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Sample records for oncogenic k-ras mutation

  1. K-ras oncogene mutation in pterygium.

    PubMed

    Ozturk, B T; Yıldırım, M S; Zamani, A; Bozkurt, B

    2017-03-01

    PurposePterygium is claimed to be a benign proliferation triggered by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. The frequency of K-ras oncogene mutation, which is among the initial mutations in tumorigenesis, is evaluated in this study.Patients and methodsIn this prospective randomized clinical, trial pterygium tissues and normal conjunctiva tissue specimens are obtained from the superotemporal quadrant of patients who underwent primary pterygium excision with autograft transplantation. DNA extraction from tissues was performed using the QIAamp DNA FFPE tissue kit. A PCR reaction was performed to amplify sequences containing codons 12, 13, and 61 of the K-ras gene in DNA. These PCR products then underwent the 'pyrosequencing' procedure for mutations at these codons.ResultsPterygium and normal conjunctival tissue samples of 25 patients (10 females, 15 males) were evaluated in the study. The mean age of the patients was 54.54±13.13 years. Genetic analysis revealed no K-ras mutations in normal conjunctival tissues, whereas pterygium tissues of the same cases demonstrated mutation at codon 12 in one case and mutations at codon 61 in seven cases, which was statistically significant (P<0.05). The point missense mutations at codon 61 were glutamine to arginine (Glu61Arg CAA>CGA) in four cases and glutamine to leucine (Glu61Leu CAA>CTA) in three cases.ConclusionThe significantly higher frequency of codon 61 mutation of the ras oncogene in primary and bilateral pterygium specimens compared with normal conjunctiva supports the tumoral origin of pterygium, and thus set the stage for research into a targeted therapy for pterygium with better outcomes than surgical excision.

  2. Concurrent mutation in exons 1 and 2 of the K-ras oncogene in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Savonarola, Annalisa; Ludovici, Giorgia; De Marchis, Maria Laura; Covello, Renato; Ettorre, Giuseppe Maria; Ialongo, Cristiano; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2011-01-01

    The K-ras gene is frequently mutated in colorectal cancer and has been associated with tumor initiation and progression; approximately 90% of the activating mutations are found in codons 12 and 13 of exon 1 and just under 5% in codon 61 located in exon 2. These mutations determine single aminoacidic substitutions in the GTPase pocket leading to a block of the GTP hydrolytic activity of the K-ras p21 protein, and therefore to its constitutive activation. Point mutations in sites of the K-ras gene, other than codons 12, 13 and 61, and other types of genetic alterations, may occur in a minority of cases, such as in the less frequent cases of double mutations in the K-ras gene. However, all mutations in this gene, even those which occur in non-canonical sites or double mutations, are relevant oncogenic alterations in colorectal cancer and may underlie K-ras pathway hyperactivation. In the present study, we report the case of a patient with colorectal cancer presenting a concurrent point mutation in exons 1 and 2 of the K-ras gene, a GGT to TGT substitution (Glycine to Cysteine) at codon 12, and a GAC to AAC substitution (Aspartic Acid to Asparagine) at codon 57. In addition, we found in the same patient's sample a silent polymorphism at codon 11 (Ala11Ala) of exon 1.

  3. Characterization of a novel oncogenic K-ras mutation in colon cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Akagi, Kiwamu . E-mail: akagi@cancer-c.pref.saitama.jp; Uchibori, Ryosuke; Yamaguchi, Kensei; Kurosawa, Keiko; Tanaka, Yoichiro; Kozu, Tomoko

    2007-01-19

    Activating mutations of RAS are frequently observed in subsets of human cancers, indicating that RAS activation is involved in tumorigenesis. Here, we identified and characterized a novel G to T transversion mutation of the K-ras gene at the third position of codon 19 (TTG) which substituted phenylalanine for leucine in 3 primary colon carcinomas. Biological and biochemical activity was examined using transformed NIH3T3 cells expressing mutant or wild-type K-ras. Transformants harboring the K-ras mutation at codon 19 showed proliferative capacity under serum-starved conditions, less contact inhibition, anchorage-independent growth, tumorigenicity in nude mice and elevation of active Ras-GTP levels. These results indicated that this novel mutation possesses high oncogenic activity.

  4. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  5. The Structural Basis of Oncogenic Mutations G12, G13 and Q61 in Small GTPase K-Ras4B

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2016-01-01

    Ras mediates cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Mutations in K-Ras4B are predominant at residues G12, G13 and Q61. Even though all impair GAP-assisted GTP → GDP hydrolysis, the mutation frequencies of K-Ras4B in human cancers vary. Here we aim to figure out their mechanisms and differential oncogenicity. In total, we performed 6.4 μs molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GTP/GDP) catalytic domain, the K-Ras4BWT-GTP–GAP complex, and the mutants (K-Ras4BG12C/G12D/G12V-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BG13D-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BQ61H-GTP/GDP) and their complexes with GAP. In addition, we simulated ‘exchanged’ nucleotide states. These comprehensive simulations reveal that in solution K-Ras4BWT-GTP exists in two, active and inactive, conformations. Oncogenic mutations differentially elicit an inactive-to-active conformational transition in K-Ras4B-GTP; in K-Ras4BG12C/G12D-GDP they expose the bound nucleotide which facilitates the GDP-to-GTP exchange. These mechanisms may help elucidate the differential mutational statistics in K-Ras4B-driven cancers. Exchanged nucleotide simulations reveal that the conformational transition is more accessible in the GTP-to-GDP than in the GDP-to-GTP exchange. Importantly, GAP not only donates its R789 arginine finger, but stabilizes the catalytically-competent conformation and pre-organizes catalytic residue Q61; mutations disturb the R789/Q61 organization, impairing GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Together, our simulations help provide a mechanistic explanation of key mutational events in one of the most oncogenic proteins in cancer. PMID:26902995

  6. The Structural Basis of Oncogenic Mutations G12, G13 and Q61 in Small GTPase K-Ras4B

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shaoyong; Jang, Hyunbum; Nussinov, Ruth; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Ras mediates cell proliferation, survival and differentiation. Mutations in K-Ras4B are predominant at residues G12, G13 and Q61. Even though all impair GAP-assisted GTP → GDP hydrolysis, the mutation frequencies of K-Ras4B in human cancers vary. Here we aim to figure out their mechanisms and differential oncogenicity. In total, we performed 6.4 μs molecular dynamics simulations on the wild-type K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GTP/GDP) catalytic domain, the K-Ras4BWT-GTP-GAP complex, and the mutants (K-Ras4BG12C/G12D/G12V-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BG13D-GTP/GDP, K-Ras4BQ61H-GTP/GDP) and their complexes with GAP. In addition, we simulated ‘exchanged’ nucleotide states. These comprehensive simulations reveal that in solution K-Ras4BWT-GTP exists in two, active and inactive, conformations. Oncogenic mutations differentially elicit an inactive-to-active conformational transition in K-Ras4B-GTP; in K-Ras4BG12C/G12D-GDP they expose the bound nucleotide which facilitates the GDP-to-GTP exchange. These mechanisms may help elucidate the differential mutational statistics in K-Ras4B-driven cancers. Exchanged nucleotide simulations reveal that the conformational transition is more accessible in the GTP-to-GDP than in the GDP-to-GTP exchange. Importantly, GAP not only donates its R789 arginine finger, but stabilizes the catalytically-competent conformation and pre-organizes catalytic residue Q61; mutations disturb the R789/Q61 organization, impairing GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Together, our simulations help provide a mechanistic explanation of key mutational events in one of the most oncogenic proteins in cancer.

  7. Prevalence of G-to-T transversions among K-ras oncogene mutations in human colorectal tumors in Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Urosević, N; Krtolica, K; Skaro-Milić, A; Knezević-Usaj, S; Dujić, A

    1993-05-08

    Human colorectal carcinoma tissue sampled from 37 patients, routinely graded into Dukes' stages A, B and C and histologically examined for the level of differentiation, were analyzed for the presence of point mutations in the K-ras oncogene. Seventeen cases out of the 37 analyzed were found to have a mutation in either the 12th or the 13th codon of the K-ras gene, giving an overall frequency of mutation of 46%. The incidence of mutations in Dukes' stages A, B and C was 33, 46 and 58% respectively. Although the frequency of mutation appears to be similar to that reported for the USA population, the spectrum of point mutations in codons 12 and 13 of the K-ras gene in the Yugoslav population appears to differ significantly. G-to-T transversions make up 77% of all mutations present, with the distribution as follows: 18% at the first base and 59% at the second base of codons 12 and 13. G-to-A transitions at the second base is the only other mutation identified, occurring mainly in codon 13 in colorectal tumors of all 3 stages.

  8. GTP Binding and Oncogenic Mutations May Attenuate Hypervariable Region (HVR)-Catalytic Domain Interactions in Small GTPase K-Ras4B, Exposing the Effector Binding Site*

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Shaoyong; Banerjee, Avik; Jang, Hyunbum; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras4B, a frequently mutated oncogene in cancer, plays an essential role in cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Its C-terminal membrane-associated hypervariable region (HVR) is required for full biological activity. In the active GTP-bound state, the HVR interacts with acidic plasma membrane (PM) headgroups, whereas the farnesyl anchors in the membrane; in the inactive GDP-bound state, the HVR may interact with both the PM and the catalytic domain at the effector binding region, obstructing signaling and nucleotide exchange. Here, using molecular dynamics simulations and NMR, we aim to figure out the effects of nucleotides (GTP and GDP) and frequent (G12C, G12D, G12V, G13D, and Q61H) and infrequent (E37K and R164Q) oncogenic mutations on full-length K-Ras4B. The mutations are away from or directly at the HVR switch I/effector binding site. Our results suggest that full-length wild-type GDP-bound K-Ras4B (K-Ras4BWT-GDP) is in an intrinsically autoinhibited state via tight HVR-catalytic domain interactions. The looser association in K-Ras4BWT-GTP may release the HVR. Some of the oncogenic mutations weaken the HVR-catalytic domain association in the K-Ras4B-GDP/-GTP bound states, which may facilitate the HVR disassociation in a nucleotide-independent manner, thereby up-regulating oncogenic Ras signaling. Thus, our results suggest that mutations can exert their effects in more than one way, abolishing GTP hydrolysis and facilitating effector binding. PMID:26453300

  9. Oncogenic K-ras promotes early carcinogenesis in the mouse proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Calcagno, Shelly R; Li, Shuhua; Colon, Migdalisel; Kreinest, Pamela A; Thompson, E Aubrey; Fields, Alan P; Murray, Nicole R

    2008-06-01

    Oncogenic K-ras mutations are frequently observed in colon cancers and contribute to transformed growth. Oncogenic K-ras is detected in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrating that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an early event in colon carcinogenesis. Here, we investigate the role of oncogenic K-ras in neoplastic initiation and progression. Transgenic mice in which an oncogenic K-ras(G12D) allele is activated in the colonic epithelium by sporadic recombination (K-rasLA2 mice) develop spontaneous ACF that are morphologically indistinguishable from those induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Similar neoplastic changes involving the entire colon are induced in transgenic mice constitutively expressing K-ras(G12D) throughout the colon (LSL-K-ras(G12D)/Villin-Cre mice). However, the biochemistry and fate of K-ras-induced lesions differ depending upon their location within the colon in these mice. In the proximal colon, K-ras(G12D) induces increased expression of procarcinogenic protein kinase C beta II (PKC beta II), activation of the MEK/ERK signaling axis and increased epithelial cell proliferation. In contrast, in the distal colon, K-ras(G12D) inhibits expression of procarcinogenic PKC beta II and induces apoptosis. Treatment of K-rasLA2 mice with AOM leads to neoplastic progression of small ACF to large, dysplastic microadenomas in the proximal, but not the distal colon. Thus, oncogenic K-ras functions differently in the proximal and distal colon of mice, inducing ACF capable of neoplastic progression in the proximal colon, and ACF with little or no potential for progression in the distal colon. Our data indicate that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an initiating neoplastic event in proximal colon cancer development in mice. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  10. Oncogenic K-ras promotes early carcinogenesis in the mouse proximal colon

    PubMed Central

    Calcagno, Shelly R.; Li, Shuhua; Colon, Migdalisel; Kreinest, Pamela A.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Fields, Alan P.; Murray, Nicole R.

    2014-01-01

    Oncogenic K-ras mutations are frequently observed in colon cancers and contribute to transformed growth. Oncogenic K-ras is detected in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), precancerous colonic lesions, demonstrating that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an early event in colon carcinogenesis. Here, we investigate the role of oncogenic K-ras in neoplastic initiation and progression. Transgenic mice in which an oncogenic K-rasG12D allele is activated in the colonic epithelium by sporadic recombination (K-rasLA2 mice) develop spontaneous ACF that are morphologically indistinguishable from those induced by the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Similar neoplastic changes involving the entire colon are induced in transgenic mice constitutively expressing K-rasG12D throughout the colon (LSL-K-rasG12D/Villin-Cre mice). However, the biochemistry and fate of K-ras-induced lesions differ depending upon their location within the colon in these mice. In the proximal colon, K-rasG12D induces increased expression of procarcinogenic protein kinase CβII (PKCβII), activation of the MEK/ERK signaling axis and increased epithelial cell proliferation. In contrast, in the distal colon, K-rasG12D inhibits expression of procarcinogenic PKCβII and induces apoptosis. Treatment of K-rasLA2 mice with AOM leads to neoplastic progression of small ACF to large, dysplastic microadenomas in the proximal, but not the distal colon. Thus, oncogenic K-ras functions differently in the proximal and distal colon of mice, inducing ACF capable of neoplastic progression in the proximal colon, and ACF with little or no potential for progression in the distal colon. Our data indicate that acquisition of a K-ras mutation is an initiating neoplastic event in proximal colon cancer development in mice. PMID:18271008

  11. K-ras oncogene DNA sequences in pink salmon in streams impacted by the Exxon Valdez oil spill: no evidence of oil-induced heritable mutations.

    PubMed

    Cronin, Matthew A; Wickliffe, Jeffrey K; Dunina, Yelena; Baker, Robert J

    2002-08-01

    It was hypothesized in previous studies that the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, Alaska, induced heritable mutations and resulted in mortality of pink salmon (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) embryos. In one of these studies, laboratory exposure of pink salmon embryos to crude oil resulted in apparent mutation-induction in exon 1 and exon 2 of the K-ras oncogene, but no fish from the area impacted by the oil spill were analyzed. We assessed K-ras exon 1 and exon 2 DNA sequences in pink salmon from five streams that were oiled and five streams that were not oiled by the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Prince William Sound, and two streams with natural oil seeps and one stream without seeps on the Alaska Peninsula. Of the 79 fish analyzed for exon 1 and the 89 fish analyzed for exon 2, none had the nucleotide substitutions representing the mutations induced in the laboratory study. Other variable nucleotides occurred in similar proportions in oiled and non-oiled streams and probably represent natural allelic variation. These data do not support the hypothesis that heritable mutations in the K-ras gene were induced by the Exxon Valdez oil spill or oil seeps.

  12. [Clinical relevance of the K-ras oncogene in colorectal cancer: experience in a Mexican population].

    PubMed

    Cabrera-Mendoza, F; Gainza-Lagunes, S; Castañeda-Andrade, I; Castro-Zárate, A

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer is frequent in the developed countries, with a cancer-specific mortality rate of 33%. Different biomarkers are associated with overall survival and the prediction of monoclonal treatment effectiveness. The presence of mutations in the K-ras oncogene alters the response to target therapy with cetuximab and could be an independent prognostic factor. To analyze the difference in survival between patients with mutated K-ras and those with K-ras wild-type status. Thirty-one clinical records were retrospectively analyzed of patients presenting with colorectal cancer that underwent K-ras sequencing through real-time polymerase chain reaction within the time frame of 2009 to 2012 at the Hospital de Alta Especialidad de Veracruz of the Instituto para la Salud y Seguridad Social de los Trabajadores del Estado (HAEV-ISSSTE). Survival analysis for patients with and without K-ras mutation was performed using the Kaplan Meier method. Contrast of covariates was performed using logarithmic transformations. No statistically significant difference was found in relation to survival in the patients with mutated K-ras vs. those with K-ras wild-type (P=.416), nor were significant differences found when analyzing the covariants and survival in the patients with mutated K-ras: ECOG scale (P=.221); age (less than, equal to or greater than 65years, P=.441); clinical stage according to the AJCC (P=.057), and primary lesion site (P=.614). No relation was found between the K-ras oncogene mutation and reduced survival, in contrast to what has been established in the international medical literature. Further studies that include both a larger number of patients and those receiving monoclonal treatment, need to be conducted. There were only 5 patients in the present study that received cetuximab, resulting in a misleading analysis. Copyright © 2013 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  13. K-rasG12V mediated lung tumor models identified three new quantitative trait loci modifying events post-K-ras mutation.

    PubMed

    Saito, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Noboru

    2014-10-03

    A high incidence of oncogenic K-ras mutations is observed in lung adenocarcinoma of human cases and carcinogen-induced animal models. The process of oncogenic K-ras-mediated lung adenocarcinogenesis can be dissected into two parts: pre- and post-K-ras mutation. Adoption of transgenic lines containing a flox-K-rasG12V transgene eliminates the use of chemical carcinogens and enables us to study directly crucial events post-K-ras mutation without considering the cellular events involved with oncogenic K-ras mutation, e.g., distribution and metabolism of chemical carcinogens, DNA repair, and somatic recombination by host factors. We generated two mouse strains C57BL/6J-Ryr2(tm1Nobs) and A/J-Ryr2(tm1Nobs) in which K-rasG12V can be transcribed from the cytomegalovirus early enhancer/chicken beta actin promoter in virtually any tissue. Upon K-rasG12V induction in lung epithelial cells by an adenovirus expressing the Cre recombinase, the number of tumors in the C57BL/6J-Ryr2(tm1Nobs/+) mouse line was 12.5 times that in the A/J-Ryr2(tm1Nobs/+) mouse line. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis revealed that new three modifier loci, D3Mit19, D3Mit45 and D11Mit20, were involved in the differential susceptibility between the two lines. In addition, we found that differential expression of the wild-type K-ras gene, which was genetically turn out to be anti-oncogenic activity on K-rasG12V, could not account for the different susceptibility in our two K-rasG12V-mediated lung tumor models. Thus, we provide a genetic system that enables us to explore new downstream modifiers post-K-ras mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nitrative and oxidative DNA damage caused by K-ras mutation in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Ohnishi, Shiho; Saito, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Noboru; Ma, Ning; Hiraku, Yusuke; Murata, Mariko; Kawanishi, Shosuke

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Mutated K-ras in transgenic mice caused nitrative DNA damage, 8-nitroguanine. {yields} The mutagenic 8-nitroguanine seemed to be generated by iNOS via Ras-MAPK signal. {yields} Mutated K-ras produces additional mutagenic lesions, as a new oncogenic role. -- Abstract: Ras mutation is important for carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis consists of multi-step process with mutations in several genes. We investigated the role of DNA damage in carcinogenesis initiated by K-ras mutation, using conditional transgenic mice. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that mutagenic 8-nitroguanine and 8-oxo-7,8-dihydro-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) were apparently formed in adenocarcinoma caused by mutated K-ras. 8-Nitroguanine was co-localized with iNOS, eNOS, NF-{kappa}B, IKK, MAPK, MEK, and mutated K-ras, suggesting that oncogenic K-ras causes additional DNA damage via signaling pathway involving these molecules. It is noteworthy that K-ras mutation mediates not only cell over-proliferation but also the accumulation of mutagenic DNA lesions, leading to carcinogenesis.

  15. Metastatic colorectal cancer first-line treatment with bevacizumab: the impact of K-ras mutation.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Luigi; Veltri, Enzo; Zullo, Angelo; Zoratto, Federica; Colonna, Maria; Longo, Flavia; Mottolese, Marcella; Giannarelli, Diana; Ruco, Luigi; Marchetti, Paolo; Romiti, Adriana; Barucca, Viola; Giannini, Giuseppe; Bianchi, Loredana; Tomao, Silverio

    2013-01-01

    Bevacizumab plus chemotherapy prolongs progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Although there is strong evidence to suggest that the mutational status of the K-ras oncogene has a role as a predictive factor for activity in patients treated with cetuximab and panitumumab, few data have been obtained in patients treated with bevacizumab. We conducted an additional retrospective analysis to investigate the prognostic value of K-ras mutation relative to mCRC first-line treatment with bevacizumab. A total of 108 patients were retrospectively reviewed. K-ras status was assessed in the overall population by sequencing. Statistical association for PFS and OS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier method, and the prognostic role of K-ras was determined using the logrank test. Median PFS was 10 months both for patients with wild-type (WT) K-ras and mutated (MT) K-ras (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94, P=0.75); neither difference in median OS was significant (27 months WT K-ras versus 26 months MT K-ras, HR 0.92; P=0.70). A further analysis was carried out in the two groups according to metastatic sites. No statistically significant difference in terms of PFS and OS was demonstrated between WT K-ras and MT K-ras with liver metastases only and in those with extrahepatic disease. Although further study is required, our results seem to confirm that K-ras mutation does not have a prognostic role in mCRC patients receiving first-line treatment with bevacizumab.

  16. Ribozyme-mediated inactivation of mutant K-ras oncogene in a colon cancer cell line

    PubMed Central

    Tokunaga, T; Tsuchida, T; Kijima, H; Okamoto, K; Oshika, Y; Sawa, N; Ohnishi, Y; Yamazaki, H; Miura, S; Ueyama, Y; Nakamura, M

    2000-01-01

    Mutation of c-K-ras oncogene is an important step in progression of colon cancer. We used a hammerhead ribozyme (KrasRz) against mutated K-ras gene transcripts (codon 12, GTT) to inactivate mutant K-ras function in the colon cancer cell line SW480, harbouring a mutant K-ras gene. The β-actin promoter-driven KrasRz sequence (pHβ/KrasRz) was introduced into these cells (SW480/KrasRz), and we evaluated its effects on growth of the colon cancer. The gene expression of angiogenesis-related molecules (vascular endothelial growth factor and thrombospondin) was also estimated in SW480/KrasRz. KrasRz specifically and efficiently cleaved the mutant K-ras mRNA but not wild-type mRNA in vitro. SW480/KrasRz showed decreased growth rate under tissue culture conditions (P< 0.01, Dunnett’s test). The xenotransplantability of SW480/KrasRz (XeSW480/KrasRz) was significantly decreased in nude mice (P< 0.05, Fisher’s exact test). Tumour volume of the xenografts XeSW480/KrasRz was significantly smaller than that of XeSW480/DisKrasRz (P< 0.01, Dunnett’s test). Gene expression of VEGF was suppressed in SW480/KrasRz, while TSP1 gene expression was enhanced. The SW480/KrasRz cells showed apoptosis-related features including nuclear condensation and DNA fragmentation. These results suggested that the hammerhead ribozyme-mediated inactivation of the mutated K-ras mRNA induced growth suppression, apoptosis and alteration of angiogenic factor expression. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10952790

  17. EGF RECEPTOR SIGNALING IS ESSENTIAL FOR K-RAS ONCOGENE-DRIVEN PANCREATIC DUCTAL ADENOCARCINOMA

    PubMed Central

    Navas, Carolina; Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Sibilia, Maria; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    Clinical evidence indicates that mutation/activation of EGF receptors (EGFRs) is mutually exclusive with the presence of K-RAS oncogenes in lung and colon tumors. We have validated these observations using genetically engineered mouse models. However, pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas driven by K-Ras oncogenes are totally dependent on EGFR signaling. Similar results were obtained using human pancreatic tumor cell lines. EGFRs were also essential even in the context of pancreatic injury and absence of p16Ink4a/p19Arf. Only loss of p53 made pancreatic tumors independent of EGFR signaling. Additional inhibition of PI3K and STAT3 effectively prevented proliferation of explants derived from these p53–defective pancreatic tumors. These findings may provide the bases for more rational approaches to treat pancreatic tumors in the clinic. PMID:22975375

  18. Pten Inactivation Accelerates Oncogenic K-ras-Initiated Tumorigenesis in a Mouse Model of Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Iwanaga, Kentaro; Yang, Yanan; Raso, Maria Gabriela; Ma, Lijiang; Hanna, Amy E.; Thilaganathan, Nishan; Moghaddam, Seyed; Evans, Christopher M.; Li, Huaiguang; Cai, Wei-Wen; Sato, Mitsuo; Minna, John D.; Wu, Hong; Creighton, Chad J.; Demayo, Francesco J.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10 (Pten) is expressed aberrantly in non-small cell lung cancer cells, but the role of Pten in lung neoplasia has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we used a genetic approach to inactivate Pten in the bronchial epithelium of mice. Although, by itself, Pten inactivation had no discernible effect on bronchial epithelial histology, it accelerated lung tumorigenesis initiated by oncogenic K-ras, causing more rapid lethality than that induced by oncogenic K-ras alone (8 weeks versus 24 weeks of median duration of survival, respectively). Lung tumors arose in K-ras mutant, Pten-deficient mice that rapidly obstructed bronchial lumina and replaced alveolar spaces. Relative to K-ras mutant tumors, the K-ras mutant, Pten-deficient tumors exhibited more advanced histologic severity and more prominent inflammation and vascularity. Thus, Pten inactivation cooperated with oncogenic K-ras in promoting lung tumorigenesis. PMID:18281487

  19. Impact of oncogenic K-RAS on YB-1 phosphorylation induced by ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Expression of Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) is associated with tumor progression and drug resistance. Phosphorylation of YB-1 at serine residue 102 (S102) in response to growth factors is required for its transcriptional activity and is thought to be regulated by cytoplasmic signaling phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK/ERK) pathways. These pathways can be activated by growth factors and by exposure to ionizing radiation (IR). So far, however, no studies have been conducted on IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation. Methods IR-induced YB-1 phosphorylation in K-RAS wild-type (K-RASwt) and K-RAS-mutated (K-RASmt) breast cancer cell lines was investigated. Using pharmacological inhibitors, small interfering RNA (siRNA) and plasmid-based overexpression approaches, we analyzed pathways involved in YB-1 phosphorylation by IR. Using γ-H2AX foci and standard colony formation assays, we investigated the function of YB-1 in repair of IR-induced DNA double-stranded breaks (DNA-DSB) and postirradiation survival was investigated. Results The average level of phosphorylation of YB-1 in the breast cancer cell lines SKBr3, MCF-7, HBL100 and MDA-MB-231 was significantly higher than that in normal cells. Exposure to IR and stimulation with erbB1 ligands resulted in phosphorylation of YB-1 in K-RASwt SKBr3, MCF-7 and HBL100 cells, which was shown to be K-Ras-independent. In contrast, lack of YB-1 phosphorylation after stimulation with either IR or erbB1 ligands was observed in K-RASmt MDA-MB-231 cells. Similarly to MDA-MB-231 cells, YB-1 became constitutively phosphorylated in K-RASwt cells following the overexpression of mutated K-RAS, and its phosphorylation was not further enhanced by IR. Phosphorylation of YB-1 as a result of irradiation or K-RAS mutation was dependent on erbB1 and its downstream pathways, PI3K and MAPK/ERK. In K-RASmt cells K-RAS siRNA as well as YB-1 siRNA blocked

  20. The cornerstone K-RAS mutation in pancreatic adenocarcinoma: From cell signaling network, target genes, biological processes to therapeutic targeting.

    PubMed

    Jonckheere, Nicolas; Vasseur, Romain; Van Seuningen, Isabelle

    2017-03-01

    RAS belongs to the super family of small G proteins and plays crucial roles in signal transduction from membrane receptors in the cell. Mutations of K-RAS oncogene lead to an accumulation of GTP-bound proteins that maintains an active conformation. In the pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), one of the most deadly cancers in occidental countries, mutations of the K-RAS oncogene are nearly systematic (>90%). Moreover, K-RAS mutation is the earliest genetic alteration occurring during pancreatic carcinogenetic sequence. In this review, we discuss the central role of K-RAS mutations and their tremendous diversity of biological properties by the interconnected regulation of signaling pathways (MAPKs, NF-κB, PI3K, Ral…). In pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, transcriptome analysis and preclinical animal models showed that K-RAS mutation alters biological behavior of PDAC cells (promoting proliferation, migration and invasion, evading growth suppressors, regulating mucin pattern, and miRNA expression). K-RAS also impacts tumor microenvironment and PDAC metabolism reprogramming. Finally we discuss therapeutic targeting strategies of K-RAS that have been developed without significant clinical success so far. As K-RAS is considered as the undruggable target, targeting its multiple effectors and target genes should be considered as potential alternatives.

  1. A novel K-ras mutation in colorectal cancer. A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Palmirotta, Raffaele; Savonarola, Annalisa; Formica, Vincenzo; Ludovici, Giorgia; Del Monte, Girolamo; Roselli, Mario; Guadagni, Fiorella

    2009-08-01

    Activating mutations in the K-ras oncogene mainly occur in codons 12 and 13 and may be predictive of response to drugs directly linked to the K-ras signaling pathway, such as panitumumab and cetuximab. K-ras analysis was carried out on DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded tumor samples after microdissection. Exons 1 and 2 were amplified by PCR and then sequenced. A never-reported K-ras mutation (CAG>TAG) determining a premature stop signal at codon 22 (Gln22Stop) was found in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer. BRAF and p53 were not found to be modified and microsatellite instability was not present. The patient, however, was found to be unresponsive to an anti-EGFR MAb treatment. This study is the first report of a novel K-ras truncating mutation in a patient with metastatic colorectal cancer and is also suggestive for the evaluation of alternative pathways to better identify individuals who are likely to benefit from targeted therapies.

  2. Prevalence of K-Ras mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma: A Turkish Oncology Group pilot study

    PubMed Central

    TURHAL, NAZIM SERDAR; SAVAŞ, BERNA; ÇOŞKUN, ÖZNUR; BAŞ, EMINE; KARABULUT, BÜLENT; NART, DENIZ; KORKMAZ, TANER; YAVUZER, DILEK; DEMIR, GÖKHAN; DOĞUSOY, GÜLEN; ARTAÇ, MEHMET

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common male-predominant type of cancer worldwide. There is no effective treatment regimen available for advanced-stage disease and chemotherapy is generally ineffective in these patients. The number of studies on the prevalence of K-Ras mutations in HCC patients is currently limited. A total of 58 patients from 6 comprehensive cancer centers in 4 metropolitan cities of Turkey were enrolled in this study. Each center committed to enroll approximately 10 random patients whose formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tumor tissues were available for K-Ras, exon 2 genotyping. Two methods were applied based on the availability of adequate amounts of tumor DNA. In the first method, the samples were processed using TheraScreen. The genomic DNA was further used to detect the 7 most frequent somatic mutations (35G>A; 35G>C; 35G>T; 34G>A; 34G>C; 34G>T and 38G>A) in codons 12 and 13 in exon 2 of the K-Ras oncogene by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the second method, the genomic DNA was amplified by PCR using primers specific for K-Ras exon 2 with the GML SeqFinder Sequencing System's KRAS kit. The identified DNA sequence alterations were confirmed by sequencing both DNA strands in two independent experiments with forward and reverse primers. A total of 40 samples had adequate tumor tissue for the mutation analysis. A total of 33 (82.5%) of the investigated samples harbored no mutations in exon 2. All the mutations were identified via a direct sequencing technique, whereas none were identified by TheraScreen. In conclusion, in our patients, HCC exhibited a remarkably low (<20%) K-Ras mutation rate. Patients harboring K-Ras wild-type tumors may be good candidates for treatment with epidermal growth factor inhibitors, such as cetuximab. PMID:26807232

  3. Oncogenic K-Ras Binds to an Anionic Membrane in Two Distinct Orientations: A Molecular Dynamics Analysis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Priyanka; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Hancock, John F; Gorfe, Alemayehu A

    2016-03-08

    K-Ras is a membrane-associated GTPase that cycles between active and inactive conformational states to regulate a variety of cell signaling pathways. Somatic mutations in K-Ras are linked to 15-20% of all human tumors. K-Ras attaches to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane via a farnesylated polybasic domain; however, the structural details of the complex remain poorly understood. Based on extensive (7.5 μs total) atomistic molecular dynamics simulations here we show that oncogenic mutant K-Ras interacts with a negatively charged lipid bilayer membrane in multiple orientations. Of these, two highly populated orientations account for ∼54% of the conformers whose catalytic domain directly interacts with the bilayer. In one of these orientation states, membrane binding involves helices 3 and 4 of the catalytic domain in addition to the farnesyl and polybasic motifs. In the other orientation, β-strands 1-3 and helix 2 on the opposite face of the catalytic domain contribute to membrane binding. Flexibility of the linker region was found to be important for the reorientation. The biological significance of these observations was evaluated by initial experiments in cells overexpressing mutant K-Ras as well as by an analysis of Ras-effector complex structures. The results suggest that only one of the two major orientation states is capable of effector binding. We propose that the different modes of membrane binding may be exploited in structure-based drug design efforts for cancer therapy.

  4. Expanding the Scope of Electrophiles Capable of Targeting K-Ras Oncogenes.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Lynn M; Jenkins, Meredith L; Kerwin, Caitlin; Burke, John E; Shokat, Kevan M

    2017-06-27

    There is growing interest in reversible and irreversible covalent inhibitors that target noncatalytic amino acids in target proteins. With a goal of targeting oncogenic K-Ras variants (e.g., G12D) by expanding the types of amino acids that can be targeted by covalent inhibitors, we survey a set of electrophiles for their ability to label carboxylates. We functionalized an optimized ligand for the K-Ras switch II pocket with a set of electrophiles previously reported to react with carboxylates and characterized the ability of these compounds to react with model nucleophiles and oncogenic K-Ras proteins. Here, we report that aziridines and stabilized diazo groups preferentially react with free carboxylates over thiols. Although we did not identify a warhead that potently labels K-Ras G12D, we were able to study the interactions of many electrophiles with K-Ras, as most of the electrophiles rapidly label K-Ras G12C. We characterized the resulting complexes by crystallography, hydrogen/deuterium exchange, and differential scanning fluorimetry. Our results both demonstrate the ability of a noncatalytic cysteine to react with a diverse set of electrophiles and emphasize the importance of proper spatial arrangements between a covalent inhibitor and its intended nucleophile. We hope that these results can expand the range of electrophiles and nucleophiles of use in covalent protein modulation.

  5. Acute sensitivity of the oral mucosa to oncogenic K-ras

    PubMed Central

    van der Weyden, Louise; Alcolea, Maria P; Jones, Philip H; Rust, Alistair G; Arends, Mark J; Adams, David J

    2011-01-01

    Mouse models of cancer represent powerful tools for analysing the role of genetic alterations in carcinogenesis. Using a mouse model that allows tamoxifen-inducible somatic activation (by Cre-mediated recombination) of oncogenic K-rasG12D in a wide range of tissues, we observed hyperplasia of squamous epithelium located in moist or frequently abraded mucosa, with the most dramatic effects in the oral mucosa. This epithelium showed a sequence of squamous hyperplasia followed by squamous papilloma with dysplasia, in which some areas progressed to early invasive squamous cell carcinoma, within 14 days of widespread oncogenic K-ras activation. The marked proliferative response of the oral mucosa to K-rasG12D was most evident in the basal layers of the squamous epithelium of the outer lip with hair follicles and wet mucosal surface, with these cells staining positively for pAKT and cyclin D1, showing Ras/AKT pathway activation and increased proliferation with Ki-67 and EdU positivity. The stromal cells also showed gene activation by recombination and immunopositivity for pERK indicating K-Ras/ERK pathway activation, but without Ki-67 positivity or increase in stromal proliferation. The oral neoplasms showed changes in the expression pattern of cytokeratins (CK6 and CK13), similar to those observed in human oral tumours. Sporadic activation of the K-rasG12D allele (due to background spontaneous recombination in occasional cells) resulted in the development of benign oral squamous papillomas only showing a mild degree of dysplasia with no invasion. In summary, we show that oral mucosa is acutely sensitive to oncogenic K-ras, as widespread expression of activated K-ras in the murine oral mucosal squamous epithelium and underlying stroma can drive the oral squamous papilloma–carcinoma sequence. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:21381032

  6. Conformational SERS Classification of K-Ras Point Mutations for Cancer Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Morla-Folch, Judit; Gisbert-Quilis, Patricia; Masetti, Matteo; Garcia-Rico, Eduardo; Alvarez-Puebla, Ramon A; Guerrini, Luca

    2017-02-20

    Point mutations in Ras oncogenes are routinely screened for diagnostics and treatment of tumors (especially in colorectal cancer). Here, we develop an optical approach based on direct SERS coupled with chemometrics for the study of the specific conformations that single-point mutations impose on a relatively large fragment of the K-Ras gene (141 nucleobases). Results obtained offer the unambiguous classification of different mutations providing a potentially useful insight for diagnostics and treatment of cancer in a sensitive, fast, direct and inexpensive manner.

  7. Oncogenic K-Ras Binds to an Anionic Membrane in Two Distinct Orientations: A Molecular Dynamics Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Priyanka; Zhou, Yong; Liang, Hong; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2016-01-01

    K-Ras is a membrane-associated GTPase that cycles between active and inactive conformational states to regulate a variety of cell signaling pathways. Somatic mutations in K-Ras are linked to 15–20% of all human tumors. K-Ras attaches to the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane via a farnesylated polybasic domain; however, the structural details of the complex remain poorly understood. Based on extensive (7.5 μs total) atomistic molecular dynamics simulations here we show that oncogenic mutant K-Ras interacts with a negatively charged lipid bilayer membrane in multiple orientations. Of these, two highly populated orientations account for ∼54% of the conformers whose catalytic domain directly interacts with the bilayer. In one of these orientation states, membrane binding involves helices 3 and 4 of the catalytic domain in addition to the farnesyl and polybasic motifs. In the other orientation, β-strands 1–3 and helix 2 on the opposite face of the catalytic domain contribute to membrane binding. Flexibility of the linker region was found to be important for the reorientation. The biological significance of these observations was evaluated by initial experiments in cells overexpressing mutant K-Ras as well as by an analysis of Ras-effector complex structures. The results suggest that only one of the two major orientation states is capable of effector binding. We propose that the different modes of membrane binding may be exploited in structure-based drug design efforts for cancer therapy. PMID:26958889

  8. Activation of c-myc and c-K-ras oncogenes in primary rat tumors induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Sawey, M J; Hood, A T; Burns, F J; Garte, S J

    1987-01-01

    An activated K-ras oncogene was detected by transfection in NIH 3T3 cells and by Southern blot analysis in 6 of 12 rat skin tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The DNA from 10 of the 12 tumors also showed c-myc gene amplification and restriction polymorphisms. Evidence for tissue specificity was observed in patterns of oncogene activation, with each of three clear cell carcinomas exhibiting activation of both c-myc and K-ras oncogenes. Images PMID:3547086

  9. Detection of K-ras oncogene from the human genomic DNA using ultrasonication and a quantum dots-based microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Noh, Han Na; Kim, Jong Sung

    2013-09-01

    In clinical diagnostics, single-stranded DNAs (ssDNA) have been prepared from the human genomic DNA for the detection of a specific gene. In this study, the human genomic DNA was degraded via ultrasonication in solution, and K-ras oncogene was detected from the DNA fragments via the fluorescence quenching of quantum dots (QDs) by intercalating dyes after hybridization of the target, to probe DNAs in a microfluidic chip. K-ras is one of the most activated common oncogenes, and many human tumors are known to be due to the mutation of this gene. QDs are nano-sized semiconductors with a wide selection of emission wavelengths and exceptional stability against photo bleaching. In this study, probe DNA-conjugated QDs were immobilized to polystyrene microbeads, and the DNA-microbead-QDs complexes were packed through a microchannel by pillars that trap the beads in the microfluidic chip. The fluorescence of the QDs could be quenched by intercalating dye (TOTO-3) after hybridization of K-ras oncogene to the probe DNA in the channel. The fluorescence intensity decrease of the QDs can be used as an indication of the K-ras oncogene. By introducing an alkaline buffer solution, the DNAs were denatured, and the fluorescence intensity of the QDs again increased, which shows the possibility of reuse of the microfluidic chip for the detection of the K-ras gene.

  10. Is there a prognostic role of K-ras point mutations in the serum of patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer?

    PubMed

    Camps, Carlos; Sirera, Rafael; Bremnes, Roy; Blasco, Ana; Sancho, Eva; Bayo, Pilar; Safont, Maria Jose; Sánchez, José Javier; Tarón, Miquel; Rosell, Rafael

    2005-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of K-ras mutations in circulating DNA in advanced non-small lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Serum samples were assessed prior to platinum-based chemotherapy start in 67 patients with advanced NSCLC (stage IIIB or IV), treated between April 1999 and June 2002. Patients were not previously treated with chemotherapy. K-ras oncogene mutations at codon 12 were analyzed by genomic amplification and direct sequencing of the patient's DNA present in serum. Pre-treatment serum was available in all 67 patients. Twenty patients (30%) demonstrated K-ras mutations while 47 patients (70%) had wild-type K-ras. Among K-ras mutations, the amino acid glycine was substituted by cystein in 90% and valine in 10%. When patients were grouped according to K-ras genotype, there was no significant difference for any of the baseline patient characteristics. There was a tendency towards a higher response rate for patients with K-ras mutations versus wild-type K-ras in serum, however not statistically significant (p=0.37). Median progression-free survival was 7.3 months versus 5.5 months in patients with mutations and with wild-type K-ras, respectively (p=0.23). For median overall survival time, the mutation group was comparable to the wild-type K-ras group with 12.5 and 11.4 months, respectively (p=0.28). In conclusion, there were no significant differences between the patients with K-ras mutations and those with wild-type genotype with respect to baseline patient characteristics, response rates, progression-free survival, or overall survival.

  11. Involvement of oncogenic K-ras on cell migration stimulated by lysophosphatidic acid receptor-2 in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Kyohei; Tanabe, Eriko; Shibata, Ayano; Inoue, Serina; Kitayoshi, Misaho; Okimoto, Souta; Fukushima, Nobuyuki; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi

    2013-02-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) mediates a variety of cellular responses with atleast six G protein-coupled transmembrane receptors (LPA receptor-1 (LPA(1)-LPA(6))). The interaction between LPA receptors and other cellular molecules on the biological function is not fully understood. Recently, we have reported that LPA(1) suppressed and LPA(3) stimulated cell migration of pancreatic cancer cells. In the present study, to evaluate the function of LPA(2) on motile and invasive activities of pancreatic cancer cells, we generated Lpar2 knockdown (HPD-sh2) cells from hamster pancreatic cancer cells and measured their cell migration ability. In cell motility and invasive assays with an uncoated Cell Culture Insert, HPD-sh2 cells showed significantly lower intrinsic activity than control (HPD-GFP) cells. Since K-ras mutations were frequently detected in pancreatic cancer, we next investigated whether oncogenic K-ras is involved in cell migration induced by LPA(2) using K-ras knockdown (HPD-K2) cells. The cell motile ability of HPD-K2 cells was significantly lower than that of control cells. To confirm LPA(2) increases cell migration activity, cells were pretreated with dioctylglycerol pyrophosphate (DGPP) which is the antagonist of LPA(1)/LPA(3). The cell motile and invasive abilities of DGPP -treated HPD-GFP cells were markedly higher than those of untreated cells, but DGPP did not stimulate cell migration of HPD-K2 cells. These results suggest that cell migration activity of pancreatic cancer cells stimulated by LPA(2) may be enhanced by oncogenic K-ras. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Mutational analysis of EGFR and K-RAS genes in lung adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Soung, Young Hwa; Lee, Jong Woo; Kim, Su Young; Seo, Si Hyung; Park, Won Sang; Nam, Suk Woo; Song, Sang Yong; Han, Joung Ho; Park, Cheol Keun; Lee, Jung Young; Yoo, Nam Jin; Lee, Sug Hyung

    2005-05-01

    Both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and RAS gene mutations contribute to the development of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because RAS is one of the downstream molecules in the EGFR signal transduction, the association between the somatic mutations of EGFR and RAS may be important in the pathogenesis of NSCLC . However, to date, such data are lacking. In this study, we analyzed the hotspot regions of K-RAS gene (codons 12, 13, 59 and 61) and EGFR gene (exons 18, 19 and 21) in 153 NSCLC tissue samples including 69 adenocarcinomas. Overall, we detected 30 EGFR mutations (19.6%) and 6 K-RAS mutations (3.9%) in the 153 NSCLCs. In the 69 adenocarcinomas, 26 EGFR mutations (37.7%) and six K-RAS mutations (8.7%) were detected. Of note, the 26 tumors with EGFR mutations did not harbor any K-RAS mutations, and the six tumors with K-RAS mutations did not harbor any EGFR mutations. Inverse relationship between K-RAS and EGFR mutations in the lung adenocarcinoma was statistically significant (P=0.046, chi2 test). As regards smoking history, EGFR mutation was significantly associated with never-smoking history, whereas K-RAS mutation was significantly associated with smoking history. Our data suggest that mutations of EGFR and K-RAS genes might separately, but not cooperatively, contribute to lung adenocarcinoma pathogenesis, and that EGFR and K-RAS mutants could separately be anti-neoplastic targets in lung adenocarcinomas.

  13. Cooperativity of Oncogenic K-Ras and Downregulated p16/INK4A in Human Pancreatic Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ling, Jianhua; Zhuang, Zhuonan; Li, Zhongkui; Wang, Huamin; Fleming, Jason B.; Freeman, James W.; Yu, Dihua; Huang, Peng; Chiao, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Activation of K-ras and inactivation of p16 are the most frequently identified genetic alterations in human pancreatic epithelial adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Mouse models engineered with mutant K-ras and deleted p16 recapitulate key pathological features of PDAC. However, a human cell culture transformation model that recapitulates the human pancreatic molecular carcinogenesis is lacking. In this study, we investigated the role of p16 in hTERT-immortalized human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells expressing mutant K-ras (K-rasG12V). We found that expression of p16 was induced by oncogenic K-ras in these HPNE cells and that silencing of this induced p16 expression resulted in tumorigenic transformation and development of metastatic PDAC in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Our results revealed that PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 pathways and TGFα signaling were activated by K-ras and involved in the malignant transformation of human pancreatic cells. Also, p38/MAPK pathway was involved in p16 up-regulation. Thus, our findings establish an experimental cell-based model for dissecting signaling pathways in the development of human PDAC. This model provides an important tool for studying the molecular basis of PDAC development and gaining insight into signaling mechanisms and potential new therapeutic targets for altered oncogenic signaling pathways in PDAC. PMID:25029561

  14. Cooperativity of oncogenic K-ras and downregulated p16/INK4A in human pancreatic tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Zhe; Ju, Huaiqiang; Ling, Jianhua; Zhuang, Zhuonan; Li, Zhongkui; Wang, Huamin; Fleming, Jason B; Freeman, James W; Yu, Dihua; Huang, Peng; Chiao, Paul J

    2014-01-01

    Activation of K-ras and inactivation of p16 are the most frequently identified genetic alterations in human pancreatic epithelial adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Mouse models engineered with mutant K-ras and deleted p16 recapitulate key pathological features of PDAC. However, a human cell culture transformation model that recapitulates the human pancreatic molecular carcinogenesis is lacking. In this study, we investigated the role of p16 in hTERT-immortalized human pancreatic epithelial nestin-expressing (HPNE) cells expressing mutant K-ras (K-rasG12V). We found that expression of p16 was induced by oncogenic K-ras in these HPNE cells and that silencing of this induced p16 expression resulted in tumorigenic transformation and development of metastatic PDAC in an orthotopic xenograft mouse model. Our results revealed that PI3K/Akt, ERK1/2 pathways and TGFα signaling were activated by K-ras and involved in the malignant transformation of human pancreatic cells. Also, p38/MAPK pathway was involved in p16 up-regulation. Thus, our findings establish an experimental cell-based model for dissecting signaling pathways in the development of human PDAC. This model provides an important tool for studying the molecular basis of PDAC development and gaining insight into signaling mechanisms and potential new therapeutic targets for altered oncogenic signaling pathways in PDAC.

  15. Across the universe of K-RAS mutations in non-small-cell-lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Piva, Sheila; Ganzinelli, Monica; Garassino, Marina Chiara; Caiola, Elisa; Farina, Gabriella; Broggini, Massimo; Marabese, Mirko

    2014-01-01

    RAS family proteins are important signaling molecules that regulate cell growth, survival and differentiation by coupling receptor activation to downstream effector pathways. Three distinct genes encode for the three different proteins H-, K-, and N- RAS. These proteins share high sequence homology, particularly at the N-Terminal domain. Among them, K-RAS is one of the most frequently mutated in human cancer. The majority of the mutations present in K-RAS are at codon 12 (from 80 to 100%) followed by codon 13 and 61. In all cases, aminoacid change leads to a constitutively activated protein. K-RAS mutations have a role in tumor development as well as in tumor progression and resistance. Despite the various studies which have been published, the prognostic and predictive role of K-RAS mutations is still under debate. Keeping in mind that the glycine present at position 12 can be substituted by valine, aspartic acid or cysteine, it could be well understood that each different substitution plays a different role in K-RAS-dependent processes. The present article focuses on the molecular and biological characteristics of K-RAS protein, its role in NSCLC tumor development and progression. We also present an overview of the preclinical models both in vitro and in vivo available to determine the role of K-RAS in tumor progression and response to treatment and on the recent results obtained in this field. Finally, we have considered the impact of KRAS mutations in clinical practice, analyzing the different recent trials that have taken into consideration K-RAS.

  16. Identification of translocation products but not K-RAS mutations in memory B cells from patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Thomas; Haaber, Jacob; Dahl, Inger Marie; Knudsen, Lene M; Kerndrup, Gitte B; Lodahl, Marianne; Johnsen, Hans E; Kuehl, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Several laboratories have shown that cells with a memory B-cell phenotype can have the same clonotype as multiple myeloma tumor cells. The aim of this study was to determine whether some memory B cells have the same genetic alterations as their corresponding multiple myeloma malignant plasma cells. The methodology included sorting multiple myeloma or memory B cells into RNA stabilizing medium for generation of subset-specific polymerase chain reaction complementary DNA libraries from one or 100 cells. Cells with the phenotype of tumor plasma cells (CD38(++)CD19(-)CD45(-/+)CD56(-/+/++)) or memory B cells (CD38(-)/CD19(+)/CD27(+)) were isolated by flow activated cell sorting. In samples from all four patients with multiple myeloma and from two of the three with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance, we identified memory B cells expressing multiple myeloma-specific oncogenes (FGFR3; IGH-MMSET; CCND1 high) dysregulated by an IGH translocation in the respective tumor plasma cells. By contrast, in seven patients with multiple myeloma, each of whom had tumor plasma cells with a K-RAS61 mutation, a total of 32,400 memory B cells were analyzed using a sensitive allele-specific, competitive blocker polymerase chain reaction assay, but no K-RAS mutations were identified. The increased expression of a specific "early" oncogene of multiple myeloma (monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance) in some memory B cells suggests that dysregulation of the oncogene occurs in a precursor B-cell that can generate memory B cells and transformed plasma cells. However, if memory B cells lack "late" oncogene (K-RAS) mutations but express the "early" oncogene, they cannot be involved in maintaining the multiple myeloma tumor, but presumably represent a clonotypic remnant that is only partially transformed.

  17. Alcohol and the risk of colon and rectal cancer with mutations in the K-ras gene.

    PubMed

    Bongaerts, Brenda W C; de Goeij, Anton F P M; van den Brandt, Piet A; Weijenberg, Matty P

    2006-04-01

    The first metabolite of alcohol, acetaldehyde, may trigger replication errors and mutations in DNA, which may predispose to developing colorectal cancer (CRC). In a prospective study on colon and rectal cancer, we investigated the following hypotheses: alcohol consumption is associated with an increased risk of mutations in the K-ras oncogene, and beer consumption is associated with an increased risk of G-->A mutations in this gene. Therefore, we studied the associations between consumption of alcohol and alcoholic beverages and the risk of CRC without and with specific K-ras gene mutations. In 1986, 120,852 men and women, aged 55-69 years, completed a questionnaire on risk factors for cancer. The case-cohort approach was used for data processing and analyses. After 7.3 years of follow-up, excluding the first 2.3 years, complete data from 4,076 subcohort members, 428 colon and 150 rectal cancer patients, were available for data analyses. Incidence rate ratios (RRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated using Cox proportional hazards models. Compared to abstaining, a total alcohol consumption of 30.0 g/day and more was associated with the risk of colon and rectal cancer with and without a K-ras mutation in both men and women. Independent from alcohol intake, liquor consumption when compared to nonliquor consumption was associated with an increased risk of rectal cancer with a wild type K-ras in men (RR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.0-5.0). Beer consumption was not clearly associated with the risk of colon and rectal tumors harboring G-->A mutations in the K-ras gene in men. This association could not be assessed in women because of sparse beer consumption. In conclusion, alcohol does not seem to be involved in predisposing to CRC through mutations in the K-ras gene, and specifically beer consumption is not associated with colon and rectal tumors harboring a G-->A mutation.

  18. K-ras, p53 mutations, and microsatellite instability (MSI) in gallbladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Saetta, Angelica A

    2006-06-15

    Despite the considerable progress in understanding the molecular pathology of carcinogenesis, the genetic mechanisms underlying the development and progression of gallbladder cancer (GC) are poorly understood. The survival of GC patients is generally poor. Therefore, it is very useful to define valuable prognostic factors. The most extensively studied oncogenes in gallbladder carcinogenesis are ras, commonly mutated in neoplasms of the gastrointestinal tract. K-ras oncogene is altered in a subset of gallbladder patients and mainly in those having anomalous junction of the pancreaticobiliary tract. Most of the studies of genetic abnormalities in GC have focused on p53 gene. p53 mutation/overexpression and/or LOH is present in more than 50% of gallbladder carcinomas, suggesting an important role in their pathogenesis. However, these results have not any predictive value yet. Moreover, the involvement of an alternative molecular pathway, that of microsatellite instability (MSI), is found in a limited group of GC patients. Additional research is necessary to establish its possible relation to defects of the mismatch repair (MMR) system and its proposed prognostic significance. Further elucidation of the molecular events specific to GC will help to identify novel molecular targets for the diagnosis and clinical management of the patients. Copyright 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. Oncogenic K-Ras signals through epidermal growth factor receptor and wild-type H-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cengel, Keith A; Voong, K Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D; McKenna, W Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J

    2007-04-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor alpha was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers.

  20. Oncogenic K-Ras Signals through Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and Wild-Type H-Ras to Promote Radiation Survival in Pancreatic and Colorectal Carcinoma Cells1

    PubMed Central

    Cengel, Keith A.; Voong, K. Rahn; Chandrasekaran, Sanjay; Maggiorella, Laurence; Brunner, Thomas B.; Stanbridge, Eric; Kao, Gary D.; McKenna, W. Gillies; Bernhard, Eric J.

    2007-01-01

    Pancreatic and colorectal carcinomas frequently express oncogenic/mutant K-Ras that contributes to both tumorigenesis and clinically observed resistance to radiation treatment. We have previously shown that farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTI) radiosensitize many pancreatic and colorectal cancer cell lines that express oncogenic K-ras at doses that inhibit the prenylation and activation of H-Ras but not K-Ras. In the present study, we have examined the mechanism of FTI-mediated radiosensitization in cell lines that express oncogenic K-Ras and found that wild-type H-Ras is a contributor to radiation survival in tumor cells that express oncogenic K-Ras. In these experiments, inhibiting the expression of oncogenic K-Ras, wild-type H-Ras, or epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) led to similar levels of radiosensitization as treatment with the FTI tipifarnib. Treatment with the EGFR inhibitor gefitinib led to similar levels of radiosensitization, and the combinations of tipifarnib or gefitinib plus inhibition of K-Ras, H-Ras, or EGFR expression did not provide additional radiosensitization compared with tipifarnib or gefitinib alone. Finally, supplementing culture medium with the EGFR ligand transforming growth factor α was able to reverse the radiosensitizing effect of inhibiting K-ras expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGFR-activated H-Ras signaling is initiated by oncogenic K-Ras to promote radiation survival in pancreatic and colorectal cancers. PMID:17460778

  1. Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Mediates Bronchioalveolar Stem Cell Expansion in Mouse Models of Oncogenic K-ras-Induced Lung Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yanan; Iwanaga, Kentaro; Raso, Maria Gabriela; Wislez, Marie; Hanna, Amy E.; Wieder, Eric D.; Molldrem, Jeffrey J.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Powis, Garth; Demayo, Francesco J.; Kim, Carla F.; Kurie, Jonathan M.

    2008-01-01

    Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common cause of cancer-related death in Western countries. Developing more effective NSCLC therapeutics will require the elucidation of the genetic and biochemical bases for this disease. Bronchioalveolar stem cells (BASCs) are a putative cancer stem cell population in mouse models of oncogenic K-ras-induced lung adenocarcinoma, an histologic subtype of NSCLC. The signals activated by oncogenic K-ras that mediate BASC expansion have not been fully defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We used genetic and pharmacologic approaches to modulate the activity of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), a key mediator of oncogenic K-ras, in two genetic mouse models of lung adenocarcinoma. Oncogenic K-ras-induced BASC accumulation and tumor growth were blocked by treatment with a small molecule PI3K inhibitor and enhanced by inactivation of phosphatase and tensin homologue deleted from chromosome 10, a negative regulator of PI3K. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that PI3K is a critical regulator of BASC expansion, supporting treatment strategies to target PI3K in NSCLC patients. PMID:18493606

  2. Prognostic significance of K-Ras mutation rate in metastatic colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Cremolini, Chiara; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Russo, Antonio; Mannavola, Francesco; Perrone, Giuseppe; Pantano, Francesco; Loupakis, Fotios; Rossini, Daniele; Ongaro, Elena; Bonazzina, Erica; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Imperatori, Marco; Zoccoli, Alice; Bronte, Giuseppe; De Maglio, Giovanna; Fontanini, Gabriella; Natoli, Clara; Falcone, Alfredo; Santini, Daniele; Onetti-Muda, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore; Tonini, Giuseppe; Aprile, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Activating mutations of K-Ras gene have a well-established role as predictors of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Their prognostic value is controversial, and no data regarding the prognostic value of mutation rate, defined as the percentage of mutated alleles/tumor sample, are available. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of K-Rasmutation rate in a homogenous cohort of mCRC patients receiving first-line doublet plus bevacizumab. Patients and Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 397 K-Ras mutant mCRC patients from 6 Italian centers, and 263 patients were fully evaluable for our analysis. K-Ras mutation rate was assessed by pyrosequencing. Patients with less than 60% of cancer cells in tumor tissue were excluded. No patients received anti-EGFR containing anticancer therapy, at any time. Median mutation rate was 40% and was adopted as cut-off. The primary and secondary endpoints were PFS and OS respectively. Results: At univariate analysis, K-Ras mutation rate higher than 40% was significantly associated with lower PFS (7.3 vs 9.1 months; P < 0.0001) and OS (21 vs 31 months; P = 0.004). A multivariate model adjusted for age at diagnosis, site of origin of tumor tissue (primary vs metastases), referral center, number of metastatic sites, and first-line chemotherapy backbone, showed that K-Ras mutation rate remained a significant predictor of PFS and OS in the whole population. Discussion: Our data demonstrate an association between K-Ras mutation rate and prognosis in mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-containing first-line therapy. These data deserve to be verified in an independent validation set. PMID:26384309

  3. Prognostic significance of K-Ras mutation rate in metastatic colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Vincenzi, Bruno; Cremolini, Chiara; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Russo, Antonio; Mannavola, Francesco; Perrone, Giuseppe; Pantano, Francesco; Loupakis, Fotios; Rossini, Daniele; Ongaro, Elena; Bonazzina, Erica; Dell'Aquila, Emanuela; Imperatori, Marco; Zoccoli, Alice; Bronte, Giuseppe; De Maglio, Giovanna; Fontanini, Gabriella; Natoli, Clara; Falcone, Alfredo; Santini, Daniele; Onetti-Muda, Andrea; Siena, Salvatore; Tonini, Giuseppe; Aprile, Giuseppe

    2015-10-13

    Activating mutations of K-Ras gene have a well-established role as predictors of resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients. Their prognostic value is controversial, and no data regarding the prognostic value of mutation rate, defined as the percentage of mutated alleles/tumor sample, are available. We aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of K-Rasmutation rate in a homogenous cohort of mCRC patients receiving first-line doublet plus bevacizumab. This retrospective study enrolled 397 K-Ras mutant mCRC patients from 6 Italian centers, and 263 patients were fully evaluable for our analysis. K-Ras mutation rate was assessed by pyrosequencing. Patients with less than 60% of cancer cells in tumor tissue were excluded. No patients received anti-EGFR containing anticancer therapy, at any time. Median mutation rate was 40% and was adopted as cut-off. The primary and secondary endpoints were PFS and OS respectively. At univariate analysis, K-Ras mutation rate higher than 40% was significantly associated with lower PFS (7.3 vs 9.1 months; P < 0.0001) and OS (21 vs 31 months; P = 0.004). A multivariate model adjusted for age at diagnosis, site of origin of tumor tissue (primary vs metastases), referral center, number of metastatic sites, and first-line chemotherapy backbone, showed that K-Ras mutation rate remained a significant predictor of PFS and OS in the whole population. Our data demonstrate an association between K-Ras mutation rate and prognosis in mCRC patients treated with bevacizumab-containing first-line therapy. These data deserve to be verified in an independent validation set.

  4. Activating the expression of human K-rasG12D stimulates oncogenic transformation in transgenic goat fetal fibroblast cells.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongde; Polejaeva, Irina; Salgia, Ravi; Kao, Chien-Min; Chen, Chin-Tu; Chen, Guangchun; Chen, Liaohai

    2014-01-01

    Humane use of preclinical large animal cancer models plays a critical role in understanding cancer biology and developing therapeutic treatments. Among the large animal candidates, goats have great potentials as sustainable sources for large animal cancer model development. Goats are easier to handle and cheaper to raise. The genome of the goats has been sequenced recently. It has been known that goats develop skin, adrenal cortex, breast and other types of cancers. Technically, goats are subject to somatic cell nuclear transfer more efficiently and exhibit better viability through the cloning process. Towards the development of a goat cancer model, we created a transgenic goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell as the donor cell for SCNT. Human mutated K-ras (hK-rasG12D) was chosen as the transgene, as it is present in 20% of cancers. Both hK-rasG12D and a herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter genes, flanked by a pair of LoxP sites, were knocked in the GFF endogenous K-ras locus through homologous recombination. Following Cre-mediated activation (with a 95% activation efficiency), hK-rasG12D and HSV1-tk were expressed in the transgenic GFF cells, evidently through the presence of corresponding mRNAs, and confirmed by HSV1-tk protein function assay. The hK-rasG12D expressing GFF cells exhibited enhanced proliferation rates and an anchorage-independent growth behavior. They were able to initiate tumor growth in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, after activating hK-rasG12D gene expression, hK-rasG12D transgenic GFF cells were transformed into tumorgenesis cells. Transgenic goats via SCNT using the above-motioned cells as the donor cells have been established.

  5. Activating the Expression of Human K-rasG12D Stimulates Oncogenic Transformation in Transgenic Goat Fetal Fibroblast Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jianhua; Wang, Zhongde; Polejaeva, Irina; Salgia, Ravi; Kao, Chien-Min; Chen, Chin-Tu; Chen, Guangchun; Chen, Liaohai

    2014-01-01

    Humane use of preclinical large animal cancer models plays a critical role in understanding cancer biology and developing therapeutic treatments. Among the large animal candidates, goats have great potentials as sustainable sources for large animal cancer model development. Goats are easier to handle and cheaper to raise. The genome of the goats has been sequenced recently. It has been known that goats develop skin, adrenal cortex, breast and other types of cancers. Technically, goats are subject to somatic cell nuclear transfer more efficiently and exhibit better viability through the cloning process. Towards the development of a goat cancer model, we created a transgenic goat fetal fibroblast (GFF) cell as the donor cell for SCNT. Human mutated K-ras (hK-rasG12D) was chosen as the transgene, as it is present in 20% of cancers. Both hK-rasG12D and a herpes simplex viral thymidine kinase (HSV1-tk) reporter genes, flanked by a pair of LoxP sites, were knocked in the GFF endogenous K-ras locus through homologous recombination. Following Cre-mediated activation (with a 95% activation efficiency), hK-rasG12D and HSV1-tk were expressed in the transgenic GFF cells, evidently through the presence of corresponding mRNAs, and confirmed by HSV1-tk protein function assay. The hK-rasG12D expressing GFF cells exhibited enhanced proliferation rates and an anchorage-independent growth behavior. They were able to initiate tumor growth in athymic nude mice. In conclusion, after activating hK-rasG12D gene expression, hK-rasG12D transgenic GFF cells were transformed into tumorgenesis cells. Transgenic goats via SCNT using the above-motioned cells as the donor cells have been established. PMID:24594684

  6. K-ras mutations, rectal crypt cells proliferation, and meat consumption in patients with left-sided colorectal carcinoma.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, H; Matthew, J A; Gee, J M; Watson, M; Rhodes, M; Speakman, C T; Stebbings, W S; Kennedy, H J; Johnson, I T

    2000-02-01

    It has been suggested that N-nitroso compounds derived from meat may increase the risk of K-ras mutations in the human colon. We sought evidence of associations between red meat consumption, frequency and type of K-ras mutations in resected tumours, and the rate of crypt cell proliferation (CCP) in the normal mucosa of patients with left-sided colorectal carcinoma. Meat consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire, and CCP was determined in rectal biopsies obtained prior to surgery. K-ras mutations in the resected tumours were determined using a PCR-based oligonucleotide hybridization assay. Fifteen K-ras mutations were detected in tumours from 43 patients; 13/15 in codon 12, 3/15 in codon 13, and 1/15 in both codons 12 and 13. All mutations were G-->A or G-->T transitions. There was no statistically significant difference between intakes of red meat in patients with a K-ras mutation (92.4 +/- 9.7 g/day) and those without (82.3 +/- 7.7 g/day). Rectal CCP was significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls, but there was no correlation with meat consumption or K-ras mutation. These data do not support the hypothesis that meat consumption is a risk factor for acquisition of K-ras mutations during colorectal carcinogenesis.

  7. CYP1B1 polymorphisms and k-ras mutations in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Crous-Bou, Marta; De Vivo, Immaculata; Porta, Miquel; Pumarega, José A; López, Tomàs; Alguacil, Joan; Morales, Eva; Malats, Núria; Rifà, Juli; Hunter, David J; Real, Francisco X

    2008-05-01

    The frequency of CYP1B1 polymorphisms in pancreatic cancer has never been reported. There is also no evidence on the relationship between CYP1B1 variants and mutations in ras genes (K-, H- or N-ras) in any human neoplasm. We analyzed the following CYP1B1 polymorphisms in 129 incident cases of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA): the m1 allele (Val to Leu at codon 432) and the m2 allele (Asn to Ser at codon 453). The calculated frequencies for the m1 Val and m2 Asn alleles were 0.45 and 0.68, respectively. CYP1B1 genotypes were out of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium; this was largely due to K-ras mutated PDA cases. The Val/Val genotype was over five times more frequent in PDA cases with a K-ras mutation than in wild-type cases (OR = 5.25; P = 0.121). In PDA, polymorphisms in CYP1B1 might be related with K-ras activation pathways.

  8. Analysis of p53, K-ras gene mutation & Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer & peptic ulcer disease at a tertiary care hospital in north India.

    PubMed

    Saxena, Ashish; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2012-10-01

    Mutations in the oncogene and tumour suppressor genes play an important role in carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of p53 and K-ras gene mutation and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. In total, 348 adult patients [62 GC, 45 PUD and 241 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD)] who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Mutation in the exon 5-8 of p53 gene was analyzed by PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and confirmed by sequence analysis. K-ras gene codon 12 mutation was analyzed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Overall p53 gene mutation was found in 4.6 per cent of the study population, and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 21, 4.4 and 0.4 per cent, respectively. p53 gene mutation was significantly higher in patients with GC than PUD (P<0.05) and NUD (P<0.001). No difference in p53 gene mutation was observed between H. pylori infected and non-infected individuals. K-ras gene mutation was absent in all the patients. Our results show that p53 gene mutation may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis independent to H. pylori infection and absence of K-ras gene mutation questions its role in the pathogenesis of GC and PUD in Indian patients.

  9. Analysis of p53, K-ras gene mutation & Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer & peptic ulcer disease at a tertiary care hospital in north India

    PubMed Central

    Saxena, Ashish; Shukla, Sanket Kumar; Prasad, Kashi Nath; Ghoshal, Uday Chand

    2012-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mutations in the oncogene and tumour suppressor genes play an important role in carcinogenesis. We investigated the association of p53 and K-ras gene mutation and Helicobacter pylori infection in patients with gastric cancer (GC) and peptic ulcer disease (PUD) attending a tertiary care hospital in north India. Methods: In total, 348 adult patients [62 GC, 45 PUD and 241 non-ulcer dyspepsia (NUD)] who underwent an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy were enrolled. H. pylori infection was diagnosed by rapid urease test, culture, histopathology and PCR. Mutation in the exon 5-8 of p53 gene was analyzed by PCR-single stranded conformational polymorphism (SSCP) and confirmed by sequence analysis. K-ras gene codon 12 mutation was analyzed by PCR-based restriction fragment length polymorphism. Results: Overall p53 gene mutation was found in 4.6 per cent of the study population, and its distribution in GC, PUD and NUD was 21, 4.4 and 0.4 per cent, respectively. p53 gene mutation was significantly higher in patients with GC than PUD (P<0.05) and NUD (P<0.001). No difference in p53 gene mutation was observed between H. pylori infected and non-infected individuals. K-ras gene mutation was absent in all the patients. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results show that p53 gene mutation may be associated with gastric carcinogenesis independent to H. pylori infection and absence of K-ras gene mutation questions its role in the pathogenesis of GC and PUD in Indian patients. PMID:23168708

  10. Oncogenic K-Ras and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Prevent FAS-Mediated Apoptosis in Fibroblasts through Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin

    2000-01-01

    By an expression cloning method using Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells, we tried to obtain inhibitory genes against Fas-mediated apoptosis and identified proto-oncogene c-K-ras. Transient expression of K-Ras mutants revealed that oncogenic mutant K-Ras (RasV12) strongly inhibited, whereas dominant-inhibitory mutant K-Ras (RasN17) enhanced, Fas-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting Fas-triggered activation of caspases without affecting an expression level of Fas. Among the target molecules of Ras, including Raf (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase [MAPKKK]), phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RalGDS), only the constitutively active form of Raf (Raf-CAAX) could inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the constitutively active form of MAPKK (SDSE-MAPKK) suppressed Fas-mediated apoptosis, and MKP-1, a phosphatase specific for classical MAPK, canceled the protective activity of oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasV12), Raf-CAAX, and SDSE-MAPKK. Furthermore, physiological activation of Ras by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) protected Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis. bFGF protection was also dependent on the activation of the MAPK pathway through Ras. All the results indicate that the activation of MAPK through Ras inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in Balb3T3 cells, which may play a role in oncogenesis. PMID:10662780

  11. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients’ clinical pathology characteristic. PMID:26309716

  12. K-ras genetic mutation and influencing factor analysis for Han and Uygur nationality colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Eli, Mayinur; Mollayup, Ablikim; Muattar; Liu, Chao; Zheng, Chao; Bao, Yong-Xing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the K-ras genetic mutation status in colorectal cancer patients, compare the difference of K-ras genetic mutation rate in Han and Uygur nationality and analyze the influencing factor. 91 cases (52 cases of Han nationality and 39 cases of Uygur nationality) of colorectal biopsy or surgical ablation pathology specimen from the first affiliated hospital of Xinjiang Medical University during January, 2010 to March, 2013 were collected to detect the 12th and 13th code mutation status of K-ras gene exon 2 with pyrosequencing method and compare the difference of K-ras gene mutation rate between Han and Uygur nationality patients. Single factor analysis and multiple factor logistic regression analysis were utilized to analyze the influencing factor for K-ras genetic mutation. 33 cases of patients with K-ras genetic mutation were found from the 91 cases colorectal cancer patients and the total mutation rate was 36.3%. Among them, 24 cases (72.7%) were found with mutation only in the 12th code, 9 cases (27.3%) were found with mutation only in the 13th code and no one case was found with mutation in both the two codes. Mutation rate of the 12th code in the Uygur nationality was significantly higher than that in the Han nationality (P<0.05), but there were no significant difference in the comparison of the total mutation rate and the 13th code mutation rate between the two groups (P>0.05). There were no associativity (P>0.05) between the K-ras genetic mutation and sex, age, smoking history, drinking history, tumor location, macropathology type, differentiation level, staging, invasive depth, lymph nodes transferring and metastasis in colorectal cancer patients (P>0.05). K-ras genetic mutation rate is high in colorectal cancer patients. The mutation rate of 12th code in Uygur nationality is higher than that in Han nationality. There is no significant associativity between K-ras genetic mutation rate and patients' clinical pathology characteristic.

  13. Low somatic K-ras mutation frequency in colorectal cancer diagnosed under the age of 45 years.

    PubMed

    Alsop, Kathryn; Mead, Leeanne; Smith, Letitia D; Royce, Simon G; Tesoriero, Andrea A; Young, Joanne P; Haydon, Andrew; Grubb, Garry; Giles, Graham G; Jenkins, Mark A; Hopper, John L; Southey, Melissa C

    2006-07-01

    Somatic mutation of K-ras is known to be a common event in colorectal cancer tumourigenesis however its association with age at onset has not been widely explored. In this study, we have analyzed tumours from a population-based study of colorectal cancer diagnosed before the age of 45 years, in which cases had been previously screened for germ-line mismatch repair gene mutations and for microsatellite instability. We used a micro-dissection and sequencing approach to search for somatic K-ras mutations in codons 12, 13 and 61 in 101 early-onset colorectal cancers. Six (6%) somatic K-ras mutations were detected; five in codon 12 (4 G>T transitions and 1 G>A) and one in codon 13 (G>A transition). All codon 12 mutations were identified in microsatellite stable tumours and the codon 13 mutation was identified in a MSI-high tumour. Four cases with K-ras mutations had no reported family history of colorectal cancer and two had some family history of colorectal cancer. None were known to carry a germ-line mutation in hMSH2, hMLH1, hMSH6 or hPMS2. The role of somatic K-ras mutations in early-onset colorectal cancer carcinogenesis appears to be minor, in contrast to its significant role in colorectal cancer of later age of onset.

