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Sample records for oncogenic pathway activation

  1. Endogenous Retrotransposition Activates Oncogenic Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Shukla, Ruchi; Upton, Kyle R.; Muñoz-Lopez, Martin; Gerhardt, Daniel J.; Fisher, Malcolm E.; Nguyen, Thu; Brennan, Paul M.; Baillie, J. Kenneth; Collino, Agnese; Ghisletti, Serena; Sinha, Shruti; Iannelli, Fabio; Radaelli, Enrico; Dos Santos, Alexandre; Rapoud, Delphine; Guettier, Catherine; Samuel, Didier; Natoli, Gioacchino; Carninci, Piero; Ciccarelli, Francesca D.; Garcia-Perez, Jose Luis; Faivre, Jamila; Faulkner, Geoffrey J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary LINE-1 (L1) retrotransposons are mobile genetic elements comprising ∼17% of the human genome. New L1 insertions can profoundly alter gene function and cause disease, though their significance in cancer remains unclear. Here, we applied enhanced retrotransposon capture sequencing (RC-seq) to 19 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) genomes and elucidated two archetypal L1-mediated mechanisms enabling tumorigenesis. In the first example, 4/19 (21.1%) donors presented germline retrotransposition events in the tumor suppressor mutated in colorectal cancers (MCC). MCC expression was ablated in each case, enabling oncogenic β-catenin/Wnt signaling. In the second example, suppression of tumorigenicity 18 (ST18) was activated by a tumor-specific L1 insertion. Experimental assays confirmed that the L1 interrupted a negative feedback loop by blocking ST18 repression of its enhancer. ST18 was also frequently amplified in HCC nodules from Mdr2−/− mice, supporting its assignment as a candidate liver oncogene. These proof-of-principle results substantiate L1-mediated retrotransposition as an important etiological factor in HCC. PMID:23540693

  2. Activation of the JNK pathway is essential for transformation by the Met oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, G A; Park, M; Schlessinger, J

    1997-01-01

    The Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF) receptor tyrosine kinase is oncogenically activated through a rearrangement that creates a hybrid gene Tpr-Met. The resultant chimeric p65(Tpr-Met) protein is constitutively phosphorylated on tyrosine residues in vivo and associates with a number of SH2-containing signaling molecules including the p85 subunit of PI-3 kinase and the Grb2 adaptor protein, which couples receptor tyrosine kinases to the Ras signaling pathway. Mutation of the binding site for Grb2 impairs the ability of Tpr-Met oncoprotein to transform fibroblasts, suggesting that the activation of the Ras/MAP kinase signaling pathway through Grb2 may be essential for cellular transformation. To test this hypothesis dominant-negative mutants of Grb2 with deletions of the SH3 domains were introduced into Tpr-Met transformed fibroblasts. Cells overexpressing the mutants were found to be morphologically reverted and exhibited reduced growth in soft agar. Surprisingly, the Grb2 mutants blocked activation of the JNK/SAPK but not MAP kinase activity induced by the Tpr-Met oncoprotein. Additionally, cells expressing dominant-negative Grb2 mutants had reduced PI-3-kinase activity and dominant-negative mutants of Rac1 blocked both Tpr-Met-induced transformation and activation of JNK. These experiments reveal a novel link between Met and the JNK pathway, which is essential for transformation by this oncogene. PMID:9184210

  3. Dissecting the signaling pathways associated with the oncogenic activity of MLK3 P252H mutation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background MLK3 gene mutations were described to occur in about 20% of microsatellite unstable gastrointestinal cancers and to harbor oncogenic activity. In particular, mutation P252H, located in the kinase domain, was found to have a strong transforming potential, and to promote the growth of highly invasive tumors when subcutaneously injected in nude mice. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanism underlying the oncogenic activity of P252H mutant remained elusive. Methods In this work, we performed Illumina Whole Genome arrays on three biological replicas of human HEK293 cells stably transfected with the wild-type MLK3, the P252H mutation and with the empty vector (Mock) in order to identify the putative signaling pathways associated with P252H mutation. Results Our microarray results showed that mutant MLK3 deregulates several important colorectal cancer- associated signaling pathways such as WNT, MAPK, NOTCH, TGF-beta and p53, helping to narrow down the number of potential MLK3 targets responsible for its oncogenic effects. A more detailed analysis of the alterations affecting the WNT signaling pathway revealed a down-regulation of molecules involved in the canonical pathway, such as DVL2, LEF1, CCND1 and c-Myc, and an up-regulation of DKK, a well-known negative regulator of canonical WNT signaling, in MLK3 mutant cells. Additionally, FZD6 and FZD10 genes, known to act as negative regulators of the canonical WNT signaling cascade and as positive regulators of the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway, a non-canonic WNT pathway, were found to be up-regulated in P252H cells. Conclusion The results provide an overall view of the expression profile associated with mutant MLK3, and they support the functional role of mutant MLK3 by showing a deregulation of several signaling pathways known to play important roles in the development and progression of colorectal cancer. The results also suggest that mutant MLK3 may be a novel modulator of WNT signaling, and pinpoint the

  4. Activation of diverse signaling pathways by oncogenic PIK3CA mutations

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xinyan; Renuse, Santosh; Sahasrabuddhe, Nandini A.; Zahari, Muhammad Saddiq; Chaerkady, Raghothama; Kim, Min-Sik; Nirujogi, Raja S.; Mohseni, Morassa; Kumar, Praveen; Raju, Rajesh; Zhong, Jun; Yang, Jian; Neiswinger, Johnathan; Jeong, Jun-Seop; Newman, Robert; Powers, Maureen A.; Somani, Babu Lal; Gabrielson, Edward; Sukumar, Saraswati; Stearns, Vered; Qian, Jiang; Zhu, Heng; Vogelstein, Bert; Park, Ben Ho; Pandey, Akhilesh

    2014-01-01

    The PIK3CA gene is frequently mutated in human cancers. Here we carry out a SILAC-based quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis using isogenic knockin cell lines containing ‘driver’ oncogenic mutations of PIK3CA to dissect the signaling mechanisms responsible for oncogenic phenotypes induced by mutant PIK3CA. From 8,075 unique phosphopeptides identified, we observe that aberrant activation of PI3K pathway leads to increased phosphorylation of a surprisingly wide variety of kinases and downstream signaling networks. Here, by integrating phosphoproteomic data with human protein microarray-based AKT1 kinase assays, we discover and validate six novel AKT1 substrates, including cortactin. Through mutagenesis studies, we demonstrate that phosphorylation of cortactin by AKT1 is important for mutant PI3K enhanced cell migration and invasion. Our study describes a quantitative and global approach for identifying mutation-specific signaling events and for discovering novel signaling molecules as readouts of pathway activation or potential therapeutic targets. PMID:25247763

  5. Novel small molecules targeting ciliary transport of Smoothened and oncogenic Hedgehog pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Bomi; Messias, Ana C.; Schorpp, Kenji; Geerlof, Arie; Schneider, Günter; Saur, Dieter; Hadian, Kamyar; Sattler, Michael; Wanker, Erich E.; Hasenöder, Stefan; Lickert, Heiko

    2016-01-01

    Trafficking of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) Smoothened (Smo) to the primary cilium (PC) is a potential target to inhibit oncogenic Hh pathway activation in a large number of tumors. One drawback is the appearance of Smo mutations that resist drug treatment, which is a common reason for cancer treatment failure. Here, we undertook a high content screen with compounds in preclinical or clinical development and identified ten small molecules that prevent constitutive active mutant SmoM2 transport into PC for subsequent Hh pathway activation. Eight of the ten small molecules act through direct interference with the G protein-coupled receptor associated sorting protein 2 (Gprasp2)-SmoM2 ciliary targeting complex, whereas one antagonist of ionotropic receptors prevents intracellular trafficking of Smo to the PC. Together, these findings identify several compounds with the potential to treat drug-resistant SmoM2-driven cancer forms, but also reveal off-target effects of established drugs in the clinics. PMID:26931153

  6. Activated Oncogenic Pathway Modifies Iron Network in Breast Epithelial Cells: A Dynamic Modeling Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Lemler, Erica; Kochen, Michael A.; Akman, Steven A.; Torti, Frank M.; Torti, Suzy V.; Laubenbacher, Reinhard

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of iron metabolism in cancer is well documented and it has been suggested that there is interdependence between excess iron and increased cancer incidence and progression. In an effort to better understand the linkages between iron metabolism and breast cancer, a predictive mathematical model of an expanded iron homeostasis pathway was constructed that includes species involved in iron utilization, oxidative stress response and oncogenic pathways. The model leads to three predictions. The first is that overexpression of iron regulatory protein 2 (IRP2) recapitulates many aspects of the alterations in free iron and iron-related proteins in cancer cells without affecting the oxidative stress response or the oncogenic pathways included in the model. This prediction was validated by experimentation. The second prediction is that iron-related proteins are dramatically affected by mitochondrial ferritin overexpression. This prediction was validated by results in the pertinent literature not used for model construction. The third prediction is that oncogenic Ras pathways contribute to altered iron homeostasis in cancer cells. This prediction was validated by a combination of simulation experiments of Ras overexpression and catalase knockout in conjunction with the literature. The model successfully captures key aspects of iron metabolism in breast cancer cells and provides a framework upon which more detailed models can be built. PMID:28166223

  7. Oncogenic role of EAPII in lung cancer development and its activation of the MAPK–ERK pathway

    PubMed Central

    Li, C; Fan, S; Owonikoko, T K; Khuri, F R; Sun, S-Y; Li, R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer progression involves multiple complex and interdependent steps, including progressive proliferation, angiogenesis and metastases. The complexity of these processes requires a comprehensive elucidation of the integrated signaling networks for better understanding. EAPII interacts with multiple cancer-related proteins, but its biological significance in cancer development remains unknown. In this report we identified the elevated level of EAPII protein in non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC) patients and NSCLC cell lines in culture. The oncogenic role of EAPII in lung cancer development was demonstrated using NSCLC cells with genetic manipulations that influence EAPII expression: EAPII overexpression increases proliferation of NSCLC cells with an accelerated transition of cell cycle and facilitates xenograft tumor growth in vivo; EAPII knockdown results in apoptosis of NSCLC cells and reduces xenograft tumor formation. To further explore the mechanism of EAPII's oncogenic role in lung cancer development and to elucidate the potential signaling pathway(s) that EAPII may impact, we employed antibody array to investigate the alternation of the major signaling pathways in NSCLC cells with altered EAPII level. We found that EAPII overexpression significantly activated Raf1 and ERK1/2, but not c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 pathways. Consistently, the protein and mRNA levels of MYC and cyclin D1, which are targets of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (MAPK–ERK) pathway, are significantly increased by EAPII overexpression. Taken together, we demonstrated that EAPII is an oncogenic factor and the activation of MAPK–ERK signaling pathway by EAPII may contribute to lung cancer development. PMID:21478903

  8. The Oncogenic Lung Cancer Fusion Kinase CD74-ROS Activates a Novel Invasiveness Pathway Through E-Syt1 Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Jun, Hyun Jung; Johnson, Hannah; Bronson, Roderick T.; de Feraudy, Sebastien; White, Forest; Charest, Alain

    2013-01-01

    Patients with lung cancer often present with metastatic disease and therefore have a very poor prognosis. The recent discovery of several novel ROS receptor tyrosine kinase molecular alterations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) presents a therapeutic opportunity for the development of new targeted treatment strategies. Here, we report that the NSCLC-derived fusion CD74-ROS, which accounts for 30% of all ROS fusion kinases in NSCLC, is an active and oncogenic tyrosine kinase. We found that CD74-ROS expressing cells were highly invasive in vitro and metastatic in vivo. Pharmacological inhibition of CD74-ROS kinase activity reversed its transforming capacity by attenuating downstrream signaling networks. Using quantitative phosphoproteomics, we uncovered a mechanism by which CD74-ROS activates a novel pathway driving cell invasion. Expression of CD74-ROS resulted in the phosphorylation of the extended synaptotagmin-like protein E-Syt1. Elimination of E-Syt1 expression drastically reduced invasiveness both in vitro and in vivo without modifying the oncogenic activity of CD74-ROS. Furthermore, expression of CD74-ROS in non-invasive NSCLC cell lines readily confered invasive properties that paralleled the acquisition of E-Syt1 phosphorylation. Taken together, our findings indicate that E-Syt1 is a mediator of cancer cell invasion and molecularly define ROS fusion kinases as therapeutic targets in the treatment of NSCLC. PMID:22659450

  9. RABEX-5 is upregulated and plays an oncogenic role in gastric cancer development by activating the VEGF signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuang; Lu, Aixia; Chen, Xiangming; Wei, Lin; Ding, Jiqiang

    2014-01-01

    RABEX-5, a guanine-nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) for RAB-5, is implicated in tumorigenesis and in the development of certain human cancers. Here, we report that RABEX-5 promotes tumor growth and the metastatic ability of gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Expression of RABEX-5 is significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues and is associated with tumor size and lymph node metastasis. In addition, targeted silencing of RABEX-5 reduced gastric cancer cell proliferation and colony formation in vitro via the induction of a G0/G1 phase arrest, and stimulated gastric cancer cell apoptosis. Knockdown of RABEX-5 also inhibited wound healing, migration and the invasive abilities of gastric cancer cells. The results of in vivo animal experiments were also consistent with these in vitro findings. Silencing of RABEX-5 led to decreased expression of VEGF. These results indicate that RABEX-5 is upregulated and plays an oncogenic role in gastric cancer development by activating the VEGF signaling pathway.

  10. Control of PD-L1 Expression by Oncogenic Activation of the AKT-mTOR Pathway in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lastwika, Kristin J; Wilson, Willie; Li, Qing Kay; Norris, Jeffrey; Xu, Haiying; Ghazarian, Sharon R; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Kawabata, Shigeru; Taube, Janis M; Yao, Sheng; Liu, Linda N; Gills, Joell J; Dennis, Phillip A

    2016-01-15

    Alterations in EGFR, KRAS, and ALK are oncogenic drivers in lung cancer, but how oncogenic signaling influences immunity in the tumor microenvironment is just beginning to be understood. Immunosuppression likely contributes to lung cancer, because drugs that inhibit immune checkpoints like PD-1 and PD-L1 have clinical benefit. Here, we show that activation of the AKT-mTOR pathway tightly regulates PD-L1 expression in vitro and in vivo. Both oncogenic and IFNγ-mediated induction of PD-L1 was dependent on mTOR. In human lung adenocarcinomas and squamous cell carcinomas, membranous expression of PD-L1 was significantly associated with mTOR activation. These data suggest that oncogenic activation of the AKT-mTOR pathway promotes immune escape by driving expression of PD-L1, which was confirmed in syngeneic and genetically engineered mouse models of lung cancer where an mTOR inhibitor combined with a PD-1 antibody decreased tumor growth, increased tumor-infiltrating T cells, and decreased regulatory T cells.

  11. Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway promotes cellular glucose uptake by downregulating the expression of thioredoxin-interacting protein.

    PubMed

    Hong, Shin Yee; Yu, Fa-Xing; Luo, Yan; Hagen, Thilo

    2016-05-01

    Oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt pathway is known to play an important role to promote glucose metabolism in cancer cells. However, the molecular mechanism through which the PI3K/Akt signalling pathway promotes glucose utilisation in cancer cells is still not well understood. It has recently been shown that the oncogenic activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signalling in lung adenocarcinoma is important in promoting the localisation of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) at the plasma membrane. We thus hypothesised that the effect of constitutive activation of the PI3K/AKT signalling on glucose metabolism is mediated by thioredoxin interacting protein (TXNIP), a known regulator of the GLUT1 plasma membrane localisation. Consistent with previous studies, inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway decreased cellular glucose uptake. Furthermore, inhibition of PI3K/Akt signalling in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell lines using clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) resulted in a decrease in GLUT1 membrane localisation. We also observed that inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway in various cell lines, including NSCLC cells, resulted in an increase in TXNIP expression. Importantly, knockdown of TXNIP using siRNA in the NSCLC cells promoted GLUT1 to be localised at the plasma membrane and reversed the effect of PI3K/Akt inhibitors. Together, our results suggest that the oncogenic activation of PI3K/Akt signalling promotes cellular glucose uptake, at least in part, through the regulation of TXNIP expression. This mechanism may contribute to the Warburg effect in cancer cells.

  12. Oncogenic activation of NF-kappaB.

    PubMed

    Staudt, Louis M

    2010-06-01

    Recent genetic evidence has established a pathogenetic role for NF-kappaB signaling in cancer. NF-kappaB signaling is engaged transiently when normal B lymphocytes respond to antigens, but lymphomas derived from these cells accumulate genetic lesions that constitutively activate NF-kappaB signaling. Many genetic aberrations in lymphomas alter CARD11, MALT1, or BCL10, which constitute a signaling complex that is intermediate between the B-cell receptor and IkappaB kinase. The activated B-cell-like subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma activates NF-kappaB by a variety of mechanisms including oncogenic mutations in CARD11 and a chronic active form of B-cell receptor signaling. Normal plasma cells activate NF-kappaB in response to ligands in the bone marrow microenvironment, but their malignant counterpart, multiple myeloma, sustains a variety of genetic hits that stabilize the kinase NIK, leading to constitutive activation of the classical and alternative NF-kappaB pathways. Various oncogenic abnormalities in epithelial cancers, including mutant K-ras, engage unconventional IkappaB kinases to activate NF-kappaB. Inhibition of constitutive NF-kappaB signaling in each of these cancer types induces apoptosis, providing a rationale for the development of NF-kappaB pathway inhibitors for the treatment of cancer.

  13. Demethoxycurcumin inhibits energy metabolic and oncogenic signaling pathways through AMPK activation in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shieh, Jiunn-Min; Chen, Yung-Chan; Lin, Ying-Chao; Lin, Jia-Ni; Chen, Wei-Chih; Chen, Yang-Yuan; Ho, Chi-Tang; Way, Tzong-Der

    2013-07-03

    Demethoxycurcumin (DMC), curcumin (Cur), and bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) are major forms of curcuminoids found in the rhizomes of turmeric. This study examined the effects of three curcuminoid analogues on breast cancer cells. The results revealed that DMC demonstrated the most potent cytotoxic effects on breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. Compared with estrogen receptor (ER)-positive or HER2-overexpressing breast cancer cells, DMC demonstrated the most efficient cytotoxic effects on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cells. However, nonmalignant MCF-10A cells were unaffected by DMC treatment. The study showed that DMC activated AMPK in TNBC cells. Once activated, AMPK inhibited eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 (4E-BP1) signaling and mRNA translation via mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and decreased the activity and/or expression of lipogenic enzymes, such as fatty acid synthase (FASN) and acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC). DMC also targeted multiple AMPK downstream pathways. Among these, the dephosphorylation of Akt is noteworthy because it circumvents the feedback activation of Akt that results from mTOR inhibition. Moreover, DMC suppressed LPS-induced IL-6 production, thereby blocking subsequent Stat3 activation. In addition, DMC also sustained epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) activation by suppressing the phosphatases, PP2a and SHP-2. These results suggest that DMC is a potent AMPK activator that acts through a broad spectrum of anti-TNBC activities.

  14. MicroRNA-21 plays an oncogenic role by targeting FOXO1 and activating the PI3K/AKT pathway in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Pil-Jong; Kim, Young-Goo; Nam, Soo Jeong; Paik, Jin Ho; Kim, Tae Min; Heo, Dae Seog; Kim, Chul-Woo; Jeon, Yoon Kyung

    2015-01-01

    The prognostic implications of miR-21, miR-17-92 and miR-155 were evaluated in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) patients, and novel mechanism by which miR-21 contributes to the oncogenesis of DLBCL by regulating FOXO1 and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway was investigated. The expressions of miR-21, miR-17-92 and miR-155 measured by quantitative reverse-transcription-PCR were significantly up-regulated in DLBCL tissues (n=200) compared to control tonsils (P=0.012, P=0.001 and P<0.0001). Overexpression of miR-21 and miR-17-92 was significantly associated with shorter progression-free survival (P=0.003 and P=0.014) and overall survival (P=0.004 and P=0.012). High miR-21 was an independent prognostic factor in DLBCL patients treated with rituximab-combined chemotherapy. MiR-21 level was inversely correlated with the levels of FOXO1 and PTEN in DLBCL cell lines. Reporter-gene assay showed that miR-21 directly targeted and suppressed the FOXO1 expression, and subsequently inhibited Bim transcription in DLBCL cells. MiR-21 also down-regulated PTEN expression and consequently activated the PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway, which further decreased FOXO1 expression. Moreover, miR-21 inhibitor suppressed the expression and activity of MDR1, thereby sensitizing DLBCL cells to doxorubicin. These data demonstrated that miR-21 plays an important oncogenic role in DLBCL by modulating the PI3K/AKT/mTOR/FOXO1 pathway at multiple levels resulting in strong prognostic implication. Therefore, targeting miR-21 may have therapeutic relevance in DLBCL. PMID:25909227

  15. Pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic pathways: opportunities and challenges of cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jiao; Chen, Yan-Hua; Lu, Qun

    2010-01-01

    Carcinogenesis is the uncontrolled growth of cells gaining the potential to invade and disrupt vital tissue functions. This malignant process includes the occurrence of ‘unwanted’ gene mutations that induce the transformation of normal cells, for example, by overactivation of pro-oncogenic pathways and inactivation of tumor-suppressive or anti-oncogenic pathways. It is now recognized that the number of major signaling pathways that control oncogenesis is not unlimited; therefore, suppressing these pathways can conceivably lead to a cancer cure. However, the clinical application of cancer intervention has not matched up to scientific expectations. Increasing numbers of studies have revealed that many oncogenic-signaling elements show double faces, in which they can promote or suppress cancer pathogenesis depending on tissue type, cancer stage, gene dosage and their interaction with other players in carcinogenesis. This complexity of oncogenic signaling poses challenges to traditional cancer therapy and calls for considerable caution when designing an anticancer drug strategy. We propose future oncology interventions with the concept of integrative cancer therapy. PMID:20373871

  16. Oncogenic BRAF fusions in mucosal melanomas activate the MAPK pathway and are sensitive to MEK/PI3K inhibition or MEK/CDK4/6 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kim, H S; Jung, M; Kang, H N; Kim, H; Park, C-W; Kim, S-M; Shin, S J; Kim, S H; Kim, S G; Kim, E K; Yun, M R; Zheng, Z; Chung, K Y; Greenbowe, J; Ali, S M; Kim, T-M; Cho, B C

    2017-01-16

    Despite remarkable progress in cutaneous melanoma genomic profiling, the mutational landscape of primary mucosal melanomas (PMM) remains unclear. Forty-six PMMs underwent targeted exome sequencing of 111 cancer-associated genes. Seventy-six somatic nonsynonymous mutations in 42 genes were observed, and recurrent mutations were noted on eight genes, including TP53 (13%), NRAS (13%), SNX31 (9%), NF1 (9%), KIT (7%) and APC (7%). Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK; 37%), cell cycle (20%) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)-mTOR (15%) pathways were frequently mutated. We biologically characterized a novel ZNF767-BRAF fusion found in a vemurafenib-refractory respiratory tract PMM, from which cell line harboring ZNF767-BRAF fusion were established for further molecular analyses. In an independent data set, NFIC-BRAF fusion was identified in an oral PMM case and TMEM178B-BRAF fusion and DGKI-BRAF fusion were identified in two malignant melanomas with a low mutational burden (number of mutation per megabase, 0.8 and 4, respectively). Subsequent analyses revealed that the ZNF767-BRAF fusion protein promotes RAF dimerization and activation of the MAPK pathway. We next tested the in vitro and in vivo efficacy of vemurafenib, trametinib, BKM120 or LEE011 alone and in combination. Trametinib effectively inhibited tumor cell growth in vitro, but the combination of trametinib and BKM120 or LEE011 yielded more than additive anti-tumor effects both in vitro and in vivo in a melanoma cells harboring the BRAF fusion. In conclusion, BRAF fusions define a new molecular subset of PMM that can be targeted therapeutically by the combination of a MEK inhibitor with PI3K or cyclin-dependent kinase 4/6 inhibitors.Oncogene advance online publication,16 January 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.486.

  17. Cooperative integration between HEDGEHOG-GLI signalling and other oncogenic pathways: implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Pandolfi, Silvia; Stecca, Barbara

    2015-02-09

    The HEDGEHOG-GLI (HH-GLI) signalling is a key pathway critical in embryonic development, stem cell biology and tissue homeostasis. In recent years, aberrant activation of HH-GLI signalling has been linked to several types of cancer, including those of the skin, brain, lungs, prostate, gastrointestinal tract and blood. HH-GLI signalling is initiated by binding of HH ligands to the transmembrane receptor PATCHED and is mediated by transcriptional effectors that belong to the GLI family, whose activity is finely tuned by a number of molecular interactions and post-translation modifications. Several reports suggest that the activity of the GLI proteins is regulated by several proliferative and oncogenic inputs, in addition or independent of upstream HH signalling. The identification of this complex crosstalk and the understanding of how the major oncogenic signalling pathways interact in cancer is a crucial step towards the establishment of efficient targeted combinatorial treatments. Here we review recent findings on the cooperative integration of HH-GLI signalling with the major oncogenic inputs and we discuss how these cues modulate the activity of the GLI proteins in cancer. We then summarise the latest advances on SMO and GLI inhibitors and alternative approaches to attenuate HH signalling through rational combinatorial therapies.

  18. Mucin1 shifts Smad3 signaling from the tumor-suppressive pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) pathway to the oncogenic pSmad3L/c-Myc pathway by activating JNK in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiongshu; Liu, Guomu; Yuan, Hongyan; Wang, Juan; Guo, Yingying; Chen, Tanxiu; Zhai, Ruiping; Shao, Dan; Ni, Weihua; Tai, Guixiang

    2015-02-28

    Mucin1 (MUC1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that acts as an oncogene in human hepatic tumorigenesis. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells often gain advantage by reducing the tumor-suppressive activity of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) together with stimulation of its oncogenic activity as in MUC1 expressing HCC cells; however, molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Type I TGF-β receptor (TβRI) and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) differentially phosphorylate Smad3 mediator to create 2 phosphorylated forms: COOH-terminally phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3C) and linker-phosphorylated Smad3 (pSmad3L). Here, we report that MUC1 overexpression in HCC cell lines suppresses TβRI-mediated pSmad3C signaling which involves growth inhibition by up-regulating p21(WAF1). Instead, MUC1 directly activates JNK to stimulate oncogenic pSmad3L signaling, which fosters cell proliferation by up-regulating c-Myc. Conversely, MUC1 gene silencing in MUC1 expressing HCC cells results in preserved tumor-suppressive function via pSmad3C, while eliminating pSmad3L-mediated oncogenic activity both in vitro and in vivo. In addition, high correlation between MUC1 and pSmad3L/c-Myc but not pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) expression was observed in HCC tissues from patients. Collectively, these results indicate that MUC1 shifts Smad3 signaling from a tumor-suppressive pSmad3C/p21(WAF1) to an oncogenic pSmad3L/c-Myc pathway by directly activating JNK in HCC cells, suggesting that MUC1 is an important target for HCC therapy.

  19. Enhancer hijacking activates GFI1 family oncogenes in medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Northcott, Paul A; Lee, Catherine; Zichner, Thomas; Stütz, Adrian M; Erkek, Serap; Kawauchi, Daisuke; Shih, David J H; Hovestadt, Volker; Zapatka, Marc; Sturm, Dominik; Jones, David T W; Kool, Marcel; Remke, Marc; Cavalli, Florence M G; Zuyderduyn, Scott; Bader, Gary D; VandenBerg, Scott; Esparza, Lourdes Adriana; Ryzhova, Marina; Wang, Wei; Wittmann, Andrea; Stark, Sebastian; Sieber, Laura; Seker-Cin, Huriye; Linke, Linda; Kratochwil, Fabian; Jäger, Natalie; Buchhalter, Ivo; Imbusch, Charles D; Zipprich, Gideon; Raeder, Benjamin; Schmidt, Sabine; Diessl, Nicolle; Wolf, Stephan; Wiemann, Stefan; Brors, Benedikt; Lawerenz, Chris; Eils, Jürgen; Warnatz, Hans-Jörg; Risch, Thomas; Yaspo, Marie-Laure; Weber, Ursula D; Bartholomae, Cynthia C; von Kalle, Christof; Turányi, Eszter; Hauser, Peter; Sanden, Emma; Darabi, Anna; Siesjö, Peter; Sterba, Jaroslav; Zitterbart, Karel; Sumerauer, David; van Sluis, Peter; Versteeg, Rogier; Volckmann, Richard; Koster, Jan; Schuhmann, Martin U; Ebinger, Martin; Grimes, H Leighton; Robinson, Giles W; Gajjar, Amar; Mynarek, Martin; von Hoff, Katja; Rutkowski, Stefan; Pietsch, Torsten; Scheurlen, Wolfram; Felsberg, Jörg; Reifenberger, Guido; Kulozik, Andreas E; von Deimling, Andreas; Witt, Olaf; Eils, Roland; Gilbertson, Richard J; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D; Lichter, Peter; Korbel, Jan O; Wechsler-Reya, Robert J; Pfister, Stefan M

    2014-07-24

    Medulloblastoma is a highly malignant paediatric brain tumour currently treated with a combination of surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, posing a considerable burden of toxicity to the developing child. Genomics has illuminated the extensive intertumoral heterogeneity of medulloblastoma, identifying four distinct molecular subgroups. Group 3 and group 4 subgroup medulloblastomas account for most paediatric cases; yet, oncogenic drivers for these subtypes remain largely unidentified. Here we describe a series of prevalent, highly disparate genomic structural variants, restricted to groups 3 and 4, resulting in specific and mutually exclusive activation of the growth factor independent 1 family proto-oncogenes, GFI1 and GFI1B. Somatic structural variants juxtapose GFI1 or GFI1B coding sequences proximal to active enhancer elements, including super-enhancers, instigating oncogenic activity. Our results, supported by evidence from mouse models, identify GFI1 and GFI1B as prominent medulloblastoma oncogenes and implicate 'enhancer hijacking' as an efficient mechanism driving oncogene activation in a childhood cancer.

  20. Leucine Leucine-37 Uses Formyl Peptide Receptor–Like 1 to Activate Signal Transduction Pathways, Stimulate Oncogenic Gene Expression, and Enhance the Invasiveness of Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Coffelt, Seth B.; Tomchuck, Suzanne L.; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J.; Danka, Elizabeth S.; Scandurro, Aline B.

    2009-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the antimicrobial peptide, leucine leucine-37 (LL-37), could play a role in the progression of solid tumors. LL-37 is expressed as the COOH terminus of human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 (hCAP-18) in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Previous studies have shown that the addition of LL-37 to various cancer cell lines in vitro stimulates proliferation, migration, and invasion. Similarly, overexpression of hCAP-18/LL-37 in vivo accelerates tumor growth. However, the receptor or receptors through which these processes are mediated have not been thoroughly examined. In the present study, expression of formyl peptide receptor–like 1 (FPRL1) was confirmed on ovarian cancer cells. Proliferation assays indicated that LL-37 does not signal through a G protein–coupled receptor, such as FPRL1, to promote cancer cell growth. By contrast, FPRL1 was required for LL-37–induced invasion through Matrigel. The peptide stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase and Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling cascades and led to the significant activation of several transcription factors, through both FPRL1-dependent and FPRL1-independent pathways. Likewise, expression of some LL-37–stimulated genes was attenuated by the inhibition of FPRL1. Increased expression of CXCL10, EGF, and PDGF-BB as well as other soluble factors was confirmed from conditioned medium of LL-37–treated cells. Taken together, these data suggest that LL-37 potentiates a more aggressive behavior from ovarian cancer cells through its interaction with FPRL1. PMID:19491199

  1. Leucine leucine-37 uses formyl peptide receptor-like 1 to activate signal transduction pathways, stimulate oncogenic gene expression, and enhance the invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Coffelt, Seth B; Tomchuck, Suzanne L; Zwezdaryk, Kevin J; Danka, Elizabeth S; Scandurro, Aline B

    2009-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that the antimicrobial peptide, leucine leucine-37 (LL-37), could play a role in the progression of solid tumors. LL-37 is expressed as the COOH terminus of human cationic antimicrobial protein-18 (hCAP-18) in ovarian, breast, and lung cancers. Previous studies have shown that the addition of LL-37 to various cancer cell lines in vitro stimulates proliferation, migration, and invasion. Similarly, overexpression of hCAP-18/LL-37 in vivo accelerates tumor growth. However, the receptor or receptors through which these processes are mediated have not been thoroughly examined. In the present study, expression of formyl peptide receptor-like 1 (FPRL1) was confirmed on ovarian cancer cells. Proliferation assays indicated that LL-37 does not signal through a G protein-coupled receptor, such as FPRL1, to promote cancer cell growth. By contrast, FPRL1 was required for LL-37-induced invasion through Matrigel. The peptide stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinase and Janus-activated kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription signaling cascades and led to the significant activation of several transcription factors, through both FPRL1-dependent and FPRL1-independent pathways. Likewise, expression of some LL-37-stimulated genes was attenuated by the inhibition of FPRL1. Increased expression of CXCL10, EGF, and PDGF-BB as well as other soluble factors was confirmed from conditioned medium of LL-37-treated cells. Taken together, these data suggest that LL-37 potentiates a more aggressive behavior from ovarian cancer cells through its interaction with FPRL1.

  2. MicroRNA-410 acts as oncogene in NSCLC through downregulating SLC34A2 via activating Wnt/β-catenin pathway

    PubMed Central

    Pu, Qiang; Yuan, Yue; Yang, Weihan; Luo, Xinmei; Jiang, Qianqian; Hu, Xueting; Gong, Yi; Tang, Kui; Su, Xiaolan; Liu, Lunxu; Zhu, Wen; Wei, Yuquan

    2016-01-01

    SLC34A2 had been reported to be down-regulated in human NSCLC cells and patient tissues, and played a significant role in lung cancer. However, the mechanism of its unusual expressionin NSCLC has not been fully elucidated. In present study, we identified SLC34A2 was a direct target of miR-410 and could be inhibited by miR-410 transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. MiR-410 promoted the growth, invasion and migration of NSCLC cells in vitro. An orthotopic xenograft nude mouse model further affirmed that miR-410 promoted NSCLC cell growth and metastasis in vivo. Moreover, restoring SLC34A2 expression effectively reversed the miR-410-mediated promotion of cell growth, invasion and migration in NSCLC cells. In addition, miR-410high /SLC34A2low expression signature frequently existed in NSCLC cells and tumor tissues. MiR-410 significantly increased the expression of DVL2 and β-catenin protein while decreased that of Gsk3β protein of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, while SLC34A2 partly blocked the effects of miR-410 on those protein expressions. Hence, our data for the first time delineated that unusual expression of SLC34A2 was modulated by miR-410, and miR-410 might positivelycontribute to the tumorigenesis and development of NSCLC by down-regulating SLC34A2 and activating Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. MiR-410 might be a new potential therapeutic target for NSCLC. PMID:26910912

  3. Activation of ras oncogenes preceding the onset of neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Barbacid, M. ); Sukumar, S. )

    1990-06-01

    The identification of ras oncogenes in human and animal cancers including precancerous lesions indicates that these genes participate in the early stages of neoplastic development. Yet, these observations do not define the timing of ras oncogene activation in the multistep process of carcinogenesis. To ascertain the timing of ras oncogene activation, an animal model system was devised that involves the induction of mammary carcinomas in rats exposed at birth to the carcinogen nitrosomethylurea. High-resolution restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of polymerase chain reaction-amplified ras sequences revealed the presence of both H-ras and K-ras oncogenes in normal mammary glands 2 weeks after carcinogen treatment and at least 2 months before the onset of neoplasia. These ras oncogenes can remain latent within the mammary gland until exposure to estrogens, demonstrating that activation of ras oncogenes can precede the onset of neoplasia and suggesting that normal physiological proliferative processes such as estrogen-induced mammary gland development may lead to neoplasia if the targeted cells harbor latent ras oncogenes.

  4. microRNA 31 functions as an endometrial cancer oncogene by suppressing Hippo tumor suppressor pathway

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate whether MIR31 is an oncogene in human endometrial cancer and identify the target molecules associated with the malignant phenotype. Methods We investigated the growth potentials of MIR31-overexpressing HEC-50B cells in vitro and in vivo. In order to identify the target molecule of MIR31, a luciferase reporter assay was performed, and the corresponding downstream signaling pathway was examined using immunohistochemistry of human endometrial cancer tissues. We also investigated the MIR31 expression in 34 patients according to the postoperative risk of recurrence. Results The overexpression of MIR31 significantly promoted anchorage-independent growth in vitro and significantly increased the tumor forming potential in vivo. MIR31 significantly suppressed the luciferase activity of mRNA combined with the LATS2 3’-UTR and consequently promoted the translocation of YAP1, a key molecule in the Hippo pathway, into the nucleus. Meanwhile, the nuclear localization of YAP1 increased the transcription of CCND1. Furthermore, the expression levels of MIR31 were significantly increased (10.7-fold) in the patients (n = 27) with a high risk of recurrence compared to that observed in the low-risk patients (n = 7), and this higher expression correlated with a poor survival. Conclusions MIR31 functions as an oncogene in endometrial cancer by repressing the Hippo pathway. MIR31 is a potential new molecular marker for predicting the risk of recurrence and prognosis of endometrial cancer. PMID:24779718

  5. Context-dependent signal integration by the GLI code: the oncogenic load, pathways, modifiers and implications for cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Aberger, Fritz; Ruiz I Altaba, Ariel

    2014-09-01

    Canonical Hedgehog (HH) signaling leads to the regulation of the GLI code: the sum of all positive and negative functions of all GLI proteins. In humans, the three GLI factors encode context-dependent activities with GLI1 being mostly an activator and GLI3 often a repressor. Modulation of GLI activity occurs at multiple levels, including by co-factors and by direct modification of GLI structure. Surprisingly, the GLI proteins, and thus the GLI code, is also regulated by multiple inputs beyond HH signaling. In normal development and homeostasis these include a multitude of signaling pathways that regulate proto-oncogenes, which boost positive GLI function, as well as tumor suppressors, which restrict positive GLI activity. In cancer, the acquisition of oncogenic mutations and the loss of tumor suppressors - the oncogenic load - regulates the GLI code toward progressively more activating states. The fine and reversible balance of GLI activating GLI(A) and GLI repressing GLI(R) states is lost in cancer. Here, the acquisition of GLI(A) levels above a given threshold is predicted to lead to advanced malignant stages. In this review we highlight the concepts of the GLI code, the oncogenic load, the context-dependency of GLI action, and different modes of signaling integration such as that of HH and EGF. Targeting the GLI code directly or indirectly promises therapeutic benefits beyond the direct blockade of individual pathways.

  6. Computational drugs repositioning identifies inhibitors of oncogenic PI3K/AKT/P70S6K-dependent pathways among FDA-approved compounds

    PubMed Central

    Carrella, Diego; Manni, Isabella; Tumaini, Barbara; Dattilo, Rosanna; Papaccio, Federica; Mutarelli, Margherita; Sirci, Francesco; Amoreo, Carla A.; Mottolese, Marcella; Iezzi, Manuela; Ciolli, Laura; Aria, Valentina; Bosotti, Roberta; Isacchi, Antonella; Loreni, Fabrizio; Bardelli, Alberto; Avvedimento, Vittorio E.; di Bernardo, Diego; Cardone, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of inhibitors for oncogenic signalling pathways remains a key focus in modern oncology, based on personalized and targeted therapeutics. Computational drug repurposing via the analysis of FDA-approved drug network is becoming a very effective approach to identify therapeutic opportunities in cancer and other human diseases. Given that gene expression signatures can be associated with specific oncogenic mutations, we tested whether a “reverse” oncogene-specific signature might assist in the computational repositioning of inhibitors of oncogenic pathways. As a proof of principle, we focused on oncogenic PI3K-dependent signalling, a molecular pathway frequently driving cancer progression as well as raising resistance to anticancer-targeted therapies. We show that implementation of “reverse” oncogenic PI3K-dependent transcriptional signatures combined with interrogation of drug networks identified inhibitors of PI3K-dependent signalling among FDA-approved compounds. This led to repositioning of Niclosamide (Niclo) and Pyrvinium Pamoate (PP), two anthelmintic drugs, as inhibitors of oncogenic PI3K-dependent signalling. Niclo inhibited phosphorylation of P70S6K, while PP inhibited phosphorylation of AKT and P70S6K, which are downstream targets of PI3K. Anthelmintics inhibited oncogenic PI3K-dependent gene expression and showed a cytostatic effect in vitro and in mouse mammary gland. Lastly, PP inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells harbouring PI3K mutations. Our data indicate that drug repositioning by network analysis of oncogene-specific transcriptional signatures is an efficient strategy for identifying oncogenic pathway inhibitors among FDA-approved compounds. We propose that PP and Niclo should be further investigated as potential therapeutics for the treatment of tumors or diseases carrying the constitutive activation of the PI3K/P70S6K signalling axis. PMID:27542212

  7. Oncogenic role of the Notch pathway in primary liver cancer

    PubMed Central

    LU, JIE; XIA, YUJING; CHEN, KAN; ZHENG, YUANYUAN; WANG, JIANRONG; LU, WENXIA; YIN, QIN; WANG, FAN; ZHOU, YINGQUN; GUO, CHUANYONG

    2016-01-01

    Primary liver cancer, which includes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma (ICC) and fibrolamellar HCC, is one of the most common malignancies and the third leading cause of cancer-associated mortality, worldwide. Despite the development of novel therapies, the prognosis of liver cancer patients remains extremely poor. Thus, investigation of the genetic background and molecular mechanisms underlying the development and progression of this disease has gained significant attention. The Notch signaling pathway is a crucial determinant of cell fate during development and disease in several organs. In the liver, Notch signaling is involved in biliary tree development and tubulogenesis, and is also significant in the development of HCC and ICC. These findings suggest that the modulation of Notch pathway activity may have therapeutic relevance. The present review summarizes Notch signaling during HCC and ICC development and discusses the findings of recent studies regarding Notch expression, which reveal novel insights into its function in liver cancer progression. PMID:27347091

  8. Crosstalk of Oncogenic Signaling Pathways during Epithelial–Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Stephan; Langhans, Sigrid A.

    2014-01-01

    Epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT) and cell transformation have been well-documented in multiple cancer cell models and are believed to be one of the earliest events in tumor progression. Genetic and epigenetic modifications shift cells toward either end of the EMT spectrum, and can be influenced by the microenvironment surrounding a tumor. EMT and mesenchymal–epithelial transition are critical to normal function and development and an intricate network of transcription factors and transcriptional regulators tightly regulates these processes. As evidenced in normal and transformed cell lines, many signaling pathways trigger EMT during development and differentiation. The signaling pathways include those triggered by different members of the transforming growth factor superfamily, epidermal growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, hepatocyte growth factor, hypoxia-inducible factor, Wnt, Notch, and many others. Functional redundancies allow cells to undergo EMT even if these key transcriptional regulators are lacking, but these same redundancies also make these pathways particularly susceptible to gain-of-function mutations or constitutive signal activation; the “forced” transition toward either a mesenchymal or epithelial phenotype. PMID:25566498

  9. Cigarette smoke extracts induce overexpression of the proto-oncogenic gene interleukin-13 receptor α2 through activation of the PKA-CREB signaling pathway to trigger malignant transformation of lung vascular endothelial cells and angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Meng, Mei; Liao, Huaidong; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Yanyan; Kong, Ying; Liu, Wenming; Yang, Ping; Huo, Zihe; Cao, Zhifei; Zhou, Quansheng

    2017-02-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. Tumor-associated endothelial cells (TAECs) play important roles in tumor angiogenesis and metastasis. However, whether cigarette smoking can trigger genesis of lung TAECs has not been reported yet. In the current study, we used lung endothelial cell (EC) lines as a model to study the pathological effect of cigarette smoke extracts (CSEs) on human lung ECs, and found that a lower dose of 4% CSEs obviously caused abnormal morphological changes in ECs, increased the permeability of endothelial monolayer, while a higher concentration of 8% CSEs caused EC apoptosis. Strikingly, CSEs induced a 117-fold overexpression of a pro-tumorigenic interleukin-13 receptor α2 gene (IL-13Rα2, also named as CT-19) through activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway. A PKA specific inhibitor H89 completely abolished CSEs-induced IL-13Rα2 overexpression. The overexpression of IL-13Rα2 in lung ECs significantly increased the tumorigenic, migratory, and angiogenic capabilities of the cells, suggesting that IL-13Rα2 promotes genesis of lung TAECs. Together, our data show that CSEs activate the PKA, CREB, and IL-13Rα2 axis in lung ECs, and IL-13Rα2 promotes the malignant transformation of lung ECs and genesis of TAECs with robust angiogenic and oncogenic capabilities. Our study provides new insight into the mechanism of CSEs-triggered lung cancer angiogenesis and tumorigenesis, suggesting that the PKA-CREB-IL-13Rα2 axis is a potential target for novel anti-lung tumor angiogenesis and anti-lung cancer drug discovery.

  10. Epidermal growth factor receptor degradation: an alternative view of oncogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kirisits, Andreas; Pils, Dietmar; Krainer, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Positive regulation of epidermal growth factor receptor signalling is related to many human malignancies. Besides overexpression and gain of function mutations, the escape from negative regulation through an increase in epidermal growth factor receptor stability has evolved as yet another key factor contributing to enhanced receptor activity. Intensive research over the past years has provided considerable evidence concerning the molecular mechanisms which provide epidermal growth factor receptor degradation. c-Cbl mediated ubiquitination, endocytosis via clathrin-coated pits, endosomal sorting and lysosomal degradation have become well-investigated cornerstones. Recent findings on the interdependency of the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport in multivesicular body sorting, stress the topicality of receptor tyrosine kinase downregulation. Here, we review the degradation pathway of the epidermal growth factor receptor, following the receptor from ligand binding to the lysosome and illustrating different modes of oncogenic deregulation.

  11. KSHV ORF K9 (vIRF) is an oncogene which inhibits the interferon signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, S J; Boshoff, C; Jayachandra, S; Weiss, R A; Chang, Y; Moore, P S

    1997-10-16

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a gammaherpesvirus linked to the development of Kaposi's sarcoma and a rare B cell lymphoma, primary effusion lymphoma. The KSHV gene ORF K9 encodes vIRF which is a protein with low but significant homology to members of the interferon (IFN) regulatory factor (IRF) family responsible for regulating intracellular interferon signal transduction (Moore PS, Boshoff C, Weiss RA and Chang Y. (1996). Science, 274, 1739-1744). vIRF inhibits IFN-beta signal transduction as measured using an IFN-responsive ISG54 reporter construct co-transfected with ORF K9 into HeLa and 293 cells. vIRF also suppresses genes under IFN regulatory control as shown by inhibition of the IFN-beta inducibility of p21WAF1/CIP1, however, no direct DNA-binding or protein-protein interactions characteristic for IRF repressor proteins were identified. Stable transfectant NIH3T3 clones expressing vIRF grew in soft agar and at low serum concentrations, lost contact inhibition and formed tumors after injection into nude mice indicating that vIRF has the properties of a viral oncogene. Since vIRF is primarily expressed in KSHV-infected B cells, not KS spindle cells, this study suggests that vIRF is a transforming oncogene active in B cell neoplasias that may provide a unique immune escape mechanism for infected cells. This data is consistent with tumor suppressor pathways serving a dual function as host cell antiviral pathways.

