptosis or tissue overgrowth by acting downstream of Btk29A, p120ctn and Rho1, but upstream of JNK. In turn, JNK may counteract the effect of CP on F-actin, providing a positive feedback, which amplifies JNK activation. We propose that cytoskeletal changes triggered by misregulation of F-actin modulators may have a significant role in Src-mediated malignant phenotypes during the early stages of cellular transformation.

  18. Oncogenic acidic nuclear phosphoproteins ANP32C/D are novel clients of heat shock protein 90.

    PubMed

    Yuzefovych, Yuliia; Blasczyk, Rainer; Huyton, Trevor

    2015-10-01

    The acidic nuclear phosphoproteins (ANP32A-H) are an evolutionarily conserved family of proteins with diverse and sometimes opposing cellular functions. Here we show that the oncogenic family members ANP32C and ANP32D are associated in complexes containing the molecular chaperone Hsp90. The oncogenic ANP32C protein appears to be highly unstable with a rapid degradation (t1/2>30 min) occurring upon treatment of cells with cycloheximide. ANP32C was also found to be associated with oncogenic Hsp90 complexes by virtue of its ability to interact and be immunoprecipitated by the Hsp90 inhibitor PU-H71. Further studies treating cells with the Hsp90 inhibitors PU-H71 and 17-AAG showed atypical increased protein stability and prevention of ANP32C degradation compared to the Hsp90 client AKT. Cells overexpressing ANP32C or its mutant ANP32CY140H showed enhanced sensitivity to treatment with PU-H71 as demonstrated by CCK-8 and colony formation assays. Our results highlight that certain malignancies with ANP32C/D overexpression or mutation might be specifically targeted using Hsp90 inhibitors.

  19. Yes-Associated Protein 1 Is Activated and Functions as an Oncogene in Meningiomas

    PubMed Central

    Baia, Gilson S.; Caballero, Otavia L.; Orr, Brent A.; Lal, Anita; Ho, Janelle S.Y.; Cowdrey, Cynthia; Tihan, Tarik; Mawrin, Christian; Riggins, Gregory J.

    2015-01-01

    The Hippo signaling pathway is functionally conserved in Drosophila melanogaster and mammals, and its proposed function is to control tissue homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis. The core components are composed of a kinase cascade that culminates with the phosphorylation and inhibition of Yes-associated protein 1 (YAP1). Phospho-YAP1 is retained in the cytoplasm. In the absence of Hippo signaling, YAP1 translocates to the nucleus, associates with co-activators TEAD1-4, and functions as a transcriptional factor promoting the expression of key target genes. Components of the Hippo pathway are mutated in human cancers, and deregulation of this pathway plays a role in tumorigenesis. Loss of the NF2 tumor suppressor gene is the most common genetic alteration in meningiomas, and the NF2 gene product, Merlin, acts upstream of the Hippo pathway. Here, we show that primary meningioma tumors have high nuclear expression of YAP1. In meningioma cells, Merlin expression is associated with phosphorylation of YAP1. Using an siRNA transient knockdown of YAP1 in NF2-mutant meningioma cells, we show that suppression of YAP1 impaired cell proliferation and migration. Conversely, YAP1 overexpression led to a strong augment of cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth and restriction of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In addition, expression of YAP1 in nontransformed arachnoidal cells led to the development of tumors in nude mice. Together, these findings suggest that in meningiomas, deregulation of the Hippo pathway is largely observed in primary tumors and that YAP1 functions as an oncogene promoting meningioma tumorigenesis. PMID:22618028

  20. Oncogenic activation of the Met receptor tyrosine kinase fusion protein, Tpr-Met, involves exclusion from the endocytic degradative pathway.

    PubMed

    Mak, H H L; Peschard, P; Lin, T; Naujokas, M A; Zuo, D; Park, M

    2007-11-01

    Multiple mechanisms of dysregulation of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) are observed in human cancers. In addition to gain-of-function, loss of negative regulation also contributes to oncogenic activation of RTKs. Negative regulation of many RTKs involves their internalization and degradation in the lysosome, a process regulated through ubiquitination. RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation, are no longer transmembrane proteins, and are predicted to escape lysosomal degradation. To test this, we used the Tpr-Met oncogene, generated following chromosomal translocation of the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (Met). Unlike Met, Tpr-Met is localized in the cytoplasm and also lacks the binding site for Cbl ubiquitin ligases. We determined whether subcellular localization of Tpr-Met, and/or loss of its Cbl-binding site, is important for oncogenic activity. Presence of a Cbl-binding site and ubiquitination of cytosolic Tpr-Met oncoproteins does not alter their transforming activity. In contrast, plasma membrane targeting allows Tpr-Met to enter the endocytic pathway, and Tpr-Met transforming activity as well as protein stability are decreased in a Cbl-dependent manner. We show that transformation by Tpr-Met is in part dependent on its ability to escape normal downregulatory mechanisms. This provides a paradigm for many RTK oncoproteins activated following chromosomal translocation.

  1. Oncogenic viral protein HPV E7 up-regulates the SIRT1 longevity protein in human cervical cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Allison, Simon J; Jiang, Ming; Milner, Jo

    2009-03-02

    Senescence is blocked in human cervical keratinocytes infected with high risk human papillomavirus (e.g. HPV type16). Viral oncoproteins HPV E6 and HPV E7 access the cell cycle via cellular p53 and retinoblastoma proteins respectively. Previously we have shown that HPV E7, not HPV E6, is also responsible for cervical cancer cell survival (SiHa cells; HPV type16). We now present evidence that SIRT1, an aging-related NAD-dependent deacetylase, mediates HPV E7 survival function in SiHa cervical cancer cells. Moreover, HPV E7 up-regulates SIRT1 protein when expressed in primary human keratinocytes. Conversely, SIRT1 levels decrease following RNAi-mediated silencing of HPV E7 in SiHa cells. Silencing HPV E6 has no effect on SIRT1 but, as expected, causes marked accumulation of p53 protein accompanied by p53-mediated up-regulation of p21. However, p53 acetylation (K382Ac) was barely detectable. Since p53 is a known SIRT1 substrate we propose that elevated SIRT1 levels (induced by HPV E7) attenuate p53 pro-apoptotic capacity via its de-acetylation. Our discovery that HPV E7 up-regulates SIRT1 links a clinically important oncogenic virus with the multi-functional SIRT1 protein. This link may open the way for a more in-depth understanding of the process of HPV-induced malignant transformation and also of the inter-relationships between aging and cancer.

  2. Oncogenes and surgical pathology.

    PubMed

    Bartow, S A

    1987-08-01

    The discovery of oncogenes began with identification of genetic material in viruses capable of causing neoplasia in animals. Through processes of "transduction" and "insertional mutagenesis," RNA/retroviruses may (1) alter directly, (2) alter expression of, or (3) move pieces of host cellular genome in ways that they become potential agents of neoplastic transformation. The pieces of host cellular genome, either affected in situ by viral gene insertion or transduced by the virus, are known as oncogenes. Approximately 20 oncogenes have been identified. Although they have yet to be proven to be sufficient or necessary for neoplastic transformation, the evidence for their playing a part in the transformation process is mounting. The functions of the protein products of the various oncogenes are closely related to those of proteins involved in normal cell regulatory and cycle activities. Study of the oncogene products and their functions serves to elucidate the basic character of neoplasia. The functional classes of oncogenes with specific examples of genomic amplification, altered mRNA or protein product expression, or mutational deletion associated with human neoplasia are reviewed herein. Since the techniques for detecting oncogene DNA and mRNA alterations are rapidly becoming a part of our diagnostic armamentarium, surgical pathologists should be prepared for the imminent use of such molecular techniques and information in diagnosis and prognosis of human neoplasia.

  3. Transcriptional regulation of oncogenic protein kinase Cϵ (PKCϵ) by STAT1 and Sp1 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wang, HongBin; Gutierrez-Uzquiza, Alvaro; Garg, Rachana; Barrio-Real, Laura; Abera, Mahlet B; Lopez-Haber, Cynthia; Rosemblit, Cinthia; Lu, Huaisheng; Abba, Martin; Kazanietz, Marcelo G

    2014-07-11

    Overexpression of PKCϵ, a kinase associated with tumor aggressiveness and widely implicated in malignant transformation and metastasis, is a hallmark of multiple cancers, including mammary, prostate, and lung cancer. To characterize the mechanisms that control PKCϵ expression and its up-regulation in cancer, we cloned an ∼ 1.6-kb promoter segment of the human PKCϵ gene (PRKCE) that displays elevated transcriptional activity in cancer cells. A comprehensive deletional analysis established two regions rich in Sp1 and STAT1 sites located between -777 and -105 bp (region A) and -921 and -796 bp (region B), respectively, as responsible for the high transcriptional activity observed in cancer cells. A more detailed mutagenesis analysis followed by EMSA and ChIP identified Sp1 sites in positions -668/-659 and -269/-247 as well as STAT1 sites in positions -880/-869 and -793/-782 as the elements responsible for elevated promoter activity in breast cancer cells relative to normal mammary epithelial cells. RNAi silencing of Sp1 and STAT1 in breast cancer cells reduced PKCϵ mRNA and protein expression, as well as PRKCE promoter activity. Moreover, a strong correlation was found between PKCϵ and phospho-Ser-727 (active) STAT1 levels in breast cancer cells. Our results may have significant implications for the development of approaches to target PKCϵ and its effectors in cancer therapeutics.

  4. Expression of proto-oncogenes and gene mutation of sarcomeric proteins in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kai, H; Muraishi, A; Sugiu, Y; Nishi, H; Seki, Y; Kuwahara, F; Kimura, A; Kato, H; Imaizumi, T

    1998-09-21

    Several mutations of cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain (beta-MHC) gene were reported in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Involvement of proto-oncogenes has been shown in the mechanism of experimental cardiac hypertrophy. This study sought to examine the effects of c-H-ras and c-myc expression in the steady-state myocardium on hypertrophic changes and to evaluate the possible interaction between beta-MHC mutation and proto-oncogene expression in HCM. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed in 17 HCM patients (5 beta-MHC mutations and 1 troponin T mutation) and 7 control subjects (no mutation). Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis revealed c-H-ras expression in all members of both groups. Cardiomyocyte size was correlated with the expression level of c-H-ras (P<0.001), and c-H-ras expression was upregulated in HCM patients (P<0.01). HCM patients with a beta-MHC mutation had the higher c-H-ras expression than did control subjects or patients without a mutation (P<0.01). c-myc mRNA was expressed in 7 of 17 HCM patients but not in control subjects. Myocyte size was greater in c-myc-positive HCM patients than in control subjects and c-myc-negative HCM patients (P<0.001 and P<0.05, respectively). The proto-oncogene expression did not affect clinical findings, myocardial fibrosis, or disarray. In conclusion, c-H-ras and c-myc expression in the steady-state myocardium may play a role in the hypertrophic mechanism in HCM. It is possible that ss-MHC gene mutation has some effect on the regulation of proto-oncogene expression in HCM.

  5. FOXO1 is a direct target of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein in Ewing's sarcoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Liu; Hu, Hsien-Ming; Zielinska-Kwiatkowska, Anna; Chansky, Howard A.

    2010-11-05

    Research highlights: {yields} Inducible and reversible siRNA knockdown of an oncogenic fusion protein such as EWS-Fli1 is feasible and more advantageous than other siRNA methods. {yields} The tumor suppressor gene FOXO1 is a new EWS-Fli1 target. {yields} While trans-activators are known for the FOXO1 gene, there has been no report on negative regulators of FOXO1 transcription. {yields} This study provides first evidence that the EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein can function as a transcriptional repressor of the FOXO1 gene. -- Abstract: Ewing's family tumors are characterized by a specific t(11;22) chromosomal translocation that results in the formation of EWS-Fli1 oncogenic fusion protein. To investigate the effects of EWS-Fli1 on gene expression, we carried out DNA microarray analysis after specific knockdown of EWS-Fli1 through transfection of synthetic siRNAs. EWS-Fli1 knockdown increased expression of genes such as DKK1 and p57 that are known to be repressed by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein. Among other potential EWS-Fli1 targets identified by our microarray analysis, we have focused on the FOXO1 gene since it encodes a potential tumor suppressor and has not been previously reported in Ewing's cells. To better understand how EWS-Fli1 affects FOXO1 expression, we have established a doxycycline-inducible siRNA system to achieve stable and reversible knockdown of EWS-Fli1 in Ewing's sarcoma cells. Here we show that FOXO1 expression in Ewing's cells has an inverse relationship with EWS-Fli1 protein level, and FOXO1 promoter activity is increased after doxycycline-induced EWS-Fli1 knockdown. In addition, we have found that direct binding of EWS-Fli1 to FOXO1 promoter is attenuated after doxycycline-induced siRNA knockdown of the fusion protein. Together, these results suggest that suppression of FOXO1 function by EWS-Fli1 fusion protein may contribute to cellular transformation in Ewing's family tumors.

  6. Protein kinase A activation inhibits oncogenic Sonic hedgehog signalling and suppresses basal cell carcinoma of the skin.

    PubMed

    Makinodan, Eri; Marneros, Alexander G

    2012-11-01

    Basal cell carcinoma of the skin (BCC) is caused by constitutive activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, mainly through mutations either in the Shh receptor Patched (PTCH) or in its co-receptor Smoothened (Smo). Inhibitors of this pathway that are currently in clinical trials inhibit Smo. However, mutations in Smo can result in resistance to these inhibitors. To target most BCCs and avoid acquired resistance because of Smo mutations, inhibiting the Shh-pathway downstream of Smo is critical. Attractive downstream targets would be at the level of Gli proteins, the transcriptional activators of this pathway in BCCs. Previously it has been shown that Gli1 and Gli2, when phosphorylated by protein kinase A (PKA), are targeted for proteosomal degradation. Here we show that PKA activation via the cAMP agonist forskolin is sufficient to completely abolish oncogenic Smo activity in vitro. In an inducible BCC mouse model due to a Smo mutation that confers resistance to current Smo inhibitors, topical forskolin treatment significantly reduced Gli1 mRNA levels and resulted in strongly suppressed BCC tumor growth. Our data show that forskolin inhibits the growth of even those BCCs that are resistant to Smo inhibitors and provide a proof-of-principle framework for the development of topically applied human skin-permeable novel pharmacologic inhibitors of oncogenic Shh-signaling through PKA activation. PMID:23163650

  7. The pim-1 oncogene encodes two related protein-serine/threonine kinases by alternative initiation at AUG and CUG.

    PubMed Central

    Saris, C J; Domen, J; Berns, A

    1991-01-01

    The pim-1 gene is frequently found activated by proviral insertion in murine T cell lymphomas. Overexpression of pim-1 in lymphoid cells by transgenesis formally proved its oncogenic potential. The pim-1 cDNA sequence predicts that both murine and human pim-1 encode a 34 kd protein with homology to protein kinases. In this study, we show that the murine pim-1 gene encodes a 44 kd protein in addition to the predicted 34 kd protein. The 44 kd protein is an amino-terminal extension of the 34 kd protein and is synthesized by alternative translation initiation at an upstream CUG codon. Contrary to previous findings by others, we provide evidence that both murine and human pim-1 gene products are protein-serine/threonine kinases. Murine 44 kd and 34 kd pim-1 proteins exhibit comparable in vitro kinase activity and are both mainly cytoplasmic, but they differ in in vivo association state and half-life. Images PMID:1825810

  8. Automethylation of SUV39H2, an oncogenic histone lysine methyltransferase, regulates its binding affinity to substrate proteins

    PubMed Central

    Piao, Lianhua; Nakakido, Makoto; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Hamamoto, Ryuji

    2016-01-01

    We previously reported that the histone lysine methyltransferase SUV39H2, which is overexpressed in various types of human cancer, plays a critical role in the DNA repair after double strand breakage, and possesses oncogenic activity. Although its biological significance in tumorigenesis has been elucidated, the regulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 activity through post-translational modification is not well known. In this study, we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo automethylation of SUV39H2 at lysine 392. Automethylation of SUV39H2 led to impairment of its binding affinity to substrate proteins such as histone H3 and LSD1. Furthermore, we observed that hyper-automethylated SUV39H2 reduced methylation activities to substrates through affecting the binding affinity to substrate proteins. Our finding unveils a novel autoregulatory mechanism of SUV39H2 through lysine automethylation. PMID:26988914

  9. Oncogenic Ras activation of Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase-independent pathways is sufficient to cause tumorigenic transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi-Far, R; White, M A; Westwick, J K; Solski, P A; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, M; Van Aelst, L; Wigler, M H; Der, C J

    1996-01-01

    Substantial evidence supports a critical role for the activation of the Raf-1/MEK/mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway in oncogenic Ras-mediated transformation. For example, dominant negative mutants of Raf-1, MEK, and mitogen-activated protein kinase all inhibit Ras transformation. Furthermore, the observation that plasma membrane-localized Raf-1 exhibits the same transforming potency as oncogenic Ras suggests that Raf-1 activation alone is sufficient to mediate full Ras transforming activity. However, the recent identification of other candidate Ras effectors (e.g., RalGDS and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase) suggests that activation of other downstream effector-mediated signaling pathways may also mediate Ras transforming activity. In support of this, two H-Ras effector domain mutants, H-Ras(12V, 37G) and H-Ras(12V, 40C), which are defective for Raf binding and activation, induced potent tumorigenic transformation of some strains of NIH 3T3 fibroblasts. These Raf-binding defective mutants of H-Ras induced a transformed morphology that was indistinguishable from that induced by activated members of Rho family proteins. Furthermore, the transforming activities of both of these mutants were synergistically enhanced by activated Raf-1 and inhibited by the dominant negative RhoA(19N) mutant, indicating that Ras may cause transformation that occurs via coordinate activation of Raf-dependent and -independent pathways that involves Rho family proteins. Finally, cotransfection of H-Ras(12V, 37G) and H-Ras(12V, 40C) resulted in synergistic cooperation of their focus-forming activities, indicating that Ras activates at least two Raf-independent, Ras effector-mediated signaling events. PMID:8668210

  10. Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein Regulates the Expression and Metabolic Functions of Wild-Type and Oncogenic IDH1.

    PubMed

    Ricoult, Stéphane J H; Dibble, Christian C; Asara, John M; Manning, Brendan D

    2016-09-15

    Sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP) is a major transcriptional regulator of the enzymes underlying de novo lipid synthesis. However, little is known about the SREBP-mediated control of processes that indirectly support lipogenesis, for instance, by supplying reducing power in the form of NAPDH or directing carbon flux into lipid precursors. Here, we characterize isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) as a transcriptional target of SREBP across a spectrum of cancer cell lines and human cancers. IDH1 promotes the synthesis of lipids specifically from glutamine-derived carbons. Neomorphic mutations in IDH1 occur frequently in certain cancers, leading to the production of the oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG). We found that SREBP induces the expression of oncogenic IDH1 and influences 2-HG production from glucose. Treatment of cells with 25-hydroxycholesterol or statins, which respectively inhibit or activate SREBP, further supports SREBP-mediated regulation of IDH1 and, in cells with oncogenic IDH1, carbon flux into 2-HG. PMID:27354064

  11. Kinase-dead ATM protein is highly oncogenic and can be preferentially targeted by Topo-isomerase I inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Kenta; Wang, Jiguang; Sprinzen, Lisa; Xu, Jun; Haddock, Christopher J; Li, Chen; Lee, Brian J; Loredan, Denis G; Jiang, Wenxia; Vindigni, Alessandro; Wang, Dong; Rabadan, Raul; Zha, Shan

    2016-01-01

    Missense mutations in ATM kinase, a master regulator of DNA damage responses, are found in many cancers, but their impact on ATM function and implications for cancer therapy are largely unknown. Here we report that 72% of cancer-associated ATM mutations are missense mutations that are enriched around the kinase domain. Expression of kinase-dead ATM (AtmKD/-) is more oncogenic than loss of ATM (Atm-/-) in mouse models, leading to earlier and more frequent lymphomas with Pten deletions. Kinase-dead ATM protein (Atm-KD), but not loss of ATM (Atm-null), prevents replication-dependent removal of Topo-isomerase I-DNA adducts at the step of strand cleavage, leading to severe genomic instability and hypersensitivity to Topo-isomerase I inhibitors. Correspondingly, Topo-isomerase I inhibitors effectively and preferentially eliminate AtmKD/-, but not Atm-proficientor Atm-/- leukemia in animal models. These findings identify ATM kinase-domain missense mutations as a potent oncogenic event and a biomarker for Topo-isomerase I inhibitor based therapy. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14709.001 PMID:27304073

  12. The Tax oncogene enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing protein complexes to activate transcription.

    PubMed

    Fufa, Temesgen D; Byun, Jung S; Wakano, Clay; Fernandez, Alfonso G; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Gardner, Kevin

    2015-09-11

    The eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia protein (ELL) is a key regulator of RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. ELL facilitates RNA polymerase II transcription pause site entry and release by dynamically interacting with p300 and the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). In this study, we investigated the role of ELL during the HTLV-1 Tax oncogene induced transactivation. We show that ectopic expression of Tax enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing transcriptional complexes and the subsequent recruitment of these complexes to target genes in vivo. Depletion of ELL abrogates Tax induced transactivation of the immediate early genes Fos, Egr2 and NF-kB, suggesting that ELL is an essential cellular cofactor of the Tax oncogene. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism of ELL-dependent transactivation of immediate early genes by Tax and provides the rational for further defining the genome-wide targets of Tax and ELL.

  13. Genetic Modeling of PIM Proteins in Cancer: Proviral Tagging and Cooperation with Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Carcinogens

    PubMed Central

    Aguirre, Enara; Renner, Oliver; Narlik-Grassow, Maja; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney-murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anti-cancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim, and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1) as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate, and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all three isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis. PMID:24860787

  14. Genetic Modeling of PIM Proteins in Cancer: Proviral Tagging and Cooperation with Oncogenes, Tumor Suppressor Genes, and Carcinogens.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Enara; Renner, Oliver; Narlik-Grassow, Maja; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The PIM proteins, which were initially discovered as proviral insertion sites in Moloney-murine leukemia virus infection, are a family of highly homologous serine/threonine kinases that have been reported to be overexpressed in hematological malignancies and solid tumors. The PIM proteins have also been associated with metastasis and overall treatment responses and implicated in the regulation of apoptosis, metabolism, the cell cycle, and homing and migration, which makes these proteins interesting targets for anti-cancer drug discovery. The use of retroviral insertional mutagenesis and refined approaches such as complementation tagging has allowed the identification of myc, pim, and a third group of genes (including bmi1 and gfi1) as complementing genes in lymphomagenesis. Moreover, mouse modeling of human cancer has provided an understanding of the molecular pathways that are involved in tumor initiation and progression at the physiological level. In particular, genetically modified mice have allowed researchers to further elucidate the role of each of the Pim isoforms in various tumor types. PIM kinases have been identified as weak oncogenes because experimental overexpression in lymphoid tissue, prostate, and liver induces tumors at a relatively low incidence and with a long latency. However, very strong synergistic tumorigenicity between Pim1/2 and c-Myc and other oncogenes has been observed in lymphoid tissues. Mouse models have also been used to study whether the inhibition of specific PIM isoforms is required to prevent carcinogen-induced sarcomas, indicating that the absence of Pim2 and Pim3 greatly reduces sarcoma growth and bone invasion; the extent of this effect is similar to that observed in the absence of all three isoforms. This review will summarize some of the animal models that have been used to understand the isoform-specific contribution of PIM kinases to tumorigenesis. PMID:24860787

  15. Activity-Based Protein Profiling of Oncogene-Driven Changes in Metabolism Reveals Broad Dysregulation of PAFAH1B2 and 1B3 in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kohnz, Rebecca A.; Mulvihill, Melinda M.; Chang, Jae Won; Hsu, Ku-Lung; Sorrentino, Antonio; Cravatt, Benjamin F.; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Goga, Andrei; Nomura, Daniel K.

    2015-01-01

    Targeting dysregulated metabolic pathways is a promising therapeutic strategy for eradicating cancer. Understanding how frequently altered oncogenes regulate metabolic enzyme targets would be useful in identifying both broad-spectrum and targeted metabolic therapies for cancer. Here, we used activity-based protein profiling to identify serine hydrolase activities that were consistently upregulated by various human oncogenes. Through this profiling effort, we found oncogenic regulatory mechanisms for several cancer-relevant serine hydrolases and discovered that platelet activating factor acetylhydrolase 1B2 and 1B3 (PAFAH1B2 and PAFAH1B3) activities were consistently upregulated by several oncogenes, alongside previously discovered cancer-relevant hydrolases fatty acid synthase and monoacylglycerol lipase. While we previously showed that PAFAH1B2 and 1B3 were important in breast cancer our most recent profiling studies have revealed that these enzymes may be dysregulated broadly across many types of cancers. Here, we find that pharmacological blockade of both enzymes impairs cancer pathogenicity across multiple different types of cancer cells, including breast, ovarian, melanoma, and prostate cancer. We also show that pharmacological blockade of PAFAH1B2 and 1B3 cause unique changes in lipid metabolism, including heightened levels of tumor-suppressing lipids. Our results reveal oncogenic regulatory mechanisms of several cancer-relevant serine hydrolases using activity-based protein profiling and we show that PAFAH1B2 and 1B3 are important in maintaining cancer pathogenicity across a wide spectrum of cancer types. PMID:25945974

  16. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 is a tumor promoter target in initiated cells that express oncogenic Ras.

    PubMed

    Warmka, Janel K; Mauro, Laura J; Wattenberg, Elizabeth V

    2004-08-01

    We have capitalized on the unique properties of the skin tumor promoter palytoxin, which does not activate protein kinase C, to investigate alternative mechanisms by which major signaling molecules can be modulated during carcinogenesis. We report here that palytoxin activates extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) through a novel mechanism that involves inactivation of an ERK phosphatase in keratinocytes derived from initiated mouse skin (308 cells). Use of U0126 revealed that palytoxin requires the ERK kinase MEK to stimulate ERK activity, although palytoxin did not activate MEK. We found that 308 keratinocytes highly express mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-3 (MKP-3), which selectively inactivates ERK. Palytoxin induced the loss of MKP-3 in a manner that corresponded to increased ERK phosphorylation. Complementary studies showed that sustained expression of exogenous MKP-3 inhibited palytoxin-stimulated ERK activation. As is characteristic of initiated keratinocytes, 308 cells express activated H-Ras. To investigate whether expression of oncogenic Ras is key to palytoxin-stimulated ERK activation, we determined how palytoxin affected ERK and MKP-3 in MCF10A human breast epithelial cells and in H-ras MCF10A cells, which stably express activated H-Ras. Palytoxin did not affect ERK activity in MCF10A cells, which had no detectable MKP-3. Like 308 cells, H-ras MCF10A cells highly express MKP-3. Strikingly, palytoxin stimulated ERK activity and induced a corresponding loss of MKP-3 in H-ras MCF10A cells. These studies indicate that in initiated cells palytoxin unleashes ERK activity by down-regulating MKP-3, an ERK inhibitor, and further suggest that MKP-3 may be a vulnerable target in cells that express oncogenic Ras.

  17. The Ubiquitin-associated (UBA) Domain of SCCRO/DCUN1D1 Protein Serves as a Feedback Regulator of Biochemical and Oncogenic Activity*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guochang; Towe, Christopher W.; Choi, Lydia; Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Bommeljé, Claire C.; Bains, Sarina; Rechler, Willi; Hao, Bing; Ramanathan, Yegnanarayana; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2015-01-01

    Amplification of squamous cell carcinoma-related oncogene (SCCRO) activates its function as an oncogene in a wide range of human cancers. The oncogenic activity of SCCRO requires its potentiating neddylation domain, which regulates its E3 activity for neddylation. The contribution of the N-terminal ubiquitin-associated (UBA) domain to SCCRO function remains to be defined. We found that the UBA domain of SCCRO preferentially binds to polyubiquitin chains in a linkage-independent manner. Binding of polyubiquitin chains to the UBA domain inhibits the neddylation activity of SCCRO in vivo by inhibiting SCCRO-promoted nuclear translocation of neddylation components and results in a corresponding decrease in cullin-RING-ligase-promoted ubiquitination. The results of colony formation and xenograft assays showed a mutation in the UBA domain of SCCRO that reduces binding to polyubiquitin chains, significantly enhancing its oncogenic activity. Analysis of 47 lung and head and neck squamous cell carcinomas identified a case with a frameshift mutation in SCCRO that putatively codes for a protein that lacks a UBA domain. Analysis of data from The Cancer Genome Atlas showed that recurrent mutations cluster in the UBA domains of SCCRO, lose the ability to bind to polyubiquitinated proteins, and have increased neddylation and transformation activities. Combined, these data suggest that the UBA domain functions as a negative regulator of SCCRO function. Mutations in the UBA domain lead to loss of inhibitory control, which results in increased biochemical and oncogenic activity. The clustering of mutations in the UBA domain of SCCRO suggests that mutations may be a mechanism of oncogene activation in human cancers. PMID:25411243

  18. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53(+/-)), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r (2) = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance. PMID:27660672

  19. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53+/–), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r2 = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance.

  20. Inhibition of apoptosis by oncogenic hepatitis B virus X protein: Implications for the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Chuck C K

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus X protein (HBx) plays an important role in the development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In addition, hepatoma upregulated protein (HURP) is a cellular oncogene that is upregulated in a majority of HCC cases. We highlight here recent findings demonstrating a link between HBx, HURP and anti-apoptosis effects observed in cisplatin-treated HCC cells. We observed that Hep3B cells overexpressing HBx display increased HURP mRNA and protein levels, and show resistance to cisplatin-induced apoptosis. Knockdown of HURP in HBx-expressing cells reverses this effect, and sensitizes cells to cisplatin. The anti-apoptotic effect of HBx requires activation of the p38/MAPK pathway as well as expression of SATB1, survivin and HURP. Furthermore, silencing of HURP using short-hairpin RNA promotes accumulation of p53 and reduces cell proliferation in SK-Hep-1 cells (p53+/–), whereas these effects are not observed in p53-mutant Mahlavu cells. Similarly, HURP silencing does not affect the proliferation of H1299 lung carcinoma cells or Hep3B HCC cells which lack p53. Silencing of HURP sensitizes SK-Hep-1 cells to cisplatin. While HURP overexpression promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation by the proteasome, HURP silencing reverses these effects. Inoculation of SK-Hep-1 cancer cells in which HURP has been silenced produces smaller tumors than control in nude mice. Besides, gankyrin, a positive regulator of the E3 ubiquitin ligase MDM2, is upregulated following HURP expression, and silencing of gankyrin reduces HURP-mediated downregulation of p53. In addition, we observed a positive correlation between HURP and gankyrin protein levels in HCC patients (r2 = 0.778; n = 9). These findings suggest a role for the viral protein HBx and the host protein HURP in preventing p53-mediated apoptosis during cancer progression and establishment of chemoresistance. PMID:27660672

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens oncogenic suppressors inhibit T-DNA and VirE2 protein substrate binding to the VirD4 coupling protein.

    PubMed

    Cascales, Eric; Atmakuri, Krishnamohan; Liu, Zhenying; Binns, Andrew N; Christie, Peter J

    2005-10-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens uses a type IV secretion (T4S) system composed of VirB proteins and VirD4 to deliver oncogenic DNA (T-DNA) and protein substrates to susceptible plant cells during the course of infection. Here, by use of the Transfer DNA ImmunoPrecipitation (TrIP) assay, we present evidence that the mobilizable plasmid RSF1010 (IncQ) follows the same translocation pathway through the VirB/D4 secretion channel as described previously for the T-DNA. The RSF1010 transfer intermediate and the Osa protein of plasmid pSa (IncW), related in sequence to the FiwA fertility inhibition factor of plasmid RP1 (IncPalpha), render A. tumefaciens host cells nearly avirulent. By use of a semi-quantitative TrIP assay, we show that both of these 'oncogenic suppressor factors' inhibit binding of T-DNA to the VirD4 substrate receptor. Both factors also inhibit binding of the VirE2 protein substrate to VirD4, as shown by coimmunoprecipitation and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assays. Osa fused to the green fluorescent protein (GFP) also blocks T-DNA and VirE2 binding to VirD4, and Osa-GFP colocalizes with VirD4 at A. tumefaciens cell poles. RSF1010 and Osa interfere specifically with VirD4 receptor function and not with VirB channel activity, as shown by (i) TrIP and (ii) a genetic screen for effects of the oncogenic suppressors on pCloDF13 translocation through a chimeric secretion channel composed of the pCloDF13-encoded MobB receptor and VirB channel subunits. Our findings establish that a competing plasmid substrate and a plasmid fertility inhibition factor act on a common target, the T4S receptor, to inhibit docking of DNA and protein substrates to the translocation apparatus. PMID:16194240

  2. Structure of pp32, an acidic nuclear protein which inhibits oncogene-induced formation of transformed foci.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, T H; Brody, J R; Romantsev, F E; Yu, J G; Kayler, A E; Voneiff, E; Kuhajda, F P; Pasternack, G R

    1996-01-01

    pp32 is a nuclear protein found highly expressed in normal tissues in those cells capable of self-renewal and in neoplastic cells. We report the cloning of cDNAs encoding human and murine pp32. The clones encode a 28.6-kDa protein; approximately two-thirds of the N-terminal predicts an amphipathic alpha helix containing two possible nuclear localization signals and a potential leucine zipper motif. The C-terminal third is exceptionally acidic, comprised of approximately 70% aspartic and glutamic acid residues; the predicted pI of human pp32 is 3.81. Human and murine pp32 cDNAs are 88% identical; the predicted proteins are 89% identical and 95% similar. Although the structure of pp32 is suggestive of a transcription factor, pp32 did not significantly modulate transcription of a reporter construct when fused to the Gal4 DNA-binding domain. In contrast, in cotransfection experiments, pp32 inhibited the ability of a broad assortment of oncogene pairs to transform rat embryo fibroblasts, including ras + myc, ras + jun, ras + E1a, ras + mutant p53, and E6 + E7. In related experiments, pp32 inhibited the ability of Rat 1a-myc cells to grow in soft agar, whereas it failed to affect ras-induced focus formation in NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest that pp32 may play a key role in self-renewing cell populations where it may act in the nucleus to limit their sensitivity to transformation. Images PMID:8970164

  3. Unraveling the Activation Mechanism of Taspase1 which Controls the Oncogenic AF4–MLL Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sabiani, Samaneh; Geppert, Tim; Engelbrecht, Christian; Kowarz, Eric; Schneider, Gisbert; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of the AF4–MLL oncoprotein results in the formation of a stable multiprotein complex which forms the key event for the onset of acute proB leukemia in mice. Therefore, Taspase1 represents a conditional oncoprotein in the context of t(4;11) leukemia. In this report, we used site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular events by which Taspase1 becomes sequentially activated. Monomeric pro-enzymes form dimers which are autocatalytically processed into the enzymatically active form of Taspase1 (αββα). The active enzyme cleaves only very few target proteins, e.g., MLL, MLL4 and TFIIA at their corresponding consensus cleavage sites (CSTasp1) as well as AF4–MLL in the case of leukemogenic translocation. This knowledge was translated into the design of a dominant-negative mutant of Taspase1 (dnTASP1). As expected, simultaneous expression of the leukemogenic AF4–MLL and dnTASP1 causes the disappearance of the leukemogenic oncoprotein, because the uncleaved AF4–MLL protein (328 kDa) is subject to proteasomal degradation, while the cleaved AF4–MLL forms a stable oncogenic multi-protein complex with a very long half-life. Moreover, coexpression of dnTASP1 with a BFP-CSTasp1-GFP FRET biosensor effectively inhibits cleavage. The impact of our findings on future drug development and potential treatment options for t(4;11) leukemia will be discussed. PMID:26137584

  4. Oncogenic protein SALL4 and ZNF217 as prognostic indicators in solid cancers: a meta-analysis of individual studies

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Ji; Gao, Jinbo; Shuai, Xiaoming; Tao, Kaixiong

    2016-01-01

    Background SALL4 and ZNF217 have been widely acknowledged as pivotal effectors stimulating embryonic immortalization as well as oncogenicity. Nevertheless, their prognostic worthiness towards solid tumors remains obscure. Hence we performed this comprehensive meta-analysis aiming to unveil the survival significance of both aberrantly expressed proteins. Results Overall we included 22 eligible entries comprising of 3093 participants. Over-expression of SALL4 and ZNF217 were negatively correlated with clinical prognosis of 3-year, 5-year, 10-year and disease-free survival in solid malignancies, irrespective of cancer types, source regions, mean-age and sex predominance. Results of sensitivity analysis additionally verified the stability of the pooled outcomes. No publication bias was observed on the basis of Egger's test and Begg's test. Methods Studies were eventually included via database searching and rigorous eligibility appraisal. Data extraction and methodological assessment were implemented under a standard manner. Review Manager 5.3 and STATA 12.0 were utilized as statistical platforms following the recommendations by Cochrane Collaboration protocols. Conclusions Aberrant amplification of SALL4 and ZNF217 serve as unfavorable predictors of survival expectancy among cancer sufferers, revealing great potential as targeted spots in future therapeutics. PMID:27007163

  5. Proto-oncogenes and p53 protein expression in normal cervical stratified squamous epithelium and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Ngan, H Y; Liu, S S; Yu, H; Liu, K L; Cheung, A N

    1999-10-01

    The aim of this study was to study the protein expression of six proto-oncogenes (epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), c-fms, c-myc, c-kit, c-erbB-2 and pan-ras) and one tumour suppressor gene (TP53), by immunohistochemical staining of normal cervical stratified squamous epithelium and cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia (CIN). Paraffin sections of 45 normal cervical specimens, 38 CIN grade one (CIN1), 37 CIN2 and 43 CIN3 were studied. An immunohistochemical (IHC) score was derived from the intensity of staining and the percentages of cells stained. In normal cervical specimens, a higher IHC score was found with EGFR and c-fms in superficial (S), intermediate (I) and parabasal (PB) cells compared with basal cells. In contrast, a higher IHC score was found with c-erbB-2 in basal cells in normal cervical specimens. Dysplastic cells in CIN had a higher IHC score with c-myc and c-erbB-2 than normal S/I and PB cells. Dysplastic cells had a higher score with EGFR than normal basal cells. However, a higher IHC score with EGFR and c-fms was found in normal S/I cells than dysplastic cells. These findings suggested that EGFR and c-fms were activated in more differentiated normal cells but were less active in less differentiated normal basal cells. However, EGFR was reactivated in dysplastic cells. Meanwhile, c-erbB-2 was activated in less differentiated normal basal cells and dysplastic cells, and was less active in differentiated normal cells. c-myc was activated in dysplastic cells. c-fms was more active in more differentiated normal cells and was not activated in less differentiated or dysplastic cells. c-kit, pan-ras and TP53 were not activated in normal nor dysplastic cervical cells. These results suggest EGFR, c-erbB-2 and c-myc may be important proto-oncogenes in CIN and that antibodies or anti-genes targeted against them may alter the progress of CIN to invasive cancer.

  6. MicroRNA-373, a new regulator of protein phosphatase 6, functions as an oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wu, Nannan; Liu, Xuyuan; Xu, Xuemei; Fan, Xingxing; Liu, Min; Li, Xin; Zhong, Qiping; Tang, Hua

    2011-06-01

    MicroRNAs are a class of small noncoding RNAs that function as key regulators of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, microRNA-373 (miR-373) has been found to function as an oncogene in testicular germ cell tumors. In our study, we found that miR-373 is upregulated in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues as compared with adjacent normal tissues, and promotes the proliferation of the HCC cell lines HepG2 and QGY-7703 by regulating the transition between G(1)-phase and S-phase. The gene encoding the protein phosphatase 6 catalytic subunit (PPP6C ), a negative cell cycle regulator, was identified as a direct target gene of miR-373 by use of a fluorescent reporter assay. The mRNA and protein levels of PPP6C were both inversely correlated with the miR-373 expression level. Overexpression of PPP6C abolished the regulation of cell cycle and cell growth exercised by miR-373 in HepG2 cells. These results indicate that miR-373 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of HCC, and may be a new biomarker in HCC. Our results demonstrate that miR-373 can regulate cell cycle progression by targeting PPP6C transcripts and promotes the growth activity of HCC cells in vitro. The downregulation of PPP6C by miR-373 may explain why the expression of miR-373 can promote HCC cell proliferation.

  7. The histone demethylase PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Yuzhou; Pan, Xufeng; Zhao, Heng

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • PHF8 overexpresses in human NSCLC and predicts poor survival. • PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell growth and transformation. • PHF8 regulates apoptosis in human lung cancer cells. • PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer. • MiR-21 is critically essential for PHF8 function in human lung cancer cells. - Abstract: PHF8 is a JmjC domain-containing protein and erases repressive histone marks including H4K20me1 and H3K9me1/2. It binds to H3K4me3, an active histone mark usually located at transcription start sites (TSSs), through its plant homeo-domain, and is thus recruited and enriched in gene promoters. PHF8 is involved in the development of several types of cancer, including leukemia, prostate cancer, and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Herein we report that PHF8 is an oncogenic protein in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). PHF8 is up-regulated in human NSCLC tissues, and high PHF8 expression predicts poor survival. Our in vitro and in vivo evidence demonstrate that PHF8 regulates lung cancer cell proliferation and cellular transformation. We found that PHF8 knockdown induces DNA damage and apoptosis in lung cancer cells. PHF8 promotes miR-21 expression in human lung cancer, and miR-21 knockdown blocks the effects of PHF8 on proliferation and apoptosis of lung cancer cells. In summary, PHF8 promotes lung cancer cell growth and survival by regulating miR-21.

  8. Growth hormone induces expression of c-jun and jun B oncogenes and employs a protein kinase C signal transduction pathway for the induction of c-fos oncogene expression.

    PubMed

    Slootweg, M C; de Groot, R P; Herrmann-Erlee, M P; Koornneef, I; Kruijer, W; Kramer, Y M

    1991-04-01

    Although the structure of several members of the GH receptor family has been defined, signal transduction following GH binding to its receptor has not been elucidated. Mouse osteoblasts were used to study the effect of GH on immediate early gene expression and, subsequently, the cellular signal(s) mediating this expression were analysed. GH rapidly and transiently induced the expression of c-jun and jun B in concert with the already reported expression of c-fos. The GH-induced expression of c-fos was completely blocked by the protein kinase inhibitors staurosporine and H7, indicating that the action of GH is mediated by one or several protein kinases. We next analysed the identity of the putative protein kinases in more detail by using a more specific protein kinase inhibitor, namely the ether-lipid 1-O-alkyl-2-O-methylglycerol, understood to be an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC). Data obtained from these studies revealed that GH-induced expression of c-fos is mediated by PKC. In addition, we observed a profound increase in formation of the PKC activator diacyglycerol upon addition of GH, a natural activator of PKC. In conclusion, upon binding of GH to mouse osteoblasts, the receptor-mediated cellular signal involves diacyglycerol formation and activation of PKC, leading to the induction of oncogene expression. Finally, the expression of c-fos, c-jun and jun B results in an increased binding of protein complexes to AP-1 binding sites.

  9. Targeted inhibition of oncogenic miR-21 maturation with designed RNA-binding proteins.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Yang, Fan; Zubovic, Lorena; Pavelitz, Tom; Yang, Wen; Godin, Katherine; Walker, Matthew; Zheng, Suxin; Macchi, Paolo; Varani, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    The RNA recognition motif (RRM) is the largest family of eukaryotic RNA-binding proteins. Engineered RRMs with well-defined specificity would provide valuable tools and an exacting test of the current understanding of specificity. We have redesigned the specificity of an RRM using rational methods and demonstrated retargeting of its activity in cells. We engineered the conserved RRM of human Rbfox proteins to specifically bind to the terminal loop of a microRNA precursor (pre-miR-21) with high affinity and inhibit its processing by Drosha and Dicer. We further engineered Giardia Dicer by replacing its PAZ domain with the designed RRM. The reprogrammed enzyme degrades pre-miR-21 specifically in vitro and suppresses mature miR-21 levels in cells, which results in increased expression of the tumor suppressor PDCD4 and significantly decreased viability for cancer cells. The results demonstrate the feasibility of rationally engineering the sequence-specificity of RRMs and of using this ubiquitous platform for diverse biological applications. PMID:27428511

  10. Epigenome Mapping Reveals Distinct Modes of Gene Regulation and Widespread Enhancer Reprogramming by the Oncogenic Fusion Protein EWS-FLI1

    PubMed Central

    Tomazou, Eleni M.; Sheffield, Nathan C.; Schmidl, Christian; Schuster, Michael; Schönegger, Andreas; Datlinger, Paul; Kubicek, Stefan; Bock, Christoph; Kovar, Heinrich

    2015-01-01

    Summary Transcription factor fusion proteins can transform cells by inducing global changes of the transcriptome, often creating a state of oncogene addiction. Here, we investigate the role of epigenetic mechanisms in this process, focusing on Ewing sarcoma cells that are dependent on the EWS-FLI1 fusion protein. We established reference epigenome maps comprising DNA methylation, seven histone marks, open chromatin states, and RNA levels, and we analyzed the epigenome dynamics upon downregulation of the driving oncogene. Reduced EWS-FLI1 expression led to widespread epigenetic changes in promoters, enhancers, and super-enhancers, and we identified histone H3K27 acetylation as the most strongly affected mark. Clustering of epigenetic promoter signatures defined classes of EWS-FLI1-regulated genes that responded differently to low-dose treatment with histone deacetylase inhibitors. Furthermore, we observed strong and opposing enrichment patterns for E2F and AP-1 among EWS-FLI1-correlated and anticorrelated genes. Our data describe extensive genome-wide rewiring of epigenetic cell states driven by an oncogenic fusion protein. PMID:25704812

  11. Oncogenes and growth control

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, P.; Graf, T.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains six sections, each consisting of several papers. Some of the paper titles are: A Role for Proto-Oncogenes in Differentiation.; The ras Gene Family; Regulation of Human Globin Gene Expression; Regulation of Gene Expression by Steroid Hormones; The Effect of DNA Methylation on DNA-Protein Interactions and on the Regulation of Gene Expression; and Trans-Acting Elements Encoded in Immediate Early Genes of DNA Tumor Viruses.

  12. Comparative transcriptomic analysis reveals the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1 globally alters mRNA and miRNA to enhance myoblast invasion

    PubMed Central

    Loupe, J M; Miller, P J; Bonner, B P; Maggi, E C; Vijayaraghavan, J; Crabtree, J S; Taylor, C M; Zabaleta, J; Hollenbach, A D

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma, one of the most common childhood sarcomas, is comprised of two main subtypes, embryonal and alveolar (ARMS). ARMS, the more aggressive subtype, is primarily characterized by the t(2;13)(p35;p14) chromosomal translocation, which fuses two transcription factors, PAX3 and FOXO1 to generate the oncogenic fusion protein PAX3-FOXO1. Patients with PAX3-FOXO1-postitive tumors have a poor prognosis, in part due to the enhanced local invasive capacity of these cells, which leads to the increased metastatic potential for this tumor. Despite this knowledge, little is known about the role that the oncogenic fusion protein has in this increased invasive potential. In this report we use large-scale comparative transcriptomic analyses in physiologically relevant primary myoblasts to demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 is sufficient to alter the expression of 70 mRNA and 27 miRNA in a manner predicted to promote cellular invasion. In contrast the expression of PAX3 alters 60 mRNA and 23 miRNA in a manner predicted to inhibit invasion. We demonstrate that these alterations in mRNA and miRNA translate into changes in the invasive potential of primary myoblasts with PAX3-FOXO1 increasing invasion nearly 2-fold while PAX3 decreases invasion nearly 4-fold. Taken together, these results allow us to build off of previous reports and develop a more expansive molecular model by which the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters global gene regulatory networks to enhance the local invasiveness of cells. Further, the global nature of our observed changes highlights the fact that instead of focusing on a single-gene target, we must develop multi-faceted treatment regimens targeting multiple genes of a single oncogenic phenotype or multiple genes that target different oncogenic phenotypes for tumor progression. PMID:27454080

  13. A Hybrid Chalcone Combining the Trimethoxyphenyl and Isatinyl Groups Targets Multiple Oncogenic Proteins and Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lili; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors that can simultaneously inhibit multiple oncogenic proteins in essential pathways are promising therapeutic chemicals for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To combine the anticancer effects of combretastatins, chalcones and isatins, we synthesized a novel hybrid molecule 3’,4’,5’-trimethoxy-5-chloro-isatinylchalcone (3MCIC). 3MCIC inhibited proliferation of cultured HepG2 cells, causing rounding-up of the cells and massive vacuole accumulation in the cytoplasm. Paxillin and focal adhesion plaques were downregulated by 3MCIC. Surprisingly, unlike the microtubule (MT)-targeting agent CA-4 that inhibits tubulin polymerization, 3MCIC stabilized tubulin polymers both in living cells and in cell lysates. 3MCIC treatment reduced cyclin B1, CDK1, p-CDK1/2, and Rb, but increased p53 and p21. Moreover, 3MCIC caused GSK3β degradation by promoting GSK3β-Ser9 phosphorylation. Nevertheless, 3MCIC inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by downregulating β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and E2F1. 3MCIC treatment not only activated the caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway, but also caused massive autophagy evidenced by rapid and drastic changes of LC3 and p62. 3MCIC also promoted cleavage and maturation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin D. Using ligand-affinity chromatography (LAC), target proteins captured onto the Sephacryl S1000-C12-3MCIC resins were isolated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the LAC-MS identified targets, i.e., septin-2, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, nucleolin, EF1α1/2, EBP1 (PA2G4), cyclin B1 and GSK3β, were further detected by Western blotting. Moreover, both septin-2 and HIF-1α decreased drastically in 3MCIC-treated HepG2 cells. Our data suggest that 3MCIC is a promising anticancer lead compound with novel targeting mechanisms, and also demonstrate the efficiency of LAC-MS based target identification in anticancer drug development. PMID:27525972

  14. A Hybrid Chalcone Combining the Trimethoxyphenyl and Isatinyl Groups Targets Multiple Oncogenic Proteins and Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Lili; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors that can simultaneously inhibit multiple oncogenic proteins in essential pathways are promising therapeutic chemicals for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To combine the anticancer effects of combretastatins, chalcones and isatins, we synthesized a novel hybrid molecule 3',4',5'-trimethoxy-5-chloro-isatinylchalcone (3MCIC). 3MCIC inhibited proliferation of cultured HepG2 cells, causing rounding-up of the cells and massive vacuole accumulation in the cytoplasm. Paxillin and focal adhesion plaques were downregulated by 3MCIC. Surprisingly, unlike the microtubule (MT)-targeting agent CA-4 that inhibits tubulin polymerization, 3MCIC stabilized tubulin polymers both in living cells and in cell lysates. 3MCIC treatment reduced cyclin B1, CDK1, p-CDK1/2, and Rb, but increased p53 and p21. Moreover, 3MCIC caused GSK3β degradation by promoting GSK3β-Ser9 phosphorylation. Nevertheless, 3MCIC inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by downregulating β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and E2F1. 3MCIC treatment not only activated the caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway, but also caused massive autophagy evidenced by rapid and drastic changes of LC3 and p62. 3MCIC also promoted cleavage and maturation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin D. Using ligand-affinity chromatography (LAC), target proteins captured onto the Sephacryl S1000-C12-3MCIC resins were isolated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the LAC-MS identified targets, i.e., septin-2, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, nucleolin, EF1α1/2, EBP1 (PA2G4), cyclin B1 and GSK3β, were further detected by Western blotting. Moreover, both septin-2 and HIF-1α decreased drastically in 3MCIC-treated HepG2 cells. Our data suggest that 3MCIC is a promising anticancer lead compound with novel targeting mechanisms, and also demonstrate the efficiency of LAC-MS based target identification in anticancer drug development. PMID:27525972

  15. Osa protein constitutes a strong oncogenic suppression system that can block vir-dependent transfer of IncQ plasmids between Agrobacterium cells and the establishment of IncQ plasmids in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lan-Ying; Gelvin, Stanton B

    2004-11-01

    The osa (oncogenic suppressive activity) gene of the IncW group plasmid pSa is sufficient to suppress tumorigenesis by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. osa confers oncogenic suppression by inhibiting VirE2 protein export. This result is similar, but not identical, to that of oncogenic suppression by the IncQ plasmid RSF1010. We conducted a series of experiments to compare oncogenic suppression by these two systems. Agrobacterium strains harboring plasmids containing osa are more able to effect oncogenic suppression than are similar strains containing various RSF1010 derivatives. When osa is present within a donor Agrobacterium strain that also carries a derivative of RSF1010, the transfer of RSF1010 derivatives to recipient bacteria and their establishment in plants are blocked. Oncogenic suppression is still effected when the osa gene is integrated into the Agrobacterium chromosome, suggesting that it is the osa gene product that is active in suppression and that suppression does not require a protein-nucleic acid intermediate like that described for IncQ plasmids. Extracellular complementation experiments with tobacco leaf disks indicated that Osa blocks stable transfer of RSF1010 to plant cells by inhibiting transfer of VirE2, which is essential for the transfer of RSF1010 into plant cells, and not by inhibiting the actual transfer of RSF1010 itself. Our results suggest that Osa and RSF1010 cause oncogenic suppression by using different mechanisms. PMID:15489437

  16. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP's functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP's co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  17. Profiling of transcripts and proteins modulated by K-ras oncogene in the lung tissues of K-ras transgenic mice by omics approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sojung; Kang, Jungwoo; Cho, Minchul; Seo, Eunhee; Choi, Heesook; Kim, Eunjin; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Heejong; Kang, Gum Yong; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Park, Young-Ho; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Yum, Young Na; Park, Sue-Nie; Yoon, Do-Young

    2009-01-01

    The mutated K-ras gene is involved in approximately 30% of human cancers. In order to search for K-ras oncogene-induced modulators in lung tissues of K-ras transgenic mice, we performed microarray and proteomics (LC/ESI-MS/MS) analysis. Genes (RAB27b RAS family, IL-1RA, IL-33, chemokine ligand 6, epiregulin, EGF-like domain and cathepsin) related to cancer development (Wnt signaling pathway) and inflammation (chemokine/cytokine signaling pathway, Toll receptor signaling) were up-regulated while genes (troponin, tropomodulin 2, endothelial lipase, FGFR4, integrin alpha8 and adenylate cyclase 8) related to the tumor suppression such as p53 pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway and cadherin signaling pathway were down-regulated by K-ras oncogene. Proteomics approach revealed that up-regulated proteins in lung adenomas of K-ras mice were classified as follows: proteins related to the metabolism/catabolism (increased from 7 to 22% by K-ras gene), proteins related to translation/transcription and nucleotide (from 4 to 6%), proteins related to signal transduction (from 3 to 5%), proteins related to phosphorylation (from 1 to 2%). ATP synthase, Ras oncogene family, cytochrome c oxidase, flavoprotein, TEF 1, adipoprotein A-1 BP, glutathione oxidase, fatty acid BP 4, diaphorase 1, MAPK4 and transgelin were up-regulated by K-ras oncogene. However, integrin alpha1, Ras-interacting protein (Rain), endothelin-converting enzyme-1d and splicing factor 3b were down-regulated. These studies suggest that genes related to cancer development and inflammation were up-regulated while genes related to the tumor suppression were down-regulated by K-ras, resulting in the tumor growth. Putative biomarkers such as cell cycle related genes (Cdc37), cancer cell adhesion (Glycam 1, integrin alpha8, integrin alphaX and Clec4n), signal transduction (Tlr2, IL-33, and Ccbp2), migration (Ccr1, Ccl6, and diaphorase 1 (Cyb5r3) and cancer development (epiregulin) can be useful for diagnosis and as

  18. Profiling of transcripts and proteins modulated by K-ras oncogene in the lung tissues of K-ras transgenic mice by omics approaches.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sojung; Kang, Jungwoo; Cho, Minchul; Seo, Eunhee; Choi, Heesook; Kim, Eunjin; Kim, Junghee; Kim, Heejong; Kang, Gum Yong; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Park, Young-Ho; Yu, Dae-Yeul; Yum, Young Na; Park, Sue-Nie; Yoon, Do-Young

    2009-01-01

    The mutated K-ras gene is involved in approximately 30% of human cancers. In order to search for K-ras oncogene-induced modulators in lung tissues of K-ras transgenic mice, we performed microarray and proteomics (LC/ESI-MS/MS) analysis. Genes (RAB27b RAS family, IL-1RA, IL-33, chemokine ligand 6, epiregulin, EGF-like domain and cathepsin) related to cancer development (Wnt signaling pathway) and inflammation (chemokine/cytokine signaling pathway, Toll receptor signaling) were up-regulated while genes (troponin, tropomodulin 2, endothelial lipase, FGFR4, integrin alpha8 and adenylate cyclase 8) related to the tumor suppression such as p53 pathway, TGF-beta signaling pathway and cadherin signaling pathway were down-regulated by K-ras oncogene. Proteomics approach revealed that up-regulated proteins in lung adenomas of K-ras mice were classified as follows: proteins related to the metabolism/catabolism (increased from 7 to 22% by K-ras gene), proteins related to translation/transcription and nucleotide (from 4 to 6%), proteins related to signal transduction (from 3 to 5%), proteins related to phosphorylation (from 1 to 2%). ATP synthase, Ras oncogene family, cytochrome c oxidase, flavoprotein, TEF 1, adipoprotein A-1 BP, glutathione oxidase, fatty acid BP 4, diaphorase 1, MAPK4 and transgelin were up-regulated by K-ras oncogene. However, integrin alpha1, Ras-interacting protein (Rain), endothelin-converting enzyme-1d and splicing factor 3b were down-regulated. These studies suggest that genes related to cancer development and inflammation were up-regulated while genes related to the tumor suppression were down-regulated by K-ras, resulting in the tumor growth. Putative biomarkers such as cell cycle related genes (Cdc37), cancer cell adhesion (Glycam 1, integrin alpha8, integrin alphaX and Clec4n), signal transduction (Tlr2, IL-33, and Ccbp2), migration (Ccr1, Ccl6, and diaphorase 1 (Cyb5r3) and cancer development (epiregulin) can be useful for diagnosis and as

  19. THE CANNABINOID WIN 55,212-2 DECREASES SPECIFICITY PROTEIN (Sp) TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS AND THE ONCOGENIC CAP PROTEIN eIF4E IN COLON CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Sreevalsan, Sandeep; Safe, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    2,3-Dihydro-5-methyl-3-([morpholinyl]methyl)pyrollo(1,2,3-de)-1,4-benzoxazinyl]-[1-naphthaleny]methanone [WIN 55,212-2 (WIN)] is a synthetic cannabinoid that inhibits RKO, HT-29 and SW480 cell growth, induced apoptosis, and downregulated expression of survivin, cyclin D1, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its receptor (VEGFR1). WIN also decreased expression of specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4, and this is consistent with the observed downregulation of the aforementioned Sp-regulated genes. In addition, we also observed by RNA interference (RNAi) that the oncogenic cap protein eIF4E was an Sp-regulated gene also downregulated by WIN in colon cancer cells. WIN-mediated repression of Sp proteins was not affected by CB receptor antagonists or by knockdown of the receptor but was attenuated by the phosphatase inhibitor sodium orthovanadate or by knockdown of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A). WIN-mediated repression of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 was due to PP2A-dependent downregulation of microRNA-27a (miR-27a) and induction of miR-27a-regulated ZBTB10 which has previously been characterized as an “Sp repressor”. The results demonstrate that the anticancer activity of WIN is due, in part, to PP2A-dependent disruption of miR-27a:ZBTB10 and ZBTB10-mediated repression of Sp transcription factors and Sp-regulated genes including eIF4E. PMID:24030632

  20. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits constitutively active YAP (5SA)-induced oncogenic cell transformation. •The PDZ-binding motif of YAP promotes its nuclear localization in cultured cells and mouse liver. •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF transcription in cultured cells and mouse liver. -- Abstract: YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP’s functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP’s co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  1. Lung-targeted expression of the c-Raf-1 kinase in transgenic mice exposes a novel oncogenic character of the wild-type protein.

    PubMed

    Kerkhoff, E; Fedorov, L M; Siefken, R; Walter, A O; Papadopoulos, T; Rapp, U R

    2000-04-01

    The c-Raf-1 kinase is a downstream effector of Ras signaling. Both proteins are highly oncogenic when they are mutationally activated, but only the Ras GTPase is frequently mutated in naturally occurring tumors. Although the c-Raf-1 protein was found to be amplified in different lung cancer cell lines, overexpression of the wild-type c-Raf-1 protein was shown to be insufficient to transform cultured cells. Here we have addressed the question of whether overexpression of the wild-type c-Raf-1 kinase can induce lung cancer in mice. We show that lung-targeted expression of oncogenically activated or wild-type c-Raf-1 proteins induces morphologically indistinguishable lung adenomas in transgenic mice. Compared with mice transgenic for the activated c-Raf-1-BxB, tumor development is delayed and occurs at a lower incidence in wild-type c-Raf-1 transgenic mice. Our studies show that the c-Raf-1 expression level is a critical parameter in tumor development and should be analyzed in more detail to evaluate its potential in the induction of cancer.

  2. Centrosomal Nlp is an oncogenic protein that is gene-amplified in human tumors and causes spontaneous tumorigenesis in transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Shao, Shujuan; Liu, Rong; Wang, Yang; Song, Yongmei; Zuo, Lihui; Xue, Liyan; Lu, Ning; Hou, Ning; Wang, Mingrong; Yang, Xiao; Zhan, Qimin

    2010-02-01

    Disruption of mitotic events contributes greatly to genomic instability and results in mutator phenotypes. Indeed, abnormalities of mitotic components are closely associated with malignant transformation and tumorigenesis. Here we show that ninein-like protein (Nlp), a recently identified BRCA1-associated centrosomal protein involved in microtubule nucleation and spindle formation, is an oncogenic protein. Nlp was found to be overexpressed in approximately 80% of human breast and lung carcinomas analyzed. In human lung cancers, this deregulated expression was associated with NLP gene amplification. Further analysis revealed that Nlp exhibited strong oncogenic properties; for example, it conferred to NIH3T3 rodent fibroblasts the capacity for anchorage-independent growth in vitro and tumor formation in nude mice. Consistent with these data, transgenic mice overexpressing Nlp displayed spontaneous tumorigenesis in the breast, ovary, and testicle within 60 weeks. In addition, Nlp overexpression induced more rapid onset of radiation-induced lymphoma. Furthermore, mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) derived from Nlp transgenic mice showed centrosome amplification, suggesting that Nlp overexpression mimics BRCA1 loss. These findings demonstrate that Nlp abnormalities may contribute to genomic instability and tumorigenesis and suggest that Nlp might serve as a potential biomarker for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic target.

  3. Blockade of oncogenic IκB kinase activity in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma by bromodomain and extraterminal domain protein inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Ceribelli, Michele; Kelly, Priscilla N; Shaffer, Arthur L; Wright, George W; Xiao, Wenming; Yang, Yibin; Mathews Griner, Lesley A; Guha, Rajarshi; Shinn, Paul; Keller, Jonathan M; Liu, Dongbo; Patel, Paresma R; Ferrer, Marc; Joshi, Shivangi; Nerle, Sujata; Sandy, Peter; Normant, Emmanuel; Thomas, Craig J; Staudt, Louis M

    2014-08-01

    In the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), NF-κB activity is essential for viability of the malignant cells and is sustained by constitutive activity of IκB kinase (IKK) in the cytoplasm. Here, we report an unexpected role for the bromodomain and extraterminal domain (BET) proteins BRD2 and BRD4 in maintaining oncogenic IKK activity in ABC DLBCL. IKK activity was reduced by small molecules targeting BET proteins as well as by genetic knockdown of BRD2 and BRD4 expression, thereby inhibiting downstream NF-κB-driven transcriptional programs and killing ABC DLBCL cells. Using a high-throughput platform to screen for drug-drug synergy, we observed that the BET inhibitor JQ1 combined favorably with multiple drugs targeting B-cell receptor signaling, one pathway that activates IKK in ABC DLBCL. The BTK kinase inhibitor ibrutinib, which is in clinical development for the treatment of ABC DLBCL, synergized strongly with BET inhibitors in killing ABC DLBCL cells in vitro and in a xenograft mouse model. These findings provide a mechanistic basis for the clinical development of BET protein inhibitors in ABC DLBCL, particularly in combination with other modulators of oncogenic IKK signaling.

  4. Repression of CD24 surface protein expression by oncogenic Ras is relieved by inhibition of Raf but not MEK or PI3K

    PubMed Central

    Pallegar, Nikitha K.; Ayre, D. Craig; Christian, Sherri L.

    2015-01-01

    CD24 is a dynamically regulated cell surface protein. High expression of CD24 leads to progression of lung, prostrate, colon, and pancreatic cancers, among others. In contrast, low expression of CD24 leads to cell proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs). Activating mutations in Ras are found in 30% of all human cancers. Oncogenic Ras constitutively stimulates the Raf, PI3K, and Ral GDS signaling pathways, leading to cellular transformation. Previous studies have shown that expression of oncogenic Ras in breast cancer cells generates CD24− cells from CD24+ cells. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in the generation of CD24− cells were not determined. Here, we demonstrate that oncogenic Ras (RasV12) expression suppresses CD24 mRNA, protein, and promoter levels when expressed in NIH/3T3 cells. Furthermore, activation of only the Raf pathway was sufficient to downregulate CD24 mRNA and protein expression to levels similar to those seen in with RasV12 expression. In contrast, activation of the PI3K pathway downregulated mRNA expression with a partial effect on protein expression whereas activation of the RalGDS pathway only partially affected protein expression. Surprisingly, inhibition of MEK with U0126 only partially restored CD24 mRNA expression but not surface protein expression. In contrast, inhibition of Raf with sorafenib did not restore CD24 mRNA expression but significantly increased the proportion of RasV12 cells expressing CD24. Therefore, the Raf pathway is the major repressor of CD24 mRNA and protein expression, with PI3K also able to substantially inhibit CD24 expression. Moreover, these data indicate that the levels of CD24 mRNA and surface protein are independently regulated. Although inhibition of Raf by sorafenib only partially restored CD24 expression, sorafenib should still be considered as a potential therapeutic strategy to alter CD24 expression in CD24− cells, such as BCSCs. PMID:26301220

  5. TAT-CC fusion protein depresses the oncogenicity of BCR-ABL in vitro and in vivo through interrupting its oligomerization.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zheng-Lan; Gao, Miao; Ji, Mao-Sheng; Tao, Kun; Xiao, Qing; Zhong, Liang; Zeng, Jian-Ming; Feng, Wen-Li

    2013-02-01

    Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal hematologic malignancy characterized by the BCR-ABL protein. BCR-ABL is a constitutively active tyrosine kinase and plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of CML. Imatinib mesylate, a selective tyrosine kinase inhibitor, is effective in CML, but drug resistance and relapse occur. The coiled-coil (CC) domain located in BCR(1-72) mediates BCR-ABL tetramerization, which is essential for the activation of tyrosine kinase and transformation potential of BCR-ABL. CC domain is supposed to be a therapeutic target for CML. We purified a TAT-CC protein competively binding with the endogenous CC domain to reduce BCR-ABL kinase activity. We found that TAT-CC co-located and interacted with BCR-ABL in Ba/F3-p210 and K562 cells. It induced apoptosis and inhibited proliferation in these cells. It increased the sensitivity of these cells to imatinib and reduced the phosphorylation of BCR-ABL, CRKL and STAT5. We confirmed that TAT-CC could attenuate the oncogenicity of Ba/F3-p210 cells and diminish the volume of K562 solid tumor in mice. We conclude targeting the CC may provide a complementary therapy to inhibit BCR-ABL oncogenicity.