  14. The Frequency and Type of K-RAS Mutations in Mexican Patients With Colorectal Cancer: A National Study.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Ramos, Susana G; Alcázar-González, Gregorio; Reyes-Cortés, Luisa M; Torres-Grimaldo, Abdiel A; Calderón-Garcidueñas, Ana L; Morales-Casas, José; Flores-Sánchez, Patricia; De León-Escobedo, Raúl; Gómez-Díaz, Antonio; Moreno-Bringas, Carmen; Sánchez-Guillén, Jorge; Ramos-Salazar, Pedro; González-de León, César; Barrera-Saldaña, Hugo A

    2017-06-01

    Current metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) therapy uses monoclonal antibodies against the epidermal growth factor receptor. This treatment is only useful in the absence of K-RAS gene mutations; therefore the study of such mutations is part of a personalized treatment. The aim of this work is to determine the frequency and type of the most common K-RAS mutations in Mexican patients with metastatic disease by nucleotide sequencing. We studied 888 patients with mCRC from different regions of Mexico. The presence of mutations in exon 2, codons 12 and 13, of the K-RAS gene was determined by nucleotide sequencing. Patients exhibited K-RAS gene mutations in 35% (310/888) of cases. Mutation frequency of codons 12 and 13 was 71% (221/310) and 29% (89/310), respectively. The most common mutation (45.7%) in codon 12 was c.35G>A (p.G12D), whereas the one in codon 13 was c.38G>A (p.G13D) (78.7%). Given the frequency of K-RAS mutations in Mexicans, making a genetic study before deciding to treat mCRC patients with monoclonal antibodies is indispensable.

  15. Expression of oncogenic K-ras from its endogenous promoter leads to a partial block of erythroid differentiation and hyperactivation of cytokine-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yangang; Beard, Caroline; Tuveson, David A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Jacks, Tyler E; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-06-15

    When overexpressed in primary erythroid progenitors, oncogenic Ras leads to the constitutive activation of its downstream signaling pathways, severe block of terminal erythroid differentiation, and cytokine-independent growth of primary erythroid progenitors. However, whether high-level expression of oncogenic Ras is required for these phenotypes is unknown. To address this issue, we expressed oncogenic K-ras (K-ras(G12D)) from its endogenous promoter using a tetracycline-inducible system. We show that endogenous K-ras(G12D) leads to a partial block of terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo. In contrast to results obtained when oncogenic Ras was overexpressed from retroviral vectors, endogenous levels of K-ras(G12D) fail to constitutively activate but rather hyperactivate cytokine-dependent signaling pathways, including Stat5, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK, in primary erythroid progenitors. This explains previous observations that hematopoietic progenitors expressing endogenous K-ras(G12D) display hypersensitivity to cytokine stimulation in various colony assays. Our results support efforts to modulate Ras signaling for treating hematopoietic malignancies.

  16. c-Raf, but not B-Raf, is essential for development of K-Ras oncogene driven non-small cell lung carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Blasco, Rafael B.; Francoz, Sarah; Santamaría, David; Cañamero, Marta; Dubus, Pierre; Charron, Jean; Baccarini, Manuela; Barbacid, Mariano

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY We have interrogated the role of individual members of the Raf/Mek/Erk cascade in the onset of K-Ras oncogene-driven non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Ablation of Erk1 or Erk2 in K-Ras oncogene expressing lung cells had no significant effect due to compensatory activities. Yet, elimination of both Erk kinases completely blocked tumor development. Similar results were obtained with Mek kinases. Ablation of B-Raf had no significant effect on tumor development. However, c-Raf expression was absolutely essential for the onset of NSCLC. Interestingly, concomitant elimination of c-Raf and B-Raf in adult mice had no deleterious consequences for normal homeostasis. These results indicate that c-Raf plays a unique role in mediating K-Ras signaling and makes it a suitable target for therapeutic intervention. PMID:21514245

  17. Generation and analysis of mouse intestinal tumors and organoids harboring APC and K-Ras mutations.

    PubMed

    van Es, Johan H; Clevers, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Genetically engineered mouse models of intestinal cancer are experimental systems in which mice are genetically manipulated to develop malignancies in the gastrointestinal tract. These models enable researchers to study the mechanisms of onset, progression, and metastasis of the disease. They also provide a valuable biological system which is suitable for testing (novel) drugs in vivo. Recently, an in vitro culture model has been established in which intestinal epithelial stem cells can grow into three-dimensional, ever-expanding epithelial organoids that retain their original organ identity and genetic stability. This culture system has been applied to diseased epithelia, such as adenoma, adenocarcinoma, and Barrett's epithelium. These organoids can be particularly useful for studying the mechanisms of intestinal tumors and to test (novel) drugs in vitro. Here, we describe our current laboratory protocols to generate and analyze intestinal tumors and organoids harboring APC and K-Ras double mutations.

  18. Mutated K-ras(Asp12) promotes tumourigenesis in Apc(Min) mice more in the large than the small intestines, with synergistic effects between K-ras and Wnt pathways.

    PubMed

    Luo, Feijun; Brooks, David G; Ye, Hongtao; Hamoudi, Rifat; Poulogiannis, George; Patek, Charles E; Winton, Douglas J; Arends, Mark J

    2009-10-01

    Summary K-ras mutations are found in 40-50% of human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, but their functional contribution remains incompletely understood. Here, we show that a conditional mutant K-ras mouse model (K-ras(Asp12)/Cre), with transient intestinal Cre activation by beta-Naphthoflavone (beta-NF) treatment, displayed transgene recombination and K-ras(Asp12) expression in the murine intestines, but developed few intestinal adenomas over 2 years. However, when crossed with Apc(Min/+) mice, the K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) offspring showed acceleration of intestinal tumourigenesis with significantly changed average lifespan (P < 0.05) decreased to 18.4 +/- 5.4 weeks from 20.9 +/- 4.7 weeks (control Apc(Min/+) mice). The numbers of adenomas in the small intestine and large intestine were significantly (P < 0.01) increased by 1.5-fold and 5.7-fold, respectively, in K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) mice compared with Apc(Min/+) mice, with the more marked increase in adenoma prevalence in the large intestine. To explore possible mechanisms for K-ras(Asp12) and Apc(Min) co-operation, the Mitogen-activated protein kinase (Mapk), Akt and Wnt signalling pathways, including selected target gene expression levels, were evaluated in normal large intestine and large intestinal tumours. K-ras(Asp12) increased activation of Mapk and Akt signalling pathway targets phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pErk) and pAkt, and increased relative expression levels of Wnt pathway targets vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), gastrin, cyclo-oxygenase 2 (Cox2) and T-cell lymphoma invasion and metastasis 1 (Tiam1) in K-ras(Asp12)/Cre/Apc(Min/+) adenomas compared with that of Apc(Min/+) adenomas, although other Wnt signalling pathway target genes such as Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta (PPARd), matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), protein phosphatase 1 alpha (PP1A) and c-myc remained unchanged. In conclusion, intestinal expression of K-ras(Asp12) promotes mutant

  19. Assessment of epidermal growth factor receptor mutation/copy number and K-ras mutation in esophageal cancer.

    PubMed

    Guo, Kang; Wang, Wu-Ping; Jiang, Tao; Wang, Ju-Zheng; Chen, Zhao; Li, Yong; Zhou, Yong-An; Li, Xiao-Fei; Lu, Qiang; Zhang, Lan-Jun

    2016-07-01

    The molecular status of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in esophageal cancer has not been well elucidated. The purpose of the study was to investigate the prevalence of EGFR and K-ras mutation, and EGFR gene copy number status as well as its association with clinicopathologic characteristics, and also to identify the prognostic value of EGFR gene copy number in esophageal cancer. EGFR mutation in exon 19/exon 21 and K-ras mutation in codon 12/codon 13 were detected by real-time PCR method, while EGFR gene copy number status was analyzed by fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). EGFR gene amplification and high polysomy were defined as high EGFR gene copy number status (FISH-positive), and all else were defined as low EGFR gene copy number status (FISH-negative). The relationship between EGFR gene copy number status and clinicpathologic characteristics was analyzed. Kaplan-Meier method and Cox proportional hazards regression model were employed to evaluate the effects of EGFR gene copy number status on the patients' survival. A total of 57 esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients and 9 esophageal adenocarcinoma (EADC) patients were enrolled in the study. EGFR mutation was identified in one patient who was diagnosed as ESCC with stage IIIC disease. K-ras mutation was identified in one patient who was diagnosed as EADC. In all, 34 of 66 (51.5%) samples were detected as FISH-positive, which includes 30 ESCC and 4 EADC tumor samples. The correlation analysis showed that FISH-positive was significantly associated with the tumor stage (P=0.019) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.005) in esophageal cancer patients, and FISH-positive was also significantly associated with the tumor stage (P=0.007) and lymph node metastasis (P=0.008) in ESCC patients. Cox regression analysis showed that high EGFR gene copy number was not a significant predictor of a poor outcome for esophageal cancer patients (P=0.251) or for ESCC patients (P=0.092), but esophageal cancer

  20. Association between coffee drinking and K-ras mutations in exocrine pancreatic cancer. PANKRAS II Study Group

    PubMed Central

    Porta, M.; Malats, N.; Guarner, L.; Carrato, A.; Rifa, J.; Salas, A.; Corominas, J. M.; Andreu, M.; Real, F. X.

    1999-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyse the relation between coffee consumption and mutations in the K-ras gene in exocrine pancreatic cancer. DESIGN: Case- case study. Consumption of coffee among cases with the activating mutation in the K-ras gene was compared with that of cases without the mutation. SETTING AND PATIENTS: All cases of pancreatic cancer newly diagnosed at five hospitals in Spain during three years were included in the PANKRAS II Study (n = 185, of whom 121 whose tissue was available for molecular analysis are the object of the present report). Over 88% were personally interviewed in hospital. DNA was amplified from paraffin wax embedded tissues, and mutations in codon 12 of K-ras were detected by the artificial RFLP technique. MAIN RESULTS: Mutations were found in tumours from 94 of 121 patients (77.7%). Mutations were more common among regular coffee drinkers than among non-regular coffee drinkers (82.0% v 55.6%, p = 0.018, n = 107). The odds ratio adjusted by age, sex, smoking and alcohol drinking was 5.41 (95% CI 1.64, 17.78). The weekly intake of coffee was significantly higher among patients with a mutated tumour (mean of 14.5 cups/week v 8.8 among patients with a wild type tumour, p < 0.05). With respect to non- regular coffee drinkers, the odds ratio of a mutated tumour adjusted by age, sex, smoking and alcohol drinking was 3.26 for drinkers of 2-7 cups/week, 5.77 for drinkers of 8-14 cups/week and 9.99 for drinkers of > or = 15 cups/week (p < 0.01, test for trend). CONCLUSIONS: Pancreatic cancer cases without activating mutations in the K-ras gene had drank significantly less coffee than cases with a mutation, with a significant dose response relation: the less they drank, the less likely their tumours were to harbour a mutation. In exocrine pancreatic cancer the K-ras gene may be activated less often among non-regular coffee drinkers than among regular drinkers. Caffeine, other coffee compounds or other factors with which coffee drinking is

  1. Restriction endonuclease-mediated selective polymerase chain reaction: a novel assay for the detection of K-ras mutations in clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Ward, R; Hawkins, N; O'Grady, R; Sheehan, C; O'Connor, T; Impey, H; Roberts, N; Fuery, C; Todd, A

    1998-08-01

    The enriched polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay has been used extensively in the detection of ras gene mutations in many types of human malignancies. Although it is very sensitive, it has a number of features that limit its use in the routine diagnostic laboratory. The aim of this study was to develop a novel enriched PCR strategy, in which the concurrent activity of the restriction enzyme BstNI and Taq polymerase allowed the amplification of mutant K-ras while inhibiting the formation of wild-type product. This restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR assay uses three sets of primers, together with BstNI, in the reaction mix, and the amplification products are analyzed by gel electrophoresis. The reliability of the restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR assay to detect activated K-ras was determined in a variety of clinical samples, including 139 fresh colorectal carcinomas and 113 paraffin-embedded blocks from 80 separate tumors of the colon and rectum, pancreas, breast, or kidney. Codon 12 mutations of the K-ras oncogene were identified in DNA from both fresh and paraffin-embedded tumors in a rapid, sensitive, and reproducible manner. Mutations were detected in 33 (24%) of the fresh colorectal cancers and 16 (20%) of the paraffin-embedded tumors. These results were 97% concordant in cases in which paraffin blocks and fresh specimens from the same tumor were available for analysis. We conclude that restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR is a sensitive, rapid, and robust assay for the detection of point mutations in a variety of clinical samples. Importantly, there is no need for manipulation of the sample once the PCR has been set up, and therefore, the chance of contamination is significantly reduced. In contrast to previous assays, restriction endonuclease-mediated selective PCR is not labor intensive, and its format is suitable for use in routine diagnostic laboratory.

  2. Endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-08-15

    K-ras is one of the most frequently mutated genes in virtually all types of human cancers. Using mouse fetal liver erythroid progenitors as a model system, we studied the role of endogenous K-ras signaling in erythroid differentiation. When oncogenic K-ras is expressed from its endogenous promoter, it hyperactivates cytokine-dependent signaling pathways and results in a partial block in erythroid differentiation. In erythroid progenitors deficient in K-ras, cytokine-dependent Akt activation is greatly reduced, leading to delays in erythroid differentiation. Thus, both loss- and gain-of-Kras functions affect erythroid differentiation through modulation of cytokine signaling. These results support the notion that in human cancer patients oncogenic Ras signaling might be controlled by antagonizing essential cytokines.

  3. Frequency and spectrum of mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the C-K-ras gene in human tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Capella, G.; Cronauer-Mitra, S.; Peinado, M.A.; Perucho, M. )

    1991-06-01

    The frequency of point mutations at codons 12 and 13 of the c-K-ras gene has been determined in a panel of more than 400 human tumors. Mutant c-K-ras genes were detected in about 75% of adenocarcinomas of the pancreas; 40% of adenomas and carcinomas of the colon and rectum; 30% of carcinomas of the bile duct; 25% of carcinomas of the lung, and in lower frequency in other carcinomas, including liver, stomach, and kidney. No mutations were found in carcinomas of the breast, prostate, esophagus, and gall bladder, among others. Comparative analysis of the spectrum of mutations show that while G to A transitions were the most frequent mutations in pancreatic and colo-rectal tumors, G to T transversions were more prevalent in lung carcinomas. The aspartic acid mutation at codon 13 (GGC {r arrow} GAC) was relatively frequent in colo-rectal tumors but rare in pancreatic and lung carcinomas. The differences in the mutation spectrum of the c-K-ras gene in cancers of the gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are suggestive of differential exposure to genotoxic agents.

  4. Discordance of Mutation Statuses of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-ras between Primary Adenocarcinoma of Lung and Brain Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Rau, Kun-Ming; Chen, Han-Ku; Shiu, Li-Yen; Chao, Tsai-Ling; Lo, Yi-Ping; Wang, Chin-Chou; Lin, Meng-Chih; Huang, Chao-Cheng

    2016-04-07

    Mutations on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) of adenocarcinomas of lung have been found to be associated with increased sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and K-ras mutations may correlate with primary resistance. We aimed to explore the discordant mutation statuses of EGFR and K-ras between primary tumors and matched brain metastases in adenocarcinomas of lung. We used a sensitive Scorpion ARMS method to analyze EGFR mutation, and Sanger sequencing followed by allele-specific real-time polymerase chain reaction to analyze K-ras mutation. Forty-nine paired tissues with both primary adenocarcinoma of lung and matched brain metastasis were collected. Thirteen patients (26.5%) were discordant for the status of EGFR between primary and metastatic sites. K-ras gene could be checked in paired specimens from 33 patients, thirteen patients (39.6%) were discordant for the status of K-ras. In primary lung adenocarcinoma, there were 14 patients of mutant EGFR had mutant K-ras synchronously. This study revealed that the status of EGFR mutation in lung adenocarcinomas is relatively consistent between primary and metastatic sites compared to K-ras mutation. However, there are still a few cases of adenocarcinoma of lung showing discordance for the status of EGFR mutation. Repeated analysis of EGFR mutation is highly recommended if tissue from metastatic or recurrent site is available for the evaluation of target therapy.

  5. KRAS insertion mutations are oncogenic and exhibit distinct functional properties

    PubMed Central

    White, Yasmine; Bagchi, Aditi; Van Ziffle, Jessica; Inguva, Anagha; Bollag, Gideon; Zhang, Chao; Carias, Heidi; Dickens, David; Loh, Mignon; Shannon, Kevin; Firestone, Ari J.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS mutations introduce discrete amino acid substitutions that reduce intrinsic Ras GTPase activity and confer resistance to GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs). Here we discover a partial duplication of the switch 2 domain of K-Ras encoding a tandem repeat of amino acids G60_A66dup in a child with an atypical myeloproliferative neoplasm. K-Ras proteins containing this tandem duplication or a similar five amino acid E62_A66dup mutation identified in lung and colon cancers transform the growth of primary myeloid progenitors and of Ba/F3 cells. Recombinant K-RasG60_A66dup and K-RasE62_A66dup proteins display reduced intrinsic GTP hydrolysis rates, accumulate in the GTP-bound conformation and are resistant to GAP-mediated GTP hydrolysis. Remarkably, K-Ras proteins with switch 2 insertions are impaired for PI3 kinase binding and Akt activation, and are hypersensitive to MEK inhibition. These studies illuminate a new class of oncogenic KRAS mutations and reveal unexpected plasticity in oncogenic Ras proteins that has diagnostic and therapeutic implications. PMID:26854029

  6. Simultaneous detection of 19 K-ras mutations by free-solution conjugate electrophoresis of ligase detection reaction products on glass microchips.

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Jennifer Coyne; Kotani, Akira; Lin, Jennifer S; Soper, Steven A; Barron, Annelise E

    2013-02-01

    We demonstrate here the power and flexibility of free-solution conjugate electrophoresis (FSCE) as a method of separating DNA fragments by electrophoresis with no sieving polymer network. Previous work introduced the coupling of FSCE with ligase detection reaction (LDR) to detect point mutations, even at low abundance compared to the wild-type DNA. Here, four large drag-tags are used to achieve free-solution electrophoretic separation of 19 LDR products ranging in size from 42 to 66 nt that correspond to mutations in the K-ras oncogene. LDR-FSCE enabled electrophoretic resolution of these 19 LDR-FSCE products by CE in 13.5 min (E = 310 V/cm) and by microchip electrophoresis in 140 s (E = 350 V/cm). The power of FSCE is demonstrated in the unique characteristic of free-solution separations where the separation resolution is constant no matter the electric field strength. By microchip electrophoresis, the electric field was increased to the maximum of the power supply (E = 700 V/cm), and the 19 LDR-FSCE products were separated in less than 70 s with almost identical resolution to the separation at E = 350 V/cm. These results will aid the goal of screening K-ras mutations on integrated "sample-in/answer-out" devices with amplification, LDR, and detection all on one platform.

  7. K-Ras, H-Ras, N-Ras and B-Raf mutation and expression analysis in Wilms tumors: association with tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Dalpa, Efterpi; Gourvas, Victor; Soulitzis, Nikolaos; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2017-01-01

    Nephroblastoma (Wilms tumor) is a kidney neoplasia, predominately occurring at very young age, resulting from the malignant transformation of renal stem cells. The Ras proto-oncogenes and B-Raf are members of an intracellular cascade pathway, which regulates cell growth and differentiation, and ultimately cancer development. Our objective was to determine the mutation rate and to measure the mRNA levels of the three Ras genes and of B-Raf in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples from 32 patients with nephroblastoma and 10 controls. No mutations were detected in the four studied genes among our Wilms tumors cases, while Ras and B-Raf expression was higher in malignant samples versus controls. Statistical analysis revealed a positive correlation of K-Ras (p < 0.001) and B-Raf (p = 0.006) with tumor size, a negative correlation of K-Ras (p = 0.041) and H-Ras (p = 0.033) with the percentage of tissue necrosis, and an association of N-Ras (p = 0.047) and B-Raf (p = 0.044) with tissue histology. From the above, we deduce that although Ras and B-Raf mutations are rare events in Wilms tumors, their expression pattern suggests that they play an important role in the development and progression of this malignancy.

  8. Mutations of APC, K-ras, and p53 are associated with specific chromosomal aberrations in colorectal adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Leslie, Amy; Pratt, Norman R; Gillespie, Karen; Sales, Mark; Kernohan, Neil M; Smith, Gillian; Wolf, C Roland; Carey, Francis A; Steele, Robert J C

    2003-08-01

    It is widely accepted that both large-scale chromosomal abnormalities and mutation of specific genes, such as APC, K-ras, and/or p53, occur in the majority of colorectal adenocarcinomas. Whether or not a relationship exists between these different forms of genetic abnormalities was previously unknown. Using comparative genomic hybridization and mutational analysis of APC, K-ras, and p53 to evaluate 50 colorectal adenocarcinomas, we have shown that mutation of p53 is significantly associated with gain of 20q, 13q, and 8q and loss of 18q (P = 0.000, 0.02, 0.044, and 0.001, respectively). Conversely, APC mutation did not associate with any of the above-mentioned aberrations but did associate significantly with gain of 7p (P = 0.01). Gain of chromosomal arm 12p, although a less common aberration, was significantly associated with K-ras mutation (P = 0.011). The associations we have described should refine the search for candidate genes underlying chromosomal aberrations and assist in the definition of distinct pathways in colorectal tumorigenesis.

  9. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in colorectal cancer patients: correlation to clinicopathologic features and postoperative surveillance.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Jan-Sing; Lin, Shiu-Ru; Chang, Mei-Yin; Chen, Fang-Ming; Lu, Chien-Yu; Huang, Tsung-Jen; Huang, Yu-Sheng; Huang, Che-Jen; Wang, Jaw-Yuan

    2005-04-01

    Current researches have proposed a genetic model for colorectal cancer (CRC), in which the sequential accumulation of mutations in specific cancer-related genes, including adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), K-ras, and p53, drives the transition from normal epithelium through increasing adenomatous dysplasia to colorectal cancer. To identify patients with an increased risk of tumor recurrence or metastasis and evaluate the prognostic values of APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations, we investigated the frequency of these three mutated genes in tumors and sera of CRC patients. APC, K-ras, and p53 gene mutations in primary tumor tissues and their paired preoperative serum samples of 118 CRC patients were detected by using polymerase chain reaction-single strand conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis, followed by direct DNA sequencing of the PCR-amplified genomic DNA. Subsequently, serum molecular markers were analyzed for their correlation with patients' clinicopathologic features and presence of postoperative recurrence/metastasis. We did not observe any significant difference in the association of APC or K-ras or p53 gene mutations in primary tumors with patients' demographic data (all were P > 0.05). In contrast, both serum APC and p53 molecular markers were closely correlated with lymph node metastasis and TNM stage (both P < 0.05). Moreover, the serum overall molecular markers (at least one of the three markers) were prominently associated with depth of tumor invasion (P = 0.033), lymph node metastasis (P < 0.001), and TNM stage (P < 0.001). In addition, a significantly higher postoperative metastasis/recurrence rate in patients positive for overall molecular markers compared to those negative for these molecular markers were also demonstrated (P < 0.001). APC and K-ras molecular markers were more frequently observed in patients with locoregional metastasis (both P < 0.05), while p53 molecular marker was usually detected in the cases of peritoneal metastasis (P

  10. [Mouse models of K-ras-initiated oncogenesis].

    PubMed

    Barrière, C; Marjou, F El; Louvard, D; Robine, S

    2009-12-01

    Activating mutations of the oncogene K-ras are found in one third of all human cancers. Much of our knowledge on K-ras signal transduction and its influence on tumor initiation and progression come from in vitro studies with cell lines. However, mouse models of human cancer allow a much more faithful recapitulation of the human disease, and the in vivo perspective is crucial for our understanding of neoplasia. In recent years, several new murine models for K-ras-induced tumorigenesis have been described. They allow new insights into the specific role that oncogenic K-ras proteins play in different solid tumors, and they permit the molecular dissection of the pathways that are initiated by somatic mutations in subsets of cells. Key advances have been made by the use of tissue-specific and inducible control of expression, which is achieved by the Cre/loxP technology or the tetracycline system. From these sophisticated models, a common picture emerges: the effects of K-ras on tumor initiation depend strongly on the cellular context, and different tissues vary in their susceptibility to K-ras transformation.

  11. Multiple oncogenic changes (K-RAS(V12), p53 knockdown, mutant EGFRs, p16 bypass, telomerase) are not sufficient to confer a full malignant phenotype on human bronchial epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Sato, Mitsuo; Vaughan, Melville B; Girard, Luc; Peyton, Michael; Lee, Woochang; Shames, David S; Ramirez, Ruben D; Sunaga, Noriaki; Gazdar, Adi F; Shay, Jerry W; Minna, John D

    2006-02-15

    We evaluated the contribution of three genetic alterations (p53 knockdown, K-RAS(V12), and mutant EGFR) to lung tumorigenesis using human bronchial epithelial cells (HBEC) immortalized with telomerase and Cdk4-mediated p16 bypass. RNA interference p53 knockdown or oncogenic K-RAS(V12) resulted in enhanced anchorage-independent growth and increased saturation density of HBECs. The combination of p53 knockdown and K-RAS(V12) further enhanced the tumorigenic phenotype with increased growth in soft agar and an invasive phenotype in three-dimensional organotypic cultures but failed to cause HBECs to form tumors in nude mice. Growth of HBECs was highly dependent on epidermal growth factor (EGF) and completely inhibited by EGF receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors, which induced G1 arrest. Introduction of EGFR mutations E746-A750 del and L858R progressed HBECs toward malignancy as measured by soft agar growth, including EGF-independent growth, but failed to induce tumor formation. Mutant EGFRs were associated with higher levels of phospho-Akt, phospho-signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 [but not phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2], and increased expression of DUSP6/MKP-3 phosphatase (an inhibitor of phospho-ERK1/2). These results indicate that (a) the HBEC model system is a powerful new approach to assess the contribution of individual and combinations of genetic alterations to lung cancer pathogenesis; (b) a combination of four genetic alterations, including human telomerase reverse transcriptase overexpression, bypass of p16/RB and p53 pathways, and mutant K-RAS(V12) or mutant EGFR, is still not sufficient for HBECs to completely transform to cancer; and (c) EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors inhibit the growth of preneoplastic HBEC cells, suggesting their potential for chemoprevention.

  12. Response to first-line chemotherapy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer according to epidermal growth factor receptor and K-RAS mutation status.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Xiaogang; Hao, Yingtao; Wei, Yucheng; Yin, Qiuwei; Du, Jiajun

    2013-11-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-targeted therapy has shown a favorable efficacy in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Conversely, K-RAS mutations were reported to have an adverse effect on the survival of patients with NSCLC. These studies suggest that the tumor biology of patients with EGFR or K-RAS mutations is different from that of patients with wild-type mutations. Therefore, we hypothesized that the response to cytotoxic chemotherapy may differ among patients with and without EGFR or K-RAS mutations. A total of 229 patients with advanced NSCLC who received platinum doublet chemotherapy were included in this retrospective study, and their clinical outcomes were analyzed according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status. EGFR and K-RAS mutations were found in 52.4% and 27.9% of patients, respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) was significantly higher in patients with EGFR mutations than in patients with wild-type EGFR (P = .008), and multivariate analysis showed that EGFR mutation was an independent factor to chemotherapy (P = .01). Among the patients with EGFR mutations, the disease control rate for docetaxel was higher than for gemcitabine-based therapy (P = .031). In addition, docetaxel or vinorelbine showed a longer PFS than gemcitabine-based chemotherapy in patients with EGFR mutations (P = .033 and P = .028). However, no similar differences were found according to the K-RAS mutations. EGFR, but not K-RAS mutation, is associated with improved survival time to platinum-based chemotherapy. In patients with EGFR mutations, PFS for docetaxel and gemcitabine was higher than for vinorelbine-based chemotherapies. The predictive meaning of EGFR mutation for chemotherapy should be further investigated. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  14. DETECTION OF K-RAS AND P53 MUTATIONS IN SPUTUM SAMPLES OF LUNG CANCER PATIENTS USING LASER CAPTURE MICRODISSECTION MICROSCOPE AND MUTATION ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Detection of K-ras and p53 Mutations in Sputum Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Using Laser Capture Microdissection Microscope and Mutation Analysis

    Phouthone Keohavong a,*, Wei-Min Gao a, Kui-Cheng Zheng a, Hussam Mady b, Qing Lan c, Mona Melhem b, and Judy Mumford d.
    <...

  15. The effect of forced expression of mutated K-RAS gene on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines and the IGF-1R targeting therapy.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Yasutaka; Adachi, Yasushi; Sasaki, Yasushi; Koide, Hideyuki; Motoya, Masayo; Nosho, Katsuhiko; Takagi, Hideyasu; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Sasaki, Shigeru; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Tokino, Takashi; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2017-02-01

    Mutation in K-RAS (K-RAS-MT) plays important roles in both cancer progression and resistance to anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) therapy in gastrointestinal tumors. Insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and progression of many tumors as well. We have previously shown successful therapy for gastrointestinal cancer cell lines bearing a K-RAS mutation using an anti-IGF-1R monoclonal antibody. In this study, we sought to evaluate effects of forced K-RAS-MT expression on gastrointestinal cancer cell lines representing a possible second resistance mechanism for anti-EGFR therapy and IGF-1R-targeted therapy for these transfectants. We made stable transfectants of K-RAS-MT in two gastrointestinal cancer cell lines, colorectal RKO and pancreatic BxPC-3. We assessed the effect of forced expression of K-RAS-MT on proliferation, apoptosis, migration, and invasion in gastrointestinal cancer cells. Then we assessed anti-tumor effects of dominant negative IGF-1R (IGF-1R/dn) and an IGF-1R inhibitor, picropodophyllin, on the K-RAS-MT transfectants. Overexpression of K-RAS-MT in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines led to more aggressive phenotypes, with increased proliferation, decreased apoptosis, and increased motility and invasion. IGF-1R blockade suppressed cell growth, colony formation, migration, and invasion, and up-regulated chemotherapy-induced apoptosis of gastrointestinal cancer cells, even when K-RAS-MT was over-expressed. IGF-1R blockade inhibited the Akt pathway more than the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway in the K-RAS-MT transfectants. IGF-1R/dn, moreover, inhibited the growth of murine xenografts expressing K-RAS-MT. Thus, K-RAS-MT might be important for progressive phonotype observed in gastrointestinal cancers. IGF-1R decoy is a candidate molecular therapeutic approach for gastrointestinal cancers even if K-RAS is mutated. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  16. Regulation of uptake of 18F-FDG by a follicular human thyroid cancer cell line with mutation-activated K-ras.

    PubMed

    Prante, Olaf; Maschauer, Simone; Fremont, Valerie; Reinfelder, Julia; Stoehr, Robert; Szkudlinski, Mariusz; Weintraub, Bruce; Hartmann, Arndt; Kuwert, Torsten

    2009-08-01

    Dedifferentiation of thyroid carcinoma is accompanied by increased accumulation of the PET tracer (18)F-FDG. The molecular mechanisms responsible for this phenomenon are poorly understood. Therefore, we studied the regulation of (18)F-FDG uptake by the human follicular thyroid carcinoma cell line ML-1 and the as-yet-unknown oncogene expression of that cell line. The data obtained in ML-1 were compared with those of a well-differentiated thyroid cell line of rat origin (FRTL-5). The expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor was investigated by immunocytochemistry, and the expression of the glucose transporters (GLUTs) was determined by Western blotting. Mutation analysis of ML-1 was performed for K-ras codons 12 and 13. The effect of TSH on intracellular cAMP levels was determined by a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Cells were incubated with (18)F-FDG (0.5-1.0 MBq/mL) for 1 h, and tracer uptake was related to protein concentration. The effects of bovine TSH, the cAMP analog (Bu)(2)cAMP, and the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3-kinase) inhibitor LY294002 on (18)F-FDG uptake were investigated. The TSH receptor was present in both cell lines. FRTL-5 clearly expressed GLUT-1 and also GLUT-4. In ML-1 only, the expression of GLUT-3 was detected. TSH and (Bu)(2)cAMP had a significant effect on (18)F-FDG uptake or GLUT-1 expression in FRTL-5, but not in ML-1 cells. PI3-kinase inhibition by LY294002 downregulated (18)F-FDG uptake in FRTL-5 by 58% +/- 9% (n = 6) and in ML-1 by 26% +/- 5% (n = 42, both P < 0.05). Mutation analysis of ML-1 cells revealed a Gly12Ser point mutation at codon 12 of the K-ras gene. (18)F-FDG uptake in the thyroid carcinoma cell line ML-1 is no longer regulated by TSH or cAMP or mediated by GLUT-1. However, in this cell line, this variable is still governed to some extent by PI3-kinase located downstream to the constitutively active K-ras in the Ras-PI3-kinase-Akt pathway. These data suggest that increases in (18)F-FDG uptake in

  17. K-Ras mutation detection in liquid biopsy and tumor tissue as prognostic biomarker in patients with pancreatic cancer: a systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Tao; Zheng, Yuanting; Sun, Hong; Zhuang, Rongyuan; Liu, Jing; Liu, Tianshu; Cai, Weimin

    2016-07-01

    K-Ras gene mutations have been found in most pancreatic cancers; however, conflicting data on the prognostic value of K-Ras mutations in pancreatic cancer have been published. We conducted a meta-analysis to assess its prognostic significance. Literature searches of PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Web of Science and Google Scholar were performed through December 2015 to identify publications exploring the association of K-Ras mutation with overall survival. Forty eligible studies involving 3427 patients with pancreatic cancer were included in the present meta-analysis. Our analysis showed a hazard ratio (HR) of negative association with survival of 1.61 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.36-1.90; p < 0.01] in K-Ras mutant pancreatic cancer patients. In subgroup analyses, K-Ras mutations detected in tumor tissues and in liquid biopsies had HRs of 1.37 (95 % CI 1.20-1.57; p < 0.01) and 3.16 (95 % CI 2.1-4.71; p < 0.01), respectively. In addition, the HR was higher when K-Ras mutations were detected in fresh frozen samples (HR = 2.01, 95 % CI 1.28-3.16, p = 0.002) than in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples (HR = 1.29, 95 % CI 1.12-1.49, p < 0.01). Though K-Ras alterations are more frequent among non-East Asian individuals than East Asian individuals, there were no significant differences in HRs of survival between the two ethnic subgroups. In conclusion, this meta-analysis suggests that K-Ras mutations are associated with a worse overall survival in pancreatic cancer patients, especially when mutations are detected in liquid biopsies or fresh frozen tumor tissue samples.

  18. Oncogenic K-ras expression is associated with derangement of the cAMP/PKA pathway and forskolin-reversible alterations of mitochondrial dynamics and respiration.

    PubMed

    Palorini, R; De Rasmo, D; Gaviraghi, M; Sala Danna, L; Signorile, A; Cirulli, C; Chiaradonna, F; Alberghina, L; Papa, S

    2013-01-17

    The Warburg effect in cancer cells has been proposed to involve several mechanisms, including adaptation to hypoxia, oncogenes activation or loss of oncosuppressors and impaired mitochondrial function. In previous papers, it has been shown that K-ras transformed mouse cells are much more sensitive as compared with normal cells to glucose withdrawal (undergoing apoptosis) and present a high glycolytic rate and a strong reduction of mitochondrial complex I. Recent observations suggest that transformed cells have a derangement in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP/PKA) pathway, which is known to regulate several mitochondrial functions. Herein, the derangement of the cAMP/PKA pathway and its impact on transformation-linked changes of mitochondrial functions is investigated. Exogenous stimulation of PKA activity, achieved by forskolin treatment, protected K-ras-transformed cells from apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation, enhanced complex I activity, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, mitochondrial fusion and decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Several of these effects were almost completely prevented by inhibiting the PKA activity. Short-time treatment with compounds favoring mitochondrial fusion strongly decreased the cellular ROS levels especially in transformed cells. These findings support the notion that glucose shortage-induced apoptosis, specific of K-ras-transformed cells, is associated to a derangement of PKA signaling that leads to mitochondrial complex I decrease, reduction of ATP formation, prevalence of mitochondrial fission over fusion, and thereby opening new approaches for development of anticancer drugs.

  19. A subset of lung adenocarcinomas and atypical adenomatous hyperplasia-associated foci are genotypically related: an EGFR, HER2, and K-ras mutational analysis.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Giuliana; Cavazza, Alberto; Bertolini, Federica; Longo, Lucia; Marchioni, Alessandro; Costantini, Matteo; Barbieri, Fausto; Migaldi, Mario; Rossi, Giulio

    2008-02-01

    Atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH) is considered the preinvasive lesion of pulmonary adenocarcinoma, and mutations of EGFR, HER2, and K-ras are involved in the early stage of lung adenocarcinoma carcinogenesis, also predicting clinical response to anti-EGFR small molecule inhibitors. We analyzed 18 cases of primary lung adenocarcinoma with concomitant AAH foci from 13 patients for mutations of EGFR (exons 18-21), HER2 (exons 19-20), and K-ras (exon 2) by direct sequencing polymerase chain reaction. Among mutated cases, concordant mutations of EGFR or K-ras in adenocarcinoma and related AAH were observed in 5 (63%) of 8 cases. In particular, 3 of 4 adenocarcinomas with EGFR mutations (all L858R point mutations in women, never or former smokers) had a concomitant and identical mutation in AAH, and 2 of 4 adenocarcinomas with K-ras mutations (both at codon 12 in women, a never and a current smoker) showed the same mutation in concomitant AAH. All cases were wild-type for HER2. Mutations of EGFR and K-ras genes represent an early event in lung adenocarcinomagenesis, and AAH convincingly seems to be a precursor lesion in a subset of cases of adenocarcinoma.

  20. [Correlation analysis between abundance of K-ras mutation in plasma free DNA and its correlation with clinical outcome and prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer].

    PubMed

    Bai, Yan-qing; Liu, Xiao-jing; Wang, Yan; Ge, Fei-jiao; Zhao, Chuan-hua; Fu, Ya-li; Lin, Li; Xu, Jian-ming

    2013-09-01

    To detect K-ras gene mutations in plasma free DNA by peptide nucleic acid clamp PCR assay (PNA-PCR) and nested primer PCR, and to analyze the correlation between K-ras mutations and prognosis in patients with metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Peripheral blood was collected and free DNA was extracted from plasma in 106 patients with mCRC. Nested primer PCR and PNA-PCR were used to detect K-ras gene mutation in the plasma free DNA. The patients were divided into three groups by K-ras status: wild-type group (wild-type determined by both methods), low mutation group (mutation by PNA-PCR method, wild-type by nested primer PCR method) and high mutation group (mutation by two methods). The correlation between K-ras mutations and prognosis was analyzed. The mutation rate of K-ras in tumor tissues of the 106 patients was 40.6%. The Mutation rate of K-ras in plasma free DNA detected by PNA-PCR was 31.1%, significantly higher than that of 15.1% detected by nested primer PCR (P = 0.006). The consistent rate of the K-ras status in plasma free DNA detected by PNA-PCR and that in tumor tissue detected by traditional method was up to 83.0%. The median overall survival (OS) of patients of the wild type, low mutation and high mutation groups was 23.5 months, 17.3 months and 13.9 months, respectively (P = 0.002). The median progression-free survival (PFS) of the K-ras wild-type, low mutation and high mutation groups with first-line chemotherapy was 6.8 months, 6.1 months and 3.2 months, respectively (P = 0.002), and the median OS of them were 23.0 months, 15.5 months and 13.9 months, respectively (P = 0.036). The overall response rate (ORR) was improved in the K-ras wide-type patients who received cetuximab combined with chemotherapy as first-line therapy (75.0% vs. 23.4%, P = 0.058). Cetuximab combined with in second-line therapy chemotherapy led to a significant improvement in disease control rate (DCR) ( 100% vs. 35.7%, P < 0.001) as compared with those of chemotherapy alone

  1. K-ras cancer gene mutations in lung tumors from female Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed transplacentally to 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine.

    PubMed

    Koujitani, Takatoshi; Ton, Tai-Vu T; Lahousse, Stephanie A; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Sills, Robert C

    2008-12-01

    A transplacental carcinogenicity study was conducted by exposing pregnant Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 50, 100, 200, or 300 mg 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT)/kg body weight (BW) daily for the duration of gestation (18-19 days) [National Toxicology Program,2006]. The incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in the 200 and 300 mg/kg groups was significantly higher (P = 0.027 and 0.007, respectively) in male offspring, but not in females (P = 0.338 and 0.315, respectively). The purpose of the present study was to evaluate K-ras mutation status in lung tumors from the female offspring in AZT exposed groups and to determine whether at the molecular level there were signature K-ras mutations in lung tumors that were different from spontaneous tumors. K-ras mutation was detected by cycle sequencing of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-amplified DNA, isolated from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded lung tumors. K-ras mutations were detected in 17 of 28 (61%) lung tumors from the female offspring in AZT exposed groups. No K-ras mutations were detected in the 8 tumors examined from the female control group. The predominant mutations were Codon 12 G-->T transversions in the 50, 100, and 300 mg/kg groups, and Codon 12 G-->C transversions in the 200 and 300 mg/kg groups. K-ras Codon 12 G-->T transversions (TGT mutations) may be induced by oxidative DNA damage and 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG), while K-ras Codon 12 G-->C transversions (CGT mutations) may be due to further oxidative lesions of guanine and 8-oxoG.

  2. Assessment of epidermal growth factor receptor and K-ras mutation status in cytological stained smears of non-small cell lung cancer patients: correlation with clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Maria D; Zulueta, Javier J; Echeveste, Jose I; Gúrpide, Alfonso; Seijo, Luis M; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; Del Barrio, Anabel; Pio, Ruben; Idoate, Miguel Angel; Labiano, Tania; Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and K-ras mutations guide treatment selection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although mutation status is routinely assessed in biopsies, cytological specimens are frequently the only samples available. We determined EGFR and K-ras mutations in cytological samples. DNA was extracted from 150 consecutive samples, including 120 Papanicolau smears (80%), 10 cell blocks (7%), nine fresh samples (6%), six ThinPrep® tests (4%), and five body cavity fluids (3.3%). Papanicolau smears were analyzed when they had >50% malignant cells. Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of exons 18-21 of EGFR and exon 2 of K-ras were performed. EGFR mutations were simultaneously determined in biopsies and cytological samples from 20 patients. Activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was assessed. The cytological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 110 samples (73%) and nonadenocarcinoma in 40 (27%) samples. EGFR mutations were identified in 26 samples (17%) and K-ras mutations were identified in 18 (12%) samples. EGFR and K-ras mutations were mutually exclusive. In EGFR-mutated cases, DNA was obtained from stained smears in 24 cases (92%), pleural fluid in one case (4%), and cell block in one case (4%). The response rate to EGFR TKIs in patients harboring mutations was 75%. The mutation status was identical in patients who had both biopsies and cytological samples analyzed. Assessment of EGFR and K-ras mutations in cytological samples is feasible and comparable with biopsy results, making individualized treatment selection possible for NSCLC patients from whom tumor biopsies are not available.

  3. K-Ras gene mutation status as a prognostic and predictive factor in patients with colorectal cancer undergoing irinotecan- or oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Stec, Rafał; Bodnar, Lubomir; Charkiewicz, Radosław; Korniluk, Jan; Rokita, Marta; Smoter, Marta; Ciechowicz, Marzena; Chyczewski, Lech; Nikliński, Jacek; Kozłowski, Wojciech; Szczylik, Cezary

    2012-01-01

    Background: CRC caused more than 600,000 estimated deaths in 2008. Dysregulated signaling through the RAS/RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway due to mutations in K-Ras and B-Raf are common events in CRC. Methods: Incidence of mutations in codons 12 and 13 of K-Ras and exons 11 and 15 of B-Raf were analyzed in amplified PCR products from primary tumors of 273 patients with CRC, and their prognostic and predictive significance was assessed. The prognostic role of clinical and pathological factors was also examined. Results: K-Ras mutations were present in 89 patients (32.6%), of whom 76 (85.4%) had mutations in codon 12 and 10 (11.2%) had mutations in codon 13. B-Raf gene mutations were present in 17 patients (6.9%), of whom 6 (35.3%) had mutations in exon 15. Multivariate analysis revealed a predictive significance for K-Ras mutations with respect to time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin as first-line chemotherapy. There was no predictive significance for B-Raf gene mutation status in these patients. The following risk factors were found to affect overall survival (OS) rates: primary tumor location, lymph node involvement grade, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level before treatment, and performance status according to WHO criteria. Conclusions: Based on the results of this study, K-Ras mutation status may be a suitable indicator of patient eligibility and a prognostic indicator for responsiveness to anti-EGFR therapy alone, or in combination with chemotherapy. Also, K-Ras mutation status may predict time to progression in patients treated with irinotecan and oxaliplatin. PMID:22909976

  4. Assessment of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor and K-Ras Mutation Status in Cytological Stained Smears of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients: Correlation with Clinical Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Zulueta, Javier J.; Echeveste, Jose I.; Gúrpide, Alfonso; Seijo, Luis M.; Martín-Algarra, Salvador; del Barrio, Anabel; Pio, Ruben; Idoate, Miguel Angel; Labiano, Tania; Perez-Gracia, Jose Luis

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and K-ras mutations guide treatment selection in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Although mutation status is routinely assessed in biopsies, cytological specimens are frequently the only samples available. We determined EGFR and K-ras mutations in cytological samples. Methods. DNA was extracted from 150 consecutive samples, including 120 Papanicolau smears (80%), 10 cell blocks (7%), nine fresh samples (6%), six ThinPrep® tests (4%), and five body cavity fluids (3.3%). Papanicolau smears were analyzed when they had >50% malignant cells. Polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of exons 18–21 of EGFR and exon 2 of K-ras were performed. EGFR mutations were simultaneously determined in biopsies and cytological samples from 20 patients. Activity of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) was assessed. Results. The cytological diagnosis was adenocarcinoma in 110 samples (73%) and nonadenocarcinoma in 40 (27%) samples. EGFR mutations were identified in 26 samples (17%) and K-ras mutations were identified in 18 (12%) samples. EGFR and K-ras mutations were mutually exclusive. In EGFR-mutated cases, DNA was obtained from stained smears in 24 cases (92%), pleural fluid in one case (4%), and cell block in one case (4%). The response rate to EGFR TKIs in patients harboring mutations was 75%. The mutation status was identical in patients who had both biopsies and cytological samples analyzed. Conclusion. Assessment of EGFR and K-ras mutations in cytological samples is feasible and comparable with biopsy results, making individualized treatment selection possible for NSCLC patients from whom tumor biopsies are not available. PMID:21572125

  5. Degradation of Activated K-Ras Orthologue via K-Ras-specific Lysine Residues Is Required for Cytokinesis*

    PubMed Central

    Sumita, Kazutaka; Yoshino, Hirofumi; Sasaki, Mika; Majd, Nazanin; Kahoud, Emily Rose; Takahashi, Hidenori; Takeuchi, Koh; Kuroda, Taruho; Lee, Susan; Charest, Pascale G.; Takeda, Kosuke; Asara, John M.; Firtel, Richard A.; Anastasiou, Dimitrios; Sasaki, Atsuo T.

    2014-01-01

    Mammalian cells encode three closely related Ras proteins, H-Ras, N-Ras, and K-Ras. Oncogenic K-Ras mutations frequently occur in human cancers, which lead to dysregulated cell proliferation and genomic instability. However, mechanistic role of the Ras isoform regulation have remained largely unknown. Furthermore, the dynamics and function of negative regulation of GTP-loaded K-Ras have not been fully investigated. Here, we demonstrate RasG, the Dictyostelium orthologue of K-Ras, is targeted for degradation by polyubiquitination. Both ubiquitination and degradation of RasG were strictly associated with RasG activity. High resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis indicated that RasG ubiquitination occurs at C-terminal lysines equivalent to lysines found in human K-Ras but not in H-Ras and N-Ras homologues. Substitution of these lysine residues with arginines (4KR-RasG) diminished RasG ubiquitination and increased RasG protein stability. Cells expressing 4KR-RasG failed to undergo proper cytokinesis and resulted in multinucleated cells. Ectopically expressed human K-Ras undergoes polyubiquitin-mediated degradation in Dictyostelium, whereas human H-Ras and a Dictyostelium H-Ras homologue (RasC) are refractory to ubiquitination. Our results indicate the existence of GTP-loaded K-Ras orthologue-specific degradation system in Dictyostelium, and further identification of the responsible E3-ligase may provide a novel therapeutic approach against K-Ras-mutated cancers. PMID:24338482

  6. Clinical outcome of patients with non-small cell lung cancer receiving front-line chemotherapy according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status.

    PubMed

    Kalikaki, Aristea; Koutsopoulos, Anastasios; Hatzidaki, Dora; Trypaki, Maria; Kontopodis, Emmanouel; Stathopoulos, Efstathios; Mavroudis, Dimitris; Georgoulias, Vassilis; Voutsina, Alexandra

    2010-07-01

    Somatic mutations in EGFR and K-RAS may predict for sensitivity and resistance to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Whether EGFR and K-RAS mutations could also predict clinical outcome of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients following front-line chemotherapy has not yet been established. One hundred and sixty-two chemotherapy-naïve patients with locally advanced/metastatic NSCLC who received front-line chemotherapy were included in this retrospective study and their clinical outcome data was analyzed according to EGFR and K-RAS mutation status of their tumors. Classical activating EGFR and K-RAS mutations were found in 8.2 and 22.6% of patients respectively and were not associated with patients' clinicopathological characteristics. Patients with classical EGFR mutations had a higher probability of response to front-line chemotherapy as compared to those with wild type EGFR (p=0.023). Multivariate analysis showed that the presence of activating EGFR mutations was an independent factor associated with response to front-line chemotherapy (HR=4.85; 95% CI: 1.13-20.83, p=0.034). K-RAS mutation status was not associated with response to front-line chemotherapy. The presence of activating EGFR but not of K-RAS mutations was associated with a significantly higher overall survival compared to patients without mutations treated with platinum-based front-line chemotherapy (p=0.043). The data indicate that EGFR mutation status could be predictive for response to cytotoxic front-line chemotherapy in patients with NSCLC. Additional prospective studies are needed in order to validate this observation and to define whether these patients should be preferentially treated with front-line TKIs or chemotherapy. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced MET translation and signaling sustains K-Ras driven proliferation under anchorage-independent growth conditions

    PubMed Central

    Fujita-Sato, Saori; Galeas, Jacqueline; Truitt, Morgan; Pitt, Cameron; Urisman, Anatoly; Bandyopadhyay, Sourav; Ruggero, Davide; McCormick, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic K-Ras mutation occurs frequently in several types of cancers including pancreatic and lung cancers. Tumors with K-Ras mutation are resistant to chemotherapeutic drugs as well as molecular targeting agents. Although numerous approaches are ongoing to find effective ways to treat these tumors, there are still no effective therapies for K-Ras mutant cancer patients. Here we report that K-Ras mutant cancers are more dependent on K-Ras in anchorage independent culture conditions than in monolayer culture conditions. In seeking to determine mechanisms that contribute to the K-Ras dependency in anchorage independent culture conditions, we discovered the involvement of Met in K-Ras-dependent, anchorage independent cell growth. The Met signaling pathway is enhanced and plays an indispensable role in anchorage independent growth even in cells in which Met is not amplified. Indeed, Met expression is elevated under anchorage-independent growth conditions and is regulated by K-Ras in a MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-dependent manner. Remarkably, in spite of a global down-regulation of mRNA translation during anchorage independent growth, we find that Met mRNA translation is specifically enhanced under these conditions. Importantly, ectopic expression of an active Met mutant rescues K-Ras ablation-derived growth suppression, indicating that K-Ras mediated Met expression drives “K-Ras addiction” in anchorage independent conditions. Our results indicate that enhanced Met expression and signaling is essential for anchorage independent growth of K-Ras mutant cancer cells and suggests that pharmacological inhibitors of Met could be effective for K-Ras mutant tumor patients. PMID:25977330

  8. Mutant K-RAS Promotes Invasion and Metastasis in Pancreatic Cancer Through GTPase Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Padavano, Julianna; Henkhaus, Rebecca S; Chen, Hwudaurw; Skovan, Bethany A; Cui, Haiyan; Ignatenko, Natalia A

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma is one of the most aggressive malignancies, characterized by the local invasion into surrounding tissues and early metastasis to distant organs. Oncogenic mutations of the K-RAS gene occur in more than 90% of human pancreatic cancers. The goal of this study was to investigate the functional significance and downstream effectors of mutant K-RAS oncogene in the pancreatic cancer invasion and metastasis. We applied the homologous recombination technique to stably disrupt K-RAS oncogene in the human pancreatic cell line MiaPaCa-2, which carries the mutant K-RASG12C oncogene in both alleles. Using in vitro assays, we found that clones with disrupted mutant K-RAS gene exhibited low RAS activity, reduced growth rates, increased sensitivity to the apoptosis inducing agents, and suppressed motility and invasiveness. In vivo assays showed that clones with decreased RAS activity had reduced tumor formation ability in mouse xenograft model and increased survival rates in the mouse orthotopic pancreatic cancer model. We further examined molecular pathways downstream of mutant K-RAS and identified RhoA GTP activating protein 5, caveolin-1, and RAS-like small GTPase A (RalA) as key effector molecules, which control mutant K-RAS-dependent migration and invasion in MiaPaCa-2 cells. Our study provides rational for targeting RhoA and RalA GTPase signaling pathways for inhibition of pancreatic cancer metastasis. PMID:26512205

  9. Comparative Roles of Overexpressed and Mutated H- and K-ras in Mammary Carcinogenesis.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-08-01

    transgene of these tumors. 14. SUBJECT TERMS 15. NUMBER OF PAGES Breast Cancer , mammary carcinogenesis, oncogenes, ras genes, 44 replication defective...27 Appendix 5 29 Appendix 6 31 Appendix 7 33 Appendix 8 35 Appendix 9 37 Appendix 10 39 Introduction Breast cancer development involves multiple poorly...understood steps (25). Currently, several genes that may participate in breast cancer development are under investigation. The ras family of genes

  10. K-ras mutations and mucin profile in preneoplastic lesions and colon tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Tarquini, Elena; Salvadori, Maddalena; Ferri, Stefania; Giannini, Augusto; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2008-01-01

    K-ras and mucin profile variations, associated with intestinal carcinogenesis, were studied in the preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and in colonic tumors induced in rats by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The frequency of lesions with K-ras mutations was 23% (3/13), 5.5% (1/18) and 100% (14/14) in MDF, tumors and ACF, respectively. Two of three MDF mutated in K-ras also carried a missense mutation in Apc. We also tested the expression of MUC2, a mucin abundantly expressed in normal colon and M1/MUCA5C, up-regulated in colon carcinogenesis, using immunohistochemistry. MDF and tumors showed a dramatic reduction in the expression of MUC2, whereas ACF showed only a slight reduction. The expression of M1/MUC5AC was almost absent in normal mucosa, but was increased in all the lesions (MDF, tumors and ACF). The expression of the intestinal trefoil factor (ITF), a marker of goblet cell lineage, was reduced in MDF and tumors compared to normal mucosa but not in ACF. In conclusion, although K-ras mutations are present in all ACF, they are less frequent in MDF and tumors; M1/MUC5AC is a marker associated with all preneoplastic events while the reduction of MUC2 and ITF expression is selectively associated with more advanced lesions such as MDF and tumors.

  11. The efficacy of IGF-I receptor monoclonal antibody against human gastrointestinal carcinomas is independent of k-ras mutation status.

    PubMed

    Ii, Masanori; Li, Hua; Adachi, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Ohashi, Hirokazu; Taniguchi, Hiroaki; Arimura, Yoshiaki; Carbone, David P; Imai, Kohzoh; Shinomura, Yasuhisa

    2011-08-01

    Insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I receptor (IGF-IR) signaling is required for carcinogenicity and proliferation of gastrointestinal cancers. We have previously shown successful targeting therapy for colorectal, pancreatic, gastric, and esophageal carcinomas using recombinant adenoviruses expressing dominant negative IGF-IR. Mutation in k-ras is one of key factors in gastrointestinal cancers. In this study, we sought to evaluate the effect of a new monoclonal antibody for IGF-IR, figitumumab (CP-751,871), on the progression of human gastrointestinal carcinomas with/without k-ras mutation. We assessed the effect of figitumumab on signal transduction, proliferation, and survival in six gastrointestinal cancer cell lines with/without k-ras mutation, including colorectal and pancreatic adenocarcinoma, esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, and hepatoma. Combination effects of figitumumab and chemotherapy were also studied. Then figitumumab was evaluated in the treatment of xenografts in nude mice. Figitumumab blocked autophosphorylation of IGF-IR and its downstream signals. The antibody suppressed proliferation and tumorigenicity in all cell lines. Figitumumab inhibited survival by itself and up-regulated chemotherapy (5-FU and gemcitabine) induced apoptosis. Moreover, the combination of this agent and chemotherapy was effective against tumors in mice. The effect of figitumumab was not influenced by the mutation status of k-ras. Figitumumab reduced expression of IGF-IR but not insulin receptor in these xenografted tumors. The drug did not affect murine body weight or blood concentrations of glucose, insulin, IGF binding protein 3, and growth hormone. IGF-IR might be a good molecular therapeutic target and figitumumab may thus have therapeutic value in human gastrointestinal malignancies even in the presence of k-ras mutations. ©2011 AACR.

  12. Molecular interaction between K-Ras and H-REV107 in the Ras signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Han, Chang Woo; Jeong, Mi Suk; Jang, Se Bok

    2017-09-16

    Ras proteins are small GTPases that serve as master moderators of a large number of signaling pathways involved in various cellular processes. Activating mutations in Ras are found in about one-third of cancers. H-REV107, a K-Ras binding protein, plays an important role in determining K-Ras function. H-REV107 is a member of the HREV107 family of class II tumor suppressor genes and a growth inhibitory Ras target gene that suppresses cellular growth, differentiation, and apoptosis. Expression of H-REV107 was strongly reduced in about 50% of human carcinoma cell lines. However, the specific molecular mechanism by which H-REV107 inhibits Ras is still unknown. In the present study, we suggest that H-REV107 forms a strong complex with activating oncogenic mutation Q61H K-Ras from various biochemical binding assays and modeled structures. In addition, the interaction sites between K-Ras and H-REV107 were predicted based on homology modeling. Here, we found that some structure-based mutants of the K-Ras disrupted the complex formation with H-REV107. Finally, a novel molecular mechanism describing K-Ras and H-REV107 binding is suggested and insights into new K-Ras effector target drugs are provided. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Intrinsic K-Ras dynamics: A novel molecular dynamics data analysis method shows causality between residue pair motions

    PubMed Central

    Vatansever, Sezen; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Erman, Burak

    2016-01-01

    K-Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, but there are still no drugs that directly target it in the clinic. Recent studies utilizing dynamics information show promising results for selectively targeting mutant K-Ras. However, despite extensive characterization, the mechanisms by which K-Ras residue fluctuations transfer allosteric regulatory information remain unknown. Understanding the direction of information flow can provide new mechanistic insights for K-Ras targeting. Here, we present a novel approach –conditional time-delayed correlations (CTC) – using the motions of all residue pairs of a protein to predict directionality in the allosteric regulation of the protein fluctuations. Analyzing nucleotide-dependent intrinsic K-Ras motions with the new approach yields predictions that agree with the literature, showing that GTP-binding stabilizes K-Ras motions and leads to residue correlations with relatively long characteristic decay times. Furthermore, our study is the first to identify driver-follower relationships in correlated motions of K-Ras residue pairs, revealing the direction of information flow during allosteric modulation of its nucleotide-dependent intrinsic activity: active K-Ras Switch-II region motions drive Switch-I region motions, while α-helix-3L7 motions control both. Our results provide novel insights for strategies that directly target mutant K-Ras. PMID:27845397

  14. Intrinsic K-Ras dynamics: A novel molecular dynamics data analysis method shows causality between residue pair motions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatansever, Sezen; Gümüş, Zeynep H.; Erman, Burak

    2016-11-01

    K-Ras is the most frequently mutated oncogene in human cancers, but there are still no drugs that directly target it in the clinic. Recent studies utilizing dynamics information show promising results for selectively targeting mutant K-Ras. However, despite extensive characterization, the mechanisms by which K-Ras residue fluctuations transfer allosteric regulatory information remain unknown. Understanding the direction of information flow can provide new mechanistic insights for K-Ras targeting. Here, we present a novel approach –conditional time-delayed correlations (CTC) – using the motions of all residue pairs of a protein to predict directionality in the allosteric regulation of the protein fluctuations. Analyzing nucleotide-dependent intrinsic K-Ras motions with the new approach yields predictions that agree with the literature, showing that GTP-binding stabilizes K-Ras motions and leads to residue correlations with relatively long characteristic decay times. Furthermore, our study is the first to identify driver-follower relationships in correlated motions of K-Ras residue pairs, revealing the direction of information flow during allosteric modulation of its nucleotide-dependent intrinsic activity: active K-Ras Switch-II region motions drive Switch-I region motions, while α-helix-3L7 motions control both. Our results provide novel insights for strategies that directly target mutant K-Ras.

  15. Hyperplastic (serrated) polyps of the colorectum: relationship of CpG island methylator phenotype and K-ras mutation to location and histologic subtype.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Michael J; Yang, Shi; Clebanoff, Jennifer L; Mulcahy, Elizabeth; Farraye, Francis A; Amorosino, Mark; Swan, Niall

    2004-04-01

    We investigated the frequency of promoter region CpG island methylation (CIM) of hMLH1, MGMT, MINT1, MINT2, and p16 and K-ras mutations in a total of 79 hyperplastic (serrated) polyps (HPs) from 75 patients and correlated the molecular profiles to polyp location in the colorectum, histologic variation, and other factors. Methylation-specific PCR (MS-PCR) was used to assay CIM status. HPs that showed CIM of one or more or two or more of the genes assayed were classified as CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) and CIMP-high (CIMP-H), respectively. PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to assay K-ras codon 12 and 13 mutations. Logistic regression indicated a statistically significant trend for increasing odds for CIMP (P = 0.002) and CIMP-H (P < 0.001) according to proximity to the cecum or distance from the rectum. Conversely, K-ras codon 12 mutation was present in 13 of 40 (32.5%) distally located HPs compared with 2 of 39 (5.1%) proximal HPs (P = 0.006). Histologic subtype distribution varied by proximal and distal locations. Frequency of CIMP in serrated polyps with abnormal proliferation (SPAPs), differed significantly from goblet cell serrated polyps (GCSPs) (24 of 26, 92.3% vs. 6 of 13, 46.2%) (P = 0.003) and microvesicular serrated polyps (MVSPs) (26 of 38, 68.4%) (P = 0.03). Frequency of K-ras mutation in GCSPs (7 of 13, 54%) differed from that of MVSPs (6 of 38, 16%) (P = 0.01) and SPAPs (2 of 26, 8%) (P = 0.003). Location in the colorectum and histologic subtype were major determinants of the molecular profile of HPs. The molecular findings of CIMP and K-ras mutations appear to encompass most if not all HPs; CIMP profiles suggest that SPAP is the most advanced morphologic variant. We postulate that MVSP and GCSP may be precursor lesions that, if proximally located or larger, can progress to SPAP. Frequent K-ras mutations and infrequent CIMP distinguish the distal GCSP variant.

  16. Mechanisms of Membrane Binding of Small GTPase K-Ras4B Farnesylated Hypervariable Region*

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Abraham, Sherwin J.; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Hitchinson, Ben; Khavrutskii, Lyuba; Tarasova, Nadya I.; Nussinov, Ruth; Gaponenko, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras4B belongs to a family of small GTPases that regulates cell growth, differentiation and survival. K-ras is frequently mutated in cancer. K-Ras4B association with the plasma membrane through its farnesylated and positively charged C-terminal hypervariable region (HVR) is critical to its oncogenic function. However, the structural mechanisms of membrane association are not fully understood. Here, using confocal microscopy, surface plasmon resonance, and molecular dynamics simulations, we observed that K-Ras4B can be distributed in rigid and loosely packed membrane domains. Its membrane binding domain interaction with phospholipids is driven by membrane fluidity. The farnesyl group spontaneously inserts into the disordered lipid microdomains, whereas the rigid microdomains restrict the farnesyl group penetration. We speculate that the resulting farnesyl protrusion toward the cell interior allows oligomerization of the K-Ras4B membrane binding domain in rigid microdomains. Unlike other Ras isoforms, K-Ras4B HVR contains a single farnesyl modification and positively charged polylysine sequence. The high positive charge not only modulates specific HVR binding to anionic phospholipids but farnesyl membrane orientation. Phosphorylation of Ser-181 prohibits spontaneous farnesyl membrane insertion. The mechanism illuminates the roles of HVR modifications in K-Ras4B targeting microdomains of the plasma membrane and suggests an additional function for HVR in regulation of Ras signaling. PMID:25713064

  17. K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitory peptides generated by random peptide T7 phage display technology.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Kotaro; Kamada, Yusuke; Sameshima, Tomoya; Yaguchi, Masahiro; Niida, Ayumu; Sasaki, Shigekazu; Miwa, Masanori; Ohkubo, Shoichi; Sakamoto, Jun-Ichi; Kamaura, Masahiro; Cho, Nobuo; Tani, Akiyoshi

    2017-03-11

    Amino-acid mutations of Gly(12) (e.g. G12D, G12V, G12C) of V-Ki-ras2 Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (K-Ras), the most promising drug target in cancer therapy, are major growth drivers in various cancers. Although over 30 years have passed since the discovery of these mutations in most cancer patients, effective mutated K-Ras inhibitors have not been marketed. Here, we report novel and selective inhibitory peptides to K-Ras(G12D). We screened random peptide libraries displayed on T7 phage against purified recombinant K-Ras(G12D), with thorough subtraction of phages bound to wild-type K-Ras, and obtained KRpep-2 (Ac-RRCPLYISYDPVCRR-NH2) as a consensus sequence. KRpep-2 showed more than 10-fold binding- and inhibition-selectivity to K-Ras(G12D), both in SPR analysis and GDP/GTP exchange enzyme assay. KD and IC50 values were 51 and 8.9 nM, respectively. After subsequent sequence optimization, we successfully generated KRpep-2d (Ac-RRRRCPLYISYDPVCRRRR-NH2) that inhibited enzyme activity of K-Ras(G12D) with IC50 = 1.6 nM and significantly suppressed ERK-phosphorylation, downstream of K-Ras(G12D), along with A427 cancer cell proliferation at 30 μM peptide concentration. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a K-Ras(G12D)-selective inhibitor, contributing to the development and study of K-Ras(G12D)-targeting drugs.

  18. Identification of predictive markers of response to the MEK1/2 inhibitor selumetinib (AZD6244) in K-ras-mutated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Tentler, John J; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Tan, Aik Choon; Spreafico, Anna; Pitts, Todd M; Morelli, M Pia; Selby, Heather M; Kachaeva, Maria I; Flanigan, Sara A; Kulikowski, Gillian N; Leong, Stephen; Arcaroli, John J; Messersmith, Wells A; Eckhardt, S Gail

    2010-12-01

    Mutant K-ras activity leads to the activation of the RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway in approximately 44% of colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors. Accordingly, several inhibitors of the MEK pathway are under clinical evaluation in several malignancies including CRC. The aim of this study was to develop and characterize predictive biomarkers of response to the MEK1/2 inhibitor AZD6244 in CRC in order to maximize the clinical utility of this agent. Twenty-seven human CRC cell lines were exposed to AZD6244 and classified according to the IC(50) value as sensitive (≤ 0.1 μmol/L) or resistant (>1 μmol/L). All cell lines were subjected to immunoblotting for effector proteins, K-ras/BRAF mutation status, and baseline gene array analysis. Further testing was done in cell line xenografts and K-ras mutant CRC human explants models to develop a predictive genomic classifier for AZD6244. The most sensitive and resistant cell lines were subjected to differential gene array and pathway analyses. Members of the Wnt signaling pathway were highly overexpressed in cell lines resistant to AZD6244 and seem to be functionally involved in mediating resistance by shRNA knockdown studies. Baseline gene array data from CRC cell lines and xenografts were used to develop a k-top scoring pair (k-TSP) classifier, which predicted with 71% accuracy which of a test set of patient-derived K-ras mutant CRC explants would respond to AZD6244, providing the basis for a patient-selective clinical trial. These results also indicate that resistance to AZD6244 may be mediated, in part, by the upregulation of the Wnt pathway, suggesting potential rational combination partners for AZD6244 in CRC.

  19. K-Ras(V14I) -induced Noonan syndrome predisposes to tumour development in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Garcia-Medina, Raquel; Jiménez, Beatriz; Cañamero, Marta; de Martino, Alba; Guerra, Carmen

    2016-06-01

    The Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. A significant proportion of NS patients may also develop myeloproliferative disorders (MPDs), including juvenile myelomonocytic leukaemia (JMML). Surprisingly, scarce information is available in relation to other tumour types in these patients. We have previously developed and characterized a knock-in mouse model that carries one of the most frequent KRAS-NS-related mutations, the K-Ras(V14I) substitution, which recapitulates most of the alterations described in NS patients, including MPDs. The K-Ras(V14I) mutation is a mild activating K-Ras protein; thus, we have used this model to study tumour susceptibility in comparison with mice expressing the classical K-Ras(G12V) oncogene. Interestingly, our studies have shown that these mice display a generalized tumour predisposition and not just MPDs. In fact, we have observed that the K-Ras(V14I) mutation is capable of cooperating with the p16Ink4a/p19Arf and Trp53 tumour suppressors, as well as with other risk factors such as pancreatitis, thereby leading to a higher cancer incidence. In conclusion, our results illustrate that the K-Ras(V14I) activating protein is able to induce cancer, although at a much lower level than the classical K-Ras(G12V) oncogene, and that it can be significantly modulated by both genetic and non-genetic events. Copyright © 2016 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Selective killing of K-ras mutant cancer cells by small molecule inducers of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Alice T.; Winslow, Monte M.; Magendantz, Margaret; Ouyang, Chensi; Dowdle, James; Subramanian, Aravind; Lewis, Timothy A.; Maglathin, Rebecca L.; Tolliday, Nicola; Jacks, Tyler

    2011-01-01

    Activating K-RAS mutations are the most frequent oncogenic mutations in human cancer. Numerous downstream signaling pathways have been shown to be deregulated by oncogenic K-ras. However, to date there are still no effective targeted therapies for this genetically defined subset of patients. Here we report the results of a small molecule, synthetic lethal screen using mouse embryonic fibroblasts derived from a mouse model harboring a conditional oncogenic K-rasG12D allele. Among the >50,000 compounds screened, we identified a class of drugs with selective activity against oncogenic K-ras–expressing cells. The most potent member of this class, lanperisone, acts by inducing nonapoptotic cell death in a cell cycle- and translation-independent manner. The mechanism of cell killing involves the induction of reactive oxygen species that are inefficiently scavenged in K-ras mutant cells, leading to oxidative stress and cell death. In mice, treatment with lanperisone suppresses the growth of K-ras–driven tumors without overt toxicity. Our findings establish the specific antitumor activity of lanperisone and reveal oxidative stress pathways as potential targets in Ras-mediated malignancies. PMID:21555567

  1. Differential Expression of IL-17, 22 and 23 in the Progression of Colorectal Cancer in Patients with K-ras Mutation: Ras Signal Inhibition and Crosstalk with GM-CSF and IFN-γ

    PubMed Central

    Petanidis, Savvas; Anestakis, Doxakis; Argyraki, Maria; Hadzopoulou-Cladaras, Margarita; Salifoglou, Athanasios

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that aberrant K-ras signaling is responsible for triggering immunological responses and inflammation-driven tumorigenesis. Interleukins IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 have been reported in various types of malignancies, but the exact mechanistic role of these molecules remains to be elucidated. Given the role of K-ras and the involvement of interleukins in colorectal tumorigenesis, research efforts are reported for the first time, showing that differentially expressed interleukin IL-17, IL-22, and IL-23 levels are associated with K-ras in a stage-specific fashion along colorectal cancer progression. Specifically, a) the effect of K-ras signaling was investigated in the overall expression of interleukins in patients with colorectal cancer and healthy controls, and b) an association was established between mutant K-ras and cytokines GM-CSF and IFN-γ. The results indicate that specific interleukins are differentially expressed in K-ras positive patients and the use of K-ras inhibitor Manumycin A decreases both interleukin levels and apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by inhibiting cell viability. Finally, inflammation-driven GM-CSF and IFN-γ levels are modulated through interleukin expression in tumor patients, with interleukin expression in the intestinal lumen and cancerous tissue mediated by aberrant K-ras signaling. Collectively, the findings a) indicate that interleukin expression is influenced by ras signaling and specific interleukins play an oncogenic promoter role in colorectal cancer, highlighting the molecular link between inflammation and tumorigenesis, and b) accentuate the interwoven molecular correlations as leads to new therapeutic approaches in the future. PMID:24040001

  2. Phenotype of bone metastases of non-small cell lung cancer: epidermal growth factor receptor expression and K-RAS mutational status.

    PubMed

    Badalian, Gayane; Barbai, Tamás; Rásó, Erzsébet; Derecskei, Katalin; Szendrôi, Miklós; Tímár, József

    2007-01-01

    Bone metastasis is a frequent complication of lung cancer progression, however, studies on bone metastatic tissues are scanty. Here we have collected a small cohort of 11 non-small cell lung cancer cases where primary tumors and corresponding bone metastases were available for pathological analysis. We have tested two molecular markers: EGFR protein expression and K-RAS mutation at codon 12 using immunohistochemistry and RFLPPCR, respectively. We have shown that using improved protocols, EGFR protein (both the extracellular as well as the cytoplasmic domain) is readily detectable in decalcified bone tissue. We found that the EGFR expression status is highly similar in bone metastases compared to the primary tumors, although the expression levels may change. Individual comparison of corresponding primary and metastatic NSCLC tissues indicated that downregulation of EGFR was a rare event (2/11) compared to upregulation (4/11) in bone metastases. On the other hand, our data indicate that the K-RAS mutational status of the primary tumor does not predict the status of the bone metastatic tissue of NSCLC, since we have observed both emergence of mutant clones in metastases from wild-type (wt) primary tumors and loss of mutant clones in metastases from mutant primaries in addition to the maintained mutant status. Our data support that at least two progression models occur in NSCLC, the samegene as well as the clonal selection one. It is noteworthy that in NSCLC cases with wt- or mutant KRAS, downregulation of EGFR expression was a rare event although upregulation in bone metastases was observed more frequently in wt K-RAS cases.