  12. Netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activities through enhancing Yes-associated protein stability.

    PubMed

    Qi, Qi; Li, Dean Y; Luo, Hongbo R; Guan, Kun-Liang; Ye, Keqiang

    2015-06-09

    Yes-associated protein (YAP), a transcription coactivator, is the major downstream effector of the Hippo pathway, which plays a critical role in organ size control and cancer development. However, how YAP is regulated by extracellular stimuli in tumorigenesis remains incompletely understood. Netrin-1, a laminin-related secreted protein, displays proto-oncogenic activity in cancers. Nonetheless, the downstream signaling mediating its oncogenic effects is not well defined. Here we show that netrin-1 via its transmembrane receptors, deleted in colorectal cancer and uncoordinated-5 homolog, up-regulates YAP expression, escalating YAP levels in the nucleus and promoting cancer cell proliferation and migration. Inactivating netrin-1, deleted in colorectal cancer, or uncoordinated-5 homolog B (UNC5B) decreases YAP protein levels, abrogating cancer cell progression by netrin-1, whereas knockdown of mammalian STE20-like protein kinase 1/2 (MST1/2) or large tumor suppressor kinase 1/2 (Lats1/2), two sets of upstream core kinases of the Hippo pathway, has no effect in blocking netrin-1-induced up-regulation of YAP. Netrin-1 stimulates phosphatase 1A to dephosphorylate YAP, which leads to decreased ubiquitination and degradation, enhancing YAP accumulation and signaling. Hence, our findings support that netrin-1 exerts oncogenic activity through YAP signaling, providing a mechanism coupling extracellular signals to the nuclear YAP oncogene.

  13. A combined oncogenic pathway signature of BRAF, KRAS and PI3KCA mutation improves colorectal cancer classification and cetuximab treatment prediction

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sun; Simon, Iris; Moreno, Victor; Roepman, Paul; Tabernero, Josep; Snel, Mireille; van't Veer, Laura; Salazar, Ramon; Bernards, Rene

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop gene expression profiles that characterise KRAS-, BRAF- or PIK3CA-activated- tumours, and to explore whether these profiles might be helpful in predicting the response to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway inhibitors better than mutation status alone. Design Fresh frozen tumour samples from 381 colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were collected and mutations in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA were assessed. Using microarray data, three individual oncogenic and a combined model were developed and validated in an independent set of 80 CRC patients, and in a dataset from metastatic CRC patients treated with cetuximab. Results 175 tumours (45.9%) harboured oncogenic mutations in KRAS (30.2%), BRAF (11.0%) and PIK3CA (11.5%). Activating mutation signatures for KRAS (75 genes), for BRAF (58 genes,) and for PIK3CA (49 genes) were developed. The development of a combined oncogenic pathway signature-classified tumours as ‘activated oncogenic’, or as ‘wildtype-like’ with a sensitivity of 90.3% and a specificity of 61.7%. The identified signature revealed other mechanisms that can activate ERK/MAPK pathway in KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA wildtype patients. The combined signature is associated with response to cetuximab treatment in patients with metastatic CRC (HR 2.51, p<0.0009). Conclusion A combined oncogenic pathway signature allows the identification of patients with an active EGFR-signalling pathway that could benefit from downstream pathway inhibition. PMID:22798500

  14. Activation of spinal MrgC-Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway by Mas oncogene-related gene C receptor agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 attenuates bone cancer pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yu’e; Zhang, Juan; Lei, Yishan; Lu, Cui’e; Hou, Bailing; Ma, Zhengliang; Gu, Xiaoping

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the present study, we investigate the effects of Mas oncogene-related gene (Mrg) C receptors (MrgC) on the expression and activation of spinal Gi protein, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 2B (NR2B), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in mouse model of bone cancer pain. Methods: The number of spontaneous foot lift (NSF) and paw withdrawal mechanical threshold (PWMT) were measured after inoculation of tumor cells and intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist bovine adrenal medulla 8-22 (BAM8-22) or MrgC antagonist anti-MrgC for 14 days after operation. Expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS and their phosphorylated forms after inoculation was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Double labeling was used to identify the co-localization of NR2B or nNOS with MrgC in spinal cord dorsal horn (SCDH) neurons. The effects of intrathecal injection of BAM8-22 or anti-MrgC on nociceptive behaviors and the corresponding expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B and nNOS were also investigated. Results: The expression of spinal MrgC, Gi protein, NR2B, and nNOS was higher in tumor-bearing mice in comparison to sham mice or normal mice. Intrathecal injection of MrgC agonist BAM8-22 significantly alleviated bone cancer pain, up-regulated MrgC and Gi protein expression, and down-regulated the expression of spinal p-NR2B, t-nNOS and p-nNOS in SCDH on day 14 after operation, whereas administration of anti-MrgC produced the opposite effect. Meanwhile, MrgC-like immunoreactivity (IR) co-localizes with NR2B-IR or nNOS-IR in SCDH neurons. Conclusions: The present study demonstrates that MrgC-activated spinal Gi-NR2B-nNOS signaling pathway plays important roles in the development of bone cancer pain. These findings may provide a novel strategy for the treatment of bone cancer pain. PMID:27158400

  15. Narrowing the focus: a toolkit to systematically connect oncogenic signaling pathways with cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Katherine R.; Wood, Kris C.

    2016-01-01

    Functional genomics approaches such as gain- and loss-of-function screening can efficiently reveal genes that control cancer cell growth, survival, signal transduction, and drug resistance, but distilling the results of large-scale screens into actionable therapeutic strategies is challenging given our incomplete understanding of the functions of many genes. Research over several decades, including the results of large-scale cancer sequencing projects, has made it clear that many oncogenic properties are controlled by a common set of core oncogenic signaling pathways. By directly screening this core set of pathways, rather than much larger numbers of individual genes, it may be possible to more directly and efficiently connect functional genomic screening results with therapeutic targets. Here, we describe the recent development of methods to directly screen oncogenic pathways in high-throughput. We summarize the results of studies that have used pathway-centric screening to map the pathways of resistance to targeted therapies in diverse cancer types, then conclude by expanding on potential future applications of this approach. PMID:27738492

  16. Computational Design of Selective Peptides to Discriminate Between Similar PDZ Domains in an Oncogenic Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fan; Jewell, Heather; Fitzpatrick, Jeremy; Zhang, Jian; Mierke, Dale F.; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2016-01-01

    Reagents that target protein-protein interactions to rewire signaling are of great relevance in biological research. Computational protein design may offer a means of creating such reagents on demand, but methods for encoding targeting selectivity are sorely needed. This is especially challenging when targeting interactions with ubiquitous recognition modules—e.g., PDZ domains, which bind C-terminal sequences of partner proteins. Here we consider the problem of designing selective PDZ inhibitor peptides in the context of an oncogenic signaling pathway, in which two PDZ domains (NHERF-2 PDZ2—N2P2 and MAGI-3 PDZ6—M3P6) compete for a receptor C-terminus to differentially modulate oncogenic activities. Because N2P2 increases tumorigenicity and M3P6 decreases it, we sought to design peptides that inhibit N2P2 without affecting M3P6. We developed a structure-based computational design framework that models peptide flexibility in binding, yet is efficient enough to rapidly analyze tradeoffs between affinity and selectivity. Designed peptides showed low-micromolar inhibition constants for N2P2 and no detectable M3P6 binding. Peptides designed for reverse discrimination bound M3P6 tighter than N2P2, further testing our technology. Experimental and computational analysis of selectivity determinants revealed significant indirect energetic coupling in the binding site. Successful discrimination between N2P2 and M3P6, despite their overlapping binding preferences, is highly encouraging for computational approaches to selective PDZ targeting, especially because design relied on a homology model of M3P6. Still, we demonstrate specific deficiencies of structural modeling that must be addressed to enable truly robust design. The presented framework is general and can be applied in many scenarios to engineer selective targeting. PMID:25451599

  17. Computational design of selective peptides to discriminate between similar PDZ domains in an oncogenic pathway.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Fan; Jewell, Heather; Fitzpatrick, Jeremy; Zhang, Jian; Mierke, Dale F; Grigoryan, Gevorg

    2015-01-30

    Reagents that target protein-protein interactions to rewire signaling are of great relevance in biological research. Computational protein design may offer a means of creating such reagents on demand, but methods for encoding targeting selectivity are sorely needed. This is especially challenging when targeting interactions with ubiquitous recognition modules--for example, PDZ domains, which bind C-terminal sequences of partner proteins. Here we consider the problem of designing selective PDZ inhibitor peptides in the context of an oncogenic signaling pathway, in which two PDZ domains (NHERF-2 PDZ2-N2P2 and MAGI-3 PDZ6-M3P6) compete for a receptor C-terminus to differentially modulate oncogenic activities. Because N2P2 has been shown to increase tumorigenicity and M3P6 to decreases it, we sought to design peptides that inhibit N2P2 without affecting M3P6. We developed a structure-based computational design framework that models peptide flexibility in binding yet is efficient enough to rapidly analyze tradeoffs between affinity and selectivity. Designed peptides showed low-micromolar inhibition constants for N2P2 and no detectable M3P6 binding. Peptides designed for reverse discrimination bound M3P6 tighter than N2P2, further testing our technology. Experimental and computational analysis of selectivity determinants revealed significant indirect energetic coupling in the binding site. Successful discrimination between N2P2 and M3P6, despite their overlapping binding preferences, is highly encouraging for computational approaches to selective PDZ targeting, especially because design relied on a homology model of M3P6. Still, we demonstrate specific deficiencies of structural modeling that must be addressed to enable truly robust design. The presented framework is general and can be applied in many scenarios to engineer selective targeting.

  18. Oncogenic microRNA-4534 regulates PTEN pathway in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nip, Hannah; Dar, Altaf A.; Saini, Sharanjot; Colden, Melissa; Varahram, Shahryari; Chowdhary, Harshika; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kato, Taku; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shiina, Marisa; Kulkarni, Priyanka; Dasgupta, Pritha; Imai-Sumida, Mitsuho; Tabatabai, Z. Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Majid, Shahana

    2016-01-01

    Prostate carcinogenesis involves alterations in several signaling pathways, the most prominent being the PI3K/AKT pathway. This pathway is constitutively active and drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression to advanced metastatic disease. PTEN, a critical tumor and metastasis suppressor gene negatively regulates cell survival, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. PTEN is mutated, downregulated/dysfunctional in many cancers and its dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis in PCa. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-4534 (miR-4534) is overexpressed in PCa and show that miR-4534 is hypermethylated in normal tissues and cell lines compared to PCa tissues/cells. miR-4534 exerts its oncogenic effects partly by downregulating the tumor suppressor PTEN gene. Knockdown of miR-4534 impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Suppression of miR-4534 and its effects on tumor growth was confirmed in a xenograft mouse model. We performed parallel experiments in non-cancer RWPE1 cells by overexpessing miR-4534 followed by functional assays. Overexpression of miR-4534 induced pro-cancerous characteristics in this non-cancer cell line. Statistical analyses revealed that miR-4534 has potential to independently distinguish malignant from normal tissues and positively correlated with poor overall and PSA recurrence free survival. Taken together, our results show that depletion of miR-4534 in PCa induces a tumor suppressor phenotype partly through induction of PTEN. These results have important implications for identifying and defining the role of new PTEN regulators such as microRNAs in prostate tumorigenesis. Understanding aberrantly overexpressed miR-4534 and its downregulation of PTEN will provide mechanistic insight and therapeutic targets for PCa therapy. PMID:27634912

  19. Oncogenic microRNA-4534 regulates PTEN pathway in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Nip, Hannah; Dar, Altaf A; Saini, Sharanjot; Colden, Melissa; Varahram, Shahryari; Chowdhary, Harshika; Yamamura, Soichiro; Mitsui, Yozo; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Kato, Taku; Hashimoto, Yutaka; Shiina, Marisa; Kulkarni, Priyanka; Dasgupta, Pritha; Imai-Sumida, Mitsuho; Tabatabai, Z Laura; Greene, Kirsten; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir; Majid, Shahana

    2016-10-18

    Prostate carcinogenesis involves alterations in several signaling pathways, the most prominent being the PI3K/AKT pathway. This pathway is constitutively active and drives prostate cancer (PCa) progression to advanced metastatic disease. PTEN, a critical tumor and metastasis suppressor gene negatively regulates cell survival, proliferation, migration and angiogenesis via the PI3K/Akt pathway. PTEN is mutated, downregulated/dysfunctional in many cancers and its dysregulation correlates with poor prognosis in PCa. Here, we demonstrate that microRNA-4534 (miR-4534) is overexpressed in PCa and show that miR-4534 is hypermethylated in normal tissues and cell lines compared to PCa tissues/cells. miR-4534 exerts its oncogenic effects partly by downregulating the tumor suppressor PTEN gene. Knockdown of miR-4534 impaired cell proliferation, migration/invasion and induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in PCa. Suppression of miR-4534 and its effects on tumor growth was confirmed in a xenograft mouse model. We performed parallel experiments in non-cancer RWPE1 cells by overexpessing miR-4534 followed by functional assays. Overexpression of miR-4534 induced pro-cancerous characteristics in this non-cancer cell line. Statistical analyses revealed that miR-4534 has potential to independently distinguish malignant from normal tissues and positively correlated with poor overall and PSA recurrence free survival. Taken together, our results show that depletion of miR-4534 in PCa induces a tumor suppressor phenotype partly through induction of PTEN. These results have important implications for identifying and defining the role of new PTEN regulators such as microRNAs in prostate tumorigenesis. Understanding aberrantly overexpressed miR-4534 and its downregulation of PTEN will provide mechanistic insight and therapeutic targets for PCa therapy.

  20. Crosstalk from non-cancerous mitochondria can inhibit tumor properties of metastatic cells by suppressing oncogenic pathways.

    PubMed

    Kaipparettu, Benny Abraham; Ma, Yewei; Park, Jun Hyoung; Lee, Tin-Lap; Zhang, Yiqun; Yotnda, Patricia; Creighton, Chad J; Chan, Wai-Yee; Wong, Lee-Jun C

    2013-01-01

    Mitochondrial-nucleus cross talks and mitochondrial retrograde regulation can play a significant role in cellular properties. Transmitochondrial cybrid systems (cybrids) are an excellent tool to study specific effects of altered mitochondria under a defined nuclear background. The majority of the studies using the cybrid model focused on the significance of specific mitochondrial DNA variations in mitochondrial function or tumor properties. However, most of these variants are benign polymorphisms without known functional significance. From an objective of rectifying mitochondrial defects in cancer cells and to establish mitochondria as a potential anticancer drug target, understanding the role of functional mitochondria in reversing oncogenic properties under a cancer nuclear background is very important. Here we analyzed the potential reversal of oncogenic properties of a highly metastatic cell line with the introduction of non-cancerous mitochondria. Cybrids were established by fusing the mitochondria DNA depleted 143B TK- ρ0 cells from an aggressive osteosarcoma cell line with mitochondria from benign breast epithelial cell line MCF10A, moderately metastatic breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468 and 143B cells. In spite of the uniform cancerous nuclear background, as observed with the mitochondria donor cells, cybrids with benign mitochondria showed high mitochondrial functional properties including increased ATP synthesis, oxygen consumption and respiratory chain activities compared to cybrids with cancerous mitochondria. Interestingly, benign mitochondria could reverse different oncogenic characteristics of 143B TK(-) cell including cell proliferation, viability under hypoxic condition, anti-apoptotic properties, resistance to anti-cancer drug, invasion, and colony formation in soft agar, and in vivo tumor growth in nude mice. Microarray analysis suggested that several oncogenic pathways observed in cybrids with cancer mitochondria are inhibited in cybrids with

  1. The Fanconi anemia pathway controls oncogenic response in hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells by regulating PRMT5-mediated p53 arginine methylation

    PubMed Central

    Du, Wei; Amarachintha, Surya; Erden, Ozlem; Wilson, Andrew; Pang, Qishen

    2016-01-01

    The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway is involved in DNA damage and other cellular stress responses. We have investigated the role of the FA pathway in oncogenic stress response by employing an in vivo stress-response model expressing the Gadd45β-luciferase transgene. Using two inducible models of oncogenic activation (LSL-K-rasG12D and MycER), we show that hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) from mice deficient for the FA core complex components Fanca or Fancc exhibit aberrant short-lived response to oncogenic insults. Mechanistic studies reveal that FA deficiency in HSPCs impairs oncogenic stress-induced G1 cell-cycle checkpoint, resulting from a compromised K-rasG12D-induced arginine methylation of p53 mediated by the protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5). Furthermore, forced expression of PRMT5 in HSPCs from LSL-K-rasG12D/CreER-Fanca−/− mice prolongs oncogenic response and delays leukemia development in recipient mice. Our study defines an arginine methylation-dependent FA-p53 interplay that controls oncogenic stress response. PMID:27507053

  2. Activation of oncogenes by radon progeny and x-rays

    SciTech Connect

    Ling, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    The overall goal of this proposal is to study the carcinogenic effect of both high and low LET radiation at the molecular level, utilizing techniques developed in molecular biology, cancer cell biology and radiation biology. The underlying assumption is that malignant transformation of normal cells is a multistep process requiring two or more molecular events in the genomic DNA. We hypothesize that radiation may induce such events in one or more steps of the multistep process. We will use in vitro models of transformation that reproduce the stepwise progression of normal cells toward the transformed phenotype and ask whether radiation can provide the necessary activating function at discrete steps along this path. Our strategy involves transfecting into normal primary cells a variety of cloned oncogenes that are known to supply only some of the functions necessary for full transformation. These partially transformed'' cells will be the targets for irradiation by x-rays and alpha particles. The results will provide the basis for assessing the ability of ionizing radiation to activate oncogenic functions that complement'' the oncogene already present in the transfected cells and produce the fully transformed phenotype. Progress is described. 121 refs.

  3. Oncogenic transformation of Drosophila somatic cells induces a functional piRNA pathway

    PubMed Central

    Fagegaltier, Delphine; Falciatori, Ilaria; Czech, Benjamin; Castel, Stephane; Perrimon, Norbert; Simcox, Amanda; Hannon, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    Germline genes often become re-expressed in soma-derived human cancers as “cancer/testis antigens” (CTAs), and piRNA (PIWI-interacting RNA) pathway proteins are found among CTAs. However, whether and how the piRNA pathway contributes to oncogenesis in human neoplasms remain poorly understood. We found that oncogenic Ras combined with loss of the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway reactivates a primary piRNA pathway in Drosophila somatic cells coincident with oncogenic transformation. In these cells, Piwi becomes loaded with piRNAs derived from annotated generative loci, which are normally restricted to either the germline or the somatic follicle cells. Negating the pathway leads to increases in the expression of a wide variety of transposons and also altered expression of some protein-coding genes. This correlates with a reduction in the proliferation of the transformed cells in culture, suggesting that, at least in this context, the piRNA pathway may play a functional role in cancer. PMID:27474441

  4. MicroRNA-205 inhibits Src-mediated oncogenic pathways in renal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Majid, Shahana; Saini, Sharanjot; Dar, Altaf A; Hirata, Hiroshi; Shahryari, Varahram; Tanaka, Yuichiro; Yamamura, Soichiro; Ueno, Koji; Zaman, Mohd Saif; Singh, Kamaldeep; Chang, Inik; Deng, Guoren; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2014-01-01

    The Src family of protein kinases (SFKs) plays key roles in regulating fundamental cellular processes, including cell growth, differentiation, cell shape, migration and survival, and specialized cell signals in various malignancies. The pleotropic functions of SFKs in cancer make them promising targets for intervention. Here we sought to investigate the role of miR-205 in inhibition of Src-mediated oncogenic pathways in renal cancer. We report that expression of miR-205 was significantly suppressed in renal cancer cell lines and tumors when compared with normal tissues and a non-malignant cell line, and is correlated inversely with the expression of SFKs. miR-205 significantly suppressed the luciferase activity of reporter plasmids containing the 3’UTR sequences complementary to either Src, Lyn or Yes, which was abolished by mutations in these 3’UTR regions. Over-expression of miR-205 in A498 cells reduced Src, Lyn and Yes expression both at mRNA and protein levels. Proliferation of renal cancer cells was suppressed by miR-205, mediated by the phosphoSrc-regulated ERK1/2 pathway. Cell motility factor- FAK and STAT3 activation was also inhibited by miR-205. Transient as well as stable over-expression of miR-205 in A498 cells resulted in induction of G0/G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis as indicated by decreased levels of cyclin D1 and cMyc, suppressed cell proliferation, colony formation, migration, and invasion in renal cancer cells. miR-205 also inhibited tumor cell growth in vivo. This is the first study demonstrating that miRNA-205 inhibits protooncogenic Src family of kinases indicating a therapeutic potential of miR-205 in the treatment of renal cancer. PMID:21330408

  5. Cellular senescence checkpoint function determines differential Notch1-dependent oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, S; Natsuizaka, M; Whelan, K A; Facompre, N; Naganuma, S; Ohashi, S; Kinugasa, H; Egloff, A M; Basu, D; Gimotty, P A; Klein-Szanto, A J; Bass, A J; Wong, K-K; Diehl, J A; Rustgi, A K; Nakagawa, H

    2015-04-30

    Notch activity regulates tumor biology in a context-dependent and complex manner. Notch may act as an oncogene or a tumor-suppressor gene even within the same tumor type. Recently, Notch signaling has been implicated in cellular senescence. Yet, it remains unclear as to how cellular senescence checkpoint functions may interact with Notch-mediated oncogenic and tumor-suppressor activities. Herein, we used genetically engineered human esophageal keratinocytes and esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells to delineate the functional consequences of Notch activation and inhibition along with pharmacological intervention and RNA interference experiments. When expressed in a tetracycline-inducible manner, the ectopically expressed activated form of Notch1 (ICN1) displayed oncogene-like characteristics inducing cellular senescence corroborated by the induction of G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest, Rb dephosphorylation, flat and enlarged cell morphology and senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity. Notch-induced senescence involves canonical CSL/RBPJ-dependent transcriptional activity and the p16(INK4A)-Rb pathway. Loss of p16(INK4A) or the presence of human papilloma virus (HPV) E6/E7 oncogene products not only prevented ICN1 from inducing senescence but permitted ICN1 to facilitate anchorage-independent colony formation and xenograft tumor growth with increased cell proliferation and reduced squamous-cell differentiation. Moreover, Notch1 appears to mediate replicative senescence as well as transforming growth factor-β-induced cellular senescence in non-transformed cells and that HPV E6/E7 targets Notch1 for inactivation to prevent senescence, revealing a tumor-suppressor attribute of endogenous Notch1. In aggregate, cellular senescence checkpoint functions may influence dichotomous Notch activities in the neoplastic context.

  6. Intrinsically active variants of Erk oncogenically transform cells and disclose unexpected autophosphorylation capability that is independent of TEY phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Smorodinsky-Atias, Karina; Goshen-Lago, Tal; Goldberg-Carp, Anat; Melamed, Dganit; Shir, Alexei; Mooshayef, Navit; Beenstock, Jonah; Karamansha, Yael; Darlyuk-Saadon, Ilona; Livnah, Oded; Ahn, Natalie G.; Admon, Arie; Engelberg, David

    2016-01-01

    The receptor-tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras/Raf pathway is an essential cascade for mediating growth factor signaling. It is abnormally overactive in almost all human cancers. The downstream targets of the pathway are members of the extracellular regulated kinases (Erk1/2) family, suggesting that this family is a mediator of the oncogenic capability of the cascade. Although all oncogenic mutations in the pathway result in strong activation of Erks, activating mutations in Erks themselves were not reported in cancers. Here we used spontaneously active Erk variants to check whether Erk’s activity per se is sufficient for oncogenic transformation. We show that Erk1(R84S) is an oncoprotein, as NIH3T3 cells that express it form foci in tissue culture plates, colonies in soft agar, and tumors in nude mice. We further show that Erk1(R84S) and Erk2(R65S) are intrinsically active due to an unusual autophosphorylation activity they acquire. They autophosphorylate the activatory TEY motif and also other residues, including the critical residue Thr-207 (in Erk1)/Thr-188 (in Erk2). Strikingly, Erk2(R65S) efficiently autophosphorylates its Thr-188 even when dually mutated in the TEY motif. Thus this study shows that Erk1 can be considered a proto-oncogene and that Erk molecules possess unusual autoregulatory properties, some of them independent of TEY phosphorylation. PMID:26658610

  7. Targeting the hedgehog-glioma-associated oncogene homolog pathway inhibits bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice.

    PubMed

    Moshai, Elika Farrokhi; Wémeau-Stervinou, Lidwine; Cigna, Natacha; Brayer, Stephanie; Sommé, Joëlle Marchal; Crestani, Bruno; Mailleux, Arnaud A

    2014-07-01

    Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis has been associated with the reactivation of developmental pathways, notably the Hedgehog-Glioma-associated oncogene homolog (GLI) pathway. In this study, we determined whether the Hedgehog pathway was activated in bleomycin-induced lung injury in mice, and whether targeting the Hedgehog-Gli pathway could decrease bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. After intratracheal injection of bleomycin on Day 0, C57Bl6 mice received GDC-0449 (an inhibitor of Smoothened, the transducer of the pathway), or 2,2'-[[Dihydro-2-(4-pyridinyl)-1,3(2H,4H)-pyrimidinediyl]bis(methylene)]bis[N,N dimethylbenzenamine (GANT61; an inhibitor of GLI transcription factors in the nucleus), from Day 7 to Day 13. At Day 14, whole-lung homogenates were obtained for morphological analysis, assessment of cell apoptosis and proliferation, collagen quantification, and evaluation of profibrotic (transforming growth factor-β, connective tissue growth factor, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1, vascular endothelial growth factor-A) and proinflammatory mediators (IL-1β) expression. We showed that the Hedgehog pathway was activated in bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis on Day 14 after injury, with an increased lung expression of the ligand, Sonic Hedgehog, and with increased messenger RNA expression and nuclear localization of GLI1 and GLI2. Inhibition of Smoothened with GDC-0449 did not influence the development of bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. By contrast, the inhibition of GLI activity with GANT61 decreased lung fibrosis and lung collagen accumulation, and promoted an antifibrotic and anti-inflammatory environment. Our results identify the hedgehog-Gli pathway as a profibrotic pathway in experimental fibrosis. Inhibition of the Hedgehog-Gli pathway at the level of GLI transcriptional activity could be a therapeutic option in fibrotic lung diseases.

  8. The APC/C E3 Ligase Complex Activator FZR1 Restricts BRAF Oncogenic Function.

    PubMed

    Wan, Lixin; Chen, Ming; Cao, Juxiang; Dai, Xiangpeng; Yin, Qing; Zhang, Jinfang; Song, Su-Jung; Lu, Ying; Liu, Jing; Inuzuka, Hiroyuki; Katon, Jesse M; Berry, Kelsey; Fung, Jacqueline; Ng, Christopher; Liu, Pengda; Song, Min Sup; Xue, Lian; Bronson, Roderick T; Kirschner, Marc W; Cui, Rutao; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Wei, Wenyi

    2017-02-07

    BRAF drives tumorigenesis by coordinating the activation of RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK oncogenic signaling cascade. However, upstream pathway(s) governing BRAF kinase activity and protein stability remains undefined. Here, we report that in primary cells with active APCFZR1, APCFZR1 earmarks BRAF for ubiquitination-mediated proteolysis, while in cancer cells with APC-free FZR1, FZR1 suppresses BRAF through disrupting BRAF dimerization. Moreover, we identified FZR1 as a direct target of ERK and CYCLIN D1/CDK4 kinases. Phosphorylation of FZR1 inhibits APCFZR1, leading to elevation of a cohort of oncogenic APCFZR1 substrates to facilitate melanomagenesis. Importantly, CDK4 and/or BRAF/MEK inhibitors restore APCFZR1 E3 ligase activity, which might be critical for their clinical effects. Furthermore, FZR1 depletion co-operates with AKT hyper-activation to transform primary melanocytes, while genetic ablation of Fzr1 synergizes with Pten loss, leading to aberrant co-activation of BRAF/ERK and AKT signaling in mice. Our findings therefore reveal a reciprocal suppression mechanism between FZR1 and BRAF in controlling tumorigenesis.

  9. Oncogenic programmes and Notch activity: an 'organized crime'?

    PubMed

    Dominguez, Maria

    2014-04-01

    The inappropriate Notch signalling can influence virtually all aspect of cancer, including tumour-cell growth, survival, apoptosis, angiogenesis, invasion and metastasis, although it does not do this alone. Hence, elucidating the partners of Notch that are active in cancer is now the focus of much intense research activity. The genetic toolkits available, coupled to the small size and short life of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, makes this an inexpensive and effective animal model, suited to large-scale cancer gene discovery studies. The fly eye is not only a non-vital organ but its stereotyped size and disposition also means it is easy to screen for mutations that cause tumours and metastases and provides ample opportunities to test cancer theories and to unravel unanticipated nexus between Notch and other cancer genes, or to discover unforeseen Notch's partners in cancer. These studies suggest that Notch's oncogenic capacity is brought about not simply by increasing signal strength but through partnerships, whereby oncogenes gain more by cooperating than acting individually, as in a ring 'organized crime'.

  10. Insulator dysfunction and oncogene activation in IDH mutant gliomas.

    PubMed

    Flavahan, William A; Drier, Yotam; Liau, Brian B; Gillespie, Shawn M; Venteicher, Andrew S; Stemmer-Rachamimov, Anat O; Suvà, Mario L; Bernstein, Bradley E

    2016-01-07

    Gain-of-function IDH mutations are initiating events that define major clinical and prognostic classes of gliomas. Mutant IDH protein produces a new onco-metabolite, 2-hydroxyglutarate, which interferes with iron-dependent hydroxylases, including the TET family of 5'-methylcytosine hydroxylases. TET enzymes catalyse a key step in the removal of DNA methylation. IDH mutant gliomas thus manifest a CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP), although the functional importance of this altered epigenetic state remains unclear. Here we show that human IDH mutant gliomas exhibit hypermethylation at cohesin and CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF)-binding sites, compromising binding of this methylation-sensitive insulator protein. Reduced CTCF binding is associated with loss of insulation between topological domains and aberrant gene activation. We specifically demonstrate that loss of CTCF at a domain boundary permits a constitutive enhancer to interact aberrantly with the receptor tyrosine kinase gene PDGFRA, a prominent glioma oncogene. Treatment of IDH mutant gliomaspheres with a demethylating agent partially restores insulator function and downregulates PDGFRA. Conversely, CRISPR-mediated disruption of the CTCF motif in IDH wild-type gliomaspheres upregulates PDGFRA and increases proliferation. Our study suggests that IDH mutations promote gliomagenesis by disrupting chromosomal topology and allowing aberrant regulatory interactions that induce oncogene expression.

  11. Oncogenes Activate an Autonomous Transcriptional Regulatory Circuit That Drives Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Singh, Dinesh K; Kollipara, Rahul K; Vemireddy, Vamsidara; Yang, Xiao-Li; Sun, Yuxiao; Regmi, Nanda; Klingler, Stefan; Hatanpaa, Kimmo J; Raisanen, Jack; Cho, Steve K; Sirasanagandla, Shyam; Nannepaga, Suraj; Piccirillo, Sara; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Wang, Shan; Humphries, Caroline G; Mickey, Bruce; Maher, Elizabeth A; Zheng, Hongwu; Kim, Ryung S; Kittler, Ralf; Bachoo, Robert M

    2017-01-24

    Efforts to identify and target glioblastoma (GBM) drivers have primarily focused on receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs). Clinical benefits, however, have been elusive. Here, we identify an SRY-related box 2 (SOX2) transcriptional regulatory network that is independent of upstream RTKs and capable of driving glioma-initiating cells. We identified oligodendrocyte lineage transcription factor 2 (OLIG2) and zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB1), which are frequently co-expressed irrespective of driver mutations, as potential SOX2 targets. In murine glioma models, we show that different combinations of tumor suppressor and oncogene mutations can activate Sox2, Olig2, and Zeb1 expression. We demonstrate that ectopic co-expression of the three transcription factors can transform tumor-suppressor-deficient astrocytes into glioma-initiating cells in the absence of an upstream RTK oncogene. Finally, we demonstrate that the transcriptional inhibitor mithramycin downregulates SOX2 and its target genes, resulting in markedly reduced proliferation of GBM cells in vivo.

  12. Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer 3 Annual Progress Report W81XWH-13-1-0162 Using a Novel...Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer Feng Yang, Ph.D. Department of...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0162 TITLE: Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and

  13. Rab14 Act as Oncogene and Induce Proliferation of Gastric Cancer Cells via AKT Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zhenghao; Li, Qian; Zhou, Kaiyue; Zhao, Lingyu; Wang, Lumin; Yang, Juan; Huang, Chen

    2017-01-01

    Rab14 is a member of RAS oncogene family, and its dysfunction has been reported to be involved in various types of human cancer. However, its expression and function were still unclear in gastric cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the function and mechanism of Rab14 in gastric cancer cell lines. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was performed in 17 gastric adenocarcinoma tissues and 4 cell lines to detect the expression of Rab14. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT), colony formation and flow cytometry assays were employed to determine the proliferative ability, cell cycle transition and apoptosis in vitro in BGC-823 or SGC-7901 cells. Western blot was performed to investigate the pathways and mechanism of Rab14 regulation. In this study, we show that Rab14 presents a significant up-regulated expression among the paired tissue samples and cell lines in gastric cancer. When we overexpressed Rab14 in SGC-7901 cells or silenced Rab14 in BGC-823 cells, we found that Rab14 could modify cell growth, cell cycle or apoptosis, which accompanied with an obvious regulation of CCND1, CDK2 and BAX involving in AKT signaling pathway. In conclusion, this study provides a new evidence on that Rab14 functions as a novel tumor oncogene and could be a potential therapeutic target in gastric cancer. PMID:28107526

  14. BRAF vs RAS oncogenes: are mutations of the same pathway equal? differential signalling and therapeutic implications

    PubMed Central

    Oikonomou, Eftychia; Koustas, Evangelos; Goulielmaki, Maria; Pintzas, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    As the increased knowledge of tumour heterogeneity and genetic alterations progresses, it exemplifies the need for further personalized medicine in modern cancer management. Here, the similarities but also the differential effects of RAS and BRAF oncogenic signalling are examined and further implications in personalized cancer diagnosis and therapy are discussed. Redundant mechanisms mediated by the two oncogenes as well as differential regulation of signalling pathways and gene expression by RAS as compared to BRAF are addressed. The implications of RAS vs BRAF differential functions, in relevant tumour types including colorectal cancer, melanoma, lung cancer are discussed. Current therapeutic findings and future viewpoints concerning the exploitation of RAS-BRAF-pathway alterations for the development of novel therapeutics and efficient rational combinations, as well as companion tests for relevant markers of response will be evaluated. The concept that drug-resistant cells may also display drug dependency, such that altered dosing may prevent the emergence of lethal drug resistance posed a major therapy hindrance. PMID:25361007

  15. A novel oncogene, ost, encodes a guanine nucleotide exchange factor that potentially links Rho and Rac signaling pathways.

    PubMed Central

    Horii, Y; Beeler, J F; Sakaguchi, K; Tachibana, M; Miki, T

    1994-01-01

    Transfection of NIH3T3 cells with an osteosarcoma expression cDNA library led to the appearance of foci of morphologically transformed cells which were found to harbor a novel oncogene, ost. The ost product was activated by truncation of the N-terminal domain of the ost proto-oncogene and was highly tumorigenic in nude mouse assays. The proto-ost cDNA, isolated subsequently, encodes a predicted protein of 100 kDa containing DH (Db1 homology) and PH (pleckstrin homology) domains. Ost is mainly phosphorylated on serine and localized in the cytoplasm. Purified Ost protein catalyzed guanine nucleotide exchange on RhoA and Cdc42 among the Rho and Ras family members tested, indicating that Ost can activate these small GTP-binding proteins. Ost did not detectably associate with RhoA or Cdc42, but interacted specifically with the GTP-bound form of Rac1, suggesting that Ost can function as an effector of Rac1. These results suggest that Ost is a critical regulatory component which links pathways that signal through Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42. Of the tissues examined, expression of ost was the highest in brain and could be localized to neurons and alpha-tanycytes, suggesting that Ost may participate in axonal transport in these specialized cells. Images PMID:7957046

  16. Suppression of Akt-mTOR Pathway-A Novel Component of Oncogene Induced DNA Damage Response Barrier in Breast Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bhardwaj, Anjana; Rosen, Daniel; Liu, Mei; Liu, Yan; Hao, Qiang; Ganesan, Nivetha; Etzel, Carol J.; Gullett, Ashley; Albarracin, Constance T.; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage has been thought to be directly associated with the neoplastic progression by enabling mutations in tumor suppressor genes and activating/and amplifying oncogenes ultimately resulting in genomic instability. DNA damage causes activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) that is an important cellular mechanism for maintaining genomic integrity in the face of genotoxic stress. While the cellular response to genotoxic stress has been extensively studied in cancer models, less is known about the cellular response to oncogenic stress in the premalignant context. In the present study, by using breast tissues samples from women at different risk levels for invasive breast cancer (normal, proliferative breast disease and ductal carcinoma in situ) we found that DNA damage is inversely correlated with risk of invasive breast cancer. Similarly, in MCF10A based in vitro model system where we recapitulated high DNA damage conditions as seen in patient samples by stably cloning in cyclin E, we found that high levels of oncogene induced DNA damage, by triggering inhibition of a major proliferative pathway (AKT), inhibits cell growth and causes cells to die through autophagy. These data suggest that AKT-mTOR pathway is a novel component of oncogene induced DNA damage response in immortalized ‘normal-like’ breast cells and its suppression may contribute to growth arrest and arrest of the breast tumorigenesis. PMID:24811059

  17. Suppression of Akt-mTOR pathway-a novel component of oncogene induced DNA damage response barrier in breast tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Anjana; Rosen, Daniel; Liu, Mei; Liu, Yan; Hao, Qiang; Ganesan, Nivetha; Etzel, Carol J; Gullett, Ashley; Albarracin, Constance T; Bedrosian, Isabelle

    2014-01-01

    DNA damage has been thought to be directly associated with the neoplastic progression by enabling mutations in tumor suppressor genes and activating/and amplifying oncogenes ultimately resulting in genomic instability. DNA damage causes activation of the DNA damage response (DDR) that is an important cellular mechanism for maintaining genomic integrity in the face of genotoxic stress. While the cellular response to genotoxic stress has been extensively studied in cancer models, less is known about the cellular response to oncogenic stress in the premalignant context. In the present study, by using breast tissues samples from women at different risk levels for invasive breast cancer (normal, proliferative breast disease and ductal carcinoma in situ) we found that DNA damage is inversely correlated with risk of invasive breast cancer. Similarly, in MCF10A based in vitro model system where we recapitulated high DNA damage conditions as seen in patient samples by stably cloning in cyclin E, we found that high levels of oncogene induced DNA damage, by triggering inhibition of a major proliferative pathway (AKT), inhibits cell growth and causes cells to die through autophagy. These data suggest that AKT-mTOR pathway is a novel component of oncogene induced DNA damage response in immortalized 'normal-like' breast cells and its suppression may contribute to growth arrest and arrest of the breast tumorigenesis.

  18. Expression of oncogenic K-ras from its endogenous promoter leads to a partial block of erythroid differentiation and hyperactivation of cytokine-dependent signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Liu, Yangang; Beard, Caroline; Tuveson, David A; Jaenisch, Rudolf; Jacks, Tyler E; Lodish, Harvey F

    2007-06-15

    When overexpressed in primary erythroid progenitors, oncogenic Ras leads to the constitutive activation of its downstream signaling pathways, severe block of terminal erythroid differentiation, and cytokine-independent growth of primary erythroid progenitors. However, whether high-level expression of oncogenic Ras is required for these phenotypes is unknown. To address this issue, we expressed oncogenic K-ras (K-ras(G12D)) from its endogenous promoter using a tetracycline-inducible system. We show that endogenous K-ras(G12D) leads to a partial block of terminal erythroid differentiation in vivo. In contrast to results obtained when oncogenic Ras was overexpressed from retroviral vectors, endogenous levels of K-ras(G12D) fail to constitutively activate but rather hyperactivate cytokine-dependent signaling pathways, including Stat5, Akt, and p44/42 MAPK, in primary erythroid progenitors. This explains previous observations that hematopoietic progenitors expressing endogenous K-ras(G12D) display hypersensitivity to cytokine stimulation in various colony assays. Our results support efforts to modulate Ras signaling for treating hematopoietic malignancies.

  19. ELF4/MEF activates MDM2 expression and blocks oncogene-induced p16 activation to promote transformation.

    PubMed

    Sashida, Goro; Liu, Yan; Elf, Shannon; Miyata, Yasuhiko; Ohyashiki, Kazuma; Izumi, Miki; Menendez, Silvia; Nimer, Stephen D

    2009-07-01

    Several ETS transcription factors, including ELF4/MEF, can function as oncogenes in murine cancer models and are overexpressed in human cancer. We found that Elf4/Mef activates Mdm2 expression; thus, lack of or knockdown of Elf4/Mef reduces Mdm2 levels in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (mef's), leading to enhanced p53 protein accumulation and p53-dependent senescence. Even though p53 is absent in Elf4(-/-) p53(-/-) mef's, neither oncogenic H-Ras(V12) nor c-myc can induce transformation of these cells. This appears to relate to the INK4a/ARF locus; both p19(ARF) and p16 are increased in Elf4(-/-) p53(-/-) mef's, and expression of Bmi-1 or knockdown of p16 in this context restores H-Ras(V12)-induced transformation. Thus, ELF4/MEF promotes tumorigenesis by inhibiting both the p53 and p16/Rb pathways.

  20. Oncogene addiction: pathways of therapeutic response, resistance, and road maps toward a cure

    PubMed Central

    Pagliarini, Raymond; Shao, Wenlin; Sellers, William R

    2015-01-01

    A key goal of cancer therapeutics is to selectively target the genetic lesions that initiate and maintain cancer cell proliferation and survival. While most cancers harbor multiple oncogenic mutations, a wealth of preclinical and clinical data supports that many cancers are sensitive to inhibition of single oncogenes, a concept referred to as ‘oncogene addiction’. Herein, we describe the clinical evidence supporting oncogene addiction and discuss common mechanistic themes emerging from the response and acquired resistance to oncogene-targeted therapies. Finally, we suggest several opportunities toward exploiting oncogene addiction to achieve curative cancer therapies. PMID:25680965

  1. Cancer genes: rare recombinants instead of activated oncogenes (a review).

    PubMed Central

    Duesberg, P H

    1987-01-01

    The 20 known transforming (onc) genes of retroviruses are defined by sequences that are transduced from cellular genes termed protooncogenes or cellular oncogenes. Based on these sequences, viral onc genes have been postulated to be transduced cellular cancer genes, and proto-onc genes have been postulated to be latent cancer genes that can be activated from within the cell to cause virus-negative tumors. The hypothesis is popular because it promises direct access to cellular cancer genes. However, the existence of latent cancer genes presents a paradox, since such genes are clearly undesirable. The hypothesis predicts that viral onc genes and proto-onc genes are isogenic; that expression of proto-onc genes induces tumors; that activated proto-onc genes transform diploid cells upon transfection, like viral onc genes; and that diploid tumors exist. As yet, none of these predictions is confirmed. Instead: Structural comparisons between viral onc genes, essential retroviral genes, and proto-onc genes show that all viral onc genes are indeed new genes, rather than transduced cellular cancer genes. They are recombinants put together from truncated viral and truncated proto-onc genes. Proto-onc genes are frequently expressed in normal cells. To date, not one activated proto-onc gene has been isolated that transforms diploid cells. Above all, no diploid tumors with activated proto-onc genes have been found. Moreover, the probability of spontaneous transformation in vivo is at least 10(9) times lower than predicted from the mechanisms thought to activate proto-onc genes. Therefore, the hypothesis that proto-onc genes are latent cellular oncogenes appears to be an overinterpretation of sequence homology to structural and functional homology with viral onc genes. Here it is proposed that only rare truncations and illegitimate recombinations that alter the germ-line configuration of cellular genes generate viral and possibly cellular cancer genes. The clonal chromosome

  2. Eukaryotic Elongation Factor 2 Kinase Activity Is Controlled by Multiple Inputs from Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xuemin; Regufe da Mota, Sergio; Liu, Rui; Moore, Claire E.; Xie, Jianling; Lanucara, Francesco; Agarwala, Usha; Pyr dit Ruys, Sébastien; Vertommen, Didier; Rider, Mark H.; Eyers, Claire E.

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), an atypical calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, phosphorylates and inhibits eEF2, slowing down translation elongation. eEF2K contains an N-terminal catalytic domain, a C-terminal α-helical region and a linker containing several regulatory phosphorylation sites. eEF2K is expressed at high levels in certain cancers, where it may act to help cell survival, e.g., during nutrient starvation. However, it is a negative regulator of protein synthesis and thus cell growth, suggesting that cancer cells may possess mechanisms to inhibit eEF2K under good growth conditions, to allow protein synthesis to proceed. We show here that the mTORC1 pathway and the oncogenic Ras/Raf/MEK/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway cooperate to restrict eEF2K activity. We identify multiple sites in eEF2K whose phosphorylation is regulated by mTORC1 and/or ERK, including new ones in the linker region. We demonstrate that certain sites are phosphorylated directly by mTOR or ERK. Our data reveal that glycogen synthase kinase 3 signaling also regulates eEF2 phosphorylation. In addition, we show that phosphorylation sites remote from the N-terminal calmodulin-binding motif regulate the phosphorylation of N-terminal sites that control CaM binding. Mutations in the former sites, which occur in cancer cells, cause the activation of eEF2K. eEF2K is thus regulated by a network of oncogenic signaling pathways. PMID:25182533

  3. The cell survival pathways of the primordial RNA–DNA complex remain conserved in the extant genomes and may function as proto-oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Malignantly transformed (cancer) cells of multicellular hosts, including human cells, operate activated biochemical pathways that recognizably derived from unicellular ancestors. The descendant heat shock proteins of thermophile archaea now chaperon oncoproteins. The ABC cassettes of toxin-producer zooxantella Symbiodinia algae pump out the cytoplasmic toxin molecules; malignantly transformed cells utilize the derivatives of these cassettes to get rid of chemotherapeuticals. High mobility group helix–loop–helix proteins, protein arginine methyltransferases, proliferating cell nuclear antigens, and Ki-67 nuclear proteins, that protect and repair DNA in unicellular life forms, support oncogenes in transformed cells. The cell survival pathways of Wnt–β-catenin, Hedgehog, PI3K, MAPK–ERK, STAT, Ets, JAK, Pak, Myb, achaete scute, circadian rhythms, Bruton kinase and others, which are physiological in uni- and early multicellular eukaryotic life forms, are constitutively encoded in complex oncogenic pathways in selected single cells of advanced multicellular eukaryotic hosts. Oncogenes and oncoproteins in advanced multicellular hosts recreate selected independently living and immortalized unicellular life forms, which are similar to extinct and extant protists. These unicellular life forms are recognized at the clinics as autologous “cancer cells”. PMID:25883792

  4. GEP oncogene promotes cell proliferation through YAP activation in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Yagi, H; Asanoma, K; Ohgami, T; Ichinoe, A; Sonoda, K; Kato, K

    2016-08-25

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) and their ligands function in the progression of human malignancies. Gα12 and Gα13, encoded by GNA12 and GNA13, respectively, are referred to as the GEP oncogene and are implicated in tumor progression. However, the molecular mechanisms by which Gα12/13 activation promotes cancer progression are not fully elucidated. Here, we demonstrate elevated expression of Gα12/13 in human ovarian cancer tissues. Gα12/13 activation did not promote cellular migration in the ovarian cancer cell lines examined. Rather, Gα12/13 activation promoted cell growth. We used a synthetic biology approach using chimeric G proteins and GPCRs activated solely by artificial ligands to selectively trigger signaling pathways downstream of specific G proteins. We found that Gα12/13 promotes proliferation of ovarian cancer cells by activating the transcriptional coactivator YAP, a critical component of the Hippo signaling pathway. Furthermore, we reveal that inhibition of YAP by short hairpin RNA or a specific inhibitor prevented the growth of ovarian cancer cells. Therefore, YAP may be a suitable therapeutic target in ovarian cancer.