  6. Proteome-wide identification of novel binding partners to the oncogenic fusion gene protein, NPM-ALK, using tandem affinity purification and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wu, Fang; Wang, Peng; Young, Leah C; Lai, Raymond; Li, Liang

    2009-02-01

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), an oncogenic fusion gene protein that is characteristically found in a subset of anaplastic large cell lymphomas, promotes tumorigenesis through its functional and physical interactions with various biologically important proteins. The identification of these interacting proteins has proven to be useful to further our understanding of NPM-ALK-mediated tumorigenesis. For the first time, we performed a proteome-wide identification of NPM-ALK-binding proteins using tandem affinity purification and a highly sensitive mass spectrometric technique. Tandem affinity purification is a recently developed method that carries a lower background and higher sensitivity compared with the conventional immunoprecipitation-based protein purification protocols. The NPM-ALK gene was cloned into an HB-tagged vector and expressed in GP293 cells. Three independent experiments were performed and the reproducibility of the data was 68%. The vast majority of the previously reported NPM-ALK-binding proteins were detected. We also identified proteins that are involved in various cellular processes that were not previously described in association with NPM-ALK, such as MCM6 and MSH2 (DNA repair), Nup98 and importin 8 (subcellular protein transport), Stim1 (calcium signaling), 82Fip (RNA regulation), and BAG2 (proteosome degradation). We believe that these data highlight the functional diversity of NPM-ALK and provide new research directions for the study of the biology of this oncoprotein.

  7. RAS oncogenes: weaving a tumorigenic web

    PubMed Central

    Pylayeva-Gupta, Yuliya; Grabocka, Elda; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2013-01-01

    RAS proteins are essential components of signalling pathways that emanate from cell surface receptors. Oncogenic activation of these proteins owing to missense mutations is frequently detected in several types of cancer. A wealth of biochemical and genetic studies indicates that RAS proteins control a complex molecular circuitry that consists of a wide array of interconnecting pathways. In this Review, we describe how RAS oncogenes exploit their extensive signalling reach to affect multiple cellular processes that drive tumorigenesis. PMID:21993244

  8. Oncogenic Kras Expression in Postmitotic Neurons Leads to S100A8-S100A9 Protein Overexpression and Gliosis*

    PubMed Central

    Ryu, Myung-Jeom; Liu, Yangang; Zhong, Xiaofen; Du, Juan; Peterson, Nicholas; Kong, Guangyao; Li, Hongda; Wang, Jinyong; Salamat, Shahriar; Chang, Qiang; Zhang, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that up-regulation of Ras signaling in neurons promotes gliosis and astrocytoma formation in a cell nonautonomous manner. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown. To address this question, we generated compound mice (LSL Kras G12D/+;CamKII-Cre) that express oncogenic Kras from its endogenous locus in postmitotic neurons after birth. These mice developed progressive gliosis, which is associated with hyperactivation of Ras signaling pathways. Microarray analysis identified S100A8 and S100A9 as two secreted molecules that are significantly overexpressed in mutant cortices. In contrast to their usual predominant expression in myeloid cells, we found that overexpression of S100A8 and S100A9 in the mutant cortex is primarily in neurons. This neuronal expression pattern is associated with increased infiltration of microglia in mutant cortex. Moreover, purified S100A8-S100A9 but not S100A8 or S100A9 alone promotes growth of primary astrocytes in vitro through both TLR4 and receptor of advanced glycation end product receptors. In summary, our results identify overexpression of S100A8-S100A9 in neurons as an early step in oncogenic Kras-induced gliosis. These molecules expressed in nonhematopoietic cells may be involved in tumorigenesis at a stage much earlier than what has been reported previously. PMID:22577135

  9. Oncogenic nexus of cancerous inhibitor of protein phosphatase 2A (CIP2A): An oncoprotein with many hands

    PubMed Central

    De, Pradip; Carlson, Jennifer; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Dey, Nandini

    2014-01-01

    Oncoprotein CIP2A a Cancerous Inhibitor of PP2A forms an “oncogenic nexus” by virtue of its control on PP2A and MYC stabilization in cancer cells. The expression and prognostic function of CIP2A in different solid tumors including colorectal carcinoma, head & neck cancers, gastric cancers, lung carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, esophageal cancers, pancreatic carcinoma, brain cancers, breast carcinoma, bladder cancers, ovarian carcinoma, renal cell carcinomas, tongue cancers, cervical carcinoma, prostate cancers, and oral carcinoma as well as a number of hematological malignancies are just beginning to emerge. Herein, we reviewed the recent progress in our understanding of (1) how an “oncogenic nexus” of CIP2A participates in the tumorigenic transformation of cells and (2) how we can prospect/view the clinical relevance of CIP2A in the context of cancer therapy. The review will try to understand the role of CIP2A (a) as a biomarker in cancers and evaluate the prognostic value of CIP2A in different cancers (b) as a therapeutic target in cancers and (c) in drug response and developing chemo-resistance in cancers. PMID:25015035

  10. The regulation of oncogenic Ras/ERK signalling by dual-specificity mitogen activated protein kinase phosphatases (MKPs).

    PubMed

    Kidger, Andrew M; Keyse, Stephen M

    2016-02-01

    Dual-specificity MAP kinase (MAPK) phosphatases (MKPs or DUSPs) are well-established negative regulators of MAPK signalling in mammalian cells and tissues. By virtue of their differential subcellular localisation and ability to specifically recognise, dephosphorylate and inactivate different MAPK isoforms, they are key spatiotemporal regulators of pathway activity. Furthermore, as they are transcriptionally regulated as downstream targets of MAPK signalling they can either act as classical negative feedback regulators or mediate cross talk between distinct MAPK pathways. Because MAPKs and particularly Ras/ERK signalling are implicated in cancer initiation and development, the observation that MKPs are abnormally regulated in human tumours has been interpreted as evidence that these enzymes can either suppress or promote carcinogenesis. However, definitive evidence of such roles has been lacking. Here we review recent work based on the use of mouse models, biochemical studies and clinical data that demonstrate key roles for MKPs in modulating the oncogenic potential of Ras/ERK signalling and also indicate that these enzymes may play a role in the response of tumours to certain anticancer drugs. Overall, this work reinforces the importance of negative regulatory mechanisms in modulating the activity of oncogenic MAPK signalling and indicates that MKPs may provide novel targets for therapeutic intervention in cancer. PMID:26791049

  11. Ha-ras oncogene expression directed by a milk protein gene promoter: tissue specificity, hormonal regulation, and tumor induction in transgenic mice

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, A.C.; Schoenenberger, C.A.; Groner, B.; Henninghausen, L.; LeMeur, M.; Gelinger, P.

    1987-03-01

    The activated human Ha-ras oncogene was subjected to the control of the promoter region of the murine whey acidic protein (Wap) gene, which is expressed in mammary epithelial cells in response to lactogenic hormones. The Wap-ras gene was stably introduced into the mouse germ line of five transgenic mice (one male and four females). Wap-ras expression was observed in the mammary glands of lactating females in two lines derived from female founders. The tissue-directed and hormone-dependent Wap expression was conferred on the Ha-ras oncogene. The signals governing Wap expression are located within 2.5 kilobases of 5' flanking sequence. The other two lines derived from female founders did not express the chimeric gene. In the line derived from the male founder the Wap-ras gene is integrated into the Y chromosome. Expression was found in the salivary gland of male animals only. After a long latency, Wap-ras-expressing mice developed tumors. The tumors arose in tissues expressing Wap-ras - i.e., mammary or salivary glands. Compared to the corresponding nonmalignant tissues, Wap-ras expression was enhanced in the tumors.

  12. Oncogenic Potential of the Nuclear Receptor Coregulator Proline-, Glutamic Acid–, Leucine-Rich Protein 1/Modulator of the Nongenomic Actions of the Estrogen Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Rajhans, Rajib; Nair, Sujit; Holden, Alan H.; Kumar, Rakesh; Tekmal, Rajeshwar Rao; Vadlamudi, Ratna K.

    2009-01-01

    Proline-, glutamic acid–, leucine-rich protein 1 (PELP1), a novel nuclear receptor coactivator, and its expression is deregulated in hormone-dependent cancers, including those of the breast, endometrium, and ovary. PELP1 interacts with estrogen receptor and modulates its genomic and nongenomic functions. In this study, we examined whether PELP1 functions as an oncogene. The overexpression of PELP1 in fibroblasts and epithelial model cells resulted in cellular transformation. PELP1 also enhanced the transformation potential of c-Src kinase in focus formation assays, and PELP1 overexpression potentiated estradiol-mediated cell migratory potential and anchorage-independent growth. Using PELP1-small interfering RNA, we provided evidence that endogenous PELP1 plays an essential role in E2-mediated anchorage-independent growth, cell migration, and cytoskeletal changes. When compared with control vector transfectants, breast cancer cells stably overexpressing PELP1 showed a rapid tumor growth in xenograft studies. Immunohistochemical analysis of PELP1 expression using a tumor progression array of 252 breast carcinomas and normal breast tissue specimens revealed that PELP1 expression is deregulated to a greater degree in higher grade node-positive invasive tumors than in normal breast tissue or ductal carcinoma in situ. Our data suggest that PELP1 is a potential oncogene, that its expression is deregulated during cancer progression, and that PELP1 may play a role in oncogenesis. PMID:17545633

  13. THE ONCOGENIC FUSION PROTEIN PAX3-FKHR HAS A GREATER POST-TRANSLATIONAL STABILITY RELATIVE TO PAX3 DURING EARLY MYOGENESIS

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Patrick J.; Hollenbach, Andrew D.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY The childhood solid muscle tumor Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is characterized by the t(2;13)(q35;q14) chromosomal translocation, which results in the fusion of two transcription factors important for myogenesis, Pax3 and FKHR (FOX01a). The effects of myogenic differentiation on the stability of FKHR have been well characterized. However, similar studies have yet to be performed on Pax3 or the oncogenic fusion protein Pax3-FKHR. Therefore, we demonstrate in the physiologically relevant mouse primary myoblast system that the expression of Pax3 decreases nearly 95% during the first twenty-four hours of myogenic differentiation. In contrast, there is an aberrant persistence of expression of Pax3-FKHR during this same time period. These differences in protein expression levels do not result from changes on the transcriptional nor the translational level since we observed no concomitant decrease in the levels of Pax3 or Pax3-FKHR mRNA or in the ability of both proteins to be translated. Instead, a pulse-chase analysis determined that Pax3-FKHR has a half-life significantly greater than the half-life of wild type Pax3 demonstrating for the first time that Pax3-FKHR has greater post-translational protein stability relative to wild type Pax3 during early myogenic differentiation. Finally, the persistence of expression of Pax3-FKHR prevents the terminal differentiation of primary myoblasts demonstrating a biological consequence of its aberrant expression. PMID:17698292

  14. Epitomics: IgG-epitome decoding of E6, E7 and L1 proteins from oncogenic human papillomavirus type 58

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wan-Xiang; Wang, Jian; Tang, Hai-Ping; He, Ya-Ping; Zhu, Qian-Xi; Gupta, Satish K.; Gu, Shao-Hua; Huang, Qiang; Ji, Chao-Neng; Liu, Ling-Feng; Li, Gui-Ling; Xu, Cong-Jian; Xie, Yi

    2016-01-01

    To enable rational multi-epitope vaccine and diagnostic antigen design, it is imperative to delineate complete IgG-epitome of the protein. Here, we describe results of IgG-epitome decoding of three proteins from high-risk (HR-) oncogenic human papillomavirus type 58 (HPV58). To reveal their entire epitomes, employing peptide biosynthetic approach, 30 precise linear B-cell epitopes (BCEs) were mapped on E6, E7 and L1 proteins using rabbits antisera to the respective recombinant proteins. Using sequence alignment based on BCE minimal motif, the specificity and conservativeness of each mapped BCE were delineated mainly among known HR-HPVs, including finding 3 broadly antibody cross-reactive BCEs of L1 that each covers almost all HR-HPVs. Western blots revealed that 13 of the 18 BCEs within L1-epitome were recognized by murine antisera to HPV58 virus-like particles, suggesting that these are antibody accessible BCEs. Also, a highly conserved epitope (YGD/XTL) of E6 was found to exist only in known common HR-HPVs, which could be used as the first peptide reference marker for judging HR-HPVs. Altogether, this study provides systemic and exhaustive information on linear BCEs of HR-HPV58 that will facilitate development of novel multi-epitope diagnostic reagents/chips for testing viral antibodies and ‘universal’ preventive HPV peptide vaccine based on L1 conserved BCEs. PMID:27708433

  15. Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factors Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction genes in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Hedrick, Erik; Cheng, Yating; Jin, Un-Ho; Kim, Kyounghyun; Safe, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Specificity protein (Sp) transcription factor (TF) Sp1 is overexpressed in multiple tumors and is a negative prognostic factor for patient survival. Sp1 and also Sp3 and Sp4 are highly expressed in cancer cells and in this study, we have used results of RNA interference (RNAi) to show that the three TFs individually play a role in the growth, survival and migration/invasion of breast, kidney, pancreatic, lung and colon cancer cell lines. Moreover, tumor growth in athymic nude mice bearing L3.6pL pancreatic cancer cells as xenografts were significantly decreased in cells depleted for Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 (combined) or Sp1 alone. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) of changes in gene expression in Panc1 pancreatic cancer cells after individual knockdown of Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 demonstrates that these TFs regulate genes and pathways that correlated with the functional responses observed after knockdown but also some genes and pathways that inversely correlated with the functional responses. However, causal IPA analysis which integrates all pathway-dependent changes in all genes strongly predicted that Sp1-, Sp3- and Sp4-regulated genes were associated with the pro-oncogenic activity. These functional and genomic results coupled with overexpression of Sp transcription factors in tumor vs. non-tumor tissues and decreased Sp1 expression with age indicate that Sp1, Sp3 and Sp4 are non-oncogene addiction (NOA) genes and are attractive drug targets for individual and combined cancer chemotherapies. PMID:26967243

  16. Comparison of the computed structures for the phosphate-binding loop of the p21 protein containing the oncogenic site Gly 12 with the X-ray crystallographic structures for this region in the p21 protein and EFtu. A model for the structure of the p21 protein in its oncogenic form.

    PubMed

    Chen, J M; Lee, G; Murphy, R B; Carty, R P; Brandt-Rauf, P W; Friedman, E; Pincus, M R

    1989-04-01

    The GTP-binding p21 protein encoded by the ras-oncogene can be activated to cause malignant transformation of cells by substitution of a single amino acid at critical positions along the polypeptide chain. Substitution of any non-cyclic L-amino acid for Gly 12 in the normal protein results in a transforming protein. This substitution occurs in a hydrophobic sequence (residues 6-15) which is known to be involved in binding the phosphate moities of GTP (and GDP). We find, using conformational energy calculations, that the 6-15 segment of the normal protein (with Gly 12) adopts structures that contain a bend at residues 11 and 12 with the Gly in the D* conformation, not allowed energetically for L-amino acids. Substitution of non-cyclic L-amino acids for Gly 12 results in shifting this bend to residues 12 and 13. We show that many computed structures for the Gly 12-containing phosphate binding loop, segment 9-15, are superimposable on the corresponding segment of the recently determined X-ray crystallographic structure for residues 1-171 of the p21 protein. All such structures contain bends at residues 11 and 12 and most of these contain Gly 12 in the C* or D* conformational state. Other computed conformations for the 9-15 segment were superimposable on the structure of the corresponding 18-23 segment of EFtu, the bacterial chain elongation factor having structural similarities to the p21 protein in the phosphate-binding regions. This segment contains a Val residue where a Gly occurs in the p21 protein. As previously predicted, all of these superimposable conformations contain a bend at positions 12 and 13, not 11 and 12. If these structures that are superimposable on EFtu are introduced into the p21 protein structure, bad contacts occur between the sidechain of the residue (here Val) at position 12 and another phosphate binding loop region around position 61. These bad contacts between the two segments can be removed by changing the conformation of the 61 region in

  17. microRNA-183 plays as oncogenes by increasing cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting protein phosphatase 2A in renal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Mingning; Liu, Lei; Chen, Lieqian; Tan, Guobin; Liang, Ziji; Wang, Kangning; Liu, Jianjun; Chen, Hege

    2014-09-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-183 in renal cancer cells and the mechanisms miR-183 regulates this process. In this study, level of miR-183 in clinical renal cancer specimens was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. miR-183 was up- and down-regulated in two renal cancer cell lines ACHN and A498, respectively, and cell proliferation, Caspase 3/7 activity, colony formation, in vitro migration and invasion were measured; and then the mechanisms of miR-183 regulating was analyzed. We found that miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues; inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion and stimulated Caspase 3/7 activity; up-regulated miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis and suppressed Caspase 3/7 activity. We also found that miR-183 directly targeted tumor suppressor, specifically the 3'UTR of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Cα, PP2A-Cβ, and PP2A-B56-γ) transcripts, inhibiting their expression and regulated the downstream regulators p21, p27, MMP2/3/7 and TIMP1/2/3/4. These results revealed the oncogenes role of miR-183 in renal cancer cells via direct targeting protein phosphatase 2A.

  18. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces through STAT3 expression of immunosuppressive protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1).

    PubMed

    Marzec, Michal; Zhang, Qian; Goradia, Ami; Raghunath, Puthiyaveettil N; Liu, Xiaobin; Paessler, Michele; Wang, Hong Yi; Wysocka, Maria; Cheng, Mangeng; Ruggeri, Bruce A; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2008-12-30

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation caused by the oncogenic, chimeric nucleophosmin (NPM)/anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) remain only partially understood, with most of the previous studies focusing mainly on the impact of NPM/ALK on cell survival and proliferation. Here we report that the NPM/ALK-carrying T cell lymphoma (ALK+TCL) cells strongly express the immunosuppressive cell-surface protein CD274 (PD-L1, B7-H1), as determined on the mRNA and protein level. The CD274 expression is strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK, as demonstrated by inhibition of the NPM/ALK function in ALK+TCL cells by the small molecule ALK inhibitor CEP-14083 and by documenting CD274 expression in IL-3-depleted BaF3 cells transfected with the wild-type NPM/ALK, but not the kinase-inactive NPM/ALK K210R mutant or empty vector alone. NPM/ALK induces CD274 expression by activating its key signal transmitter, transcription factor STAT3. STAT3 binds to the CD274 gene promoter in vitro and in vivo, as shown in the gel electromobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, and is required for the PD-L1 gene expression, as demonstrated by siRNA-mediated STAT3 depletion. These findings identify an additional cell-transforming property of NPM/ALK and describe a direct link between an oncoprotein and an immunosuppressive cell-surface protein. These results also provide an additional rationale to therapeutically target NPM/ALK and STAT3 in ALK+TCL. Finally, they suggest that future immunotherapeutic protocols for this type of lymphoma may need to include the inhibition of NPM/ALK and STAT3 to achieve optimal clinical efficacy.

  19. microRNA-183 plays as oncogenes by increasing cell proliferation, migration and invasion via targeting protein phosphatase 2A in renal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Qiu, Mingning Liu, Lei Chen, Lieqian Tan, Guobin Liang, Ziji Wang, Kangning Liu, Jianjun Chen, Hege

    2014-09-12

    Highlights: • miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues. • Inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed renal cancer cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis. • miR-183 regulated renal cancer cell growth and metastasis via directly targeting tumor suppressor protein phosphatase 2A. - Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the function of miR-183 in renal cancer cells and the mechanisms miR-183 regulates this process. In this study, level of miR-183 in clinical renal cancer specimens was detected by quantitative real-time PCR. miR-183 was up- and down-regulated in two renal cancer cell lines ACHN and A498, respectively, and cell proliferation, Caspase 3/7 activity, colony formation, in vitro migration and invasion were measured; and then the mechanisms of miR-183 regulating was analyzed. We found that miR-183 was up-regulated in renal cancer tissues; inhibition of endogenous miR-183 suppressed in vitro cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion and stimulated Caspase 3/7 activity; up-regulated miR-183 increased cell growth and metastasis and suppressed Caspase 3/7 activity. We also found that miR-183 directly targeted tumor suppressor, specifically the 3′UTR of three subunits of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A-Cα, PP2A-Cβ, and PP2A-B56-γ) transcripts, inhibiting their expression and regulated the downstream regulators p21, p27, MMP2/3/7 and TIMP1/2/3/4. These results revealed the oncogenes role of miR-183 in renal cancer cells via direct targeting protein phosphatase 2A.

  20. The first intron of human c-fms proto-oncogene contains a processed pseudogene (RPL7P) for ribosomal protein L7

    SciTech Connect

    Sapi, E.; Flick, M.B.; Kacinski, B.M.

    1994-08-01

    During sequence analysis of the first intron of the human c-fms oncogene, we identified an open reading frame encoding the ribosomal protein L7 (RPL7). The presence of this sequence within intron 1 of the c-fms gene was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization and by sequence analysis of two independent cosmid clones (cos2-e and cos1-22) that span the human genomic c-fms locus. The RPL7 sequence was detected in a region of sequence overlapped by the cos2-e and cos1-22 cosmid clones but oriented opposite to the c-fms gene. We demonstrate that the sequence is identical to the full-length RPL7 cDNA sequence, but lacks any recognizable introns, has a 30-bp poly(A) tail, and is bracketed by two perfect direct repeats of 14 bp. We also showed that despite the fact that the 5{prime} flanking region of the RPL7 sequence contains a potential TATA box upstream of an intact open reading frame, this pseudogene (RPL7P) is not actively transcribed. 28 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Carboxyl-Terminal Modulator Protein Positively Acts as an Oncogenic Driver in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma via Regulating Akt phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jae Won; Jung, Seung-Nam; Kim, Ju-Hee; Shim, Geun-Ae; Park, Hee Sung; Liu, Lihua; Kim, Jin Man; Park, Jongsun; Koo, Bon Seok

    2016-01-01

    The exact regulatory mechanisms of carboxyl-terminal modulator protein (CTMP) and its downstream pathways in cancer have been controversial and are not completely understood. Here, we report a new mechanism of regulation of Akt serine/threonine kinase, one of the most important dysregulated signals in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) by the CTMP pathway and its clinical implications. We find that HNSCC tumor tissues and cell lines had relatively high levels of CTMP expression. Clinical data indicate that CTMP expression was significantly associated with positive lymph node metastasis (OR = 3.8, P = 0.033) and correlated with poor prognosis in patients with HNSCC. CTMP was also positively correlated with Akt/GSK-3β phosphorylation, Snail up-regulation and E-cadherin down-regulation, which lead to increased proliferation and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, suggesting that CTMP expression results in enhanced tumorigenic and metastatic properties of HNSCC cells. Moreover, CTMP suppression restores sensitivity to cisplatin chemotherapy. Intriguingly, all the molecular responses to CTMP regulation are identical regardless of p53 status in HNSCC cells. We conclude that CTMP promotes Akt phosphorylation and functions as an oncogenic driver and prognostic marker in HNSCC irrespective of p53. PMID:27328758

  2. Responsive Fluorescent PNA Analogue as a Tool for Detecting G-quadruplex Motifs of Oncogenes and Activity of Toxic Ribosome-Inactivating Proteins.

    PubMed

    Sabale, Pramod M; Srivatsan, Seergazhi G

    2016-09-01

    Fluorescent oligomers that are resistant to enzymatic degradation and report their binding to target oligonucleotides (ONs) by changes in fluorescence properties are highly useful in developing nucleic-acid-based diagnostic tools and therapeutic strategies. Here, we describe the synthesis and photophysical characterization of fluorescent peptide nucleic acid (PNA) building blocks made of microenvironment-sensitive 5-(benzofuran-2-yl)- and 5-(benzothiophen-2-yl)-uracil cores. The emissive monomers, when incorporated into PNA oligomers and hybridized to complementary ONs, are minimally perturbing and are highly sensitive to their neighboring base environment. In particular, benzothiophene-modified PNA reports the hybridization process with significant enhancement in fluorescence intensity, even when placed in the vicinity of guanine residues, which often quench fluorescence. This feature was used in the turn-on detection of G-quadruplex-forming promoter DNA sequences of human proto-oncogenes (c-myc and c-kit). Furthermore, the ability of benzothiophene-modified PNA oligomer to report the presence of an abasic site in RNA enabled us to develop a simple fluorescence hybridization assay to detect and estimate the depurination activity of ribosome-inactivating protein toxins. Our results demonstrate that this approach with responsive PNA probes will provide new opportunities to develop robust tools to study nucleic acids. PMID:27271025

  3. Protein encoded by oncogene 6b from Agrobacterium tumefaciens has a reprogramming potential and histone chaperone-like activity.

    PubMed

    Ishibashi, Nanako; Kitakura, Saeko; Terakura, Shinji; Machida, Chiyoko; Machida, Yasunori

    2014-01-01

    Crown gall tumors are formed mainly by actions of a group of genes in the T-DNA that is transferred from Agrobacterium tumefaciens and integrated into the nuclear DNA of host plants. These genes encode enzymes for biosynthesis of auxin and cytokinin in plant cells. Gene 6b in the T-DNA affects tumor morphology and this gene alone is able to induce small tumors on certain plant species. In addition, unorganized calli are induced from leaf disks of tobacco that are incubated on phytohormone-free media; shooty teratomas, and morphologically abnormal plants, which might be due to enhanced competence of cell division and meristematic states, are regenerated from the calli. Thus, the 6b gene appears to stimulate a reprogramming process in plants. To uncover mechanisms behind this process, various approaches including the yeast-two-hybrid system have been exploited and histone H3 was identified as one of the proteins that interact with 6b. It has been also demonstrated that 6b acts as a histone H3 chaperon in vitro and affects the expression of various genes related to cell division competence and the maintenance of meristematic states. We discuss current views on a role of 6b protein in tumorigenesis and reprogramming in plants. PMID:25389429

  4. Hepatocellular carcinoma-derived exosomes promote motility of immortalized hepatocyte through transfer of oncogenic proteins and RNAs.

    PubMed

    He, Mian; Qin, Hao; Poon, Terence C W; Sze, Siu-Ching; Ding, Xiaofan; Co, Ngai Na; Ngai, Sai-Ming; Chan, Ting-Fung; Wong, Nathalie

    2015-09-01

    Exosomes are increasingly recognized as important mediators of cell-cell communication in cancer progression through the horizontal transfer of RNAs and proteins to neighboring or distant cells. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly malignant cancer, whose metastasis is largely influenced by the tumor microenvironment. The possible role of exosomes in the interactions between HCC tumor cell and its surrounding hepatic milieu are however largely unknown. In this study, we comprehensively characterized the exosomal RNA and proteome contents derived from three HCC cell lines (HKCI-C3, HKCI-8 and MHCC97L) and an immortalized hepatocyte line (MIHA) using Ion Torrent sequencing and mass spectrometry, respectively. RNA deep sequencing and proteomic analysis revealed exosomes derived from metastatic HCC cell lines carried a large number of protumorigenic RNAs and proteins, such as MET protooncogene, S100 family members and the caveolins. Of interest, we found that exosomes from motile HCC cell lines could significantly enhance the migratory and invasive abilities of non-motile MIHA cell. We further demonstrated that uptake of these shuttled molecules could trigger PI3K/AKT and MAPK signaling pathways in MIHA with increased secretion of active MMP-2 and MMP-9. Our study showed for the first time that HCC-derived exosomes could mobilize normal hepatocyte, which may have implication in facilitating the protrusive activity of HCC cells through liver parenchyma during the process of metastasis.

  5. Salicylic Acid Based Small Molecule Inhibitor for the Oncogenic Src Homology-2 Domain Containing Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase-2 (SHP2)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xian; He, Yantao; Liu, Sijiu; Yu, Zhihong; Jiang, Zhong-Xing; Yang, Zhenyun; Dong, Yuanshu; Nabinger, Sarah C.; Wu, Li; Gunawan, Andrea M.; Wang, Lina; Chan, Rebecca J.; Zhang, Zhong-Yin

    2010-08-13

    The Src homology-2 domain containing protein tyrosine phosphatase-2 (SHP2) plays a pivotal role in growth factor and cytokine signaling. Gain-of-function SHP2 mutations are associated with Noonan syndrome, various kinds of leukemias, and solid tumors. Thus, there is considerable interest in SHP2 as a potential target for anticancer and antileukemia therapy. We report a salicylic acid based combinatorial library approach aimed at binding both active site and unique nearby subpockets for enhanced affinity and selectivity. Screening of the library led to the identification of a SHP2 inhibitor II-B08 (compound 9) with highly efficacious cellular activity. Compound 9 blocks growth factor stimulated ERK1/2 activation and hematopoietic progenitor proliferation, providing supporting evidence that chemical inhibition of SHP2 may be therapeutically useful for anticancer and antileukemia treatment. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the structure of SHP2 in complex with 9 reveals molecular determinants that can be exploited for the acquisition of more potent and selective SHP2 inhibitors.

  6. Oncogenic Brain Metazoan Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Spurgeon, Angela N.; Cress, Marshall C.; Gabor, Oroszi; Ding, Qing-Qing; Miller, Douglas C.

    2013-01-01

    Multiple observations suggest that certain parasitic infections can be oncogenic. Among these, neurocysticercosis is associated with increased risk for gliomas and hematologic malignancies. We report the case of a 71-year-old woman with colocalization of a metazoan parasite, possibly cysticercosis, and a WHO grade IV neuroepithelial tumor with exclusively neuronal differentiation by immunohistochemical stains (immunopositive for synaptophysin, neurofilament protein, and Neu-N and not for GFAP, vimentin, or S100). The colocalization and temporal relationship of these two entities suggest a causal relationship. PMID:24151568

  7. TARGETING THE ONCOGENIC MUC1-C PROTEIN INHIBITS MUTANT EGFR-MEDIATED SIGNALING AND SURVIVAL IN NON-SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Kharbanda, Akriti; Rajabi, Hasan; Jin, Caining; Tchaicha, Jeremy; Kikuchi, Eiki; Wong, Kwok-Kin; Kufe, Donald

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) that express the EGF receptor (EGFR) with activating mutations frequently develop resistance to EGFR kinase inhibitors. The mucin 1 (MUC1) heterodimeric protein is aberrantly overexpressed in NSCLC cells and confers a poor prognosis; however, the functional involvement of MUC1 in mutant EGFR signaling is not known. Experimental Design Targeting the oncogenic MUC1 C-terminal subunit (MUC1-C) in NSCLC cells harboring mutant EGFR was studied for effects on signaling, growth, clonogenic survival and tumorigenicity. Results Stable silencing of MUC1-C in H1975/EGFR(L858R/T790M) cells resulted in downregulation of AKT signaling and inhibition of growth, colony formation and tumorigenicity. Similar findings were obtained when MUC1-C was silenced in gefitinib-resistant PC9GR cells expressing EGFR(delE746_A750/T790M). The results further show that expression of a MUC1-C(CQC→AQA) mutant, which blocks MUC1-C homodimerization, suppresses EGFR(T790M), AKT and MEK→ERK activation, colony formation and tumorigenicity. In concert with these results, treatment of H1975 and PC9GR cells with GO-203, a cell-penetrating peptide that blocks MUC1-C homodimerization, resulted in inhibition of EGFR, AKT and MEK→ERK signaling and in loss of survival. Combination studies of GO-203 and afatinib, an irreversible inhibitor of EGFR, further demonstrate that these agents are synergistic in inhibiting growth of NSCLC cells harboring the activating EGFR(T790M) or EGFR(delE746-A750) mutants. Conclusions These findings indicate that targeting MUC1-C inhibits mutant EGFR signaling and survival, and thus represents a potential approach alone and in combination for the treatment of NSCLCs resistant to EGFR kinase inhibitors. PMID:25189483

  8. Oncogenic H-ras reprograms Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cell-derived exosomal proteins following epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

    PubMed

    Tauro, Bow J; Mathias, Rommel A; Greening, David W; Gopal, Shashi K; Ji, Hong; Kapp, Eugene A; Coleman, Bradley M; Hill, Andrew F; Kusebauch, Ulrike; Hallows, Janice L; Shteynberg, David; Moritz, Robert L; Zhu, Hong-Jian; Simpson, Richard J

    2013-08-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a highly conserved morphogenic process defined by the loss of epithelial characteristics and the acquisition of a mesenchymal phenotype. EMT is associated with increased aggressiveness, invasiveness, and metastatic potential in carcinoma cells. To assess the contribution of extracellular vesicles following EMT, we conducted a proteomic analysis of exosomes released from Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells, and MDCK cells transformed with oncogenic H-Ras (21D1 cells). Exosomes are 40-100 nm membranous vesicles originating from the inward budding of late endosomes and multivesicular bodies and are released from cells on fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Exosomes from MDCK cells (MDCK-Exos) and 21D1 cells (21D1-Exos) were purified from cell culture media using density gradient centrifugation (OptiPrep™), and protein content identified by GeLC-MS/MS proteomic profiling. Both MDCK- and 21D1-Exos populations were morphologically similar by cryo-electron microscopy and contained stereotypical exosome marker proteins such as TSG101, Alix, and CD63. In this study we show that the expression levels of typical EMT hallmark proteins seen in whole cells correlate with those observed in MDCK- and 21D1-Exos, i.e. reduction of characteristic inhibitor of angiogenesis, thrombospondin-1, and epithelial markers E-cadherin, and EpCAM, with a concomitant up-regulation of mesenchymal makers such as vimentin. Further, we reveal that 21D1-Exos are enriched with several proteases (e.g. MMP-1, -14, -19, ADAM-10, and ADAMTS1), and integrins (e.g. ITGB1, ITGA3, and ITGA6) that have been recently implicated in regulating the tumor microenvironment to promote metastatic progression. A salient finding of this study was the unique presence of key transcriptional regulators (e.g. the master transcriptional regulator YBX1) and core splicing complex components (e.g. SF3B1, SF3B3, and SFRS1) in mesenchymal 21D1-Exos. Taken

  9. Pesticides and oncogenic modulation.

    PubMed

    Vakonaki, Elena; Androutsopoulos, Vasilis P; Liesivuori, Jyrki; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2013-05-10

    Pesticides constitute a diverse class of chemicals used for the protection of agricultural products. Several lines of evidence demonstrate that organochlorine and organophosphate pesticides can cause malignant transformation of cells in in vitro and in vivo models. In the current minireview a comprehensive summary of recent in vitro findings is presented along with data reported from human population studies, regarding the impact of pesticide exposure on activation or dysregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Substantial mechanistic work suggests that pesticides are capable of inducing mutations in oncogenes and increase their transcriptional expression in vitro, whereas human population studies indicate associations between pesticide exposure levels and mutation occurrence in cancer-related genes. Further work is required to fully explore the exact mechanisms by which pesticide exposure affects the integrity and normal function of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human populations.

  10. The mRNA-binding protein HuR promotes hypoxia-induced chemoresistance through posttranscriptional regulation of the proto-oncogene PIM1 in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Blanco, F F; Jimbo, M; Wulfkuhle, J; Gallagher, I; Deng, J; Enyenihi, L; Meisner-Kober, N; Londin, E; Rigoutsos, I; Sawicki, J A; Risbud, M V; Witkiewicz, A K; McCue, P A; Jiang, W; Rui, H; Yeo, C J; Petricoin, E; Winter, J M; Brody, J R

    2016-05-01

    Previously, it has been shown that pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) tumors exhibit high levels of hypoxia, characterized by low oxygen pressure (pO2) and decreased O2 intracellular perfusion. Chronic hypoxia is strongly associated with resistance to cytotoxic chemotherapy and chemoradiation in an understudied phenomenon known as hypoxia-induced chemoresistance. The hypoxia-inducible, pro-oncogenic, serine-threonine kinase PIM1 (Proviral Integration site for Moloney murine leukemia virus 1) has emerged as a key regulator of hypoxia-induced chemoresistance in PDA and other cancers. Although its role in therapeutic resistance has been described previously, the molecular mechanism behind PIM1 overexpression in PDA is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that cis-acting AU-rich elements (ARE) present within a 38-base pair region of the PIM1 mRNA 3'-untranslated region mediate a regulatory interaction with the mRNA stability factor HuR (Hu antigen R) in the context of tumor hypoxia. Predominantly expressed in the nucleus in PDA cells, HuR translocates to the cytoplasm in response to hypoxic stress and stabilizes the PIM1 mRNA transcript, resulting in PIM1 protein overexpression. A reverse-phase protein array revealed that HuR-mediated regulation of PIM1 protects cells from hypoxic stress through phosphorylation and inactivation of the apoptotic effector BAD and activation of MEK1/2. Importantly, pharmacological inhibition of HuR by MS-444 inhibits HuR homodimerization and its cytoplasmic translocation, abrogates hypoxia-induced PIM1 overexpression and markedly enhances PDA cell sensitivity to oxaliplatin and 5-fluorouracil under physiologic low oxygen conditions. Taken together, these results support the notion that HuR has prosurvival properties in PDA cells by enabling them with growth advantages in stressful tumor microenvironment niches. Accordingly, these studies provide evidence that therapeutic disruption of HuR's regulation of PIM1 may be a key strategy in

  11. Characterization of the Translocation-competent Complex between the Helicobacter pylori Oncogenic Protein CagA and the Accessory Protein CagF*

    PubMed Central

    Bonsor, Daniel A.; Weiss, Evelyn; Iosub-Amir, Anat; Reingewertz, Tali H.; Chen, Tiffany W.; Haas, Rainer; Friedler, Assaf; Fischer, Wolfgang; Sundberg, Eric J.

    2013-01-01

    CagA is a virulence factor that Helicobacter pylori inject into gastric epithelial cells through a type IV secretion system where it can cause gastric adenocarcinoma. Translocation is dependent on the presence of secretion signals found in both the N- and C-terminal domains of CagA and an interaction with the accessory protein CagF. However, the molecular basis of this essential protein-protein interaction is not fully understood. Herein we report, using isothermal titration calorimetry, that CagA forms a 1:1 complex with a monomer of CagF with nm affinity. Peptide arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry both show that CagF binds to all five domains of CagA, each with μm affinity. More specifically, a coiled coil domain and a C-terminal helix within CagF contacts domains II-III and domain IV of CagA, respectively. In vivo complementation assays of H. pylori with a double mutant, L36A/I39A, in the coiled coil region of CagF showed a severe weakening of the CagA-CagF interaction to such an extent that it was nearly undetectable. However, it had no apparent effect on CagA translocation. Deletion of the C-terminal helix of CagF also weakened the interaction with CagA but likewise had no effect on translocation. These results indicate that the CagA-CagF interface is distributed broadly across the molecular surfaces of these two proteins to provide maximal protection of the highly labile effector protein CagA. PMID:24072713

  12. Characterization of the translocation-competent complex between the Helicobacter pylori oncogenic protein CagA and the accessory protein CagF.

    PubMed

    Bonsor, Daniel A; Weiss, Evelyn; Iosub-Amir, Anat; Reingewertz, Tali H; Chen, Tiffany W; Haas, Rainer; Friedler, Assaf; Fischer, Wolfgang; Sundberg, Eric J

    2013-11-15

    CagA is a virulence factor that Helicobacter pylori inject into gastric epithelial cells through a type IV secretion system where it can cause gastric adenocarcinoma. Translocation is dependent on the presence of secretion signals found in both the N- and C-terminal domains of CagA and an interaction with the accessory protein CagF. However, the molecular basis of this essential protein-protein interaction is not fully understood. Herein we report, using isothermal titration calorimetry, that CagA forms a 1:1 complex with a monomer of CagF with nM affinity. Peptide arrays and isothermal titration calorimetry both show that CagF binds to all five domains of CagA, each with μM affinity. More specifically, a coiled coil domain and a C-terminal helix within CagF contacts domains II-III and domain IV of CagA, respectively. In vivo complementation assays of H. pylori with a double mutant, L36A/I39A, in the coiled coil region of CagF showed a severe weakening of the CagA-CagF interaction to such an extent that it was nearly undetectable. However, it had no apparent effect on CagA translocation. Deletion of the C-terminal helix of CagF also weakened the interaction with CagA but likewise had no effect on translocation. These results indicate that the CagA-CagF interface is distributed broadly across the molecular surfaces of these two proteins to provide maximal protection of the highly labile effector protein CagA.

  13. G protein-coupled receptors engage the mammalian Hippo pathway through F-actin: F-Actin, assembled in response to Galpha12/13 induced RhoA-GTP, promotes dephosphorylation and activation of the YAP oncogene.

    PubMed

    Regué, Laura; Mou, Fan; Avruch, Joseph

    2013-05-01

    The Hippo pathway, a cascade of protein kinases that inhibits the oncogenic transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ, was discovered in Drosophila as a major determinant of organ size in development. Known modes of regulation involve surface proteins that mediate cell-cell contact or determine epithelial cell polarity which, in a tissue-specific manner, use intracellular complexes containing FERM domain and actin-binding proteins to modulate the kinase activities or directly sequester YAP. Unexpectedly, recent work demonstrates that GPCRs, especially those signaling through Galpha12/13 such as the protease activated receptor PAR1, cause potent YAP dephosphorylation and activation. This response requires active RhoA GTPase and increased assembly of filamentous (F-)actin. Morever, cell architectures that promote F-actin assembly per se also activate YAP by kinase-dependent and independent mechanisms. These findings unveil the ability of GPCRs to activate the YAP oncogene through a newly recognized signaling function of the actin cytoskeleton, likely to be especially important for normal and cancerous stem cells.

  14. Combined inhibition of heat shock proteins 90 and 70 leads to simultaneous degradation of the oncogenic signaling proteins involved in muscle invasive bladder cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cavanaugh, Alice; Juengst, Brendon; Sheridan, Kathleen; Danella, John F.; Williams, Heinric

    2015-01-01

    Heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) plays a critical role in the survival of cancer cells including muscle invasive bladder cancer (MIBC). The addiction of tumor cells to HSP90 has promoted the development of numerous HSP90 inhibitors and their use in clinical trials. This study evaluated the role of inhibiting HSP90 using STA9090 (STA) alone or in combination with the HSP70 inhibitor VER155008 (VER) in several human MIBC cell lines. While both STA and VER inhibited MIBC cell growth and migration and promoted apoptosis, combination therapy was more effective. Therefore, the signaling pathways involved in MIBC were systematically interrogated following STA and/or VER treatments. STA and not VER reduced the expression of proteins in the p53/Rb, PI3K and SWI/SWF pathways. Interestingly, STA was not as effective as VER or combination therapy in degrading proteins involved in the histone modification pathway such as KDM6A (demethylase) and EP300 (acetyltransferase) as predicted by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data. This data suggests that dual HSP90 and HSP70 inhibition can simultaneously disrupt the key signaling pathways in MIBC. PMID:26556859

  15. The oncogenic FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion protein displays skewed signaling properties compared to its wild-type PDGFRα counterpart.

    PubMed

    Haan, Serge; Bahlawane, Christelle; Wang, Jiali; Nazarov, Petr V; Muller, Arnaud; Eulenfeld, René; Haan, Claude; Rolvering, Catherine; Vallar, Laurent; Satagopam, Venkata P; Sauter, Thomas; Wiesinger, Monique Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic kinases is frequently observed in human cancers, but the underlying mechanism and resulting effects on global signaling are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the oncogenic FIP1L1-PDGFRα kinase exhibits a significantly different signaling pattern compared to its PDGFRα wild type counterpart. Interestingly, the activation of primarily membrane-based signal transduction processes (such as PI3-kinase- and MAP-kinase- pathways) is remarkably shifted toward a prominent activation of STAT factors. This diverging signaling pattern compared to classical PDGF-receptor signaling is partially coupled to the aberrant cytoplasmic localization of the oncogene, since membrane targeting of FIP1L1-PDGFRα restores activation of MAPK- and PI3K-pathways. In stark contrast to the classical cytokine-induced STAT activation process, STAT activation by FIP1L1-PDGFRα does neither require Janus kinase activity nor Src kinase activity. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism of STAT5 activation via FIP1L1-PDGFRα in more detail and found that STAT5 activation does not involve an SH2-domain-mediated binding mechanism. We thus demonstrate that STAT5 activation occurs via a non-canonical activation mechanism in which STAT5 may be subject to a direct phosphorylation by FIP1L1-PDGFRα. PMID:26413425

  16. The oncogenic FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion protein displays skewed signaling properties compared to its wild-type PDGFRα counterpart

    PubMed Central

    Haan, Serge; Bahlawane, Christelle; Wang, Jiali; Nazarov, Petr V; Muller, Arnaud; Eulenfeld, René; Haan, Claude; Rolvering, Catherine; Vallar, Laurent; Satagopam, Venkata P; Sauter, Thomas; Wiesinger, Monique Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant activation of oncogenic kinases is frequently observed in human cancers, but the underlying mechanism and resulting effects on global signaling are incompletely understood. Here, we demonstrate that the oncogenic FIP1L1-PDGFRα kinase exhibits a significantly different signaling pattern compared to its PDGFRα wild type counterpart. Interestingly, the activation of primarily membrane-based signal transduction processes (such as PI3-kinase- and MAP-kinase- pathways) is remarkably shifted toward a prominent activation of STAT factors. This diverging signaling pattern compared to classical PDGF-receptor signaling is partially coupled to the aberrant cytoplasmic localization of the oncogene, since membrane targeting of FIP1L1-PDGFRα restores activation of MAPK- and PI3K-pathways. In stark contrast to the classical cytokine-induced STAT activation process, STAT activation by FIP1L1-PDGFRα does neither require Janus kinase activity nor Src kinase activity. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism of STAT5 activation via FIP1L1-PDGFRα in more detail and found that STAT5 activation does not involve an SH2-domain-mediated binding mechanism. We thus demonstrate that STAT5 activation occurs via a non-canonical activation mechanism in which STAT5 may be subject to a direct phosphorylation by FIP1L1-PDGFRα. PMID:26413425

  17. Acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein is required for cooperation with the HTLV-1 p30{sup II} accessory protein and the induction of oncogenic cellular transformation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC

    SciTech Connect

    Romeo, Megan M.; Ko, Bookyung; Kim, Janice; Brady, Rebecca; Heatley, Hayley C.; He, Jeffrey; Harrod, Carolyn K.; Barnett, Braden; Ratner, Lee; Lairmore, Michael D.; Martinez, Ernest; Lüscher, Bernhard; Robson, Craig N.; Henriksson, Marie; Harrod, Robert

    2015-02-15

    The human T-cell leukemia retrovirus type-1 (HTLV-1) p30{sup II} protein is a multifunctional latency-maintenance factor that negatively regulates viral gene expression and deregulates host signaling pathways involved in aberrant T-cell growth and proliferation. We have previously demonstrated that p30{sup II} interacts with the c-MYC oncoprotein and enhances c-MYC-dependent transcriptional and oncogenic functions. However, the molecular and biochemical events that mediate the cooperation between p30{sup II} and c-MYC remain to be completely understood. Herein we demonstrate that p30{sup II} induces lysine-acetylation of the c-MYC oncoprotein. Acetylation-defective c-MYC Lys→Arg substitution mutants are impaired for oncogenic transformation with p30{sup II} in c-myc{sup −/−} HO15.19 fibroblasts. Using dual-chromatin-immunoprecipitations (dual-ChIPs), we further demonstrate that p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC-containing nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed HuT-102 T-lymphocytes. Moreover, p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in proliferating cells expressing c-MYC under conditions of genotoxic stress. These findings suggest that c-MYC-acetylation is required for the cooperation between p30{sup II}/c-MYC which could promote proviral replication and contribute to HTLV-1-induced carcinogenesis. - Highlights: • Acetylation of c-MYC is required for oncogenic transformation by HTLV-1 p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • Acetylation-defective c-MYC mutants are impaired for foci-formation by p30{sup II}/c-MYC. • The HTLV-1 p30{sup II} protein induces lysine-acetylation of c-MYC. • p30{sup II} is present in c-MYC nucleoprotein complexes in HTLV-1-transformed T-cells. • HTLV-1 p30{sup II} inhibits apoptosis in c-MYC-expressing proliferating cells.

  18. [Atherosclerosis and oncogenes].

    PubMed

    Onraed-Dupriez, B

    1992-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, a leading cause of mortality in the developed world, has mainly been studied with respect to the pathogenic role of lipids. However, over the last few years, a new avenue of research has stemmed from Benditt's monoclonal theory which linkens the atheroma plaque to a benign tumor developed from a single smooth muscle cell. Investigations into mechanisms capable of initiating this monoclonal cell growth have included studies of protooncogene activation. Barrett and Benditt have reported increased expression of the sis oncogene in the atheroma plaque; the product of this oncogene is very similar to the beta chain of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) which may play a role in the development of the atheroma plaque. These recent studies focusing on the earliest step of formation of the atheroma plaque, ie, cell growth, complement the pathophysiologic theories studied until now.

  19. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  20. Human papillomavirus oncogenic E6 protein regulates human β-defensin 3 (hBD3) expression via the tumor suppressor protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Hong; Wang, Liming; Jin, Jessica; Ghosh, Santosh K.; Kawsar, Hameem I.; Zender, Chad; Androphy, Elliot J.; Weinberg, Aaron; McCormick, Thomas S.; Jin, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Human β-defensin-3 (hBD3) is an epithelial cell-derived innate immune regulatory molecule overexpressed in oral dysplastic lesions and fosters a tumor-promoting microenvironment. Expression of hBD3 is induced by the epidermal growth factor receptor signaling pathway. Here we describe a novel pathway through which the high-risk human papillomavirus type-16 (HPV-16) oncoprotein E6 induces hBD3 expression in mucosal keratinocytes. Ablation of E6 by siRNA induces the tumor suppressor p53 and diminishes hBD3 in HPV-16 positive CaSki cervical cancer cells and UM-SCC-104 head and neck cancer cells. Malignant cells in HPV-16-associated oropharyngeal cancer overexpress hBD3. HPV-16 E6 induces hBD3 mRNA expression, peptide production and gene promoter activity in mucosal keratinocytes. Reduction of cellular levels of p53 stimulates hBD3 expression, while activation of p53 by doxorubicin inhibits its expression in primary oral keratinocytes and CaSki cells, suggesting that p53 represses hBD3 expression. A p53 binding site in the hBD3 gene promoter has been identified by using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). In addition, the p63 protein isoform ΔNp63α, but not TAp63, stimulated transactivation of the hBD3 gene and was co-expressed with hBD3 in head and neck cancer specimens. Therefore, high-risk HPV E6 oncoproteins may stimulate hBD3 expression in tumor cells to facilitate tumorigenesis of HPV-associated head and neck cancer. PMID:27034006

  1. Myc oncogenes: the enigmatic family.

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, K M; Birnie, G D

    1996-01-01

    The myc family of proto-oncogenes is believed to be involved in the establishment of many types of human malignancy. The members of this family have been shown to function as transcription factors, and through a designated target sequence bring about continued cell-cycle progression, cellular immortalization and blockages to differentiation in many lineages. However, while much of the recent work focusing on the c-myc oncogene has provided some very important advances, it has also brought to light a large amount of conflicting data as to the mechanism of action of the gene product. In this regard, it has now been shown that c-myc is effective in transcriptional repression as well as transcriptional activation and, perhaps more paradoxically, that it has a role in programmed cell death (apoptosis) as well as in processes of cell-cycle progression. In addition, particular interest has surrounded the distinct roles of the two alternative translation products of the c-myc gene, c-Myc 1 and c-Myc 2. The intriguing observation that the ratio of c-Myc 1 to c-Myc 2 increases markedly upon cellular quiescence led to the discovery that the enforced expression of the two proteins individually showed that c-Myc 2 stimulates cell growth, whereas c-Myc 1 appears to be growth suppressing. Clearly, the disparities in the activities of c-Myc, together with the consistent occurrence of mutations of c-myc in human malignancies, means that, although reaching an understanding of the functions of the myc gene family might not be simple, it remains well worthy of pursuit. PMID:8615760

  2. Eukaryotic translation initiator protein 1A isoform, CCS-3, enhances the transcriptional repression of p21CIP1 by proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yuri; Yu, Mi-young; Park, Jungeun; Lee, Choong-Eun; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    FBI-1, a member of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcription factors, plays a role in differentiation, oncogenesis, and adipogenesis. eEF1A is a eukaryotic translation elongation factor involved in several cellular processes including embryogenesis, oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization. CCS-3, a potential cervical cancer suppressor, is an isoform of eEF1A. We found that eEF1A forms a complex with FBI-1 by co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF Mass analysis of the immunoprecipitate. GST fusion protein pull-downs showed that FBI-1 directly interacts with eEF1A and CCS-3 via the zinc finger and POZ-domain of FBI-1. FBI-1 co-localizes with either eEF1A or CCS-3 at the nuclear periplasm. CCS-3 enhances transcriptional repression of the p21CIP1 gene (hereafter referred to as p21) by FBI-1. The POZ-domain of FBI-1 interacts with the co-repressors, SMRT and BCoR. We found that CCS-3 also interacts with the co-repressors independently. The molecular interaction between the co-repressors and CCS-3 at the POZ-domain of FBI-1 appears to enhance FBI-1 mediated transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that CCS-3 may be important in cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and oncogenesis by interacting with the proto-oncogene FBI-1 and transcriptional co-repressors. PMID:19471103

  3. Eukaryotic translation initiator protein 1A isoform, CCS-3, enhances the transcriptional repression of p21CIP1 by proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Kim, Youngsoo; Kim, Yuri; Yu, Mi-young; Park, Jungeun; Lee, Choong-Eun; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Koh, Dong-In; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-01-01

    FBI-1, a member of the POK (POZ and Kruppel) family of transcription factors, plays a role in differentiation, oncogenesis, and adipogenesis. eEF1A is a eukaryotic translation elongation factor involved in several cellular processes including embryogenesis, oncogenic transformation, cell proliferation, and cytoskeletal organization. CCS-3, a potential cervical cancer suppressor, is an isoform of eEF1A. We found that eEF1A forms a complex with FBI-1 by co-immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, and MALDI-TOF Mass analysis of the immunoprecipitate. GST fusion protein pull-downs showed that FBI-1 directly interacts with eEF1A and CCS-3 via the zinc finger and POZ-domain of FBI-1. FBI-1 co-localizes with either eEF1A or CCS-3 at the nuclear periplasm. CCS-3 enhances transcriptional repression of the p21CIP1 gene (hereafter referred to as p21) by FBI-1. The POZ-domain of FBI-1 interacts with the co-repressors, SMRT and BCoR. We found that CCS-3 also interacts with the co-repressors independently. The molecular interaction between the co-repressors and CCS-3 at the POZ-domain of FBI-1 appears to enhance FBI-1 mediated transcriptional repression. Our data suggest that CCS-3 may be important in cell differentiation, tumorigenesis, and oncogenesis by interacting with the proto-oncogene FBI-1 and transcriptional co-repressors.

  4. Oncogenes in melanoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. BRAF, NRAS, and KIT are three well-known oncogenes involved in melanoma pathogenesis. Targeting of mutated BRAF kinase has recently been shown to significantly improve overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients, underscoring the particular role of this oncogene in melanoma biology. However, recurrences regularly occur within several months, which supposedly involve further oncogenes. Moreover, oncogenic driver mutations have not been described for up to 30% of all melanomas. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the mutational landscape of melanoma, more recent studies used high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. A number of new oncogene candidates such as MAPK1/2, ERBB4, GRIN2A, GRM3, RAC1, and PREX2 were identified. Their particular role in melanoma biology is currently under investigation. Evidence for the functional relevance of some of these new oncogene candidates has been provided in in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, these findings await further validation in clinical studies. This review provides an overview on well-known melanoma oncogenes and new oncogene candidates, based on recent high-throughput sequencing studies. The list of genes discussed herein is of course not complete but highlights some of the most significant of recent findings in this area. The new candidates may support more individualized treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma patients in the future. PMID:24468268

  5. A Network-Based Model of Oncogenic Collaboration for Prediction of Drug Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Laderas, Ted G.; Heiser, Laura M.; Sönmez, Kemal

    2015-01-01

    Tumorigenesis is a multi-step process, involving the acquisition of multiple oncogenic mutations that transform cells, resulting in systemic dysregulation that enables proliferation, invasion, and other cancer hallmarks. The goal of precision medicine is to identify therapeutically-actionable mutations from large-scale omic datasets. However, the multiplicity of oncogenes required for transformation, known as oncogenic collaboration, makes assigning effective treatments difficult. Motivated by this observation, we propose a new type of oncogenic collaboration where mutations in genes that interact with an oncogene may contribute to the oncogene’s deleterious potential, a new genomic feature that we term “surrogate oncogenes.” Surrogate oncogenes are representatives of these mutated subnetworks that interact with oncogenes. By mapping mutations to a protein–protein interaction network, we determine the significance of the observed distribution using permutation-based methods. For a panel of 38 breast cancer cell lines, we identified a significant number of surrogate oncogenes in known oncogenes such as BRCA1 and ESR1, lending credence to this approach. In addition, using Random Forest Classifiers, we show that these significant surrogate oncogenes predict drug sensitivity for 74 drugs in the breast cancer cell lines with a mean error rate of 30.9%. Additionally, we show that surrogate oncogenes are predictive of survival in patients. The surrogate oncogene framework incorporates unique or rare mutations from a single sample, and therefore has the potential to integrate patient-unique mutations into drug sensitivity predictions, suggesting a new direction in precision medicine and drug development. Additionally, we show the prevalence of significant surrogate oncogenes in multiple cancers from The Cancer Genome Atlas, suggesting that surrogate oncogenes may be a useful genomic feature for guiding pancancer analyses and assigning therapies across many tissue

  6. Principles of cancer therapy: oncogene and non-oncogene addiction.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ji; Solimini, Nicole L; Elledge, Stephen J

    2009-03-01

    Cancer is a complex collection of distinct genetic diseases united by common hallmarks. Here, we expand upon the classic hallmarks to include the stress phenotypes of tumorigenesis. We describe a conceptual framework of how oncogene and non-oncogene addictions contribute to these hallmarks and how they can be exploited through stress sensitization and stress overload to selectively kill cancer cells. In particular, we present evidence for a large class of non-oncogenes that are essential for cancer cell survival and present attractive drug targets. Finally, we discuss the path ahead to therapeutic discovery and provide theoretical considerations for combining orthogonal cancer therapies. PMID:19269363

  7. Oncogenes: The Passport for Viral Oncolysis Through PKR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Janaina

    2016-01-01

    The transforming properties of oncogenes are derived from gain-of-function mutations, shifting cell signaling from highly regulated homeostatic to an uncontrolled oncogenic state, with the contribution of the inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes P53 and RB, leading to tumor resistance to conventional and target-directed therapy. On the other hand, this scenario fulfills two requirements for oncolytic virus infection in tumor cells: inactivation of tumor suppressors and presence of oncoproteins, also the requirements to engage malignancy. Several of these oncogenes have a negative impact on the main interferon antiviral defense, the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which helps viruses to spontaneously target tumor cells instead of normal cells. This review is focused on the negative impact of overexpression of oncogenes on conventional and targeted therapy and their positive impact on viral oncolysis due to their ability to inhibit PKR-induced translation blockage, allowing virion release and cell death. PMID:27486347

  8. Oncogenes: The Passport for Viral Oncolysis Through PKR Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Janaina

    2016-01-01

    The transforming properties of oncogenes are derived from gain-of-function mutations, shifting cell signaling from highly regulated homeostatic to an uncontrolled oncogenic state, with the contribution of the inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes P53 and RB, leading to tumor resistance to conventional and target-directed therapy. On the other hand, this scenario fulfills two requirements for oncolytic virus infection in tumor cells: inactivation of tumor suppressors and presence of oncoproteins, also the requirements to engage malignancy. Several of these oncogenes have a negative impact on the main interferon antiviral defense, the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which helps viruses to spontaneously target tumor cells instead of normal cells. This review is focused on the negative impact of overexpression of oncogenes on conventional and targeted therapy and their positive impact on viral oncolysis due to their ability to inhibit PKR-induced translation blockage, allowing virion release and cell death. PMID:27486347

  9. Cooperative antiproliferative effect of coordinated ectopic expression of DLC1 tumor suppressor protein and silencing of MYC oncogene expression in liver cancer cells: Therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xuyu; Zhou, Xiaoling; Tone, Paul; Durkin, Marian E.; Popescu, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common types of cancer and has a very poor prognosis; thus, the development of effective therapies for the treatment of advanced HCC is of high clinical priority. In the present study, the anti-oncogenic effect of combined knockdown of c-Myc expression and ectopic restoration of deleted in liver cancer 1 (DLC1) expression was investigated in human liver cancer cells. Expression of c-Myc in human HCC cells was knocked down by stable transfection with a Myc-specific short hairpin (sh) RNA vector. DLC1 expression in Huh7 cells was restored by adenovirus transduction, and the effects of DLC1 expression and c-Myc knockdown on Ras homolog gene family, member A (RhoA) levels, cell proliferation, soft agar colony formation and cell invasion were measured. Downregulation of c-Myc or re-expression of DLC1 led to a marked reduction in RhoA levels, which was associated with decreases in cell proliferation, soft agar colony formation and invasiveness; this inhibitory effect was augmented with a combination of DLC1 transduction and c-Myc suppression. To determine whether liver cell-specific delivery of DLC1 was able to enhance the inhibitory effect of c-Myc knockdown on tumor growth in vivo, DLC1 vector DNA complexed with galactosylated polyethylene glycol-linear polyethyleneimine was administered by tail vein injection to mice bearing subcutaneous xenografts of Huh7 cells transfected with shMyc or control shRNA. A cooperative inhibitory effect of DLC1 expression and c-Myc knockdown on the growth of Huh7-derived tumors was observed, suggesting that targeted liver cell delivery of DLC1 and c-Myc shRNA may serve as a possible gene therapy modality for the treatment of human HCC. PMID:27446476

  10. Avian sarcoma virus 17 carries the jun oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Maki, Y; Bos, T J; Davis, C; Starbuck, M; Vogt, P K

    1987-01-01

    Biologically active molecular clones of avian sarcoma virus 17 (ASV 17) contain a replication-defective proviral genome of 3.5 kilobases (kb). The genome retains partial gag and env sequences, which flank a cell-derived putative oncogene of 0.93 kb, termed jun. The jun gene lacks preserved coding domains of tyrosine-specific protein kinases. It also shows no significant nucleic acid homology with other known oncogenes. The probable transformation-specific protein in ASV 17-transformed cells is a 55-kDa gag-jun fusion product. Images PMID:3033666

  11. Nuclear localization and interaction of RolB with plant 14-3-3 proteins correlates with induction of adventitious roots by the oncogene rolB.

    PubMed

    Moriuchi, Hiroshi; Okamoto, Chiho; Nishihama, Ryuichi; Yamashita, Ichiro; Machida, Yasunori; Tanaka, Nobukazu

    2004-04-01

    The rooting-locus gene B (rolB) on the T-DNA of the root-inducing (Ri) plasmid in Agrobacterium rhizogenes is responsible for the induction of transformed adventitious roots, although the root induction mechanism is unknown. We report here that the RolB protein of pRi1724 (1724RolB) is associated with Nicotianatabacum14-3-3-like protein omegaII (Nt14-3-3 omegaII) in tobacco bright yellow (BY)-2 cells. Nt14-3-3 omegaII directly interacts with 1724RolB protein. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fused 1724RolB is localized to the nucleus. GFP-fused mutant 1724RolB proteins having a deletion or amino acid substitution are unable to interact with Nt14-3-3 omegaII and also show impaired nuclear localization. Moreover, these 1724RolB mutants show decreased capacity for adventitious root induction. These results suggest that adventitious root induction by 1724RolB protein correlates with its interaction with Nt14-3-3 omegaII and the nuclear localization of 1724RolB protein. PMID:15078329

  12. Hyaluronic acid-fabricated nanogold delivery of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 siRNAs inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced oncogenic properties of lung cancer A549 cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chung-Ming; Kao, Wei-Chien; Yeh, Chun-An; Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsu; Sun, Wei-Shen; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2015-03-01

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a component of cooking oil fumes (COF), promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and survival via the induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (IAP-2) proteins. Thus knockdown of IAP-2 would be a promising way to battle against lung cancer caused by COF. Functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is an effective delivery system for bio-active materials. Here, biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA) was fabricated into nanoparticles to increase the target specificity by binding to CD44-over-expressed cancer cells. IAP-2-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were then incorporated into AuNP-HA. Conjugation of IAP-2 siRNA into AuNPs-HA was verified by the UV-vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Further studies showed that AuNP-HA/FITC were effectively taken up by A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis. Incubation of BaP-challenged cells with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs silenced the expression of IAP-2, decreased cell proliferation and triggered pronounced cell apoptosis by the decrease in Bcl-2 protein and the increase in Bax protein as well as the active form of caspases-3. The BaP-elicited cell migration and enzymatic activity of the secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 were also substantially suppressed by treatment with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs. These results indicated that IAP-2 siRNAs can be efficiently delivered into A549 cells by functionalized AuNP-HA to repress the IAP-2 expression and BaP-induced oncogenic events, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of IAP-2 siRNA or other siRNA-conjugated AuNP-HA composites to COF-induced lung cancer and other gene-caused diseases in the future.

  13. Hyaluronic acid-fabricated nanogold delivery of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 siRNAs inhibits benzo[a]pyrene-induced oncogenic properties of lung cancer A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Ming; Kao, Wei-Chien; Yeh, Chun-An; Chen, Hui-Jye; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Hsieh, Hsien-Hsu; Sun, Wei-Shen; Chang, Chih-Hsuan; Hung, Huey-Shan

    2015-03-13

    Benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), a component of cooking oil fumes (COF), promotes lung cancer cell proliferation and survival via the induction of inhibitor of apoptosis protein-2 (IAP-2) proteins. Thus knockdown of IAP-2 would be a promising way to battle against lung cancer caused by COF. Functionalized gold nanoparticle (AuNP) is an effective delivery system for bio-active materials. Here, biocompatible hyaluronic acid (HA) was fabricated into nanoparticles to increase the target specificity by binding to CD44-over-expressed cancer cells. IAP-2-specific small-interfering RNA (siRNAs) or fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) were then incorporated into AuNP-HA. Conjugation of IAP-2 siRNA into AuNPs-HA was verified by the UV-vis spectrometer and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer. Further studies showed that AuNP-HA/FITC were effectively taken up by A549 cells through CD44-mediated endocytosis. Incubation of BaP-challenged cells with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs silenced the expression of IAP-2, decreased cell proliferation and triggered pronounced cell apoptosis by the decrease in Bcl-2 protein and the increase in Bax protein as well as the active form of caspases-3. The BaP-elicited cell migration and enzymatic activity of the secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 were also substantially suppressed by treatment with AuNP-HA-IAP-2 siRNAs. These results indicated that IAP-2 siRNAs can be efficiently delivered into A549 cells by functionalized AuNP-HA to repress the IAP-2 expression and BaP-induced oncogenic events, suggesting the potential therapeutic application of IAP-2 siRNA or other siRNA-conjugated AuNP-HA composites to COF-induced lung cancer and other gene-caused diseases in the future.

  14. Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα), an oncogenic transcriptional repressor of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) and tumor protein p53 (TP53) genes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Licht, Jonathan D; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-07-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) is an oncogene transcriptional repressor that is generated by a chromosomal translocation between the PLZF and RARα genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL-type) patients. The molecular interaction between PLZF-RARα and the histone deacetylase corepressor was proposed to be important in leukemogenesis. We found that PLZF-RARα can repress transcription of the p21WAF/CDKN1A gene, which encodes the negative cell cycle regulator p21 by binding to its proximal promoter Sp1-binding GC-boxes 3, 4, 5/6, a retinoic acid response element (RARE), and distal p53-responsive elements (p53REs). PLZF-RARα also acts as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53, RARα, and Sp1. PLZF-RARα interacts with co-repressors such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating histones Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 at the CDKN1A promoter. PLZF-RARα also interacts with the MBD3-NuRD complex, leading to epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A through DNA methylation. Furthermore, PLZF-RARα represses TP53 and increases p53 protein degradation by ubiquitination, further repressing p21 expression. Resultantly, PLZF-RARα promotes cell proliferation and significantly increases the number of cells in S-phase.