  3. Pyrosequencing-based methods reveal marked inter-individual differences in oncogene mutation burden in human colorectal tumours.

    PubMed

    Weidlich, S; Walsh, K; Crowther, D; Burczynski, M E; Feuerstein, G; Carey, F A; Steele, R J C; Wolf, C R; Miele, G; Smith, G

    2011-07-12

    The epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted monoclonal antibody cetuximab (Erbitux) was recently introduced for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Treatment response is dependent on Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) mutation status, in which the majority of patients with tumour-specific K-Ras mutations fail to respond to treatment. Mutations in the oncogenes B-Raf and PIK3CA (phosphoinositide-3-kinase) may also influence cetuximab response, highlighting the need for a sensitive, accurate and quantitative assessment of tumour mutation burden. Mutations in K-Ras, B-Raf and PIK3CA were identified by both dideoxy and quantitative pyrosequencing-based methods in a cohort of unselected colorectal tumours (n=102), and pyrosequencing-based mutation calls correlated with various clinico-pathological parameters. The use of quantitative pyrosequencing-based methods allowed us to report a 13.7% increase in mutation burden, and to identify low-frequency (<30% mutation burden) mutations not routinely detected by dideoxy sequencing. K-Ras and B-Raf mutations were mutually exclusive and independently associated with a more advanced tumour phenotype. Pyrosequencing-based methods facilitate the identification of low-frequency tumour mutations and allow more accurate assessment of tumour mutation burden. Quantitative assessment of mutation burden may permit a more detailed evaluation of the role of specific tumour mutations in the pathogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer and may improve future patient selection for targeted drug therapies.

  4. Pyrosequencing-based methods reveal marked inter-individual differences in oncogene mutation burden in human colorectal tumours

    PubMed Central

    Weidlich, S; Walsh, K; Crowther, D; Burczynski, M E; Feuerstein, G; Carey, F A; Steele, R J C; Wolf, C R; Miele, G; Smith, G

    2011-01-01

    Background: The epidermal growth factor receptor-targeted monoclonal antibody cetuximab (Erbitux) was recently introduced for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Treatment response is dependent on Kirsten-Ras (K-Ras) mutation status, in which the majority of patients with tumour-specific K-Ras mutations fail to respond to treatment. Mutations in the oncogenes B-Raf and PIK3CA (phosphoinositide-3-kinase) may also influence cetuximab response, highlighting the need for a sensitive, accurate and quantitative assessment of tumour mutation burden. Methods: Mutations in K-Ras, B-Raf and PIK3CA were identified by both dideoxy and quantitative pyrosequencing-based methods in a cohort of unselected colorectal tumours (n=102), and pyrosequencing-based mutation calls correlated with various clinico-pathological parameters. Results: The use of quantitative pyrosequencing-based methods allowed us to report a 13.7% increase in mutation burden, and to identify low-frequency (<30% mutation burden) mutations not routinely detected by dideoxy sequencing. K-Ras and B-Raf mutations were mutually exclusive and independently associated with a more advanced tumour phenotype. Conclusion: Pyrosequencing-based methods facilitate the identification of low-frequency tumour mutations and allow more accurate assessment of tumour mutation burden. Quantitative assessment of mutation burden may permit a more detailed evaluation of the role of specific tumour mutations in the pathogenesis and progression of colorectal cancer and may improve future patient selection for targeted drug therapies. PMID:21712828

  5. Comparative study of mutations in SNP loci of K-RAS, hMLH1 and hMSH2 genes in neoplastic intestinal polyps and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Zhi-Hui; Cui, Li-Hong; Wang, Xiao-Hui; Li, Chao; He, Xing

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To clarify the molecular mechanism involved in pathogenesis of colorectal cancer as well as clinical significance of genetic analysis of histological samples. METHODS: A total of 480 blood and tissue specimens were collected in our hospital from January 2011 to October 2012. In the observation group, there were 120 blood specimens and 120 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from patients with neoplastic intestinal polyps. In the control group I there were 80 blood specimens and 80 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from patients with colorectal cancer. In the control group II there were 40 blood specimens and 40 intestinal tract tissue specimens collected from healthy individuals. The gene segments were amplified using PCR and DNA gel electrophoresis along with DNA sequence analysis were employed for the detection of the following single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs): K-RAS codons 12 and 13; hMLH1 (human mutS homolog 1) gene missense mutation at Va1384Asp; hMSH2 (human mutS homolog 2) gene missense mutation at 2783C/A. RESULTS: The mutation rate of the SNP at Va1384Asp locus of the hMLH1 gene from blood and tissue specimens in the observation group showed no statistical difference from those in the control group I. The mutation rates of SNPs in codons 12 and 13 of K-RAS and at 2783C/A locus of the hMSH2 gene were significantly lower in the observation group than in the control group I (χ2 = 15.476, 29.670, 10.811, 16.618, 33.538, 7.898, P < 0.05). The mutation rate of SNP at Va1384Asp locus of the hMLH1 gene was significantly higher in the observation group when compared to the control group II (χ2 = 10.486, 4.876, P < 0.05). The mutation rates of SNPs in codons 12 and 13 of K-RAS and at 2783C/A locus of the hMSH2 gene did not show any statistical difference from those in the control group II. CONCLUSION: There may be important clinical significance and relevance between neoplastic intestinal polyps and colorectal cancer in terms

  6. A vertically-stacked, polymer, microfluidic point mutation analyzer: Rapid, high accuracy detection of low-abundance K-ras mutations

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyudong; Lee, Tae Yoon; Nikitopoulos, Dimitris E.; Soper, Steven A.; Murphy, Michael C.

    2011-01-01

    Recognition of point mutations in the K-ras gene can be used for the clinical management of several types of cancers. Unfortunately, several assay and hardware concerns must be addressed to allow users not well-trained in performing molecular analyses the opportunity to undertake these measurements. To provide for a larger user-base for these types of molecular assays, a vertically-stacked microfluidic analyzer with a modular architecture and process automation was developed. The analyzer employed a primary PCR coupled to an allele-specific ligase detection reaction (LDR). Each functional device, including continuous flow thermal reactors for the PCR and LDR, passive micromixers and ExoSAP-IT® purification, was designed and tested. Individual devices were fabricated in polycarbonate using hot embossing and assembled using adhesive bonding for system assembly. The system produced LDR products from a DNA sample in ~1 h, an 80% reduction in time compared to conventional bench-top instrumentation. Purifying the post-PCR products with the ExoSAP-IT® enzyme led to optimized LDR performance minimizing false positive signals and producing reliable results. Mutant alleles in genomic DNA were quantified to the level of 0.25 ng of mutant DNA in 50 ng of wild-type DNA for a 25 μL sample, equivalent to DNA from 42 mutant cells. PMID:21771577

  7. The Rac1 splice form Rac1b promotes K-ras-induced lung tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Chun; Licciulli, Silvia; Avila, Jacqueline L.; Cho, Miyoung; Troutman, Scott; Jiang, Ping; Kossenkov, Andrew; Showe, Louise C.; Liu, Qin; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M.; Kissil, Joseph L.

    2012-01-01

    Rac1b, an alternative splice form of Rac1, has been previously shown to be upregulated in colon and breast cancer cells, suggesting an oncogenic role for Rac1b in these cancers. Our analysis of NSCLC tumor and matched normal tissue samples indicates Rac1b is upregulated in a significant fraction of lung tumors in correlation with mutational status of K-ras. To directly assess the oncogenic potential of Rac1b in vivo, we employed a mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma, in which the expression of Rac1b can be conditionally activated specifically in the lung. While expression of Rac1b alone is insufficient to drive tumor initiation, the expression of Rac1b synergizes with an oncogenic allele of K-ras resulting in increased cellular proliferation and accelerated tumor growth. Finally, we show that in contrast to our previous findings demonstrating a requirement for Rac1 in K-ras-driven cell proliferation, Rac1b is not required in this context. Given the partially overlapping spectrum of downstream effectors regulated by Rac1 and Rac1b, our findings further delineate the signaling pathways downstream of Rac1 that are required for K-ras driven tumorigenesis. PMID:22430205

  8. Phase II study of selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) plus irinotecan as second-line therapy in patients with K-RAS mutated colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hochster, H S; Uboha, N; Messersmith, W; Gold, P J; ONeil, B H; Cohen, D; Denlinger, C; Cohen, S; Leichman, C G; Leichman, L; Lenz, H-J

    2015-01-01

    More than half of colorectal tumors harbor activating mutations in RAS/RAF proteins. Selumetinib (AZD6244, ARRY-142886) is a small molecule kinase inhibitor targeting MEK kinase, downstream of RAS. We examined the efficacy and safety of selumetinib with irinotecan in second-line therapy. Patients with K-RAS mutated colorectal cancer, progressing on first-line oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy with bevacizumab, were eligible for this multicenter open-label phase I/II trial. In part A, a dose was determined using a standard "3 + 3" design; in part B, efficacy was determined. The primary endpoint was RECIST response rate. Historical data for irinotecan were used as reference. Secondary endpoints included progression-free survival and overall survival. Thirty-two patients entered the study, and 31 were treated. All had K-RAS exon 2 mutated tumors. In phase I, the recommended oral dose of selumetinib was 75 mg twice per day with intravenous (IV) irinotecan, 180 mg/m² every 2 weeks. Three patients (9.7 %) had partial response . Sixteen patients (51.6 %) had stable disease for ≥4 weeks, including three >1 year. The most common grade 3 adverse events included diarrhea, neutropenia, fatigue, anemia, nausea, and dehydration. The study was terminated before a pre-planned accrual of 45 subjects. Despite termination before full accrual, the point estimates of RR and median PFS show promising results, suggesting that further investigations of MEK inhibition in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer are warranted. Studies combining MEK inhibitors with cytotoxics or other targeted agents may lead to improved clinical activity based on the emerging preclinical data.

  9. [Effects of K-ras gene mutation on colon cancer cell line Caco-2 metastasis by regulating E-cadherin/beta-catenin/p120 protein complex formation and RhoA protein activity].

    PubMed

    Li, Jing-nan; Li, Xiao; Qian, Jia-ming; Lu, Xin-qing; Yang, Hong

    2010-02-01

    To explore the effects of K-ras gene mutation on colon cancer cell line Caco-2 metastasis by regulating E-cadherin/beta-catenin/p120 protein complex formation and RhoA protein activity. K-ras wild-type colon cancer cell line Caco-2 was transiently transfected by phr-GFP vector (control group), transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector (transfection group), transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector and treated by specific MAPK pathway inhibitor PD98059 (MAPK inhibition group), or transfected by mutant K-ras gene phr-K-ras (Val12) vector and treated by specific PI-3K pathway inhibitor LY294002 (PI-3K inhibition group), respectively. Cell migration was tested by Transwell experiment. E-cadherin and beta-catenin protein expression and intracellular location were detected by cell immunofluorescence method. Intracellular p120 protein expression was detected by Western blot. beta-catenin protein level which combined with E-cadherin was detected by immunoprecipitation. RhoA activity was analyzed by Pull-down assay. The Caco-2 cell migration rate was (19.8 +/- 5.6) % in transfection group, which was significantly higher than that in control group [(14.0 +/- 4.2) %] (P = 0.001) and in MAPK inhibition group [(15.8 +/- 1.2) %] (P = 0.044), but was not significantly different from that in PI-3K inhibition group [(17.5 +/- 2.8) %] (P = 0.095). Immunofluorescence method showed that the E-cadherin and beta-catenin stain located in the cell membrane decreased in transfection group. Western blot showed that the total intracellular p120 protein decreased in transfection group and PI-3K inhibition group. Immunoprecipitation data showed that beta-catenin protein level combined with E-cadherin decreased in transfection group and PI-3K group. Pull-down test showed that RhoA protein activity was up-regulated in transfection group. K-ras gene mutation stimulates the migration of colon cancer cell Caco-2, which may be achieved by decreasing the E

  10. Coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction enables selective identification of K-Ras mutations in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumor tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shaorong; Xie, Li; Hou, Zhibo; Qian, Xiaoping; Yu, Lixia; Wei, Jia; Ding, Yitao; Liu, Baorui

    2011-09-01

    Conventional polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing is the standard assay for the detection of K-Ras mutations. However, this method is deficient in identifying small numbers of mutation-bearing cells, and tumor-cell enrichment methods such as microdissection or macrodissection are labor intensive and not always achievable. We applied the recently described coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction, which amplifies minority alleles selectively, to detect K-Ras mutations directly in 29 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens and compared the results with those of conventional polymerase chain reaction. To avoid a false-negative result from the coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction assay, we applied a more sensitive peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction method as the gold standard. Dilution experiments indicated an approximately 5-fold improvement in sensitivity with coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction-based Sanger sequencing. Conventional polymerase chain reaction detected K-Ras mutations in 11 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded pancreatic specimens (37.9%), whereas coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction could identify all of those mutations as well as mutations in 10 additional samples, for a total of 21 (72.4%, P = .002) of 29. Unlike peptide nucleic acid polymerase chain reaction, coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction identified all K-Ras mutations in specimens in which tumor cells accounted for at least 20% of the total. Adoption of coamplification at lower denaturation temperature polymerase chain reaction is straightforward and requires no additional reagents or instruments. The technique is a good strategy to detect K-Ras mutations selectively in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues without tumor-cell enrichment.

  11. Dual targeting of PI3K and MEK enhances the radiation response of K-RAS mutated non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toulany, Mahmoud; Iida, Mari; Keinath, Simone; Iyi, Firdevs F.; Mueck, Katharina; Fehrenbacher, Birgit; Mansour, Wael Y.; Schaller, Martin; Wheeler, Deric L.; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2016-01-01

    Despite the significant contribution of radiotherapy to non-small lung cancer (NSCLC), radioresistance still occurs. One of the major radioresistance mechanisms is the hyperactivation of the PI3K/Akt pathway in which Akt facilitates the repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) through the stimulation of DNA-PKcs. We investigated if targeting PI3K would be a potential approach for enhancing the radiosensitivity of K-RAS mutated (K-RASmut) NSCLC cell lines A549 and H460. Short-term (1-2 h) pre-treatment of cells with the PI3K inhibitor PI-103 (1 μM) inhibited Akt/DNA-PKcs activity, blocked DSBs repair and induced radiosensitivity, while long-term (24 h) pre-treatment did not. Lack of an effect after 24 h of PI-103 pre-treatment was due to reactivation of K-Ras/MEK/ERK-dependent Akt. However, long-term treatment with the combination of PI-103 and MEK inhibitor PD98059 completely blocked reactivation of Akt and impaired DSBs repair through non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) leading to radiosensitization. The effect of PI3K inhibition on Akt signaling was also tested in A549 mouse xenografts. P-Akt and P-DNA-PKcs were inhibited 30 min post-irradiation in xenografts, which were pretreated by PI-103 30 min before irradiation. However, Akt was reactivated 30 min post-irradiation in tumors, which were pre-treated for 3 h with PI-103 before irradiation. After a 24 h pretreatment with PI-103, a significant reactivation of Akt was achieved 24 h after irradiation. Thus, due to MEK/ERK-dependent reactivation of Akt, targeting PI3K alone is not a suitable approach for radiosensitizing K-RASmut NSCLC cells, indicating that dual targeting of PI3K and MEK is an efficient approach to improve radiotherapy outcome. PMID:27248324

  12. Elevated K-ras activity with cholestyramine and lovastatin, but not konjac mannan or niacin in lung—importance of mouse strain

    PubMed Central

    Calvert, Richard J.; Tepper, Shirley; Kammouni, Wafa; Anderson, Lucy M.; Kritchevsky, David

    2007-01-01

    Our previous work established that hypocholesterolemic agents altered K-ras intracellular localization in lung. Here, we examined K-ras activity to define further its potential importance in lung carcinogenesis. K-ras activity in lungs from male A/J, Swiss and C57BL/6 mice was examined. For three weeks, mice consumed either 2 or 4% cholestyramine (CS), 1% niacin, 5% konjac mannan (KM), or were injected with lovastatin 25 mg/kg three or five times weekly (Lov-3X and Lov-5X). A pair-fed (PF) group was fed the same quantity of diet consumed by the Lov-5X mice to control for lower body weights in Lov-5X mice. After three weeks, serum cholesterol was assayed with a commercial kit. Activated K-ras protein from lung was affinity precipitated with a Raf-1 ras binding domain-glutathione-S-transferase fusion protein bound to glutathione-agarose beads, followed by Western blotting, K-ras antibody treatment, and chemiluminescent detection. Only KM reduced serum cholesterol (in 2 of 3 mouse strains). In C56BL/6 mice treated with Lov-3X, lung K-ras activity increased 1.8-fold versus control (p = 0.009). In normal lung with wild-type K-ras, this would be expected to be associated with maintenance of differentiation. In A/J mice fed 4% CS, K-ras activity increased 2.1-fold (p = 0.02), which might be responsible for the reported enhancement of carcinogenesis in carcinogen-treated rats fed CS. KM feeding and PF treatment had no significant effects on K-ras activity. These data are consistent with the concept that K-ras in lung has an oncogenic function when mutated, but may act as a tumor suppressor when wild-type. PMID:17005160

  13. Non-covalent interactions of the carcinogen (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras proto-oncogene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Jorge H.; Deligkaris, Christos

    2013-03-01

    Investigating the complementary, but different, effects of physical (non-covalent) and chemical (covalent) mutagen-DNA and carcinogen-DNA interactions is important for understanding possible mechanisms of development and prevention of mutagenesis and carcinogenesis. A highly mutagenic and carcinogenic metabolite of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[ α]pyrene, namely (+)-anti-BPDE, is known to undergo both physical and chemical complexation with DNA. The major covalent adduct, a promutagenic, is known to be an external (+)-trans-anti-BPDE-N2-dGuanosine configuration whose origins are not fully understood. Thus, it is desirable to study the mechanisms of external non-covalent BPDE-DNA binding and their possible relationships to external covalent trans adduct formation. We present a detailed codon-by-codon computational study of the non-covalent interactions of (+)-anti-BPDE with DNA which explains and correctly predicts preferential (+)-anti-BPDE binding at minor groove guanosines. Due to its relevance to carcinogenesis, the interaction of (+)-anti-BPDE with exon 1 of the human K-ras gene has been studied in detail. Present address: Department of Physics, Drury University

  14. Picoliter droplet-based digital peptide nucleic acid clamp PCR and dielectric sorting for low abundant K-ras mutations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huidan; Sperling, Ralph; Rotem, Assaf; Shan, Lianfeng; Heyman, John; Zhang, Yizhe; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains the second leading cause of cancer-related mortality in the US, and the 5-year survival of metastatic CRC (mCRC) is less than 10%. Although monoclonal antibodies against epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) provide incremental improvements in survival, approximately 40% of mCRC patients with activating KRAS mutations won't benefit from this therapy. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA), a synthetic non-extendable oligonucleotides, can bind strongly to completely complementary wild-type KRAS by Watson-Crick base pairing and suppress its amplification during PCR, while any mutant allele will show unhindered amplification. The method is particularly suitable for the simultaneously detection of several adjoining mutant sites, just as mutations of codons 12 and 13 of KRAS gene where there are totally 12 possible mutation types. In this work, we describe the development and validation of this method, based on the droplet-based digital PCR. Using a microfluidic system, single target DNA molecule is compartmentalized in microdroplets together with PNA specific for wild-type KRAS, thermocycled and the fluorescence of each droplet was detected, followed by sorting and sequencing. It enables the precise determination of all possible mutant KRAS simultaneously, and the precise quantification of a single mutated KRAS in excess background unmutated KRAS.

  15. Loss of miR-125a expression in a model of K-ras-dependent pulmonary premalignancy

    PubMed Central

    Liclican, Elvira L.; Walser, Tonya C.; Hazra, Saswati; Krysan, Kostyantyn; Park, Stacy J.; Pagano, Paul C.; Gardner, Brian K.; Larsen, Jill E.; Minna, John D.; Dubinett, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the molecular pathogenesis of lung cancer is necessary to identify biomarkers/targets specific to individual airway molecular profiles and to identify options for targeted chemoprevention. Herein, we identify mechanisms by which loss of microRNA (miRNA)-125a-3p (miR-125a) contributes to the malignant potential of human bronchial epithelial cells (HBECs) harboring an activating point mutation of the K-ras proto-oncogene (HBEC K-ras). Among other miRNAs, we identified significant miR-125a loss in HBEC K-ras lines and determined that miR-125a is regulated by the PEA3 transcription factor. PEA3 is upregulated in HBEC K-ras cells, and genetic knockdown of PEA3 restores miR-125a expression. From a panel of inflammatory/angiogenic factors, we identified increased CXCL1 and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by HBEC K-ras cells and determined that miR-125a overexpression significantly reduces K-ras-mediated production of these tumorigenic factors. miR-125a overexpression also abrogates increased proliferation of HBEC K-ras cells and suppresses anchorage-independent growth (AIG) of HBEC K-ras/P53 cells, the latter of which is CXCL1-dependent. Finally, pioglitazone increases levels of miR-125a in HBEC K-ras cells via PEA3 downregulation. In addition, pioglitazone and miR-125a overexpression elicit similar phenotypic responses, including suppression of both proliferation and VEGF production. Our findings implicate miR-125a loss in lung carcinogenesis and lay the groundwork for future studies to determine if miR-125a is a possible biomarker for lung carcinogenesis and/or a chemoprevention target. Moreover, our studies illustrate that pharmacologic augmentation of miR-125a in K-ras-mutated pulmonary epithelium effectively abrogates several deleterious downstream events associated with the mutation. PMID:24913817

  16. The relationship between 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dose and the induction of colon tumours: tumour development in female SWR mice does not require a K-ras mutational event.

    PubMed

    Jackson, P E; Cooper, D P; O'Connor, P J; Povey, A C

    1999-03-01

    In this study we have investigated the relationship between the dose of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and the yield (and location) of tumours in a mouse strain susceptible to colon tumour induction. Female SWR mice were injected with 6.8 mg/kg DMH i.p. once a week for 1, 5, 10 and 20 weeks and the animals were followed for almost 2 years. Administration of increasing doses of DMH resulted in a dose-dependent decrease in survival time. Colon tumours developed in 26, 76 and 87% of mice given a total dose of 34, 68 and 136 mg/kg DMH, respectively: no tumours were detected in animals treated with a total dose of 6.8 mg/kg. Most colon tumours (79%) were located in the distal colon with the remainder being found in the mid colon and none were detected in either the proximal colon or small intestine. As mutations in the K-ras gene are thought to be key events in the pathogenesis of human and rodent colon tumours, we determined the frequency of codon 12 and 13 K-ras mutations in these tumours by restriction site mutation analysis and/or DNA sequencing. A total of 50 colon tumour samples were analysed for codon 12 mutations and of these 29 were also screened for codon 13 mutations. No mutations were detected in either of these codons. The mutational activation of the K-ras gene is not an essential step in the development of DMH-induced colon tumours in female SWR mice and if similar considerations apply to humans, then the aetiological role of alkylating agents may be underestimated from the prevalence of K-ras GC-->AT transitions in human tumours.

  17. The noncoding RNAs SNORD50A and SNORD50B bind K-Ras and are recurrently deleted in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Siprashvili, Zurab; Webster, Dan E; Johnston, Danielle; Shenoy, Rajani M; Ungewickell, Alexander J; Bhaduri, Aparna; Flockhart, Ross; Zarnegar, Brian J; Che, Yonglu; Meschi, Francesca; Puglisi, Joseph D; Khavari, Paul A

    2017-01-01

    Small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) are conserved noncoding RNAs best studied as ribonucleoprotein (RNP) guides in RNA modification1,2. To explore their role in cancer, we compared 5,473 tumor-normal genome pairs to identify snoRNAs with frequent copy number loss. The SNORD50A-SNORD50B snoRNA locus was deleted in 10–40% of 12 common cancers, where its loss was associated with reduced survival. A human protein microarray screen identified direct SNORD50A and SNORD50B RNA binding to K-Ras. Loss of SNORD50A and SNORD50B increased the amount of GTP-bound, active K-Ras and hyperactivated Ras-ERK1/ERK2 signaling. Loss of these snoRNAs also increased binding by farnesyltransferase to K-Ras and increased K-Ras prenylation, suggesting that KRAS mutation might synergize with SNORD50A and SNORD50B loss in cancer. In agreement with this hypothesis, CRISPR-mediated deletion of SNORD50A and SNORD50B in KRAS-mutant tumor cells enhanced tumorigenesis, and SNORD50A and SNORD50B deletion and oncogenic KRAS mutation co-occurred significantly in multiple human tumor types. SNORD50A and SNORD50B snoRNAs thus directly bind and inhibit K-Ras and are recurrently deleted in human cancer. PMID:26595770

  18. K-Ras4B proteins are expressed in the nucleolus: Interaction with nucleolin

    SciTech Connect

    Birchenall-Roberts, Maria C. . E-mail: birchena@mail.ncifcrf.gov; Fu, Tao; Kim, Soo-Gyung; Huang, Ying K.; Dambach, Michael; Resau, James H.; Ruscetti, Francis W.

    2006-09-22

    Kirsten Ras4B (K-Ras4B) is a potent onco-protein that is expressed in the majority of human cell types and is frequently mutated in carcinomas. K-Ras4B, like other members of the Ras family of proteins, is considered to be a cytoplasmic protein that must be localized to the plasma membrane for activation. Here, using confocal microscopy and biochemical analysis, we show that K-Ras4B, but not H-Ras or the closely related K-Ras4A, is also present in the nucleoli of normal and transformed cells. Subcellular fractionation and immunostaining show that K-Ras4B is located not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleolar compartment. Modification of a C-terminal hexa-lysine motif unique to K-Ras4B results in exclusively cytoplasmic forms of the protein. Nucleolin, a pleiotropic regulator of cellular processes, including transcriptional regulation, is also characterized by a nucleolar-like nuclear appearance. We show that K-Ras4B and nucleolin co-localize within the nucleus and that nucleolin physically associates with K-Ras4B. Inhibition of K-Ras4B/nucleolin association blocked nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B. Using siRNA to knockdown the expression of nucleolin eliminated the nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and significantly repressed the activation of the well-characterized K-Ras4B transcriptional target Ap-1, but stimulated Elk1. These data provide evidence of a nucleolar localization of K-Ras4B and describe a functional association between K-Ras4B and nucleolin.

  19. Solution structure of an oncogenic DNA duplex, the K-ras gene and the sequence containing a central C.A or A.G mismatch as a function of pH: nuclear magnetic resonance and molecular dynamics studies.

    PubMed

    Boulard, Y; Cognet, J A; Gabarro-Arpa, J; Le Bret, M; Carbonnaux, C; Fazakerley, G V

    1995-02-10

    The DNA duplex 5' d(GCCACCAGCTC)-d(GAGCTGGTGGC) corresponds to the sequence 29 to 39 of the K-ras gene, which contains a hot spot for mutations. This has been studied by one and two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance, energy minimization and molecular dynamics. The results show that it adopts a globally B-DNA type structure. We have introduced, at the central base-pair, the mismatches C.A and A.G. The mismatch position is that of the first base of the Gly12 codon, the hot spot. For the C.A mismatch we observe a structural change as a function of pH with an apparent pKa of 7.2. At low pH, the mismatch pair adopts a structure close to a classic wobble conformation with the cytidine residue displaced into the major groove. It is stabilised by two hydrogen bonds in which the adenosine residue is protonated and the cytidine residue has a significant C3'-endo population. At high pH, the mispair structure is in equilibrium between wobble and reverse wobble conformations. Similar studies are reported on the A.G mismatch, which also undergoes a transition as a function of pH. 31P spectra have been recorded on all systems and as a function of pH. No evidence for BII phosphodiester backbone conformations was found. The NMR results are well corroborated by molecular dynamics calculations performed with or without distance constraints. The dynamics at the mismatch sites have been examined. Although the overall structures are close to B-DNA, helical parameters fluctuate differently at these sites. Different hydrogen bonding alternatives in dynamic equilibrium that can involve three-centred hydrogen bonds are observed.

  20. K-ras-driven engineered mouse models for pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuyuan; Su, Jingna; Zhou, Xiuxiao; Guo, Jianping; Wei, Wenyi; Wang, Zhiwei

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer (PC) is one of the most fatal cancers largely due to the lack of early diagnosis and effective therapies. Therefore, further understanding the underlying molecular mechanisms of PC development and progression is pivotal to the development of more effective targeted therapies. Emerging evidence has suggested that using mouse models, especially genetically engineered mouse models, is ideal to explore the mechanisms of pancreatic tumorigenesis. To this end, it has been known that a K-ras mutation on codon 12 (K-ras G12D) plays a critical role in the PC development. Thus, most mouse models of PC have been developed by targeting a conditionally mutated K-ras (G12D) together with concomitant deletion or mutation of other key genes to recapitulate the PC progression in human patients. Here, we summarize a number of K-ras-driven engineered mouse models to provide molecular insights into PC disease development and progression. We hope that these mouse models will help design a novel therapeutic strategy and to further improve the treatment of PC patients.

  1. Association of K-ras codon 12 transversions with short survival in non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vega, F; Iniesta, P; Caldes, T; Sanchez, A; Lopez, J; Dejuan, C; Diazrubio, E; Torres, A; Balibrea, J; Benito, M

    1996-12-01

    K-ras activating point mutations appear to have a role in human lung cancer, however, the prognostic significance of these abnormalities remains unclear. The aim of our work was to clarify the role of K-ras mutations as prognostic indicators in patients affected by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We studied 94 resected primary NSCLCs for K-ras mutations by the PCR-RFLP technique, followed by sequencing. K-ras activating mutations were present in 34% of tumors, a higher incidence being detected in adenocarcinomas. Comparing the impact of K-ras mutation types, we found that K-ras transversions were associated with a shorter survival in NSCLC.

  2. K-Ras promotes growth transformation and invasion of immortalized human pancreatic cells by Raf and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul M; Groehler, Angela L; Lee, Kwang M; Ouellette, Michel M; Khazak, Vladimir; Der, Channing J

    2007-03-01

    Mutational activation of the K-Ras oncogene is well established as a key genetic step in the development and growth of pancreatic adenocarcinomas. However, the mechanism by which aberrant Ras signaling promotes uncontrolled pancreatic tumor cell growth remains to be fully elucidated. The recent use of primary human cells to study Ras-mediated oncogenesis provides important model cell systems to dissect this mechanism. We have used a model of telomerase-immortalized human pancreatic duct-derived cells (E6/E7/st) to study mechanisms of Ras growth transformation. First, we found that human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes, which block the function of the p53 and Rb tumor suppressors, respectively, and SV40 small t antigen were required to allow mutant K-Ras(12D) growth transformation. Second, K-Ras(12D) caused growth transformation in vitro, including enhanced growth rate and loss of density dependency for growth, anchorage independence, and invasion through reconstituted basement membrane proteins, and tumorigenic transformation in vivo. Third, we determined that the Raf, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor effector pathways were activated, although extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activity was not up-regulated persistently. Finally, pharmacologic inhibition of Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK and PI3K signaling impaired K-Ras-induced anchorage-independent growth and invasion. In summary, our studies established, characterized, and validated E6/E7/st cells for the study of Ras-induced oncogenesis.

  3. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal frame-shift mutant of the thyroid hormone receptor TRβ1, PV, functions as an oncogene. An important question is whether the oncogenic activity of mutated TRβ1 is uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Using four C-terminal frame-shift mutants—PV, Mkar, Mdbs, and AM—we examined that region in the oncogenic actions of TRβ1 mutants. Remarkably, these C-terminal mutants induced similar growth of tumors in mouse xenograft models. Molecular analyses showed that they physically interacted with the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K similarly in cells. In vitro GST-binding assay showed that they bound to the C-terminal Src-homology 2 (CSH2) of p85α with markedly higher avidity. The sustained association of mutants with p85α led to activation of the common PI3K-AKT-ERK/STAT3 signaling to promote cell proliferation and invasion and to inhibit apoptosis. Thus, these results argue against the oncogenic activity of PV being uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Rather, these four mutants could favor a C-terminal conformation that interacted with the CSH2 domain of p85α to initiate activation of PI3K to relay downstream signaling to promote tumorigenesis. Thus, we propose that the mutated C-terminal region of TRβ1 could function as an “onco-domain” and TRβ1 is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25924236

  4. IL-6 blockade reprograms the lung tumor microenvironment to limit the development and progression of K-ras mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Caetano, Mauricio S.; Zhang, Huiyuan; Cumpian, Amber M.; Gong, Lei; Unver, Nese; Ostrin, Edwin J.; Daliri, Soudabeh; Chang, Seon Hee; Ochoa, Cesar E.; Hanash, Samir; Behrens, Carmen; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Sternberg, Cinthya; Kadara, Humam; Ferreira, Carlos Gil; Watowich, Stephanie S.; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    Activating mutations of K-ras are the most common oncogenic alterations found in lung cancer. Unfortunately, attempts to target K-ras mutant lung tumors have thus far failed, clearly indicating the need for new approaches in patients with this molecular profile. We have previously shown NF-κB activation, release of IL-6, and activation of its responsive transcription factor STAT3 in K-ras mutant lung tumors, which was further amplified by the tumor enhancing effect of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-type airway inflammation. These findings suggest an essential role for this inflammatory pathway in K-ras mutant lung tumorigenesis and its enhancement by COPD. Therefore, here we blocked IL-6 using a monoclonal anti-IL-6 antibody in a K-ras mutant mouse model of lung cancer in the absence or presence of COPD-type airway inflammation. IL-6 blockade significantly inhibited lung cancer promotion, tumor cell intrinsic STAT3 activation, tumor cell proliferation, and angiogenesis markers. Moreover, IL-6 inhibition reduced expression of pro-tumor type 2 molecules (Arginase 1, Fizz 1, Mgl, and IDO), number of M2 type macrophages and G-MDSCs, and pro-tumor T-regulatory/T helper 17 cell responses. This was accompanied by increased expression of anti-tumor type 1 molecule (Nos2), and anti-tumor T helper 1/CD8 T cell responses. Our study demonstrates that IL-6 blockade not only has direct intrinsic inhibitory effect on tumor cells, but also re-educates the lung microenvironment toward an anti-tumor phenotype by altering the relative proportion between pro-tumor and anti-tumor immune cells. This information introduces IL-6 as a potential druggable target for prevention and treatment of K-ras mutant lung tumors. PMID:27197187

  5. Energy parasites trigger oncogene mutation.

    PubMed

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Jandová, Anna; Kobilková, Jitka; Vrba, Jan; Vrba, Jan

    2016-10-01

    Cancer initialization can be explained as a result of parasitic virus energy consumption leading to randomized genome chemical bonding. Analysis of experimental data on cell-mediated immunity (CMI) containing about 12,000 cases of healthy humans, cancer patients and patients with precancerous cervical lesions disclosed that the specific cancer and the non-specific lactate dehydrogenase-elevating (LDH) virus antigen elicit similar responses. The specific antigen is effective only in cancer type of its origin but the non-specific antigen in all examined cancers. CMI results of CIN patients display both healthy and cancer state. The ribonucleic acid (RNA) of the LDH virus parasitizing on energy reduces the ratio of coherent/random oscillations. Decreased effect of coherent cellular electromagnetic field on bonding electrons in biological macromolecules leads to elevating probability of random genome reactions. Overlapping of wave functions in biological macromolecules depends on energy of the cellular electromagnetic field which supplies energy to bonding electrons for selective chemical bonds. CMI responses of cancer and LDH virus antigens in all examined healthy, precancerous and cancer cases point to energy mechanism in cancer initiation. Dependence of the rate of biochemical reactions on biological electromagnetic field explains yet unknown mechanism of genome mutation.

  6. Novel approach to abuse the hyperactive K-Ras pathway for adenoviral gene therapy of colorectal cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Naumov, Inna; Kazanov, Dina; Lisiansky, Victoria; Starr, Alex; Aroch, Ilan; Shapira, Shiran; Kraus, Sarah; Arber, Nadir

    2012-01-15

    Background: Functional activation of oncogenic K-Ras signaling pathway plays an important role in the early events of colorectal carcinogenesis (CRC). K-Ras proto-oncogene is involved in 35-40% of CRC cases. Mutations in the Ras gene trigger the transduction of proliferative and anti-apoptotic signals, even in the absence of extra cellular stimuli. The objective of the current study was to use a gene-targeting approach to kill human CRC cells selectively harboring mutated K-Ras. Results: A recombinant adenovirus that carries a lethal gene, PUMA, under the control of a Ras responsive promoter (Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA) was used selectively to target CRC cells (HCT116, SW480, DLD1 and RIE-Ras) that possess a hyperactive Ras pathway while using HT29 and RIE cells as a control that harbors wild type Ras and exhibit very low Ras activity. Control vector, without the Ras responsive promoter elements was used to assess the specificity of our 'gene therapy' approach. Both adenoviral vectors were assed in vitro and in xenograft model in vivo. Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA showed high potency to induce {approx} 50% apoptosis in vitro, to abolish completely tumor formation by infecting cells with the Ad-Py4-SV40-PUMA prior xenografting them in nude mice and high ability to suppress by {approx} 35% tumor progression in vivo in already established tumors. Conclusions: Selective targeting of CRC cells with the activated Ras pathway may be a novel and effective therapy in CRC. The high potency of this adenoviral vector may help to overcome an undetectable micro metastasis that is the major hurdle in challenging with CRC.

  7. ACB-PCR MEASUREMENT OF K-RAS CODON 12 MUTATION IN A/J MOUSE LUNG EXPOSED TO BENZO[A]PYRENE: A DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a known human carcinogen and environmental contaminant. The direct measurement of K-Ras mutant fraction (MF) was developed as a metric with which to examine the default assumption of low dose linearity in the mutational response to B...

  8. ACB-PCR MEASUREMENT OF K-RAS CODON 12 MUTATION IN A/J MOUSE LUNG EXPOSED TO BENZO[A]PYRENE: A DOSE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) is a known human carcinogen and environmental contaminant. The direct measurement of K-Ras mutant fraction (MF) was developed as a metric with which to examine the default assumption of low dose linearity in the mutational response to B...

  9. Correlation of immunohistochemical staining p63 and TTF-1 with EGFR and K-ras mutational spectrum and diagnostic reproducibility in non small cell lung carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Thunnissen, Erik; Boers, Evan; Heideman, Daniëlle A M; Grünberg, Katrien; Kuik, Dirk J; Noorduin, Arnold; van Oosterhout, Matthijs; Pronk, Divera; Seldenrijk, Cees; Sietsma, Hannie; Smit, Egbert F; van Suylen, Robertjan; von der Thusen, Jan; Vrugt, Bart; Wiersma, Anne; Witte, Birgit I; den Bakker, Michael

    2012-12-01

    For treatment purposes, distinction between squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma is important. The aim of this study is to examine the diagnostic accuracy on lung cancer small biopsies for the distinction between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma and relate these to immunohistochemical and KRAS and EGFR mutation analysis. An interobserver study was performed on 110 prospectively collected biopsies obtained by bronchoscopy or transthoracic needle biopsy of patients with non-small cell lung cancer. The diagnosis was correlated with immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis for markers of adeno- (TTF1 and/or mucin positivity) and squamous cell differentiation (P63 and CK5/6) as well as KRAS and EGFR mutation analysis. Eleven observers independently read H&E-stained slides of 110 cases, resulting in a kappa value of 0.55 ± 0.10. The diagnosis non-small cell lung cancer not otherwise specified was given on average on 29.5 % of the biopsies. A high concordance was observed between hematoxylin-eosin-based consensus diagnosis (≥8/11 readings concordant) and IHC markers. In all cases with EGFR (n = 1) and KRAS (n = 20) mutations, adenodifferentiation as determined by IHC was present and p63 staining was absent. In 2 of 25 cases with a consensus diagnosis of squamous cell carcinoma, additional stainings favored adenodifferentation, and a KRAS mutation was present. P63 is most useful for distinction between EGFR/KRAS mutation positive and negative patients. In the diagnostic work-up of non-small cell lung carcinoma the limited reproducibility on small biopsies is optimized with immunohistochemical analysis, resulting in reliable delineation for predictive analysis.

  10. Lin28-let7 Modulates Radiosensitivity of Human Cancer Cells With Activation of K-Ras

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Jee-Sun.; Kim, Jae-Jin; Byun, Ju-Yeon; Kim, In-Ah

    2010-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the potential of targeting Lin28-let7 microRNA regulatory network for overcoming the radioresistance of cancer cells having activated K-Ras signaling. Methods and Materials: A549 lung carcinoma cells and ASPC1 pancreatic cancer cells possessing K-RAS mutation were transfected with pre-let7a microRNA or Lin28 siRNA, respectively. Clonogenic assay, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, and Western analysis were performed. The effects of Lin28 on SQ20B cells having wild-type K-RAS, and a normal fibroblast were also assessed. Results: The overexpression of let-7a decreased expression of K-Ras and radiosensitized A549 cells. Inhibition of Lin28, a repressor of let-7, attenuated K-Ras expression and radiosensitized A549 and ASPC1 cells. Neither SQ20B cells expressing wild-type K-RAS nor HDF, the normal human fibroblasts, were radiosensitized by this approach. Conclusions: The Lin28-let7 regulatory network may be a potentially useful therapeutic target for overcoming the radioresistance of human cancers having activated K-Ras signaling.

  11. A murine model of K-ras and β-catenin induced renal tumors express high levels of E2F1 and resemble human Wilms Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Yajun; Polosukhina, Dina; Love, Harold D.; Hembd, Austin; Pickup, Michael; Moses, Harold L.; Lovvorn, Harold N.; Zent, Roy; Clark, Peter E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common renal neoplasm of childhood. We previously showed that restricted activation of the WNT/β-catenin pathway in renal epithelium late in kidney development is sufficient to induce small primitive neoplasms with features of epithelial WT. Metastatic disease progression required simultaneous addition of an activating mutation of the oncogene K-RAS. Here, we sought to define the molecular pathways activated in this process and their relationship to human renal malignancies. Methods Affymetrix expression microarray data from murine kidneys with activation of K-ras, Ctnnb1 (β-catenin), or both restricted to renal epithelium were analyzed and compared to publically available expression data from normal and neoplastic human renal tissue. Target genes were verified by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry. Results Mouse kidney tumors with activation of K-ras and Ctnnb1 and human renal malignancies have similar mRNA expression signatures and are associated with activation of networks centered on β-catenin and TP53. Up-regulation of WNT/β-catenin targets (MYC, Survivin, FOXA2, Axin2, Cyclin D1) was confirmed by immunoblotting. K-RAS/β-catenin murine kidney tumors were more similar to human WT than other renal malignancies and demonstrated activation of a TP53 dependent network of genes including the transcription factor E2F1. Up-regulation of E2F1 was confirmed in both murine and human WT samples. Conclusions Simultaneous activation of K-RAS and β-catenin in embryonic renal epithelium leads to neoplasms similar to human WT associated with activation of TP53 and up-regulation of E2F1. Further studies to evaluate the role of TP53 and E2F1 in human WT are warranted. PMID:25934441

  12. AMPK and Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Signaling Regulates K-Ras Plasma Membrane Interactions via Cyclic GMP-Dependent Protein Kinase 2.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; Casteel, Darren E; Prakash, Priyanka; Tan, Lingxiao; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Salim, Angela A; Kim, Choel; Capon, Robert J; Lacey, Ernest; Cunha, Shane R; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2016-12-15

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane and be arrayed in nanoclusters for biological activity. We show here that K-Ras is a substrate for cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinases (PKGs). In intact cells, activated PKG2 selectively colocalizes with K-Ras on the plasma membrane and phosphorylates K-Ras at Ser181 in the C-terminal polybasic domain. K-Ras phosphorylation by PKG2 is triggered by activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and requires endothelial nitric oxide synthase and soluble guanylyl cyclase. Phosphorylated K-Ras reorganizes into distinct nanoclusters that retune the signal output. Phosphorylation acutely enhances K-Ras plasma membrane affinity, but phosphorylated K-Ras is progressively lost from the plasma membrane via endocytic recycling. Concordantly, chronic pharmacological activation of AMPK → PKG2 signaling with mitochondrial inhibitors, nitric oxide, or sildenafil inhibits proliferation of K-Ras-positive non-small cell lung cancer cells. The study shows that K-Ras is a target of a metabolic stress-signaling pathway that can be leveraged to inhibit oncogenic K-Ras function.

  13. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Hyunbum; Banerjee, Avik; Chavan, Tanmay S.; Lu, Shaoyong; Zhang, Jian; Gaponenko, Vadim; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Is nucleotide exchange sufficient to activate K-Ras4B? To signal, oncogenic rat sarcoma (Ras) anchors in the membrane and recruits effectors by exposing its effector lobe. With the use of NMR and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we observed that in solution, farnesylated guanosine 5′-diphosphate (GDP)-bound K-Ras4B is predominantly autoinhibited by its hypervariable region (HVR), whereas the GTP-bound state favors an activated, HVR-released state. On the anionic membrane, the catalytic domain adopts multiple orientations, including parallel (∼180°) and perpendicular (∼90°) alignments of the allosteric helices, with respect to the membrane surface direction. In the autoinhibited state, the HVR is sandwiched between the effector lobe and the membrane; in the active state, with membrane-anchored farnesyl and unrestrained HVR, the catalytic domain fluctuates reinlessly, exposing its effector-binding site. Dimerization and clustering can reduce the fluctuations. This achieves preorganized, productive conformations. Notably, we also observe HVR-autoinhibited K-Ras4B-GTP states, with GDP-bound-like orientations of the helices. Thus, we propose that the GDP/GTP exchange may not be sufficient for activation; instead, our results suggest that the GDP/GTP exchange, HVR sequestration, farnesyl insertion, and orientation/localization of the catalytic domain at the membrane conjointly determine the active or inactive state of K-Ras4B. Importantly, K-Ras4B-GTP can exist in active and inactive states; on its own, GTP binding may not compel K-Ras4B activation.—Jang, H., Banerjee, A., Chavan, T. S, Lu, S., Zhang, J., Gaponenko, V., Nussinov, R. The higher level of complexity of K-Ras4B activation at the membrane. PMID:26718888

  14. p53, erbB-2 and K-ras gene alterations are rare in spontaneous and plutonium-239-induced canine lung neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Tierney, L.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Lechner, J.F.

    1996-02-01

    Inhalation of high-linear energy transfer radiation in the form of radon progeny is a suspected cause of human lung cancer. To gain insight into the types of genetic derangements caused by this type of radiation, lung tumors from beagle dogs exposed to {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and those arising in animals with no known carcinogen exposure were examined for evidence of aberrations in genes known to be altered in lung tumors. Altered expression of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and proto-oncogene erbB-2 proteins (p185{sup erbB2}) was evaluated by immunohistochemical analysis of 117 tumors representing different histological types in exposed (n = 80) and unexposed (n = 37) animals. Twenty-eight tumors were analyzed for K-ras proto-oncogene mutations by polymerase chain reaction amplification and direct sequencing. Fourteen percent (16/116) of all lung neoplasms showed elevated nuclear accumulation of p53 protein. Regardless of exposure history, adenosquamous and squamous cell cancers comprised 94% of all tumors with p53 abnormalities. Eighteen percent (21/117) of all tumors had evidence of erbB-2 protein overexpression. K-ras mutations were not detected in codons 12, 13 or 61 of tumors from unexposed (n = 9) or plutonium-exposed dogs (n = 19). These data indicate that p53 and K-ras gene abnormalities as a result of missense mutation are infrequent events in spontaneous and {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}-induced lung neoplasia in this colony of beagle dogs. Alternative mechanisms of gene alteration may be involved in canine pulmonary carcinogenesis. 45 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Implication of K-ras and p53 in colorectal cancer carcinogenesis in Tunisian population cohort.

    PubMed

    Ines, Chaar; Donia, Ounissi; Rahma, Boughriba; Ben Ammar, Azza; Sameh, Amara; Khalfallah, Taher; Abdelmajid, Ben Hmida; Sabeh, Mzabi; Saadia, Bouraoui

    2014-07-01

    According to the multistep route of genetic alterations in the colorectal adenoma-carcinoma sequence, the complex K-ras/p53 mutation is one of the first alterations to occur and represent an important genetic event in colorectal cancer (CRC). An evaluation of the mutation spectra in K-ras and p53 gene was effected in 167 Tunisian patients with sporadic CRC to determine whether our populations have similar pattern of genetic alteration as in Maghrebin's population. Mutation patterns of codon 12-13 of K-ras and exon 5-8 of p53 were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and PCR-SSCP and confirmed by sequencing. Mutations in the K-ras gene were detected in 31.13 % and affect the women more than the men (p = 0.008). Immunostaining showed that expression of p21 ras was correlated with the advanced age (p = 0.004), whereas loss of signal was associated with mucinous histotype (p = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival curve found that patients with the K-ras mutation had a shorter survival compared with patients without mutation (p = 0.005). Alteration in p53 was seen in 17.4 % of patients and affects three hot spot codons such as 175, 245, and 248. Overexpression of p53 was seen in 34.1 % and correlated with tumor node metastasis (TNM) advanced stage (p = 0.037) and mucinous histotype (p = 0.001). A high concordance between p53 expression and alteration (p<0.005) was shown. Concomitant mutations in K-ras and p53 gene were detected in only 4 % of tumors. K-ras and p53 undergo separate pathways in colorectal tumorogenesis. Interestingly, mutations in the K-ras gene might be considered a valuable prognostic factor correlated to poor outcome. p53 gene alterations were rather low in our set, and methylation pattern of p53 is required to elucidate the molecular basis of this protein in CRC.

  16. K-Ras resides on the Arf6-mediated CIE system and its active type interacted with Arf6T27N.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan-gao; Wei, Shu-mei; Cai, Jian-ting

    2012-02-01

    Ras is known as an oncogene transferring signals from the plasma membrane. Recent studies have demonstrated that plasma membrane was not the unique platform for Ras signaling. Ras could also be endocytosed and transported to different endomembrane compartments, evoking different signal pathways there. It is of great significance to exploit the unique intracellular trafficking features of different Ras isoforms to develop new anti-Ras drugs. ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) was known to mediate one of the clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE) pathways. The role of Arf6 in K-Ras dynamic remains largely unknown. In this study, we showed that K-RasG12V co-localized with Arf6 at the plasma membrane, and entered the tubular endosomes or protrusions induced by cytochalasin D or aluminum fluoride in the same way as H-RasG12V does. A subcellular fractionation experiment demonstrated that Arf6 siRNA treatment reduced the plasma membrane presence of both endogenous Ras isoforms and inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk triggered by EGF. When co-expressed with Arf6Q67L, both isoforms were sequestered into the large phosphatidylinositol 4,5-biphosphate [PI(4,5)P2]-enriched vacuoles. However, when co-expressed with Arf6T27N, K-RasG12V co-localized with Arf6T27N at the tubular endosomes significantly than H-RasG12V. Immunoprecipitation and GST fusion protein pull-down studies found out for the first time that K-RasG12V interacted with Arf6T27N. Swapping mutation study showed that the above difference was due to different C-termini. Our study indicated that Arf6 was involved in the dynamic regulation of both Ras isoforms. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Altered detoxification status and increased resistance to oxidative stress by K-ras transformation.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Christian V; Kellner, Roland; Lichtenfels, Rudolf; Seliger, Barbara

    2008-12-15

    Mutated K-ras is frequently found in human malignancies and plays a key role in many signal transduction processes resulting in an altered gene and/or protein expression pattern. Proteins controlled by a constitutive activated mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway are primarily related to alterations in the mitochondrial and nuclear compartments. Therefore, different K-Ras mutants and respective control cells were subjected to two-dimensional gel electrophoresis using basic pH gradients. This approach led to the identification of differentially expressed proteins, such as members of the heterogeneous ribonucleoprotein family, and enzymes involved in cellular detoxification as well as in oxidative stress. Increased expression of these enzymes was paralleled by an elevated tolerance of K-ras mutants against the cytotoxic potential of hydrogen peroxide and formaldehyde as well as an altered redox status based on enhanced intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels indicating an improved detoxification potential of defined K-ras transfectants, whereas down-regulation by RNA interference of candidate proteins reversed the tolerance against these compounds. This hypothesis is supported by an up-regulated expression of a key enzyme of the pentose phosphate pathway resulting in an increased production of NADPH required for anabolic processes as well as the rebuilding of oxidized GSH. Both the enhanced resistance against xenobiotic compounds as well as an altered oxidative pathway might confer growth advantages for tumor cells carrying dominant-positive K-ras mutations such as in lung or pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  18. Classical point mutations of RET, BRAF and RAS oncogenes are not shared in papillary and medullary thyroid cancer occurring simultaneously in the same gland.

    PubMed

    Ciampi, R; Romei, C; Pieruzzi, L; Tacito, A; Molinaro, E; Agate, L; Bottici, V; Casella, F; Ugolini, C; Materazzi, G; Basolo, F; Elisei, R

    2017-01-01

    Papillary (PTC) and medullary (MTC) thyroid carcinomas represent two distinct entities, but quite frequently, they may occur simultaneously. To provide genetic analysis of PTC and MTC occurring in the same patient (PTC/MTC) to elucidate their origin. Sequencing analysis of RAS, BRAF and RET oncogenes hot spots mutations in tumoral and normal tissues of 24 PTC/MTC patients. Two of 24 patients (8.3 %) were affected by familial MTC (FMTC) harboring RET germline mutations in all tissues. Eight of 22 (36.4 %) sporadic cases did not show any somatic mutation in the three tissue components. Considering the MTC component, 10/22 (45.4 %) patients did not show any somatic mutation, 7 of 22 (31.8 %) harbored the M918T RET somatic mutation and 4/22 (18.2 %) presented mutations in the H-RAS gene. In an additional case (1/22, 4.6 %), H-RAS and RET mutations were simultaneously present. Considering the PTC component, 1 of 24 (4.2 %) patients harbored the V600E BRAF mutation, 1 of 24 (4.2 %) the T58A H-RAS mutation and 1 of 24 (4.2 %) the M1T K-RAS mutation, while the remaining PTC cases did not show any somatic mutation. In one case, the MTC harbored a RET mutation and the PTC a BRAF mutation. None of the mutations found were present in both tumors. To our knowledge, this is the first study analyzing a possible involvement of RET, BRAF and RAS oncogene mutations in PTC/MTC. These data clearly suggest that the classical activating mutations of the oncogenes commonly involved in the pathogenesis of PTC and MTC may not be responsible for their simultaneous occurrence.

  19. K-RAS(V12) Induces Autocrine Production of EGFR Ligands and Mediates Radioresistance Through EGFR-Dependent Akt Signaling and Activation of DNA-PKcs

    SciTech Connect

    Minjgee, Minjmaa; Toulany, Mahmoud; Kehlbach, Rainer; Giehl, Klaudia; Rodemann, H. Peter

    2011-12-01

    Purpose: It is known that postirradiation survival of tumor cells presenting mutated K-RAS is mediated through autocrine activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). In this study the molecular mechanism of radioresistance of cells overexpressing mutated K-RAS(V12) was investigated. Methods and Materials: Head-and-neck cancer cells (FaDu) presenting wild-type K-RAS were transfected with empty vector or vector expressing mutated K-RAS(V12). The effect of K-RAS(V12) on autocrine production of EGFR ligands, activation of EGFR downstream pathways, DNA damage repair, and postirradiation survival was analyzed. Results: Conditioned medium collected from K-RAS(V12)-transfected cells enhanced activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt pathway and increased postirradiation survival of wild-type K-RAS parental cells when compared with controls. These effects were reversed by amphiregulin (AREG)-neutralizing antibody. In addition, secretion of the EGFR ligands AREG and transforming growth factor {alpha} was significantly increased upon overexpression of K-RAS(V12). Expression of mutated K-RAS(V12) resulted in an increase in radiation-induced DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation at S2056. This increase was accompanied by increased repair of DNA double-strand breaks. Abrogation of DNA-PKcs phosphorylation by serum depletion or AREG-neutralizing antibody underscored the role of autocrine production of EGFR ligands, namely, AREG, in regulating DNA-PKcs activation in K-RAS mutated cells. Conclusions: These data indicate that radioresistance of K-RAS mutated tumor cells is at least in part due to constitutive production of EGFR ligands, which mediate enhanced repair of DNA double-strand breaks through the EGFR-phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt cascade.

  20. Specific repression of mutant K-RAS by 10-23 DNAzyme: Sensitizing cancer cell to anti-cancer therapies

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, S.-H.; Wang, T.-H.; Au, L.-C.

    2009-01-09

    Point mutations of the Ras family are frequently found in human cancers at a prevalence rate of 30%. The most common mutation K-Ras(G12V), required for tumor proliferation, survival, and metastasis due to its constitutively active GTPase activity, has provided an ideal target for cancer therapy. 10-23 DNAzyme, an oligodeoxyribonucleotide-based ribonuclease consisting of a 15-nucleotide catalytical domain flanked by two target-specific complementary arms, has been shown to effectively cleave the target mRNA at purine-pyrimidine dinucleotide. Taking advantage of this specific property, 10-23 DNAzyme was designed to cleave mRNA of K-Ras(G12V)(GGU {yields} GUU) at the GU dinucleotide while left the wild-type (WT) K-Ras mRNA intact. The K-Ras(G12V)-specific 10-23 DNAzyme was able to reduce K-Ras(G12V) at both mRNA and protein levels in SW480 cell carrying homozygous K-Ras(G12V). No effect was observed on the WT K-Ras in HEK cells. Although K-Ras(G12V)-specific DNAzymes alone did not inhibit proliferation of SW480 or HEK cells, pre-treatment of this DNAzyme sensitized the K-Ras(G12V) mutant cells to anti-cancer agents such as doxorubicin and radiation. These results offer a potential of using allele-specific 10-23 DNAzyme in combination with other cancer therapies to achieve better effectiveness on cancer treatment.

  1. Alterations in K-ras, APC and p53-multiple genetic pathway in colorectal cancer among Indians.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Pooja; Anwar, Mumtaz; Nanda, Neha; Kochhar, Rakesh; Wig, Jai Dev; Vaiphei, Kim; Mahmood, Safrun

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of colorectal cancer (CRC) is increasing rapidly in Asian countries during the past few decades, but no comprehensive analysis has been done to find out the exact cause of this disease. In this study, we investigated the frequencies of mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC (adenomatosis polyposis coli) and p53 in tumor, adjoining and distant normal mucosa and to correlate these alterations with patients clinicopathological parameters as well as with the survival. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-restriction digestion was used to detect mutations in K-ras and PCR-SSCP (Single Strand Conformation Polymorphism) followed by DNA sequencing was used to detect mutations in APC and p53 genes. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 proteins. The frequencies of mutations of K-ras, APC and p53 in 30 tumor tissues samples were 26.7 %, 46.7 % and 20 %, respectively. Only 3.3 % of tumors contained mutations in all the three genes. The most common combination of mutation was APC and p53 whereas mutation in both p53 and K-ras were extremely rare. There was no association between the mutations and expression pattern of K-ras, APC and p53 (p>0.05). In Indians, the frequency of alterations of K-ras and APC is similar as in Westerns, whereas the frequency of p53 mutation is slightly lower. The lack of multiple mutations in tumor specimens suggests that these genetic alterations might have independent influences on CRC development and there could be multiple alternative genetic pathways to CRC in our present study cohort.

  2. Alterations in the K-ras and p53 genes in rat lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Belinsky, S.A.; Swafford, D.S.; Finch, G.L.; Mitchell, C.E.

    1997-06-01

    Activation of the K-ras protooncogene and inactivation of the p53 tumor suppressor gene are events common to many types of human cancers. Molecular epidemiology studies have associated mutational profiles in these genes with specific exposures. The purpose of this paper is to review investigations that have examined the role of the K-ras and p53 genes in lung tumors induced in the F344 rat by mutagenic and nonmutagenic exposures. Mutation profiles within the K-ras and p53 genes, if present in rat lung tumors, would help to define some of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer induction by various environmental agents. Pulmonary adenocarcinomas or squamous cell carcinomas were induced by tetranitromethane (TNM), 4-methylnitrosamino-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), beryllium metal, plutonium-239, X-ray, diesel exhaust, or carbon black. These agents were chosen because the tumors they produced could arise via different types of DNA damage. Mutation of the K-ras gene was determined by approaches that included DNA transfection, direct sequencing, mismatch hybridization, and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The frequency for mutation of the K-ras gene was exposure dependent. The transition mutations formed could have been derived from deamination of cytosine. Alteration in the p53 gene was assessed by immunohistochemical analysis for p53 protein and single-strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) analysis of exons 4 to 9. None of the 93 adenocarinomas examined was immunoreactive toward the anti-p53 antibody CM1. In contrast, 14 of 71 squamous cell carcinomas exhibited nuclear p53 immunoreactivity with no correlation to type of exposure. However, SSCP analysis only detected mutations in 2 of 14 squamous cell tumors that were immunoreactive, suggesting that protein stabilization did not stem from mutations within the p53 gene. Thus, the p53 gene does not appear to be involved in the genesis of most rat lung tumors. 2 figs., 2 tabs., 48 refs.

  3. K-RasG12D expression induces hyperproliferation and aberrant signaling in primary hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Van Meter, Margaret E. M.; Díaz-Flores, Ernesto; Archard, Joehleen A.; Passegué, Emmanuelle; Irish, Jonathan M.; Kotecha, Nikesh; Nolan, Garry P.

    2007-01-01

    Defining how cancer-associated mutations perturb signaling networks in stem/progenitor populations that are integral to tumor formation and maintenance is a fundamental problem with biologic and clinical implications. Point mutations in RAS genes contribute to many cancers, including myeloid malignancies. We investigated the effects of an oncogenic KrasG12D allele on phosphorylated signaling molecules in primary c-kit+ lin−/low hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. Comparison of wild-type and KrasG12D c-kit+ lin−/low cells shows that K-RasG12D expression causes hyperproliferation in vivo and results in abnormal levels of phosphorylated STAT5, ERK, and S6 under basal and stimulated conditions. Whereas KrasG12D cells demonstrate hyperactive signaling after exposure to granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, we unexpectedly observe a paradoxical attenuation of ERK and S6 phosphorylation in response to stem cell factor. These studies provide direct biochemical evidence that cancer stem/progenitor cells remodel signaling networks in response to oncogenic stress and demonstrate that multi-parameter flow cytometry can be used to monitor the effects of targeted therapeutics in vivo. This strategy has broad implications for defining the architecture of signaling networks in primary cancer cells and for implementing stem cell–targeted interventions. PMID:17192389

  4. Comparative Analysis of Radiosensitizers for K-RAS Mutant Rectal Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Stephen Y.; Hong, Theodore S.; Haigis, Kevin M.

    2013-01-01

    Approximately 40% of rectal cancers harbor activating K-RAS mutations, and these mutations are associated with poor clinical response to chemoradiotherapy. We aimed to identify small molecule inhibitors (SMIs) that synergize with ionizing radiation (IR) (“radiosensitizers”) that could be incorporated into current treatment strategies for locally advanced rectal cancers (LARCs) expressing mutant K-RAS. We first optimized a high-throughput assay for measuring individual and combined effects of SMIs and IR that produces similar results to the gold standard colony formation assay. Using this screening platform and K-RAS mutant rectal cancer cell lines, we tested SMIs targeting diverse signaling pathways for radiosensitizing activity and then evaluated our top hits in follow-up experiments. The two most potent radiosensitizers were the Chk1/2 inhibitor AZD7762 and the PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235. The chemotherapeutic agent 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), which is used to treat LARC, synergized with AZD7762 and enhanced radiosensitization by AZD7762. This study is the first to compare different SMIs in combination with IR for the treatment of K-RAS mutant rectal cancer, and our findings suggest that Chk1/2 inhibitors should be evaluated in new clinical trials for LARC. PMID:24349411

  5. v-K-ras leads to preferential farnesylation of p21ras in FRTL-5 cells: Multiple interference with the isoprenoid pathway

    PubMed Central

    Laezza, Chiara; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Bifulco, Maurizio

    1998-01-01

    The isoprenoid pathway in FRTL-5 thyroid cells was found to be deeply altered on transformation with v-K-ras. A dramatic overall reduction of protein prenylation was found in v-K-ras-transformed cells in comparison with the parent FRTL-5 cells, as shown by labeling cells with [3H]mevalonic acid. This phenomenon was accompanied by a relative increase of p21ras farnesylation and by a decrease of the ratio between the amounts of geranylgeraniol and farnesol bound to prenylated proteins. Analysis of protein prenylation in FRTL-5 cells transformed by a temperature-sensitive mutant of the v-K-ras oncogene indicated that these variations represent an early and specific marker of active K-ras. Conversely, FRTL-5 cells transformed with Harvey-ras showed a pattern of [3H]-mevalonate (MVA)-labeled proteins similar to that of nontransformed cells. The K-ras oncogene activation also resulted in an overall decrease of [3H]-MVA incorporation into isopentenyl-tRNA together with an increase of unprocessed [3H]-MVA and no alteration in [3H]-MVA uptake. The effects of v-K-ras on protein prenylation could be mimicked in FRTL-5 cells by lowering the concentration of exogenous [3H]-MVA whereas increasing the [3H]-MVA concentration did not revert the alterations observed in transformed cells. Accordingly, v-K-ras expression was found to: (i) down-regulate mevalonate kinase; (ii) induce farnesyl-pyrophosphate synthase expression; and (iii) augment protein farnesyltransferase but not protein geranylgeranyl-transferase-I activity. Among these events, mevalonate kinase down-regulation appeared to be related strictly to differential protein prenylation. This study represents an example of how expression of the v-K-ras oncogene, through multiple interferences with the isoprenoid metabolic pathway, may result in the preferential farnesylation of the ras oncogene product p21ras. PMID:9811854

  6. Sphingosine-1-Phosphate Receptor Subtype 3: A Novel Therapeutic Target of K-Ras Mutant Driven Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    mediated lung adenocarcinoma (AdC) progression, and to examine the novel therapeutic utility for K-Ras mutant-driven lung AdC by targeting S1PR3...and adenocarcinomas will be assessed. We have completed the animal treatments proposed in Aims 1 and 2. The collected mouse lung specimens are...currently being analyzed. 15. SUBJECT TERMS: Oncogenic K-Ras mutant, lung adenocarcinoma , sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor subtype 3 16. SECURITY

  7. Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in sporadic pheochromocytomas

    SciTech Connect

    Thibodeau, S.N.; Lindor, N.M.; Honchel, R.

    1994-09-01

    Mutations in the RET proto-oncogene have recently been demonstrated in kindreds with Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia (MEN) types 2A and 2B. Both of these autosomal dominant disorders are characterized by the development of neoplasia in cell lines of neural crest origin, such as medullary throid carcinomas and pheochromocytomas. Individuals with MEN 2B have, in addition, ganglioneuromas of the lips, tongue and colon, a marfanoid habitus, and corneal nerve thickening. Approximately 90% of patients with MEN 2A have a germline mutation in exons 10 or 11, while 95% of patients with MEN 2B have a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 of exon 16. In this study, pheochromocytomas from 29 individuals who had no clinical evidence of MEN 2A or 2B (sporadic) were examined for the presence of either germline or somatic mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Of the 29 tumors examined, 3 (10%) were found to have a mutation in one of the three exons. One tumor had a G{yields}A transition in codon 609 (exon 10), another had a 6 bp deletion encompassing codons 632 & 633 (exon 11), and the final tumor had a T{yields}C transition in codon 918 (exon 16). These mutations were not found in the corresponding normal DNA from these individuals, indicating that the mutation were somatic in origin. Although we cannot exclude the possibility of mutations in other regions of the RET proto-oncogene, our data suggests that: (1) individuals presenting with apparently sporadic pheochromocytomas are not likely to have undiagnosed MEN 2A or 2B; and (2) somatic mutations in the RET proto-oncogene contribute to the process of tumorigenesis in a small percentage of sporadic pheochromocytomas.

  8. Co-dependency of PKCδ and K-Ras: inverse association with cytotoxic drug sensitivity in KRAS mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Ohm, A M; Tan, A-C; Heasley, L E; Reyland, M E

    2017-07-27

    Recent studies suggest that the presence of a KRAS mutation may be insufficient for defining a clinically homogenous molecular group, as many KRAS mutant tumors lose reliance on K-Ras for survival. Identifying pathways that support K-Ras dependency may define clinically relevant KRAS subgroups and lead to the identification of new drug targets. We have analyzed a panel of 17 KRAS mutant lung cancer cell lines classified as K-Ras-dependent or -independent for co-dependency on protein kinase C δ (PKCδ). We show that functional dependency on K-Ras and PKCδ co-segregate, and that dependency correlates with a more epithelial-like phenotype. Furthermore, we show that the pro-apoptotic and pro-tumorigenic functions of PKCδ also segregate based on K-Ras dependency, as K-Ras-independent cells are more sensitive to topoisomerase inhibitors, and depletion of PKCδ in this subgroup suppresses apoptosis through increased activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK). In contrast, K-Ras-dependent lung cancer cells are largely insensitive to topoisomerase inhibitors, and depletion of PKCδ can increase apoptosis and decrease activation of ERK in this subgroup. We have previously shown that nuclear translocation of PKCδ is necessary and sufficient for pro-apoptotic signaling. Our current studies show that K-Ras-dependent cells are refractive to PKCδ-driven apoptosis. Analysis of this subgroup showed increased PKCδ expression and an increase in the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio of PKCδ. In addition, targeting PKCδ to the nucleus induces apoptosis in K-Ras-independent, but not K-Ras-dependent non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Our studies provide tools for identification of the subset of patients with KRAS mutant tumors most amenable to targeting of the K-Ras pathway, and identify PKCδ as a potential target in this tumor population. These subgroups are likely to be of clinical relevance, as high PKCδ expression correlates with increased overall survival and

  9. Co-dependency of PKCδ and K-Ras: Inverse association with cytotoxic drug sensitivity in KRAS mutant lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ohm, Angela M.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Heasley, Lynn E.; Reyland, Mary E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the presence of a KRAS mutation may be insufficient for defining a clinically homogenous molecular group, as many KRAS mutant tumors lose reliance on K-Ras for survival. Identifying pathways that support K-Ras dependency may define clinically relevant KRAS sub-groups and lead to the identification of new drug targets. We have analyzed a panel of 17 KRAS mutant lung cancer cell lines classified as K-Ras dependent or independent, for co-dependency on PKCδ. We show that functional dependency on K-Ras and PKCδ co-segregate, and that dependency correlates with a more epithelial-like phenotype. Furthermore, we show that the pro-apoptotic and pro-tumorigenic functions of PKCδ also segregate based on K-Ras dependency, as K-Ras independent cells are more sensitive to topoisomerase inhibitors, and depletion of PKCδ in this sub-group suppresses apoptosis through increased activation of ERK. In contrast, K-Ras dependent lung cancer cells are largely insensitive to topoisomerase inhibitors, and depletion of PKCδ can increase apoptosis and decrease activation of ERK in this sub-group. We have previously shown that nuclear translocation of PKCδ is necessary and sufficient for pro-apoptotic signaling. Our current studies show that K-Ras dependent cells are refractive to PKCδ driven apoptosis. Analysis of this sub-group showed increased PKCδ expression and an increase in the nuclear:cytoplasmic ratio of PKCδ. In addition, targeting PKCδ to the nucleus induces apoptosis in K-Ras independent, but not K-Ras dependent NSCLC cells. Our studies provide tools for identification of the subset of patients with KRAS mutant tumors most amenable to targeting of the K-Ras pathway, and identify PKCδ as a potential target in this tumor population. These sub-groups are likely to be of clinical relevance, as high PKCδ expression correlates with increased overall survival and a more epithelial tumor phenotype in patients with KRAS mutant lung adenocarcinomas

  10. Oncogenic mechanisms of HOXB13 missense mutations in prostate carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Marta; Maia, Sofia; Paulo, Paula; Teixeira, Manuel R.

    2016-01-01

    The recurrent germline mutation HOXB13 p.(Gly84Glu) (G84E) has recently been identified as a risk factor for prostate cancer. In a recent study, we have performed full sequencing of the HOXB13 gene in 462 Portuguese prostate cancer patients with early-onset and/or familial/hereditary disease, and identified two novel missense mutations, p.(Ala128Asp) (A128D) and p.(Phe240Leu) (F240L), that were predicted to be damaging to protein function. In the present work we aimed to investigate the potential oncogenic role of these mutations, comparing to that of the recurrent G84E mutation and wild-type HOXB13. We induced site-directed mutagenesis in a HOXB13 expression vector and established in vitro cell models of prostate carcinogenesis with stable overexpression of either the wild-type or the mutated HOXB13 variants. By performing in vitro assays we observed that, while the wild-type promotes proliferation, also observed with the F240L variant along with a decrease in apoptosis, the A128D mutation decreases apoptosis and promotes anchorage independent growth. No phenotypic impact was observed for the G84E mutation in the cell line model used. Our data show that specific HOXB13 mutations are involved in the acquisition of different cancer-associated capabilities and further support an oncogenic role for HOXB13 in prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:28050579

  11. Toll-like receptor 9 agonist IMO cooperates with cetuximab in K-ras mutant colorectal and pancreatic cancers.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Roberta; Melisi, Davide; Damiano, Vincenzo; Bianco, Roberto; Garofalo, Sonia; Gelardi, Teresa; Agrawal, Sudhir; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Scarpa, Aldo; Bardelli, Alberto; Tortora, Giampaolo

    2011-10-15

    K-Ras somatic mutations are a strong predictive biomarker for resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitors in patients with colorectal and pancreatic cancer. We previously showed that the novel Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist immunomodulatory oligonucleotide (IMO) has a strong in vivo activity in colorectal cancer models by interfering with EGFR-related signaling and synergizing with the anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody cetuximab. In the present study, we investigated, both in vitro and in vivo, the antitumor effect of IMO alone or in combination with cetuximab in subcutaneous colon and orthotopic pancreatic cancer models harboring K-Ras mutations and resistance to EGFR inhibitors. We showed that IMO was able to significantly restore the sensitivity of K-Ras mutant cancer cells to cetuximab, producing a marked inhibition of cell survival and a complete suppression of mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphorylation, when used in combination with cetuximab. IMO interfered with EGFR-dependent signaling, modulating the functional interaction between TLR9 and EGFR. In vivo, IMO plus cetuximab combination caused a potent and long-lasting cooperative antitumor activity in LS174T colorectal cancer and in orthotopic AsPC1 pancreatic cancer. The capability of IMO to restore cetuximab sensitivity was further confirmed by using K-Ras mutant colorectal cancer cell models obtained through homologous recombination technology. We showed that IMO markedly inhibits growth of K-Ras mutant colon and pancreatic cancers in vitro and in nude mice and cooperates with cetuximab via multiple mechanisms of action. Therefore, we propose IMO plus cetuximab as a therapeutic strategy for K-Ras wild-type as well for K-Ras mutant, cetuximab-resistant colorectal and pancreatic cancers. ©2011 AACR.