  5. The proto-oncogene c-Src and its downstream signaling pathways are inhibited by the metastasis suppressor, NDRG1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wensheng; Yue, Fei; Zheng, Minhua; Merlot, Angelica; Bae, Dong-Hun; Huang, Michael; Lane, Darius; Jansson, Patric; Lui, Goldie Yuan Lam; Richardson, Vera; Sahni, Sumit; Kalinowski, Danuta; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2015-04-20

    N-myc downstream regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent metastasis suppressor that plays a key role in regulating signaling pathways involved in mediating cancer cell invasion and migration, including those derived from prostate, colon, etc. However, the mechanisms and molecular targets through which NDRG1 reduces cancer cell invasion and migration, leading to inhibition of cancer metastasis, are not fully elucidated. In this investigation, using NDRG1 over-expression models in three tumor cell-types (namely, DU145, PC3MM and HT29) and also NDRG1 silencing in DU145 and HT29 cells, we reveal that NDRG1 decreases phosphorylation of a key proto-oncogene, cellular Src (c-Src), at a well-characterized activating site (Tyr416). NDRG1-mediated down-regulation of EGFR expression and activation were responsible for the decreased phosphorylation of c-Src (Tyr416). Indeed, NDRG1 prevented recruitment of c-Src to EGFR and c-Src activation. Moreover, NDRG1 suppressed Rac1 activity by modulating phosphorylation of a c-Src downstream effector, p130Cas, and its association with CrkII, which acts as a "molecular switch" to activate Rac1. NDRG1 also affected another signaling molecule involved in modulating Rac1 signaling, c-Abl, which then inhibited CrkII phosphorylation. Silencing NDRG1 increased cell migration relative to the control and inhibition of c-Src signaling using siRNA, or a pharmacological inhibitor (SU6656), prevented this increase. Hence, the role of NDRG1 in decreasing cell migration is, in part, due to its inhibition of c-Src activation. In addition, novel pharmacological agents, which induce NDRG1 expression and are currently under development as anti-metastatic agents, markedly increase NDRG1 and decrease c-Src activation. This study leads to important insights into the mechanism involved in inhibiting metastasis by NDRG1 and how to target these pathways with novel therapeutics.

  6. Activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase signaling promotes insulin receptor-mediated cone photoreceptor survival

    PubMed Central

    Rajala, Ammaji; Wang, Yuhong; Rajala, Raju V.S.

    2016-01-01

    In humans, daylight vision is primarily mediated by cone photoreceptors. These cells die in age-related retinal degenerations. Prolonging the life of cones for even one decade would have an enormous beneficial effect on usable vision in an aging population. Photoreceptors are postmitotic, but shed 10% of their outer segments daily, and must synthesize the membrane and protein equivalent of a proliferating cell each day. Although activation of oncogenic tyrosine kinase and inhibition of tyrosine phosphatase signaling is known to be essential for tumor progression, the cellular regulation of this signaling in postmitotic photoreceptor cells has not been studied. In the present study, we report that a novel G-protein coupled receptor–mediated insulin receptor (IR) signaling pathway is regulated by non-receptor tyrosine kinase Src through the inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphatase IB (PTP1B). We demonstrated the functional significance of this pathway through conditional deletion of IR and PTP1B in cones, in addition to delaying the death of cones in a mouse model of cone degeneration by activating the Src. This is the first study demonstrating the molecular mechanism of a novel signaling pathway in photoreceptor cells, which provides a window of opportunity to save the dying cones in retinal degenerative diseases. PMID:27391439

  7. Oncogenic fingerprint of epidermal growth factor receptor pathway and emerging epidermal growth factor receptor blockade resistance in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sobani, Zain A; Sawant, Ashwin; Jafri, Mikram; Correa, Amit Keith; Sahin, Ibrahim Halil

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been an attractive target for treatment of epithelial cancers, including colorectal cancer (CRC). Evidence from clinical trials indicates that cetuximab and panitumumab (anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies) have clinical activity in patients with metastatic CRC. The discovery of intrinsic EGFR blockade resistance in Kirsten RAS (KRAS)-mutant patients led to the restriction of anti-EGFR antibodies to KRAS wild-type patients by Food and Drug Administration and European Medicine Agency. Studies have since focused on the evaluation of biomarkers to identify appropriate patient populations that may benefit from EGFR blockade. Accumulating evidence suggests that patients with mutations in EGFR downstream signaling pathways including KRAS, BRAF, PIK3CA and PTEN could be intrinsically resistant to EGFR blockade. Recent whole genome studies also suggest that dynamic alterations in signaling pathways downstream of EGFR leads to distinct oncogenic signatures and subclones which might have some impact on emerging resistance in KRAS wild-type patients. While anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies have a clear potential in the management of a subset of patients with metastatic CRC, further studies are warranted to uncover exact mechanisms related to acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. PMID:27777877

  8. Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic Activation of the Met Receptor Tyrosine Kinase

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    progesterone (PR) receptor positive), basal ( triple negative : ER/PER/Her2 negative ) and the Her2 (ER/PR negative , Her2 amplification and/or overexpression...AD_________________ Award Number: W81XWH-06-1-0392 TITLE: Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic...CONTRACT NUMBER Negative Suppressors of Oncogenic Activation of the Met Receptor 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-06-1-0392 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER

  9. The cnidarian origin of the proto-oncogenes NF-κB/STAT and WNT-like oncogenic pathway drives the ctenophores (Review).

    PubMed

    Sinkovics, Joseph G

    2015-10-01

    The cell survival pathways of the diploblastic early multicellular eukaryotic hosts contain and operate the molecular machinery resembling those of malignantly transformed individual cells of highly advanced multicellular hosts (including Homo). In the present review, the STAT/NF-κB pathway of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is compared with that of human tumors (malignant lymphomas, including Reed-Sternberg cells) pointing out similarities, including possible viral initiation in both cases. In the ctenophore genome and proteome, β-catenin gains intranuclear advantages due to a physiologically weak destructive complex in the cytoplasm, and lack of natural inhibitors (the dickkopfs). Thus, a scenario similar to what tumor cells initiate and achieve is presented through several constitutive loss-of-function type mutations in the destructive complex and in the elimination of inhibitors. Vice versa, malignantly transformed individual cells of advanced multicellular hosts assume pheno-genotypic resemblance to cells of unicellular or early multicellular hosts, and presumably to their ancient predecessors, by returning to the semblance of immortality and to the resumption of the state of high degree of resistance to physicochemical insults. Human leukemogenic and oncogenic pathways are presented for comparisons. The supreme bioengineers RNA/DNA complex encoded both the malignantly transformed immortal cell and the human cerebral cortex. The former generates molecules for the immortality of cellular life in the Universe. The latter invents the inhibitors of the process in order to gain control over it.

  10. The cnidarian origin of the proto-oncogenes NF-κB/STAT and WNT-like oncogenic pathway drives the ctenophores (Review)

    PubMed Central

    SINKOVICS, JOSEPH G.

    2015-01-01

    The cell survival pathways of the diploblastic early multicellular eukaryotic hosts contain and operate the molecular machinery resembling those of malignantly transformed individual cells of highly advanced multicellular hosts (including Homo). In the present review, the STAT/NF-κB pathway of the cnidarian Nematostella vectensis is compared with that of human tumors (malignant lymphomas, including Reed-Sternberg cells) pointing out similarities, including possible viral initiation in both cases. In the ctenophore genome and proteome, β-catenin gains intranuclear advantages due to a physiologically weak destructive complex in the cytoplasm, and lack of natural inhibitors (the Dickkopfs). Thus, a scenario similar to what tumor cells initiate and achieve is presented through several constitutive loss-of-function type mutations in the destructive complex and in the elimination of inhibitors. Vice versa, malignantly transformed individual cells of advanced multicellular hosts assume pheno-genotypic resemblance to cells of unicellular or early multicellular hosts, and presumably to their ancient predecessors, by returning to the semblance of immortality and to the resumption of the state of high degree of resistance to physicochemical insults. Human leukemogenic and oncogenic pathways are presented for comparisons. The supreme bioengineers RNA/DNA complex encoded both the malignantly transformed immortal cell and the human cerebral cortex. The former generates molecules for the immortality of cellular life in the Universe. The latter invents the inhibitors of the process in order to gain control over it. PMID:26239915

  11. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity.

    PubMed

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun; Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP's functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP's co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  12. eIF4B is a convergent target and critical effector of oncogenic Pim and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways in Abl transformants

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ke; Yang, Jianling; Li, Jianning; Wang, Xuefei; Chen, Yuhai; Huang, Shile; Chen, Ji-Long

    2016-01-01

    Activation of eIF4B correlates with Abl-mediated cellular transformation, but the precise mechanisms are largely unknown. Here we show that eIF4B is a convergent substrate of JAK/STAT/Pim and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways in Abl transformants. Both pathways phosphorylated eIF4B in Abl-transformed cells, and such redundant regulation was responsible for the limited effect of single inhibitor on Abl oncogenicity. Persistent inhibition of one signaling pathway induced the activation of the other pathway and thereby restored the phosphorylation levels of eIF4B. Simultaneous inhibition of the two pathways impaired eIF4B phosphorylation more effectively, and synergistically induced apoptosis in Abl transformed cells and inhibited the growth of engrafted tumors in nude mice. Similarly, the survival of Abl transformants exhibited a higher sensitivity to the pharmacological inhibition, when combined with the shRNA-based silence of the other pathway. Interestingly, such synergy was dependent on the phosphorylation status of eIF4B on Ser422, as overexpression of eIF4B phosphomimetic mutant S422E in the transformants greatly attenuated the synergistic effects of these inhibitors on Abl oncogenicity. In contrast, eIF4B knockdown sensitized Abl transformants to undergo apoptosis induced by the combined blockage. Collectively, the results indicate that eIF4B integrates the signals from Pim and PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathways in Abl-expressing leukemic cells, and is a promising therapeutic target for such cancers. PMID:26848623

  13. Distinct growth factor-induced dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) profiles for monitoring oncogenic signaling pathways in various cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Yuhong; Li, Zijian; Li, Lian; Chen, Zhuo Georgia; Sun, Shi-Yong; Chen, Peifang; Shin, Dong M; Khuri, Fadlo R; Fu, Haian

    2009-01-01

    Targeting dysregulated signaling pathways in tumors has led to the development of a novel class of signal transduction inhibitors, including inhibitors of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor (EGFR). To dissect oncogenic pathways, identify key pathway determinants, and evaluate the efficacy of targeted agents, it is vital to develop technologies that allow the detection of temporal signaling events under physiological conditions. Here we report the application of a label-free optical biosensor to reveal the rapid response of cancer cells to EGF, expressed as a dynamic mass redistribution (DMR) signal. In response to EGF, squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck cells exhibited a rapid rise in DMR signal, whereas lung adenocarcinoma cells showed a biphasic DMR profile, suggesting a cell type-dependent DMR response. Pharmacological studies suggested the importance of EGFR and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase pathway in mediating the EGF-induced DMR response. The defined DMR signatures offer a simple yet sensitive tool for evaluating EGFR-targeted agents, as shown with gefitinib and erlotinib. The assay can also be used for cell-based high-throughput screening of EGF pathway inhibitors, as demonstrated by its robust performance in a 384-well plate format (Z' > 0.5). This technology is applicable to other oncogenic pathways for the discovery of novel therapeutic agents for the treatment of various cancers.

  14. ZFP91: A Noncanonical NF-κB Signaling Pathway Regulator with Oncogenic Properties Is Overexpressed in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jopek, Karol; Ziolkowska, Agnieszka; Malendowicz, Ludwik K.

    2016-01-01

    Novel molecular targets are being searched to aid in prostate cancer diagnosis and therapy. Recently, ZFP91 zinc finger protein has been found to be upregulated in prostate cancer cell lines. It is a potentially important oncogenic protein; however only limited data regarding its biological function and expression patterns are available. To date, ZFP91 has been shown to be a key factor in activation of noncanonical NF-κB signaling pathway as well as to be involved in HIF-1α signaling in cancer cells. The present study aimed to characterize ZFP91 expression in prostate cancer specimens. Furthermore, since our earlier reports showed discrepancies between ZFP91 mRNA and protein levels, we studied this interrelationship in LNCaP and PC-3 prostate cancer cell lines using siRNA mediated knockdown. QPCR analysis revealed marked upregulation of ZFP91 mRNA in the majority of prostate cancer specimens. Transfection of prostate cancer cells with ZFP91 siRNA resulted in a 10-fold decrease in mRNA levels. On a protein level, however, no inhibitory effect was observed over the time of the cell culture. We conclude that ZFP91 is overexpressed in prostate cancer and that potential accumulation of the ZFP91 protein in studied cells may be of importance in prostate cancer biology. PMID:27975057

  15. The PDZ-binding motif of Yes-associated protein is required for its co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription and oncogenic cell transforming activity

    SciTech Connect

    Shimomura, Tadanori; Miyamura, Norio; Hata, Shoji; Miura, Ryota; Hirayama, Jun Nishina, Hiroshi

    2014-01-17

    Highlights: •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits constitutively active YAP (5SA)-induced oncogenic cell transformation. •The PDZ-binding motif of YAP promotes its nuclear localization in cultured cells and mouse liver. •Loss of the PDZ-binding motif inhibits YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF transcription in cultured cells and mouse liver. -- Abstract: YAP is a transcriptional co-activator that acts downstream of the Hippo signaling pathway and regulates multiple cellular processes, including proliferation. Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation of YAP negatively regulates its function. Conversely, attenuation of Hippo-mediated phosphorylation of YAP increases its ability to stimulate proliferation and eventually induces oncogenic transformation. The C-terminus of YAP contains a highly conserved PDZ-binding motif that regulates YAP’s functions in multiple ways. However, to date, the importance of the PDZ-binding motif to the oncogenic cell transforming activity of YAP has not been determined. In this study, we disrupted the PDZ-binding motif in the YAP (5SA) protein, in which the sites normally targeted by Hippo pathway-dependent phosphorylation are mutated. We found that loss of the PDZ-binding motif significantly inhibited the oncogenic transformation of cultured cells induced by YAP (5SA). In addition, the increased nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and its enhanced activation of TEAD-dependent transcription of the cell proliferation gene CTGF were strongly reduced when the PDZ-binding motif was deleted. Similarly, in mouse liver, deletion of the PDZ-binding motif suppressed nuclear localization of YAP (5SA) and YAP (5SA)-induced CTGF expression. Taken together, our results indicate that the PDZ-binding motif of YAP is critical for YAP-mediated oncogenesis, and that this effect is mediated by YAP’s co-activation of TEAD-mediated CTGF transcription.

  16. Activation of c-myc and c-K-ras oncogenes in primary rat tumors induced by ionizing radiation.

    PubMed Central

    Sawey, M J; Hood, A T; Burns, F J; Garte, S J

    1987-01-01

    An activated K-ras oncogene was detected by transfection in NIH 3T3 cells and by Southern blot analysis in 6 of 12 rat skin tumors induced by ionizing radiation. The DNA from 10 of the 12 tumors also showed c-myc gene amplification and restriction polymorphisms. Evidence for tissue specificity was observed in patterns of oncogene activation, with each of three clear cell carcinomas exhibiting activation of both c-myc and K-ras oncogenes. Images PMID:3547086

  17. Mitochondrial division is requisite to RAS-induced transformation and targeted by oncogenic MAPK pathway inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Serasinghe, Madhavika N.; Weider, Shira Y.; Renault, Thibaud T.; Elkholi, Rana; Asciolla, James J.; Yao, Jonathon L.; Jabado, Omar; Hoehn, Kyle; Kageyama, Yusuke; Sesaki, Hiromi; Chipuk, Jerry E.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mitochondrial division is essential for mitosis and metazoan development, but a mechanistic role in cancer biology remains unknown. Here, we examine the direct effects of oncogenic RASG12V mediated cellular transformation on the mitochondrial dynamics machinery and observe a positive selection for dynamin related protein 1 (DRP1), a protein required for mitochondrial network division. Loss of DRP1 prevents RASG12V-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and renders cells resistant to transformation. Conversely, in human tumor cell lines with activating MAPK mutations, inhibition of these signals leads to robust mitochondrial network reprogramming initiated by DRP1 loss resulting in mitochondrial hyper-fusion and increased mitochondrial metabolism. These phenotypes are mechanistically linked by ERK1/2 phosphorylation of DRP1 serine 616; DRP1S616 phosphorylation is sufficient to phenocopy transformation-induced mitochondrial dysfunction, and DRP1S616 phosphorylation status dichotomizes BRAFWt from BRAFV600E positive lesions. These findings implicate mitochondrial division and DRP1 as crucial regulators of transformation with unexpected leverage in chemotherapeutic success. PMID:25658204

  18. Oncogenic role of rab escort protein 1 through EGFR and STAT3 pathway.

    PubMed

    Yun, Un-Jung; Sung, Jee Young; Park, Seog-Yun; Ye, Sang-Kyu; Shim, Jaegal; Lee, Jae-Seon; Hibi, Masahiko; Bae, Young-Ki; Kim, Yong-Nyun

    2017-02-23

    Rab escort protein-1 (REP1) is linked to choroideremia (CHM), an X-linked degenerative disorder caused by mutations of the gene encoding REP1 (CHM). REP1 mutant zebrafish showed excessive cell death throughout the body, including the eyes, indicating that REP1 is critical for cell survival, a hallmark of cancer. In the present study, we found that REP1 is overexpressed in human tumor tissues from cervical, lung, and colorectal cancer patients, whereas it is expressed at relatively low levels in the normal tissue counterparts. REP1 expression was also elevated in A549 lung cancer cells and HT-29 colon cancer cells compared with BEAS-2B normal lung and CCD-18Co normal colon epithelial cells, respectively. Interestingly, short interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated REP1 knockdown-induced growth inhibition of cancer cell lines via downregulation of EGFR and inactivation of STAT3, but had a negligible effect on normal cell lines. Moreover, overexpression of REP1 in BEAS-2B cells enhanced cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation with little increase in EGFR level and STAT3 activation. Furthermore, REP1 knockdown effectively reduced tumor growth in a mouse xenograft model via EGFR downregulation and STAT3 inactivation in vivo. These data suggest that REP1 plays an oncogenic role, driving tumorigenicity via EGFR and STAT3 signaling, and is a potential therapeutic target to control cancers.

  19. The PDRG1 is an oncogene in lung cancer cells, promoting radioresistance via the ATM-P53 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Tao, Zheng; Chen, Shaomu; Mao, Guocai; Xia, Haifeng; Huang, Haitao; Ma, Haitao

    2016-10-01

    PDRG1, is short for P53 and DNA damage-regulated gene, which have been found over 10 years. Although severe studies have described the roles of PDRG1 separately in many kinds of tumors, how to act as an oncogene are unclear. To better verify the function of PDRG1 in lung cancer, both loss-function and gain-function of PDRG1 studies based on two human lung cancer lines were performed. Following the transfection of PDRG1, both A549 and 95-D cells showed significant changes in cell viability, the expression of some protein and apoptosis, which were all implied the PDRG1 is an oncogene. Another interesting finding is PDRG1 could promote radioresistance involved the ATM-p53 signaling pathway in lung cancer. If we combine radiotherapy with gene-targeted therapy together effectively, predominant effect may be acquired, which is a huge milestone in clinical cure about lung cancer.

  20. A RAS oncogene imparts growth factor independence to myeloid cells that abnormally regulate protein kinase C: a nonautocrine transformation pathway.

    PubMed

    Boswell, H S; Nahreini, T S; Burgess, G S; Srivastava, A; Gabig, T G; Inhorn, L; Srour, E F; Harrington, M A

    1990-06-01

    The factor-dependent cell line FDC-P1 has been utilized as a model of interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent myeloid cell proliferation. However, it has been recently observed that active phorbol esters (e.g., phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate) may entirely replace IL-3 to promote its proliferation. These observations reveal abnormal regulation of protein kinase C (pkC) (absence of downregulation or overexpression). This property allowed a test of the hypothesis that the T24 RAS (codon 12) oncogene acts by constitutive and persistent pkC activation, driving proliferation. FDC-P1 cells were transfected by electroporation with the T24 RAS-containing vector pAL 8, or with a control vector pSVX Zip Neo, and neomycin-resistant clones were selected. Multiple RAS-transfectant clones were categorized for their growth factor requirement and incorporation of the 6.6-kb human mutant H-RAS genome. IL-3-independent clones had incorporated multiple (more than two) copies of the entire 6.6-kb RAS genome. The incorporation of multiple 6.6-kb RAS genomes was correlated with high-level p21 RAS expression. No evidence for autostimulatory growth factor production by clones containing the RAS oncogene was observed. Thus, acquisition of growth factor independence in myeloid cells by abundant expression of a RAS oncogene is linked, in part, to abnormal regulation of pkC, which acts as a collaborating oncogene.

  1. Oncogenic activity of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is down-regulated by lytic LMP-1.

    PubMed

    Pandya, Jyotsna; Walling, Dennis M

    2006-08-01

    The Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is an oncogenic human herpesvirus. EBV latent membrane protein 1 (LMP-1) is a viral oncogene that manifests its oncogenic phenotype through activation of cellular signaling pathways involved in cell growth, survival, differentiation, and transformation. Lytic LMP-1 (lyLMP-1) is a related EBV gene without oncogenic properties. The lyLMP-1 gene is found in 60% of the EBV strains circulating in nature, but it is not found in EBV strains associated with nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We recently demonstrated that lyLMP-1 down-regulates the half-life of LMP-1 in epithelial cells. Therefore in this study, we tested the hypothesis that lyLMP-1 concomitantly down-regulates LMP-1 oncogenic activity. The results demonstrated that lyLMP-1 inhibits LMP-1-mediated intracellular signaling activation, epithelial cell growth and survival, and fibroblast cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Lytic LMP-1 manifested this effect through the promotion of LMP-1 degradation and a reduction in the expressed quantity of LMP-1. Thus, lyLMP-1 functions as a posttranslational negative regulator of LMP-1 oncogenesis. These results support a model of EBV-associated epithelial oncogenesis in which lyLMP-1 may act in vivo to reduce the risk of LMP-1-mediated transformation and is therefore subjected to negative selection in nasopharyngeal carcinoma pathogenesis.

  2. Oncogenic K-Ras and Basic Fibroblast Growth Factor Prevent FAS-Mediated Apoptosis in Fibroblasts through Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Hirotaka; Yonehara, Shin

    2000-01-01

    By an expression cloning method using Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells, we tried to obtain inhibitory genes against Fas-mediated apoptosis and identified proto-oncogene c-K-ras. Transient expression of K-Ras mutants revealed that oncogenic mutant K-Ras (RasV12) strongly inhibited, whereas dominant-inhibitory mutant K-Ras (RasN17) enhanced, Fas-mediated apoptosis by inhibiting Fas-triggered activation of caspases without affecting an expression level of Fas. Among the target molecules of Ras, including Raf (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase [MAPKKK]), phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI-3) kinase, and Ral guanine nucleotide exchange factor (RalGDS), only the constitutively active form of Raf (Raf-CAAX) could inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. In addition, the constitutively active form of MAPKK (SDSE-MAPKK) suppressed Fas-mediated apoptosis, and MKP-1, a phosphatase specific for classical MAPK, canceled the protective activity of oncogenic K-Ras (K-RasV12), Raf-CAAX, and SDSE-MAPKK. Furthermore, physiological activation of Ras by basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) protected Fas-transgenic Balb3T3 cells from Fas-mediated apoptosis. bFGF protection was also dependent on the activation of the MAPK pathway through Ras. All the results indicate that the activation of MAPK through Ras inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in Balb3T3 cells, which may play a role in oncogenesis. PMID:10662780

  3. A Hybrid Chalcone Combining the Trimethoxyphenyl and Isatinyl Groups Targets Multiple Oncogenic Proteins and Pathways in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lili; Zhang, Lijun; Zhao, Xiang; Zhang, Ye

    2016-01-01

    Small molecule inhibitors that can simultaneously inhibit multiple oncogenic proteins in essential pathways are promising therapeutic chemicals for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). To combine the anticancer effects of combretastatins, chalcones and isatins, we synthesized a novel hybrid molecule 3’,4’,5’-trimethoxy-5-chloro-isatinylchalcone (3MCIC). 3MCIC inhibited proliferation of cultured HepG2 cells, causing rounding-up of the cells and massive vacuole accumulation in the cytoplasm. Paxillin and focal adhesion plaques were downregulated by 3MCIC. Surprisingly, unlike the microtubule (MT)-targeting agent CA-4 that inhibits tubulin polymerization, 3MCIC stabilized tubulin polymers both in living cells and in cell lysates. 3MCIC treatment reduced cyclin B1, CDK1, p-CDK1/2, and Rb, but increased p53 and p21. Moreover, 3MCIC caused GSK3β degradation by promoting GSK3β-Ser9 phosphorylation. Nevertheless, 3MCIC inhibited the Wnt/β-catenin pathway by downregulating β-catenin, c-Myc, cyclin D1 and E2F1. 3MCIC treatment not only activated the caspase-3-dependent apoptotic pathway, but also caused massive autophagy evidenced by rapid and drastic changes of LC3 and p62. 3MCIC also promoted cleavage and maturation of the lysosomal protease cathepsin D. Using ligand-affinity chromatography (LAC), target proteins captured onto the Sephacryl S1000-C12-3MCIC resins were isolated and analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). Some of the LAC-MS identified targets, i.e., septin-2, vimentin, pan-cytokeratin, nucleolin, EF1α1/2, EBP1 (PA2G4), cyclin B1 and GSK3β, were further detected by Western blotting. Moreover, both septin-2 and HIF-1α decreased drastically in 3MCIC-treated HepG2 cells. Our data suggest that 3MCIC is a promising anticancer lead compound with novel targeting mechanisms, and also demonstrate the efficiency of LAC-MS based target identification in anticancer drug development. PMID:27525972

  4. The activating transcription factor 3 protein suppresses the oncogenic function of mutant p53 proteins.

    PubMed

    Wei, Saisai; Wang, Hongbo; Lu, Chunwan; Malmut, Sarah; Zhang, Jianqiao; Ren, Shumei; Yu, Guohua; Wang, Wei; Tang, Dale D; Yan, Chunhong

    2014-03-28

    Mutant p53 proteins (mutp53) often acquire oncogenic activities, conferring drug resistance and/or promoting cancer cell migration and invasion. Although it has been well established that such a gain of function is mainly achieved through interaction with transcriptional regulators, thereby modulating cancer-associated gene expression, how the mutp53 function is regulated remains elusive. Here we report that activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) bound common mutp53 (e.g. R175H and R273H) and, subsequently, suppressed their oncogenic activities. ATF3 repressed mutp53-induced NFKB2 expression and sensitized R175H-expressing cancer cells to cisplatin and etoposide treatments. Moreover, ATF3 appeared to suppress R175H- and R273H-mediated cancer cell migration and invasion as a consequence of preventing the transcription factor p63 from inactivation by mutp53. Accordingly, ATF3 promoted the expression of the metastasis suppressor SHARP1 in mutp53-expressing cells. An ATF3 mutant devoid of the mutp53-binding domain failed to disrupt the mutp53-p63 binding and, thus, lost the activity to suppress mutp53-mediated migration, suggesting that ATF3 binds to mutp53 to suppress its oncogenic function. In line with these results, we found that down-regulation of ATF3 expression correlated with lymph node metastasis in TP53-mutated human lung cancer. We conclude that ATF3 can suppress mutp53 oncogenic function, thereby contributing to tumor suppression in TP53-mutated cancer.

  5. Drosophila oncogene Gas41 is an RNA interference modulator that intersects heterochromatin and the small interfering RNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Sumit G; Bag, Indira; Sengupta, Saswati; Pal-Bhadra, Manika; Bhadra, Utpal

    2015-01-01

    Glioma amplified sequence41 (Gas41) is a highly conserved putative transcription factor that is frequently abundant in human gliomas. Gas41 shows oncogenic activity by promoting cell growth and viability. In the present study, we show that Gas41 is required for proper functioning of RNA interference (RNAi) machinery in the nuclei, although three basic structural domains of RNAi components PAZ, PIWI and dsRNA with respect to binding are absent in the structural sequences. Variations of structural domains are highly conserved among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Gas41 interacts with cytological RNase III enzyme Dicer1 both biochemically and genetically. However, Drosophila Gas41 functions as chromatin remodeler and interacts with different heterochromatin markers and repeat-induced transgene silencing by modulating position effect variegation. We also show that transcriptional inactive Gas41 mutant interferes with the functional assembly of heterochromatin-associated proteins, dimethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 and heterochromatic protein 1 in developing embryos. A reduction of heterochromatic markers is accompanied by the mini-w promoter sequence in Gas41 mutants. These findings suggest that Drosophila Gas41 guides the repeat associated gene silencing and the Dicer1 interaction, thereby depicting a new role for Gas41. Gas41 is a critical RNAi component. In Drosophila, Gas41 plays a dual role. On the one hand, it appears to participate with Dicer 1 in the RNAi pathway and, alternatively, it also participates in repeat-induced gene silencing by accumulating heterochromatin proteins at the mini-w array promoters. Therefore, it represents an intriguing and apparently paradoxical new finding in RNA technology with respect to the process of heterochromatin gene silencing.

  6. Folic acid mediates activation of the pro-oncogene STAT3 via the Folate Receptor alpha.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Mariann F; Greibe, Eva; Skovbjerg, Signe; Rohde, Sarah; Kristensen, Anders C M; Jensen, Trine R; Stentoft, Charlotte; Kjær, Karina H; Kronborg, Camilla S; Martensen, Pia M

    2015-07-01

    The signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a well-described pro-oncogene found constitutively activated in several cancer types. Folates are B vitamins that, when taken up by cells through the Reduced Folate Carrier (RFC), are essential for normal cell growth and replication. Many cancer cells overexpress a glycophosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored Folate Receptor α (FRα). The function of FRα in cancer cells is still poorly described, and it has been suggested that transport of folate is not its primary function in these cells. We show here that folic acid and folinic acid can activate STAT3 through FRα in a Janus Kinase (JAK)-dependent manner, and we demonstrate that gp130 functions as a transducing receptor for this signalling. Moreover, folic acid can promote dose dependent cell proliferation in FRα-positive HeLa cells, but not in FRα-negative HEK293 cells. After folic acid treatment of HeLa cells, up-regulation of the STAT3 responsive genes Cyclin A2 and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) were verified by qRT-PCR. The identification of this FRα-STAT3 signal transduction pathway activated by folic and folinic acid contributes to the understanding of the involvement of folic acid in preventing neural tube defects as well as in tumour growth. Previously, the role of folates in these diseases has been attributed to their roles as one-carbon unit donors following endocytosis into the cell. Our finding that folic acid can activate STAT3 via FRα adds complexity to the established roles of B9 vitamins in cancer and neural tube defects.

  7. PROSPECT: Profiling of Resistance Patterns Oncogenic Signaling Pathways in Evaluation of Cancers of the Thorax and Therapeutic Target Identification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    generated by this research proposal. We deliver planned and tailored statistical analyses for rapid communication of project results among project...DOI:10.1158/1940-6207.CAPR-10-0129Research Article Cancer Prevention ResearchValidation of a Novel Statistical Model for Assessing the Synergy of...novel approaches for preventing and treating lung cancer are urgently needed (2). Activation of oncogenes or amplification or mutations in growth-factor

  8. Platelet-derived growth factor agonist activity of a secreted form of the v-sis oncogene product

    SciTech Connect

    Johnsson, A.; Betsholtz, C.; von der Helm, K.; Heldin, C.H.; Westermark, B.

    1985-03-01

    The authors have compared the functional properties of a growth factor partially purified from medium conditioned by simian sarcoma virus-transformed cells with those of platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). The factor mimicked the effects induced by PDGF: it bound to and activated human fibroblast PDGF receptors and stimulated DNA synthesis. The factor behaved as a secretory protein, since about 95% of the receptor-binding activity was found in the medium after a 48-hr serum-free incubation. Structural characterization of the PDGF-like activity revealed a M/sub r/ 24,000 intracellular protein and two polypeptides of M/sub r/ 13,000 and 11,500 released into the medium. The M/sub r/ 13,000 component bound to human fibroblasts; this binding was competitively inhibited by PDGF. The data support the possibility that oncogene products may elicit transforming activity by interacting with the normal cellular mitogenic pathway.

  9. Metabolic rewiring by oncogenic BRAF V600E links ketogenesis pathway to BRAF-MEK1 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Elf, Shannon; Ji, Quanjiang; Zhao, Liang; Jin, Lingtao; Seo, Jae Ho; Shan, Changliang; Arbiser, Jack L.; Cohen, Cynthia; Brat, Daniel; Miziorko, Henry M.; Kim, Eunhee; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Merghoub, Taha; Fröhling, Stefan; Scholl, Claudia; Tamayo, Pablo; Barbie, David A.; Zhou, Lu; Pollack, Brian P.; Fisher, Kevin; Kudchadkar, Ragini R.; Lawson, David H.; Sica, Gabriel; Rossi, Michael; Lonial, Sagar; Khoury, Hanna J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Lee, Benjamin H.; Boggon, Titus J.; He, Chuan; Kang, Sumin; Chen, Jing

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Many human cancers share similar metabolic alterations, including the Warburg effect. However, it remains unclear whether oncogene-specific metabolic alterations are required for tumor development. Here we demonstrate a “synthetic lethal” interaction between oncogenic BRAF V600E and a ketogenic enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA lyase (HMGCL). HMGCL expression is upregulated in BRAF V600E-expressing human primary melanoma and hairy cell leukemia cells. Suppression of HMGCL specifically attenuates proliferation and tumor growth potential of human melanoma cells expressing BRAF V600E. Mechanistically, active BRAF upregulates HMGCL through an octamer transcription factor Oct-1, leading to increased intracellular levels of HMGCL product, acetoacetate, which selectively enhances binding of BRAF V600E but not BRAF wild type to MEK1 in V600E-positive cancer cells to promote activation of MEK-ERK signaling. These findings reveal a mutation-specific mechanism by which oncogenic BRAF V600E “rewires” metabolic and cell signaling networks and signals through the Oct-1-HMGCL-acetoacetate axis to selectively promote BRAF V600E-dependent tumor development. PMID:26145173

  10. Activation of H-ras oncogene in 3-methylcholanthrene-transformed human cell line.

    PubMed

    Rhim, J S; Fujita, J; Park, J B

    1987-08-01

    DNA prepared from the 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC)-transformed human 312H cell line induced foci on NIH/3T3 cells, whereas DNAs prepared from 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]-anthracene-transformed and the dimethylsulfoxide control 312H cell lines failed to induce foci. The transformed gene from the 3MC-transformed 312H cells was identified as an activated form of the human cellular transforming H-ras oncogene. Analysis of the ras oncogene p21 product in this transformant by immunoprecipitation and gel electrophoresis suggested that this gene was activated by mutation in the 61st codon. These findings demonstrate that activation of a member of the ras gene family can occur in a chemically transformed human cell line.

  11. Activation of proto-oncogenes in human and mouse lung tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Anderson, M.W. )

    1991-06-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in several nations. Epidemiological studies have indicated that 85% of all lung cancer deaths and 30% of all cancer deaths in the US are associated with tobacco smoking. Various chemicals in tobacco smoke are thought to react with DNA and to ultimately yield heritable mutations. In an effort to understand the molecular mechanisms involved in lung tumorigenesis, the authors have analyzed proto-oncogene activation in a series of human lung tumors from smokers and spontaneously occurring and chemically induced lung tumors in mice. Approximately 86% of the human lung tumors and > 90% of the mouse lung tumors were found to contain activated oncogenes. ras Oncogenes activated by point mutations were detected in many of the human lung adenocarcinomas and virtually all of the mouse lung adenomas and adenocarcinomas. The mutation profiles of the activated K-ras genes detected in the chemically induced mouse lung tumors suggest that the observed mutations result from genotoxic effects of the chemicals. Comparison of the K-ras mutations observed in the human lung adenocarcinomas with mutation profiles observed in the mouse lung tumors suggest that bulky hydrophobic DNA adducts may be responsible for the majority of the mutations observed in the activated human K-ras genes. Other data indicate that approximately 20% of human lung tumors contain potentially novel transforming genes that may also be targets for mutagens in cigarette smoke.

  12. Inhibition of TWIST1 leads to activation of oncogene-induced senescence in oncogene-driven non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Burns, Timothy F; Dobromilskaya, Irina; Murphy, Sara C; Gajula, Rajendra P; Thiyagarajan, Saravanan; Chatley, Sarah N H; Aziz, Khaled; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Tran, Phuoc T; Rudin, Charles M

    2013-04-01

    A large fraction of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are dependent on defined oncogenic driver mutations. Although targeted agents exist for EGFR- and EML4-ALK-driven NSCLCs, no therapies target the most frequently found driver mutation, KRAS. Furthermore, acquired resistance to the currently targetable driver mutations is nearly universally observed. Clearly a novel therapeutic approach is needed to target oncogene-driven NSCLCs. We recently showed that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor Twist1 cooperates with mutant Kras to induce lung adenocarcinoma in transgenic mouse models and that inhibition of Twist1 in these models led to Kras-induced senescence. In the current study, we examine the role of TWIST1 in oncogene-driven human NSCLCs. Silencing of TWIST1 in KRAS-mutant human NSCLC cell lines resulted in dramatic growth inhibition and either activation of a latent oncogene-induced senescence program or, in some cases, apoptosis. Similar effects were observed in EGFR mutation-driven and c-Met-amplified NSCLC cell lines. Growth inhibition by silencing of TWIST1 was independent of p53 or p16 mutational status and did not require previously defined mediators of senescence, p21 and p27, nor could this phenotype be rescued by overexpression of SKP2. In xenograft models, silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of KRAS-mutant, EGFR-mutant, and c-Met-amplified NSCLCs. Remarkably, inducible silencing of TWIST1 resulted in significant growth inhibition of established KRAS-mutant tumors. Together these findings suggest that silencing of TWIST1 in oncogene driver-dependent NSCLCs represents a novel and promising therapeutic strategy.

  13. Oncogene activation in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors: implications for risk analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, S.H.; Stowers, S.J.; Patterson, R.M.; Maronpot, R.R.; Anderson, M.W.

    1988-06-01

    The validity of rodent tumor end points in assessing the potential hazards of chemical exposure to humans is a somewhat controversial but very important issue since most chemicals are classified as potentially hazardous to humans on the basis of long-term carcinogenesis studies in rodents. The ability to distinguish between genotoxic, cytotoxic, or receptor-mediated promotion effects of chemical treatment would aid in the interpretation of rodent carcinogenesis data. Activated oncogenes in spontaneously occurring and chemically induced rodent tumors were examined and compared as one approach to determine the mechanism by which chemical treatment caused an increased incidence of rodent tumors. Different patterns of activated oncogenes were found not only in spontaneous versus chemically induced mouse liver tumors but also in a variety of spontaneous rat tumors versus chemically induced rat lung tumors. In the absence of cytotoxic effects, it could be argued that the chemicals in question activated protooncogenes by a direct genotoxic mechanism. These results provided a basis for the analysis of activated oncogenes in spontaneous and chemically induced rodent tumors to provide information at a molecular level to aid in the extrapolation of rodent carcinogenesis data to human risk assessment.

  14. MicroRNA-7 Inhibits Multiple Oncogenic Pathways to Suppress HER2Δ16 Mediated Breast Tumorigenesis and Reverse Trastuzumab Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Huynh, Felicia C.; Jones, Frank E.

    2014-01-01

    The oncogenic isoform of HER2, HER2Δ16, is expressed with HER2 in nearly 50% of HER2 positive breast tumors where HER2Δ16 drives metastasis and resistance to multiple therapeutic interventions including tamoxifen and trastuzumab. In recent years microRNAs have been shown to influence multiple aspects of tumorigenesis and tumor cell response to therapy. Accordingly, the HER2Δ16 oncogene alters microRNA expression to promote endocrine resistance. With the goal of identifying microRNA suppressors of HER2Δ16 oncogenic activity we investigated the contribution of altered microRNA expression to HER2Δ16 mediated tumorigenesis and trastuzumab resistance. Using a gene array strategy comparing microRNA expression profiles of MCF-7 to MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cells, we found that expression of HER2Δ16 significantly altered expression of 16 microRNAs by 2-fold or more including a 4.8 fold suppression of the miR-7 tumor suppressor. Reestablished expression of miR-7 in the MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cell line caused a G1 cell cycle arrest and reduced both colony formation and cell migration activity to levels of parental MCF-7 cells. Suppression of miR-7 in the MCF-7 cell line resulted in enhanced colony formation activity but not cell migration, indicating that miR-7 suppression is sufficient to drive tumor cell proliferation but not migration. MiR-7 inhibited MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cell migration through a mechanism involving suppression of the miR-7 target gene EGFR. In contrast, miR-7 inhibition of MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cell proliferation involved a pathway where miR-7 expression resulted in the inactivation of Src kinase independent of suppressed EGFR expression. Also independent of EGFR suppression, reestablished miR-7 expression sensitized refractory MCF-7/HER2Δ16 cells to trastuzumab. Our results demonstrate that reestablished miR-7 expression abolishes HER2Δ16 induced cell proliferation and migration while sensitizing HER2Δ16 expressing cells to trastuzumab therapy. We propose that miR-7 regulated

  15. Activation of cellular oncogenes by chemical carcinogens in Syrian hamster embryo fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Ebert, R.; Reiss, E.; Roellich, G.; Schiffmann, D. ); Barrett, J.C.; Wiseman, R.W. ); Pechan, R.

    1990-08-01

    Carcinogen-induced point mutations resulting in activation of ras oncogenes have been demonstrated in various experimental systems such as skin carcinogenesis, mammary, and liver carcinogenesis. In many cases, the data support the conclusion that these point mutations are critical changes in the initiation of these tumors. The Syrian hamster embryo (SHE) cell transformation model system has been widely used to study the multistep process of chemically induced neoplastic transformation. Recent data suggest that activation of the Ha-ras gene via point mutation is one of the crucial events in the transformation of these cells. The authors have now cloned the c-Ha-ras proto-oncogene from SHE cDNA-libraries, and we have performed polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing to analyze tumor cell lines induced by different chemical carcinogens for the presence of point mutations. No changes were detectable at codons 12, 13, 59, 61, and 117 or adjacent regions in tumor cell lines induced by diethylstilbestrol, asbestos, benzo(a)pyrene, trenbolone, or aflatoxin B{sub 1}. Thus, it is not known whether point mutations in the Ha-ras proto-oncogene are essential for the acquisition of the neoplastic phenotype of SHE cells. Activation of other oncogenes or inactivation of tumor suppressor genes may be responsible for the neoplastic progression of these cells. However, in SHE cells neoplastically transformed by diethylstilbestrol or trenbolone, a significant elevation of the c-Ha-ras expression was observed. Enhanced expression of c-myc was detected in SHE cells transformed by benzo(a)pyrene or trenbolone.

  16. Anti-oncogenic activity of signalling-defective epidermal growth factor receptor mutants.

    PubMed Central

    Redemann, N; Holzmann, B; von Rüden, T; Wagner, E F; Schlessinger, J; Ullrich, A

    1992-01-01

    Overexpression and autocrine activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF-R) cause transformation of cultured cells and correlate with tumor progression in cancer patients. Dimerization and transphosphorylation are crucial events in the process by which receptors with tyrosine kinase activity generate normal and transforming cellular signals. Interruption of this process by inactive receptor mutants offers the potential to inhibit ligand-induced cellular responses. Using recombinant retroviruses, we have examined the effects of signalling-incompetent EGF-R mutants on the growth-promoting and transforming potential of ligand-activated, overexpressed wild-type EGF-R and the v-erbB oncogene product. Expression of a soluble extracellular EGF-R domain had little if any effect on the growth and transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by either tyrosine kinase. However, both a kinase-negative EGF-R point mutant (HERK721A) and an EGF-R lacking 533 C-terminal amino acids efficiently inhibited wild-type EGF-R-mediated, de novo DNA synthesis and cell transformation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, coexpression with the v-erbBES4 oncogene product in NIH 3T3 cells resulted in transphosphorylation of the HERK721A mutant receptor and reduced soft-agar colony growth but had no effect in a focus formation assay. These results demonstrate that signalling-defective receptor tyrosine kinase mutants differentially interfere with oncogenic signals generated by either overexpressed EGF-R or the retroviral v-erbBES4 oncogene product. Images PMID:1346334

  17. Oncogenic K-ras expression is associated with derangement of the cAMP/PKA pathway and forskolin-reversible alterations of mitochondrial dynamics and respiration.

    PubMed

    Palorini, R; De Rasmo, D; Gaviraghi, M; Sala Danna, L; Signorile, A; Cirulli, C; Chiaradonna, F; Alberghina, L; Papa, S

    2013-01-17

    The Warburg effect in cancer cells has been proposed to involve several mechanisms, including adaptation to hypoxia, oncogenes activation or loss of oncosuppressors and impaired mitochondrial function. In previous papers, it has been shown that K-ras transformed mouse cells are much more sensitive as compared with normal cells to glucose withdrawal (undergoing apoptosis) and present a high glycolytic rate and a strong reduction of mitochondrial complex I. Recent observations suggest that transformed cells have a derangement in the cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (cAMP/PKA) pathway, which is known to regulate several mitochondrial functions. Herein, the derangement of the cAMP/PKA pathway and its impact on transformation-linked changes of mitochondrial functions is investigated. Exogenous stimulation of PKA activity, achieved by forskolin treatment, protected K-ras-transformed cells from apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation, enhanced complex I activity, intracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, mitochondrial fusion and decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Several of these effects were almost completely prevented by inhibiting the PKA activity. Short-time treatment with compounds favoring mitochondrial fusion strongly decreased the cellular ROS levels especially in transformed cells. These findings support the notion that glucose shortage-induced apoptosis, specific of K-ras-transformed cells, is associated to a derangement of PKA signaling that leads to mitochondrial complex I decrease, reduction of ATP formation, prevalence of mitochondrial fission over fusion, and thereby opening new approaches for development of anticancer drugs.

  18. Conditional overexpression of the wild-type Gs alpha as the gsp oncogene initiates chronic extracellularly regulated kinase 1/2 activation and hormone hypersecretion in pituitary cell lines.