  15. Promyelocytic Leukemia Zinc Finger-Retinoic Acid Receptor α (PLZF-RARα), an Oncogenic Transcriptional Repressor of Cyclin-dependent Kinase Inhibitor 1A (p21WAF/CDKN1A) and Tumor Protein p53 (TP53) Genes*

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Won-Il; Yoon, Jae-Hyeon; Kim, Min-Young; Koh, Dong-In; Licht, Jonathan D.; Kim, Kunhong; Hur, Man-Wook

    2014-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) is an oncogene transcriptional repressor that is generated by a chromosomal translocation between the PLZF and RARα genes in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL-type) patients. The molecular interaction between PLZF-RARα and the histone deacetylase corepressor was proposed to be important in leukemogenesis. We found that PLZF-RARα can repress transcription of the p21WAF/CDKN1A gene, which encodes the negative cell cycle regulator p21 by binding to its proximal promoter Sp1-binding GC-boxes 3, 4, 5/6, a retinoic acid response element (RARE), and distal p53-responsive elements (p53REs). PLZF-RARα also acts as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53, RARα, and Sp1. PLZF-RARα interacts with co-repressors such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating histones Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 at the CDKN1A promoter. PLZF-RARα also interacts with the MBD3-NuRD complex, leading to epigenetic silencing of CDKN1A through DNA methylation. Furthermore, PLZF-RARα represses TP53 and increases p53 protein degradation by ubiquitination, further repressing p21 expression. Resultantly, PLZF-RARα promotes cell proliferation and significantly increases the number of cells in S-phase. PMID:24821728

  16. In Silico Docking to Explicate Interface between Plant-Originated Inhibitors and E6 Oncogenic Protein of Highly Threatening Human Papillomavirus 18

    PubMed Central

    Jena, Lingaraja; Sahoo, Maheswata; Kakde, Mrunmayi; Daf, Sangeeta; Varma, Ashok K.

    2015-01-01

    The leading cause of cancer mortality globally amongst the women is due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. There is need to explore anti-cancerous drugs against this life-threatening infection. Traditionally, different natural compounds such as withaferin A, artemisinin, ursolic acid, ferulic acid, (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate, berberin, resveratrol, jaceosidin, curcumin, gingerol, indol-3-carbinol, and silymarin have been used as hopeful source of cancer treatment. These natural inhibitors have been shown to block HPV infection by different researchers. In the present study, we explored these natural compounds against E6 oncoprotein of high risk HPV18, which is known to inactivate tumor suppressor p53 protein. E6, a high throughput protein model of HPV18, was predicted to anticipate the interaction mechanism of E6 oncoprotein with these natural inhibitors using structure-based drug designing approach. Docking analysis showed the interaction of these natural inhibitors with p53 binding site of E6 protein residues 108-117 (CQKPLNPAEK) and help reinstatement of normal p53 functioning. Further, docking analysis besides helping in silico validations of natural compounds also helped elucidating the molecular mechanism of inhibition of HPV oncoproteins. PMID:26175664

  17. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis.

  18. Inhibition of ras oncogene: a novel approach to antineoplastic therapy.

    PubMed

    Scharovsky, O G; Rozados, V R; Gervasoni, S I; Matar, P

    2000-01-01

    The most frequently detected oncogene alterations, both in animal and human cancers, are the mutations in the ras oncogene family. These oncogenes are mutated or overexpressed in many human tumors, with a high incidence in tumors of the pancreas, thyroid, colon, lung and certain types of leukemia. Ras is a small guanine nucleotide binding protein that transduces biological information from the cell surface to cytoplasmic components within cells. The signal is transduced to the cell nucleus through second messengers, and it ultimately induces cell division. Oncogenic forms of p21(ras) lead to unregulated, sustained signaling through downstream effectors. The ras family of oncogenes is involved in the development of both primary tumors and metastases making it a good therapeutic target. Several therapeutic approaches to cancer have been developed pointing to reducing the altered gene product or to eliminating its biological function: (1) gene therapy with ribozymes, which are able to break down specific RNA sequences, or with antisense oligonucleotides, (2) immunotherapy through passive or active immunization protocols, and (3) inhibition of p21(ras) farnesylation either by inhibition of farnesyl transferase or synthesis inhibition of farnesyl moieties. PMID:10895051

  19. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis. PMID:26038756

  20. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses

    PubMed Central

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein–Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis. PMID:26038756

  1. Developmental-stage-dependent transcriptional response to leukaemic oncogene expression

    PubMed Central

    Regha, Kakkad; Assi, Salam A.; Tsoulaki, Olga; Gilmour, Jane; Lacaud, Georges; Bonifer, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterized by a block in myeloid differentiation the stage of which is dependent on the nature of the transforming oncogene and the developmental stage of the oncogenic hit. This is also true for the t(8;21) translocation that gives rise to the RUNX1-ETO fusion protein and initiates the most common form of human AML. Here we study the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells expressing an inducible RUNX1-ETO gene into blood cells as a model, combined with genome-wide analyses of transcription factor binding and gene expression. RUNX1-ETO interferes with both the activating and repressive function of its normal counterpart, RUNX1, at early and late stages of blood cell development. However, the response of the transcriptional network to RUNX1-ETO expression is developmental stage specific, highlighting the molecular mechanisms determining specific target cell expansion after an oncogenic hit. PMID:26018585

  2. Oncogenic extracellular vesicles in brain tumor progression.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Garnier, Delphine; Lee, Tae H; Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2012-01-01

    The brain is a frequent site of neoplastic growth, including both primary and metastatic tumors. The clinical intractability of many brain tumors and their distinct biology are implicitly linked to the unique microenvironment of the central nervous system (CNS) and cellular interactions within. Among the most intriguing forms of cellular interactions is that mediated by membrane-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Their biogenesis (vesiculation) and uptake by recipient cells serves as a unique mechanism of intercellular trafficking of complex biological messages including the exchange of molecules that cannot be released through classical secretory pathways, or that are prone to extracellular degradation. Tumor cells produce EVs containing molecular effectors of several cancer-related processes such as growth, invasion, drug resistance, angiogenesis, and coagulopathy. Notably, tumor-derived EVs (oncosomes) also contain oncogenic proteins, transcripts, DNA, and microRNA (miR). Uptake of this material may change properties of the recipient cells and impact the tumor microenvironment. Examples of transformation-related molecules found in the cargo of tumor-derived EVs include the oncogenic epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFRvIII), tumor suppressors (PTEN), and oncomirs (miR-520g). It is postulated that EVs circulating in blood or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of brain tumor patients may be used to decipher molecular features (mutations) of the underlying malignancy, reflect responses to therapy, or molecular subtypes of primary brain tumors [e.g., glioma or medulloblastoma (MB)]. It is possible that metastases to the brain may also emit EVs with clinically relevant oncogenic signatures. Thus, EVs emerge as a novel and functionally important vehicle of intercellular communication that can mediate multiple biological effects. In addition, they provide a unique platform to develop molecular biomarkers in brain malignancies. PMID:22934045

  3. Mouse Elk oncogene maps to chromosome X and a novel Elk oncogene (Elk3) maps to chromosome 10

    SciTech Connect

    Tamai, Yoshitaka; Taketo, Makoto; Nozaki, Masami

    1995-03-20

    The Elk protein is a member of the Ets family found in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Human ELK1 encoded by ELK1 binds alone or together with serum response factor to DNA and regulates gene expression in a variety of biological processes. Using a panel of interspecific backcross mice, we have mapped the Elk oncogene (Elk) and a novel type Elk oncogene (Elk3), closely related to ELK1. Elk maps to Chr X, and Elk3 maps to the proximal region of Chr 10. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. Hedgehog Cholesterolysis: Specialized Gatekeeper to Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Brian P.; Wang, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Discussions of therapeutic suppression of hedgehog (Hh) signaling almost exclusively focus on receptor antagonism; however, hedgehog’s biosynthesis represents a unique and potentially targetable aspect of this oncogenic signaling pathway. Here, we review a key biosynthetic step called cholesterolysis from the perspectives of structure/function and small molecule inhibition. Cholesterolysis, also called cholesteroylation, generates cholesterol-modified Hh ligand via autoprocessing of a hedgehog precursor protein. Post-translational modification by cholesterol appears to be restricted to proteins in the hedgehog family. The transformation is essential for Hh biological activity and upstream of signaling events. Despite its decisive role in generating ligand, cholesterolysis remains conspicuously unexplored as a therapeutic target. PMID:26473928

  5. The contrasting oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of FES.

    PubMed

    Greer, Peter A; Kanda, Shigeru; Smithgall, Thomas E

    2012-01-01

    The FES gene was first discovered as a protein-tyrosine kinase-encoding retroviral oncogene. The ability of v-FES to transform cells in vitro and initiate cancer in vivo has been established by cell culture, engraftment and transgenic mouse studies. The corresponding cellular c-FES proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic FES protein-tyrosine kinase with restrained catalytic activity relative to its retrovirally encoded homologs. These observations have stimulated a search for mutations or inappropriate expression of c-FES in human cancers and research aimed at understanding the functions of the FES kinase and its potential involvement in cancer and other diseases. Paradoxically, although first identified as an oncogene, genetic evidence has also implicated c-fes as a potential tumor suppressor. This review will describe observations from basic and translational research which shapes our current understanding of the physiological, cellular and molecular functions of the FES protein-tyrosine kinase and its potential roles in tumorigenesis. We also propose a model to reconcile the conflicting oncogenic and tumor suppressor roles of c-FES in tumorigenesis.

  6. Targeting Energy Metabolic and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Triple-negative Breast Cancer by a Novel Adenosine Monophosphate-activated Protein Kinase (AMPK) Activator*

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kuen-Haur; Hsu, En-Chi; Guh, Jih-Hwa; Yang, Hsiao-Ching; Wang, Dasheng; Kulp, Samuel K.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2011-01-01

    The antitumor activities of the novel adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activator, OSU-53, were assessed in in vitro and in vivo models of triple-negative breast cancer. OSU-53 directly stimulated recombinant AMPK kinase activity (EC50, 0.3 μm) and inhibited the viability and clonogenic growth of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 cells with equal potency (IC50, 5 and 2 μm, respectively) despite lack of LKB1 expression in MDA-MB-231 cells. Nonmalignant MCF-10A cells, however, were unaffected. Beyond AMPK-mediated effects on mammalian target of rapamycin signaling and lipogenesis, OSU-53 also targeted multiple AMPK downstream pathways. Among these, the protein phosphatase 2A-dependent dephosphorylation of Akt is noteworthy because it circumvents the feedback activation of Akt that results from mammalian target of rapamycin inhibition. OSU-53 also modulated energy homeostasis by suppressing fatty acid biosynthesis and shifting the metabolism to oxidation by up-regulating the expression of key regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis, such as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator 1α and the transcription factor nuclear respiratory factor 1. Moreover, OSU-53 suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production, thereby blocking subsequent Stat3 activation, and inhibited hypoxia-induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition in association with the silencing of hypoxia-inducible factor 1a and the E-cadherin repressor Snail. In MDA-MB-231 tumor-bearing mice, daily oral administration of OSU-53 (50 and 100 mg/kg) suppressed tumor growth by 47–49% and modulated relevant intratumoral biomarkers of drug activity. However, OSU-53 also induced protective autophagy that attenuated its antiproliferative potency. Accordingly, cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine increased the in vivo tumor-suppressive activity of OSU-53. OSU-53 is a potent, orally bioavailable AMPK activator that acts through a broad spectrum of antitumor activities. PMID

  7. GTPase domains of ras p21 oncogene protein and elongation factor Tu: analysis of three-dimensional structures, sequence families, and functional sites.

    PubMed

    Valencia, A; Kjeldgaard, M; Pai, E F; Sander, C

    1991-06-15

    GTPase domains are functional and structural units employed as molecular switches in a variety of important cellular functions, such as growth control, protein biosynthesis, and membrane traffic. Amino acid sequences of more than 100 members of different subfamilies are known, but crystal structures of only mammalian ras p21 and bacterial elongation factor Tu have been determined. After optimal superposition of these remarkably similar structures, careful multiple sequence alignment, and calculation of residue-residue interactions, we analyzed the two subfamilies in terms of structural conservation, sequence conservation, and residue contact strength. There are three main results. (i) A structure-based alignment of p21 and elongation factor Tu. (ii) The definition of a common conserved structural core that may be useful as the basis of model building by homology of the three-dimensional structure of any GTPase domain. (iii) Identification of sequence regions, other than the effector loop and the nucleotide binding site, that may be involved in the functional cycle: they are loop L4, known to change conformation after GTP hydrolysis; helix alpha 2, especially Arg-73 and Met-67 in ras p21; loops L8 and L10, including ras p21 Arg-123, Lys-147, and Leu-120; and residues located spatially near the N and C termini. These regions are candidate sites for interaction either with the GTP/GDP exchange factor, with a GTPase-affected function, or with a molecule delivered to a destination site with the aid of the GTPase domain.

  8. Phorbol esters from Jatropha meal triggered apoptosis, activated PKC-δ, caspase-3 proteins and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes in MCF-7 and HeLa cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida

    2012-09-10

    Jatropha meal produced from the kernel of Jatropha curcas Linn. grown in Malaysia contains phorbol esters (PEs). The potential benefits of PEs present in the meal as anticancer agent are still not well understood. Hence, this study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic effects and mode of actions of PEs isolated from Jatropha meal against breast (MCF-7) and cervical (HeLa) cancer cell lines. Isolated PEs inhibited cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner of both MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines with the IC₅₀ of 128.6 ± 2.51 and 133.0 ± 1.96 µg PMA equivalents/mL respectively, while the values for the phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) as positive control were 114.7 ± 1.73 and 119.6 ± 3.73 µg/mL, respectively. Microscopic examination showed significant morphological changes that resemble apoptosis in both cell lines when treated with PEs and PMA at IC₅₀ concentration after 24 h. Flow cytometry analysis and DNA fragmentation results confirmed the apoptosis induction of PEs and PMA in both cell lines. The PEs isolated from Jatropha meal activated the PKC-δ and down-regulated the proto-oncogenes (c-Myc, c-Fos and c-Jun). These changes probably led to the activation of Caspase-3 protein and apoptosis cell death occurred in MCF-7 and HeLa cell lines upon 24 h treatment with PEs and PMA. Phorbol esters of Jatropha meal were found to be promising as an alternative to replace the chemotherapeutic drugs for cancer therapy.

  9. Epstein-Barr Virus Proteins EBNA3A and EBNA3C Together Induce Expression of the Oncogenic MicroRNA Cluster miR-221/miR-222 and Ablate Expression of Its Target p57KIP2

    PubMed Central

    Bazot, Quentin; Paschos, Kostas; Skalska, Lenka; Kalchschmidt, Jens S.; Parker, Gillian A.; Allday, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    We show that two host-encoded primary RNAs (pri-miRs) and the corresponding microRNA (miR) clusters – widely reported to have cell transformation-associated activity – are regulated by EBNA3A and EBNA3C. Utilising a variety of EBV-transformed lymphoblastoid cell lines (LCLs) carrying knockout-, revertant- or conditional-EBV recombinants, it was possible to demonstrate unambiguously that EBNA3A and EBNA3C are both required for transactivation of the oncogenic miR-221/miR-222 cluster that is expressed at high levels in multiple human tumours – including lymphoma/leukemia. ChIP, ChIP-seq, and chromosome conformation capture analyses indicate that this activation results from direct targeting of both EBV proteins to chromatin at the miR-221/miR-222 genomic locus and activation via a long-range interaction between enhancer elements and the transcription start site of a long non-coding pri-miR located 28kb upstream of the miR sequences. Reduced levels of miR-221/miR-222 produced by inactivation or deletion of EBNA3A or EBNA3C resulted in increased expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p57KIP2, a well-established target of miR-221/miR-222. MiR blocking experiments confirmed that miR-221/miR-222 target p57KIP2 expression in LCLs. In contrast, EBNA3A and EBNA3C are necessary to silence the tumour suppressor cluster miR-143/miR-145, but here ChIP-seq suggests that repression is probably indirect. This miR cluster is frequently down-regulated or deleted in human cancer, however, the targets in B cells are unknown. Together these data indicate that EBNA3A and EBNA3C contribute to B cell transformation by inhibiting multiple tumour suppressor proteins, not only by direct repression of protein-encoding genes, but also by the manipulation of host long non-coding pri-miRs and miRs. PMID:26153983

  10. Complex effects of Ras proto-oncogenes in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roberto; Lopez-Barcons, Lluis; Ahn, Daniel; Garcia-Espana, Antonio; Yoon, Andrew; Matthews, Jeremy; Mangues, Ramon; Perez-Soler, Roman; Pellicer, Angel

    2004-04-01

    Ras proteins have been found mutated in about one-third of human tumors. In vitro, Ras has been shown to regulate distinct and contradictory effects, such as cellular proliferation and apoptosis. Nonetheless, the effects that the wild-type protein elicits in tumorigenesis are poorly understood. Depending on the type of tissue, Ras proto-oncogenes appear to either promote or inhibit the tumor phenotype. In this report, we treated wild-type and N-ras knockout mice with 3-methylcholanthrene (MCA) to induce fibrosarcomas and found that MCA is more carcinogenic in wild-type mice than in knockout mice. After injecting different doses of a tumorigenic cell line, the wild-type mice exhibited a shorter latency of tumor development than the knockouts, indicating that there are N-ras-dependent differences in the stromal cells. Likewise, we have analyzed B-cell lymphomas induced by either N-methylnitrosourea or by the N-ras oncogene in mice that over-express the N-ras proto-oncogene and found that the over-expression of wild-type N-ras is able to increase the incidence of these lymphomas. Considered together, our results indicate that Ras proto-oncogenes can enhance or inhibit the malignant phenotype in vivo in different systems.

  11. KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties

    PubMed Central

    White, Yasmine; Bagchi, Aditi; Van Ziffle, Jessica; Inguva, Anagha; Bollag, Gideon; Zhang, Chao; Carias, Heidi; Dickens, David; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Firestone, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations introduce discrete amino acid substitutions that reduce intrinsic Ras GTPase activity and confer resistance to GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. K-Ras proteins containing this tandem duplication or a similar five amino acid E62_A66dup mutation identified in lung and colon cancers transform the growth of primary myeloid progenitors and of Ba/F3 cells. Recombinant K-RasG60_A66dup and K-RasE62_A66dup proteins display reduced intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates, accumulate in the GTP-bound conformation and are resistant to GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Remarkably, K-Ras proteins with switch 2 insertions are impaired for PI3 kinase binding and Akt activation, and are hypersensitive to MEK inhibition. These studies illuminate a new class of oncogenic KRAS mutations and reveal unexpected plasticity in oncogenic Ras proteins that has diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26854029

  12. Oncogenicity of human N-ras oncogene and proto-oncogene introduced into retroviral vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Souyri, M.; Vigon, I.; Charon, M.; Tambourin, P. )

    1989-09-01

    The N-ras gene is the only member of the ras family which has never been naturally transduced into a retrovirus. In order to study the in vitro and in vivo oncogenicity of N-ras and to compare its pathogenicity to that of H-ras, the authors have inserted an activated or a normal form of human N-ras cDNA into a slightly modified Harvey murine sarcoma virus-derived vector in which the H-ras p21 coding region had been deleted. The resulting constructions were transfected into NIH 3T3 cells. The activated N-ras-containing construct (HSN) induced 10{sup 4} foci per {mu}g of DNA and was found to be as transforming as H-ras was. After infection of the transfected cells by either the ecotropic Moloney murine leukemia virus or the amphotropic 4070A helper viruses, rescued transforming viruses were injected into newborn mice. Both pseudotypes of HSN virus containing activated N-ras induced the typical Harvey disease with similar latency. However, they found that the virus which contained normal N-ras p21 (HSn) was also pathogenic and induced splenomegaly, lymphadenopathies, and sarcoma in mice after a latency of 3 to 7 weeks. In addition, Moloney murine leukemia virus pseudotypes of N-ras caused neurological disorders in 30% of the infected animals. These results differed markedly from those of previous experiments in which the authors had inserted the activated form of N-ras in the pSV(X) vector: the resulting SVN-ras virus was transforming on NIH 3T3 cells but was poorly oncogenic in vivo. Altogether, these data demonstrated unequivocally that N-ras is potentially as oncogenic as H-ras and that such oncogenic effect could depend on the vector environment.

  13. Activation of a human c-K-ras oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, F; Perucho, M

    1984-01-01

    The human lung carcinomas PR310 and PR371 contain activated c-K-ras oncogenes. The oncogene of PR371 was found to present a mutation at codon 12 of the first coding exon which substitutes cysteine for glycine in the encoded p21 protein. We report here that the transforming gene of PR310 tumor contains a mutation in the second coding exon. An A----T transversion at codon 61 results in the incorporation of histidine instead of glutamine in the c-K-ras gene product. By constructing c-K-ras/c-H-ras chimeric genes we show that this point mutation is sufficient to confer transforming potential to ras genes, and that a hybrid ras gene coding for a protein mutant at both codons 12 and 61 is also capable of transforming NIH3T3 cells. The relative transforming potency of p21 proteins encoded by ras genes mutant at codons 12, 61 or both has been analyzed. Our studies also show that the coding exons of ras genes, including the fourth, can be interchanged and the chimeric p21 ras proteins retain their oncogenic ability in normal rodent established cell lines. PMID:6096811

  14. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels. PMID:26732534

  15. c-Abl antagonizes the YAP oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Keshet, R; Adler, J; Ricardo Lax, I; Shanzer, M; Porat, Z; Reuven, N; Shaul, Y

    2015-01-01

    YES-associated protein (YAP) is a central transcription coactivator that functions as an oncogene in a number of experimental systems. However, under DNA damage, YAP activates pro-apoptotic genes in conjunction with p73. This program switching is mediated by c-Abl (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene) via phosphorylation of YAP at the Y357 residue (pY357). YAP as an oncogene coactivates the TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) family transcription factors. Here we asked whether c-Abl regulates the YAP–TEAD functional module. We found that DNA damage, through c-Abl activation, specifically depressed YAP–TEAD-induced transcription. Remarkably, c-Abl counteracts YAP-induced transformation by interfering with the YAP–TEAD transcriptional program. c-Abl induced TEAD1 phosphorylation, but the YAP–TEAD complex remained unaffected. In contrast, TEAD coactivation was compromised by phosphomimetic YAP Y357E mutation but not Y357F, as demonstrated at the level of reporter genes and endogenous TEAD target genes. Furthermore, YAP Y357E also severely compromised the role of YAP in cell transformation, migration, anchorage-independent growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human mammary MCF10A cells. These results suggest that YAP pY357 lost TEAD transcription activation function. Our results demonstrate that YAP pY357 inactivates YAP oncogenic function and establish a role for YAP Y357 phosphorylation in cell-fate decision. PMID:25361080

  16. SUMOylated IRF-1 shows oncogenic potential by mimicking IRF-2

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun-Mi; Chae, Myounghee; Kim, Bo-Kyoung; Seo, Taegun; Jang, Ik-Soon; Choi, Jong-Soon; Kim, Il-Chul; Lee, Je-Ho; Park, Junsoo

    2010-01-01

    Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) is an interferon-induced transcriptional activator that suppresses tumors by impeding cell proliferation. Recently, we demonstrated that the level of SUMOylated IRF-1 is elevated in tumor cells, and that SUMOylation of IRF-1 attenuates its tumor-suppressive function. Here we report that SUMOylated IRF-1 mimics IRF-2, an antagonistic repressor, and shows oncogenic potential. To demonstrate the role of SUMOylated IRF-1 in tumorigenesis, we used SUMO-IRF-1 recombinant protein. Stable expression of SUMO-IRF-1 in NIH3T3 cells resulted in focus formation and anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Inoculation of SUMO-IRF-1-transfected cells into athymic nude mice resulted in tumor formation and infiltration of adipose tissues. Finally, we demonstrated that SUMO-IRF-1 transforms NIH3T3 cells in a dose-dependent manner suggesting that SUMOylated IRF-1 may act as an oncogenic protein in tumor cells.

  17. (Oncogenic action of ionizing radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. The carcinogenicity of energetic electrons was determined for comparison with the neon ion results. As in past reports we will describe progress in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration; (3) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers. 72 refs., 6 tabs.

  18. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  19. TAD disruption as oncogenic driver.

    PubMed

    Valton, Anne-Laure; Dekker, Job

    2016-02-01

    Topologically Associating Domains (TADs) are conserved during evolution and play roles in guiding and constraining long-range regulation of gene expression. Disruption of TAD boundaries results in aberrant gene expression by exposing genes to inappropriate regulatory elements. Recent studies have shown that TAD disruption is often found in cancer cells and contributes to oncogenesis through two mechanisms. One mechanism locally disrupts domains by deleting or mutating a TAD boundary leading to fusion of the two adjacent TADs. The other mechanism involves genomic rearrangements that break up TADs and creates new ones without directly affecting TAD boundaries. Understanding the mechanisms by which TADs form and control long-range chromatin interactions will therefore not only provide insights into the mechanism of gene regulation in general, but will also reveal how genomic rearrangements and mutations in cancer genomes can lead to misregulation of oncogenes and tumor suppressors. PMID:27111891

  20. MYC oncogene in myeloid neoplasias.

    PubMed

    Delgado, M Dolores; Albajar, Marta; Gomez-Casares, M Teresa; Batlle, Ana; León, Javier

    2013-02-01

    MYC is a transcription factor that regulates many critical genes for cell proliferation, differentiation, and biomass accumulation. MYC is one of the most prevalent oncogenes found to be altered in human cancer, being deregulated in about 50 % of tumors. Although MYC deregulation has been more frequently associated to lymphoma and lymphoblastic leukemia than to myeloid malignancies, a body of evidence has been gathered showing that MYC plays a relevant role in malignancies derived from the myeloid compartment. The myeloid leukemogenic activity of MYC has been demonstrated in different murine models. Not surprisingly, MYC has been found to be amplified or/and deregulated in the three major types of myeloid neoplasms: acute myeloid leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, and myeloproliferative neoplasms, including chronic myeloid leukemia. Here, we review the recent literature describing the involvement of MYC in myeloid tumors.

  1. PVT1: a rising star among oncogenic long noncoding RNAs.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Teresa; Farina, Lorenzo; Macino, Giuseppe; Paci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that short and long noncoding RNAs critically participate in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and (mis)function. However, while the functional characterization of short non-coding RNAs has been reaching maturity, there is still a paucity of well characterized long noncoding RNAs, even though large studies in recent years are rapidly increasing the number of annotated ones. The long noncoding RNA PVT1 is encoded by a gene that has been long known since it resides in the well-known cancer risk region 8q24. However, a couple of accidental concurrent conditions have slowed down the study of this gene, that is, a preconception on the primacy of the protein-coding over noncoding RNAs and the prevalent interest in its neighbor MYC oncogene. Recent studies have brought PVT1 under the spotlight suggesting interesting models of functioning, such as competing endogenous RNA activity and regulation of protein stability of important oncogenes, primarily of the MYC oncogene. Despite some advancements in modelling the PVT1 role in cancer, there are many questions that remain unanswered concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its functioning. PMID:25883951

  2. PVT1: A Rising Star among Oncogenic Long Noncoding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Colombo, Teresa; Farina, Lorenzo; Macino, Giuseppe; Paci, Paola

    2015-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly clear that short and long noncoding RNAs critically participate in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and (mis)function. However, while the functional characterization of short non-coding RNAs has been reaching maturity, there is still a paucity of well characterized long noncoding RNAs, even though large studies in recent years are rapidly increasing the number of annotated ones. The long noncoding RNA PVT1 is encoded by a gene that has been long known since it resides in the well-known cancer risk region 8q24. However, a couple of accidental concurrent conditions have slowed down the study of this gene, that is, a preconception on the primacy of the protein-coding over noncoding RNAs and the prevalent interest in its neighbor MYC oncogene. Recent studies have brought PVT1 under the spotlight suggesting interesting models of functioning, such as competing endogenous RNA activity and regulation of protein stability of important oncogenes, primarily of the MYC oncogene. Despite some advancements in modelling the PVT1 role in cancer, there are many questions that remain unanswered concerning the precise molecular mechanisms underlying its functioning. PMID:25883951

  3. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-01-01

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  4. BIM mediates oncogene inactivation-induced apoptosis in multiple transgenic mouse models of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yulin; Deutzmann, Anja; Choi, Peter S.; Fan, Alice C.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogene inactivation in both clinical targeted therapies and conditional transgenic mouse cancer models can induce significant tumor regression associated with the robust induction of apoptosis. Here we report that in MYC-, RAS-, and BCR-ABL-induced acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation is mediated by the same pro-apoptotic protein, BIM. The induction of BIMin the MYC- and RAS-driven leukemia is mediated by the downregulation of miR-17-92. Overexpression of miR-17-92 blocked the induction of apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation in the MYC and RAS-driven but not in the BCR-ABL-driven ALL leukemia. Hence, our results provide novel insight into the mechanism of apoptosis upon oncogene inactivation and suggest that induction of BIM-mediated apoptosis may be an important therapeutic approach for ALL. PMID:27095570

  5. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  6. Induction of p38δ Expression Plays an Essential Role in Oncogenic ras-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Kwong, Jinny; Chen, Michelle; Lv, Dan; Luo, Na; Su, Weijun; Xiang, Rong

    2013-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence is a stable proliferative arrest that serves as a tumor-suppressing defense mechanism. p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) has been implicated in oncogene-induced senescence and tumor suppression. However, the specific role of each of the four p38 isoforms in oncogene-induced senescence is not fully understood. Here, we demonstrate that p38δ mediates oncogene-induced senescence through a p53- and p16INK4A-independent mechanism. Instead, evidence suggests a link between p38δ and the DNA damage pathways. Moreover, we have discovered a novel mechanism that enhances the expression of p38δ during senescence. In this mechanism, oncogenic ras induces the Raf-1–MEK–extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, which, in turn, activates the AP-1 and Ets transcription factors that are bound to the p38δ promoter, leading to increased transcription of p38δ. These findings indicate that induction of the prosenescent function of p38δ by oncogenic ras is achieved through 2 mechanisms, transcriptional activation by the Raf-1–MEK–ERK–AP-1/Ets pathway, which increases the cellular concentration of the p38δ protein, and posttranslational modification by MKK3/6, which stimulates the enzymatic activity of p38δ. In addition, these studies identify the AP-1 and Ets transcription factors as novel signaling components in the senescence-inducing pathway. PMID:23878395

  7. Oncogenic transformation by vrel requires an amino-terminal activation domain

    SciTech Connect

    Kamens, J.; Brent, R. . Dept. of Molecular Biology); Richardson, P.; Gilmore, T. . Dept. of Biology); Mosialos, G. . Dept. of Chemistry)

    1990-06-01

    The mechanism by which the products of the v-{ital rel} oncogene, the corresponding c-{ital rel} proto-oncogene, and the related {ital dorsal} gene of {ital Drosophila melanogaster} exert their effects is not clear. The authors show that the v-{ital rel}, chicken c-{ital rel}, and {ital dorsal} proteins activated gene expression when fused to LexA sequences and bound to DNA upstream of target genes in {ital Saccharomyces cerevisiae}. They have defined two distinct activation regions in the c-{ital rel} protein. Region I, located in the amino-terminal half of {ital rel} and {ital dorsal} proteins, contains no stretches of glutamines, prolines, or acidic amino acids and therefore may be a novel activation domain. Lesions in the v-{ital rel} protein that diminished or abolished oncogenic transformation of avian spleen cells correspondingly affected transcription activation by region I. Region II, located in the carboxy terminus of the c-{ital rel} protein, is highly acidic. Region II is not present in the v-{ital rel} protein or in a transforming mutant derivative of the c-{ital rel} protein. The authors' results show that the oncogenicity of Rel proteins requires activation region I and suggest that the biological function of {ital rel} and {ital dorsal} proteins depends on transcription activation by this region.

  8. Human gene control by vital oncogenes: revisiting a theoretical model and its implications for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    An important assumption of our current understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis has been the belief that clarification of the cancer process would inevitably reveal some of the crucial mechanisms of normal human gene regulation. Since the momentous work of Bishop and Varmus, both the molecular and the biochemical processes underlying the events in the development of cancer have become increasingly clear. The identification of cellular signaling pathways and the role of protein kinases in the events leading to gene activation have been critical to our understanding not only of normal cellular gene control mechanisms, but also have clarified some of the important molecular and biochemical events occurring within a cancer cell. We now know that oncogenes are dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and that dysfunctional tumor suppressor genes contribute to the cancer process. Furthermore, Weinstein and others have hypothesized the phenomenon of oncogene addiction as a distinct characteristic of the malignant cell. It can be assumed that cancer cells, indeed, become dependent on such vital oncogenes. The products of these vital oncogenes, such as c-myc, may well be the Achilles heel by which targeted molecular therapy may lead to truly personalized cancer therapy. The remaining problem is the need to introduce relevant molecular diagnostic tests such as genome microarray analysis and proteomic methods, especially protein kinase identification arrays, for each individual patient. Genome wide association studies on cancers with gene analysis of single nucleotide and other mutations in functional proto-oncogenes will, hopefully, identify dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and allow the development of more specific targeted drugs directed against the protein products of these vital oncogenes. In 1984 Willis proposed a molecular and biochemical model for eukaryotic gene regulation suggesting how proto-oncogenes might function within the normal cell. That model predicted the

  9. Targeting Bcl-2 stability to sensitize cells harboring oncogenic ras.

    PubMed

    Peng, Bo; Ganapathy, Suthakar; Shen, Ling; Huang, Junchi; Yi, Bo; Zhou, Xiaodong; Dai, Wei; Chen, Changyan

    2015-09-01

    The pro-survival factor Bcl-2 and its family members are critical determinants of the threshold of the susceptibility of cells to apoptosis. Studies are shown that cells harboring an oncogenic ras were extremely sensitive to the inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC) and Bcl-2 could antagonize this apoptotic process. However, it remains unrevealed how Bcl-2 is being regulated in this apoptotic process. In this study, we investigate the role of Bcl-2 stability in sensitizing the cells harboring oncogenic K-ras to apoptosis triggered by PKC inhibitor GO6976. We demonstrated that Bcl-2 in Swiss3T3 cells ectopically expressing or murine lung cancer LKR cells harboring K-ras rapidly underwent ubiquitin-dependent proteasome pathway after the treatment of GO6976, accompanied with induction of apoptosis. In this process, Bcl-2 formed the complex with Keap-1 and Cul3. The mutation of serine-17 and deletion of BH-2 or 4 was required for Bcl-2 ubiquitination and degradation, which elevate the signal threshold for the induction of apoptosis in the cells following PKC inhibition. Thus, Bcl-2 appears an attractive target for the induction of apoptosis by PKC inhibition in cancer cells expressing oncogenic K-ras. PMID:26041886

  10. Ras-mediated cell cycle arrest is altered by nuclear oncogenes to induce Schwann cell transformation.

    PubMed Central

    Ridley, A J; Paterson, H F; Noble, M; Land, H

    1988-01-01

    The cellular responses to ras and nuclear oncogenes were investigated in purified populations of rat Schwann cells. v-Ha-ras and SV40 large T cooperate to transform Schwann cells, inducing growth in soft agar and allowing proliferation in the absence of added mitogens. Expression of large T alone reduces their growth factor requirements but is insufficient to induce full transformation. In contrast, expression of v-Ha-ras leads to proliferation arrest in Schwann cells expressing a temperature-sensitive mutant of large T at the restrictive temperature. Cells arrest in either the G1 or G2/M phases of the cell cycle, and can re-enter cell division at the permissive temperature even after prolonged periods at the restrictive conditions. Oncogenic ras proteins also inhibit DNA synthesis when microinjected into Schwann cells. Adenovirus E1a and c-myc oncogenes behave similarly to SV40 large T. They cooperate with Ha-ras oncogenes to transform Schwann cells, and prevent ras-induced growth arrest. Thus nuclear oncogenes fundamentally alter the response of Schwann cells to a ras oncogene from cell cycle arrest to transformation. Images PMID:3049071

  11. ER functions of oncogenes and tumor suppressors: Modulators of intracellular Ca(2+) signaling.

    PubMed

    Bittremieux, Mart; Parys, Jan B; Pinton, Paolo; Bultynck, Geert

    2016-06-01

    Intracellular Ca(2+) signals that arise from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the major intracellular Ca(2+)-storage organelle, impact several mitochondrial functions and dictate cell survival and cell death processes. Furthermore, alterations in Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells promote survival and establish a high tolerance towards cell stress and damage, so that the on-going oncogenic stress does not result in the activation of cell death. Over the last years, the mechanisms underlying these oncogenic alterations in Ca(2+) signaling have started to emerge. An important aspect of this is the identification of several major oncogenes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-XL, Mcl-1, PKB/Akt, and Ras, and tumor suppressors, such as p53, PTEN, PML, BRCA1, and Beclin 1, as direct and critical regulators of Ca(2+)-transport systems located at the ER membranes, including IP3 receptors and SERCA Ca(2+) pumps. In this way, these proteins execute part of their function by controlling the ER-mitochondrial Ca(2+) fluxes, favoring either survival (oncogenes) or cell death (tumor suppressors). Oncogenic mutations, gene deletions or amplifications alter the expression and/or function of these proteins, thereby changing the delicate balance between oncogenes and tumor suppressors, impacting oncogenesis and favoring malignant cell function and behavior. In this review, we provided an integrated overview of the impact of the major oncogenes and tumor suppressors, often altered in cancer cells, on Ca(2+) signaling from the ER Ca(2+) stores. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Calcium and Cell Fate. Guest Editors: Jacques Haiech, Claus Heizmann, Joachim Krebs, Thierry Capiod and Olivier Mignen.

  12. V-cbl, an oncogene from a dual-recombinant murine retrovirus that induces early B-lineage lymphomas

    SciTech Connect

    Langdon, W.Y.; Klinken, S.P. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD ); Hartley, J.W.; Morse, H.C. III ); Ruscetti, S.K. )

    1989-02-01

    Cas NS-1 is an acutely transforming murine retrovirus that induces pre-B and pro-B cell lymphomas. Molecular cloning showed it was generated from the ecotropic Cas-Br-M virus by sequential recombinations with endogenous retroviral sequences and a cellular oncogene. The oncogene sequence shows no homology with known oncogenes but some similarity to the yeast transcriptional activator GCN4. A 100-kDa gag-cbl fusion protein, with no detectable kinase activity, is responsible for the cellular transformation. The cellular homologue of v-cbl, present in mouse and human DNA, is expressed in a range of hemopoietic lineages.

  13. Human genome: proto-oncogenes and proretroviruses.

    PubMed

    Kisselev, L L; Chumakov, I M; Zabarovsky, E R; Prassolov, V S; Mett, V L; Berditchevsky, F B; Tret'yakov, L D

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of the studies undertaken at the Laboratory for Molecular Bases of Oncogenesis (Institute of Molecular Biology, Moscow) till middle of 1984 is presented. The human genome contains multiple dispersed nucleotide sequences related to the proto-oncogene mos and to proretroviral sequences in tight juxtaposition to each other. From sequencing appropriate cloned fragments of human DNA in phage and plasmid vectors it follows that one of these regions, NV-1, is a pseudogene of proto-mos with partial duplications and two Alu elements intervening its coding sequence, and the other, CL-1, seems to be also a mos-related gene with a deletion of the internal part of the structural gene. CL-1 is flanked by a proretroviral-like sequence including tRNAiMet binding site and U5 (part of the long terminal repeat). The proretroviral-like sequences are transcribed in 21-35S poly(A)+RNA abundant in normal and malignant human cells. Two hypotheses are proposed: endogenous retroviruses take part in amplification of at least some proto-oncogenes; proto-oncogenes are inactivated via insertion of movable genetic elements and conversion into pseudogenes. Potential oncogenicity of a normal human genome undergoes two controversial influences: it increases due to proto-oncogene amplification and decreases due to inactivation of some of them.

  14. Role of "oncogenic nexus" of CIP2A in breast oncogenesis: how does it work?

    PubMed

    De, Pradip; Carlson, Jennifer H; Leyland-Jones, Brian; Dey, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    The CIP2A gene is an oncogene associated with solid and hematologic malignancies [1]. CIP2A protein is an oncoprotein and a potential cancer therapy target [2]. Literature shows that CIP2A inhibits the tumor suppressor protein PP2A [3] which downregulates phophorylation of AKT, a hallmark of cancers [4] and stabilizes the proto-oncogene, c-MYC in tumor cells [5], the comprehensive action of CIP2A and its functional interaction(s) with other oncoproteins and tumor suppressors is not clearly established. Recently we tried to put forward a contextual mode-of-action of CIP2A protein in a review which proposed that CIP2A influences oncogenesis via an "oncogenic nexus" [1]. In this review we critically evaluated the potential relevance of the mode-of-action of the "oncogenic nexus" of CIP2A in breast carcinogenesis and appraised the role of this nexus in different PAM50 luminal A, PAM50 luminal B, PAM50 HER2-enriched and PAM50 basal BC. This review has a novel approach. Here we have not only compiled and discussed the latest developments in this field but also presented data obtained from c-BioPortal and STRING10 in order to substantiate our view regarding the mode-of-action of the "oncogenic nexus" of CIP2A. We functionally correlated alterations of genes pertaining to the "oncogenic nexus" of CIP2A with protein-protein interactions between the different components of the nexus including (1) subunits of PP2A, (2) multiple transcription factors including MYC oncogene and (3) components of the PI3K-mTOR and the MAPK-ERK oncogenic pathways. Using these proteins as "input" to STRING10 we studied the association, Action view, at the highest Confidence level. OncoPrints (c-BioPortal) showed alterations (%) of regulatory subunits genes of PP2A (PPP2R1A and PPP2R1B) along with alterations of CIP2A in breast invasive carcinoma (TCGA, Nature 2012 & TCGA, Provisional). Similar genetic alterations of PP2A were also observed in samples of breast tumors at our Avera Research

  15. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.

    PubMed

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W S; Dick, Ian M; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets.

  16. Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Flavahan, William A.; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Venteicher, Andrew S.; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O.; Suvà, Mario L.; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2015-01-01

    Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas1,2. Mutant IDH protein produces a novel onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate (2-HG), that interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5′-methylcytosine hydroxylases3–7. TET enzymes catalyze a key step in the removal of DNA methylation8,9. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP)10,11, though the functional significance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hyper-methylation at CTCF binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to aberrantly interact with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and down-regulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wildtype gliomaspheres up-regulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression. PMID:26700815

  17. A novel putative tyrosine kinase receptor with oncogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Janssen, J W; Schulz, A S; Steenvoorden, A C; Schmidberger, M; Strehl, S; Ambros, P F; Bartram, C R

    1991-11-01

    We have detected transforming activity by a tumorigenicity assay using NIH3T3 cells transfected with DNA from a chronic myeloproliferative disorder patient. Here, we report the cDNA cloning of the corresponding oncogene, designated UFO, in allusion to the as yet unidentified function of its protein. Nucleotide sequence analysis of a 3116bp cDNA clone revealed a 2682-bp-long open reading frame capable of directing the synthesis of a 894 amino acid polypeptide. The predicted UFO protein exhibits characteristic features of a transmembrane receptor with associated tyrosine kinase activity. The UFO proto-oncogene maps to human chromosome 19q13.1 and is transcribed into two 5.0 kb and 3.2 kb mRNAs in human bone marrow and human tumor cell lines. The UFO locus is evolutionarily conserved between vertebrate species. A 4.0 kb mRNA of the murine UFO homolog is expressed in a variety of different mouse tissues. We thus have identified a novel element of the complex signaling network involved in the control of cell proliferation and differentiation.

  18. Expression of proto-oncogenes in bovine preimplantation blastocysts.

    PubMed

    Tetens, F; Kliem, A; Tscheudschilsuren, G; Navarrete Santos, A; Fischer, B

    2000-05-01

    Proto-oncogenes are involved in the regulation of gene expression, for example after ligand binding to growth factor receptors. Expression of the proto-oncogenes c-fos, c-jun, c-ha-ras and c-myc was studied in in vivo grown and in vitro cultured bovine preimplantation blastocysts employing RT-PCR, ribonuclease protection assay and immunohistochemistry. Thirteen- and 14- day-old preimplantation blastocysts, i.e. stages before and during trophoblast elongation, were used. In in vivo-grown blastocysts c-fos, c-jun and c-ha-ras transcripts as well as c-Fos, c-Jun and c-Myc proteins were detected in all stages studied. Cultured blastocysts were treated with 10 nM epidermal growth factor and 10 nM transforming growth factor-alpha simultaneously. Epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha treatment induced c-fos mRNA and c-Myc protein expression. The induction of downstream targets of the epidermal growth factor receptor by epidermal growth factor and transforming growth factor-alpha indicates a functional epidermal growth factor signal transduction pathway in elongating bovine blastocysts.

  19. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-09-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets.

  20. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo

    PubMed Central

    Greening, David W.; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W. S.; Dick, Ian M.; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  1. Proteogenomic analysis reveals exosomes are more oncogenic than ectosomes.

    PubMed

    Keerthikumar, Shivakumar; Gangoda, Lahiru; Liem, Michael; Fonseka, Pamali; Atukorala, Ishara; Ozcitti, Cemil; Mechler, Adam; Adda, Christopher G; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-06-20

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes (30-100 nm) that are produced through the endocytic pathway via the multivesicular bodies and the ectosomes (100-1000 nm) that are released through the budding of the plasma membrane. Despite the differences in the mode of biogenesis and size, reliable markers that can distinguish between exosomes and ectosomes are non-existent. Moreover, the precise functional differences between exosomes and ectosomes remains poorly characterised. Here, using label-free quantitative proteomics, we highlight proteins that could be exploited as markers to discriminate between exosomes and ectosomes. For the first time, a global proteogenomics analysis unveiled the secretion of mutant proteins that are implicated in cancer progression through tumor-derived EVs. Follow up integrated bioinformatics analysis highlighted the enrichment of oncogenic cargo in exosomes and ectosomes. Interestingly, exosomes induced significant cell proliferation and migration in recipient cells compared to ectosomes confirming the oncogenic nature of exosomes. These findings ascertain that cancer cells facilitate oncogenesis by the secretion of mutant and oncoproteins into the tumor microenvironment via exosomes and ectosomes. The integrative proteogenomics approach utilized in this study has the potential to identify disease biomarker candidates which can be later assayed in liquid biopsies obtained from cancer patients.

  2. Proteogenomic analysis reveals exosomes are more oncogenic than ectosomes

    PubMed Central

    Liem, Michael; Fonseka, Pamali; Atukorala, Ishara; Ozcitti, Cemil; Mechler, Adam; Adda, Christopher G.; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include the exosomes (30-100 nm) that are produced through the endocytic pathway via the multivesicular bodies and the ectosomes (100-1000 nm) that are released through the budding of the plasma membrane. Despite the differences in the mode of biogenesis and size, reliable markers that can distinguish between exosomes and ectosomes are non-existent. Moreover, the precise functional differences between exosomes and ectosomes remains poorly characterised. Here, using label-free quantitative proteomics, we highlight proteins that could be exploited as markers to discriminate between exosomes and ectosomes. For the first time, a global proteogenomics analysis unveiled the secretion of mutant proteins that are implicated in cancer progression through tumor-derived EVs. Follow up integrated bioinformatics analysis highlighted the enrichment of oncogenic cargo in exosomes and ectosomes. Interestingly, exosomes induced significant cell proliferation and migration in recipient cells compared to ectosomes confirming the oncogenic nature of exosomes. These findings ascertain that cancer cells facilitate oncogenesis by the secretion of mutant and oncoproteins into the tumor microenvironment via exosomes and ectosomes. The integrative proteogenomics approach utilized in this study has the potential to identify disease biomarker candidates which can be later assayed in liquid biopsies obtained from cancer patients. PMID:25944692

  3. Secreted primary human malignant mesothelioma exosome signature reflects oncogenic cargo.

    PubMed

    Greening, David W; Ji, Hong; Chen, Maoshan; Robinson, Bruce W S; Dick, Ian M; Creaney, Jenette; Simpson, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is a highly-aggressive heterogeneous malignancy, typically diagnosed at advanced stage. An important area of mesothelioma biology and progression is understanding intercellular communication and the contribution of the secretome. Exosomes are secreted extracellular vesicles shown to shuttle cellular cargo and direct intercellular communication in the tumour microenvironment, facilitate immunoregulation and metastasis. In this study, quantitative proteomics was used to investigate MM-derived exosomes from distinct human models and identify select cargo protein networks associated with angiogenesis, metastasis, and immunoregulation. Utilising bioinformatics pathway/network analyses, and correlation with previous studies on tumour exosomes, we defined a select mesothelioma exosomal signature (mEXOS, 570 proteins) enriched in tumour antigens and various cancer-specific signalling (HPGD/ENO1/OSMR) and secreted modulators (FN1/ITLN1/MAMDC2/PDGFD/GBP1). Notably, such circulating cargo offers unique insights into mesothelioma progression and tumour microenvironment reprogramming. Functionally, we demonstrate that oncogenic exosomes facilitate the migratory capacity of fibroblast/endothelial cells, supporting the systematic model of MM progression associated with vascular remodelling and angiogenesis. We provide biophysical and proteomic characterisation of exosomes, define a unique oncogenic signature (mEXOS), and demonstrate the regulatory capacity of exosomes in cell migration/tube formation assays. These findings contribute to understanding tumour-stromal crosstalk in the context of MM, and potential new diagnostic and therapeutic extracellular targets. PMID:27605433

  4. The oncogenic receptor ErbB2 modulates gemcitabine and irinotecan/SN-38 chemoresistance of human pancreatic cancer cells via hCNT1 transporter and multidrug-resistance associated protein MRP-2

    PubMed Central

    Skrypek, Nicolas; Vasseur, Romain; Vincent, Audrey; Duchêne, Bélinda; Van Seuningen, Isabelle; Jonckheere, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most deadly cancers because of a lack of early diagnotic markers and efficient therapeutics. The fluorinated analog of deoxycytidine, gemcitabine and emerging FOLFIRINOX protocol (5-fluorouracil (5-FU), irinotecan/SN-38, oxaliplatin and leucovorin) are the main chemotherapies to treat PDAC. The ErbB2/HER2 oncogenic receptor is commonly overexpressed in PDAC. In this context, we aimed to decipher the ErbB2-mediated mechanisms of chemoresistance to the two main chemotherapy protocols used to treat PDAC. ErbB2 knocking down (KD) in CAPAN-1 and CAPAN-2 cells led to an increased sensitivity to gemcitabine and an increased resistance to irinotecan/SN-38 both in vitro and in vivo (subcuteanous xenografts) This was correlated to an increase of hCNT1 and hCNT3 transporters and ABCG2, MRP1 and MRP2 ATP-binding cassette transporters expression and resistance to cell death. We also show that MRP2 is repressed following activation of JNK, Erk1/2 and NF-κB pathways by ErbB2. Finally, in datasets of human PDAC samples, ErbB2 and MRP2 expression was conversely correlated. Altogether, we propose that ErbB2 mediates several intracellular mechanisms linked to PDAC cell chemoresistance that may represent potential targets in order to ameliorate chemotherapy response and allow stratification of patients eligible for either gemcitabine or FOLFIRINOX treatment. PMID:25890497

  5. Single nucleotide polymorphisms in microRNA binding sites of oncogenes: implications in cancer and pharmacogenomics.

    PubMed

    Manikandan, Mayakannan; Munirajan, Arasambattu Kannan

    2014-02-01

    Cancer, a complex genetic disease involving uncontrolled cell proliferation, is caused by inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and activation of oncogenes. A vast majority of these cancer causing genes are known targets of microRNAs (miRNAs) that bind to complementary sequences in 3' untranslated regions (UTR) of messenger RNAs and repress them from translation. Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) occurring naturally in such miRNA binding regions can alter the miRNA:mRNA interaction and can significantly affect gene expression. We hypothesized that 3'UTR SNPs in miRNA binding sites of proto-oncogenes could abrogate their post-transcriptional regulation, resulting in overexpression of oncogenic proteins, tumor initiation, progression, and modulation of drug response in cancer patients. Therefore, we developed a systematic computational pipeline that integrates data from well-established databases, followed stringent selection criteria and identified a panel of 30 high-confidence SNPs that may impair miRNA target sites in the 3' UTR of 54 mRNA transcripts of 24 proto-oncogenes. Further, 8 SNPs amidst them had the potential to determine therapeutic outcome in cancer patients. Functional annotation suggested that altogether these SNPs occur in proto-oncogenes enriched for kinase activities. We provide detailed in silico evidence for the functional effect of these candidate SNPs in various types of cancer.

  6. Inhibition of oncogene expression by green tea and (-)-epigallocatechin gallate in mice.

    PubMed

    Hu, G; Han, C; Chen, J

    1995-01-01

    The effects of tea drinking on the tobacco-specific nitrosamine 4-(methylnitrosamine)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK)-induced mouse lung oncogene expression and the effect of topical application of the tea polyphenol component (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on 12-O-tedradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced mouse skin oncogene expression were investigated. In the first experiment, mice were treated with NNK (1.3 mg/kg body wt ip) once a day for three days and were given 2% tea in drinking water during the whole experimental period. After four or eight weeks, the lung tissue of the mice treated with NNK displayed a significantly high level of expression in c-myc, c-raf, and c-H-ras oncogenes, and they were all inhibited by tea drinking with inhibitory rates of 50%, 20%, and 50%, respectively. In the second experiment, a single application of 10 nmol of TPA to mouse skin led to a marked increase in the transcripts' level of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) gene, protein kinase C (PKC) gene, and c-myc oncogene at four hours after TPA administration. Topical application of EGCG (1 or 5 mumol) one hour before the application of TPA inhibited all TPA-induced gene expression in a dose-dependent fashion. These results confirm the anticarcinogenic effects of tea and suggest that a possible mechanism is the effect of tea on carcinogen-induced oncogene expression.

  7. The HPV-16 E7 oncogene sensitizes malignant cells to IFN-alpha-induced apoptosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yisong

    2005-10-01

    Interferons (IFNs) exert antitumor effects in several human malignancies, but their mechanism of action is unclear. There is a great variability in sensitivity to IFN treatment depending on both tumor type and the individual patient. The reason for this variable sensitivity is not known. The fact that several IFN-induced anticellular effects are exerted through modulation of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may indicate that the malignant genotype may be decisive in the cell's sensitivity to IFN. To determine if a deregulated oncogene could alter the cellular response to IFN, a mouse lymphoma cell line (J3D) was stably transfected with the viral human papillomavirus-16 (HPV-16) E7 oncogene. The E7-transfected cells and their respective mock-transfected sister clones were treated with IFN-{alpha} and examined for possible IFN-induced anticellular effects. We found that the E7-transfected clones were greatly sensitized to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis compared with their mock-transfected counterparts. Induction of apoptosis in the transfected cells correlated with the ability of IFN to activate parts of the proapoptotic machinery specifically in these cells, including activation of caspases and the proapoptotic protein Bak. In summary, our data suggest that transfection of malignant cells with the E7 oncogene can sensitize them to IFN-{alpha}-induced apoptosis. This demonstrates that an oncogenic event may alter the cellular sensitivity to IFN and might also have implications for treatment of HPV related diseases with IFN.

  8. Polymorphic changes of cell phenotype caused by elevated expression of an exogenous NEU proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Tarakhovsky, A M; Resnikov, M; Zaichuk, T; Tugusheva, M V; Butenko, Z A; Prassolov, V S

    1990-03-01

    The NEU proto-oncogene encodes a 185,000 dalton transmembrane glycoprotein with extensive homology to epidermal growth factor receptor. In the current study the effect of exogenous NEU expression on phenotype and growth properties of cells established lines was examined. The replication defective retroviruses were used to express constitutively NEU cDNA in the Rat-1, NIH3T3 and Balb/c3T3 cells. In spite of the practically similar NEU mRNA and protein content in infected cells only in Balb/c3T3 cells, high NEU expression ultimately led to oncogenic transformation. The Rat-1 cells were practically insensitive to oncogenic action of NEU. Subpopulation divergency with respect to NEU-dependent transformation was also revealed in infected NIH3T3 cells. These results suggest the existence of unknown host-specific factor(s) determining the response of cells to NEU overexpression.

  9. Melanoma proliferation and chemoresistance controlled by the DEK oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Khodadoust, Michael S.; Verhaegen, Monique; Kappes, Ferdinand; Riveiro-Falkenbach, Erica; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Kim, David S.L.; Chinnaiyan, Arul M.; Markovitz, David M.; Soengas, María S.

    2009-01-01

    Gain of chromosome 6p is a consistent feature of advanced melanomas. However, the identity of putative oncogene(s) associated with this amplification has remained elusive. The chromatin remodeling factor DEK is an attractive candidate as it maps to 6p (i.e. within common melanoma-amplified loci). Moreover, DEK expression is increased in metastatic melanomas, although the functional relevance of this induction remains unclear. Importantly, in other tumor types, DEK can display various tumorigenic effects, in part through its ability to promote proliferation and inhibit p53-dependent apoptosis. Here, we report a generalized upregulation of DEK protein in cells from aggressive melanomas. In addition, we provide genetic and mechanistic evidence to support a key role of DEK in the maintenance of malignant phenotypes of melanoma cells. Specifically, we show that long-term DEK downregulation by independent shRNAs resulted in premature senescence of a variety of melanoma cell lines. Short-term abrogation of DEK expression was also functionally relevant, as it attenuated the traditional resistance of melanomas to DNA damaging agents. Unexpectedly, DEK shRNA had no impact on p53 levels or p53-dependent apoptosis. Instead, we identified a new role for DEK in the transcriptional activation of the antiapoptotic MCL-1. Other MCL-1 related factors such as BCL-2 or BCL-xL were unaffected by changes in the endogenous levels of DEK, indicating a selective impact of this gene on the apoptotic machinery of melanoma cells. These results provide support for DEK as a long sought-after oncogene mapping at chromosome 6, with novel functions in melanoma proliferation and chemoresistance. PMID:19679545

  10. Oncogenic NRAS Primes Primary Acute Myeloid Leukemia Cells for Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Brendel, Cornelia; Teichler, Sabine; Millahn, Axel; Stiewe, Thorsten; Krause, Michael; Stabla, Kathleen; Ross, Petra; Huynh, Minh; Illmer, Thomas; Mernberger, Marco; Barckhausen, Christina; Neubauer, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    RAS mutations are frequently found among acute myeloid leukemia patients (AML), generating a constitutively active signaling protein changing cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. We have previously shown that treatment of AML patients with high-dose cytarabine is preferentially beneficial for those harboring oncogenic RAS. On the basis of a murine AML cell culture model, we ascribed this effect to a RAS-driven, p53-dependent induction of differentiation. Hence, in this study we sought to confirm the correlation between RAS status and differentiation of primary blasts obtained from AML patients. The gene expression signature of AML blasts with oncogenic NRAS indeed corresponded to a more mature profile compared to blasts with wildtype RAS, as demonstrated by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) and real-time PCR analysis of myeloid ecotropic viral integration site 1 homolog (MEIS1) in a unique cohort of AML patients. In addition, in vitro cell culture experiments with established cell lines and a second set of primary AML cells showed that oncogenic NRAS mutations predisposed cells to cytarabine (AraC) driven differentiation. Taken together, our findings show that AML with inv(16) and NRAS mutation have a differentiation gene signature, supporting the notion that NRAS mutation may predispose leukemic cells to AraC induced differentiation. We therefore suggest that promotion of differentiation pathways by specific genetic alterations could explain the superior treatment outcome after therapy in some AML patient subgroups. Whether a differentiation gene expression status may generally predict for a superior treatment outcome in AML needs to be addressed in future studies. PMID:25901794

  11. A mouse model of melanoma driven by oncogenic KRAS

    PubMed Central

    Milagre, Carla; Dhomen, Nathalie; Geyer, Felipe C; Hayward, Robert; Lambros, Maryou; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Marais, Richard

    2010-01-01

    The small G-protein NRAS is mutated in 22% of human melanomas, whereas the related proteins, KRAS and HRAS are mutated in only 2% and 1% of melanomas respectively. We have developed a mouse models of melanoma in which Cre recombinase/loxP technology is used to drive inducible expression of G12VKRAS in the melanocytic lineage. The mice develop skin hyper-pigmentation, nevi and tumors that bear many of the cardinal histopathology features and molecular characteristics of human melanoma. These tumors invade and destroy the underlying muscles and cells derived from them can grow as subcutaneous tumors and colonise the lungs of nude mice. These data establish that oncogenic KRAS can be a founder event in melanomagenesis. PMID:20516123

  12. PNUTS functions as a proto-oncogene by sequestering PTEN.

    PubMed

    Kavela, Sridhar; Shinde, Swapnil R; Ratheesh, Raman; Viswakalyan, Kotapalli; Bashyam, Murali D; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata; Vamsy, Mohana; Pattnaik, Sujit; Rao, Subramanyeshwar; Sastry, Regulagadda A; Srinivasulu, Mukta; Chen, Junjie; Maddika, Subbareddy

    2013-01-01

    PTEN is a well-defined tumor suppressor gene that antagonizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate a multitude of cellular processes, such as survival, growth, motility, invasiveness, and angiogenesis. While the functions of PTEN have been studied extensively, the regulation of its activity during normal and disease conditions still remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified the protein phosphatase-1 nuclear targeting subunit PNUTS (PPP1R10) as a PTEN-associated protein. PNUTS directly interacted with the lipid-binding domain (C2 domain) of PTEN and sequestered it in the nucleus. Depletion of PNUTS leads to increased apoptosis and reduced cellular proliferation in a PTEN-dependent manner. PNUTS expression was elevated in certain cancers compared with matched normal tissues. Collectively, our studies reveal PNUTS as a novel PTEN regulator and a likely oncogene.

  13. PNUTS functions as a proto-oncogene by sequestering PTEN

    PubMed Central

    Kavela, Sridhar; Shinde, Swapnil R; Ratheesh, Raman; Viswakalyan, Kotapalli; Bashyam, Murali D; Gowrishankar, Swarnalata; Vamsy, Mohana; Pattnaik, Sujit; Rao, Subramanyeshwar; Sastry, Regulagadda A; Srinivasulu, Mukta; Chen, Junjie; Maddika, Subbareddy

    2012-01-01

    PTEN is a well-defined tumor suppressor gene that antagonizes the PI3K/Akt pathway to regulate a multitude of cellular processes such as survival, growth, motility, invasiveness and angiogenesis. While the functions of PTEN have been studied extensively, the regulation of its activity during normal and disease conditions still remains incompletely understood. In this study, we identified the protein phosphatase-1 nuclear targeting subunit PNUTS (PPP1R10) as a PTEN associated protein. PNUTS directly interacted with the lipid-binding domain (C2 domain) of PTEN and sequestered it in the nucleus. Depletion of PNUTS leads to increased apoptosis and reduced cellular proliferation in a PTEN-dependent manner. PNUTS expression was elevated in certain cancers compared to matched normal tissues. Collectively, our studies reveal PNUTS as a novel PTEN regulator and a likely oncogene. PMID:23117887

  14. Oncogenic c-kit transcript is a target for binase.

    PubMed

    Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Kretova, Olga V; Zelenikhin, Pavel V; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Alexander A

    2010-07-01

    Mutational activation of c-Kit receptor tyrosine kinase is common in acute myelogenous leukemia (AML). One such activating point mutation is the N822K replacement in the c-Kit protein. Here we investigate the selective cytotoxic effect of binase--RNase from Bacillus intermedius--on FDC-P1-N822K cells. These cells were derived from myeloid progenitor FDC-P1 cells, in which ectopic expression of N822K c-kit gene induces interleukin-3 independent growth. In order to determine whether the sensitivity of these cells to binase is caused by the expression of c-kit oncogene, the cytotoxicity of the RNase was studied in the presence of selective inhibitor of mutated c-Kit imatinib (Gleevec). Inhibition of mutated c-Kit protein leads to the loss of cell sensitivity to the apoptotic effect of binase, while the latter still decreases the amount of cellular RNA. Using green fluorescent protein as an expression marker for the c-Kit oncoprotein, we demonstrate that the elimination of c-Kit is the key factor in selective cytotoxicity of binase. Quantitative RT-PCR with RNA samples isolated from the binase-treated FDC-P1-N822K cells shows that binase treatment results in 41% reduction in the amount of с-kit mRNA. This indicates that the transcript of the activated mutant c-kit is the target for toxic action of binase. Thus, the combination of inhibition of oncogenic protein with the destruction of its mRNA is a promising approach to eliminating malignant cells.

  15. Transformation by Raf and other oncogenes renders cells differentially sensitive to growth inhibition by a dominant negative c-jun mutant.

    PubMed

    Rapp, U R; Troppmair, J; Beck, T; Birrer, M J

    1994-12-01

    In NIH3T3 cells expressing active Raf-1 protein serine/threonine kinase (PSK) c-jun expression is constitutive while c-fos expression is attenuated. This alteration prompted us to determine whether oncogene transformation would render cells differentially sensitive to growth inhibition by a dominant negative mutant of c-jun, TAM 67. Growth inhibition was observed in three types of assays: (1) transfection of TAM 67 into cells stably transformed by a variety of oncogenes, (2) cotransfection of TAM 67 with oncogene expression plasmids into NIH3T3 cells and (3) titration of oncogene-expressing retroviruses on cells stably expressing TAM 67. The results clearly demonstrate that Raf-1 dependent oncogenes, which include receptor protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs)-, intracellular PTKs- and Ras-derived genes share the Raf phenotype of constitutive c-jun expression, attenuated c-fos induction, and high sensitivity to growth suppression by TAM 67. Additionally, the intracellular PSK oncogene, mos and the nuclear oncogenes c-myc, c-fos, and SV40 T antigen were TAM 67-sensitive for transformation. This universal pattern of altered growth regulation in oncogene transformed fibroblast cell lines highlights the potential usefulness of c-jun based inhibitors for control of tumor cell growth.

  16. KIT oncogene inhibition drives intratumoral macrophage M2 polarization

    PubMed Central

    Cavnar, Michael J.; Zeng, Shan; Kim, Teresa S.; Sorenson, Eric C.; Ocuin, Lee M.; Balachandran, Vinod P.; Seifert, Adrian M.; Greer, Jonathan B.; Popow, Rachel; Crawley, Megan H.; Cohen, Noah A.; Green, Benjamin L.; Rossi, Ferdinand; Besmer, Peter; Antonescu, Cristina R.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are a major component of the cancer microenvironment. Modulation of TAMs is under intense investigation because they are thought to be nearly always of the M2 subtype, which supports tumor growth. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most common human sarcoma and typically results from an activating mutation in the KIT oncogene. Using a spontaneous mouse model of GIST and 57 freshly procured human GISTs, we discovered that TAMs displayed an M1-like phenotype and function at baseline. In both mice and humans, the KIT oncoprotein inhibitor imatinib polarized TAMs to become M2-like, a process which involved TAM interaction with apoptotic tumor cells leading to the induction of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein (C/EBP) transcription factors. In human GISTs that eventually developed resistance to imatinib, TAMs reverted to an M1-like phenotype and had a similar gene expression profile as TAMs from untreated human GISTs. Therefore, TAM polarization depends on tumor cell oncogene activity and has important implications for immunotherapeutic strategies in human cancers. PMID:24323358

  17. FES kinases are required for oncogenic FLT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Voisset, E; Lopez, S; Chaix, A; Georges, C; Hanssens, K; Prébet, T; Dubreuil, P; De Sepulveda, P

    2010-04-01

    The closely related non-receptor tyrosine kinases FEline Sarcoma (FES) and FEs Related (FER) are activated by cell surface receptors in hematopoietic cells. Despite the early description of oncogenic viral forms of fes, v-fes, and v-fps, the implication of FES and FER in human pathology is not known. We have recently shown that FES but not FER is necessary for oncogenic KIT receptor signaling. Here, we report that both FES and FER kinases are activated in primary acute myeloid leukemia (AML) blasts and in AML cell lines. FES and FER activation is dependent on FLT3 in cell lines harboring constitutively active FLT3 mutants. Moreover, both FES and FER proteins are critical for FLT3-internal tandem duplication (ITD) signaling and for cell proliferation in relevant AML cell lines. FER is required for cell cycle transitions, whereas FES seems necessary for cell survival. We concluded that FES and FER kinases mediate essential non-redundant functions downstream of FLT3-ITD.