  12. Structural Effects of Oncogenic PI3K alpha Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    S Gabelli; C Huang; D Mandelker; O Schmidt-Kittler; B Vogelstein; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    Physiological activation of PI3K{alpha} is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3K{alpha} result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  13. Structural effects of oncogenic PI3Kα mutations.

    PubMed

    Gabelli, Sandra B; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Mandelker, Diana; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Vogelstein, Bert; Amzel, L Mario

    2010-01-01

    Physiological activation of PI3Kα is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3Kα result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  14. Activated K-RAS Increases Polyamine Uptake in Human Colon Cancer Cells Through Modulation of Caveolar Endocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Basu Roy, Upal K.; Rial, Nathaniel S.; Kachel, Karen L.; Gerner, Eugene W.

    2008-01-01

    Endocytic pathways have been implicated in polyamine transport in mammalian cells, but specific mechanisms have not been described. We have shown that expression of a dominant negative (DN) form of the GTPase Dynamin, but not Eps15, diminished polyamine uptake in colon cancer cells indicating a caveolar and nonclathrin uptake mode. Polyamines co-sediment with lipid raft/caveolin-1 rich fractions, of the plasma membrane in a sucrose density gradient. Knock down of caveolin-1 significantly increased polyamine uptake. Conversely, ectopic expression of this protein resulted in diminished polyamine uptake. We also found that presence of an activated K-RAS oncogene significantly increased polyamine uptake by colon cancer cells. This effect is through an increase in caveolin-1 phosphorylation at tyrosine residue 14. Caveolin-1 is a negative regulator of caveolar endocytosis and phosphorylation in a K-RAS dependent manner leads to an increase in caveolar endocytosis. In cells expressing wild type K-RAS, addition of exogenous uPA was sufficient to stimulate caveolar endocytosis of polyamines. This effect was abrogated by the addition of a SRC kinase inhibitor. These data indicate that polyamine transport follows a dynamin-dependent and clathrin-independent endocytic uptake route, and this route is positively regulated by the oncogenic expression of K-RAS in a caveolin-1 dependent manner. PMID:18176934

  15. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  16. Oncogenic Ras promotes butyrate-induced apoptosis through inhibition of gelsolin expression.

    PubMed

    Klampfer, Lidija; Huang, Jie; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Shirasawa, Senji; Augenlicht, Leonard

    2004-08-27

    Activation of Ras promotes oncogenesis by altering a multiple of cellular processes, such as cell cycle progression, differentiation, and apoptosis. Oncogenic Ras can either promote or inhibit apoptosis, depending on the cell type and the nature of the apoptotic stimuli. The response of normal and transformed colonic epithelial cells to the short chain fatty acid butyrate, a physiological regulator of epithelial cell maturation, is also divergent: normal epithelial cells proliferate, and transformed cells undergo apoptosis in response to butyrate. To investigate the role of k-ras mutations in butyrate-induced apoptosis, we utilized HCT116 cells, which harbor an oncogenic k-ras mutation and two isogenic clones with targeted inactivation of the mutant k-ras allele, Hkh2, and Hke-3. We demonstrated that the targeted deletion of the mutant k-ras allele is sufficient to protect epithelial cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis. Consistent with this, we showed that apigenin, a dietary flavonoid that has been shown to inhibit Ras signaling and to reverse transformation of cancer cell lines, prevented butyrate-induced apoptosis in HCT116 cells. To investigate the mechanism whereby activated k-ras sensitizes colonic cells to butyrate, we performed a genome-wide analysis of Ras target genes in the isogenic cell lines HCT116, Hkh2, and Hke-3. The gene exhibiting the greatest down-regulation by the activating k-ras mutation was gelsolin, an actin-binding protein whose expression is frequently reduced or absent in colorectal cancer cell lines and primary tumors. We demonstrated that silencing of gelsolin expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cells to butyrate-induced apoptosis through amplification of the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-7. These data therefore demonstrate that gelsolin protects cells from butyrate-induced apoptosis and suggest that Ras promotes apoptosis, at least in part, through its ability to down-regulate the expression of gelsolin.

  17. Selective 'stencil'-aided pre-PCR cleavage of wild-type sequences as a novel approach to detection of mutant K-RAS.

    PubMed

    Lichtenstein, A V; Serdjuk, O I; Sukhova, T I; Melkonyan, H S; Umansky, S R

    2001-09-01

    The enriched PCR widely used for detection of mutant K-RAS in either tumor tissues or circulating DNA was modified so that abundant wild-type K-RAS alleles are cleaved prior to PCR. We took advantage of an AluI recognition site located immediately upstream of the K-RAS codon 12. The site was reconstituted upon DNA denaturation followed by annealing with a 'stencil', a 16-bp synthetic oligonucleotide complementary to the wild-type sequence. As opposed to normal K-RAS, the mutant allele forms, upon annealing with the stencil, a mismatch at the codon 12 which lies within the AluI enzyme binding site and partially inhibits its activity. The mismatch also lowers the melting temperature of the stencil-mutant K-RAS double helix as compared to stencil-wild-type duplex, so that only the latter is double stranded and selectively digested by AluI at elevated temperatures. The proposed method of stencil-aided mutation analysis (SAMA) based on selective pre-PCR elimination of wild-type sequences can be highly advantageous for detection of mutant K-RAS due to: (i) an enhanced sensitivity because of reduced competition with a great excess of normal K-RAS, and (ii) a decrease in a number of false-positive results from Taq polymerase errors. Application of SAMA for generalized detection of DNA mutations is discussed.

  18. Genetic Alterations in K-ras and p53 Cancer Genes in Lung Neoplasms From B6C3F1 Mice Exposed to Cumene

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hue-Hua L.; Ton, Thai-Vu. T.; Kim, Yongbaek; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Clayton, Natasha P.; Chan, Po-Chuen; Sills, Robert C.; Lahousse, Stephanie A.

    2009-01-01

    The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the controls. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87 % cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56 % cumene-induced neoplasms and mutations were detected in 52 % neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutation and one of 7 (14 %) K-ras mutation was detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13 %) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12 %). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene. PMID:18648094

  19. Genetic alterations in K-ras and p53 cancer genes in lung neoplasms from B6C3F1 mice exposed to cumene.

    PubMed

    Hong, Hue-Hua L; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Kim, Yongbaek; Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Clayton, Natasha P; Chan, Po-Chuen; Sills, Robert C; Lahousse, Stephanie A

    2008-07-01

    The incidences of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in cumene-treated B6C3F1 mice were significantly greater than those of the control animals. We evaluated these lung neoplasms for point mutations in the K-ras and p53 genes that are often mutated in humans. K-ras and p53 mutations were detected by cycle sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA isolated from paraffin-embedded neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 87% of cumene-induced lung neoplasms, and the predominant mutations were exon 1 codon 12 G to T transversions and exon 2 codon 61 A to G transitions. P53 protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry in 56% of cumene-induced neoplasms, and mutations were detected in 52% of neoplasms. The predominant mutations were exon 5, codon 155 G to A transitions, and codon 133 C to T transitions. No p53 mutations and one of seven (14%) K-ras mutations were detected in spontaneous neoplasms. Cumene-induced lung carcinomas showed loss of heterozygosity (LOH) on chromosome 4 near the p16 gene (13%) and on chromosome 6 near the K-ras gene (12%). No LOH was observed in spontaneous carcinomas or normal lung tissues examined. The pattern of mutations identified in the lung tumors suggests that DNA damage and genomic instability may be contributing factors to the mutation profile and development of lung cancer in mice exposed to cumene.

  20. SPRED1 Interferes with K-ras but Not H-ras Membrane Anchorage and Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Siljamäki, Elina

    2016-01-01

    The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is tightly controlled by negative feedback regulators, such as the tumor suppressor SPRED1. The SPRED1 gene also carries loss-of-function mutations in the RASopathy Legius syndrome. Growth factor stimulation translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane, triggering its inhibitory activity. However, it remains unclear whether SPRED1 there acts at the level of Ras or Raf. We show that pharmacological or galectin-1 (Gal-1)-mediated induction of B- and C-Raf-containing dimers translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane. This is facilitated in particular by SPRED1 interaction with B-Raf and, via its N terminus, with Gal-1. The physiological significance of these novel interactions is supported by two Legius syndrome-associated mutations that show diminished binding to both Gal-1 and B-Raf. On the plasma membrane, SPRED1 becomes enriched in acidic membrane domains to specifically perturb membrane organization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling of active K-ras4B (here, K-ras) but not H-ras. However, SPRED1 also blocks on the nanoscale the positive effects of Gal-1 on H-ras. Therefore, a combinatorial expression of SPRED1 and Gal-1 potentially regulates specific patterns of K-ras- and H-ras-dependent signaling output. More broadly, our results open up the possibility that related SPRED and Sprouty proteins act in a similar Ras and Raf isoform-specific manner. PMID:27503857

  1. K-RasV14I recapitulates Noonan syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Aicher, Alexandra; Cañamero, Marta; Cámara, Juan Antonio; Cussó, Lorena; Desco, Manuel; Heeschen, Christopher; Mulero, Francisca; Bustelo, Xosé R; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2014-11-18

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. NS also is associated with a risk for developing myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), including juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Mutations responsible for NS occur in at least 11 different loci including KRAS. Here we describe a mouse model for NS induced by K-Ras(V14I), a recurrent KRAS mutation in NS patients. K-Ras(V14I)-mutant mice displayed multiple NS-associated developmental defects such as growth delay, craniofacial dysmorphia, cardiac defects, and hematologic abnormalities including a severe form of MPD that resembles human JMML. Homozygous animals had perinatal lethality whose penetrance varied with genetic background. Exposure of pregnant mothers to a MEK inhibitor rescued perinatal lethality and prevented craniofacial dysmorphia and cardiac defects. However, Mek inhibition was not sufficient to correct these defects when mice were treated after weaning. Interestingly, Mek inhibition did not correct the neoplastic MPD characteristic of these mutant mice, regardless of the timing at which the mice were treated, thus suggesting that MPD is driven by additional signaling pathways. These genetically engineered K-Ras(V14I)-mutant mice offer an experimental tool for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of NS. Perhaps more importantly, they should be useful as a preclinical model to test new therapies aimed at preventing or ameliorating those deficits associated with this syndrome.

  2. K-RasV14I recapitulates Noonan syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Fabbiano, Salvatore; Schuhmacher, Alberto J.; Aicher, Alexandra; Cañamero, Marta; Cámara, Juan Antonio; Cussó, Lorena; Desco, Manuel; Heeschen, Christopher; Mulero, Francisca; Bustelo, Xosé R.; Guerra, Carmen; Barbacid, Mariano

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. NS also is associated with a risk for developing myeloproliferative disorders (MPD), including juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML). Mutations responsible for NS occur in at least 11 different loci including KRAS. Here we describe a mouse model for NS induced by K-RasV14I, a recurrent KRAS mutation in NS patients. K-RasV14I–mutant mice displayed multiple NS-associated developmental defects such as growth delay, craniofacial dysmorphia, cardiac defects, and hematologic abnormalities including a severe form of MPD that resembles human JMML. Homozygous animals had perinatal lethality whose penetrance varied with genetic background. Exposure of pregnant mothers to a MEK inhibitor rescued perinatal lethality and prevented craniofacial dysmorphia and cardiac defects. However, Mek inhibition was not sufficient to correct these defects when mice were treated after weaning. Interestingly, Mek inhibition did not correct the neoplastic MPD characteristic of these mutant mice, regardless of the timing at which the mice were treated, thus suggesting that MPD is driven by additional signaling pathways. These genetically engineered K-RasV14I–mutant mice offer an experimental tool for studying the molecular mechanisms underlying the clinical manifestations of NS. Perhaps more importantly, they should be useful as a preclinical model to test new therapies aimed at preventing or ameliorating those deficits associated with this syndrome. PMID:25359213

  3. SPRED1 Interferes with K-ras but Not H-ras Membrane Anchorage and Signaling.

    PubMed

    Siljamäki, Elina; Abankwa, Daniel

    2016-10-15

    The Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is tightly controlled by negative feedback regulators, such as the tumor suppressor SPRED1. The SPRED1 gene also carries loss-of-function mutations in the RASopathy Legius syndrome. Growth factor stimulation translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane, triggering its inhibitory activity. However, it remains unclear whether SPRED1 there acts at the level of Ras or Raf. We show that pharmacological or galectin-1 (Gal-1)-mediated induction of B- and C-Raf-containing dimers translocates SPRED1 to the plasma membrane. This is facilitated in particular by SPRED1 interaction with B-Raf and, via its N terminus, with Gal-1. The physiological significance of these novel interactions is supported by two Legius syndrome-associated mutations that show diminished binding to both Gal-1 and B-Raf. On the plasma membrane, SPRED1 becomes enriched in acidic membrane domains to specifically perturb membrane organization and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling of active K-ras4B (here, K-ras) but not H-ras. However, SPRED1 also blocks on the nanoscale the positive effects of Gal-1 on H-ras. Therefore, a combinatorial expression of SPRED1 and Gal-1 potentially regulates specific patterns of K-ras- and H-ras-dependent signaling output. More broadly, our results open up the possibility that related SPRED and Sprouty proteins act in a similar Ras and Raf isoform-specific manner.

  4. Computational and biochemical characterization of two partially overlapping interfaces and multiple weak-affinity K-Ras dimers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Priyanka; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Dolino, Drew M.; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongyang; Grant, Barry J.; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies found that membrane-bound K-Ras dimers are important for biological function. However, the structure and thermodynamic stability of these complexes remained unknown because they are hard to probe by conventional approaches. Combining data from a wide range of computational and experimental approaches, here we describe the structure, dynamics, energetics and mechanism of assembly of multiple K-Ras dimers. Utilizing a range of techniques for the detection of reactive surfaces, protein-protein docking and molecular simulations, we found that two largely polar and partially overlapping surfaces underlie the formation of multiple K-Ras dimers. For validation we used mutagenesis, electron microscopy and biochemical assays under non-denaturing conditions. We show that partial disruption of a predicted interface through charge reversal mutation of apposed residues reduces oligomerization while introduction of cysteines at these positions enhanced dimerization likely through the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. Free energy calculations indicated that K-Ras dimerization involves direct but weak protein-protein interactions in solution, consistent with the notion that dimerization is facilitated by membrane binding. Taken together, our atomically detailed analyses provide unique mechanistic insights into K-Ras dimer formation and membrane organization as well as the conformational fluctuations and equilibrium thermodynamics underlying these processes.

  5. Computational and biochemical characterization of two partially overlapping interfaces and multiple weak-affinity K-Ras dimers

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Priyanka; Sayyed-Ahmad, Abdallah; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Dolino, Drew M.; Chen, Wei; Li, Hongyang; Grant, Barry J.; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies found that membrane-bound K-Ras dimers are important for biological function. However, the structure and thermodynamic stability of these complexes remained unknown because they are hard to probe by conventional approaches. Combining data from a wide range of computational and experimental approaches, here we describe the structure, dynamics, energetics and mechanism of assembly of multiple K-Ras dimers. Utilizing a range of techniques for the detection of reactive surfaces, protein-protein docking and molecular simulations, we found that two largely polar and partially overlapping surfaces underlie the formation of multiple K-Ras dimers. For validation we used mutagenesis, electron microscopy and biochemical assays under non-denaturing conditions. We show that partial disruption of a predicted interface through charge reversal mutation of apposed residues reduces oligomerization while introduction of cysteines at these positions enhanced dimerization likely through the formation of an intermolecular disulfide bond. Free energy calculations indicated that K-Ras dimerization involves direct but weak protein-protein interactions in solution, consistent with the notion that dimerization is facilitated by membrane binding. Taken together, our atomically detailed analyses provide unique mechanistic insights into K-Ras dimer formation and membrane organization as well as the conformational fluctuations and equilibrium thermodynamics underlying these processes. PMID:28067274

  6. Growth Regulation via Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein-4 and -2 in Association with Mutant K-ras in Lung Epithelia

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Hanako; Yazawa, Takuya; Suzuki, Takehisa; Shimoyamada, Hiroaki; Okudela, Koji; Ikeda, Masaichi; Hamada, Kenji; Yamada-Okabe, Hisafumi; Yao, Masayuki; Kubota, Yoshinobu; Takahashi, Takashi; Kamma, Hiroshi; Kitamura, Hitoshi

    2006-01-01

    Gain-of-function point mutations in K-ras affect early events in pulmonary bronchioloalveolar carcinoma. We investigated altered mRNA expression on K-Ras activation in human peripheral lung epithelial cells (HPL1A) using oligonucleotide microarrays. Mutated K-Ras stably expressed in HPL1A accelerated cell growth and induced the expression of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-binding protein (IGFBP)-4 and IGFBP-2, which modulate cell growth via IGF. Other lung epithelial cell lines (NHBE and HPL1D) revealed the same phenomena as HPL1A by mutated K-ras transgene. Lung cancer cell growth was also accelerated by mutated K-ras gene transduction, whereas IGFBP-4/2 induction was weaker compared with mutated K-Ras-expressing lung epithelial cells. To understand the differences in IGFBP-4/2 inducibility via K-Ras-activated signaling between nonneoplastic lung epithelia and lung carcinoma, we addressed the mechanisms of IGFBP-4/2 transcriptional activation. Our results revealed that Egr-1, which is induced on activation of Ras-mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling, is crucial for transactivation of IGFBP-4/2. Furthermore, IGFBP-4 and IGFBP-2 promoters were often hypermethylated in lung carcinoma, yielding low basal expression/weak induction of IGFBP-4/2. These findings suggest that continuous K-Ras activation accelerates cell growth and evokes a feedback system through IGFBP-4/2 to prevent excessive growth. Moreover, this growth regulation is disrupted in lung cancers because of promoter hypermethylation of IGFBP-4/2 genes. PMID:17071580

  7. Gene expression studies demonstrate that the K-ras/Erk MAP kinase signal transduction pathway and other novel pathways contribute to the pathogenesis of cumene-induced lung tumors.

    PubMed

    Wakamatsu, Nobuko; Collins, Jennifer B; Parker, Joel S; Tessema, Mathewos; Clayton, Natasha P; Ton, Thai-Vu T; Hong, Hue-Hua L; Belinsky, Steven; Devereux, Theodora R; Sills, Robert C; Lahousse, Stephanie A

    2008-07-01

    National Toxicology Program (NTP) inhalation studies demonstrated that cumene significantly increased the incidence of alveolar/bronchiolar adenomas and carcinomas in B6C3F1 mice. Cumene or isopropylbenzene is a component of crude oil used primarily in the production of phenol and acetone. The authors performed global gene expression analysis to distinguish patterns of gene regulation between cumene-induced tumors and normal lung tissue and to look for patterns based on the presence or absence of K-ras and p53 mutations in the tumors. Principal component analysis segregated the carcinomas into groups with and without K-ras mutations, but failed to separate the tumors based on p53 mutation status. Expression of genes associated with the Erk MAP kinase signaling pathway was significantly altered in carcinomas with K-ras mutations compared to tumors without K-ras mutations or normal lung. Gene expression analysis also suggested that cumene-induced carcinomas with K-ras mutations have greater malignant potential than those without mutations. In addition, significance analysis of function and expression (SAFE) demonstrated expression changes of genes regulated by histone modification in carcinomas with K-ras mutations. The gene expression analysis suggested the formation of alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas in cumene-exposed mice typically involves mutation of K-ras, which results in increased Erk MAP kinase signaling and modification of histones.

  8. Oncogenes

    SciTech Connect

    Compans, R.W.; Cooper, M.; Koprowski, H.; McConell, I.; Melchers, F.; Nussenzweig, V.; Oldstone, M.; Olsnes, S.; Saedler, H.; Vogt, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Roles of drosophila proto-oncogenes and growth factor homologs during development of the fly; Interaction of oncogenes with differentiation programs; Genetics of src: structure and functional organization of a protein tyrosine kinase; Structures and activities of activated abl oncogenes; Eukaryotic RAS proteins and yeast proteins with which they interact. This book presents up-to-data review articles on oncogenes. The editor includes five contributions which critically evaluate recent research in the field.

  9. Oncogenically active MYD88 mutations in human lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Ngo, Vu N.; Young, Ryan M.; Schmitz, Roland; Jhavar, Sameer; Xiao, Wenming; Lim, Kian-Huat; Kohlhammer, Holger; Xu, Weihong; Yang, Yandan; Zhao, Hong; Shaffer, Arthur L.; Romesser, Paul; Wright, George; Powell, John; Rosenwald, Andreas; Muller-Hermelink, Hans Konrad; Ott, German; Gascoyne, Randy D.; Connors, Joseph M.; Rimsza, Lisa M.; Campo, Elias; Jaffe, Elaine S.; Delabie, Jan; Smeland, Erlend B.; Fisher, Richard I.; Braziel, Rita M.; Tubbs, Raymond R.; Cook, J. R.; Weisenburger, Denny D.; Chan, Wing C.; Staudt, Louis M.

    2016-01-01

    The activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) remains the least curable form of this malignancy despite recent advances in therapy1. Constitutive nuclear factor (NF)-κB and JAK kinase signalling promotes malignant cell survival in these lymphomas, but the genetic basis for this signalling is incompletely understood. Here we describe the dependence of ABC DLBCLs on MYD88, an adaptor protein that mediates toll and interleukin (IL)-1 receptor signalling2,3, and the discovery of highly recurrent oncogenic mutations affecting MYD88 in ABC DLBCL tumours. RNA interference screening revealed that MYD88 and the associated kinases IRAK1 and IRAK4 are essential for ABC DLBCL survival. High-throughput RNA resequencing uncovered MYD88 mutations in ABC DLBCL lines. Notably, 29% of ABC DLBCL tumours harboured the same amino acid substitution, L265P, in the MYD88 Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domain at an evolutionarily invariant residue in its hydrophobic core. This mutation was rare or absent in other DLBCL subtypes and Burkitt’s lymphoma, but was observed in 9% of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas. At a lower frequency, additional mutations were observed in the MYD88 TIR domain, occurring in both the ABC and germinal centre B-cell-like (GCB) DLBCL subtypes. Survival of ABC DLBCL cells bearing the L265P mutation was sustained by the mutant but not the wild-type MYD88 isoform, demonstrating that L265P is a gain-of-function driver mutation. The L265P mutant promoted cell survival by spontaneously assembling a protein complex containing IRAK1 and IRAK4, leading to IRAK4 kinase activity, IRAK1 phosphorylation, NF-κB signalling, JAK kinase activation of STAT3, and secretion of IL-6, IL-10 and interferon-β. Hence, theMYD88 signalling pathway is integral to the pathogenesis of ABC DLBCL, supporting the development of inhibitors of IRAK4 kinase and other components of this pathway for the treatment of tumours bearing oncogenic MYD88 mutations

  10. Novel Oncogenic PDGFRA Mutations in Pediatric High-Grade Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Paugh, Barbara S.; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Qu, Chunxu; Endersby, Raelene; Diaz, Alexander K.; Zhang, Junyuan; Bax, Dorine A.; Carvalho, Diana; Reis, Rui M.; Onar-Thomas, Arzu; Broniscer, Alberto; Wetmore, Cynthia; Zhang, Jinghui; Jones, Chris; Ellison, David W.; Baker, Suzanne J.

    2013-01-01

    The outcome for children with high-grade gliomas (HGG) remains dismal, with a two-year survival rate of only 10–30%. Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) comprise a subset of HGG that arise in brainstem almost exclusively in children. Genome-wide analyses of copy number imbalances previously showed that platelet derived growth factor receptor alpha (PDGFRA) is the most frequent target of focal amplification in pediatric HGGs, including DIPGs. To determine whether PDGFRA is also targeted by more subtle mutations missed by copy number analysis, we sequenced all PDGFRA coding exons from a cohort of pediatric HGGs. Somatic activating mutations were identified in 14.4% (13/90) of non-brainstem pediatric HGGs and 4.7% (2/43) of DIPGs, including missense mutations and in-frame deletions and insertions not previously described. 40% of tumors with mutation showed concurrent amplification, while 60% carried heterozygous mutations. Six different mutations impacting different domains all resulted in ligand-independent receptor activation that was blocked by small molecule inhibitors of PDGFR. Expression of mutants in p53-null primary mouse astrocytes conferred a proliferative advantage in vitro, and generated HGGs in vivo with complete penetrance when implanted into brain. The gene expression signatures of these murine HGGs reflected the spectrum of human diffuse HGGs. PDGFRA intragenic deletion of exons 8 and 9 were previously shown in adult HGG, but were not detected in 83 non-brainstem pediatric HGG and 57 DIPGs. Thus, a distinct spectrum of mutations confers constitutive receptor activation and oncogenic activity to PDGFRα in childhood HGG. PMID:23970477

  11. Human papillomavirus DNA and oncogene alterations in colorectal tumors.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Luis Orlando; Barbisan, Gisela; Ottino, Anabel; Pianzola, Horacio; Golijow, Carlos Daniel

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to determine the presence and molecular integrity of high-risk HPV types in colorectal adenocarcinomas and to assess whether viral DNA is related to common proto-oncogene alterations, such as k-ras mutations and c-myc gene amplification, in colorectal cancer. Seventy-five colorectal adenocarcinomas were screened for HPV infection using nested-PCR (MY09/11-GP5+/6+). HPV typing was performed by type-specific PCR for HPV 16 and HPV 18 DNA. Unidentified samples were subsequently sequenced to determine the viral genotype. The physical status of HPV was determined by a nested PCR approach for type-specific E2 sequences. C-myc amplification was assessed by co-amplification with β-globin as control locus, and mutation in k-ras codons 12 and 13 by ARMS-PCR. Overall, HPV was detected in thirty-three colorectal specimens (44%). HPV 16 was the prevalent type (16/75), followed by HPV 18 (15/75), HPV 31 (1/75) and HPV 66 (1/75). E2 disruption was detected in 56.3% of HPV 16 and in 40% of HPV 18 positive tumors. C-myc amplification was detected in 29.4% of cases, while k-ras mutations in 30.7%. There was no significant trend for HPV infection in tumors harboring either k-ras or c-myc alterations. This study demonstrates HPV DNA and viral integration in colorectal tumors, suggesting a potential role of this virus in colorectal carcinogenesis. There was no concurrence, however, of k-ras and c-myc activation with viral infection.

  12. Inverse Relationship between Microsatellite Instability and K-ras and p53 Gene Alterations in Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Samowitz, Wade S.; Holden, Joseph A.; Curtin, Karen; Edwards, Sandra L.; Walker, Adrianne R.; Lin, Heather A.; Robertson, Margaret A.; Nichols, Melanie F.; Gruenthal, Kristin M.; Lynch, Beverly J.; Leppert, Mark F.; Slattery, Martha L.

    2001-01-01

    Some studies have shown an inverse relationship between microsatellite instability in colon cancer and mutations in p53 and K-ras, whereas others have not. We therefore evaluated these features in a population-based sample of 496 individuals with colon cancer. Microsatellite instability was determined by a panel of 10 tetranucleotide repeats, the Bethesda consensus panel of mono- and dinucleotide repeats, and coding mononucleotide repeats in transforming growth factor-beta receptor type II, hMSH3, BAX, hMSH6, and insulin-like growth factor receptor type II. Mutations in codons 12 and 13 in K-ras were evaluated by sequencing. p53 overexpression (as detected by immunohistochemistry) was used as an indicator of p53 mutation; this was evaluated in 275 of the tumors. K-ras mutations were present in 33.2% of tumors, p53 overexpression in 51.5%, and microsatellite instability (as determined by the Bethesda consensus panel) in 12.5%. K-ras mutations were significantly less common in unstable tumors than stable tumors (11.8% versus 36.9%, P < 0.001). p53 overexpression was significantly less common in unstable tumors than stable tumors (20.0% versus 55.7%, P < 0.001). These inverse relationships between microsatellite instability and ras gene mutations and p53 overexpression were shown to be independent of tumor site in logistic regression analyses. All other measures of instability also showed statistically significant inverse relationships independent of tumor site with alterations in ras and p53, and instability results determined by the panel of 10 tetranucleotide repeats were highly significantly related to those determined by the Bethesda consensus panel. Coding mononucleotide repeat mutations were significantly more common in unstable tumors than stable tumors (85.7% versus 1.0%, P < 0.001). We conclude that there is an inverse relationship between microsatellite instability and mutations in p53 and K-ras, and that the molecular profile of colon cancers with

  13. miR-181a shows tumor suppressive effect against oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by downregulating K-ras

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Ki-Hyuk; Bae, Susan D.; Hong, Hannah S.; Kim, Reuben H.; Kang, Mo K.; Park, No-Hee

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} MicroRNA-181a (miR-181a) was frequently downregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). {yields} Overexpression of miR-181a suppressed OSCC growth. {yields} K-ras is a novel target of miR-181a. {yields} Decreased miR-181a expression is attributed to its lower promoter activity in OSCC. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of gene expression, and their deregulation plays an important role in human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recently, we found that miRNA-181a (miR-181a) was upregulated during replicative senescence of normal human oral keratinocytes. Since senescence is considered as a tumor suppressive mechanism, we thus investigated the expression and biological role of miR-181a in OSCC. We found that miR-181a was frequently downregulated in OSCC. Ectopic expression of miR-181a suppressed proliferation and anchorage independent growth ability of OSCC. Moreover, miR-181a dramatically reduces the growth of OSCC on three dimensional organotypic raft culture. We also identified K-ras as a novel target of miR-181a. miR-181a decreased K-ras protein level as well as the luciferase activity of reporter vectors containing the 3'-untranslated region of K-ras gene. Finally, we defined a minimal regulatory region of miR-181a and found a positive correlation between its promoter activity and the level of miR-181a expression. In conclusion, miR-181a may function as an OSCC suppressor by targeting on K-ras oncogene. Thus, miR-181a should be considered for therapeutic application for OSCC.

  14. Mutation-Specific RAS Oncogenicity Explains N-RAS Codon 61 Selection in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Burd, Christin E.; Liu, Wenjin; Huynh, Minh V.; Waqas, Meriam A.; Gillahan, James E.; Clark, Kelly S.; Fu, Kailing; Martin, Brit L.; Jeck, William R.; Souroullas, George P.; Darr, David B.; Zedek, Daniel C.; Miley, Michael J.; Baguley, Bruce C.; Campbell, Sharon L.

    2014-01-01

    N-RAS mutation at codon 12, 13 or 61 is associated with transformation; yet, in melanoma, such alterations are nearly exclusive to codon 61. Here, we compared the melanoma susceptibility of an N-RasQ61R knock-in allele to similarly designed K-RasG12D and N-RasG12D alleles. With concomitant p16INK4a inactivation, K-RasG12D or N-RasQ61R expression efficiently promoted melanoma in vivo, whereas N-RasG12D did not. Additionally, N-RasQ61R mutation potently cooperated with Lkb1/Stk11 loss to induce highly metastatic disease. Functional comparisons of N-RasQ61R and N-RasG12D revealed little difference in the ability of these proteins to engage PI3K or RAF. Instead, N-RasQ61R showed enhanced nucleotide binding, decreased intrinsic GTPase activity and increased stability when compared to N-RasG12D. This work identifies a faithful model of human N-RAS mutant melanoma, and suggests that the increased melanomagenecity of N-RasQ61R over N-RasG12D is due to heightened abundance of the active, GTP-bound form rather than differences in the engagement of downstream effector pathways. PMID:25252692

  15. [miR-143 inhibits cell proliferation through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene in HeLa cells].

    PubMed

    Qin, H X; Cui, H K; Pan, Y; Hu, R L; Zhu, L H; Wang, S J

    2016-12-23

    Objective: To explore the effect of microRNA miR-143 on the proliferation of cervical cancer HeLa cells through targeted regulating the expression of K-ras gene. Methods: The luciferase report carrier containing wild type 3'-UTR of K-ras gene (K-ras-wt) or mutated 3'-UTR of the K-ras (K-ras-mut) were co-transfected with iR-143 mimic into the HeLa cells respectively, and the targeting effect of miR-143 in the transfectants was verified by the dual luciferase report system. HeLa cells were also transfected with miR-143 mimic (miR-143 mimic group), mimic control (negative control group), and miR-143 mimic plus K-ras gene (miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group), respectively. The expression of miR-143 in the transfected HeLa cells was detected by real-time PCR (RT-PCR), and the expression of K-ras protein was detected by Western blot. The cell proliferation activity of each group was examined by MTT assay. In addition, human cervical cancer tissue samples (n=5) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia tissue samples (n=5) were also examined for the expression of miR-143 and K-ras protein by RT-PCR and Western blot, respectively. Results: The luciferase report assay showed that co-transfection with miR-143 mimic decreased the luciferase activity of the K-ras-wt significantly, but did not inhibit the luciferase activity of the K-ras-mut. The expression of miR-143 in the HeLa cells transfected with miR-143 mimic was significantly higher than that in the HeLa cells transfected with the mimic control (3.31±0.45 vs 0.97±0.22, P<0.05). The MTT assay revealed that the cell proliferative activity of the miR-143 mimic group was significantly lower than that of the negative control group (P<0.05), and the cell proliferative activity of the miR-143 mimic+ K-ras group was also significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05) but higher than the miR-143 mimic group significantly (P<0.05). The expression levels of K-ras protein in the miR-143 mimic group, the negative control group and the

  16. KLF4 regulates adult lung tumor-initiating cells and represses K-Ras-mediated lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Yu, T; Chen, X; Zhang, W; Liu, J; Avdiushko, R; Napier, D L; Liu, A X; Neltner, J M; Wang, C; Cohen, D; Liu, C

    2016-02-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in both men and women worldwide. To identify novel factors that contribute to lung cancer pathogenesis, we analyzed a lung cancer database from The Cancer Genome Atlas and found that Krüppel-like Factor 4 (KLF4) expression is significantly lower in patients' lung cancer tissue than in normal lung tissue. In addition, we identified seven missense mutations in the KLF4 gene. KLF4 is a transcription factor that regulates cell proliferation and differentiation as well as the self-renewal of stem cells. To understand the role of KLF4 in the lung, we generated a tamoxifen-induced Klf4 knockout mouse model. We found that KLF4 inhibits lung cancer cell growth and that depletion of Klf4 altered the differentiation pattern in the developing lung. To understand how KLF4 functions during lung tumorigenesis, we generated the K-ras(LSL-G12D/+);Klf4(fl/fl) mouse model, and we used adenovirus-expressed Cre to induce K-ras activation and Klf4 depletion in the lung. Although Klf4 deletion alone or K-ras mutation alone can trigger lung tumor formation, Klf4 deletion combined with K-ras mutation significantly enhanced lung tumor formation. We also found that Klf4 deletion in conjunction with K-ras activation caused lung inflammation. To understand the mechanism whereby KLF4 is regulated during lung tumorigenesis, we analyzed KLF4 promoter methylation and the profiles of epigenetic factors. We found that Class I histone deacetylases (HDACs) are overexpressed in lung cancer and that HDAC inhibitors induced expression of KLF4 and inhibited proliferation of lung cancer cells, suggesting that KLF4 is probably repressed by histone acetylation and that HDACs are valuable drug targets for lung cancer treatment.

  17. K-ras activation occurs frequently in mucinous adenocarcinomas and rarely in other common epithelial tumors of the human ovary.

    PubMed Central

    Enomoto, T.; Weghorst, C. M.; Inoue, M.; Tanizawa, O.; Rice, J. M.

    1991-01-01

    To explore the role of mutational activation of members of the ras family of cellular protooncogenes in the development of human ovarian neoplasms, a series of 37 ovarian tumors from Japanese patients was studied. These included 30 common epithelial tumors (1 mucinous tumor of borderline malignancy, 7 mucinous adenocarcinomas, and 22 nonmucinous carcinomas: 10 serous, 3 clear cell, 8 endometrioid, and 1 undifferentiated), 5 tumors of germ cell origin, and 2 sex cord/stromal cell tumors. Polymerase chain reaction was performed from selected areas of deparaffinized sections of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue, and the presence of activating point mutations in codons 12, 13, and 61 of the H-, N-, and K-ras genes was probed by dot-blot hybridization analysis with mutation specific oligonucleotides. Mutations in K-ras were also looked for by direct genomic sequencing. The overall frequency of ras gene mutations was 10/37 (27%). Mutations were detected only in K-ras, and were found in most of the mucinous tumors, including the one such tumor of borderline malignancy (6/8; 75%). In one mucinous adenocarcinoma, two mutations were detected in paraffin-embedded material that had not previously been found in high molecular weight DNA isolated from frozen tissue from the same case. K-ras mutations occurred significantly more frequently in mucinous tumors (6/8, 75%) than in serous carcinomas (2/10, 20%; P = 0.031) or in all nonmucinous types of epithelial ovarian tumors combined (3/22, 14%; P = 0.0031). Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1656759

  18. IMP-1 displays cross-talk with K-Ras and modulates colon cancer cell survival through the novel proapoptotic protein CYFIP2.

    PubMed

    Mongroo, Perry S; Noubissi, Felicite K; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Kalabis, Jiri; King, Catrina E; Johnstone, Cameron N; Bowser, Mark J; Castells, Antoni; Spiegelman, Vladimir S; Rustgi, Anil K

    2011-03-15

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein-1 (IMP-1) is an oncofetal protein that binds directly to and stabilizes oncogenic c-Myc and regulates, in turn, its posttranscriptional expression and translation. In contrast to normal adult tissue, IMP-1 is reexpressed and/or overexpressed in human cancers. We show that knockdown of c-Myc in human colon cancer cell lines increases the expression of mature let-7 miRNA family members and downregulates several of its mRNA targets: IMP-1, Cdc34, and K-Ras. We further show that loss of IMP-1 inhibits Cdc34, Lin-28B, and K-Ras, suppresses SW-480 cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, and promotes caspase- and lamin-mediated cell death. We also found that IMP-1 binds to the coding region and 3'UTR of K-Ras mRNA. RNA microarray profiling and validation by reverse transcription PCR reveals that the p53-inducible proapoptotic protein CYFIP2 is upregulated in IMP-1 knockdown SW480 cells, a novel finding. We also show that overexpression of IMP-1 increases c-Myc and K-Ras expression and LIM2405 cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that loss of IMP-1 induces Caspase-3- and PARP-mediated apoptosis, and inhibits K-Ras expression in SW480 cells, which is rescued by CYFIP2 knockdown. Importantly, analysis of 228 patients with colon cancers reveals that IMP-1 is significantly upregulated in differentiated colon tumors (P ≤ 0.0001) and correlates with K-Ras expression (r = 0.35, P ≤ 0.0001) relative to adjacent normal mucosa. These findings indicate that IMP-1, interrelated with c-Myc, acts upstream of K-Ras to promote survival through a novel mechanism that may be important in colon cancer pathogenesis. ©2011 AACR.

  19. Deletion of Pim Kinases Elevates the Cellular Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species and Sensitizes to K-Ras-Induced Cell Killing

    PubMed Central

    Song, Jin H.; An, Ningfei; Chatterjee, Shilpak; Kistner-Griffin, Emily; Mahajan, Sandeep; Mehrotra, Shikhar; Kraft, Andrew S.

    2014-01-01

    The Pim protein kinases contribute to transformation by enhancing the activity of oncogenic Myc and Ras, which drives significant metabolic changes during tumorigenesis. In this report, we demonstrate that mouse embryo fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking all three isoforms of Pim protein kinases, triple knockout (TKO), cannot tolerate the expression of activated K-Ras (K-RasG12V) and undergo cell death. Transduction of K-RasG12V into these cells markedly increased the level of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS). The addition of N-acetyl cysteine attenuates ROS production and reversed the cytotoxic effects of K-RasG12V in the TKO MEFs. The altered cellular redox state caused by the loss of Pim occurred as a result of lower levels of metabolic intermediates in the glycolytic and pentose phosphate pathways as well as abnormal mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. TKO MEFs exhibit reduced levels of superoxide dismutase (Sod), glutathione peroxidase 4 (Gpx4) and peroxiredoxin 3 (Prdx3) that render them susceptible to killing by K-RasG12V-mediated ROS production. In contrast, the transduction of c-Myc into TKO cells can overcome the lack of Pim protein kinases by regulating cellular metabolism and Sod2. In the absence of the Pim kinases, c-Myc transduction permitted K-RasG12V-induced cell growth by decreasing Ras-induced cellular ROS levels. These results demonstrate that the Pim protein kinases play an important role in regulating cellular redox, metabolism and K-Ras-stimulated cell growth. PMID:25241892

  20. Blocking anaplerotic entry of glutamine into the TCA cycle sensitizes K-Ras mutant cancer cells to cytotoxic drugs.

    PubMed

    Saqcena, M; Mukhopadhyay, S; Hosny, C; Alhamed, A; Chatterjee, A; Foster, D A

    2015-05-14

    Cancer cells undergo a metabolic transformation that allows for increased anabolic demands, wherein glycolytic and tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates are shunted away for the synthesis of biological molecules required for cell growth and division. One of the key shunts is the exit of citrate from the mitochondria and the TCA cycle for the generation of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A that can be used for fatty acid and cholesterol biosynthesis. With the loss of mitochondrial citrate, cancer cells rely on the 'conditionally essential' amino acid glutamine (Q) as an anaplerotic carbon source for TCA cycle intermediates. Although Q deprivation causes G1 cell cycle arrest in non-transformed cells, its impact on the cancer cell cycle is not well characterized. We report here a correlation between bypass of the Q-dependent G1 checkpoint and cancer cells harboring K-Ras mutations. Instead of arresting in G1 in response to Q-deprivation, K-Ras-driven cancer cells arrest in either S- or G2/M-phase. Inhibition of K-Ras effector pathways was able to revert cells to G1 arrest upon Q deprivation. Blocking anaplerotic utilization of Q mimicked Q deprivation--causing S- and G2/M-phase arrest in K-Ras mutant cancer cells. Significantly, Q deprivation or suppression of anaplerotic Q utilization created synthetic lethality to the cell cycle phase-specific cytotoxic drugs, capecitabine and paclitaxel. These data suggest that disabling of the G1 Q checkpoint could represent a novel vulnerability of cancer cells harboring K-Ras and possibly other mutations that disable the Q-dependent checkpoint.

  1. Deciphering and Targeting Oncogenic Mutations and Pathways in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bottai, Giulia; Kelly, Catherine M.; Győrffy, Balázs; Székely, Borbala

    2016-01-01

    Advances in DNA and RNA sequencing revealed substantially greater genomic complexity in breast cancer than simple models of a few driver mutations would suggest. Only very few, recurrent mutations or copy-number variations in cancer-causing genes have been identified. The two most common alterations in breast cancer are TP53 (affecting the majority of triple-negative breast cancers) and PIK3CA (affecting almost half of estrogen receptor-positive cancers) mutations, followed by a long tail of individually rare mutations affecting <1%–20% of cases. Each cancer harbors from a few dozen to a few hundred potentially high-functional impact somatic variants, along with a much larger number of potentially high-functional impact germline variants. It is likely that it is the combined effect of all genomic variations that drives the clinical behavior of a given cancer. Furthermore, entirely new classes of oncogenic events are being discovered in the noncoding areas of the genome and in noncoding RNA species driven by errors in RNA editing. In light of this complexity, it is not unexpected that, with the exception of HER2 amplification, no robust molecular predictors of benefit from targeted therapies have been identified. In this review, we summarize the current genomic portrait of breast cancer, focusing on genetic aberrations that are actively being targeted with investigational drugs. Implications for Practice: Next-generation sequencing is now widely available in the clinic, but interpretation of the results is challenging, and its impact on treatment selection is often limited. This work provides an overview of frequently encountered molecular abnormalities in breast cancer and discusses their potential therapeutic implications. This review emphasizes the importance of administering investigational targeted therapies, or off-label use of approved targeted drugs, in the context of a formal clinical trial or registry programs to facilitate learning about the clinical

  2. Early recognition of lung cancer by integrin targeted imaging in K-ras mouse model.

    PubMed

    Ermolayev, Vladimir; Mohajerani, Pouyan; Ale, Angelique; Sarantopoulos, Athanasios; Aichler, Michaela; Kayser, Gian; Walch, Axel; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-09-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer is characterized by slow progression and high heterogeneity of tumors. Integrins play an important role in lung cancer development and metastasis and were suggested as a tumor marker; however their role in anticancer therapy remains controversial. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of integrin-targeted imaging to recognize early lesions in transgenic mouse model of lung cancer based on spontaneous introduction of mutated human gene bearing K-ras mutation. We conducted ex vivo and fluorescence molecular tomography-X-ray computed tomography (FMT-XCT) in vivo imaging and analysis for specific targeting of early lung lesions and tumors in rodent preclinical model for lung cancer. The lesions and tumors were characterized by histology, immunofluorescence and immunohistochemistry using a panel of cancer markers. Ex vivo, the integrin-targeted fluorescent signal significantly differed between wild type lung tissue and K-ras pulmonary lesions (PL) at all ages studied. The panel of immunofluorescence experiments demonstrated that PL, which only partially show cancer cell features were detected by αvβ3-integrin targeted imaging. Human patient material analysis confirmed the specificity of target localization in different lung cancer types. Most importantly, small tumors in the lungs of 4-week-old animals could be noninvasively detected in vivo on the fluorescence channel of FMT-XCT. Our findings demonstrated αvβ3-integrin targeted fluorescent imaging to specifically detect premalignant pleural lesions in K-ras mice. Integrin targeted imaging may find application areas in preclinical research and clinical practice, such as early lung cancer diagnostics, intraoperative assistance or therapy monitoring.

  3. High frequency of codon 61 K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms of B6C3F1 mice exposed to chloroprene (2-chloro-1,3-butadiene) for 2 years, and comparisons with the structurally related chemicals isoprene and 1,3-butadiene.

    PubMed

    Sills, R C; Hong, H L; Melnick, R L; Boorman, G A; Devereux, T R

    1999-04-01

    Chloroprene is the 2-chloro analog of 1,3-butadiene, a potent carcinogen in laboratory animals. Following 2 years of inhalation exposure to 12.8, 32 or 80 p.p.m. chloroprene, increased incidences of lung and Harderian gland (HG) neoplasms were observed in B6C3F1 mice at all exposure concentrations. The present study was designed to characterize genetic alterations in the K- and H-ras proto-oncogenes in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms. K-ras mutations were detected in 80% of chloroprene-induced lung neoplasms (37/46) compared with only 30% in spontaneous lung neoplasms (25/82). Both K- and H-ras codon 61 A-->T transversions were identified in 100% of HG neoplasms (27/27) compared with a frequency of 56% (15/27) in spontaneous HG neoplasms. The predominant mutation in chloroprene-induced lung and HG neoplasms was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This mutation has not been detected in spontaneous lung tumors of B6C3F1 mice and was identified in only 7% of spontaneous HG neoplasms. In lung neoplasms, greater percentages (80 and 71%) of A-->T transversions were observed at the lower exposures (12.8 and 32 p.p.m.), respectively, compared with 18% at the high exposure. In HG neoplasms, the percentage of A-->T transversions was the same at all exposure concentrations. The chloroprene-induced ras mutation spectra was similar to that seen with isoprene, where the predominant base change was an A-->T transversion at K-ras codon 61. This differed from 1,3-butadiene, where K-ras codon 13 G-->C transitions and H-ras codon 61 A-->G transitions were the predominant mutations. The major finding of K-ras A-->T transversions in lung and Harderian gland neoplasms suggests that this mutation may be important for tumor induction by this class of carcinogens.

  4. Deletion of cyclooxygenase-2 inhibits K-ras-induced lung carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Yong; Jiang, Yan; Tan, Lin; Ravoori, Murali K; Gagea, Mihai; Kundra, Vikas; Fischer, Susan M; Yang, Peiying

    2015-11-17

    The purpose of this study was to identify the role COX-2 plays in K-ras-induced lung carcinogenesis. We crossed COX-2-homozygous knockout mice with K-rasLA1 (G12D) expressing mice to obtain COX-2-deficient mice with K-ras expression (K-ras/COX-2(-/-) mice) and COX-2 wild type mice with K-ras expression (K-ras mice). At 3.5 months of age, the K-ras/COX-2(-/-) mice had significantly fewer lung adenocarcinomas and substantially smaller tumors than K-ras mice. K-ras/COX-2(-/-) mice also had significantly fewer bronchioalveolar hyperplasias than K-ras mice. Compared with lung tumors from K-Ras mice, the levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) were significantly lower, whereas levels of the PGE2 metabolite 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2 were significantly higher, in lung tumors from K-ras/COX-2(-/-) mice. In addition, K-ras/COX-2(-/-) mice had strikingly lower rates of tumor cell proliferation and expressed less MEK and p-Erk1/2 protein than K-ras mice did. In line with this, knocking down COX-2 in mutant K-ras non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells reduced colony formation, PGE2 synthesis and ERK phosphorylation compared to that of vector control cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that COX-2 deletion contributes to the repression of K-ras-induced lung tumorigenesis by reducing tumor cell proliferation, decreasing the production of PGE2, and increasing the production of 13,14-dihydro-15-keto-PGE2, possibly via the MAPK pathway. Thus, COX-2 is likely important in lung tumorigenesis, and COX-2 and its product, PGE2, are potential targets for lung cancer prevention.

  5. Immunoprevention of Chemical Carcinogenesis through Early Recognition of Oncogene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Nasti, Tahseen H.; Rudemiller, Kyle J.; Cochran, J. Barry; Kim, Hee Kyung; Tsuruta, Yuko; Fineberg, Naomi S.; Athar, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Prevention of tumors induced by environmental carcinogens has not been achieved. Skin tumors produced by polyaromatic hydrocarbons, such as 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA), often harbor an H-ras point mutation, suggesting that it is a poor target for early immunosurveillance. The application of pyrosequencing and allele-specific PCR techniques established that mutations in the genome and expression of the Mut H-ras gene could be detected as early as 1 d after DMBA application. Further, DMBA sensitization raised Mut H-ras epitope–specific CTLs capable of eliminating Mut H-ras+ preneoplastic skin cells, demonstrating that immunosurveillance is normally induced but may be ineffective owing to insufficient effector pool size and/or immunosuppression. To test whether selective pre-expansion of CD8 T cells with specificity for the single Mut H-ras epitope was sufficient for tumor prevention, MHC class I epitope–focused lentivector-infected dendritic cell– and DNA-based vaccines were designed to bias toward CTL rather than regulatory T cell induction. Mut H-ras, but not wild-type H-ras, epitope-focused vaccination generated specific CTLs and inhibited DMBA-induced tumor initiation, growth, and progression in preventative and therapeutic settings. Transferred Mut H-ras–specific effectors induced rapid tumor regression, overcoming established tumor suppression in tumor-bearing mice. These studies support further evaluation of oncogenic mutations for their potential to act as early tumor-specific, immunogenic epitopes in expanding relevant immunosurveillance effectors to block tumor formation, rather than treating established tumors. PMID:25694611

  6. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization. PMID:26572827

  7. Inhibition of Acid Sphingomyelinase Depletes Cellular Phosphatidylserine and Mislocalizes K-Ras from the Plasma Membrane.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kwang-Jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Zhou, Yong; Maekawa, Masashi; Ma, Xiaoping; Chen, Wei; Fairn, Gregory D; Hancock, John F

    2015-11-16

    K-Ras must localize to the plasma membrane for biological activity; thus, preventing plasma membrane interaction blocks K-Ras signal output. Here we show that inhibition of acid sphingomyelinase (ASM) mislocalizes both the K-Ras isoforms K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B from the plasma membrane to the endomembrane and inhibits their nanoclustering. We found that fendiline, a potent ASM inhibitor, reduces the phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) and cholesterol content of the inner plasma membrane. These lipid changes are causative because supplementation of fendiline-treated cells with exogenous PtdSer rapidly restores K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding, nanoclustering, and signal output. Conversely, supplementation with exogenous cholesterol restores K-Ras4A but not K-Ras4B nanoclustering. These experiments reveal different operational pools of PtdSer on the plasma membrane. Inhibition of ASM elevates cellular sphingomyelin and reduces cellular ceramide levels. Concordantly, delivery of recombinant ASM or exogenous ceramide to fendiline-treated cells rapidly relocalizes K-Ras4B and PtdSer to the plasma membrane. K-Ras4B mislocalization is also recapitulated in ASM-deficient Neimann-Pick type A and B fibroblasts. This study identifies sphingomyelin metabolism as an indirect regulator of K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B signaling through the control of PtdSer plasma membrane content. It also demonstrates the critical and selective importance of PtdSer to K-Ras4A and K-Ras4B plasma membrane binding and nanoscale spatial organization.

  8. Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Toll, Agustí; Fernández-Casado, Alejandro; Earl, Julie; Marqués, Miriam; Acquadro, Francesco; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Urioste, Miguel; Malats, Núria; Burns, Julie E.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Hartmann, Arndt; Vogt, Thomas; Landthaler, Michael; Pujol, Ramón M.; Real, Francisco X.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona fide oncogenic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, EGFR, and AKT1 oncogenes but not in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and PTEN. Despite the occurrence of oncogenic mutations and the evidence for downstream ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling, we did not find induction of senescence or a DNA damage response. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed that SK are genetically stable. The pattern of oncogenic mutations and X chromosome inactivation departs significantly from randomness and indicates that spatially independent lesions from a given patient share a clonal relationship. Our findings show that multiple oncogenic mutations in the major signaling pathways involved in cancer are not sufficient to drive malignant tumor progression. Furthermore, our data provide clues on the origin and spread of oncogenic mutations in tissues, suggesting that apparently independent (multicentric) adult benign tumors may have a clonal origin. PMID:21078999

  9. Nicotine does not enhance tumorigenesis in mutant K-ras-driven mouse models of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Maier, Colleen R; Hollander, M Christine; Hobbs, Evthokia A; Dogan, Irem; Linnoila, R Ilona; Dennis, Phillip A

    2011-11-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable cancer deaths in the United States. Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have been developed to aid in smoking cessation, which decreases lung cancer incidence. However, the safety of NRT is controversial because numerous preclinical studies have shown that nicotine enhances tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We modeled NRT in mice to determine the effects of physiologic levels of nicotine on lung tumor formation, tumor growth, or metastasis. Nicotine administered in drinking water did not enhance lung tumorigenesis after treatment with the tobacco carcinogen, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). Tumors that develop in this model have mutations in K-ras, which is commonly observed in smoking-related, human lung adenocarcinomas. In a transgenic model of mutant K-ras-driven lung cancer, nicotine did not increase tumor number or size and did not affect overall survival. Likewise, in a syngeneic model using lung cancer cell lines derived from NNK-treated mice, oral nicotine did not enhance tumor growth or metastasis. These data show that nicotine does not enhance lung tumorigenesis when given to achieve levels comparable with those of NRT, suggesting that nicotine has a dose threshold, below which it has no appreciable effect. These studies are consistent with epidemiologic data showing that NRT does not enhance lung cancer risk in former smokers.

  10. Nicotine does not enhance tumorigenesis in mutant K-Ras-driven mouse models of lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Maier, Colleen R.; Hollander, M. Christine; Hobbs, Evthokia A.; Dogan, Irem; Dennis, Phillip A.

    2011-01-01

    Smoking is the leading cause of preventable cancer deaths in the United States. Nicotine replacement therapies (NRT) have been developed to aid in smoking cessation, which decreases lung cancer incidence. However, the safety of NRT is controversial because numerous preclinical studies have shown that nicotine enhances tumor cell growth in vitro and in vivo. We modeled NRT in mice to determine the effects of physiological levels of nicotine on lung tumor formation, tumor growth or metastasis. Nicotine administered in drinking water did not enhance lung tumorigenesis after treatment with the tobacco carcinogen, NNK. Tumors that develop in this model have mutations in K-ras, which is a commonly observed in smoking-related, human lung adenocarcinomas. In a transgenic model of mutant K-ras-driven lung cancer, nicotine did not increase tumor number or size, and did not affect overall survival. Likewise, in a syngeneic model of lung cancer cell lines derived from NNK-treated mice, oral nicotine did not enhance tumor growth or metastasis. These data show that nicotine does not enhance lung tumorigenesis when given to achieve levels comparable to those of NRT, suggesting that nicotine has a dose threshold, below which it has no appreciable effect. These studies are consistent with epidemiological data showing that NRT does not enhance lung cancer risk in former smokers. PMID:22027685

  11. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen induces autophagic death through K-Ras degradation.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Latika; Kaza, Niroop; Coric, Tatjana; Byer, Stephanie J; Brossier, Nicole M; Klocke, Barbara J; Bjornsti, Mary-Ann; Carroll, Steven L; Roth, Kevin A

    2013-07-15

    Tamoxifen is widely used to treat estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Recent findings that tamoxifen and its derivative 4-hydroxytamoxifen (OHT) can exert estrogen receptor-independent cytotoxic effects have prompted the initiation of clinical trials to evaluate its use in estrogen receptor-negative malignancies. For example, tamoxifen and OHT exert cytotoxic effects in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) where estrogen is not involved. In this study, we gained insights into the estrogen receptor-independent cytotoxic effects of OHT by studying how it kills MPNST cells. Although caspases were activated following OHT treatment, caspase inhibition provided no protection from OHT-induced death. Rather, OHT-induced death in MPNST cells was associated with autophagic induction and attenuated by genetic inhibition of autophagic vacuole formation. Mechanistic investigations revealed that OHT stimulated autophagic degradation of K-Ras, which is critical for survival of MPNST cells. Similarly, we found that OHT induced K-Ras degradation in breast, colon, glioma, and pancreatic cancer cells. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of autophagic death triggered by OHT in tumor cells that may be more broadly useful clinically in cancer treatment.

  12. Multi-institutional oncogenic driver mutation analysis in lung adenocarcinoma: The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium experience

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Santagata, Dora; Wistuba, Ignacio I.; Chen, Heidi; Fujimoto, Junya; Kugler, Kelly; Franklin, Wilbur A.; Iafrate, A. John; Ladanyi, Marc; Kris, Mark G.; Johnson, Bruce E.; Bunn, Paul A.; Minna, John D.; Kwiatkowski, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Molecular genetic analyses of lung adenocarcinoma have recently become standard of care for treatment selection. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium was formed to enable collaborative multi-institutional analyses of 10 potential oncogenic driver mutations. Technical aspects of testing, and clinicopathologic correlations are presented. Methods Mutation testing in at least one of 8 genes (EGFR, KRAS, ERBB2, AKT1, BRAF, MEK1, NRAS, PIK3CA) using SNaPshot, mass spectrometry, Sanger sequencing +/− PNA and/or sizing assays, along with ALK and/or MET FISH were performed in 6 labs on 1007 patients from 14 institutions. Results 1007 specimens had mutation analysis performed, and 733 specimens had all 10 genes analyzed. Mutation identification rates did not vary by analytic method. Biopsy and cytology specimens were inadequate for testing in 26% and 35% of cases compared to 5% of surgical specimens. Among the 1007 cases with mutation analysis performed, EGFR, KRAS, ALK, and ERBB2 alterations were detected in 22, 25, 8.5, and 2.4% of cases, respectively. EGFR mutations were highly associated with female sex, Asian race, and never smoking status; and less strongly associated with stage IV disease, presence of bone metastases, and absence of adrenal metastases. ALK rearrangements were strongly associated with never smoking status, and more weakly associated with presence of liver metastases. ERBB2 mutations were strongly associated with Asian race and never smoking status. Two mutations were seen in 2.7% of samples, all but one of which involved one or more of PIK3CA, ALK or MET. Conclusion Multi-institutional molecular analysis across multiple platforms, sample types, and institutions can yield consistent results and novel clinicopathological observations. PMID:25738220

  13. Oncogenic mutations produce similar phenotypes in Drosophila tissues of diverse origins

    PubMed Central

    Stickel, Stefanie; Su, Tin Tin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT An emerging interest in oncology is to tailor treatment to particular cancer genotypes, i.e. oncogenic mutations present in the tumor, and not the tissue of cancer incidence. Integral to such a practice is the idea that the same oncogenic mutation(s) produces similar outcomes in different tissues. To test this idea experimentally, we studied tumors driven by a combination of RasV12 and scrib1 mutations in Drosophila larvae. We found that tumors induced in tissues of neural ectodermal and mesodermal origins behaved similarly in every manner examined: cell cycle checkpoints, apoptosis, cellular morphology, increased aneuploidy and response to Taxol. We conclude that oncogenic effects override tissue-specific differences, at least for the mutations, tissues, and phenotypes studied herein. PMID:24570398

  14. Targeting the K-Ras/PDEδ protein-protein interaction: the solution for Ras-driven cancers or just another therapeutic mirage?

    PubMed

    Frett, Brendan; Wang, Yuanxiang; Li, Hong-Yu

    2013-10-01

    The holy grail, finally? After years of unsuccessful attempts at drugging the Ras oncogene, a recent paper by Zimmerman et al. has revealed the possibility of inhibiting Ras signaling on a clinically relevant level by blocking the K-Ras/PDEδ protein-protein interaction. The results, reported in Nature, are highlighted herein with future implications and directions to evaluate the full clinical potential of this research. Copyright © 2013 WILEY‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Carbon metabolism and the sign of control coefficients in metabolic adaptations underlying K-ras transformation.

    PubMed

    de Atauri, Pedro; Benito, Adrian; Vizán, Pedro; Zanuy, Miriam; Mangues, Ramón; Marín, Silvia; Cascante, Marta

    2011-06-01

    Metabolic adaptations are associated with changes in enzyme activities. These adaptations are characterized by patterns of positive and negative changes in metabolic fluxes and concentrations of intermediate metabolites. Knowledge of the mechanism and parameters governing enzyme kinetics is rarely available. However, the signs-increases or decreases-of many of these changes can be predicted using the signs of metabolic control coefficients. These signs require the only knowledge of the structure of the metabolic network and a limited qualitative knowledge of the regulatory dependences, which is widely available for carbon metabolism. Here, as a case study, we identified control coefficients with fixed signs in order to predict the pattern of changes in key enzyme activities which can explain the observed changes in fluxes and concentrations underlying the metabolic adaptations in oncogenic K-ras transformation in NIH-3T3 cells. The fixed signs of control coefficients indicate that metabolic changes following the oncogenic transformation-increased glycolysis and oxidative branch of the pentose-phosphate pathway, and decreased concentration in sugar-phosphates-could be associated with increases in activity for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and lactate dehydrogenase, and decrease for transketolase. These predictions were validated experimentally by measuring specific activities. We conclude that predictions based on fixed signs of control coefficients are a very robust tool for the identification of changes in enzyme activities that can explain observed metabolic adaptations in carbon metabolism.

  16. High-LET Radiation Increases Tumor Progression in a K-Ras-Driven Model of Lung Adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Asselin-Labat, Marie-Liesse; Rampersad, Rishi; Xu, Xia; Ritchie, Matthew E; Michalski, Jacob; Huang, Lingling; Onaitis, Mark W

    2017-09-27

    High-linear energy transfer (LET) radiation encountered by astronauts in space generates clustered DNA damage that is potentially oncogenic. Analysis of the impact of exposure to space radiation on cancer formation is necessary to determine the best ways to prepare astronauts for space travel so they are protected for the duration of the space mission. A mouse model of lung adenocarcinoma driven by oncogenic K-Ras was used to ascertain the effect of low- and high-LET radiation on tumor formation. We observed increased tumor progression and tumor cell proliferation after single dose or fractionated high-LET doses, which was not observed in mice exposed to low-LET radiation. Location of the tumor nodules was not affected by radiation, indicating that the cell of origin of K-Ras-driven tumors was the same in irradiated or nonirradiated mice. Gene expression analysis revealed an upregulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and DNA damage repair. This study provides evidence that exposure to a single dose or fractionated doses of high-LET radiation induces molecular and cellular changes that accelerate lung tumor growth.

  17. Carcinogen-specific mutations in preferred Ras-Raf pathway oncogenes directed by strand bias.

    PubMed

    Keller, Ross R; Gestl, Shelley A; Lu, Amy Q; Hoke, Alicia; Feith, David J; Gunther, Edward J

    2016-08-01

    Carcinogen exposures inscribe mutation patterns on cancer genomes and sometimes bias the acquisition of driver mutations toward preferred oncogenes, potentially dictating sensitivity to targeted agents. Whether and how carcinogen-specific mutation patterns direct activation of preferred oncogenes remains poorly understood. Here, mouse models of breast cancer were exploited to uncover a mechanistic link between strand-biased mutagenesis and oncogene preference. When chemical carcinogens were employed during Wnt1-initiated mammary tumorigenesis, exposure to either 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) or N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) dramatically accelerated tumor onset. Mammary tumors that followed DMBA exposure nearly always activated the Ras pathway via somatic Hras(CAA61CTA) mutations. Surprisingly, mammary tumors that followed ENU exposure typically lacked Hras mutations, and instead activated the Ras pathway downstream via Braf(GTG636GAG) mutations. Hras(CAA61CTA) mutations involve an A-to-T change on the sense strand, whereas Braf(GTG636GAG) mutations involve an inverse T-to-A change, suggesting that strand-biased mutagenesis may determine oncogene preference. To examine this possibility further, we turned to an alternative Wnt-driven tumor model in which carcinogen exposures augment a latent mammary tumor predisposition in Apc(min) mice. DMBA and ENU each accelerated mammary tumor onset in Apc(min) mice by introducing somatic, "second-hit" Apc mutations. Consistent with our strand bias model, DMBA and ENU generated strikingly distinct Apc mutation patterns, including stringently strand-inverse mutation signatures at A:T sites. Crucially, these contrasting signatures precisely match those proposed to confer bias toward Hras(CAA61CTA) versus Braf(GTG636GAG) mutations in the original tumor sets. Our findings highlight a novel mechanism whereby exposure history acts through strand-biased mutagenesis to specify activation of preferred oncogenes. © The Author 2016

  18. Concurrent Oncogene Mutation Profile in Chinese Patients With Stage Ib Lung Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Ying-Sheng; Cai, Ling; Zhang, Xue-wen; Zhu, Jian-fei; Zhang, Zi-chen; Shao, Jian-yong; Zhang, Lan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Molecular characteristics in lung cancer are associated with carcinogenesis, response to targeted therapies, and prognosis. With concurrent oncogene mutations being reported more often, the adjustment of treatment based on the driver gene mutations would improve therapy. We proposed to investigate the distribution of concurrent oncogene mutations in stage Ib lung adenocarcinoma in a Chinese population and find out the correlation between survival outcome and the most frequently mutated genes in EGFR and KRAS in Chinese population. Simultaneously, we tried to validate the Sequenom method by real time fluoresce qualification reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) in oncogene detection. One hundred fifty-six patients who underwent complete surgical resection in our hospital between 1999 and 2007 were retrospectively investigated. Using time-of-flight mass spectrometry, 238 mutation hotspots in 19 oncogenes were examined. Genetic mutations occurred in 86 of 156 patients (55.13%). EGFR was most frequently gene contained driver mutations, with a rate of 44.23%, followed by KRAS (8.33%), PIK3CA (3.84%), KIT (3.20%), BRAF (2.56%), AKT (1.28%), MET (0.64%), NRAS (0.64%), HRAS (0.64%), and ERBB2 (0.64%). No mutations were found in the RET, PDGFRA, FGFR1, FGFR3, FLT3, ABL, CDK, or JAK2 oncogenes. Thirteen patients (8.3%) were detected in multiple gene mutations. Six patients had PIK3CA mutations in addition to mutations in EGFR and KRAS. EGFR mutations can coexist with mutations in NRAS, KIT, ERBB2, and BRAF. Only one case was found to have a KRAS mutation coexisting with the EGFR T790M mutation. Otherwise, mutations in EGFR and KRAS seem to be mutually exclusive. There is no survival benefit in favor of EGFR/KRAS mutation. Several concomitant driver gene mutations were observed in our study. None of EFGR/KRAS mutation was demonstrated as a prognostic factor. Polygenic mutation testing by time-of-flight mass spectrometry was validated by RT

  19. K-Ras and cyclooxygenase-2 coactivation augments intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm and Notch1 mimicking human pancreas lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chiblak, Sara; Steinbauer, Brigitte; Pohl-Arnold, Andrea; Kucher, Dagmar; Abdollahi, Amir; Schwager, Christian; Höft, Birgit; Esposito, Irene; Müller-Decker, Karin

    2016-01-01

    Mutational activation of K-Ras is an initiating event of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAC) that may develop either from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) or intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMN). Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is causally related to pancreatic carcinogenesis. Here, we deciphered the impact of COX-2, a key modulator of inflammation, in concert with active mutant K-RasG12D on tumor burden and gene expression signature using compound mutant mouse lines. Concomitant activation of COX-2 and K-RasG12D accelerated the progression of pancreatic intraepithelial lesions predominantly with a cystic papillary phenotype resembling human IPMN. Transcriptomes derived from laser capture microdissected preneoplastic lesions of single and compound mutants revealed a signature that was significantly enriched in Notch1 signaling components. In vitro, Notch1 signaling was COX-2-dependent. In line with these findings, human IPMN stratified into intestinal, gastric and pancreatobillary types displayed Notch1 immunosignals with high prevalence, especially in the gastric lesions. In conclusion, a yet unknown link between activated Ras, protumorigenic COX-2 and Notch1 in IPMN onset was unraveled. PMID:27381829

  20. Interaction of a novel fluorescent GTP analogue with the small G-protein K-Ras.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Seigo; Masuhara, Kaori; Umeki, Nobuhisa; Sako, Yasushi; Maruta, Shinsaku

    2016-01-01

    A novel fluorescent guanosine 5'-triphosphate (GTP) analogue, 2'(3')-O-{6-(N-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-l,3-diazol-4-yl)amino) hexanoic}-GTP (NBD-GTP), was synthesized and utilized to monitor the effect of mutations in the functional region of mouse K-Ras. The effects of the G12S, A59T and G12S/A59T mutations on GTPase activity, nucleotide exchange rates were compared with normal Ras. Mutation at A59T resulted in reduction of the GTPase activity by 0.6-fold and enhancement of the nucleotide exchange rate by 2-fold compared with normal Ras. On the other hand, mutation at G12S only slightly affected the nucleotide exchange rate and did not affect the GTPase activity. We also used NBD-GTP to study the effect of these mutations on the interaction between Ras and SOS1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor. The mutation at A59T abolished the interaction with SOS1. The results suggest that the fluorescent GTP analogue, NBD-GTP, is applicable to the kinetic studies for small G-proteins.

  1. The carcinogenic role of oncogenic HPV and p53 gene mutation in cervical adenocarcinomas.

    PubMed

    Andersson, S; Hellström, A-C; Ren, Zhi-Ping; Wilander, E

    2006-01-01

    Thirty tumors were collected from our archive of cervical adenocarcinomas. They were examined with respect to the content of oncogenic HPV and presence of mutations in the p53 gene exons 5 through 8. Furthermore, available clinical information on the cases was reviewed. For the detection of p53 gene and presence of oncogenic HPV, PCR followed by direct sequence analysis of the amplified DNA was employed. Seventeen tumors were identified as HPV-positive, comprising both HPV types 18 and 16. Six cases showed a p53 gene mutation, of which five were of the missence and one of the silent type. No statistical correlation between the occurrence of oncogenic HPV and presence of p53 gene mutation (p = 0.67) was recorded. Among the tumors with p53 gene mutation, three were HPV-positive and three were HPV-negative. The determination of p53 gene mutations was not related to clinical findings such as the stage of the tumor or presence of metastases of the lymph nodes. However, p53 gene mutations were somewhat more prevalent in low differentiated tumors (p < 0.02). The results indicate that oncogenic HPV and p53 gene mutations have independent carcinogenic roles in cervical adenocarcinomas.

  2. HER2 missense mutations have distinct effects on oncogenic signaling and migration.

    PubMed

    Zabransky, Daniel J; Yankaskas, Christopher L; Cochran, Rory L; Wong, Hong Yuen; Croessmann, Sarah; Chu, David; Kavuri, Shyam M; Red Brewer, Monica; Rosen, D Marc; Dalton, W Brian; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Cravero, Karen; Button, Berry; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Cidado, Justin; Erlanger, Bracha; Parsons, Heather A; Manto, Kristen M; Bose, Ron; Lauring, Josh; Arteaga, Carlos L; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Park, Ben Ho

    2015-11-10

    Recurrent human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) missense mutations have been reported in human cancers. These mutations occur primarily in the absence of HER2 gene amplification such that most HER2-mutant tumors are classified as "negative" by FISH or immunohistochemistry assays. It remains unclear whether nonamplified HER2 missense mutations are oncogenic and whether they are targets for HER2-directed therapies that are currently approved for the treatment of HER2 gene-amplified breast cancers. Here we functionally characterize HER2 kinase and extracellular domain mutations through gene editing of the endogenous loci in HER2 nonamplified human breast epithelial cells. In in vitro and in vivo assays, the majority of HER2 missense mutations do not impart detectable oncogenic changes. However, the HER2 V777L mutation increased biochemical pathway activation and, in the context of a PIK3CA mutation, enhanced migratory features in vitro. However, the V777L mutation did not alter in vivo tumorigenicity or sensitivity to HER2-directed therapies in proliferation assays. Our results suggest the oncogenicity and potential targeting of HER2 missense mutations should be considered in the context of cooperating genetic alterations and provide previously unidentified insights into functional analysis of HER2 mutations and strategies to target them.