    PubMed

    Romano, D; Magalon, K; Pertuit, M; Rasolonjanahary, R; Barlier, A; Enjalbert, A; Gerard, C

    2007-06-01

    In pituitary cells, activation of the cAMP pathway by specific G protein-coupled receptors controls differentiative functions and proliferation. Constitutively active forms of the alpha subunit of the heterotrimeric G(s) protein resulting from mutations at codon 201 or 227 (gsp oncogene) were first identified in 30-40% of human GH-secreting pituitary adenomas. This rate of occurrence suggests that the gsp oncogene is not responsible for initiating the majority of these tumors. Moreover, there is a large overlap between the clinical phenotypes observed in patients with tumors bearing the gsp oncogene and those devoid of this oncogene. To explore the role of G(s)alpha in GH-secreting adenomas, we obtained somatolactotroph GH4C1 cell lines by performing doxycycline-dependent conditional overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein and expression of the gsp oncogene. Although the resulting adenylyl cyclase and cAMP levels were 10-fold lower in the wild-type G(s)alpha-overexpressing cell line, a sustained MAPK ERK1/2 activation was observed in both cell lines. Overexpression of the wild-type G(s)alpha protein as the gsp oncogene initiated chronic activation of endogenous prolactin synthesis and release, as well as chronic activation of ERK1/2-sensitive human prolactin and GH promoters.

  19. A human cellular sequence implicated in trk oncogene activation is DNA damage inducible

    SciTech Connect

    Ben-Ishai, R.; Scharf, R.; Sharon, R.; Kapten, I. )

    1990-08-01

    Xeroderma pigmentosum cells, which are deficient in the repair of UV light-induced DNA damage, have been used to clone DNA-damage-inducible transcripts in human cells. The cDNA clone designated pC-5 hybridizes on RNA gel blots to a 1-kilobase transcript, which is moderately abundant in nontreated cells and whose synthesis is enhanced in human cells following UV irradiation or treatment with several other DNA-damaging agents. UV-enhanced transcription of C-5 RNA is transient and occurs at lower fluences and to a greater extent in DNA-repair-deficient than in DNA-repair-proficient cells. Southern blot analysis indicates that the C-5 gene belongs to a multigene family. A cDNA clone containing the complete coding sequence of C-5 was isolated. Sequence analysis revealed that it is homologous to a human cellular sequence encoding the amino-terminal activating sequence of the trk-2h chimeric oncogene. The presence of DNA-damage-responsive sequences at the 5' end of a chimeric oncogene could result in enhanced expression of the oncogene in response to carcinogens.

  20. Lupeol evokes anticancer effects in oral squamous cell carcinoma by inhibiting oncogenic EGFR pathway.

    PubMed

    Rauth, Sanchita; Ray, Sudipta; Bhattacharyya, Sayantan; Mehrotra, Debapriya Ghosh; Alam, Neyaz; Mondal, Goutam; Nath, Partha; Roy, Asoke; Biswas, Jaydip; Murmu, Nabendu

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway is overexpressed in head and neck cancer (HNC). Lupeol, a natural triterpene (phytosterol found in fruits, vegetables, etc.), has been reported to be effective against multiple cancer indications. Here we investigate the antitumor effects of Lupeol and underlying mechanism in oral cancer. Lupeol-induced antitumor response was evaluated in two oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines (UPCI:SCC131 and UPCI:SCC084) by viability (MTT), proliferation, and colony formation assays. Lupeol-mediated induction of apoptosis was examined by caspase 3/7 assay and flow cytometry. Effect of Lupeol on EGFR in the presence or absence of EGF was delineated by Western blot. The mRNA stability assay was performed to check the role of Lupeol on COX-2 mRNA regulation. Lupeol inhibited proliferation of OSCC cells in vitro by inducing apoptosis 48 h post treatment. Ligand-induced phosphorylation of EGFR and subsequent activation of its downstream molecules such as protein kinase B (PKB or AKT), I kappa B (IκB), and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) was also found to be, in part, suppressed. Interestingly, Lupeol suppressed expression of COX-2 at mRNA and protein level in a time-dependent manner. Primary explants from oral squamous cell carcinoma tissues further confirmed significant inhibition of proliferation (Ki67) in Lupeol-treated explants as compared to untreated control at 48 h. Together these data suggest that Lupeol may act as a potent inhibitor of the EGFR signaling in OSCC and therefore imply its role in triggering antitumor efficacy.

  1. Oncogenic Ras, but not (V600E)B-RAF, protects from cholesterol depletion-induced apoptosis through the PI3K/AKT pathway in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Calleros, Laura; Sánchez-Hernández, Irene; Baquero, Pablo; Toro, María José; Chiloeches, Antonio

    2009-10-01

    Cholesterol is necessary for proliferation and survival of transformed cells. Here we analyse the effect of cholesterol depletion on apoptosis and the mechanisms underlying this effect in colorectal cancer cells carrying oncogenic Ras or (V600E)B-RAF mutations. We show that chronic cholesterol depletion achieved with lipoprotein-deficient serum (LPDS) and 25-hydroxycholesterol (25-HC) treatment results in a significant increase in apoptosis in HT-29 and Colo-205 cells containing the (V600E)B-RAF mutation, but not in HCT-116 and LoVo cells harbouring the (G13D)Ras mutation, or BE cells, which possess two mutations, (G13D)Ras and (G463V)B-RAF. We also demonstrate that oncogenic Ras protects from apoptosis induced by cholesterol depletion through constitutive activation of the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. The specific activation of the PI3K/AKT pathway by overexpression of the (V12)RasC40 mutant or a constitutively active AKT decreases the LPDS plus 25-HC-induced apoptosis in HT-29 cells, whereas PI3K inhibition or abrogation of AKT expression renders HCT-116 sensitive to cholesterol depletion-induced apoptosis. Moreover, our data show that LPDS plus 25-HC increases the activity of c-Jun N-terminal kinase proteins only in HT-29 cells and that the inhibition of this kinase blocks the apoptosis induced by LPDS plus 25-HC. Finally, we demonstrate that AKT hyperactivation by oncogenic Ras protects from apoptosis, preventing the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase by cholesterol depletion. Thus, our data demonstrate that low levels of cholesterol induce apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells without oncogenic Ras mutations. These results reveal a novel molecular characteristic of colon tumours containing Ras or B-RAF mutations and should help in defining new targets for cancer therapy.

  2. Activation of ras oncogene in aflatoxin-induced rat liver carcinogenesis.

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, S; Webber, C; Marshall, C J; Knowles, M A; Proctor, A; Barrass, N C; Neal, G E

    1988-01-01

    The presence of activated transforming genes was investigated in four primary aflatoxin-induced rat liver tumors in male Fischer rats, in two cell lines generated from such tumors, in an epithelial liver-derived nontransformed cell line, and in the latter cell line after transformation by aflatoxin B1 in vitro. When DNA extracted from these sources was transfected into NIH 3T3 cells, negative results were obtained from focus assays. Cotransfection of these DNA samples with a gene for resistance to G418, followed by selection for resistance to that antibiotic, and tumorigenicity testing in nude mice demonstrated DNA-mediated transfer of the neoplastic phenotype in all cases except for DNA from the nontransformed cell line. DNA extracted from these primary nude mouse tumors used in a secondary round of transfection with NIH 3T3 cells gave positive results in focus assays, which were conserved through succeeding rounds of transfection. By use of appropriate radiolabeled probes, activated ras oncogenes were detected in all samples. N-ras activation was detected in three of the primary rat liver tumors and both hepatoma cell lines. Ki-ras activation was detected in one primary rat liver tumor, and Ha-ras activation was detected in the cell line transformed in vitro with activated aflatoxin B1. The activated Ki-ras oncogene was further characterized by use of synthetic oligonucleotide probes and was shown to contain a G----A transition at the second nucleotide in codon 12. Images PMID:3287372

  3. KRASG12 mutant induces the release of the WSTF/NRG3 complex, and contributes to an oncogenic paracrine signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Long, Yue-Hong; Chen, Su; Li, Yu-Feng; Zhang, Jing-Hua

    2016-01-01

    It remains unclear how the signals of mutant KRASG12 in the transformed cells spread to the surrounding non-mutated cells and changes the microenvironment to promote tumor formation. We identified that Williams–Beuren syndrome transcription factor (WSTF), a non-secretory protein, was released in complex with secretory protein-neuregulin-3 (NRG3). The KRASG12 mutant activates the transcription of NRG3. The WSTF/NRG3 in extracellular space could activate oncogenic pathways in normal colon cells carrying wild type KRAS and endow them with the ability to express NRG3 and release WSTF/NRG3. Extracellular WSTF/NRG3 promotes the formation of colon tumors. Blockade of extracellular WSTF could restore cetuximab sensitivity of colon cancer cells with mutant KRAS. The appearance of WSTF/NRG3 in serum and urine correlates with a colon tumor carrying a KRASG12 mutant. In summary, our demonstration provides a new pathway to our understanding of the biological development of complex diseases. PMID:27449290

  4. Sustained PKCβII activity confers oncogenic properties in a phospholipase D- and mTOR-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    El Osta, Mohamad; Liu, Mengling; Adada, Mohamad; Senkal, Can E.; Idkowiak-Baldys, Jolanta; Obeid, Lina M.; Clarke, Christopher J.; Hannun, Yusuf A.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase C (PKC) is a family of serine/threonine kinases implicated in a variety of physiological processes. We have shown previously that sustained activation of the classical PKCα and PKCβII induces their phospholipase D (PLD)-dependent internalization and translocation to a subset of the recycling endosomes defined by the presence of PKC and PLD (the pericentrion), which results in significant differences in phosphorylation of PKC substrates. Here, we have investigated the biological consequences of sustained PKC activity and the involvement of PLD in this process. We find that sustained activation of PKC results in activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR)/S6 kinase pathway in a PLD- and endocytosis-dependent manner, with both pharmacologic inhibitors and siRNA implicating the PLD2 isoform. Notably, dysregulated overexpression of PKCβII in A549 lung cancer cells was necessary for the enhanced proliferation and migration of these cancer cells. Inhibition of PKCβII with enzastaurin reduced A549 cell proliferation by >60% (48 h) and migration by >50%. These biological effects also required both PLD activity and mTOR function, with both the PLD inhibitor FIPI and rapamycin reducing cell growth by >50%. Reciprocally, forced overexpression of wild-type PKCβII, but not an F666D mutant that cannot interact with PLD, was sufficient to enhance cell growth and increase migration of noncancerous HEK cells; indeed, both properties were almost doubled when compared to vector control and PKC-F666D-overexpressing cells. Notably, this condition was also dependent on both PLD and mTOR activity. In summary, these data define a PKC-driven oncogenic signaling pathway that requires both PLD and mTOR, and suggest that inhibitors of PLD or mTOR would be beneficial in cancers where PKC overexpression is a contributing or driving factor.—El Osta, M., Liu, M. Adada, M., Senkal, C. E., Idkowiak-Baldys, J., Obeid, L. M., Clarke, C. J., Hannun, Y. A. Sustained PKC

  5. Overexpressed homeobox B9 regulates oncogenic activities by transforming growth factor-β1 in gliomas

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Liping; Xu, Yinghui; Zou, Lijuan

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • HOXB9 is overexpressed in gliomas. • HOXB9 over expression had shorter survival time than down expression in gliomas. • HOXB9 stimulated the proliferation, migration and sphere formation of glioma cells. • Activation of TGF-β1 contributed to HOXB9-induced oncogenic activities. - Abstract: Glioma is the leading cause of deaths related to tumors in the central nervous system. The mechanisms of gliomagenesis remain elusive to date. Homeobox B9 (HOXB9) has a crucial function in the regulation of gene expression and cell survival, but its functions in glioma formation and development have yet to be elucidated. This study showed that HOXB9 expression in glioma tissues was significantly higher than that in nontumor tissues. Higher HOXB9 expression was also significantly associated with advanced clinical stage in glioma patients. HOXB9 overexpression stimulated the proliferation, migration, and sphere formation of glioma cells, whereas HOXB9 knockdown elicited an opposite effect. HOXB9 overexpression also increased the tumorigenicity of glioma cells in vivo. Moreover, the activation of transforming growth factor-β1 contributed to HOXB9-induced oncogenic activities. HOXB9 could be used as a predictable biomarker to be detected in different pathological and histological subtypes in glioma for diagnosis or prognosis.

  6. Genome-wide Search of Oncogenic Pathways Cooperating with ETS Fusions in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-07-01

    Pathways Cooperating With ETS Fusions in Prostate Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Zhe Li, PhD CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: Brigham and...Douglas; Zhang, Xin; Li, Zhe 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER E-Mail: zli4@rics.bwh.harvard.edu 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING...Godinho,1,2,5 Roderick T. Bronson,6 Lorelei A. Mucci,7 Massimo Loda,8 Guo-Cheng Yuan,3 Stuart H. Orkin,1,2,5,10 and Zhe Li1,2,4,10 1Division of

  7. Broccoli Consumption Interacts with GSTM1 to Perturb Oncogenic Signalling Pathways in the Prostate

    PubMed Central

    Traka, Maria; Gasper, Amy V.; Melchini, Antonietta; Bacon, James R.; Needs, Paul W.; Frost, Victoria; Chantry, Andrew; Jones, Alexandra M. E.; Ortori, Catharine A.; Barrett, David A.; Ball, Richard Y.; Mills, Robert D.; Mithen, Richard F.

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that people who consume more than one portion of cruciferous vegetables per week are at lower risk of both the incidence of prostate cancer and of developing aggressive prostate cancer but there is little understanding of the underlying mechanisms. In this study, we quantify and interpret changes in global gene expression patterns in the human prostate gland before, during and after a 12 month broccoli-rich diet. Methods and Findings Volunteers were randomly assigned to either a broccoli-rich or a pea-rich diet. After six months there were no differences in gene expression between glutathione S-transferase mu 1 (GSTM1) positive and null individuals on the pea-rich diet but significant differences between GSTM1 genotypes on the broccoli-rich diet, associated with transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGFβ1) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) signalling pathways. Comparison of biopsies obtained pre and post intervention revealed more changes in gene expression occurred in individuals on a broccoli-rich diet than in those on a pea-rich diet. While there were changes in androgen signalling, regardless of diet, men on the broccoli diet had additional changes to mRNA processing, and TGFβ1, EGF and insulin signalling. We also provide evidence that sulforaphane (the isothiocyanate derived from 4-methylsuphinylbutyl glucosinolate that accumulates in broccoli) chemically interacts with TGFβ1, EGF and insulin peptides to form thioureas, and enhances TGFβ1/Smad-mediated transcription. Conclusions These findings suggest that consuming broccoli interacts with GSTM1 genotype to result in complex changes to signalling pathways associated with inflammation and carcinogenesis in the prostate. We propose that these changes may be mediated through the chemical interaction of isothiocyanates with signalling peptides in the plasma. This study provides, for the first time, experimental evidence obtained in humans to support observational studies

  8. One reporter for in-cell activity profiling of majority of protein kinase oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Gudernova, Iva; Foldynova-Trantirkova, Silvie; Ghannamova, Barbora El; Fafilek, Bohumil; Varecha, Miroslav; Balek, Lukas; Hruba, Eva; Jonatova, Lucie; Jelinkova, Iva; Kunova Bosakova, Michaela; Trantirek, Lukas; Mayer, Jiri; Krejci, Pavel

    2017-02-15

    In-cell profiling enables the evaluation of receptor tyrosine activity in a complex environment of regulatory networks that affect signal initiation, propagation and feedback. We used FGF-receptor signaling to identify EGR1 as a locus that strongly responds to the activation of a majority of the recognized protein kinase oncogenes, including 30 receptor tyrosine kinases and 154 of their disease-associated mutants. The EGR1 promoter was engineered to enhance trans-activation capacity and optimized for simple screening assays with luciferase or fluorescent reporters. The efficacy of the developed, fully synthetic reporters was demonstrated by the identification of novel targets for two clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and osimertinib. A universal reporter system for in-cell protein kinase profiling will facilitate repurposing of existing anti-cancer drugs and identification of novel inhibitors in high-throughput screening studies.

  9. One reporter for in-cell activity profiling of majority of protein kinase oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Gudernova, Iva; Foldynova-Trantirkova, Silvie; Ghannamova, Barbora El; Fafilek, Bohumil; Varecha, Miroslav; Balek, Lukas; Hruba, Eva; Jonatova, Lucie; Jelinkova, Iva; Bosakova, Michaela Kunova; Trantirek, Lukas; Mayer, Jiri; Krejci, Pavel

    2017-01-01

    In-cell profiling enables the evaluation of receptor tyrosine activity in a complex environment of regulatory networks that affect signal initiation, propagation and feedback. We used FGF-receptor signaling to identify EGR1 as a locus that strongly responds to the activation of a majority of the recognized protein kinase oncogenes, including 30 receptor tyrosine kinases and 154 of their disease-associated mutants. The EGR1 promoter was engineered to enhance trans-activation capacity and optimized for simple screening assays with luciferase or fluorescent reporters. The efficacy of the developed, fully synthetic reporters was demonstrated by the identification of novel targets for two clinically used tyrosine kinase inhibitors, nilotinib and osimertinib. A universal reporter system for in-cell protein kinase profiling will facilitate repurposing of existing anti-cancer drugs and identification of novel inhibitors in high-throughput screening studies. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.21536.001 PMID:28199182

  10. Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0162 TITLE: Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc...CONTRACT NUMBER Using a Novel Transgenic Mouse Model to Study c-Myc Oncogenic Pathway in Castration Resistance and Chemoresistance of Prostate Cancer...Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT We previously generated a PB-Cre4/CAG-SMIL transgenic model allowing Cre

  11. Targeting PML-RARα and Oncogenic Signaling Pathways by Chinese Herbal Mixture Tien-Hsien Liquid in Acute Promyelocytic Leukemia NB4 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Chih-Jung; Yang, Chia-Ming; Chuang, Shuang-En; Yan, Jiann-Long; Liu, Chun-Yen; Chen, Suz-Wen; Yan, Kun-Huang; Lai, Tung-Yuan; Lai, Gi-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Tien-Hsien Liquid (THL) is a Chinese herbal mixture that has been used worldwide as complementary treatment for cancer patients in the past decade. Recently, THL has been shown to induce apoptosis in various types of solid tumor cells in vitro. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not yet been well elucidated. In this study, we explored the effects of THL on acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) NB4 cells, which could be effectively treated by some traditional Chinese remedies containing arsenic trioxide. The results showed THL could induce G2/M arrest and apoptosis in NB4 cells. Accordingly, the decrease of cyclin A and B1 were observed in THL-treated cells. The THL-induced apoptosis was accompanied with caspase-3 activation and decrease of PML-RARα fusion protein. Moreover, DNA methyltransferase 1 and oncogenic signaling pathways such as Akt/mTOR, Stat3 and ERK were also down-regulated by THL. By using ethyl acetate extraction and silica gel chromatography, an active fraction of THL named as EAS5 was isolated. At about 0.5–1% of the dose of THL, EAS5 appeared to have most of THL-induced multiple molecular targeting effects in NB4 cells. Based on the findings of these multi-targeting effects, THL might be regarding as a complementary and alternative therapeutic agent for refractory APL. PMID:19897545

  12. Specific oncogenic activity of the Src-family tyrosine kinase c-Yes in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Sancier, Florence; Dumont, Aurélie; Sirvent, Audrey; Paquay de Plater, Ludmilla; Edmonds, Thomas; David, Géraldine; Jan, Michel; de Montrion, Catherine; Cogé, Francis; Léonce, Stéphane; Burbridge, Michael; Bruno, Alain; Boutin, Jean A; Lockhart, Brian; Roche, Serge; Cruzalegui, Francisco

    2011-02-24

    c-Yes, a member of the Src tyrosine kinase family, is found highly activated in colon carcinoma but its importance relative to c-Src has remained unclear. Here we show that, in HT29 colon carcinoma cells, silencing of c-Yes, but not of c-Src, selectively leads to an increase of cell clustering associated with a localisation of β-catenin at cell membranes and a reduction of expression of β-catenin target genes. c-Yes silencing induced an increase in apoptosis, inhibition of growth in soft-agar and in mouse xenografts, inhibition of cell migration and loss of the capacity to generate liver metastases in mice. Re-introduction of c-Yes, but not c -Src, restores transforming properties of c-Yes depleted cells. Moreover, we found that c-Yes kinase activity is required for its role in β-catenin localisation and growth in soft agar, whereas kinase activity is dispensable for its role in cell migration. We conclude that c-Yes regulates specific oncogenic signalling pathways important for colon cancer progression that is not shared with c-Src.

  13. Induction of human microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 by activated oncogene RhoA GTPase in A549 human epithelial cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Hye Jin; Lee, Dong-Hyung; Park, Seong-Hwan; Kim, Juil; Do, Kee Hun; An, Tae Jin; Ahn, Young Sup; Park, Chung Berm; Moon, Yuseok

    2011-09-30

    Highlights: {yields} As a target of oncogene RhoA-linked signal, a prostaglandin metabolism is assessed. {yields} RhoA activation increases PGE{sub 2} levels and its metabolic enzyme mPGES-1. {yields} RhoA-activated NF-{kappa}B and EGR-1 are positively involved in mPGES-1 induction. -- Abstract: Oncogenic RhoA GTPase has been investigated as a mediator of pro-inflammatory responses and aggressive carcinogenesis. Among the various targets of RhoA-linked signals, pro-inflammatory prostaglandin E{sub 2} (PGE{sub 2}), a major prostaglandin metabolite, was assessed in epithelial cancer cells. RhoA activation increased PGE{sub 2} levels and gene expression of the rate-limiting PGE{sub 2} producing enzymes, cyclooxygenase-2 and microsomal prostaglandin E synthase 1 (mPGES-1). In particular, human mPGES-1 was induced by RhoA via transcriptional activation in control and interleukin (IL)-1{beta}-activated cancer cells. To address the involvement of potent signaling pathways in RhoA-activated mPGES-1 induction, various signaling inhibitors were screened for their effects on mPGES-1 promoter activity. RhoA activation enhanced basal and IL-1{beta}-mediated phosphorylated nuclear factor-{kappa}B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 proteins, all of which were positively involved in RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1. As one potent down-stream transcription factor of ERK1/2 signals, early growth response gene 1 product also mediated RhoA-induced gene expression of mPGES-1 by enhancing transcriptional activity. Since oncogene-triggered PGE{sub 2} production is a critical modulator of epithelial tumor cells, RhoA-associated mPGES-1 represents a promising chemo-preventive or therapeutic target for epithelial inflammation and its associated cancers.

  14. Lipid phosphatase SHIP2 functions as oncogene in colorectal cancer by regulating PKB activation

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Elmer; Das, Asha M.; Willemsen, Marcella; Swets, Marloes; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; van der Woude, Christien J.; Bruno, Marco J.; Shah, Jigisha P.; Hagen, Timo L.M. ten; Chisholm, John D.; Kerr, William G.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of cancer-related death, encouraging the search for novel therapeutic targets affecting tumor cell proliferation and migration. These cellular processes are under tight control of two opposing groups of enzymes; kinases and phosphatases. Aberrant activity of kinases is observed in many forms of cancer and as phosphatases counteract such “oncogenic” kinases, it is generally assumed that phosphatases function as tumor suppressors. However, emerging evidence suggests that the lipid phosphatase SH2-domain-containing 5 inositol phosphatase (SHIP2), encoded by the INPPL1 gene, may act as an oncogene. Just like the well-known tumor suppressor gene Phosphatase and Tensin Homolog (PTEN) it hydrolyses phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5) triphosphate (PI(3,4,5)P3). However, unlike PTEN, the reaction product is PI(3,4)P2, which is required for full activation of the downstream protein kinase B (PKB/Akt), suggesting that SHIP2, in contrast to PTEN, could have a tumor initiating role through PKB activation. In this work, we investigated the role of SHIP2 in colorectal cancer. We found that SHIP2 and INPPL1 expression is increased in colorectal cancer tissue in comparison to adjacent normal tissue, and this is correlated with decreased patient survival. Moreover, SHIP2 is more active in colorectal cancer tissue, suggesting that SHIP2 can induce oncogenesis in colonic epithelial cells. Furthermore, in vitro experiments performed on colorectal cancer cell lines shows an oncogenic role for SHIP2, by enhancing chemoresistance, cell migration, and cell invasion. Together, these data indicate that SHIP2 expression contributes to the malignant potential of colorectal cancer, providing a possible target in the fight against this devastating disease. PMID:27716613

  15. Oncogenic pathways of AML1-ETO in acute myeloid leukemia: multifaceted manipulation of marrow maturation

    PubMed Central

    Elagib, Kamaleldin E.; Goldfarb, Adam N.

    2007-01-01

    The leukemic fusion protein AML1-ETO occurs frequently in human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and has received much attention over the past decade. An initial model for its pathogenetic effects emphasized the conversion of a hematopoietic transcriptional activator, RUNX1 (or AML1), into a leukemogenic repressor which blocked myeloid differentiation at the level of target gene regulation. This view has been absorbed into a larger picture of AML1-ETO pathogenesis, encompassing dysregulation of hematopoietic stem cell homeostasis at several mechanistic levels. Recent reports have highlighted a multifaceted capacity of AML1-ETO directly to inhibit key hematopoietic transcription factors that function as tumor suppressors at several nodal points during hematopoietic differentiation. A new model is presented in which AML1-ETO coordinates expansion of the stem cell compartment with diminished lineage commitment and with genome instability. PMID:17125917

  16. Discovery of a Selective Inhibitor of Oncogenic B-Raf Kinase With Potent Antimelanoma Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, J.; Lee, J.T.; Wang, W.; Zhang, J.; Cho, H.; Mamo, S.; Bremer, R.; Gillette, S.; Kong, J.; Haass, N.K.; Sproesser, K.; Li, L.; Smalley, K.S.M.; Fong, D.; Zhu, Y.-L.; Marimuthu, A.; Nguyen, H.; Lam, B.; Liu, J.; Cheung, I.; Rice, J.

    2009-05-26

    BRAF{sup V600E} is the most frequent oncogenic protein kinase mutation known. Furthermore, inhibitors targeting 'active' protein kinases have demonstrated significant utility in the therapeutic repertoire against cancer. Therefore, we pursued the development of specific kinase inhibitors targeting B-Raf, and the V600E allele in particular. By using a structure-guided discovery approach, a potent and selective inhibitor of active B-Raf has been discovered. PLX4720, a 7-azaindole derivative that inhibits B-Raf{sup V600E} with an IC{sub 50} of 13 nM, defines a class of kinase inhibitor with marked selectivity in both biochemical and cellular assays. PLX4720 preferentially inhibits the active B-Raf{sup V600E} kinase compared with a broad spectrum of other kinases, and potent cytotoxic effects are also exclusive to cells bearing the V600E allele. Consistent with the high degree of selectivity, ERK phosphorylation is potently inhibited by PLX4720 in B-Raf{sup V600E}-bearing tumor cell lines but not in cells lacking oncogenic B-Raf. In melanoma models, PLX4720 induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis exclusively in B-Raf{sup V600E}-positive cells. In B-Raf{sup V600E}-dependent tumor xenograft models, orally dosed PLX4720 causes significant tumor growth delays, including tumor regressions, without evidence of toxicity. The work described here represents the entire discovery process, from initial identification through structural and biological studies in animal models to a promising therapeutic for testing in cancer patients bearing B-Raf{sup V600E}-driven tumors.

  17. DNA sequence, structure, and tyrosine kinase activity of the Drosophila melanogaster abelson proto-oncogene homolog

    SciTech Connect

    Henkemeyer, M.J.; Bennett, R.L.; Gertler, F.B.; Hoffmann, F.M.

    1988-02-01

    The authors report their molecular characterization of the Drosophila melanogaster Abelson gene (abl), a gene in which recessive loss-of-function mutations result in lethality at the pupal stage of development. This essential gene consists of 10 exons extending over 26 kilobase pairs of genomic DNA. The DNA sequence encodes a protein of 1,520 amino acids with strong sequence similarity to the human c-abl proto-oncogene beginning in the type 1b 5' exon and extending through the region essential for tyrosine kinase activity. When the tyrosine kinase homologous region was expressed in Escherichia coli, phosphorylation of proteins on tyrosine residues was observed with an antiphosphotyrosine antibody. These results show that the abl gene is highly conserved through evolution and encodes a functional tyrosine protein kinase required for Drosophila development.

  18. Know thy neighbor: stromal cells can contribute oncogenic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tlsty, T. D.; Hein, P. W.

    2001-01-01

    Although the stroma within carcinogenic lesions is known to be supportive and responsive to tumors, new data increasingly show that the stroma also has a more active, oncogenic role in tumorigenesis. Stromal cells and their products can transform adjacent tissues in the absence of pre-existing tumor cells by inciting phenotypic and genomic changes in the epithelial cells. The oncogenic action of distinctive stromal components has been demonstrated through a variety of approaches, which provide clues about the cellular pathways involved.

  19. Integrin α2β1 inhibits MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activates Yes-associated protein oncogenic signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kwong-Fai; Liu, Angela M.; Hong, Wanjin; Xu, Zhi; Luk, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that α2β1 integrin (but not other β1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities. Knockdown of integrin α2 gene (ITGA2) suppressed YAP targeted gene expression in vitro. α2β1 and collagen binding resulted in suppressing Hippo signaling of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and Large tumor suppressor homolog 1 (LATS1) with concomitant activation of YAP-mediated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression. In vitro kinase assay showed that MST1 is an immediate downstream target of integrin α2 with S1180 residue as the critical phosphorylation site. Clinical correlational analysis using a gene expression dataset of 228 HCC tumors revealed that ITGA2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, and co-expression with YAP targeted genes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, CTGF, cyclin D1, glypican 3, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, and SRY-box 4) correlated with survivals of HCC patients. In conclusion, α2β1 integrin activation through cellular adhesion impacts the Hippo pathway in solid tumors and modulates MST1-YAP signaling cascade. Targeting integrin α2 holds promises for treating YAP-positive HCC. PMID:27765911

  20. Integrin α2β1 inhibits MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activates Yes-associated protein oncogenic signaling in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wong, Kwong-Fai; Liu, Angela M; Hong, Wanjin; Xu, Zhi; Luk, John M

    2016-11-22

    The Hippo pathway regulates the down-stream target Yes-associated protein (YAP) to maintain organ homeostasis, which is commonly inactivated in many types of cancers. However, how cell adhesion dysregulates the Hippo pathway activating YAP oncogene in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains unclear. Our findings demonstrate that α2β1 integrin (but not other β1 integrins) expressed in HCC cells, after binding to collagen extracellular matrix, could inhibit MST1 kinase phosphorylation and activate YAP pro-oncogenic activities. Knockdown of integrin α2 gene (ITGA2) suppressed YAP targeted gene expression in vitro. α2β1 and collagen binding resulted in suppressing Hippo signaling of mammalian sterile 20-like kinase 1 (MST1) and Large tumor suppressor homolog 1 (LATS1) with concomitant activation of YAP-mediated connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) gene expression. In vitro kinase assay showed that MST1 is an immediate downstream target of integrin α2 with S1180 residue as the critical phosphorylation site. Clinical correlational analysis using a gene expression dataset of 228 HCC tumors revealed that ITGA2 expression was significantly associated with tumor progression, and co-expression with YAP targeted genes (AXL receptor tyrosine kinase, CTGF, cyclin D1, glypican 3, insulin like growth factor 1 receptor, and SRY-box 4) correlated with survivals of HCC patients. In conclusion, α2β1 integrin activation through cellular adhesion impacts the Hippo pathway in solid tumors and modulates MST1-YAP signaling cascade. Targeting integrin α2 holds promises for treating YAP-positive HCC.

  1. Biologically active mutants with deletions in the v-mos oncogene assayed with retroviral vectors.

    PubMed Central

    Bold, R J; Donoghue, D J

    1985-01-01

    We have constructed retroviral expression vectors by manipulation of the Moloney murine leukemia virus genome such that an exogenous DNA sequence may be inserted and subsequently expressed when introduced into mammalian cells. A series of N-terminal deletions of the v-mos oncogene was constructed and assayed for biological activity with these retroviral expression vectors. The results of the deletion analysis demonstrate that the region of p37mos coding region upstream of the third methionine codon is dispensable with respect to transformation. However, deletion mutants of v-mos which allow initiation of translation at the fourth methionine codon have lost the biological activity of the parental v-mos gene. Furthermore, experiments were also carried out to define the C-terminal limit of the active region of p37mos by the construction of premature termination mutants by the insertion of a termination oligonucleotide. Insertion of the oligonucleotide just 69 base pairs upstream from the wild-type termination site abolished the focus-forming ability of v-mos. Thus, we have shown the N-terminal limit of the active region of p37mos to be between the third and fourth methionines, while the C-terminal limit is within the last 23 amino acids of the protein. PMID:3018503

  2. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M; Knotts, Trina A; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D; McCoin, Colin S; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Adams, Sean H; Hwang, Daniel H

    2014-06-15

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed D,L isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant L-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. L-C14 carnitine (5-25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, L-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, L-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified.

  3. Acylcarnitines activate proinflammatory signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowsky, Jennifer M.; Knotts, Trina A.; Ono-Moore, Kikumi D.; McCoin, Colin S.; Huang, Shurong; Schneider, Dina; Singh, Shamsher; Hwang, Daniel H.

    2014-01-01

    Incomplete β-oxidation of fatty acids in mitochondria is a feature of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Previous studies revealed that plasma concentrations of medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines (by-products of incomplete β-oxidation) are elevated in T2DM and insulin resistance. In a previous study, we reported that mixed d,l isomers of C12- or C14-carnitine induced an NF-κB-luciferase reporter gene in RAW 264.7 cells, suggesting potential activation of proinflammatory pathways. Here, we determined whether the physiologically relevant l-acylcarnitines activate classical proinflammatory signaling pathways and if these outcomes involve pattern recognition receptor (PRR)-associated pathways. Acylcarnitines induced the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in a chain length-dependent manner in RAW 264.7 cells. l-C14 carnitine (5–25 μM), used as a representative acylcarnitine, stimulated the expression and secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, l-C14 carnitine induced phosphorylation of JNK and ERK, common downstream components of many proinflammatory signaling pathways including PRRs. Knockdown of MyD88, a key cofactor in PRR signaling and inflammation, blunted the proinflammatory effects of acylcarnitine. While these results point to potential involvement of PRRs, l-C14 carnitine promoted IL-8 secretion from human epithelial cells (HCT-116) lacking Toll-like receptors (TLR)2 and -4, and did not activate reporter constructs in TLR overexpression cell models. Thus, acylcarnitines have the potential to activate inflammation, but the specific molecular and tissue target(s) involved remain to be identified. PMID:24760988

  4. Targeting of RET oncogene by naphthalene diimide-mediated gene promoter G-quadruplex stabilization exerts anti-tumor activity in oncogene-addicted human medullary thyroid cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tortoreto, Monica; Doria, Filippo; Beretta, Giovanni L.; Zuco, Valentina; Freccero, Mauro; Borrello, Maria Grazia; Lanzi, Cinzia; Richter, Sara N.; Zaffaroni, Nadia; Folini, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) relies on the aberrant activation of RET proto-oncogene. Though targeted approaches (i.e., tyrosine kinase inhibitors) are available, the absence of complete responses and the onset of resistance mechanisms indicate the need for novel therapeutic interventions. Due to their role in regulation of gene expression, G-quadruplexes (G4) represent attractive targets amenable to be recognized or stabilized by small molecules. Here, we report that exposure of MTC cells to a tri-substituted naphthalene diimide (NDI) resulted in a significant antiproliferative activity paralleled by inhibition of RET expression. Biophysical analysis and gene reporter assays showed that impairment of RET expression was consequent to the NDI-mediated stabilization of the G4 forming within the gene promoter. We also showed for the first time that systemic administration of the NDI in mice xenotransplanted with MTC cells resulted in a remarkable inhibition of tumor growth in vivo. Overall, our findings indicate that NDI-dependent RET G4 stabilization represents a suitable approach to control RET transcription and delineate the rationale for the development of G4 stabilizing-based treatments for MTC as well as for other tumors in which RET may have functional and therapeutic implications. PMID:27351133

  5. Noxa upregulation by oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK through CREB promotes autophagy in human melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilmott, James S.; Yan, Xu Guang; Liu, Xiao Ying; Luan, Qi; Guo, Su Tang; Jiang, Chen Chen; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Scolyer, Richard A.; Jin, Lei; Zhang, Xu Dong

    2014-01-01

    Reduction in the expression of the anti-survival BH3-only proteins PUMA and Bim is associated with the pathogenesis of melanoma. However, we have found that the expression of the other BH3-only protein Noxa is commonly upregulated in melanoma cells, and that this is driven by oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK. Immunohistochemistry studies showed that Noxa was expressed at higher levels in melanomas than nevi. Moreover, the expression of Noxa was increased in metastatic compared to primary melanomas, and in thick primaries compared to thin primaries. Inhibition of oncogenic BRAFV600E or MEK downregulated Noxa, whereas activation of MEK/ERK caused its upregulation. In addition, introduction of BRAFV600E increased Noxa expression in melanocytes. Upregulation of Noxa was due to a transcriptional increase mediated by cAMP responsive element binding protein, activation of which was also increased by MEK/ERK signaling in melanoma cells. Significantly, Noxa appeared necessary for constitutive activation of autophagy, albeit at low levels, by MEK/ERK in melanoma cells. Furthermore, it was required for autophagy activation that delayed apoptosis in melanoma cells undergoing nutrient deprivation. These results reveal that oncogenic activation of MEK/ERK drives Noxa expression to promote autophagy, and suggest that Noxa has an indirect anti-apoptosis role in melanoma cells under nutrient starvation conditions. PMID:25365078

  6. Acetylation directs survivin nuclear localization to repress STAT3 oncogenic activity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haijuan; Holloway, Michael P; Ma, Li; Cooper, Zachary A; Riolo, Matthew; Samkari, Ayman; Elenitoba-Johnson, Kojo S J; Chin, Y Eugene; Altura, Rachel A

    2010-11-12

    The multiple functions of the oncofetal protein survivin are dependent on its selective expression patterns within immunochemically distinct subcellular pools. The mechanism by which survivin localizes to these compartments, however, is only partly understood. Here we show that nuclear accumulation of survivin is promoted by CREB-binding protein (CBP)-dependent acetylation on lysine 129 (129K, Lys-129). We demonstrate a mechanism by which survivin acetylation at this position results in its homodimerization, while deacetylation promotes the formation of survivin monomers that heterodimerize with CRM1 and facilitate its nuclear export. Using proteomic analysis, we identified the oncogenic transcription factor STAT3 as a binding partner of nuclear survivin. We show that acetylated survivin binds to the N-terminal transcriptional activation domain of the STAT3 dimer and represses STAT3 transactivation of target gene promoters. Using multiplex PCR and DNA sequencing, we identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism (A → G) at Lys-129 that exists as a homozygous mutation in a neuroblastoma cell line and corresponds with a defect in survivin nuclear localization. Our results demonstrate that the dynamic equilibrium between survivin acetylation and deacetylation at amino acid 129 determines its interaction with CRM1, its subsequent subcellular localization, and its ability to inhibit STAT3 transactivation, providing a potential route for therapeutic intervention in STAT3-dependent tumors.

  7. Oncogenic KRAS activates an embryonic stem cell-like program in human colon cancer initiation.

    PubMed

    Le Rolle, Anne-France; Chiu, Thang K; Zeng, Zhaoshi; Shia, Jinru; Weiser, Martin R; Paty, Philip B; Chiu, Vi K

    2016-01-19

    Colorectal cancer is the third most frequently diagnosed cancer worldwide. Prevention of colorectal cancer initiation represents the most effective overall strategy to reduce its associated morbidity and mortality. Activating KRAS mutation (KRASmut) is the most prevalent oncogenic driver in colorectal cancer development, and KRASmut inhibition represents an unmet clinical need. We apply a systems-level approach to study the impact of KRASmut on stem cell signaling during human colon cancer initiation by performing gene set enrichment analysis on gene expression from human colon tissues. We find that KRASmut imposes the embryonic stem cell-like program during human colon cancer initiation from colon adenoma to stage I carcinoma. Expression of miR145, an embryonic SC program inhibitor, promotes cell lineage differentiation marker expression in KRASmut colon cancer cells and significantly suppresses their tumorigenicity. Our data support an in vivo plasticity model of human colon cancer initiation that merges the intrinsic stem cell properties of aberrant colon stem cells with the embryonic stem cell-like program induced by KRASmut to optimize malignant transformation. Inhibition of the embryonic SC-like program in KRASmut colon cancer cells reveals a novel therapeutic strategy to programmatically inhibit KRASmut tumors and prevent colon cancer.

  8. Anti-tumor activity of ESX1 on cancer cells harboring oncogenic K-ras mutation

    SciTech Connect

    Nakajima, Junta; Ishikawa, Susumu; Hamada, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Masatomo; Koike, Takao; Hatakeyama, Masanori

    2008-05-23

    Human ESX1 is a 65-kilodalton (kDa) paired-like homeoprotein that is proteolytically processed into N-terminal 45-kDa and C-terminal 20-kDa fragments. The N-terminal ESX1 fragment, which contains the homeodomain, localizes to the nucleus and represses mRNA transcription from the K-ras gene. When we inoculated human colorectal carcinoma HCT116 constitutive expressing N-terminal region of ESX1 (N-ESX1) into nude mice, transfectant cells uniformly showed decreased tumor-forming activity compared with that of the parental cells. Furthermore, pretreatment of HCT116 carcinoma cells with a fusion protein consisting of N-ESX1 and the protein-transduction domain derived from the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 TAT protein gave rise to a dramatic reduction in the tumorigenicity of HCT116 cells in nude mice. Our results provide first in vivo evidence for the molecular targeting therapeutic application of the K-ras repressor ESX1, especially TAT-mediated transduction of N-ESX1, in the treatment of human cancers having oncogenic K-ras mutations.

  9. Hedgehog Signal Transduction: Key Players, Oncogenic Drivers, and Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Pak, Ekaterina; Segal, Rosalind A

    2016-08-22

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway governs complex developmental processes, including proliferation and patterning within diverse tissues. These activities rely on a tightly regulated transduction system that converts graded Hh input signals into specific levels of pathway activity. Uncontrolled activation of Hh signaling drives tumor initiation and maintenance. However, recent entry of pathway-specific inhibitors into the clinic reveals mixed patient responses and thus prompts further exploration of pathway activation and inhibition. In this review, we share emerging insights into regulated and oncogenic Hh signaling, supplemented with updates on the development and use of Hh pathway-targeted therapies.

  10. Chemopreventive activity of plant flavonoid isorhamnetin in colorectal cancer is mediated by oncogenic Src and β-catenin.

    PubMed

    Saud, Shakir M; Young, Matthew R; Jones-Hall, Yava L; Ileva, Lilia; Evbuomwan, Moses O; Wise, Jennifer; Colburn, Nancy H; Kim, Young S; Bobe, Gerd

    2013-09-01

    Analysis of the Polyp Prevention Trial showed an association between an isorhamnetin-rich diet and a reduced risk of advanced adenoma recurrence; however, the mechanism behind the chemoprotective effects of isorhamnetin remains unclear. Here, we show that isorhamnetin prevents colorectal tumorigenesis of FVB/N mice treated with the chemical carcinogen azoxymethane and subsequently exposed to colonic irritant dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Dietary isorhamnetin decreased mortality, tumor number, and tumor burden by 62%, 35%, and 59%, respectively. MRI, histopathology, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that dietary isorhamnetin resolved the DSS-induced inflammatory response faster than the control diet. Isorhamnetin inhibited AOM/DSS-induced oncogenic c-Src activation and β-catenin nuclear translocation, while promoting the expression of C-terminal Src kinase (CSK), a negative regulator of Src family of tyrosine kinases. Similarly, in HT-29 colon cancer cells, isorhamnetin inhibited oncogenic Src activity and β-catenin nuclear translocation by inducing expression of csk, as verified by RNA interference knockdown of csk. Our observations suggest the chemoprotective effects of isorhamnetin in colon cancer are linked to its anti-inflammatory activities and its inhibition of oncogenic Src activity and consequential loss of nuclear β-catenin, activities that are dependent on CSK expression.

  11. Control of YAP/TAZ Activity by Metabolic and Nutrient-Sensing Pathways.

    PubMed

    Santinon, Giulia; Pocaterra, Arianna; Dupont, Sirio

    2016-04-01

    Metabolism is a fundamental cellular function that can be reprogrammed by signaling pathways and oncogenes to meet cellular requirements. An emerging paradigm is that signaling and transcriptional networks can be in turn regulated by metabolism, allowing cells to coordinate their metabolism and behavior in an integrated manner. The activity of the YAP/TAZ transcriptional coactivators, downstream transducers of the Hippo cascade and powerful pro-oncogenic factors, was recently found to be regulated by metabolic pathways, such as aerobic glycolysis and mevalonate synthesis, and by the nutrient-sensing LKB1-AMPK and TSC-mTOR pathways. We discuss here current data linking YAP/TAZ to metabolism and suggest how this coupling might coordinate nutrient availability with genetic programs that sustain tissue growth, neoplastic cell proliferation, and tumor malignancy.

  12. Splicing imbalances in basal-like breast cancer underpin perturbation of cell surface and oncogenic pathways and are associated with patients’ survival

    PubMed Central

    Gracio, Filipe; Burford, Brian; Gazinska, Patrycja; Mera, Anca; Mohd Noor, Aisyah; Marra, Pierfrancesco; Gillett, Cheryl; Grigoriadis, Anita; Pinder, Sarah; Tutt, Andrew; de Rinaldis, Emanuele

    2017-01-01

    Despite advancements in the use of transcriptional information to understand and classify breast cancers, the contribution of splicing to the establishment and progression of these tumours has only recently starting to emerge. Our work explores this lesser known landscape, with special focus on the basal-like breast cancer subtype where limited therapeutic opportunities and no prognostic biomarkers are currently available. Using ExonArray analysis of 176 breast cancers and 9 normal breast tissues we demonstrate that splicing levels significantly contribute to the diversity of breast cancer molecular subtypes and explain much of the differences compared with normal tissues. We identified pathways specifically affected by splicing imbalances whose perturbation would be hidden from a conventional gene-centric analysis of gene expression. We found that a large fraction of them involve cell-to-cell communication, extracellular matrix and transport, as well as oncogenic and immune-related pathways transduced by plasma membrane receptors. We identified 247 genes in which splicing imbalances are associated with clinical patients’ outcome, whilst no association was detectable at the gene expression level. These include the signaling gene TGFBR1, the proto-oncogene MYB as well as many immune-related genes such as CCR7 and FCRL3, reinforcing evidence for a role of immune components in influencing breast cancer patients’ prognosis. PMID:28059167

  13. Use of human tissue to assess the oncogenic activity of melanoma-associated mutations.

    PubMed

    Chudnovsky, Yakov; Adams, Amy E; Robbins, Paul B; Lin, Qun; Khavari, Paul A

    2005-07-01

    Multiple genetic alterations occur in melanoma, a lethal skin malignancy of increasing incidence. These include mutations that activate Ras and two of its effector cascades, Raf and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). Induction of Ras and Raf can be caused by active N-Ras and B-Raf mutants as well as by gene amplification. Activation of PI3K pathway components occurs by PTEN loss and by AKT3 amplification. Melanomas also commonly show impairment of the p16(INK4A)-CDK4-Rb and ARF-HDM2-p53 tumor suppressor pathways. CDKN2A mutations can produce p16(INK4A) and ARF protein loss. Rb bypass can also occur through activating CDK4 mutations as well as by CDK4 amplification. In addition to ARF deletion, p53 pathway disruption can result from dominant negative TP53 mutations. TERT amplification also occurs in melanoma. The extent to which these mutations can induce human melanocytic neoplasia is unknown. Here we characterize pathways sufficient to generate human melanocytic neoplasia and show that genetically altered human tissue facilitates functional analysis of mutations observed in human tumors.