  18. Oncogenicity of the developmental transcription factor Sox9

    PubMed Central

    Matheu, Ander; Collado, Manuel; Wise, Clare; Manterola, Lorea; Cekaite, Lina; Tye, Angela J.; Canamero, Marta; Bujanda, Luis; Schedl, Andreas; Cheah, Kathryn S.E.; Skotheim, Rolf I.; Lothe, Ragnhild A.; de Munain, Adolfo López; Briscoe, James; Serrano, Manuel; Lovell-Badge, Robin

    2012-01-01

    SOX9, a high mobility group (HMG) box transcription factor, plays critical roles during embryogenesis and its activity is required for development, differentiation and lineage commitment in various tissues including the intestinal epithelium. Here, we present functional and clinical data of a broadly important role for SOX9 in tumorigenesis. SOX9 was overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers, where its expression correlated with malignant character and progression. Gain of SOX9 copy number is detected in some primary colorectal cancers. SOX9 exhibited several pro-oncogenic properties, including the ability to promote proliferation, inhibit senescence and collaborate with other oncogenes in neoplastic transformation. In primary MEFs and colorectal cancer cells, SOX9 expression facilitated tumor growth and progression whilst its inactivation reduced tumorigenicity. Mechanistically, we have found that Sox9 directly binds and activates the promoter of the polycomb protein Bmi1, whose upregulation represses the tumor suppressor Ink4a/Arf locus. In agreement with this, human colorectal cancers showed a positive correlation between expression levels of SOX9 and BMI1 and a negative correlation between SOX9 and ARF in clinical samples. Taken together, our findings provide direct mechanistic evidence of the involvement of SOX9 in neoplastic pathobiology, particularly in colorectal cancer. PMID:22246670

  19. Dimerize RACK1 upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, L.-Y.; Chen, Y.-H.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-05-06

    From our previous studies, we learned that syndecan-2/p120-GAP complex provided docking site for Src to prosecute tyrosine kinase activity upon transformation with oncogenic ras. And, RACK1 protein was reactive with syndecan-2 to keep Src inactivated, but not when Ras was overexpressed. In the present study, we characterized the reaction between RACK1 protein and Ras. RACK1 was isolated from BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus and RACK1 was revealed to react with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), not GDP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K). This selective interaction between RACK1 and GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) was further confirmed with RACK1 of human placenta and mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein. We found that RACK1 was dimerized upon reaction with GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K), as well as with 14-3-3{beta} and geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, as revealed by phosphorylation with Src tyrosine kinase. We reported the complex of RACK1/GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) reacted selectively with p120-GAP. This interaction was sufficient to dissemble RACK1 into monomers, a preferred form to compete for the binding of syndecan-2. These data indicate that the reaction of GTP-K{sub B}-Ras(Q{sub 61}K) with RACK1 in dimers may operate a mechanism to deplete RACK1 from reaction with syndecan-2 upon transformation by oncogenic ras and the RACK1/GTP-Ras complex may provide a route to react with p120-GAP and recycle monomeric RACK1 to syndecan-2.

  20. Function of oncogenes in cancer development: a changing paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2013-01-01

    Tumour-associated oncogenes induce unscheduled proliferation as well as genomic and chromosomal instability. According to current models, therapeutic strategies that block oncogene activity are likely to selectively target tumour cells. However, recent evidences have revealed that oncogenes are only essential for the proliferation of some specific tumour cell types, but not all. Indeed, the latest studies of the interactions between the oncogene and its target cell have shown that oncogenes contribute to cancer development not only by inducing proliferation but also by developmental reprogramming of the epigenome. This provides the first evidence that tumorigenesis can be initiated by stem cell reprogramming, and uncovers a new role for oncogenes in the origin of cancer. Here we analyse these evidences and propose an updated model of oncogene function that can explain the full range of genotype–phenotype associations found in human cancer. Finally, we discuss how this vision opens new avenues for developing novel anti-cancer interventions. PMID:23632857

  1. Oncogenic Human Papillomaviruses Activate the Tumor-Associated Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) Gene

    PubMed Central

    Leitz, Jenny; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Lohrey, Claudia; Honegger, Anja; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Llano, Manuel; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic. PMID:24604027

  2. Power of PTEN/AKT: Molecular switch between tumor suppressors and oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YINGQIU; NAIZABEKOV, SANZHAR; CHEN, ZHANLIN; TOKAY, TURSONJAN

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that tumor suppressors can become oncogenes, or vice versa, but the mechanism behind this is unclear. Recent findings have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the powerful switches for the conversion between tumor suppressors and oncogenes. PTEN regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell death and proliferation, through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, a number of studies have suggested that PTEN deletions may alter various functions of certain tumor suppressor and oncogenic proteins. The aim of the present review was to analyze specific cases driven by PTEN loss/AKT activation, including aberrant signaling pathways and novel drug targets for clinical application in personalized medicine. The findings illustrate how PTEN loss and/or AKT activation switches MDM2-dependent p53 downregulation, and induces conversion between oncogene and tumor suppressor in enhancer of zeste homolog 2, BTB domain-containing 7A, alternative reading frame 2, p27 and breast cancer 1, early onset, through multiple mechanisms. This review highlights the genetic basis of complex drug targets and provides insights into the rationale of precision cancer therapy. PMID:27347153

  3. Significance of hepatitis virus infection in the oncogenic initiation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sukowati, Caecilia HC; El-Khobar, Korri E; Ie, Susan I; Anfuso, Beatrice; Muljono, David H; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor in the development of the HCC, independently from excessive alcohol abuse and metabolic disease. Since the biology of HBV and HCV is different, their oncogenic effect may go through different mechanisms, direct and/or indirect. Viral hepatitis infection is associated with cellular inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage, that may lead to subsequent hepatic injuries such as chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally HCC. Direct oncogenic properties of these viruses are related with their genotypic characteristics and the ability of viral proteins to interact with host proteins, thus altering the molecular pathways balance of the cells. In addition, the integration of HBV DNA, especially the gene S and X, in a particular site of the host genome can disrupt chromosomal stability and may activate various oncogenic mechanisms, including those in hematopoietic cells. Recently, several studies also had demonstrated that viral hepatitis could trigger the population of hepatic cancer stem cells. This review summarize available pre-clinical and clinical data in literature regarding oncogenic properties of HBV and HCV in the early initiation of HCC. PMID:26819517

  4. Significance of hepatitis virus infection in the oncogenic initiation of hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Sukowati, Caecilia H C; El-Khobar, Korri E; Ie, Susan I; Anfuso, Beatrice; Muljono, David H; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2016-01-28

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor in the development of the HCC, independently from excessive alcohol abuse and metabolic disease. Since the biology of HBV and HCV is different, their oncogenic effect may go through different mechanisms, direct and/or indirect. Viral hepatitis infection is associated with cellular inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage, that may lead to subsequent hepatic injuries such as chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally HCC. Direct oncogenic properties of these viruses are related with their genotypic characteristics and the ability of viral proteins to interact with host proteins, thus altering the molecular pathways balance of the cells. In addition, the integration of HBV DNA, especially the gene S and X, in a particular site of the host genome can disrupt chromosomal stability and may activate various oncogenic mechanisms, including those in hematopoietic cells. Recently, several studies also had demonstrated that viral hepatitis could trigger the population of hepatic cancer stem cells. This review summarize available pre-clinical and clinical data in literature regarding oncogenic properties of HBV and HCV in the early initiation of HCC. PMID:26819517

  5. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses activate the tumor-associated lens epithelial-derived growth factor (LEDGF) gene.

    PubMed

    Leitz, Jenny; Reuschenbach, Miriam; Lohrey, Claudia; Honegger, Anja; Accardi, Rosita; Tommasino, Massimo; Llano, Manuel; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Hoppe-Seyler, Karin; Hoppe-Seyler, Felix

    2014-03-01

    The expression of the human papillomavirus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogenes is crucial for HPV-induced malignant cell transformation. The identification of cellular targets attacked by the HPV oncogenes is critical for our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of HPV-associated carcinogenesis and may open novel therapeutic opportunities. Here, we identify the Lens Epithelial-Derived Growth Factor (LEDGF) gene as a novel cellular target gene for the HPV oncogenes. Elevated LEDGF expression has been recently linked to human carcinogenesis and can protect tumor cells towards different forms of cellular stress. We show that intracellular LEDGF mRNA and protein levels in HPV-positive cancer cells are critically dependent on the maintenance of viral oncogene expression. Ectopic E6/E7 expression stimulates LEDGF transcription in primary keratinocytes, at least in part via activation of the LEDGF promoter. Repression of endogenous LEDGF expression by RNA interference results in an increased sensitivity of HPV-positive cancer cells towards genotoxic agents. Immunohistochemical analyses of cervical tissue specimens reveal a highly significant increase of LEDGF protein levels in HPV-positive lesions compared to histologically normal cervical epithelium. Taken together, these results indicate that the E6/E7-dependent maintenance of intracellular LEDGF expression is critical for protecting HPV-positive cancer cells against various forms of cellular stress, including DNA damage. This could support tumor cell survival and contribute to the therapeutic resistance of cervical cancers towards genotoxic treatment strategies in the clinic.

  6. Fos family members: regulation, structure and role in oncogenic transformation.

    PubMed

    Tulchinsky, E

    2000-07-01

    The members of the Fos protein family might be subdivided in two groups, according to their ability to transform rodent fibroblasts, transforming (c-Fos and FosB) and non-transforming (Fra-1 and Fra-2) proteins. Members of these groups are differently activated in response to external stimuli and possess different structural features. Importantly, whilst c-Fos and FosB contain multiple transactivation modules in their N- and C-terminal parts, transactivation domains are absent in the non-transforming Fos proteins. As a result, Fra-1 and Fra-2 though efficiently form dimers with the Jun proteins, are weak transcriptional activators and inhibit the c-Fos-dependent activation in transient transfection assay. The numerous experiments performed with the different Fos mutant proteins with impaired transforming ability, as well as with chimeric proteins revealed the importance of the transactivation function for transformation. Fra-1 and Fra-2 proteins albeit ineffectively triggering oncogenic transformation, are abundant in ras- and src-transformed murine and chicken fibroblasts, in neoplastic thyroid cells and in highly malignant mouse adenocarcinoma cells, which underwent mesenchymal transition. The abundance of the non-transforming Fos proteins in these systems might be mediated by a positive AP-l-dependent feedback mechanism, as well as by wnt signals. Furthermore, the manipulation of the Fra-1 expression level in thyroid and mammary tumor cells modulated the transcription of several tumor progression markers and affected cell morphology and invasiveness. These recent data demonstrate a novel function of non-transforming Fos proteins in the maintenance and progression of the transformed state. Interestingly, this function is independent of the documented invalidity of the Fra-1 and Fra-2 proteins as transcriptional activators in rodent fibroblasts.

  7. Macroautophagy and the Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Grasso, Daniel; Vaccaro, Maria I.

    2014-01-01

    The oncogene-induced senescence is emerging as a potent tumor suppressor mechanism and as a possible therapeutic target. Macroautophagy is intimately linked to the senescence condition setup, although its role has not been elucidated yet. Here, we discuss up-to-date concepts of senescence-related macroautophagy and evaluate the current trend of this growing research field, which has relevance in future perspectives toward therapeutic options against cancer. PMID:25324830

  8. Characterization and developmental expression of a Drosophila ras oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Mozer, B; Marlor, R; Parkhurst, S; Corces, V

    1985-01-01

    We cloned a Drosophila melanogaster ras gene (Dmras64B) on the basis of its homology to the ras oncogen from Harvey murine sarcoma virus. This gene mapped at chromosomal position 64B on the left arm of the third chromosome. Sequencing of Dmras64B revealed extensive amino acid homology with the proteins encoded by the human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae ras genes. The coding region of the Drosophila gene is interrupted by two introns located in different positions with respect to its human counterpart. Dmras64B encodes three different RNAs (1.6, 2.1, and 2.6 kilobases long) that are constantly expressed throughout the development of the fly. Images PMID:3921827

  9. Induction of promyelocytic leukemia (PML) oncogenic domains (PODs) by papillomavirus

    SciTech Connect

    Nakahara, Tomomi; Lambert, Paul F.

    2007-09-30

    Promyelocytic leukemia oncogenic domains (PODs), also called nuclear domain 10 (ND10), are subnuclear structures that have been implicated in a variety of cellular processes as well as the life cycle of DNA viruses including papillomaviruses. In order to investigate the interplay between papillomaviruses and PODs, we analyzed the status of PODs in organotypic raft cultures of human keratinocytes harboring HPV genome that support the differentiation-dependent HPV life cycle. The number of PODs per nucleus was increased in the presence of HPV genomes selectively within the poorly differentiated layers but was absent in the terminally differentiated layers of the stratified epithelium. This increase in PODs was correlated with an increase in abundance of post-translationally modified PML protein. Neither the E2-dependent transcription nor viral DNA replication was reliant upon the presence of PML. Implications of these findings in terms of HPV's interaction with its host are discussed.

  10. The N-terminal part of TIF1, a putative mediator of the ligand-dependent activation function (AF-2) of nuclear receptors, is fused to B-raf in the oncogenic protein T18.

    PubMed Central

    Le Douarin, B; Zechel, C; Garnier, J M; Lutz, Y; Tora, L; Pierrat, P; Heery, D; Gronemeyer, H; Chambon, P; Losson, R

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear receptors (NRs) bound to response elements mediate the effects of cognate ligands on gene expression. Their ligand-dependent activation function, AF-2, presumably acts on the basal transcription machinery through intermediary proteins/mediators. We have isolated a mouse nuclear protein, TIF1, which enhances RXR and RAR AF-2 in yeast and interacts in a ligand-dependent manner with several NRs in yeast and mammalian cells, as well as in vitro. Remarkably, these interactions require the amino acids constituting the AF-2 activating domain conserved in all active NRs. Moreover, the oestrogen receptor (ER) AF-2 antagonist hydroxytamoxifen cannot promote ER-TIF1 interaction. We propose that TIF1, which contains several conserved domains found in transcriptional regulatory proteins, is a mediator of ligand-dependent AF-2. Interestingly, the TIF1 N-terminal moiety is fused to B-raf in the mouse oncoprotein T18. Images PMID:7744009

  11. Activation of proto-oncogenes by disruption of chromosome neighborhoods.

    PubMed

    Hnisz, Denes; Weintraub, Abraham S; Day, Daniel S; Valton, Anne-Laure; Bak, Rasmus O; Li, Charles H; Goldmann, Johanna; Lajoie, Bryan R; Fan, Zi Peng; Sigova, Alla A; Reddy, Jessica; Borges-Rivera, Diego; Lee, Tong Ihn; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Porteus, Matthew H; Dekker, Job; Young, Richard A

    2016-03-25

    Oncogenes are activated through well-known chromosomal alterations such as gene fusion, translocation, and focal amplification. In light of recent evidence that the control of key genes depends on chromosome structures called insulated neighborhoods, we investigated whether proto-oncogenes occur within these structures and whether oncogene activation can occur via disruption of insulated neighborhood boundaries in cancer cells. We mapped insulated neighborhoods in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and found that tumor cell genomes contain recurrent microdeletions that eliminate the boundary sites of insulated neighborhoods containing prominent T-ALL proto-oncogenes. Perturbation of such boundaries in nonmalignant cells was sufficient to activate proto-oncogenes. Mutations affecting chromosome neighborhood boundaries were found in many types of cancer. Thus, oncogene activation can occur via genetic alterations that disrupt insulated neighborhoods in malignant cells.

  12. Individual and Complementary Effects of Human Papillomavirus Oncogenes on Epithelial Cell Proliferation and Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Bergner, Sven; Halec, Gordana; Schmitt, Markus; Aubin, François; Alonso, Angel; Auvinen, Eeva

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies on human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16 protein functions have established the oncogenic nature of three viral proteins: E5, E6 and E7. Here we have studied the functions of these proteins by functional deletion of the individual E5, E6 or E7, or both E6 and E7 oncogenes in the context of the whole viral genome. These mutants, or the intact wild-type genome, were expressed from the natural viral promoters along with differentiation of epithelial HaCaT cells in three-dimensional collagen raft cultures. High episomal viral copy numbers were obtained using a transfection-based loxp-HPV16-eGFP-N1 vector system. All epithelial equivalents carrying the different HPV type 16 genomes showed pronounced hyperplastic and dysplastic morphology. Particularly the E7 oncogene, with contribution of E6, was shown to enhance cell proliferation. Specifically, the crucial role of E7 in HPV-associated hyperproliferation was clearly manifested. Based on morphological characteristics, immunohistochemical staining for differentiation and proliferation markers, and low expression of E1^E4, we propose that our raft culture models produce cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN)1 and CIN2-like tissue. Our experimental setting provides an alternative tool to study concerted functions of HPV proteins in the development of epithelial dysplasia. PMID:26636751

  13. The contribution of tumor and host tissue factor expression to oncogene-driven gliomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Magnus, Nathalie; Meehan, Brian; Garnier, Delphine; Hashemi, Maryam; Montermini, Laura; Lee, Tae Hoon; Milsom, Chloe; Pawlinski, Rafal; Ohlfest, John; Anderson, Mark; Mackman, Nigel; Rak, Janusz

    2014-11-14

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is an aggressive form of glial brain tumors, associated with angiogenesis, thrombosis, and upregulation of tissue factor (TF), the key cellular trigger of coagulation and signaling. Since TF is upregulated by oncogenic mutations occurring in different subsets of human brain tumors we investigated whether TF contributes to tumourigenesis driven by oncogenic activation of EGFR (EGFRvIII) and RAS pathways in the brain. Here we show that TF expression correlates with poor prognosis in glioma, but not in GBM. In situ, the TF protein expression is heterogeneously expressed in adult and pediatric gliomas. GBM cells harboring EGFRvIII (U373vIII) grow aggressively as xenografts in SCID mice and their progression is delayed by administration of monoclonal antibodies blocking coagulant (CNTO 859) and signaling (10H10) effects of TF in vivo. Mice in which TF gene is disrupted in the neuroectodermal lineage exhibit delayed progression of spontaneous brain tumors driven by oncogenic N-ras and SV40 large T antigen (SV40LT) expressed under the control of sleeping beauty transposase. Reduced host TF levels in low-TF/SCID hypomorphic mice mitigated growth of glioma subcutaneously but not in the brain. Thus, we suggest that tumor-associated TF may serve as therapeutic target in the context of oncogene-driven disease progression in a subset of glioma.

  14. Oncogenic KRAS and BRAF Drive Metabolic Reprogramming in Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hutton, Josiah E; Wang, Xiaojing; Zimmerman, Lisa J; Slebos, Robbert J C; Trenary, Irina A; Young, Jamey D; Li, Ming; Liebler, Daniel C

    2016-09-01

    Metabolic reprogramming, in which altered utilization of glucose and glutamine supports rapid growth, is a hallmark of most cancers. Mutations in the oncogenes KRAS and BRAF drive metabolic reprogramming through enhanced glucose uptake, but the broader impact of these mutations on pathways of carbon metabolism is unknown. Global shotgun proteomic analysis of isogenic DLD-1 and RKO colon cancer cell lines expressing mutant and wild type KRAS or BRAF, respectively, failed to identify significant differences (at least 2-fold) in metabolic protein abundance. However, a multiplexed parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) strategy targeting 73 metabolic proteins identified significant protein abundance increases of 1.25-twofold in glycolysis, the nonoxidative pentose phosphate pathway, glutamine metabolism, and the phosphoserine biosynthetic pathway in cells with KRAS G13D mutations or BRAF V600E mutations. These alterations corresponded to mutant KRAS and BRAF-dependent increases in glucose uptake and lactate production. Metabolic reprogramming and glucose conversion to lactate in RKO cells were proportional to levels of BRAF V600E protein. In DLD-1 cells, these effects were independent of the ratio of KRAS G13D to KRAS wild type protein. A study of 8 KRAS wild type and 8 KRAS mutant human colon tumors confirmed the association of increased expression of glycolytic and glutamine metabolic proteins with KRAS mutant status. Metabolic reprogramming is driven largely by modest (<2-fold) alterations in protein expression, which are not readily detected by the global profiling methods most commonly employed in proteomic studies. The results indicate the superiority of more precise, multiplexed, pathway-targeted analyses to study functional proteome systems. Data are available through MassIVE Accession MSV000079486 at ftp://MSV000079486@massive.ucsd.edu. PMID:27340238

  15. Centrosomal targeting of tyrosine kinase activity does not enhance oncogenicity in chronic myeloproliferative disorders.

    PubMed

    Bochtler, T; Kirsch, M; Maier, B; Bachmann, J; Klingmüller, U; Anderhub, S; Ho, A D; Krämer, A

    2012-04-01

    Constitutive tyrosine kinase activation by reciprocal chromosomal translocation is a common pathogenetic mechanism in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. Since centrosomal proteins have been recurrently identified as translocation partners of tyrosine kinases FGFR1, JAK2, PDGFRα and PDGFRβ in these diseases, a role for the centrosome in oncogenic transformation has been hypothesized. In this study, we addressed the functional role of centrosomally targeted tyrosine kinase activity. First, centrosomal localization was not routinely found for all chimeric fusion proteins tested. Second, targeting of tyrosine kinases to the centrosome by creating artificial chimeric fusion kinases with the centrosomal targeting domain of AKAP450 failed to enhance the oncogenic transforming potential in both Ba/F3 and U2OS cells, although phospho-tyrosine-mediated signal transduction pathways were initiated at the centrosome. We conclude that the centrosomal localization of constitutively activated tyrosine kinases does not contribute to disease pathogenesis in chronic myeloproliferative disorders. PMID:22015771

  16. Melanoma: oncogenic drivers and the immune system

    PubMed Central

    Karachaliou, Niki; Pilotto, Sara; Teixidó, Cristina; Viteri, Santiago; González-Cao, María; Riso, Aldo; Morales-Espinosa, Daniela; Molina, Miguel Angel; Chaib, Imane; Santarpia, Mariacarmela; Richardet, Eduardo; Bria, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Advances and in-depth understanding of the biology of melanoma over the past 30 years have contributed to a change in the consideration of melanoma as one of the most therapy-resistant malignancies. The finding that oncogenic BRAF mutations drive tumor growth in up to 50% of melanomas led to a molecular therapy revolution for unresectable and metastatic disease. Moving beyond BRAF, inactivation of immune regulatory checkpoints that limit T cell responses to melanoma has provided targets for cancer immunotherapy. In this review, we discuss the molecular biology of melanoma and we focus on the recent advances of molecularly targeted and immunotherapeutic approaches. PMID:26605311

  17. Oncogenic osteomalacia: strange tumours in strange places.

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, D.; Bar, R. S.; Weidner, N.; Wener, M.; Lee, F.

    1985-01-01

    Two patients presented with hypophosphataemic osteomalacia and were subsequently found to have small tumours unusual histopathology and location causing the osteomalacia. Each tumour was found after an intensive search for occult masses. Studies of vitamin D metabolism and renal tubular function before and after surgery yielded further insight into the pathophysiology of oncogenic osteomalacia. These cases demonstrate that microscopic quantities of tumour are capable of causing the syndrome and further illustrate the high index of suspicion often necessary to locate causative tumours in patients with hypophosphataemic osteomalacia. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:4022870

  18. Identification of lung cancer oncogenes based on the mRNA expression and single nucleotide polymorphism profile data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y; Mei, Q; Ai, Y Q; Li, R Q; Chang, L; Li, Y F; Xia, Y X; Li, W H; Chen, Y

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the oncogenes associated with lung cancer based on the mRNA and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) profile data. The mRNA expression profile data of GSE43458 (80 cancer and 30 normal samples) and SNP profile data of GSE33355 (61 pairs of lung cancer samples and control samples) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus database. Common genes between the mRNA profile and SNP profile were identified as the lung cancer oncogenes. Risk subpathways of the selected oncogenes with the SNP locus were analyzed using the iSubpathwayMiner package in R. Moreover, protein-protein interaction (PPI) network of the oncogenes was constructed using the HPRD database and then visualized using the Cytoscape. Totally, 3004 DEGs (1105 up-regulated and 1899 down-regulated) and 125 significant SNPs closely related to 174 genes in the lung cancer samples were identified. Also, 39 common genes, like PFKP (phosphofructokinase, platelet) and DGKH-rs11616202 (diacylglycerol kinase, eta) that enriched in sub-pathways such as galactose metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism, and pentose phosphate pathway, were identified as the lung cancer oncogenes. Besides, PIK3R1 (phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1), RORA (RAR-related orphan receptor A), MAGI3 (membrane associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain containing 3), PTPRM (protein tyrosine phosphatase, receptor type, M), and BMP6 (bone morphogenetic protein 6) were the hub genes in PPI network. Our study suggested that PFKP and DGKH that enriched in galactose metabolism, fructose and mannose metabolism pathway, as well as PIK3R1, RORA, and MAGI3, may be the lung cancer oncogenes.

  19. Pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic pathways: opportunities and challenges of cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Yan-Hua; Lu, Qun

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is the uncontrolled growth of cells gaining the potential to invade and disrupt vital tissue functions. This malignant process includes the occurrence of ‘unwanted’ gene mutations that induce the transformation of normal cells, for example, by overactivation of pro-oncogenic pathways and inactivation of tumor-suppressive or anti-oncogenic pathways. It is now recognized that the number of major signaling pathways that control oncogenesis is not unlimited; therefore, suppressing these pathways can conceivably lead to a cancer cure. However, the clinical application of cancer intervention has not matched up to scientific expectations. Increasing numbers of studies have revealed that many oncogenic-signaling elements show double faces, in which they can promote or suppress cancer pathogenesis depending on tissue type, cancer stage, gene dosage and their interaction with other players in carcinogenesis. This complexity of oncogenic signaling poses challenges to traditional cancer therapy and calls for considerable caution when designing an anticancer drug strategy. We propose future oncology interventions with the concept of integrative cancer therapy. PMID:20373871

  20. Synthesizing oncogenic signal-processing systems that function as both "signal counters" and "signal blockers" in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuchen; Huang, Weiren; Zhou, Dexi; Han, Yonghua; Duan, Yonggang; Zhang, Xiaoyue; Zhang, Hu; Jiang, Zhimao; Gui, Yaoting; Cai, Zhiming

    2013-07-01

    RNA-protein interaction plays a significant role in regulating eukaryotic translation. This phenomenon raises questions about the ability of artificial biological systems to take the advantage of protein-RNA interaction. Here, we designed an oncogenic signal-processing system expressing both a Renilla luciferase reporter gene controlled by RNA-protein interaction in its 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) and a Firefly luciferase normalization gene. To test the ability of the designed system, we then constructed vectors targeting the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) or the β-catenin signal. We found that the inhibition (%) of luciferase expression was correlated to the targeted protein content, allowing quantitative measurement of oncogenic signal intensity in cancer cells. The systems inhibited the expression of oncogenic signal downstream genes and induced bladder cancer cell proliferation inhibition and apoptosis without affecting normal urothelial cells. Compared to traditional methods (ELISA and quantitative immunoblotting), the bio-systems provided highly accurate, consistent, and reproducible quantification of protein signals and were able to discriminate between cancerous and non-cancerous cells. In conclusion, the synthetic systems function as both "signal counters" and "signal blockers" in cancer cells. This approach provides a synthetic biology platform for oncogenic signal measurement and cancer treatment.

  1. The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters induced by their agonists. Thus nAChRs mediated cell signaling plays an important role in stimulating the growth and angiogenic and neurogenic factors and mediating oncogenic signal transduction during cancer development in a cell type specific manner. In this review, we provide an integrated view of nAChRs signaling in cancer, heightening on the oncogenic properties of nAChRs that may be targeted for cancer treatment. PMID:26981122

  2. Oncogenic Activation of NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Staudt, Louis M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-κB signaling in cancer. NF-κB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-κB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IκB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-κB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-κB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-κB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IκB kinases to activate NF-κB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-κB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-κB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer. PMID:20516126

  3. The Oncogenic Functions of Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yue

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are ion channels that are expressed in the cell membrane of all mammalian cells, including cancer cells. Recent findings suggest that nAChRs not only mediate nicotine addiction in the brain but also contribute to the development and progression of cancers directly induced by nicotine and its derived carcinogenic nitrosamines whereas deregulation of the nAChRs is observed in many cancers, and genome-wide association studies (GWAS) indicate that SNPs nAChRs associate with risks of lung cancers and nicotine addiction. Emerging evidences suggest nAChRs are posited at the central regulatory loops of numerous cell growth and prosurvival signal pathways and also mediate the synthesis and release of stimulatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters induced by their agonists. Thus nAChRs mediated cell signaling plays an important role in stimulating the growth and angiogenic and neurogenic factors and mediating oncogenic signal transduction during cancer development in a cell type specific manner. In this review, we provide an integrated view of nAChRs signaling in cancer, heightening on the oncogenic properties of nAChRs that may be targeted for cancer treatment. PMID:26981122

  4. Vitamin D/Vitamin D Receptor Axis Regulates DNA Repair During Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Graziano, Simona; Johnston, Rachel; Deng, Ou; Zhang, Junran; Gonzalo, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic Ras expression is associated with activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway, as evidenced by elevated DNA damage, primarily DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), and activation of DNA damage checkpoints, which in primary human cells leads to entry into senescence. DDR activation is viewed as a physiological barrier against uncontrolled proliferation in oncogenic Ras-expressing cells, and arises in response to genotoxic stress due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that damage DNA, and to hyper-replication stress. Although oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is considered a tumor suppressor mechanism, the accumulation of DNA damage in senescent cells is thought to cause genomic instability, eventually allowing secondary hits in the genome that promote tumorigenesis. To date, the molecular mechanisms behind DNA repair defects during OIS remain poorly understood. Here, we show that oncogenic Ras expression in human primary cells results in down-regulation of BRCA1 and 53BP1, two key factors in DNA DSBs repair by homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ), respectively. As a consequence, Ras-induced senescent cells are hindered in their ability to recruit BRCA1 and 53BP1 to DNA damage sites. While BRCA1 is down-regulated at transcripts levels, 53BP1 loss is caused by activation of cathepsin L (CTSL)-mediated degradation of 53BP1 protein. Moreover, we discovered a marked down-regulation of vitamin D receptor (VDR) during OIS, and a role for the vitamin D/VDR axis regulating the levels of these DNA repair factors during OIS. This study reveals a new functional relationship between the oncogene Ras, the vitamin D/VDR axis, and the expression of DNA repair factors, in the context of OIS. The observed deficiencies in DNA repair factors in senescent cells could contribute to the genomic instability that allows senescence bypass and tumorigenesis. PMID:27041576

  5. Expression of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A 16, tumour protein 53 and epidermal growth factor receptor in salivary gland carcinomas is not associated with oncogenic virus infection.

    PubMed

    Senft, Ellen; Lemound, Juliana; Stucki-Koch, Angelika; Gellrich, Nils-Claudius; Kreipe, Hans; Hussein, Kais

    2015-03-01

    It is known that human papillomavirus (HPV) infection can cause squamous cell neoplasms at several sites, such as cervix uteri carcinoma and oral squamous carcinoma. There is little information on the expression of HPV and its predictive markers in tumours of the major and minor salivary glands of the head and neck. We therefore assessed oral salivary gland neoplasms to identify associations between HPV and infection-related epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A (CDKN2A/p16) and tumour protein p53 (TP53). Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples from oral salivary gland carcinomas (n=51) and benign tumours (n=26) were analysed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis for several HPV species, including high-risk types 16 and 18. Evaluation of EGFR, CDKN2A, TP53 and cytomegalovirus (CMV) was performed by immunohistochemistry. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) was evaluated by EBV-encoded RNA in situ hybridisation. We demonstrated that salivary gland tumours are not associated with HPV infection. The expression of EGFR, CDKN2A and TP53 may be associated with tumour pathology but is not induced by HPV. CMV and EBV were not detectable. In contrast to oral squamous cell carcinomas, HPV, CMV and EBV infections are not associated with malignant or benign neoplastic lesions of the salivary glands.

  6. Sensitivity of acute myeloid leukemia Kasumi-1 cells to binase toxic action depends on the expression of KIT and АML1-ETO oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Mitkevich, Vladimir A; Petrushanko, Irina Y; Spirin, Pavel V; Fedorova, Tatiana V; Kretova, Olga V; Tchurikov, Nickolai A; Prassolov, Vladimir S; Ilinskaya, Olga N; Makarov, Alexander A

    2011-12-01

    Some RNases selectively attack malignant cells, triggering an apoptotic response, and therefore are considered as alternative chemotherapeutic drugs. Here we studied the effects of Bacillus intermedius RNase (binase) on murine myeloid progenitor cells FDC-P1; transduced FDC-P1 cells ectopically expressing mutated human KIT N822K oncogene and/or human AML1-ETO oncogene; and human leukemia Kasumi-1 cells expressing both of these oncogenes. Expression of both KIT and AML1-ETO oncogenes makes FDC-P1 cells sensitive to the toxic effects of binase. Kasumi-1 cells were the most responsive to the toxic actions of binase among the cell lines used in this work with an IC50 value of 0.56 µM. Either blocking the functional activity of the KIT protein with imatinib or knocking-down oncogene expression using lentiviral vectors producing shRNA against AML1-ETO or KIT eliminated the sensitivity of Kasumi-1 cells to binase toxic action and promoted their survival, even in the absence of KIT-dependent proliferation and antiapoptotic pathways. Here we provide evidence that the cooperative effect of the expression of mutated KIT and AML1-ETO oncogenes is crucial for selective toxic action of binase on malignant cells. These findings can facilitate clinical applications of binase providing a useful screen based on the presence of the corresponding target oncogenes in malignant cells.

  7. Pro-oncogenic role of alternative p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases p38γ and p38δ, linking inflammation and cancer in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Del Reino, Paloma; Alsina-Beauchamp, Dayanira; Escós, Alejandra; Cerezo-Guisado, Ma Isabel; Risco, Ana; Aparicio, Noelia; Zur, Rafal; Fernandez-Estévez, Marian; Collantes, Elena; Montans, Jose; Cuenda, Ana

    2014-11-01

    p38 MAPK signaling has been implicated in the regulation of processes leading to cancer development and progression. Chronic inflammation is a known risk factor for tumorigenesis, yet the precise mechanism of this association remains largely unknown. The related p38αMAPK (MAPK14) proteins p38γ (MAPK12) and p38δ (MAPK13) were recently shown to modulate the immune response, although their role in tumorigenesis remains controversial and their function in inflammation-associated cancer has not been studied. We analyzed the role of p38γ and p38δ in colon cancer associated to colitis using the azoxymethane/dextran sodium sulphate (AOM/DSS) colitis-associated colon cancer model in wild-type (WT), p38γ-, p38δ-, and p38γ/δ-deficient (p38γ/δ(-/-)) mice. We found that p38γ/δ deficiency significantly decreased tumor formation, in parallel with a decrease in proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production. Analysis of leukocyte populations in p38γ/δ(-/-) mouse colon showed less macrophage and neutrophil recruitment than in WT mice. Furthermore, WT chimeric mice with transplanted p38γ/δ(-/-) bone marrow had less tumors than WT mice transplanted with WT bone marrow, whereas tumor number was significantly increased in p38γ/δ(-/-) chimeric mice with WT bone marrow compared with p38γ/δ(-/-) mice transplanted with p38γ/δ(-/-) bone marrow. Together, our results establish that p38γ and p38δ are central to colitis-associated colon cancer formation through regulation of hematopoietic cell response to injury, and validate p38γ and p38δ as potential targets for cancer therapy.

  8. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David J H; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary D; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimling, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-07-24

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.

  9. RECQL4 helicase has oncogenic potential in sporadic breast cancers.

    PubMed

    Arora, Arvind; Agarwal, Devika; Abdel-Fatah, Tarek Ma; Lu, Huiming; Croteau, Deborah L; Moseley, Paul; Aleskandarany, Mohammed A; Green, Andrew R; Ball, Graham; Rakha, Emad A; Chan, Stephen Yt; Ellis, Ian O; Wang, Lisa L; Zhao, Yongliang; Balajee, Adayabalam S; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Madhusudan, Srinivasan

    2016-03-01

    RECQL4 helicase is a molecular motor that unwinds DNA, a process essential during DNA replication and DNA repair. Germ-line mutations in RECQL4 cause type II Rothmund-Thomson syndrome (RTS), characterized by a premature ageing phenotype and cancer predisposition. RECQL4 is widely considered to be a tumour suppressor, although its role in human breast cancer is largely unknown. As the RECQL4 gene is localized to chromosome 8q24, a site frequently amplified in sporadic breast cancers, we hypothesized that it may play an oncogenic role in breast tumourigenesis. To address this, we analysed large cohorts for gene copy number changes (n = 1977), mRNA expression (n = 1977) and protein level (n = 1902). Breast cancer incidence was also explored in 58 patients with type II RTS. DNA replication dynamics and chemosensitivity was evaluated in RECQL4-depleted breast cancer cells in vitro. Amplification or gain in gene copy number (30.6%), high-level mRNA expression (51%) and high levels of protein (23%) significantly associated with aggressive tumour behaviour, including lymph node positivity, larger tumour size, HER2 overexpression, ER-negativity, triple-negative phenotypes and poor survival. RECQL4 depletion impaired the DNA replication rate and increased chemosensitivity in cultured breast cancer cells. Thus, although recognized as a 'safe guardian of the genome', our data provide compelling evidence that RECQL4 is tumour promoting in established breast cancers. Copyright © 2015 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. CXCR4 in breast cancer: oncogenic role and therapeutic targeting

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Chao; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Haitao; Yao, Qinghua

    2015-01-01

    Chemokines are 8–12 kDa peptides that function as chemoattractant cytokines and are involved in cell activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Chemokines bind to specific G-protein-coupled seven-span transmembrane receptors. Chemokines play a fundamental role in the regulation of a variety of cellular, physiological, and developmental processes. Their aberrant expression can lead to a variety of human diseases including cancer. C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), also known as fusin or CD184, is an alpha-chemokine receptor specific for stromal-derived-factor-1 (SDF-1 also called CXCL12). CXCR4 belongs to the superfamily of the seven transmembrane domain heterotrimeric G protein-coupled receptors and is functionally expressed on the cell surface of various types of cancer cells. CXCR4 also plays a role in the cell proliferation and migration of these cells. Recently, CXCR4 has been reported to play an important role in cell survival, proliferation, migration, as well as metastasis of several cancers including breast cancer. This review is mainly focused on the current knowledge of the oncogenic role and potential drugs that target CXCR4 in breast cancer. Additionally, CXCR4 proangiogenic molecular mechanisms will be reviewed. Strict biunivocal binding affinity and activation of CXCR4/CXCL12 complex make CXCR4 a unique molecular target for prevention and treatment of breast cancer. PMID:26356032

  11. Identification of ALV-J associated acutely transforming virus Fu-J carrying complete v-fps oncogene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yixin; Li, Jianliang; Li, Yang; Fang, Lichun; Sun, Xiaolong; Chang, Shuang; Zhao, Peng; Cui, Zhizhong

    2016-06-01

    Transduction of oncogenes by ALVs and generation of acute transforming viruses is common in natural viral infections. In order to understand the molecular basis for the rapid oncogenicity of Fu-J, an acutely transforming avian leukosis virus isolated from fibrosarcomas in crossbreed broilers infected with subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J) in China, complete genomic structure of Fu-J virus was determined by PCR amplification and compared with those of Fu-J1, Fu-J2, Fu-J3, Fu-J4, and Fu-J5 reported previously. The results showed that the genome of Fu-J was defective, with parts of gag gene replaced by the complete v-fps oncogene and encoded a 137 kDa Gag-fps fusion protein. Sequence analysis revealed that Fu-J and Fu-J1 to Fu-J5 were related quasi-species variants carrying different lengths of v-fps oncogenes generated from recombination between helper virus and c-fps gene. Comparison of virus carrying v-fps oncogene also gave us a glimpse of the molecular characterization and evolution process of the acutely transforming ALV.

  12. In vitro transformation of immature hematopoietic cells by the P210 BCR/ABL oncogene product of the Philadelphia chromosome

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, J.; Chianese, E.; Witte, O.N.

    1987-09-01

    The Philadelphia chromosome is the cytogenetic hallmark of human chronic myelogenous leukemia. RNA splicing joins sequences from a gene on chromosome 22 (BCR) across the translocation breakpoint to a portion of the ABL oncogene from chromosome 9, resulting in a chimeric protein (P210) that is an active tyrosine kinase. Although strongly correlated with this specific human neoplasm, and implicated as an oncogene by analogy to the gene product of the Abelson murine leukemia virus, the P210 gene had not been tested directly for oncogenic potential in hematopoietic cells. The authors have used a retroviral gene-transfer system to express P210 in mouse bone marrow cells. When infected bone marrow is plated under conditions for long-term culture of cells of the B-lymphoid lineage, cells expressing high amounts of P210 tyrosine kinase dominate the culture and rapidly lead to clonal outgrowths of immature lymphoid cells. Expression of P210 is growth-stimulatory but not sufficient for full oncogenic behavior. Some clonal lines progress toward a fully malignant phenotype as judged by increased cloning efficiency in agar suspension and frequency and rapidity of tumor induction in syngeneic mice. Such in vitro systems should be useful in evaluating the sequential and perhaps synergistic involvement of the P210 gene and other oncogenes as models for the progressive changes observed in human chronic myelogenous leukemia.

  13. The oncogenic transcription factor c-Jun regulates glutaminase expression and sensitizes cells to glutaminase-targeted therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lukey, Michael J.; Greene, Kai Su; Erickson, Jon W.; Wilson, Kristin F.; Cerione, Richard A.

    2016-01-01

    Many transformed cells exhibit altered glucose metabolism and increased utilization of glutamine for anabolic and bioenergetic processes. These metabolic adaptations, which accompany tumorigenesis, are driven by oncogenic signals. Here we report that the transcription factor c-Jun, product of the proto-oncogene JUN, is a key regulator of mitochondrial glutaminase (GLS) levels. Activation of c-Jun downstream of oncogenic Rho GTPase signalling leads to elevated GLS gene expression and glutaminase activity. In human breast cancer cells, GLS protein levels and sensitivity to GLS inhibition correlate strongly with c-Jun levels. We show that c-Jun directly binds to the GLS promoter region, and is sufficient to increase gene expression. Furthermore, ectopic overexpression of c-Jun renders breast cancer cells dependent on GLS activity. These findings reveal a role for c-Jun as a driver of cancer cell metabolic reprogramming, and suggest that cancers overexpressing JUN may be especially sensitive to GLS-targeted therapies. PMID:27089238

  14. The guardians of inherited oncogenic vulnerabilities.

    PubMed

    Arnal, Audrey; Tissot, Tazzio; Ujvari, Beata; Nunney, Leonard; Solary, Eric; Laplane, Lucie; Bonhomme, François; Vittecoq, Marion; Tasiemski, Aurélie; Renaud, François; Pujol, Pascal; Roche, Benjamin; Thomas, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    Similar to seemingly maladaptive genes in general, the persistence of inherited cancer-causing mutant alleles in populations remains a challenging question for evolutionary biologists. In addition to traditional explanations such as senescence or antagonistic pleiotropy, here we put forward a new hypothesis to explain the retention of oncogenic mutations. We propose that although natural defenses evolve to prevent neoplasm formation and progression thus increasing organismal fitness, they also conceal the effects of cancer-causing mutant alleles on fitness and concomitantly protect inherited ones from purging by purifying selection. We also argue for the importance of the ecological contexts experienced by individuals and/or species. These contexts determine the locally predominant fitness-reducing risks, and hence can aid the prediction of how natural selection will influence cancer outcomes. PMID:26519218

  15. PLAG1 fusion oncogenes in lipoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Hibbard, M K; Kozakewich, H P; Dal Cin, P; Sciot, R; Tan, X; Xiao, S; Fletcher, J A

    2000-09-01

    Lipoblastomas are pediatric neoplasms resulting from transformation of adipocytes. These benign tumors are typically composed of adipose cells in different stages of maturation within a variably myxoid matrix, and they contain clonal rearrangements of chromosome band 8q12. Because lipoblastomas resemble embryonic adipose tissue, characterization of their transforming mechanisms might reveal biological pathways in physiological adipogenesis. Herein, we demonstrate that lipoblastoma chromosome 8q12 rearrangements bring about promoter-swapping events in the PLAG1 oncqgene. We show that the hyaluronic acid synthase 2 (HAS2) or collagen 1 alpha 2 (COL1A2) gene promoter regions are fused to the entire PLAG1 coding sequence in each of four lipoblastomas. PLAG1 is a developmentally regulated zinc finger gene whose tumorigenic function has been shown previously only in epithelial salivary gland cells. Our findings reveal that PLAG1 activation, presumably resulting from transcriptional up-regulation, is a central oncogenic event in lipoblastoma.

  16. Hepatoma-derived growth factor/nucleolin axis as a novel oncogenic pathway in liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, San-Cher; Hu, Tsung-Hui; Huang, Chao-Cheng; Kung, Mei-Lang; Chu, Tian-Huei; Yi, Li-Na; Huang, Shih-Tsung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Liu, Li-Feng; Wu, Han-Chung; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Chang, Min-Chi; Tai, Ming-Hong

    2015-06-30

    Hepatoma-derived growth factor (HDGF) overexpression is involved in liver fibrosis and carcinogenesis. However, the receptor(s) and signaling for HDGF remain unclear. By using affinity chromatography and proteomic techniques, nucleolin (NCL) was identified and validated as a HDGF-interacting membrane protein in hepatoma cells. Exogenous HDGF elicited the membrane NCL accumulation within 0.5 hour by protein stabilization and transcriptional NCL upregulation within 24 hours. Blockade of surface NCL by antibodies neutralization potently suppressed HDGF uptake and HDGF-stimulated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling in hepatoma cells. By using rescectd hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, immunohistochemical analysis revealed NCL overexpression was correlated with tumour grades, vascular invasion, serum alpha-fetoprotein levels and the poor survival in HCC patients. Multivariate analysis showed NCL was an independent prognostic factor for survival outcome of HCC patients after surgery. To delineate the role of NCL in liver carcinogenesis, ectopic NCL overexpression promoted the oncogenic behaviours and induced PI3K/Akt activation in hepatoma cells. Conversely, NCL knockdown by RNA interference attenuated the oncogenic behaviours and PI3K/Akt signaling, which could be partially rescued by exogenous HDGF supply. In summary, this study provides the first evidence that surface NCL transmits the oncogenic signaling of HDGF and facilitates a novel diagnostic and therapeutic target for HCC. PMID:25938538

  17. Bim Regulation of Lumen Formation in Cultured Mammary Epithelial Acini Is Targeted by Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Mauricio J.; Mills, Kenna R.; Becker, Esther B. E.; Lynch, Danielle K.; Bonni, Azad; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Brugge, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into cyst-like structures that contain a spherical monolayer of cells that enclose a central lumen. Using a three-dimensional basement membrane culture model in which mammary epithelial cells form hollow, acinus-like structures, we previously demonstrated that lumen formation is achieved, in part, through apoptosis of centrally localized cells. We demonstrate that the proapoptotic protein Bim may selectively trigger apoptosis of the centrally localized acinar cells, leading to temporally controlled lumen formation. Bim is not detectable during early stages of three-dimensional mammary acinar morphogenesis and is then highly upregulated in all cells of acini, coincident with detection of apoptosis in the centrally localized acinar cells. Inhibition of Bim expression by RNA interference transiently blocks luminal apoptosis and delays lumen formation. Oncogenes that induce acinar luminal filling, such as ErbB2 and v-Src, suppress expression of Bim through a pathway dependent on Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase; however, HPV 16 E7, an oncogene that stimulates cell proliferation but not luminal filling, is unable to reduce Bim expression. Thus, Bim is a critical regulator of luminal apoptosis during mammary acinar morphogenesis in vitro and may be an important target of oncogenes that disrupt glandular epithelial architecture. PMID:15899862

  18. Oncogenic KRAS regulates BMP4 expression in colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Duerr, Eva-Maria; Mizukami, Yusuke; Moriichi, Kentaro; Gala, Manish; Jo, Won-Seok; Kikuchi, Hirotoshi; Xavier, Ramnik J; Chung, Daniel C

    2012-05-15

    Activating mutations in the KRAS oncogene are common in colorectal cancer. However, the complete spectrum of KRAS targets that mediate its tumorigenic effect has not yet been fully delineated. We identified bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4), a transforming growth factor-β family member that regulates development and tissue homeostasis, as a new target of KRAS. In SW480, Hela, and 293 cells, oncogenic KRAS(V12) downregulated BMP4 RNA levels, a BMP4 promoter luciferase construct, and Bmp4 protein levels. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 but not the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 blocked this downregulation of BMP4. To identify the region of the BMP4 promoter that mediated this regulation by KRAS, serial 5'-deletions of the promoter were generated. An inhibitory region was identified between -3,285 and -3,258 bp in the Bmp4 promoter. In summary, oncogenic KRAS can downregulate Bmp4 through a transcriptional pathway that depends on ERK. These findings point to a unique link between two pathways that are frequently altered in colon cancer.

  19. WISP-1 is a Wnt-1- and beta-catenin-responsive oncogene.

    PubMed

    Xu, L; Corcoran, R B; Welsh, J W; Pennica, D; Levine, A J

    2000-03-01

    WISP-1 (Wnt-1 induced secreted protein 1) is a member of the CCN family of growth factors. This study identifies WISP-1 as a beta-catenin-regulated gene that can contribute to tumorigenesis. The promoter of WISP-1 was cloned and shown to be activated by both Wnt-1 and beta-catenin expression. TCF/LEF sites played a minor role, whereas the CREB site played an important role in this transcriptional activation. WISP-1 demonstrated oncogenic activities; overexpression of WISP-1 in normal rat kidney fibroblast cells (NRK-49F) induced morphological transformation, accelerated cell growth, and enhanced saturation density. Although these cells did not acquire anchorage-independent growth in soft agar, they readily formed tumors in nude mice, suggesting that appropriate cellular attachment is important for signaling oncogenic events downstream of WISP-1.

  20. Mitochondrial Ca2+ Remodeling is a Prime Factor in Oncogenic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Rimessi, Alessandro; Patergnani, Simone; Bonora, Massimo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is sustained by defects in the mechanisms underlying cell proliferation, mitochondrial metabolism, and cell death. Mitochondrial Ca2+ ions are central to all these processes, serving as signaling molecules with specific spatial localization, magnitude, and temporal characteristics. Mutations in mtDNA, aberrant expression and/or regulation of Ca2+-handling/transport proteins and abnormal Ca2+-dependent relationships among the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum, and mitochondria can cause the deregulation of mitochondrial Ca2+-dependent pathways that are related to these processes, thus determining oncogenic behavior. In this review, we propose that mitochondrial Ca2+ remodeling plays a pivotal role in shaping the oncogenic signaling cascade, which is a required step for cancer formation and maintenance. We will describe recent studies that highlight the importance of mitochondria in inducing pivotal “cancer hallmarks” and discuss possible tools to manipulate mitochondrial Ca2+ to modulate cancer survival. PMID:26161362

  1. An oncogenic MYB feedback loop drives alternate cell fates in adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Drier, Yotam; Cotton, Matthew J.; Williamson, Kaylyn E.; Gillespie, Shawn M.; Ryan, Russell J.H.; Kluk, Michael J.; Carey, Christopher D.; Rodig, Scott J.; Sholl, Lynette M; Afrogheh, Amir H.; Faquin, William C.; Queimado, Lurdes; Qi, Jun; Wick, Michael J.; El-Naggar, Adel K.; Bradner, James E.; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Aster, Jon C.; Knoechel, Birgit; Bernstein, Bradley E.

    2016-01-01

    Translocation events are frequent in cancer and may create chimeric fusions or ‘regulatory rearrangements’ that drive oncogene overexpression. Here we identify super-enhancer translocations that drive overexpression of the oncogenic transcription factor MYB as a recurrent theme in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Whole-genome sequencing data and chromatin maps reveal distinct chromosomal rearrangements that juxtapose super-enhancers to the MYB locus. Chromosome conformation capture confirms that the translocated enhancers interact with the MYB promoter. Remarkably, MYB protein binds to the translocated enhancers, creating a positive feedback loop that sustains its expression. MYB also binds enhancers that drive different regulatory programs in alternate cell lineages in ACC, cooperating with TP63 in myoepithelial cells and a Notch program in luminal epithelial cells. Bromodomain inhibitors slow tumor growth in ACC primagraft models in vivo. Thus, our study identifies super-enhancer translocations that drive MYB expression and provides insight into downstream MYB functions in the alternate ACC lineages. PMID:26829750

  2. Cul4A is an oncogene in malignant pleural mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ming-Szu; Mao, Jian-Hua; Xu, Zhidong; Yang, Cheng-Ta; Yu, Jau-Song; Harvard, Chansonette; Lin, Yu-Ching; Bravo, Dawn Therese; Jablons, David M; You, Liang

    2011-02-01

    Cullin 4A (Cul4A) is important in cell survival, development, growth and the cell cycle, but its role in mesothelioma has not been studied. For the first time, we identified amplification of the Cul4A gene in four of five mesothelioma cell lines. Consistent with increased Cul4A gene copy number, we found that Cul4A protein was overexpressed in mesothelioma cells as well. Cul4A protein was also overexpressed in 64% of primary malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) tumours. Furthermore, knockdown of Cul4A with shRNA in mesothelioma cells resulted in up-regulation of p21 and p27 tumour suppressor proteins in a p53-independent manner in H290, H28 and MS-1 mesothelioma cell lines. Knockdown of Cul4A also resulted in G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and decreased colony formation in H290, H28 and MS-1 mesothelioma cell lines. Moreover, G0/G1 cell cycle arrest was partially reversed by siRNA down-regulation of p21 and/or p27 in Cul4A knockdown H290 cell line. In the contrary, overexpression of Cul4A resulted in down-regulation of p21 and p27 proteins and increased colony formation in H28 mesothelioma cell line. Both p21 and p27 showed faster degradation rates in Cul4A overexpressed H28 cell line and slower degradation rates in Cul4A knockdown H28 cell line. Our study indicates that Cul4A amplification and overexpression play an oncogenic role in the pathogenesis of mesothelioma. Thus, Cul4A may be a potential therapeutic target for MPM.

  3. Oncogenically active MYD88 mutations in human lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Vu N.; Young, Ryan M.; Schmitz, Roland; Jhavar, Sameer; Xiao, Wenming; Lim, Kian-Huat; Kohlhammer, Holger; Xu, Weihong; Yang, Yandan; Zhao, Hong; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Romesser, Paul; Wright, George; Powell, John; Rosenwald, Andreas; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Ott, German; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Fisher, Richard I.; Braziel, Rita M.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Cook, J. R.; Weisenburger, Denny D.; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains the least curable form of this malignancy despite recent advances in therapy1. Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB and JAK kinase signalling promotes malignant cell survival in these lymphomas, but the genetic basis for this signalling is incompletely understood. Here we describe the dependence of ABC DLBCLs on MYD88, an adaptor protein that mediates toll and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor signalling2,3, and the discovery of highly recurrent oncogenic mutations affecting MYD88 in ABC DLBCL tumours. RNA interference screening revealed that MYD88 and the associated kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4 are essential for ABC DLBCL survival. High-throughput RNA resequencing uncovered MYD88 mutations in ABC DLBCL lines. Notably, 29% of ABC DLBCL tumours harboured the same amino acid substitution, L265P, in the MYD88 Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain at an evolutionarily invariant residue in its hydrophobic core. This mutation was rare or absent in other DLBCL subtypes and Burkitt’s lymphoma, but was observed in 9% of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. At a lower frequency, additional mutations were observed in the MYD88 TIR domain, occurring in both the ABC and germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL subtypes. Survival of ABC DLBCL cells bearing the L265P mutation was sustained by the mutant but not the wild-type MYD88 isoform, demonstrating that L265P is a gain-of-function driver mutation. The L265P mutant promoted cell survival by spontaneously assembling a protein complex containing IRAK1 and IRAK4, leading to IRAK4 kinase activity, IRAK1 phosphorylation, NF-κB signalling, JAK kinase activation of STAT3, and secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-β. Hence, theMYD88 signalling pathway is integral to the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL, supporting the development of inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase and other components of this pathway for the treatment of tumours bearing oncogenic MYD88 mutations

  4. A "liaison dangereuse" between AUF1/hnRNPD and the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK.

    PubMed

    Fawal, Mohamad; Armstrong, Florence; Ollier, Severine; Dupont, Henri; Touriol, Christian; Monsarrat, Bernard; Delsol, Georges; Payrastre, Bernard; Morello, Dominique

    2006-10-15

    Nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK) is a chimeric protein expressed in a subset of cases of anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) for which constitutive expression represents a key oncogenic event. The ALK signaling pathway is complex and probably involves functional redundancy between various signaling substrates of ALK. Despite numerous studies on signaling mediators, the molecular mechanisms contributing to the distinct oncogenic features of NPM-ALK remain incompletely understood. The search for additional interacting partners of NPM-ALK led to the discovery of AUF1/hnRNPD, a protein implicated in AU-rich element (ARE)-directed mRNA decay. AUF1 was immunoprecipitated with ALK both in ALCL-derived cells and in NIH3T3 cells stably expressing NPM-ALK or other X-ALK fusion proteins. AUF1 and NPM-ALK were found concentrated in the same cytoplasmic foci, whose formation required NPM-ALK tyrosine kinase activity. AUF1 was phosphorylated by ALK in vitro and was hyperphosphorylated in NPM-ALK-expressing cells. Its hyperphosphorylation was correlated with increased stability of several AUF1 target mRNAs encoding key regulators of cell proliferation and with increased cell survival after transcriptional arrest. Thus, AUF1 could function in a novel pathway mediating the oncogenic effects of NPM-ALK. Our data establish an important link between oncogenic kinases and mRNA turnover, which could constitute a critical aspect of tumorigenesis.

  5. Biological basis of personalized anticoagulation in cancer: oncogene and oncomir networks as putative regulators of coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Rak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Activation of stromal response pathways in cancer is increasingly viewed as both a local and systemic extension of molecular alterations driving malignant transformation. Rather than reflecting passive and unspecific responses to anatomical abnormalities, the coagulation system is a target of oncogenic deregulation, impacting the role of clotting and fibrinolytic proteins, and integrating hemostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis and cellular growth effects in cancer. These processes signify, but do not depend on, the clinically manifest coagulopathy and thrombosis. In this regard, the role of driver mutations affecting oncoprotein coding genes such as RAS, EGFR or MET and tumour suppressors (PTEN, TP53) are well described as regulators of tissue factor (TF), protease activated receptors (PAR-1/2) and ectopic coagulation factors (FVII). Indeed, in both adult and pediatric brain tumours the expression patterns of coagulation and angiogenesis regulators (coagulome and angiome, respectively) reflect the molecular subtypes of the underlying diseases (glioblastoma or medulloblastoma) as defined by their oncogenic classifiers and clinical course. This emerging understanding is still poorly established in relation to the transforming effects of non-coding genes, including those responsible for the expression of microRNA (miR). Indeed, several miRs have been recently found to regulate TF and other effectors. We recently documented that in the context of the aggressive embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) the oncogenic driver miR (miR-520g) suppresses the expression of TF and correlates with hypocoagulant tumour characteristics. Unlike in adult cancers, the growth of pediatric embryonal brain tumour cells as spheres (to maintain stem cell properties) results in upregulation of miR-520g and downregulation of TF expression and activity. We postulate that oncogenic protein and miR coding genes form alternative pathways of coagulation system regulation in different

  6. Viral Interactions with PDZ Domain-Containing Proteins—An Oncogenic Trait?

    PubMed Central

    James, Claire D.; Roberts, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Many of the human viruses with oncogenic capabilities, either in their natural host or in experimental systems (hepatitis B and C, human T cell leukaemia virus type 1, Kaposi sarcoma herpesvirus, human immunodeficiency virus, high-risk human papillomaviruses and adenovirus type 9), encode in their limited genome the ability to target cellular proteins containing PSD95/ DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) interaction modules. In many cases (but not always), the viruses have evolved to bind the PDZ domains using the same short linear peptide motifs found in host protein-PDZ interactions, and in some cases regulate the interactions in a similar fashion by phosphorylation. What is striking is that the diverse viruses target a common subset of PDZ proteins that are intimately involved in controlling cell polarity and the structure and function of intercellular junctions, including tight junctions. Cell polarity is fundamental to the control of cell proliferation and cell survival and disruption of polarity and the signal transduction pathways involved is a key event in tumourigenesis. This review focuses on the oncogenic viruses and the role of targeting PDZ proteins in the virus life cycle and the contribution of virus-PDZ protein interactions to virus-mediated oncogenesis. We highlight how many of the viral associations with PDZ proteins lead to deregulation of PI3K/AKT signalling, benefitting virus replication but as a consequence also contributing to oncogenesis. PMID:26797638

  7. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  8. Noncanonical Roles of the Immune System in Eliciting Oncogene Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Casey, Stephanie C.; Bellovin, David I.; Felsher, Dean W.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Cancer is highly complex. The magnitude of this complexity makes it highly surprising that even the brief suppression of an oncogene can sometimes result in rapid and sustained tumor regression illustrating that cancers can be “oncogene addicted” [1-10]. The essential implication is that oncogenes may not only fuel the initiation of tumorigenesis, but in some cases necessarily their surfeit of activation is paramaount to maintain a neoplastic state [11]. Oncogene suppression acutely restores normal physiological programs that effectively overrides secondary genetic events and a cancer collapses [12,13]. Oncogene addiction is mediated both through both tumor intrinsic cell-autonomous mechanisms including proliferative arrest, apoptosis, differentiation and cellular senescence [1,2,4,12] but also host-dependent mechanisms that interact with these tumor intrinsic programs [14,15]. Notably, oncogene inactivation elicits a host immune response that involves specific immune effectors and cytokines that facilitate a remodeling of the tumor microenvironment including the shut down of angiogenesis and the induction of cellular senescence of tumor cells [16]. Hence, immune effectors are critically involved in tumor initiation and prevention [17-19] and progression [20], but also appear to be essential to tumor regression upon oncogene inactivation [21-23]. The understanding how the inactivation of an oncogene elicits a systemic signal in the host that prompts a deconstruction of a tumor could have important implications. The combination of oncogene-targeted therapy together with immunomodulatory therapy may be ideal for the development of both a robust tumor intrinsic as well as immunological effectively leading to sustained tumor regression. PMID:23571026

  9. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  10. Mutant p53 oncogenic functions are sustained by Plk2 kinase through an autoregulatory feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Fabio; Fausti, Francesca; Biagioni, Francesca; Shay, Tal; Fontemaggi, Giulia; Domany, Eytan; Yaffe, Michael B; Strano, Sabrina; Blandino, Giovanni; Di Agostino, Silvia

    2011-12-15

    Aberrant activation of kinases has emerged to be a key event along with tumor progression, maintenance of tumor phenotype and response to anticancer treatments. This study documents the existence of an oncogenic auto-regulatory feedback loop that includes the Polo-like kinase-2 (Snk/Plk2) and mutant p53 proteins. Plk2 protein binds to and phosphorylates mutant p53, thereby potentiating its oncogenic activities. Phosphorylated mutant p53 binds more efficiently to p300 consequently strengthening its own transcriptional activity. Plk2 gene is regulated at a transcriptional level by both wt- and mutant p53 proteins. This leads to growth suppression or enhanced cell proliferation and chemo-resistance, respectively. In turn, the siRNA-mediated knock down of either mutant p53 or Plk2 proteins significantly curtails the growth properties of tumor cells and their chemo-resistance to anticancer treatments. Therefore, this paper identifies a novel tumor network including Plk2 and mutant p53 proteins whose triggering in response to DNA damage might disclose important implications for the treatment of human cancers. PMID:22134238

  11. Control of Tumorigenesis and Chemoresistance by the DEK oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Riveiro-Falkenbach, Erica; Soengas, María S.

    2010-01-01

    Slight modifications of chromatin dynamics can translate into short and large-scale changes in DNA replication and DNA repair. Similarly, promoter usage and accessibility are tightly dependent on chromatin architecture. Consequently, it is perhaps not surprising that factors controlling chromatin organization are frequently deregulated (directly or indirectly) in cancer cells. DEK is emerging as a novel class of DNA topology modulators which can be both targets and effectors of pro-tumorigenic events. The locus containing DEK at chromosome 6p22.3 is amplified or reorganized in multiple cancer types. In addition, DEK can be subject to a variety of tumor-associated transcriptional and post-translational modifications. In turn, DEK can favor cell transformation, at least in part by inhibiting cell differentiation and premature senescence. More recently, DEK has also been linked to the resistance of malignant cells to apoptotic inducers. Interestingly, a fraction of DEK can also bind RNA and affect alternative splicing, further illustrating the pleiotropic roles that this protein may exert in cancer cells. Here we will summarize the current literature regarding the regulation and function(s) of DEK as a proto-oncogene. In addition, the translational relevance of DEK as a putative diagnostic marker and candidate for drug development will also be discussed. PMID:20501624

  12. Oncogenic Role of Merlin/NF2 in Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Guerrero, Paola A.; Yin, Wei; Camacho, Laura; Marchetti, Dario

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor in adults, with a poor prognosis because of its resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Merlin/NF2 (neurofibromatosis type 2) is a tumor suppressor found to be mutated in most nervous system tumors; however, it is not mutated in glioblastomas. Merlin associates with several transmembrane receptors and intracellular proteins serving as an anchoring molecule. Additionally, it acts as a key component of cell motility. By selecting subpopulations of U251 glioblastoma cells, we observed that high expression of phosphorylated Merlin at serine 518 (S518-Merlin), Notch1 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) correlated with increased cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. These cells were defective in cell-contact inhibition with changes in Merlin phosphorylation directly affecting Notch1, EGFR expression as well as downstream targets Hes1 and Ccnd. Of note, we identified a function for S518-Merlin which is distinct from what has been reported when the expression of Merlin is diminished in relation to EGFR and Notch expression, providing first-time evidence that demonstrates that the phosphorylation of Merlin at S518 in glioblastoma promotes oncogenic properties that are not only the result of inactivation of the tumor suppressor role of Merlin, but also, an independent process implicating a Merlin-driven regulation of Notch1 and EGFR. PMID:25043298

  13. A Computational Drug Repositioning Approach for Targeting Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    PubMed Central

    Gayvert, Kaitlyn; Dardenne, Etienne; Cheung, Cynthia; Boland, Mary Regina; Lorberbaum, Tal; Wanjala, Jackline; Chen, Yu; Rubin, Mark; Tatonetti, Nicholas P.; Rickman, David; Elemento, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Summary Mutations in transcription factors (TFs) genes are frequently observed in tumors, often leading to aberrant transcriptional activity. Unfortunately, TFs are often considered undruggable due to the absence of targetable enzymatic activity. To address this problem, we developed CRAFTT, a Computational drug-Repositioning Approach For Targeting Transcription factor activity. CRAFTT combines ChIP-seq with drug-induced expression profiling to identify small molecules that can specifically perturb TF activity. Application to ENCODE ChIP-seq datasets revealed known drug-TF interactions and a global drug-protein network analysis further supported these predictions. Application of CRAFTT to ERG, a pro-invasive, frequently over-expressed oncogenic TF predicted that dexamethasone would inhibit ERG activity. Indeed, dexamethasone significantly decreased cell invasion and migration in an ERG-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of Electronic Medical Record data indicates a protective role for dexamethasone against prostate cancer. Altogether, our method provides a broadly applicable strategy to identify drugs that specifically modulate TF activity. PMID:27264179

  14. Oncogenic potential diverge among human papillomavirus type 16 natural variants

    SciTech Connect

    Sichero, Laura; Simao Sobrinho, Joao; Lina Villa, Luisa

    2012-10-10

    We compared E6/E7 protein properties of three different HPV-16 variants: AA, E-P and E-350G. Primary human foreskin keratinocytes (PHFK) were transduced with HPV-16 E6 and E7 and evaluated for proliferation and ability to grow in soft agar. E-P infected keratinocytes presented the lowest efficiency in colony formation. AA and E-350G keratinocytes attained higher capacity for in vitro transformation. We observed similar degradation of TP53 among HPV-16 variants. Furthermore, we accessed the expression profile in early (p5) and late passage (p30) transduced cells of 84 genes commonly involved in carcinogenesis. Most differences could be attributed to HPV-16 E6/E7 expression. In particular, we detected different expression of ITGA2 and CHEK2 in keratinocytes infected with AA and AA/E-350G late passage cells, respectively, and higher expression of MAP2K1 in E-350G transduced keratinocytes. Our results indicate differences among HPV-16 variants that could explain, at least in part, differences in oncogenic potential attributed to these variants.