  3. HER2 missense mutations have distinct effects on oncogenic signaling and migration

    PubMed Central

    Zabransky, Daniel J.; Yankaskas, Christopher L.; Cochran, Rory L.; Wong, Hong Yuen; Croessmann, Sarah; Chu, David; Kavuri, Shyam M.; Red Brewer, Monica; Rosen, D. Marc; Dalton, W. Brian; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Cravero, Karen; Button, Berry; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Cidado, Justin; Erlanger, Bracha; Parsons, Heather A.; Manto, Kristen M.; Bose, Ron; Lauring, Josh; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Park, Ben Ho

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) missense mutations have been reported in human cancers. These mutations occur primarily in the absence of HER2 gene amplification such that most HER2-mutant tumors are classified as “negative” by FISH or immunohistochemistry assays. It remains unclear whether nonamplified HER2 missense mutations are oncogenic and whether they are targets for HER2-directed therapies that are currently approved for the treatment of HER2 gene-amplified breast cancers. Here we functionally characterize HER2 kinase and extracellular domain mutations through gene editing of the endogenous loci in HER2 nonamplified human breast epithelial cells. In in vitro and in vivo assays, the majority of HER2 missense mutations do not impart detectable oncogenic changes. However, the HER2 V777L mutation increased biochemical pathway activation and, in the context of a PIK3CA mutation, enhanced migratory features in vitro. However, the V777L mutation did not alter in vivo tumorigenicity or sensitivity to HER2-directed therapies in proliferation assays. Our results suggest the oncogenicity and potential targeting of HER2 missense mutations should be considered in the context of cooperating genetic alterations and provide previously unidentified insights into functional analysis of HER2 mutations and strategies to target them. PMID:26508629

  4. Oncogene-induced Nrf2 transcription promotes ROS detoxification and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    DeNicola, Gina M.; Karreth, Florian A.; Humpton, Timothy J.; Gopinathan, Aarthi; Wei, Cong; Frese, Kristopher; Mangal, Dipti; Yu, Kenneth H.; Yeo, Charles J.; Calhoun, Eric S.; Scrimieri, Francesca; Winter, Jordan M.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Kern, Scott E.; Blair, Ian A.; Tuveson, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are mutagenic and may thereby promote cancer1. Normally, ROS levels are tightly controlled by an inducible antioxidant program that responds to cellular stressors and is predominantly regulated by the transcription factor Nrf2 and its repressor protein Keap12-5. In contrast to the acute physiological regulation of Nrf2, in neoplasia there is evidence for increased basal activation of Nrf2. Indeed, somatic mutations that disrupt the Nrf2-Keap1 interaction to stabilize Nrf2 and increase the constitutive transcription of Nrf2 target genes were recently identified, suggesting that enhanced ROS detoxification and additional Nrf2 functions may in fact be pro-tumorigenic6. Here, we investigated ROS metabolism in primary murine cells following the expression of endogenous oncogenic alleles of K-Ras, B-Raf and Myc, and find that ROS are actively suppressed by these oncogenes. K-RasG12D, B-RafV619E and MycERT2 each increased the transcription of Nrf2 to stably elevate the basal Nrf2 antioxidant program and thereby lower intracellular ROS and confer a more reduced intracellular environment. Oncogene-directed increased expression of Nrf2 is a novel mechanism for the activation of the Nrf2 antioxidant program, and is evident in primary cells and tissues of mice expressing K-RasG12D and B-RafV619E, and in human pancreatic cancer. Furthermore, genetic targeting of the Nrf2 pathway impairs K-RasG12D-induced proliferation and tumorigenesis in vivo. Thus, the Nrf2 antioxidant and cellular detoxification program represents a previously unappreciated mediator of oncogenesis. PMID:21734707

  5. Determination of somatic oncogenic mutations linked to target-based therapies using MassARRAY technology

    PubMed Central

    Llorca-Cardeñosa, Marta J.; Mongort, Cristina; Alonso, Elisa; Navarro, Samuel; Burgues, Octavio; Vivancos, Ana; Cejalvo, Juan Miguel; Perez-Fidalgo, José Alejandro; Roselló, Susana; Ribas, Gloria; Cervantes, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutation analysis represents a useful tool in selecting personalized therapy. The aim of our study was to determine the presence of common genetic events affecting actionable oncogenes using a MassARRAY technology in patients with advanced solid tumors who were potential candidates for target-based therapies. The analysis of 238 mutations across 19 oncogenes was performed in 197 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of different tumors using the OncoCarta Panel v1.0 (Sequenom Hamburg, Germany). Of the 197 specimens, 97 (49.2%) presented at least one mutation. Forty-nine different oncogenic mutations in 16 genes were detected. Mutations in KRAS and PIK3CA were detected in 40/97 (41.2%) and 30/97 (30.9%) patients respectively. Thirty-one patients (32.0%) had mutations in two genes, 20 of them (64.5%) initially diagnosed with colorectal cancer. The co-occurrence of mutation involved mainly KRAS, PIK3CA, KIT and RET. Mutation profiles were validated using a customized panel and the Junior Next-Generation Sequencing technology (GS-Junior 454, Roche). Twenty-eight patients participated in early clinical trials or received specific treatments according to the molecular characterization (28.0%). MassARRAY technology is a rapid and effective method for identifying key cancer-driving mutations across a large number of samples, which allows for a more appropriate selection for personalized therapies. PMID:26968814

  6. Identification and analysis of mutational hotspots in oncogenes and tumour suppressors

    PubMed Central

    Baeissa, Hanadi; Benstead-Hume, Graeme; Richardson, Christopher J.; Pearl, Frances M.G

    2017-01-01

    Background The key to interpreting the contribution of a disease-associated mutation in the development and progression of cancer is an understanding of the consequences of that mutation both on the function of the affected protein and on the pathways in which that protein is involved. Protein domains encapsulate function and position-specific domain based analysis of mutations have been shown to help elucidate their phenotypes. Results In this paper we examine the domain biases in oncogenes and tumour suppressors, and find that their domain compositions substantially differ. Using data from over 30 different cancers from whole-exome sequencing cancer genomic projects we mapped over one million mutations to their respective Pfam domains to identify which domains are enriched in any of three different classes of mutation; missense, indels or truncations. Next, we identified the mutational hotspots within domain families by mapping small mutations to equivalent positions in multiple sequence alignments of protein domains We find that gain of function mutations from oncogenes and loss of function mutations from tumour suppressors are normally found in different domain families and when observed in the same domain families, hotspot mutations are located at different positions within the multiple sequence alignment of the domain. Conclusions By considering hotspots in tumour suppressors and oncogenes independently, we find that there are different specific positions within domain families that are particularly suited to accommodate either a loss or a gain of function mutation. The position is also dependent on the class of mutation. We find rare mutations co-located with well-known functional mutation hotspots, in members of homologous domain superfamilies, and we detect novel mutation hotspots in domain families previously unconnected with cancer. The results of this analysis can be accessed through the MOKCa database (http://strubiol.icr.ac.uk/extra/MOKCa). PMID

  7. Absence of K-Ras Reduces Proliferation and Migration But Increases Extracellular Matrix Synthesis in Fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Félix, José M; Fuentes-Calvo, Isabel; Cuesta, Cristina; Eleno, Nélida; Crespo, Piero; López-Novoa, José M; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The involvement of Ras-GTPases in the development of renal fibrosis has been addressed in the last decade. We have previously shown that H- and N-Ras isoforms participate in the regulation of fibrosis. Herein, we assessed the role of K-Ras in cellular processes involved in the development of fibrosis: proliferation, migration, and extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins synthesis. K-Ras knockout (KO) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (K-ras(-/-) ) stimulated with transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) exhibited reduced proliferation and impaired mobility than wild-type fibroblasts. Moreover, an increase on ECM production was observed in K-Ras KO fibroblasts in basal conditions. The absence of K-Ras was accompanied by reduced Ras activation and ERK phosphorylation, and increased AKT phosphorylation, but no differences were observed in TGF-β1-induced Smad signaling. The MEK inhibitor U0126 decreased cell proliferation independently of the presence of K-ras but reduced migration and ECM proteins expression only in wild-type fibroblasts, while the PI3K-AKT inhibitor LY294002 decreased cell proliferation, migration, and ECM synthesis in both types of fibroblasts. Thus, our data unveil that K-Ras and its downstream effector pathways distinctively regulate key biological processes in the development of fibrosis. Moreover, we show that K-Ras may be a crucial mediator in TGF-β1-mediated effects in this cell type. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 2224-2235, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multiple cellular proteins modulate the dynamics of K-ras association with the plasma membrane.

    PubMed

    Bhagatji, Pinkesh; Leventis, Rania; Rich, Rebecca; Lin, Chen-ju; Silvius, John R

    2010-11-17

    Although specific proteins have been identified that regulate the membrane association and facilitate intracellular transport of prenylated Rho- and Rab-family proteins, it is not known whether cellular proteins fulfill similar roles for other prenylated species, such as Ras-family proteins. We used a previously described method to evaluate how several cellular proteins, previously identified as potential binding partners (but not effectors) of K-ras4B, influence the dynamics of K-ras association with the plasma membrane. Overexpression of either PDEδ or PRA1 enhances, whereas knockdown of either protein reduces, the rate of dissociation of K-ras from the plasma membrane. Inhibition of calmodulin likewise reduces the rate of K-ras dissociation from the plasma membrane, in this case in a manner specific for the activated form of K-ras. By contrast, galectin-3 specifically reduces the rate of plasma membrane dissociation of activated K-ras, an effect that is blocked by the K-ras antagonist farnesylthiosalicylic acid (salirasib). Multiple cellular proteins thus control the dynamics of membrane association and intercompartmental movement of K-ras to an important degree even under basal cellular conditions. Copyright © 2010 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. IMP-1 displays crosstalk with K-Ras and modulates colon cancer cell survival through the novel pro-apoptotic protein CYFIP2

    PubMed Central

    Mongroo, Perry S.; Noubissi, Felicite K.; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Kalabis, Jiri; King, Catrina E.; Johnstone, Cameron N.; Bowser, Mark J.; Castells, Antoni; Spiegelman, Vladimir S.; Rustgi, Anil K.

    2011-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor 2 mRNA-binding protein-1 (IMP-1) is an oncofetal protein that binds directly to and stabilizes oncogenic c-Myc and regulates in turn its post-transcriptional expression and translation. In contrast to normal adult tissue, IMP-1 is re-expressed and/or overexpressed in human cancers. We demonstrate that knock-down of c-Myc in human colon cancer cell lines increases the expression of mature let-7 miRNA family members and downregulates several of its mRNA targets: IMP-1, Cdc34, and K-Ras. We further demonstrate that loss of IMP-1 inhibits Cdc34, Lin-28B, and K-Ras, and suppresses SW-480 cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth, and promotes caspase and lamin-mediated cell death. We also found that IMP-1 binds to the coding region and 3′UTR of K-Ras mRNA. RNA microarray profiling and validation by reverse transcription PCR reveals that the p53-inducible pro-apoptotic protein, CYFIP2, is upregulated in IMP-1 knock-down SW480 cells, a novel finding. We also show that overexpression of IMP-1 increases c-Myc and K-Ras expression, and LIM2405 cell proliferation. Furthermore, we show that loss of IMP-1 induces Caspase-3 and Parp–mediated apoptosis, and inhibits K-Ras expression in SW480 cells, which is rescued by CYFIP2 knock-down. Importantly, analysis of 228 patients with colon cancers reveals that IMP-1 is significantly upregulated in differentiated colon tumors (p ≤ 0.0001) and correlates with K-Ras expression (r=0.35, p ≤ 0.0001) relative to adjacent normal mucosa. These findings indicate that IMP-1, interrelated with c-myc, acts upstream of K-Ras to promote survival through a novel mechanism that may be important in colon cancer pathogenesis. PMID:21252116

  10. SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Membrane potential modulates plasma membrane phospholipid dynamics and K-Ras signaling.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wong, Ching-On; Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Liang, Hong; Thakur, Dhananiay P; Luo, Jialie; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E; Zhu, Michael X; Hu, Hongzhen; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Hancock, John F

    2015-08-21

    Plasma membrane depolarization can trigger cell proliferation, but how membrane potential influences mitogenic signaling is uncertain. Here, we show that plasma membrane depolarization induces nanoscale reorganization of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate but not other anionic phospholipids. K-Ras, which is targeted to the plasma membrane by electrostatic interactions with phosphatidylserine, in turn undergoes enhanced nanoclustering. Depolarization-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and K-Ras plasma membrane organization occur in fibroblasts, excitable neuroblastoma cells, and Drosophila neurons in vivo and robustly amplify K-Ras-dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Conversely, plasma membrane repolarization disrupts K-Ras nanoclustering and inhibits MAPK signaling. By responding to voltage-induced changes in phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics, K-Ras nanoclusters set up the plasma membrane as a biological field-effect transistor, allowing membrane potential to control the gain in mitogenic signaling circuits.

  11. Identification of Mutant K-Ras-dependent Phenotypes Using a Panel of Isogenic Cell Lines*

    PubMed Central

    Vartanian, Steffan; Bentley, Carolyn; Brauer, Matthew J.; Li, Li; Shirasawa, Senji; Sasazuki, Takehiko; Kim, Jung-Sik; Haverty, Pete; Stawiski, Eric; Modrusan, Zora; Waldman, Todd; Stokoe, David

    2013-01-01

    To assess the consequences of endogenous mutant K-Ras, we analyzed the signaling and biological properties of a small panel of isogenic cell lines. These include the cancer cell lines DLD1, HCT116, and Hec1A, in which either the WT or mutant K-ras allele has been disrupted, and SW48 colorectal cancer cells and human mammary epithelial cells in which a single copy of mutant K-ras was introduced at its endogenous genomic locus. We find that single copy mutant K-Ras causes surprisingly modest activation of downstream signaling to ERK and Akt. In contrast, a negative feedback signaling loop to EGFR and N-Ras occurs in some, but not all, of these cell lines. Mutant K-Ras also had relatively minor effects on cell proliferation and cell migration but more dramatic effects on cell transformation as assessed by growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, knock-out of the wild type K-ras allele consistently increased growth in soft agar, suggesting tumor-suppressive properties of this gene under these conditions. Finally, we examined the effects of single copy mutant K-Ras on global gene expression. Although transcriptional programs triggered by mutant K-Ras were generally quite distinct in the different cell lines, there was a small number of genes that were consistently overexpressed, and these could be used to monitor K-Ras inhibition in a panel of human tumor cell lines. We conclude that there are conserved components of mutant K-Ras signaling and phenotypes but that many depend on cell context and environmental cues. PMID:23188824

  12. [ Spectrum of oncogene mutations is different in melanoma subtypes].

    PubMed

    Mazurenko, N N; Tsyganova, I V; Lushnikova, A A; Ponkratova, D A; Anurova, O A; Cheremushkin, E A; Mikhailova, I N; Demidov, L V

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most lethal malignancy of skin, which is comprised of clinically relevant molecular subsets defined by specific "driver" mutations in BRAF, NRAS, and KIT genes. Recently, the better results in melanoma treatment were obtained with the mutation-specific inhibitors that have been developed for clinical use and target only patients with particular tumor genotypes. The aim of the study was to characterize the spectrum of "driver" mutations in melanoma subtypes from 137 patients with skin melanoma and 14 patients with mucosal melanoma. In total 151 melanoma cases, the frequency of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, PDGFRA, and KRAS mutations was 55.0, 10.6, 4.0, 0.7, and 0.7%, respectively. BRAF mutations were found in 69% of cutaneous melanoma without UV exposure and in 43% of cutaneous melanoma with chronic UV exposure (p=0.045), rarely in acral and mucosal melanomas. Most of melanomas containing BRAF mutations, V600E (92%) and V600K (6.0%) were potentially sensitive to inhibitors vemurafenib and dabrafenib. NRAS mutations were more common in cutaneous melanoma with chronic UV exposure (26.0%), in acral and mucosal melanomas; the dominant mutations being Q61R/K/L (87.5%). KIT mutations were found in cutaneous melanoma with chronic UV exposure (8.7%) and mucosal one (28.6%), but not in acral melanoma. Most of KIT mutations were identified in exon 11; these tumors being sensitive to tyrosine kinase inhibitors. This is the first monitoring of BRAF, NRAS, KIT, PDGFRA, and KRAS hotspot mutations in different subtypes of melanoma for Russian population. On the base of data obtained, one can suppose that at the molecular level melanomas are heterogeneous tumors that should be tested for "driver" mutations in the each case for evaluation of the potential sensitivity to target therapy. The obtained results were used for treatment of melanoma patients.

  13. Leveraging protein quaternary structure to identify oncogenic driver mutations.

    PubMed

    Ryslik, Gregory A; Cheng, Yuwei; Modis, Yorgo; Zhao, Hongyu

    2016-03-22

    Identifying key "driver" mutations which are responsible for tumorigenesis is critical in the development of new oncology drugs. Due to multiple pharmacological successes in treating cancers that are caused by such driver mutations, a large body of methods have been developed to differentiate these mutations from the benign "passenger" mutations which occur in the tumor but do not further progress the disease. Under the hypothesis that driver mutations tend to cluster in key regions of the protein, the development of algorithms that identify these clusters has become a critical area of research. We have developed a novel methodology, QuartPAC (Quaternary Protein Amino acid Clustering), that identifies non-random mutational clustering while utilizing the protein quaternary structure in 3D space. By integrating the spatial information in the Protein Data Bank (PDB) and the mutational data in the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC), QuartPAC is able to identify clusters which are otherwise missed in a variety of proteins. The R package is available on Bioconductor at: http://bioconductor.jp/packages/3.1/bioc/html/QuartPAC.html . QuartPAC provides a unique tool to identify mutational clustering while accounting for the complete folded protein quaternary structure.

  14. Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations occur in epidermal nevi and seborrheic keratoses with a characteristic mutation pattern

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; López-Knowles, Elena; Luis, Nuno M.; Toll, Agustí; Baselga, Eulàlia; Fernández-Casado, Alex; Hernández, Silvia; Ribé, Adriana; Mentzel, Thomas; Stoehr, Robert; Hofstaedter, Ferdinand; Landthaler, Michael; Vogt, Thomas; Pujol, Ramòn M.; Hartmann, Arndt; Real, Francisco X.

    2007-01-01

    Activating mutations of the p110 α subunit of PI3K (PIK3CA) oncogene have been identified in a broad spectrum of malignant tumors. However, their role in benign or preneoplastic conditions is unknown. Activating FGF receptor 3 (FGFR3) mutations are common in benign skin lesions, either as embryonic mutations in epidermal nevi (EN) or as somatic mutations in seborrheic keratoses (SK). FGFR3 mutations are also common in low-grade malignant bladder tumors, where they often occur in association with PIK3CA mutations. Therefore, we examined exons 9 and 20 of PIK3CA and FGFR3 hotspot mutations in EN (n = 33) and SK (n = 62), two proliferative skin lesions lacking malignant potential. Nine of 33 (27%) EN harbored PIK3CA mutations; all cases showed the E545G substitution, which is uncommon in cancers. In EN, R248C was the only FGFR3 mutation identified. By contrast, 10 of 62 (16%) SK revealed the typical cancer-associated PIK3CA mutations E542K, E545K, and H1047R. The same lesions displayed a wide range of FGFR3 mutations. Corresponding unaffected tissue was available for four EN and two mutant SK: all control samples displayed a WT sequence, confirming the somatic nature of the mutations found in lesional tissue. Forty of 95 (42%) lesions showed at least one mutation in either gene. PIK3CA and FGFR3 mutations displayed an independent distribution; 5/95 lesions harbored mutations in both genes. Our findings suggest that, in addition to their role in cancer, oncogenic PIK3CA mutations contribute to the pathogenesis of skin tumors lacking malignant potential. The remarkable genotype–phenotype correlation as observed in this study points to a distinct etiopathogenesis of the mutations in keratinocytes occuring either during fetal development or in adult life. PMID:17673550

  15. Autism Linked to Increased Oncogene Mutations but Decreased Cancer Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Mahajan, Vinit B.; Bassuk, Alexander G.

    2016-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is one phenotypic aspect of many monogenic, hereditary cancer syndromes. Pleiotropic effects of cancer genes on the autism phenotype could lead to repurposing of oncology medications to treat this increasingly prevalent neurodevelopmental condition for which there is currently no treatment. To explore this hypothesis we sought to discover whether autistic patients more often have rare coding, single-nucleotide variants within tumor suppressor and oncogenes and whether autistic patients are more often diagnosed with neoplasms. Exome-sequencing data from the ARRA Autism Sequencing Collaboration was compared to that of a control cohort from the Exome Variant Server database revealing that rare, coding variants within oncogenes were enriched for in the ARRA ASD cohort (p<1.0x10-8). In contrast, variants were not significantly enriched in tumor suppressor genes. Phenotypically, children and adults with ASD exhibited a protective effect against cancer, with a frequency of 1.3% vs. 3.9% (p<0.001), but the protective effect decreased with age. The odds ratio of neoplasm for those with ASD relative to controls was 0.06 (95% CI: 0.02, 0.19; p<0.0001) in the 0 to 14 age group; 0.35 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.87; p = 0.024) in the 15 to 29 age group; 0.41 (95% CI: 0.15, 1.17; p = 0.095) in the 30 to 54 age group; and 0.49 (95% CI: 0.14, 1.74; p = 0.267) in those 55 and older. Both males and females demonstrated the protective effect. These findings suggest that defects in cellular proliferation, and potentially senescence, might influence both autism and neoplasm, and already approved drugs targeting oncogenic pathways might also have therapeutic value for treating autism. PMID:26934580

  16. CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis.

    We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

  17. CYCLOPENTA-FUSED POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG: DNA ADDUCTS, ONCOGENE MUTATIONS, & TUMORIGENESIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cyclopenta-fused Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Strain AJJ Mouse Lung: DNA Adducts, Oncogene Mutations, and Tumorigenesis.

    We have examined the relationships between DNA adducts, Ki-ras oncogene mutations, DNA adducts, and adenoma induction in the lungs of strain A/J...

  18. Normal Expression of a Rearranged and Mutated c-myc Oncogene after Transfection into Fibroblasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Adam; Hayday, Adrian

    1989-10-01

    Expression of the c-myc oncogene is deregulated in a variety of malignancies. Rearrangement and mutation of the c-myc locus is a characteristic feature of human Burkitt's lymphoma. Whether deregulation is solely a result of mutation of c-myc or whether it is influenced by the transformed B cell context has not been determined. A translocated and mutated allele of c-myc was stably transfected into fibroblasts. The rearranged allele was expressed indistinguishably from a normal c-myc gene: it had serum-regulated expression, was transcribed with normal promoter preference, and was strongly attenuated. Thus mutations by themselves are insufficient to deregulate c-myc transcription.

  19. Liquid biopsy for detection of actionable oncogenic mutations in human cancers and electric field induced release and measurement liquid biopsy (eLB).

    PubMed

    Tu, Michael; Chia, David; Wei, Fang; Wong, David

    2016-01-21

    Oncogenic activations by mutations in key cancer genes such as EGFR and KRAS are frequently associated with human cancers. Molecular targeting of specific oncogenic mutations in human cancer is a major therapeutic inroad for anti-cancer drug therapy. In addition, progressive developments of oncogene mutations lead to drug resistance. Therefore, the ability to detect and continuously monitor key actionable oncogenic mutations is important to guide the use of targeted molecular therapies to improve long-term clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Current oncogenic mutation detection is based on direct sampling of cancer tissue by surgical resection or biopsy. Oncogenic mutations were recently shown to be detectable in circulating bodily fluids of cancer patients. This field of investigation, termed liquid biopsy, permits a less invasive means of assessing the oncogenic mutation profile of a patient. This paper will review the analytical strategies used to assess oncogenic mutations from biofluid samples. Clinical applications will also be discussed.

  20. Liquid Biopsy for Detection of Actionable Oncogenic Mutations in Human Cancers and Electric Field Induced Release and Measurement Liquid Biopsy (eLB)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Michael; Chia, David; Wei, Fang; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic activations by mutations in key cancer genes such as EGFR and KRAS are frequently associated with human cancers. Molecular targeting of specific oncogenic mutations in human cancer is a major therapeutic inroad for anti-cancer drug therapy. In addition, progressive developments of oncogene mutations lead to drug resistance. Therefore, the ability to detect and continuously monitor key actionable oncogenic mutations is important to guide the use of targeted molecular therapies to improve long-term clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Current oncogenic mutation detection is based on direct sampling of cancer tissue by surgical resection or biopsy. Oncogenic mutations were recently shown to be detectable in circulating bodily fluids of cancer patients. This field of investigation, termed liquid biopsy, permits a less invasive means of assessing the oncogenic mutation profile of a patient. This paper will review the analytical strategies used to assess oncogenic mutations from biofluid samples. Clinical applications will also be discussed. PMID:26645892

  1. Oncogenic mutation profiling in new lung cancer and mesothelioma cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Lam, David CL; Luo, Susan Y; Deng, Wen; Kwan, Johnny SH; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Cheung, Annie LM; Cheng, Grace HW; Lin, Chi-Ho; Wistuba, Ignacio I; Sham, Pak C; Wan, Thomas SK; Tsao, Sai-Wah

    2015-01-01

    Background Thoracic tumor, especially lung cancer, ranks as the top cancer mortality in most parts of the world. Lung adenocarcinoma is the predominant subtype and there is increasing knowledge on therapeutic molecular targets, namely EGFR, ALK, KRAS, and ROS1, among lung cancers. Lung cancer cell lines established with known clinical characteristics and molecular profiling of oncogenic targets like ALK or KRAS could be useful tools for understanding the biology of known molecular targets as well as for drug testing and screening. Materials and methods Five new cancer cell lines were established from pleural fluid or biopsy tissues obtained from Chinese patients with primary lung adenocarcinomas or malignant pleural mesothelioma. They were characterized by immunohistochemistry, growth kinetics, tests for tumorigenicity, EGFR and KRAS gene mutations, ALK gene rearrangement and OncoSeq mutation profiling. Results These newly established lung adenocarcinoma and mesothelioma cell lines were maintained for over 100 passages and demonstrated morphological and immunohistochemical features as well as growth kinetics of tumor cell lines. One of these new cell lines bears EML4-ALK rearrangement variant 2, two lung cancer cell lines bear different KRAS mutations at codon 12, and known single nucleotide polymorphism variants were identified in these cell lines. Discussion Four new lung adenocarcinoma and one mesothelioma cell lines were established from patients with different clinical characteristics and oncogenic mutation profiles. These characterized cell lines and their mutation profiles will provide resources for exploration of lung cancer and mesothelioma biology with regard to the presence of known oncogenic mutations. PMID:25653542

  2. Lead identification for the K-Ras protein: virtual screening and combinatorial fragment-based approaches

    PubMed Central

    Pathan, Akbar Ali Khan; Panthi, Bhavana; Khan, Zahid; Koppula, Purushotham Reddy; Alanazi, Mohammed Saud; Sachchidanand; Parine, Narasimha Reddy; Chourasia, Mukesh

    2016-01-01

    Objective Kirsten rat sarcoma (K-Ras) protein is a member of Ras family belonging to the small guanosine triphosphatases superfamily. The members of this family share a conserved structure and biochemical properties, acting as binary molecular switches. The guanosine triphosphate-bound active K-Ras interacts with a range of effectors, resulting in the stimulation of downstream signaling pathways regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis. Efforts to target K-Ras have been unsuccessful until now, placing it among high-value molecules against which developing a therapy would have an enormous impact. K-Ras transduces signals when it binds to guanosine triphosphate by directly binding to downstream effector proteins, but in case of guanosine diphosphate-bound conformation, these interactions get disrupted. Methods In the present study, we targeted the nucleotide-binding site in the “on” and “off” state conformations of the K-Ras protein to find out suitable lead compounds. A structure-based virtual screening approach has been used to screen compounds from different databases, followed by a combinatorial fragment-based approach to design the apposite lead for the K-Ras protein. Results Interestingly, the designed compounds exhibit a binding preference for the “off” state over “on” state conformation of K-Ras protein. Moreover, the designed compounds’ interactions are similar to guanosine diphosphate and, thus, could presumably act as a potential lead for K-Ras. The predicted drug-likeness properties of these compounds suggest that these compounds follow the Lipinski’s rule of five and have tolerable absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity values. Conclusion Thus, through the current study, we propose targeting only “off” state conformations as a promising strategy for the design of reversible inhibitors to pharmacologically inhibit distinct conformations of K-Ras protein. PMID:27217775

  3. Detection of oncogenic mutations in cervical carcinoma using method High Resolution Melting (HRM).

    PubMed

    Wayhelova, M; Mikulasova, A; Smetana, J; Vallova, V; Blazkova, D; Filkova, H; Moukova, L; Kuglik, P

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic mutations in proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes represent one of key events in cancerogenesis. In this study, we analysed mutation status in PIK3CA, KRAS and EGFR proto-oncogenes and TP53 tumor suppressor gene in a cohort of twenty-four patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma or adenocarcinoma using the screening method "High Resolution Melting" (HRM). Positive findings were confirmed and identified by Sanger sequencing. Totally, we detected DNA sequence changes in targeted regions in seven patients (7/24, 29.2%). In PIK3CA gene, we found six sequence changes in four patients (4/24, 16.7%) and four of them were confirmed as oncogenic mutations. In KRAS gene, we detected sequence changes in four patients (4/24, 16.7%). Conversely, we identified pathogenic or potentially pathogenic sequence changes neither in EGFR nor TP53 genes. Our results suggest that sequence changes are specific neither for a certain histological subtype, clinical stage nor lymph node involvement and they appear independently on the presence of HPV (human papillomavirus) infection since early clinical stages. We observed the correlation between the presence of DNA sequence changes and hTERC gene amplification, but we did not find a significant relationship between the identified DNA sequence changes and detected copy-number alterations using the technique of array-CGH (array-based comparative genomic hybridization). Regardless our results confirmed an important role of oncogenic mutations in PIK3CA and KRAS genes in the neoplastic transformation process in the cervical carcinoma pathogenesis. Their identification in the early clinical stages should encourage further studies to better understand these mutations and exploit them for more detailed diagnostics.

  4. Diversity of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene and its oncogenic mechanism in medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Hedayati, Mehdi; Zarif Yeganeh, Marjan; Sheikholeslami, Sara; Afsari, Farinaz

    2016-08-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy and accounts for nearly 1% of all of human cancer. Thyroid cancer has four main histological types: papillary, follicular, medullary, and anaplastic. Papillary, follicular, and anaplastic thyroid carcinomas are derived from follicular thyroid cells, whereas medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) originates from the neural crest parafollicular cells or C-cells of the thyroid gland. MTC represents a neuroendocrine tumor and differs considerably from differentiated thyroid carcinoma. MTC is one of the aggressive types of thyroid cancer, which represents 3-10% of all thyroid cancers. It occurs in hereditary (25%) and sporadic (75%) forms. The hereditary form of MTC has an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. According to the present classification, hereditary MTC is classified as a multiple endocrine neoplasi type 2 A & B (MEN2A & MEN2B) and familial MTC (FMTC). The RET proto-oncogene is located on chromosome 10q11.21. It is composed of 21 exons and encodes a transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. RET regulates a complex network of signal transduction pathways during development, survival, proliferation, differentiation, and migration of the enteric nervous system progenitor cells. Gain of function mutations in RET have been well demonstrated in MTC development. Variants of MTC result from different RET mutations, and they have a good genotype-phenotype correlation. Various MTC related mutations have been reported in different exons of the RET gene. We proposed that RET genetic mutations may be different in distinct populations. Therefore, the aim of this study was to find a geographical pattern of RET mutations in different populations.

  5. Whole-genome sequencing reveals oncogenic mutations in mycosis fungoides

    PubMed Central

    McGirt, Laura Y.; Jia, Peilin; Baerenwald, Devin A.; Duszynski, Robert J.; Dahlman, Kimberly B.; Zic, John A.; Zwerner, Jeffrey P.; Hucks, Donald; Dave, Utpal; Zhao, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of mycosis fungoides (MF), the most common cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL), is unknown. Although genetic alterations have been identified, none are considered consistently causative in MF. To identify potential drivers of MF, we performed whole-genome sequencing of MF tumors and matched normal skin. Targeted ultra-deep sequencing of MF samples and exome sequencing of CTCL cell lines were also performed. Multiple mutations were identified that affected the same pathways, including epigenetic, cell-fate regulation, and cytokine signaling, in MF tumors and CTCL cell lines. Specifically, interleukin-2 signaling pathway mutations, including activating Janus kinase 3 (JAK3) mutations, were detected. Treatment with a JAK3 inhibitor significantly reduced CTCL cell survival. Additionally, the mutation data identified 2 other potential contributing factors to MF, ultraviolet light, and a polymorphism in the tumor suppressor p53 (TP53). Therefore, genetic alterations in specific pathways in MF were identified that may be viable, effective new targets for treatment. PMID:26082451

  6. Membrane potential modulates plasma membrane phospholipid dynamics and K-Ras signaling

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yong; Wong, Ching-On; Cho, Kwang-jin; van der Hoeven, Dharini; Liang, Hong; Thakur, Dhananiay P.; Luo, Jialie; Babic, Milos; Zinsmaier, Konrad E.; Zhu, Michael X.; Hu, Hongzhen; Venkatachalam, Kartik; Hancock, John F.

    2015-01-01

    Plasma membrane depolarization can trigger cell proliferation, but how membrane potential influences mitogenic signaling is uncertain. Here, we show that plasma membrane depolarization induces nanoscale reorganization of phosphatidylserine and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate but not other anionic phospholipids. K-Ras, which is targeted to the plasma membrane by electrostatic interactions with phosphatidylserine, in turn undergoes enhanced nanoclustering. Depolarization-induced changes in phosphatidylserine and K-Ras plasma membrane organization occur in fibroblasts, excitable neuroblastoma cells, and Drosophila neurons in vivo and robustly amplify K-Ras–dependent mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling. Conversely, plasma membrane repolarization disrupts K-Ras nanoclustering and inhibits MAPK signaling. By responding to voltage-induced changes in phosphatidylserine spatiotemporal dynamics, K-Ras nanoclusters set up the plasma membrane as a biological field-effect transistor, allowing membrane potential to control the gain in mitogenic signaling circuits. PMID:26293964

  7. Oncogenic mutations in melanomas and benign melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Diane; Kim, Julie; Warrick, Andrea; Nelson, Dylan; Pukay, Marina; Beadling, Carol; Heinrich, Michael; Selim, Maria Angelica; Corless, Christopher L; Nelson, Kelly

    2014-08-01

    The genetic heterogeneity of melanomas and melanocytic nevi of the female genital tract is poorly understood. We aim to characterize the frequency of mutations of the following genes: BRAF, NRAS, KIT, GNA11, and GNAQ in female genital tract melanomas. We also characterize the frequency of BRAF mutations in female genital tract melanomas compared with melanocytic nevi. Mutational screening was performed on the following female genital tract melanocytic neoplasms: 25 melanomas, 7 benign melanocytic nevi, and 4 atypical melanocytic nevi. Of the 25 female genital tract melanoma specimens queried, KIT mutations were detected in 4 (16.0%), NRAS mutations in 4 (16.0%), and BRAF mutations in 2 (8.0%) samples. Two of the tumors with KIT mutations harbored double mutations in the same exon. No GNAQ or GNA11 mutations were identified among 11 melanomas screened. BRAF V600E mutations were detected in 7 of 7 benign melanocytic genital nevi (100%) and 3 of 4 atypical genital nevi (75%). Our study is limited by the small sample size of this rare subset of melanomas. KIT, NRAS, and BRAF mutations are found in a subset of female genital tract melanomas. Screening for oncogenic mutations is important for developing and applying clinical therapies for melanomas of the female genital tract. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Foxm1 transcription factor is required for the initiation of lung tumorigenesis by oncogenic Kras(G12D.).

    PubMed

    Wang, I-C; Ustiyan, V; Zhang, Y; Cai, Y; Kalin, T V; Kalinichenko, V V

    2014-11-13

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of deaths in cancer patients in the United States. Identification of new molecular targets is clearly needed to improve therapeutic outcomes of this devastating human disease. Activating mutations in K-Ras oncogene and increased expression of FOXM1 protein are associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. Transgenic expression of activated Kras(G12D) in mouse respiratory epithelium is sufficient to induce lung adenocarcinomas; however, transcriptional mechanisms regulated by K-Ras during the initiation of lung cancer remain poorly understood. Foxm1 transcription factor, a downstream target of K-Ras, stimulates cellular proliferation during embryogenesis, organ repair and tumor growth, but its role in tumor initiation is unknown. In the present study, we used transgenic mice expressing Kras(G12D) under control of Sftpc promoter to demonstrate that Foxm1 was induced in type II epithelial cells before the formation of lung tumors. Conditional deletion of Foxm1 from Kras(G12D)-expressing respiratory epithelium prevented the initiation of lung tumors in vivo. The loss of Foxm1 inhibited expression of K-Ras target genes critical for the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, including Ikbkb, Nfkb1, Nfkb2, Rela, Jnk1, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a. Transgenic overexpression of activated FOXM1 mutant was sufficient to induce expression of these genes in alveolar type II cells. FOXM1 directly bound to promoter regions of Ikbkb, Nfkb2, N-Myc, Pttg1 and Cdkn2a, indicating that these genes are direct FOXM1 targets. FOXM1 is required for K-Ras-mediated lung tumorigenesis by activating genes critical for the NF-κB and JNK pathways.

  9. K-Ras mutant fraction in A/J mouse lung increases as a function of benzo[a]pyrene dose

    EPA Science Inventory

    K-Ras mutant fraction (MF) was measured to examine the default assumption of low dose linearity in the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) mutational response. Groups of ten male A/J mice (7-9 weeks-old) received a single i.p. injection of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 mg/kg B[a]P, and were sacrifi...

  10. K-Ras mutant fraction in A/J mouse lung increases as a function of benzo[a]pyrene dose

    EPA Science Inventory

    K-Ras mutant fraction (MF) was measured to examine the default assumption of low dose linearity in the benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) mutational response. Groups of ten male A/J mice (7-9 weeks-old) received a single i.p. injection of 0, 0.05, 0.5, 5, or 50 mg/kg B[a]P, and were sacrifi...

  11. Somatic mutations of the MET oncogene are selected during metastatic spread of human HNSC carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, M F; Olivero, M; Martone, T; Maffe, A; Maggiora, P; Stefani, A D; Valente, G; Giordano, S; Cortesina, G; Comoglio, P M

    2000-03-16

    A metastatic cancer develops by accumulation of mutations in genes that control growth, survival and spreading. The latter genes have not yet been identified. In lymph node metastases of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC), we found mutations in the MET oncogene, which encodes the tyrosine kinase receptor for Scatter Factor, a cytokine that stimulates epithelial cell motility and invasiveness during embryogenesis and tissue remodeling. We identified two somatic mutations: the Y1230C, known as a MET germline mutation which predisposes to hereditary renal cell carcinoma, and the Y1235D that is novel and changes a critical tyrosine, known to regulate MET kinase activity. The mutated MET receptors are constitutively active and confer an invasive phenotype to transfected cells. Interestingly, cells carrying the MET mutations are selected during metastatic spread: transcripts of the mutant alleles are highly represented in metastases, but barely detectable in primary tumors. These data indicate that cells expressing mutant MET undergo clonal expansion during HNSCC progression and suggest that MET might be one of the long sought oncogenes controlling progression of primary cancers to metastasis.

  12. Bilateral adrenal pheochromocytoma with a germline L790F mutation in the RET oncogene

    PubMed Central

    Min, Jun Won; Park, Youn Joon; Kim, Hee Jin

    2012-01-01

    About ten percent of pheochromocytomas are associated with familial syndrome. Hereditary pheochromocytoma has characteristics of early onset, multifocality and bilaterality. We experienced a case of 44-year-old man with bilateral pheochromocytoma without evidence of medullary thyroid cancer. Genetic test detected a L790F germline mutation of RET oncogene. The author found a necessity for genetic tests in cases of young-age, bilateral pheochromocytoma. PMID:22403753

  13. The impact of the genetic background in the Noonan syndrome phenotype induced by K-RasV14I

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Jiménez-Catalán, Beatriz; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Guerra, Carmen

    2015-01-01

    Noonan syndrome (NS) is an autosomal dominant genetic disorder characterized by short stature, craniofacial dysmorphism, and congenital heart defects. A significant fraction of NS-patients also develop myeloproliferative disorders. The penetrance of these defects varies considerably among patients. In this study, we have examined the effect of 2 genetic backgrounds (C57BL/6J.OlaHsd and 129S2/SvPasCrl) on the phenotypes displayed by a mouse model of NS induced by germline expression of the mutated K-RasV14I allele, one of the most frequent NS-KRAS mutations. Our results suggest the presence of genetic modifiers associated to the genetic background that are essential for heart development and function at early stages of postnatal life as well as in the severity of the haematopoietic alterations. PMID:26458870

  14. Patient survival in uveal melanoma is not affected by oncogenic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11

    PubMed Central

    Koopmans, A E; Vaarwater, J; Paridaens, D; Naus, N C; Kilic, E; de Klein, A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, encoding the oncogenic G-protein alpha subunit q and 11, respectively, occur frequently in the majority of uveal melanomas. Methods: Exons 4 and 5 from GNAQ and GNA11 were amplified and sequenced from 92 ciliary body and choroidal melanomas. The mutation status was correlated with disease-free survival (DFS) and other parameters. Results: None of the tumours harboured a GNAQ exon 4 mutation. A GNAQ mutation in exon 5 codon 209 was found in 46 out of 92 (50.0%) of the tumours. Only 1 out of 92 (1.1%) melanomas showed a mutation in GNA11 exon 4 codon 183, whereas 39 out of 92 (42.4%) harboured a mutation in exon 5 of GNA11 codon 209. Six tumours did not show any mutations in exons 4 and 5 of these genes. Univariate analyses showed no correlation between DFS and the mutation status. Conclusion: GNAQ and GNA11 mutations are, in equal matter, not associated with patient outcome. PMID:23778528

  15. Patient survival in uveal melanoma is not affected by oncogenic mutations in GNAQ and GNA11.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, A E; Vaarwater, J; Paridaens, D; Naus, N C; Kilic, E; de Klein, A

    2013-07-23

    Mutations in GNAQ and GNA11, encoding the oncogenic G-protein alpha subunit q and 11, respectively, occur frequently in the majority of uveal melanomas. Exons 4 and 5 from GNAQ and GNA11 were amplified and sequenced from 92 ciliary body and choroidal melanomas. The mutation status was correlated with disease-free survival (DFS) and other parameters. None of the tumours harboured a GNAQ exon 4 mutation. A GNAQ mutation in exon 5 codon 209 was found in 46 out of 92 (50.0%) of the tumours. Only 1 out of 92 (1.1%) melanomas showed a mutation in GNA11 exon 4 codon 183, whereas 39 out of 92 (42.4%) harboured a mutation in exon 5 of GNA11 codon 209. Six tumours did not show any mutations in exons 4 and 5 of these genes. Univariate analyses showed no correlation between DFS and the mutation status. GNAQ and GNA11 mutations are, in equal matter, not associated with patient outcome.

  16. Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations reprogram glutamine metabolism in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yujun; Samuels, Yardena; Li, Qingling; Krokowski, Dawid; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Wang, Chao; Jin, Zhicheng; Dong, Bohan; Cao, Bo; Feng, Xiujing; Xiang, Min; Xu, Claire; Fink, Stephen; Meropol, Neal J; Xu, Yan; Conlon, Ronald A; Markowitz, Sanford; Kinzler, Kenneth W; Velculescu, Victor E; Brunengraber, Henri; Willis, Joseph E; LaFramboise, Thomas; Hatzoglou, Maria; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Vogelstein, Bert; Wang, Zhenghe

    2016-06-20

    Cancer cells often require glutamine for growth, thereby distinguishing them from most normal cells. Here we show that PIK3CA mutations reprogram glutamine metabolism by upregulating glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, making them more dependent on glutamine. Compared with isogenic wild-type (WT) cells, PIK3CA mutant CRCs convert substantially more glutamine to α-ketoglutarate to replenish the tricarboxylic acid cycle and generate ATP. Mutant p110α upregulates GPT2 gene expression through an AKT-independent, PDK1-RSK2-ATF4 signalling axis. Moreover, aminooxyacetate, which inhibits the enzymatic activity of aminotransferases including GPT2, suppresses xenograft tumour growth of CRCs with PIK3CA mutations, but not with WT PIK3CA. Together, these data establish oncogenic PIK3CA mutations as a cause of glutamine dependency in CRCs and suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism may be an effective approach to treat CRC patients harbouring PIK3CA mutations.

  17. Comparative analysis of ras proto-oncogene mutations in selected mammalian tumors.

    PubMed

    Watzinger, F; Mayr, B; Gamerith, R; Vetter, C; Lion, T

    2001-04-01

    Point mutations within ras proto-oncogenes are frequently detected in human malignancies and in different types of experimentally induced tumors in animals. In contrast to findings in experimental animal models of carcinogenesis, little is known about the incidence of ras mutations in naturally occurring animal tumors. In the present study, we investigated whether point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot-spot codons 12, 13, and 61, occur at comparable frequencies in human malignancies and spontaneously occurring tumors in other mammalian species. Two hundred seventy-nine of the most frequent canine and feline neoplasms were analyzed for changes in mutational hot-spot regions of the N-, Ki-, and Ha-ras genes. DNA fragments from exons 1 and 2 of all three ras genes were amplified by polymerase chain reaction, and the presence of point mutations was assessed by single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing of amplified products. Only one sample, a case of canine melanoma, exhibited an Ha-ras mutation. Thus, our data strongly suggested that ras mutations at the hot-spot loci are apparently very rare and do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of the spontaneously occurring canine and feline tumors investigated. These observations were in marked contrast to those in experimental rodent models of carcinogen-induced mammary and skin tumors that described a consistent association with Ha- or Ki-ras activation. The role of ras oncogene activation in related human malignancies therefore cannot be readily inferred from studies of experimental carcinogenesis in animal models.

  18. Cancer stem cell drugs target K-ras signaling in a stemness context

    PubMed Central

    Najumudeen, A K; Jaiswal, A; Lectez, B; Oetken-Lindholm, C; Guzmán, C; Siljamäki, E; Posada, I M D; Lacey, E; Aittokallio, T; Abankwa, D

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are considered to be responsible for treatment relapse and have therefore become a major target in cancer research. Salinomycin is the most established CSC inhibitor. However, its primary mechanistic target is still unclear, impeding the discovery of compounds with similar anti-CSC activity. Here, we show that salinomycin very specifically interferes with the activity of K-ras4B, but not H-ras, by disrupting its nanoscale membrane organization. We found that caveolae negatively regulate the sensitivity to this drug. On the basis of this novel mechanistic insight, we defined a K-ras-associated and stem cell-derived gene expression signature that predicts the drug response of cancer cells to salinomycin. Consistent with therapy resistance of CSC, 8% of tumor samples in the TCGA-database displayed our signature and were associated with a significantly higher mortality. Using our K-ras-specific screening platform, we identified several new candidate CSC drugs. Two of these, ophiobolin A and conglobatin A, possessed a similar or higher potency than salinomycin. Finally, we established that the most potent compound, ophiobolin A, exerts its K-ras4B-specific activity through inactivation of calmodulin. Our data suggest that specific interference with the K-ras4B/calmodulin interaction selectively inhibits CSC. PMID:26973241

  19. Mutations in exon 10 of the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Attie, T.; Eng, C.; Mulligan, L.M.

    1994-09-01

    Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR) is a frequent congenital malformation ascribed to the absence of autonomic ganglion cells in the terminal hindgut. Recently, we have identified mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in HSCR families. Mutations of the RET gene have also been reported in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). While RET mutations in HSCR are scattered on the whole coding sequence, MEN 2A and FMTC mutations are clustered in 5 cystein codons of exons 10 and 11. Here, we report on HSCR families carrying mutations in exon 10 of the RET gene, one of them involving a cystein codon. Germ-line mutations in exon 10 of the RET gene may contribute to either an early development defect (HSCR) or inherited predisposition to cancer (MEN 2A and FMTC), probable depending on the nature and location of the mutation. These data also suggest that HSCR patients with mutations in exon 10 might subsequently prove to be at risk for MEN 2A or FMTC since several MEN 2A/HSCR associations have been reported.

  20. The let-7a microRNA protects from growth of lung carcinoma by suppression of k-Ras and c-Myc in nude mice.

    PubMed

    He, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Jun-xia; Zhang, Zheng; Li, Chun-lei; Peng, Qiong-le; Peng, Hui-min

    2010-07-01

    Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA (miRNA) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of lung cancer. k-Ras and c-Myc, two key oncogenes in lung cancer, have been found to be targeted by let-7 in vitro. However, the in vivo relevance of these findings is unknown. The aim of the present study is to determine the effect of let-7a, a member of let-7 family, on the growth of lung cancer in vivo and to investigate whether let-7-induced suppression of k-Ras and c-Myc is involved in lung cancer. A549-let-7a cell line and A549-control cell line, two stable transfected cell lines over-expressing let-7a and the control miRNA, were established and preserved in our lab. A549, A549-control, and A549-let-7a cells were injected subcutaneously into nude mice, respectively. After 30 days, the mice were killed; the xenografts were excised and weighed. The expression of let-7a in tumor xenografts was assessed by real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). The expression of k-Ras and c-Myc in xenografts were determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry detection. Real-time RT-PCR showed the expression of let-7a was increased significantly in A549-let-7a cells-injected group, compared with A549-control cells-injected group and A549 cells-injected group (P < 0.01). In the xenografts of A549-let-7a cells-injected group, a significant depression in tumor weight (P < 0.05) and significant decrease of k-Ras and c-Myc protein were observed (P < 0.01), compared to A549 cells-injected group and A549-control cells-injected group. Overexpression of let-7a can inhibit the growth of lung cancer transplanted subcutaneously in nude mice by suppression of k-Ras and c-Myc.

  1. Multiple oncogene activation in a radiation carcinogenesis model

    SciTech Connect

    Garte, S.J.; Sawey, M.J.; Burns, F.J.; Felber, M.; Ashkenazi-Kimmel, T.

    1987-01-01

    There is evidence from animal systems to suggest that certain oncogenes may be activated by the direct action of the initiating carcinogen. Consistent activation by a point mutation of a single member of the ras oncogene family in different tumors produced by a single agent has been demonstrated. In contrast the c-myc and other oncogenes have been shown to be activated by a process involving chromosomal translocations, enhanced expression, and/or gene amplification. We have examined a panel of 12 late stage rat skin tumors for activation of oncogenes from the ras and myc complementation groups. These tumors were four squamous cell carcinomas, three poorly differentiated carcinomas (clear cell), one each of basal cell carcinoma, sebaceous carcinoma, sarcoma, fibroma, and mixed (largely squamous) histology carcinoma. The positive tumor DNAs were from three poorly differentiated clear cell carcinomas, a sebaceous carcinoma, a squamous cell carcinoma, and a sarcoma. DNA from one of the primary transfectants was positive in a second round of transfection. The transformed phenotype of the transfectants was confirmed by anchorage independent growth and tumorigenicity in nude mice. Southern blot analysis of DNA from primary and secondary transfectants, as well as from nude mouse tumors arising after injection of transfectant cells revealed the presence of rat derived restriction fragments homologous to the K-ras oncogene against the mouse background. Similar experiments using N- and H-ras probes, revealed only the endogenous mouse fragments in transfectant DNA. 11 refs., 1 tab.

  2. Oncogenic mutations and dysregulated pathways in obesity-associated hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Shen, J; Tsoi, H; Liang, Q; Chu, E S H; Liu, D; Yu, A C-S; Chan, T F; Li, X; Sung, J J Y; Wong, V W S; Yu, J

    2016-12-08

    Epidemiological studies showed that obesity and its related non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. We aimed to uncover the genetic alterations of NAFLD-HCC using whole-exome sequencing. We compared HCC development in genetically obese mice and dietary obese mice with wild-type lean mice fed a normal chow after treatment with diethylnitrosamine. HCC tumor and adjacent normal samples from obese and lean mice were then subjected to whole-exome sequencing. Functional and mechanistic importance of the identified mutations in Carboxyl ester lipase (Cel) gene and Harvey rat sarcoma virus oncogene 1 (Hras) was further elucidated. We demonstrated significantly higher incidences of HCC in both genetic and dietary obese mice with NAFLD development as compared with lean mice without NAFLD. The mutational signatures of NAFLD-HCC and lean HCC were distinct, with <3% overlapped. Eight metabolic or oncogenic pathways were found to be significantly enriched by mutated genes in NAFLD-HCC, but only two of these pathways were dysregulated by mutations in lean HCC. In particular, Cel was mutated significantly more frequently in NAFLD-HCC than in lean HCC. The multiple-site mutations in Cel are loss-of-function mutations, with effects similar to Cel knock-down. Mutant Cel caused accumulation of cholesteryl ester in liver cells, which led to induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress and consequently activated the IRE1α/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun/activating protein-1 (AP-1) signaling cascade to promote liver cell growth. In addition, single-site mutations in Hras at codon 61 were found in NAFLD-HCC but none in lean HCC. The gain-of-function mutations in Hras (Q61R and Q61K) significantly promoted liver cell growth through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K)/3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1)/Akt pathways. In conclusion, we have

  3. Activation of diverse signaling pathways by oncogenic PIK3CA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyan; Renuse, Santosh; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A.; Zahari, Muhammad Saddiq; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Kim, Min-Sik; Nirujogi, Raja S.; Mohseni, Morassa; Kumar, Praveen; Raju, Rajesh; Zhong, Jun; Yang, Jian; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Jeong, Jun-Seop; Newman, Robert; Powers, Maureen A.; Somani, Babu Lal; Gabrielson, Edward; Sukumar, Saraswati; Stearns, Vered; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng; Vogelstein, Bert; Park, Ben Ho; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    The PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in human cancers. Here we carry out a SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis using isogenic knockin cell lines containing ‘driver’ oncogenic mutations of PIK3CA to dissect the signaling mechanisms responsible for oncogenic phenotypes induced by mutant PIK3CA. From 8,075 unique phosphopeptides identified, we observe that aberrant activation of PI3K pathway leads to increased phosphorylation of a surprisingly wide variety of kinases and downstream signaling networks. Here, by integrating phosphoproteomic data with human protein microarray-based AKT1 kinase assays, we discover and validate six novel AKT1 substrates, including cortactin. Through mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of cortactin by AKT1 is important for mutant PI3K enhanced cell migration and invasion. Our study describes a quantitative and global approach for identifying mutation-specific signaling events and for discovering novel signaling molecules as readouts of pathway activation or potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25247763

  4. An Oncogenic Super-Enhancer Formed Through Somatic Mutation of a Noncoding Intergenic Element

    PubMed Central

    Mansour, Marc R.; Abraham, Brian J; Anders, Lars; Berezovskaya, Alla; Gutierrez, Alejandro; Durbin, Adam D; Etchin, Julia; Lawton, Lee; Sallan, Stephen E.; Silverman, Lewis B.; Loh, Mignon L.; Hunger, Stephen P.; Sanda, Takaomi; Young, Richard A.; Look, A. Thomas

    2016-01-01

    In certain human cancers, the expression of critical oncogenes is driven from large regulatory elements, called super-enhancers, which recruit much of the cell’s transcriptional apparatus and are defined by extensive acetylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27ac). In a subset of T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) cases, we found that heterozygous somatic mutations are acquired that introduce binding motifs for the MYB transcription factor in a precise noncoding site, which creates a super-enhancer upstream of the TAL1 oncogene. MYB binds to this new site and recruits it’s H3K27 acetylase binding partner CBP, as well as core components of a major leukemogenic transcriptional complex that contains RUNX1, GATA-3, and TAL1 itself. Additionally, most endogenous super-enhancers found in T-ALL cells are occupied by MYB and CBP, suggesting a general role for MYB in super-enhancer initiation. Thus, this study identifies a genetic mechanism responsible for the generation of oncogenic super-enhancers in malignant cells. PMID:25394790

  5. Profiling of Oncogenic Driver Events in Lung Adenocarcinoma Revealed MET Mutation as Independent Prognostic Factor.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Sai F; Tong, Joanna H M; Law, Peggy P W; Chung, Lau Y; Lung, Raymond W M; Tong, Carol Y K; Chow, Chit; Chan, Anthony W H; Wan, Innes Y P; Mok, Tony S K; To, Ka F

    2015-09-01

    Oncogenic driver mutations activating receptor tyrosine kinase pathways are promising predictive markers for targeted treatment. We investigated the mutation profile of an updated driver events list on receptor tyrosine kinase/RAS/PI3K axis and the clinicopathologic implications in a cohort of never-smoker predominated Chinese lung adenocarcinoma. We tested 154 lung adenocarcinomas and adenosquamous carcinomas for EGFR, KRAS, HER2, BRAF, PIK3CA, MET, NRAS, MAP2K1, and RIT1 mutations by polymerase chain reaction-direct sequencing. MET amplification and ALK and ROS1 translocations were assessed by fluorescent in situ hybridizations. MET and thyroid transcription factor-1 protein expressions were investigated by immunohistochemistry. Seventy percent of lung adenocarcinomas carried actionable driver events. Alterations on EGFR (43%), KRAS (11.4%), ALK (6%), and MET (5.4%) were frequently found. ROS1 translocation and mutations involving BRAF, HER2, NRAS, and PIK3CA were also detected. No mutation was observed in RIT1 and MAP2K1. Patients with EGFR mutations had a favorable prognosis, whereas those with MET mutations had poorer overall survival. Multivariate analysis further demonstrated that MET mutation was an independent prognostic factor. Although MET protein expression was detected in 65% of lung adenocarcinoma, only 10% of the MET-immunohistochemistry positive tumors harbor MET DNA alterations that drove protein overexpression. Appropriate predictive biomarker is essential for selecting patients who might benefit from specific targeted therapy. Actionable driver events can be detected in two thirds of lung adenocarcinoma. MET DNA alterations define a subset of patients with aggressive diseases that might potentially benefit from anti-MET targeted therapy. High negative predictive values of thyroid transcription factor-1 and MET expression suggest potential roles as surrogate markers for EGFR and/or MET mutations.

  6. Lipid-Sorting Specificity Encoded in K-Ras Membrane Anchor Regulates Signal Output.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Prakash, Priyanka; Liang, Hong; Cho, Kwang-Jin; Gorfe, Alemayehu A; Hancock, John F

    2017-01-12

    K-Ras is targeted to the plasma membrane by a C-terminal membrane anchor that comprises a farnesyl-cysteine-methyl-ester and a polybasic domain. We used quantitative spatial imaging and atomistic molecular dynamics simulations to examine molecular details of K-Ras plasma membrane binding. We found that the K-Ras anchor binds selected plasma membrane anionic lipids with defined head groups and lipid side chains. The precise amino acid sequence and prenyl group define a combinatorial code for lipid binding that extends beyond simple electrostatics; within this code lysine and arginine residues are non-equivalent and prenyl chain length modifies nascent polybasic domain lipid preferences. The code is realized by distinct dynamic tertiary structures of the anchor on the plasma membrane that govern amino acid side-chain-lipid interactions. An important consequence of this specificity is the ability of such anchors when aggregated to sort subsets of phospholipids into nanoclusters with defined lipid compositions that determine K-Ras signaling output.

  7. Mutation analysis of the c-mos proto-oncogene in human ovarian teratomas.

    PubMed Central

    de Foy, K. A.; Gayther, S. A.; Colledge, W. H.; Crockett, S.; Scott, I. V.; Evans, M. J.; Ponder, B. A.

    1998-01-01

    Female transgenic mice lacking a functional c-mos proto-oncogene develop ovarian teratomas, indicating that c-mos may behave as a tumour-suppressor gene for this type of tumour. We have analysed the entire coding region of the c-MOS gene in a series of human ovarian teratomas to determine whether there are any cancer-causing alterations. DNA from twenty teratomas was analysed by single-strand conformational analysis (SSCA) and heteroduplex analysis (HA) to screen for somatic and germline mutations. In nine of these tumours the entire gene was also sequenced. A previously reported polymorphism and a single new sequence variant were identified, neither of which we would predict to be disease-causing alterations. These results suggest that mutations in the coding region of the c-MOS gene do not play a significant role in the genesis of human ovarian teratomas. Images Figure 1 PMID:9635841

  8. Spectrum of mutations of the ret proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung`s disease

    SciTech Connect

    Lyonnet, S.; Attie, T.; Pelet, A.

    1994-09-01

    Hirschsprung`s disease (HSCR) is a frequent congenital malformation (1 in 5,000 live births) ascribed to the absence of autonomic ganglia cells in the terminal hindgut. HSCR is a neurocristopathie resulting in intestinal obstruction in neonates and in milder phenotypes in adults. Recently, we have mapped a dominant gene for familial HSCR to chromosome 10q11.2 and identified mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in HSCR families. Studying a large number of HSCR patients by DGGE analysis of the RET coding sequence we observed: (a) various RET mutations in our series of 30 HSCR families, (b) de novo mutations in several sporadic HSCR cases, (c) the variable clinical expression of RET mutations in HSCR families and the absence of genotype/phenotype correlations at the RET locus, (d) the low penetrance of RET mutations in HSCR families supporting the role of one or several modifier genes, and (e) the existence of syndromic HSCR families unlinked to the RET locus.

  9. Liquid Biopsies in the Screening of Oncogenic Mutations in NSCLC and its Application in Targeted Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jason H.; Chia, David

    2017-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) still dominates cancer-related deaths in America. Despite this, new discoveries and advancements in technology are helping with the detection and treatment of NSCLC. The discovery of circulating tumor DNA in blood and other biofluids is essential for the creation of a DNA biomarker. Limitations in technology and sequencing have stunted assay development, but with recent advancements in the next-generation sequencing, droplet digital PCR, and EFIRM, the detection of mutations in biofluids has become possible with reasonable sensitivity and specificity. These methods have been applied to the detection of mutations in NSCLC by measuring the levels of circulating tumor DNA. ALK fusion genes along with mutations in EGFR and KRAS have been shown to correlate to tumor size and metastasis. These methods allow for noninvasive, affordable, and efficient diagnoses of oncogenic mutations that overcome the issues of traditional biopsies. These issues include tumor heterogeneity and early detection of cancers with asymptomatic early stages. Early detection and treatment remain the best way to ensure survival. This review aims to describe these new technologies along with their application in mutation detection in NSCLC in order to proactively utilize targeted anticancer therapy. PMID:27279235

  10. The Precise Sequence of FGF Receptor Autophosphorylation Is Kinetically Driven and Is Disrupted by Oncogenic Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Lew, Erin D.; Furdui, Cristina M.; Anderson, Karen S.; Schlessinger, Joseph

    2009-01-01

    Autophosphorylation of the tyrosine kinase domain of fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) is mediated by a sequential and precisely ordered three-stage autophosphorylation reaction. First-stage autophosphorylation of an activation loop tyrosine leads to 50- to 100-fold stimulation of kinase activity and is followed by second-stage phosphorylation of three additional tyrosine residues, which are binding sites for signaling molecules. Finally, third-stage phosphorylation of a second activation loop tyrosine leads to an additional 10-fold stimulation of FGFR1 catalytic activity. In this report, we show that sequential autophosphorylation of five tyrosines in the FGFR1 kinase domain is under kinetic control, mediated by both the amino acid sequence surrounding the tyrosines and their locations within the kinase structure and, moreover, that phosphoryl transfer is the rate-limiting step. Furthermore, the strict order of autophosphorylation is disrupted by a glioblastoma-derived, oncogenic FGFR1 point mutation in the kinase domain. We propose that disrupted stepwise activation of tyrosine autophosphorylation caused by oncogenic and other activating FGFR mutations may lead to aberrant activation of and assembly of signaling molecules by the activated receptor. PMID:19224897

  11. Mechanistic relationships between DNA adducts, oncogene mutations, and lung tumorigenesis in strain A mice.

    PubMed

    Nesnow, S; Ross, J A; Mass, M J; Stoner, G D

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a series of studies on the lung tumorigenic activities of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in strain A/J mice, their ability to form PAH-DNA adducts in lung tissues, and their ability to mutate the Ki-ras oncogene in PAH-induced tumors. Seven PAHs were studied: cyclopenta[cd]pyrene (CPP), benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F), dibenz[a,h] anthracene (DBA), 5-methylchrysene (5MC), benz[j]aceanthrylene (B[j]A), and dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DB[a,l]P). The dose-response data for the PAHs revealed 100-fold differences in tumor potency based on dose, with the order of activity DB[a,l]P, DBA > B[j]A > 5MC > CPP B[a]P > B[b]F. Large differences in tumor multiplicity were also observed between the PAHs. DNA adducts were measured by 32P-postlabeling techniques on DNA from lungs of mice treated with these PAH's. DB[a,l]P gave syn- and anti-fjord-region diol-epoxide adducts of dAdo and dGuo; DBA gave both bay-region diol-epoxide-dGuo and bisdihydrodiol-epoxide adducts; CPP gave cyclopenta-ring-dGuo adducts; B[j]A gave a mixture of cyclopenta-ring-dGuo and -dAdo adducts; 5MC gave anti-bay-region diol-epoxide-dGuo adducts; B[a]P gave bay-region diol-epoxide-dGuo adducts; and B[b]F gave 5-hydroxy-B[b]F-diol-epoxide-dGuo adducts. Ki-ras codon 12 and 61 mutation analysis of PAH induced tumors was performed using PCR and dideoxy sequencing methods. DB[a,l]P gave both codon 12 and codon 61 mutations. High proportions of codon 12 TGT mutations from B[a]P-, B[b]F- and 5MC-, induced tumors and CGT mutations from CPP- and B[j]A-induced tumors were observed. DBA produced no mutations in Ki-ras codons 12 or 61 by direct sequencing. The interrelationships between the tumorigenesis, DNA adduct, and oncogene mutation data are discussed.

  12. Dissecting the signaling pathways associated with the oncogenic activity of MLK3 P252H mutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MLK3 gene mutations were described to occur in about 20% of microsatellite unstable gastrointestinal cancers and to harbor oncogenic activity. In particular, mutation P252H, located in the kinase domain, was found to have a strong transforming potential, and to promote the growth of highly invasive tumors when subcutaneously injected in nude mice. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the oncogenic activity of P252H mutant remained elusive. Methods In this work, we performed Illumina Whole Genome arrays on three biological replicas of human HEK293 cells stably transfected with the wild-type MLK3, the P252H mutation and with the empty vector (Mock) in order to identify the putative signaling pathways associated with P252H mutation. Results Our microarray results showed that mutant MLK3 deregulates several important colorectal cancer- associated signaling pathways such as WNT, MAPK, NOTCH, TGF-beta and p53, helping to narrow down the number of potential MLK3 targets responsible for its oncogenic effects. A more detailed analysis of the alterations affecting the WNT signaling pathway revealed a down-regulation of molecules involved in the canonical pathway, such as DVL2, LEF1, CCND1 and c-Myc, and an up-regulation of DKK, a well-known negative regulator of canonical WNT signaling, in MLK3 mutant cells. Additionally, FZD6 and FZD10 genes, known to act as negative regulators of the canonical WNT signaling cascade and as positive regulators of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a non-canonic WNT pathway, were found to be up-regulated in P252H cells. Conclusion The results provide an overall view of the expression profile associated with mutant MLK3, and they support the functional role of mutant MLK3 by showing a deregulation of several signaling pathways known to play important roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. The results also suggest that mutant MLK3 may be a novel modulator of WNT signaling, and pinpoint the

  13. High-throughput oncogene mutation profiling shows demographic differences in BRAF mutation rates among melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    van den Hurk, Karin; Balint, Balazs; Toomey, Sinead; O'Leary, Patrick C; Unwin, Louise; Sheahan, Kieran; McDermott, Enda W; Murphy, Ian; van den Oord, Joost J; Rafferty, Mairin; FitzGerald, Dara M; Moran, Julie; Cummins, Robert; MacEneaney, Owen; Kay, Elaine W; O'Brien, Cathal P; Finn, Stephen P; Heffron, Cynthia C B B; Murphy, Michelle; Yela, Ruben; Power, Derek G; Regan, Padraic J; McDermott, Clodagh M; O'Keeffe, Allan; Orosz, Zsolt; Donnellan, Paul P; Crown, John P; Hennessy, Bryan T; Gallagher, William M

    2015-06-01

    Because of advances in targeted therapies, the clinical evaluation of cutaneous melanoma is increasingly based on a combination of traditional histopathology and molecular pathology. Therefore, it is necessary to expand our knowledge of the molecular events that accompany the development and progression of melanoma to optimize clinical management. The central objective of this study was to increase our knowledge of the mutational events that complement melanoma progression. High-throughput genotyping was adapted to query 159 known single nucleotide mutations in 33 cancer-related genes across two melanoma cohorts from Ireland (n=94) and Belgium (n=60). Results were correlated with various clinicopathological characteristics. A total of 23 mutations in 12 genes were identified, that is--BRAF, NRAS, MET, PHLPP2, PIK3R1, IDH1, KIT, STK11, CTNNB1, JAK2, ALK, and GNAS. Unexpectedly, we discovered significant differences in BRAF, MET, and PIK3R1 mutations between the cohorts. That is, cases from Ireland showed significantly lower (P<0.001) BRAF(V600E) mutation rates (19%) compared with the mutation frequency observed in Belgian patients (43%). Moreover, MET mutations were detected in 12% of Irish cases, whereas none of the Belgian patients harbored these mutations, and Irish patients significantly more often (P=0.027) had PIK3R1-mutant (33%) melanoma versus 17% of Belgian cases. The low incidence of BRAF(V600E)(-) mutant melanoma among Irish patients was confirmed in five independent Irish cohorts, and in total, only 165 of 689 (24%) Irish cases carried mutant BRAF(V600E). Together, our data show that melanoma-driving mutations vary by demographic area, which has important implications for the clinical management of this disease.

  14. Oncogenic PIK3CA mutations reprogram glutamine metabolism in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yujun; Samuels, Yardena; Li, Qingling; Krokowski, Dawid; Guan, Bo-Jhih; Wang, Chao; Jin, Zhicheng; Dong, Bohan; Cao, Bo; Feng, Xiujing; Xiang, Min; Xu, Claire; Fink, Stephen; Meropol, Neal J.; Xu, Yan; Conlon, Ronald A.; Markowitz, Sanford; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Velculescu, Victor E.; Brunengraber, Henri; Willis, Joseph E.; LaFramboise, Thomas; Hatzoglou, Maria; Zhang, Guo-Fang; Vogelstein, Bert; Wang, Zhenghe

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells often require glutamine for growth, thereby distinguishing them from most normal cells. Here we show that PIK3CA mutations reprogram glutamine metabolism by upregulating glutamate pyruvate transaminase 2 (GPT2) in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells, making them more dependent on glutamine. Compared with isogenic wild-type (WT) cells, PIK3CA mutant CRCs convert substantially more glutamine to α-ketoglutarate to replenish the tricarboxylic acid cycle and generate ATP. Mutant p110α upregulates GPT2 gene expression through an AKT-independent, PDK1–RSK2–ATF4 signalling axis. Moreover, aminooxyacetate, which inhibits the enzymatic activity of aminotransferases including GPT2, suppresses xenograft tumour growth of CRCs with PIK3CA mutations, but not with WT PIK3CA. Together, these data establish oncogenic PIK3CA mutations as a cause of glutamine dependency in CRCs and suggest that targeting glutamine metabolism may be an effective approach to treat CRC patients harbouring PIK3CA mutations. PMID:27321283

  15. Oncogenic mutations in intestinal adenomas regulate Bim-mediated apoptosis induced by TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Zoltán; Band, Arja M.; Kallio, Pauliina; Högström, Jenny; Hyvönen, Ville; Kaijalainen, Seppo; Ritvos, Olli; Haglund, Caj; Kruuna, Olli; Robine, Sylvie; Louvard, Daniel; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers (CRCs), an initiating mutation occurs in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or β-catenin gene, activating the β-catenin/TCF pathway. The progression of resulting adenomas is associated with oncogenic activation of KRas and inactivation of the p53 and TGF-β/Smad functions. Most established CRC cell lines contain mutations in the TGF-β/Smad pathway, but little is known about the function of TGF-β in the early phases of intestinal tumorigenesis. We used mouse and human ex vivo 3D intestinal organoid cultures and in vivo mouse models to study the effect of TGF-β on the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and their progeny in intestinal adenomas. We found that the TGF-β–induced apoptosis in Apc-mutant organoids, including the Lgr5+ stem cells, was mediated by up-regulation of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bcl-2–like protein 11 (Bim). BH3-mimetic compounds recapitulated the effect of Bim not only in the adenomas but also in human CRC organoids that had lost responsiveness to TGF-β–induced apoptosis. However, wild-type intestinal crypts were markedly less sensitive to TGF-β than Apc-mutant adenomas, whereas the KRas oncogene increased resistance to TGF-β via the activation of the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, leading to Bim down-regulation. Our studies identify Bim as a critical mediator of TGF-β–induced apoptosis in intestinal adenomas and show that the common progression mutations modify Bim levels and sensitivity to TGF-β during intestinal adenoma development. PMID:24825889

  16. Differential response to 1α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) in non-small cell lung cancer cells with distinct oncogene mutations1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiuhong; Kanterewicz, Beatriz; Shoemaker, Suzanne; Hu, Qiang; Liu, Song; Atwood, Kristopher; Hershberger, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells and primary human lung tumors aberrantly express the vitamin D3-catabolizing enzyme, CYP24, and that CYP24 restricts transcriptional regulation and growth control by 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in NSCLC cells. To ascertain the basis for CYP24 dysregulation, we assembled a panel of cell lines that represent distinct molecular classes of lung cancer: Cell lines were selected which harbored mutually exclusive mutations in either the K-ras or the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) genes. We observed that K-ras mutant lines displayed a basal vitamin D receptor (VDR)lowCYP24high phenotype, whereas EGFR mutant lines had a VDRhighCYP24low phenotype. A mutation-associated difference in CYP24 expression was also observed in clinical specimens. Specifically, K-ras mutation was associated with a median 4.2-fold increase in CYP24 mRNA expression (p = 4.8 × 10−7) compared to EGFR mutation in a series of 147 primary lung adenocarcinoma cases. Because of their differential basal expression of VDR and CYP24, we hypothesized that NSCLC cells with an EGFR mutation would be more responsive to 1,25(OH)2D3 treatment than those with a K-ras mutation. To test this, we measured the ability of 1,25(OH)2D3 to increase reporter gene activity, induce transcription of endogenous target genes, and suppress colony formation. In each assay, the extent of 1,25(OH)2D3 response was greater in EGFR mutation-positive HCC827 and H1975 cells than in K-ras mutation-positive A549 and 128.88T cells. We subsequently examined the effect of combining 1,25(OH)2D3 with erlotinib, which is used clinically in the treatment of EGFR mutation-positive NSCLC. 1,25(OH)2D3/erlotinib combination resulted in significantly greater growth inhibition than either single agent in both the erlotinib-sensitive HCC827 cell line and the erlotinib-resistant H1975 cell line. These data are the first to suggest that EGFR mutations may

  17. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Louis M

    2010-06-01

    Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-kappaB signaling in cancer. NF-kappaB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-kappaB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IkappaB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-kappaB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-kappaB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-kappaB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IkappaB kinases to activate NF-kappaB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-kappaB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

  18. Clonal composition of human ovarian cancer based on copy number analysis reveals a reciprocal relation with oncogenic mutation status.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Kazuko; Ukita, Masayo; Schmidt, Jeanette; Wu, Longyang; De Velasco, Marco A; Roter, Alan; Jevons, Luis; Nishio, Kazuto; Mandai, Masaki

    2017-10-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity of cancer cells remains largely unexplored. Here we investigated the composition of ovarian cancer and its biological relevance. A whole-genome single nucleotide polymorphism array was applied to detect the clonal composition of 24 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of human ovarian cancer. Genome-wide segmentation data consisting of the log2 ratio (log2R) and B allele frequency (BAF) were used to calculate an estimate of the clonal composition number (CC number) for each tumor. Somatic mutation profiles of cancer-related genes were also determined for the same 24 samples by next-generation sequencing. The CC number was estimated successfully for 23 of the 24 cancer samples. The mean ± SD value for the CC number was 1.7 ± 1.1 (range of 0-4). A somatic mutation in at least one gene was identified in 22 of the 24 ovarian cancer samples, with the mutations including those in the oncogenes KRAS (29.2%), PIK3CA (12.5%), BRAF (8.3%), FGFR2 (4.2%), and JAK2 (4.2%) as well as those in the tumor suppressor genes TP53 (54.2%), FBXW7 (8.3%), PTEN (4.2%), and RB1 (4.2%). Tumors with one or more oncogenic mutations had a significantly lower CC number than did those without such a mutation (1.0 ± 0.8 versus 2.3 ± 0.9, P = 0.0027), suggesting that cancers with driver oncogene mutations are less heterogeneous than those with other mutations. Our results thus reveal a reciprocal relation between oncogenic mutation status and clonal composition in ovarian cancer using the established method for the estimation of the CC number. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Absence of ras-gene hot-spot mutations in canine fibrosarcomas and melanomas.