  14. YES oncogenic activity is specified by its SH4 domain and regulates RAS/MAPK signaling in colon carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Dubois, Fanny; Leroy, Cédric; Simon, Valérie; Benistant, Christine; Roche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Members of the SRC family of tyrosine kinases (SFK) display important functions in human cancer, but their specific role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that YES regulates a unique oncogenic signaling important for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression that is not shared with SRC. Here, we addressed the underlying mechanism involved in this process. We show that YES oncogenic signaling relies on palmitoylation of its SH4 domain that controls YES localization in cholesterol-enriched membrane micro-domains. Specifically, deletion of the palmitoylation site compromised YES transforming activity, while addition of a palmitoylation site in the SH4 domain of SRC was sufficient for SRC to restore the transforming properties of cells in which YES had been silenced. Subsequently, SILAC phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that micro-domain-associated cell adhesive components and receptor tyrosine kinases are major YES substrates. YES also phosphorylates upstream regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling, including EGFR, SHC and SHP2, which were not targeted by SRC due to the absence of palmitoylation. Accordingly, EGFR-induced MAPK activity was attenuated by YES down-regulation, while increased RAS activity significantly restored cell transformation that was lost upon YES silencing. Collectively, these results uncover a critical role for the SH4 domain in the specification of SFK oncogenic activity and a selective role for YES in the induction of RAS/MAPK signaling in CRC cells. PMID:26269757

  15. YES oncogenic activity is specified by its SH4 domain and regulates RAS/MAPK signaling in colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Dubois, Fanny; Leroy, Cédric; Simon, Valérie; Benistant, Christine; Roche, Serge

    2015-01-01

    Members of the SRC family of tyrosine kinases (SFK) display important functions in human cancer, but their specific role in tumorigenesis remains unclear. We previously demonstrated that YES regulates a unique oncogenic signaling important for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression that is not shared with SRC. Here, we addressed the underlying mechanism involved in this process. We show that YES oncogenic signaling relies on palmitoylation of its SH4 domain that controls YES localization in cholesterol-enriched membrane micro-domains. Specifically, deletion of the palmitoylation site compromised YES transforming activity, while addition of a palmitoylation site in the SH4 domain of SRC was sufficient for SRC to restore the transforming properties of cells in which YES had been silenced. Subsequently, SILAC phosphoproteomic analysis revealed that micro-domain-associated cell adhesive components and receptor tyrosine kinases are major YES substrates. YES also phosphorylates upstream regulators of RAS/MAPK signaling, including EGFR, SHC and SHP2, which were not targeted by SRC due to the absence of palmitoylation. Accordingly, EGFR-induced MAPK activity was attenuated by YES down-regulation, while increased RAS activity significantly restored cell transformation that was lost upon YES silencing. Collectively, these results uncover a critical role for the SH4 domain in the specification of SFK oncogenic activity and a selective role for YES in the induction of RAS/MAPK signaling in CRC cells.

  16. Intestine-specific homeobox (ISX) upregulates E2F1 expression and related oncogenic activities in HCC

    PubMed Central

    Chai, Chee-Yin; Hsi, Edward; Kuo, Hsing-Tao; Yokoyama, Kazunari K.; Hsu, Shih-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Intestine-specific homeobox (ISX), a newly identified proto-oncogene, is involved in cell proliferation and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the underlying mechanisms linking gene expression and tumor formation remain unclear. In this study, we found that ISX transcriptionally activated E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) and associated oncogenic activity by directly binding to the E2 site of its promoter. Forced expression of ISX increased the expression of and phosphorylated the serine residue at position 332 of E2F1, which may be translocated into the nucleus to form the E2F1–DP-1 complex, suggesting that the promotion of oncogenic activities of the ISX–E2F1 axis plays a critical role in hepatoma cells. Coexpression of ISX and E2F1 significantly promoted p53 and RB-mediated cell proliferation and anti-apoptosis, and repressed apoptosis and autophagy. In contrast, short hairpin RNAi-mediated attenuation of ISX and E2F1 decreased cell proliferation and malignant transformation, respectively, in hepatoma cells in vitro and in vivo. The mRNA expression of E2F1 and ISX in 238 paired specimens from human HCC patients, and the adjacent, normal tissues exhibited a tumor-specific expression pattern which was highly correlated with disease pathogenesis, patient survival time, progression stage, and poor prognosis. Therefore, our results indicate that E2F1 is an important downstream gene of ISX in hepatoma progression. PMID:27175585

  17. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) mediates a Ski oncogene-induced shift from glycolysis to oxidative energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fang; Lemieux, Hélène; Hoppel, Charles L; Hanson, Richard W; Hakimi, Parvin; Croniger, Colleen M; Puchowicz, Michelle; Anderson, Vernon E; Fujioka, Hisashi; Stavnezer, Ed

    2011-11-18

    Overexpression of the Ski oncogene induces oncogenic transformation of chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEFs). However, unlike most other oncogene-transformed cells, Ski-transformed CEFs (Ski-CEFs) do not display the classical Warburg effect. On the contrary, Ski transformation reduced lactate production and glucose utilization in CEFs. Compared with CEFs, Ski-CEFs exhibited enhanced TCA cycle activity, fatty acid catabolism through β-oxidation, glutamate oxidation, oxygen consumption, as well as increased numbers and mass of mitochondria. Interestingly, expression of PPARγ, a key transcription factor that regulates adipogenesis and lipid metabolism, was dramatically elevated at both the mRNA and protein levels in Ski-CEFs. Accordingly, PPARγ target genes that are involved in lipid uptake, transport, and oxidation were also markedly up-regulated by Ski. Knocking down PPARγ in Ski-CEFs by RNA interference reversed the elevated expression of these PPARγ target genes, as well as the shift to oxidative metabolism and the increased mitochondrial biogenesis. Moreover, we found that Ski co-immunoprecipitates with PPARγ and co-activates PPARγ-driven transcription.

  18. Activation of the LMO2 oncogene through a somatically acquired neomorphic promoter in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Sunniyat; Magnussen, Michael; León, Theresa E; Farah, Nadine; Li, Zhaodong; Abraham, Brian J; Alapi, Krisztina Z; Mitchell, Rachel J; Naughton, Tom; Fielding, Adele K; Pizzey, Arnold; Bustraan, Sophia; Allen, Christopher; Popa, Teodora; Pike-Overzet, Karin; Garcia-Perez, Laura; Gale, Rosemary E; Linch, David C; Staal, Frank J T; Young, Richard A; Look, A Thomas; Mansour, Marc R

    2017-03-07

    Somatic mutations within non-coding genomic regions that aberrantly activate oncogenes have remained poorly characterized. Here we describe recurrent activating intronic mutations of LMO2, a prominent oncogene in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Heterozygous mutations were identified in PF-382 and DU.528 T-ALL cell lines, in addition to 3.7% (6/160) of pediatric and 5.5% (9/163) of adult T-ALL patient samples. The majority of indels harbour putative de novo MYB, ETS1 or RUNX1 consensus binding sites. Analysis of 5'-capped RNA transcripts in mutant cell lines identified the usage of an intermediate promoter site, with consequential monoallelic LMO2 overexpression. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated disruption of the mutant allele in PF-382 cells markedly downregulated LMO2 expression, establishing clear causality between the mutation and oncogene dysregulation. Furthermore, the spectrum of CRISPR/Cas9-derived mutations provide important insights into the interconnected contributions of functional transcription factor binding. Finally, these mutations occur in the same intron as retroviral integration sites in gene therapy induced T-ALL, suggesting that such events occur at preferential sites in the non-coding genome.

  19. Activated neu oncogene sequences in primary tumors of the peripheral nervous system induced in rats by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea

    SciTech Connect

    Perantoni, A.O.; Rice, J.M.; Reed, C.D.; Watatani, M.; Wenk, M.L.

    1987-09-01

    Neurogenic tumors were selectively induced in high incidence in F344 rats by a single transplacental exposure to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). The authors prepared DNA for transfection of NIH 3T3 cells from primary glial tumors of the brain and form schwannomas of the cranial and spinal nerves that developed in the transplacentally exposed offspring between 20 and 40 weeks after birth. DNA preparations from 6 of 13 schwannomas, but not from normal liver, kidney, or intestine of tumor-bearing rats, transformed NIH 3T3 cells. NIH 3T3 clones transformed by schwannoma DNA contained rat repetitive DNA sequences, and all isolates contained rat neu oncogene sequences. A point mutation in the transmembrane region of the putative protein product of neu was identified in all six transformants and in the primary tumors from which they were derived as well as in 5 of 6 schwannomas tested that did not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Of 59 gliomas, only one yielded transforming DNA, and an activated N-ras oncogen was identified. The normal cellular neu sequence for the transmembrane region, but not the mutated sequence, was identified in DNA from all 11 gliomas surveyed by oligonucleotide hybridization. Activation of the neu oncogene, originally identified in cultured cell lines derived from EtNU-induced neurogenic tumors appears specifically associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system in the F344 inbred strain.

  20. High Energy Particle Radiation-associated Oncogenic Transformation in Normal Mice: Insight into the Connection between Activation of Oncotargets and Oncogene Addiction.

    PubMed

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Aravindan, Sheeja; Manickam, Krishnan; Natarajan, Mohan

    2016-11-23

    Concerns on high-energy particle radiation-induced tumorigenic transformation of normal tissue in astronauts, and in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, emphasizes the significance of elucidating the mechanisms involved in radiogenic transformation processes. Mostly used genetically modified or tumor-prone models are less reliable in determining human health risk in space or protracted post-treatment normal tissue toxicity. Here, in wild type C57BL/6 mice, we related the deregulation of distinctive set of tissue-specific oncotargets in major organs upon (56)Fe (600 MeV/amu; 0.5 Gy/min; 0.8 Gy) particle radiation and compared the response with low LET γ-radiation ((137)Cs; 0.5 Gy/min; 2 Gy). One of the novel findings is the 'tissue-independent' activation of TAL2 upon high-energy radiation, and thus qualifies TAL2 as a potential biomarker for particle and other qualities of radiation. Heightened expression of TAL2 gene transcript, which sustained over four weeks post-irradiation foster the concept of oncogene addiction signaling in radiogenic transformation. The positive/negative expression of other selected oncotargets that expresses tissue-dependent manner indicated their role as a secondary driving force that addresses the diversity of tissue-dependent characteristics of tumorigenesis. This study, while reporting novel findings on radiogenic transformation of normal tissue when exposed to particle radiation, it also provides a platform for further investigation into different radiation quality, LET and dose/dose rate effect in healthy organs.

  1. High Energy Particle Radiation-associated Oncogenic Transformation in Normal Mice: Insight into the Connection between Activation of Oncotargets and Oncogene Addiction

    PubMed Central

    Aravindan, Natarajan; Aravindan, Sheeja; Manickam, Krishnan; Natarajan, Mohan

    2016-01-01

    Concerns on high-energy particle radiation-induced tumorigenic transformation of normal tissue in astronauts, and in cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy, emphasizes the significance of elucidating the mechanisms involved in radiogenic transformation processes. Mostly used genetically modified or tumor-prone models are less reliable in determining human health risk in space or protracted post-treatment normal tissue toxicity. Here, in wild type C57BL/6 mice, we related the deregulation of distinctive set of tissue-specific oncotargets in major organs upon 56Fe (600 MeV/amu; 0.5 Gy/min; 0.8 Gy) particle radiation and compared the response with low LET γ-radiation (137Cs; 0.5 Gy/min; 2 Gy). One of the novel findings is the ‘tissue-independent’ activation of TAL2 upon high-energy radiation, and thus qualifies TAL2 as a potential biomarker for particle and other qualities of radiation. Heightened expression of TAL2 gene transcript, which sustained over four weeks post-irradiation foster the concept of oncogene addiction signaling in radiogenic transformation. The positive/negative expression of other selected oncotargets that expresses tissue-dependent manner indicated their role as a secondary driving force that addresses the diversity of tissue-dependent characteristics of tumorigenesis. This study, while reporting novel findings on radiogenic transformation of normal tissue when exposed to particle radiation, it also provides a platform for further investigation into different radiation quality, LET and dose/dose rate effect in healthy organs. PMID:27876887

  2. Long-range oncogenic activation of Igh-c-myc translocations by the Igh 3' regulatory region.

    PubMed

    Gostissa, Monica; Yan, Catherine T; Bianco, Julia M; Cogné, Michel; Pinaud, Eric; Alt, Frederick W

    2009-12-10

    B-cell malignancies, such as human Burkitt's lymphoma, often contain translocations that link c-myc or other proto-oncogenes to the immunoglobulin heavy chain locus (IgH, encoded by Igh). The nature of elements that activate oncogenes within such translocations has been a long-standing question. Translocations within Igh involve DNA double-strand breaks initiated either by the RAG1/2 endonuclease during variable, diversity and joining gene segment (V(D)J) recombination, or by activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID, also known as AICDA) during class switch recombination (CSR). V(D)J recombination in progenitor B (pro-B) cells assembles Igh variable region exons upstream of mu constant region (Cmu) exons, which are the first of several sets of C(H) exons ('C(H) genes') within a C(H) locus that span several hundred kilobases (kb). In mature B cells, CSR deletes Cmu and replaces it with a downstream C(H) gene. An intronic enhancer (iEmu) between the variable region exons and Cmu promotes V(D)J recombination in developing B cells. Furthermore, the Igh 3' regulatory region (Igh3'RR) lies downstream of the C(H) locus and modulates CSR by long-range transcriptional enhancement of C(H) genes. Transgenic mice bearing iEmu or Igh3'RR sequences fused to c-myc are predisposed to B lymphomas, demonstrating that such elements can confer oncogenic c-myc expression. However, in many B-cell lymphomas, Igh-c-myc translocations delete iEmu and place c-myc up to 200 kb upstream of the Igh3'RR. Here we address the oncogenic role of the Igh3'RR by inactivating it in two distinct mouse models for B-cell lymphoma with Igh-c-myc translocations. We show that the Igh3'RR is dispensable for pro-B-cell lymphomas with V(D)J recombination-initiated translocations, but is required for peripheral B-cell lymphomas with CSR-associated translocations. As the Igh3'RR is not required for CSR-associated Igh breaks or Igh-c-myc translocations in peripheral B-cell lymphoma progenitors, we conclude that

  3. Human cytomegalovirus and mucoepidermoid carcinoma of salivary glands: cell-specific localization of active viral and oncogenic signaling proteins is confirmatory of a causal relationship.

    PubMed

    Melnick, Michael; Sedghizadeh, Parish P; Allen, Carl M; Jaskoll, Tina

    2012-02-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (hCMV) infection is common. Although still controversial, there is growing evidence that active hCMV infection is associated with a variety of malignancies, including brain, breast, lung, colon, and prostate. Given that hCMV is frequently resident in salivary gland (SG) ductal epithelium, we hypothesized that hCMV would be important to the pathogenesis of SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC). This was initially supported by our finding that purified CMV induces malignant transformation in SG cells in an in vitro mouse model, and utilizes a pathogenic pathway previously reported for human MEC. Here we present the histologic and molecular characterizations of 39 human SG MECs selected randomly from a repository of cases spanning 2004-2011. Serial sections were obtained from formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded, tissue blocks from previous incisional or excisional biopsies. Immunohistochemical assays were performed for active hCMV proteins (IE1 and pp65) and the activated COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK signaling pathway. All four prospective causal criteria for viruses and cancer are fully satisfied: (1) protein markers for active hCMV are present in 97% of MECs; (2) markers of active hCMV are absent in non-neoplastic SG tissues; (3) hCMV-specific proteins (IE1, pp65) are in specific cell types and expression is positively correlated with severity; (4) hCMV correlates and colocalizes with an upregulation and activation of an established oncogenic signaling pathway (COX/AREG/EGFR/ERK). Thus, the evidential support reported here and previously in a mouse model is strongly confirmatory of a causal relationship between hCMV and SG mucoepidermoid carcinoma. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of hCMV's role in human oncogenesis that fully responds to all of Koch's Postulates as revised for viruses and cancer. In the absence of any contrary evidence, hCMV can reasonably be designated an "oncovirus."

  4. The viral oncogene Np9 acts as a critical molecular switch for co-activating β-catenin, ERK, Akt and Notch1 and promoting the growth of human leukemia stem/progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, T; Meng, Z; Gan, Y; Wang, X; Xu, F; Gu, Y; Xu, X; Tang, J; Zhou, H; Zhang, X; Gan, X; Van Ness, C; Xu, G; Huang, L; Zhang, X; Fang, Y; Wu, J; Zheng, S; Jin, J; Huang, W; Xu, R

    2013-07-01

    HERV-K (human endogenous retrovirus type K) type 1-encoded Np9 is a tumor-specific biomarker, but its oncogenic role and targets in human leukemia remain elusive. We first identified Np9 as a potent viral oncogene in human leukemia. Silencing of Np9 inhibited the growth of myeloid and lymphoblastic leukemic cells, whereas expression of Np9 significantly promoted the growth of leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Np9 not only activated ERK, AKT and Notch1 pathways but also upregulated β-catenin essential for survival of leukemia stem cells. In human leukemia, Np9 protein level in leukemia patients was substantially higher than that in normal donors (56% vs 4.5%). Moreover, Np9 protein level was correlated with the number of leukemia stem/progenitor cells but not detected in normal CD34(+) hematopoietic stem cells. In addition, Np9-positive samples highly expressed leukemia-specific pol-env polyprotein, env and transmembrane proteins as well as viral particles. Thus, the viral oncogene Np9 is a critical molecular switch of multiple signaling pathways regulating the growth of leukemia stem/progenitor cells. These findings open a new perspective to understand the etiology of human common leukemia and provide a novel target for treating leukemia.

  5. Hidden among the crowd: differential DNA methylation-expression correlations in cancer occur at important oncogenic pathways

    PubMed Central

    Mosquera Orgueira, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is a frequent epigenetic mechanism that participates in transcriptional repression. Variations in DNA methylation with respect to gene expression are constant, and, for unknown reasons, some genes with highly methylated promoters are sometimes overexpressed. In this study we have analyzed the expression and methylation patterns of thousands of genes in five groups of cancer and normal tissue samples in order to determine local and genome-wide differences. We observed significant changes in global methylation-expression correlation in all the neoplasms, which suggests that differential correlation events are frequent in cancer. A focused analysis in the breast cancer cohort identified 1662 genes whose correlation varies significantly between normal and cancerous breast, but whose DNA methylation and gene expression patterns do not change substantially. These genes were enriched in cancer-related pathways and repressive chromatin features across various model cell lines, such as PRC2 binding and H3K27me3 marks. Substantial changes in methylation-expression correlation indicate that these genes are subject to epigenetic remodeling, where the differential activity of other factors break the expected relationship between both variables. Our findings suggest a complex regulatory landscape where a redistribution of local and large-scale chromatin repressive domains at differentially correlated genes (DCGs) creates epigenetic hotspots that modulate cancer-specific gene expression. PMID:26029238

  6. P53 Modulates The Activity Of The GLI1 Oncogene Through Interactions With The Shared Coactivator TAF9

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Joon Won; Lamm, Marilyn; Iannaccone, Stephen; Higashiyama, Nicole; Leong, King Fu; Iannaccone, Philip; Walterhouse, David

    2015-01-01

    The GLI1 oncogene and p53 tumor suppressor gene function in an inhibitory loop that controls stem cell and tumor cell numbers. Since GLI1 and p53 both interact with the coactivator TATA Binding Protein Associated Factor 9 (TAF9), we hypothesized that competition between these transcription factors for TAF9 in cancer cells may contribute to the inhibitory loop and directly affect GLI1 function and cellular phenotype. We showed that TAF9 interacts with the oncogenic GLI family members GLI1 and GLI2 but not GLI3 in cell-free pull-down assays and with GLI1 in rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma cell lines. Removal of the TAF9-binding acidic alpha helical transactivation domain of GLI1 produced a significant reduction in the ability of GLI1 to transform cells. We then introduced a point mutation into GLI1 (L1052I) that eliminates TAF9 binding and a point mutation into GLI3 (I1510L) that establishes binding. Wild-type and mutant GLI proteins that bind TAF9 showed enhanced transactivating and cell transforming activity compared with those that did not. Therefore, GLI-TAF9 binding appears important for oncogenic activity. We then determined whether wild-type p53 down-regulates GLI function by sequestering TAF9. We showed that p53 binds TAF9 with greater affinity than does GLI1 and that co-expression of p53 with GLI1 or GLI2 down-regulated GLI-induced transactivation, which could be abrogated using mutant forms of GLI1 or p53. This suggests that p53 sequesters TAF9 from GLI1, which may contribute to inhibition of GLI1 activity by p53 and potentially impact therapeutic success of agents targeting GLI-TAF9 interactions in cancer. PMID:26282181

  7. Aberrant microRNA Expression Likely Controls RAS Oncogene Activation During Malignant Transformation of Human Prostate Epithelial and Stem Cells by Arsenic

    PubMed Central

    Ngalame, Ntube N. O.; Tokar, Erik J.; Person, Rachel J.; Xu, Yuanyuan; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs), a human carcinogen, potentially targets the prostate. iAs malignantly transforms the RWPE-1 human prostate epithelial line to CAsE-PE cells, and a derivative normal stem cell (SC) line, WPE-stem, to As-Cancer SC (As-CSC) line. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are noncoding but exert negative control on expression by degradation or translational repression of target mRNAs. Aberrant miRNA expression is important in carcinogenesis. A miRNA array of CAsE-PE and As-CSC revealed common altered expression in both for pathways concerning oncogenesis, miRNA biogenesis, cell signaling, proliferation, and tumor metastasis and invasion. The KRAS oncogene is overexpressed in CAsE-PE cells but not by mutation or promoter hypomethylation, and is intensely overexpressed in As-CSC cells. In both transformants, decreased miRNAs targeting KRAS and RAS superfamily members occurred. Reduced miR-134, miR-373, miR-155, miR-138, miR-205, miR-181d, miR-181c, and let-7 in CAsE-PE cells correlated with increased target RAS oncogenes, RAN, RAB27A, RAB22A mRNAs, and KRAS protein. Reduced miR-143, miR-34c-5p, and miR-205 in As-CSC correlated with increased target RAN mRNA, and KRAS, NRAS, and RRAS proteins. The RAS/ERK and PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathways control cell survival, differentiation, and proliferation, and when dysregulated promote a cancer phenotype. iAs transformation increased expression of activated ERK kinase in both transformants and altered components of the PI3K/PTEN/AKT pathway including decreased PTEN and increases in BCL2, BCL-XL, and VEGF in the absence of AKT activation. Thus, dysregulated miRNA expression may be linked to RAS activation in both transformants. PMID:24431212

  8. Activated neu oncogene sequences in primary tumors of the peripheral nervous system induced in rats by transplacental exposure to ethylnitrosourea.

    PubMed Central

    Perantoni, A O; Rice, J M; Reed, C D; Watatani, M; Wenk, M L

    1987-01-01

    Neurogenic tumors were selectively induced in high incidence in F344 rats by a single transplacental exposure to the direct-acting alkylating agent N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (EtNU). We prepared DNA for transfection of NIH 3T3 cells from primary glial tumors of the brain and from schwannomas of the cranial and spinal nerves that developed in the transplacentally exposed offspring between 20 and 40 weeks after birth. DNA preparations from 6 of 13 schwannomas, but not from normal liver, kidney, or intestine of tumor-bearing rats, transformed NIH 3T3 cells. NIH 3T3 clones transformed by schwannoma DNA contained rat repetitive DNA sequences, and all isolates contained rat neu oncogene sequences. One schwannoma yielded a transformant with rat-specific sequences for both neu and N-ras. A point mutation in the transmembrane region of the putative protein product of neu was identified in all six transformants and in the primary tumors from which they were derived as well as in 5 of 6 schwannomas tested that did not transform NIH 3T3 cells. Of 59 gliomas, only one yielded transforming DNA, and an activated N-ras oncogene was identified. The normal cellular neu sequence for the transmembrane region, but not the mutated sequence, was identified in DNA from all 11 gliomas surveyed by oligonucleotide hybridization. Activation of the neu oncogene, originally identified [Schechter, A.L., Stern, D.F., Vaidyanathan, L., Decker, S.J., Drebin, J.A., Greene, M.I. & Weinberg, R.A. (1984) Nature (London) 312, 513-516] in cultured cell lines derived from EtNU-induced neurogenic tumors that by biochemical but not histologic criteria were thought to originate in the central nervous system in BD-IX rats, appears specifically associated with tumors of the peripheral nervous system in the F344 inbred strain. Images PMID:3476947

  9. Molecular Pathways: Hypoxia-activated prodrugs in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Baran, Natalia; Konopleva, Marina

    2017-01-30

    Hypoxia is a known feature of aggressive solid tumors as well as a critical hallmark of the niche in aggressive hematologic malignances. Hypoxia is associated with insufficient response to standard therapy, resulting in disease progression and curtailed patients' survival through maintenance of noncycling cancer stem-like cells. A better understanding of the mechanisms and signaling pathways induced by hypoxia is essential to overcoming these effects. Recent findings demonstrate that bone marrow in the setting of hematologic malignancies is highly hypoxic and that progression of the disease is associated with expansion of hypoxic niches and stabilization of the oncogenic hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α). Solid tumors have also been shown to harbor hypoxic areas, maintaining survival of cancer cells via the HIF-1α pathway. Developing new strategies for targeting hypoxia has become a crucial approach in modern cancer therapy. The number of preclinical and clinical trials targeting low-oxygen tumor compartments or the hypoxic bone marrow niche via hypoxia-activated prodrugs is increasing. This review discusses the development of the hypoxia-activated prodrugs and their applicability in treating both hematologic malignancies and solid tumors.

  10. Potential role of O-GlcNAcylation and involvement of PI3K/Akt1 pathway in the expression of oncogenic phenotypes of gastric cancer cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Nuobei; Chen, Xin

    2016-11-01

    O-GlcNAcylation is a monosaccharide modification by a residue of N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) attached to serine or threonine moieties on nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins. O-GlcNAcylation is dynamically regulated by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT) and O-GlcNAcase (OGA). Increasing evidence suggests that O-GlcNAcylation is involved in a variety of human cancers. However, the exact role of O-GlcNAcylation in tumor progression remains unclear. Here, we show that O-GlcNAcylation accelerates oncogenic phenotypes of gastric cancer. First, cell models with increased or decreased O-GlcNAcylation were constructed by OGT overexpression, downregulation of OGA activity with specific inhibitor Thiamet-G, or silence of OGT. MTT assays indicated that O-GlcNAcylation increased proliferation of gastric cancer cells. Soft agar assay and Transwell assays showed that O-GlcNAcylation significantly enhanced cellular colony formation, migration, and invasion in vitro. Akt1 activity was stimulated by upregulation of phosphorylation at Ser473 mediated by elevated O-GlcNAcylation. The enhanced cell invasion by Thiamet-G treatment was suppressed by PI3K inhibitor LY294002. Although the cell invasion induced by Thiamet-G was reduced by Akt1 shRNA, it was still higher in comparison with that to the control (cells with Akt1 shRNA alone). And Akt1 overexpression promoted Thiamet-G-induced cell invasion. These results suggested that O-GlcNAcylation enhanced oncogenic phenotypes possibly partially involving PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  11. The EBV oncogene LMP1 protects lymphoma cells from cell death through the collagen-mediated activation of DDR1.

    PubMed

    Cader, Fathima Zumla; Vockerodt, Martina; Bose, Shikha; Nagy, Eszter; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Kearns, Pamela; Murray, Paul G

    2013-12-19

    The malignant Hodgkin and Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells of Hodgkin lymphoma are surrounded by a tumor microenvironment that is composed of a variety of cell types, as well as noncellular components such as collagen. Although HRS cells harbor oncogenic Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) in approximately 50% of cases, it is not known if the tumor microenvironment contributes to EBV-driven lymphomagenesis. We show that expression of the EBV-encoded latent membrane protein-1 (LMP1) in primary human germinal center B cells, the presumed progenitors of HRS cells, upregulates discoidin domain receptor 1 (DDR1), a receptor tyrosine kinase activated by collagen. We also show that HRS cells intimately associated with collagen frequently overexpress DDR1 and that short-term exposure to collagen is sufficient to activate DDR1 in Hodgkin lymphoma-derived cell lines. The ectopic expression of DDR1 significantly increased the survival of collagen-treated DG75 Burkitt lymphoma cells, following etoposide treatment. Conversely, knockdown of DDR1 significantly decreased the survival of collagen-treated L428 Hodgkin lymphoma cells in the absence of specific apoptotic stimulus, suggesting that DDR1 also influences baseline survival. Our results identify a hitherto unknown function for collagen in protecting Hodgkin lymphoma cells from apoptosis and suggest an important contribution of the tumor microenvironment in promoting the oncogenic effects of EBV.

  12. Smad3-related miRNAs regulated oncogenic TRIB2 promoter activity to effectively suppress lung adenocarcinoma growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-Xia; Yan, Yun-Fei; Liu, Yue-Mei; Li, You-Jie; Zhang, Han-Han; Pang, Min; Hu, Jin-Xia; Zhao, Wei; Xie, Ning; Zhou, Ling; Wang, Ping-Yu; Xie, Shu-Yang

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and Smad3, as key transcription factors in transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) signaling, help regulate various physiological and pathological processes. We investigated the roles of Smad3-regulated miRNAs with respect to lung adenocarcinoma cell apoptosis, proliferation, and metastasis. We observed that Smad3 and phospho-SMAD3 (p-Smad3) were decreased in miR-206- (or miR-140)-treated cells and there might be a feedback loop between miR-206 (or miR-140) and TGF-β1 expression. Smad3-related miRNAs affected tribbles homolog 2 (TRIB2) expression by regulating trib2 promoter activity through the CAGACA box. MiR-206 and miR-140 inhibited lung adenocarcinoma cell proliferation in vitro and in vivo by suppressing p-Smad3/Smad3 and TRIB2. Moreover, lung adenocarcinoma data supported a suppressive role for miR-206/miR-140 and an oncogenic role for TRIB2—patients with higher TRIB2 levels had poorer survival. In summary, miR-206 and miR-140, as tumor suppressors, induced lung adenocarcinoma cell death and inhibited cell proliferation by modifying oncogenic TRIB2 promoter activity through p-Smad3. MiR-206 and miR-140 also suppressed lung adenocarcinoma cell metastasis in vitro and in vivo by regulating EMT-related factors. PMID:28005074

  13. AKT activation drives the nuclear localization of CSE1L and a pro-oncogenic transcriptional activation in ovarian cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenzato, Annalisa; Biolatti, Marta; Delogu, Giuseppe; Capobianco, Giampiero; Farace, Cristiano; Dessole, Salvatore; Cossu, Antonio; Tanda, Francesco; Madeddu, Roberto; Olivero, Martina; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2013-10-15

    The human homolog of the yeast cse1 gene (CSE1L) is over-expressed in ovarian cancer. CSE1L forms complex with Ran and importin-α and has roles in nucleocytoplasmic traffic and gene expression. CSE1L accumulated in the nucleus of ovarian cancer cell lines, while it was localized also in the cytoplasm of other cancer cell lines. Nuclear localization depended on AKT, which was constitutively active in ovarian cancer cells, as the CSE1L protein translocated to the cytoplasm when AKT was inactivated. Moreover, the expression of a constitutively active AKT forced the translocation of CSE1L from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in other cancer cells. Nuclear accrual of CSE1L was associated to the nuclear accumulation of the phosphorylated Ran Binding protein 3 (RanBP3), which depended on AKT as well. Also in samples of human ovarian cancer, AKT activation was associated to nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and phosphorylation of RanBP3. Expression profiling of ovarian cancer cells after CSE1L silencing showed that CSE1L was required for the expression of genes promoting invasion and metastasis. In agreement, CSE1L silencing impaired motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells. Altogether these data show that in ovarian cancer cells activated AKT by affecting RanBP3 phosphorylation determines the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L and likely the nuclear concentration of transcription factors conveying pro-oncogenic signals. - highlights: • CSE1L is a key player in nucleocytoplasmic traffic by forming complex with Ran. • AKT phosphorylates RanBP3 that regulates the nucleocytoplasmic gradient of Ran. • The activated oncogenic AKT drives the nuclear accumulation of CSE1L. • CSE1L in the nucleus up-regulates genes conveying pro-oncogenic signals. • CSE1L might contribute to tumor progression driven by the activated oncogenic AKT.

  14. ARF and ATM/ATR cooperate in p53-mediated apoptosis upon oncogenic stress

    SciTech Connect

    Pauklin, Siim . E-mail: spauklin@ut.ee; Kristjuhan, Arnold; Maimets, Toivo; Jaks, Viljar

    2005-08-26

    Induction of apoptosis is pivotal for eliminating cells with damaged DNA or deregulated proliferation. We show that tumor suppressor ARF and ATM/ATR kinase pathways cooperate in the induction of apoptosis in response to elevated expression of c-myc, {beta}-catenin or human papilloma virus E7 oncogenes. Overexpression of oncogenes leads to the formation of phosphorylated H2AX foci, induction of Rad51 protein levels and ATM/ATR-dependent phosphorylation of p53. Inhibition of ATM/ATR kinases abolishes both induction of Rad51 and phosphorylation of p53, and remarkably reduces the level of apoptosis induced by co-expression of oncogenes and ARF. However, the induction of apoptosis is downregulated in p53-/- cells and does not depend on activities of ATM/ATR kinases, indicating that efficient induction of apoptosis by oncogene activation depends on coordinated action of ARF and ATM/ATR pathways in the regulation of p53.

  15. The In Vitro Effect of Acidic-Pepsin on Nuclear Factor KappaB Activation and Its Related Oncogenic Effect on Normal Human Hypopharyngeal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Clarence T.; Toman, Julia; Vageli, Dimitra

    2016-01-01

    Background Extra-esophageal carcinogenesis has been widely discussed in relation to the chronic effects of laryngopharyngeal reflux and most prominently with pepsin historically central to this discussion. With refluxate known to include gastric (pepsin) and duodenal (bile) fluids, we recently demonstrated the mechanistic role of NF-κB in mediating the preneoplastic effects of acidic-bile. However, the role of pepsin in promoting hypopharyngeal premalignant events remains historically unclear. Here, we investigate the in vitro effect of acidic-pepsin on the NF-κB oncogenic pathway to better define its potential role in hypopharyngeal neoplasia. Methods Human hypopharyngeal primary cells (HHPC) and keratinocytes (HHK) were repetitively exposed to physiologic pepsin concentrations (0.1 mg/ml) at pH 4.0, 5.0 and 7.0. Cellular localization of phospho-NF-κB and bcl-2 was determined using immunofluorescence and western blotting. NF-κB transcriptional activity was tested by luc reporter and qPCR. Analysis of DNA content of pepsin treated HHK and HHPC was performed using Fluorescence-activated-cell sorting assay. To explore a possible dose related effect, pepsin concentration was reduced from 0.1 to 0.05 and 0.01 mg/ml. Results At physiologic concentration, acidic-pepsin (0.1 mg/ml at pH 4.0) is lethal to most normal hypopharyngeal cells. However, in surviving cells, no NF-κB transcriptional activity is noted. Acidic-pepsin fails to activate the NF-κB or bcl-2, TNF-α, EGFR, STAT3, and wnt5α but increases the Tp53 mRNAs, in both HHPC and HHK. Weakly acidic-pepsin (pH 5.0) and neutral-pepsin (pH 7.0) induce mild activation of NF-κB with increase in TNF-α mRNAs, without oncogenic transcriptional activity. Lower concentrations of pepsin at varying pH do not produce NF-κB activity or transcriptional activation of the analyzed genes. Conclusion Our findings in vitro do not support the role of acidic-pepsin in NF-κB related hypopharyngeal carcinogenesis. PMID:27973541

  16. Cell cycle, oncogenic and tumor suppressor pathways regulate numerous long and macro non-protein-coding RNAs

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The genome is pervasively transcribed but most transcripts do not code for proteins, constituting non-protein-coding RNAs. Despite increasing numbers of functional reports of individual long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), assessing the extent of functionality among the non-coding transcriptional output of mammalian cells remains intricate. In the protein-coding world, transcripts differentially expressed in the context of processes essential for the survival of multicellular organisms have been instrumental in the discovery of functionally relevant proteins and their deregulation is frequently associated with diseases. We therefore systematically identified lncRNAs expressed differentially in response to oncologically relevant processes and cell-cycle, p53 and STAT3 pathways, using tiling arrays. Results We found that up to 80% of the pathway-triggered transcriptional responses are non-coding. Among these we identified very large macroRNAs with pathway-specific expression patterns and demonstrated that these are likely continuous transcripts. MacroRNAs contain elements conserved in mammals and sauropsids, which in part exhibit conserved RNA secondary structure. Comparing evolutionary rates of a macroRNA to adjacent protein-coding genes suggests a local action of the transcript. Finally, in different grades of astrocytoma, a tumor disease unrelated to the initially used cell lines, macroRNAs are differentially expressed. Conclusions It has been shown previously that the majority of expressed non-ribosomal transcripts are non-coding. We now conclude that differential expression triggered by signaling pathways gives rise to a similar abundance of non-coding content. It is thus unlikely that the prevalence of non-coding transcripts in the cell is a trivial consequence of leaky or random transcription events. PMID:24594072

  17. EWS/FLI-1 silencing and gene profiling of Ewing cells reveal downstream oncogenic pathways and a crucial role for repression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3.

    PubMed

    Prieur, Alexandre; Tirode, Franck; Cohen, Pinchas; Delattre, Olivier

    2004-08-01

    Ewing tumors are characterized by abnormal transcription factors resulting from the oncogenic fusion of EWS with members of the ETS family, most commonly FLI-1. RNA interference targeted to the junction between EWS and FLI-1 sequences was used to inactivate the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene in Ewing cells and to explore the resulting phenotype and alteration of the gene expression profile. Loss of expression of EWS/FLI-1 resulted in the complete arrest of growth and was associated with a dramatic increase in the number of apoptotic cells. Gene profiling of Ewing cells in which the EWS/FLI-1 fusion gene had been inactivated identified downstream targets which could be grouped in two major functional clusters related to extracellular matrix structure or remodeling and regulation of signal transduction pathways. Among these targets, the insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 gene (IGFBP-3), a major regulator of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) proliferation and survival signaling, was strongly induced upon treating Ewing cells with EWS/FLI-1-specific small interfering RNAs. We show that EWS/FLI-1 can bind the IGFBP-3 promoter in vitro and in vivo and can repress its activity. Moreover, IGFBP-3 silencing can partially rescue the apoptotic phenotype caused by EWS/FLI-1 inactivation. Finally, IGFBP-3-induced Ewing cell apoptosis relies on both IGF-1-dependent and -independent pathways. These findings therefore identify the repression of IGFBP-3 as a key event in the development of Ewing's sarcoma.

  18. Akt-mediated phosphorylation of Bmi1 modulates its oncogenic potential, E3 ligase activity, and DNA damage repair activity in mouse prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Nacerddine, Karim; Beaudry, Jean-Bernard; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Westerman, Bart; Mattiroli, Francesca; Song, Ji-Ying; van der Poel, Henk; Ponz, Olga Balagué; Pritchard, Colin; Cornelissen-Steijger, Paulien; Zevenhoven, John; Tanger, Ellen; Sixma, Titia K.; Ganesan, Shridar; van Lohuizen, Maarten

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) is a major lethal malignancy in men, but the molecular events and their interplay underlying prostate carcinogenesis remain poorly understood. Epigenetic events and the upregulation of polycomb group silencing proteins including Bmi1 have been described to occur during PCa progression. Here, we found that conditional overexpression of Bmi1 in mice induced prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and elicited invasive adenocarcinoma when combined with PTEN haploinsufficiency. In addition, Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway were coactivated in a substantial fraction of human high-grade tumors. We found that Akt mediated Bmi1 phosphorylation, enhancing its oncogenic potential in an Ink4a/Arf-independent manner. This process also modulated the DNA damage response and affected genomic stability. Together, our findings demonstrate the etiological role of Bmi1 in PCa, unravel an oncogenic collaboration between Bmi1 and the PI3K/Akt pathway, and provide mechanistic insights into the modulation of Bmi1 function by phosphorylation during prostate carcinogenesis. PMID:22505453

  19. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Hung Thanh; Kugler, Jan-Michael; Cohen, Stephen M

    2017-01-01

    The YAP and TAZ transcriptional coactivators promote oncogenic transformation. Elevated YAP/TAZ activity has been documented in human tumors. YAP and TAZ are negatively regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The activity and stability of several Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor by limiting YAP activity.

  20. DUB3 Deubiquitylating Enzymes Regulate Hippo Pathway Activity by Regulating the Stability of ITCH, LATS and AMOT Proteins

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The YAP and TAZ transcriptional coactivators promote oncogenic transformation. Elevated YAP/TAZ activity has been documented in human tumors. YAP and TAZ are negatively regulated by the Hippo tumor suppressor pathway. The activity and stability of several Hippo pathway components, including YAP/TAZ, is regulated by ubiquitin mediated protein turnover and several ubiquitin ligase complexes have been implicated in human cancer. However, little is known about the deubiquitylating enzymes that counteract these ubiquitin ligases in regulation of the Hippo pathway. Here we identify the DUB3 family deubiquitylating enzymes as regulators of Hippo pathway activity. We provide evidence that DUB3 proteins regulate YAP/TAZ activity by controlling the stability of the E3 ligase ITCH, the LATS kinases and the AMOT family proteins. As a novel Hippo pathway regulator, DUB3 has the potential to act a tumor suppressor by limiting YAP activity. PMID:28061504

  1. The copy number of Epstein-Barr virus latent genome correlates with the oncogenicity by the activation level of LMP1 and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Zuo, Lielian; Yu, Haibo; Liu, Lingzhi; Tang, Yunlian; Wu, Hongzhuan; Yang, Jing; Zhu, Meijuan; Du, Shujuan; Zhao, Lian; Cao, Li; Li, Guiyuan; Lu, Jianhong

    2015-01-01

    A tumor model that Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latent infection facilitated the tumorigenicity was previously established using the Maxi-EBV system. In the present approach, EBV-lost cell clones demonstrated significantly decreased tumorigenesis. On the other hand, the LMP1 gene in Maxi-EBV genome was replaced by that of nasopharyngeal carcinoma origin. The resultant cell line, 293–1/NL showed much lower malignancy than the original 293-EBV. The result was opposite to our expectation. The change of 293 sublineage cells for EBV harboring also got similar result. To seek the underlying reason, the copy number of EBV genome in all the cell lines was detected. The result indicated that 293-EBV contained about 4.5-fold higher EBV copies than 293–1/NL did. Parallel EBV genomes led to relatively stable copies in different 293 sublineages, suggesting the viral genome structure is a factor for the sustainability of EBV's copy number. Moreover, the LMP1 transcription in high copy-containing cells showed abnormally high level. Furthermore, the main LMP1-driven pathway, transcription factor NF-κB, was highly activated in high-copy cells. Here we first manifest by experimental model that the copy number of EBV latent genome correlates with the viral pathogenesis, which depends on the activation level of LMP1 and NF-κB. Overall, both the presence and amount of EBV genome are crucial for the viral oncogenicity. PMID:26517512

  2. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 (Pokemon) and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of fatty-acid synthase gene (FASN).

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Park, Hyejin; Yoo, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Koh, Dong-In; Kim, Myung-Hwa; Kim, Yu-Ri; Lee, Choong-Eun; Kim, Kyung-Sup; Osborne, Timothy F; Hur, Man-Wook

    2008-10-24

    FBI-1 (Pokemon/ZBTB7A) is a proto-oncogenic transcription factor of the BTB/POZ (bric-à-brac, tramtrack, and broad complex and pox virus zinc finger) domain family. Recent evidence suggested that FBI-1 might be involved in adipogenic gene expression. Coincidentally, expression of FBI-1 and fatty-acid synthase (FASN) genes are often increased in cancer and immortalized cells. Both FBI-1 and FASN are important in cancer cell proliferation. SREBP-1 is a major regulator of many adipogenic genes, and FBI-1 and SREBP-1 (sterol-responsive element (SRE)-binding protein 1) interact with each other directly via their DNA binding domains. FBI-1 enhanced the transcriptional activation of SREBP-1 on responsive promoters, pGL2-6x(SRE)-Luc and FASN gene. FBI-1 and SREBP-1 synergistically activate transcription of the FASN gene by acting on the proximal GC-box and SRE/E-box. FBI-1, Sp1, and SREBP-1 can bind to all three SRE, GC-box, and SRE/E-box. Binding competition among the three transcription factors on the GC-box and SRE/E-box appears important in the transcription regulation. FBI-1 is apparently changing the binding pattern of Sp1 and SREBP-1 on the two elements in the presence of induced SREBP-1 and drives more Sp1 binding to the proximal promoter with less of an effect on SREBP-1 binding. The changes induced by FBI-1 appear critical in the synergistic transcription activation. The molecular mechanism revealed provides insight into how proto-oncogene FBI-1 may attack the cellular regulatory mechanism of FASN gene expression to provide more phospholipid membrane components needed for rapid cancer cell proliferation.

  3. Gene Expression Patterns of Hemizygous and Heterozygous KIT Mutations Suggest Distinct Oncogenic Pathways: A Study in NIH3T3 Cell Lines and GIST Samples

    PubMed Central

    Dessaux, Sophie; Besse, Anthony; Brahimi-Adouane, Sabrina; Emile, Jean-François; Blay, Jean-Yves; Alberti, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Objective Most gain of function mutations of tyrosine kinase receptors in human tumours are hemizygous. Gastrointestinal stromal tumours (GIST) with homozygous mutations have a worse prognosis. We aimed to identify genes differentially regulated by hemizygous and heterozygous KIT mutations. Materials and Methods Expression of 94 genes and 384 miRNA was analysed with low density arrays in five NIH3T3 cell lines expressing the full-length human KIT cDNA wild-type (WT), hemizygous KIT mutation with del557-558 (D6) or del564-581 (D54) and heterozygous WT/D6 or WT/D54. Expression of 5 of these genes and 384 miRNA was then analysed in GISTs samples. Results Unsupervised and supervised hierarchical clustering of the mRNA and miRNA profiles showed that heterozygous mutants clustered with KIT WT expressing cells while hemizygous mutants were distinct. Among hemizygous cells, D6 and D54 expressing cells clustered separately. Most deregulated genes have been reported as potentially implicated in cancer and severals, as ANXA8 and FBN1, are highlighted by both, mRNA and miRNA analyses. MiRNA and mRNA analyses in GISTs samples confirmed that their expressions varied according to the mutation of the alleles. Interestingly, RGS16, a membrane protein of the regulator of G protein family, correlate with the subcellular localization of KIT mutants and might be responsible for regulation of the PI3K/AKT signalling pathway. Conclusion Patterns of mRNA and miRNA expression in cells and tumours depend on heterozygous/hemizygous status of KIT mutations, and deletion/presence of TYR568 & TYR570 residues. Thus each mutation of KIT may drive specific oncogenic pathways. PMID:23593401

  4. The Mos/MAP kinase pathway stabilizes c-Fos by phosphorylation and augments its transforming activity in NIH 3T3 cells.