  15. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:27412232

  16. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents.

    PubMed

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:27412232

  17. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents.

    PubMed

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R

    2016-07-14

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs.

  18. Altered Ca(2+) signaling in cancer cells: proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors targeting IP3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Akl, Haidar; Bultynck, Geert

    2013-04-01

    Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors critically control cell-fate decisions like cell survival, adaptation and death. These processes are regulated by Ca(2+) signals arising from the endoplasmic reticulum, which at distinct sites is in close proximity to the mitochondria. These organelles are linked by different mechanisms, including Ca(2+)-transport mechanisms involving the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (IP3R) and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). The amount of Ca(2+) transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum to mitochondria determines the susceptibility of cells to apoptotic stimuli. Suppressing the transfer of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the mitochondria increases the apoptotic resistance of cells and may decrease the cellular responsiveness to apoptotic signaling in response to cellular damage or alterations. This can result in the survival, growth and proliferation of cells with oncogenic features. Clearly, proper maintenance of endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics including its links with the mitochondrial network is essential to detect and eliminate altered cells with oncogenic features through the apoptotic pathway. Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors exploit the central role of Ca(2+) signaling by targeting the IP3R. There are an increasing number of reports showing that activation of proto-oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressors directly affects IP3R function and endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis, thereby decreasing mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake and mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization. In this review, we provide an overview of the current knowledge on the proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors identified as IP3R-regulatory proteins and how they affect endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) homeostasis and dynamics.

  19. The potent oncogene NPM-ALK mediates malignant transformation of normal human CD4(+) T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Wei, Fang; Wang, Hong Yi; Liu, Xiaobin; Roy, Darshan; Xiong, Qun-Bin; Jiang, Shuguang; Medvec, Andrew; Danet-Desnoyers, Gwenn; Watt, Christopher; Tomczak, Ewa; Kalos, Michael; Riley, James L; Wasik, Mariusz A

    2013-12-01

    With this study we have demonstrated that in vitro transduction of normal human CD4(+) T lymphocytes with NPM-ALK results in their malignant transformation. The transformed cells become immortalized and display morphology and immunophenotype characteristic of patient-derived anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. These unique features, which are strictly dependent on NPM-ALK activity and expression, include perpetual cell growth, proliferation, and survival; activation of the key signal transduction pathways STAT3 and mTORC1; and expression of CD30 (the hallmark of anaplastic large-cell lymphoma) and of immunosuppressive cytokine IL-10 and cell-surface protein PD-L1/CD274. Implantation of NPM-ALK-transformed CD4(+) T lymphocytes into immunodeficient mice resulted in formation of tumors indistinguishable from patients' anaplastic large-cell lymphomas. Our findings demonstrate that the key aspects of human carcinogenesis closely recapitulating the features of the native tumors can be faithfully reproduced in vitro when an appropriate oncogene is used to transform its natural target cells; this in turn points to the fundamental role in malignant cell transformation of potent oncogenes expressed in the relevant target cells. Such transformed cells should permit study of the early stages of carcinogenesis, and in particular the initial oncogene-host cell interactions. This experimental design could also be useful for studies of the effects of early therapeutic intervention and likely also the mechanisms of malignant progression.

  20. The tumor suppressor microRNA let-7 represses the HMGA2 oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Sun; Dutta, Anindya

    2007-01-01

    HMGA2, a high-mobility group protein, is oncogenic in a variety of tumors, including benign mesenchymal tumors and lung cancers. Knockdown of Dicer in HeLa cells revealed that the HMGA2 gene is transcriptionally active, but its mRNA is destabilized in the cytoplasm through the microRNA (miRNA) pathway. HMGA2 was derepressed upon inhibition of let-7 in cells with high levels of the miRNA. Ectopic expression of let-7 reduced HMGA2 and cell proliferation in a lung cancer cell. The effect of let-7 on HMGA2 was dependent on multiple target sites in the 3′ untranslated region (UTR), and the growth-suppressive effect of let-7 on lung cancer cells was rescued by overexpression of the HMGA2 ORF without a 3′UTR. Our results provide a novel example of suppression of an oncogene by a tumor-suppressive miRNA and suggest that some tumors activate the oncogene through chromosomal translocations that eliminate the oncogene’s 3′UTR with the let-7 target sites. PMID:17437991

  1. DEK Proto-Oncogene Expression Interferes with the Normal Epithelial Differentiation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Morreale, Richard J.; Morris, Teresa A.; Mintz-Cole, Rachael A.; Hoskins, Elizabeth E.; Balsitis, Scott J.; Husseinzadeh, Nader; Witte, David P.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of the DEK gene is associated with multiple human cancers, but its specific roles as a putative oncogene are not well defined. DEK transcription was previously shown to be induced by the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncogene via E2F and Rb pathways. Transient DEK overexpression was able to inhibit both senescence and apoptosis in cultured cells. In at least the latter case, this mechanism involved the destabilization of p53 and the decreased expression of p53 target genes. We show here that DEK overexpression disrupts the normal differentiation program in a manner that is independent of either p53 or cell death. DEK expression was distinctly repressed upon the differentiation of cultured primary human keratinocytes, and stable DEK overexpression caused epidermal thickening in an organotypic raft model system. The observed hyperplasia involved a delay in keratinocyte differentiation toward a more undifferentiated state, and expansion of the basal cell compartment was due to increased proliferation, but not apoptosis. These phenotypes were accompanied by elevated p63 expression in the absence of p53 destabilization. In further support of bona fide oncogenic DEK activities, we report here up-regulated DEK protein levels in both human papilloma virus-positive hyperplastic murine skin and a subset of human squamous cell carcinomas. We suggest that DEK up-regulation may contribute to carcinoma development at least in part through increased proliferation and retardation of differentiation. PMID:19036808

  2. Pin1 is required for sustained B cell proliferation upon oncogenic activation of Myc

    PubMed Central

    D'Artista, Luana; Bisso, Andrea; Piontini, Andrea; Doni, Mirko; Verrecchia, Alessandro; Kress, Theresia R.; Morelli, Marco J.; Del Sal, Giannino; Amati, Bruno; Campaner, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The c-myc proto-oncogene is activated by translocation in Burkitt's lymphoma and substitutions in codon 58 stabilize the Myc protein or augment its oncogenic potential. In wild-type Myc, phosphorylation of Ser 62 and Thr 58 provides a landing pad for the peptidyl prolyl-isomerase Pin1, which in turn promotes Ser 62 dephosphorylation and Myc degradation. However, the role of Pin1 in Myc-induced lymphomagenesis remains unknown. We show here that genetic ablation of Pin1 reduces lymphomagenesis in Eμ-myc transgenic mice. In both Pin1-deficient B-cells and MEFs, the proliferative response to oncogenic Myc was selectively impaired, with no alterations in Myc-induced apoptosis or mitogen-induced cell cycle entry. This proliferative defect wasn't attributable to alterations in either Ser 62 phosphorylation or Myc-regulated transcription, but instead relied on the activity of the ARF-p53 pathway. Pin1 silencing in lymphomas retarded disease progression in mice, making Pin1 an attractive therapeutic target in Myc-driven tumors. PMID:26943576

  3. Transglutaminase 2 contributes to a TP53-induced autophagy program to prevent oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Yeo, Shi Yun; Itahana, Yoko; Guo, Alvin Kunyao; Han, Rachel; Iwamoto, Kozue; Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Bao, Yi; Kleiber, Kai; Wu, Ya Jun; Bay, Boon Huat; Voorhoeve, Mathijs; Itahana, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Genetic alterations which impair the function of the TP53 signaling pathway in TP53 wild-type human tumors remain elusive. To identify new components of this pathway, we performed a screen for genes whose loss-of-function debilitated TP53 signaling and enabled oncogenic transformation of human mammary epithelial cells. We identified transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) as a putative tumor suppressor in the TP53 pathway. TGM2 suppressed colony formation in soft agar and tumor formation in a xenograft mouse model. The depletion of growth supplements induced both TGM2 expression and autophagy in a TP53-dependent manner, and TGM2 promoted autophagic flux by enhancing autophagic protein degradation and autolysosome clearance. Reduced expression of both CDKN1A, which regulates the cell cycle downstream of TP53, and TGM2 synergized to promote oncogenic transformation. Our findings suggest that TGM2-mediated autophagy and CDKN1A-mediated cell cycle arrest are two important barriers in the TP53 pathway that prevent oncogenic transformation. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07101.001 PMID:26956429

  4. PIK3CA is implicated as an oncogene in ovarian cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Shayesteh, Laleh; Lu, Yiling; Kuo, Wen-Lin; Baldocchi, Russell; Godfrey, Tony; Collins, Colin; Pinkel, Daniel; Powell, Bethan; Mills,Gordon B.; Gray, Joe W.

    1998-03-25

    Ovarian cancer is the leading cause of death from gynecological malignancy and the fourth leading cause of cancer death among American women, yet little is known about its molecular aetiology. Studies using comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) have revealed several regions of recurrent, abnormal, DNA sequence copy number that may encode genes involved in the genesis or progression of the disease. One region at 3q26 found to be increased in copy number in approximately 40 percent of ovarian and other cancers contains PIK3CA, which encodes the p110 a catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase(PI3-kinase). The association between PIK3CA copy number and PI3-kinase activity makes PIK3CA a candidate oncogene because a broad range of cancer-related functions have been associated with PI3-kinase mediated signaling. These include proliferation, glucose transport and catabolism, cell adhesion, apoptosis, RAS signaling and oncogenic transformation. In addition, downstream effectors of PI3-kinase,AKT1 and AKT2, have been found to be amplified or activated in human tumors, including ovarian cancer. We show here that PIK3CA is frequently increased in copy number in ovarian cancers, that the increased copy number is associated with increased PIK3CA transcription, p110 a protein expression and PI3-kinase activity and that treatment with the PI3-kinase inhibitor LY294002 decreases proliferation and increases apoptosis. Our observations suggest PIK3CA is an oncogene that has an important role in ovarian cancer.

  5. The impact of the MYB-NFIB fusion proto-oncogene in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mikse, Oliver R.; Tchaicha, Jeremy H.; Akbay, Esra A.; Chen, Liang; Bronson, Roderick T.; Hammerman, Peter S.; Wong, Kwok-Kin

    2016-01-01

    Recurrent fusion of the v-myb avian myelobastosis viral oncogene homolog (MYB) and nuclear factor I/B (NFIB) generates the MYB-NFIB transcription factor, which has been detected in a high percentage of individuals with adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). To understand the functional role of this fusion protein in carcinogenesis, we generated a conditional mutant transgenic mouse that expresses MYB-NFIB along with p53 mutation in tissues that give rise to ACC: mammary tissue, salivary glands, or systemically in the whole body. Expression of the oncogene in mammary tissue resulted in hyperplastic glands that developed into adenocarcinoma in 27.3% of animals. Systemic expression of the MYB-NFIB fusion caused more rapid development of this breast phenotype, but mice died due to abnormal proliferation in the glomerular compartment of the kidney, which led to development of glomerulonephritis. These findings suggest the MYB-NFIB fusion is oncogenic and treatments targeting this transcription factor may lead to therapeutic responses in ACC patients. PMID:27213588

  6. A dual role for Hdac1: oncosuppressor in tumorigenesis, oncogene in tumor maintenance.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Fabio; Botrugno, Oronza A; Dal Zuffo, Roberto; Pallavicini, Isabella; Matthews, Geoffrey M; Cluse, Leonie; Barozzi, Iros; Senese, Silvia; Fornasari, Lorenzo; Moretti, Simona; Altucci, Lucia; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Chiocca, Susanna; Johnstone, Ricky W; Minucci, Saverio

    2013-04-25

    Aberrant recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs) by the oncogenic fusion protein PML-RAR is involved in the pathogenesis of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). PML-RAR, however, is not sufficient to induce disease in mice but requires additional oncogenic lesions during the preleukemic phase. Here, we show that knock-down of Hdac1 and Hdac2 dramatically accelerates leukemogenesis in transgenic preleukemic mice. These events are not restricted to APL because lymphomagenesis driven by deletion of p53 or, to a lesser extent, by c-myc overexpression, was also accelerated by Hdac1 knock-down. In the preleukemic phase of APL, Hdac1 counteracts the activity of PML-RAR in (1) blocking differentiation; (2) impairing genomic stability; and (3) increasing self-renewal in hematopoietic progenitors, as all of these events are affected by the reduction in Hdac1 levels. This led to an expansion of a subpopulation of PML-RAR-expressing cells that is the major source of leukemic stem cells in the full leukemic stage. Remarkably, short-term treatment of preleukemic mice with an HDAC inhibitor accelerated leukemogenesis. In contrast, knock-down of Hdac1 in APL mice led to enhanced survival duration of the leukemic animals. Thus, Hdac1 has a dual role in tumorigenesis: oncosuppressive in the early stages, and oncogenic in established tumor cells.

  7. Development of neutralizing monoclonal antibodies for oncogenic human papillomavirus types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58.

    PubMed

    Brown, Martha J; Seitz, Hanna; Towne, Victoria; Müller, Martin; Finnefrock, Adam C

    2014-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is the etiological agent for all cervical cancers, a significant number of other anogenital cancers, and a growing number of head and neck cancers. Two licensed vaccines offer protection against the most prevalent oncogenic types, 16 and 18, responsible for approximately 70% of cervical cancer cases worldwide and one of these also offers protection against types 6 and 11, responsible for 90% of genital warts. The vaccines are comprised of recombinantly expressed major capsid proteins that self-assemble into virus-like particles (VLPs) and prevent infection by eliciting neutralizing antibodies. Adding the other frequently identified oncogenic types 31, 33, 45, 52, and 58 to a vaccine would increase the coverage against HPV-induced cancers to approximately 90%. We describe the generation and characterization of panels of monoclonal antibodies to these five additional oncogenic HPV types, and the selection of antibody pairs that were high affinity and type specific and recognized conformation-dependent neutralizing epitopes. Such characteristics make these antibodies useful tools for monitoring the production and potency of a prototype vaccine as well as monitoring vaccine-induced immune responses in the clinic. PMID:24574536

  8. Oncogene-dependent apoptosis is mediated by caspase-9

    PubMed Central

    Fearnhead, Howard O.; Rodriguez, Joe; Govek, Eve-Ellen; Guo, Wenjun; Kobayashi, Ryuji; Hannon, Greg; Lazebnik, Yuri A.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding how oncogenic transformation sensitizes cells to apoptosis may provide a strategy to kill tumor cells selectively. We previously developed a cell-free system that recapitulates oncogene dependent apoptosis as reflected by activation of caspases, the core of the apoptotic machinery. Here, we show that this activation requires a previously identified apoptosis-promoting complex consisting of caspase-9, APAF-1, and cytochrome c. As predicted by the in vitro system, preventing caspase-9 activation blocked drug-induced apoptosis in cells sensitized by E1A, an adenoviral oncogene. Oncogenes, such as E1A, appear to facilitate caspase-9 activation by several mechanisms, including the control of cytochrome c release from the mitochondria. PMID:9811857

  9. In vivo quantification and perturbation of Myc-Max interactions and the impact on oncogenic potential.

    PubMed

    Raffeiner, Philipp; Röck, Ruth; Schraffl, Andrea; Hartl, Markus; Hart, Jonathan R; Janda, Kim D; Vogt, Peter K; Stefan, Eduard; Bister, Klaus

    2014-10-15

    The oncogenic bHLH-LZ transcription factor Myc forms binary complexes with its binding partner Max. These and other bHLH-LZ-based protein-protein interactions (PPI) in the Myc-Max network are essential for the physiological and oncogenic activities of Myc. We have generated a genetically determined and highly specific protein-fragment complementation assay based on Renilla luciferase to analyze the dynamic interplay of bHLH-LZ transcription factors Myc, Max, and Mxd1 in vivo. We also applied this PPI reporter to quantify alterations of nuclear Myc-Max complexes in response to mutational events, competitive binding by the transcriptional repressor Mxd1, or perturbations by small-molecule Myc inhibitors, including recently identified potent PPI inhibitors from a Kröhnke pyridine library. We show that the specificity of Myc-Max PPI reduction by the pyridine inhibitors directly correlates with their efficient and highly specific potential to interfere with the proliferation of human and avian tumor cells displaying deregulated Myc expression. In a direct comparison with known Myc inhibitors using human and avian cell systems, the pyridine compounds reveal a unique inhibitory potential even at sub-micromolar concentrations combined with remarkable specificity for the inhibition of Myc-driven tumor cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show in direct comparisons using defined avian cell systems that different Max PPI profiles for the variant members of the Myc protein family (c-Myc, v-Myc, N-Myc, L-Myc) correlate with their diverse oncogenic potential and their variable sensitivity to the novel pyridine inhibitors.

  10. Silent assassin: oncogenic ras directs epigenetic inactivation of target genes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Xiaodong

    2008-01-01

    Oncogenic transformation is associated with genetic changes and epigenetic alterations. A study now shows that oncogenic Ras uses a complex and elaborate epigenetic silencing program to specifically repress the expression of multiple unrelated cancer-suppressing genes through a common pathway. These results suggest that cancer-related epigenetic modifications may arise through a specific and instructive mechanism and that genetic changes and epigenetic alterations are intimately connected and contribute to tumorigenesis cooperatively. PMID:18385037

  11. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Hein, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the stroma within carcinogenic lesions is known to be supportive and responsive to tumors, new data increasingly show that the stroma also has a more active, oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. Stromal cells and their products can transform adjacent tissues in the absence of pre-existing tumor cells by inciting phenotypic and genomic changes in the epithelial cells. The oncogenic action of distinctive stromal components has been demonstrated through a variety of approaches, which provide clues about the cellular pathways involved.

  12. Inhibition of Ras oncogenic activity by Ras protooncogenes.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roberto; Lue, Jeffrey; Mathews, Jeremy; Yoon, Andrew; Ahn, Daniel; Garcia-España, Antonio; Leonardi, Peter; Vargas, Marcelo P; Pellicer, Angel

    2005-01-10

    Point mutations in ras genes have been found in a large number and wide variety of human tumors. These oncogenic Ras mutants are locked in an active GTP-bound state that leads to a constitutive and deregulated activation of Ras function. The dogma that ras oncogenes are dominant, whereby the mutation of a single allele in a cell will predispose the host cell to transformation regardless of the presence of the normal allele, is being challenged. We have seen that increasing amounts of Ras protooncogenes are able to inhibit the activity of the N-Ras oncogene in the activation of Elk in NIH 3T3 cells and in the formation of foci. We have been able to determine that the inhibitory effect is by competition between Ras protooncogenes and the N-Ras oncogene that occurs first at the effector level at the membranes, then at the processing level and lastly at the effector level in the cytosol. In addition, coexpression of the N-Ras protooncogene in thymic lymphomas induced by the N-Ras oncogene is associated with increased levels of p107, p130 and cyclin A and decreased levels of Rb. In the present report, we have shown that the N-Ras oncogene is not truly dominant over Ras protooncogenes and their competing activities might be depending on cellular context.

  13. Tuning of alternative splicing--switch from proto-oncogene to tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Shchelkunova, Aleksandra; Ermolinsky, Boris; Boyle, Meghan; Mendez, Ivan; Lehker, Michael; Martirosyan, Karen S; Kazansky, Alexander V

    2013-01-01

    STAT5B, a specific member of the STAT family, is intimately associated with prostate tumor progression. While the full form of STAT5B is thought to promote tumor progression, a naturally occurring truncated isoform acts as a tumor suppressor. We previously demonstrated that truncated STAT5 is generated by insertion of an alternatively spliced exon and results in the introduction of an early termination codon. Present approaches targeting STAT proteins based on inhibition of functional domains of STAT's, such as DNA-binding, cooperative binding (protein-protein interaction), dimerization and phosphorylation will halt the action of the entire gene, both the proto-oncogenic and tumor suppressor functions of Stat5B. In this report we develop a new approach aimed at inhibiting the expression of full-length STAT5B (a proto-oncogene) while simultaneously enhancing the expression of STAT5∆B (a tumor suppressor). We have demonstrated the feasibility of using steric-blocking splice-switching oligonucleotides (SSOs) with a complimentary sequence to the targeted exon-intron boundary to enhance alternative intron/exon retention (up to 10%). The functional effect of the intron/exon proportional tuning was validated by cell proliferation and clonogenic assays. The new scheme applies specific steric-blocking splice-switching oligonucleotides and opens an opportunity for anti-tumor treatment as well as for the alteration of functional abilities of other STAT proteins.

  14. Effect of cellular determination on oncogenic transformation by chemicals and oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, M A; Gonzales, F; Jones, P A

    1988-01-01

    Three developmentally determined myogenic cell lines derived from C3H 10T1/2 C18 (10T1/2) mouse embryo cells treated with 5-azacytidine were compared with the parental 10T1/2 line for their susceptibility to oncogenic transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene or the activated human c-Ha-ras oncogene. Neither the 10T1/2 cells nor the myogenic derivatives grew in soft agar or formed tumors in nude mice. In contrast to 10T1/2 cells, the three myogenic derivatives were not susceptible to transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene, so that cellular determination altered the response of 10T1/2 cells to chemical carcinogen. On the other hand, all cell types were transformed to a tumorigenic phenotype following transfection with the activated c-Ha-ras gene. The transfected myogenic cells expressed both the c-Ha-ras gene and the muscle determination gene MyoD1. In contrast to other reports, the presence of as many as six copies of the c-Ha-ras gene per genome did not prevent the formation of striated muscle cells which expressed immunologically detectable muscle-specific myosin. The expression of the c-Ha-ras gene does not therefore necessarily preclude the expression of the determination gene for myogenesis or prevent end-stage myogenic differentiation. Images PMID:2460742

  15. Effect of sulfur dioxide on expression of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes from rats.

    PubMed

    Bai, Juli; Meng, Ziqiang

    2010-06-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a ubiquitous air pollutant that is present in low concentrations in the urban air, and in higher concentrations in the working environment. In the present study, male Wistar rats were housed in exposure chambers and treated with 14.00 +/- 1.01, 28.00 +/- 1.77 and 56.00 +/- 3.44 mg m(-3) SO(2) for 6 h/day for 7 days, while control group was exposed to filtered air in the same condition. The mRNA and protein levels of proto-oncogenes (c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, and Ki-ras) and tumor suppressor genes (p53, Rb, and p16) were analyzed in lungs using a real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR) assay and Western blot analysis. The results showed that mRNA and protein levels of c-fos, c-jun, c-myc, Ki-ras, and p53 in lungs were increased in a dose-dependent manner, while mRNA and protein levels of Rb and p16 were decreased in lungs of rats after SO(2) inhalation. These results lead to a conclusion that SO(2) exposure could activate expressions of proto-oncogenes and suppress expressions of tumor suppressor genes, which might relate to the molecular mechanism of cocarcinogenic properties and potential carcinogenic effects of SO(2). According to previous studies, the results also indicated that promoter genes of apoptosis and tumor suppressor genes could produce apoptotic signals to antagonize the growth signals that arise from oncogenes. Understanding its molecular controls will benefit development of treatments for many diseases.

  16. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S; Carlomagno, Francesca; Santoro, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the 'DFG-out' inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the 'gatekeeper' V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET.

  17. Senescence-Associated Secretory Phenotypes Reveal Cell-Nonautonomous Functions of Oncogenic RAS and the p53 Tumor Suppressor

    SciTech Connect

    Coppé, Jean-Philippe; Patil, Christopher; Rodier, Francis; Sun, Yu; Munoz, Denise; Goldstein, Joshua; Nelson, Peter; Desprez, Pierre-Yves; Campisi, Judith

    2008-10-24

    Cellular senescence suppresses cancer by arresting cell proliferation, essentially permanently, in response to oncogenic stimuli, including genotoxic stress. We modified the use of antibody arrays to provide a quantitative assessment of factors secreted by senescent cells. We show that human cells induced to senesce by genotoxic stress secrete myriad factors associated with inflammation and malignancy. This senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) developed slowly over several days and only after DNA damage of sufficient magnitude to induce senescence. Remarkably similar SASPs developed in normal fibroblasts, normal epithelial cells, and epithelial tumor cells after genotoxic stress in culture, and in epithelial tumor cells in vivo after treatment of prostate cancer patients with DNA-damaging chemotherapy. In cultured premalignant epithelial cells, SASPs induced an epithelial-mesenchyme transition and invasiveness, hallmarks of malignancy, by a paracrine mechanism that depended largely on the SASP factors interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. Strikingly, two manipulations markedly amplified, and accelerated development of, the SASPs: oncogenic RAS expression, which causes genotoxic stress and senescence in normal cells, and functional loss of the p53 tumor suppressor protein. Both loss of p53 and gain of oncogenic RAS also exacerbated the promalignant paracrine activities of the SASPs. Our findings define a central feature of genotoxic stress-induced senescence. Moreover, they suggest a cell-nonautonomous mechanism by which p53 can restrain, and oncogenic RAS can promote, the development of age-related cancer by altering the tissue microenvironment.

  18. Beyond ALK-RET, ROS1 and other oncogene fusions in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nakaoku, Takashi; Tsuta, Koji; Tsuchihara, Katsuya; Matsumoto, Shingo; Yoh, Kiyotaka; Goto, Koichi

    2015-01-01

    Fusions of the RET and ROS1 protein tyrosine kinase oncogenes with several partner genes were recently identified as new targetable genetic aberrations in cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) lacking activating EGFR, KRAS, ALK, BRAF, or HER2 oncogene aberrations. RET and ROS1 fusion-positive tumors are mainly observed in young, female, and/or never smoking patients. Studies based on in vitro and in vivo (i.e., mouse) models and studies of several fusion-positive patients indicate that inhibiting the kinase activity of the RET and ROS1 fusion proteins is a promising therapeutic strategy. Accordingly, there are several ongoing clinical trials aimed at examining the efficacy of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) against RET and ROS1 proteins in patients with fusion-positive lung cancer. Other gene fusions (NTRK1, NRG1, and FGFR1/2/3) that are targetable by existing TKIs have also been identified in NSCLCs. Options for personalized lung cancer therapy will be increased with the help of multiplex diagnosis systems able to detect multiple druggable gene fusions. PMID:25870798

  19. Induction of cell proliferation in quiescent NIH 3T3 cells by oncogenic c-Raf-1.

    PubMed Central

    Kerkhoff, E; Rapp, U R

    1997-01-01

    The c-Raf-1 kinase is activated by different mitogenic stimuli and has been shown to be an important mediator of growth factor responses. Fusion of the catalytic domain of the c-Raf-1 kinase with the hormone binding domain of the estrogen receptor (deltaRaf-ER) provides a hormone-regulated form of oncogenic activated c-Raf-1. We have established NIH 3T3 cells stably expressing a c-Raf-1 deletion mutant-estrogen receptor fusion protein (c-Raf-1-BxB-ER) (N-BxB-ER cells). The transformed morphology of these cells is dependent on the presence of the estrogen antagonist 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Addition of 4-hydroxytamoxifen to N-BxB-ER cells arrested by density or serum starvation causes reentry of these cells into cell proliferation. Increases in the cell number are obvious by 24 h after activation of the oncogenic c-Raf-1 protein in confluent cells. The onset of proliferation in serum-starved cells is further delayed and takes about 48 h. In both cases, the proliferative response of the oncogenic c-Raf-1-induced cell proliferation is weaker than the one mediated by serum and does not lead to exponential growth. This is reflected in a markedly lower expression of the late-S- and G2/M-phase-specific cyclin B protein and a slightly lower expression of the cyclin A protein being induced at the G1/S transition. Oncogenic activation of c-Raf-1 induces the expression of the heparin binding epidermal growth factor. The Jnk1 kinase is putatively activated by the action of the autocrine growth factor. The kinetics of Jnk1 kinase activity is delayed and occurs by a time when we also detect DNA synthesis and the expression of the S-phase-specific cyclin A protein. This finding indicates that oncogenic activation of the c-Raf-1 protein can trigger the entry into the cell cycle without the action of the autocrine growth factor loop. The activation of the c-Raf-1-BxB-ER protein leads to an accumulation of high levels of cyclin D1 protein and a repression of the p27Kip1 cyclin

  20. Oncogenic Ras influences the expression of multiple lncRNAs.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Yojiro; Naemura, Madoka; Kitagawa, Kyoko; Niida, Hiroyuki; Tsunoda, Toshiyuki; Shirasawa, Senji; Kitagawa, Masatoshi

    2016-08-01

    Recent ultrahigh-density tiling array and large-scale transcriptome analysis have revealed that large numbers of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcribed in mammals. Several lncRNAs have been implicated in transcriptional regulation, organization of nuclear structure, and post-transcriptional processing. However, the regulation of expression of lncRNAs is less well understood. Here, we show that the exogenous and endogenous expression of an oncogenic form of small GTPase Ras (called oncogenic Ras) decrease the expression of lncRNA ANRIL (antisense non-coding RNA in the INK4 locus), which is involved in the regulation of cellular senescence. We also show that forced expression of oncogenic Ras increases the expression of lncRNA PANDA (p21 associated ncRNA DNA damage activated), which is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Microarray analysis demonstrated that expression of multiple lncRNAs fluctuated by forced expression of oncogenic Ras. These findings indicate that oncogenic Ras regulates the expression of a large number of lncRNAs including functional lncRNAs, such as ANRIL and PANDA.

  1. An eEF1A1 truncation encoded by PTI-1 exerts its oncogenic effect inside the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The oncogene PTI-1 was originally isolated from a prostate cancer cell line by its capability to transform rat fibroblasts. The PTI-1 mRNA has a very eccentric structure as the 5′UTR is similar to prokaryotic 23S rRNA, while the major open reading frame and the 3′UTR corresponds to a part of the mRNA encoding human translation elongation factor eEF1A1. Thus, the largest open reading frame encodes a truncated version of eEF1A1 lacking the first 67 amino acids, while having three unique N-terminal amino acids. Previously, the UTRs were shown to be a prerequisite for the transforming capacity of the PTI-1 transcript. In this study, we have investigated the possible role of the UTRs in regulating protein expression and localization. Methods The protein expression profiles of a number of PTI-1 mRNA variants were studied in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, the oncogenic potentials of the same PTI-1 mRNAs were determined by monitoring the capacities of stably transfected cells expressing these mRNAs to induce tumors in nude mice and form foci in cell culture. Finally, the cellular localizations of PTI-1 proteins expressed from these mRNAs were determined by fluorescence microscopy. Results The PTI-1 mRNA was found to give rise to multiple protein products that potentially originate from translation initiation at downstream, inframe AUGs within the major open reading frame. At least one of the truncated protein variants was also found to be oncogenic. However, the UTRs did not appear to influence the amount and identities of these truncated protein products. In contrast, our localization studies showed that the UTRs of the transcript promote a nuclear localization of the encoded protein(s). Conclusions Translation of the PTI-1 mRNA results in multiple protein products of which (a) truncated variant(s) may play a predominant role during cellular transformation. The PTI-1 UTRs did not seem to play a role in translation regulation, but appeared to contribute to

  2. Integrated, genome-wide screening for hypomethylated oncogenes in salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Chunbo; Sun, Wenyue; Tan, Marietta; Glazer, Chad A.; Bhan, Sheetal; Zhong, Xiaoli; Fakhry, Carole; Sharma, Rajni; Westra, William H.; Hoque, Mohammad O.; Moskaluk, Christopher A.; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph A.; Ha, Patrick K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Salivary gland adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that is poorly understood. In order to look for relevant oncogene candidates under the control of promoter methylation, an integrated, genome-wide screen was performed. Experimental Design Global demethylation of normal salivary gland cell strains using 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine (5-Aza dC) and Trichostatin A (TSA), followed by expression array analysis was performed. ACC-specific expression profiling was generated using expression microarray analysis of primary ACC and normal samples. Next, the two profiles were integrated to identify a subset of genes for further validation of promoter demethylation in ACC versus normal. Finally, promising candidates were further validated for mRNA, protein, and promoter methylation levels in larger ACC cohorts. Functional validation was then performed in cancer cell lines. Results We found 159 genes that were significantly re-expressed after 5-Aza dC/TSA treatment and overexpressed in ACC. After initial validation, eight candidates showed hypomethylation in ACC: AQP1, CECR1, C1QR1, CTAG2, P53AIP1, TDRD12, BEX1, and DYNLT3. Aquaporin 1 (AQP1) showed the most significant hypomethylation and was further validated. AQP1 hypomethylation in ACC was confirmed with two independent cohorts. Of note, there was significant overexpression of AQP1 in both mRNA and protein in the paraffin-embedded ACC cohort. Furthermore, AQP1 was up-regulated in 5-Aza dC/TSA treated SACC83. Lastly, AQP1 promoted cell proliferation and colony formation in SACC83. Conclusions Our integrated, genome-wide screening method proved to be an effective strategy for detecting novel oncogenes in ACC. AQP1 is a promising oncogene candidate for ACC and is transcriptionally regulated by promoter hypomethylation. PMID:21551254

  3. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of the ubiquitinome during oncogene-induced senescence in human fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Bengsch, Fee; Tu, Zhigang; Tang, Hsin-Yao; Zhu, Hengrui; Speicher, David W; Zhang, Rugang

    2015-01-01

    Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is an important tumor suppression mechanism preventing uncontrolled proliferation in response to aberrant oncogenic signaling. The profound functional and morphological remodelling of the senescent cell involves extensive changes. In particular, alterations in protein ubiquitination during senescence have not been systematically analyzed previously. Here, we report the first global ubiquitination profile of primary human cells undergoing senescence. We employed a well-characterized in vitro model of OIS, primary human fibroblasts expressing oncogenic RAS. To compare the ubiquitinome of RAS-induced OIS and controls, ubiquitinated peptides were enriched by immune affinity purification and subjected to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). We identified 4,472 ubiquitination sites, with 397 sites significantly changed (>3 standard deviations) in senescent cells. In addition, we performed mass spectrometry analysis of total proteins in OIS and control cells to account for parallel changes in both protein abundance and ubiquitin levels that did not affect the percentage of ubiquitination of a given protein. Pathway analysis revealed that the OIS-induced ubiquitinome alterations mainly affected 3 signaling networks: eIF2 signaling, eIF4/p70S6K signaling, and mTOR signaling. Interestingly, the majority of the changed ubiquitinated proteins in these pathways belong to the translation machinery. This includes several translation initiation factors (eIF2C2, eIF2B4, eIF3I, eIF3L, eIF4A1) and elongation factors (eEF1G, eEF1A) as well as 40S (RPS4X, RPS7, RPS11 and RPS20) and 60S ribosomal subunits (RPL10, RPL11, RPL18 and RPL35a). In addition, we observed enriched ubiquitination of aminoacyl-tRNA ligases (isoleucyl-, glutamine-, and tyrosine-tRNA ligase), which provide the amino acid-loaded tRNAs for protein synthesis. These results suggest that ubiquitination affects key components of the translation machinery to regulate

  5. Oncogene addiction: pathways of therapeutic response, resistance, and road maps toward a cure.

    PubMed

    Pagliarini, Raymond; Shao, Wenlin; Sellers, William R

    2015-03-01

    A key goal of cancer therapeutics is to selectively target the genetic lesions that initiate and maintain cancer cell proliferation and survival. While most cancers harbor multiple oncogenic mutations, a wealth of preclinical and clinical data supports that many cancers are sensitive to inhibition of single oncogenes, a concept referred to as 'oncogene addiction'. Herein, we describe the clinical evidence supporting oncogene addiction and discuss common mechanistic themes emerging from the response and acquired resistance to oncogene-targeted therapies. Finally, we suggest several opportunities toward exploiting oncogene addiction to achieve curative cancer therapies.

  6. Oncogene addiction: pathways of therapeutic response, resistance, and road maps toward a cure

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Raymond; Shao, Wenlin; Sellers, William R

    2015-01-01

    A key goal of cancer therapeutics is to selectively target the genetic lesions that initiate and maintain cancer cell proliferation and survival. While most cancers harbor multiple oncogenic mutations, a wealth of preclinical and clinical data supports that many cancers are sensitive to inhibition of single oncogenes, a concept referred to as ‘oncogene addiction’. Herein, we describe the clinical evidence supporting oncogene addiction and discuss common mechanistic themes emerging from the response and acquired resistance to oncogene-targeted therapies. Finally, we suggest several opportunities toward exploiting oncogene addiction to achieve curative cancer therapies. PMID:25680965

  7. Oncogenic kinase fusions: an evolving arena with innovative clinical opportunities

    PubMed Central

    Tabbò, Fabrizio; Pizzi, Marco; Kyriakides, Peter W.; Ruggeri, Bruce; Inghirami, Giorgio

    2016-01-01

    Cancer biology relies on intrinsic and extrinsic deregulated pathways, involving a plethora of intra-cellular and extra-cellular components. Tyrosine kinases are frequently deregulated genes, whose aberrant expression is often caused by major cytogenetic events (e.g. chromosomal translocations). The resulting tyrosine kinase fusions (TKFs) prompt the activation of oncogenic pathways, determining the biological and clinical features of the associated tumors. First reported half a century ago, oncogenic TKFs are now found in a large series of hematologic and solid tumors. The molecular basis of TKFs has been thoroughly investigated and tailored therapies against recurrent TKFs have recently been developed. This review illustrates the biology of oncogenic TKFs and their role in solid as well as hematological malignancies. We also address the therapeutic implications of TKFs and the many open issues concerning their clinical impact. PMID:26943776

  8. Avian oncogenic virus differential diagnosis in chickens using oligonucleotide microarray.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lih-Chiann; Huang, Dean; Pu, Chang-En; Wang, Ching-Ho

    2014-12-15

    Avian oncogenic viruses include the avian leukosis virus (ALV), reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) and Marek's disease virus (MDV). Multiple oncogenic viral infections are frequently seen, with even Marek's disease vaccines reported to be contaminated with ALV and REV. The gross lesions caused by avian oncogenic viruses often overlap, making differentiation diagnosis based on histopathology difficult. The objective of this study is to develop a rapid approach to simultaneously differentiate, subgroup and pathotype the avian oncogenic viruses. The oligonucleotide microarray was employed in this study. Particular DNA sequences were recognized using specific hybridization between the DNA target and probe on the microarray, followed with colorimetric development through enzyme reaction. With 10 designed probes, ALV-A, ALV-E, ALV-J, REV, MDV pathogenic and vaccine strains were clearly discriminated on the microarray with the naked eyes. The detection limit was 27 copy numbers, which was 10-100 times lower than multiplex PCR. Of 102 field samples screened using the oligonucleotide microarray, 32 samples were positive for ALV-E, 17 samples were positive for ALV-J, 6 samples were positive for REV, 4 samples were positive for MDV, 7 samples were positive for both ALV-A and ALV-E, 5 samples were positive for ALV-A, ALV-E and ALV-J, one sample was positive for both ALV-J and MDV, and 3 samples were positive for both REV and MDV. The oligonucleotide microarray, an easy-to-use, high-specificity, high-sensitivity and extendable assay, presents a potent technique for rapid differential diagnosis of avian oncogenic viruses and the detection of multiple avian oncogenic viral infections under field conditions.

  9. Molecular biology of oncogenic inflammatory processes. I. Non-oncogenic and oncogenic pathogens, intrinsic inflammatory reactions without pathogens, and microRNA/DNA interactions (Review).

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2012-02-01

    In some inflammasomes tumor cells are generated. The internal environment of the inflammasome is conducive to the induction of malignant transformation. Epigenetic changes initiate this process. The subverted stromal connective tissue cells act to promote and sustain the process of malignant trans-formation. In its early stages, the premalignant cells depend on paracrine circuitries for the reception of growth factors. The ligands are derived from the connective tissue, and the receptors are expressed on the recipient premalignant cells. The initial events are not a direct attack on the proto-oncogenes, and thus it may be entirely reversible. Epigenetic processes of hypermethylation of the genes at the promoters of tumor suppressor genes (to silence them), and deacetylation of the histones aimed at the promoters of proto-oncogenes (to activate them) are on-going. A large number of short RNA sequences (interfering, micro-, short hairpin, non-coding RNAs) silence tumor suppressor genes, by neutralizing their mRNAs. In a serial sequence oncogenes undergo amplifications, point-mutations, translocations and fusions. In its earliest stage, the process is reversible by demethylation of the silenced suppressor gene promoters (to reactivate them), or re-acetylation of the histones of the oncogene promoters, thus de-activating them. The external administration of histone deacetylase inhibitors usually leads to the restoration of histone acetylation. In time, the uncorrected processes solidify into constitutive and irreversible gene mutations. Some of the pathogens inducing inflammations with consquential malignant transformation contain oncogenic gene sequences (papilloma viruses, Epstein-Barr virus, Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, hepatitis B and C viruses, Merkel cell polyoma virus, Helicobacter pylori, enterotoxigenic Bacteroides fragilis). These induced malignancies may be multifocal. Other pathogens are devoid of any known oncogenic genomic sequences

  10. Oncogenic MicroRNAs: Key Players in Malignant Transformation

    PubMed Central

    Frixa, Tania; Donzelli, Sara; Blandino, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of non-coding RNAs that exert pivotal roles in the regulation of gene expression at the post-transcriptional level. MiRNAs are involved in many biological processes and slight modulations in their expression have been correlated with the occurrence of different diseases. In particular, alterations in the expression of miRNAs with oncogenic or tumor suppressor functions have been associated with carcinogenesis, malignant transformation, metastasis and response to anticancer treatments. This review will mainly focus on oncogenic miRNAs whose aberrant expression leads to malignancy. PMID:26694467

  11. Strategies of oncogenic microbes to deal with WW domain-containing oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yu-Yan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a well-documented tumor suppressor protein that controls growth, survival, and metastasis of malignant cells. To counteract WWOX’s suppressive effects, cancer cells have developed many strategies either to downregulate WWOX expression or to functionally inactivate WWOX. Relatively unknown is, in the context of those cancers associated with certain viruses or bacteria, how the oncogenic pathogens deal with WWOX. Here we review recent studies showing different strategies utilized by three cancer-associated pathogens. Helicobactor pylori reduces WWOX expression through promoter hypermethylation, an epigenetic mechanism also occurring in many other cancer cells. WWOX has a potential to block canonical NF-κB activation and tumorigenesis induced by Tax, an oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus. Tax successfully overcomes the blockage by inhibiting WWOX expression through activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. On the other hand, latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein–Barr virus physically interacts with WWOX and redirects its function to trigger a signaling pathway that upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cancer cell invasion. These reports may be just “the tip of the iceberg” regarding multiple interactions between WWOX and oncogenic microbes. Further studies in this direction should expand our understanding of infection-driven oncogenesis. PMID:25488911

  12. SRSF2 promotes splicing and transcription of exon 11 included isoform in Ron proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Moon, Heegyum; Cho, Sunghee; Loh, Tiing Jen; Oh, Hyun Kyung; Jang, Ha Na; Zhou, Jianhua; Kwon, Young-Soo; Liao, D Joshua; Jun, Youngsoo; Eom, Soohyun; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Green, Michael R; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2014-11-01

    The product of proto-oncogene Ron is a human receptor for the macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP). Upon activation, Ron is able to induce cell dissociation, migration and matrix invasion. Exon 11 skipping of Ron pre-mRNA produces Ron△165 protein that is constitutively active even in the absence of its ligand. Here we show that knockdown of SRSF2 promotes the decrease of exon 11 inclusion, whereas overexpression of SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion. We demonstrate that SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion through splicing and transcription procedure. We also present evidence that reduced expression of SRSF2 induces a decrease in the splicing of both introns 10 and 11; by contrast, overexpression of SRSF2 induces an increase in the splicing of introns 10 and 11. Through mutation analysis, we show that SRSF2 functionally targets and physically interacts with CGAG sequence on exon 11. In addition, we reveal that the weak strength of splice sites of exon 11 is not required for the function of SRSF2 on the splicing of Ron exon 11. Our results indicate that SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion of Ron proto-oncogene through targeting exon 11. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which Ron is expressed.

  13. The histone demethylase LSD1 is a novel oncogene and therapeutic target in oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanling; Zhu, Yumin; Wang, Qiong; Hu, Huijun; Li, Zhongwu; Wang, Dongmiao; Zhang, Wei; Qi, Bin; Ye, Jinhai; Wu, Heming; Jiang, Hongbing; Liu, Laikui; Yang, Jianrong; Cheng, Jie

    2016-04-28

    The histone demethylase LSD1 functions as a key pro-oncogene and attractive therapeutic target in human cancer. Here we sought to interrogate the oncogenic roles of LSD1 in OSCC tumorigenesis and therapeutic intervention by integrating chemical-induced OSCC model, genetic and pharmacological loss-of-function approaches. Our data revealed that aberrant LSD1 overexpression in OSCC was significantly associated with tumor aggressiveness and shorter overall survival. Increased abundance of LSD1 was detected along with disease progression in DMBA- or 4NQO-induced OSCC animal models. LSD1 depletion via siRNA-mediated knockdown in OSCC cells resulted in impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion, tumorsphere formation and reduced xenograft growth while inducing cell apoptosis and enhancing chemosensitivity to 5-FU. Moreover, treatments of LSD1 chemical inhibitors (pargyline and tranylcypromine) induced its protein reduction probably via enhanced protein degradation and produced similar phenotypic changes resembling LSD1 silencing in OSCC cells. Pharmacological inhibition of LSD1 by intraperitoneal delivery of these inhibitors resulted in impaired xenograft overgrowth. Taken together, our data reveal the tumorigenic roles of LSD1 and identified LSD1 as a novel biomarker with diagnostic and prognostic significance, and also establish that targeting LSD1 by chemical inhibitors is a viable therapeutic strategy against OSCC. PMID:26872725

  14. Oncogenic transformation of Drosophila somatic cells induces a functional piRNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Fagegaltier, Delphine; Falciatori, Ilaria; Czech, Benjamin; Castel, Stephane; Perrimon, Norbert; Simcox, Amanda; Hannon, Gregory J

    2016-07-15

    Germline genes often become re-expressed in soma-derived human cancers as "cancer/testis antigens" (CTAs), and piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway proteins are found among CTAs. However, whether and how the piRNA pathway contributes to oncogenesis in human neoplasms remain poorly understood. We found that oncogenic Ras combined with loss of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway reactivates a primary piRNA pathway in Drosophila somatic cells coincident with oncogenic transformation. In these cells, Piwi becomes loaded with piRNAs derived from annotated generative loci, which are normally restricted to either the germline or the somatic follicle cells. Negating the pathway leads to increases in the expression of a wide variety of transposons and also altered expression of some protein-coding genes. This correlates with a reduction in the proliferation of the transformed cells in culture, suggesting that, at least in this context, the piRNA pathway may play a functional role in cancer. PMID:27474441

  15. A novel LKB1 isoform enhances AMPK metabolic activity and displays oncogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Dahmani, R; Just, P-A; Delay, A; Canal, F; Finzi, L; Prip-Buus, C; Lambert, M; Sujobert, P; Buchet-Poyau, K; Miller, E; Cavard, C; Marmier, S; Terris, B; Billaud, M; Perret, C

    2015-04-30

    The LKB1 tumor suppressor gene encodes a master kinase that coordinates the regulation of energetic metabolism and cell polarity. We now report the identification of a novel isoform of LKB1 (named ΔN-LKB1) that is generated through alternative transcription and internal initiation of translation of the LKB1 mRNA. The ΔN-LKB1 protein lacks the N-terminal region and a portion of the kinase domain. Although ΔN-LKB1 is catalytically inactive, it potentiates the stimulating effect of LKB1 on the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) metabolic sensor through a direct interaction with the regulatory autoinhibitory domain of AMPK. In contrast, ΔN-LKB1 negatively interferes with the LKB1 polarizing activity. Finally, combining in vitro and in vivo approaches, we showed that ΔN-LKB1 has an intrinsic oncogenic property. ΔN-LKB1 is expressed solely in the lung cancer cell line, NCI-H460. Silencing of ΔN-LKB1 decreased the survival of NCI-H460 cells and inhibited their tumorigenicity when engrafted in nude mice. In conclusion, we have identified a novel LKB1 isoform that enhances the LKB1-controlled AMPK metabolic activity but inhibits LKB1-induced polarizing activity. Both the LKB1 tumor suppressor gene and the oncogene ΔN-LKB1 are expressed from the same locus and this may account for some of the paradoxical effects of LKB1 during tumorigenesis.

  16. Antineoplastic Effects of siRNA against TMPRSS2-ERG Junction Oncogene in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urbinati, Giorgia; Ali, Hafiz Muhammad; Rousseau, Quentin; Chapuis, Hubert; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick; Massaad-Massade, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    TMPRSS2-ERG junction oncogene is present in more than 50% of patients with prostate cancer and its expression is frequently associated with poor prognosis. Our aim is to achieve gene knockdown by siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG and then to assess the biological consequences of this inhibition. First, we designed siRNAs against the two TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variants (III and IV), most frequently identified in patients’ biopsies. Two of the five siRNAs tested were found to efficiently inhibit mRNA of both TMPRSS2-ERG variants and to decrease ERG protein expression. Microarray analysis further confirmed ERG inhibition by both siRNAs TMPRSS2-ERG and revealed one common down-regulated gene, ADRA2A, involved in cell proliferation and migration. The siRNA against TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variant IV showed the highest anti-proliferative effects: Significantly decreased cell viability, increased cleaved caspase-3 and inhibited a cluster of anti-apoptotic proteins. To propose a concrete therapeutic approach, siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG IV was conjugated to squalene, which can self-organize as nanoparticles in water. The nanoparticles of siRNA TMPRSS2-ERG-squalene injected intravenously in SCID mice reduced growth of VCaP xenografted tumours, inhibited oncoprotein expression and partially restored differentiation (decrease in Ki67). In conclusion, this study offers a new prospect of treatment for prostate cancer based on siRNA-squalene nanoparticles targeting TMPRSS2-ERG junction oncogene. PMID:25933120

  17. SRSF2 promotes splicing and transcription of exon 11 included isoform in Ron proto-oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Heegyum; Cho, Sunghee; Loh, Tiing Jen; Oh, Hyun Kyung; Jang, Ha Na; Zhou, Jianhua; Kwon, Young-Soo; Liao, D. Joshua; Jun, Youngsoo; Eom, Soohyun; Ghigna, Claudia; Biamonti, Giuseppe; Green, Michael R; Zheng, Xuexiu; Shen, Haihong

    2015-01-01

    The product of proto-oncogene Ron is a human receptor for the macrophage-stimulating protein (MSP). Upon activation, Ron is able to induce cell dissociation, migration and matrix invasion. Exon 11 skipping of Ron pre-mRNA produces Ron△165 protein that is constitutively active even in the absence of its ligand. Here we show that knockdown of SRSF2 promotes the decrease of exon 11 inclusion, whereas overexpression of SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion. We demonstrate that SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion through splicing and transcription procedure. We also present evidence that reduced expression of SRSF2 induce a decrease in the splicing of both intron 10 and 11, by contrast, overexpression of SRSF2 induce an increase in the splicing of intron 10 and 11. Through mutation analysis, we show that SRSF2 functionally target and physically interact with CGAG sequence on exon 11. In addition, we reveal that weak strength of splice sites of exon 11 is not required for the function of SRSF2 on the splicing of Ron exon 11. Our results indicate that SRSF2 promotes exon 11 inclusion of Ron proto-oncogene through targeting exon 11. Our study provides a novel mechanism by which Ron is expressed. PMID:25220236

  18. Fusion oncogenes and tumor type specificity--insights from salivary gland tumors.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2005-06-01

    Salivary gland tumors are frequently characterized by recurrent chromosome translocations, which have recently been shown to result in pathogenetically relevant fusion oncogenes. These genes encode novel fusion proteins as well as ectopically expressed normal or truncated proteins, and are found in both benign and malignant salivary gland tumors. The major targets of the translocations are DNA-binding transcription factors (PLAG1 and HMGA2) involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation, and coactivators of the Notch (MAML2) and cAMP (TORC1) signaling pathways. Identification of these fusion oncogenes has contributed to our knowledge of molecular pathways leading to epithelial tumors in general, and to salivary gland tumors in particular. Interestingly, the fusions in salivary gland tumors do not seem to be as tumor type specific as those in leukemias and sarcomas. Instead, they may function by activating basic transformation pathways that can function in multiple cell types. The downstream gene products of these fusions will be important targets for development of new intracellular therapeutic strategies.

  19. A novel oncogene, v-ryk, encoding a truncated receptor tyrosine kinase is transduced into the RPL30 virus without loss of viral sequences.

    PubMed Central

    Jia, R; Mayer, B J; Hanafusa, T; Hanafusa, H

    1992-01-01

    The RPL viruses are acute oncogenic avian retroviruses isolated from chicken tumors. We carried out a genetic analysis of three of the viruses, RPL25, RPL28, and RPL30. While RPL25 and RPL28 were shown to contain the erbB oncogene, RPL30 appeared to contain a novel protein tyrosine kinase oncogene. This gene, v-ryk, was cloned and sequenced. The v-ryk oncogene contains a 1.39-kb nonretroviral sequence that includes a tyrosine kinase domain which was inserted into the viral envelope protein gp37-coding region and fused in frame with upstream gp37 to generate a P69gp37-ryk fusion oncoprotein. Unlike that of other acutely transforming retroviruses, transduction of the v-ryk gene into RPL30 did not result in deletion of viral sequences. Sequence analysis suggested that v-Ryk is more homologous to receptor-type tyrosine kinases than to nonreceptor-type kinases. By reconstitution of a virus from its cDNA, the v-ryk oncogene has been shown to be fully responsible for the transforming activity of the RPL30 virus. Antibodies specific to v-Ryk immunoprecipitated the v-Ryk oncoprotein from cells transformed by the RPL30 virus. The v-Ryk protein was shown to be first synthesized as a 150-kDa precursor and then cleaved into the mature 69-kDa gp37-Ryk fusion protein, both parts of which were found to be localized to the membrane fraction. As expected from the sequence of v-Ryk, immunoprecipitates of v-Ryk from RPL30-transformed cells were found to display a protein tyrosine kinase activity in vitro, and the levels of tyrosine-phosphorylated proteins are elevated in v-ryk-transformed cells. Images PMID:1527848

  20. BTB-Zinc Finger Oncogenes Are Required for Ras and Notch-Driven Tumorigenesis in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Doggett, Karen; Turkel, Nezaket; Willoughby, Lee F; Ellul, Jason; Murray, Michael J; Richardson, Helena E; Brumby, Anthony M

    2015-01-01

    During tumorigenesis, pathways that promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can both facilitate metastasis and endow tumor cells with cancer stem cell properties. To gain a greater understanding of how these properties are interlinked in cancers we used Drosophila epithelial tumor models, which are driven by orthologues of human oncogenes (activated alleles of Ras and Notch) in cooperation with the loss of the cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib). Within these tumors, both invasive, mesenchymal-like cell morphology and continual tumor overgrowth, are dependent upon Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. To identify JNK-dependent changes within the tumors we used a comparative microarray analysis to define a JNK gene signature common to both Ras and Notch-driven tumors. Amongst the JNK-dependent changes was a significant enrichment for BTB-Zinc Finger (ZF) domain genes, including chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (chinmo). chinmo was upregulated by JNK within the tumors, and overexpression of chinmo with either RasV12 or Nintra was sufficient to promote JNK-independent epithelial tumor formation in the eye/antennal disc, and, in cooperation with RasV12, promote tumor formation in the adult midgut epithelium. Chinmo primes cells for oncogene-mediated transformation through blocking differentiation in the eye disc, and promoting an escargot-expressing stem or enteroblast cell state in the adult midgut. BTB-ZF genes are also required for Ras and Notch-driven overgrowth of scrib mutant tissue, since, although loss of chinmo alone did not significantly impede tumor development, when loss of chinmo was combined with loss of a functionally related BTB-ZF gene, abrupt, tumor overgrowth was significantly reduced. abrupt is not a JNK-induced gene, however, Abrupt is present in JNK-positive tumor cells, consistent with a JNK-associated oncogenic role. As some mammalian BTB-ZF proteins are also highly oncogenic, our work suggests that EMT

  1. Regulation of oncogene expression in T-DNA-transformed host plant cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yi; Lee, Chil-Woo; Wehner, Nora; Imdahl, Fabian; Svetlana, Veselova; Weiste, Christoph; Dröge-Laser, Wolfgang; Deeken, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Virulent Agrobacterium tumefaciens strains integrate their T-DNA into the plant genome where the encoded agrobacterial oncogenes are expressed and cause crown gall disease. Essential for crown gall development are IaaH (indole-3-acetamide hydrolase), IaaM (tryptophan monooxygenase) and Ipt (isopentenyl transferase), which encode enzymes for the biosynthesis of auxin (IaaH, IaaM) and cytokinin (Ipt). Although these oncogenes are well studied as the tumor-inducing principle, nothing is known about the regulation of oncogene expression in plant cells. Our studies show that the intergenic regions (IGRs) between the coding sequences (CDS) of the three oncogenes function as promoters in plant cells. These promoters possess a eukaryotic sequence organization and cis-regulatory elements for the binding of plant transcription factors. WRKY18, WRKY40, WRKY60 and ARF5 were identified as activators of the Ipt promoter whereas IaaH and IaaM is constitutively expressed and no transcription factor further activates their promoters. Consistent with these results, the wrky triple mutant plants in particular, develops smaller crown galls than wild-type and exhibits a reduced Ipt transcription, despite the presence of an intact ARF5 gene. WRKY40 and WRKY60 gene expression is induced by A. tumefaciens within a few hours whereas the ARF5 gene is transcribed later during crown gall development. The WRKY proteins interact with ARF5 in the plant nucleus, but only WRKY40 together with ARF5 synergistically boosts the activation of the Ipt promoter in an auxin-dependent manner. From our data, we propose that A. tumefaciens initially induces WRKY40 gene expression as a pathogen defense response of the host cell. The WRKY protein is recruited to induce Ipt expression, which initiates cytokinin-dependent host cell division. With increasing auxin levels triggered by ubiquitous expression of IaaH and IaaM, ARF5 is activated and interacts with WRKY40 to potentiate Ipt expression and balance

  2. BTB-Zinc Finger Oncogenes Are Required for Ras and Notch-Driven Tumorigenesis in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Doggett, Karen; Turkel, Nezaket; Willoughby, Lee F.; Ellul, Jason; Murray, Michael J.; Richardson, Helena E.; Brumby, Anthony M.

    2015-01-01

    During tumorigenesis, pathways that promote the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) can both facilitate metastasis and endow tumor cells with cancer stem cell properties. To gain a greater understanding of how these properties are interlinked in cancers we used Drosophila epithelial tumor models, which are driven by orthologues of human oncogenes (activated alleles of Ras and Notch) in cooperation with the loss of the cell polarity regulator, scribbled (scrib). Within these tumors, both invasive, mesenchymal-like cell morphology and continual tumor overgrowth, are dependent upon Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activity. To identify JNK-dependent changes within the tumors we used a comparative microarray analysis to define a JNK gene signature common to both Ras and Notch-driven tumors. Amongst the JNK-dependent changes was a significant enrichment for BTB-Zinc Finger (ZF) domain genes, including chronologically inappropriate morphogenesis (chinmo). chinmo was upregulated by JNK within the tumors, and overexpression of chinmo with either RasV12 or Nintra was sufficient to promote JNK-independent epithelial tumor formation in the eye/antennal disc, and, in cooperation with RasV12, promote tumor formation in the adult midgut epithelium. Chinmo primes cells for oncogene-mediated transformation through blocking differentiation in the eye disc, and promoting an escargot-expressing stem or enteroblast cell state in the adult midgut. BTB-ZF genes are also required for Ras and Notch-driven overgrowth of scrib mutant tissue, since, although loss of chinmo alone did not significantly impede tumor development, when loss of chinmo was combined with loss of a functionally related BTB-ZF gene, abrupt, tumor overgrowth was significantly reduced. abrupt is not a JNK-induced gene, however, Abrupt is present in JNK-positive tumor cells, consistent with a JNK-associated oncogenic role. As some mammalian BTB-ZF proteins are also highly oncogenic, our work suggests that EMT

  3. The prolactin receptor mediates HOXA1-stimulated oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lin; Xu, Bing; Mohankumar, Kumarasamypet M; Goffin, Vincent; Perry, Jo K; Lobie, Peter E; Liu, Dong-Xu

    2012-12-01

    The HOX genes are a highly conserved subgroup of homeodomain-containing transcription factors that are crucial to normal development. Forced expression of HOXA1 results in oncogenic transformation of immortalized human mammary cells with aggressive tumour formation in vivo. Microarray analysis identified that the prolactin receptor (PRLR) was significantly upregulated by forced expression of HOXA1 in mammary carcinoma cells. To determine prolactin (PRL) involvement in HOXA1‑induced oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells (MCF-7), we examined the effect of human prolactin (hPRL)-initiated PRLR signal transduction on changes in cellular behaviour mediated by HOXA1. Forced expression of HOXA1 in MCF-7 cells increased PRLR mRNA and protein expression. Forced expression of HOXA1 also enhanced hPRL-stimulated phosphorylation of both STAT5A/B and p44/42 MAPK, and increased subsequent transcriptional activity of STAT5A and STAT5B, and Elk-1 and Sap1a, respectively. Moreover, forced expression of HOXA1 in MCF-7 cells enhanced the hPRL‑stimulated increase in total cell number as a consequence of enhanced cell proliferation and cell survival, and also enhanced hPRL-stimulated anchorage-independent growth in soft agar. Increased anchorage-independent growth was attenuated by the PRLR antagonist ∆1-9-G129R‑hPRL. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that HOXA1 increases expression of the cell surface receptor PRLR and enhances PRLR-mediated signal transduction. Thus, the PRLR is one mediator of HOXA1‑stimulated oncogenicity in mammary carcinoma cells. PMID:23064471

  4. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David JH; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David TW; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H. Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimlmg, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-01-01

    Summary Paragraph Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoural heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and Group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for the majority of paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to Groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family protooncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1/GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate ‘enhancer hijacking’ as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer. PMID:25043047

  5. Oncogenic cancer/testis antigens: prime candidates for immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gjerstorff, Morten F; Andersen, Mads H; Ditzel, Henrik J

    2015-06-30

    Recent developments have set the stage for immunotherapy as a supplement to conventional cancer treatment. Consequently, a significant effort is required to further improve efficacy and specificity, particularly the identification of optimal therapeutic targets for clinical testing. Cancer/testis antigens are immunogenic, highly cancer-specific, and frequently expressed in various types of cancer, which make them promising candidate targets for cancer immunotherapy, including cancer vaccination and adoptive T-cell transfer with chimeric T-cell receptors. Our current understanding of tumor immunology and immune escape suggests that targeting oncogenic antigens may be beneficial, meaning that identification of cancer/testis antigens with oncogenic properties is of high priority. Recent work from our lab and others provide evidence that many cancer/testis antigens, in fact, have oncogenic functions, including support of growth, survival and metastasis. This novel insight into the function of cancer/testis antigens has the potential to deliver more effective cancer vaccines. Moreover, immune targeting of oncogenic cancer/testis antigens in combination with conventional cytotoxic therapies or novel immunotherapies such as checkpoint blockade or adoptive transfer, represents a highly synergistic approach with the potential to improve patient survival.