    PubMed

    Murua Escobar, Hugo; Günther, Kathrin; Richter, Andreas; Soller, Jan T; Winkler, Susanne; Nolte, Ingo; Bullerdiek, Jörn

    2004-01-01

    Point mutations within ras proto-oncogenes, particularly within the mutational hot-spot codons 12, 13 and 61, are frequently detected in human malignancies and in different types of experimentally-induced tumours in animals. So far little is known about ras mutations in naturally occurring canine fibrosarcomas or K-ras mutations in canine melanomas. To elucidate whether ras mutations exist in these naturally occurring tumours in dogs, in the present study we screened 13 canine fibrosarcomas, 2 feline fibrosarcomas and 11 canine melanomas for point mutations, particularly within the mutational hot-spots, making this the first study to investigate a large number of canine fibrosarcomas. None of the samples showed a K- or N-ras hot spot mutation. Thus, our data strongly suggest that ras mutations at the hot-spot loci are very rare and do not play a major role in the pathogenesis of the spontaneously occurring canine tumours investigated.

  20. Genetic Interaction between Rb and K-ras in the Control of Differentiation and Tumor Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Chiaki; Contreras, Bernardo; Bronson, Roderick T.; Loda, Massimo; Ewen, Mark E.

    2004-01-01

    Although the retinoblastoma protein (pRb) has been implicated in the processes of cellular differentiation, there is no compelling genetic or in vivo evidence that such activities contribute to pRb-mediated tumor suppression. Motivated by cell culture studies suggesting that Ras is a downstream effector of pRb in the control of differentiation, we have examined the tumor and developmental phenotypes of Rb and K-ras double-knockout mice. We find that heterozygosity for K-ras (i) rescued a unique subset of developmental defects that characterize Rb-deficient embryos by affecting differentiation but not proliferation and (ii) significantly enhanced the degree of differentiation of pituitary adenocarcinomas arising in Rb heterozygotes, leading to their prolonged survival. These observations suggest that Rb and K-ras function together in vivo, in the contexts of both embryonic and tumor development, and that the ability to affect differentiation is a major facet of the tumor suppressor function of pRb. PMID:15542848

  1. ras mutations and expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Yarbrough, W G; Shores, C; Witsell, D L; Weissler, M C; Fidler, M E; Gilmer, T M

    1994-11-01

    Mutational activation and overexpression of the family of ras proto-oncogenes have been associated with many human tumors. The role of mutations of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras, as well as expression of the respective protein products (p21s) in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the head and neck has not been fully described. In our study, 51 tumors (40 paraffin embedded and 11 fresh frozen) were examined to determine if mutational activation of ras is an important molecular event in head and neck SCC. Analyses of codons 12, 13, and 61 of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras revealed no mutations, suggesting that mutational activation of ras is not important in the majority of head and neck SCCs. Immunocytochemistry (ICC) was used to define the expression of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and SCC of the head and neck and to determine if expression of ras family members correlated with early or late events in the development of SCC. Expression of p21N-ras in nine samples of histologically normal head and neck mucosa revealed moderate staining in the basal proliferative layers with progressively less staining as cells matured. The most superficial layers of normal mucosa failed to express p21N-ras. A low level of p21H-ras was expressed in all layers of normal mucosa while K-ras was not expressed. ICC of SCC tumor sections revealed cytoplasmic expression of N-ras in nine of nine tumors, H-ras in five of nine tumors, and K-ras in one of nine tumors. Expression of H-ras, K-ras, and N-ras in head and neck SCC was not related to histologic differentiation or TNM staging; however, p21N-ras was overexpressed in seven of nine tumors. Furthermore, the pattern of N-ras expression in dysplastic lesions revealed expression in all layers of the mucosa in contrast to normal mucosa, which expresses p21N-ras primarily in the basal proliferative layer. The change in p21N-ras expression pattern in dysplastic mucosa and its

  2. De novo RET proto-oncogene mutation in a patient with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B.

    PubMed

    Chang, T J; Wu, S L; Chang, T C; Huang, S H; Chang, T J

    1999-10-01

    We report a case of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) with de novo RET proto-oncogene mutation. The patient, a 23-year-old Taiwanese woman, was admitted for treatment of recurrent medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) 7 years after a total thyroidectomy. Mucosal neuromas and marfanoid appearance were also noted. Because MEN 2B was suspected, the patient and her family members underwent genetic analysis. A heterozygous germline mutation at codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) of the proto-oncogene RET was detected in the patient. This mutation was considered de novo, as it was not detected in either of her parents or her siblings. The patient underwent surgery for removal of the recurrent tumor. Although no pheochromocytoma was noted, regular follow-up is necessary because of persistent hypercalcitoninemia.

  3. Role of race in oncogenic driver prevalence and outcomes in lung adenocarcinoma: Results from the Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Conor E; Behera, Madhusmita; Berry, Lynne; Kim, Sungjin; Rossi, Michael; Sica, Gabriel; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Johnson, Bruce E; Kris, Mark G; Bunn, Paul A; Khuri, Fadlo R; Garon, Edward B; Ramalingam, Suresh S

    2016-03-01

    The discovery of oncogenic drivers has ushered in a new era for lung cancer, but the role of these mutations in different racial/ethnic minorities has been understudied. The Lung Cancer Mutation Consortium 1 (LCMC1) database was investigated to evaluate the frequency and impact of oncogenic drivers in lung adenocarcinomas in the racial/ethnic minority patient population. Patients with metastatic lung adenocarcinomas from 14 US sites were enrolled in the LCMC1. Tumor samples were collected from 2009 through 2012 with multiplex genotyping performed on 10 oncogenic drivers (KRAS, epidermal growth factor receptor [EGFR], anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) rearrangements, ERBB2 [formerly human epidermal growth factor receptor 2], BRAF, PIK3CA, MET amplification, NRAS, MEK1, and AKT1). Patients were classified as white, Asian, African American (AA), or Latino. The driver mutation frequency, the treatments, and the survival from diagnosis were determined. One thousand seven patients were included. Whites represented the majority (n = 838); there were 60 AAs, 48 Asians, and 28 Latinos. Asian patients had the highest rate of oncogenic drivers with 81% (n = 39), and they were followed by Latinos with 68% (n = 19), whites with 61% (n = 511), and AAs with 53% (n = 32). For AAs, the EGFR mutation frequency was 22%, the KRAS frequency was 17%, and the ALK frequency was 4%. Asian patients were most likely to receive targeted therapies (51% vs 27% for AAs). There were no significant differences in overall survival. Differences were observed in the prevalence of oncogenic drivers in lung adenocarcinomas and in subsequent treatments among racial groups. The lowest frequency of drivers was seen for AA patients; however, more than half of AA patients had a driver, and those treated with targeted therapy had outcomes similar to those of other races. Cancer 2016;122:766-772. © 2015 American Cancer Society. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  4. STAT3 Is Activated by JAK2 Independent of Key Oncogenic Driver Mutations in Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Looyenga, Brendan D.; Hutchings, Danielle; Cherni, Irene; Kingsley, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Constitutive activation of STAT3 is a common feature in many solid tumors including non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). While activation of STAT3 is commonly achieved by somatic mutations to JAK2 in hematologic malignancies, similar mutations are not often found in solid tumors. Previous work has instead suggested that STAT3 activation in solid tumors is more commonly induced by hyperactive growth factor receptors or autocrine cytokine signaling. The interplay between STAT3 activation and other well-characterized oncogenic “driver” mutations in NSCLC has not been fully characterized, though constitutive STAT3 activation has been proposed to play an important role in resistance to various small-molecule therapies that target these oncogenes. In this study we demonstrate that STAT3 is constitutively activated in human NSCLC samples and in a variety of NSCLC lines independent of activating KRAS or tyrosine kinase mutations. We further show that genetic or pharmacologic inhibition of the gp130/JAK2 signaling pathway disrupts activation of STAT3. Interestingly, treatment of NSCLC cells with the JAK1/2 inhibitor ruxolitinib has no effect on cell proliferation and viability in two-dimensional culture, but inhibits growth in soft agar and xenograft assays. These data demonstrate that JAK2/STAT3 signaling operates independent of known driver mutations in NSCLC and plays critical roles in tumor cell behavior that may not be effectively inhibited by drugs that selectively target these driver mutations. PMID:22319590

  5. Expression and mutational status of treatment-relevant targets and key oncogenes in 123 malignant salivary gland tumours.

    PubMed

    Cros, J; Sbidian, E; Hans, S; Roussel, H; Scotte, F; Tartour, E; Brasnu, D; Laurent-Puig, P; Bruneval, P; Blons, H; Badoual, C

    2013-10-01

    Malignant tumours of the salivary glands (MSGT) are rare and pleomorphic entities. Patients with advanced disease may benefit from targeted therapy; however, specific targets for optimising and personalising treatments are yet to be identified. Immunohistochemistry for C-KIT, EGFR, HER2, MUC1, phospho-mTOR, androgen/estrogens/progesterone receptors and Ki67 was carried out and evaluated in terms of progression-free and overall survival. High throughput molecular screening of key oncogenes was done in 107 patients using routine diagnostic methods and Sequenom technology. Several therapy leads were identified, including high levels of HER2 and androgen receptors in salivary duct carcinomas, C-KIT in myoepithelial carcinomas and EGFR in mucoepidermoid carcinomas. Recurrent mutations involving downstream elements of the EGFR pathway were found in HRAS, notably in tumours with a myoepithelial component, and in other key oncogenes (KRAS/NRAS/PI3KCA/BRAF/MAP2K). On the other hand, <1% of samples had EGFR or HER2 mutations. Several tumour subtypes overexpressed targets of directed therapies suggesting potential therapy leads. Genotyping results suggest activation downstream of EGFR in 18 of the 107 samples that could be associated with low efficacy of EGFR inhibitors. Other molecules, such as PI3K/MEK or mTOR inhibitors, may have anti-tumour activity in this subgroup. The high mutation rate in HRAS highlights a novel key oncogenic event in MSGT.

  6. Knockdown of Importin 7 Inhibits Lung Tumorigenesis in K-ras(LA1) Lung Cancer Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ah Young; Kim, Sangwha; Lee, Somin; Jiang, Hu-Lin; Kim, Sang-Bum; Hong, Seong-Ho; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2017-05-01

    Background/Aim: Lung cancer shows the highest estimated deaths in both males and females in the Unites States. Importin 7 is overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate the anticancer effect of importin 7 down-regulation, especially in lung cancer. Materials and Methods: Glycerol propoxylate triacrylate spermine (GPT-SPE) is a biocompatible carrier used for aerosol gene delivery. Repeated aerosol delivery of GPT-SPE/shImportin 7 complexes was performed to 10-week-old male K-ras(LA1)mice (a murine lung cancer model) twice a week for 4 weeks (8 times) in a nose-only exposure chamber. Results: Aerosol delivery of GPT-SPE/shImportin 7 inhibits lung cancer in K-ras(LA1)mice compared to control and scramble control groups. Moreover, importin 7-down-regulated stable cell-line demonstrates suppression of proliferation through Akt inhibition and apoptosis. Conclusion: Down-regulation of importin 7 significantly suppresses lung cancer in vitro and in vivo. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  7. Prognostic value of codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) RET proto-oncogene mutations in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Schilling, T; Bürck, J; Sinn, H P; Clemens, A; Otto, H F; Höppner, W; Herfarth, C; Ziegler, R; Schwab, M; Raue, F

    2001-01-20

    We have determined the frequency of 918 RET proto-oncogene mutations (ATG-->ACG) in primary MTC tumors and metastases and correlated the presence or absence of this mutation with the clinical outcome of patients suffering from sporadic medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). A total of 197 samples, consisting of both primary tumors and lymph node metastases from 34 patients with sporadic MTC, were collected for PCR analysis of the RET 918 mutation. In 75 of the samples (38%), codon 918 (ATG-->ACG) mutations could be detected. The mutations showed a heterogeneous distribution: 21/34 patients (62%) had mutations in at least 1 tumor sample, and in 13 patients (38%) the mutation was present in all examined samples. Patients were considered 918mt when at least 1 tumor sample showed the RET 918 mutation. These 918mt and 918 wild-type (918wt) patients did not differ significantly concerning sex, age at diagnosis, TNM stage at diagnosis, number of examined tumor samples or follow-up time. However, 918mt patients showed more aggressive development of distant metastases during follow-up (p = 0.032, Fisher's exact test) with decreased metastases-free survival (p < 0.005, log-rank test). Furthermore, 918mt patients had a significantly lower survival rate than 918wt patients (p = 0.048, log-rank test). These data show that the RET codon 918 mutation has a prognostic impact on patients with sporadic MTC which may influence follow-up treatment.

  8. Functional consequences of the first reported mutations of the proto-oncogene PTTG1IP/PBF

    PubMed Central

    Imruetaicharoenchoke, W; Fletcher, A; Lu, W; Watkins, R J; Modasia, B; Poole, V L; Nieto, H R; Thompson, R J; Boelaert, K; Read, M L; Smith, V E

    2017-01-01

    Pituitary tumor-transforming gene 1-binding factor (PTTG1IP; PBF) is a multifunctional glycoprotein, which is overexpressed in a wide range of tumours, and significantly associated with poorer oncological outcomes, such as early tumour recurrence, distant metastasis, extramural vascular invasion and decreased disease-specific survival. PBF transforms NIH 3T3 fibroblasts and induces tumours in nude mice, while mice harbouring transgenic thyroidal PBF expression show hyperplasia and macrofollicular lesions. Our assumption that PBF becomes an oncogene purely through increased expression has been challenged by the recent report of mutations in PBF within the Catalogue of Somatic Mutations in Cancer (COSMIC) database. We therefore sought to determine whether the first 10 PBF missense substitutions in human cancer might be oncogenic. Anisomycin half-life studies revealed that most mutations were associated with reduced protein stability compared to wild-type (WT) PBF. Proliferation assays narrowed our interest to two mutational events which significantly altered cell turnover: C51R and R140W. C51R was mainly confined to the endoplasmic reticulum while R140W was apparent in the Golgi apparatus. Both C51R and R140W lost the capacity to induce cellular migration and significantly reduced cell invasion. Colony formation and soft agar assays demonstrated that, in contrast to WT PBF, both mutants were unable to elicit significant colony formation or anchorage-independent growth. However, C51R and R140W retained the ability to repress radioiodide uptake, a functional hallmark of PBF. Our data reveal new insight into PBF function and confirm that, rather than being oncogenic, mutations in PBF are likely to be passenger effects, with overexpression of PBF the more important aetiological event in human cancer. PMID:28676500

  9. Low frequency KRAS mutations in colorectal cancer patients and the presence of multiple mutations in oncogenic drivers in non-small cell lung cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Liyan; Huang, Jiaqi; Morehouse, Chris; Zhu, Wei; Korolevich, Susana; Sui, Dan; Ge, Xiaoxiao; Lehmann, Kim; Liu, Zheng; Kiefer, Christine; Czapiga, Meggan; Su, Xinying; Brohawn, Philip; Gu, Yi; Higgs, Brandon W; Yao, Yihong

    2013-01-01

    Intratumor heterogeneity can confound the results of mutation analyses in oncodriver genes using traditional methods thereby challenging the application of targeted cancer therapy strategies for patients Ultradeep sequencing can detect low frequency and expanded clonal mutations in primary tumors to better inform treatment decisions. KRAS coding exons in 61 treatment-naive colorectal cancer (CRC) tumors and KRAS, EGFR, ALK, and MET in lung tumors from three Chinese non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients were sequenced using ultradeep sequencing methods. Forty-one percent of CRC patients (25/61) harbored mutations in the KRAS active domain, eight of which (13%) were not detected by Sanger sequencing. Three (of eight) had frequencies less than 10% and one patient harbored more than one mutation. Low frequency KRAS active (G12R) and EGFR kinase domain mutations (G719A) were identified in one NSCLC patient. A second NSCLC patient showed an EML4-ALK fusion with ALK, EGFR, and MET mutations. A third NSCLC patient harbored multiple low frequency mutations in KRAS, EGFR, and MET as well as ALK gene copy number increases. Within the same patient, multiple low frequency mutations occurred within a gene. A complex pattern of intrinsic low frequency driver mutations in well-known tumor oncogenes may exist prior to treatment, resulting in resistance to targeted therapies. Ultradeep sequencing can characterize intratumor heterogeneity and identify such mutations to ultimately affect treatment decisions.

  10. Absence of RET proto-oncogene point mutations in sporadic hyperplastic and neoplastic lesions of the parathyroid gland.

    PubMed Central

    Padberg, B. C.; Schröder, S.; Jochum, W.; Kastendieck, H.; Roth, J.; Heitz, P. U.; Komminoth, P.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the possible role of RET proto-oncogene mutations in the development of sporadic hyperplastic, benign, and malignant parathyroid lesions. DNA extracted from paraffin-embedded specimens of forty parathyroid lesions was screened for RET proto-oncogene point mutations in exons 10, 11, and 16 by nonisotopic polymerase chain reaction-based single-strand conformation polymorphism and heteroduplex gel electrophoresis. The nucleotide sequence of samples with aberrant band patterns was identified by nonisotopic direct sequencing of polymerase chain reaction-amplified DNA. Parathyroids of seven patients with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A) and MEN 2B served as positive controls. None of the eight hyperplastic lesions, three cases of parathyromatosis, ten parathyroid adenomas, eleven carcinomas or one normal parathyroid gland contained mutations in each of the three RET exons tested. Six MEN-2A-associated hyperplastic glands exhibited identical band shifts in the polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis of exon 11, which corresponded to a Cys 634-->Arg substitution in the nucleotide sequence analysis (TGC-->CGC), whereas in the MEN 2B parathyroid specimen a point mutation was found at codon 918 of exon 16 (ATG-->ACG), causing a Met 918-->Thr substitution. Our data indicate that RET mutations of the MEN 2 loci in exons 10, 11, and 16 are not involved in the development of sporadically occurring benign or malignant parathyroid lesions. Furthermore, our results are in accordance with the observation that MEN 2A patients with Cys 634-->Arg (germline) mutations have a higher risk of developing parathyroid disease than those with other mutations at codon 634. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:7495285

  11. Oncogene Mutation Survey in MPNST Cell Lines Enhances the Dominant Role of Hyperactive Ras in NF1 Associated Pro-Survival and Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Daochun; Tainsky, Michael A; Haddad, Ramsi

    2012-01-01

    Malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNST) are a type of soft tissue sarcoma that can be associated with germline mutations in Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) or may occur sporadically. Although the etiology of MPNST is poorly understood, it is clear that a loss of function of the NF1 gene, encoding a Ras-GAP, is an important factor in the tumorigenesis of the inherited form of MPNST. Tumor latency in NF1 patients suggests that additional mutational events are probably required for malignancy. In order to define oncogene mutations associated with 5 MPNST cell lines, we assayed the 238 most frequent mutations in 19 commonly activated oncogenes using mass spectroscopy-based analysis. All 238 mutation sites in the assayed oncogenes were determined to harbor only wild-type sequences. These data suggest that hyperactive Ras resulting from the loss function of neurofibromin may be sufficient to set up the direction of malignant transformation of Schwann cells to MPNST.

  12. Down-regulation of let-7 microRNA increased K-ras expression in lung damage induced by radon.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhihai; Wang, Dapeng; Gu, Chao; Liu, Xing; Pei, Weiwei; Li, Jianxiang; Cao, Yi; Jiao, Yang; Tong, Jian; Nie, Jihua

    2015-09-01

    Radon has long been recognized as a human carcinogen leading to lung cancer, but the underlying mechanisms remain obscure. Recent studies have shown that the let-7 microRNA and K-ras play an important role in the development of various cancers. However, the exact role between let-7 and K-ras in radon induced lung damage has not been explored so far. In the present study, wistar rats and human bronchial epithelial (HBE) cells were long-term exposed to radon, and then alterations in histological pathology of rat lung tissue, ROS, antioxidant enzymes activities and clonogenic formation in HBE cells, as well as changes in let-7 and K-ras expression were determined to observe the adverse effects induced by radon. The results showed that long-term exposure to radon produced severe lung damage in rats, significantly increased ROS production and clonogenic formation ratios and decreased SOD activities in HBE cells. In addition, an obvious down-regulation of let-7 and up-regulation of K-ras were also revealed both in mRNA and in protein level in lung tissue of rats and HBE cells exposed to radon. Furthermore, a significant down-regulation of K-ras was then confirmed in both let-7b-3p and let-7a-2-3p transfected HBE cells. Taken together, the present results propose an involvement of let-7 microRNA and K-ras in radon induced lung damage both in vivo and in vitro, which may thus be of potential value in early diagnosis and therapy of radon-induced lung tumorgenesis.

  13. PKCδ regulates integrin αVβ3 expression and transformed growth of K-ras dependent lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Symonds, Jennifer M.; Ohm, Angela M.; Tan, Aik-Choon; Reyland, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously shown that Protein Kinase C delta (PKCδ) functions as a tumor promoter in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), specifically in the context of K-ras addiction. Here we define a novel PKCδ -> integrin αVβ3->Extracellular signal-Regulated Kinase (ERK) pathway that regulates the transformed growth of K-ras dependent NSCLC cells. To explore how PKCδ regulates tumorigenesis, we performed mRNA expression analysis in four KRAS mutant NSCLC cell lines that stably express scrambled shRNA or a PKCδ targeted shRNA. Analysis of PKCδ-dependent mRNA expression identified 3183 regulated genes, 210 of which were specifically regulated in K-ras dependent cells. Genes that regulate extracellular matrix and focal adhesion pathways were most highly represented in this later group. In particular, expression of the integrin pair, αVβ3, was specifically reduced in K-ras dependent cells with depletion of PKCδ, and correlated with reduced ERK activation and reduced transformed growth as assayed by clonogenic survival. Re-expression of PKCδ restored ITGAV and ITGB3 mRNA expression, ERK activation and transformed growth, and this could be blocked by pretreatment with a αVβ3 function-blocking antibody, demonstrating a requirement for integrin αVβ3 downstream of PKCδ. Similarly, expression of integrin αV restored ERK activation and transformed growth in PKCδ depleted cells, and this could also be inhibited by pretreatment with PD98059. Our studies demonstrate an essential role for αVβ3 and ERK signalingdownstream of PKCδ in regulating the survival of K-ras dependent NSCLC cells, and identify PKCδ as a novel therapeutic target for the subset of NSCLC patients with K-ras dependent tumors. PMID:26918447

  14. Mutational activation of the beta-catenin proto-oncogene is a common event in the development of Wilms' tumors.

    PubMed

    Koesters, R; Ridder, R; Kopp-Schneider, A; Betts, D; Adams, V; Niggli, F; Briner, J; von Knebel Doeberitz, M

    1999-08-15

    Activation of beta-catenin-mediated transcription is the nuclear end point of organ-specific Wnt signaling. In the developing kidney, Wnt-4, a secreted glycoprotein, acts as an autoinducer of the mesenchymal to epithelial transition that underlies normal nephron development. Dysregulation of this epithelial transformation process may lead to Wilms' tumors (WTs). In this study, we investigated the potential role of the beta-catenin proto-oncogene, a candidate downstream target molecule of Wnt-4 signaling, in the development of WTs. In 6 of 40 tumors (15%), mutation analysis revealed heterozygous missense mutations or small deletions that result in the loss of important regulatory phosphorylation sites within the beta-catenin protein. These findings indicate that activating beta-catenin mutations may play a significant role in the development of WTs and establish a direct link between Wilms' tumorigenesis and the Wnt signal transduction pathway governing normal kidney development.

  15. Mutations of codon 918 in the RET proto-oncogene correlate to poor prognosis in sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas

    SciTech Connect

    Zedenius, J.; Svensson, A.; Baeckdahl, M.; Wallin, G.

    1995-10-01

    The hereditary multiple endocrine neoplasia syndromes types 2A and B (MEN 2A and B) were recently linked to germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, altering one of five cysteine residues in exon 10 or 11 (MEN 2A), or substituting a methionine for a threonine at codon 918 in exon 16 (MEN 2B). The latter mutation also occurs somatically in some sporadic medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC), and has in a previous study been correlated with a less favorable clinical outcome. In the present study, 46 MTCs were selected for investigation of the codon 918 mutation. The mutation was found in 29 tumors (63%), and was significantly correlated with a poor outcome, with regard to distant metastasis or tumor recurrence (p<10{sup 4}). Two tumors showed multifocal growth and C-cell hyperplasia, and these patients were therefore also investigated for germline mutations in exons 10, 11 and 16. The codon 918 mutation was found only in the tumors, thus of somatic origin. The RET codon 918 mutation may have prognostic impact, and therefore preoperative assessment may influence decision-making in the treatment of patients suffering from MTC. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  16. Deconstruction of Oncogenic K-RAS Signaling Reveals Focal Adhesion Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Vulnerabilities of KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinoma. University of California, Division of Hematology /Oncology. Irvine, CA. 1/31/2013. Metabolic and...Signaling Vulnerabilities of KRAS-driven lung adenocarcinoma. Division of Hematology /Oncology. UT Health Science Center. San Antonio, TX. 2/21/2013...2001-­‐   2005:   Fellow   in   Hematology /Oncology,  Department   of  Medicine,  Memorial   Sloan-­‐Kettering  Cancer

  17. Deconstruction of Oncogenic K-RAS Signaling Reveals Focal Adhesion Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    theoretical treatises: 1. P. P. Scaglioni*, M. Melegari*, and J. R. Wands. (*First authorship shared) Posttranscriptional regulation of hepatitis B virus...First autorship shared) Hepatitis B virus mutants associated with 3TC and famciclovir administration are replication defective. Hepatology. 1998. 27... hepatitis B virus x binding protein that inhibits viral replication. Journal of Virology. 1998. 72: 1737-43. PMID: 9499022. 4. C. Gurrieri, P. Capodieci, R

  18. Deconstruction of Oncogenic K-RAS Signaling Reveals Focal Adhesion Kinase as a Novel Therapeutic Target in NSCLC

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    stain and PIAS1. Score =1 low intensity; 2 =moderate intensity; 3 = high intensity. Statistical analysis was done using a Mann-Whitney U test . (E) H...tumor suppressors. We proposed to test the hypothesis that FAK is a critical druggable vulnerability in KMLC using an approach that integrates the use...Taken together these data support the conclusion that FAK is a therapeutic target in KMLC and that further clinical testing should be pursued in

  19. Lazarus response to treatment of patients with lung cancer and oncogenic mutations in the intensive care unit

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Chun-Ru

    2016-01-01

    Novel targeted therapy for patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and oncogenic mutations along with poor performance status (PS) sometimes evokes a “Lazarus” response. Moreover, for critically ill patients with NSCLC and respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (MV) in the intensive care unit (ICU), only a few case reports have demonstrated positive outcomes with targeted therapy. This perspective review describes in detail the most recently published data in order to highlight the findings and the main pitfalls of targeted therapy for patients with NSCLC in the ICU. PMID:28066630

  20. Somatic alterations of targetable oncogenes are frequently observed in BRCA1/2 mutation negative male breast cancers

    PubMed Central

    Rizzolo, Piera; Navazio, Anna Sara; Silvestri, Valentina; Valentini, Virginia; Zelli, Veronica; Zanna, Ines; Masala, Giovanna; Bianchi, Simonetta; Scarnò, Marco; Tommasi, Stefania; Palli, Domenico; Ottini, Laura

    2016-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is a rare disease. Due to its rarity, MBC research and clinical approach are mostly based upon data derived from its largely known female counterpart. We aimed at investigating whether MBC cases harbor somatic alterations of genes known as prognostic biomarkers and molecular therapeutic targets in female breast cancer. We examined 103 MBC cases, all characterized for germ-line BRCA1/2 mutations, for somatic alterations in PIK3CA, EGFR, ESR1 and CCND1 genes. Pathogenic mutations of PIK3CA were detected in 2% of MBCs. No pathogenic mutations were identified in ESR1 and EGFR. Gene copy number variations (CNVs) analysis showed amplification of PIK3CA in 8.1%, EGFR in 6.8% and CCND1 in 16% of MBCs, whereas deletion of ESR1 was detected in 15% of MBCs. Somatic mutations and gene amplification were found only in BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBCs. Significant associations emerged between EGFR amplification and large tumor size (T4), ER-negative and HER2-positive status, between CCND1 amplification and HER2-positive and MIB1-positive status, and between ESR1 deletion and ER-negative status. Our results show that amplification of targetable oncogenes is frequent in BRCA1/2 mutation negative MBCs and may identify MBC subsets characterized by aggressive phenotype that may benefit from potential targeted therapeutic approaches. PMID:27765917

  1. Oncogenic Ras and B-Raf proteins positively regulate death receptor 5 expression through co-activation of ERK and JNK signaling.

    PubMed

    Oh, You-Take; Yue, Ping; Zhou, Wei; Balko, Justin M; Black, Esther P; Owonikoko, Taofeek K; Khuri, Fadlo R; Sun, Shi-Yong

    2012-01-02

    Oncogenic mutations of ras and B-raf frequently occur in many cancer types and are critical for cell transformation and tumorigenesis. Death receptor 5 (DR5) is a cell surface pro-apoptotic death receptor for tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand and has been targeted in cancer therapy. The current study has demonstrated induction of DR5 expression by the oncogenic proteins Ras and B-Raf and revealed the underlying mechanisms. We demonstrated that both Ras and B-Raf induce DR5 expression by enforced expression of oncogenic Ras (e.g. H-Ras12V or K-Ras12V) or B-Raf (i.e. V600E) in cells and by analyzing gene expression array data generated from cancer cell lines and from human cancer tissues. This finding is further supported by our results that knockdown of endogenous K-Ras or B-Raf (V600E) reduced the expression of DR5. Importantly, we have elucidated that Ras induces DR5 expression through co-activation of ERK/RSK and JNK signaling pathways and subsequent cooperative effects among the transcriptional factors CHOP, Elk1, and c-Jun to enhance DR5 gene transcription. Moreover, we found that the majority of cancer cell lines highly sensitive to the DR5 agonistic antibody AMG655 have either Ras or B-Raf mutations. Our findings warrant further study on the biology of DR5 regulation by Ras and B-Raf, which may provide new insight into the biology of Ras and B-Raf, and on the potential impact of Ras or B-Raf mutations on the outcome of DR5-targeted cancer therapy.

  2. PIK3CA mutations in the kinase domain (exon 20) of uterine endometrial adenocarcinomas are associated with adverse prognostic parameters.

    PubMed

    Catasus, Lluis; Gallardo, Alberto; Cuatrecasas, Miriam; Prat, Jaime

    2008-02-01

    Mutations of the oncogene PIK3CA occur frequently in endometrial carcinomas, but their prognostic significance is unclear. To determine the clinicopathological and molecular implications of these mutations, PIK3CA status was investigated in 109 endometrial (102 endometrioid and 7 mixed) carcinomas and the results were compared with clinicopathological parameters associated with prognosis. Tumors were also investigated for microsatellite instability and PTEN, beta-catenin gene (CTNNB1), K-RAS, and B-RAF mutations. We found 35 PIK3CA somatic missense mutations in 32 (29%) endometrial carcinomas. Eighteen mutations occurred in exon 20 (kinase domain), and 17 in exon 9 (helical domain). Almost all mutated tumors were pure endometrioid adenocarcinomas. All tumors with PIK3CA mutations exhibited myometrial invasion (P=0.032). Lymphovascular invasion was found more frequently in mutated (28%) than nonmutated carcinomas (18%). Histological grade varied significantly according to the location of the PIK3CA mutations whether in exon 9 or exon 20 (P=0.033). The frequency of exon 9 mutations was higher in grade 1 carcinomas (57%) than in grade 2 (29%) or grade 3 (14%) tumors. Conversely, mutations in exon 20 were more common in grade 3 (60%) than in grade 2 (20%) or grade 1 (20%) carcinomas. None of the tumors confined to the endometrium (stage IA) had PIK3CA mutations. Furthermore, whereas 64% of adenocarcinomas with exon 9 mutations had invaded < or =(1/2) of the myometrial thickness (stage IB), 73% of tumors with exon 20 mutations had either deeper myometrial invasion (stage IC) or cervical involvement (stage II) (P=0.045). PIK3CA mutations coexisted with microsatellite instability and mutations in PTEN, CTNNB1, K-RAS, and B-RAF genes. These results favor that PIK3CA mutations are associated with myometrial invasion and, moreover, that tumors harboring PIK3CA mutations in exon 20 are frequently high-grade, deeply invasive endometrial carcinomas that tend to exhibit

  3. Leukemia in Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome: a patient with a germline mutation in BRAF proto-oncogene.

    PubMed

    Makita, Yoshio; Narumi, Yoko; Yoshida, Makoto; Niihori, Tetsuya; Kure, Shigeo; Fujieda, Kenji; Matsubara, Yoichi; Aoki, Yoko

    2007-05-01

    Cardio-facio-cutaneous (CFC) syndrome is a multiple congenital anomaly/mental retardation syndrome characterized by a distinctive facial appearance, ectodermal abnormalities, and heart defects. Clinically, it overlaps with both Noonan syndrome and Costello syndrome, which are caused by mutations in 2 genes that encode molecules of the RAS/MAPK (mitogen activated protein kinase) pathway (PTPN11 and HRAS, respectively). Recently, mutations in KRAS, BRAF, and MEK1/2 have been identified in patients with CFC syndrome. Somatic mutations in KRAS and BRAF have been identified in various tumors. In contrast, the association with malignancy has not been noticed in CFC syndrome. Here we report a 9-year-old boy diagnosed with CFC syndrome and acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Sequencing analysis of the entire coding region of KRAS and BRAF showed a de novo germline BRAF E501G (1502A-->G) mutation. Molecular diagnosis and careful observations should be considered in children with CFC syndrome because they have germline mutations in proto-oncogenes and might develop malignancy.

  4. Wrapping Effects within a Proposed Function-Rescue Strategy for the Y220C Oncogenic Mutation of Protein p53

    PubMed Central

    Accordino, Sebastián R.; Rodríguez Fris, J. Ariel; Appignanesi, Gustavo A.

    2013-01-01

    Soluble proteins must protect their structural integrity from water attack by wrapping interactions which imply the clustering of nonpolar residues around the backbone hydrogen bonds. Thus, poorly wrapped hydrogen bonds constitute defects which have been identified as promoters of protein associations since they favor the removal of hydrating molecules. More specifically, a recent study of our group has shown that wrapping interactions allow the successful identification of protein binding hot spots. Additionally, we have also shown that drugs disruptive of protein-protein interfaces tend to mimic the wrapping behavior of the protein they replace. Within this context, in this work we study wrapping three body interactions related to the oncogenic Y220C mutation of the tumor suppressor protein p53. Our computational results rationalize the oncogenic nature of the Y220C mutation, explain the binding of a drug-like molecule already designed to restore the function of p53 and provide clues to help improve this function-rescue strategy and to apply in other drug design or re-engineering techniques. PMID:23365691

  5. Detection of low abundant mutations in DNA using single-molecule FRET and ligase detection reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wabuyele, Musundi B.; Farquar, Hannah; Stryjewski, Wieslaw J.; Hammer, Robert P.; Soper, Steven A.; Cheng, Yu-Wei; Barany, Francis

    2003-06-01

    New strategies for analyzing molecular signatures of disease states in real time using single pair fluorescence resonance energy transfer (spFRET) were developed to rapidly detect point mutations in unamplified genomic DNA (DNA diagnostics). The assay was carried out using allele-specific primers, which flanked the point mutation in the target gene fragment and were ligated using a thremostable ligase enzyme only when the genomic DNA carried this mutation (ligase detection reaction, LDR). We coupled LDR with spFRET to identify a single base mutation in codon 12 of a K-ras oncogene that has high diagnostic value for colorectal cancers. A simple diode laser-based fluorescence system capable of interrogating single fluorescent molecules undergoing FRET was used to detect photon bursts generated from the MB probes formed upon ligation. We demonstrated the ability to rapidly discriminate single base differences in heterogeneous populations having as little as 600 copies of human genomic DNA without PCR amplification. Single base difference in the K-ras gene was discriminated in less than 5 min at a frequency of 1 mutant DNA per 10 normals using only a single LDR thermal cycle of genomic DNA. Real time analyses of point mutations were also performed in PMMA microfluidic device.

  6. Binding hotspots on K-Ras: consensus ligand binding sites and other reactive regions from probe-based molecular dynamics analysis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Priyanka; Hancock, John F.; Gorfe, Alemayehu A.

    2015-01-01

    We have used probe-based molecular dynamics (pMD) simulations to search for interaction hotspots on the surface of the therapeutically highly relevant oncogenic K-Ras G12D. Combining the probe-based query with an ensemble-based pocket identification scheme and an analysis of existing Ras-ligand complexes, we show that (i) pMD is a robust and cost-effective strategy for binding site identification, (ii) all four of the previously reported ligand binding sites are suitable for structure-based ligand design, and (iii) in some cases probe binding and expanded sampling of configurational space enable pocket expansion and increase the likelihood of site identification. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution of hotspots in non-pocket-like regions with known protein- and membrane-interacting interfaces, we propose that pMD has the potential to predict surface patches responsible for protein-biomolecule interactions. These observations have important implications for future drug design efforts and will facilitate the search for potential interfaces responsible for the proposed transient oligomerization or interaction of Ras with other biomolecules in the cellular milieu. PMID:25740554

  7. Binding hotspots on K-ras: consensus ligand binding sites and other reactive regions from probe-based molecular dynamics analysis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Priyanka; Hancock, John F; Gorfe, Alemayehu A

    2015-05-01

    We have used probe-based molecular dynamics (pMD) simulations to search for interaction hotspots on the surface of the therapeutically highly relevant oncogenic K-Ras G12D. Combining the probe-based query with an ensemble-based pocket identification scheme and an analysis of existing Ras-ligand complexes, we show that (i) pMD is a robust and cost-effective strategy for binding site identification, (ii) all four of the previously reported ligand binding sites are suitable for structure-based ligand design, and (iii) in some cases probe binding and expanded sampling of configurational space enable pocket expansion and increase the likelihood of site identification. Furthermore, by comparing the distribution of hotspots in nonpocket-like regions with known protein- and membrane-interacting interfaces, we propose that pMD has the potential to predict surface patches responsible for protein-biomolecule interactions. These observations have important implications for future drug design efforts and will facilitate the search for potential interfaces responsible for the proposed transient oligomerization or interaction of Ras with other biomolecules in the cellular milieu.

  8. A combined oncogenic pathway signature of BRAF, KRAS and PI3KCA mutation improves colorectal cancer classification and cetuximab treatment prediction.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sun; Simon, Iris; Moreno, Victor; Roepman, Paul; Tabernero, Josep; Snel, Mireille; van't Veer, Laura; Salazar, Ramon; Bernards, Rene; Capella, Gabriel

    2013-04-01

    To develop gene expression profiles that characterise KRAS-, BRAF- or PIK3CA-activated- tumours, and to explore whether these profiles might be helpful in predicting the response to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway inhibitors better than mutation status alone. Fresh frozen tumour samples from 381 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected and mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA were assessed. Using microarray data, three individual oncogenic and a combined model were developed and validated in an independent set of 80 CRC patients, and in a dataset from metastatic CRC patients treated with cetuximab. 175 tumours (45.9%) harboured oncogenic mutations in KRAS (30.2%), BRAF (11.0%) and PIK3CA (11.5%). Activating mutation signatures for KRAS (75 genes), for BRAF (58 genes,) and for PIK3CA (49 genes) were developed. The development of a combined oncogenic pathway signature-classified tumours as 'activated oncogenic', or as 'wildtype-like' with a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 61.7%. The identified signature revealed other mechanisms that can activate ERK/MAPK pathway in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA wildtype patients. The combined signature is associated with response to cetuximab treatment in patients with metastatic CRC (HR 2.51, p<0.0009). A combined oncogenic pathway signature allows the identification of patients with an active EGFR-signalling pathway that could benefit from downstream pathway inhibition.

  9. Oncogenic GNAQ and GNA11 Mutations in Uveal Melanoma in Chinese

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaolin; Wei, Wen Bin; Li, Bin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Zhibao; Jonas, Jost B.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To examine whether GNAQ and GNA11 somatic mutations previously identified in uveal melanomas of Caucasians are associated with uveal melanomas in Chinese patients. Methods Uveal melanomas treated by primary enucleation in Chinese patients underwent a mutation analysis of GNAQ and GNA11 with sequencing of exon 5 and exon 4. Results The study included 50 patients with uveal melanoma and with a mean age of 47.6±13.0 years. During the follow-up of at least 3 years, 20 (40%) patients developed extraocular metastases. The frequencies of GNAQ and GNA11 somatic mutations in uveal melanoma were 18% (9/50) and 20% (10/50), respectively. The mutations occurred exclusively in codon 209 of exon 5. No mutations were detected in exon 4. Mutations affecting codon 209 in GNAQ were c.626A>C(Q209P) (78%) and c.626A>T(Q209L) (22%). Mutations affecting codon 209 in GNA11 were exclusively c.626A>T(Q209L) (100%). In none of the tumors, mutations of BRAF and NRAS were detected. GNAQ/11 mutations were marginally (P = 0.045) associated with optic disc involvement. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, metastasis-free survival was not significantly (P = 0.94) associated with GNAQ/11 mutations. Conclusions Mutations of GNAQ and GNA11 can be found in Chinese patients as in Caucasian patients with uveal melanoma, with a higher frequency reported for Caucasian patients. PMID:25280020

  10. Oncogenic GNAQ and GNA11 mutations in uveal melanoma in Chinese.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaolin; Wei, Wen Bin; Li, Bin; Gao, Fei; Zhang, Zhibao; Jonas, Jost B

    2014-01-01

    To examine whether GNAQ and GNA11 somatic mutations previously identified in uveal melanomas of Caucasians are associated with uveal melanomas in Chinese patients. Uveal melanomas treated by primary enucleation in Chinese patients underwent a mutation analysis of GNAQ and GNA11 with sequencing of exon 5 and exon 4. The study included 50 patients with uveal melanoma and with a mean age of 47.6±13.0 years. During the follow-up of at least 3 years, 20 (40%) patients developed extraocular metastases. The frequencies of GNAQ and GNA11 somatic mutations in uveal melanoma were 18% (9/50) and 20% (10/50), respectively. The mutations occurred exclusively in codon 209 of exon 5. No mutations were detected in exon 4. Mutations affecting codon 209 in GNAQ were c.626A>C(Q209P) (78%) and c.626A>T(Q209L) (22%). Mutations affecting codon 209 in GNA11 were exclusively c.626A>T(Q209L) (100%). In none of the tumors, mutations of BRAF and NRAS were detected. GNAQ/11 mutations were marginally (P = 0.045) associated with optic disc involvement. In Kaplan-Meier analysis, metastasis-free survival was not significantly (P = 0.94) associated with GNAQ/11 mutations. Mutations of GNAQ and GNA11 can be found in Chinese patients as in Caucasian patients with uveal melanoma, with a higher frequency reported for Caucasian patients.

  11. Rationally designed aberrant kinase-targeted endogenous protein nanomedicine against oncogene mutated/amplified refractory chronic myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Retnakumari, Archana P; Hanumanthu, Prasanna Lakshmi; Malarvizhi, Giridharan L; Prabhu, Raghuveer; Sidharthan, Neeraj; Thampi, Madhavan V; Menon, Deepthy; Mony, Ullas; Menon, Krishnakumar; Keechilat, Pavithran; Nair, Shantikumar; Koyakutty, Manzoor

    2012-11-05

    Deregulated protein kinases play a very critical role in tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance of cancer. Although molecularly targeted small molecule kinase inhibitors (SMI) are effective against many types of cancer, point mutations in the kinase domain impart drug resistance, a major challenge in the clinic. A classic example is chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) caused by BCR-ABL fusion protein, wherein a BCR-ABL kinase inhibitor, imatinib (IM), was highly successful in the early chronic phase of the disease, but failed in the advanced stages due to amplification of oncogene or point mutations in the drug-binding site of kinase domain. Here, by identifying critical molecular pathways responsible for the drug-resistance in refractory CML patient samples and a model cell line, we have rationally designed an endogenous protein nanomedicine targeted to both cell surface receptors and aberrantly activated secondary kinase in the oncogenic network. Molecular diagnosis revealed that, in addition to point mutations and amplification of oncogenic BCR-ABL kinase, relapsed/refractory patients exhibited significant activation of STAT5 signaling with correlative overexpression of transferrin receptors (TfR) on the cell membrane. Accordingly, we have developed a human serum albumin (HSA) based nanomedicine, loaded with STAT5 inhibitor (sorafenib), and surface conjugated the same with holo-transferrin (Tf) ligands for TfR specific delivery. This dual-targeted "transferrin conjugated albumin bound sorafenib" nanomedicine (Tf-nAlb-Soraf), prepared using aqueous nanoprecipitation method, displayed uniform spherical morphology with average size of ∼150 nm and drug encapsulation efficiency of ∼74%. TfR specific uptake and enhanced antileukemic activity of the nanomedicine was found maximum in the most drug resistant patient sample having the highest level of STAT5 and TfR expression, thereby confirming the accuracy of our rational design and potential of dual

  12. Acquisition of an oncogenic fusion protein serves as an initial driving mutation by inducing aneuploidy and overriding proliferative defects

    PubMed Central

    Maggi, Elaine C.; Vijayaraghavan, Jyothi; Zabaleta, Jovanny; Taylor, Christopher M.; Tsien, Fern; Crabtree, Judy S.; Hollenbach, Andrew D.

    2016-01-01

    While many solid tumors are defined by the presence of a particular oncogene, the role that this oncogene plays in driving transformation through the acquisition of aneuploidy and overcoming growth arrest are often not known. Further, although aneuploidy is present in many solid tumors, it is not clear whether it is the cause or effect of malignant transformation. The childhood sarcoma, Alveolar Rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), is primarily defined by the t(2;13)(q35;q14) translocation, creating the PAX3-FOXO1 fusion protein. It is unclear what role PAX3-FOXO1 plays in the initial stages of tumor development through the acquisition and persistence of aneuploidy. In this study we demonstrate that PAX3-FOXO1 serves as a driver mutation to initiate a cascade of mRNA and miRNA changes that ultimately reprogram proliferating myoblasts to induce the formation of ARMS. We present evidence that cells containing PAX3-FOXO1 have changes in the expression of mRNA and miRNA essential for maintaining proper chromosome number and structure thereby promoting aneuploidy. Further, we demonstrate that the presence of PAX3-FOXO1 alters the expression of growth factor related mRNA and miRNA, thereby overriding aneuploid-dependent growth arrest. Finally, we present evidence that phosphorylation of PAX3-FOXO1 contributes to these changes. This is one of the first studies describing how an oncogene and post-translational modifications drive the development of a tumor through the acquisition and persistence of aneuploidy. This mechanism has implications for other solid tumors where large-scale genomics studies may elucidate how global alterations contribute to tumor phenotypes allowing the development of much needed multi-faceted tumor-specific therapeutic regimens. PMID:27588498

  13. Screening of mutations in the additional sex combs like 1, transcriptional regulator, tumor protein p53, and KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase/NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase genes of patients with myelodysplastic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leite, Carolina; Delmonico, Lucas; Alves, Gilda; Gomes, Romario José; Martino, Mariana Rodrigues; da Silva, Aline Rodrigues; Moreira, Aline Dos Santos; Maioli, Maria Christina; Scherrer, Luciano Rios; Bastos, Elenice Ferreira; Irineu, Roberto; Ornellas, Maria Helena

    2017-10-01

    Myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) is a heterogeneous group of clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, different degrees of cellular dysplasia, and increased risk of progression to acute myeloid leukemia. International Prognostic Scoring System is the gold standard for MDS classification; however, patients exhibiting different clinical behaviors often coexist in the same group, indicating that the currently available scoring systems are insufficient. The genes that have recently been identified as mutated in MDS, including additional sex combs like 1, transcriptional regulator (ASXL1), tumor protein p53 (TP53), and KRAS proto-oncogene and GTPase (KRAS)/NRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase (NRAS), may contribute to a more comprehensive classification, as well as to the prognosis and progression of the disease. In the present study, the mutations in the ASXL1, TP53 and NRAS/KRAS genes in 50 patients were evaluated by sequencing genomic bone marrow DNA. Nine patients (18%) presented with at least one type of mutation. Mutations in TP53 were the most frequent in six patients (12%), followed by ASXL1 in two patients (4%) and NRAS in one patient (2%). The nine mutations were detected in patients with low- and high-risk MDS. The screening of mutations in MDS cases contributes to the application of personalized medicine.

  14. Search of the p.M918T Mutation in the RET Oncogene in Mexican Adult Patients with Medullary Thyroid Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Garcia, Erika; Vidal-Millan, Silvia; Lopez-Yañez, Alicia; Torres, José Antonio Posada; Guadarrama-Orozco, Jorge Alberto; Lino-Silva, Leonardo Saul; Meneses-Garcia, Abelardo; Astudillo-de la Vega, Horacio; Garcia, Martin Granados

    2017-02-06

    Inherited mutations in the RET proto-oncogene, which encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase, predispose individuals to the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 (MEN 2) cancer syndromes. The major component tumor of these syndromes is medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). To date, somatic mutations in RET have been identified in tumors from individuals with MEN 2 finding. RET M918T mutation is present in 95% of the MEN2B cases, and approximately 50% of sporadic MTCs harbor this mutation. We performed a mutational analysis in 17 cases of Medullary thyroid carcinoma, the somatic missense mutation at codon 918 of RET was found in 2 of the 17 MTCs, and one case presented MEN2 phenotype including MTC. The percentage of RET M918T mutation is similar in Mexican MTC patients to other series, although other mutations could be implicated in our population.

  15. BRAF vs RAS oncogenes: are mutations of the same pathway equal? differential signalling and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Eftychia; Koustas, Evangelos; Goulielmaki, Maria; Pintzas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    As the increased knowledge of tumour heterogeneity and genetic alterations progresses, it exemplifies the need for further personalized medicine in modern cancer management. Here, the similarities but also the differential effects of RAS and BRAF oncogenic signalling are examined and further implications in personalized cancer diagnosis and therapy are discussed. Redundant mechanisms mediated by the two oncogenes as well as differential regulation of signalling pathways and gene expression by RAS as compared to BRAF are addressed. The implications of RAS vs BRAF differential functions, in relevant tumour types including colorectal cancer, melanoma, lung cancer are discussed. Current therapeutic findings and future viewpoints concerning the exploitation of RAS-BRAF-pathway alterations for the development of novel therapeutics and efficient rational combinations, as well as companion tests for relevant markers of response will be evaluated. The concept that drug-resistant cells may also display drug dependency, such that altered dosing may prevent the emergence of lethal drug resistance posed a major therapy hindrance. PMID:25361007

  16. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene

    Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  17. INDUCTION OF DNA ADDUCTS, TUMORS, AND KI-RAS ONCOGENE MUTATIONS IN STRAIN A/J MOUSE LUNG BY IP. ADMINISTRATION OF DIBENZ[A,H]ANTHRACENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Induction of DNA adducts, tumors, and Ki-ras oncogene mutations in strain AlJ mouse lung by ip. administration of dibenz[a,h]anthracene

    Previous studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (P AH) induced lung tumors in the strain NJ mouse model system have demonstrated qua...

  18. A combined oncogenic pathway signature of BRAF, KRAS and PI3KCA mutation improves colorectal cancer classification and cetuximab treatment prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sun; Simon, Iris; Moreno, Victor; Roepman, Paul; Tabernero, Josep; Snel, Mireille; van't Veer, Laura; Salazar, Ramon; Bernards, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop gene expression profiles that characterise KRAS-, BRAF- or PIK3CA-activated- tumours, and to explore whether these profiles might be helpful in predicting the response to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway inhibitors better than mutation status alone. Design Fresh frozen tumour samples from 381 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected and mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA were assessed. Using microarray data, three individual oncogenic and a combined model were developed and validated in an independent set of 80 CRC patients, and in a dataset from metastatic CRC patients treated with cetuximab. Results 175 tumours (45.9%) harboured oncogenic mutations in KRAS (30.2%), BRAF (11.0%) and PIK3CA (11.5%). Activating mutation signatures for KRAS (75 genes), for BRAF (58 genes,) and for PIK3CA (49 genes) were developed. The development of a combined oncogenic pathway signature-classified tumours as ‘activated oncogenic’, or as ‘wildtype-like’ with a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 61.7%. The identified signature revealed other mechanisms that can activate ERK/MAPK pathway in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA wildtype patients. The combined signature is associated with response to cetuximab treatment in patients with metastatic CRC (HR 2.51, p<0.0009). Conclusion A combined oncogenic pathway signature allows the identification of patients with an active EGFR-signalling pathway that could benefit from downstream pathway inhibition. PMID:22798500

  19. Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations.

    PubMed

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Adams, Amy E; Robbins, Paul B; Lin, Qun; Khavari, Paul A

    2005-07-01

    Multiple genetic alterations occur in melanoma, a lethal skin malignancy of increasing incidence. These include mutations that activate Ras and two of its effector cascades, Raf and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Induction of Ras and Raf can be caused by active N-Ras and B-Raf mutants as well as by gene amplification. Activation of PI3K pathway components occurs by PTEN loss and by AKT3 amplification. Melanomas also commonly show impairment of the p16(INK4A)-CDK4-Rb and ARF-HDM2-p53 tumor suppressor pathways. CDKN2A mutations can produce p16(INK4A) and ARF protein loss. Rb bypass can also occur through activating CDK4 mutations as well as by CDK4 amplification. In addition to ARF deletion, p53 pathway disruption can result from dominant negative TP53 mutations. TERT amplification also occurs in melanoma. The extent to which these mutations can induce human melanocytic neoplasia is unknown. Here we characterize pathways sufficient to generate human melanocytic neoplasia and show that genetically altered human tissue facilitates functional analysis of mutations observed in human tumors.

  20. HIF-1 mediates metabolic responses to intratumoral hypoxia and oncogenic mutations

    PubMed Central

    Semenza, Gregg L.

    2013-01-01

    Hypoxia occurs frequently in human cancers and induces adaptive changes in cell metabolism that include a switch from oxidative phosphorylation to glycolysis, increased glycogen synthesis, and a switch from glucose to glutamine as the major substrate for fatty acid synthesis. This broad metabolic reprogramming is coordinated at the transcriptional level by HIF-1, which functions as a master regulator to balance oxygen supply and demand. HIF-1 is also activated in cancer cells by tumor suppressor (e.g., VHL) loss of function and oncogene gain of function (leading to PI3K/AKT/mTOR activity) and mediates metabolic alterations that drive cancer progression and resistance to therapy. Inhibitors of HIF-1 or metabolic enzymes may impair the metabolic flexibility of cancer cells and make them more sensitive to anticancer drugs. PMID:23999440

  1. V-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B (BRAF) mutations in hairy cell leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Arora, Neeraj; Nair, Sheila; Pai, Rekha; Nair, Sukesh; Ahmed, Rayaz; Abraham, Aby; Viswabandya, Auro; George, Biju; Balasubramanian, Poonkuzhali; Srivastava, Alok; Mathews, Vikram

    2015-01-01

    Hairy cell leukemia (HCL) is a B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma with distinct clinical, morphological and immunophenotypic features; however, there are many other B-cell lymphomas, which closely mimic HCL. Accurate diagnosis of HCL is important as treatment with 2-chloro-2'-deoxyadenosine (cladribine) is associated with >80% chance of complete cure. The recent description of BRAF p.V600E mutations in almost all HCL cases in various studies has not only improved the pathogenetic understanding of this entity but also increased the diagnostic accuracy of this disorder. The aim of the study was to standardize a molecular test for diagnosis of HCL and compare with standard established morphological, cytochemical and immunophenotypic parameters for HCL diagnosis. The incidence of this mutation was sought in 20 patients with either classical HCL or HCL variant (HCLv) by Sanger sequencing and allele-specific polymerase chain reaction. BRAF p.V600E mutation was present in all HCL cases and absent in the only HCLv case. A high degree of correlation was noted between the presence of BRAF p.V600E and established diagnostic criteria in 20/20 patients with HCL/HCLv. Our data supports the observation that this mutation is present in all cases of HCL and is absent in HCLv. Hence, detection of the BRAF p. V600E mutation can be a useful adjunct in the diagnostic algorithm.

  2. Mutation profiles of synchronous colorectal cancers from a patient with Lynch syndrome suggest distinct oncogenic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chanjuan; Holt, Jonathan A.; Vnencak-Jones, Cindy L.

    2016-01-01

    Patients with Lynch syndrome often present with multiple synchronous or metachronous colorectal cancers (CRCs). The presence of multiple CRCs with distinct genetic profiles and driver mutations could complicate treatment as each cancer may respond differently to therapy. Studies of sporadic CRCs suggested that synchronous tumors have distinct etiologies, but could not rule out differences in genetic background. The presence of multiple cancers in a patient with a predisposing mutation provides an opportunity to profile synchronous cancers in the same genetic background. Here, we describe the case of a patient with Lynch syndrome that presented with six synchronous CRCs. Microsatellite instability (MSI) and genomic profiling indicated that each lesion had a unique pattern of instability and a distinct profile of affected genes. These findings support the idea that in Lynch syndrome, synchronous CRCs can develop in parallel with distinct mutation profiles and that these differences may inform treatment decisions. PMID:27284491

  3. Plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and 4,5-bisphosphate determine the distribution and function of K-Ras4B but not H-Ras proteins.

    PubMed

    Gulyás, Gergö; Radvánszki, Glória; Matuska, Rita; Balla, András; Hunyady, László; Balla, Tamas; Várnai, Péter

    2017-09-22

    Plasma membrane (PM) localization of Ras proteins is crucial for transmitting signals upon mitogen stimulation. Posttranslational lipid modification of Ras proteins plays an important role in their recruitment to the PM. Electrostatic interactions between negatively charged PM phospholipids and basic amino acids found in K-Ras4B (K-Ras) but not in H-Ras are important for permanent K-Ras localization to the PM. Here, we investigated how acute depletion of negatively charged PM polyphosphoinositides (PPIns) from the PM alters the intracellular distribution and activity of K- and H-Ras proteins. PPIns depletion from the PM was achieved either by agonist-induced activation of phospholipase C β or with a rapamycin-inducible system in which various PI phosphatases were recruited to the PM. Redistribution of the two Ras proteins was monitored with confocal microscopy or with a recently developed bioluminescent energy transfer (BRET)-based approach involving fusion of the Ras C-terminal targeting sequences or the entire Ras proteins to Venus fluorescent protein. We found that PM PPIns depletion caused rapid translocation of K-Ras but not H-Ras from the PM to the Golgi. PM depletion of either phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PtdIns4P) or PtdIns(4,5)P2, but not PtdIns(3,4,5)P3, was sufficient to evoke K-Ras translocation. This effect was diminished by deltarasine, an inhibitor of the Ras-phosphodiesterase interaction, or by simultaneous depletion of the Golgi PtdIns4P. The PPIns depletion decreased incorporation of [3H]-Leucine in K-Ras-expressing cells, suggesting that Golgi-localized K-Ras is not as signaling competent as its PM-bound form. We conclude that PPIns in the PM are important regulators of K-Ras mediated signals. Copyright © 2017, The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  4. Oncogenic Mutations Differentially Affect Bax Monomer, Dimer, and Oligomeric Pore Formation in the Membrane.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-09-15

    Dysfunction of Bax, a pro-apoptotic regulator of cellular metabolism is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have constructed the first atomistic models of the Bax oligomeric pore consisting with experimental residue-residue distances. The models are stable, capturing well double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy measurements and provide structural details in line with the DEER data. Comparison with the latest experimental results revealed that our models agree well with both Bax and Bak pores, pointed to a converged structural arrangement for Bax and Bak pore formation. Using multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we probed mutational effects on Bax transformation from monomer → dimer → membrane pore formation at atomic resolution. We observe that two cancer-related mutations, G40E and S118I, allosterically destabilize the monomer and stabilize an off-pathway swapped dimer, preventing productive pore formation. This observation suggests a mechanism whereby the mutations may work mainly by over-stabilizing the monomer → dimer transformation toward an unproductive off-pathway swapped-dimer state. Our observations point to misfolded Bax states, shedding light on the molecular mechanism of Bax mutation-elicited cancer. Most importantly, the structure of the Bax pore facilitates future study of releases cytochrome C in atomic detail.

  5. Oncogenic Mutations Differentially Affect Bax Monomer, Dimer, and Oligomeric Pore Formation in the Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-09-01

    Dysfunction of Bax, a pro-apoptotic regulator of cellular metabolism is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have constructed the first atomistic models of the Bax oligomeric pore consisting with experimental residue-residue distances. The models are stable, capturing well double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy measurements and provide structural details in line with the DEER data. Comparison with the latest experimental results revealed that our models agree well with both Bax and Bak pores, pointed to a converged structural arrangement for Bax and Bak pore formation. Using multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we probed mutational effects on Bax transformation from monomer → dimer → membrane pore formation at atomic resolution. We observe that two cancer-related mutations, G40E and S118I, allosterically destabilize the monomer and stabilize an off-pathway swapped dimer, preventing productive pore formation. This observation suggests a mechanism whereby the mutations may work mainly by over-stabilizing the monomer → dimer transformation toward an unproductive off-pathway swapped-dimer state. Our observations point to misfolded Bax states, shedding light on the molecular mechanism of Bax mutation-elicited cancer. Most importantly, the structure of the Bax pore facilitates future study of releases cytochrome C in atomic detail.

  6. Oncogenic Mutations Differentially Affect Bax Monomer, Dimer, and Oligomeric Pore Formation in the Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Mingzhen; Zheng, Jie; Nussinov, Ruth; Ma, Buyong

    2016-01-01

    Dysfunction of Bax, a pro-apoptotic regulator of cellular metabolism is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. We have constructed the first atomistic models of the Bax oligomeric pore consisting with experimental residue-residue distances. The models are stable, capturing well double electron-electron resonance (DEER) spectroscopy measurements and provide structural details in line with the DEER data. Comparison with the latest experimental results revealed that our models agree well with both Bax and Bak pores, pointed to a converged structural arrangement for Bax and Bak pore formation. Using multi-scale molecular dynamics simulations, we probed mutational effects on Bax transformation from monomer → dimer → membrane pore formation at atomic resolution. We observe that two cancer-related mutations, G40E and S118I, allosterically destabilize the monomer and stabilize an off-pathway swapped dimer, preventing productive pore formation. This observation suggests a mechanism whereby the mutations may work mainly by over-stabilizing the monomer → dimer transformation toward an unproductive off-pathway swapped-dimer state. Our observations point to misfolded Bax states, shedding light on the molecular mechanism of Bax mutation-elicited cancer. Most importantly, the structure of the Bax pore facilitates future study of releases cytochrome C in atomic detail. PMID:27630059

  7. Uncommon association of germline mutations of RET proto-oncogene and CDKN2A gene.

    PubMed

    Foppiani, L; Forzano, F; Ceccherini, I; Bruno, W; Ghiorzo, P; Caroli, F; Quilici, P; Bandelloni, R; Arlandini, A; Sartini, G; Cabria, M; Del Monte, P

    2008-03-01

    Calcitonin measurement is advised in the diagnosis of thyroid nodules, as it is an accurate marker of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). C-cell hyperplasia (CCH)-induced hypercalcitoninemia cannot be distinguished from that induced by MTC, unless surgery is performed. We report the clinical and biological features of a patient with a family history of cancer, including melanoma and pancreatic cancer, who had previously undergone surgery for melanoma. He presented the unusual association of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), normocalcemic hyperparathyroidism, and hypercalcitoninemia with a pathological response to pentagastrin, which was histologically deemed secondary to CCH. Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A was diagnosed. RET gene analysis showed a p.V804M missense mutation in exon 14, a low- but variably penetrant defect found in both sporadic and MEN2A-associated MTC/CCH, and a p.G691S polymorphism in exon 11. Furthermore, the germline P48T mutation was found in the CDKN2A gene exon 1, which is known to be associated with melanoma and pancreatic cancer. The patient showed the uncommon coexistence of a germline mutation in two suppressor genes, RET and CDKN2A; this finding, deemed to be a mere coincidence, did not modify the phenotype expected by each single mutation. CCH associated with V804M RET mutation is a precancerous condition and surgery is recommended. In order to exclude MTC, surgery is advised in patients with a pathological calcitonin response to pentagastrin, in the absence of thyroid autoimmunity. CCH-induced hypercalcitoninemia can be associated with thyroid cancers other than MTC (e.g., PTC). Family history is important in scheduling specific genetic screening in high-risk patients and their relatives.

  8. The Mutational Landscape of the Oncogenic MZF1 SCAN Domain in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nygaard, Mads; Terkelsen, Thilde; Vidas Olsen, André; Sora, Valentina; Salamanca Viloria, Juan; Rizza, Fabio; Bergstrand-Poulsen, Sanne; Di Marco, Miriam; Vistesen, Mette; Tiberti, Matteo; Lambrughi, Matteo; Jäättelä, Marja; Kallunki, Tuula; Papaleo, Elena

    2016-01-01

    SCAN domains in zinc-finger transcription factors are crucial mediators of protein-protein interactions. Up to 240 SCAN-domain encoding genes have been identified throughout the human genome. These include cancer-related genes, such as the myeloid zinc finger 1 (MZF1), an oncogenic transcription factor involved in the progression of many solid cancers. The mechanisms by which SCAN homo- and heterodimers assemble and how they alter the transcriptional activity of zinc-finger transcription factors in cancer and other diseases remain to be investigated. Here, we provide the first description of the conformational ensemble of the MZF1 SCAN domain cross-validated against NMR experimental data, which are probes of structure and dynamics on different timescales. We investigated the protein-protein interaction network of MZF1 and how it is perturbed in different cancer types by the analyses of high-throughput proteomics and RNASeq data. Collectively, we integrated many computational approaches, ranging from simple empirical energy functions to all-atom microsecond molecular dynamics simulations and network analyses to unravel the effects of cancer-related substitutions in relation to MZF1 structure and interactions. PMID:28018905

  9. The structural pathway of interleukin 1 (IL-1) initiated signaling reveals mechanisms of oncogenic mutations and SNPs in inflammation and cancer.

    PubMed

    Acuner Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem

    2014-02-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a large cytokine family closely related to innate immunity and inflammation. IL-1 proteins are key players in signaling pathways such as apoptosis, TLR, MAPK, NLR and NF-κB. The IL-1 pathway is also associated with cancer, and chronic inflammation increases the risk of tumor development via oncogenic mutations. Here we illustrate that the structures of interfaces between proteins in this pathway bearing the mutations may reveal how. Proteins are frequently regulated via their interactions, which can turn them ON or OFF. We show that oncogenic mutations are significantly at or adjoining interface regions, and can abolish (or enhance) the protein-protein interaction, making the protein constitutively active (or inactive, if it is a repressor). We combine known structures of protein-protein complexes and those that we have predicted for the IL-1 pathway, and integrate them with literature information. In the reconstructed pathway there are 104 interactions between proteins whose three dimensional structures are experimentally identified; only 15 have experimentally-determined structures of the interacting complexes. By predicting the protein-protein complexes throughout the pathway via the PRISM algorithm, the structural coverage increases from 15% to 71%. In silico mutagenesis and comparison of the predicted binding energies reveal the mechanisms of how oncogenic and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations can abrogate the interactions or increase the binding affinity of the mutant to the native partner. Computational mapping of mutations on the interface of the predicted complexes may constitute a powerful strategy to explain the mechanisms of activation/inhibition. It can also help explain how an oncogenic mutation or SNP works.

  10. The Structural Pathway of Interleukin 1 (IL-1) Initiated Signaling Reveals Mechanisms of Oncogenic Mutations and SNPs in Inflammation and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Acuner Ozbabacan, Saliha Ece; Gursoy, Attila; Nussinov, Ruth; Keskin, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) is a large cytokine family closely related to innate immunity and inflammation. IL-1 proteins are key players in signaling pathways such as apoptosis, TLR, MAPK, NLR and NF-κB. The IL-1 pathway is also associated with cancer, and chronic inflammation increases the risk of tumor development via oncogenic mutations. Here we illustrate that the structures of interfaces between proteins in this pathway bearing the mutations may reveal how. Proteins are frequently regulated via their interactions, which can turn them ON or OFF. We show that oncogenic mutations are significantly at or adjoining interface regions, and can abolish (or enhance) the protein-protein interaction, making the protein constitutively active (or inactive, if it is a repressor). We combine known structures of protein-protein complexes and those that we have predicted for the IL-1 pathway, and integrate them with literature information. In the reconstructed pathway there are 104 interactions between proteins whose three dimensional structures are experimentally identified; only 15 have experimentally-determined structures of the interacting complexes. By predicting the protein-protein complexes throughout the pathway via the PRISM algorithm, the structural coverage increases from 15% to 71%. In silico mutagenesis and comparison of the predicted binding energies reveal the mechanisms of how oncogenic and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) mutations can abrogate the interactions or increase the binding affinity of the mutant to the native partner. Computational mapping of mutations on the interface of the predicted complexes may constitute a powerful strategy to explain the mechanisms of activation/inhibition. It can also help explain how an oncogenic mutation or SNP works. PMID:24550720

  11. Microsatellite instability and B-type Raf proto-oncogene mutation in colorectal cancer: Clinicopathological characteristics and effects on survival

    PubMed Central

    Batur, Sebnem; Bakkaloglu, Dogu Vuralli; Kepil, Nuray; Erdamar, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    Prognostic significance of microsatellite instability (MSI) status and B-type Raf proto-oncogene (BRAF) mutation in colorectal cancer is controversial. The aim of this study was to examine the clinical and pathological characteristics associated with microsatellite stability and the effect of MSI and BRAF mutation on the survival of patients with colorectal cancer. The study included 145 colorectal cancer cases. All the patients were examined for DNA mismatch repair (MMR) proteins with an immunohistochemical method. Molecular assessment of MSI was available in a subset of 41 patients. In addition, BRAF mutation analysis was performed in 30 cases. Immunohistochemically, MMR deficiency was present in 28 (19.3%) patients. Female gender (p = 0.001), lesion size ≥5 cm (p = 0.013), Crohn-like response (p = 0.035), and right-sided localization (p < 0.001) were significantly more frequent among MMR-deficient patients. The overall survival was 44.1 ± 5.1 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 33.7-54.4). Multivariate analyses identified only high tumor grade as an independent predictor of poor overall survival: odd ratio, 6.7 (95% CI 2.1-21.7), p = 0.002. In the subset of patients with available BRAF assessment (n = 30), a negative BRAF status was associated with better survival when compared to a positive BRAF status (36.7 ± 2.1 vs. 34.1 ± 7.2 months, p = 0.048). The sensitivity and specificity of the immunohistochemical method in predicting positive MSI status, with the molecular method as a reference, were 85.7% (95% CI: 56.2%-97.5%) and 88.9% (95% CI: 69.7%-97.1%), respectively. BRAF appears to be a significant predictor of a worse outcome in patients with colorectal cancer. Further studies with a large spectrum of clinical and biological variables are warranted. PMID:27131021

  12. Discriminative detection of low-abundance point mutations using a PCR/ligase detection reaction/capillary gel electrophoresis method and fluorescence dual-channel monitoring.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mariko; Shimase, Koji; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2014-04-01

    We applied a facile LIF dual-channel monitoring system recently developed and reported by our group to the polymerase chain reaction/ligase detection reaction/CGE method for detecting low-abundance point mutations present in a wild-type sequence-dominated population. Mutation discrimination limits and signaling fidelity of the analytical system were evaluated using three mutant variations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene that have high diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. We demonstrated the high sensitivity of the present method by detecting rare mutations present among an excess of wild-type alleles (one mutation among ~100 normal sequences). This method also simultaneously interrogated the allelic compositions of the test samples with high specificity through spectral discrimination of the dye-tagged ligase detection reaction products using the dual-channel monitoring system.