    PubMed Central

    Okazaki, K; Sagata, N

    1995-01-01

    The c-mos proto-oncogene product, Mos, is a serine/threonine kinase that can activate ERK1 and 2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by direct phosphorylation of MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK). ERK activation is essential for oncogenic transformation of NIH 3T3 cells by Mos. In this study, we examined how mitogenic and oncogenic signalling from the Mos/MEK/ERK pathway reaches the nucleus to activate downstream target genes. We show that c-Fos (the c-fos protooncogene product), which is an intrinsically unstable nuclear protein, is metabolically highly stabilized, and greatly enhances the transforming efficiency of NIH 3T3 cells, by Mos. This stabilization of c-Fos required Mos-induced phosphorylation of its C-terminal region on Ser362 and Ser374, and double replacements of these serines with acidic (Asp) residues markedly increased the stability and transforming efficiency of c-Fos even in the absence of Mos. Moreover, activation of the ERK pathway was necessary and sufficient for the c-Fos phosphorylation and stabilization by Mos. These results indicate that c-Fos undergoes stabilization, and mediates at least partly the oncogenic signalling, by the Mos/MEK/ERK pathway. The present findings also suggest that, in general, the ERK pathway may regulate the cell fate and function by affecting the metabolic stability of c-Fos. Images PMID:7588633

  5. Antiviral activity of tumor-suppressor pathways: clues from molecular piracy by KSHV.

    PubMed

    Moore, P S; Chang, Y

    1998-04-01

    A common feature of many tumor viruses is that they possess genes that produce specific proteins to inhibit major cellular tumor-suppressor pathways. Despite intensive studies, the reasons why these diverse and unrelated viruses have independently evolved oncogenes remains obscure. Kaposi-sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV or HHV8) has pirated a number of recognizable cellular genes that are key to cell survival and proliferation. In this review, we provide an overview of the known activities of these viral genes and show that many of these pirated proteins affect the same cellular pathways targeted by other, unrelated tumor viruses. We speculate that tumor-suppressor pathways are used by the cell as a primary defense against persistent virus infection, in addition to their well-known activity in regulating cell proliferation.

  6. Preferential Activation of the Hedgehog Pathway by Epigenetic Modulations in HPV Negative HNSCC Identified with Meta-Pathway Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Fertig, Elana J.; Markovic, Ana; Danilova, Ludmila V.; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Cope, Leslie; Chung, Christine H.; Ochs, Michael F.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely divided into two groups based on their etiology, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and –negative. Global DNA methylation changes are known to drive oncogene and tumor suppressor expression in primary HNSCC of both types. However, significant heterogeneity in DNA methylation within the groups results in different transcriptional profiles and clinical outcomes. We applied a meta-pathway analysis to link gene expression changes to DNA methylation in distinguishing HNSCC subtypes. This approach isolated specific epigenetic changes controlling expression in HPV− HNSCC that distinguish it from HPV+ HNSCC. Analysis of genes identified Hedgehog pathway activation specific to HPV− HNSCC. We confirmed that GLI1, the primary Hedgehog target, showed higher expression in tumors compared to normal samples with HPV− tumors having the highest GLI1 expression, suggesting that increased expression of GLI1 is a potential driver in HPV− HNSCC. Our algorithm for integration of DNA methylation and gene expression can infer biologically significant molecular pathways that may be exploited as therapeutics targets. Our results suggest that therapeutics targeting the Hedgehog pathway may be of benefit in HPV− HNSCC. Similar integrative analysis of high-throughput coupled DNA methylation and expression datasets may yield novel insights into deregulated pathways in other cancers. PMID:24223768

  7. Preferential activation of the hedgehog pathway by epigenetic modulations in HPV negative HNSCC identified with meta-pathway analysis.

    PubMed

    Fertig, Elana J; Markovic, Ana; Danilova, Ludmila V; Gaykalova, Daria A; Cope, Leslie; Chung, Christine H; Ochs, Michael F; Califano, Joseph A

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is largely divided into two groups based on their etiology, human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and -negative. Global DNA methylation changes are known to drive oncogene and tumor suppressor expression in primary HNSCC of both types. However, significant heterogeneity in DNA methylation within the groups results in different transcriptional profiles and clinical outcomes. We applied a meta-pathway analysis to link gene expression changes to DNA methylation in distinguishing HNSCC subtypes. This approach isolated specific epigenetic changes controlling expression in HPV- HNSCC that distinguish it from HPV+ HNSCC. Analysis of genes identified Hedgehog pathway activation specific to HPV- HNSCC. We confirmed that GLI1, the primary Hedgehog target, showed higher expression in tumors compared to normal samples with HPV- tumors having the highest GLI1 expression, suggesting that increased expression of GLI1 is a potential driver in HPV- HNSCC. Our algorithm for integration of DNA methylation and gene expression can infer biologically significant molecular pathways that may be exploited as therapeutics targets. Our results suggest that therapeutics targeting the Hedgehog pathway may be of benefit in HPV- HNSCC. Similar integrative analysis of high-throughput coupled DNA methylation and expression datasets may yield novel insights into deregulated pathways in other cancers.

  8. Modulation of Brahma expression by the mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal regulated kinase pathway is associated with changes in melanoma proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Aanchal; Saladi, Srinivas Vinod; Trivedi, Archit R; Aras, Shweta; Qi, Huiling; Jayanthy, Ashika; Setaluri, Vijayasaradhi; de la Serna, Ivana L

    2014-12-01

    Brahma (BRM) and Brahma-related gene 1(BRG1) are catalytic subunits of SWItch/sucrose non-fermentable (SWI/SNF) chromatin remodeling complexes. BRM is epigenetically silenced in a wide-range of tumors. Mutations in the v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B1 (BRAF) gene occur frequently in melanoma and lead to constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK1/2) pathway. We tested the hypothesis that BRM expression is modulated by oncogenic BRAF and phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in melanocytes and melanoma cells. Expression of oncogenic BRAF in melanocytes and melanoma cells that are wild-type for BRAF decreased BRM expression and increased BRG1 expression. Inhibition of mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase (MEK) or selective inhibition of BRAF in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF increased BRM expression and decreased BRG1 expression. Increased BRM expression was associated with increased histone acetylation on the BRM promoter. Over-expression of BRM in melanoma cells that harbor oncogenic BRAF promoted changes in cell cycle progression and apoptosis consistent with a tumor suppressive role. Upon inhibition of BRAF(V600E) with PLX4032, BRM promoted survival. PLX4032 induced changes in BRM function were correlated with increased acetylation of the BRM protein. This study provides insights into the epigenetic consequences of inhibiting oncogenic BRAF in melanoma through modulation of SWI/SNF subunit expression and function.

  9. Urtica dioica leaves modulates hippocampal smoothened-glioma associated oncogene-1 pathway and cognitive dysfunction in chronically stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sita Sharan; Mahindroo, Neeraj; Udayabanu, Malairaman

    2016-10-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Urtica dioica (UD) extract against chronic unpredictable stress (CUS)-induced associative memory dysfunction and attempted to explore the possible mechanism. Male Swiss albino mice (25-30g) were divided into six groups, viz. group-I received 0.3% carboxymethyl cellulose and served as control (CTRL), group II was exposed to CUS (21days) and received vehicle (CUS), group III was subjected to CUS and received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+HYP), group IV received Hypericum perforatum extract (350mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+HYP); group V was subjected to CUS and received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CUS+UD), group VI received UD extract (50mg/kg, p.o.) (CTRL+UD). CUS significantly induced body weight loss (p<0.05) and associative memory impairment in step down task (p<0.05) as compared to control mice. CUS significantly downregulated Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.01), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.01), TrKB (p<0.01) and MAPK1 (p<0.01) mRNA expression in hippocampus as compared to control mice. CUS significantly increased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.001), and decreased catalase (p<0.001) and total thiol (p<0.01) in plasma resulting in oxidative stress and inflammation. Chronic UD administration significantly reverted CUS mediated body weight loss (p<0.05) and cognitive impairment (p<0.05). UD administration significantly decreased the levels of TBARS (p<0.01) and nitric oxide (p<0.05), and increased the levels of catalase (p<0.01) and total thiol (p<0.05) in plasma. Chronic UD administration significantly upregulated hippocampal Smo (p<0.05), Gli1 (p<0.001), cyclin D1 (p<0.05), BDNF (p<0.05), TrKB (p<0.05) and MAPK1 (p<0.05) in stressed mice. Further, UD extract did not reverse cyclopamine induced downregulation of Gli1 and Ptch1 mRNA in hippocampal slices. UD modulated Smo-Gli1 pathway in the hippocampus as well as exerted anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. UD extract might prove

  10. Evaluation of Acid Ceramidase Overexpression-Induced Activation of the Oncogenic Akt Pathway in Prostate Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    with 10% fetal bovine serum and incubated in 5% CO2 at 37 1C. DU145-AC-EGFP/DU145-EGFP and PPC1-AC-V5/PPC1-LacZ-V5 have been described.3,5 PPC1 pLKO.1...immunostained as described below. Immunohistochemistry Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections were deparaffinized in xylene, rehydrated in alcohol and...hamartomarous condition Cowden Syndrome , in which patients inherit a mutant PTEN allele and are susceptible to cancer, is Lysine289. This mutant form retains

  11. Oncogenic Ras pushes (and pulls) cell cycle progression through ERK activation.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The Ras-Raf-MEK-ERK signaling cascade is capable of channeling a wide variety of extracellular signals into control of cell proliferation, differentiation, senescence, and death. Because aberrant regulation at all steps of this signaling axis is observed in cancer, it remains an area of great interest in the field of tumor biology. Here we present evidence of the intricate and delicate levels of control of this pathway as it pertains to cell cycle regulation and illustrate how this control is not simply a rheostat.

  12. Targeting Oncogenic Mutant p53 for Cancer Therapy.

    PubMed

    Parrales, Alejandro; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2015-01-01

    Among genetic alterations in human cancers, mutations in the tumor suppressor p53 gene are the most common, occurring in over 50% of human cancers. The majority of p53 mutations are missense mutations and result in the accumulation of dysfunctional p53 protein in tumors. These mutants frequently have oncogenic gain-of-function activities and exacerbate malignant properties of cancer cells, such as metastasis and drug resistance. Increasing evidence reveals that stabilization of mutant p53 in tumors is crucial for its oncogenic activities, while depletion of mutant p53 attenuates malignant properties of cancer cells. Thus, mutant p53 is an attractive druggable target for cancer therapy. Different approaches have been taken to develop small-molecule compounds that specifically target mutant p53. These include compounds that restore wild-type conformation and transcriptional activity of mutant p53, induce depletion of mutant p53, inhibit downstream pathways of oncogenic mutant p53, and induce synthetic lethality to mutant p53. In this review article, we comprehensively discuss the current strategies targeting oncogenic mutant p53 in cancers, with special focus on compounds that restore wild-type p53 transcriptional activity of mutant p53 and those reducing mutant p53 levels.

  13. Microarray-based gene expression profiling reveals genes and pathways involved in the oncogenic function of REG3A on pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qianqian; Fu, Rong; Yin, Guoxiao; Liu, Xiulan; Liu, Yang; Xiang, Ming

    2016-03-10

    We previously reported that regenerating islet-derived protein 3 alpha (REG3A) exacerbates pancreatic malignancies. The mechanism of this effect has not been clearly elucidated. Here we first identified key differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and signal pathways in the pancreatic cancer cell line SW1990, compared to two control cell lines, by microarray analysis. We then identified key genes and pathways regulated by REG3A or the cytokine IL6 in SW1990 cells. Afterwards, these DEGs induced by REG3A or IL6 were subjected to KEGG pathway enrichment analysis and GO function analysis by the DAVID online tool. Ultimately, we constructed protein-protein interaction networks among the DEGs by Cytoscape. Among the three pancreatic cell lines, SW1990 exhibited highly deterioration with the activation of genes and pathways related to proliferation, survival, angiogenesis, and invasion. As a result, 50 DEGs enriched in 11 pathways were identified in REG3A-treated SW1990 cells, and 28 DEGs enriched in 9 pathways were detected in IL6-treated cells. Overall, results of microarray analysis followed by qRT-PCR and Western blotting suggest that REG3A regulates pancreatic cell growth by increasing the expression of at least 8 genes: JAK1, STAT3, IL10, FOXM1, KRAS, MYC, CyclinD1, and c-fos; and activation of at least 4 signal pathways: TGFβ, PDGF, angiogenesis and RAS. Similar results were obtained with IL6 treatment. Regulation network analysis confirmed the cell growth related DEGs, and further uncovered three transcription factor families with immune functions regulated by REG3A.

  14. αB-crystallin promotes oncogenic transformation and inhibits caspase activation in cells primed for apoptosis by Rb inactivation.

    PubMed

    Petrovic, Vladimir; Malin, Dmitry; Cryns, Vincent L

    2013-04-01

    The retinoblastoma (Rb) tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in cancer, resulting in deregulated activation of E2F transcription factors, which promote S-phase entry, p53-dependent and p53-independent apoptosis. Transformed cells evade p53-dependent apoptosis initiated by Rb inactivation by TP53 mutation. However, the mechanisms by which cancer cells circumvent p53-independent apoptosis in this context are poorly understood. Because Rb inactivation primes cells for apoptosis by p53-independent induction of procaspases, we postulated that αB-crystallin, an inhibitor of procaspase-3 activation, would suppress caspase activation in cells with combined Rb and p53 inactivation. Notably, αB-crystallin is commonly expressed in ER/PR/HER2 "triple-negative" breast carcinomas characterized by frequent Rb loss and TP53 mutation. We report that αB-crystallin (-/-) knock out (KO) MEFs immortalized by dominant negative (DN) p53 are resistant to transformation by the adenovirus E1A oncoprotein, which inactivates Rb, while wild-type (WT) MEFs are readily transformed by DN p53 and E1A. αB-crystallin (-/-) KO MEFs stably expressing DN p53 and E1A were more sensitive to chemotherapy-induced caspase-3 activation and apoptosis than the corresponding WT MEFs, despite comparable induction of procaspases by E1A. Similarly, silencing Rb in WT and αB-crystallin (-/-) KO MEFs immortalized by DN p53 increased procaspase levels and sensitized αB-crystallin (-/-) KO MEFs to chemotherapy. Furthermore, silencing αB-crystallin in triple-negative breast cancer cells, which lack Rb and express mutant p53, enhanced chemotherapy sensitivity compared to non-silencing controls. Our results indicate that αB-crystallin inhibits caspase activation in cells primed for apoptosis by Rb inactivation and plays a novel oncogenic role in the context of combined Rb and p53 inactivation.

  15. Enhanced transcriptional activation by E2 proteins from the oncogenic human papillomaviruses.

    PubMed Central

    Kovelman, R; Bilter, G K; Glezer, E; Tsou, A Y; Barbosa, M S

    1996-01-01

    A systematic comparison of transcriptional activation by papillomavirus E2 proteins revealed that the E2 proteins from high-risk human papillomaviruses (human papillomavirus type 16 [HPV-16] and HPV-18) are much more active than are the E2 proteins from low-risk HPVs (HPV-6b and HPV-11). Despite the tropism of HPVs for particular epithelial cell types, this difference in transcriptional activation was observed in a number of different epithelial and nonepithelial cells. The enhanced activities of the E2 proteins from high-risk HPVs did not result from higher steady-state levels of protein in vivo, and in vitro DNA-binding assays revealed similar binding properties for these two classes of E2 proteins. These results demonstrate that the E2 proteins from high-risk HPVs have an intrinsically enhanced potential to activate transcription from promoters with E2-responsive elements. We found that there are also substantial differences between the activation properties of the bovine papillomavirus type 1 E2 protein and those of either of the two classes of HPV E2 proteins, especially with regard to requirements for particular configurations of E2 binding sites in the target promoter. Our results indicate that there are at least three distinct functional classes of E2 proteins and that these classes of E2 proteins may perform different roles during the respective viral life cycles. PMID:8892874

  16. Dual function of suppressor of fused in Hh pathway activation and mouse spinal cord patterning.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinling; Heydeck, Westley; Zeng, Huiqing; Liu, Aimin

    2012-02-15

    The morphogen Sonic hedgehog, one of the Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins, plays a key role in patterning the mammalian spinal cord along its dorsoventral (D/V) axis through the activation of Glioma-associated oncogene (Gli) family of transcription factors. Suppressor of Fused (Sufu), a Gli-interacting protein, modulates the D/V patterning of the spinal cord by antagonizing Hh signaling. The molecular mechanisms underlying the function of Sufu in Hh pathway activation and spinal cord D/V patterning remain controversial, particularly in light of recent findings that Sufu protects Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from proteasomal degradation. In the current study, we show that Hh pathway activation and dorsal expansion of ventral spinal cord cell types in the absence of Sufu depend on the activator activities of all three Gli family proteins. We also show that Sufu plays a positive role in the maximal activation of Hh signaling that defines the ventral-most cell fate in the mammalian spinal cord, likely through protecting Gli2 and Gli3 proteins from degradation. Finally, by altering the level of Gli3 repressor on a background of reduced Gli activator activities, we reveal an important contribution of Gli3 repressor activity to the Hh pathway activation and the D/V patterning of the spinal cord.

  17. Unraveling the Activation Mechanism of Taspase1 which Controls the Oncogenic AF4–MLL Fusion Protein

    PubMed Central

    Sabiani, Samaneh; Geppert, Tim; Engelbrecht, Christian; Kowarz, Eric; Schneider, Gisbert; Marschalek, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    We have recently demonstrated that Taspase1-mediated cleavage of the AF4–MLL oncoprotein results in the formation of a stable multiprotein complex which forms the key event for the onset of acute proB leukemia in mice. Therefore, Taspase1 represents a conditional oncoprotein in the context of t(4;11) leukemia. In this report, we used site-directed mutagenesis to unravel the molecular events by which Taspase1 becomes sequentially activated. Monomeric pro-enzymes form dimers which are autocatalytically processed into the enzymatically active form of Taspase1 (αββα). The active enzyme cleaves only very few target proteins, e.g., MLL, MLL4 and TFIIA at their corresponding consensus cleavage sites (CSTasp1) as well as AF4–MLL in the case of leukemogenic translocation. This knowledge was translated into the design of a dominant-negative mutant of Taspase1 (dnTASP1). As expected, simultaneous expression of the leukemogenic AF4–MLL and dnTASP1 causes the disappearance of the leukemogenic oncoprotein, because the uncleaved AF4–MLL protein (328 kDa) is subject to proteasomal degradation, while the cleaved AF4–MLL forms a stable oncogenic multi-protein complex with a very long half-life. Moreover, coexpression of dnTASP1 with a BFP-CSTasp1-GFP FRET biosensor effectively inhibits cleavage. The impact of our findings on future drug development and potential treatment options for t(4;11) leukemia will be discussed. PMID:26137584

  18. Signaling Networks of Activated Oncogenic and Altered Tumor Suppressor Genes in Head and Neck Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Bin; Broek, Robert Vander; Saleh, Anthony D; Mehta, Arpita; Van Waes, Carter; Chen, Zhong

    2013-08-05

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) arises from the upper aerodigestive tract and is the six most common cancers worldwide. HNSCC is associated with high morbidity and mortality, as standard surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy can cause significant disfigurement and only provide 5-year survival rates of ~50-60%. The heterogeneity of HNSCC subsets with different potentials for recurrence and metastasis challenges the traditional pathological classification system, thereby increasing demand for the development of new diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic tools based on global molecular signatures of HNSCC. Historically, using classical biological techniques, it has been extremely difficult and time-consuming to survey hundreds or thousands of genes in a given disease. However, the development of high throughput technologies and high-powered computation throughout the last two decades has enabled us to investigate hundreds or thousands of genes simultaneously. Using high throughput technologies, our laboratory has identified the gene signatures and protein networks, which significantly affect HNSCC malignant phenotypes, including TP53/p63/p73 family members, IL-1/TNF-β/NF-κB, PI3K/AKT/mTOR, IL-6/IL-6R/JAK/STAT3, EGFR/MAPK/AP1, HGF/cMET/EGR1, and TGFβ/TGFβR/TAK1/SMAD pathways. This review summarizes the results from high-throughput technological assays conducted on HNSCC samples, including microarray, DNA methylation, miRNA profiling, and protein array, using primarily experimental data and conclusions generated in our own laboratory. The use of bioinformatics and integrated analyses of data sets from different platforms, as well as meta-analysis of large datasets pulled from multiple publicly available studies, provided significantly higher statistical power to extract biologically relevant information. The data suggested that the heterogeneity of HNSCC genotype and phenotype are much more complex than we previously thought. Understanding of global

  19. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 exhibits oncogenic activity in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Ziwei; Yang, Yang; Xie, Songbo; Li, Dengwen; Liu, Min; Zhou, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has an extremely grim prognosis, with an overall 5-year survival rate less than 5%, as a result of its rapid metastasis and late diagnosis. To combat this disease, it is crucial to better understand the molecular mechanisms that contribute to its pathogenesis. Herein, we report that apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is overexpressed in pancreatic cancer tissues and that its expression correlates with the histological grade of pancreatic cancer. The expression of ASK1 is also elevated in pancreatic cancer cell lines at both protein and mRNA levels. In addition, ASK1 promotes the proliferation and stimulates the tumorigenic capacity of pancreatic cancer cells. These functions of ASK1 are abrogated by pharmacological inhibition of its kinase activity or by introduction of a kinase-dead mutation, suggesting that the kinase activity of ASK1 is required for its role in pancreatic cancer. However, the alteration of ASK1 expression or activity does not significantly affect the migration or invasion of pancreatic cancer cells. Collectively, these findings reveal a critical role for ASK1 in the development of pancreatic cancer and have important implications for the diagnosis and treatment of this malignancy. PMID:27655673

  20. Genetic disruption of oncogenic Kras sensitizes lung cancer cells to Fas receptor-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Mou, Haiwei; Moore, Jill; Malonia, Sunil K; Li, Yingxiang; Ozata, Deniz M; Hough, Soren; Song, Chun-Qing; Smith, Jordan L; Fischer, Andrew; Weng, Zhiping; Green, Michael R; Xue, Wen

    2017-04-04

    Genetic lesions that activate KRAS account for ∼30% of the 1.6 million annual cases of lung cancer. Despite clinical need, KRAS is still undruggable using traditional small-molecule drugs/inhibitors. When oncogenic Kras is suppressed by RNA interference, tumors initially regress but eventually recur and proliferate despite suppression of Kras Here, we show that tumor cells can survive knockout of oncogenic Kras, indicating the existence of Kras-independent survival pathways. Thus, even if clinical KRAS inhibitors were available, resistance would remain an obstacle to treatment. Kras-independent cancer cells exhibit decreased colony formation in vitro but retain the ability to form tumors in mice. Comparing the transcriptomes of oncogenic Kras cells and Kras knockout cells, we identified 603 genes that were specifically up-regulated in Kras knockout cells, including the Fas gene, which encodes a cell surface death receptor involved in physiological regulation of apoptosis. Antibodies recognizing Fas receptor efficiently induced apoptosis of Kras knockout cells but not oncogenic Kras-expressing cells. Increased Fas expression in Kras knockout cells was attributed to decreased association of repressive epigenetic marks at the Fas promoter. Concordant with this observation, treating oncogenic Kras cells with histone deacetylase inhibitor and Fas-activating antibody efficiently induced apoptosis, thus bypassing the need to inhibit Kras. Our results suggest that activation of Fas could be exploited as an Achilles' heel in tumors initiated by oncogenic Kras.

  1. Zebra fish myc family and max genes: differential expression and oncogenic activity throughout vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber-Agus, N; Horner, J; Torres, R; Chiu, F C; DePinho, R A

    1993-01-01

    To gain insight into the role of Myc family oncoproteins and their associated protein Max in vertebrate growth and development, we sought to identify homologs in the zebra fish (Brachydanio rerio). A combination of a polymerase chain reaction-based cloning strategy and low-stringency hybridization screening allowed for the isolation of zebra fish c-, N-, and L-myc and max genes; subsequent structural characterization showed a high degree of conservation in regions that encode motifs of known functional significance. On the functional level, zebra fish Max, like its mammalian counterpart, served to suppress the transformation activity of mouse c-Myc in rat embryo fibroblasts. In addition, the zebra fish c-myc gene proved capable of cooperating with an activated H-ras to effect the malignant transformation of mammalian cells, albeit with diminished potency compared with mouse c-myc. With respect to their roles in normal developing tissues, the differential temporal and spatial patterns of steady-state mRNA expression observed for each zebra fish myc family member suggest unique functions for L-myc in early embryogenesis, for N-myc in establishment and growth of early organ systems, and for c-myc in increasingly differentiated tissues. Furthermore, significant alterations in the steady-state expression of zebra fish myc family genes concomitant with relatively constant max expression support the emerging model of regulation of Myc function in cellular growth and differentiation. Images PMID:8474440

  2. Sonic Hedgehog pathway activity in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    BRAGINA, OLGA; NJUNKOVA, NATALJA; SERGEJEVA, SVETLANA; JÄRVEKÜLG, LILIAN; KOGERMAN, PRIIT

    2010-01-01

    Abnormal activation of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signaling pathway has been demonstrated in a number of human tumors, including prostate cancer. The study aimed to assess the activity of Shh pathway components (Shh, Gli1, Gli2 and Gli3), as well as the proliferation markers FoxA1 and Notch1 during cancer progression in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP). We evaluated changes in respective proteins by immunohistochemistry at three time points (12, 17 and 21 weeks of age) in the tissue of TRAMP and C57Bl/6 mice. Moreover, the expression of mRNA of these proteins was assessed. The present study shows a significant age-dependent increase in the number of Shh, Gli1, Gli3 and FoxA1-positive prostate cells and a decrease in Gli2-positive cells in TRAMP. The study also supports the hypothesis that the development of prostate cancer and its metastasis is associated with activation of the Shh signaling pathway. PMID:22966302

  3. Extracellular assembly and activation principles of oncogenic class III receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Kenneth; Savvides, Savvas N

    2012-11-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades initiated by class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK-IIIs) and their cytokine ligands contribute to haematopoiesis and mesenchymal tissue development. They are also implicated in a wide range of inflammatory disorders and cancers. Recent snapshots of RTK-III ectodomains in complex with cognate cytokines have revealed timely insights into the structural determinants of RTK-III activation, evolution and pathology. Importantly, candidate 'driver' and 'passenger' mutations that have been identified in RTK-IIIs can now be collectively mapped for the first time to structural scaffolds of the corresponding RTK-III ectodomains. Such insights will generate a renewed interest in dissecting the mechanistic effects of such mutations and their therapeutic relevance.

  4. RAS-MAPK pathway epigenetic activation in cancer: miRNAs in action

    PubMed Central

    Masliah-Planchon, Julien; Garinet, Simon; Pasmant, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The highly conserved RAS-mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway is involved in a wide range of cellular processes including differentiation, proliferation, and survival. Somatic mutations in genes encoding RAS-MAPK components frequently occur in many tumors, making the RAS-MAPK a critical pathway in human cancer. Since the pioneering study reporting that let-7 miRNA acted as tumor suppressor by repressing the RAS oncogene, growing evidence has suggested the importance of miRNAs targeting the RAS-MAPK in oncogenesis. MiRNAs alterations in human cancers may act as a rheostat of the oncogenic RAS signal that is often amplified as cancers progress. However, specific mechanisms leading to miRNAs deregulation and their functional consequences in cancer are far from being fully elucidated. In this review, we provide an experimental-validated map of RAS-MAPK oncomiRs and tumor suppressor miRNAs from transmembrane receptor to downstream ERK proteins. MiRNAs could be further considered as potential genetic biomarkers for diagnosis, prognosis, or therapeutic purpose. PMID:26646588

  5. Expression of Cellular Oncogenes in Human Malignancies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slamon, Dennis J.; Dekernion, Jean B.; Verma, Inder M.; Cline, Martin J.

    1984-04-01

    Cellular oncogenes have been implicated in the induction of malignant transformation in some model systems in vitro and may be related to malignancies in vivo in some vertebrate species. This article describes a study of the expression of 15 cellular oncogenes in fresh human tumors from 54 patients, representing 20 different tumor types. More than one cellular oncogene was transcriptionally active in all of the tumors examined. In 14 patients it was possible to study normal and malignant tissue from the same organ. In many of these patients, the transcriptional activity of certain oncogenes was greater in the malignant than the normal tissue. The cellular fes (feline sarcoma) oncogene, not previously known to be transcribed in mammalian tissue, was found to be active in lung and hematopoietic malignancies.

  6. miR-203 downregulates Yes-1 and suppresses oncogenic activity in human oral cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seul-Ah; Kim, Jae-Sung; Park, Sun-Young; Kim, Heung-Joong; Yu, Sun-Kyoung; Kim, Chun Sung; Chun, Hong Sung; Kim, Jeongsun; Park, Jong-Tae; Go, Daesan; Kim, Do Kyung

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms of microRNA-203 (miR-203) as a tumor suppressor in KB human oral cancer cells. MicroRNA microarray results showed that the expression of miR-203 was significantly down-regulated in KB cells compared with normal human oral keratinocytes. The viability of KB cells was decreased by miR-203 in the time- and dose-dependent manners. In addition, over-expressed miR-203 not only increased the nuclear condensation but also significantly increased the apoptotic population of KB cells. These results indicated that the over-expression of miR-203 induced apoptosis of KB cells. Furthermore, the target gene array analyses revealed that the expression of Yes-1, a member of the Src family kinases (SFKs), was significantly down-regulated by miR-203 in KB cells. Moreover, both the mRNA and protein levels of Yes-1 were strongly reduced in KB cells transfected with miR-203. Therefore, these results indicated that Yes-1 is predicted to be a potential target gene of miR-203. Through a luciferase activity assay, miR-203 was confirmed to directly targets the Yes-1 3' untranslated region (UTR) to suppress gene expression. Therefore, our findings indicate that miR-203 induces the apoptosis of KB cells by directly targeting Yes-1, suggesting its application in anti-cancer therapeutics.

  7. The anti-melanoma activity and oncogenic targets of hsa-miR-15a-5p

    PubMed Central

    Alderman, Christopher; Yang, Yixin

    2016-01-01

    MiRNAs regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and pre-translationally. Through gene regulation, several miRNAs have been found to play a significant role in various diseases. Each miRNA has multiple targets and is able to have a potent, albeit complex, effect on the cells. Specifically, miRNA-15a has been found to significantly reduce cancer cell survival and aggressiveness through multiple mechanisms across several cancer types. Our research found that miRNA-15a was able to decrease melanoma cell viability in-vitro and in-vivo. We have also found that miRNA-15a caused cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Moreover, miRNA-15a was found to decrease the invasiveness of melanoma cells. CDCA4 was also discovered as a novel bona-fide target of miRNA-15a. The following oncogenic mRNAs are verified targets of miRNA-15a: CDCA4, BCL2L2, YAP1, AKT-3, Cyclin E1, and γ-Synuclein. In the future we hope to better understand which miRNAs will be effective in different transcriptome and genome environments. Efforts such as the NIH Center for Cancer Genomics' ‘The Cancer Genome Atlas,’ ‘Cancer Target and Driver Discovery Network,’ and the ‘Human Cancer Models Initiatives’ among others, will help us characterize the specific tumor environments in which different miRNAs are able to reduce cancer proliferation and aggression. This information will be enhanced by improving the delivery of miRNA by inducing its expression in-situ with dCas9 conjugated to activation domains.

  8. New alternative splicing BCR/ABL-OOF shows an oncogenic role by lack of inhibition of BCR GTPase activity and an increased of persistence of Rac activation in chronic myeloid leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Panuzzo, Cristina; Volpe, Gisella; Rocchietti, Elisa Cibrario; Casnici, Claudia; Crotta, Katia; Crivellaro, Sabrina; Carrà, Giovanna; Lorenzatti, Roberta; Peracino, Barbara; Torti, Davide; Morotti, Alessandro; Camacho-Leal, Maria Pilar; Defilippi, Paola; Marelli, Ornella; Saglio, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    In Chronic Myeloid Leukemia 80% of patients present alternative splice variants involving BCR exons 1, 13 or 14 and ABL exon 4, with a consequent impairment in the reading frame of the ABL gene. Therefore BCR/ABL fusion proteins (BCR/ABL-OOF) are characterized by an in-frame BCR portion followed by an amino acids sequence arising from the out of frame (OOF) reading of the ABL gene. The product of this new transcript contains the characteristic BCR domains while lacking the COOH-terminal Rho GTPase GAP domain. The present work aims to characterize the protein functionality in terms of cytoskeleton (re-)modelling, adhesion and activation of canonical oncogenic signalling pathways. Here, we show that BCR/ABL-OOF has a peculiar endosomal localization which affects EGF receptor activation and turnover. Moreover, we demonstrate that BCR/ABL-OOF expression leads to aberrant cellular adhesion due to the activation of Rac GTPase, increase in cellular proliferation, migration and survival. When overexpressed in a BCR/ABL positive cell line, BCR/ABL-OOF induces hyperactivation of Rac signaling axis offering a therapeutic window for Rac-targeted therapy. Our data support a critical role of BCR/ABL-OOF in leukemogenesis and identify a subset of patients that may benefit from Rac-targeted therapies. PMID:26682280

  9. Loss of Dependence on Continued Expression of the Human Papillomavirus 16 E7 Oncogene in Cervical Cancers and Precancerous Lesions Arising in Fanconi Anemia Pathway-Deficient Mice

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyeong; Park, Jung Wook; Pitot, Henry C.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT   Fanconi anemia (FA) is a rare genetic disorder caused by defects in DNA damage repair. FA patients often develop squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) are known to cause cancer, including the cervix. However, SCCs found in human FA patients are often HPV negative, even though the majority of female FA patients with anogenital cancers had preexisting HPV-positive dysplasia. We hypothesize that HPVs contribute to the development of SCCs in FA patients but that the continued expression of HPV oncogenes is not required for the maintenance of the cancer state because FA deficiency leads to an accumulation of mutations in cellular genes that render the cancer no longer dependent upon viral oncogenes. We tested this hypothesis, making use of Bi-L E7 transgenic mice in which we temporally controlled expression of HPV16 E7, the dominant viral oncogene in HPV-associated cancers. As seen before, the persistence of cervical neoplastic disease was highly dependent upon the continued expression of HPV16 E7 in FA-sufficient mice. However, in mice with FA deficiency, cervical cancers persisted in a large fraction of the mice after HPV16 E7 expression was turned off, indicating that these cancers had escaped from their dependency on E7. Furthermore, the severity of precancerous lesions also failed to be reduced significantly in the mice with FA deficiency upon turning off expression of E7. These findings confirm our hypothesis and may explain the fact that, while FA patients have a high frequency of infections by HPVs and HPV-induced precancerous lesions, the cancers are frequently HPV negative. Importance   Fanconi anemia (FA) patients are at high risk for developing squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) at sites where high-risk human papillomaviruses (HPVs) frequently cause cancer. Yet these SCCs are often HPV negative. FA patients have a genetic defect in their capacity to repair damaged DNA. HPV oncogenes cause an

  10. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  11. Activities of multiple cancer-related pathways are associated with BRAF mutation and predict the resistance to BRAF/MEK inhibitors in melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dingxie; Liu, Xuan; Xing, Mingzhao

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major obstacle in the targeted therapy of melanoma using BRAF/MEK inhibitors. This study was to identify BRAF V600E-associated oncogenic pathways that predict resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. We took in silico approaches to analyze the activities of 24 cancer-related pathways in melanoma cells and identify those whose activation was associated with BRAF V600E and used the support vector machine (SVM) algorithm to predict the resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma cells to BRAF/MEK inhibitors. We then experimentally confirmed the in silico findings. In a microarray gene expression dataset of 63 melanoma cell lines, we found that activation of multiple oncogenic pathways preferentially occurred in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells. This finding was reproduced in 5 additional independent melanoma datasets. Further analysis of 46 melanoma cell lines that harbored BRAF mutation showed that 7 pathways, including TNFα, EGFR, IFNα, hypoxia, IFNγ, STAT3, and MYC, were significantly differently expressed in AZD6244-resistant compared with responsive melanoma cells. A SVM classifier built on this 7-pathway activation pattern correctly predicted the response of 10 BRAF-mutated melanoma cell lines to the MEK inhibitor AZD6244 in our experiments. We experimentally showed that TNFα, EGFR, IFNα, and IFNγ pathway activities were also upregulated in melanoma cell A375 compared with its sub-line DRO, while DRO was much more sensitive to AZD6244 than A375. In conclusion, we have identified specific oncogenic pathways preferentially activated in BRAF-mutated melanoma cells and a pathway pattern that predicts resistance of BRAF-mutated melanoma to BRAF/MEK inhibitors, providing novel clinical implications for melanoma therapy. PMID:24200969

  12. Notch pathway activation is essential for maintenance of stem-like cells in early tongue cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Ekjot; Aich, Jyotirmoi; Dani, Prachi; Sethunath, Vidyalakshmi; Gardi, Nilesh; Chandrani, Pratik; Godbole, Mukul; Sonawane, Kavita; Prasad, Ratnam; Kannan, Sadhana; Agarwal, Beamon; Kane, Shubhada; Gupta, Sudeep; Dutt, Shilpee; Dutt, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Background Notch pathway plays a complex role depending on cellular contexts: promotes stem cell maintenance or induces terminal differentiation in potential cancer-initiating cells; acts as an oncogene in lymphocytes and mammary tissue or plays a growth-suppressive role in leukemia, liver, skin, and head and neck cancer. Here, we present a novel clinical and functional significance of NOTCH1 alterations in early stage tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC). Patients and Methods We analyzed the Notch signaling pathway in 68 early stage TSCC primary tumor samples by whole exome and transcriptome sequencing, real-time PCR based copy number, expression, immuno-histochemical, followed by cell based biochemical and functional assays. Results We show, unlike TCGA HNSCC data set, NOTCH1 harbors significantly lower frequency of inactivating mutations (4%); is somatically amplified; and, overexpressed in 31% and 37% of early stage TSCC patients, respectively. HNSCC cell lines over expressing NOTCH1, when plated in the absence of attachment, are enriched in stem cell markers and form spheroids. Furthermore, we show that inhibition of NOTCH activation by gamma secretase inhibitor or shRNA mediated knockdown of NOTCH1 inhibits spheroid forming capacity, transformation, survival and migration of the HNSCC cells suggesting an oncogenic role of NOTCH1 in TSCC. Clinically, Notch pathway activation is higher in tumors of non-smokers compared to smokers (50% Vs 18%, respectively, P=0.026) and is also associated with greater nodal positivity compared to its non-activation (93% Vs 64%, respectively, P=0.029). Conclusion We anticipate that these results could form the basis for therapeutic targeting of NOTCH1 in tongue cancer. PMID:27391340

  13. XPO1 (CRM1) inhibition represses STAT3 activation to drive a survivin-dependent oncogenic switch in triple-negative breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yan; Holloway, Michael P; Nguyen, Kevin; McCauley, Dilara; Landesman, Yosef; Kauffman, Michael G; Shacham, Sharon; Altura, Rachel A

    2014-03-01

    Inhibition of XPO1 (CRM1)-mediated nuclear export of multiple tumor suppressor proteins has been proposed as a novel cancer therapeutic strategy to turn off oncogenic signals and enhance tumor suppression. Survivin is a multifunctional protein with oncogenic properties when expressed in the cytoplasm that requires the XPO1-RanGTP complex for its nuclear export. We investigated the antitumor mechanisms of the drug-like selective inhibitors of nuclear export (SINE) XPO1 antagonists KPT-185, KPT-251 KPT-276, and KPT-330 in estrogen receptor-positive and triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines and xenograft models of human breast tumors. KPT compounds significantly inhibited breast cancer cell growth and induced tumor cell death, both in vitro and in vivo. These drugs initially promoted survivin accumulation within tumor cell nuclei. However, their major in vitro effect was to decrease survivin cytoplasmic protein levels, correlating with the onset of apoptosis. XPO1 inhibition repressed Survivin transcription by inhibiting CREB-binding protein-mediated STAT3 acetylation, and blocking STAT3 binding to the Survivin promoter. In addition, caspase-3 was activated to cleave survivin, rendering it unavailable to bind X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein and block the caspase cascade. Collectively, these data demonstrate that XPO1 inhibition by SINE compounds represses STAT3 transactivation to block the selective oncogenic properties of survivin and supports their clinical use in TNBC.

  14. MET/HGF pathway activation as a paradigm of resistance to targeted therapies.

    PubMed

    Ko, Brian; He, Tianfang; Gadgeel, Shirish; Halmos, Balazs

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to targeted therapeutics is a key issue limiting the long-term utility of these medications in the management of molecularly selected subsets of cancer patients, including patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring oncogenic alterations affecting EGFR, ALK and other genes. Bypass resistance mediated by activation of MET kinase has emerged as a frequent, validated and pivotal resistance mechanism in multiple types of cancers. Biochemical understanding is accumulating to explain the unique role of MET in such bypass pathways, providing alternate downstream activation opportunities and intricate interactions during epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Multiple diagnostic testing platforms have become available for selecting appropriate patients for MET targeting in a variety of settings. Importantly, in light of the failures of several earlier clinical studies of MET targeting agents, a large array of recent and current MET-focused trials are incorporating stricter patient selection and more robust predictive biomarkers providing hope for validation of MET targeting as a clinically impactful strategy.

  15. Potential fluid mechanic pathways of platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Shadden, Shawn C; Hendabadi, Sahar

    2013-06-01

    Platelet activation is a precursor for blood clotting, which plays leading roles in many vascular complications and causes of death. Platelets can be activated by chemical or mechanical stimuli. Mechanically, platelet activation has been shown to be a function of elevated shear stress and exposure time. These contributions can be combined by considering the cumulative stress or strain on a platelet as it is transported. Here, we develop a framework for computing a hemodynamic-based activation potential that is derived from a Lagrangian integral of strain rate magnitude. We demonstrate that such a measure is generally maximized along, and near to, distinguished material surfaces in the flow. The connections between activation potential and these structures are illustrated through stenotic flow computations. We uncover two distinct structures that may explain observed thrombus formation at the apex and downstream of stenoses. More broadly, these findings suggest fundamental relationships may exist between potential fluid mechanic pathways for mechanical platelet activation and the mechanisms governing their transport.

  16. Proto-oncogene FBI-1 represses transcription of p21CIP1 by inhibition of transcription activation by p53 and Sp1.

    PubMed

    Choi, Won-Il; Jeon, Bu-Nam; Yun, Chae-Ok; Kim, Pyung-Hwan; Kim, Sung-Eun; Choi, Kang-Yell; Kim, Se Hoon; Hur, Man-Wook

    2009-05-08

    Aberrant transcriptional repression through chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation has been postulated as the driving force for tumorigenesis. FBI-1 (formerly called Pokemon) is a member of the POK family of transcriptional repressors. Recently, FBI-1 was characterized as a critical oncogenic factor that specifically represses transcription of the tumor suppressor gene ARF, potentially leading indirectly to p53 inactivation. Our investigations on transcriptional repression of the p53 pathway revealed that FBI-1 represses transcription of ARF, Hdm2 (human analogue of mouse double minute oncogene), and p21CIP1 (hereafter indicated as p21) but not of p53. FBI-1 showed a more potent repressive effect on p21 than on p53. Our data suggested that FBI-1 is a master controller of the ARF-Hdm2-p53-p21 pathway, ultimately impinging on cell cycle arrest factor p21, by inhibiting upstream regulators at the transcriptional and protein levels. FBI-1 acted as a competitive transcriptional repressor of p53 and Sp1 and was shown to bind the proximal Sp1-3 GC-box and the distal p53-responsive elements of p21. Repression involved direct binding competition of FBI-1 with Sp1 and p53. FBI-1 also interacted with corepressors, such as mSin3A, NCoR, and SMRT, thereby deacetylating Ac-H3 and Ac-H4 histones at the promoter. FBI-1 caused cellular transformation, promoted cell cycle proliferation, and significantly increased the number of cells in S phase. FBI-1 is aberrantly overexpressed in many human solid tumors, particularly in adenocarcinomas and squamous carcinomas. The role of FBI-1 as a master controller of the p53 pathway therefore makes it an attractive therapeutic target.

  17. Human gene control by vital oncogenes: revisiting a theoretical model and its implications for targeted cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Willis, Rudolph E

    2012-01-01

    An important assumption of our current understanding of the mechanisms of carcinogenesis has been the belief that clarification of the cancer process would inevitably reveal some of the crucial mechanisms of normal human gene regulation. Since the momentous work of Bishop and Varmus, both the molecular and the biochemical processes underlying the events in the development of cancer have become increasingly clear. The identification of cellular signaling pathways and the role of protein kinases in the events leading to gene activation have been critical to our understanding not only of normal cellular gene control mechanisms, but also have clarified some of the important molecular and biochemical events occurring within a cancer cell. We now know that oncogenes are dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and that dysfunctional tumor suppressor genes contribute to the cancer process. Furthermore, Weinstein and others have hypothesized the phenomenon of oncogene addiction as a distinct characteristic of the malignant cell. It can be assumed that cancer cells, indeed, become dependent on such vital oncogenes. The products of these vital oncogenes, such as c-myc, may well be the Achilles heel by which targeted molecular therapy may lead to truly personalized cancer therapy. The remaining problem is the need to introduce relevant molecular diagnostic tests such as genome microarray analysis and proteomic methods, especially protein kinase identification arrays, for each individual patient. Genome wide association studies on cancers with gene analysis of single nucleotide and other mutations in functional proto-oncogenes will, hopefully, identify dysfunctional proto-oncogenes and allow the development of more specific targeted drugs directed against the protein products of these vital oncogenes. In 1984 Willis proposed a molecular and biochemical model for eukaryotic gene regulation suggesting how proto-oncogenes might function within the normal cell. That model predicted the

  18. Oncogenic KRAS signalling in pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Eser, S; Schnieke, A; Schneider, G; Saur, D

    2014-08-26

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is almost universally fatal. The annual number of deaths equals the number of newly diagnosed cases, despite maximal treatment. The overall 5-year survival rate of <5% has remained stubbornly unchanged over the last 30 years, despite tremendous efforts in preclinical and clinical science. There is unquestionably an urgent need to further improve our understanding of pancreatic cancer biology, treatment response and relapse, and to identify novel therapeutic targets. Rigorous research in the field has uncovered genetic aberrations that occur during PDAC development and progression. In most cases, PDAC is initiated by oncogenic mutant KRAS, which has been shown to drive pancreatic neoplasia. However, all attempts to target KRAS directly have failed in the clinic and KRAS is widely assumed to be undruggable. This has led to intense efforts to identify druggable critical downstream targets and nodes orchestrated by mutationally activated KRAS. This includes context-specific KRAS effector pathways, synthetic lethal interaction partners and KRAS-driven metabolic changes. Here, we review recent advances in oncogenic KRAS signalling and discuss how these might benefit PDAC treatment in the future.