  6. Oncogenic human papillomaviruses and ploidy in cervical lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Rihet, S; Lorenzato, M; Clavel, C

    1996-01-01

    AIM: To compare ploidy measurements obtained on tissue sections of selected low and high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions containing oncogenic HPV (types 16, 18 or 33) detected by in situ hybridisation (ISH) or PCR. METHODS: DNA ploidy was assessed by image cytometry after Feulgen staining of contiguous serial sections of eight lesions exhibiting atypical squamous cells or squamous atypia and 53 low and 63 high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions in which HPV had been detected by ISH or PCR. RESULTS: Aneuploidy was strongly associated with the presence of oncogenic HPV, being detected in 50% of lesions with squamous atypia and 75.5% of the low and 95.2% of the high grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. The multiploid profile was highly associated with high grade lesions and with the pattern of HPV DNA integration. CONCLUSIONS: The presence of aneuploidy is strongly suggestive of the presence of oncogenic HPV types. Combining the detection of HPV by ISH and PCR with DNA image cytometry may provide the pathologist and the physician with important prognostic information about low grade lesions, especially when these lesions have a multiploid DNA profile and contain oncogenic HPV. PMID:8944607

  7. Folate levels modulate oncogene-induced replication stress and tumorigenicity

    PubMed Central

    Lamm, Noa; Maoz, Karin; Bester, Assaf C; Im, Michael M; Shewach, Donna S; Karni, Rotem; Kerem, Batsheva

    2015-01-01

    Chromosomal instability in early cancer stages is caused by replication stress. One mechanism by which oncogene expression induces replication stress is to drive cell proliferation with insufficient nucleotide levels. Cancer development is driven by alterations in both genetic and environmental factors. Here, we investigated whether replication stress can be modulated by both genetic and non-genetic factors and whether the extent of replication stress affects the probability of neoplastic transformation. To do so, we studied the effect of folate, a micronutrient that is essential for nucleotide biosynthesis, on oncogene-induced tumorigenicity. We show that folate deficiency by itself leads to replication stress in a concentration-dependent manner. Folate deficiency significantly enhances oncogene-induced replication stress, leading to increased DNA damage and tumorigenicity in vitro. Importantly, oncogene-expressing cells, when grown under folate deficiency, exhibit a significantly increased frequency of tumor development in mice. These findings suggest that replication stress is a quantitative trait affected by both genetic and non-genetic factors and that the extent of replication stress plays an important role in cancer development. PMID:26197802

  8. Notch signaling: switching an oncogene to a tumor suppressor

    PubMed Central

    Lobry, Camille; Oh, Philmo; Mansour, Marc R.; Look, A. Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The Notch signaling pathway is a regulator of self-renewal and differentiation in several tissues and cell types. Notch is a binary cell-fate determinant, and its hyperactivation has been implicated as oncogenic in several cancers including breast cancer and T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Recently, several studies also unraveled tumor-suppressor roles for Notch signaling in different tissues, including tissues where it was before recognized as an oncogene in specific lineages. Whereas involvement of Notch as an oncogene in several lymphoid malignancies (T-ALL, B-chronic lymphocytic leukemia, splenic marginal zone lymphoma) is well characterized, there is growing evidence involving Notch signaling as a tumor suppressor in myeloid malignancies. It therefore appears that Notch signaling pathway’s oncogenic or tumor-suppressor abilities are highly context dependent. In this review, we summarize and discuss latest advances in the understanding of this dual role in hematopoiesis and the possible consequences for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. PMID:24608975

  9. Transcriptional repression of Sin3B by Bmi-1 prevents cellular senescence and is relieved by oncogene activation

    PubMed Central

    Bainor, Anthony J.; David, Gregory

    2014-01-01

    The Polycomb group protein Bmi-1 is an essential regulator of cellular senescence and is believed to function largely through the direct repression of the Ink4a/Arf locus. However, concurrent deletion of Ink4a/Arf does not fully rescue the defects detected in Bmi-1−/− mice, indicating that additional Bmi-1 targets remain to be identified. The expression of the chromatin associated Sin3B protein is stimulated by oncogenic stress, and is required for oncogene-induced senescence. Here we demonstrate that oncogenic stress leads to the dissociation of Bmi-1 from the Sin3B locus, resulting in increased Sin3B expression and subsequent entry into cellular senescence. Furthermore, Sin3B is required for the senescent phenotype and elevated levels of reactive oxygen species elicited upon Bmi-1 depletion. Altogether, these results identify Sin3B as a novel direct target of Bmi-1, and establish Bmi-1-driven repression of Sin3B as an essential regulator of cellular senescence. PMID:25263442

  10. ARF6 Is an Actionable Node that Orchestrates Oncogenic GNAQ Signaling in Uveal Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Jae Hyuk; Shi, Dallas S; Grossmann, Allie H; Sorensen, Lise K; Tong, ZongZhong; Mleynek, Tara M; Rogers, Aaron; Zhu, Weiquan; Richards, Jackson R; Winter, Jacob M; Zhu, Jie; Dunn, Christine; Bajji, Ashok; Shenderovich, Mark; Mueller, Alan L; Woodman, Scott E; Harbour, J William; Thomas, Kirk R; Odelberg, Shannon J; Ostanin, Kirill; Li, Dean Y

    2016-06-13

    Activating mutations in Gαq proteins, which form the α subunit of certain heterotrimeric G proteins, drive uveal melanoma oncogenesis by triggering multiple downstream signaling pathways, including PLC/PKC, Rho/Rac, and YAP. Here we show that the small GTPase ARF6 acts as a proximal node of oncogenic Gαq signaling to induce all of these downstream pathways as well as β-catenin signaling. ARF6 activates these diverse pathways through a common mechanism: the trafficking of GNAQ and β-catenin from the plasma membrane to cytoplasmic vesicles and the nucleus, respectively. Blocking ARF6 with a small-molecule inhibitor reduces uveal melanoma cell proliferation and tumorigenesis in a mouse model, confirming the functional relevance of this pathway and suggesting a therapeutic strategy for Gα-mediated diseases. PMID:27265506

  11. Malignant transformation of diploid human fibroblasts by transfection of oncogenes. Part 2, Progress report, July 1989--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, J.J.

    1992-12-31

    This document consist of brief reports prepared by postdoctoral students supported by the project, each describing his accomplishments under the grant. Topics include (1) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1. 1 Cells by Gamma Radiation, (2) Correlation between Levels of ras Expression and Presence of Transformed Phenotypes Including Tumorigenicity, Using a Modulatable Promoter, (3) Relation between Specific rad Oncogene Expression, (4) Correlation of Genetic Changes in Fibroblastic Tumors with Malignancies, (5)Transformation of MSU-1.1 Cells by sis Oncogene, (6) Malignant Transformation of MSU-1.0 Cells, (7) Correlation of Urokinase Plasminogen Activation (mu-PA) with Malignant Phenotype, (8)Two Dimensional Gel Electrophoresis Studies of the Proteins of the Major Cell Strains of the MSU-1 Family of Cells, and (9) Correlation between Proteinase Activity Levels and Malignancy.

  12. ERβ decreases the invasiveness of triple-negative breast cancer cells by regulating mutant p53 oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Bado, Igor; Nikolos, Fotis; Rajapaksa, Gayani; Gustafsson, Jan-Åke; Thomas, Christoforos

    2016-01-01

    Most (80%) of the triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) express mutant p53 proteins that acquire oncogenic activities including promoting metastasis. We previously showed that wild-type ERβ (ERβ1) impedes epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and decreases the invasiveness of TNBC cells. In the present study we searched for signaling pathways that ERβ1 uses to inhibit EMT and invasion in TNBC cells. We show that ERβ1 binds to and opposes the transcriptional activity of mutant p53 at the promoters of genes that regulate metastasis. p63 that transcriptionally cooperates with mutant p53 also binds to ERβ1. Downregulation of p63 represses the epithelial phenotype of ERβ1-expressing cells and alters the expression of mutant p53 target genes. These results describe a novel mechanism through which ERβ1 can disturb oncogenic signals to inhibit aggressiveness in TNBCs. PMID:26871946

  13. Gene amplification system based on double rolling-circle replication as a model for oncogene-type amplification.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Takaaki; Tanabe, Hideyuki; Horiuchi, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Gene amplification contributes to a variety of biological phenomena, including malignant progression and drug resistance. However, details of the molecular mechanisms remain to be determined. Here, we have developed a gene amplification system in yeast and mammalian cells that is based on double rolling-circle replication (DRCR). Cre-lox system is used to efficiently induce DRCR utilizing a recombinational process coupled with replication. This system shows distinctive features seen in amplification of oncogenes and drug-resistance genes: (i) intra- and extrachromosomal amplification, (ii) intensive chromosome rearrangement and (iii) scattered-type amplification resembling those seen in cancer cells. This system can serve as a model for amplification of oncogenes and drug-resistance genes, and improve amplification systems used for making pharmaceutical proteins in mammalian cells.

  14. Notch-1 expression levels in 3T3-L1 cells influence ras signaling and transformation by oncogenic ras.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Hidalgo, M J; Garcés, C; Laborda, J

    1999-04-01

    Notch proteins participate in interactions between several cell types involved on the specification of numerous cell fates during development. We previously showed that enforced downregulation of Notch-1 expression prevented adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells. Since adipogenesis of 3T3-L1 cells can be induced by oncogenic ras, we studied whether this was also the case in 3T3-L1 cells with decreased levels of Notch-1 expression. We found that oncogenic ras induces transformation and not differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells with diminished levels of Notch-1. This result suggests that Notch-1 is implicated in the interpretation of signals leading to activation of p21 Ras.

  15. STK38 is a Critical Upstream Regulator of MYC’s Oncogenic Activity in Human B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Bisikirska, Brygida C.; Adam, Stacey J.; Alvarez, Mariano J.; Rajbhandari, Presha; Cox, Rachel; Lefebvre, Celine; Wang, Kai; Rieckhof, Gabrielle E.; Felsher, Dean W.; Califano, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    The MYC proto-oncogene is associated with the pathogenesis of most human neoplasia. Conversely, its experimental inactivation elicits oncogene addiction. While MYC constitutes a formidable therapeutic target, it also plays an essential role in normal physiology, thus creating the need for context--specific targeting strategies. The analysis of post-translational MYC activity modulation yields novel targets for MYC inactivation. Specifically, following regulatory network analysis in human B cells, we identify a novel role of the STK38 kinase as a regulator of MYC activity and a candidate target for abrogating tumorigenesis in MYC addicted lymphoma. We found that STK38 regulates MYC protein stability and turnover in a kinase-activity-dependent manner. STK38 kinase inactivation abrogates apoptosis following B-cell receptor (BCR) activation, while its silencing significantly decreases MYC levels and increases apoptosis. Moreover, STK38 knockdown suppresses growth of MYC addicted tumors in vivo thus providing a novel viable target for treating these malignancies. PMID:23178486

  16. Molecular cloning and characterization of the human dbl proto-oncogene: evidence that its overexpression is sufficient to transform NIH/3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Ron, D; Tronick, S R; Aaronson, S A; Eva, A

    1988-01-01

    We isolated cDNA clones representing the human dbl proto-oncogene transcript. Nucleotide sequence analysis revealed an open reading frame encoding a predicted protein of 925 amino acids. Using peptide antisera directed against specific proto-dbl peptides, a 115-kd protein was detected in COS cells transfected with an expression vector containing the entire coding region of proto-dbl. This mol. wt is consistent with that predicted from the open reading frame. We have previously shown that the dbl oncogene was generated by substitution of the 5' portion of proto-dbl with an unrelated human sequence. In this study we show that this rearrangement resulted in the loss of the 497 amino-terminal codons of the dbl proto-oncogene. Under the influence of a strong promoter proto-dbl could readily transform NIH/3T3 cells but its transforming activity was less than that of the dbl oncogene driven by the same promoter. Proto-dbl overexpression is, therefore, sufficient to transform NIH/3T3 cells, but specific structural alterations of its coding region significantly enhance its transforming activity. No apparent similarity was detected between the predicted proto-dbl product and other known proto-oncogenes. However, a stretch of 300 amino acids within the N-terminal half of proto-dbl showed structural similarity to the intermediate filament vimentin. This region in proto-dbl contains a heptad repeat motif characteristic of an alpha-helical coiled-coil structure. Taken together, these findings indicate that the human proto-dbl represents a new class of cellular oncogenes that may be related to cytoskeletal elements of the cell. Images PMID:3056717

  17. The v-erbB oncogene confers enhanced cellular susceptibility to reovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Strong, J E; Lee, P W

    1996-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that two mouse cell lines that are poorly infectible by reovirus become highly susceptible upon transfection with the gene encoding the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) (J. E. Strong, D. Tang, and P. W. K. Lee, Virology 197:405-411, 1993). This enhancement of infection efficiency requires a functional EGFR, since such an enhancement is not observed in cells expressing a mutated (kinase-inactive) EGFR. The additional finding that reovirus is capable of directly binding to the N-terminal ectodomain of the EGFR (D. Tang, J. E. Strong, and P. W. K. Lee, Virology 197:412-414, 1993) has led us to question whether this interaction is required for the activation of a signalling cascade that somehow augments the ensuing infection process. In the present study, we address this question, using cells transfected with the v-erbB oncogene, which encodes a protein structurally related to the EGFR but lacking a large portion of the N-terminal ligand-binding domain. The v-erbB protein also possesses ligand-independent, constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. Control NIH 3T3 cells, which are poorly infectible by reovirus (serotype 3, strain Dearing), and NIH 3T3 cells transfected with the v-erbB oncogene (THC-11) were assayed for their susceptibilities to reovirus infection. Infectivity was determined by immunofluorescent detection of viral proteins, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of radiolabeled cells, and plaque titration. All three assays demonstrated a drastically higher degree of susceptibility to infection in the THC-11 cell line. This enhanced susceptibility was found to be abrogated by treatment of the cells with genistein, an inhibitor of tyrosine protein kinases, but only partially by treatment with daidzein, an inactive analog of genistein. We propose that the mechanism of enhancement of infection efficiency conferred by EGFR and v-erbB is through the opportunistic utilization by the virus of an

  18. Computational Design of Selective Peptides to Discriminate Between Similar PDZ Domains in an Oncogenic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Jewell, Heather; Fitzpatrick, Jeremy; Zhang, Jian; Mierke, Dale F.; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2016-01-01

    Reagents that target protein-protein interactions to rewire signaling are of great relevance in biological research. Computational protein design may offer a means of creating such reagents on demand, but methods for encoding targeting selectivity are sorely needed. This is especially challenging when targeting interactions with ubiquitous recognition modules—e.g., PDZ domains, which bind C-terminal sequences of partner proteins. Here we consider the problem of designing selective PDZ inhibitor peptides in the context of an oncogenic signaling pathway, in which two PDZ domains (NHERF-2 PDZ2—N2P2 and MAGI-3 PDZ6—M3P6) compete for a receptor C-terminus to differentially modulate oncogenic activities. Because N2P2 increases tumorigenicity and M3P6 decreases it, we sought to design peptides that inhibit N2P2 without affecting M3P6. We developed a structure-based computational design framework that models peptide flexibility in binding, yet is efficient enough to rapidly analyze tradeoffs between affinity and selectivity. Designed peptides showed low-micromolar inhibition constants for N2P2 and no detectable M3P6 binding. Peptides designed for reverse discrimination bound M3P6 tighter than N2P2, further testing our technology. Experimental and computational analysis of selectivity determinants revealed significant indirect energetic coupling in the binding site. Successful discrimination between N2P2 and M3P6, despite their overlapping binding preferences, is highly encouraging for computational approaches to selective PDZ targeting, especially because design relied on a homology model of M3P6. Still, we demonstrate specific deficiencies of structural modeling that must be addressed to enable truly robust design. The presented framework is general and can be applied in many scenarios to engineer selective targeting. PMID:25451599

  19. Estrogens and human papilloma virus oncogenes regulate human ether-à-go-go-1 potassium channel expression.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Lorenza; Ceja-Ochoa, Irais; Restrepo-Angulo, Iván; Larrea, Fernando; Avila-Chávez, Euclides; García-Becerra, Rocío; Borja-Cacho, Elizabeth; Barrera, David; Ahumada, Elías; Gariglio, Patricio; Alvarez-Rios, Elizabeth; Ocadiz-Delgado, Rodolfo; Garcia-Villa, Enrique; Hernández-Gallegos, Elizabeth; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio; Morales, Angélica; Ordaz-Rosado, David; García-Latorre, Ethel; Escamilla, Juan; Sánchez-Peña, Luz Carmen; Saqui-Salces, Milena; Gamboa-Dominguez, Armando; Vera, Eunice; Uribe-Ramírez, Marisela; Murbartián, Janet; Ortiz, Cindy Sharon; Rivera-Guevara, Claudia; De Vizcaya-Ruiz, Andrea; Camacho, Javier

    2009-04-15

    Ether-à-go-go-1 (Eag1) potassium channels are potential tools for detection and therapy of numerous cancers. Here, we show human Eag1 (hEag1) regulation by cancer-associated factors. We studied hEag1 gene expression and its regulation by estradiol, antiestrogens, and human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogenes (E6/E7). Primary cultures from normal placentas and cervical cancer tissues; tumor cell lines from cervix, choriocarcinoma, keratinocytes, and lung; and normal cell lines from vascular endothelium, keratinocytes, and lung were used. Reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) experiments and Southern blot analysis showed Eag1 expression in all of the cancer cell types, normal trophoblasts, and vascular endothelium, in contrast to normal keratinocytes and lung cells. Estradiol and antiestrogens regulated Eag1 in a cell type-dependent manner. Real-time RT-PCR experiments in HeLa cells showed that Eag1 estrogenic regulation was strongly associated with the expression of estrogen receptor-alpha. Eag1 protein was detected by monoclonal antibodies in normal placenta and placental blood vessels. Patch-clamp recordings in normal trophoblasts treated with estradiol exhibited potassium currents resembling Eag1 channel activity. Eag1 gene expression in keratinocytes depended either on cellular immortalization or the presence of HPV oncogenes. Eag1 protein was found in keratinocytes transfected with E6/E7 HPV oncogenes. Cell proliferation of E6/E7 keratinocytes was decreased by Eag1 antibodies inhibiting channel activity and by the nonspecific Eag1 inhibitors imipramine and astemizole; the latter also increased apoptosis. Our results propose novel oncogenic mechanisms of estrogen/antiestrogen use and HPV infection. We also suggest Eag1 as an early indicator of cell proliferation leading to malignancies and a therapeutic target at early stages of cellular hyperproliferation. PMID:19351862

  20. MAPK15 mediates BCR-ABL1-induced autophagy and regulates oncogene-dependent cell proliferation and tumor formation

    PubMed Central

    Colecchia, David; Rossi, Matteo; Sasdelli, Federica; Sanzone, Sveva; Strambi, Angela; Chiariello, Mario

    2015-01-01

    A reciprocal translocation of the ABL1 gene to the BCR gene results in the expression of the oncogenic BCR-ABL1 fusion protein, which characterizes human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), a myeloproliferative disorder considered invariably fatal until the introduction of the imatinib family of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). Nonetheless, insensitivity of CML stem cells to TKI treatment and intrinsic or acquired resistance are still frequent causes for disease persistence and blastic phase progression experienced in patients after initial successful therapies. Here, we investigated a possible role for the MAPK15/ERK8 kinase in BCR-ABL1-dependent autophagy, a key process for oncogene-induced leukemogenesis. In this context, we showed the ability of MAPK15 to physically recruit the oncogene to autophagic vesicles, confirming our hypothesis of a biologically relevant role for this MAP kinase in signal transduction by this oncogene. Indeed, by modeling BCR-ABL1 signaling in HeLa cells and taking advantage of a physiologically relevant model for human CML, i.e. K562 cells, we demonstrated that BCR-ABL1-induced autophagy is mediated by MAPK15 through its ability to interact with LC3-family proteins, in a LIR-dependent manner. Interestingly, we were also able to interfere with BCR-ABL1-induced autophagy by a pharmacological approach aimed at inhibiting MAPK15, opening the possibility of acting on this kinase to affect autophagy and diseases depending on this cellular function. Indeed, to support the feasibility of this approach, we demonstrated that depletion of endogenous MAPK15 expression inhibited BCR-ABL1-dependent cell proliferation, in vitro, and tumor formation, in vivo, therefore providing a novel “druggable” link between BCR-ABL1 and human CML. PMID:26291129

  1. Epigenetics provides a new generation of oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Esteller, M

    2006-01-01

    Cancer is nowadays recognised as a genetic and epigenetic disease. Much effort has been devoted in the last 30 years to the elucidation of the ‘classical' oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes involved in malignant cell transformation. However, since the acceptance that major disruption of DNA methylation, histone modification and chromatin compartments are a common hallmark of human cancer, epigenetics has come to the fore in cancer research. One piece is still missing from the story: are the epigenetic genes themselves driving forces on the road to tumorigenesis? We are in the early stages of finding the answer, and the data are beginning to appear: knockout mice defective in DNA methyltransferases, methyl-CpG-binding proteins and histone methyltransferases strongly affect the risk of cancer onset; somatic mutations, homozygous deletions and methylation-associated silencing of histone acetyltransferases, histone methyltransferases and chromatin remodelling factors are being found in human tumours; and the first cancer-prone families arising from germline mutations in epigenetic genes, such as hSNF5/INI1, have been described. Even more importantly, all these ‘new' oncogenes and tumour-suppressor genes provide novel molecular targets for designed therapies, and the first DNA-demethylating agents and inhibitors of histone deacetylases are reaching the bedside of patients with haematological malignancies. PMID:16404435

  2. Human Oncogenic Herpesvirus and Post-translational Modifications - Phosphorylation and SUMOylation.

    PubMed

    Chang, Pei-Ching; Campbell, Mel; Robertson, Erle S

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, especially viruses, evolve abilities to utilize cellular machineries to facilitate their survival and propagation. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), especially phosphorylation and SUMOylation, that reversibly modulate the function and interactions of target proteins are among the most important features in cell signaling pathways. PTM-dependent events also serve as one of the favorite targets for viruses. Among the seven unambiguous human oncogenic viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), human papillomavirus (HPV), Human T lymphotrophic virus-1 (HTLV-1), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), two are herpesviruses. The life cycle of herpesviruses consists of latent and lytic phases and the rapid switch between these states includes global remodeling of the viral genome from heterochromatin-to-euchromatin. The balance between lytic replication and latency is essential for herpesvirus to maintain a persistent infection through a combination of viral propagation and evasion of the host immune response, which consequently may contribute to tumorigenesis. It is no surprise that the swift reversibility of PTMs, especially SUMOylation, a modification that epigenetically regulates chromatin structure, is a major hijack target of the host for oncogenic herpesviruses. In this brief review, we summarize the varied ways in which herpesviruses engage the host immune components through PTMs, focusing on phosphorylation and SUMOylation. PMID:27379086

  3. Human Oncogenic Herpesvirus and Post-translational Modifications – Phosphorylation and SUMOylation

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Pei-Ching; Campbell, Mel; Robertson, Erle S.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens, especially viruses, evolve abilities to utilize cellular machineries to facilitate their survival and propagation. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), especially phosphorylation and SUMOylation, that reversibly modulate the function and interactions of target proteins are among the most important features in cell signaling pathways. PTM-dependent events also serve as one of the favorite targets for viruses. Among the seven unambiguous human oncogenic viruses, hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), human papillomavirus (HPV), Human T lymphotrophic virus-1 (HTLV-1), and Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV), two are herpesviruses. The life cycle of herpesviruses consists of latent and lytic phases and the rapid switch between these states includes global remodeling of the viral genome from heterochromatin-to-euchromatin. The balance between lytic replication and latency is essential for herpesvirus to maintain a persistent infection through a combination of viral propagation and evasion of the host immune response, which consequently may contribute to tumorigenesis. It is no surprise that the swift reversibility of PTMs, especially SUMOylation, a modification that epigenetically regulates chromatin structure, is a major hijack target of the host for oncogenic herpesviruses. In this brief review, we summarize the varied ways in which herpesviruses engage the host immune components through PTMs, focusing on phosphorylation and SUMOylation. PMID:27379086

  4. S6K1 alternative splicing modulates its oncogenic activity and regulates mTORC1

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Hur, Vered; Denichenko, Polina; Siegfried, Zahava; Maimon, Avi; Krainer, Adrian; Davidson, Ben; Karni, Rotem

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal S6 Kinase 1 (S6K1) is a major mTOR downstream signaling molecule which regulates cell size and translation efficiency. Here we report that short isoforms of S6K1 are over-produced in breast cancer cell lines and tumors. Overexpression of S6K1 short isoforms induces transformation of human breast epithelial cells. The long S6K1 variant (Iso-1) induced opposite effects: It inhibits Ras-induced transformation and tumor formation, while its knockdown or knockout induced transformation, suggesting that Iso-1 has a tumor suppressor activity. We further found that S6K1 short isoforms bind and activate mTORC1, elevating 4E-BP1 phosphorylation, cap-dependent translation and Mcl-1 protein levels. Both a phosphorylation-defective 4E-BP1 mutant and the mTORC1 inhibitor rapamycin partially blocked the oncogenic effects of S6K1 short isoforms, suggesting that these are mediated by mTORC1 and 4E-BP1. Thus, alternative splicing of S6K1 acts as a molecular switch in breast cancer cells elevating oncogenic isoforms that activate mTORC1. PMID:23273915

  5. Methylation profile and amplification of proto-oncogenes in rat pancreas induced with phytoestrogens

    SciTech Connect

    Lyn-Cook, B.D.; Blann, E.; Bo, J.

    1995-01-01

    Specific gene hypermethylation has been shown in DNA from neonatal rats exposed to the phytoestrogens, coumestrol, and equol. The pancreas is an organ in which estrogen receptors have been shown to be present. Studies have correlated the development of acute pancreatitis with rising levels of human estrogen binding proteins. Neonatal rats were dosed with 10 or 100 {mu}g of coumestrol or equol on postnatal day (PND) 1-10. The animals were sacrificed at Day 15. The pancreas was excised and pancreatic acinar cells isolated for molecular analysis. DNA was isolated from the cells by lysis in TEN-9 buffer supplemented with proteinase K and 0.1% SDS. High molecular weight (HMW) DNA was digested with the methylated DNA specific restriction enzymes, Hpa II and Msp I, for determination of methylation profiles. Both coumestrol and equol at high doses caused hypermethylation of the c-H-ras proto-oncogene. No hypermethylation or hypomethylation was observed in the proto-oncogenes, c-myc or c-fos. Methylation is thought to be an epigenetic mechanism involved in the activation (hypomethylation) or inactivation (hypermethylation) of cellular genes which are known to play a role in carcinogenesis. Epidemiology studies have shown that equol may have anti-carcinogenic effects on some hormone-dependent cancers. Additional studies are needed to further understand the role of phytoestrogens and methylation in relation to pancreatic disorders. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  6. Integrative genome analysis reveals an oncomir/oncogene cluster regulating glioblastoma survivorship.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunsoo; Huang, Wei; Jiang, Xiuli; Pennicooke, Brenton; Park, Peter J; Johnson, Mark D

    2010-02-01

    Using a multidimensional genomic data set on glioblastoma from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we identified hsa-miR-26a as a cooperating component of a frequently occurring amplicon that also contains CDK4 and CENTG1, two oncogenes that regulate the RB1 and PI3 kinase/AKT pathways, respectively. By integrating DNA copy number, mRNA, microRNA, and DNA methylation data, we identified functionally relevant targets of miR-26a in glioblastoma, including PTEN, RB1, and MAP3K2/MEKK2. We demonstrate that miR-26a alone can transform cells and it promotes glioblastoma cell growth in vitro and in the mouse brain by decreasing PTEN, RB1, and MAP3K2/MEKK2 protein expression, thereby increasing AKT activation, promoting proliferation, and decreasing c-JUN N-terminal kinase-dependent apoptosis. Overexpression of miR-26a in PTEN-competent and PTEN-deficient glioblastoma cells promoted tumor growth in vivo, and it further increased growth in cells overexpressing CDK4 or CENTG1. Importantly, glioblastoma patients harboring this amplification displayed markedly decreased survival. Thus, hsa-miR-26a, CDK4, and CENTG1 comprise a functionally integrated oncomir/oncogene DNA cluster that promotes aggressiveness in human cancers by cooperatively targeting the RB1, PI3K/AKT, and JNK pathways. PMID:20080666

  7. Processing, secretion, and biological properties of a novel growth factor of the fibroblast growth factor family with oncogenic potential.

    PubMed Central

    Delli-Bovi, P; Curatola, A M; Newman, K M; Sato, Y; Moscatelli, D; Hewick, R M; Rifkin, D B; Basilico, C

    1988-01-01

    We recently reported that the protein encoded in a novel human oncogene isolated from Kaposi sarcoma DNA was a growth factor with significant homology to basic and acidic fibroblast growth factors (FGFs). To study the properties of this growth factor (referred to as K-FGF) and the mechanism by which the K-fgf oncogene transforms cells, we have studied the production and processing of K-FGF in COS-1 cells transfected with a plasmid encoding the K-fgf cDNA. The results show that, unlike basic and acidic FGFs, the K-FGF protein is cleaved after a signal peptide, glycosylated, and efficiently secreted as a mature protein of 176 or 175 amino acids. Inhibition of glycosylation impaired secretion, and the stability of the secreted K-FGF was greatly enhanced by the presence of heparin in the cultured medium. We have used the conditioned medium from transfected COS-1 cells to test K-FGF biological activity. Similar to basic FGF, the K-FGF protein was mitogenic for fibroblasts and endothelial cells and induced the growth of NIH 3T3 mouse cells in serum-free medium. Accordingly, K-fgf-transformed NIH 3T3 cells grew in serum-free medium, consistent with an autocrine mechanism of growth. We have also expressed the protein encoded in the K-fgf protooncogene in COS-1 cells, and it was indistinguishable in its molecular weight, glycosylation, secretion, and biological activity from K-FGF. Taken together, these results suggest that the mechanism of activation of this oncogene is due to overexpression rather than to mutations in the coding sequences. Images PMID:3043199

  8. Functional implications of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generated by oncogenic viruses

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Young Bong; Harhaj, Edward William

    2014-01-01

    Between 15–20% of human cancers are associated with infection by oncogenic viruses. Oncogenic viruses, including HPV, HBV, HCV and HTLV-1, target mitochondria to influence cell proliferation and survival. Oncogenic viral gene products also trigger the production of reactive oxygen species which can elicit oxidative DNA damage and potentiate oncogenic host signaling pathways. Viral oncogenes may also subvert mitochondria quality control mechanisms such as mitophagy and metabolic adaptation pathways to promote virus replication. Here, we will review recent progress on viral regulation of mitophagy and metabolic adaptation and their roles in viral oncogenesis. PMID:25580106

  9. Arsenic trioxide inhibits cell proliferation and human papillomavirus oncogene expression in cervical cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Hongtao; Gao, Peng; Zheng, Jie

    2014-09-05

    Highlights: • As{sub 2}O{sub 3} inhibits growth of cervical cancer cells and expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. • HPV-negative cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells. • HPV-18 positive cervical cancer cells are more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-16 positive cancer cells. • Down-regulation of HPV oncogenes by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is partially due to the diminished AP-1 binding. - Abstract: Arsenic trioxide (As{sub 2}O{sub 3}) has shown therapeutic effects in some leukemias and solid cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of its anticancer efficacy have not been clearly elucidated, particularly in solid cancers. Our previous data showed that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} induced apoptosis of human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 DNA-immortalized human cervical epithelial cells and cervical cancer cells and inhibited the expression of HPV oncogenes in these cells. In the present study, we systemically examined the effects of As{sub 2}O{sub 3} on five human cervical cancer cell lines and explored the possible molecular mechanisms. MTT assay showed that HPV-negative C33A cells were more sensitive to growth inhibition induced by As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV-positive cervical cancer cells, and HPV 18-positive HeLa and C4-I cells were more sensitive to As{sub 2}O{sub 3} than HPV 16-positive CaSki and SiHa cells. After As{sub 2}O{sub 3} treatment, both mRNA and protein levels of HPV E6 and E7 obviously decreased in all HPV positive cell lines. In contrast, p53 and Rb protein levels increased in all tested cell lines. Transcription factor AP-1 protein expression decreased significantly in HeLa, CaSki and C33A cells with ELISA method. These results suggest that As{sub 2}O{sub 3} is a potential anticancer drug for cervical cancer.

  10. Osteogenic transcription factors and proto-oncogene regulate bone sialoprotein gene transcription.

    PubMed

    Takai, Hideki; Mezawa, Masaru; Choe, Jin; Nakayama, Yohei; Ogata, Yorimasa

    2013-09-01

    Runt homeodomain protein 2 (Runx2), distalless 5 (Dlx5) and Smad1 are transcription factors that play critical roles in controlling the differentiation of osteoblasts and mineralization of bone. Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase, Src, is an enzyme encoded by the Src gene. The normal cellular gene is called cellular-Src (c-Src). Bone sialoprotein (BSP), a protein implicated in the initial mineralization of newly formed bone, is an early phenotypic marker of differentiated osteoblasts. In this study, we used overexpression plasmids with Runx2, Dlx5, Smad1 or c-Src inserts to search for the effects of these transcription factors and proto-oncogene on BSP gene expression using rat osteoblast-like ROS 17/2.8. When we used Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmids for the transfection, BSP and Runx2 mRNA levels were increased in ROS 17/2.8 cells. However, overexpression of Smad1 did not induce BSP and Runx2 mRNA. Transient transfection analyses were performed using chimeric constructs of the rat BSP gene promoter linked to a luciferase reporter gene. Transfection of ROS 17/2.8 cells with Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src overexpression plasmid increased the luciferase activities of the constructs, pLUC3 (-116 to +60), pLUC4 (-425 to +60) and pLUC5 (-801 to +60). However, Smad1 overexpression had no effect on the luciferase activities. These results demonstrate that overexpression of Runx2, Dlx5 or c-Src stimulates BSP transcription, and suggest that Runx2, Dlx5 and c-Src might be crucial transcriptional regulators of mineralization and bone formation.

  11. Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Liu, Rui; Moore, Claire E.; Xie, Jianling; Lanucara, Francesco; Agarwala, Usha; Pyr dit Ruys, Sébastien; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an atypical calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, slowing down translation elongation. eEF2K contains an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal α-helical region and a linker containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. eEF2K is expressed at high levels in certain cancers, where it may act to help cell survival, e.g., during nutrient starvation. However, it is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and thus cell growth, suggesting that cancer cells may possess mechanisms to inhibit eEF2K under good growth conditions, to allow protein synthesis to proceed. We show here that the mTORC1 pathway and the oncogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway cooperate to restrict eEF2K activity. We identify multiple sites in eEF2K whose phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 and/or ERK, including new ones in the linker region. We demonstrate that certain sites are phosphorylated directly by mTOR or ERK. Our data reveal that glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling also regulates eEF2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that phosphorylation sites remote from the N-terminal calmodulin-binding motif regulate the phosphorylation of N-terminal sites that control CaM binding. Mutations in the former sites, which occur in cancer cells, cause the activation of eEF2K. eEF2K is thus regulated by a network of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25182533

  12. Proteome Analysis for Downstream Targets of Oncogenic KRAS - the Potential Participation of CLIC4 in Carcinogenesis in the Lung

    PubMed Central

    Okudela, Koji; Katayama, Akira; Woo, Tetsukan; Mitsui, Hideaki; Suzuki, Takehisa; Tateishi, Yoko; Umeda, Shigeaki; Tajiri, Michihiko; Masuda, Munetaka; Nagahara, Noriyuki; Kitamura, Hitoshi; Ohashi, Kenichi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the proteome modulated by oncogenic KRAS in immortalized airway epithelial cells. Chloride intracellular channel protein 4 (CLIC4), S100 proteins (S100A2 and S100A11), tropomyosin 2, cathepsin L1, integrinsα3, eukaryotic elongation factor 1, vimentin, and others were discriminated. We here focused on CLIC4 to investigate its potential involvement in carcinogenesis in the lung because previous studies suggested that some chloride channels and chloride channel regulators could function as tumor suppressors. CILC4 protein levels were reduced in some lung cancer cell lines. The restoration of CLIC4 in lung cancer cell lines in which CLIC4 expression was reduced attenuated their growth activity. The immunohistochemical expression of the CLIC4 protein was weaker in primary lung cancer cells than in non-tumorous airway epithelial cells and was occasionally undetectable in some tumors. CLIC4 protein levels were significantly lower in a subtype of mucinous ADC than in others, and were also significantly lower in KRAS-mutated ADC than in EGFR-mutated ADC. These results suggest that the alteration in CLIC4 could be involved in restrictedly the development of a specific fraction of lung adenocarcinomas. The potential benefit of the proteome modulated by oncogenic KRAS to lung cancer research has been demonstrated. PMID:24503901

  13. Regulation of oncogene-induced cell cycle exit and senescence by chromatin modifiers

    PubMed Central

    David, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    Oncogene activation leads to dramatic changes in numerous biological pathways controlling cellular division, and results in the initiation of a transcriptional program that promotes transformation. Conversely, it also triggers an irreversible cell cycle exit called cellular senescence, which allows the organism to counteract the potentially detrimental uncontrolled proliferation of damaged cells. Therefore, a tight transcriptional control is required at the onset of oncogenic signal, coordinating both positive and negative regulation of gene expression. Not surprisingly, numerous chromatin modifiers contribute to the cellular response to oncogenic stress. While these chromatin modifiers were initially thought of as mere mediators of the cellular response to oncogenic stress, recent studies have uncovered a direct and specific regulation of chromatin modifiers by oncogenic signals. We review here the diverse functions of chromatin modifiers in the cellular response to oncogenic stress, and discuss the implications of these findings on the regulation of cell cycle progression and proliferation by activated oncogenes. PMID:22825329

  14. KAT6A, a chromatin modifier from the 8p11-p12 amplicon is a candidate oncogene in luminal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Turner-Ivey, Brittany; Guest, Stephen T; Irish, Jonathan C; Kappler, Christiana S; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Wilson, Robert C; Ethier, Stephen P

    2014-08-01

    The chromosome 8p11-p12 amplicon is present in 12% to 15% of breast cancers, resulting in an increase in copy number and expression of several chromatin modifiers in these tumors, including KAT6A. Previous analyses in SUM-52 breast cancer cells showed amplification and overexpression of KAT6A, and subsequent RNAi screening identified KAT6A as a potential driving oncogene. KAT6A is a histone acetyltransferase previously identified as a fusion partner with CREB binding protein in acute myeloid leukemia. Knockdown of KAT6A in SUM-52 cells, a luminal breast cancer cell line harboring the amplicon, resulted in reduced growth rate compared to non-silencing controls and profound loss of clonogenic capacity both in mono-layer and in soft agar. The normal cell line MCF10A, however, did not exhibit slower growth with knockdown of KAT6A. SUM-52 cells with KAT6A knockdown formed fewer mammospheres in culture compared to controls, suggesting a possible role for KAT6A in self-renewal. Previous data from our laboratory identified FGFR2 as a driving oncogene in SUM-52 cells. The colony forming efficiency of SUM-52 KAT6A knockdown cells in the presence of FGFR inhibition was significantly reduced compared to cells with KAT6A knockdown only. These data suggest that KAT6A may be a novel oncogene in breast cancers bearing the 8p11-p12 amplicon. While there are other putative oncogenes in the amplicon, the identification of KAT6A as a driving oncogene suggests that chromatin-modifying enzymes are a key class of oncogenes in these cancers, and play an important role in the selection of this amplicon in luminal B breast cancers. PMID:25220592

  15. KAT6A, a Chromatin Modifier from the 8p11-p12 Amplicon is a Candidate Oncogene in Luminal Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Turner-Ivey, Brittany; Guest, Stephen T.; Irish, Jonathan C.; Kappler, Christiana S.; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Wilson, Robert C.; Ethier, Stephen P.

    2014-01-01

    The chromosome 8p11-p12 amplicon is present in 12% to 15% of breast cancers, resulting in an increase in copy number and expression of several chromatin modifiers in these tumors, including KAT6A. Previous analyses in SUM-52 breast cancer cells showed amplification and overexpression of KAT6A, and subsequent RNAi screening identified KAT6A as a potential driving oncogene. KAT6A is a histone acetyltransferase previously identified as a fusion partner with CREB binding protein in acute myeloid leukemia. Knockdown of KAT6A in SUM-52 cells, a luminal breast cancer cell line harboring the amplicon, resulted in reduced growth rate compared to non-silencing controls and profound loss of clonogenic capacity both in mono-layer and in soft agar. The normal cell line MCF10A, however, did not exhibit slower growth with knockdown of KAT6A. SUM-52 cells with KAT6A knockdown formed fewer mammospheres in culture compared to controls, suggesting a possible role for KAT6A in self-renewal. Previous data from our laboratory identified FGFR2 as a driving oncogene in SUM-52 cells. The colony forming efficiency of SUM-52 KAT6A knockdown cells in the presence of FGFR inhibition was significantly reduced compared to cells with KAT6A knockdown only. These data suggest that KAT6A may be a novel oncogene in breast cancers bearing the 8p11-p12 amplicon. While there are other putative oncogenes in the amplicon, the identification of KAT6A as a driving oncogene suggests that chromatin-modifying enzymes are a key class of oncogenes in these cancers, and play an important role in the selection of this amplicon in luminal B breast cancers. PMID:25220592

  16. Cell fate decisions in malignant hematopoiesis: leukemia phenotype is determined by distinct functional domains of the MN1 oncogene.

    PubMed

    Lai, Courteney K; Moon, Yeonsook; Kuchenbauer, Florian; Starzcynowski, Daniel T; Argiropoulos, Bob; Yung, Eric; Beer, Philip; Schwarzer, Adrian; Sharma, Amit; Park, Gyeongsin; Leung, Malina; Lin, Grace; Vollett, Sarah; Fung, Stephen; Eaves, Connie J; Karsan, Aly; Weng, Andrew P; Humphries, R Keith; Heuser, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Extensive molecular profiling of leukemias and preleukemic diseases has revealed that distinct clinical entities, like acute myeloid (AML) and T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL), share similar pathogenetic mutations. It is not well understood how the cell of origin, accompanying mutations, extracellular signals or structural differences in a mutated gene determine the phenotypic identity of leukemias. We dissected the functional aspects of different protein regions of the MN1 oncogene and their effect on the leukemic phenotype, building on the ability of MN1 to induce leukemia without accompanying mutations. We found that the most C-terminal region of MN1 was required to block myeloid differentiation at an early stage, and deletion of an extended C-terminal region resulted in loss of myeloid identity and cell differentiation along the T-cell lineage in vivo. Megakaryocytic/erythroid lineage differentiation was blocked by the N-terminal region. In addition, the N-terminus was required for proliferation and leukemogenesis in vitro and in vivo through upregulation of HoxA9, HoxA10 and Meis2. Our results provide evidence that a single oncogene can modulate cellular identity of leukemic cells based on its active gene regions. It is therefore likely that different mutations in the same oncogene may impact cell fate decisions and phenotypic appearance of malignant diseases.

  17. Activated neu oncogene sequences in primary tumors of the peripheral nervous system induced in rats by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea

    SciTech Connect

    Perantoni, A.O.; Rice, J.M.; Reed, C.D.; Watatani, M.; Wenk, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    Neurogenic tumors were selectively induced in high incidence in F344 rats by a single transplacental exposure to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors prepared DNA for transfection of NIH 3T3 cells from primary glial tumors of the brain and form schwannomas of the cranial and spinal nerves that developed in the transplacentally exposed offspring between 20 and 40 weeks after birth. DNA preparations from 6 of 13 schwannomas, but not from normal liver, kidney, or intestine of tumor-bearing rats, transformed NIH 3T3 cells. NIH 3T3 clones transformed by schwannoma DNA contained rat repetitive DNA sequences, and all isolates contained rat neu oncogene sequences. A point mutation in the transmembrane region of the putative protein product of neu was identified in all six transformants and in the primary tumors from which they were derived as well as in 5 of 6 schwannomas tested that did not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Of 59 gliomas, only one yielded transforming DNA, and an activated N-ras oncogen was identified. The normal cellular neu sequence for the transmembrane region, but not the mutated sequence, was identified in DNA from all 11 gliomas surveyed by oligonucleotide hybridization. Activation of the neu oncogene, originally identified in cultured cell lines derived from EtNU-induced neurogenic tumors appears specifically associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system in the F344 inbred strain.

  18. Retroviral insertional activation of the c-myb proto-oncogene in a Marek's disease T-lymphoma cell line.

    PubMed Central

    Le Rouzic, E; Perbal, B

    1996-01-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is an avian herpesvirus that causes, in chickens, a lymphoproliferative disease characterized by malignant transformation of T lymphocytes. The rapid onset of polyclonal tumors indicates the existence of MDV-encoded oncogenic products. However, the molecular basis of MDV-induced lymphoproliferative disease and latency remains largely unclear. Several lines of evidence suggest that MDV and Rous-associated virus (RAV) might cooperate in the development of B-cell lymphomas induced by RAV. Our present results indicate for the first time that MDV and RAV might also act synergistically in the development of T-cell lymphomas. We report an example of an MDV-transformed T-lymphoblastoid cell line (T9) expressing high levels of a truncated C-MYB protein as a result of RAV integration within one c-myb allele. The chimeric RAV-c-myb mRNA species initiated in the 5' long terminal repeat of RAV are deprived of sequences corresponding to c-myb exons 1 to 3. The attenuation of MDV oncogenicity has been strongly related to structural changes in the MDV BamHI-D and BamHI-H DNA fragments. We have established that both DNA restriction fragments are rearranged in the T9 MDV-transformed cells. Our results suggest that retroviral insertional activation of the c-myb proto-oncogene is a critical factor involved in the maintenance of the transformed phenotype and the tumorigenic potential of this T-lymphoma cell line. PMID:8892859

  19. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.; Garte, S.J.

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. Progress is described in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers; (3) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration. 59 refs., 4 tabs.

  20. Oncogenic association of specific human papillomavirus types with cervical neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Lorincz, A T; Temple, G F; Kurman, R J; Jenson, A B; Lancaster, W D

    1987-10-01

    Molecular hybridization analysis of human papillomavirus (HPV) DNA from 190 cervical biopsy specimens from women in the United States, Brazil, and Peru revealed viral sequences in 2 (9%) of 23 biopsy specimens of normal mature squamous epithelium, 7 (44%) of 16 biopsy specimens of metaplastic squamous epithelia, 60 (77%) of 78 cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN), 57 (89%) of 64 invasive squamous carcinomas, and 8 (89%) of 9 endocervical adenocarcinomas. HPV typing by DNA hybridization revealed HPV 6 and HPV 11 sequences in metaplastic squamous epithelia, CIN I, and CIN II, but not in CIN III lesions or invasive carcinomas. HPV 16 was detected in metaplastic epithelium and in nearly half of the invasive squamous carcinomas and adenocarcinomas. It was present in 31% of CIN lesions, increasing in frequency with the severity of CIN from 20% of CIN I to 50% of CIN III. HPV 16 showed a striking difference in geographic distribution, being detected in 36% of the carcinomas from the United States compared to 64% of the carcinomas from Brazil and Peru. HPV 18 was found in metaplastic epithelia and in 17% of carcinomas but in only 1% of CIN lesions. HPV 31 was not found in metaplastic epithelium but was present in 6% of carcinomas and in 18% of CIN lesions. In addition, a group of uncharacterized HPVs, not corresponding to any of the probes used, was found in 5% of normal and metaplastic epithelia and in 18% of CIN and 19% of invasive cancers. These results suggest that individual HPV types that infect the cervix have varying degrees of oncogenic association. HPV 6 and HPV 11 appear to have very little oncogenic association, HPV 31 has low oncogenic association, and HPV 16 and HPV 18 have high oncogenic association. PMID:2821311

  1. Oncogenic role of EAPII in lung cancer development and its activation of the MAPK–ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Fan, S; Owonikoko, T K; Khuri, F R; Sun, S-Y; Li, R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer progression involves multiple complex and interdependent steps, including progressive proliferation, angiogenesis and metastases. The complexity of these processes requires a comprehensive elucidation of the integrated signaling networks for better understanding. EAPII interacts with multiple cancer-related proteins, but its biological significance in cancer development remains unknown. In this report we identified the elevated level of EAPII protein in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and NSCLC cell lines in culture. The oncogenic role of EAPII in lung cancer development was demonstrated using NSCLC cells with genetic manipulations that influence EAPII expression: EAPII overexpression increases proliferation of NSCLC cells with an accelerated transition of cell cycle and facilitates xenograft tumor growth in vivo; EAPII knockdown results in apoptosis of NSCLC cells and reduces xenograft tumor formation. To further explore the mechanism of EAPII's oncogenic role in lung cancer development and to elucidate the potential signaling pathway(s) that EAPII may impact, we employed antibody array to investigate the alternation of the major signaling pathways in NSCLC cells with altered EAPII level. We found that EAPII overexpression significantly activated Raf1 and ERK1/2, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 pathways. Consistently, the protein and mRNA levels of MYC and cyclin D1, which are targets of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK–ERK) pathway, are significantly increased by EAPII overexpression. Taken together, we demonstrated that EAPII is an oncogenic factor and the activation of MAPK–ERK signaling pathway by EAPII may contribute to lung cancer development. PMID:21478903

  2. Oncogene regulation of tumor suppressor genes in tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Sung, Jimmy; Turner, Joel; McCarthy, Susan; Enkemann, Steve; Li, Chan Gong; Yan, Perally; Huang, Timothy; Yeatman, Timothy J

    2005-02-01

    We attempted to demonstrate whether there is an epigenetic link between oncogenes and tumor suppression genes in tumorigenesis. We designed a high throughput model to identify a candidate group of tumor suppressor genes potentially regulated by oncogenes. Gene expression profiling of mock-transfected versus v-src-transfected 3Y1 rat fibroblasts identified significant overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1, the enzyme responsible for aberrant genome methylation, in v-src-transfected fibroblasts. Secondary microarray analyses identified a number of candidate tumor suppressor genes that were down-regulated by v-src but were also re-expressed following treatment with 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine, a potent demethylating agent. This candidate group included both tumor suppressor genes that are known to be silenced by DNA hypermethylation and those that have not been previously identified with promoter hypermethylation. To further validate our model, we identified tsg, a tumor suppressor gene that was shown to be down-regulated by v-src and found to harbor dense promoter hypermethylation. Our model demonstrates a cooperative relationship between oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes mediated through promoter hypermethylation.

  3. Oncogenic transformation of diverse gastrointestinal tissues in primary organoid culture

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xingnan; Nadauld, Lincoln; Ootani, Akifumi; Corney, David C.; Pai, Reetesh K.; Gevaert, Olivier; Cantrell, Michael A.; Rack, Paul G.; Neal, James T.; Chan, Carol W-M.; Yeung, Trevor; Gong, Xue; Yuan, Jenny; Wilhelmy, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Attardi, Laura D.; Plevritis, Sylvia K.; Hung, Kenneth E.; Chen, Chang-Zheng; Ji, Hanlee P.; Kuo, Calvin J.

    2014-01-01

    The application of primary organoid cultures containing epithelial and mesenchymal elements to cancer modeling holds promise for combining the accurate multilineage differentiation and physiology of in vivo systems with the facile in vitro manipulation of transformed cell lines. Here, a single air-liquid interface culture method was used without modification to engineer oncogenic mutations into primary epithelial/mesenchymal organoids from mouse colon, stomach and pancreas. Pancreatic and gastric organoids exhibited dysplasia upon KrasG12D expression and/or p53 loss, and readily generated adenocarcinoma upon in vivo transplantation. In contrast, primary colon organoids required combinatorial Apc, p53, KrasG12D and Smad4 mutations for progressive transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma-like histology in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, recapitulating multi-hit models of colorectal cancer (CRC), and versus more promiscuous transformation of small intestinal organoids. Colon organoid culture functionally validated the microRNA miR-483 as a dominant driver oncogene at the Insulin-like growth factor-2 (IGF2) 11p15.5 CRC amplicon, inducing dysplasia in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. These studies demonstrate the general utility of a highly tractable primary organoid system for cancer modeling and driver oncogene validation in diverse gastrointestinal tissues. PMID:24859528

  4. Oncogenic transformation of diverse gastrointestinal tissues in primary organoid culture.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingnan; Nadauld, Lincoln; Ootani, Akifumi; Corney, David C; Pai, Reetesh K; Gevaert, Olivier; Cantrell, Michael A; Rack, Paul G; Neal, James T; Chan, Carol W-M; Yeung, Trevor; Gong, Xue; Yuan, Jenny; Wilhelmy, Julie; Robine, Sylvie; Attardi, Laura D; Plevritis, Sylvia K; Hung, Kenneth E; Chen, Chang-Zheng; Ji, Hanlee P; Kuo, Calvin J

    2014-07-01

    The application of primary organoid cultures containing epithelial and mesenchymal elements to cancer modeling holds promise for combining the accurate multilineage differentiation and physiology of in vivo systems with the facile in vitro manipulation of transformed cell lines. Here we used a single air-liquid interface culture method without modification to engineer oncogenic mutations into primary epithelial and mesenchymal organoids from mouse colon, stomach and pancreas. Pancreatic and gastric organoids exhibited dysplasia as a result of expression of Kras carrying the G12D mutation (Kras(G12D)), p53 loss or both and readily generated adenocarcinoma after in vivo transplantation. In contrast, primary colon organoids required combinatorial Apc, p53, Kras(G12D) and Smad4 mutations for progressive transformation to invasive adenocarcinoma-like histology in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo, recapitulating multi-hit models of colorectal cancer (CRC), as compared to the more promiscuous transformation of small intestinal organoids. Colon organoid culture functionally validated the microRNA miR-483 as a dominant driver oncogene at the IGF2 (insulin-like growth factor-2) 11p15.5 CRC amplicon, inducing dysplasia in vitro and tumorigenicity in vivo. These studies demonstrate the general utility of a highly tractable primary organoid system for cancer modeling and driver oncogene validation in diverse gastrointestinal tissues.

  5. Therapeutic opportunities involving cellular oncogenes: novel approaches fostered by biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Huber, B E

    1989-01-01

    Biotechnological processes are having a major impact on many industrial sectors, including the pharmaceutical industry. The contributions of recombinant DNA and hybridoma technologies to modern therapeutics include production of natural and unnatural peptides, subunit vaccines, monoclonal antibodies and nucleic acid hybridization probes for in vitro and in vivo diagnostics and biological imaging, therapeutic monoclonal antibodies as tissue-specific delivery systems or as agents to confer passive immunity, production of therapeutic targets for rational drug design, and the use of cloned enzymes as stereospecific catalysts in large-scale production of small medicinal molecules. Biotechnological advances have led to the identification of a discrete set of genes, oncogenes, which may be essential contributing factors for a great variety and number of human cancers. In addition, biotechnological innovations are fostering the exploitation of oncogenes as novel therapeutic targets for cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. Because oncogenes are activated in transformation by either qualitative or quantitative mechanisms, however, different biotechnology-based therapeutic approaches are required for each class.

  6. PRG3 induces Ras-dependent oncogenic cooperation in gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Yakubov, Eduard; Chen, Daishi; Broggini, Thomas; Sehm, Tina; Majernik, Gökce Hatipoglu; Hock, Stefan W.; Schwarz, Marc; Engelhorn, Tobias; Doerfler, Arnd; Buchfelder, Michael; Eyupoglu, Ilker Y.; Savaskan, Nicolai E.

    2016-01-01

    Malignant gliomas are one of the most devastating cancers in humans. One characteristic hallmark of malignant gliomas is their cellular heterogeneity with frequent genetic lesions and disturbed gene expression levels conferring selective growth advantage. Here, we report on the neuronal-associated growth promoting gene PRG3 executing oncogenic cooperation in gliomas. We have identified perturbed PRG3 levels in human malignant brain tumors displaying either elevated or down-regulated PRG3 levels compared to non-transformed specimens. Further, imbalanced PRG3 levels in gliomas foster Ras-driven oncogenic amplification with increased proliferation and cell migration although angiogenesis was unaffected. Hence, PRG3 interacts with RasGEF1 (RasGRF1/CDC25), undergoes Ras-induced challenges, whereas deletion of the C-terminal domain of PRG3 (PRG3ΔCT) inhibits Ras. Moreover PRG3 silencing makes gliomas resistant to Ras inhibition. In vivo disequilibrated PRG3 gliomas show aggravated proliferation, invasion, and deteriorate clinical outcome. Thus, our data show that the interference with PRG3 homeostasis amplifies oncogenic properties and foster the malignancy potential in gliomas. PMID:27058420

  7. CRAF R391W is a melanoma driver oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Atefi, Mohammad; Titz, Bjoern; Tsoi, Jennifer; Avramis, Earl; Le, Allison; Ng, Charles; Lomova, Anastasia; Lassen, Amanda; Friedman, Michael; Chmielowski, Bartosz; Ribas, Antoni; Graeber, Thomas G.

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 75% of melanomas have known driver oncogenic mutations in BRAF, NRAS, GNA11 or GNAQ, while the mutations providing constitutive oncogenic signaling in the remaining melanomas are not known. We established a melanoma cell line from a tumor with none of the common driver mutations. This cell line demonstrated a signaling profile similar to BRAF-mutants, but lacked sensitivity to the BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib. RNA-seq mutation data implicated CRAF R391W as the alternative driver mutation of this melanoma. CRAF R391W was homozygous and over expressed. These melanoma cells were highly sensitive to CRAF, but not BRAF knockdown. In reconstitution experiments, CRAF R391W, but not CRAF WT, transformed NIH3T3 cells in soft-agar colony formation assays, increased kinase activity in vitro, induced MAP kinase signaling and conferred vemurafenib resistance. MAP kinase inducing activity was dependent on CRAF dimerization. Thus, CRAF is a bona fide alternative oncogene for BRAF/NRAS/GNAQ/GNA11 wild type melanomas. PMID:27273450

  8. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells toward the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected cells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. Progress is described. 121 refs.

  9. Utilizing signature-score to identify oncogenic pathways of cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hsiao, Tzu-Hung; Chen, Hung-I Harry; Lu, Jo-Yang; Lin, Pei-Ying; Keller, Charles; Comerford, Sarah; Tomlinson, Gail E.; Chen, Yidong

    2013-01-01

    Extracting maximal information from gene signature sets (GSSs) via microarray-based transcriptional profiling involves assigning function to up and down regulated genes. Here we present a novel sample scoring method called Signature-score (S-score) which can be used to quantify the expression pattern of tumor samples from previously identified gene signature sets. A simulation result demonstrated an improved accuracy and robustness by S-score method comparing with other scoring methods. By applying the S-score method to cholangiocarcinoma (CAC), an aggressive hepatic cancer that arises from bile ducts cells, we identified enriched oncogenic pathways in two large CAC data sets. Thirteen pathways were enriched in CAC compared with normal liver and bile duct. Moreover, using S-score, we were able to dissect correlations between CAC-associated oncogenic pathways and Gene Ontology function. Two major oncogenic clusters and associated functions were identified. Cluster 1, which included beta-catenin and Ras, showed a positive correlation with the cell cycle, while cluster 2, which included TGF-beta, cytokeratin 19 and EpCAM was inversely correlated with immune function. We also used S-score to identify pathways that are differentially expressed in CAC and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the more common subtype of liver cancer. Our results demonstrate the utility and effectiveness of S-score in assigning functional roles to tumor-associated gene signature sets and in identifying potential therapeutic targets for specific liver cancer subtypes. PMID:23905013

  10. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy. PMID:24377524

  11. Expression of the Pokemon proto-oncogene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell lines and tissues.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wei; Liu, Fei; Tang, Feng-Zhu; Lan, Jiao; Xiao, Rui-Ping; Chen, Xing-Zhou; Ye, Hui-Lan; Cai, Yong-Lin

    2013-01-01

    To study the differentiated expression of the proto-oncogene Pokemon in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell lines and tissues, mRNA and protein expression levels of CNE1, CNE2, CNE3 and C666-1 were detected separately by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), real-time PCR and Western-blotting. The immortalized nasopharyngeal epithelial cell line NP69 was used as a control. The Pokemon protein expression level in biopsy specimens from chronic rhinitis patients and undifferentiated non keratinizing NPC patients was determined by Western-blotting and arranged from high to low: C666-1>CNE1>CNE2> CNE3>NP69. The Pokemon mRNA expression level was also arranged from high to low: CNE1>CNE2>NP69>C666-1>CNE3. Pokemon expression of NP69 and C666-1 obviously varied from mRNA to protein. The Pokemon protein level of NPC biopsy specimens was obviously higher than in chronic rhinitis. The data suggest that high Pokemon protein expression is closely associated with undifferentiated non-keratinizing NPC and may provide useful information for NPC molecular target therapy.

  12. Oncogenic CARMA1 couples NF-κB and β-catenin signaling in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bognar, M K; Vincendeau, M; Erdmann, T; Seeholzer, T; Grau, M; Linnemann, J R; Ruland, J; Scheel, C H; Lenz, P; Ott, G; Lenz, G; Hauck, S M; Krappmann, D

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the antiapoptotic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is a hallmark of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Recurrent oncogenic mutations are found in the scaffold protein CARMA1 (CARD11) that connects B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling to the canonical NF-κB pathway. We asked how far additional downstream processes are activated and contribute to the oncogenic potential of DLBCL-derived CARMA1 mutants. To this end, we expressed oncogenic CARMA1 in the NF-κB negative DLBCL lymphoma cell line BJAB. By a proteomic approach we identified recruitment of β-catenin and its destruction complex consisting of APC, AXIN1, CK1α and GSK3β to oncogenic CARMA1. Recruitment of the β-catenin destruction complex was independent of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 complex formation or constitutive NF-κB activation and promoted the stabilization of β-catenin. The β-catenin destruction complex was also recruited to CARMA1 in ABC DLBCL cell lines, which coincided with elevated β-catenin expression. In line, β-catenin was frequently detected in non-GCB DLBCL biopsies that rely on chronic BCR signaling. Increased β-catenin amounts alone were not sufficient to induce classical WNT target gene signatures, but could augment TCF/LEF-dependent transcriptional activation in response to WNT signaling. In conjunction with NF-κB, β-catenin enhanced expression of immunosuppressive interleukin-10 and suppressed antitumoral CCL3, indicating that β-catenin can induce a favorable tumor microenvironment. Thus, parallel activation of NF-κB and β-catenin signaling by gain-of-function mutations in CARMA1 augments WNT stimulation and is required for regulating the expression of distinct NF-κB target genes to trigger cell-intrinsic and extrinsic processes that promote DLBCL lymphomagenesis. PMID:26776161

  13. Activation Mechanism of Oncogenic Deletion Mutations in BRAF, EGFR, and HER2.

    PubMed

    Foster, Scott A; Whalen, Daniel M; Özen, Ayşegül; Wongchenko, Matthew J; Yin, JianPing; Yen, Ivana; Schaefer, Gabriele; Mayfield, John D; Chmielecki, Juliann; Stephens, Philip J; Albacker, Lee A; Yan, Yibing; Song, Kyung; Hatzivassiliou, Georgia; Eigenbrot, Charles; Yu, Christine; Shaw, Andrey S; Manning, Gerard; Skelton, Nicholas J; Hymowitz, Sarah G; Malek, Shiva

    2016-04-11

    Activating mutations in protein kinases drive many cancers. While how recurring point mutations affect kinase activity has been described, the effect of in-frame deletions is not well understood. We show that oncogenic deletions within the β3-αC loop of HER2 and BRAF are analogous to the recurrent EGFR exon 19 deletions. We identify pancreatic carcinomas with BRAF deletions mutually exclusive with KRAS mutations. Crystal structures of BRAF deletions reveal the truncated loop restrains αC in an active "in" conformation, imparting resistance to inhibitors like vemurafenib that bind the αC "out" conformation. Characterization of loop length explains the prevalence of five amino acid deletions in BRAF, EGFR, and HER2 and highlights the importance of this region for kinase activity and inhibitor efficacy. PMID:26996308

  14. Mitochondrial dysfunctions in cancer: genetic defects and oncogenic signaling impinging on TCA cycle activity.

    PubMed

    Desideri, Enrico; Vegliante, Rolando; Ciriolo, Maria Rosa

    2015-01-28

    The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle is a central route for oxidative metabolism. Besides being responsible for the production of NADH and FADH2, which fuel the mitochondrial electron transport chain to generate ATP, the TCA cycle is also a robust source of metabolic intermediates required for anabolic reactions. This is particularly important for highly proliferating cells, like tumour cells, which require a continuous supply of precursors for the synthesis of lipids, proteins and nucleic acids. A number of mutations among the TCA cycle enzymes have been discovered and their association with some tumour types has been established. In this review we summarise the current knowledge regarding alterations of the TCA cycle in tumours, with particular attention to the three germline mutations of the enzymes succinate dehydrogenase, fumarate hydratase and isocitrate dehydrogenase, which are involved in the pathogenesis of tumours, and to the aberrant regulation of TCA cycle components that are under the control of oncogenes and tumour suppressors. PMID:24614286

  15. Oncogenic transformation tunes the cross-talk between mesenchymal stem cells and T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Nilda; Miranda, Alex; Funes, Juan M; Hevia, Giselle; Pérez, Rolando; de León, Joel

    2014-01-01

    Stem cells from mesenchymal origin (MSC) exert a plethora of immunomodulatory effects. We created a neoplastic model based on in vitro step-wise transformation to assess whether oncogenic pathways have the capacity to mould the cross-talk of MSC and lymphocytes. Neoplastic MSC exhibit an increased inhibitory effect on T cell proliferation, either directly or mediated by myeloid derived suppressor cells. Additionally, transformation of MSC enhances T cell apoptosis without reducing either the percentage of CD25 expressing cells or the level of this protein expression. Malignant transformation drives MSC to lose dependency on nitric oxide for immunosuppression whilst increasing the constitutive production of PGE2. Our results indicate that oncogenesis tunes the interplay between MSC and immune cells, favoring cancer immune evasion. PMID:24841856

  16. Adenovirus E1A coding sequences that enable ras and pmt oncogenes to transform cultured primary cells.

    PubMed Central

    Zerler, B; Moran, B; Maruyama, K; Moomaw, J; Grodzicker, T; Ruley, H E

    1986-01-01

    Plasmids expressing partial adenovirus early region 1A (E1A) coding sequences were tested for activities which facilitate in vitro establishment (immortalization) of primary baby rat kidney cells and which enable the T24 Harvey ras-related oncogene and the polyomavirus middle T antigen (pmt) gene to transform primary baby rat kidney cells. E1A cDNAs expressing the 289- and 243-amino acid proteins expressed both E1A transforming functions. Mutant hrA, which encodes a 140-amino acid protein derived from the amino-terminal domain shared by the 289- and 243-amino acid proteins, enabled ras (but not pmt) to transform and facilitated in vitro establishment to a low, but detectable, extent. These studies suggest that E1A functions which collaborate with ras oncogenes and those which facilitate establishment are linked. Furthermore, E1A transforming functions are not associated with activities of the 289-amino acid E1A proteins required for efficient transcriptional activation of viral early region promoters. Images PMID:3022137

  17. Regulation of the expression of proto-oncogenes by autocrine embryotropins in the early mouse embryo.

    PubMed

    Jin, Xing Liang; O'Neill, C

    2011-06-01

    Autocrine embryotropins act as survival signals for the preimplantation embryo. In this study we examined the role of Paf in the transcription of the key proto-oncogenes Bcl2 and Fos. Transcripts were detected in oocytes and some cohorts of zygotes but not in cohorts of 2-cell, 8-cell, and blastocyst stage embryos. Immunolocalization of BCL2 and FOS showed little staining in oocytes and zygotes but increased staining in the embryo from the 2-cell to blastocyst stage. Paf (37 nM) treatment of 2-cell embryos caused an alpha-amanitin (26 μM)-sensitive increase in Bcl2 and Fos transcripts 20 min after treatment that subsided by 40 min. This increase was blocked by inhibition of calcium (by BAPTA-AM) or phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase signaling (by LY294002). Paf challenge also caused increased staining of BCL2 and FOS. Increased staining of FOS required new protein synthesis that had a half-life of 2-4 h after Paf challenge. Only a small proportion (∼12%) of individual 2-cell embryos collected from the reproductive tract had detectable Bcl2 and Fos. This dichotomous pattern of transcript expression is consistent with the known periodic actions of Paf (which has a periodicity of ∼90 min) and the relatively short half-life of the resulting transcripts. A BCL2 antagonist (HA14-1) caused a dose-dependent decrease in the capacity of cultured zygotes to develop to morphological blastocysts, which was partially reversed by the simultaneous addition of Paf to medium. The results show that Paf induces periodic transient transcriptions of key proto-oncogenes that result in the persistent presence of the resulting proteins in the preimplantation phase of development.

  18. The pathobiology of the oncogenic tyrosine kinase NPM-ALK: a brief update.

    PubMed

    Lai, Raymond; Ingham, Robert J

    2013-04-01

    Extensive research has been carried out in the past two decades to study the pathobiology of nucleophosmin-anaplastic lymphoma kinase (NPM-ALK), which is an oncogenic fusion protein found exclusively in a specific type of T-cell lymphoid malignancy, namely ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma. Results from these studies have provided highly useful insights into the mechanisms by which a constitutively tyrosine kinase, such as NPM-ALK, promotes tumorigenesis. Several previous publications have comprehensively summarized the advances in this field. In this review, we provide readers with a brief update on specific areas of NPM-ALK pathobiology. In the first part, the NPM-ALK/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling axis is discussed, with an emphasis on the existence of multiple biochemical defects that have been shown to amplify the oncogenic effects of this signaling axis. Specifically, findings regarding JAK3, SHP1 and the stimulatory effects of several cytokines including interleukin (IL)-9, IL-21 and IL-22 are summarized. New concepts stemming from recent observations regarding the functional interactions among the NPM-ALK/STAT3 axis, β catenin and glycogen synthase kinase 3β will be postulated. Lastly, new mechanisms by which the NPM-ALK/STAT3 axis promotes tumorigenesis, such as its modulations of Twist1, hypoxia-induced factor 1α, CD274, will be described. In the second part, we summarize recent data generated by mass spectrometry studies of NPM-ALK, and use MSH2 and heat shock proteins as examples to illustrate the use of mass spectrometry data in stimulating new research in this field. In the third part, the evolving field of microRNA in the context of NPM-ALK biology is discussed.