  13. The Colony Stimulating Factor 3 Receptor T640N mutation is oncogenic, sensitive to JAK inhibition, and mimics T618I

    PubMed Central

    Maxson, Julia E.; Luty, Samuel B.; MacManiman, Jason D.; Paik, Jason C.; Gotlib, Jason; Greenberg, Peter; Bahamadi, Swaleh; Savage, Samantha L.; Abel, Melissa L.; Eide, Christopher A.; Loriaux, Marc M.; Stevens, Emily A.; Tyner, Jeffrey W.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose CSF3R mutations have been identified in the majority of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and a smaller percentage of atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML) cases. Although CSF3R point mutations (e.g. T618I) are emerging as key players in CNL/aCML, the significance of rarer CSF3R mutations is unknown. In this study we assess the importance of the CSF3R T640N mutation as a marker of CNL/aCML and potential therapeutic target. Experimental Design Sanger sequencing of leukemia samples was performed to identify CSF3R mutations in CNL and aCML. The oncogenicity of the CSF3R T640N mutation relative to the T618I mutation was assessed by cytokine independent growth assays and by mouse bone marrow transplant. Receptor dimerization and O-glycosylation of the mutants was assessed by western blot, and JAK inhibitor sensitivity was assessed by colony assay. Results Here we identify a CSF3R T640N mutation in two patients with CNL/aCML, one of whom was originally diagnosed with MDS and acquired the T640N mutation upon evolution of disease to aCML. The T640N mutation is oncogenic in cellular transformation assays and an in vivo mouse bone marrow transplantation model. It exhibits many similar phenotypic features to T618I, including ligand independence and altered patterns of O-glycosylation – despite the transmembrane location of T640 preventing access by GalNAc transferase enzymes. Cells transformed by the T640N mutation are sensitive to JAK kinase inhibition to a similar degree as cells transformed by CSF3R T618I. Conclusions Due to its similarities to CSF3R T618I, the T640N mutation likely has diagnostic and therapeutic relevance in CNL/aCML. PMID:26475333

  14. Therapeutic inhibition of TRF1 impairs the growth of p53-deficient K-RasG12V-induced lung cancer by induction of telomeric DNA damage.

    PubMed

    García-Beccaria, María; Martínez, Paula; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Martínez, Sonia; Blanco-Aparicio, Carmen; Cañamero, Marta; Mulero, Francisca; Ambrogio, Chiara; Flores, Juana M; Megias, Diego; Barbacid, Mariano; Pastor, Joaquín; Blasco, Maria A

    2015-07-01

    Telomeres are considered anti-cancer targets, as telomere maintenance above a minimum length is necessary for cancer growth. Telomerase abrogation in cancer-prone mouse models, however, only decreased tumor growth after several mouse generations when telomeres reach a critically short length, and this effect was lost upon p53 mutation. Here, we address whether induction of telomere uncapping by inhibition of the TRF1 shelterin protein can effectively block cancer growth independently of telomere length. We show that genetic Trf1 ablation impairs the growth of p53-null K-Ras(G12V)-induced lung carcinomas and increases mouse survival independently of telomere length. This is accompanied by induction of telomeric DNA damage, apoptosis, decreased proliferation, and G2 arrest. Long-term whole-body Trf1 deletion in adult mice did not impact on mouse survival and viability, although some mice showed a moderately decreased cellularity in bone marrow and blood. Importantly, inhibition of TRF1 binding to telomeres by small molecules blocks the growth of already established lung carcinomas without affecting mouse survival or tissue function. Thus, induction of acute telomere uncapping emerges as a potential new therapeutic target for lung cancer.

  15. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  16. High prevalence of the C634Y mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in MEN 2A families in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, B.; Robledo, M.; Biarnes, J.; Saez, M.; Volpini, V.; Benitez, J.; Navarro, E.; Ruiz, A.; Antinolo, G.; Borrego, S.

    1999-01-01

    The RET proto-oncogene encodes a receptor tyrosine kinase expressed in neural crest derived tissues. Germline mutations in the RET proto-oncogene are responsible for three different dominantly inherited cancer syndromes: multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A), type 2B (MEN 2B), and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC). MTC can also occur sporadically. Molecular characterisation of the RET proto-oncogene has been performed by PCR-SSCP analysis, direct DNA sequencing, and restriction enzyme analysis in 49 unrelated, Spanish, MEN 2 families: 30 MEN 2A families, six FMTC families, and 13 families classified as "other". Germline missense mutations in one of six cysteine codons (609, 611, 618, and 620 in exon 10, and codons 630 and 634 in exon 11), which encode part of the extracellular cysteine rich domain of RET, have been detected in the majority of these families: 100% of MEN 2A families, 67% of FMTC families, and 54% of families classified as "other". No RET mutations in exons 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, or 16 were detected in the remaining families. The most frequent RET mutation in MEN 2A Spanish families is C634Y, occurring in 73% of cases. Haplotype analysis does not exclude the possibility of founder effects in Spanish MEN 2A families with the C634Y mutation.


Keywords: medullary thyroid carcinoma; RET proto-oncogene; molecular analysis PMID:9950371

  17. Oncogenic AKT1(E17K) mutation induces mammary hyperplasia but prevents HER2-driven tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Mancini, Maria L; Lien, Evan C; Toker, Alex

    2016-04-05

    One of the most frequently deregulated signaling pathways in breast cancer is the PI 3-K/Akt cascade. Genetic lesions are commonly found in PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT, which lead to excessive and constitutive activation of Akt and downstream signaling that results in uncontrolled proliferation and increased cellular survival. One such genetic lesion is the somatic AKT1(E17K) mutation, which has been identified in 4-8% of breast cancer patients. To determine how this mutation contributes to mammary tumorigenesis, we constructed a genetically engineered mouse model that conditionally expresses human AKT1(E17K) in the mammary epithelium. Although AKT1(E17K) is only weakly constitutively active and does not promote proliferation in vitro, it is capable of escaping negative feedback inhibition to exhibit sustained signaling dynamics in vitro. Consistently, both virgin and multiparous AKT1(E17K) mice develop mammary gland hyperplasia that do not progress to carcinoma. This hyperplasia is accompanied by increased estrogen receptor expression, although exposure of the mice to estrogen does not promote tumor development. Moreover, AKT1(E17K) prevents HER2-driven mammary tumor formation, in part through negative feedback inhibition of RTK signaling. Analysis of TCGA breast cancer data revealed that the mRNA expression, total protein levels, and phosphorylation of various RTKs are decreased in human tumors harboring AKT1(E17K).

  18. Molecular basis for the role of oncogenic histone mutations in modulating H3K36 methylation

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yinglu; Shan, Chun -Min; Wang, Jiyong; ...

    2017-03-03

    Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation (H3K36me) is critical for epigenetic regulation and mutations at or near H3K36 are associated with distinct types of cancers. H3K36M dominantly inhibits H3K36me on wild-type histones, whereas H3G34R/V selectively affects H3K36me on the same histone tail. Here we report the crystal structures of SETD2 SET domain in complex with an H3K36M peptide and SAM or SAH. There are large conformational changes in the substrate binding regions of the SET domain, and the K36M residue interacts with the catalytic pocket of SETD2. H3G34 is surrounded by a very narrow tunnel, which excludes larger amino acid sidemore » chains. H3P38 is in the trans configuration, and the cis configuration is incompatible with SETD2 binding. Lastly, mutations of H3G34 or H3P38 alleviate the inhibitory effects of H3K36M on H3K36me, demonstrating that the stable interaction of H3K36M with SETD2 is critical for its inhibitory effects.« less

  19. Molecular basis for the role of oncogenic histone mutations in modulating H3K36 methylation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yinglu; Shan, Chun-Min; Wang, Jiyong; Bao, Kehan; Tong, Liang; Jia, Songtao

    2017-01-01

    Histone H3 lysine 36 methylation (H3K36me) is critical for epigenetic regulation and mutations at or near H3K36 are associated with distinct types of cancers. H3K36M dominantly inhibits H3K36me on wild-type histones, whereas H3G34R/V selectively affects H3K36me on the same histone tail. Here we report the crystal structures of SETD2 SET domain in complex with an H3K36M peptide and SAM or SAH. There are large conformational changes in the substrate binding regions of the SET domain, and the K36M residue interacts with the catalytic pocket of SETD2. H3G34 is surrounded by a very narrow tunnel, which excludes larger amino acid side chains. H3P38 is in the trans configuration, and the cis configuration is incompatible with SETD2 binding. Finally, mutations of H3G34 or H3P38 alleviate the inhibitory effects of H3K36M on H3K36me, demonstrating that the stable interaction of H3K36M with SETD2 is critical for its inhibitory effects. PMID:28256625

  20. Oncogenic mutations weaken the interactions that stabilize the p110α-p85α heterodimer in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase α.

    PubMed

    Echeverria, Ignacia; Liu, Yunlong; Gabelli, Sandra B; Amzel, L Mario

    2015-09-01

    Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) α is a heterodimeric lipid kinase that catalyzes the conversion of phosphoinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to phosphoinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate. The PI3Kα signaling pathway plays an important role in cell growth, proliferation, and survival. This pathway is activated in numerous cancers, where the PI3KCA gene, which encodes for the p110α PI3Kα subunit, is mutated. Its mutation often results in gain of enzymatic activity; however, the mechanism of activation by oncogenic mutations remains unknown. Here, using computational methods, we show that oncogenic mutations that are far from the catalytic site and increase the enzymatic affinity destabilize the p110α-p85α dimer. By affecting the dynamics of the protein, these mutations favor the conformations that reduce the autoinhibitory effect of the p85α nSH2 domain. For example, we determined that, in all of the mutants, the nSH2 domain shows increased positional heterogeneity as compared with the wild-type, as demonstrated by changes in the fluctuation profiles computed by normal mode analysis of coarse-grained elastic network models. Analysis of the interdomain interactions of the wild-type and mutants at the p110α-p85α interface obtained with molecular dynamics simulations suggest that all of the tumor-associated mutations effectively weaken the interactions between p110α and p85α by disrupting key stabilizing interactions. These findings have important implications for understanding how oncogenic mutations change the conformational multiplicity of PI3Kα and lead to increased enzymatic activity. This mechanism may apply to other enzymes and/or macromolecular complexes that play a key role in cell signaling.

  1. Novel molecular targets for kRAS downregulation: promoter G-quadruplexes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-11-01

    Adv. Cancer Res. 102 (2009) 1–17. [4] Y. Pylayeva-Gupta, E. Grabocka, D. Bar-Sagi, RAS oncogenes: weaving a tumorigenic web, Nat . Rev . 11 (2011) 761...isolation from human cells, Nat . Chem. 2 (2010) 1095–1098. [17] V.S. Chambers, G. Marsico, J.M. Boutell, M. Di Antonio, G.P. Smith, S. Balasubramanian...supercoiling in transcriptional control of MYC and its importance in molecular therapeutics, Nat . Rev . 9 (2009) 849–861. [47] J.E. Rosenberg, R.M. Bambury

  2. Pancreatitis-induced Inflammation Contributes to Pancreatic Cancer by Inhibiting Oncogene-Induced Senescence

    PubMed Central

    Guerra, Carmen; Collado, Manuel; Navas, Carolina; Schuhmacher, Alberto J; Hernández-Porras, Isabel; Cañamero, Marta; Rodriguez-Justo, Manuel; Serrano, Manuel; Barbacid, Mariano

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells of adult mice (≥P60) are resistant to transformation by some of the most robust oncogenic insults including expression of K-Ras oncogenes and loss of p16Ink4a/p19Arf or Trp53 tumor suppressors. Yet, these acinar cells yield pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasias (mPanIN) and ductal adenocarcinomas (mPDAC) if exposed to limited bouts of non-acute pancreatitis, providing they harbor K-Ras oncogenes. Pancreatitis contributes to tumor progression by abrogating the senescence barrier characteristic of low-grade mPanINs. Attenuation of pancreatitis-induced inflammation also accelerates tissue repair and thwarts mPanIN expansion. Patients with chronic pancreatitis display senescent PanINs, if they have received anti-inflammatory drugs. These results put forward the concept that anti-inflammatory treatment of people diagnosed with pancreatitis may reduce their risk of developing PDAC. PMID:21665147

  3. A rapid screening method for the detection of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma families

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, D.J.; Andrew, S.; Richardson, A.L. |

    1994-09-15

    Multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) and familial medullary thyroid carcinoma (FMTC) are autosomal dominant inherited cancer syndromes with incomplete penetrance. Following the identification of mutations in the RET proto-oncogene that segregate with the disease phenotype in MEN2A, MEN2B, and FMTC, genetic screening of individuals with mutations in RET may be performed. The authors have employed restriction endonuclease digestion of polymerase chain reaction products as an alternative to sequence analysis for rapid identification of mutant gene carriers in families in which MEN2A and RMTC are segregating. Twenty-one Australasian MEN2A and FMTC families have been screened for mutations in a cysteine-rich region of the RET proto-oncogene. Seven independent mutations were identified in key individuals in 16 of these families. The authors have identified a mutation in codon 620, 2053 T {r_arrow}C (Cys620Arg), and two mutations in codon 634 of exon 11 of RET, 2095 T {r_arrow} C (Cys634Arg) and 2096 G {r_arrow} A (Cys634Tyr), all three of which were present in both MEN2A and FMTC families. 7 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  4. The anticancer effects of Saccharina japonica on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jo, Mi Jeong; Kim, Hyung Rak; Kim, Gun Do

    2012-11-01

    Saccharina japonica (S. japonica), a brown macro-alga, has been used as a traditional medicine in Korea for thousands of years. In this study, the potential anticancer effects of S. japonica were evaluated on 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells. The exposure of cells to the extract induced inhibition of cell growth by increasing the number of apoptotic cells with cell shrinkage and inhibition of cell cycle progression. The effects of the extract on the cells were assessed by studying the cleavage of caspases and the target proteins of caspases. The increased expression of various cleaved caspases and changed expression of other proteins related in the apoptosis pathway were observed. 4'-6-Diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) and immunofluorescence staining showed the cells undergoing apoptosis. Apoptosis induced changes in the expression of proteins involved in a variety of signaling pathways such as endocellular reticulum (ER) stress, death receptor and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)-FoxO-mediated pathways. The data suggest that the extract (n-hexane sub-fraction) of S. japonica, induces apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in 267B1/K-ras human prostate cancer cells, and has potential as a complementary agent for cancer prevention.

  5. Membrane-associated Ras dimers are isoform-specific: K-Ras dimers differ from H-Ras dimers.

    PubMed

    Jang, Hyunbum; Muratcioglu, Serena; Gursoy, Attila; Keskin, Ozlem; Nussinov, Ruth

    2016-06-15

    Are the dimer structures of active Ras isoforms similar? This question is significant since Ras can activate its effectors as a monomer; however, as a dimer, it promotes Raf's activation and MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase) cell signalling. In the present study, we model possible catalytic domain dimer interfaces of membrane-anchored GTP-bound K-Ras4B and H-Ras, and compare their conformations. The active helical dimers formed by the allosteric lobe are isoform-specific: K-Ras4B-GTP favours the α3 and α4 interface; H-Ras-GTP favours α4 and α5. Both isoforms also populate a stable β-sheet dimer interface formed by the effector lobe; a less stable β-sandwich interface is sustained by salt bridges of the β-sheet side chains. Raf's high-affinity β-sheet interaction is promoted by the active helical interface. Collectively, Ras isoforms' dimer conformations are not uniform; instead, the isoform-specific dimers reflect the favoured interactions of the HVRs (hypervariable regions) with cell membrane microdomains, biasing the effector-binding site orientations, thus isoform binding selectivity.

  6. Identification of effective siRNA against K-ras in human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2 by siRNA expression cassette.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Chun-You; Dong, Ju-Hua; Chen, Xiong; Zhang, Min; Zhao, Gang

    2005-04-07

    We shall construct the small interfering RNA (siRNA) expression cassette (SEC) targeting activated K-ras gene sequence, identify more effective siRNA sequence against K-ras gene in human pancreatic cancer cell line MiaPaCa-2 by SEC and reveal the anti-cancer effects of RNA interference (RNAi) and its therapeutic possibilities. Three different sites of SECs were constructed by PCR. K1/siRNA, K2/siRNA and K3/siRNA are located at sites 194, 491 and 327, respectively. They were transfected into MiaPaCa-2 cells by liposome to inhibit the expression of activated K-ras. In the interfering groups of sites 194 and 491, we detected the apoptosis in cells by FACS after they were incubated for 48 h, then we tested the alternation of K-ras gene in MiaPaCa-2 cells by RT-PCR immunofluorescence, respectively. Introduction of the K1/siRNA and K2/siRNA against K-ras into MiaPaCa-2 cells leads to increased apoptosis, and the number of apoptotic cells is increased compared with control cells. The tests of RT-PCR immunofluorescence show the effects of inhibiting expression of activated K-ras gene by RNA interference in the K1/siRNA and K2/siRNA groups. We also find that the introduction of K3/siRNA has no effect on MiaPaCa-2 cells. K1/siRNA and K2/siRNA can inhibit the expression of activated K-ras but K3/siRNA has no effect, demonstrating that K1/siRNA and K2/siRNA are effective sequences against K-ras gene and K3/siRNA are not. We conclude that specific siRNA against K-ras expression may be a powerful tool to be used therapeutically against human pancreatic cancer.

  7. Computational Modeling Reveals that Signaling Lipids Modulate the Orientation of K-Ras4A at the Membrane Reflecting Protein Topology.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-Lu; Buck, Matthias

    2017-04-04

    The structural, dynamical, and functional characterization of the small GTPase K-Ras has become a research area of intense focus due to its high occurrence in human cancers. Ras proteins are only fully functional when they interact with the plasma membrane. Here we present all-atom molecular dynamics simulations (totaling 5.8 μs) to investigate the K-Ras4A protein at membranes that contain anionic lipids (phosphatidyl serine or phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate). We find that similarly to the homologous and highly studied K-Ras4B, K-Ras4A prefers a few distinct orientations at the membrane. Remarkably, the protein surface charge and certain lipids can strongly modulate the orientation preference. In a novel analysis, we reveal that the electrostatic interaction (attraction but also repulsion) between the protein's charged residues and anionic lipids determines the K-Ras4A orientation, but that this is also influenced by the topology of the protein, reflecting the geometry of its surfaces.

  8. Detection of RET proto-oncogene point mutations in paraffin-embedded pheochromocytoma specimens by nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing.

    PubMed Central

    Komminoth, P.; Kunz, E.; Hiort, O.; Schröder, S.; Matias-Guiu, X.; Christiansen, G.; Roth, J.; Heitz, P. U.

    1994-01-01

    The suitability of formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded tumor material was evaluated for molecular analysis of the RET proto-oncogene. We analyzed exons 10, 11, and 16 for point mutations in seven sporadic and six multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) 2A-associated pheochromocytomas by a nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism assay followed by nonradioactive direct sequencing of PCR-amplified DNA using an automated DNA sequencer. All MEN 2A-associated pheochromocytomas contained a heterozygous missense germline mutation within cystine codons of the cysteine-rich extracellular domain encoded by exons 10 and 11. Mutations were located in codon 619 (TGC-->TCC; Cys-->Ser) in one, in codon 635 (TGC-->CGC; Cys--Arg) in three, and in codon 635 (TGC-->TAC; Cys-->Tyr) in two pheochromocytomas. No tumor-specific (somatic) mutations were detected in exons 10, 11, and 16 of the sporadic pheochromocytomas. These data support recent findings that germline point mutations that are clustered in distinct cysteine codons of the RET proto-oncogene are involved in the neoplastic phenotype of the MEN 2A syndrome. Our results demonstrate that both nonradioactive single-strand conformation polymorphism and direct sequencing are suitable methods to detect single base substitutions in DNA extracted from archival material. Images Figure 1 Figure 4 PMID:7943181

  9. Mutations of the KIT (Mast/Stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene account for a continuous range of phenotypes in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Holmes, S.A. ); Ramesar, R.; Greenberg, J.; Beighton, P.; Curtis, D.

    1992-11-01

    Piebaldism is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of pigmentation, characterized by congenital patches of white skin and hair from which melanocytes are absent. The authors have previously shown that piebaldism can result from missense and frameshift mutations of the KIT proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular receptor tyrosine kinase for the mast/stem cell growth factor. Here, the authors report two novel KIT mutations associated with human piebaldism. A proximal frameshift is associated with a mild piebald phenotype, and a splice-junction mutation is associated with a highly variable piebald phenotype. They discuss the apparent relationship between the predicted impact of specific KIT mutations on total KIT-dependent signal transduction and the severity of the resultant piebald phenotypes. 35 refs., 5 figs.

  10. Activating c-KIT mutations confer oncogenic cooperativity and rescue RUNX1/ETO-induced DNA damage and apoptosis in human primary CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors.

    PubMed

    Wichmann, C; Quagliano-Lo Coco, I; Yildiz, Ö; Chen-Wichmann, L; Weber, H; Syzonenko, T; Döring, C; Brendel, C; Ponnusamy, K; Kinner, A; Brandts, C; Henschler, R; Grez, M

    2015-02-01

    The RUNX1/ETO (RE) fusion protein, which originates from the t(8;21) chromosomal rearrangement, is one of the most frequent translocation products found in de novo acute myeloid leukemia (AML). In RE leukemias, activated forms of the c-KIT tyrosine kinase receptor are frequently found, thereby suggesting oncogenic cooperativity between these oncoproteins in the development and maintenance of t(8;21) malignancies. In this report, we show that activated c-KIT cooperates with a C-terminal truncated variant of RE, REtr, to expand human CD34+ hematopoietic progenitors ex vivo. CD34+ cells expressing both oncogenes resemble the AML-M2 myeloblastic cell phenotype, in contrast to REtr-expressing cells which largely undergo granulocytic differentiation. Oncogenic c-KIT amplifies REtr-depended clonogenic growth and protects cells from exhaustion. Activated c-KIT reverts REtr-induced DNA damage and apoptosis. In the presence of activated c-KIT, REtr-downregulated DNA-repair genes are re-expressed leading to an enhancement of DNA-repair efficiency via homologous recombination. Together, our results provide new mechanistic insight into REtr and c-KIT oncogenic cooperativity and suggest that augmented DNA repair accounts for the increased chemoresistance observed in t(8;21)-positive AML patients with activated c-KIT mutations. This cell-protective mechanism might represent a new therapeutic target, as REtr cells with activated c-KIT are highly sensitive to pharmacological inhibitors of DNA repair.

  11. Oncogenic mutations mimic and enhance dynamic events in the natural activation of phosphoinositide 3-kinase p110α (PIK3CA)

    PubMed Central

    Burke, John E.; Perisic, Olga; Masson, Glenn R.; Vadas, Oscar; Williams, Roger L.

    2012-01-01

    The p110α catalytic subunit (PIK3CA) is one of the most frequently mutated genes in cancer. We have examined the activation of the wild-type p110α/p85α and a spectrum of oncogenic mutants using hydrogen/deuterium exchange mass spectrometry (HDX-MS). We find that for the wild-type enzyme, the natural transition from an inactive cytosolic conformation to an activated form on membranes entails four distinct events. Analysis of oncogenic mutations shows that all up-regulate the enzyme by enhancing one or more of these dynamic events. We provide the first insight into the activation mechanism by mutations in the linker between the adapter-binding domain (ABD) and the Ras-binding domain (RBD) (G106V and G118D). These mutations, which are common in endometrial cancers, enhance two of the natural activation events: movement of the ABD and ABD–RBD linker relative to the rest of the catalytic subunit and breaking the C2–iSH2 interface on binding membranes. C2 domain mutants (N345K and C420R) also mimic these events, even in the absence of membranes. A third event is breaking the nSH2–helical domain contact caused by phosphotyrosine-containing peptides binding to the enzyme, which is mimicked by a helical domain mutation (E545K). Interaction of the C lobe of the kinase domain with membranes is the fourth activation event, and is potentiated by kinase domain mutations (e.g., H1047R). All mutations increased lipid binding and basal activity, even mutants distant from the membrane surface. Our results elucidate a unifying mechanism in which diverse PIK3CA mutations stimulate lipid kinase activity by facilitating allosteric motions required for catalysis on membranes. PMID:22949682

  12. Satellite RNAs promote pancreatic oncogenic processes via the dysfunction of YBX1

    PubMed Central

    Kishikawa, Takahiro; Otsuka, Motoyuki; Yoshikawa, Takeshi; Ohno, Motoko; Ijichi, Hideaki; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Highly repetitive tandem arrays at the centromeric and pericentromeric regions in chromosomes, previously considered silent, are actively transcribed, particularly in cancer. This aberrant expression occurs even in K-ras-mutated pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) tissues, which are precancerous lesions. To examine the biological roles of the satellite RNAs in carcinogenesis, we construct mouse PanIN-derived cells expressing major satellite (MajSAT) RNA and show increased malignant properties. We find an increase in frequency of chromosomal instability and point mutations in both genomic and mitochondrial DNA. We identify Y-box binding protein 1 (YBX1) as a protein that binds to MajSAT RNA. MajSAT RNA inhibits the nuclear translocation of YBX1 under stress conditions, thus reducing its DNA-damage repair function. The forced expression of YBX1 significantly decreases the aberrant phenotypes. These findings indicate that during the early stage of cancer development, satellite transcripts may act as ‘intrinsic mutagens' by inducing YBX1 dysfunction, which may be crucial in oncogenic processes. PMID:27667193

  13. Biweekly cetuximab and first-line chemotherapy in chinese patients with k-ras wild-type colorectal cancers.

    PubMed

    Chan, Wing-Lok; Lee, Victor Ho Fun; Siu, Wai Kwan Steven; Ho, Pui Ying Patty; Liu, Rico King Yin; Leung, To Wai

    2014-07-01

    The efficacy and safety of using combination chemotherapy with cetuximab as first-line treatment in patients with K-ras wild-type colorectal cancers has been well established. In general, weekly cetuximab was given with biweekly chemotherapy FOLFOX-4 or FOLFIRI, synchronizing them would be appealed to both patients and health care professionals. This Phase II, prospective study investigated the efficacy and safety of using biweekly cetuximab 500 mg/m(2) with chemotherapy FOLFOX-4 or FOLFIRI as first-line treatment for Chinese patients with K-ras wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer. The study endpoints included overall objective response (OR), progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS) and safety. Total 15 Chinese patients (male: 10 [67%]; median age: 60 [range 41-80]) were enrolled. Patients received median 12 cycles (range 2-12) of chemotherapy + cetuximab (FOLFOX-4 + cetuximab: 9 [60%]; FOLFIRI + cetuximab: 6 [40%]). Six patients (40%) with non-progressive disease after 12 cycles of chemotherapy + cetuximab carried on maintenance cetuximab. Median duration of follow-up (FU) was 23.7 months. The OR was 40% (complete response: 0%; partial response: 40%) for a disease control rate of 87%. Median PFS and OS were 7.8 months and 17.9 months respectively. For maintenance cetuximab phase, median PFS since the start of maintenance cetuximab was 6.8 months and median OS was 17.0 months. The only grade 3-4 toxicities were neutropenia (26.7%) in chemotherapy phase and acneiform rashes (16.7%) in maintenance phase. Biweekly cetuximab with combination chemotherapy was effective and safe as weekly dose. Further studies are warranted for the role of maintenance cetuximab.

  14. Somatic mutations, acetylator status, and prognosis in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hardingham, J; Butler, W; Roder, D; Dobrovic, A; Dymock, R; Sage, R; Roberts-Thomson, I

    1998-01-01

    Background—Somatic mutations in K-ras and TP53 may be associated with both acetylator status and prognosis in colorectal cancer. 
Aims—To determine whether cancers with somatic mutations are more frequent in fast acetylators and whether mutations or acetylator status influence prognosis after colorectal surgery. 
Patients—One hundred consecutive subjects undergoing elective surgery for colorectal cancer. 
Methods—Acetylator status was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) genotyping for polymorphism in the N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) gene. Mutations in K-ras (codon 12) and TP53 were determined by PCR analysis using restriction enzyme digestion and single strand conformation polymorphism respectively. Survival from colorectal cancer for up to five years after diagnosis was analysed using the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to compare survival rates after adjusting for tumour stage. 
Results—Mutations in K-ras and TP53 were independent of acetylator status. By log rank test, survival was significantly reduced in subjects with TP53 mutations (p=0.003) but was not significantly related to acetylator status or the presence of K-ras mutations. After adjustment for tumour stage, subjects with both TP53 and K-ras mutations had a 4.2-fold case fatality (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 11.6) when compared with that of a TP53 negative reference group. 
Conclusion—The presence of both TP53 and K-ras mutations in colorectal tumours is an adverse prognostic marker which is independent of tumour stage. 

 Keywords: colorectal cancer; TP53 and K-ras mutations; acetylator status; prognosis PMID:9659162

  15. Characterization of a cluster of oncogenic mutations in E6 of a human papillomavirus 83 variant isolated from a high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion.

    PubMed

    Cannavo, Isabelle; Benchetrit, Maxime; Loubatier, Céline; Michel, Gregory; Lemichez, Emmanuel; Giordanengo, Valérie

    2011-10-01

    We previously isolated human papillomavirus 83 (HPV83m) from a cervical smear. Sequence analysis of E6 and E7 proteins highlighted five mutations located in the second putative zinc-finger region of E6 (E6m), an important domain for protein-protein or protein-DNA interactions. Here, we show that E6m of HPV83m can trigger human primary cell proliferation and anchorage-independent growth properties, similarly to E6 of HPV16, a high-risk HPV (HR-HPV). Interestingly, we demonstrate that, in contrast to E6 of HPV16, E6m corrupts neither p53 stability nor telomerase activity, but acts as a specific modulator of the transcriptional machinery. By studying E6m reversion mutants, we confirmed the importance of the second zinc-finger domain in triggering the observed upregulation of cell growth and of the transcriptional machinery. Reversion of these mutations in E6m (to yield strain E6r) fully abolished the oncogenic potential of E6m, transforming the phenotype of E6 from a high-risk to a low-risk phenotype. Importantly, our data define the importance of a cluster of mutations in the second zinc finger of E6m in increasing the oncogenic potential of HPV83.

  16. K-RAS MUTATIONS IN LUNG CARCINOMAS FROM NONSMOKING WOMEN EXPOSED TO UNVENTED COAL SMOKE IN CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Lung cancer mortality rate in nonsmoking women in Xuan Wei (XW) County is the highest in China. The XW lung cancer rate is associated with exposure to coal smoke, containing high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PARs), in unvented homes. Here we restig...

  17. K-RAS MUTATIONS IN LUNG CARCINOMAS FROM NONSMOKING WOMEN EXPOSED TO UNVENTED COAL SMOKE IN CHINA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Lung cancer mortality rate in nonsmoking women in Xuan Wei (XW) County is the highest in China. The XW lung cancer rate is associated with exposure to coal smoke, containing high concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PARs), in unvented homes. Here we restig...

  18. Development of a ligase detection reaction/CGE method using a LIF dual-channel detection system for direct identification of allelic composition of mutated DNA in a mixed population of excess wild-type DNA.

    PubMed

    Hamada, Mariko; Shimase, Koji; Noda, Keiichi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhiko; Hashimoto, Masahiko

    2013-05-01

    We developed an inexpensive LIF dual-channel detection system and applied it to a ligase detection reaction (LDR)/CGE method to identify the allelic composition of low-abundance point mutations in a large excess of wild-type DNA in a single reaction with a high degree of certainty. Ligation was performed in a tube with a nonlabeled common primer and multiplex discriminating primers, each labeled with a different standard fluorophore. The discriminating primers were directed against three mutant variations in codon 12 of the K-ras oncogene that have a high diagnostic value for colorectal cancer. LDR products generated from a particular K-ras mutation through successful ligation events were separated from remaining discriminating primers by CGE, followed by LIF detection using the new system, which consists of two photomultiplier tubes, each with a unique optical filter. Each fluorophore label conjugated to the corresponding LDR product produced a distinct fluorescence signal intensity ratio from the two detection channels, allowing spectral discrimination of the three labels. The ability of this system to detect point mutations in a wild-type sequence-dominated population, and to disclose their allelic composition, was thus demonstrated successfully.

  19. Functional significance of the novel H-RAS gene mutation M72I in a patient with medullary thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Barollo, S; Pezzani, R; Cristiani, A; Bertazza, L; Rubin, B; Bulfone, A; Pelizzo, M R; Torresan, F; Mantero, F; Pennelli, G; Moro, S; Mian, C

    2013-10-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) accounts for around 5-10% of all thyroid cancers. Though usually sporadic, 1 in 4 cases are of genetic origin, with germinal mutations in the RET proto-oncogene in familial forms and somatic mutations both in RET and in the RAS family genes in sporadic ones.This study aimed to characterize a rare H-RAS sequence variant -M72I- in a patient with sporadic MTC, focusing on its functional significance.Mutation analysis was performed for the RET, N-RAS, K-RAS and H-RAS genes by direct sequencing. Western blot analysis was done on 4 thyroid tissues from 1 patient carrying the M72I mutation in H-RAS, 1 with the Q61R mutation in H-RAS, 1 with no RET, H-RAS, K-RAS or N-RAS gene mutations, and 1 normal thyroid, using different antibodies against Erk1/2, phospho-Erk1/2 (Thr202/Tyr204), Akt and phospho-Akt (Ser473). Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations were completed for H-RAS wt and H-RAS M72I.Western blot analysis demonstrated that both MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways were activated in the MTC patient carrying the M72I variant. In silico results showed conformational changes in H-RAS that could influence its activation by Sos and phosphate binding. Results of molecular dynamics were consistent with Western blot experiments.The M72I mutation may contribute effectively to proliferation and survival signaling throughout the MAPK and PI3K/Akt pathways. This work underscores the importance of studying genetic alterations that may lead to carcinogenesis.

  20. Dietary supplementation of lutein reduces colon carcinogenesis in DMH-treated rats by modulating K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin proteins.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Camacho, R; González-Jasso, E; Ferriz-Martínez, R; Villalón-Corona, B; Loarca-Piña, G F; Salgado, L M; Ramos-Gomez, M

    2011-01-01

    In colon cancer, disturbances have been detected in genes coding for proteins involved in cellular proliferation, such as K-ras, β-catenin, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), and the protein kinase B (PKB). Although carotenoids such as lutein have an important role to prevent and treat some types of cancer, there are very few studies about the effect of lutein against colon cancer and its activity at the molecular level. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the chemoprotective activity of lutein against colon cancer induced by dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The results showed a significant increase in protein expression for K-ras and β-catenin in tumors of DMH-treated rats. Simultaneously, we detected changes in the phosphorylation state of ERK1/2 and PKB in DMH-treated animals. Lutein given in the diet (0.002%), before (prevention) and after (treatment) DMH administration, diminished the number of tumors by 55% and 32%, respectively. Moreover, lutein significantly decreased in tumors the expression of K-ras (25%) and β-catenin (28%) and the amount of pPKB (32%), during the prevention, and 39%, 26%, and 26% during the treatment stage, respectively. This study demonstrates the chemoprotective effect of lutein against colon cancer by modulating the proliferative activity of K-ras, PKB, and β-catenin proteins.

  1. Silencing the wild-type and mutant K-ras increases the resistance to 5-flurouracil in HCT-116 as a colorectal cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Teimoori-Toolabi, Ladan; Hashemi, Saba; Azadmanesh, Kayhan; Eghbalpour, Farnaz; Safavifar, Farnaz; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2015-02-01

    Colon cancer is the second to third common cancer worldwide. Several efforts have been made to reveal the pathways responsible for drug resistance in this type of cancer. We aimed to investigate the effect of silencing both mutant and wild-type Kristen Rous sarcoma (k-ras) on the response of human colorectal tumor 116 (HCT-116) as a colon cancer cell line to the cytotoxic effect of 5-flurouracil (5-FU). One oligonucelotide against mutant k-ras (12th codon, namely 207) and two against wild-type k-ras (namely 535 and 689) were cloned into pSilencer neo2.1. The linearized vectors besides the negative control plasmid were stably transfected into HCT-116. The proliferation rates of these cells in different concentrations of 5-FU and the apoptosis rates of the cells after treatment with lethal doses of 5-FU were studied. Moreover, the cell cycle in these cells was also analyzed by staining the cells with propidium iodide. Stably transfected cells were named HCT207ks, HCT535ks, HCT689ks, and HCT-Sc (transfected with the negative control plasmid). Decreased expression of k-ras in HCT207ks, HCT535ks, and to a lesser extent in HCT689ks was proved by quantitative real-time PCR. Although in HCT207ks the cells were mostly in G0/G1 and G2/M phases, in HCT535ks and HCT689ks, the cells in the S phase were higher in comparison with nontransfected HCT-116. Lethal doses of 5-FU in HCT-116 and HCT-Sc were 2.5-3 and 3-3.5 µmol/l, whereas in HCT207ks, HCT535ks, and HCT689ks, they were 35-40, 37.5-40, and 22.5-25 µmol/l. In conclusion, silencing mutant and wild-type k-ras would increase the resistance of HCT-116 cell line as a model of colorectal cancer to 5-FU. The degree of resistance was related directly to the k-ras mRNA level. Therefore, both mutant and wild-type k-ras may play a role in sensitizing colorectal cancer cells to 5-FU as a common chemotherapeutic drug.

  2. High frequency of BRAF proto-oncogene hot spot mutation V600E in cohort of colorectal cancer patients from Ahvaz City, southwest Iran.

    PubMed

    Asl, Javad Mohammadi; Almasi, Shekoufeh; Tabatabaiefar, Mohammad Amin

    2014-04-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common forms of cancer around the world. Sporadic CRCs are caused by accumulation of mutations in essential genes regulating normal proliferation and differentiation of cells. The proto-oncogene BRAF encoded by the BRAF gene is involved in the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathway of signal transduction during cell growth. Acquired mutations in BRAF have been found at high frequencies in adult patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and sporadic CRC. One of the predominant hot spot point mutations is T1799A (V600E) mutation among a cohort of CRC patients from Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. The aim of this study was to estimate the frequency of V600E mutation in CRC patients from Ahvaz city, southwest Iran. We analyzed exon 15 of the BRAF gene in isolated DNA from 80 Formalin Fixed Paraffin-embedded (FFPE) CRC tumor tissues using PCR-RFLP method. Data were analyzed using SPSS statistical program. According to our results 37 out of 80 cases (46.25%) were heterozygous for the mutation while the remaining 43 cases (53.75%) had normal homozygous genotype. No homozygous mutant genotype was found. Based on our findings, the frequency of V600E mutation appears to be significantly increased among CRC patients of the studied population but there was no significant relationship between genotypes and age and sex. In conclusion, these findings might prove the effect of V600E mutation on CRC pathogenesis. However, the exact effect of the mutation in CRC progression requires further work.

  3. The farnesyltransferase inhibitor, LB42708, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis irreversibly in H-ras and K-ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Han-Soo; Kim, Ju Won; Gang, Jingu; Wen, Jing; Koh, Sang Seok; Koh, Jong Sung; Chung, Hyun-Ho; Song, Si Young . E-mail: gisong@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-09-15

    LB42708 (LB7) and LB42908 (LB9) are pyrrole-based orally active farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) that have similar structures. The in vitro potencies of these compounds against FTase and GGTase I are remarkably similar, and yet they display different activity in apoptosis induction and morphological reversion of ras-transformed rat intestinal epithelial (RIE) cells. Both FTIs induced cell death despite K-ras prenylation, implying the participation of Ras-independent mechanism(s). Growth inhibition by these two FTIs was accompanied by G1 and G2/M cell cycle arrests in H-ras and K-ras-transformed RIE cells, respectively. We identified three key markers, p21{sup CIP1/WAF1}, RhoB and EGFR, that can explain the differences in the molecular mechanism of action between two FTIs. Only LB7 induced the upregulation of p21{sup CIP1/WAF1} and RhoB above the basal level that led to the cell cycle arrest and to distinct morphological alterations of ras-transformed RIE cells. Both FTIs successfully inhibited the ERK and activated JNK in RIE/K-ras cells. While the addition of conditioned medium from RIE/K-ras reversed the growth inhibition of ras-transformed RIE cells by LB9, it failed to overcome the growth inhibitory effect of LB7 in both H-ras- and K-ras-transformed RIE cells. We found that LB7, but not LB9, decreased the expression of EGFRs that confers the cellular unresponsiveness to EGFR ligands. These results suggest that LB7 causes the induction of p21{sup CIP1/WAF1} and RhoB and downregulation of EGFR that may serve as critical steps in the mechanism by which FTIs trigger irreversible inhibitions on the cell growth and apoptosis in ras-transformed cells.

  4. Solid-pseudopapillary tumors of the pancreas are genetically distinct from pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas and almost always harbor beta-catenin mutations.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Susan C; Klimstra, David S; Wilentz, Robb E; Yeo, Charles J; Conlon, Kevin; Brennan, Murray; Cameron, John L; Wu, Tsung-Teh; Hruban, Ralph H

    2002-04-01

    Solid-pseudopapillary tumors (SPTs) are unusual pancreatic neoplasms of low malignant potential that most frequently affect young women. Genetic events contributing to the development of SPTs are unknown. Whereas the more common ductal adenocarcinomas of the pancreas essentially never harbor beta-catenin or APC gene mutations, we have recently identified alterations of the APC/beta-catenin pathway in other nonductal pancreatic neoplasms including pancreatoblastomas and acinar cell carcinomas. We analyzed a series of 20 SPTs for somatic alterations of the APC/beta-catenin pathway using immunohistochemistry for beta-catenin protein accumulation, direct DNA sequencing of beta-catenin exon 3, and direct DNA sequencing of the mutation cluster region in exon 15 of the APC gene in those SPTs that did not harbor beta-catenin mutations. Immunohistochemical labeling for cyclin D1 was performed to evaluate the overexpression of this cell-cycle protein as one of the putative downstream effectors of beta-catenin dysregulation. In addition, we analyzed the SPTs for genetic alterations commonly found in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, including mutations in the K-ras oncogene and p53 and DPC4 tumor suppressor genes, using direct DNA sequencing of K-ras and immunostaining for p53 and Dpc4. Almost all SPTs harbored alterations in the APC/beta-catenin pathway. Nuclear accumulation of beta-catenin protein was present in 95% (19 of 20), and activating beta-catenin oncogene mutations were identified in 90% (18 of 20) of the SPTs. Seventy-four percent (14 of 19) showed overexpression of cyclin D1, ranging from 10 to 70% of tumor nuclei. In contrast, no K-ras mutations were present in any of the 20 SPTs, and Dpc4 expression was intact in all 16 SPTs for which immunohistochemical labeling was successful. Overexpression of p53 was limited to only 3 of 19 (15.8%) SPTs. These results emphasize the two distinct, divergent genetic pathways of neoplastic progression in pancreatic ductal and

  5. Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Neil S.; scopton, Alex P.; Dar, Arvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the Ras–mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies1. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes2. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold3–5 that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF6,7. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function. Guided by KSR mutations that selectively suppress oncogenic, but not wild-type, Ras signalling, we developed a class of compounds that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR. These compounds, exemplified by APS-2-79, modulate KSR-dependent MAPK signalling by antagonizing RAF heterodimerization as well as the conformational changes required for phosphorylation and activation of KSR-bound MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). Furthermore, APS-2-79 increased the potency of several MEK inhibitors specifically within Ras-mutant cell lines by antagonizing release of negative feedback signalling, demonstrating the potential of targeting KSR to improve the efficacy of current MAPK inhibitors. These results reveal conformational switching in KSR as a druggable regulator of oncogenic Ras, and further suggest co-targeting of enzymatic and scaffolding activities within Ras–MAPK signalling complexes as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming Ras-driven cancers. PMID:27556948

  6. Dominant negative and loss of function mutations of the c-kit (mast/stem cell growth factor receptor) proto-oncogene in human piebaldism

    SciTech Connect

    Spritz, R.A.; Giebel, L.B.; Holmes, S.A. )

    1992-02-01

    Piebaldism is an autosomal dominant disorder of melanocyte development and is characterized by congenital white parches of skin and hair from which melanocytes are completely absent. A similar disorder of the mouse, 'dominant white spotting' (W), results from mutations of the c-kit proto-oncogene, which encodes the cellular tyrosine kinases receptor for the mast/stem cell growth factor. The authors have identified c-kit gene mutations in three patients with piebaldism. A missense substitution (Phe[r arrow]Leu) at codon 584, within the tyrosine kinases domain, is associated with a severe piebald phenotype, whereas two different frameshifts, within codons 561 and 642, are both associated with a variable and relatively mild piebald phenotype. This is consistent with a possible 'dominant negative' effect of missense c-kit polypeptides on the function of the dimeric receptor.

  7. KRAS, BRAF oncogene mutations and tissue specific promoter hypermethylation of tumor suppressor SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 genes in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Bagci, Binnur; Sari, Musa; Karadayi, Kursat; Turan, Mustafa; Ozdemir, Ozturk; Bagci, Gokhan

    2016-06-24

    Colorectal cancer is a serious disease that causes significant morbidity and mortality in developed countries. Genetic changes, such as mutations in proto-oncogenes and DNA repair genes, and loss of function in the tumor suppressor genes cause colorectal cancer development. Abnormal DNA methylation is also known to play a crucial role in colorectal carcinogenesis. In this study, frequencies of KRAS and BRAF mutations, promoter hypermethylation profiles of SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 genes, and possible associations between hypermethylation of these genes and KRAS and BRAF mutations were aimed to find out. Ninety three colorectal cancer tissues and 14 normal colon mucosas were included in the study. Common twelve KRAS gene mutation were investigated with using reverse-hybridization strip assay method. BRAF V600E mutations were investigated with RFLP method. Hypermethylation status of five tumor suppressor genes were detected by using reverse-hybridization strip assay method after bisulfite modification of DNA. KRAS and BRAF mutation frequencies were determined as 54.84% and 12.9%, respectively. Promoter hypermethylation frequencies of tumor suppressor genes SFRP2, DAPK1, MGMT, HIC1 and p16 were determined as 66.7%, 45.2%, 40.9%, 40.9% and 15.1%, respectively. Statistically significant associations were found between BRAF mutation and SFRP2 and p16 tumor suppressor genes hypermethylation (SFRP2; p= 0.005, p16; p= 0.016). Compared to rectum, SFRP2 (p= 0.017) and MGMT (p= 0.013) genes have statistically significantly higher promoter hypermethylation in colon. Results of the current study have confirmed that KRAS mutations and SFRP2 hypermethylation can be used as genetic markers in colorectal cancer.

  8. Concomitance of oncogenic HPV types, CHEK2 gene mutations, and CYP1B1 gene polymorphism as an increased risk factor for malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Constantinou, Maria; Pietrusiński, Michał; Kępczyński, Łukasz; Jędrzejczyk, Adam; Rożniecki, Marek; Marks, Piotr; Kałużewski, Bogdan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Urinary bladder carcinoma ranks the fourth position in malignancy incidence rates in men (6.1%) and the 17th position in women (1.6%). In general, neoplastic diseases should be approached from two perspectives: prevention with implementation of prophylactic measures and early diagnostics. Prophylactics is possible in the preclinical phase of neoplasm, being both justified and plausible in patients from high–risk groups. Thus, it is particularly important to select such groups, not only by referring to environmental carcinogenic factors (occupational and extra–occupational) but also from genetic predisposition, which may be conductive for neoplasm formation. The mutations / polymorphisms of CHEK2 and CYP1B1 genes predispose to neoplasm via multiorgan mechanisms, while the human papilloma virus (HPV) may participate in the neoplastic transformation as an environmental factor. Material and methods 131 patients with diagnosed urinary bladder cancer were qualified to the study. Mutations/polymorphisms of CHEK2 (IVS2 + 1G > A gene, 1100delC, del5395, I157T) and CYP1B1– 355T/T were identified by the PCR in DNA isolated directly from the tumor and from peripheral blood. The ELISA test was used for the studies of 37 HPV genotypes in DNA, isolated tumour tissue. Results 11 mutations of CHEK2 gene were found, 355T/T polymorphism if CYP1B1 gene occurred in 18 patients (12.9%). Oncogenic HPV was found in 36 (29.3%), out of 123 examined patients. Conclusions The concomitance of CHEK2 gene mutations or 355T/T polymorphism of CYP1B1 gene and the presence of oncogenic HPV types statistically significantly correlates with histological malignancy grades of urinary bladder carcinoma. PMID:24578981

  9. The Fanconi anemia pathway controls oncogenic response in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by regulating PRMT5-mediated p53 arginine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Amarachintha, Surya; Erden, Ozlem; Wilson, Andrew; Pang, Qishen

    2016-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is involved in DNA damage and other cellular stress responses. We have investigated the role of the FA pathway in oncogenic stress response by employing an in vivo stress-response model expressing the Gadd45β-luciferase transgene. Using two inducible models of oncogenic activation (LSL-K-rasG12D and MycER), we show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from mice deficient for the FA core complex components Fanca or Fancc exhibit aberrant short-lived response to oncogenic insults. Mechanistic studies reveal that FA deficiency in HSPCs impairs oncogenic stress-induced G1 cell-cycle checkpoint, resulting from a compromised K-rasG12D-induced arginine methylation of p53 mediated by the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). Furthermore, forced expression of PRMT5 in HSPCs from LSL-K-rasG12D/CreER-Fanca−/− mice prolongs oncogenic response and delays leukemia development in recipient mice. Our study defines an arginine methylation-dependent FA-p53 interplay that controls oncogenic stress response. PMID:27507053

  10. Exomic Sequencing of Medullary Thyroid Cancer Reveals Dominant and Mutually Exclusive Oncogenic Mutations in RET and RAS

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Yuchen; Sausen, Mark; Leary, Rebecca; Bettegowda, Chetan; Roberts, Nicholas J.; Bhan, Sheetal; Ho, Allen S.; Khan, Zubair; Bishop, Justin; Westra, William H.; Wood, Laura D.; Hruban, Ralph H.; Tufano, Ralph P.; Robinson, Bruce; Dralle, Henning; Toledo, Sergio P. A.; Toledo, Rodrigo A.; Morris, Luc G. T.; Ghossein, Ronald A.; Fagin, James A.; Chan, Timothy A.; Velculescu, Victor E.; Vogelstein, Bert; Kinzler, Kenneth W.; Papadopoulos, Nickolas; Nelkin, Barry D.; Ball, Douglas W.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) is a rare thyroid cancer that can occur sporadically or as part of a hereditary syndrome. Objective: To explore the genetic origin of MTC, we sequenced the protein coding exons of approximately 21,000 genes in 17 sporadic MTCs. Patients and Design: We sequenced the exomes of 17 sporadic MTCs and validated the frequency of all recurrently mutated genes and other genes of interest in an independent cohort of 40 MTCs comprised of both sporadic and hereditary MTC. Results: We discovered 305 high-confidence mutations in the 17 sporadic MTCs in the discovery phase, or approximately 17.9 somatic mutations per tumor. Mutations in RET, HRAS, and KRAS genes were identified as the principal driver mutations in MTC. All of the other additional somatic mutations, including mutations in spliceosome and DNA repair pathways, were not recurrent in additional tumors. Tumors without RET, HRAS, or KRAS mutations appeared to have significantly fewer mutations overall in protein coding exons. Conclusions: Approximately 90% of MTCs had mutually exclusive mutations in RET, HRAS, and KRAS, suggesting that RET and RAS are the predominant driver pathways in MTC. Relatively few mutations overall and no commonly recurrent driver mutations other than RET, HRAS, and KRAS were seen in the MTC exome. PMID:23264394

  11. Gene Expression Patterns of Hemizygous and Heterozygous KIT Mutations Suggest Distinct Oncogenic Pathways: A Study in NIH3T3 Cell Lines and GIST Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dessaux, Sophie; Besse, Anthony; Brahimi-Adouane, Sabrina; Emile, Jean-François; Blay, Jean-Yves; Alberti, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most gain of function mutations of tyrosine kinase receptors in human tumours are hemizygous. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) with homozygous mutations have a worse prognosis. We aimed to identify genes differentially regulated by hemizygous and heterozygous KIT mutations. Materials and Methods Expression of 94 genes and 384 miRNA was analysed with low density arrays in five NIH3T3 cell lines expressing the full-length human KIT cDNA wild-type (WT), hemizygous KIT mutation with del557-558 (D6) or del564-581 (D54) and heterozygous WT/D6 or WT/D54. Expression of 5 of these genes and 384 miRNA was then analysed in GISTs samples. Results Unsupervised and supervised hierarchical clustering of the mRNA and miRNA profiles showed that heterozygous mutants clustered with KIT WT expressing cells while hemizygous mutants were distinct. Among hemizygous cells, D6 and D54 expressing cells clustered separately. Most deregulated genes have been reported as potentially implicated in cancer and severals, as ANXA8 and FBN1, are highlighted by both, mRNA and miRNA analyses. MiRNA and mRNA analyses in GISTs samples confirmed that their expressions varied according to the mutation of the alleles. Interestingly, RGS16, a membrane protein of the regulator of G protein family, correlate with the subcellular localization of KIT mutants and might be responsible for regulation of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Conclusion Patterns of mRNA and miRNA expression in cells and tumours depend on heterozygous/hemizygous status of KIT mutations, and deletion/presence of TYR568 & TYR570 residues. Thus each mutation of KIT may drive specific oncogenic pathways. PMID:23593401

  12. Modulation of EZH2 expression by MEK-ERK or PI3K-AKT signaling in lung cancer is dictated by different KRAS oncogene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Riquelme, Erick; Behrens, Carmen; Lin, Heather Y.; Simon, George; Papadimitrakopoulou, Vassiliki; Izzo, Julie; Moran, Cesar; Kalhor, Neda; Lee, J. Jack; Minna, John D.; Wistuba, Ignacio I.

    2016-01-01

    EZH2 overexpression promotes cancer by increasing histone methylation to silence tumor suppressor genes, but how EZH2 levels become elevated in cancer is not understood. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms by which EZH2 expression is regulated in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells by oncogenic KRAS. In cells harboring KRASG12C and KRASG12D mutations, EZH2 expression was modulated by MEK-ERK and PI3K/AKT signaling, respectively. Accordingly, MEK-ERK depletion decreased EZH2 expression in cells harboring the KRASG12C mutation, whereas PI3K/AKT depletion decreased EZH2 expression, EZH2 phosphorylation, and STAT3 activity in KRASG12D mutant cell lines. Combined inhibition of EZH2 and MEK-ERK or PI3K/AKT increased the sensitivity of cells with specific KRAS mutations to MEK-ERK and PI3K/AKT targeted therapies. Our work define EZH2 as a downstream effector of KRAS signaling and offer a rationale for combining EZH2 inhibitory strategies with MEK-ERK- or PI3K/AKT-targeted therapies to treat lung cancer patients, as stratified into distinct treatment groups based on specific KRAS mutations. PMID:26676756

  13. Oncogenes in melanoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. BRAF, NRAS, and KIT are three well-known oncogenes involved in melanoma pathogenesis. Targeting of mutated BRAF kinase has recently been shown to significantly improve overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients, underscoring the particular role of this oncogene in melanoma biology. However, recurrences regularly occur within several months, which supposedly involve further oncogenes. Moreover, oncogenic driver mutations have not been described for up to 30% of all melanomas. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the mutational landscape of melanoma, more recent studies used high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. A number of new oncogene candidates such as MAPK1/2, ERBB4, GRIN2A, GRM3, RAC1, and PREX2 were identified. Their particular role in melanoma biology is currently under investigation. Evidence for the functional relevance of some of these new oncogene candidates has been provided in in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, these findings await further validation in clinical studies. This review provides an overview on well-known melanoma oncogenes and new oncogene candidates, based on recent high-throughput sequencing studies. The list of genes discussed herein is of course not complete but highlights some of the most significant of recent findings in this area. The new candidates may support more individualized treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma patients in the future.

  14. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  15. Cetuximab in the first-line treatment of K-ras wild-type metastatic colorectal cancer: the choice and schedule of fluoropyrimidine matters.

    PubMed

    Ku, Geoffrey Y; Haaland, Benjamin A; de Lima Lopes, Gilberto

    2012-08-01

    Cetuximab, a monoclonal antibody against the epidermal growth factor receptor, inconsistently improves response rates (RR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in the first-line treatment of advanced colorectal cancer patients with K-ras wild-type (WT) tumors. We performed a meta-analysis of four trials where K-ras WT Pts received a fluoropyrimidine (infusional vs. bolus 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) vs. capecitabine) and oxaliplatin or irinotecan with and without cetuximab (CRYSTAL, OPUS, COIN and NORDIC VII trials) and two trials, where K-ras WT and mutant patients received cetuximab and a fluoropyrimidine (capecitabine in a German AIO study and infusional 5-FU in the CECOG study) with oxaliplatin versus irinotecan. We sought to determine whether the choice of fluoropyrimidine or of oxaliplatin versus irinotecan affects the response to cetuximab. Meta-analysis was performed in the context of a mixed effects model with a random effect for each study. Only patients treated with infusional 5-FU-based chemotherapy derived benefit from cetuximab. Relative to infusional 5-FU, patients treated with capecitabine/bolus 5-FU-based doublet chemotherapy had a 42 % (95 % CI 21-58 %; p < 0.001) decrease in response probability and a 52 % (95 % CI 20-93 %; p < 0.001) and 33 % (95 % CI 7-65 %; p = 0.012) increase, respectively, in risk of progression and death. The choice of oxaliplatin or irinotecan did not affect benefit from cetuximab. The lack of benefit for cetuximab with capecitabine/bolus 5-FU regimens is unexpected. Cetuximab should only be used with infusional 5-FU regimens in the first-line treatment of K-ras WT colorectal cancer patients. Further study is urgently needed to elucidate the basis of this observation.

  16. Molecular genetic characterization of p53 mutated oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma cells transformed with human papillomavirus E6 and E7 oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji-Eun; Kim, Jeong-Oh; Shin, Jung-Young; Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Won, Hye-Sung; Chun, Sang-Hoon; Jung, Chan-Kwon; Park, Won-Sang; Nam, Suk-Woo; Eun, Jung-Woo; Kang, Jin-Hyoung

    2013-08-01

    Patients with HPV-positive oropharyngeal cancer show better tumor response to radiation or chemotherapy than patients with HPV-negative cancer. HPV oncoprotein E6 binds and degrades a typically wild-type p53 protein product. However, HPV16 infection and p53 mutation infrequently coexist in a subset of HNSCCs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanisms through which tumor biology and molecular genetic mechanisms change when two HPV-negative, p53-mutated oropharyngeal cell lines (YD8, non-disruptive p53 mutation; YD10B, disruptive p53 mutation) derived from patients with a history of heavy smoking are transfected with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in vitro. Transfection with HPV E6 and E7 oncogenes in YD8, reduced the abundance of proteins encoded by tumor suppressor genes, such as p-p53 and p-Rb. Cell proliferative activity was increased in the cells transfected with E6E7 compared to cells transfected with vector alone (P=0.09), whereas the invasiveness of E6E7-transfected cells was significantly reduced (P=0.02). cDNA microarray of the transfected cells with E6E7 showed significant changes in mRNA expression in several signaling pathways, including focal adhesion, JAK-STAT signaling pathway, cell cycle and p53 signaling pathway. Regarding the qPCR array for the p53 signaling pathway, the mRNA expression of STAT1 was remarkably upregulated by 6.47-fold (P<0.05); in contrast, IGF-1R was significantly downregulated by 2.40-fold in the YD8-vector compared toYD8-E6E7 (P<0.01). Finally, data collected from these two array experiments enabled us to select two genes, STAT1 and IGF-1R, for further study. In immunohistochemical study, nuclear STAT1 expression was slightly higher in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative oropharyngeal tumors (P=0.18); however, cytoplasmic STAT1 was significantly lower in HPV-positive cases (P=0.03). IGF-1R expression levels were remarkably lower in HPV-positive compared to HPV-negative cases (P=0.01). Our data suggest that

  17. A PCR-mutagenesis strategy for rapid detection of mutations in codon 634 of the ret proto-oncogene related to MEN 2A.

    PubMed Central

    Roqué, María; Pusiol, Eduardo; Perinetti, Héctor; Godoy, Clara Pott; Mayorga, Luis S

    2002-01-01

    Background Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2A (MEN 2A) is a dominantly inherited cancer syndrome. Missence mutations in the codon encoding cysteine 634 of the ret proto-oncogene have been found in 85% of the MEN 2A families. The main tumour type always present in MEN 2A is medullar thyroid carcinoma (MTC). Only 25% of all MTC are hereditary, and generally they are identified by a careful family history. However, some familial MTCs are not easily detected by this means and underdiagnosis of MEN 2A is suspected. Methods DNA samples from MEN 2A patients were amplified by PCR. The products were incubated with the restriction enzyme Bst ApI or Bgl I. The samples were loaded in non-denaturing 10% Polyacrilamyde Gel and run at 120 volts for 40 min. The gels were stained with 10 μg/ml ethidium bromide, and the bands were visualized under a UV lamp. Results We developed a PCR-mutagenic method to check the integrity of the three bases of the cysteine 634 codon. Conclusion The method can be used to detect inherited mutations in MTC patients without a clear family history. The method is relatively simple to use as a routine test in these patients to decrease the underdiagnosis of MEN 2A. In addition, the assay can be used to screen affected families with any mutation in cysteine 634. PMID:12033991

  18. A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease affects the tyrosine kinase activity associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B.

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, M P; Panariello, L; Quadro, L; Dathan, N A; Fattoruso, O; Colantuoni, V

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that a Hirschsprung (HSCR) mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene abolishes in cis the tyrosine-phosphorylation associated with the activating mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) in transiently transfected Cos cells. Yet the double mutant RET2AHS retains the ability to form stable dimers, thus dissociating the dimerization from the phosphorylation potential. Co-transfection experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids RET2A and RET2AHS in different ratios drastically reduced the phosphorylation levels of the RET2A protein, suggesting a dominant-negative effect of the HSCR mutation. Also, the phosphorylation associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) allele was affected in experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids co-transfected under the same conditions. Finally, analysis of the enzymic activity of MEN2A and MEN2B tumours confirmed the relative levels of tyrosine phosphorylation observed in Cos cells, indicating that this condition, in vivo, may account for the RET transforming potential. PMID:8670046

  19. Germline mutations of the RET proto-oncogene in pedigree with MEN type 2A: DNA analysis and its implications for pediatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Shimotake, T; Iwai, N; Inoue, K; Inazawa, J; Nishisho, I

    1996-06-01

    To assess the feasibility of screening for multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN 2A), the authors used DNA sequence analysis to evaluate the RET proto-oncogene in a kindred with MEN 2A. The kindred consisted of 95 members (1 to 79 years of age) and their spouses, and spanned five generations. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood lymphocytes or lymphoblastoid cell lines established from the family members, and the RET gene was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using RET-specific primers (10q 11.2) and was sequenced. Periodic endocrine screening also was performed, by measuring the plasma calcitonin concentration after provocation with pentagastrin (0.5 microgram/kg intravenously) to assess its reliability for detecting the associated neoplasms. Nineteen patients were confirmed to have MEN 2A by medical records or the screening program. The DNA sequence of the PCR products from clinically established MEN 2A patients showed a mutation at codon 634 (TGC-->CGC) that resulted in an amino acid change from cysteine to arginine. Endocrine screening tests showed that six other family members had a mutated RET protooncogene. DNA sequencing can detect high-risk cases at a preclinical stage of the disease. The establishment of mutated MEN 2A gene carriers allows pediatric surgeons to consider total thyroidectomy at a very early stage of neoplasm development (C-cell hyperplasia) or even prophylactically.

  20. Assessment of the mutations of p53 suppressor gene and Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes in malignant mesothelioma in relation to asbestos exposure: a study of 12 American patients.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, Fumihiko; Araki, Shunichi; Suzuki, Yasunosuke; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Tanigawa, Takeshi; Iwasaki, Ryu

    2002-04-01

    In our previous study, we found no genetic alteration in exons 1 and 2 of Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes nor in exons 5 to 9 of the p53 suppressor gene in seven Japanese malignant mesothelioma patients exposed to asbestos. To examine further whether malignant mesothelioma due to asbestos has genetic alterations in the p53 suppressor gene and in Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes, we analyzed point mutations of these genes in paraffin embedded operative open biopsied samples of the primary tumor of malignant mesothelioma in twelve American patients. The genetic analysis was conducted by the PCR-SSCP (polymerase chain reaction single-strand conformation polymorphism) method in all patients and by sequencing analysis of DNA bases in the two patients with suspected gene mutation. The analysis of the p53 suppressor gene showed an amino acid converting mutation of exon 7 in one patient and a polymorphism of exon 6 in another patient; the former patient was a heavy smoker with a biphasic cell type. No genetic alteration was found in exons 1 and 2 of Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes in any of the patients. The results suggest that the effects of asbestos on the p53 suppressor gene and Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes in malignant mesothelioma are negligible. Further studies are needed to examine whether the observed mutation of the p53 suppressor gene is due to the combined effects of asbestos and smoking or to other unknown factors.

  1. Limited Role of Murine ATM in Oncogene-Induced Senescence and p53-Dependent Tumor Suppression

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Ortega-Molina, Ana; Soria, Rebeca; Collado, Manuel; Fernandez-Capetillo, Oscar; Serrano, Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Recent studies in human fibroblasts have provided a new general paradigm of tumor suppression according to which oncogenic signaling produces DNA damage and this, in turn, results in ATM/p53-dependent cellular senescence. Here, we have tested this model in a variety of murine experimental systems. Overexpression of oncogenic Ras in murine fibroblasts efficiently induced senescence but this occurred in the absence of detectable DNA damage signaling, thus suggesting a fundamental difference between human and murine cells. Moreover, lung adenomas initiated by endogenous levels of oncogenic K-Ras presented abundant senescent cells, but undetectable DNA damage signaling. Accordingly, K-Ras-driven adenomas were also senescent in Atm-null mice, and the tumorigenic progression of these lesions was only modestly accelerated by Atm-deficiency. Finally, we have examined chemically-induced fibrosarcomas, which possess a persistently activated DNA damage response and are highly sensitive to the activity of p53. We found that the absence of Atm favored genomic instability in the resulting tumors, but did not affect the persistent DNA damage response and did not impair p53-dependent tumor suppression. All together, we conclude that oncogene-induced senescence in mice may occur in the absence of a detectable DNA damage response. Regarding murine Atm, our data suggest that it plays a minor role in oncogene-induced senescence or in p53-dependent tumor suppression, being its tumor suppressive activity probably limited to the maintenance of genomic stability. PMID:19421407

  2. Benzo[b]fluoranthene: tumorigenicity in strain A/J mouse lungs, DNA adducts and mutations in the Ki-ras oncogene.

    PubMed

    Mass, M J; Abu-Shakra, A; Roop, B C; Nelson, G; Galati, A J; Stoner, G D; Nesnow, S; Ross, J A

    1996-08-01

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon benzo[b]fluoranthene (B[b]F) is a pervasive constituent of environmental combustion products. We sought to examine the lung tumorigenic activity of B[b]F in strain A/J mice, to study the relationship between formation and decay of B[b]F-DNA adducts and to examine mutations in the Ki-ras proto-oncogene in DNA from B[b]F-induced tumors. Mice were given i.p. injections of 0, 10, 50, 100 or 200 mg/kg body wt and lung adenomas were scored after 8 months. B[b]F induced significant numbers of mouse lung adenomas in a dose-related fashion, with the highest dose (200 mg/kg) yielding 6.95 adenomas/ mouse, with 100% of the mice exhibiting an adenoma. In mice given tricaprylin, the vehicle control, there were 0.60 adenomas/mouse, with 55% of the mice exhibiting an adenoma. Based on dose, B[b]F was less active than benzo[a]pyrene. DNA adducts were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by 32P-post-labeling in lungs of strain A/J mice 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 21 days after i.p. injection. Maximal levels of adduction occurred 5 days after treatment with the 200 mg/kg dose group, producing 1230 amol B[b]F-DNA adducts/microgram DNA. The major B[b]F-DNA adduct was identified by co-chromatography as trans-9, 10-dihydroxy-anti-11, 12-epoxy-5-hydroxy-9, 10, 11, 12-tetra-hydro-B[b]F-deoxyguanosine. Approximately 86% of the tumors had a mutation in codon 12 of the Ki-ras oncogene, as determined by direct DNA sequencing of PCR-amplified exon 1 and single-stranded conformation polymorphism analysis. Analysis of the Ki-ras mutation spectrum in 25 of 29 B[b]F-induced tumors revealed the predominant mutation to be a G-->T transversion in the first or second base of codon 12, congruous with the DNA adduct data. Our data are consistent with previous reports in mouse skin implicating a phenolic diol epoxide as the proximate carcinogenic form of B[b]F that binds to guanine.

  3. Oncogenic Activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Kinase Mutant Alleles Is Enhanced by the T790M Drug Resistance Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Godin-Heymann, Nadia; Bryant, Ianthe; Rivera, Miguel N.; Ulkus, Lindsey; Bell, Daphne W.; Riese, David J.; Settleman, Jeffrey; Haber, Daniel A.

    2010-01-01

    Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) characterize a subset of non–small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) with extraordinary sensitivity to targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). A single secondary EGFR mutation, T790M, arising in cis with the primary activating mutation, confers acquired resistance to these drugs. However, the T790M mutation is also detected in the absence of drug selection, suggesting that it may provide a growth advantage. We show here that although T790M alone has only a modest effect on EGFR function, when combined with the characteristic activating mutations L858R or del746–750, it results in a dramatic enhancement of EGFR activity. The double mutants show potent ligand-independent receptor autophosphorylation associated with altered cellular phenotypes, soft agar colony formation, and tumorigenesis in nude mice. The significant gain-of-function properties of these double mutants may explain their initial presence before drug selection and their rapid selection as the single drug resistance mutation during therapy with gefitinib/erlotinib, and suggests that they may contribute to the adverse clinical course of TKI-resistant NSCLC. PMID:17671201

  4. A single point mutation in erbA restores the erythroid transforming potential of a mutant avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) defective in both erbA and erbB oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Damm, K; Beug, H; Graf, T; Vennström, B

    1987-01-01

    We have characterized the v-erbA and v-erbB oncogenes of td359, a transformation-defective mutant of avian erythroblastosis virus (AEV) unable to transform erythroblasts, and the revertant r12, obtained after in vivo passage of the mutant. Molecular cloning, sequencing, construction of chimeric viruses and testing of their oncogenic capacities revealed that both oncogenes of td359 are mutated and biologically defective. The r12 virus, although still containing a mutant v-erbB gene, recovered its erythroid transforming potential by acquiring a highly active gag-erbA gene. These results demonstrate that two co-operating oncogenes, an active v-erbA and a defective v-erbB, can transform a cell type not transformed by either oncogene alone. Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution inactivated the td359 v-erbA protein and we show that its reversion led to the reactivation of the protein. This lesion is located in the same region as several previously described inactivating mutations of glucocorticoid receptors, suggesting that the structure/function relationship of the virally transduced form of the c-erbA/thyroid hormone receptor is closely similar to that of steroid hormone receptors. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. PMID:2884103

  5. Association between proto-oncogene mutations and clinicopathologic characteristics and overall survival in colorectal cancer in East Azerbaijan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Dolatkhah, Roya; Somi, Mohammad Hossein; Asvadi Kermani, Iraj; Bonyadi, Morteza; Sepehri, Bita; Boostani, Kamal; Azadbakht, Saleh; Fotouhi, Nikou; Farassati, Faris; Dastgiri, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third-most common cancer in Iran. The increasing incidence of CRC in the past three decades has made it a major public health burden in the country. This study aimed to determine any relationship of specific mutations in CRCs with clinicopathologic aspects and outcome of patients. Materials and methods This study was conducted on 100 CRC patients by the case-only method. Polymerase chain-reaction products were analyzed by Sanger sequencing, and sequence results were compared with the significant KRAS and BRAF gene mutations in the My Cancer Genome database. Logistic regression models were used to detect associations of clinicopathologic characteristics with each of the mutations. Kaplan–Meier and Cox regression models were constructed to estimate overall survival in patients. Results A total of 26 subjects (26%) had heterozygote-mutant KRAS, and mutations were not detected in the amplified exon of BRAF in both tumor and normal tissues of the 100 CRCs. Rectal tumors had 1.53-fold higher likelihood of KRAS mutations than colon tumors, and men had 1.37-fold higher odds than women. The presence of metastasis increased the likelihood of KRAS mutations 2.36-fold over those with nonmetastatic CRCs. Compared to patients with KRAS wild-type cancers, those with KRAS mutations had significantly higher mortality (hazard ratio 3.74, 95% confidence interval 1.44–9.68; log-rank P=0.003). Conclusion Better understanding of the causality of CRC can be established by combining epidemiology and research on molecular mechanisms of the disease. PMID:27994469

  6. Modulation of erbB kinase activity and oncogenic potential by single point mutations in the glycine loop of the catalytic domain.

    PubMed

    Shu, H K; Chang, C M; Ravi, L; Ling, L; Castellano, C M; Walter, E; Pelley, R J; Kung, H J

    1994-10-01

    Avian c-erbB is activated to a leukemia oncogene following truncation of its amino-terminal ligand-binding domain by retroviral insertion. The insertionally activated transcripts encode protein products which have constitutive tyrosine kinase activity and can induce erythroleukemia but not sarcomas. We have previously found that a valine-to-isoleucine point mutation at position 157 (V157I mutant) within the tyrosine kinase domain of this truncated erbB can dramatically activate the sarcomagenic potential of the oncogene and increase the kinase activity of this oncoprotein. This mutation lies at position 157 of the insertionally activated c-erbB product, affecting a highly conserved valine residue of the glycine loop involved in ATP binding and phosphate transfer. To investigate the functional importance of this residue in the catalytic activity of kinases, we have introduced at this position, by site-directed mutagenesis, codons representing the remaining 18 amino acid residues. Most of the mutants have diminished activity, with six of them completely devoid of kinase activity, indicating the sensitivity of this region to conformational changes. Some of these mutants displayed increased kinase activity and greater transforming potential in comparison with IA c-erbB, but none had levels as high as those of the V157I mutant. In general, the sarcomagenic potential of the various erbB mutants correlated with their autophosphorylation state and their ability to cause phosphorylation of MAP kinase. However, there are important exceptions such as the V157G mutant, which lacks enhanced autophosphorylation but is highly sarcomagenic. Studies of this and other autophosphorylation site mutants point to the existence of an autophosphorylation-independent pathway in sarcomagenesis. The requirement for leukemogenic potential is much less stringent and correlates with positivity of kinase activity. When the valine-to-isoleucine substitution was put in context of the full

  7. Mutations in the nucleolar phosphoprotein, nucleophosmin, promote the expression of the oncogenic transcription factor MEF/ELF4 in leukemia cells and potentiates transformation.