  19. Estrogen increases Nrf2 activity through activation of the PI3K pathway in MCF-7 breast cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Juanjuan; Williams, Devin; Walter, Grant A.; Thompson, Winston E.; Sidell, Neil

    2014-11-01

    The actions of the transcription factor Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor (Nrf2) in breast cancer have been shown to include both pro-oncogenic and anti-oncogenic activities which is influenced, at least in part, by the hormonal environment. However, direct regulation of Nrf2 by steroid hormones (estrogen and progesterone) has received only scant attention. Nrf2 is known to be regulated by its cytosolic binding protein, Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), and by a Keap1-independent mechanism involving a series of phosphorylation steps mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β). Here, we report that estrogen (E2) increases Nrf2 activity in MCF7 breast cancer cells through activation of the PI3K/GSK3β pathway. Utilizing antioxidant response element (ARE)-containing luciferase reporter constructs as read-outs for Nrf2 activity, our data indicated that E2 increased ARE activity >14-fold and enhanced the action of the Nrf2 activators, tertiary butylhydroquinone (tBHQ) and sulforaphane (Sul) 4 to 9 fold compared with cells treated with tBHQ or Sul as single agents. This activity was shown to be an estrogen receptor-mediated phenomenon and was antagonized by progesterone. In addition to its action on the reporter constructs, mRNA and protein levels of heme oxygenase 1, an endogenous target gene of Nrf2, was markedly upregulated by E2 both alone and in combination with tBHQ. Importantly, E2-induced Nrf2 activation was completely suppressed by the PI3K inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin while the GSK3β inhibitor CT99021 upregulated Nrf2 activity. Confirmation that E2 was, at least partly, acting through the PI3K/GSK3β pathway was indicated by our finding that E2 increased the phosphorylation status of both GSK3β and Akt, a well-characterized downstream target of PI3K. Together, these results demonstrate a novel mechanism by which E2 can regulate Nrf2 activity in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer

  20. Major heat shock protein Hsp72 controls oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Sherman, Michael

    2010-06-01

    Various heat shock proteins, including Hsp72, are strongly upregulated in cancers, but their significance for tumor emergence and growth is poorly understood. Here we review recent data from several labs to indicate that Hsps, including Hsp72, are critical for growth of transformed but not normal cells. By manipulating expression and activity of Hsp72 and several oncogenes, it was shown that Hsp72 suppresses oncogene-induced senescence, thus allowing proliferation of cancer cells. Importantly, Hsp72 is able to suppress both p53-dependent and p53-independent senescence pathways. We propose that targeting Hsp72 may be a promising approach toward development of novel cancer therapies.

  1. Hedgehog Cholesterolysis: Specialized Gatekeeper to Oncogenic Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Callahan, Brian P.; Wang, Chunyu

    2015-01-01

    Discussions of therapeutic suppression of hedgehog (Hh) signaling almost exclusively focus on receptor antagonism; however, hedgehog’s biosynthesis represents a unique and potentially targetable aspect of this oncogenic signaling pathway. Here, we review a key biosynthetic step called cholesterolysis from the perspectives of structure/function and small molecule inhibition. Cholesterolysis, also called cholesteroylation, generates cholesterol-modified Hh ligand via autoprocessing of a hedgehog precursor protein. Post-translational modification by cholesterol appears to be restricted to proteins in the hedgehog family. The transformation is essential for Hh biological activity and upstream of signaling events. Despite its decisive role in generating ligand, cholesterolysis remains conspicuously unexplored as a therapeutic target. PMID:26473928

  2. Recurrent Fusions in MYB and MYBL1 Define a Common, Transcription Factor-Driven Oncogenic Pathway in Salivary Gland Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Brayer, Kathryn J.; Frerich, Candace A.; Kang, Huining; Ness, Scott A.

    2015-01-01

    Adenoid Cystic Carcinoma (ACC), the second most common malignancy of salivary glands, is a rare tumor with bleak prognosis for which therapeutic targets are unavailable. We used RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) to analyze low-quality RNA from archival, formaldehyde-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples. In addition to detecting the most common ACC translocation, t(6;9) fusing the MYB proto-oncogene to NFIB, we also detected previously unknown t(8;9) and t(8;14) translocations fusing the MYBL1 gene to the NFIB and RAD51B genes, respectively. RNA-seq provided information about gene fusions, alternative RNA splicing and gene expression signatures. Interestingly, tumors with MYB and MYBL1 translocations displayed similar gene expression profiles, and the combined MYB and MYBL1 expression correlated with outcome, suggesting that the related Myb proteins are interchangeable oncogenic drivers in ACC. Our results provide important details about the biology of ACC and illustrate how archival tissue samples can be used for detailed molecular analyses of rare tumors. PMID:26631070

  3. Electrical Activation of Wound-Healing Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Min; Penninger, Josef; Isseroff, Roslyn Rivkah

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective wound healing has been a lasting and challenging topic in health care. Various strategies have been used to accelerate and perfect the healing process. One such strategy has involved the application of an exogenous electrical stimulus to chronic wounds with the aim of stimulating healing responses. The Problem The biology of electric stimulation to instigate healing, however, is very poorly understood. How does electric stimulation induce healing responses? Basic/Clinical Science Advances Recent research shows that the electric fields (EFs) activate multiple signaling pathways that are critical for wound healing. Importantly, the EFs provide a powerful, sometimes an overriding, directional signal for cell migration in wound healing. Unlike other stimuli, EFs have the intrinsic property of being directional. The EF-directed cell migration (electrotaxis/galvanotaxis) appears to be a consequence of EF-induced polarized signaling of epidermal growth factor receptors, integrins, and phosphoinositide 3 kinase/Pten, and may be mediated by protein kinase C, intracellular Ca2+, and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Because directional cell migration is a key component in wound healing, galvanotaxis may represent an important mechanism of wound healing. Clinical Care Relevance With the constantly enlarging diabetic and aging population, chronic or nonhealing wounds pose increasing health and economic problems, and currently there is no effective therapy available. Electric stimulation activates important intracellular signaling pathways that are polarized in the EF direction, resulting in enhanced and stimulated directional cell migration. Electric stimulation offers a novel approach to achieve better and accelerated wound healing. Conclusion Experimental evidence suggests a significant role of endogenous EFs in cell migration in wound healing. Most importantly, EFs are a very powerful signal to direct cell migration. Electric stimulation therefore

  4. Inhibition of Oncogenic BRAF Activity by Indole-3-Carbinol Disrupts Microphthalmia-Associated Transcription Factor Expression and Arrests Melanoma Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Aishwarya; Quirit, Jeanne G.; Khouri, Michelle G.; Firestone, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    Indole-3-carbinol (I3C), an anti-cancer phytochemical derived from cruciferous vegetables, strongly inhibited proliferation and down-regulated protein levels of the melanocyte master regulator micropthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF-M) in oncogenic BRAF-V600E expressing melanoma cells in culture as well as in vivo in tumor xenografted athymic nude mice. In contrast, wild type BRAF-expressing melanoma cells remained relatively insensitive to I3C anti-proliferative signaling. In BRAF-V600E-expressing melanoma cells, I3C treatment inhibited phosphorylation of MEK and ERK/MAPK, the down stream effectors of BRAF. The I3C anti-proliferative arrest was concomitant with the down-regulation of MITF-M transcripts and promoter activity, loss of endogenous BRN-2 binding to the MITF-M promoter, and was strongly attenuated by expression of exogenous MITF-M. Importantly, in vitro kinase assays using immunoprecipitated BRAF-V600E and wild type BRAF demonstrated that I3C selectively inhibited the enzymatic activity of the oncogenic BRAF-V600E but not of the wild type protein. In silico modeling predicted an I3C interaction site in the BRAF-V600E protomer distinct from where the clinically used BRAF-V600E inhibitor Vemurafenib binds to BRAF-V600E. Consistent with this prediction, combinations of I3C and Vemurafenib more potently inhibited melanoma cell proliferation and reduced MITF-M levels in BRAF-V600E expressing melanoma cells compared to the effects of each compound alone. Thus, our results demonstrate that oncogenic BRAF-V600E is a new cellular target of I3C that implicate this indolecarbinol compound as a potential candidate for novel single or combination therapies for melanoma. PMID:26878440

  5. Novel mechanism of JNK pathway activation by adenoviral E1A.

    PubMed

    Romanov, Vasily S; Brichkina, Anna I; Morrison, Helen; Pospelova, Tatiana V; Pospelov, Valery A; Herrlich, Peter

    2014-04-30

    The adenoviral oncoprotein E1A influences cellular regulation by interacting with a number of cellular proteins. In collaboration with complementary oncogenes, E1A fully transforms primary cells. As part of this action, E1A inhibits transcription of c-Jun:Fos target genes while promoting that of c-Jun:ATF2-dependent genes including jun. Both c-Jun and ATF2 are hyperphosphorylated in response to E1A. In the current study, E1A was fused with the ligand binding domain of the estrogen receptor (E1A-ER) to monitor the immediate effect of E1A activation. With this approach we now show that E1A activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), the upstream kinases MKK4 and MKK7, as well as the small GTPase Rac1. Activation of the JNK pathway requires the N-terminal domain of E1A, and, importantly, is independent of transcription. In addition, it requires the presence of ERM proteins. Downregulation of signaling components upstream of JNK inhibits E1A-dependent JNK/c-Jun activation. Taking these findings together, we show that E1A activates the JNK/c-Jun signaling pathway upstream of Rac1 in a transcription-independent manner, demonstrating a novel mechanism of E1A action.

  6. Spaceflight Activates Lipotoxic Pathways in Mouse Liver

    PubMed Central

    Jonscher, Karen R.; Alfonso-Garcia, Alba; Suhalim, Jeffrey L.; Orlicky, David J.; Potma, Eric O.; Ferguson, Virginia L.; Bouxsein, Mary L.; Bateman, Ted A.; Stodieck, Louis S.; Levi, Moshe; Friedman, Jacob E.; Gridley, Daila S.; Pecaut, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Spaceflight affects numerous organ systems in the body, leading to metabolic dysfunction that may have long-term consequences. Microgravity-induced alterations in liver metabolism, particularly with respect to lipids, remain largely unexplored. Here we utilize a novel systems biology approach, combining metabolomics and transcriptomics with advanced Raman microscopy, to investigate altered hepatic lipid metabolism in mice following short duration spaceflight. Mice flown aboard Space Transportation System -135, the last Shuttle mission, lose weight but redistribute lipids, particularly to the liver. Intriguingly, spaceflight mice lose retinol from lipid droplets. Both mRNA and metabolite changes suggest the retinol loss is linked to activation of PPARα-mediated pathways and potentially to hepatic stellate cell activation, both of which may be coincident with increased bile acids and early signs of liver injury. Although the 13-day flight duration is too short for frank fibrosis to develop, the retinol loss plus changes in markers of extracellular matrix remodeling raise the concern that longer duration exposure to the space environment may result in progressive liver damage, increasing the risk for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:27097220

  7. Activation of Notch1 synergizes with multiple pathways in promoting castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Stoyanova, Tanya; Riedinger, Mireille; Lin, Shu; Faltermeier, Claire M.; Smith, Bryan A.; Zhang, Kelvin X.; Going, Catherine C.; Goldstein, Andrew S.; Lee, John K.; Drake, Justin M.; Rice, Meghan A.; Hsu, En-Chi; Nowroozizadeh, Behdokht; Castor, Brandon; Orellana, Sandra Y.; Blum, Steven M.; Cheng, Donghui; Pienta, Kenneth J.; Reiter, Robert E.; Pitteri, Sharon J.; Huang, Jiaoti; Witte, Owen N.

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is the primary cause of prostate cancer-specific mortality. Defining new mechanisms that can predict recurrence and drive lethal CRPC is critical. Here, we demonstrate that localized high-risk prostate cancer and metastatic CRPC, but not benign prostate tissues or low/intermediate-risk prostate cancer, express high levels of nuclear Notch homolog 1, translocation-associated (Notch1) receptor intracellular domain. Chronic activation of Notch1 synergizes with multiple oncogenic pathways altered in early disease to promote the development of prostate adenocarcinoma. These tumors display features of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, a cellular state associated with increased tumor aggressiveness. Consistent with its activation in clinical CRPC, tumors driven by Notch1 intracellular domain in combination with multiple pathways altered in prostate cancer are metastatic and resistant to androgen deprivation. Our study provides functional evidence that the Notch1 signaling axis synergizes with alternative pathways in promoting metastatic CRPC and may represent a new therapeutic target for advanced prostate cancer. PMID:27694579

  8. The RON and MET oncogenes are co-expressed in human ovarian carcinomas and cooperate in activating invasiveness.

    PubMed

    Maggiora, Piera; Lorenzato, Annalisa; Fracchioli, Stefano; Costa, Barbara; Castagnaro, Massimo; Arisio, Riccardo; Katsaros, Dionyssios; Massobrio, Marco; Comoglio, Paolo M; Flavia Di Renzo, Maria

    2003-08-15

    RON is a member of the receptor tyrosine kinase gene family that includes the MET oncogene, whose germline mutations have been causally related to human tumorigenesis. In vitro, RON and MET receptors cross-talk, synergize in intracellular signaling, and cooperate in inducing morphogenic responses. Here we show that the RON and MET oncogenes were expressed in 55% and 56% of human ovarian carcinomas, respectively, and were significantly coexpressed in 42% (P < 0.001). In ovarian carcinoma samples and cell lines we did not find mutations in RON and MET gene kinase domain, nor coexpression of RON and MET receptor ligands (MSP and HGF, respectively). We show that motility and invasiveness of ovarian cancer cells coexpressing MET and RON receptors were elicited by HGF and, to a lesser extent, by MSP. More interestingly, invasion of both reconstituted basement membrane and collagen gel was greatly enhanced by the simultaneous addition of the two ligands. These data suggest that coexpression of the MET and RON receptors confer a selective advantage to ovarian cancer cells and might promote ovarian cancer progression.

  9. The Tax oncogene enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing protein complexes to activate transcription.

    PubMed

    Fufa, Temesgen D; Byun, Jung S; Wakano, Clay; Fernandez, Alfonso G; Pise-Masison, Cynthia A; Gardner, Kevin

    2015-09-11

    The eleven-nineteen lysine-rich leukemia protein (ELL) is a key regulator of RNA polymerase II mediated transcription. ELL facilitates RNA polymerase II transcription pause site entry and release by dynamically interacting with p300 and the positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb). In this study, we investigated the role of ELL during the HTLV-1 Tax oncogene induced transactivation. We show that ectopic expression of Tax enhances ELL incorporation into p300 and P-TEFb containing transcriptional complexes and the subsequent recruitment of these complexes to target genes in vivo. Depletion of ELL abrogates Tax induced transactivation of the immediate early genes Fos, Egr2 and NF-kB, suggesting that ELL is an essential cellular cofactor of the Tax oncogene. Thus, our study identifies a novel mechanism of ELL-dependent transactivation of immediate early genes by Tax and provides the rational for further defining the genome-wide targets of Tax and ELL.

  10. NSD2 contributes to oncogenic RAS-driven transcription in lung cancer cells through long-range epigenetic activation

    PubMed Central

    García-Carpizo, Verónica; Sarmentero, Jacinto; Han, Bomie; Graña, Osvaldo; Ruiz-Llorente, Sergio; Pisano, David G.; Serrano, Manuel; Brooks, Harold B.; Campbell, Robert M.; Barrero, Maria J.

    2016-01-01

    The histone methyltransferase NSD2/WHSC1/MMSET is overexpressed in a number of solid tumors but its contribution to the biology of these tumors is not well understood. Here, we describe that NSD2 contributes to the proliferation of a subset of lung cancer cell lines by supporting oncogenic RAS transcriptional responses. NSD2 knock down combined with MEK or BRD4 inhibitors causes co-operative inhibitory responses on cell growth. However, while MEK and BRD4 inhibitors converge in the downregulation of genes associated with cancer-acquired super-enhancers, NSD2 inhibition affects the expression of clusters of genes embedded in megabase-scale regions marked with H3K36me2 and that contribute to the RAS transcription program. Thus, combinatorial therapies using MEK or BRD4 inhibitors together with NSD2 inhibition are likely to be needed to ensure a more comprehensive inhibition of oncogenic RAS-driven transcription programs in lung cancers with NSD2 overexpression. PMID:27604143

  11. Inhibition of ligand-independent constitutive activation of the Met oncogenic receptor by the engineered chemically-modified antibody DN30.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Elisa; Chiriaco, Cristina; Cignetto, Simona; Fontani, Lara; Basilico, Cristina; Petronzelli, Fiorella; Comoglio, Paolo M

    2015-11-01

    An awesome number of experimental and clinical evidences indicate that constitutive activation of the Met oncogenic receptor plays a critical role in the progression of cancer toward metastasis and/or resistance to targeted therapies. While mutations are rare, the common mechanism of Met activation is overexpression, either by gene amplification ('addiction') or transcriptional activation ('expedience'). In the first instance ligand-independent kinase activation plays a major role in sustaining the transformed phenotype. Anti-Met antibodies directed against the receptor binding site behave essentially as ligand (Hepatocyte Growth Factor, HGF) antagonists and are ineffective to counteract ligand-independent activation. The monovalent chimeric MvDN30 antibody fragment, PEGylated to extend its half-life, binds the fourth IPT domain and induces 'shedding' of the Met extracellular domain, dramatically reducing both the number of receptors on the surface and their phosphorylation. Downstream signaling is thus inhibited, both in the absence or in the presence of the ligand. In vitro, MvDN30 is a strong inhibitor not only of ligand-dependent invasive growth, sustained by both paracrine and autocrine HGF, but notably, also of ligand-independent growth of 'Met-addicted' cells. In immunocompromised mice, lacking expression of Hepatocyte Growth Factor cross-reacting with the human receptor - thus providing, by definition, a model of 'ligand-independent' Met activation - PEGylated MvDN30 impairs growth of Met 'addicted' human gastric carcinoma cells. In a Met-amplified patient-derived colo-rectal tumor (xenopatient) MvDN30-PEG overcomes the resistance to EGFR targeted therapy (Cetuximab). The PEGylated MvDN30 is thus a strong candidate for targeting tumors sustained by ligand-independent Met oncogenic activation.

  12. Function of oncogenes in cancer development: a changing paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Vicente-Dueñas, Carolina; Romero-Camarero, Isabel; Cobaleda, Cesar; Sánchez-García, Isidro

    2013-01-01

    Tumour-associated oncogenes induce unscheduled proliferation as well as genomic and chromosomal instability. According to current models, therapeutic strategies that block oncogene activity are likely to selectively target tumour cells. However, recent evidences have revealed that oncogenes are only essential for the proliferation of some specific tumour cell types, but not all. Indeed, the latest studies of the interactions between the oncogene and its target cell have shown that oncogenes contribute to cancer development not only by inducing proliferation but also by developmental reprogramming of the epigenome. This provides the first evidence that tumorigenesis can be initiated by stem cell reprogramming, and uncovers a new role for oncogenes in the origin of cancer. Here we analyse these evidences and propose an updated model of oncogene function that can explain the full range of genotype–phenotype associations found in human cancer. Finally, we discuss how this vision opens new avenues for developing novel anti-cancer interventions. PMID:23632857

  13. Oncogenic PTEN functions and models in T-cell malignancies.

    PubMed

    Tesio, M; Trinquand, A; Macintyre, E; Asnafi, V

    2016-07-28

    PTEN is a protein phosphatase that is crucial to prevent the malignant transformation of T-cells. Although a numerous mechanisms regulate its expression and function, they are often altered in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukaemias and T-cell lymphomas. As such, PTEN inactivation frequently occurs in these malignancies, where it can be associated with chemotherapy resistance and poor prognosis. Different Pten knockout models recapitulated the development of T-cell leukaemia/lymphoma, demonstrating that PTEN loss is at the center of a complex oncogenic network that sustains and drives tumorigenesis via the activation of multiple signalling pathways. These aspects and their therapeutic implications are discussed in this review.

  14. Oncogenic signaling by Kit tyrosine kinase occurs selectively on the Golgi apparatus in gastrointestinal stromal tumors.

    PubMed

    Obata, Y; Horikawa, K; Takahashi, T; Akieda, Y; Tsujimoto, M; Fletcher, J A; Esumi, H; Nishida, T; Abe, R

    2017-02-13

    Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) are caused by gain-of-function mutations in the Kit receptor tyrosine kinase. Most primary GIST patients respond to the Kit inhibitor imatinib, but this drug often becomes ineffective because of secondary mutations in the Kit kinase domain. The characteristic intracellular accumulation of imatinib-sensitive and -resistant Kit protein is well documented, but its relationship to oncogenic signaling remains unknown. Here, we show that in cancer tissue from primary GIST patients as well as in cell lines, mutant Kit accumulates on the Golgi apparatus, whereas normal Kit localizes to the plasma membrane (PM). In imatinib-resistant GIST with a secondary Kit mutation, Kit localizes predominantly on the Golgi apparatus. Both imatinib-sensitive and imatinib-resistant Kit (Kit(mut)) become fully auto-phosphorylated only on the Golgi and only if in a complex-glycosylated form. Kit(mut) accumulates on the Golgi during the early secretory pathway, but not after endocytosis. The aberrant kinase activity of Kit(mut) prevents its export from the Golgi to the PM. Furthermore, Kit(mut) on the Golgi signals and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt (PI3K-Akt) pathway, signal transducer and activator of transcription 5 (STAT5), and the Mek-Erk pathway. Blocking the biosynthetic transport of Kit(mut) to the Golgi from the endoplasmic reticulum inhibits oncogenic signaling. PM localization of Kit(mut) is not required for its signaling. Activation of Src-family tyrosine kinases on the Golgi is essential for oncogenic Kit signaling. These results suggest that the Golgi apparatus serves as a platform for oncogenic Kit signaling. Our study demonstrates that Kit(mut)'s pathogenicity is related to its mis-localization, and may offer a new strategy for treating imatinib-resistant GISTs.Oncogene advance online publication, 13 February 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2016.519.

  15. Metastasis suppressor, NDRG1, mediates its activity through signaling pathways and molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Zhang, Daohai; Bae, Dong-Hun; Sahni, Sumit; Jansson, Patric; Zheng, Ying; Zhao, Qian; Yue, Fei; Zheng, Minhua; Kovacevic, Zaklina; Richardson, Des R

    2013-09-01

    The metastasis suppressor, N-myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1), is negatively correlated with tumor progression in multiple neoplasms, being a promising new target for cancer treatment. However, the precise molecular effects of NDRG1 remain unclear. Herein, we summarize recent advances in understanding the impact of NDRG1 on cancer metastasis with emphasis on its interactions with the key oncogenic nuclear factor-kappaB, phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase/phosphorylated AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin and Ras/Raf/mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling pathways. Recent studies demonstrating the inhibitory effects of NDRG1 on the epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a key initial step in metastasis, TGF-β pathway and the Wnt/β-catenin pathway are also described. Furthermore, NDRG1 was also demonstrated to regulate molecular motors in cancer cells, leading to inhibition of F-actin polymerization, stress fiber formation and subsequent reduction of cancer cell migration. Collectively, this review summarizes the underlying molecular mechanisms of the antimetastatic effects of NDRG1 in cancer cells.

  16. Overexpression of the Transcription Factor Sp1 Activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valéryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Joël; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stéphane; Chambion, Solène; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen. PMID:25738304

  17. Overexpression of the transcription factor Sp1 activates the OAS-RNAse L-RIG-I pathway.

    PubMed

    Dupuis-Maurin, Valéryane; Brinza, Lilia; Baguet, Joël; Plantamura, Emilie; Schicklin, Stéphane; Chambion, Solène; Macari, Claire; Tomkowiak, Martine; Deniaud, Emmanuelle; Leverrier, Yann; Marvel, Jacqueline; Michallet, Marie-Cécile

    2015-01-01

    Deregulated expression of oncogenes or transcription factors such as specificity protein 1 (Sp1) is observed in many human cancers and plays a role in tumor maintenance. Paradoxically in untransformed cells, Sp1 overexpression induces late apoptosis but the early intrinsic response is poorly characterized. In the present work, we studied increased Sp1 level consequences in untransformed cells and showed that it turns on an early innate immune transcriptome. Sp1 overexpression does not activate known cellular stress pathways such as DNA damage response or endoplasmic reticulum stress, but induces the activation of the OAS-RNase L pathway and the generation of small self-RNAs, leading to the upregulation of genes of the antiviral RIG-I pathway at the transcriptional and translational levels. Finally, Sp1-induced intrinsic innate immune response leads to the production of the chemokine CXCL4 and to the recruitment of inflammatory cells in vitro and in vivo. Altogether our results showed that increased Sp1 level in untransformed cells constitutes a novel danger signal sensed by the OAS-RNase L axis leading to the activation of the RIG-I pathway. These results suggested that the OAS-RNase L-RIG-I pathway may be activated in sterile condition in absence of pathogen.

  18. Power of PTEN/AKT: Molecular switch between tumor suppressors and oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    XIE, YINGQIU; NAIZABEKOV, SANZHAR; CHEN, ZHANLIN; TOKAY, TURSONJAN

    2016-01-01

    An increasing amount of evidence has shown that tumor suppressors can become oncogenes, or vice versa, but the mechanism behind this is unclear. Recent findings have suggested that phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is one of the powerful switches for the conversion between tumor suppressors and oncogenes. PTEN regulates a number of cellular processes, including cell death and proliferation, through the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/AKT/mTOR) pathway. Furthermore, a number of studies have suggested that PTEN deletions may alter various functions of certain tumor suppressor and oncogenic proteins. The aim of the present review was to analyze specific cases driven by PTEN loss/AKT activation, including aberrant signaling pathways and novel drug targets for clinical application in personalized medicine. The findings illustrate how PTEN loss and/or AKT activation switches MDM2-dependent p53 downregulation, and induces conversion between oncogene and tumor suppressor in enhancer of zeste homolog 2, BTB domain-containing 7A, alternative reading frame 2, p27 and breast cancer 1, early onset, through multiple mechanisms. This review highlights the genetic basis of complex drug targets and provides insights into the rationale of precision cancer therapy. PMID:27347153

  19. A high-content screening assay for small-molecule modulators of oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Bitler, Benjamin G; Fink, Lauren S; Wei, Zhi; Peterson, Jeffrey R; Zhang, Rugang

    2013-10-01

    Cellular senescence is a state of stable cell growth arrest. Activation of oncogenes such as RAS in mammalian cells typically triggers cellular senescence. Oncogene-induced senescence (OIS) is an important tumor suppression mechanism, and suppression of OIS contributes to cell transformation. Oncogenes trigger senescence through a multitude of incompletely understood downstream signaling events that frequently involve protein kinases. To identify target proteins required for RAS-induced senescence, we developed a small-molecule screen in primary human fibroblasts undergoing senescence induced by oncogenic RAS (H-Ras(G12V)). Using a high-content imaging system to monitor two hallmarks of senescence, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity expression and inhibition of proliferation, we screened a library of known small-molecule kinase inhibitors for those that suppressed OIS. Identified compounds were subsequently validated and confirmed using a third marker of senescence, senescence-associated heterochromatin foci. In summary, we have established a novel high-content screening platform that may be useful for elucidating signaling pathways mediating OIS by targeting critical pathway components.

  20. Lack of oncogenicity of wood creosote, the principal active ingredient of Seirogan, an herbal antidiarrheal medication, in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Kuge, T; Shibata, T; Willett, M S; Turck, P; Traul, K A

    2001-01-01

    Seirogan, an herbal medicine containing wood creosote (tablets, 10.0% w/w), has been developed and marketed for almost a century in various countries for the control of acute diarrhea and treatment of associated symptoms, such as abdominal cramping. Wood creosote (CAS no. 8021-39-4) is a mixture of simple phenolic compounds, including guaiacol and creosol and related compounds, and is chemically distinct from, and should not be confused with, coal tar creosote, a known carcinogen. In the current study, the oncogenic potential of wood creosote was assessed in a 96/103-week oral gavage study in Sprague-Dawley rats. Groups of 60 rats/sex received wood creosote at dose levels of 20, 50, or 200 mg/kg body weight [bw]/day. An additional group of rats received the vehicle, 0.5% carboxymethylcellulose in deionized, distilled water, at the same dose volume as the treatment groups (10 ml/kg) and served as the controls. Treatment-related decreases in survival, body weight, and food consumption, as well as increased incidences of clinical signs that included rales, decreased activity, and salivation, were noted at 200 mg/kg bw/day when compared with the control group. There was an increased incidence of reddened and edematous lungs in rats from the 200 mg/kg bw/day group that died during the study. The lung findings were suggestive of test article aspiration during dose administration or agonal aspiration preceding and possibly resulting in death, especially because these observations were not seen in animals that survived to scheduled sacrifice. Additionally, phenols are generally recognized as having corrosive properties. There were no changes in clinical pathology and no increases in neoplastic or non-neoplastic lesions, excluding the lung findings, related to treatment with wood creosote at any dose level. Although the results of this study indicate that the maximum tolerated dose of wood creosote was met or exceeded at 200 mg/kg bw/day, there was no evidence of

  1. Oncogenic potential of bifunctional bioreductive drugs.

    PubMed

    Hei, T K; Liu, S X; Hall, E J

    1996-07-01

    Potential oncogenicity must be a factor of concern in the design and development of novel bioreductive drugs. In the present studies, the cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potential of a series of heterocyclic mono-N-oxides, designed to be used as bioreductive drugs, were examined using the mouse C3H 10T1/2 cell system. Exponential phase cultures of 10T1/2 cells were treated with graded doses of the bioreductive drugs for a 4 h period, either in air or hypoxia, at 37 degrees C. After treatment, cultures were replated for both survival and transformation assays. The fused pyrazine mono-N-oxide RB 90740 and its N-deoxy analogue, RB 92816, demonstrated a dose-dependent cytotoxicity and oncogenic transforming potency under aerobic conditions. Similarly, the indoloquinone E09 and the structurally related mitomycin C demonstrated dose dependence in both toxicity and oncogenic transforming potential. The most cytotoxic aromatic-N-oxides tested, RB 92816, also demonstrated the highest oncogenic transformation incidence. In hypoxia, the bioreductive metabolites of RB 90740 were substantially more cytotoxic and induced a higher oncogenic transformation yield than the drug in air. These data are consistent with the structure-activity relationship for bioreductive drugs in that heterocyclic-N-oxides with reactive side chains such as RB 92816 are cytotoxic and potentially carcinogenic.

  2. Hypoxia induces H19 expression through direct and indirect Hif-1α activity, promoting oncogenic effects in glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Weining; Hu, Qi; Nie, Er; Yu, Tianfu; Wu, Youzhi; Zhi, Tongle; Jiang, Kuan; Shen, Feng; Wang, Yingyi; Zhang, Junxia; You, Yongping

    2017-01-01

    H19 expression is elevated in many human tumors including glioblastomas, suggesting an oncogenic role for the long noncoding RNA; yet the upregulation of H19 in glioblastomas remains unclear. Here we report that hypoxia significantly stimulated H19 expression in glioblastoma cell lines, which was related to hypoxia-inducible factors 1α (Hif-1α). Hif-1α promoted H19 expression in U87 and U251 cells. Meanwhile PTEN is an advantageous factor to affect H19 expression, through attenuating Hif-1α stability. Hif-1α also positively correlates with H19 in human glioblastoma samples depending on PTEN status. ChIP and luciferase reporter assays showed that Hif-1α induced H19 transcription through directly binding to the H19 promoter. Furthermore, Hif-1α upregulated specific protein 1 (SP1) expression in glioblastomas cells in vitro and in vivo, and SP1 also strongly interacted with the H19 promoter to promote H19 expression under hypoxia. We also showed that H19 acts as a molecular sponge that binds miR-181d, relieving inhibition of β-catenin expression. Therefore, H19 participates in hypoxia-driven migration and invasion in glioblastoma cells. In summary, our results uncover the mechanisms that stimulate H19 expression under hypoxia to promote malignant effects in glioblastomas and suggest H19 might be a promising therapeutic target. PMID:28327666

  3. The Role of Notch Signaling Pathway in Breast Cancer Pathogenesis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-07-01

    coexpression of a constitutively active form of Notch1 in immortalized breast epithelial HMLE cells expressing low levels of oncogenic Ras rendered them...the Notch-Ras pathway interaction revealed that nuclear localization of Notch1 is essential for this cooperation. Dissection of Ras-pathways using the...activates Raf/MAPK pathway, formed efficient colonies with activated Notch1 . Interestingly, I found that expression of activated Notch1 rendered the

  4. Oncogenic TPM3-ALK activation requires dimerization through the coiled-coil structure of TPM3

    SciTech Connect

    Amano, Yosuke; Ishikawa, Rie; Sakatani, Toshio; Ichinose, Junji; Sunohara, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Kousuke; Kage, Hidenori; Nakajima, Jun; Nagase, Takahide; Ohishi, Nobuya; Takai, Daiya

    2015-02-13

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a mesenchymal tumor that can arise from anywhere in the body. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangements, most often resulting in the tropomyosin 3 (TPM3)-ALK fusion gene, are the main causes of IMT. However, the mechanism of malignant transformation in IMT has yet to be elucidated. The purpose of this study was to clarify the role of the TPM3 region in the transformation of IMT via TPM3-ALK. Lentivirus vectors containing a TPM3-ALK fusion gene lacking various lengths of TPM3 were constructed and expressed in HEK293T and NIH3T3 cell lines. Focus formation assay revealed loss of contact inhibition in NIH3T3 cells transfected with full-length TPM3-ALK, but not with ALK alone. Blue-native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (BN-PAGE) revealed that TPM3-ALK dimerization increased in proportion to the length of TPM3. Western blot showed phosphorylation of ALK, ERK1/2, and STAT3 in HEK293T cells transfected with TPM3-ALK. Thus, the coiled-coil structure of TPM3 contributes to the transforming ability of the TPM3-ALK fusion protein, and longer TPM3 region leads to higher dimer formation. - Highlights: • TPM3-ALK fusion protein dimerizes through the coiled-coil structure of TPM3. • Longer coiled-coil structure of TPM3 leads to higher TPM3-ALK dimer formation. • Presence of TPM3-ALK dimer leads to ALK, STAT3, and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. • Presence of TPM3-ALK leads to loss of contact inhibition. • BN-PAGE is a simple technique for visualizing oncogenic dimerization.

  5. Oncogenic mutations as predictive factors in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lièvre, A; Blons, H; Laurent-Puig, P

    2010-05-27

    The anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (anti-EGFR) monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab have been demonstrated to be new therapeutic options for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Oncogenic activation of intracellular signalling pathways downstream of EGFR has a major role in colorectal carcinogenesis but has also been reported to be an important mechanism of resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies. Among the activating mutations found in colorectal cancers, tumour KRAS mutations, which are found in approximately 40% of the cases, have been widely demonstrated as a major predictive marker of resistance to cetuximab or panitumumab, therefore, opening the way to individualized treatment for patients with mCRC. Other oncogenic mutations, such as BRAF or PIK3CA mutations or loss of PTEN expression, may also be additional interesting predictive markers of response to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies but required further evaluation before being incorporated in clinical practice. The identification of these molecular markers involved in the resistance of anti-EGFR antibodies will allow the development of new therapies that should target 'escape mechanisms' used by tumours to circumvent a pathway that has been pharmacologically blocked by anti-EGFR.

  6. Structural Effects of Oncogenic PI3K alpha Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    S Gabelli; C Huang; D Mandelker; O Schmidt-Kittler; B Vogelstein; L Amzel

    2011-12-31

    Physiological activation of PI3K{alpha} is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3K{alpha} result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  7. Structural effects of oncogenic PI3Kα mutations.

    PubMed

    Gabelli, Sandra B; Huang, Chuan-Hsiang; Mandelker, Diana; Schmidt-Kittler, Oleg; Vogelstein, Bert; Amzel, L Mario

    2010-01-01

    Physiological activation of PI3Kα is brought about by the release of the inhibition by p85 when the nSH2 binds the phosphorylated tyrosine of activated receptors or their substrates. Oncogenic mutations of PI3Kα result in a constitutively activated enzyme that triggers downstream pathways that increase tumor aggressiveness and survival. Structural information suggests that some mutations also activate the enzyme by releasing p85 inhibition. Other mutations work by different mechanisms. For example, the most common mutation, His1047Arg, causes a conformational change that increases membrane association resulting in greater accessibility to the substrate, an integral membrane component. These effects are examples of the subtle structural changes that result in increased activity. The structures of these and other mutants are providing the basis for the design of isozyme-specific, mutation-specific inhibitors for individualized cancer therapies.

  8. The Rb/E2F pathway and Ras activation regulate RecQ helicase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongqing; El-Naggar, Shahenda; Clem, Brian; Chesney, Jason; Dean, Douglas C

    2008-06-01

    Disruption of the Rb (retinoblastoma protein)/E2F cell-cycle pathway and Ras activation are two of the most frequent events in cancer, and both of these mutations place oncogenic stress on cells to increase DNA replication. In the present study, we demonstrate that these mutations have an additive effect on induction of members of the RecQ DNA helicase family. RecQ activity is important for genomic stability, initiation of DNA replication and telomere maintenance, and mutation of the BLM (Bloom's syndrome gene), WRN (Werner's syndrome gene) or RECQL4 (Rothmund-Thomson syndrome gene) family members leads to premature aging syndromes characterized by genetic instability and telomere loss. RecQ family members are frequently overexpressed in cancers, and overexpression of BLM has been shown to cause telomere elongation. Concomitant with induction of RecQ genes in response to Rb family mutation and Ras activation, we show an increase in the number of telomeric repeats. We suggest that this induction of RecQ genes in response to common oncogenic mutations may explain the up-regulation of the genes seen in cancers, and it may provide a means for transformed cells to respond to an increased demand for DNA replication.

  9. (Oncogenic action of ionizing radiation)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    An extensive experiment involving approximately 400 rats exposed to the neon ion beam at the Bevalac in Berkeley, CA and to electrons is nearing completion. The carcinogenicity of energetic electrons was determined for comparison with the neon ion results. As in past reports we will describe progress in three areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) carcinogenesis and DNA strand breaks in rat skin following exposure by the neon ions or electrons; (2) DNA strand breaks in the epidermis as a function of radiation penetration; (3) oncogene activation in radiation-induced rat skin cancers. 72 refs., 6 tabs.

  10. Preclinical efficacy of a RAF inhibitor that evades paradoxical MAPK pathway activation in protein kinase BRAF-mutant lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Okimoto, Ross A; Lin, Luping; Olivas, Victor; Chan, Elton; Markegard, Evan; Rymar, Andrey; Neel, Dana; Chen, Xiao; Hemmati, Golzar; Bollag, Gideon; Bivona, Trever G

    2016-11-22

    Oncogenic activation of protein kinase BRAF drives tumor growth by promoting mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway signaling. Because oncogenic mutations in BRAF occur in ∼2-7% of lung adenocarcinoma (LA), BRAF-mutant LA is the most frequent cause of BRAF-mutant cancer mortality worldwide. Whereas most tumor types harbor predominantly the BRAF(V600E)-mutant allele, the spectrum of BRAF mutations in LA includes BRAF(V600E) (∼60% of cases) and non-V600E mutant alleles (∼40% of cases) such as BRAF(G469A) and BRAF(G466V) The presence of BRAF(V600E) in LA has prompted clinical trials testing selective BRAF inhibitors such as vemurafenib in BRAF(V600E)-mutant patients. Despite promising clinical efficacy, both innate and acquired resistance often result from reactivation of MAPK pathway signaling, thus limiting durable responses to the current BRAF inhibitors. Further, the optimal therapeutic strategy to block non-V600E BRAF-mutant LA remains unclear. Here, we report the efficacy of the Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine protein kinase (RAF) inhibitor, PLX8394, that evades MAPK pathway reactivation in BRAF-mutant LA models. We show that PLX8394 treatment is effective in both BRAF(V600E) and certain non-V600 LA models, in vitro and in vivo. PLX8394 was effective against treatment-naive BRAF-mutant LAs and those with acquired vemurafenib resistance caused by an alternatively spliced, truncated BRAF(V600E) that promotes vemurafenib-insensitive MAPK pathway signaling. We further show that acquired PLX8394 resistance occurs via EGFR-mediated RAS-mTOR signaling and is prevented by upfront combination therapy with PLX8394 and either an EGFR or mTOR inhibitor. Our study provides a biological rationale and potential polytherapy strategy to aid the deployment of PLX8394 in lung cancer patients.

  11. Specific activation of the paralemniscal pathway during nociception.

    PubMed

    Frangeul, Laura; Porrero, Cesar; Garcia-Amado, Maria; Maimone, Benedetta; Maniglier, Madlyne; Clascá, Francisco; Jabaudon, Denis

    2014-05-01

    Two main neuronal pathways connect facial whiskers to the somatosensory cortex in rodents: (i) the lemniscal pathway, which originates in the brainstem principal trigeminal nucleus and is relayed in the ventroposterior thalamic nucleus and (ii) the paralemniscal pathway, originating in the spinal trigeminal nucleus and relayed in the posterior thalamic nucleus. While lemniscal neurons are readily activated by whisker contacts, the contribution of paralemniscal neurons to perception is less clear. Here, we functionally investigated these pathways by manipulating input from the whisker pad in freely moving mice. We report that while lemniscal neurons readily respond to neonatal infraorbital nerve sectioning or whisker contacts in vivo, paralemniscal neurons do not detectably respond to these environmental changes. However, the paralemniscal pathway is specifically activated upon noxious stimulation of the whisker pad. These findings reveal a nociceptive function for paralemniscal neurons in vivo that may critically inform context-specific behaviour during environmental exploration.

  12. A posttranslational modification cascade involving p38, Tip60, and PRAK mediates oncogene-induced senescence.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Hui; Seit-Nebi, Alim; Han, Xuemei; Aslanian, Aaron; Tat, John; Liao, Rong; Yates, John R; Sun, Peiqing

    2013-06-06

    Oncogene-induced senescence is an important tumor-suppressing defense mechanism. However, relatively little is known about the signaling pathway mediating the senescence response. Here, we demonstrate that a multifunctional acetyltransferase, Tip60, plays an essential role in oncogenic ras-induced senescence. Further investigation reveals a cascade of posttranslational modifications involving p38, Tip60, and PRAK, three proteins that are essential for ras-induced senescence. Upon activation by ras, p38 induces the acetyltransferase activity of Tip60 through phosphorylation of Thr158; activated Tip60 in turn directly interacts with and induces the protein kinase activity of PRAK through acetylation of K364 in a manner that depends on phosphorylation of both Tip60 and PRAK by p38. These posttranslational modifications are critical for the prosenescent function of Tip60 and PRAK, respectively. These results have defined a signaling pathway that mediates oncogene-induced senescence, and identified posttranslational modifications that regulate the enzymatic activity and biological functions of Tip60 and PRAK.

  13. Viral oncogenes, proto-oncogenes and homoeotic genes related to cell proliferation and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Antohi, S; Antohi-Talle, O

    1987-01-01

    Molecular studies on viral oncogenes and their products have led to the discovery of physiological proto-oncogenes, involved in the control of cell proliferation and gene activation. Other genetic and molecular investigations, initiated in Drosophila melanogaster and continued in different multicellular eukaryotes, have made evident the homoeotic genes, which are directly correlated with cell specialization, in the complex processes of differentiation and morphogenesis. Both gene classes are conserved to a high extent during evolution. They are involved in the eukaryotic mechanisms of differentiation control and proto-oncogenes, in particular, are related to malignant transformation. Some available data suggest a certain extent of relatedness between the gene products of both gene classes. A differentiation trigger model, including retroviral transposition, homoeotic genes and proto-oncogenes is discussed.

  14. Oncogenic S1P signalling in EBV-associated nasopharyngeal carcinoma activates AKT and promotes cell migration through S1P receptor 3.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Min; Lo, Kwok-Wai; Wei, Wenbin; Tsao, Sai Wah; Chung, Grace Tin Yun; Ibrahim, Maha Hafez; Dawson, Christopher W; Murray, Paul G; Paterson, Ian C; Yap, Lee Fah

    2017-02-27

    Undifferentiated nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a cancer with high metastatic potential that is consistently associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. In this study, we have investigated the functional contribution of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) signalling to the pathogenesis of NPC. We show that EBV infection or ectopic expression of the EBV-encoded latent genes (EBNA1, LMP1 and LMP2A) can up-regulate sphingosine kinase 1 (SPHK1), the key enzyme that produces S1P, in NPC cell lines. Exogenous addition of S1P promotes the migration of NPC cells through the activation of AKT; shRNA knockdown of SPHK1 resulted in a reduction in the levels of activated AKT and inhibition of cell migration. We also show that S1P receptor 3 (S1PR3) mRNA is over-expressed in EBV-positive NPC patient-derived xenografts and a subset of primary NPC tissues, and that knockdown of S1PR3 suppressed the activation of AKT and the S1P-induced migration of NPC cells. Taken together, our data point to a central role for EBV in mediating the oncogenic effects of S1P in NPC and identify S1P signalling as a potential therapeutic target in this disease.

  15. The Notch/Hes1 pathway sustains NF-κB activation through CYLD repression in T cell leukemia.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Lluis; Cathelin, Severine; D'Altri, Teresa; Trimarchi, Thomas; Statnikov, Alexander; Guiu, Jordi; Rodilla, Veronica; Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Nomdedeu, Josep; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Kucine, Nicole; Sun, Shao-Cong; Song, Guangchan; Mullighan, Charles C; Levine, Ross L; Rajewsky, Klaus; Aifantis, Iannis; Bigas, Anna

    2010-09-14

    It was previously shown that the NF-κB pathway is downstream of oncogenic Notch1 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here, we visualize Notch-induced NF-κB activation using both human T-ALL cell lines and animal models. We demonstrate that Hes1, a canonical Notch target and transcriptional repressor, is responsible for sustaining IKK activation in T-ALL. Hes1 exerts its effects by repressing the deubiquitinase CYLD, a negative IKK complex regulator. CYLD expression was found to be significantly suppressed in primary T-ALL. Finally, we demonstrate that IKK inhibition is a promising option for the targeted therapy of T-ALL as specific suppression of IKK expression and function affected both the survival of human T-ALL cells and the maintenance of the disease in vivo.

  16. The Notch/Hes1 pathway sustains NF-κB activation through CYLD repression in T cell leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Lluis; Cathelin, Severine; D’Altri, Teresa; Trimarchi, Thomas; Statnikov, Alexander; Guiu, Jordi; Rodilla, Veronica; Inglés-Esteve, Julia; Nomdedeu, Josep; Bellosillo, Beatriz; Besses, Carles; Abdel-Wahab, Omar; Kucine, Nicole; Sun, Shao-Cong; Song, Guangchan; Mullighan, Charles C.; Levine, Ross L.; Rajewsky, Klaus; Aifantis, Iannis; Bigas, Anna

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY It was previously shown that the NF-κB pathway is downstream of oncogenic Notch1 in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL). Here we visualize Notch-induced NF-κB activation using both human T-ALL cell lines and animal models. We demonstrate that Hes1, a canonical Notch target and transcriptional repressor, is responsible for sustaining IKK activation in T-ALL. Hes1 exerts its effects by repressing the deubiquitinase CYLD, a negative IKK complex regulator. CYLD expression was found to be significantly suppressed in primary T-ALL. Finally, we demonstrate that IKK inhibition is a promising option for the targeted therapy of T-ALL as specific suppression of IKK expression and function affected both the survival of human T-ALL cells and the maintenance of the disease in vivo. PMID:20832754

  17. Epidermal Growth Factor-dependent Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway by DJ-1 Protein through Its Direct Binding to c-Raf Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato-Ose, Izumi; Murata, Hiroaki; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M. M.; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-01-01

    DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of cysteine at position 106 (Cys-106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1. Although DJ-1 requires activated Ras for its oncogenic activity and although it activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, a cell growth pathway downstream of Ras, the precise mechanism underlying activation of the ERK pathway by DJ-1 is still not known. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to the kinase domain of c-Raf but not to Ras and that Cys-106 mutant DJ-1 bound to c-Raf more weakly than did wild-type DJ-1. Co-localization of DJ-1 with c-Raf in the cytoplasm was enhanced in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated cells. Knockdown of DJ-1 expression attenuated the phosphorylation level of c-Raf in EGF-treated cells, resulting in reduced activation of MEK and ERK1/2. Although EGF-treated DJ-1 knock-out cells also showed attenuated c-Raf activation, reintroduction of wild-type DJ-1, but not C106S DJ-1, into DJ-1 knock-out cells restored c-Raf activation in a DJ-1 binding activity in a c-Raf-dependent manner. DJ-1 was not responsible for activation of c-Raf in phorbol myristate acetate-treated cells. Furthermore, DJ-1 stimulated self-phosphorylation activity of c-Raf in vitro, but DJ-1 was not a target for Raf kinase. Oxidation of Cys-106 in DJ-1 was not affected by EGF treatment. These findings showed that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the EGF/Ras/ERK pathway through targeting c-Raf. PMID:26048984

  18. Epidermal Growth Factor-dependent Activation of the Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase Pathway by DJ-1 Protein through Its Direct Binding to c-Raf Protein.