  19. Discovery of a Selective Inhibitor of Oncogenic B-Raf Kinase With Potent Antimelanoma Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, J.; Lee, J.T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Cho, H.; Mamo, S.; Bremer, R.; Gillette, S.; Kong, J.; Haass, N.K.; Sproesser, K.; Li, L.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Fong, D.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Marimuthu, A.; Nguyen, H.; Lam, B.; Liu, J.; Cheung, I.; Rice, J.

    2009-05-26

    BRAF{sup V600E} is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting 'active' protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a structure-guided discovery approach, a potent and selective inhibitor of active B-Raf has been discovered. PLX4720, a 7-azaindole derivative that inhibits B-Raf{sup V600E} with an IC{sub 50} of 13 nM, defines a class of kinase inhibitor with marked selectivity in both biochemical and cellular assays. PLX4720 preferentially inhibits the active B-Raf{sup V600E} kinase compared with a broad spectrum of other kinases, and potent cytotoxic effects are also exclusive to cells bearing the V600E allele. Consistent with the high degree of selectivity, ERK phosphorylation is potently inhibited by PLX4720 in B-Raf{sup V600E}-bearing tumor cell lines but not in cells lacking oncogenic B-Raf. In melanoma models, PLX4720 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis exclusively in B-Raf{sup V600E}-positive cells. In B-Raf{sup V600E}-dependent tumor xenograft models, orally dosed PLX4720 causes significant tumor growth delays, including tumor regressions, without evidence of toxicity. The work described here represents the entire discovery process, from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-Raf{sup V600E}-driven tumors.

  20. Oncogenic Intra-p53 Family Member Interactions in Human Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ferraiuolo, Maria; Di Agostino, Silvia; Blandino, Giovanni; Strano, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    The p53 gene family members p53, p73, and p63 display several isoforms derived from the presence of internal promoters and alternative splicing events. They are structural homologs but hold peculiar functional properties. p53, p73, and p63 are tumor suppressor genes that promote differentiation, senescence, and apoptosis. p53, unlike p73 and p63, is frequently mutated in cancer often displaying oncogenic “gain of function” activities correlated with the induction of proliferation, invasion, chemoresistance, and genomic instability in cancer cells. These oncogenic functions are promoted either by the aberrant transcriptional cooperation of mutant p53 (mutp53) with transcription cofactors (e.g., NF-Y, E2F1, Vitamin D Receptor, Ets-1, NF-kB and YAP) or by the interaction with the p53 family members, p73 and p63, determining their functional inactivation. The instauration of these aberrant transcriptional networks leads to increased cell growth, low activation of DNA damage response pathways (DNA damage response and DNA double-strand breaks response), enhanced invasion, and high chemoresistance to different conventional chemotherapeutic treatments. Several studies have clearly shown that different cancers harboring mutant p53 proteins exhibit a poor prognosis when compared to those carrying wild-type p53 (wt-p53) protein. The interference of mutantp53/p73 and/or mutantp53/p63 interactions, thereby restoring p53, p73, and p63 tumor suppression functions, could be among the potential therapeutic strategies for the treatment of mutant p53 human cancers. PMID:27066457

  1. Grb2 monomer–dimer equilibrium determines normal versus oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Zamal; Timsah, Zahra; Suen, Kin M.; Cook, Nathan P.; Lee, Gilbert R.; Lin, Chi-Chuan; Gagea, Mihai; Marti, Angel A.; Ladbury, John E.

    2015-01-01

    The adaptor protein growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is ubiquitously expressed in eukaryotic cells and involved in a multitude of intracellular protein interactions. Grb2 plays a pivotal role in tyrosine kinase-mediated signal transduction including linking receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras/mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase pathway, which is implicated in oncogenic outcome. Grb2 exists in a constitutive equilibrium between monomeric and dimeric states. Here we show that only monomeric Grb2 is capable of binding to SOS and upregulating MAP kinase signalling and that the dimeric state is inhibitory to this process. Phosphorylation of tyrosine 160 (Y160) on Grb2, or binding of a tyrosylphosphate-containing ligand to the SH2 domain of Grb2, results in dimer dissociation. Phosphorylation of Y160 on Grb2 is readily detectable in the malignant forms of human prostate, colon and breast cancers. The self-association/dissociation of Grb2 represents a switch that regulates MAP kinase activity and hence controls cancer progression. PMID:26103942

  2. [RXR, a key member of the oncogenic complex in acute promyelocytic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Halftermeyer, Juliane; Le Bras, Morgane; De Thé, Hugues

    2011-11-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL) is induced by fusion proteins always implying the retinoic acid receptor RARa. Although PML-RARa and other fusion oncoproteins are able to bind DNA as homodimers, in vivo they are always found in association with the nuclear receptor RXRa (Retinoid X Receptor). Thus, RXRa is an essential cofactor of the fusion protein for the transformation. Actually, RXRa contributes to several aspects of in vivo -transformation: RARa fusion:RXRa hetero-oligomeric complexes bind DNA with a much greater affinity than RARa fusion homodimers. Besides, PML-RARa:RXRa recognizes an enlarged repertoire of DNA binding sites. Thus the association between fusion proteins and RXRa regulates more genes than the homodimer alone. Titration of RXRa by the fusion protein may also play a role in the transformation process, as well as post-translational modifications of RXRa in the complex. Finally, RXRa is required for rexinoid-induced APL differentiation. Thus, RXRa is a key member of the oncogenic complex.

  3. Adriamycin resistance-associated prohibitin gene inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells by interacting with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Min-Dong; He, Kai-Yi; Qin, Gang; Chen, Jin; Li, Jin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy, and the mechanism of chemoresistance remains unclear. The present study developed an adriamycin-resistant human osteosarcoma MG-63 sub-line (MG-63/ADR), and identified differentially expressed proteins that may be associated with adriamycin resistance. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and a protein identification assay were performed. Western blot analysis was used to examine the prohibitin (PHB) levels in the MG-63/ADR cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to detect adriamycin resistant-associated genes. Laser-scanning confocal microscope was employed to examine the colocalization of PHB with v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-myc), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-fos), tumor protein p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (Rb). In addition, the full length of the open reading frame of human PHB was subcloned into a lentiviral vector pLVX-puro. The proliferative rate of MG-63 cells was also investigated. The overall protein expression in MG-63/ADR cells was clearly suppressed. Three notable protein regions, representing high mobility group box 1, Ras homolog gene family, member A, and PHB, were identified to be significantly altered in MG-63/ADR cells when compared with its parental cells. Therefore, PHB modulated the chemoresistance of MG-63/ADR cells by interacting with multiple oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (c-myc, c-fos, p53 and Rb). In addition, overexpression of PHB decreases the proliferative rate of MG-63 cells. In conclusion, PHB is an adriamycin resistance-associated gene, which may inhibit the proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by interacting with the oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, c-myc, c-fos, p53 and Rb. PMID:27602127

  4. Adriamycin resistance-associated prohibitin gene inhibits proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG63 cells by interacting with oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes

    PubMed Central

    Du, Min-Dong; He, Kai-Yi; Qin, Gang; Chen, Jin; Li, Jin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    The resistance of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents is a major obstacle for successful chemotherapy, and the mechanism of chemoresistance remains unclear. The present study developed an adriamycin-resistant human osteosarcoma MG-63 sub-line (MG-63/ADR), and identified differentially expressed proteins that may be associated with adriamycin resistance. Two dimensional gel electrophoresis, matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis and a protein identification assay were performed. Western blot analysis was used to examine the prohibitin (PHB) levels in the MG-63/ADR cells. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction was utilized to detect adriamycin resistant-associated genes. Laser-scanning confocal microscope was employed to examine the colocalization of PHB with v-myc avian myelocytomatosis viral oncogene homolog (c-myc), FBJ murine osteosarcoma viral oncogene homolog (c-fos), tumor protein p53 and retinoblastoma 1 (Rb). In addition, the full length of the open reading frame of human PHB was subcloned into a lentiviral vector pLVX-puro. The proliferative rate of MG-63 cells was also investigated. The overall protein expression in MG-63/ADR cells was clearly suppressed. Three notable protein regions, representing high mobility group box 1, Ras homolog gene family, member A, and PHB, were identified to be significantly altered in MG-63/ADR cells when compared with its parental cells. Therefore, PHB modulated the chemoresistance of MG-63/ADR cells by interacting with multiple oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes (c-myc, c-fos, p53 and Rb). In addition, overexpression of PHB decreases the proliferative rate of MG-63 cells. In conclusion, PHB is an adriamycin resistance-associated gene, which may inhibit the proliferation of human osteosarcoma MG-63 cells by interacting with the oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes, c-myc, c-fos, p53 and Rb.

  5. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA-DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, J G

    2015-03-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix-loop-helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt-β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK-ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous "cancer cells".

  6. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA-DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, J G

    2015-03-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix-loop-helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt-β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK-ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous "cancer cells". PMID:25883792

  7. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA–DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix–loop–helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt–β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK–ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous “cancer cells”. PMID:25883792

  8. PATZ1 is a target of miR-29b that is induced by Ha-Ras oncogene in rat thyroid cells

    PubMed Central

    Vitiello, Michela; Valentino, Teresa; De Menna, Marta; Crescenzi, Elvira; Francesca, Paola; Rea, Domenica; Arra, Claudio; Fusco, Alfredo; De Vita, Gabriella; Cerchia, Laura; Fedele, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The regulatory transcriptional factor PATZ1 is constantly downregulated in human thyroid cancer where it acts as a tumour suppressor by targeting p53-dependent genes involved in Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and cell migration. The aim of the present work was to elucidate the upstream signalling mechanisms regulating PATZ1 expression in thyroid cancer cells. The bioinformatics search for microRNAs able to potentially target PATZ1 led to the identification of several miRNAs. Among them we focused on the miR-29b since it was found upregulated in rat thyroid differentiated cells transformed by the Ha-Ras oncogene towards a high proliferating and high migratory phenotype resembling that of anaplastic carcinomas. Functional assays confirmed PATZ1 as a target of miR-29b, and, consistently, an inverse correlation between miR-29b and PATZ1 protein levels was found upon induction of Ha-Ras oncogene expression in these cells. Interestingly, restoration of PATZ1 expression in rat thyroid cells stably expressing the Ha-Ras oncogene decreased cell proliferation and migration, indicating a key role of PATZ1 in Ras-driven thyroid transformation. Together, these results suggest a novel mechanism regulating PATZ1 expression based on the upregulation of miR-29b expression induced by Ras oncogene. PMID:27125250

  9. Autism Linked to Increased Oncogene Mutations but Decreased Cancer Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Bassuk, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one phenotypic aspect of many monogenic, hereditary cancer syndromes. Pleiotropic effects of cancer genes on the autism phenotype could lead to repurposing of oncology medications to treat this increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition for which there is currently no treatment. To explore this hypothesis we sought to discover whether autistic patients more often have rare coding, single-nucleotide variants within tumor suppressor and oncogenes and whether autistic patients are more often diagnosed with neoplasms. Exome-sequencing data from the ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration was compared to that of a control cohort from the Exome Variant Server database revealing that rare, coding variants within oncogenes were enriched for in the ARRA ASD cohort (p<1.0x10-8). In contrast, variants were not significantly enriched in tumor suppressor genes. Phenotypically, children and adults with ASD exhibited a protective effect against cancer, with a frequency of 1.3% vs. 3.9% (p<0.001), but the protective effect decreased with age. The odds ratio of neoplasm for those with ASD relative to controls was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19; p<0.0001) in the 0 to 14 age group; 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; p = 0.024) in the 15 to 29 age group; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.17; p = 0.095) in the 30 to 54 age group; and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.74; p = 0.267) in those 55 and older. Both males and females demonstrated the protective effect. These findings suggest that defects in cellular proliferation, and potentially senescence, might influence both autism and neoplasm, and already approved drugs targeting oncogenic pathways might also have therapeutic value for treating autism. PMID:26934580

  10. The role of the ras oncogene in the formation of tumours.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P X; Harris, H

    1988-07-01

    A c-Ha-ras 1 oncogene, cloned from the EJ human bladder carcinoma cell line, was inserted into a shuttle vector carrying the selectable marker gene gpt that encodes the enzyme xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This construct, pSV2gptEJ, was transfected into NIH 3T3 cells by the calcium phosphate precipitation method and cells that had incorporated the plasmid were selected by growth in the presence of mycophenolic acid to which gpt confers resistance. A number of transfectant clones were tested for tumorigenicity by inoculation into nude mice. The take incidence was variable and the tumours arose only after a prolonged latent period. Many inocula produced no tumours. These results were consistent with the view that the tumours arose by selective overgrowth of minority cell populations. Cell lines were derived by explantation of these tumours and were back-selected in 2-thioxanthine, a cytotoxic analogue of the xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase substrate. Five clones were obtained that did not express detectable levels of the c-Ha-ras 1 oncogene product, p21ras. All of them showed a less-transformed morphology than the transfected NIH 3T3 cells from which they originated. Nonetheless three of these clones were found to be tumorigenic at all sites tested. This finding demonstrates that once tumorigenic variants have been selected from the ras-transformed cells, continued production of the p21ras protein is not necessary for the maintenance of tumorigenicity. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that the transfection procedure itself introduced major and stable perturbations of the genome of the transfected cells and confirmed that tumours were produced by selective overgrowth of variants with a chromosome constitution palpably different from that of the majority of the cells injected. In the light of the complex background of genomic changes produced in NIH 3T3 cells by transfection with the c-Ha-ras 1 oncogene, no conclusion can be drawn in genetic

  11. The role of the ras oncogene in the formation of tumours.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, P X; Harris, H

    1988-07-01

    A c-Ha-ras 1 oncogene, cloned from the EJ human bladder carcinoma cell line, was inserted into a shuttle vector carrying the selectable marker gene gpt that encodes the enzyme xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase. This construct, pSV2gptEJ, was transfected into NIH 3T3 cells by the calcium phosphate precipitation method and cells that had incorporated the plasmid were selected by growth in the presence of mycophenolic acid to which gpt confers resistance. A number of transfectant clones were tested for tumorigenicity by inoculation into nude mice. The take incidence was variable and the tumours arose only after a prolonged latent period. Many inocula produced no tumours. These results were consistent with the view that the tumours arose by selective overgrowth of minority cell populations. Cell lines were derived by explantation of these tumours and were back-selected in 2-thioxanthine, a cytotoxic analogue of the xanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase substrate. Five clones were obtained that did not express detectable levels of the c-Ha-ras 1 oncogene product, p21ras. All of them showed a less-transformed morphology than the transfected NIH 3T3 cells from which they originated. Nonetheless three of these clones were found to be tumorigenic at all sites tested. This finding demonstrates that once tumorigenic variants have been selected from the ras-transformed cells, continued production of the p21ras protein is not necessary for the maintenance of tumorigenicity. Cytogenetic analysis revealed that the transfection procedure itself introduced major and stable perturbations of the genome of the transfected cells and confirmed that tumours were produced by selective overgrowth of variants with a chromosome constitution palpably different from that of the majority of the cells injected. In the light of the complex background of genomic changes produced in NIH 3T3 cells by transfection with the c-Ha-ras 1 oncogene, no conclusion can be drawn in genetic

  12. Oncogenic rearrangements driving ionizing radiation–associated human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoro, Massimo; Carlomagno, Francesca

    2013-01-01

    The Chernobyl nuclear disaster has caused a remarkable increase in radiation-induced papillary thyroid carcinoma in children and young adults. In this issue of the JCI, Ricarte-Filho and colleagues demonstrate that chromosomal rearrangements are the oncogenic “drivers” in most post-Chernobyl carcinomas and that they often lead to unscheduled activation of the MAPK signaling pathway. These findings represent a major step forward in our understanding of radiation-induced carcinogenesis and suggest various hypotheses about the mechanisms underlying the formation and selection of gene rearrangements during cancer cell evolution. PMID:24162670

  13. Hedgehog Signal Transduction: Key Players, Oncogenic Drivers, and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pak, Ekaterina; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-08-22

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs complex developmental processes, including proliferation and patterning within diverse tissues. These activities rely on a tightly regulated transduction system that converts graded Hh input signals into specific levels of pathway activity. Uncontrolled activation of Hh signaling drives tumor initiation and maintenance. However, recent entry of pathway-specific inhibitors into the clinic reveals mixed patient responses and thus prompts further exploration of pathway activation and inhibition. In this review, we share emerging insights into regulated and oncogenic Hh signaling, supplemented with updates on the development and use of Hh pathway-targeted therapies.

  14. Proteins.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doolittle, Russell F.

    1985-01-01

    Examines proteins which give rise to structure and, by virtue of selective binding to other molecules, make genes. Binding sites, amino acids, protein evolution, and molecular paleontology are discussed. Work with encoding segments of deoxyribonucleic acid (exons) and noncoding stretches (introns) provides new information for hypotheses. (DH)

  15. Protein

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proteins are the major structural and functional components of all cells in the body. They are macromolecules that comprise 1 or more chains of amino acids that vary in their sequence and length and are folded into specific 3-dimensional structures. The sizes and conformations of proteins, therefor...

  16. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  17. MicroRNAs and oncogenic transcriptional regulatory networks controlling metabolic reprogramming in cancers.

    PubMed

    Pinweha, Pannapa; Rattanapornsompong, Khanti; Charoensawan, Varodom; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut

    2016-01-01

    Altered cellular metabolism is a fundamental adaptation of cancer during rapid proliferation as a result of growth factor overstimulation. We review different pathways involving metabolic alterations in cancers including aerobic glycolysis, pentose phosphate pathway, de novo fatty acid synthesis, and serine and glycine metabolism. Although oncoproteins, c-MYC, HIF1α and p53 are the major drivers of this metabolic reprogramming, post-transcriptional regulation by microRNAs (miR) also plays an important role in finely adjusting the requirement of the key metabolic enzymes underlying this metabolic reprogramming. We also combine the literature data on the miRNAs that potentially regulate 40 metabolic enzymes responsible for metabolic reprogramming in cancers, with additional miRs from computational prediction. Our analyses show that: (1) a metabolic enzyme is frequently regulated by multiple miRs, (2) confidence scores from prediction algorithms might be useful to help narrow down functional miR-mRNA interaction, which might be worth further experimental validation. By combining known and predicted interactions of oncogenic transcription factors (TFs) (c-MYC, HIF1α and p53), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP1), 40 metabolic enzymes, and regulatory miRs we have established one of the first reference maps for miRs and oncogenic TFs that regulate metabolic reprogramming in cancers. The combined network shows that glycolytic enzymes are linked to miRs via p53, c-MYC, HIF1α, whereas the genes in serine, glycine and one carbon metabolism are regulated via the c-MYC, as well as other regulatory organization that cannot be observed by investigating individual miRs, TFs, and target genes. PMID:27358718

  18. Oncogenic role of epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 in lung adenocarcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Hongyi; Wang, Xiaoshan; Yang, Xiaogang; Li, Haitao; Liu, Ben; Pan, Pinhua

    2016-01-01

    Lung adenocarcinoma, which is the most common non-small cell lung cancer, is the leading cause of death from cancer worldwide. Epithelial cell transforming sequence 2 (ECT2) is frequently upregulated and acts as an oncogene in various human cancers. In addition, ECT2 was reported to be upregulated in early stage lung adenocarcinoma. However, the detailed role of ECT2 in mediating the malignant phenotypes of lung adenocarcinoma cells has not previously been elucidated. Reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis were used to examine ECT2 mRNA and protein expression levels, respectively. MTT, wound healing and Transwell assays were conducted to determine cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities, respectively. In the present study, ECT2 was significantly upregulated in lung adenocarcinoma cell lines (H650, EKVX, HCC4006, HCC827, HCC2935, Hop62 and A549), as compared with a normal lung epithelial cell line (BEAS-2B). Moreover, knockdown of ECT2, induced by transfection with ECT2 siRNA, significantly inhibited the proliferation of lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, whereas overexpression of ECT2 enhanced A549 cell proliferation. Furthermore, knockdown of ECT2 expression suppressed the migration and invasion of A549 cells, whereas overexpression of ECT2 enhanced the migration and invasion abilities of A549 cells. Notably, inhibition of ECT2 also suppressed the expression levels of N-cadherin and vimentin, whereas it enhanced the expression level of E-cadherin, indicating that ECT2 is associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in A549 cells. On the contrary, overexpression of ECT2 enhanced the expression levels of N-cadherin and vimentin, whereas it reduced the expression level of E-cadherin in A549 cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that ECT2 has an oncogenic role in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Therefore, ECT2 may be a potential novel target for the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma.

  19. Characterization and immunotherapeutic potential of a monoclonal antibody against a ras oncogene transformed cell line

    SciTech Connect

    Ames, R.S. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Transformed cells express cell surface antigens not present, or present in diminished amounts on normal cells. Monoclonal antibodies can be used to identify and biochemically characterize tumor-associated antigens. Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) 45-2D9 was produced by immunization of BALB/c mice with a transformed cell line (45-2D9) induced by transfection of NIH 3T3 cells with a c-H-ras oncogene in DNA isolated from a human lung carcinoma. By immunoperoxidase staining, this antibody binds to the 45-342 cells as well as to the ras transformed primary and 3 secondary transfectants, including the one used to induce 45-342, but not to other ras transformed cell lines. Murine tumors as well as human fetal and most normal adult tissues are not stained. This antibody does bind to a variety of human tumors, including lung adenocarcinomas, as well as breast, colon and esophageal carcinomas. The ability of MoAb 45-2D9 to target ricin toxin A chain (RTA) and radio-isotopes to gp74 expressing cells was investigated. An immunotoxin generated by conjugating RTA to MoAb 45-2D9 inhibits protein and DNA synthesis by the 45-342 cells. Radiolabeled antibody specifically localizes to and can be used to image subcutaneous and pulmonary gp74 expressing tumors in nu/nu mice. Monoclonal antibodies against oncogene transformed cell lines may be useful for the detection and characterization of tumor-associated antigens as well as for the development of new tumor therapeutic and diagnostic reagents.

  20. Ablation of galectin-3 induces p27KIP1-dependent premature senescence without oncogenic stress

    PubMed Central

    Kim, S-J; Lee, H-W; Gu Kang, H; La, S-H; Choi, Il Ju; Ro, J Y; Bresalier, R S; Song, J; Chun, K-H

    2014-01-01

    Premature senescence induced by oncogenic stimuli or tumor suppressor activation plays opposing roles in tumorigenesis. Here, we propose that galectin-3, a β-galactoside-binding lectin, regulates premature senescence without oncogenic stress. We detected premature senescence, decreased Skp2, and increased p27KIP1 expression in galectin-3 knockout MEFs and galectin-3-depleted gastric cancer cells. Interestingly, galectin-3 depletion did not affect other senescence inducers such as p14ARF, p16INK4A, and p21WAF1/CIP1, suggesting that galectin-3-regulated senescence is p27KIP1 dependent. We demonstrate that galectin-3 depletion decreases retinoblastoma protein (Rb) phosphorylation (Ser780, Ser807/811), cyclin D1 and CDK4 expression, and E2F1 transcriptional activation. Galectin-3 directly interacts with the cyclin D1/CDK4 complex and promotes hyperphosphorylation of Rb. It also blocks the inhibition of E2F1 transcription, thereby increasing the expression of Skp2 and reducing the stability of p27KIP1 to promote the proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Xenograft mice with galectin-3-depleted gastric cancer cells display tumor growth retardation that is reversed by Skp2 overexpression. Increased expression of galectin-3 is also associated with the advanced TNM (tumor, lymph node, metastasis) system, clinicopathological stage, and lymph node metastases. The probability of survival was significantly decreased in gastric cancer patients with galectin-3high p27KIP1-lowcells. Taken together, our results show that galectin-3 may accelerate gastric tumorigenesis by inhibiting premature senescence. PMID:24971481

  1. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  2. The Oncogene LRF Stimulates Proliferation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Inhibits Their Chondrogenic Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Huan; Acharya, Chitrangada; Kumari, Ratna; Fierro, Fernando; Haudenschild, Dominik R.; Nolta, Jan; Di Cesare, Paul E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. The oncogene leukemia/lymphoma-related factor (LRF) enhances chondrosarcoma proliferation and malignancy. This study aimed to investigate the roles of LRF in chondrogenic differentiation of primary human bone marrow–derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Design. LRF was overexpressed in BMSC by lentiviral transduction. Chondrogenic differentiation of BMSC was induced by high-density pellet culture. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were used to investigate changes in protein and mRNA levels, respectively, during chondrogenesis. Safranin-O staining, immunohistochemistry, and glycoaminoglycan contents were used to assess cartilage matrix deposition. BMSC proliferation was determined by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity and cell counting. Cell cycle profiling was performed by flow cytometry. Results. LRF overexpression effectively inhibited protein and mRNA expression of chondrocyte markers and cartilage matrix deposition during chondrogenesis of BMSC. Endogenous LRF expression was constitutively high in undifferentiated BMSC but remained low in primary articular chondrocytes. Endogenous LRF protein was downregulated in a time-dependent manner during chondrogenesis. BMSCs overexpressing LRF had higher proliferation rates and cell population in the S phase. LRF suppressed p53 expression during chondrogenesis and this might prevent differentiating chondrocytes from entering a quiescent state. Conclusion. Our data showed that LRF is important for stimulating stem cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. It is known that LRF is highly expressed in the mouse limb buds prior to overt chondrogenesis; thus, LRF might function to prevent premature chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells. PMID:26069677

  3. The prognostic potential and oncogenic effects of PRR11 expression in hilar cholangiocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Baohua; Yu, Wenlong; Li, Wenfeng; Yu, Guanzhen; Gao, Yong

    2015-01-01

    PRR11 is a newly identified oncogene in lung cancer, yet its role in others tumors remains unclear. Gastrointestinal tissue microarrays were used to evaluate PRR11 expression and its association with clinical outcome was analyzed in patients with hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Overexpression of PRR11 was observed in esophageal, gastric, pancreatic, colorectal, and hilar cholangiocarcinoma. Expression of PRR11 correlated with lymph node metastasis and CA199 level in two HC patient cohorts. After an R0 resection, a high level of PRR11 expression was found to be an independent indicator of recurrence (P = 0.001). In cell culture, PRR11 silencing resulted in decreased cellular proliferation, cell migration, tumor growth of QBC939 cells. Microarray analysis revealed that several genes involved in cell proliferation, cell adhesion, and cell migration were altered in PRR11-knockout cells, including: vimentin (VIM), Ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase 1 (UCHL1), early growth response protein (EGR1), and System A amino acid transporter1 (SNAT1). Silencing PRR11 inhibited the expression of UCHL1, EGR1, and SNAT1 proteins, with immunoassays revealing a significant correlation among the levels of these four proteins. These results indicate that PRR11 is an independent prognostic indicator for patients with HC. PMID:25971332

  4. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  5. HMGA1 pseudogenes as candidate proto-oncogenic competitive endogenous RNAs

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Francesco; De Martino, Marco; Petti, Maria Grazia; Forzati, Floriana; Tornincasa, Mara; Federico, Antonella; Arra, Claudio; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Fusco, Alfredo

    2014-01-01

    The High Mobility Group A (HMGA) are nuclear proteins that participate in the organization of nucleoprotein complexes involved in chromatin structure, replication and gene transcription. HMGA overexpression is a feature of human cancer and plays a causal role in cell transformation. Since non-coding RNAs and pseudogenes are now recognized to be important in physiology and disease, we investigated HMGA1 pseudogenes in cancer settings using bioinformatics analysis. Here we report the identification and characterization of two HMGA1 non-coding pseudogenes, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7. We show that their overexpression increases the levels of HMGA1 and other cancer-related proteins by inhibiting the suppression of their synthesis mediated by microRNAs. Consistently, embryonic fibroblasts from HMGA1P7-overexpressing transgenic mice displayed a higher growth rate and reduced susceptibility to senescence. Moreover, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7 were overexpressed in human anaplastic thyroid carcinomas, which are highly aggressive, but not in differentiated papillary carcinomas, which are less aggressive. Lastly, the expression of the HMGA1 pseudogenes was significantly correlated with HMGA1 protein levels thereby implicating HMGA1P overexpression in cancer progression. In conclusion, HMGA1P6 and HMGA1P7 are potential proto-oncogenic competitive endogenous RNAs. PMID:25268743

  6. Clients and Oncogenic Roles of Molecular Chaperone gp96/grp94

    PubMed Central

    Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A.; Thaxton, Jessica; Hong, Feng; Wu, Bill X.; Zhang, Yongliang; Fugle, Caroline W.; Metelli, Alessandra; Riesenberg, Brian; Williams, Katelyn; Gewirth, Daniel T.; Chiosis, Gabriela; Liu, Bei; Li, Zihai

    2016-01-01

    As an endoplasmic reticulum heat shock protein (HSP) 90 paralogue, glycoprotein (gp) 96 possesses immunological properties by chaperoning antigenic peptides for activation of T cells. Genetic studies in the last decade have unveiled that gp96 is also an essential master chaperone for multiple receptors and secreting proteins including Toll-like receptors (TLRs), integrins, the Wnt co-receptor, Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein 6 (LRP6), the latent TGFβ docking receptor, Glycoprotein A Repetitions Predominant (GARP), Glycoprotein (GP) Ib and insulin-like growth factors (IGF). Clinically, elevated expression of gp96 in a variety of cancers correlates with the advanced stage and poor survival of cancer patients. Recent preclinical studies have also uncovered that gp96 expression is closely linked to cancer progression in multiple myeloma, hepatocellular carcinoma, breast cancer and inflammation-associated colon cancer. Thus, gp96 is an attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. The chaperone function of gp96 depends on its ATPase domain, which is structurally distinct from other HSP90 members, and thus favors the design of highly selective gp96-targeted inhibitors against cancer. We herein discuss the strategically important oncogenic clients of gp96 and their underlying biology. The roles of cell-intrinsic gp96 in T cell biology are also discussed, in part because it offers another opportunity of cancer therapy by manipulating levels of gp96 in T cells to enhance host immune defense. PMID:27072698

  7. Oncogenic Sox2 regulates and cooperates with VRK1 in cell cycle progression and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Moura, David S; Fernández, Isabel F; Marín-Royo, Gema; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Martín-Doncel, Elena; Vega, Francisco M; Lazo, Pedro A

    2016-06-23

    Sox2 is a pluripotency transcription factor that as an oncogene can also regulate cell proliferation. Therefore, genes implicated in several different aspects of cell proliferation, such as the VRK1 chromatin-kinase, are candidates to be targets of Sox2. Sox 2 and VRK1 colocalize in nuclei of proliferating cells forming a stable complex. Sox2 knockdown abrogates VRK1 gene expression. Depletion of either Sox2 or VRK1 caused a reduction of cell proliferation. Sox2 up-regulates VRK1 expression and both proteins cooperate in the activation of CCND1. The accumulation of VRK1 protein downregulates SOX2 expression and both proteins are lost in terminally differentiated cells. Induction of neural differentiation with retinoic acid resulted in downregulation of Sox2 and VRK1 that inversely correlated with the expression of differentiation markers such as N-cadherin, Pax6, mH2A1.2 and mH2A2. Differentiation-associated macro histones mH2A1.2and mH2A2 inhibit CCND1 and VRK1 expression and also block the activation of the VRK1 promoter by Sox2. VRK1 is a downstream target of Sox2 and both form an autoregulatory loop in epithelial cell differentiation.

  8. RNA helicase A activity is inhibited by oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1

    PubMed Central

    Erkizan, Hayriye Verda; Schneider, Jeffrey A.; Sajwan, Kamal; Graham, Garrett T.; Griffin, Brittany; Chasovskikh, Sergey; Youbi, Sarah E.; Kallarakal, Abraham; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Padmanabhan, Radhakrishnan; Casey, John L.; Üren, Aykut; Toretsky, Jeffrey A.

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases impact RNA structure and metabolism from transcription through translation, in part through protein interactions with transcription factors. However, there is limited knowledge on the role of transcription factor influence upon helicase activity. RNA helicase A (RHA) is a DExH-box RNA helicase that plays multiple roles in cellular biology, some functions requiring its activity as a helicase while others as a protein scaffold. The oncogenic transcription factor EWS-FLI1 requires RHA to enable Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncogenesis and growth; a small molecule, YK-4-279 disrupts this complex in cells. Our current study investigates the effect of EWS-FLI1 upon RHA helicase activity. We found that EWS-FLI1 reduces RHA helicase activity in a dose-dependent manner without affecting intrinsic ATPase activity; however, the RHA kinetics indicated a complex model. Using separated enantiomers, only (S)-YK-4-279 reverses the EWS-FLI1 inhibition of RHA helicase activity. We report a novel RNA binding property of EWS-FLI1 leading us to discover that YK-4-279 inhibition of RHA binding to EWS-FLI1 altered the RNA binding profile of both proteins. We conclude that EWS-FLI1 modulates RHA helicase activity causing changes in overall transcriptome processing. These findings could lead to both enhanced understanding of oncogenesis and provide targets for therapy. PMID:25564528

  9. Oncogenic Sox2 regulates and cooperates with VRK1 in cell cycle progression and differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Moura, David S.; Fernández, Isabel F.; Marín-Royo, Gema; López-Sánchez, Inmaculada; Martín-Doncel, Elena; Vega, Francisco M.; Lazo, Pedro A.

    2016-01-01

    Sox2 is a pluripotency transcription factor that as an oncogene can also regulate cell proliferation. Therefore, genes implicated in several different aspects of cell proliferation, such as the VRK1 chromatin-kinase, are candidates to be targets of Sox2. Sox 2 and VRK1 colocalize in nuclei of proliferating cells forming a stable complex. Sox2 knockdown abrogates VRK1 gene expression. Depletion of either Sox2 or VRK1 caused a reduction of cell proliferation. Sox2 up-regulates VRK1 expression and both proteins cooperate in the activation of CCND1. The accumulation of VRK1 protein downregulates SOX2 expression and both proteins are lost in terminally differentiated cells. Induction of neural differentiation with retinoic acid resulted in downregulation of Sox2 and VRK1 that inversely correlated with the expression of differentiation markers such as N-cadherin, Pax6, mH2A1.2 and mH2A2. Differentiation-associated macro histones mH2A1.2and mH2A2 inhibit CCND1 and VRK1 expression and also block the activation of the VRK1 promoter by Sox2. VRK1 is a downstream target of Sox2 and both form an autoregulatory loop in epithelial cell differentiation. PMID:27334688

  10. Translation regulatory factor RBM3 is a proto-oncogene that prevents mitotic catastrophe

    PubMed Central

    Sureban, SM; Ramalingam, S; Natarajan, G; May, R; Subramaniam, D; Bishnupuri, KS; Morrison, AR; Dieckgraefe, BK; Brackett, DJ; Postier, RG; Houchen, CW; Anant, S

    2009-01-01

    RNA-binding proteins play a key role in post-transcriptional regulation of mRNA stability and translation. We have identified that RBM3, a translation regulatory protein, is significantly upregulated in human tumors, including a stage-dependent increase in colorectal tumors. Forced RBM3 overexpression in NIH3T3 mouse fibro-blasts and SW480 human colon epithelial cells increases cell proliferation and development of compact multicellular spheroids in soft agar suggesting the ability to induce anchorage-independent growth. In contrast, down-regulating RBM3 in HCT116 colon cancer cells with specific siRNA decreases cell growth in culture, which was partially overcome when treated with prostaglandin E2, a product of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme activity. Knockdown also resulted in the growth arrest of tumor xenografts. We have also identified that RBM3 knockdown increases caspase-mediated apoptosis coupled with nuclear cyclin B1, and phosphorylated Cdc25c, Chk1 and Chk2 kinases, implying that under conditions of RBM3 downregulation, cells undergo mitotic catastrophe. RBM3 enhances COX-2, IL-8 and VEGF mRNA stability and translation. Conversely, RBM3 knockdown results in loss in the translation of these transcripts. These data demonstrate that the RNA stabilizing and translation regulatory protein RBM3 is a novel proto-oncogene that induces transformation when overexpressed and is essential for cells to progress through mitosis. PMID:18427544

  11. Novel small molecules targeting ciliary transport of Smoothened and oncogenic Hedgehog pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bomi; Messias, Ana C.; Schorpp, Kenji; Geerlof, Arie; Schneider, Günter; Saur, Dieter; Hadian, Kamyar; Sattler, Michael; Wanker, Erich E.; Hasenöder, Stefan; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Smoothened (Smo) to the primary cilium (PC) is a potential target to inhibit oncogenic Hh pathway activation in a large number of tumors. One drawback is the appearance of Smo mutations that resist drug treatment, which is a common reason for cancer treatment failure. Here, we undertook a high content screen with compounds in preclinical or clinical development and identified ten small molecules that prevent constitutive active mutant SmoM2 transport into PC for subsequent Hh pathway activation. Eight of the ten small molecules act through direct interference with the G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2 (Gprasp2)-SmoM2 ciliary targeting complex, whereas one antagonist of ionotropic receptors prevents intracellular trafficking of Smo to the PC. Together, these findings identify several compounds with the potential to treat drug-resistant SmoM2-driven cancer forms, but also reveal off-target effects of established drugs in the clinics. PMID:26931153

  12. Oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinases as molecular targets for anti-cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Gunby, Rosalind H; Sala, Elisa; Tartari, Carmen J; Puttini, Miriam; Gambacorti-Passerini, Carlo; Mologni, Luca

    2007-11-01

    Deregulated activation of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) is a frequent event underlying malignant transformation in many types of cancer. The formation of oncogenic fusion tyrosine kinases (FTKs) resulting from genomic rearrangements, represents a common mechanism by which kinases escape the strict controls that normally regulate their expression and activation. FTKs are typically composed of an N-terminal dimerisation domain, provided by the fusion partner protein, fused to the kinase domain of receptor or non-receptor tyrosine kinases (non-RTKs). Since FTKs do not contain extracellular domains, they share many characteristics with non-RTKs in terms of their properties and approaches for therapeutic targeting. FTKs are cytoplasmic or sometimes nuclear proteins, depending on the normal distribution of their fusion partner. FTKs no longer respond to ligand and are instead constitutively activated by dimerisation induced by the fusion partner. Unlike RTKs, FTKs cannot be targeted by therapeutic antibodies, instead they require agents that can cross the cell membrane as with non-RTKs. Here we review the PTKs known to be expressed as FTKs in cancer and the strategies for molecularly targeting these FTKs in anti-cancer therapy. PMID:18045055

  13. Retroviruses Hijack Chromatin Loops to Drive Oncogene Expression and Highlight the Chromatin Architecture around Proto-Oncogenic Loci

    PubMed Central

    Pattison, Jillian M.; Wright, Jason B.; Cole, Michael D.

    2015-01-01

    The majority of the genome consists of intergenic and non-coding DNA sequences shown to play a major role in different gene regulatory networks. However, the specific potency of these distal elements as well as how these regions exert function across large genomic distances remains unclear. To address these unresolved issues, we closely examined the chromatin architecture around proto-oncogenic loci in the mouse and human genomes to demonstrate a functional role for chromatin looping in distal gene regulation. Using cell culture models, we show that tumorigenic retroviral integration sites within the mouse genome occur near existing large chromatin loops and that this chromatin architecture is maintained within the human genome as well. Significantly, as mutagenesis screens are not feasible in humans, we demonstrate a way to leverage existing screens in mice to identify disease relevant human enhancers and expose novel disease mechanisms. For instance, we characterize the epigenetic landscape upstream of the human Cyclin D1 locus to find multiple distal interactions that contribute to the complex cis-regulation of this cell cycle gene. Furthermore, we characterize a novel distal interaction upstream of the Cyclin D1 gene which provides mechanistic evidence for the abundant overexpression of Cyclin D1 occurring in multiple myeloma cells harboring a pathogenic translocation event. Through use of mapped retroviral integrations and translocation breakpoints, our studies highlight the importance of chromatin looping in oncogene expression, elucidate the epigenetic mechanisms crucial for distal cis-regulation, and in one particular instance, explain how a translocation event drives tumorigenesis through upregulation of a proto-oncogene. PMID:25799187

  14. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'. PMID:24780858

  15. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'.

  16. Design of a small molecule against an oncogenic noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Velagapudi, Sai Pradeep; Cameron, Michael D; Haga, Christopher L; Rosenberg, Laura H; Lafitte, Marie; Duckett, Derek R; Phinney, Donald G; Disney, Matthew D

    2016-05-24

    The design of precision, preclinical therapeutics from sequence is difficult, but advances in this area, particularly those focused on rational design, could quickly transform the sequence of disease-causing gene products into lead modalities. Herein, we describe the use of Inforna, a computational approach that enables the rational design of small molecules targeting RNA to quickly provide a potent modulator of oncogenic microRNA-96 (miR-96). We mined the secondary structure of primary microRNA-96 (pri-miR-96) hairpin precursor against a database of RNA motif-small molecule interactions, which identified modules that bound RNA motifs nearby and in the Drosha processing site. Precise linking of these modules together provided Targaprimir-96 (3), which selectively modulates miR-96 production in cancer cells and triggers apoptosis. Importantly, the compound is ineffective on healthy breast cells, and exogenous overexpression of pri-miR-96 reduced compound potency in breast cancer cells. Chemical Cross-Linking and Isolation by Pull-Down (Chem-CLIP), a small-molecule RNA target validation approach, shows that 3 directly engages pri-miR-96 in breast cancer cells. In vivo, 3 has a favorable pharmacokinetic profile and decreases tumor burden in a mouse model of triple-negative breast cancer. Thus, rational design can quickly produce precision, in vivo bioactive lead small molecules against hard-to-treat cancers by targeting oncogenic noncoding RNAs, advancing a disease-to-gene-to-drug paradigm.

  17. REST regulates oncogenic properties of glioblastoma stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, Mohamed M.; Sathyan, Pratheesh; Singh, Sanjay K.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Marisetty, Anantha L.; Liang, Shoudan; Gumin, Joy; El-Mesallamy, Hala Osman; Suki, Dima; Colman, Howard; Fuller, Gregory N.; Lang, Frederick F.; Majumder, Sadhan

    2013-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) tumors are the most common malignant primary brain tumors in adults. Although many GBM tumors are believed to be caused by self-renewing, glioblastoma-derived stem-like cells (GSCs), the mechanisms that regulate self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs are only now being unraveled. Here we showed that GSCs derived from GBM patient specimens express varying levels of the transcriptional repressor REST, suggesting heterogeneity across different GSC lines. Loss- and gain-of-function experiments indicated that REST maintains self-renewal of GSCs. High REST-expressing GSCs (HR-GSCs) produced tumors histopathologically distinct from those generated by low REST-expressing GSCs (LR-GSCs) in orthotopic mouse brain tumor models. Knockdown of REST in HR-GSCs resulted in increased survival in GSC-transplanted mice and produced tumors with higher apoptotic and lower invasive properties. Conversely, forced expression of exogenous REST in LR-GSCs produced decreased survival in mice and produced tumors with lower apoptotic and higher invasive properties, similar to HR-GSCs. Thus, based on our results, we propose that a novel function of REST is to maintain self-renewal and other oncogenic properties of GSCs and that REST can play a major role in mediating tumorigenicity in GBM. PMID:22228704

  18. Evidence for long-range oncogene activation by hepadnavirus insertion.

    PubMed Central

    Fourel, G; Couturier, J; Wei, Y; Apiou, F; Tiollais, P; Buendia, M A

    1994-01-01

    Insertional mutagenesis of host genes, a common oncogenic strategy of slow transforming retroviruses, has recently been described for a DNA virus of the hepadnavirus group: the woodchuck hepatitis virus. This virus causes insertional activation of myc genes, mainly the intronless N-myc2 oncogene, in > 50% of woodchuck liver tumours. In most remaining tumours, N-myc2 is overexpressed without any apparent genetic alteration. To elucidate the role of the virus in such cases, we have cloned and analysed single integration sites in four woodchuck tumours carrying wild-type myc alleles. All sites were clustered within < 20 kb in a single locus, in which scarce unique sequences showed no detectable transcriptional activity. By fluorescent in situ hybridization, N-myc2 and the new locus (win) were localized to the same region of the long arm of the woodchuck X chromosome, and a 150-180 kb intervening distance was deduced from pulse-field gel analysis. The detection of viral integrations in win in additional tumours that produced abundant N-myc2 transcripts further substantiates the link between these two loci in woodchuck tumorigenesis. We propose that efficient activation of the N-myc2 promoter by the hepadnavirus enhancer acting over a long distance might operate in liver cell transformation. Images PMID:8013453

  19. Oncogenic osteomalacia: two case reports with surprisingly different outcomes.

    PubMed

    Seijas, Roberto; Ares, Oscar; Sierra, Judit; Pérez-Dominguez, Manuel

    2009-04-01

    Oncogenic osteomalacia is a rare paraneoplastic syndrome of acquired hypophosphatemic osteomalacia, resulting from a deficit in renal tubular phosphate reabsorption, in which fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) seems to be implicated. This condition is usually associated with a phosphaturic mesenchymal tumor of mixed connective tissue located in the bone or soft tissue. The clinical and the radiologic findings are the same as those seen in osteomalacia, and the biochemical features include renal phosphate loss, low serum phosphate and 1,25-(OH)(2) vitD(3) levels, increased alkaline phosphatase, and normal calcium, PTH, calcitonin, 25-OH-vitD(3) and 25,25-(OH)(2) vitD(3). We present two cases of oncogenic osteomalacia associated with phosphaturic mesenchymal tumors, which were histologically similar, but presented a completely different evolution. In the first patient, the tumor developed on the sole of the foot. Following removal of the mass, the symptoms resolved and biochemical and radiological parameters returned to normal. However, in the second patient, a liver tumor developed and resection did not resolve the disease. Multiple lesions appeared in several locations during follow-up. This disease usually remits with complete tumor resection. Nevertheless, if this is not possible, oral treatment with phosphate, calcium and calcitriol can improve the symptoms. If scintigraphy of the tumor shows octreotide receptors, patients may respond partially to therapy with somatostatin analogs, with stabilization of the lesion.

  20. Analysis of nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of the proto-oncogene SET/I2PP2A.

    PubMed

    Lam, B Daniel; Anthony, Eloise C; Hordijk, Peter L

    2012-01-01

    SET/I2PP2A is a nuclear protein that was initially identified as an oncogene in human undifferentiated acute myeloid leukemia, fused to the nuclear porin Nup-214. In addition, SET is a potent inhibitior of the phosphatase PP2A. Previously, we proposed a model in which the small GTPase Rac1 recruits SET from the nucleus to the plasma membrane to promote cell migration. This event represents an entirely novel concept in the field of cell migration. Now, fluorescent versions of the SET protein are generated to analyze its nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling in live cells. Our studies showed that under steady-state conditions a fraction of the SET protein, which is primarily localized in the nucleus, translocates to the cytosol in an apparently random fashion. SET exiting the nucleus was also seen in spreading as well as dividing cells. We designed an image analysis method to quantify the frequency of nuclear exit of the SET proteins, based on 4D confocal imaging. This straightforward method was validated by analysis of SET wild-type and mutant proteins. This showed that the frequency of nuclear exit of a Ser-9 phosphomimetic mutant (S9E) is enhanced compared to wild-type SET or a S9A mutant. Thus, we have developed a novel method to analyze the nucleo-cytoplasmic shuttling of the proto-oncogene SET dynamics in live cells. This method will also be applicable to monitor dynamic localization of other nuclear and/or cytoplasmic signaling proteins.

  1. [Nature of cancer explored from the perspective of the functional evolution of proto-oncogenes].

    PubMed

    Watari, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The products of proto-oncogene play critical roles in the development or maintenance of multicellular societies in animals via strict regulatory systems. When these regulatory systems are disrupted, proto-oncogenes can become oncogenes, and thereby induce cell transformation and carcinogenesis. To understand the molecular basis for development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes during evolution, we screened for ancestral proto-oncogenes from the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata (M. ovata) by monitoring their transforming ability in mammalian cells; consequently, we isolated a Pak gene ortholog, which encodes a serine/threonine kinase as a 'primitive oncogene'. We also cloned Pak orthologs from fungi and the multicellular sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis, and compared their regulatory features with that of M. ovata Pak (MoPak). MoPak is constitutively active and induces cell transformation in mammalian cells. In contrast, Pak orthologs from multicellular animals are strictly regulated. Analyses of Pak mutants revealed that structural alterations in the auto-inhibitory domain (AID) are responsible for the enhanced kinase activity and the oncogenic activity of MoPak. Furthermore, we show that Rho family GTPases-mediated regulatory system of Pak kinase is conserved throughout the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals, but the MoPak is more sensitive to the Rho family GTPases-mediated activation than multicellular Pak. These results show that maturation of AID function was required for the development of the strict regulatory system of the Pak proto-oncogene, and support the potential link between the development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes and the evolution of multicellularity. Further analysis of oncogenic functions of proto-oncogene orthologs in the unicellular genes would provide some insights into the mechanisms of the destruction of multicellular society in cancer.

  2. The DNA rearrangement that generates the TRK-T3 oncogene involves a novel gene on chromosome 3 whose product has a potential coiled-coil domain.

    PubMed Central

    Greco, A; Mariani, C; Miranda, C; Lupas, A; Pagliardini, S; Pomati, M; Pierotti, M A

    1995-01-01

    Oncogenic rearrangements of the NTRK1 gene (also designated TRKA), encoding one of the receptors for the nerve growth factor, are frequently detected in thyroid carcinomas. Such rearrangements fuse the NTRK1 tyrosine kinase domain to 5'-end sequences belonging to different genes. In previously reported studies we have demonstrated that NTRK1 oncogenic activation involves two genes, TPM3 and TPR, both localized similarly to the receptor tyrosine kinase, on the q arm of chromosome 1. Here we report the characterization of a novel NTRK1-derived thyroid oncogene, named TRK-T3. A cDNA clone, capable of transforming activity, was isolated from a transformant cell line. Sequence analysis revealed that TRK-T3 contains 1,412 nucleotides of NTRK1 preceded by 598 nucleotides belonging to a novel gene that we have named TFG (TRK-fused gene). The TRK-T3 amino acid sequence displays, within the TFG region, a coiled-coil motif that could endow the oncoprotein with the capability to form complexes. The TRK-T3 oncogene encodes a 68-kDa cytoplasmic protein reacting with NTRK1-specific antibodies. By sedimentation gradient experiments the TRK-T3 oncoprotein was shown to form, in vivo, multimeric complexes, most likely trimers or tetramers. The TFG gene is ubiquitously expressed and is located on chromosome 3. The breakpoint producing the TRK-T3 oncogene occurs within exons of both the TFG gene and the NTRK1 gene and produces a chimeric exon that undergoes alternative splicing. Molecular analysis of the NTRK1 rearranged fragments indicated that the chromosomal rearrangement is reciprocal and balanced and involves loss of a few nucleotides of germ line sequences. PMID:7565764

  3. Can anti-tumor immunity help to explain “oncogene addiction”?

    PubMed Central

    Restifo, Nicholas P.

    2010-01-01

    Summary “Oncogene addiction” refers to the process of tumor cell death that can occur after inactivation of a single oncogene. In this issue of Cancer Cell, Rakhra, et al. argue that complete tumor clearance after molecular targeted therapies requires a functioning immune system, pointing the way toward radically new combination therapies. PMID:21075303

  4. [Expression of proto-oncogenes and its role in spermatogenic cells].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jun-ling; Xu, Si-fan

    2005-07-01

    This article reviews the specific expression of many proto-oncogenes during male germ cell development. The normal expression of proto-oncogenes plays an important role in the regulation of spermatogonial mitosis, spermatocyte meiosis as well as spermiogenesis and sperm maturation.

  5. Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regnier, Fred E.; Gooding, Karen M.

    Because of the complexity of cellular material and body fluids, it is seldom possible to analyze a natural product directly. Qualitative and quantitative analyses must often be preceded by some purification step that separates the molecular species being examined from interfering materials. In the case of proteins, column liquid chromatography has been used extensively for these fractionations. With the advent of gel permeation, cation exchange, anion exchange, hydrophobic, and affinity chromatography, it became possible to resolve proteins through their fundamental properties of size, charge, hydrophobicity, and biological affinity. The chromatographic separations used in the early isolation and characterization of many proteins later became analytical tools in their routine analysis. Unfortunately, these inherently simple and versatile column chromatographic techniques introduced in the 50s and 60s have a severe limitation in routine analysis-separation time. It is common to encounter 1-24 h separation times with the classical gel-type supports.

  6. RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2008-04-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the target for molecularly designed drug therapy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting activated RET are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with MTC. This review will provide a brief overview of MTC and the associated RET oncogenic mutations, and will summarize the therapies designed to strategically interfere with the pathologic activation of the RET oncogene.

  7. Inhibition of cell transformation by sulindac sulfide is confined to specific oncogenic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Gala, Manish; Sun, Ronggai; Yang, Vincent W.

    2009-01-01

    Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been shown to reduce the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). They are also known to induce the regression of colorectal adenomas, which are precursors to CRC. Despite these evidences, the exact mechanism by which NSAIDs exerts its anti-oncogenic effect is not completely understood. Using a focus formation assay, here we show that sulindac sulfide, a NSAID, specifically inhibits cell transformation mediated by oncogenic Ha-Ras, but not by other established oncogene products such as v-Src, Gα 12, and Gα13. Our results suggest that the ability of sulindac sulfide to suppress transformation is confined to specific oncogenic pathways. Further studies of the sulindac-resistant oncogenic pathways may lead to identification of novel therapeutic agents that are effective in the prevention or treatment of CRC. PMID:11734340

  8. Quercetin, E7 and p53 in papillomavirus oncogenic cell transformation.

    PubMed

    Beniston, R G; Morgan, I M; O'Brien, V; Campo, M S

    2001-07-01

    Bovine papillomavirus type 4 (BPV-4) infects the upper alimentary canal of cattle causing benign papillomas which can progress to squamous carcinomas in cattle grazing on bracken fern (BF). We have previously shown that quercetin, a well characterized and potent mutagen found in BF, causes cell cycle arrest of primary bovine cells (PalF), but that a single exposure to quercetin can cause full oncogenic transformation of PalF cells partially transformed by BPV-4. Here we show that cell cycle arrest correlates with an increase in p53 protein levels and transcriptional activity. However, in cells transformed but non-tumorigenic, p53 protein is elevated and transcriptionally activated in response to quercetin or other DNA damaging stimuli, but the cells bypass quercetin-induced G1 arrest likely due to E7 expression. In transformed tumorigenic cells, p53 is elevated in response to quercetin but its transcriptional activity is inhibited due to mutation, and the cells fail to stop in G1 in the presence of quercetin.

  9. Altered tumor formation and evolutionary selection of genetic variants in the human MDM4 oncogene.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Gurinder Singh; Kirchhoff, Tomas; Bond, Elisabeth E; Montagna, Marco; Monagna, Marco; Menin, Chiara; Bertorelle, Roberta; Scaini, Maria Chiara; Bartel, Frank; Böhnke, Anja; Pempe, Christina; Gradhand, Elise; Hauptmann, Steffen; Offit, Kenneth; Levine, Arnold J; Bond, Gareth L

    2009-06-23

    A large body of evidence strongly suggests that the p53 tumor suppressor pathway is central in reducing cancer frequency in vertebrates. The protein product of the haploinsufficient mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) oncogene binds to and inhibits the p53 protein. Recent studies of human genetic variants in p53 and MDM2 have shown that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) can affect p53 signaling, confer cancer risk, and suggest that the pathway is under evolutionary selective pressure (1-4). In this report, we analyze the haplotype structure of MDM4, a structural homolog of MDM2, in several different human populations. Unusual patterns of linkage disequilibrium (LD) in the haplotype distribution of MDM4 indicate the presence of candidate SNPs that may also modify the efficacy of the p53 pathway. Association studies in 5 different patient populations reveal that these SNPs in MDM4 confer an increased risk for, or early onset of, human breast and ovarian cancers in Ashkenazi Jewish and European cohorts, respectively. This report not only implicates MDM4 as a key regulator of tumorigenesis in the human breast and ovary, but also exploits for the first time evolutionary driven linkage disequilibrium as a means to select SNPs of p53 pathway genes that might be clinically relevant.

  10. Satellite RNAs promote pancreatic oncogenic processes via the dysfunction of YBX1

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Takahiro; Otsuka, Motoyuki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Motoko; Ijichi, Hideaki; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Highly repetitive tandem arrays at the centromeric and pericentromeric regions in chromosomes, previously considered silent, are actively transcribed, particularly in cancer. This aberrant expression occurs even in K-ras-mutated pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues, which are precancerous lesions. To examine the biological roles of the satellite RNAs in carcinogenesis, we construct mouse PanIN-derived cells expressing major satellite (MajSAT) RNA and show increased malignant properties. We find an increase in frequency of chromosomal instability and point mutations in both genomic and mitochondrial DNA. We identify Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) as a protein that binds to MajSAT RNA. MajSAT RNA inhibits the nuclear translocation of YBX1 under stress conditions, thus reducing its DNA-damage repair function. The forced expression of YBX1 significantly decreases the aberrant phenotypes. These findings indicate that during the early stage of cancer development, satellite transcripts may act as ‘intrinsic mutagens' by inducing YBX1 dysfunction, which may be crucial in oncogenic processes. PMID:27667193

  11. Nucleolus-derived mediators in oncogenic stress response and activation of p53-dependent pathways.

    PubMed

    Stępiński, Dariusz

    2016-08-01

    Rapid growth and division of cells, including tumor ones, is correlated with intensive protein biosynthesis. The output of nucleoli, organelles where translational machineries are formed, depends on a rate of particular stages of ribosome production and on accessibility of elements crucial for their effective functioning, including substrates, enzymes as well as energy resources. Different factors that induce cellular stress also often lead to nucleolar dysfunction which results in ribosome biogenesis impairment. Such nucleolar disorders, called nucleolar or ribosomal stress, usually affect cellular functioning which in fact is a result of p53-dependent pathway activation, elicited as a response to stress. These pathways direct cells to new destinations such as cell cycle arrest, damage repair, differentiation, autophagy, programmed cell death or aging. In the case of impaired nucleolar functioning, nucleolar and ribosomal proteins mediate activation of the p53 pathways. They are also triggered as a response to oncogenic factor overexpression to protect tissues and organs against extensive proliferation of abnormal cells. Intentional impairment of any step of ribosome biosynthesis which would direct the cells to these destinations could be a strategy used in anticancer therapy. This review presents current knowledge on a nucleolus, mainly in relation to cancer biology, which is an important and extremely sensitive element of the mechanism participating in cellular stress reaction mediating activation of the p53 pathways in order to counteract stress effects, especially cancer development.

  12. RARα-PLZF oncogene inhibits C/EBPα function in myeloid cells

    PubMed Central

    Girard, Nathalie; Tremblay, Mathieu; Humbert, Magali; Grondin, Benoît; Haman, André; Labrecque, Jean; Chen, Bing; Chen, Zhu; Chen, Sai-Juan; Hoang, Trang

    2013-01-01

    In acute promyelocytic leukemia, granulocytic differentiation is arrested at the promyelocyte stage. The variant t(11;17) translocation produces two fusion proteins, promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger-retinoic acid receptor α (PLZF-RARα) and RARα-PLZF, both of which participate in leukemia development. Here we provide evidence that the activity of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein α (C/EBPα), a master regulator of granulocytic differentiation, is severely impaired in leukemic promyelocytes with the t(11;17) translocation compared with those associated with the t(15;17) translocation. We show that RARα-PLZF inhibits myeloid cell differentiation through interactions with C/EBPα tethered to DNA, using ChIP and DNA capture assays. Furthermore, RARα-PLZF recruits HDAC1 and causes histone H3 deacetylation at C/EBPα target loci, thereby decreasing the expression of C/EBPα target genes. In line with these results, HDAC inhibitors restore in part C/EBPα target gene expression. These findings provide molecular evidence for a mechanism through which RARα-PLZF acts as a modifier oncogene that subverts differentiation in the granulocytic lineage by associating with C/EBPα and inhibiting its activity. PMID:23898169

  13. The nuclear oncogene SET controls DNA repair by KAP1 and HP1 retention to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Kalousi, Alkmini; Hoffbeck, Anne-Sophie; Selemenakis, Platonas N; Pinder, Jordan; Savage, Kienan I; Khanna, Kum Kum; Brino, Laurent; Dellaire, Graham; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Soutoglou, Evi

    2015-04-01

    Cells experience damage from exogenous and endogenous sources that endanger genome stability. Several cellular pathways have evolved to detect DNA damage and mediate its repair. Although many proteins have been implicated in these processes, only recent studies have revealed how they operate in the context of high-ordered chromatin structure. Here, we identify the nuclear oncogene SET (I2PP2A) as a modulator of DNA damage response (DDR) and repair in chromatin surrounding double-strand breaks (DSBs). We demonstrate that depletion of SET increases DDR and survival in the presence of radiomimetic drugs, while overexpression of SET impairs DDR and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair. SET interacts with the Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)-associated co-repressor KAP1, and its overexpression results in the sustained retention of KAP1 and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) on chromatin. Our results are consistent with a model in which SET-mediated chromatin compaction triggers an inhibition of DNA end resection and HR.

  14. Merkel cell polyomavirus small T antigen is oncogenic in transgenic mice

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Paul W.; Vozheiko, Tracy D.; Weick, Jack W.; Wilbert, Dawn M.; Saunders, Thomas L.; Ermilov, Alexandre N.; Bichakjian, Christopher K.; Johnson, Timothy M.; Imperiale, Michael J.; Dlugosz, Andrzej A.

    2014-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and deadly neuroendocrine skin tumor frequently associated with clonal integration of a polyomavirus, MCPyV, and MCC tumor cells express putative polyomavirus oncoproteins small T antigen (sTAg) and truncated large T antigen (tLTAg). Here, we show robust transforming activity of sTAg in vivo in a panel of transgenic mouse models. Epithelia of pre-term sTAg-expressing embryos exhibited hyperplasia, impaired differentiation, increased proliferation and apoptosis, and activation of a DNA damage response. Epithelial transformation did not require sTAg interaction with the PP2A protein complex, a tumor suppressor in some other polyomavirus transformation models, but was strictly dependent on a recently-described sTAg domain that binds Fbxw7, the substrate-binding component of the SCF ubiquitin ligase complex. Postnatal induction of sTAg using a Cre-inducible transgene also led to epithelial transformation with development of lesions resembling squamous cell carcinoma in situ and elevated expression of Fbxw7 target proteins. Our data establish that expression of MCPyV sTAg alone is sufficient for rapid neoplastic transformation in vivo, implicating sTAg as an oncogenic driver in MCC and perhaps other human malignancies. Moreover, the loss of transforming activity following mutation of the sTAg Fbxw7 binding domain identifies this domain as crucial for in vivo transformation. PMID:25313532

  15. Simultaneous inhibition of multiple oncogenic miRNAs by a multi-potent microRNA sponge.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jaeyun; Yeom, Chanjoo; Choi, Yeon-Sook; Kim, Sinae; Lee, EunJi; Park, Min Ji; Kang, Sang Wook; Kim, Sung Bae; Chang, Suhwan

    2015-08-21

    The roles of oncogenic miRNAs are widely recognized in many cancers. Inhibition of single miRNA using antagomiR can efficiently knock-down a specific miRNA. However, the effect is transient and often results in subtle phenotype, as there are other miRNAs contribute to tumorigenesis. Here we report a multi-potent miRNA sponge inhibiting multiple miRNAs simultaneously. As a model system, we targeted miR-21, miR-155 and miR-221/222, known as oncogenic miRNAs in multiple tumors including breast and pancreatic cancers. To achieve efficient knockdown, we generated perfect and bulged-matched miRNA binding sites (MBS) and introduced multiple copies of MBS, ranging from one to five, in the multi-potent miRNA sponge. Luciferase reporter assay showed the multi-potent miRNA sponge efficiently inhibited 4 miRNAs in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, a stable and inducible version of the multi-potent miRNA sponge cell line showed the miRNA sponge efficiently reduces the level of 4 target miRNAs and increase target protein level of these oncogenic miRNAs. Finally, we showed the miRNA sponge sensitize cells to cancer drug and attenuate cell migratory activity. Altogether, our study demonstrates the multi-potent miRNA sponge is a useful tool to examine the functional impact of simultaneous inhibition of multiple miRNAs and proposes a therapeutic potential.

  16. Simultaneous inhibition of multiple oncogenic miRNAs by a multi-potent microRNA sponge

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Jaeyun; Yeom, Chanjoo; Choi, Yeon-Sook; Kim, Sinae; Lee, EunJi; Park, Min Ji; Kang, Sang Wook; Kim, Sung Bae; Chang, Suhwan

    2015-01-01

    The roles of oncogenic miRNAs are widely recognized in many cancers. Inhibition of single miRNA using antagomiR can efficiently knock-down a specific miRNA. However, the effect is transient and often results in subtle phenotype, as there are other miRNAs contribute to tumorigenesis. Here we report a multi-potent miRNA sponge inhibiting multiple miRNAs simultaneously. As a model system, we targeted miR-21, miR-155 and miR-221/222, known as oncogenic miRNAs in multiple tumors including breast and pancreatic cancers. To achieve efficient knockdown, we generated perfect and bulged-matched miRNA binding sites (MBS) and introduced multiple copies of MBS, ranging from one to five, in the multi-potent miRNA sponge. Luciferase reporter assay showed the multi-potent miRNA sponge efficiently inhibited 4 miRNAs in breast and pancreatic cancer cells. Furthermore, a stable and inducible version of the multi-potent miRNA sponge cell line showed the miRNA sponge efficiently reduces the level of 4 target miRNAs and increase target protein level of these oncogenic miRNAs. Finally, we showed the miRNA sponge sensitize cells to cancer drug and attenuate cell migratory activity. Altogether, our study demonstrates the multi-potent miRNA sponge is a useful tool to examine the functional impact of simultaneous inhibition of multiple miRNAs and proposes a therapeutic potential. PMID:26284487

  17. Ras CAAX peptidomimetic FTI-277 selectively blocks oncogenic Ras signaling by inducing cytoplasmic accumulation of inactive Ras-Raf complexes.

    PubMed

    Lerner, E C; Qian, Y; Blaskovich, M A; Fossum, R D; Vogt, A; Sun, J; Cox, A D; Der, C J; Hamilton, A D; Sebti, S M

    1995-11-10

    Ras-induced malignant transformation requires Ras farnesylation, a lipid posttranslational modification catalyzed by farnesyltransferase (FTase). Inhibitors of this enzyme have been shown to block Ras-dependent transformation, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains largely unknown. We have designed FTI-276, a peptide mimetic of the COOH-terminal Cys-Val-Ile-Met of K-Ras4B that inhibited potently FTase in vitro (IC50 = 500 pM) and was highly selective for FTase over geranylgeranyltransferase I (GGTase I) (IC50 = 50 nM). FTI-277, the methyl ester derivative of FTI-276, was extremely potent (IC50 = 100 nM) at inhibiting H-Ras, but not the geranylgeranylated Rap1A processing in whole cells. Treatment of H-Ras oncogene-transformed NIH 3T3 cells with FTI-277 blocked recruitment to the plasma membrane and subsequent activation of the serine/threonine kinase c-Raf-1 in cells transformed by farnesylated Ras (H-RasF), but not geranylgeranylated, Ras (H-RasGG). FTI-277 induced accumulation of cytoplasmic non-farnesylated H-Ras that was able to bind Raf and form cytoplasmic Ras/Raf complexes in which Raf kinase was not activated. Furthermore, FTI-277 blocked constitutive activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) in H-RasF, but not H-RasGG, or Raf-transformed cells. FTI-277 also inhibited oncogenic K-Ras4B processing and constitutive activation of MAPK, but the concentrations required were 100-fold higher than those needed for H-Ras inhibition. The results demonstrate that FTI-277 blocks Ras oncogenic signaling by accumulating inactive Ras/Raf complexes in the cytoplasm, hence preventing constitutive activation of the MAPK cascade.