    PubMed

    Ando, Koji; Tsushima, Hideki; Matsuo, Emi; Horio, Kensuke; Tominaga-Sato, Shinya; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Iwanaga, Masako; Itonaga, Hidehiro; Yoshida, Shinichiro; Hata, Tomoko; Moriuchi, Ryozo; Kiyoi, Hitoshi; Nimer, Stephen; Mano, Hiroyuki; Naoe, Tomoki; Tomonaga, Masao; Miyazaki, Yasushi

    2013-03-29

    Myeloid ELF1-like factor (MEF/ELF4), a member of the ETS transcription factors, can function as an oncogene in murine cancer models and is overexpressed in various human cancers. Here, we report a mechanism by which MEF/ELF4 may be activated by a common leukemia-associated mutation in the nucleophosmin gene. By using a tandem affinity purification assay, we found that MEF/ELF4 interacts with multifactorial protein nucleophosmin (NPM1). Coimmunoprecipitation and GST pull-down experiments demonstrated that MEF/ELF4 directly forms a complex with NPM1 and also identified the region of NPM1 that is responsible for this interaction. Functional analyses showed that wild-type NPM1 inhibited the DNA binding and transcriptional activity of MEF/ELF4 on the HDM2 promoter, whereas NPM1 mutant protein (Mt-NPM1) enhanced these activities of MEF/ELF4. Induction of Mt-NPM1 into MEF/ELF4-overexpressing NIH3T3 cells facilitated malignant transformation. In addition, clinical leukemia samples with NPM1 mutations had higher human MDM2 (HDM2) mRNA expression. Our data suggest that enhanced HDM2 expression induced by mutant NPM1 may have a role in MEF/ELF4-dependent leukemogenesis.

  8. P53 mutations in triple negative breast cancer upregulate endosomal recycling of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) increasing its oncogenic potency.

    PubMed

    Shapira, Iuliana; Lee, Annette; Vora, Reena; Budman, Daniel R

    2013-11-01

    There is no available targeted therapy for triple-negative or its more aggressive subtype, basal-like breast cancer. Multiple therapeutic strategies based on translational knowledge have not improved the treatment options for triple negative patients. As understanding of molecular pathways that drive tumor development is rapidly increasing, it is imperative to adapt our treatment strategies to perturbations in molecular pathways driving the malignant process. Basal-like breast cancers over-express EGFR (without mutations or EGFR gene amplifications) and have p53 mutations. While EGFR drives the malignant behavior in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), anti-EGFR therapies have fallen short of the expected results in clinical trials. Here we bring evidence that the less than optimal results of the anti-EGFR therapies may be explained in part by the increased potency of the EGFR signaling due to increased endosomal recycling. The functional connection between EGFR and endosomal trafficking in TNBC is mutant p53 found in the most aggressive forms of TNBC. Mutant p53 acquires oncogenic functions and binds p63 protein, a member of p53 family with tumor suppressor activities. In the absence of functional p63 there is an upregulation of endosomal recycling EGFR and integrin to the membrane with increased proinvasive abilities of cancer cells. Blocking endosomal trafficking combined with anti-EGFR treatments may result in better clinical outcomes in TNBC.

  9. ras proto-oncogene activation in dichloroacetic acid-, trichloroethylene- and tetrachloroethylene-induced liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Anna, C H; Maronpot, R R; Pereira, M A; Foley, J F; Malarkey, D E; Anderson, M W

    1994-10-01

    The frequency and mutation spectra of proto-oncogene activation in hepatocellular neoplasms induced by tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and dichloroacetic acid were examined to help define the molecular basis for their carcinogenicity. H-ras codon 61 activation was not significantly different among dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced and combined historical and concurrent control hepatocellular tumors (62%, 51% and 69% respectively). The mutation spectra of H-ras codon 61 mutations showed a significant decrease in AAA and increase in CTA mutations for dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced tumors when compared to combined controls. The H-ras codon 61 mutation frequency for tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors was significantly lower (24%) than that of combined controls and also that of the two other chemicals. Mutations at codons 13 and 117 plus a second exon insert contributed 4% to the total H-ras frequencies for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. There was also a higher incidence of K-ras activation (13%) in tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors than in the other chemically induced or control tumors. Four liver tumors were found to contain insertions of additional bases within the second exon of K- or H-ras. These findings suggest that exposure to dichloroacetic acid, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene provides a selective growth advantage to spontaneously occurring mutations in codon 61 of H-ras and, at the same time, is responsible for a small number of unique molecular lesions suggestive of either a random genotoxic mode of action or a non-specific result of secondary DNA damage. However, the absence of ras activation in many of the liver neoplasms suggests that alternative mechanisms are also important in B6C3F1 mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

  10. The oncogenic 70Z Cbl mutation blocks the phosphotyrosine binding domain-dependent negative regulation of ZAP-70 by c-Cbl in Jurkat T cells.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, J E; Paik, P K; Samelson, L E

    1999-10-01

    T-cell receptor (TCR) engagement results in the activation of Src family (Lck and Fyn) and ZAP-70 protein tyrosine kinases, leading to tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple cellular substrates including the complex adapter protein c-Cbl. Moreover, Cbl is tyrosine phosphorylated upon engagement of growth factor receptors, cytokine receptors, and immunoreceptors and functions as a negative regulator of tyrosine kinase signalling pathways. Cbl associates via its phosphotyrosine binding (PTB) domain to the ZAP-70 pY292 negative regulatory phosphotyrosine. We recently demonstrated that the oncogenic Cbl mutant, 70Z Cbl, requires its PTB domain to upregulate NFAT in unstimulated Jurkat T cells. Here, we demonstrate that kinase-dead but not wild-type forms of Fyn, Lck, and ZAP-70 block 70Z Cbl-mediated NFAT activation. Moreover, 70Z Cbl does not upregulate NFAT in the ZAP-70-deficient P116 Jurkat T-cell line. The requirement for Fyn, Lck, and ZAP-70 is not due to tyrosine phosphorylation of 70Z Cbl, as mutation of all tyrosines in, or deletion of, the C-terminal region of 70Z Cbl (amino acids 655 to 906) blocks 70Z Cbl tyrosine phosphorylation but enhances 70Z Cbl-mediated NFAT activation. Further, 70Z Cbl does not cooperate with ZAP-70 Y292F to upregulate NFAT, indicating that 70Z Cbl and ZAP-70 do not activate parallel signalling pathways. Finally, the upregulation of NFAT observed upon ZAP-70 overexpression is blocked by Cbl in a PTB domain-dependent manner. We conclude that oncogenic 70Z Cbl acts as a dominant negative to block the PTB domain-dependent negative regulatory role of endogenous Cbl on ZAP-70, leading to constitutive ZAP-70 signalling and activation of transcription factors.

  11. Tobacco exposure results in increased E6 and E7 oncogene expression, DNA damage and mutation rates in cells maintaining episomal human papillomavirus 16 genomes.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lanlan; Griego, Anastacia M; Chu, Ming; Ozbun, Michelle A

    2014-10-01

    High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) infections are necessary but insufficient agents of cervical and other epithelial cancers. Epidemiological studies support a causal, but ill-defined, relationship between tobacco smoking and cervical malignancies. In this study, we used mainstream tobacco smoke condensate (MSTS-C) treatments of cervical cell lines that maintain either episomal or integrated HPV16 or HPV31 genomes to model tobacco smoke exposure to the cervical epithelium of the smoker. MSTS-C exposure caused a dose-dependent increase in viral genome replication and correspondingly higher early gene transcription in cells with episomal HPV genomes. However, MSTS-C exposure in cells with integrated HR-HPV genomes had no effect on genome copy number or early gene transcription. In cells with episomal HPV genomes, the MSTS-C-induced increases in E6 oncogene transcription led to decreased p53 protein levels and activity. As expected from loss of p53 activity in tobacco-exposed cells, DNA strand breaks were significantly higher but apoptosis was minimal compared with cells containing integrated viral genomes. Furthermore, DNA mutation frequencies were higher in surviving cells with HPV episomes. These findings provide increased understanding of tobacco smoke exposure risk in HPV infection and indicate tobacco smoking acts more directly to alter HR-HPV oncogene expression in cells that maintain episomal viral genomes. This suggests a more prominent role for tobacco smoke in earlier stages of HPV-related cancer progression. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Skin tumors induced by sorafenib; paradoxic RAS-RAF pathway activation and oncogenic mutations of HRAS, TP53, and TGFBR1.

    PubMed

    Arnault, Jean Philippe; Mateus, Christine; Escudier, Bernard; Tomasic, Gorana; Wechsler, Janine; Hollville, Emilie; Soria, Jean-Charles; Malka, David; Sarasin, Alain; Larcher, Magalie; André, Jocelyne; Kamsu-Kom, Nyam; Boussemart, Lise; Lacroix, Ludovic; Spatz, Alain; Eggermont, Alexander M; Druillennec, Sabine; Vagner, Stephan; Eychène, Alain; Dumaz, Nicolas; Robert, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of skin tumors in patients treated with sorafenib or with more recent BRAF inhibitors is an intriguing and potentially serious event. We carried out a clinical, pathologic, and molecular study of skin lesions occurring in patients receiving sorafenib. Thirty-one skin lesions from patients receiving sorafenib were characterized clinically and pathologically. DNA extracted from the lesions was screened for mutation hot spots of HRAS, NRAS, KiRAS, TP53, EGFR, BRAF, AKT1, PI3KCA, TGFBR1, and PTEN. Biological effect of sorafenib was studied in vivo in normal skin specimen and in vitro on cultured keratinocytes. We observed a continuous spectrum of lesions: from benign to more inflammatory and proliferative lesions, all seemingly initiated in the hair follicles. Eight oncogenic HRAS, TGFBR1, and TP53 mutations were found in 2 benign lesions, 3 keratoacanthomas (KA) and 3 KA-like squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Six of them correspond to the typical UV signature. Treatment with sorafenib led to an increased keratinocyte proliferation and a tendency toward increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation in normal skin. Sorafenib induced BRAF-CRAF dimerization in cultured keratinocytes and activated CRAF with a dose-dependent effect on MAP-kinase pathway activation and on keratinocyte proliferation. Sorafenib induces keratinocyte proliferation in vivo and a time- and dose-dependent activation of the MAP kinase pathway in vitro. It is associated with a spectrum of lesions ranging from benign follicular cystic lesions to KA-like SCC. Additional and potentially preexisting somatic genetic events, like UV-induced mutations, might influence the evolution of benign lesions to more proliferative and malignant tumors. © 2011 AACR.

  13. A recombinantly tailored β-defensin that displays intensive macropinocytosis-mediated uptake exerting potent efficacy against K-Ras mutant pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yue; Shang, Bo-yang; Sheng, Wei-jin; Zhang, Sheng-hua; Li, Yi; Miao, Qing-fang; Zhen, Yong-su

    2016-01-01

    K-Ras mutant pancreatic cancer cells display intensive macropinocytosis, indicating that this process may be exploited in the design of anticancer targeted therapies. In this study, we constructed a macropinocytosis-oriented recombinantly tailored defensin (DF-HSA) which consists of human β-defensin-2 (DF) and human serum albumin (HSA). The macropinocytosis intensity and cytotoxicity of DF-HSA were investigated in K-Ras mutant MIA PaCa-2 cells and wild-type BxPC-3 cells. As found, the DF-HSA uptake in MIA PaCa-2 cells was much higher than that in wild-type BxPC-3 cells. Correspondingly, the cytotoxicity of DF-HSA to MIA PaCa-2 cells was more potent than that to BxPC-3 cells. In addition, the cytotoxicity of DF-HSA was much stronger than that of β-defensin HBD2. DF-HSA suppressed cancer cell proliferation and induced mitochondrial pathway apoptosis. Notably, DF-HSA significantly inhibited the growth of human pancreatic carcinoma MIA PaCa-2 xenograft in athymic mice at well tolerated dose. By in vivo imaging, DF-HSA displayed a prominent accumulation in the tumor. The study indicates that the recombinantly tailored β-defensin can intensively enter into the K-Ras mutant pancreatic cancer cells through macropinocytosis-mediated process and exert potent therapeutic efficacy against the pancreatic carcinoma xenograft. The novel format of β-defensin may play an active role in macropinocytosis-mediated targeting therapy. PMID:27517152

  14. Recurrent fusion oncogenes in carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Manuel R

    2006-12-01

    Chromosome structural aberrations giving rise to fusion oncogenes is one of the most common mechanisms in oncogenesis. Although this type of gene rearrangement has long been recognized as a fundamental pathogenetic mechanism in hematologi-cal malignancies and soft-tissue tumors, it has until recently only rarely been described in the common carcinomas. In this review, the existing information on recurrent fusion oncogenes characterizing carcinomas is summarized, namely, the RET and NTRK1 fusion oncogenes in papillary thyroid carcinoma, PAX8-PPARG in follicular thyroid carcinoma, MECT1-MAML2 in mucoepidermoid carcinoma, the TFE3 and TFEB fusion oncogenes in kidney carcinomas, BRD4-NUT in midline carcinomas, ETV6-NTRK3 in secretory breast carcinomas, and TMPRSS2-ETS fusion oncogenes in prostate carcinomas. As in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, the most common types of genes involved in fusion oncogenes in carcinomas are transcription factors and tyrosine kinases. With a few exceptions, most fusion oncogenes are tumor type specific in carcinomas, as in other cancers. The mechanisms behind the relative specificity of this type of somatic mutation involve the cellular environment influencing the selection of oncogenic fusions, and the oncogenic fusions in turn driving differentiation programs that may alter the cellular environment. The data summarized on different types of carcinomas characterized by fusion oncogenes indicate that the pathogenetic mechanisms involved in epithelial carcino-genesis may be similar to those known to operate in hematological and soft-tissue malignancies, and further anticipates that many more fusion oncogenes await identification in the most common types of human cancer.

  15. Oncogene abnormalities in a series of primary melanomas of the sinonasal tract: NRAS mutations and cyclin D1 amplification are more frequent than KIT or BRAF mutations.

    PubMed

    Chraybi, Meriem; Abd Alsamad, Issam; Copie-Bergman, Christiane; Baia, Maryse; André, Jocelyne; Dumaz, Nicolas; Ortonne, Nicolas

    2013-09-01

    Primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is a rare but severe form of melanoma. We retrospectively analyzed 17 cases and focused on the histologic presentation and the expression of c-Kit, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), cyclin D1/Bcl-1, PS100, and HMB45 and searched for BRAF, NRAS, and KIT mutations that are known to be associated with melanoma subtypes, together with amplifications of KIT, cyclin D1, cyclin-dependent kinase 4, MDM2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In most cases (78%), an in situ component was evidenced. Invasive components were composed of diffuse areas of rhabdoid, epithelioid, or spindle cells and, in most cases, lacked inflammatory reaction, suggesting that an immune escape phenomenon probably develops when the disease progresses. EGFR was rarely and weakly expressed in the in situ component of 2 cases. None of the investigated case showed BRAF V600E, but 1 had a D594G mutation. NRAS mutations in exon 2 (G12D or G12A) were found in 3 cases (18%), and a KIT mutation in exon 11 (L576P), in 1, whereas c-Kit was expressed at the protein level in half of the cases. Amplifications of cyclin D1 were evidenced in 5 cases, confirmed in 3 by fluorescence in situ hybridization, but this was not always correlated with protein expression, found in 8 patients (62.5%), 3 having no significant amplification. In conclusion, primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is not associated with BRAF V600E mutations. Instead, NRAS or KIT mutations and cyclin D1 amplification can be found in a proportion of cases, suggesting that primary malignant melanoma of sinonasal tract is heterogeneous at the molecular level and should not be sensitive to therapeutic approaches aiming at BRAF.

  16. Oncogenic Effects of High MAPK Activity in Colorectal Cancer Mark Progenitor Cells and Persist Irrespective of RAS Mutations.

    PubMed

    Blaj, Cristina; Schmidt, Eva Marina; Lamprecht, Sebastian; Hermeking, Heiko; Jung, Andreas; Kirchner, Thomas; Horst, David

    2017-04-01

    About 40% of colorectal cancers have mutations in KRAS accompanied by downstream activation of MAPK signaling, which promotes tumor invasion and progression. Here, we report that MAPK signaling shows strong intratumoral heterogeneity and unexpectedly remains regulated in colorectal cancer irrespective of KRAS mutation status. Using primary colorectal cancer tissues, xenograft models, and MAPK reporter constructs, we showed that tumor cells with high MAPK activity resided specifically at the leading tumor edge, ceased to proliferate, underwent epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and expressed markers related to colon cancer stem cells. In KRAS-mutant colon cancer, regulation of MAPK signaling was preserved through remaining wild-type RAS isoforms. Moreover, using a lineage tracing strategy, we provide evidence that high MAPK activity marked a progenitor cell compartment of growth-fueling colon cancer cells in vivo Our results imply that differential MAPK signaling balances EMT, cancer stem cell potential, and tumor growth in colorectal cancer. Cancer Res; 77(7); 1763-74. ©2017 AACR. ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  17. No evidence of oncogenic KRAS mutations in squamous cell carcinomas of the anogenital tract and head and neck region independent of human papillomavirus and p16(INK4a) status.

    PubMed

    Prigge, Elena-Sophie; Urban, Katharina; Stiegler, Sandrine; Müller, Meike; Kloor, Matthias; Mai, Sabine; Ottstadt, Martine; Lohr, Frank; Wenz, Frederik; Wagner, Steffen; Wittekindt, Claus; Klussmann, Jens Peter; Hampl, Monika; von Knebel Doeberitz, Magnus; Reuschenbach, Miriam

    2014-11-01

    Carcinogenesis of squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) in the anogenital tract and head and neck region is heterogeneous. A substantial proportion of SCC in the vulva, anus, and head and neck follows a human papillomavirus (HPV)-induced carcinogenic pathway. However, the molecular pathways of carcinogenesis in the HPV-independent lesions are not completely understood. We hypothesized that oncogenic Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog (KRAS) mutations might represent a carcinogenic mechanism in a proportion of those HPV-negative cancers. Considering the repeated observation of KRAS-associated p16(INK4a) overexpression in human tumors, it was assumed that KRAS mutations might be particularly present in the group of HPV-negative, p16(INK4a)-positive cancers. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed 66 anal, vulvar, and head and neck SCC with known immunohistochemical p16(INK4a) and HPV DNA status for KRAS mutations in exon 2 (codons 12, 13, and 15). We enriched the tumor collection with HPV DNA-negative, p16(INK4a)-positive cancers. A subset of 37 cancers was also analyzed for mutations in the B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase (BRAF) gene. None of the 66 tumors harbored mutations in KRAS exon 2, thus excluding KRAS mutations as a common event in SCC of the anogenital and head and neck region and as a cause of p16(INK4a) expression in these tumors. In addition, no BRAF mutations were detected in the 37 analyzed tumors. Further studies are required to determine the molecular events underlying HPV-negative anal, vulvar, and head and neck carcinogenesis. Considering HPV-independent p16(INK4a) overexpression in some of these tumors, particular focus should be placed on alternative upstream activators and potential downstream disruption of the p16(INK4a) pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) and RET proto-oncogene: mutation spectrum in the familial cases and a meta-analysis of studies on the sporadic form.

    PubMed

    Figlioli, Gisella; Landi, Stefano; Romei, Cristina; Elisei, Rossella; Gemignani, Federica

    2013-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is an uncommon malignant tumor arising from the calcitonin-producing parafollicular cells (C cells) of thyroid. It accounts for 5-10% of all thyroid cancers, and it mostly occurs as a sporadic entity (sMTC), but a familial pattern (fMTC) is also possible. RET proto-oncogene germline mutations are crucial for the onset and the progression of fMTC, and the occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms could predispose to the sporadic form. In order to clarify the role of this gene in MTC, we carefully reviewed the PubMed database using appropriate terms. First, we summarized current knowledge of the germline RET mutations, mutation spectrum, and prevalence. We then performed a meta-analysis on the available case-control association studies for sMTC. Finally, we carried out in silico predictions of the best associated variants in the attempt to better define their role in the disease. To date, a total of 39 different RET germline mutations have been identified in fMTC families. The most affected codons are 609, 611, 618, 620 (exon 10) and 634 (exon 11), encoding for the extracellular cysteine-rich domain, and codons 768 (exon 13) and 804 (exon 14) of the intracellular tyrosine kinase domain. Six polymorphisms with at least three studies were included in the meta-analysis (A45A [rs1800858], G691S [rs1799939], L769L [rs1800861], S836S [rs1800862], S904S [rs1800863], and IVS1-126G>T [rs2565206]). The meta-analysis demonstrated a modest association of sMTC susceptibility with S836S and a strong association with the IVS1-126G>T polymorphism. Besides RET polymorphisms, we also investigated the role of a few other low-penetrance alleles of genes involved in the RET pathway or in xenobiotic metabolism, but none of these were confirmed. Thus, despite the well-known molecular basis of fMTC, the genetic variants of the sporadic form are still poorly understood, and functional analyses are needed to better understand the consequence of such RET

  19. BRAF(V600E) mutation is highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas in the young population in Fukushima: a different oncogenic profile from Chernobyl.

    PubMed

    Mitsutake, Norisato; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Matsuse, Michiko; Rogounovitch, Tatiana; Saenko, Vladimir; Uchino, Shinya; Ito, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-11-20

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the thyroid ultrasound screening program for children aged 0-18 at the time of the accident was started from October 2011. The prevalence of thyroid carcinomas in that population has appeared to be very high (84 cases per 296,253). To clarify the pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of driver mutations in these tumours. 61 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), two follicular variant PTCs, four cribriform-morular variant PTCs and one poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma were analysed. We detected BRAF(V600E) in 43 cases (63.2%), RET/PTC1 in six (8.8%), RET/PTC3 in one (1.5%) and ETV6/NTRK3 in four (5.9%). Among classic and follicular variant PTCs, BRAF(V600E) was significantly associated with the smaller size. The genetic pattern was completely different from post-Chernobyl PTCs, suggesting non-radiogenic etiology of these cancers. This is the first study demonstrating the oncogene profile in the thyroid cancers discovered by large mass screening, which probably reflects genetic status of all sporadic and latent tumours in the young Japanese population. It is assumed that BRAF(V600E) may not confer growth advantage on paediatric PTCs, and many of these cases grow slowly, suggesting that additional factors may be important for tumour progression in paediatric PTCs.

  20. BRAFV600E mutation is highly prevalent in thyroid carcinomas in the young population in Fukushima: a different oncogenic profile from Chernobyl

    PubMed Central

    Mitsutake, Norisato; Fukushima, Toshihiko; Matsuse, Michiko; Rogounovitch, Tatiana; Saenko, Vladimir; Uchino, Shinya; Ito, Masahiro; Suzuki, Keiji; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2015-01-01

    After the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, the thyroid ultrasound screening program for children aged 0–18 at the time of the accident was started from October 2011. The prevalence of thyroid carcinomas in that population has appeared to be very high (84 cases per 296,253). To clarify the pathogenesis, we investigated the presence of driver mutations in these tumours. 61 classic papillary thyroid carcinomas (PTCs), two follicular variant PTCs, four cribriform-morular variant PTCs and one poorly-differentiated thyroid carcinoma were analysed. We detected BRAFV600E in 43 cases (63.2%), RET/PTC1 in six (8.8%), RET/PTC3 in one (1.5%) and ETV6/NTRK3 in four (5.9%). Among classic and follicular variant PTCs, BRAFV600E was significantly associated with the smaller size. The genetic pattern was completely different from post-Chernobyl PTCs, suggesting non-radiogenic etiology of these cancers. This is the first study demonstrating the oncogene profile in the thyroid cancers discovered by large mass screening, which probably reflects genetic status of all sporadic and latent tumours in the young Japanese population. It is assumed that BRAFV600E may not confer growth advantage on paediatric PTCs, and many of these cases grow slowly, suggesting that additional factors may be important for tumour progression in paediatric PTCs. PMID:26584635

  1. Pediatric medullary carcinoma of the thyroid with point mutation of RET proto-oncogene associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia and initially diagnosed by fine-needle aspiration biopsy.

    PubMed

    Chai, Chiling; Lemos, Luciano B; Kaelbling, Margot; Baliga, Mithra

    2003-03-01

    A 7-year-old girl presented with a thyroid mass, elevated serum levels of calcitonin and carcinoembryonic antigen, as well as multiple mucosal nodules in the upper lip and tongue. Cytologic material obtained by fine-needle aspiration biopsy from the thyroid mass was diagnosed as medullary carcinoma and confirmed by immunohistochemical studies in the cell-block sections. Subsequent histopathologic examination showed involvement of both thyroid lobes by medullary carcinoma, and electron microscopic studies further confirmed the diagnosis. Molecular studies showed a point mutation in amino acid 918 in exon 16 of the RET proto-oncogene. Biopsies from the upper lip and tongue showed mucosal neuromas. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy is frequently used in the initial evaluation of thyroid nodules. This case illustrates the value of fine-needle aspiration biopsy as a safe and accurate diagnostic modality in the workup of pediatric thyroid nodules. Fine-needle aspiration biopsy should always be considered for the investigation of thyroid nodules in pediatric patients.

  2. Sulforaphane, quercetin and catechins complement each other in elimination of advanced pancreatic cancer by miR-let-7 induction and K-ras inhibition

    PubMed Central

    APPARI, MAHESH; BABU, KAMESH R.; KACZOROWSKI, ADAM; GROSS, WOLFGANG; HERR, INGRID

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has the worst prognosis of all malignancies, and current therapeutic options do not target cancer stem cells (CSCs), which may be the reason for the extreme aggressiveness. The dietary agents sulforaphane and quercetin enriched e.g., in broccoli, and the main and best studied green tea catechin EGCG hold promise as anti-CSC agents in PDA. We examined the efficacy of additional catechins and the combination of these bioactive agents to stem cell features and miRNA signaling. Two established and one primary PDA cell line and non-malignant pancreatic ductal cells were used. Whereas each agent strongly inhibited colony formation, the catechins ECG and CG were more effective than EGCG. A mixture of green tea catechins (GTCs) significantly inhibited viability, migration, expression of MMP-2 and -9, ALDH1 activity, colony and spheroid formation and induced apoptosis, but the combination of GTCs with sulforaphane or quercetin was superior. Following treatment with bioactive agents, the expression of miR-let7-a was specifically induced in cancer cells but not in normal cells and it was associated with K-ras inhibition. These data demonstrate that sulforaphane, quercetin and GTC complement each other in inhibition of PDA progression by induction of miR-let7-a and inhibition of K-ras. PMID:25017900

  3. Structure of the Catalytic Domain of EZH2 Reveals Conformational Plasticity in Cofactor and Substrate Binding Sites and Explains Oncogenic Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hong; Zeng, Hong; Dong, Aiping; Li, Fengling; He, Hao; Senisterra, Guillermo; Seitova, Alma; Duan, Shili; Brown, Peter J.; Vedadi, Masoud; Arrowsmith, Cheryl H.; Schapira, Matthieu

    2013-01-01

    Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is an important regulator of cellular differentiation and cell type identity. Overexpression or activating mutations of EZH2, the catalytic component of the PRC2 complex, are linked to hyper-trimethylation of lysine 27 of histone H3 (H3K27me3) in many cancers. Potent EZH2 inhibitors that reduce levels of H3K27me3 kill mutant lymphoma cells and are efficacious in a mouse xenograft model of malignant rhabdoid tumors. Unlike most SET domain methyltransferases, EZH2 requires PRC2 components, SUZ12 and EED, for activity, but the mechanism by which catalysis is promoted in the PRC2 complex is unknown. We solved the 2.0 Å crystal structure of the EZH2 methyltransferase domain revealing that most of the canonical structural features of SET domain methyltransferase structures are conserved. The site of methyl transfer is in a catalytically competent state, and the structure clarifies the structural mechanism underlying oncogenic hyper-trimethylation of H3K27 in tumors harboring mutations at Y641 or A677. On the other hand, the I-SET and post-SET domains occupy atypical positions relative to the core SET domain resulting in incomplete formation of the cofactor binding site and occlusion of the substrate binding groove. A novel CXC domain N-terminal to the SET domain may contribute to the apparent inactive conformation. We propose that protein interactions within the PRC2 complex modulate the trajectory of the post-SET and I-SET domains of EZH2 in favor of a catalytically competent conformation. PMID:24367611

  4. Mesenchymal transition and PDGFRA amplification/mutation are key distinct oncogenic events in pediatric diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas.

    PubMed

    Puget, Stephanie; Philippe, Cathy; Bax, Dorine A; Job, Bastien; Varlet, Pascale; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Carvalho, Dina; Reis, Ricardo; Guerrini-Rousseau, Lea; Roujeau, Thomas; Dessen, Philippe; Richon, Catherine; Lazar, Vladimir; Le Teuff, Gwenael; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Geoerger, Birgit; Vassal, Gilles; Jones, Chris; Grill, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and its prognosis is universaly fatal. No significant improvement has been made in last thirty years over the standard treatment with radiotherapy. To address the paucity of understanding of DIPGs, we have carried out integrated molecular profiling of a large series of samples obtained with stereotactic biopsy at diagnosis. While chromosomal imbalances did not distinguish DIPG and supratentorial tumors on CGHarrays, gene expression profiling revealed clear differences between them, with brainstem gliomas resembling midline/thalamic tumours, indicating a closely-related origin. Two distinct subgroups of DIPG were identified. The first subgroup displayed mesenchymal and pro-angiogenic characteristics, with stem cell markers enrichment consistent with the possibility to grow tumor stem cells from these biopsies. The other subgroup displayed oligodendroglial features, and appeared largely driven by PDGFRA, in particular through amplification and/or novel missense mutations in the extracellular domain. Patients in this later group had a significantly worse outcome with an hazard ratio for early deaths, ie before 10 months, 8 fold greater that the ones in the other subgroup (p = 0.041, Cox regression model). The worse outcome of patients with the oligodendroglial type of tumors was confirmed on a series of 55 paraffin-embedded biopsy samples at diagnosis (median OS of 7.73 versus 12.37 months, p = 0.045, log-rank test). Two distinct transcriptional subclasses of DIPG with specific genomic alterations can be defined at diagnosis by oligodendroglial differentiation or mesenchymal transition, respectively. Classifying these tumors by signal transduction pathway activation and by mutation in pathway member genes may be particularily valuable for the development of targeted therapies.

  5. Mesenchymal Transition and PDGFRA Amplification/Mutation Are Key Distinct Oncogenic Events in Pediatric Diffuse Intrinsic Pontine Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Bax, Dorine A.; Job, Bastien; Varlet, Pascale; Junier, Marie-Pierre; Andreiuolo, Felipe; Carvalho, Dina; Reis, Ricardo; Guerrini-Rousseau, Lea; Roujeau, Thomas; Dessen, Philippe; Richon, Catherine; Lazar, Vladimir; Le Teuff, Gwenael; Sainte-Rose, Christian; Geoerger, Birgit; Vassal, Gilles; Jones, Chris; Grill, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is one of the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and its prognosis is universaly fatal. No significant improvement has been made in last thirty years over the standard treatment with radiotherapy. To address the paucity of understanding of DIPGs, we have carried out integrated molecular profiling of a large series of samples obtained with stereotactic biopsy at diagnosis. While chromosomal imbalances did not distinguish DIPG and supratentorial tumors on CGHarrays, gene expression profiling revealed clear differences between them, with brainstem gliomas resembling midline/thalamic tumours, indicating a closely-related origin. Two distinct subgroups of DIPG were identified. The first subgroup displayed mesenchymal and pro-angiogenic characteristics, with stem cell markers enrichment consistent with the possibility to grow tumor stem cells from these biopsies. The other subgroup displayed oligodendroglial features, and appeared largely driven by PDGFRA, in particular through amplification and/or novel missense mutations in the extracellular domain. Patients in this later group had a significantly worse outcome with an hazard ratio for early deaths, ie before 10 months, 8 fold greater that the ones in the other subgroup (p = 0.041, Cox regression model). The worse outcome of patients with the oligodendroglial type of tumors was confirmed on a series of 55 paraffin-embedded biopsy samples at diagnosis (median OS of 7.73 versus 12.37 months, p = 0.045, log-rank test). Two distinct transcriptional subclasses of DIPG with specific genomic alterations can be defined at diagnosis by oligodendroglial differentiation or mesenchymal transition, respectively. Classifying these tumors by signal transduction pathway activation and by mutation in pathway member genes may be particularily valuable for the development of targeted therapies. PMID:22389665

  6. Radiosensitization of EGFR/HER2 positive pancreatic cancer is mediated by inhibition of Akt independent of Ras mutational status

    PubMed Central

    Kimple, Randall J.; Vaseva, Angelina V.; Cox, Adrienne D.; Baerman, Kathryn M.; Calvo, Benjamin F.; Tepper, Joel E.; Shields, Janiel M.; Sartor, Carolyn I.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Epidermal growth factor receptor family members (e.g., EGFR, HER2, HER3, and HER4) are commonly overexpressed in pancreatic cancer. We investigated the effects of inhibition of EGFR/HER2 signaling on pancreatic cancer to elucidate the role(s) of EGFR/HER2 in radiosensitization and to provide evidence in support of further clinical investigations. Experimental Design Expression of EGFR family members in pancreatic cancer lines was assessed by qRT-PCR. Cell growth inhibition was determined by MTS assay. The effects of inhibition of EGFR family receptors and downstream signaling pathways on in vitro radiosensitivity were evaluated using clonogenic assays. Growth delay was used to evaluate the effects of nelfinavir on in vivo tumor radiosensitivity. Results Lapatinib inhibited cell growth in four pancreatic cancer cell lines, but radiosensitized only wild-type K-ras-expressing T3M4 cells. Akt activation was blocked in a wild-type K-ras cell line, whereas constitutive phosphorylation of Akt and ERK was seen in lines expressing mutant K-ras. Overexpression of constitutively-active K-ras(G12V) abrogated lapatinib-mediated inhibition of both Akt phosphorylation and radiosensitization. Inhibition of MEK/ERK signaling with U0126 had no effect on radiosensitization, whereas inhibition of activated Akt with LY294002 (enhancement ratio 1.2–1.8) or nelfinavir (enhancement ratio 1.2–1.4) radiosensitized cells regardless of K-ras mutation status. Oral nelfinavir administration to mice bearing mutant K-ras-containing Capan-2 xenografts resulted in a greater than additive increase in radiation-mediated tumor growth delay (synergy assessment ratio of 1.5). Conclusions Inhibition of EGFR/HER2 enhances radiosensitivity in wild-type K-ras pancreatic cancer. Nelfinavir, and other PI3K/Akt inhibitors, are effective pancreatic radiosensitizers regardless of K-ras mutation status. PMID:20103665

  7. Electrochemical detection of point mutation based on surface ligation reaction and biometallization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Chu, Xia; Xu, Xiangmin; Shen, Guoli; Yu, Ruqin

    2008-05-15

    A highly sensitive electrochemical method for point mutation detection based on surface enzymatic ligation reaction and biometallization is demonstrated. In this method the surface-immobilized allele-specific probe, complementary to the mutant target, undergoes allele-specific ligation with the 5'-phosphorylated ligation probe in the presence of the mutant oligonucleotide target and E. coli DNA ligase. If there is an allele mismatch, no ligation takes place. After thermal treatment at 90 degrees C, the formed duplex melts apart, which merely allows the ligation product to remain on the electrode surface. Then, biotinylated detection probes hybridize with the ligation product. With the binding of streptavidin-alkaline phosphatase (SA-ALP) to the biotinylated probes, a non-reductive substrate of alkaline phosphatase, ascorbic acid 2-phosphate (AA-P), can be converted into ascorbic acid (AA) at the electrode surface. Silver ions in solution are then reduced by AA, resulting in the deposition of silver metal onto the electrode surface. Linear sweep voltammetry (LSV) is used to detect the amount of deposited silver. The proposed approach has been successfully implemented for the identification of single base mutation in codon 12 of K-ras oncogene target with a detection limit of 80fM, demonstrating that this method provides a highly specific, sensitive and cost-efficient approach for point mutation detection.

  8. A benign cultured colon adenoma bears three genetically altered colon cancer oncogenes, but progresses to tumorigenicity and transforming growth factor-beta independence without inactivating the p53 tumor suppressor gene.

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, S D; Myeroff, L; Cooper, M J; Traicoff, J; Kochera, M; Lutterbaugh, J; Swiriduk, M; Willson, J K

    1994-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous progression of a colon adenoma cell line to tumorigenicity and growth factor independence. This system allows direct comparison of biologic stages of malignant progression with alterations of colon cancer suppressor genes and oncogenes. VACO-235, a human colon adenoma cell line, is at early passages nontumorigenic in the nude mouse, unable to grow in soft agar, growth stimulated by serum and EGF, and growth inhibited by TGF-beta. VACO-235 daughter passages 93 and higher have in culture spontaneously progressed to being weakly tumorigenic, but retain all other growth characteristics of VACO-235 early passages. A mouse xenograft from late passage VACO-235 was reestablished in culture as the granddaughter cell line, VACO-411. VACO-411 is highly tumorigenic, clones in soft agar, and is unresponsive to serum, EGF, and TGF-beta. Early passage VACO-235 bears a mutant K-ras allele, bears only mutant APC alleles, expresses no DCC transcripts, and expresses only wild type p53 transcripts. VACO-411 retains the identical genotype, still expressing only wild type p53. Colonic cells after ras mutation, APC mutation, and DCC inactivation remain nontumorigenic and growth factor dependent. Malignant progression involves at least two additional steps, and in VACO-411 can proceed by a novel pathway not requiring p53 inactivation. Images PMID:8132740

  9. Tumor necrosis factor links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and K-ras mutant lung cancer through induction of an immunosuppressive pro-tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Caetano, Mauricio; Cumpian, Amber M.; Daliri, Soudabeh; Garza Flores, Alejandra; Chang, Seon Hee; Evans, Christopher M.; Yu, Zhentao; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known as an important regulator of tumor microenvironment and inflammation. TNF levels are markedly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR mouse). This was associated with a significant increase of neutrophils in BALF, accompanied by a marked increase in TNF level, suggesting a link between COPD, TNF, and lung cancer promotion. Therefore, we first overexpressed TNF in the airway epithelium of CC-LR mice, which promoted lung cancer by ∼2-fold. This was associated with increased numbers of Ki67 and CD31 positive cells in lung tumors of CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice. We also found a robust increase in NF-κB activation, and numbers of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung. Accordingly, we depleted MDSCs in CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice, which lead to significant tumor suppression emphasizing on the role of TNF-induced MDSCs in K-ras induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, we targeted TNF expression by crossing CC-LR mice with TNF knock-out mice (CC-LR/TNF-KO), which resulted in a significant decrease in lung tumor burden in the absence or presence of COPD-like airway inflammation. Interestingly, there were less MDSCs and lower Ki67 and CD31 expression in the lung of the CC-LR/TNF-KO mice. We conclude that TNF links COPD to lung cancer promotion by induction of an immunosuppressive MDSC response, and subsequent amplification of proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors. PMID:27853654

  10. Tumor necrosis factor links chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and K-ras mutant lung cancer through induction of an immunosuppressive pro-tumor microenvironment.

    PubMed

    Gong, Lei; da Silva Caetano, Mauricio; Cumpian, Amber M; Daliri, Soudabeh; Garza Flores, Alejandra; Chang, Seon Hee; Ochoa, Cesar E; Evans, Christopher M; Yu, Zhentao; Moghaddam, Seyed Javad

    2016-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is known as an important regulator of tumor microenvironment and inflammation. TNF levels are markedly elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), which is an independent risk factor for lung cancer. We have previously shown that COPD-like airway inflammation promotes lung cancer in a K-ras mutant mouse model (CC-LR mouse). This was associated with a significant increase of neutrophils in BALF, accompanied by a marked increase in TNF level, suggesting a link between COPD, TNF, and lung cancer promotion. Therefore, we first overexpressed TNF in the airway epithelium of CC-LR mice, which promoted lung cancer by ∼2-fold. This was associated with increased numbers of Ki67 and CD31 positive cells in lung tumors of CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice. We also found a robust increase in NF-κB activation, and numbers of neutrophils and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) in lung. Accordingly, we depleted MDSCs in CC-LR/TNF-Tg mice, which lead to significant tumor suppression emphasizing on the role of TNF-induced MDSCs in K-ras induced lung tumorigenesis. Finally, we targeted TNF expression by crossing CC-LR mice with TNF knock-out mice (CC-LR/TNF-KO), which resulted in a significant decrease in lung tumor burden in the absence or presence of COPD-like airway inflammation. Interestingly, there were less MDSCs and lower Ki67 and CD31 expression in the lung of the CC-LR/TNF-KO mice. We conclude that TNF links COPD to lung cancer promotion by induction of an immunosuppressive MDSC response, and subsequent amplification of proliferation and angiogenesis in tumors.

  11. Assessment of mutations of Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes and the p53 suppressor gene in seven malignant mesothelioma patients exposed to asbestos--PCR-SSCP and sequencing analyses of paraffin-embedded primary tumors.

    PubMed

    Kitamura, F; Araki, S; Tanigawa, T; Miura, H; Akabane, H; Iwasaki, R

    1998-01-01

    To examine whether malignant mesothelioma due to asbestos has genetic alterations in the Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes or in the p53 suppressor gene, we analyzed the point mutations of these genes in paraffin-embedded autopsy samples of the primary tumors of malignant mesothelioma in seven asbestos patients who died from malignant mesothelioma. The genetic analysis was conducted by the polymerase chain reaction-single strand comformation polymorphysms (PCR-SSCP) method in all patients, and through the sequencing of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) bases in one patient. No genetic alterations were found in exons 1 or 2 of Ha- and Ki-ras oncogenes, or in exons 5 to 9 of the p53 gene, in any of the patients. Further studies on a larger number of patients are required to reach a definite conclusion concerning the genetic effects of asbestos on malignant mesothelioma.

  12. Gain of function in the mouse model of a recurrent mutation p53(N236S) promotes the formation of double minute chromosomes and the oncogenic potential of p19(ARF).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lanjun; Wang, Boyuan; Zhao, Xilong; Wu, Xiaoming; Zhang, Qiushi; Wei, Chuanyu; Shi, Minling; Li, Yunlong; Tang, Wenru; Zhang, Jihong; Yang, Julun; Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Jia, Shuting; Luo, Ying

    2017-09-26

    The mutation p53(N236S) (p53S) has been identified as one of the recurrent mutations in human cancers by TCGA database. Our in vitro data revealed the oncogenic gain of function of p53S. To understand the function of p53S in vivo, we generated the p53S knock-in mouse. The p53(S/S) mice manifested highly invasive lymphomas and metastatic sarcomas with dramatically increased double minute chromosomes. The survival curve, the incidence of tumors and the tumor spectrum of p53(S/S) mice is very similar to the p53(R172H) mouse model. The p53(S/+) mice showed delayed onset of tumorigenesis and a high metastasis rate (40%) and low loss of heterozygosity rate (2/16). The activation of CDKN2A pathway in p53(S/S) MEF and tumors, and the accumulation of p19(ARF) protein in tumor tissues suggested p19(ARF) might contribute to the accumulation of mutant p53S protein in the tumor and promote tumorigenesis. The high expression of p19(ARF) correlated with mutant p53 accumulation and tumor progression, suggesting a dual role of p19(ARF) in tumor promotion or suppression that might depend on the p53 mutation status in tumor cells. The oncogenic gain of function of this recurrent mutation p53S prompts the reconsideration of p53 mutations function that occurs at a low frequency. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  13. [Efficacy and safety of panitumumab for K-ras wild-type unresectable or recurrent colorectal cancer - a study focusing on first-line treatment].

    PubMed

    Mitomo, Shingo; Suto, Takayuki; Umemura, Akira; Ishida, Kaoru; Kanno, Kiminori; Takeda, Daiki; Fujita, Tomonori; Otsuka, Koki; Nitta, Hiroyuki; Uesugi, Noriyuki; Sugai, Tamotsu; Wakabayashi, Go

    2014-06-01

    Panitumumab was approved in June 2010 for use in the treatment of unresectable advanced/recurrent colorectal cancer. Here, we report outcomes and adverse events of panitumumab combination therapy or single-agent chemotherapy for K-ras wild-type unresectable or recurrent colorectal cancers. Our study focused on first-line treatments. The study involved 18 patients who started receiving panitumumab in October 2010. Nine patients received panitumumab as a first-line treatment; 4, as a second-line treatment; and 5, as a third-line or subsequent treatment. The overall response rate was 27.8%. Among the patients who received panitumumab as a first-line treatment, the response rate was 55.6%. Grade 1 and 2 skin disorders were common adverse events. Grade 2 interstitial pneumonia was observed in 1 patient(5.6%). Grade 3 or higher events comprised peripheral neuropathy in 1 patient(5.6%)and neutropenia in another patient(5.6%). The treatment was beneficial, and metastatic foci were resected in 3 patients. In this study, the only adverse events of Grade 3 or higher were 1 case each of peripheral neuropathy and neutropenia. Accordingly, adequate control seemed possible. The specific line of treatment that panitumumab should belong to remains controversial. However, active initiation as first-line treatment should be considered for cases in which resection of metastatic foci can be expected from tumor reductions due to panitumumab.

  14. A homogeneous europium cryptate-based assay for the diagnosis of mutations by time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Crapez, E.; Bazin, H.; Andre, E.; Noletti, J.; Grenier, J.; Mathis, G.

    2001-01-01

    Oligonucleotide ligation assay (OLA) is considered to be a very useful methodology for the detection and characterization of mutations, particularly for clinical purposes. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer between a fluorescent donor and a suitable fluorophore as acceptor has been applied in the past to several scientific fields. This technique is well adapted to nucleic acid analysis such as DNA sequencing, DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction. We describe here a homogeneous format based on the use of a rare earth cryptate label as donor: tris-bipyridine-Eu3+. The long-lived fluorescence of this label makes it possible to reach a high sensitivity by using a time-resolved detection mode. A non-radiative energy transfer technology, known as time-resolved amplification of cryptate emission (TRACE®) characterized by a temporal and spectral selectivity has been developed. The TRACE® detection of characterized single nucleotide polymorphism using the OLA for allelic discrimination is proposed. We demonstrate the potentialities of this OLA–TRACE® methodology through the analysis of K-ras oncogene point mutations. PMID:11452039

  15. Oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes as paradigms in oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-09-01

    Cancer is the result of genetic and epigenetic changes that occur mainly in stem (precursor) cells of various cell types. Two main categories of genes are involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Oncogenes are activated proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes are inactivated by mutation in the global sense, that is point mutation, deletion, rearrangement, and duplication. Both types of genes are required for normal cell proliferation and differentiation and aberrant expression leads to abnormal cell proliferation. Ras and p53 genes are the paradigms for oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes, respectively, whereas the oncogenes carried by the human papillomaviruses (HPV) comprise the best example of tumor viruses involvement in human cancer.

  16. Preventive effects of butyric acid, nicotinamide, calcium glucarate alone or in combination during the 7, 12-dimethylbenz (a) anthracene induced mouse skin tumorigenesis via modulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway and associated micro RNAs.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Prakash; Sahay, Satya; Pandey, Manuraj; Qadri, Syed S Y H; Gupta, Krishna P

    2016-02-01

    Skin cancer is among the most common cancers worldwide and identifiable molecular changes for early and late stage of skin tumorigenesis can suggest the better targets for its control. In this study, we investigated the status of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway followed by NF-κB, cyclin D1, MMP-9 and regulatory micro RNA during 7, 12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) induced mouse skin tumorigenesis and its prevention by butyric acid (BA), nicotinamide (NA) and calcium glucarate (CAG), individually or in combination with respect to time. DMBA upregulated the K-Ras, PI3K, Akt, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and MMP-9, but downregulated the PTEN in a time dependent manner. DMBA also reduced the levels of micoRNA let-7a but induced the levels of miR-21 and miR-20a as a function of time. BA, NA and CAG were found to prevent DMBA induced changes, but they were most effective when used together in a combination. Reduced let-7a and miR-211 were correlated with the overexpression of K-Ras and MMP-9. Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-20a was correlated with the down regulation of PTEN and overexpression of Cyclin D1. Collectively, the enhanced chemopreventive potential of natural compound in combination via regulation of K-Ras-PI3K-AKTpathway along with regulatory micro RNAs provide a newer and effective mean for cancer management.

  17. MicroRNA let-7a inhibits the proliferation and invasion of nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line 95D by regulating K-Ras and HMGA2 gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Ying; Ren, Tao; Cai, Ying-Yun; He, Xiao-Ye

    2013-03-01

    MicroRNAs are closely linked to tumor metastasis and let-7a may play a role in inhibiting the proliferation, invasion, and metastasis of lung cancer. In vitro, we aim to observe the impact of let-7a on the proliferation and invasion of the nonsmall cell lung cancer cell line 95D by constructing a lentiviral vector that expresses let-7a. Cell proliferation assays and Transwell experiments were used to compare the proliferation and invasion of the 95D cell group with let-7a overexpressed or inhibited. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting analysis were used to compare the expression of K-RAS and HMGA2 at mRNA and the protein level in the above groups. The results showed the cells in the let-7a overexpressed group were significantly less proliferative and invasive than those in the let-7a inhibited group (p < 0.05). K-RAS and HMGA2 mRNA levels were significantly higher in the let-7a overexpressed group than those in the let-7a inhibited group (p < 0.05). However, the protein levels of K-RAS and HMGA2 were significantly lower in the let-7a overexpressed group than those in the let-7a inhibited group (p < 0.05). We suppose that let-7a inhibits the proliferation and invasion of the cell line 95D by regulating the translation of K-RAS and HMGA2 mRNA, not the transcription of the mRNA itself.

  18. Dasatinib treatment can overcome imatinib and nilotinib resistance in CML patient carrying F359I mutation of BCR-ABL oncogene.

    PubMed

    Barańska, Marta; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Gniot, Michał; Iwoła, Małgorzata; Lewandowska, Maria; Komarnicki, Mieczysław

    2008-01-01

    Point mutations of bcr-abl tyrosine kinase are the most frequent causes of imatinib resistance in chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) patients. In most CML cases with BCR-ABL mutations leading to imatinib resistance the second generation of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI- e.g. nilotinib or dasatinib) may be effective. Here, we report a case of a CML patient who during imatinib treatment did not obtain clinical and cytogenetic response within 12 months of therapy. The sequencing of BCR-ABL kinase domains was performed and revealed the presence of a F359I point mutation (TTC-to-ATC nucleotide change leading to Phe-to-Ile amino acid substitution). After 1 month of nilotinib therapy a rapid progression of clinical symptoms was observed. In the presence of the F359I point mutation only dasatinib treatment overcame imatinib and nilotinib resistance.

  19. Very early prophylactic thyroid surgery for infants with a mutation of the RET proto-oncogene at codon 634: evaluation of the implementation of international guidelines for MEN type 2 in a single centre.

    PubMed

    Piolat, Christian; Dyon, Jean-François; Sturm, Nathalie; Pinson, Stéphane; Bost, Michel; Jouk, Pierre-Simon; Plantaz, Dominique; Chabre, Olivier

    2006-07-01

    Genetic diagnosis available since 1993 established germinal mutations of the RET proto-oncogene at codon 634 as the main cause of inherited medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). International guidelines established in 1999 recommend that children with such mutations undergo a total thyroidectomy before age 5, with unspecified cervical neck dissection. Since 1993, only 41 of 275 thyroidectomies reported in RET 634 children were performed before age 5 (15%). The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of these guidelines in a single centre. Genetic diagnosis was proposed to the parents of all eight children born after 1992 from two RET 634 families. Total thyroidectomy was proposed before age 5 if the child carried a mutation. Genetic diagnosis was performed in all the children (aged 1-3) and thyroidectomy in the five who carried a mutation (aged 2-5). Cervical lymph node dissection varied from lymphadenectomy of central and lateral compartments in the eldest child to pickings in the youngest. There was no permanent hypoparathyroidism or recurrent nerve paralysis. C-cell hyperplasia, medullary thyroid carcinoma and lymph node metastasis were present in 5/5, 3/5 and 0/5, respectively. Undetectable pentagastrin-stimulated CT levels were achieved and maintained postoperatively in all five children (average follow-up 3.6 years). MEN 2 guidelines on thyroidectomy can be efficiently and safely implemented by a multidisciplinary team operating in a single centre. The lack of guidelines on cervical neck dissection remains a problem; this could be solved by determining an age under which this procedure would be deemed unnecessary.

  20. Measurement of tumor-associated mutations in the nasal mucosa of rats exposed to varying doses of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanxue; Bermudez, Edilberto; McKinzie, Page B; Andersen, Melvin E; Clewell, Harvey J; Parsons, Barbara L

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the potential induction of tumor-associated mutations in formaldehyde-exposed rat nasal mucosa using a sensitive method, allele-specific competitive blocker-PCR (ACB-PCR). Levels of p53 codon 271 CGT to CAT and K-Ras codon 12 GGT to GAT mutations were quantified in nasal mucosa of rats exposed to formaldehyde. In addition, nasal mucosa cell proliferation was monitored because regenerative cell proliferation is considered a key event in formaldehyde-induced carcinogenesis. Male F344 rats (6-7 weeks old, 5 rats/group) were exposed to 0, 0.7, 2, 6, 10, and 15 ppm formaldehyde for 13 weeks (6 h/day, 5 days/week). ACB-PCR was used to determine levels of p53 and K-Ras mutations. Although two of five untreated rats had measureable spontaneous p53 mutant fractions (MFs), most nasal mucosa samples had p53 MFs below 10(-5). All K-Ras MF measurements were below 10(-5). No dose-related increases in p53 or K-Ras MF were observed, even though significant increases in bromodeoxyuridine incorporation demonstrated induced cell proliferation in the 10 and 15 ppm formaldehyde-treatment groups. Therefore, induction of tumor-associated p53 mutation likely occurs after several other key events in formaldehyde-induced carcinogenesis.

  1. Depletion of pro-oncogenic RUNX2 enhances gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-mutated pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells through the induction of pro-apoptotic TAp63

    PubMed Central

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Nakamura, Mizuyo; Ogata, Takehiro; Sang, Meijie; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Sang, Meixiang; Shimozato, Osamu

    2016-01-01

    Recently, we have described that siRNA-mediated silencing of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) improves anti-cancer drug gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-deficient human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells through the augmentation of p53 family TAp63-dependent cell death pathway. In this manuscript, we have extended our study to p53-mutated human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. According to our present results, knockdown of mutant p53 alone had a marginal effect on GEM-mediated cell death of Panc-1 cells. We then sought to deplete RUNX2 using siRNA in Panc-1 cells and examined its effect on GEM sensitivity. Under our experimental conditions, RUNX2 knockdown caused a significant enhancement of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Notably, GEM-mediated induction of TAp63 but not of TAp73 was further stimulated in RUNX2-depleted Panc-1 cells, indicating that, like AsPC-1 cells, TAp63 might play a pivotal role in the regulation of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Consistent with this notion, forced expression of TAp63α in Panc-1 cells promoted cell cycle arrest and/or cell death, and massively increased luciferase activities driven by TAp63-target gene promoters such as p21WAF1 and NOXA. In addition, immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RUNX2 forms a complex with TAp63 in Panc-1 cells. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that depletion of RUNX2 enhances the cytotoxic effect of GEM on p53-mutated Panc-1 cells through the stimulation of TAp63-dependent cell death pathway even in the presence of a large amount of pro-oncogenic mutant p53, and might provide an attractive strategy to treat pancreatic cancer patients with p53 mutations. PMID:27713122

  2. Depletion of pro-oncogenic RUNX2 enhances gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-mutated pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells through the induction of pro-apoptotic TAp63.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Toshinori; Nakamura, Mizuyo; Ogata, Takehiro; Sang, Meijie; Yoda, Hiroyuki; Hiraoka, Kiriko; Sang, Meixiang; Shimozato, Osamu

    2016-11-01

    Recently, we have described that siRNA-mediated silencing of runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) improves anti-cancer drug gemcitabine (GEM) sensitivity of p53-deficient human pancreatic cancer AsPC-1 cells through the augmentation of p53 family TAp63-dependent cell death pathway. In this manuscript, we have extended our study to p53-mutated human pancreatic cancer Panc-1 cells. According to our present results, knockdown of mutant p53 alone had a marginal effect on GEM-mediated cell death of Panc-1 cells. We then sought to deplete RUNX2 using siRNA in Panc-1 cells and examined its effect on GEM sensitivity. Under our experimental conditions, RUNX2 knockdown caused a significant enhancement of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Notably, GEM-mediated induction of TAp63 but not of TAp73 was further stimulated in RUNX2-depleted Panc-1 cells, indicating that, like AsPC-1 cells, TAp63 might play a pivotal role in the regulation of GEM sensitivity of Panc-1 cells. Consistent with this notion, forced expression of TAp63α in Panc-1 cells promoted cell cycle arrest and/or cell death, and massively increased luciferase activities driven by TAp63-target gene promoters such as p21WAF1 and NOXA. In addition, immunoprecipitation experiments indicated that RUNX2 forms a complex with TAp63 in Panc-1 cells. Taken together, our current observations strongly suggest that depletion of RUNX2 enhances the cytotoxic effect of GEM on p53-mutated Panc-1 cells through the stimulation of TAp63-dependent cell death pathway even in the presence of a large amount of pro-oncogenic mutant p53, and might provide an attractive strategy to treat pancreatic cancer patients with p53 mutations.

  3. Surgical and clinical strategies in the management of thyroid medullary carcinoma in children with and without ret proto-oncogene mutations.

    PubMed

    Boybeyi-Türer, Özlem; Vurallı, Doğuş; Karnak, İbrahim; Gönç, Nazlı; Yalçın, Emel Şule; Orhan, Diclehan; Kandemir, Nurgün; Tanyel, Feridun Cahit

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) may arise sporadically or in familial manner. We presented sporadic and familial cases with MTC in order to raise awareness on management of such patients. Three medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) cases were presented. Case 1 had RET634 mutation; managed with total thyroidectomy (TT) and cervical lymph node dissection (CLND). Case 2 had RET804 mutation; managed with prophylactic TT. Case 3 had thyroid nodule; managed with TT and CLND. Case 1 had micro-carcinomatosis foci, Case 2 had normal thyroid tissue in histopathological examination and Case 3 had medullary thyroid carcinoma with tumor negative surgical borders. Case 1 was re-operated for persisting focus of disease. Follow-up of cases were uneventful. Clinicians and surgeons should be aware of critical timing for surgery and various surgical and clinical strategies in the management of MTC in children.

  4. Oncogene addiction: pathways of therapeutic response, resistance, and road maps toward a cure

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Raymond; Shao, Wenlin; Sellers, William R

    2015-01-01

    A key goal of cancer therapeutics is to selectively target the genetic lesions that initiate and maintain cancer cell proliferation and survival. While most cancers harbor multiple oncogenic mutations, a wealth of preclinical and clinical data supports that many cancers are sensitive to inhibition of single oncogenes, a concept referred to as ‘oncogene addiction’. Herein, we describe the clinical evidence supporting oncogene addiction and discuss common mechanistic themes emerging from the response and acquired resistance to oncogene-targeted therapies. Finally, we suggest several opportunities toward exploiting oncogene addiction to achieve curative cancer therapies. PMID:25680965

  5. Panitumumab and irinotecan every 3 weeks is an active and convenient regimen for second-line treatment of patients with wild-type K-RAS metastatic colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrato, A; Gómez, A; Escudero, P; Chaves, M; Rivera, F; Marcuello, E; González, E; Grávalos, C; Constenla, M; Manzano, J Luis; Losa, F; Maurel, J; Dueñas, R; Massuti, B; Gallego, J; Aparicio, J; Antón, A; Aranda, E

    2013-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety profile of the combination of panitumumab and irinotecan every 3 weeks in a phase II trial as second-line treatment in patients with advanced wild-type (WT) K-RAS colorectal cancer (CRC). Fifty-three patients received 9 mg/kg of panitumumab followed by 350 mg/m(2) of irinotecan every 21 days until disease progression, unacceptable toxicity or consent withdrawal. Median age of patients included was 67 years. All patients had previously received 5-fluorouracil, 84 % oxaliplatin and 8 % irinotecan as first-line treatment. Patients received a median of five infusions of panitumumab and irinotecan. On an intention-to-treat analysis, 12 patients (23 %) achieved partial responses and 22 patients (41 %) achieved disease stabilization. Median progression-free survival and overall survival were 4.5 and 15.1 months, respectively. The most frequent treatment-related severe toxicities per patient were diarrhoea (35.8 %), followed by skin rash (32.1 %), asthenia (18.9 %) and neutropenia (13.2 %). A significant association between clinical response and incidence and grade of skin toxicity was observed (p = 0.0032). This study shows that the administration of panitumumab plus irinotecan every 3 weeks is safe, active and feasible as second-line treatment in patients with advanced WT K-RAS CRC.

  6. Synonymous mutations frequently act as driver mutations in human cancers.

    PubMed

    Supek, Fran; Miñana, Belén; Valcárcel, Juan; Gabaldón, Toni; Lehner, Ben

    2014-03-13

    Synonymous mutations change the sequence of a gene without directly altering the sequence of the encoded protein. Here, we present evidence that these "silent" mutations frequently contribute to human cancer. Selection on synonymous mutations in oncogenes is cancer-type specific, and although the functional consequences of cancer-associated synonymous mutations may be diverse, they recurrently alter exonic motifs that regulate splicing and are associated with changes in oncogene splicing in tumors. The p53 tumor suppressor (TP53) also has recurrent synonymous mutations, but, in contrast to those in oncogenes, these are adjacent to splice sites and inactivate them. We estimate that between one in two and one in five silent mutations in oncogenes have been selected, equating to ~6%- 8% of all selected single-nucleotide changes in these genes. In addition, our analyses suggest that dosage-sensitive oncogenes have selected mutations in their 3' UTRs.

  7. [Oncogenes and the origin of leukemia. Acute avian leukemia viruses].

    PubMed

    Graf, T

    1988-03-01

    Oncogenes have been intimately associated with the genesis of human neoplasms. A particularly useful system to study the mechanism of tumorigenesis is a small group of avian retroviruses that carry two oncogenes. These viruses causes acute leukemias and can transform hematopoietic cells in vitro. The mechanisms by which viral oncogenes affect the growth control and differentiation of their target cells is now understood in fair detail for two of these virus strains. In the avian erythroblastosis virus AEV, the v-erbB oncogene deregulates the growth control of erythroid precursors, while verbA blocks their terminal differentiation into erythrocytes. Based on the findings that v-erbB oncogene corresponds to a mutated growth factor receptor gene and that v-erbA corresponds to a mutated hormone receptor gene, models have been developed that explain the function of these two oncogenes on a molecular basis. The myelomonocytic leukemia virus MH2 acts by a completely different mechanism. In this case, the v-myc oncogene stimulates the proliferation of macrophage-like cells, while the v-mil gene stimulates them to produce their own growth factor, thus leading to autocrine growth. It will be interesting to determine whether the type of mechanisms of oncogene cooperativity elucidated for acute leukemia viruses are also operative during leukemogenesis in humans.

  8. Case report: a p.C618S RET proto-oncogene germline mutation in a large Chinese pedigree with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Qi, X-P; Ying, R-B; Ma, J-M; Liu, W-T; Du, Z-F; Fei, J; Yang, C-P; Song, Q-Z; Jin, H-Y; Chen, Z-G; Han, J-S; Wang, J-Q; Chen, X-L; Zhao, Y; Lu, J-J; Zhang, X-N

    2012-03-01

    We report a Chinese pedigree with familial medullary thyroid carcinoma. Direct sequencing of the entire coding sequences of Rearranged during Transfection (RET) identified a recurrent c.T1852A (p.C618S) mutation in 13 of 23 members. The polymorphisms c.A135G (p.A45A), c.A1296G (p.A432A), c.T2307G (p.L769L) and IVS19 + 15T > C were also found in 13 carriers, and c.G2073A (p.G691S) was found in 1 carrier. Of the 13 carriers, seven (mean age: 42.6 years, range: 27-64) presented MTC as the isolated clinical phenotype, with elevated basal serum calcitonin (average: 1077.9 ng/L, range: 504-2,652) and a mean diameter of thyroid nodules of 2.97 cm (range: 1.6-4.3); they underwent a total thyroidectomy with modified bilateral/unilateral neck dissection and/or level VI lymph node dissection. The other 6 carriers did not accept surgery (4 rejected, 2 awaited). These were 2 older patients (63 and 32 years) with elevated calcitonin (1359 and 41.4 ng/L) and multi-centric hypoechoic nodules (1.5 and 0.6 cm) with calcifications in both/left thyroid lobes; and Doppler ultrasound showed normal bilateral thyroids in 4 younger carriers (median age: 8.3 years, range: 4-12) but with increased calcitonin (average: 9.7 ng/L, range: 7.87-12.2) in 3 of them. The phenotype here is consistent with the clinical symptoms reported worldwide. We recommend that screening of hotspot regions of RET should be preferentially carried out, while whole-exon sequencing should be performed when clinical signs fail to reveal hotspot mutations or different phenotype discrepancies. Moreover, we strongly suggest prophylactic thyroidectomy should be performed before age 5 in carriers with p.C618S to prevent the occurrence and metastasis of MTC.

  9. Rapid growth of invasive metastatic melanoma in carcinogen-treated hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor-transgenic mice carrying an oncogenic CDK4 mutation.

    PubMed

    Tormo, Damia; Ferrer, Aleix; Gaffal, Evelyn; Wenzel, Jörg; Basner-Tschakarjan, Etiena; Steitz, Julia; Heukamp, Lukas C; Gütgemann, Ines; Buettner, Reinhard; Malumbres, Marcos; Barbacid, Mariano; Merlino, Glenn; Tüting, Thomas

    2006-08-01

    Currently, novel mouse models of melanoma are being generated that recapitulate the histopathology and molecular pathogenesis observed in human disease. Impaired cell-cycle control, which is a hallmark of both familial and sporadic melanoma, promotes slowly growing carcinogen-induced melanomas in the skin of mice carrying a mutated cyclin-dependent kinase 4 (CDK4(R24C)). Deregulated receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, which is another important feature of human melanoma, leads to spontaneous development of metastatic melanoma after a long latency period in mice overexpressing hepatocyte growth factor/scatter factor (HGF/SF mice). Here we report that treatment with 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene and 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate induced metastatic melanomas in all HGF/SF mice on the C57BL/6 background, which histologically resemble human melanoma. Importantly, mutant CDK4 dramatically increased the number and the growth kinetics of carcinogen-induced primary melanomas in the skin and promoted the growth of spontaneous metastases in lymph nodes and lungs in all HGF/SF mice within the first 3 months of life. Apart from very few skin papillomas, we did not observe tumors of other histology in carcinogen-treated HGF/SF x CDK4(R24C) mice. This new experimental mouse model can now be exploited to study further the biology of melanoma and evaluate new treatment modalities.

  10. Integrated genomic approaches identify upregulation of SCRN1 as a novel mechanism associated with acquired resistance to erlotinib in PC9 cells harboring oncogenic EGFR mutation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Nayoung; Cho, Ahye; Watanabe, Hideo; Choi, Yoon-La; Aziz, Meraj; Kassner, Michelle; Joung, Je-Gun; Park, Angela KJ; Francis, Joshua M.; Bae, Joon Seol; Ahn, Soo-min; Kim, Kyoung-Mee; Park, Joon Oh; Park, Woong-Yang; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Keunchil; Koo, Jaehyung; Yin, Hongwei Holly; Cho, Jeonghee

    2016-01-01

    Therapies targeting the tyrosine kinase activity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) have been proven to be effective in treating a subset of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring activating EGFR mutations. Inevitably these patients develop resistance to the EGFR-targeted tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Here, we performed integrated genomic analyses using an in vitro system to uncover alternative genomic mechanisms responsible for acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. Specifically, we identified 80 genes whose expression is significantly increased in the erlotinib-resistant clones. RNAi-based systematic synthetic lethal screening of these candidate genes revealed that suppression of one upregulated transcript, SCRN1, a secernin family member, restores sensitivity to erlotinib by enhancing inhibition of PI3K/AKT signaling pathway. Furthermore, immunohistochemical analysis revealed increased levels of SCRN1 in 5 of 11 lung tumor specimens from EGFR-TKIs resistant patients. Taken together, we propose that upregulation of SCRN1 is an additional mechanism associated with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs and that its suppression serves as a novel therapeutic strategy to overcome drug resistance in these patients. PMID:26883194

  11. Modeling oncogene addiction using RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Rothenberg, S. Michael; Engelman, Jeffrey A.; Le, Sheila; Riese, David J.; Haber, Daniel A.; Settleman, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of selective kinase inhibitors suggests that some cancer cells may become dependent on a single oncogene for survival. RNAi has been increasingly used to understand such “oncogene addiction” and validate new therapeutic targets. However, RNAi approaches suffer from significant off-target effects that limit their utility. Here, we combine carefully titrated lentiviral-mediated short hairpin RNA knockdown of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) with heterologous reconstitution by EGFR mutants to rigorously analyze the structural features and signaling activities that determine addiction to the mutationally activated EGFR in human lung cancer cells. EGFR dependence is differentially rescued by distinct EGFR variants and oncogenic mutants, is critically dependent on its heterodimerization partner ErbB-3, and surprisingly, does not require autophosphorylation sites in the cytoplasmic domain. Quantitative “oncogene rescue” analysis allows mechanistic dissection of oncogene addiction, and, when broadly applied, may provide functional validation for potential therapeutic targets identified through large-scale RNAi screens. PMID:18711136

  12. Tumor suppressors miR-143 and miR-145 and predicted target proteins API5, ERK5, K-RAS, and IRS-1 are differentially expressed in proximal and distal colon.

    PubMed

    Pekow, Joel; Meckel, Katherine; Dougherty, Urszula; Butun, Fatma; Mustafi, Reba; Lim, John; Crofton, Charis; Chen, Xindi; Joseph, Loren; Bissonnette, Marc

    2015-02-01

    The colon differs regionally in local luminal environment, excretory function, and gene expression. Polycistronic microRNA (miR)-143 and miR-145 are downregulated early in colon cancer. We asked if these microRNAs (miRNAs) might be differentially expressed in the proximal vs. the distal colon, contributing to regional differences in protein expression. Primary transcripts and mature miR-143 and miR-145 were quantified by real-time PCR, putative targets were measured by Western blotting, and DNA methylation was assessed by sequencing bisulfite-treated DNA in proximal and distal normal colonic mucosa as well as colon cancers. Putative targets of these miRNAs were assessed following transfection with miR-143 or miR-145. Mean expression of mature miR-143 and miR-145 was 2.0-fold (P < 0.001) and 1.8-fold (P = 0.03) higher, respectively, in proximal than distal colon. DNA methylation or primary transcript expression of these miRNAs did not differ by location. In agreement with increased expression of miR-143 and miR-145 in proximal colon, predicted targets of these miRNAs, apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API5), ERK5, K-RAS, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), which are cell cycle and survival regulators, were expressed at a lower level in proximal than distal colon. Transfection of HCA-7 colon cancer cells with miR-145 downregulated IRS-1, and transfection of HT-29 colon cancer cells with miR-143 decreased K-RAS and ERK5 expression. In conclusion, miR-143 and miR-145 and the predicted target proteins API5, ERK5, K-RAS, and IRS-1 display regional differences in expression in the colon. We speculate that differences in these tumor suppressors might contribute to regional differences in normal colonic gene expression and modulate site-specific differences in malignant predisposition.

  13. Tumor suppressors miR-143 and miR-145 and predicted target proteins API5, ERK5, K-RAS, and IRS-1 are differentially expressed in proximal and distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Meckel, Katherine; Dougherty, Urszula; Butun, Fatma; Mustafi, Reba; Lim, John; Crofton, Charis; Chen, Xindi; Joseph, Loren; Bissonnette, Marc

    2014-01-01

    The colon differs regionally in local luminal environment, excretory function, and gene expression. Polycistronic microRNA (miR)-143 and miR-145 are downregulated early in colon cancer. We asked if these microRNAs (miRNAs) might be differentially expressed in the proximal vs. the distal colon, contributing to regional differences in protein expression. Primary transcripts and mature miR-143 and miR-145 were quantified by real-time PCR, putative targets were measured by Western blotting, and DNA methylation was assessed by sequencing bisulfite-treated DNA in proximal and distal normal colonic mucosa as well as colon cancers. Putative targets of these miRNAs were assessed following transfection with miR-143 or miR-145. Mean expression of mature miR-143 and miR-145 was 2.0-fold (P < 0.001) and 1.8-fold (P = 0.03) higher, respectively, in proximal than distal colon. DNA methylation or primary transcript expression of these miRNAs did not differ by location. In agreement with increased expression of miR-143 and miR-145 in proximal colon, predicted targets of these miRNAs, apoptosis inhibitor 5 (API5), ERK5, K-RAS, and insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), which are cell cycle and survival regulators, were expressed at a lower level in proximal than distal colon. Transfection of HCA-7 colon cancer cells with miR-145 downregulated IRS-1, and transfection of HT-29 colon cancer cells with miR-143 decreased K-RAS and ERK5 expression. In conclusion, miR-143 and miR-145 and the predicted target proteins API5, ERK5, K-RAS, and IRS-1 display regional differences in expression in the colon. We speculate that differences in these tumor suppressors might contribute to regional differences in normal colonic gene expression and modulate site-specific differences in malignant predisposition. PMID:25477374

  14. Retraction: "Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf Deficiency Promote Aggressiveness of Pancreatic Cancer by Induction of EMT Consistent With Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype" by Wang et al.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article, published online on November 23, 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 4B and C to be inappropriately manipulated and re-labeled. Literature Cited Wang Z, Ali S, Banerjee S, Bao B, Li Y, Azmi AS, Korc M, Sarkar FH. 2013. Activated K-Ras and INK4a/Arf deficiency promote aggressiveness of pancreatic cancer by induction of EMT consistent with cancer stem cell phenotype. J Cell Physiol 228:556-562; doi: 10.1002/jcp.24162.

  15. Retraction: "Inactivation of Ink4a/Arf Leads to Deregulated Expression of miRNAs in K-Ras Transgenic Mouse Model of Pancreatic Cancer" by Ali et al.

    PubMed

    2016-10-01

    The above article, published online on June 21, 2012 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), has been retracted by agreement between the journal Editor in Chief, Gary S. Stein, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed following an investigation from Wayne State University involving the first author and the corresponding author that found Figure 5A to be inappropriately manipulated. Literature Cited Ali S, Banerjee S, Logna F, Bao B, Philip PA, Korc M, Sarkar FH. 2012. Inactivation of Ink4a/Arf leads to deregulated expression of miRNAs in K-Ras transgenic mouse model of pancreatic cancer. J Cell Physiol 227:3373-3380; doi: 10.1002/jcp.24036.

  16. Somatic mutations of the ERBB4 kinase domain in human cancers.

    PubMed

    S