  18. Significance of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in AML prognosis.

    PubMed

    Kavianpour, Maria; Ahmadzadeh, Ahmad; Shahrabi, Saeid; Saki, Najmaldin

    2016-08-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a heterogeneous disorder among hematologic malignancies. Several genetic alterations occur in this disease, which cause proliferative progression, reducing differentiation and apoptosis in leukemic cells as well as increasing their survival. In the genetic study of AML, genetic translocations, gene overexpression, and mutations effective upon biology and pathogenesis of this disease have been recognized. Proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, which are important in normal development of myeloid cells, are involved in the regulation of cell cycle and apoptosis, undergo mutation in this type of leukemia, and are effective in prognosis of AML subtypes. This review deals with these genes, the assessment of which can be important in the diagnosis and prognosis of patients as well as therapeutic outcome. PMID:27179964

  19. Oncogenes, protooncogenes, and tumor suppressor genes in acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Hijiya, N; Gewirtz, A M

    1995-05-01

    In recent years, our understanding of normal human hematopoiesis has expanded greatly. We have increased our knowledge of regulatory growth factors, the receptors through which they act, and the secondary messengers involved in transducing the growth/differentiation signals from the cytoplasmic membrane to the nucleus. This knowledge has revealed potential mechanisms for inducing the neoplastic transformation of hematopoietic cells. This applies in particular to the role of viral oncogenes and cellular protooncogenes and, more recently, to the role of tumor suppressor genes. Protooncogenes are intimately involved in the processes of cell proliferation and differentiation. Therefore, any amplification, mutation, structural alteration, or change in transcriptional regulation of protooncogenes might lead to or be associated with induction of the malignant phenotype. Based on the importance of these genes in leukemogenesis and the maintenance of the malignant phenotype, it seems reasonable to hypothesize that targeted disruption of leukemogenic genes may be of therapeutic value.

  20. Arf tumor suppressor promoter monitors latent oncogenic signals in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zindy, Frederique; Williams, Richard T.; Baudino, Troy A.; Rehg, Jerold E.; Skapek, Stephen X.; Cleveland, John L.; Roussel, Martine F.; Sherr, Charles J.

    2003-12-01

    Induction of the Arf tumor suppressor gene by elevated thresholds of mitogenic signals activates a p53-dependent transcriptional response that triggers either growth arrest or apoptosis, thereby countering abnormal cell proliferation. Conversely, Arf inactivation is associated with tumor development. Expression of Arf in tissues of adult mice is difficult to detect, possibly because its induction leads to the arrest or elimination of incipient tumor cells. We replaced coding sequences of exon 1 of the mouse cellular Arf gene with a cDNA encoding GFP, thereby producing Arf-null animals in which GFP expression is driven by the intact Arf promoter. The Arf promoter was induced in several biologic settings previously shown to elicit mouse p19Arf expression. Inactivation of Arf in this manner led to the outgrowth of tumor cells expressing GFP, thereby providing direct evidence that the Arf promoter monitors latent oncogenic signals in vivo.

  1. Structural Effects of Oncogenic PI3K alpha Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    S Gabelli; C Huang; D Mandelker; O Schmidt-Kittler; B Vogelstein; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    Physiological activation of PI3K{alpha} is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3K{alpha} result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  2. Tumor-Derived Exosomes in Oncogenic Reprogramming and Cancer Progression

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Sarmad N; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B

    2014-01-01

    In multicellular organisms, effective communication between cells is a crucial part of cellular and tissue homeostasis. This communication mainly involves direct cell–cell contact as well as the secretion of molecules that bind to receptors at the recipient cells. However, a more recently characterized mode of intercellular communication — the release of membrane vesicles known as exosomes — has been the subject of increasing interest and intensive research over the past decade. Following the discovery of the exosome-mediated immune activation, the pathophysiological roles of exosomes have been recognized in different diseases, including cancer. In this review, we describe the biogenesis and main physical characteristics that define exosomes as a specific population of secreted vesicles, with a special focus on their role in oncogenic transformation and cancer progression. PMID:25156068

  3. SOCS1 in cancer: An oncogene and a tumor suppressor.

    PubMed

    Beaurivage, Claudia; Champagne, Audrey; Tobelaim, William S; Pomerleau, Véronique; Menendez, Alfredo; Saucier, Caroline

    2016-06-01

    The Suppressor Of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS1) has been extensively investigated in immune cells where it works as a potent inhibitor of inflammation by negative feedback regulation of the cytokine-activated JAK-STAT signaling pathways. SOCS1 is also recognized as a tumor suppressor in numerous cancers and its critical functional relevance in non-immune cells, including epithelial cells, has just begun to emerge. Most notably, conflicting results from clinical and experimental studies suggest that SOCS1 may function as either a tumor suppressor or a tumor promoter, in a cell context-dependent manner. Here, we present an overview of the mechanisms underlying SOCS1 function as a tumor suppressor and discuss the emerging evidences of SOCS1 activity as an oncogene. PMID:26811119

  4. Oncogenic Radiation Abscopal Effects In Vivo: Interrogating Mouse Skin

    SciTech Connect

    Mancuso, Mariateresa; Leonardi, Simona; Giardullo, Paola; Pasquali, Emanuela; Tanori, Mirella; De Stefano, Ilaria; Casciati, Arianna; Naus, Christian C.; Pazzaglia, Simonetta; Saran, Anna

    2013-08-01

    Purpose: To investigate the tissue dependence in transmission of abscopal radiation signals and their oncogenic consequences in a radiosensitive mouse model and to explore the involvement of gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC) in mediating radiation tumorigenesis in off-target mouse skin. Methods and Materials: Patched1 heterozygous (Ptch1{sup +/−}) mice were irradiated at postnatal day 2 (P2) with 10 Gy of x-rays. Individual lead cylinders were used to protect the anterior two-thirds of the body, whereas the hindmost part was directly exposed to radiation. To test the role of GJICs and their major constituent connexin43 (Cx43), crosses between Ptch1{sup +/−} and Cx43{sup +/−} mice were similarly irradiated. These mouse groups were monitored for their lifetime, and skin basal cell carcinomas (BCCs) were counted and recorded. Early responses to DNA damage - Double Strand Breaks (DSBs) and apoptosis - were also evaluated in shielded and directly irradiated skin areas. Results: We report abscopal tumor induction in the shielded skin of Ptch1{sup +/−} mice after partial-body irradiation. Endpoints were induction of early nodular BCC-like tumors and macroscopic infiltrative BCCs. Abscopal tumorigenesis was significantly modulated by Cx43 status, namely, Cx43 reduction was associated with decreased levels of DNA damage and oncogenesis in out-of-field skin, suggesting a key role of GJIC in transmission of oncogenic radiation signals to unhit skin. Conclusions: Our results further characterize the nature of abscopal responses and the implications they have on pathologic processes in different tissues, including their possible underlying mechanistic bases.

  5. Class I PI3K in oncogenic cellular transformation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Li; Vogt, Peter K.

    2009-01-01

    Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) is a dimeric enzyme, consisting of a catalytic and a regulatory subunit. The catalytic subunit occurs in four isoforms designated as p110α, p110β, p110γ and p110δ. These combine with several regulatory subunits; for p110α, β and δ the standard regulatory subunit is p85, for p110γ it is p101. PI3Ks play important roles in human cancer. PIK3CA, the gene encoding p110α, is mutated frequently in common cancers, including carcinoma of the breast, prostate, colon and endometrium. Eighty percent of these mutations are represented by one of three amino acid substitutions in the helical or kinase domains of the enzyme. The mutant p110α shows a gain of function in enzymatic and signaling activity and is oncogenic in cell culture and in animal model systems. Structural and genetic data suggest that the mutations affect regulatory inter- and intramolecular interactions and support the conclusion that there are at least two molecular mechanisms for the gain-of-function in p110α. One of these mechanisms operates largely independently of binding to p85, the other abolishes the requirement for an interaction with Ras. The non-alpha isoforms of p110 do not show cancer-specific mutations. However, they are often differentially expressed in cancer and, in contrast to p110α, wild-type non-alpha isoforms of p110 are oncogenic when overexpressed in cell culture. The isoforms of p110 have become promising drug targets. Isoform-selective inhibitors have been identified. Inhibitors that target exclusively the cancer-specific mutants of p110α constitute an important goal and challenge for current drug development. PMID:18794883

  6. Oncogenes in human testicular cancer: DNA and RNA studies.

    PubMed Central

    Peltomäki, P.; Alfthan, O.; de la Chapelle, A.

    1991-01-01

    Oncogene dosage and expression were studied in 16 testicular neoplasms, 14 of germ cell and two of non-germ cell origin. In comparison with normal DNA, tumour DNA of a total of eight patients (seven with germ cell neoplasm and one with testicular lymphoma) showed increased dosages of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, MET and PDGFB. The most frequent (occurring in six tumours) and prominent (up to 3-4-fold) increases were detected in the dosages of KRAS2 (on chromosome 12p) and PDGFA (chromosome 7p), relative to a reference locus from chromosome 2. Importantly, there was a similar increase in 12p dosage in general in these tumours, suggesting the presence of the characteristic isochromosome 12p marker. On the contrary, possible 7p polysomy (assessed by molecular methods) did not explain the PDGFA (or EGFR) changes in all cases. NRAS, MYCN, CSFIR, MYB, MYC, ABL, HRASI, TP53, and ERBB2 did not reveal any consistent alterations in tumour DNA. In RNA dot blot assays the expression of KRAS2, PDGFA, EGFR, or MYC was generally not increased in the tumour samples when compared to that in normal testicular tissue of the same patients although there was interindividual variation in mRNA levels. It thus appears that while oncogene dosage changes occur in a proportion of testis cancers, they are often part of changes in large chromosomal regions or whole arms and are seldom accompanied by altered expression. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:1829952

  7. A G-Rich Sequence within the c-kit Oncogene Promoter Forms a Parallel G-Quadruplex Having Asymmetric G-Tetrad Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P.; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2011-01-01

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen–deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  8. A G-rich sequence within the c-kit oncogene promoter forms a parallel G-quadruplex having asymmetric G-tetrad dynamics.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shang-Te Danny; Varnai, Peter; Bugaut, Anthony; Reszka, Anthony P; Neidle, Stephen; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2009-09-23

    Guanine-rich DNA sequences with the ability to form quadruplex structures are enriched in the promoter regions of protein-coding genes, particularly those of proto-oncogenes. G-quadruplexes are structurally polymorphic and their folding topologies can depend on the sample conditions. We report here on a structural study using solution state NMR spectroscopy of a second G-quadruplex-forming motif (c-kit2) that has been recently identified in the promoter region of the c-kit oncogene. In the presence of potassium ions, c-kit2 exists as an ensemble of structures that share the same parallel-stranded propeller-type conformations. Subtle differences in structural dynamics have been identified using hydrogen-deuterium exchange experiments by NMR spectroscopy, suggesting the coexistence of at least two structurally similar but dynamically distinct substates, which undergo slow interconversion on the NMR timescale. PMID:19705869

  9. MicroRNA-205 downregulates mixed-lineage-AF4 oncogene expression in acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Liping; Li, Jingxin; Zheng, Dehua; Li, Yonghui; Gao, Xiaoning; Xu, Chengwang; Gao, Li; Wang, Lili; Yu, Li

    2013-01-01

    Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage AF4 acute lymphoblastic leukemia (MLL-AF4 ALL) is a pediatric leukemia that occurs rarely in adults. MLL-AF4 ALL is typically characterized by the presence of chromosomal translocation (t(4;1l)(q21;q23)), leading to expression of MLL-AF4 fusion protein. Although MLL-AF4 fusion protein triggers a molecular pathogenesis and hematological presentations that are unique to leukemias, the precise role of this oncogene in leukemogenesis remains unclear. Previous studies have indicated that microRNAs (miRs) might modulate the expression of MLL-AF4 ALL fusion protein, thereby suggesting the involvement of miR in progression or suppression of MLL-AF4 ALL. We have previously demonstrated that miR-205 negatively regulates transcription of an MLL-AF4 luciferase reporter. Here, we report that exogenous expression of miR-205 in MLL-AF4 human cell lines (RS4;11 and MV4-11) inversely regulates the expression of MLL-AF4 at both messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein level. Furthermore, miR-205 significantly induced apoptosis in MLL-AF4 cells as evidenced by Annex in V staining using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. The proliferative capacity of leukemic cells was suppressed by miR-205. The addition of an miR-205 inhibitor was able to restore the observed effects. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that miR-205 may have potential value as a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of MLL-AF4 ALL. PMID:24009426

  10. Identification of a provirally activated c-Ha-ras oncogene in an avian nephroblastoma via a novel procedure: cDNA cloning of a chimaeric viral-host transcript.

    PubMed Central

    Westaway, D; Papkoff, J; Moscovici, C; Varmus, H E

    1986-01-01

    Retrovirus without oncogenes often exert their neoplastic potential as insertional mutagens of cellular proto-oncogenes. This may be associated with the production of chimaeric viral-host transcripts; in these cases; activated cellular genes can be identified by obtaining cDNA clones of bipartite RNAs. This approach was used in the analysis of chicken nephroblastomas induced by myeloblastosis-associated virus (MAV). One tumor contained a novel mRNA species initiated within a MAV LTR. cDNA cloning revealed that this mRNA encodes a protein of 189 amino acids, identical to that of normal human Ha-ras-1 at 185 positions, including positions implicated in oncogenic activation of ras proto-oncogenes; there are no differences between the coding sequences of presumably normal Ha-ras cDNA clones from chicken lymphoma RNA and the tumor-derived cDNAs. The chimaeric mRNA in the nephroblastoma is at least 25-fold more abundant than c-Ha-ras mRNA in normal kidney tissue, and a 21-kd ras-related protein is present in relatively large amounts in the tumor. We conclude that a quantitative change in c-Ha-ras gene expression results from an upstream insertion mutation and presumably contributes to tumorigenesis in this single case. Little or no increase in c-Ha-ras RNA or protein was observed in other nephroblastomas. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 10. PMID:3011401

  11. Sequence comparison in the crossover region of an oncogenic avian retrovirus recombinant and its nononcogenic parent: Genetic regions that control growth rate and oncogenic potential

    SciTech Connect

    Tsichlis, P.N.; Donehower, L.; Hager, G.; Zeller, N.; Malavarca, R.; Astrin, S.; Skalka, A.M.

    1982-11-01

    NTRE is an avian retrovirus recombinant of the endogeneous nononcogenic Rous-associated virus-0 (RAV-0) and the oncogenic, exogeneous, transformation-defective (td) Prague strain of Rous sarcoma virus B (td-PrRSV-B). Oligonucleotide mapping had shown that the recombinant virus is indistinguishable from its RAV-0 parent except for the 3'-end sequences, which were derived from td-PrRSV-B. However, the virus exhibits properties which are typical of an exogenous virus: it grows to high titers in tissue culture, and it is oncogenic in vivo. To accurately define the genetic region responsible for these properties, the authors determined the nucleotide sequences of the recombinant and its RAV-0 parent by using molecular clones of their DNA. These were compared with sequences already available for PrRSV-C, a virus closely related to the exogenous parent td-PrRSV-B. The results suggested that the crossover event which generated NTRE 7 took place in a region -501 to -401 nucleotides from the 3' end of the td-PrRSV parental genome and that sequences to the right of the recombination region were responsible for its growth properties and oncogenic potential. Since the exogenous-virus-specific sequences are expected to be missing from transformation-defective mutants of the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of RSV, which, like other exogeneous viruses, grow to high tiers in tissue culture and are oncogenic in vivo, the authors concluded that the growth properties and oncogenic potential of the exogeneous viruses are determined by sequences in the U3 region of the long terminal repeat. However, the authors propose that the exogeneous-virus-specific region may play a role in determining the oncogenic spectrum of a given oncogenic virus.

  12. Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanism in lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Song-Ze; Yang, Yu-Xiu; Li, Xiu-Ling; Michelli-Rivera, Audrey; Han, Shuang-Yin; Wang, Lei; Pratheeshkumar, Poyil; Wang, Xin; Lu, Jian; Yin, Yuan-Qin; Budhraja, Amit; Hitron, Andrew J.

    2013-05-15

    Hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)] is an important human carcinogen associated with pulmonary diseases and lung cancer. Exposure to Cr(VI) induces DNA damage, cell morphological change and malignant transformation in human lung epithelial cells. Despite extensive studies, the molecular mechanisms remain elusive, it is also not known if Cr(VI)-induced transformation might accompany with invasive properties to facilitate metastasis. We aimed to study Cr(VI)-induced epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells. The results showed that Cr(VI) at low doses represses E-cadherin mRNA and protein expression, enhances mesenchymal marker vimentin expression and transforms the epithelial cell into fibroblastoid morphology. Cr(VI) also increases cell invasion and promotes colony formation. Further studies indicated that Cr(VI) uses multiple mechanisms to repress E-cadherin expression, including activation of E-cadherin repressors such as Slug, ZEB1, KLF8 and enhancement the binding of HDAC1 in E-cadherin gene promoter, but DNA methylation is not responsible for the loss of E-cadherin. Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced E-cadherin and vimentin protein expression, attenuates cell invasion in matrigel and colony formation on soft agar. These results demonstrate that exposure to a common human carcinogen, Cr(VI), induces EMT and invasion during oncogenic transformation in lung epithelial cells and implicate in cancer metastasis and prevention. - Graphical abstract: Epithelial–mesenchymal transition during oncogenic transformation induced by hexavalent chromium involves reactive oxygen species-dependent mechanisms in lung epithelial cells. - Highlights: • We study if Cr(VI) might induce EMT and invasion in epithelial cells. • Cr(VI) induces EMT by altering E-cadherin and vimentin expression. • It also increases cell invasion and promotes oncogenic transformation. • Catalase reduces Cr(VI)-induced EMT, invasion and

  13. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta; Delogu, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giampiero; Farace, Cristiano; Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Olivero, Martina; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT.

  14. Elevated levels of a specific class of nuclear phosphoproteins in cells transformed with v-ras and v-mos oncogenes and by cotransfection with c-myc and polyoma middle T genes.

    PubMed Central

    Giancotti, V; Pani, B; D'Andrea, P; Berlingieri, M T; Di Fiore, P P; Fusco, A; Vecchio, G; Philp, R; Crane-Robinson, C; Nicolas, R H

    1987-01-01

    Transformation of a rat thyroid epithelial cell line (FRTL5-C12) with Kirsten and Harvey murine sarcoma viruses (carrying the ras oncogenes) results in elevated levels of three perchloric acid-soluble nuclear phosphoproteins. These three proteins are also induced to high levels in the PC-C13 thyroid epithelial cell line when transformed by the myeloproliferative sarcoma virus (carrying the v-mos oncogene) and when transformed by transfection with the c-myc proto-oncogene followed by infection with the polyoma leukaemia virus (PyMuLV) carry the polyoma middle T antigen gene. Neither c-myc or PyMuLV alone induced high levels of the three nuclear proteins. Untransformed thyroid fibroblasts have high levels of two of the three proteins and can be transformed by PyMuLV alone resulting in the appearance of the third protein. Transformation with Harvey sarcoma virus also results in the induction of the third protein. The three phosphoproteins have been purified by h.p.l.c. and shown to be related to the HeLa protein HMGI already described. The results of these studies indicate that elevated levels of these HMGI-like proteins are associated with neoplastic transformation and/or with an undifferentiated phenotype. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:2820715

  15. Comparative sequence analysis of a highly oncogenic but horizontal spread-defective clone of Marek's disease virus.

    PubMed

    Spatz, Stephen J; Zhao, Yuguang; Petherbridge, Lawrence; Smith, Lorraine P; Baigent, Susan J; Nair, Venugopal

    2007-12-01

    Marek's disease virus (MDV) is a cell-associated alphaherpesvirus that induces rapid-onset T-cell lymphomas in poultry. MDV isolates vary greatly in pathogenicity. While some of the strains such as CVI988 are non-pathogenic and are used as vaccines, others such as RB-1B are highly oncogenic. Molecular determinants associated with differences in pathogenicity are not completely understood. Comparison of the genome sequences of phenotypically different strains could help to identify molecular determinants of pathogenicity. We have previously reported the construction of bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones of RB-1B from which fully infectious viruses could be reconstituted upon DNA transfection into chicken cells. MDV reconstituted from one of these clones (pRB-1B-5) showed similar in vitro and in vivo replication kinetics and oncogenicity as the parental virus. However, unlike the parental RB-1B virus, the BAC-derived virus showed inability to spread between birds. In order to identify the unique determinants for oncogenicity and the ''non-spreading phenotype'' of MDV derived from this clone, we determined the full-length sequence of pRB-1B-5. Comparative sequence analysis with the published sequences of strains such as Md5, Md11, and CVI988 identified frameshift mutations in RLORF1, protein kinase (UL13), and glycoproteins C (UL44) and D (US6). Comparison of the sequences of these genes with the parental virus indicated that the RLORF1, UL44, and US6 mutations were also present in the parental RB-1B stock of the virus. However with regard to UL13 mutation, the parental RB-1B stock appeared to be a mixture of wild type and mutant viruses, indicating that the BAC cloning has selected a mutant clone. Although further studies are needed to evaluate the role of these genes in the horizontal-spreading defective phenotype, our data clearly indicate that mutations in these genes do not affect the oncogenicity of MDV.

  16. Functional transition of Pak proto-oncogene during early evolution of metazoans.

    PubMed

    Watari, A; Iwabe, N; Masuda, H; Okada, M

    2010-07-01

    Proto-oncogenes encode signaling molecular switches regulating cellular homeostasis in metazoans, and can be converted to oncogenes by gain-of-function mutations. To address the molecular basis for development of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes during evolution, we screened for ancestral proto-oncogenes from the unicellular choanoflagellate Monosiga ovata by monitoring their transforming activities, and isolated a Pak gene ortholog encoding a serine/threonine kinase as a 'primitive oncogene'. We also cloned Pak orthologs from fungi and the multicellular sponge Ephydatia fluviatilis, and compared their regulatory features with that of M. ovata Pak (MoPak). MoPak is constitutively active and induces cell transformation in mammalian fibroblasts, although the Pak orthologs from multicellular animals are strictly regulated. Analyses of Pak mutants revealed that structural alteration of the auto-inhibitory domain (AID) of MoPak confers higher constitutive kinase activity, as well as greater binding ability to Rho family GTPases than the multicellular Paks, and this structural alteration is responsible for cell transformation and disruption of multicellular tissue organization. These results show that maturation of AID function was required for the development of the strict regulatory system of the Pak proto-oncogene, and suggest a potential link between the establishment of the regulatory system of proto-oncogenes and metazoan evolution.

  17. Differential induction of cytolytic susceptibility by E1A, myc, and ras oncogenes in immortalized cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cook, J L; May, D L; Wilson, B A; Walker, T A

    1989-01-01

    The E1A oncogene of adenovirus serotypes 2 and 5 induces susceptibility to the cytolytic effects of natural killer lymphocytes and activated macrophages when expressed in infected and transformed mammalian cells (cytolysis-susceptible phenotype). E1A and the oncogenes v-myc, long-terminal-repeat-promoted c-myc, and activated c-ras share the ability to immortalize transfected low-passage rodent cells. The cytolytic phenotypes of well-characterized rodent cell lines immortalized by these three oncogenes were defined. In contrast to target cells expressing the intact E1A gene, myc- and ras-expressing, immortalized primary transfectants were resistant to lysis by both types of killer cell populations. The same patterns of susceptibility (E1A) and resistance (myc and ras) to cytolysis were observed in oncogene-transfected continuous rat (REF52) and mouse (NIH 3T3) cell lines, indicating that differences in the cytolytic phenotypes associated with expression of these oncogenes are not due to cell selection during immortalization. The results suggest that the E1A oncogene may possess a functional domain that is different from those of other oncogenes, such as myc and ras, and that the activity linked to this postulated domain is dissociable from the process of immortalization. Images PMID:2526229

  18. Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Toll, Agustí; Fernández-Casado, Alejandro; Earl, Julie; Marqués, Miriam; Acquadro, Francesco; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Urioste, Miguel; Malats, Núria; Burns, Julie E.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Hartmann, Arndt; Vogt, Thomas; Landthaler, Michael; Pujol, Ramón M.; Real, Francisco X.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona fide oncogenic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, EGFR, and AKT1 oncogenes but not in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and PTEN. Despite the occurrence of oncogenic mutations and the evidence for downstream ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling, we did not find induction of senescence or a DNA damage response. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed that SK are genetically stable. The pattern of oncogenic mutations and X chromosome inactivation departs significantly from randomness and indicates that spatially independent lesions from a given patient share a clonal relationship. Our findings show that multiple oncogenic mutations in the major signaling pathways involved in cancer are not sufficient to drive malignant tumor progression. Furthermore, our data provide clues on the origin and spread of oncogenic mutations in tissues, suggesting that apparently independent (multicentric) adult benign tumors may have a clonal origin. PMID:21078999

  19. BamHI-A rightward frame 1, an Epstein–Barr virus-encoded oncogene and immune modulator

    PubMed Central

    Hoebe, Eveline K; Le Large, Tessa Y S; Greijer, Astrid E; Middeldorp, Jaap M

    2013-01-01

    Epstein–Barr virus (EBV) causes several benign and malignant disorders of lymphoid and epithelial origin. EBV-related tumors display distinct patterns of viral latent gene expression, of which the BamHI-A rightward frame 1 (BARF1) is selectively expressed in carcinomas, regulated by cellular differentiation factors including ΔNp63α. BARF1 functions as a viral oncogene, immortalizing and transforming epithelial cells of different origin by acting as a mitogenic growth factor, inducing cyclin-D expression, and up-regulating antiapoptotic Bcl-2, stimulating host cell growth and survival. In addition, secreted hexameric BARF1 has immune evasive properties, functionally corrupting macrophage colony stimulating factor, as supported by recent functional and structural data. Therefore, BARF1, an intracellular and secreted protein, not only has multiple pathogenic functions but also can function as a target for immune responses. Deciphering the role of BARF1 in EBV biology will contribute to novel diagnostic and treatment options for EBV-driven carcinomas. Herein, we discuss recent insights on the regulation of BARF1 expression and aspects of structure-function relating to its oncogenic and immune suppressive properties. © 2013 The Authors. Reviews in Medical Virology published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:23996634

  20. MicroRNA-320a acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting BCR/ABL oncogene in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Xishan, Zhu; Ziying, Lin; Jing, Du; Gang, Liu

    2015-07-31

    Accumulating evidences demonstrated that the induction of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) are associated with tumorigenesis, tumor progression, metastasis and relapse in cancers, including chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We found that miR-320a expression was reduced in K562 and in CML cancer stem cells. Moreover, we found that miR-320a inhibited K562 cell migration, invasion, proliferation and promoted apoptosis by targeting BCR/ABL oncogene. As an upstream regulator of BCR/ABL, miR-320a directly targets BCR/ABL. The enhanced expression of miR-320a inhibited the phosphorylation of PI3K, AKT and NF-κB; however, the expression of phosphorylated PI3K, AKT and NF-κB were restored by the overexpression of BCR/ABL. In K562, infected with miR-320a or transfected with SiBCR/ABL, the protein levels of fibronectin, vimentin, and N-cadherin were decreased, but the expression of E-cadherin was increased. The expression of mesenchymal markers in miR-320a-expressing cells was restored to normal levels by the restoration of BCR/ABL expression. Generally speaking, miR-320a acts as a novel tumor suppressor gene in CML and miR-320a can decrease migratory, invasive, proliferative and apoptotic behaviors, as well as CML EMT, by attenuating the expression of BCR/ABL oncogene.

  1. The Oncogenic Lung Cancer Fusion Kinase CD74-ROS Activates a Novel Invasiveness Pathway Through E-Syt1 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun Jung; Johnson, Hannah; Bronson, Roderick T.; de Feraudy, Sebastien; White, Forest; Charest, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer often present with metastatic disease and therefore have a very poor prognosis. The recent discovery of several novel ROS receptor tyrosine kinase molecular alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a therapeutic opportunity for the development of new targeted treatment strategies. Here, we report that the NSCLC-derived fusion CD74-ROS, which accounts for 30% of all ROS fusion kinases in NSCLC, is an active and oncogenic tyrosine kinase. We found that CD74-ROS expressing cells were highly invasive in vitro and metastatic in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of CD74-ROS kinase activity reversed its transforming capacity by attenuating downstrream signaling networks. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics, we uncovered a mechanism by which CD74-ROS activates a novel pathway driving cell invasion. Expression of CD74-ROS resulted in the phosphorylation of the extended synaptotagmin-like protein E-Syt1. Elimination of E-Syt1 expression drastically reduced invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo without modifying the oncogenic activity of CD74-ROS. Furthermore, expression of CD74-ROS in non-invasive NSCLC cell lines readily confered invasive properties that paralleled the acquisition of E-Syt1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings indicate that E-Syt1 is a mediator of cancer cell invasion and molecularly define ROS fusion kinases as therapeutic targets in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:22659450

  2. DNA damage and repair in oncogenic transformation by heavy ion radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    1996-01-01

    Energetic heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. One of the most important late effects in risk assessment is carcinogenesis. We have studied the carcinogenic effects of heavy ions at the cellular and molecular levels and have obtained quantitative data on dose-response curves and on the repair of oncogenic lesions for heavy particles with various charges and energies. Studies with repair inhibitors and restriction endonucleases indicated that for oncogenic transformation DNA is the primary target. Results from heavy ion experiments showed that the cross section increased with LET and reached a maximum value of about 0.02 micrometer2 at about 500 keV/micrometer. This limited size of cross section suggests that only a fraction of cellular genomic DNA is important in radiogenic transformation. Free radical scavengers, such as DMSO, do not give any effect on induction of oncogenic transformation by 600 MeV/u iron particles, suggesting most oncogenic damage induced by high-LET heavy ions is through direct action. Repair studies with stationary phase cells showed that the amount of reparable oncogenic lesions decreased with an increase of LET and that heavy ions with LET greater than 200 keV/micrometer produced only irreparable oncogenic damage. An enhancement effect for oncogenic transformation was observed in cells irradiated by low-dose-rate argon ions (400 MeV/u; 120 keV/micrometer). Chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation and deletion, but not sister chromatid exchange, are essential for heavy-ion-induced oncogenic transformation. The basic mechanism(s) of misrepair of DNA damage, which form oncogenic lesions, is unknown.

  3. DNA damage and repair in oncogenic transformation by heavy ion radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, T. C.; Mei, M.; George, K. A.; Craise, L. M.

    Energetic heavy ions are present in galactic cosmic rays and solar particle events. One of the most important late effects in risk assessment is carcinogenesis. We have studied the carcinogenic effects of heavy ions at the cellular and molecular levels and have obtained quantitative data on dose-response curves and on the repair of oncogenic lesions for heavy particles with various charges and energies. Studies with repair inhibitors and restriction endonucleases indicated that for oncogenic transformation DNA is the primary target. Results from heavy ion experiments showed that the cross section increased with LET and reached a maximum value of about 0.02 mum^2 at about 500 keV/mum. This limited size of cross section suggests that only a fraction of cellular genomic DNA is important in radiogenic transformation. Free radical scavengers, such as DMSO, do not give any effect on induction of oncogenic transformation by 600 MeV/u iron particles, suggesting most oncogenic damage induced by high-LET heavy ions is through direct action. Repair studies with stationary phase cells showed that the amount of reparable oncogenic lesions decreased with an increase of LET and that heavy ions with LET greater than 200 keV/mum produced only irreparable oncogenic damage. An enhancement effect for oncogenic transformation was observed in cells irradiated by low-dose-rate argon ions (400 MeV/u; 120 keV/mum). Chromosomal aberrations, such as translocation and deletion, but not sister chromatid exchange, are essential for heavy-ion-induced oncogenic transformation. The basic mechanism(s) of misrepair of DNA damage, which form oncogenic lesions, is unknown.

  4. Characterization of the NTRK1 genomic region involved in chromosomal rearrangements generating TRK oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Greco, A.; Mariani, C.; Miranda, C.; Pagliardini, S.; Pierotti, M.A. )

    1993-11-01

    TRK oncogenes are created by chromosomal rearrangements linking the tyrosine-kinase domain of the NTRK1 gene (encoding one of the receptors for the nerve growth factor) to foreign activating sequences. TRK oncogenes are frequently detected in human papillary thyroid carcinoma, as a result of rearrangements involving at least three different activating genes. The authors have found that the rearrangements creating all the TRK oncogenes so far characterized fall within a 2.9-kb XbaI/SmaI restriction fragment of the NTRK1 gene. Here they report the nucleotide sequence and the exon organization of this fragment. 13 refs., 2 figs.

  5. Oncogenic kinase NPM/ALK induces expression of HIF1α mRNA.

    PubMed

    Marzec, M; Liu, X; Wong, W; Yang, Y; Pasha, T; Kantekure, K; Zhang, P; Woetmann, A; Cheng, M; Odum, N; Wasik, M A

    2011-03-17

    The mechanisms of malignant cell transformation mediated by the oncogenic anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) tyrosine kinase remain only partially understood. In this study, we report that T-cell lymphoma (TCL) cells carrying the nucleophosmin (NPM)/ALK fusion protein (ALK+ TCL) strongly express hypoxia-induced factor 1α (HIF1α) mRNA, even under normoxic conditions, and markedly upregulate HIF1α protein expression under hypoxia. HIF1α expression is strictly dependent on the expression and enzymatic activity of NPM/ALK, as shown in BaF3 cells transfected with wild-type NPM/ALK and kinase-inactive NPM/ALK K210R mutant and by the inhibition of the NPM/ALK function in ALK+ TCL cells by a small-molecule ALK inhibitor. NPM/ALK induces HIF1α expression by upregulating its gene transcription through its key signal transmitter signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which binds to the HIF1α gene promoter as shown by the chromatin immunoprecipitation assay and is required for HIF1α gene expression as demonstrated by its small interfering RNA-mediated depletion. In turn, depletion of HIF1α increases mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activation, cell growth and proliferation and decreases vascular endothelial growth factor synthesis. These results identify a novel cell-transforming property of NPM/ALK, namely its ability to induce the expression of HIF1α, a protein with an important role in carcinogenesis. These results also provide another rationale to therapeutically target NPM/ALK and STAT3 in ALK+ TCL.

  6. 14-3-3 fusion oncogenes in high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Cheng-Han; Ou, Wen-Bin; Mariño-Enriquez, Adrian; Zhu, Meijun; Mayeda, Mark; Wang, Yuexiang; Guo, Xiangqian; Brunner, Alayne L.; Amant, Frédéric; French, Christopher A.; West, Robert B.; McAlpine, Jessica N.; Gilks, C. Blake; Yaffe, Michael B.; Prentice, Leah M.; McPherson, Andrew; Jones, Steven J. M.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; van de Rijn, Matt; Huntsman, David G.; Dal Cin, Paola; Debiec-Rychter, Maria; Nucci, Marisa R.; Fletcher, Jonathan A.

    2012-01-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously expressed regulators of various cellular functions, including proliferation, metabolism, and differentiation, and altered 14-3-3 expression is associated with development and progression of cancer. We report a transforming 14-3-3 oncoprotein, which we identified through conventional cytogenetics and whole-transcriptome sequencing analysis as a highly recurrent genetic mechanism in a clinically aggressive form of uterine sarcoma: high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS). The 14-3-3 oncoprotein results from a t(10;17) genomic rearrangement, leading to fusion between 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) and either of two nearly identical FAM22 family members (FAM22A or FAM22B). Expression of YWHAE–FAM22 fusion oncoproteins was demonstrated by immunoblot in t(10;17)-bearing frozen tumor and cell line samples. YWHAE–FAM22 fusion gene knockdowns were performed with shRNAs and siRNAs targeting various FAM22A exons in an t(10;17)-bearing ESS cell line (ESS1): Fusion protein expression was inhibited, with corresponding reduction in cell growth and migration. YWHAE–FAM22 maintains a structurally and functionally intact 14-3-3ε (YWHAE) protein-binding domain, which is directed to the nucleus by a FAM22 nuclear localization sequence. In contrast to classic ESS, harboring JAZF1 genetic fusions, YWHAE–FAM22 ESS display high-grade histologic features, a distinct gene-expression profile, and a more aggressive clinical course. Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated absolute specificity of YWHAE–FAM22A/B genetic rearrangement for high-grade ESS, with no fusions detected in other uterine and nonuterine mesenchymal tumors (55 tumor types, n = 827). These discoveries reveal diagnostically and therapeutically relevant models for characterizing aberrant 14-3-3 oncogenic functions. PMID:22223660

  7. Disrupted Differentiation and Oncogenic Transformation of Lymphoid Progenitors in E2A-HLF Transgenic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin S.; Rhee, Joon Whan; Naumovski, Louie; Cleary, Michael L.

    1999-01-01

    The hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) gene codes for a basic region-leucine zipper (bZIP) protein that is disrupted by chromosomal translocations in a subset of pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemias. HLF undergoes fusions with the E2A gene, resulting in chimeric E2a-Hlf proteins containing the E2a transactivation domains and the Hlf bZIP DNA binding and dimerization motifs. To investigate the in vivo role of this chimeric bZIP protein in oncogenic transformation, its expression was directed to the lymphoid compartments of transgenic mice. Within the thymus, E2a-Hlf induced profound hypoplasia, premature involution, and progressive accumulation of a T-lineage precursor population arrested at an early stage of maturation. In the spleen, mature T cells were present but in reduced numbers, and they lacked expression of the transgene, suggesting further that E2a-Hlf expression was incompatible with T-cell differentiation. In contrast, mature splenic B cells expressed E2a-Hlf but at lower levels and without apparent adverse or beneficial effects on their survival. Approximately 60% of E2A-HLF mice developed lymphoid malignancies with a mean latency of 10 months. Tumors were monoclonal, consistent with a requirement for secondary genetic events, and displayed phenotypes of either mid-thymocytes or, rarely, B-cell progenitors. We conclude that E2a-Hlf disrupts the differentiation of T-lymphoid progenitors in vivo, leading to profound postnatal thymic depletion and rendering B- and T-cell progenitors susceptible to malignant transformation. PMID:10330184

  8. Effects of sulfur dioxide derivatives on expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Qin, Guohua; Meng, Ziqiang

    2009-04-01

    Sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) is a major air pollutant suspected to act as a promoter or co-carcinogen. The present study was designed to investigate whether SO(2) derivatives (bisulfite and sulfite) had effects on the expression of several proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in cultured human bronchial epithelial (BEP2D) cells. The mRNA and protein levels were measured by real-time RT-PCR and western blotting, respectively, following exposure to differing SO(2)-derivative concentrations and exposure times. SO(2) derivatives caused mRNA and protein over-expression of c-fos, c-jun, and c-myc at all tested doses (0.001-2mM). Over-expression of H-ras and p53 were observed in cells receiving the highest concentration (0.1-2mM), as well as the under-expression of p16 and Rb. The over-expression of c-fos and c-jun was observed after 24h recovery. The expression of c-myc and H-ras decreased to base line levels while the p53 expression decreased compared with control after 24h recovery. The mRNA and protein expression of p16 and Rb remained at initial levels after 24h recovery. The data support the hypothesis that SO(2) derivatives could cause the activation of proto-oncogenes and inactivation of tumor suppressor genes and SO(2) derivatives may play a role in the pathogenesis of SO(2)-associated lung cancer.

  9. Oncogenic CARD11 mutations induce hyperactive signaling by disrupting autoinhibition by the PKC-responsive inhibitory domain.

    PubMed

    Lamason, Rebecca L; McCully, Ryan R; Lew, Stefanie M; Pomerantz, Joel L

    2010-09-28

    The regulated activation of NF-κB by antigen receptor signaling is required for normal B and T lymphocyte activation during the adaptive immune response. Dysregulated NF-κB activation is associated with several types of lymphoma, including diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL). During normal antigen receptor signaling, the multidomain scaffold protein CARD11 undergoes a transition from a closed, inactive state to an open, active conformation that recruits several signaling proteins into a complex, leading to IKK kinase activation. This transition is regulated by the CARD11 inhibitory domain (ID), which participates in intramolecular interactions that prevent cofactor binding to CARD11 prior to signaling, but which is neutralized after receptor engagement by phosphorylation. Several oncogenic CARD11 mutations have been identified in DLBCL that enhance activity and that are mostly found in the coiled-coil domain. However, the mechanisms by which these mutations cause CARD11 hyperactivity and spontaneous NF-κB activation are poorly understood. In this report, we provide several lines of evidence that oncogenic mutations F123I and L225LI induce CARD11 hyperactivity by disrupting autoinhibition by the CARD11 ID. These mutations disrupt ID-mediated intramolecular interactions and ID-dependent inhibition and bypass the requirement for ID phosphorylation during T cell receptor signaling. Intriguingly, these mutations selectively enhance the apparent affinity of CARD11 for Bcl10, but not for other signaling proteins that are recruited to CARD11 in an ID-dependent manner during normal antigen receptor signaling. Our results establish a mechanism that explains how DLBCL-associated mutations in CARD11 can initiate spontaneous, receptor-independent activation of NF-κB.

  10. SerpinB3 and Yap Interplay Increases Myc Oncogenic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Turato, Cristian; Cannito, Stefania; Simonato, Davide; Villano, Gianmarco; Morello, Elisabetta; Terrin, Liliana; Quarta, Santina; Biasiolo, Alessandra; Ruvoletto, Mariagrazia; Martini, Andrea; Fasolato, Silvano; Zanus, Giacomo; Cillo, Umberto; Gatta, Angelo; Parola, Maurizio; Pontisso, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    SerpinB3 has been recently described as an early marker of liver carcinogenesis, but the potential mechanistic role of this serpin in tumor development is still poorly understood. Overexpression of Myc often correlates with more aggressive tumour forms, supporting its involvement in carcinogenesis. Yes-associated protein (Yap), the main effector of the Hippo pathway, is a central regulator of proliferation and it has been found up-regulated in hepatocellular carcinomas. The study has been designed to investigate and characterize the interplay and functional modulation of Myc by SerpinB3 in liver cancer. Results from this study indicate that Myc was up-regulated by SerpinB3 through calpain and Hippo-dependent molecular mechanisms in transgenic mice and hepatoma cells overexpressing human SerpinB3, and also in human hepatocellular carcinomas. Human recombinant SerpinB3 was capable to inhibit the activity of Calpain in vitro, likely reducing its ability to cleave Myc in its non oncogenic Myc-nick cytoplasmic form. SerpinB3 indirectly increased the transcription of Myc through the induction of Yap pathway. These findings provide for the first time evidence that SerpinB3 can improve the production of Myc through direct and indirect mechanisms that include the inhibition of generation of its cytoplasmic form and the activation of Yap pathway. PMID:26634820

  11. Posttranscriptional regulation of cellular gene expression by the c-myc oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Prendergast, G.C.; Cole, M.D. . Dept. of Biology)

    1989-01-01

    The c-myc oncogene has been implicated in the development of many different cancers, yet the mechanism by which the c-myc protein alters cellular growth control has proven elusive. The authors used a cDNA hybridization difference assay to isolate two genes, mr1 and mr2, that were constitutively expressed (i.e., deregulated) in rodent fibroblast cell lines immortalized by transfection of a viral promoter-linked c-myc gene. Both cDNAs were serum inducible in quiescent G/sub o/ fibroblasts, suggesting that they are functionally related to cellular proliferative processes. Although there were significant differences in cytoplasmic mRNA levels between myc-immortalized and control cells, the rates of transcription and mRNA turnover of both genes were similar, suggesting that c-myc regulates mr1 and mr2 expression by some nuclear posttranscriptional mechanism. Their results provide evidence that c-myc can rapidly modulate cellular gene expression and suggest that c-myc may function in gene regulation at the level of RNA export, splicing, or nuclear RNA turnover.

  12. PU-H71: An improvement on nature's solutions to oncogenic Hsp90 addiction.

    PubMed

    Trendowski, Matthew

    2015-09-01

    Despite recent advances in precision medicine, many molecular-based antineoplastic agents do not potentiate sustainable long term remissions, warranting the investigation of novel therapeutic strategies. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is a molecular chaperone that not only has oncogenic properties, but also has distinct expression profiles in malignant and normal cells, providing a rational strategy to attain preferential damage. Prior attempts to target Hsp90 with natural product-based compounds have been hampered by their associated off target toxicities, suggesting that novel, fully synthetic inhibitors may be required to achieve the specificity necessary for therapeutic efficacy. Therefore, this review highlights the antineoplastic potential of PU-H71 (8-[(6-iodo-1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)sulfanyl]-9-[3-(propan-2-ylamino)propyl]purin-6-amine), a novel purine based analog that has shown efficacy in many preclinical models of malignancy, and is now under clinical examination. In addition, the review suggests potential concomitant therapeutic approaches that may be particularly beneficial to molecular-based, as well as traditional cytotoxic cancer chemotherapy.

  13. Targeting the epigenetic readers in Ewing Sarcoma inhibits the oncogenic transcription factor EWS/Fli1

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Camille; Lamoureux, François; Baud’huin, Marc; Calleja, Lidia Rodriguez; Quillard, Thibaut; Amiaud, Jérôme; Tirode, Franck; Rédini, Françoise; Bradner, James E.; Heymann, Dominique; Ory, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Ewing Sarcoma is a rare bone and soft tissue malignancy affecting children and young adults. Chromosomal translocations in this cancer produce fusion oncogenes as characteristic molecular signatures of the disease. The most common case is the translocation t (11; 22) (q24;q12) which yields the EWS-Fli1 chimeric transcription factor. Finding a way to directly target EWS-Fli1 remains a central therapeutic approach to eradicate this aggressive cancer. Here we demonstrate that treating Ewing Sarcoma cells with JQ1(+), a BET bromodomain inhibitor, represses directly EWS-Fli1 transcription as well as its transcriptional program. Moreover, the Chromatin Immuno Precipitation experiments demonstrate for the first time that these results are a consequence of the depletion of BRD4, one of the BET bromodomains protein from the EWS-Fli1 promoter. In vitro, JQ1(+) treatment reduces the cell viability, impairs the cell clonogenic and the migratory abilities, and induces a G1-phase blockage as well as a time- and a dose-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, in our in vivo model, we observed a tumor burden delay, an inhibition of the global vascularization and an increase of the mice overall survival. Taken together, our data indicate that inhibiting the BET bromodomains interferes with EWS-FLi1 transcription and could be a promising strategy in the Ewing tumors context. PMID:27006472

  14. Letter to the Editor: Human Pluripotent Stem Cells Release Oncogenic Soluble E-Cadherin.

    PubMed

    Rosner, Margit; Hengstschläger, Markus

    2016-09-01

    Since their discovery, human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) including embryonic and induced pluripotent stem cells hold great promise in disease modeling and regenerative medicine. Despite intensive research and remarkable progress, it is becoming increasingly acknowledged that their yet incomplete, biological characterisation represents one of the major drawbacks to their successful translation into the clinics. The expression of the transmembrane protein E-cadherin in hPSCs is well defined to be pivotal to the maintenance of the pluripotent state by mediating intercellular adhesion and intracellular signaling. Next to these canonical functions, were here report for the first time that hPSCs are subject to matrix metalloproteinase-dependent E-cadherin ectodomain shedding. This generates a ∼80-kD, soluble E-cadherin fragment which is released into the extracellular space, and which is well described to exert paracrine signaling activity and classified as being oncogenic. Collectively, this finding does not only improve our knowledge on the signaling crosstalk between hPSCs and their cellular environment and the type and nature of the paracrine signals produced by these cells, but also has clear implications for the development of efficient and safe stem cell-based therapies. Stem Cells 2016;34:2443-2446. PMID:27399873

  15. Notch signalling pathway as an oncogenic factor involved in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Piecuch, Adam; Dittfeld, Anna; Mielańczyk, Łukasz; Michalski, Marek; Wyrobiec, Grzegorz; Harabin-Słowińska, Marzena; Kurek, Józef; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Notch signalling is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway, which plays a significant role in a wide array of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it must be noted that Notch is a binary cell fate determinant, and its overexpression has been described as oncogenic in a broad range of human malignancies. This finding led to interest in therapeutically targeting this pathway especially by the use of GSIs, which block the cleavage of Notch at the cell membrane and inhibit release of the transcriptionally active NotchIC subunit. Preclinical cancer models have clearly demonstrated that GSIs suppress the growth of such malignancies as pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer; however, GSI treatment in vivo is associated with side effects, especially those within the gastrointestinal tract. Although intensive studies are associated with the role of γ-secretase in pathological states, it should be pointed out that this complex impacts on proteolytic cleavages of around 55 membrane proteins. Therefore, it is clear that GSIs are highly non-specific and additional drugs must be designed, which will more specifically target components of the Notch signalling.

  16. The DEK Oncogene Is a Target of Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Privette Vinnedge, Lisa M.; Ho, Shuk-Mei; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2012-01-01

    Expression of estrogen and progesterone hormone receptors indicates a favorable prognosis due to the successful use of hormonal therapies such as tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors. Unfortunately, 15–20% of patients will experience breast cancer recurrence despite continued use of tamoxifen. Drug resistance to hormonal therapies is of great clinical concern so it is imperative to identify novel molecular factors that contribute to tumorigenesis in hormone receptor positive cancers and/or mediate drug sensitivity. The hope is that targeted therapies, in combination with hormonal therapies, will improve survival and prevent recurrence. We have previously shown that the DEK oncogene, which is a chromatin remodeling protein, supports breast cancer cell proliferation, invasion and the maintenance of the breast cancer stem cell population. In this report, we demonstrate that DEK expression is associated with positive hormone receptor status in primary breast cancers and is up-regulated in vitro following exposure to the hormones estrogen, progesterone, and androgen. Chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments identify DEK as a novel estrogen receptor α (ERα) target gene whose expression promotes estrogen-induced proliferation. Finally, we report for the first time that DEK depletion enhances tamoxifen-induced cell death in ER+ breast cancer cell lines. Together, our data suggest that DEK promotes the pathogenesis of ER+ breast cancer and that the targeted inhibition of DEK may enhance the efficacy of conventional hormone therapies. PMID:23071688

  17. Notch signalling pathway as an oncogenic factor involved in cancer development.

    PubMed

    Brzozowa-Zasada, Marlena; Piecuch, Adam; Dittfeld, Anna; Mielańczyk, Łukasz; Michalski, Marek; Wyrobiec, Grzegorz; Harabin-Słowińska, Marzena; Kurek, Józef; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Notch signalling is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway, which plays a significant role in a wide array of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it must be noted that Notch is a binary cell fate determinant, and its overexpression has been described as oncogenic in a broad range of human malignancies. This finding led to interest in therapeutically targeting this pathway especially by the use of GSIs, which block the cleavage of Notch at the cell membrane and inhibit release of the transcriptionally active NotchIC subunit. Preclinical cancer models have clearly demonstrated that GSIs suppress the growth of such malignancies as pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer; however, GSI treatment in vivo is associated with side effects, especially those within the gastrointestinal tract. Although intensive studies are associated with the role of γ-secretase in pathological states, it should be pointed out that this complex impacts on proteolytic cleavages of around 55 membrane proteins. Therefore, it is clear that GSIs are highly non-specific and additional drugs must be designed, which will more specifically target components of the Notch signalling. PMID:27688721

  18. Merkel cell carcinoma subgroups by Merkel cell polyomavirus DNA relative abundance and oncogene expression

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Kishor; Goedert, James J.; Modali, Rama; Preiss, Liliana; Ayers, Leona W.

    2010-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) was recently discovered in Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), a clinically and pathologically heterogeneous malignancy of dermal neuroendocrine cells. To investigate this heterogeneity, we developed a tissue microarray (TMA) to characterize immunohistochemical staining of candidate tumor cell proteins and a quantitative PCR assay to detect MCPyV and measure viral loads. MCPyV was detected in 19 of 23 (74%) primary MCC tumors, but 8 of these had less than 1 viral copy per 300 cells. Viral abundance of 0.06–1.2viral copies/cell was directly related to presence of retinoblastoma gene product (pRb) and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase (TdT) by immunohistochemical staining (P≤0.003). Higher viral abundance tumors tended to be associated with less p53 expression, younger age at diagnosis, and longer survival (P≤0.08). These data suggest that MCC may arise through different oncogenic pathways, including ones independent of pRb and MCPyV. PMID:19551862

  19. Oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 is a key regulator of the white adipogenic program

    PubMed Central

    Louet, Jean-Francois; Coste, Agnès; Amazit, Larbi; Tannour-Louet, Mounia; Wu, Ray-Chang; Tsai, Sophia Y.; Tsai, Ming-Jer; Auwerx, Johan; O'Malley, Bert W.

    2006-01-01

    The white adipocyte is at the center of dysfunctional regulatory pathways in various pathophysiological processes, including obesity, diabetes, inflammation, and cancer. Here, we show that the oncogenic steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3) is a critical regulator of white adipocyte development. Indeed, in SRC-3−/− mouse embryonic fibroblasts, adipocyte differentiation was severely impaired, and reexpression of SRC-3 was able to restore it. The early stages of adipocyte differentiation are accompanied by an increase in nuclear levels of SRC-3, which accumulates to high levels specifically in the nucleus of differentiated fat cells. Moreover, SRC-3−/− animals showed reduced body weight and adipose tissue mass with a significant decrease of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2), a master gene required for adipogenesis. At the molecular level, SRC-3 acts synergistically with the transcription factor CAAT/enhancer-binding protein to control the gene expression of PPARγ2. Collectively, these data suggest a crucial role for SRC-3 as an integrator of the complex transcriptional network controlling adipogenesis. PMID:17098861

  20. Oncogenic miR-544 is an important molecular target in gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Qiaoming; Guo, Xiaobo; Guo, Lei; Zhang, Rongjuan; Jiang, Jinling; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Zhang, Jun; Chen, Xuehua; Cai, Qu; Li, Jianfang; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2013-02-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and promoter hypermethylation are vital epigenetic mechanisms for transcriptional inactivation of tumor suppressor. IRX1 is a newly identified tumor suppressor gene and hypermethylation involves the decreased expression in gastric cancer. However, the microRNA regulatory mechanism on IRX1 expression is still unclear. In this study, we report an IRX1-targeting miRNA-544, which directly targets 3'-UTR of IRX1 gene by luciferase reporter assay. miR-544 suppresses the protein expression of IRX1 gene by Western blot and immunocytochemistry. Ectopic expression of miR-544 promotes cell proliferation and cell cycle progression significantly in vitro on gastric cancer cells. The study suggests that miR-544 is an oncogenic microRNA in gastric cancer. Over expression of miR-544 contributes to the inactivation and low-expression of IRX1 in gastric cancer. These findings are helpful for clarifying the molecular mechanisms involved in gastric carcinogenesis and indicate that miR-544 is a key regulator in switching cell cycle on or off. miR-544 may be a potential molecular target in miRNA-based strategy on gastric cancer.

  1. NUP160-SLC43A3 is a novel recurrent fusion oncogene in angiosarcoma.

    PubMed

    Shimozono, Naoki; Jinnin, Masatoshi; Masuzawa, Mamiko; Masuzawa, Mikio; Wang, Zhongzhi; Hirano, Ayaka; Tomizawa, Yukiko; Etoh-Kira, Tomomi; Kajihara, Ikko; Harada, Miho; Fukushima, Satoshi; Ihn, Hironobu

    2015-11-01

    Angiosarcoma is a malignant vascular tumor originating from endothelial cells of blood vessels or lymphatic vessels. The specific driver mutations in angiosarcoma remain unknown. In this study, we investigated this issue by transcriptome sequencing of patient-derived angiosarcoma cells (ISO-HAS), identifying a novel fusion gene NUP160-SLC43A3 found to be expressed in 9 of 25 human angiosarcoma specimens that were examined. In tumors harboring the fusion gene, the duration between the onset of symptoms and the first hospital visit was significantly shorter, suggesting more rapid tumor progression. Stable expression of the fusion gene in nontransformed human dermal microvascular endothelial cells elicited a gene-expression pattern mimicking ISO-HAS cells and increased cell proliferation, an effect traced in part to NUP160 truncation. Conversely, RNAi-mediated attenuation of NUP160 in ISO-HAS cells decreased cell number. Confirming the oncogenic effects of the fusion protein, subcutaneous implantation of NUP160-SLC43A3-expressing fibroblasts induced tumors resembling human angiosarcoma. Collectively, our findings advance knowledge concerning the genetic causes of angiosarcoma, with potential implications for new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.

  2. FOXO1 downregulation contributes to the oncogenic program of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Xie, Linka; Ritz, Olga; Leithäuser, Frank; Guan, Hanfeng; Färbinger, Johanna; Weitzer, Clarissa D; Gehringer, Franziska; Bruederlein, Silke; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Vogel, Marion J; Möller, Peter; Wirth, Thomas; Ushmorov, Alexey

    2014-07-30

    Recently we have shown that the transcription factor FOXO1, highly expressed in B cells, is downregulated in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). As primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) has similarities with the cHL transcription program we investigated FOXO1 expression in this entity. By using immunohistochemistry we found that FOXO1 was absent or expressed at low levels in 19 of 20 primary PMBL cases. PMBL cell lines reproduce the low FOXO1 expression observed in primary cases. By analyzing gene expression profiling data we found that FOXO1 expression inversely correlated with JAK2 in PMBL cases. Targeting JAK2 activity by the small molecular weight inhibitor TG101348 resulted in upregulation of FOXO1 mRNA and protein expression in MedB-1 and U2940 cell lines, and the MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 increased FOXO1 mRNA in MedB-1 cells. Moreover, in MedB-1 cells FOXO1 expression was strongly upregulated by the inhibitor of DNA methylation 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Since FOXO1 promoter was unmethylated, this effect is most likely indirect. FOXO1 activation in the FOXO1-negative Med-B1 cell line led to growth arrest and apoptosis, which was accompanied by repression of MYC and BCL2L1/BCLxL. Thus, FOXO1 repression might contribute to the oncogenic program and phenotype of PMBL. PMID:24977668

  3. FOXO1 downregulation contributes to the oncogenic program of primary mediastinal B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Leithäuser, Frank; Guan, Hanfeng; Färbinger, Johanna; Weitzer, Clarissa D.; Gehringer, Franziska; Brüderlein, Silke; Holzmann, Karlheinz; Vogel, Marion J.; Möller, Peter; Wirth, Thomas; Ushmorov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    Recently we have shown that the transcription factor FOXO1, highly expressed in B cells, is downregulated in classical Hodgkin lymphoma (cHL). As primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) has similarities with the cHL transcription program we investigated FOXO1 expression in this entity. By using immunohistochemistry we found that FOXO1 was absent or expressed at low levels in 19 of 20 primary PMBL cases. PMBL cell lines reproduce the low FOXO1 expression observed in primary cases. By analyzing gene expression profiling data we found that FOXO1 expression inversely correlated with JAK2 in PMBL cases. Targeting JAK2 activity by the small molecular weight inhibitor TG101348 resulted in upregulation of FOXO1 mRNA and protein expression in MedB-1 and U2940 cell lines, and the MYC inhibitor 10058-F4 increased FOXO1 mRNA in MedB-1 cells. Moreover, in MedB-1 cells FOXO1 expression was strongly upregulated by the inhibitor of DNA methylation 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine and by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A. Since FOXO1 promoter was unmethylated, this effect is most likely indirect. FOXO1 activation in the FOXO1-negative MedB-1 cell line led to growth arrest and apoptosis, which was accompanied by repression of MYC and BCL2L1/BCLxL. Thus, FOXO1 repression might contribute to the oncogenic program and phenotype of PMBL. PMID:24977668

  4. Targeting the epigenetic readers in Ewing sarcoma inhibits the oncogenic transcription factor EWS/Fli1.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Camille; Lamoureux, François; Baud'huin, Marc; Rodriguez Calleja, Lidia; Quillard, Thibaut; Amiaud, Jérôme; Tirode, Franck; Rédini, Françoise; Bradner, James E; Heymann, Dominique; Ory, Benjamin

    2016-04-26

    Ewing Sarcoma is a rare bone and soft tissue malignancy affecting children and young adults. Chromosomal translocations in this cancer produce fusion oncogenes as characteristic molecular signatures of the disease. The most common case is the translocation t (11; 22) (q24;q12) which yields the EWS-Fli1 chimeric transcription factor. Finding a way to directly target EWS-Fli1 remains a central therapeutic approach to eradicate this aggressive cancer. Here we demonstrate that treating Ewing Sarcoma cells with JQ1(+), a BET bromodomain inhibitor, represses directly EWS-Fli1 transcription as well as its transcriptional program. Moreover, the Chromatin Immuno Precipitation experiments demonstrate for the first time that these results are a consequence of the depletion of BRD4, one of the BET bromodomains protein from the EWS-Fli1 promoter. In vitro, JQ1(+) treatment reduces the cell viability, impairs the cell clonogenic and the migratory abilities, and induces a G1-phase blockage as well as a time- and a dose-dependent apoptosis. Furthermore, in our in vivo model, we observed a tumor burden delay, an inhibition of the global vascularization and an increase of the mice overall survival. Taken together, our data indicate that inhibiting the BET bromodomains interferes with EWS-FLi1 transcription and could be a promising strategy in the Ewing tumors context. PMID:27006472

  5. Notch signalling pathway as an oncogenic factor involved in cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Piecuch, Adam; Dittfeld, Anna; Mielańczyk, Łukasz; Michalski, Marek; Wyrobiec, Grzegorz; Harabin-Słowińska, Marzena; Kurek, Józef; Wojnicz, Romuald

    2016-01-01

    Notch signalling is an evolutionarily conserved signalling pathway, which plays a significant role in a wide array of cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Nevertheless, it must be noted that Notch is a binary cell fate determinant, and its overexpression has been described as oncogenic in a broad range of human malignancies. This finding led to interest in therapeutically targeting this pathway especially by the use of GSIs, which block the cleavage of Notch at the cell membrane and inhibit release of the transcriptionally active NotchIC subunit. Preclinical cancer models have clearly demonstrated that GSIs suppress the growth of such malignancies as pancreatic, breast, and lung cancer; however, GSI treatment in vivo is associated with side effects, especially those within the gastrointestinal tract. Although intensive studies are associated with the role of γ-secretase in pathological states, it should be pointed out that this complex impacts on proteolytic cleavages of around 55 membrane proteins. Therefore, it is clear that GSIs are highly non-specific and additional drugs must be designed, which will more specifically target components of the Notch signalling. PMID:27688721

  6. VAV3 Oncogene Expression in Colorectal Cancer: Clinical Aspects and Functional Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Uen, Yih-Huei; Fang, Chia-Lang; Hseu, You-Cheng; Shen, Pei-Chun; Yang, Hsin-Ling; Wen, Kuo-Shan; Hung, Shih-Ting; Wang, Lu-Hai; Lin, Kai-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Although colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, the current therapeutic approaches for advanced CRC are ineffective. In this study, we investigated the involvement of the VAV3 oncogene in tumor progression and in the prognosis of human CRC. The two patient cohorts in this study comprised 354 CRC cases from 1998 to 2005 with documented pathologic and clinical factors and clinical outcomes. VAV3 protein levels were significantly correlated with the depth of invasion (P = 0.0259), the nodal status (P < 0.0001), distant metastasis (P = 0.0354), the stage (P < 0.0001), and poor disease-free survival (P = 0.003). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that VAV3 overexpression is an independent prognostic marker for CRC (P = 0.041). In vitro experiments indicated that VAV3 knockdown inhibited CRC cell growth, spread, and xenograft proliferation. Mechanistic studies further revealed that VAV3 overexpression could dysregulate the expression of cell cycle control- and metastasis-related molecules by activating the PI3K-AKT signaling pathway in both CRC cells and xenografts. This study suggests that VAV3 overexpression could be a useful marker for predicting the outcomes of CRC patients and that VAV3 targeting represents a potential modality for treating CRC. PMID:25791293

  7. The impact of age on oncogenic potential: tumor-initiating cells and the brain microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Elizabeth A; Horner, Philip J; Rostomily, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Paradoxically, aging leads to both decreased regenerative capacity in the brain and an increased risk of tumorigenesis, particularly the most common adult-onset brain tumor, glioma. A shared factor contributing to both phenomena is thought to be age-related alterations in neural progenitor cells (NPCs), which function normally to produce new neurons and glia, but are also considered likely cells of origin for malignant glioma. Upon oncogenic transformation, cells acquire characteristics known as the hallmarks of cancer, including unlimited replication, altered responses to growth and anti-growth factors, increased capacity for angiogenesis, potential for invasion, genetic instability, apoptotic evasion, escape from immune surveillance, and an adaptive metabolic phenotype. The precise molecular pathogenesis and temporal acquisition of these malignant characteristics is largely a mystery. Recent studies characterizing NPCs during normal aging, however, have begun to elucidate mechanisms underlying the age-associated increase in their malignant potential. Aging cells are dependent upon multiple compensatory pathways to maintain cell cycle control, normal niche interactions, genetic stability, programmed cell death, and oxidative metabolism. A few multi-functional proteins act as 'critical nodes' in the coordination of these various cellular activities, although both intracellular signaling and elements within the brain environment are critical to maintaining a balance between senescence and tumorigenesis. Here, we provide an overview of recent progress in our understanding of how mechanisms underlying cellular aging inform on glioma pathogenesis and malignancy. PMID:23711239

  8. Tissue-specific expression and developmental regulation of the human fgr proto-oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, T.J. . Dept. of Medicine); Connolly, N.L.; Senior, R.M. ); Katamine, S.; Cheah, M.S.C.; Robbins

    1989-01-01

    In this study, the authors show that c-fgr proto-oncogene expression is limited to normal peripheral blood granulocytes, monocytes, and alveolar macrophages, all of which contain 50 to 100 copies of c-fgr mRNA per cell. The c-fgr RNA molecules in these cells consisted of partially spliced transcripts containing intron 7 and completely spliced molecules capable of encoding the predicted p55 c-fgr protein. The splicing of intron 7 appeared to occur after the splicing of most of the other introns; partially spliced molecules containing intron 7 did not appear to be transported into the cytoplasm. Very low levels of fgr transcripts were also present in U937 promonocytic cells and increased in abundance with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced differentiation. The level of fgr transcripts began to increase 2 to 4 after TPA addition peaked at 8 h, and subsequently declined. Since the authors found that the half-life of fgr mRNA was longer than 8 h, these changes are best explained by transient transcriptional activation of fgr during TPA-induced differentiation, although nuclear runoff experiments were not sensitive enough to detect this event. Their results demonstrate that the c-fgr gene is expressed in a tissue- and development-specific fashion and suggest that constitutive expression of c-fgr in U937 cells is regulated by a labile transcriptional repressor.

  9. The oncogene c-Myc coordinates regulation of metabolic networks to enable rapid cell cycle entry.

    PubMed

    Morrish, Fionnuala; Neretti, Nicola; Sedivy, John M; Hockenbery, David M

    2008-04-15

    The c-myc proto-oncogene is rapidly activated by serum and regulates genes involved in metabolism and cell cycle progression. This gene is thereby uniquely poised to coordinate both the metabolic and cell cycle regulatory events required for cell cycle entry. However, this function of Myc has not been evaluated. Using a rat fibroblast model of isogenic cell lines, myc(-/-), myc(+/-), myc(+/+) and myc(-/-) cells with an inducible c-myc transgene (mycER), we show that the Myc protein programs cells to utilize both oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis to drive cell cycle progression. We demonstrate this coordinate regulation of metabolic networks is essential, as specific inhibitors of these pathways block Myc-induced proliferation. Metabolic events temporally correlated with cell cycle entry include increased oxygen consumption, mitochondrial function, pyru