    PubMed

    Takahashi-Niki, Kazuko; Kato-Ose, Izumi; Murata, Hiroaki; Maita, Hiroshi; Iguchi-Ariga, Sanae M M; Ariga, Hiroyoshi

    2015-07-17

    DJ-1 is an oncogene and also a causative gene for familial Parkinson disease. DJ-1 has various functions, and the oxidative status of cysteine at position 106 (Cys-106) is crucial for determination of the activation level of DJ-1. Although DJ-1 requires activated Ras for its oncogenic activity and although it activates the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathway, a cell growth pathway downstream of Ras, the precise mechanism underlying activation of the ERK pathway by DJ-1 is still not known. In this study, we found that DJ-1 directly bound to the kinase domain of c-Raf but not to Ras and that Cys-106 mutant DJ-1 bound to c-Raf more weakly than did wild-type DJ-1. Co-localization of DJ-1 with c-Raf in the cytoplasm was enhanced in epidermal growth factor (EGF)-treated cells. Knockdown of DJ-1 expression attenuated the phosphorylation level of c-Raf in EGF-treated cells, resulting in reduced activation of MEK and ERK1/2. Although EGF-treated DJ-1 knock-out cells also showed attenuated c-Raf activation, reintroduction of wild-type DJ-1, but not C106S DJ-1, into DJ-1 knock-out cells restored c-Raf activation in a DJ-1 binding activity in a c-Raf-dependent manner. DJ-1 was not responsible for activation of c-Raf in phorbol myristate acetate-treated cells. Furthermore, DJ-1 stimulated self-phosphorylation activity of c-Raf in vitro, but DJ-1 was not a target for Raf kinase. Oxidation of Cys-106 in DJ-1 was not affected by EGF treatment. These findings showed that DJ-1 is a positive regulator of the EGF/Ras/ERK pathway through targeting c-Raf.

  19. Oncogene v-jun modulates DNA replication.

    PubMed

    Wasylyk, C; Schneikert, J; Wasylyk, B

    1990-07-01

    Cell transformation leads to alterations in both transcription and DNA replication. Activation of transcription by the expression of a number of transforming oncogenes is mediated by the transcription factor AP1 (Herrlich & Ponta, 1989; Imler & Wasylyk, 1989). AP1 is a composite transcription factor, consisting of members of the jun and fos gene-families. c-jun and c-fos are progenitors of oncogenes, suggestion that an important transcriptional event in cell transformation is altered activity of AP1, which may arise either indirectly by oncogene expression or directly by structural modification of AP1. We report here that the v-jun oncogene and its progenitor c-jun, as fusion proteins with the lex-A-repressor DNA binding domain, can activate DNA replication from the Polyoma virus (Py) origin of replication, linked to the lex-A operator. The transcription-activation region of v-jun is required for activation of replication. When excess v-jun is expressed in the cell, replication is inhibited or 'squelched'. These results suggest that one consequence of deregulated jun activity could be altered DNA replication and that there are similarities in the way v-jun activates replication and transcription.

  20. Activation of Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q enriches stem-like population and enhance mammosphere formation of breast cells.

    PubMed

    Tse, Charlotte Olivia; Kim, Soojin; Park, Jino

    2017-03-18

    Wnt signaling pathway is believed to be responsible for control over various types of stem cells and may act as a niche factor to maintain stem cells in a self-renewing state. Moreover, dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway is strongly associated with several diseases including cancer. Previously, we have shown that AF1q associates with a poor prognosis in leukemia, myelodysplastic syndromes, multiple myeloid, ovarian cancer, and breast cancer. Also, AF1q plays a pivotal role as an oncogene and metastasis enhancer in breast cancer via activation of Wnt signaling pathway. AF1q is highly expressed in stem cells, and this expression is diminished by differentiation. To understand the role of AF1q in stem-like population, we examined stem-like cells derived from breast cells which dysregulated Wnt signaling pathway by alteration of AF1q expression. The effect of Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q on EMT marker expression, stem cell marker expression, and sphere formation was determined. Activated Wnt signaling pathway by AF1q enriched stem-like population showed enhanced sphere formation ability. Interestingly, Wnt signaling pathway inhibitor, Quercetin, decreased the sphere formation in these cells. These results suggest that AF1q would have a role as an enhancer in generation of stem-like population through activation of Wnt signaling pathway.

  1. Mitogen Activated Protein kinase signal transduction pathways in the prostate

    PubMed Central

    Maroni, Paul D; Koul, Sweaty; Meacham, Randall B; Koul, Hari K

    2004-01-01

    The biochemistry of the mitogen activated protein kinases ERK, JNK, and p38 have been studied in prostate physiology in an attempt to elucidate novel mechanisms and pathways for the treatment of prostatic disease. We reviewed articles examining mitogen-activated protein kinases using prostate tissue or cell lines. As with other tissue types, these signaling modules are links/transmitters for important pathways in prostate cells that can result in cellular survival or apoptosis. While the activation of the ERK pathway appears to primarily result in survival, the roles of JNK and p38 are less clear. Manipulation of these pathways could have important implications for the treatment of prostate cancer and benign prostatic hypertrophy. PMID:15219238

  2. Differential Regulation of N-Myc and c-Myc Synthesis, Degradation, and Transcriptional Activity by the Ras/Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase Pathway*

    PubMed Central

    Kapeli, Katannya; Hurlin, Peter J.

    2011-01-01

    Myc transcription factors are important regulators of proliferation and can promote oncogenesis when deregulated. Deregulated Myc expression in cancers can result from MYC gene amplification and translocation but also from alterations in mitogenic signaling pathways that affect Myc levels through both transcriptional and post-transcription mechanisms. For example, mutations in Ras family GTPase proteins that cause their constitutive activation can increase cellular levels of c-Myc by interfering with its rapid proteasomal degradation. Although enhanced protein stability is generally thought to be applicable to other Myc family members, here we show that c-Myc and its paralog N-Myc respond to oncogenic H-Ras (H-RasG12V) in very different ways. H-RasG12V promotes accumulation of both c-Myc and N-Myc, but although c-Myc accumulation is achieved by enhanced protein stability, N-Myc accumulation is associated with an accelerated rate of translation that overcomes a surprising H-RasG12V-mediated destabilization of N-Myc. We show that H-RasG12V-mediated degradation of N-Myc functions independently of key phosphorylation sites in the highly conserved Myc homology box I region that controls c-Myc protein stability by oncogenic Ras. Finally, we found that N-Myc and c-Myc transcriptional activity is associated with their proteasomal degradation but that N-Myc may be uniquely dependent on Ras-stimulated proteolysis for target gene expression. Taken together, these studies provide mechanistic insight into how oncogenic Ras augments N-Myc levels in cells and suggest that enhanced N-Myc translation and degradation-coupled transactivation may contribute to oncogenesis. PMID:21908617

  3. Trisubstituted-Imidazoles Induce Apoptosis in Human Breast Cancer Cells by Targeting the Oncogenic PI3K/Akt/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Mervin, Lewis; Mohan, Surender; Paricharak, Shardul; Baday, Sefer; Li, Feng; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Chinnathambi, Arunachalam; Zayed, M. E.; Alharbi, Sulaiman Ali; Bender, Andreas; Sethi, Gautam; Basappa; Rangappa, Kanchugarakoppal S.

    2016-01-01

    Overactivation of PI3K/Akt/mTOR is linked with carcinogenesis and serves a potential molecular therapeutic target in treatment of various cancers. Herein, we report the synthesis of trisubstituted-imidazoles and identified 2-chloro-3-(4, 5-diphenyl-1H-imidazol-2-yl) pyridine (CIP) as lead cytotoxic agent. Naïve Base classifier model of in silico target prediction revealed that CIP targets RAC-beta serine/threonine-protein kinase which comprises the Akt. Furthermore, CIP downregulated the phosphorylation of Akt, PDK and mTOR proteins and decreased expression of cyclin D1, Bcl-2, survivin, VEGF, procaspase-3 and increased cleavage of PARP. In addition, CIP significantly downregulated the CXCL12 induced motility of breast cancer cells and molecular docking calculations revealed that all compounds bind to Akt2 kinase with high docking scores compared to the library of previously reported Akt2 inhibitors. In summary, we report the synthesis and biological evaluation of imidazoles that induce apoptosis in breast cancer cells by negatively regulating PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway. PMID:27097161

  4. miR-30-5p functions as a tumor suppressor and novel therapeutic tool by targeting the oncogenic Wnt/β-catenin/BCL9 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jian-Jun; Lin, Jianhong; Zhu, Di; Wang, Xujun; Brooks, Daniel; Chen, Ming; Chu, Zhang-Bo; Takada, Kohichi; Ciccarelli, Bryan; Admin, Samir; Tao, Jianguo; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Treon, Steven; Pinkus, Geraldine; Kuo, Winston Patrick; Hideshima, Teru; Bouxsein, Mary; Munshi, Nikhil; Anderson, Kenneth; Carrasco, Ruben

    2014-03-15

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling underlies the pathogenesis of a broad range of human cancers, including the deadly plasma cell cancer multiple myeloma. In this study, we report that downregulation of the tumor suppressor microRNA miR-30-5p is a frequent pathogenetic event in multiple myeloma. Evidence was developed that miR-30-5p downregulation occurs as a result of interaction between multiple myeloma cells and bone marrow stromal cells, which in turn enhances expression of BCL9, a transcriptional coactivator of the Wnt signaling pathway known to promote multiple myeloma cell proliferation, survival, migration, drug resistance, and formation of multiple myeloma cancer stem cells. The potential for clinical translation of strategies to re-express miR-30-5p as a therapeutic approach was further encouraged by the capacity of miR-30c and miR-30 mix to reduce tumor burden and metastatic potential in vivo in three murine xenograft models of human multiple myeloma without adversely affecting associated bone disease. Together, our findings offer a preclinical rationale to explore miR-30-5p delivery as an effective therapeutic strategy to eradicate multiple myeloma cells in vivo.

  5. Moesin is a glioma progression marker that induces proliferation and Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation via interaction with CD44.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiaoping; Morales, Fabiana C; Agarwal, Nitin Kumar; Dogruluk, Turgut; Gagea, Mihai; Georgescu, Maria-Magdalena

    2013-02-01

    Moesin is an ERM family protein that connects the actin cytoskeleton to transmembrane receptors. With the identification of the ERM family protein NF2 as a tumor suppressor in glioblastoma, we investigated roles for other ERM proteins in this malignancy. Here, we report that overexpression of moesin occurs generally in high-grade glioblastoma in a pattern correlated with the stem cell marker CD44. Unlike NF2, moesin acts as an oncogene by increasing cell proliferation and stem cell neurosphere formation, with its ectopic overexpression sufficient to shorten survival in an orthotopic mouse model of glioblastoma. Moesin was the major ERM member activated by phosphorylation in glioblastoma cells, where it interacted and colocalized with CD44 in membrane protrusions. Increasing the levels of moesin competitively displaced NF2 from CD44, increasing CD44 expression in a positive feedback loop driven by the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Therapeutic targeting of the moesin-CD44 interaction with the small-molecule inhibitor 7-cyanoquinocarcinol (DX-52-1) or with a CD44-mimetic peptide specifically reduced the proliferation of glioblastoma cells overexpressing moesin, where the Wnt/β-catenin pathway was activated. Our findings establish moesin and CD44 as progression markers and drugable targets in glioblastoma, relating their oncogenic effects to activation of the Wnt/β-catenin pathway.

  6. WNT16B is a new marker of cellular senescence that regulates p53 activity and the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT pathway.

    PubMed

    Binet, Romuald; Ythier, Damien; Robles, Ana I; Collado, Manuel; Larrieu, Delphine; Fonti, Claire; Brambilla, Elisabeth; Brambilla, Christian; Serrano, Manuel; Harris, Curtis C; Pedeux, Rémy

    2009-12-15

    Senescence is a tumor suppression mechanism that is induced by several stimuli, including oncogenic signaling and telomere shortening, and controlled by the p53/p21(WAF1) signaling pathway. Recently, a critical role for secreted factors has emerged, suggesting that extracellular signals are necessary for the onset and maintenance of senescence. Conversely, factors secreted by senescent cells may promote tumor growth. By using expression profiling techniques, we searched for secreted factors that were overexpressed in fibroblasts undergoing replicative senescence. We identified WNT16B, a member of the WNT family of secreted proteins. We found that WNT16B is overexpressed in cells undergoing stress-induced premature senescence and oncogene-induced senescence in both MRC5 cell line and the in vivo murine model of K-Ras(V12)-induced senescence. By small interfering RNA experiments, we observed that both p53 and WNT16B are necessary for the onset of replicative senescence. WNT16B expression is required for the full transcriptional activation of p21(WAF1). Moreover, WNT16B regulates activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT pathway. Overall, we identified WNT16B as a new marker of senescence that regulates p53 activity and the PI3K/AKT pathway and is necessary for the onset of replicative senescence.

  7. Ras pathway activation in hepatocellular carcinoma and anti-tumoral effect of combined sorafenib and rapamycin in vivo☆

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Pippa; Toffanin, Sara; Villanueva, Augusto; Chiang, Derek Y.; Minguez, Beatriz; Cabellos, Laia; Savic, Radoslav; Hoshida, Yujin; Lim, Kiat Hon; Melgar-Lesmes, Pedro; Yea, Steven; Peix, Judit; Deniz, Kemal; Fiel, M. Isabel; Thung, Swan; Alsinet, Clara; Tovar, Victoria; Mazzaferro, Vincenzo; Bruix, Jordi; Roayaie, Sasan; Schwartz, Myron; Friedman, Scott L.; Llovet, Josep M.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The success of sorafenib in the treatment of advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) has focused interest on the role of Ras signaling in this malignancy. We investigated the molecular alterations of the Ras pathway in HCC and the antineoplastic effects of sorafenib in combination with rapamycin, an inhibitor of mTOR pathway, in experimental models. Methods Gene expression (qRT-PCR, oligonucleotide microarray), DNA copy number changes (SNP-array), methylation of tumor suppressor genes (methylation-specific PCR) and protein activation (immunohistochemistry) were analysed in 351 samples. Anti-tumoral effects of combined therapy targeting the Ras and mTOR pathways were evaluated in cell lines and HCC xenografts. Results Different mechanisms accounted for Ras pathway activation in HCC. H-ras was up-regulated during different steps of hepatocarcinogenesis. B-raf was overexpressed in advanced tumors and its expression was associated with genomic amplification. Partial methylation of RASSF1A and NORE1A was detected in 89% and 44% of tumors respectively, and complete methylation was found in 11 and 4% of HCCs. Activation of the pathway (pERK immunostaining) was identified in 10.3% of HCC. Blockade of Ras and mTOR pathways with sorafenib and rapamycin reduced cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in cell lines. In vivo, the combination of both compounds enhanced tumor necrosis and ulceration when compared with sorafenib alone. Conclusions Ras activation results from several molecular alterations, such as methylation of tumor suppressors and amplification of oncogenes (B-raf). Sorafenib blocks signaling and synergizes with rapamycin in vivo, preventing tumor progression. These data provide the rationale for testing this combination in clinical studies. PMID:19665249

  8. The oncometabolite 2-hydroxyglutarate activates the mTOR signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Carbonneau, Mélissa; M. Gagné, Laurence; Lalonde, Marie-Eve; Germain, Marie-Anne; Motorina, Alena; Guiot, Marie-Christine; Secco, Blandine; Vincent, Emma E.; Tumber, Anthony; Hulea, Laura; Bergeman, Jonathan; Oppermann, Udo; Jones, Russell G.; Laplante, Mathieu; Topisirovic, Ivan; Petrecca, Kevin; Huot, Marc-Étienne; Mallette, Frédérick A.

    2016-01-01

    The identification of cancer-associated mutations in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle enzymes isocitrate dehydrogenases 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) highlights the prevailing notion that aberrant metabolic function can contribute to carcinogenesis. IDH1/2 normally catalyse the oxidative decarboxylation of isocitrate into α-ketoglutarate (αKG). In gliomas and acute myeloid leukaemias, IDH1/2 mutations confer gain-of-function leading to production of the oncometabolite R-2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) from αKG. Here we show that generation of 2HG by mutated IDH1/2 leads to the activation of mTOR by inhibiting KDM4A, an αKG-dependent enzyme of the Jumonji family of lysine demethylases. Furthermore, KDM4A associates with the DEP domain-containing mTOR-interacting protein (DEPTOR), a negative regulator of mTORC1/2. Depletion of KDM4A decreases DEPTOR protein stability. Our results provide an additional molecular mechanism for the oncogenic activity of mutant IDH1/2 by revealing an unprecedented link between TCA cycle defects and positive modulation of mTOR function downstream of the canonical PI3K/AKT/TSC1-2 pathway. PMID:27624942

  9. MET/HGF pathway activation as a paradigm of resistance to targeted therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Brian; He, Tianfang; Gadgeel, Shirish

    2017-01-01

    Resistance to targeted therapeutics is a key issue limiting the long-term utility of these medications in the management of molecularly selected subsets of cancer patients, including patients with non-small cell lung cancer harboring oncogenic alterations affecting EGFR, ALK and other genes. Bypass resistance mediated by activation of MET kinase has emerged as a frequent, validated and pivotal resistance mechanism in multiple types of cancers. Biochemical understanding is accumulating to explain the unique role of MET in such bypass pathways, providing alternate downstream activation opportunities and intricate interactions during epithelial-mesenchymal transitions. Multiple diagnostic testing platforms have become available for selecting appropriate patients for MET targeting in a variety of settings. Importantly, in light of the failures of several earlier clinical studies of MET targeting agents, a large array of recent and current MET-focused trials are incorporating stricter patient selection and more robust predictive biomarkers providing hope for validation of MET targeting as a clinically impactful strategy. PMID:28164089

  10. The Oncogenic Response to MiR-335 Is Associated with Cell Surface Expression of Membrane-Type 1 Matrix Metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP) Activity.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Fausto; Hernandez, Maria E; Silva, Milagros; Li, Lihua; Subramanian, Subbaya; Wilson, Michael J; Liu, Ping

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNA miR-335 has been reported to have both tumor suppressor and oncogenic activities. In order to determine possible tissue and cell type differences in response to miR-335, we examined the effect of miR-335 on cell expression of MT1-MMP, a proteinase commonly expressed in tumors and associated with cell proliferation and migration. miR-335 increased cell surface expression of MT1-MMP in fibrosarcoma HT-1080 and benign prostate BPH-1 cells, but not in prostate LNCaP or breast MCF-7 tumor cells. miR-335 stimulated proliferation and cell migration in a wound healing in vitro assay in HT-1080, BPH-1, and U87 glioblastoma cells, cells which demonstrated significant cell surface expression of MT1-MMP. In contrast, miR-335 did not affect proliferation or migration in cells without a prominent plasma membrane associated MT1-MMP activity. Our data suggest that differences in response to miR-335 by tumor cells may lie in part in the mechanism of regulation of MT1-MMP production.

  11. Long Noncoding RNA LINC00673 Is Activated by SP1 and Exerts Oncogenic Properties by Interacting with LSD1 and EZH2 in Gastric Cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Mingde; Hou, Jiakai; Wang, Yunfei; Xie, Min; Wei, Chenchen; Nie, Fengqi; Wang, Zhaoxia; Sun, Ming

    2017-02-14

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have emerged as important regulators in a variety of human diseases, including cancers. However, the biological function of these molecules and the mechanisms responsible for their alteration in gastric cancer (GC) are not fully understood. In this study, we found that lncRNA LINC00673 is significantly upregulated in gastric cancer. Knockdown of LINC00673 inhibited cell proliferation and invasion and induced cell apoptosis, whereas LINC00673 overexpression had the opposite effect. Online transcription factor binding site prediction analysis showed that there are SP1 binding sites in the LINC00673 promoter region. Next, luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays provided evidence that SP1 could bind directly to the LINC00673 promoter region and activate its transcription. Moreover, mechanistic investigation showed that CADM4, KLF2, and LATS2 might be the underlying targets of LINC00673 in GC cells, and RNA immunoprecipitation, RNA pull-down, and ChIP assays showed that LINC00673 can interact with EZH2 and LSD1, thereby repressing KLF2 and LATS2 expression. Taken together, these findings show that SP1-activated LINC00673 exerts an oncogenic function that promotes GC development and progression, at least in part, by functioning as a scaffold for LSD1 and EZH2 and repressing KLF2 and LATS2 expression.

  12. A mutation in the RET proto-oncogene in Hirschsprung's disease affects the tyrosine kinase activity associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A and 2B.

    PubMed Central

    Cosma, M P; Panariello, L; Quadro, L; Dathan, N A; Fattoruso, O; Colantuoni, V

    1996-01-01

    We demonstrate that a Hirschsprung (HSCR) mutation in the tyrosine kinase domain of the RET proto-oncogene abolishes in cis the tyrosine-phosphorylation associated with the activating mutation in multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2A (MEN2A) in transiently transfected Cos cells. Yet the double mutant RET2AHS retains the ability to form stable dimers, thus dissociating the dimerization from the phosphorylation potential. Co-transfection experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids RET2A and RET2AHS in different ratios drastically reduced the phosphorylation levels of the RET2A protein, suggesting a dominant-negative effect of the HSCR mutation. Also, the phosphorylation associated with the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B (MEN2B) allele was affected in experiments with single and double mutants carrying plasmids co-transfected under the same conditions. Finally, analysis of the enzymic activity of MEN2A and MEN2B tumours confirmed the relative levels of tyrosine phosphorylation observed in Cos cells, indicating that this condition, in vivo, may account for the RET transforming potential. PMID:8670046

  13. The human oncogenic viruses

    SciTech Connect

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  14. Enumerating Minimal Active Metabolic Pathways by Model Generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, Takehide; Inoue, Katsumi

    In systems biology, identifying vital functions like glycolysis from a given metabolic pathway is important to understand living organisms. In this paper, we particularly focus on the problem of enumerating minimal active pathways producing target metabolites from source metabolites. We represent the problem in propositional formulas and solve it through minimal model generation. An advantage of our method is that each solution satisfies qualitative laws of biochemical reactions. Moreover, we can calculate such solutions for a cellular scale metabolic pathway within a few seconds. In experiments, we have applied our method to a whole Escherichia coli metabolic pathway. As a result, we found a minimal set of reactions corresponding to the conventional glycolysis pathway described in a biological database EcoCyc.

  15. Methylation-independent repression of Dnmt3b contributes to oncogenic activity of Dnmt3a in mouse MYC-induced T-cell lymphomagenesis.

    PubMed

    Haney, S L; Hlady, R A; Opavska, J; Klinkebiel, D; Pirruccello, S J; Dutta, S; Datta, K; Simpson, M A; Wu, L; Opavsky, R

    2015-10-01

    DNA methyltransferase 3A (DNMT3A) catalyzes cytosine methylation of mammalian genomic DNA. In addition to myeloid malignancies, mutations in DNMT3A have been recently reported in T-cell lymphoma and leukemia, implying a possible involvement in the pathogenesis of human diseases. However, the role of Dnmt3a in T-cell transformation in vivo is poorly understood. Here we analyzed the functional consequences of Dnmt3a inactivation in a mouse model of MYC-induced T-cell lymphomagenesis (MTCL). Loss of Dnmt3a delayed tumorigenesis by suppressing cellular proliferation during disease progression. Gene expression profiling and pathway analysis identified upregulation of 17 putative tumor suppressor genes, including DNA methyltransferase Dnmt3b, in Dnmt3a-deficient lymphomas as molecular events potentially responsible for the delayed lymphomagenesis in Dnmt3a(Δ/Δ) mice. Interestingly, promoter and gene body methylation of these genes was not substantially changed between control and Dnmt3a-deficient lymphomas, suggesting that Dnmt3a may inhibit their expression in a methylation-independent manner. Re-expression of both wild type and catalytically inactive Dnmt3a in Dnmt3a(Δ/Δ) lymphoma cells in vitro inhibited Dnmt3b expression, indicating that Dnmt3b upregulation may be directly repressed by Dnmt3a. Importantly, genetic inactivation of Dnmt3b accelerated lymphomagenesis in Dnmt3a(Δ/Δ) mice, demonstrating that upregulation of Dnmt3b is a relevant molecular change in Dnmt3a-deficient lymphomas that inhibits disease progression. Collectively, our data demonstrate an unexpected oncogenic role for Dnmt3a in MTCL through methylation-independent repression of Dnmt3b and possibly other tumor suppressor genes.

  16. Oncogene KRAS activates fatty acid synthase, resulting in specific ERK and lipid signatures associated with lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Gouw, Arvin M; Eberlin, Livia S; Margulis, Katherine; Sullivan, Delaney K; Toal, Georgia G; Tong, Ling; Zare, Richard N; Felsher, Dean W

    2017-04-11

    KRAS gene mutation causes lung adenocarcinoma. KRAS activation has been associated with altered glucose and glutamine metabolism. Here, we show that KRAS activates lipogenesis, and this activation results in distinct proteomic and lipid signatures. By gene expression analysis, KRAS is shown to be associated with a lipogenesis gene signature and specific induction of fatty acid synthase (FASN). Through desorption electrospray ionization MS imaging (DESI-MSI), specific changes in lipogenesis and specific lipids are identified. By the nanoimmunoassay (NIA), KRAS is found to activate the protein ERK2, whereas ERK1 activation is found in non-KRAS-associated human lung tumors. The inhibition of FASN by cerulenin, a small molecule antibiotic, blocked cellular proliferation of KRAS-associated lung cancer cells. Hence, KRAS is associated with activation of ERK2, induction of FASN, and promotion of lipogenesis. FASN may be a unique target for KRAS-associated lung adenocarcinoma remediation.

  17. Activation of the NOTCH pathway in Head and Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Wenyue; Gaykalova, Daria A.; Ochs, Michael F.; Mambo, Elizabeth; Arnaoutakis, Demetri; Liu, Yan; Loyo, Myriam; Agrawal, Nishant; Howard, Jason; Li, Ryan; Ahn, Sun; Fertig, Elana; Sidransky, David; Houghton, Jeffery; Buddavarapu, Kalyan; Sanford, Tiffany; Choudhary, Ashish; Darden, Will; Adai, Alex; Latham, Gary; Bishop, Justin; Sharma, Rajni; Westra, William H.; Hennessey, Patrick; Chung, Christine H.; Califano, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    NOTCH1 mutations have been reported to occur in 10 to 15% of head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC). To determine the significance of these mutations, we embarked upon a comprehensive study of NOTCH signaling in a cohort of 44 HNSCC tumors and 25 normal mucosal samples through a set of expression, copy number, methylation and mutation analyses. Copy number increases were identified in NOTCH pathway genes including the NOTCH ligand JAG1. Gene set analysis defined a differential expression of the NOTCH signaling pathway in HNSCC relative to normal tissues. Analysis of individual pathway-related genes revealed overexpression of ligands JAG1 and JAG2 and receptor NOTCH3. In 32% of the HNSCC examined, activation of the downstream NOTCH effectors HES1/HEY1 was documented. Notably, exomic sequencing identified 5 novel inactivating NOTCH1 mutations in 4/37 of the tumors analyzed, with none of these tumors exhibiting HES1/HEY1 overexpression. Our results revealed a bimodal pattern of NOTCH pathway alterations in HNSCC, with a smaller subset exhibiting inactivating NOTCH1 receptors mutations but a larger subset exhibiting other NOTCH1 pathway alterations, including increases in expression or gene copy number of the receptor or ligands as well as downstream pathway activation. Our results imply that therapies that target the NOTCH pathway may be more widely suitable for HNSCC treatment than appreciated currently. PMID:24351288

  18. The API2-MALT1 fusion exploits TNFR pathway-associated RIP1 ubiquitination to promote oncogenic NF-κB signaling.

    PubMed

    Rosebeck, S; Rehman, A O; Apel, I J; Kohrt, D; Appert, A; O'Donnell, M A; Ting, A T; Du, M-Q; Baens, M; Lucas, P C; McAllister-Lucas, L M

    2014-05-08

    The API2-MALT1 fusion oncoprotein is created by the recurrent t(11;18)(q21;q21) chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. We identified receptor interacting protein-1 (RIP1) as a novel API2-MALT1-associated protein, and demonstrate that RIP1 is required for API2-MALT1 to stimulate canonical nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). API2-MALT1 promotes ubiquitination of RIP1 at lysine (K) 377, which is necessary for full NF-κB activation. Furthermore, we found that TNF receptor-associated factor 2 (TRAF2) recruitment is required for API2-MALT1 to induce RIP1 ubiquitination, NF-κB activation and cellular transformation. Although both TRAF2 and RIP1 interact with the API2 moiety of API2-MALT1, this moiety alone is insufficient to induce RIP1 ubiquitination or activate NF-κB, indicating that API2-MALT1-dependent RIP1 ubiquitination represents a gain of function requiring the concerted actions of both the API2 and MALT1 moieties of the fusion. Intriguingly, constitutive RIP1 ubiquitination was recently demonstrated in several solid tumors, and now our study implicates RIP1 ubiquitination as a critical component of API2-MALT1-dependent lymphomagenesis.

  19. Oncogenic mutations of thyroid hormone receptor β

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Won; Zhao, Li; Willingham, Mark; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2015-01-01

    The C-terminal frame-shift mutant of the thyroid hormone receptor TRβ1, PV, functions as an oncogene. An important question is whether the oncogenic activity of mutated TRβ1 is uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Using four C-terminal frame-shift mutants—PV, Mkar, Mdbs, and AM—we examined that region in the oncogenic actions of TRβ1 mutants. Remarkably, these C-terminal mutants induced similar growth of tumors in mouse xenograft models. Molecular analyses showed that they physically interacted with the p85α regulatory subunit of PI3K similarly in cells. In vitro GST-binding assay showed that they bound to the C-terminal Src-homology 2 (CSH2) of p85α with markedly higher avidity. The sustained association of mutants with p85α led to activation of the common PI3K-AKT-ERK/STAT3 signaling to promote cell proliferation and invasion and to inhibit apoptosis. Thus, these results argue against the oncogenic activity of PV being uniquely dependent on the PV mutated sequence. Rather, these four mutants could favor a C-terminal conformation that interacted with the CSH2 domain of p85α to initiate activation of PI3K to relay downstream signaling to promote tumorigenesis. Thus, we propose that the mutated C-terminal region of TRβ1 could function as an “onco-domain” and TRβ1 is a potential therapeutic target. PMID:25924236

  20. P120-GAP associated with syndecan-2 to function as an active switch signal for Src upon transformation with oncogenic ras

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J.-W.; Chen, C.-L.; Chuang, N.-N. . E-mail: zonnc@sinica.edu.tw

    2005-04-15

    BALB/3T3 cells transfected with plasmids pcDNA3.1-[S-ras(Q{sub 61}K)] of shrimp Penaeus japonicus were applied to reveal a complex of p120-GAP/syndecan-2 being highly expressed upon transformation. Of interest, most of the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was localized at caveolae, a membrane microdomain enriched with caveolin-1. To confirm the molecular interaction between syndecan-2 and p120-GAP, we further purified p120-GAP protein from mouse brains by using an affinity column of HiTrap-RACK1 and expressed mouse RACK1-encoded fusion protein and mouse syndecan-2-encoded fusion protein in bacteria. We report molecular affinities exist between p120-GAP and RACK1, syndecan-2 and RACK1 as well as p120-GAP and syndecan-2. The selective affinity between p120-GAP and syndecan-2 was found to be sufficient to detach RACK1. The p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex was demonstrated to keep Src tyrosine kinase in an activated form. On the other hand, the syndecan-2/RACK1 complex was found to have Src in an inactivated form. These data indicate that the p120-GAP/syndecan-2 complex at caveolae could provide a docking site for Src to transmit tyrosine signaling, implying that syndecan-2/p120-GAP functions as a tumor promoter upon transformation with oncogenic ras of shrimp P. japonicus.

  1. WHSC1L1-mediated EGFR mono-methylation enhances the cytoplasmic and nuclear oncogenic activity of EGFR in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Saloura, Vassiliki; Vougiouklakis, Theodore; Zewde, Makda; Deng, Xiaolan; Kiyotani, Kazuma; Park, Jae-Hyun; Matsuo, Yo; Lingen, Mark; Suzuki, Takehiro; Dohmae, Naoshi; Hamamoto, Ryuji; Nakamura, Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    While multiple post-translational modifications have been reported to regulate the function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), the effect of protein methylation on its function has not been well characterized. In this study, we show that WHSC1L1 mono-methylates lysine 721 in the tyrosine kinase domain of EGFR, and that this methylation leads to enhanced activation of its downstream ERK cascade without EGF stimulation. We also show that EGFR K721 mono-methylation not only affects the function of cytoplasmic EGFR, but also that of nuclear EGFR. WHSC1L1-mediated methylation of EGFR in the nucleus enhanced its interaction with PCNA in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) cells and resulted in enhanced DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Overall, our study demonstrates the multifaceted oncogenic function of the protein lysine methyltransferase WHSC1L1 in SCCHN, which is mediated through direct non-histone methylation of the EGFR protein with effects both in its cytoplasmic and nuclear functions. PMID:28102297

  2. Identification of polymorphisms and transcriptional activity of the proto-oncogene KIT located on both autosomal and B chromosomes of the Chinese raccoon dog.

    PubMed

    Li, Y M; Zhang, Y; Zhu, W J; Yan, S Q; Sun, J H

    2016-02-05

    B chromosomes are dispensable and co-exist with autosomal and sex chromosomes. The karyotype of the Chinese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides procyonoides) comprises 0-4 B chromosomes. The proto-oncogene KIT is found on all B chromosomes of the Chinese raccoon dog. In the present study, partial DNA and mRNA sequences of KIT were amplified and sequenced from four individuals containing B chromosomes. Sequence analyses revealed that polymorphisms including single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and inserts/deletions were rich in the KIT gene of Chinese raccoon dog at the genomic level. However, no polymorphism was detected at the mRNA level. A comparison of mRNA sequences from Chinese raccoon dogs with the corresponding sequences derived from arctic fox and dog, which do not contain B chromosomes, revealed the mRNA sequences of the 10 SNPs to be identical between these three species. Therefore, these findings suggest that KIT located on the B chromosomes in Chinese raccoon dog lacks transcriptional activity.

  3. Significance of hepatitis virus infection in the oncogenic initiation of hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Sukowati, Caecilia HC; El-Khobar, Korri E; Ie, Susan I; Anfuso, Beatrice; Muljono, David H; Tiribelli, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common causes of cancer-related death worldwide. Chronic infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and/or hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major risk factor in the development of the HCC, independently from excessive alcohol abuse and metabolic disease. Since the biology of HBV and HCV is different, their oncogenic effect may go through different mechanisms, direct and/or indirect. Viral hepatitis infection is associated with cellular inflammation, oxidative stress, and DNA damage, that may lead to subsequent hepatic injuries such as chronic hepatitis, fibrosis, cirrhosis, and finally HCC. Direct oncogenic properties of these viruses are related with their genotypic characteristics and the ability of viral proteins to interact with host proteins, thus altering the molecular pathways balance of the cells. In addition, the integration of HBV DNA, especially the gene S and X, in a particular site of the host genome can disrupt chromosomal stability and may activate various oncogenic mechanisms, including those in hematopoietic cells. Recently, several studies also had demonstrated that viral hepatitis could trigger the population of hepatic cancer stem cells. This review summarize available pre-clinical and clinical data in literature regarding oncogenic properties of HBV and HCV in the early initiation of HCC. PMID:26819517

  4. Inhibition of pro-HGF activation by SRI31215, a novel approach to block oncogenic HGF/MET signaling.

    PubMed

    Owusu, Benjamin Y; Bansal, Namita; Venukadasula, Phanindra K M; Ross, Larry J; Messick, Troy E; Goel, Sanjay; Galemmo, Robert A; Klampfer, Lidija

    2016-05-17

    The binding of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) to its receptor MET activates a signaling cascade that promotes cell survival, proliferation, cell scattering, migration and invasion of malignant cells. HGF is secreted by cancer cells or by tumor-associated fibroblasts as pro-HGF, an inactive precursor. A key step in the regulation of HGF/MET signaling is proteolytic processing of pro-HGF to its active form by one of the three serine proteases, matriptase, hepsin or HGF activator (HGFA).We developed SRI 31215, a small molecule that acts as a triplex inhibitor of matriptase, hepsin and HGFA and mimics the activity of HAI-1/2, endogenous inhibitors of HGF activation. We demonstrated that SRI 31215 inhibits fibroblast-induced MET activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition and migration of cancer cells. SRI 31215 overcomes primary resistance to cetuximab and gefitinib in HGF-producing colon cancer cells and prevents fibroblast-mediated resistance to EGFR inhibitors. Thus, SRI 31215 blocks signaling between cancer cells and fibroblasts and inhibits the tumor-promoting activity of cancer-associated fibroblasts.Aberrant HGF/MET signaling supports cell survival, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion and metastatic spread of cancer cells, establishing HGF and MET as valid therapeutic targets. Our data demonstrate that inhibitors of HGF activation, such as SRI 31215, merit investigation as potential therapeutics in tumors that are addicted to HGF/MET signaling. The findings reported here also indicate that inhibitors of HGF activation overcome primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy, providing a rationale for concurrent inhibition of EGFR and HGF to prevent therapeutic resistance and to improve the outcome of cancer patients.

  5. Cytochrome P450 17A1 inhibitor abiraterone attenuates cellular growth of prostate cancer cells independently from androgen receptor signaling by modulation of oncogenic and apoptotic pathways.

    PubMed

    Grossebrummel, Hannah; Peter, Tilmann; Mandelkow, Robert; Weiss, Martin; Muzzio, Damian; Zimmermann, Uwe; Walther, Reinhard; Jensen, Federico; Knabbe, Cornelius; Zygmunt, Marek; Burchardt, Martin; Stope, Matthias B

    2016-02-01

    Abiraterone provides significant survival advantages in prostate cancer (PC), however, the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of abiraterone is still limited. Therefore, the abiraterone impact on androgen receptor (AR)-positive LNCaP and AR-negative PC-3 cells was assessed by cellular and molecular analyses. The present study demonstrated, that abiraterone treatment significantly decreased cell growth, AR expression, and AR activity of AR-positive LNCaP cells. Notably, AR-negative PC-3 cells exhibited comparable reductions in cellular proliferation, associated with DNA fragmentation and pro-apoptotic modulation of p21, caspase-3, survivin, and transforming growth factor β (TGFβ). Our observations suggest that the attenuation of AR signaling is not the only rationale to explain the abiraterone anticancer activity. Abiraterone efficacy may play a more global role in PC progression control than originally hypothesized. In this regard, abiraterone is not only a promising drug for treatment of AR-negative PC stages, even more, abiraterone may represent an alternative for treatment of other malignancies besides prostate cancer.

  6. Advances in the development of cancer therapeutics directed against the RAS-mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Sebolt-Leopold, Judith S

    2008-06-15

    Among mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling cascades, the extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) pathway has received the most attention in the oncology drug discovery arena. By virtue of its central role in promoting proliferation, survival, and metastasis, this pathway directly affects both the formation and progression of human tumors. The identification of non-ATP-competitive inhibitors of the MAPK kinase MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) resulted in the first demonstration that the ERK pathway could be effectively shut down in a highly selective fashion. Subsequent discovery of the oncogenic nature of B-raf kinase led to the escalation of drug discovery efforts revolving around MEK and RAF. The emergence of multiple drug candidates targeting these downstream kinases provides us with the means for validating the importance of the RAS-RAF-MEK-ERK signaling cascade in human tumors. This article highlights the lessons learned in the clinical evaluation of MAPK pathway inhibitors as anticancer agents and the complexities surrounding optimization of their therapeutic potential in light of the challenges posed by genetic heterogeneity within patient populations.

  7. ras proto-oncogene activation in dichloroacetic acid-, trichloroethylene- and tetrachloroethylene-induced liver tumors in B6C3F1 mice.

    PubMed

    Anna, C H; Maronpot, R R; Pereira, M A; Foley, J F; Malarkey, D E; Anderson, M W

    1994-10-01

    The frequency and mutation spectra of proto-oncogene activation in hepatocellular neoplasms induced by tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene and dichloroacetic acid were examined to help define the molecular basis for their carcinogenicity. H-ras codon 61 activation was not significantly different among dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced and combined historical and concurrent control hepatocellular tumors (62%, 51% and 69% respectively). The mutation spectra of H-ras codon 61 mutations showed a significant decrease in AAA and increase in CTA mutations for dichloroacetic acid- and trichloroethylene-induced tumors when compared to combined controls. The H-ras codon 61 mutation frequency for tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors was significantly lower (24%) than that of combined controls and also that of the two other chemicals. Mutations at codons 13 and 117 plus a second exon insert contributed 4% to the total H-ras frequencies for trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene. There was also a higher incidence of K-ras activation (13%) in tetrachloroethylene-induced tumors than in the other chemically induced or control tumors. Four liver tumors were found to contain insertions of additional bases within the second exon of K- or H-ras. These findings suggest that exposure to dichloroacetic acid, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene provides a selective growth advantage to spontaneously occurring mutations in codon 61 of H-ras and, at the same time, is responsible for a small number of unique molecular lesions suggestive of either a random genotoxic mode of action or a non-specific result of secondary DNA damage. However, the absence of ras activation in many of the liver neoplasms suggests that alternative mechanisms are also important in B6C3F1 mouse hepatocarcinogenesis.

  8. Ethyl acetate fraction of adlay bran ethanolic extract inhibits oncogene expression and suppresses DMH-induced preneoplastic lesions of the colon in F344 rats through an anti-inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheng-Pei; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Din-Wen; Hsu, Hsing-Hua; Lin, Ju-Tsui; Shih, Chun-Kuang; Chiang, Wenchang

    2010-07-14

    Adlay ( Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a grass crop and was reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity and an antiproliferative effect in cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of an adlay bran ethanolic extract (ABE-Ea) on colon carcinogenesis in an animal model and investigate its mechanism. Male F344 rats received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and consumed different doses of ABE-Ea. The medium-dose group (17.28 mg of ABE-Ea/day) exhibited the best suppressive effect on colon carcinogenesis and prevented preneoplastic mucin-depleted foci (MDF) formation. Moreover, RAS and Ets2 oncogenes were significantly down-regulated in this group compared to the negative control group, whereas Wee1, a gene involved in the cell cycle, was up-regulated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression was significantly suppressed in all colons receiving the ABE-Ea, indicating that ABE-Ea delayed carcinogenesis by suppressing chronic inflammation. ABE-Ea included considerable a proportion of phenolic compounds, and ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid (5206 microg/g ABE-Ea) on the basis of HPLC analysis. Results from this study suggest that ABE-Ea suppressed DMH-indued preneoplastic lesions of the colon in F344 rats and that ferulic acid may be one of the active compounds.

  9. The mystery of oncogenic KRAS: Lessons from studying its wild-type counter part.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuan-I; Damnernsawad, Alisa; Kong, Guangyao; You, Xiaona; Wang, Demin; Zhang, Jing

    2016-07-22

    Using conditional knock-in mouse models, we and others have shown that despite the very high sequence identity between Nras and Kras proteins, oncogenic Kras displays a much stronger leukemogenic activity than oncogenic Nras in vivo. In this manuscript, we will summarize our recent work of characterizing wild-type Kras function in adult hematopoiesis and in oncogenic Kras-induced leukemogenesis. We attribute the strong leukemogenic activity of oncogenic Kras to 2 unique aspects of Kras signaling. First, Kras is required in mediating cell type- and cytokine-specific ERK1/2 signaling. Second, oncogenic Kras, but not oncogenic Nras, induces hyperactivation of wild-type Ras, which significantly enhances Ras signaling in vivo. We will also discuss a possible mechanism that mediates oncogenic Kras-evoked hyperactivation of wild-type Ras and a potential approach to down-regulate oncogenic Kras signaling.

  10. LncRNA MALAT1 enhances oncogenic activities of EZH2 in castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liguo; Zhao, Yu; Sun, Zhifu; Karnes, R. Jeffrey; Zhang, Jun; Huang, Haojie

    2015-01-01

    The Polycomb protein enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2) is frequently overexpressed in advanced human prostate cancer (PCa), especially in lethal castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the signaling pathways that regulate EZH2 functions in PCa remain incompletely defined. Using EZH2 antibody-based RNA immunoprecipitation-coupled high throughput sequencing (RIP-seq), we demonstrated that EZH2 binds to MALAT1, a long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) that is overexpressed during PCa progression. GST pull-down and RIP assays demonstrated that the 3′ end of MALAT1 interacts with the N-terminal of EZH2. Knockdown of MALAT1 impaired EZH2 recruitment to its target loci and upregulated expression of EZH2 repressed genes. Further studies indicated that MALAT1 plays a vital role in EZH2-enhanced migration and invasion in CRPC cell lines. Meta-analysis and RT-qPCR of patient specimens demonstrated a positive correlation between MALAT1 and EZH2 expression in human CRPC tissues. Finally, we showed that MALAT1 enhances expression of PRC2-independent target genes of EZH2 in CRPC cells in culture and patient-derived xenografts. Together, these data indicate that MALAT1 may be a crucial RNA cofactor of EZH2 and that the EZH2-MALAT1 association may provide a new avenue for development new strategies for treatment of CRPC. PMID:26516927

  11. mTOR links oncogenic signaling to tumor cell metabolism.

    PubMed

    Yecies, Jessica L; Manning, Brendan D

    2011-03-01

    As a key regulator of cell growth and proliferation, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) has been the subject of intense investigation for its role in tumor development and progression. This research has revealed a signaling network of oncogenes and tumor suppressors lying upstream of mTORC1, and oncogenic perturbations to this network result in the aberrant activation of this kinase complex in the majority of human cancers. However, the molecular events downstream of mTORC1 contributing to tumor cell growth and proliferation are just coming to light. In addition to its better-known functions in promoting protein synthesis and suppressing autophagy, mTORC1 has emerged as a key regulator of cellular metabolism. Recent studies have found that mTORC1 activation is sufficient to stimulate an increase in glucose uptake, glycolysis, and de novo lipid biosynthesis, which are considered metabolic hallmarks of cancer, as well as the pentose phosphate pathway. Here, we focus on the molecular mechanisms of metabolic regulation by mTORC1 and the potential consequences for anabolic tumor growth and therapeutic strategies.

  12. SCCRO3 (DCUN1D3) Antagonizes the Neddylation and Oncogenic Activity of SCCRO (DCUN1D1)*

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Guochang; Stock, Cameron; Bommeljé, Claire C.; Weeda, Víola B.; Shah, Kushyup; Bains, Sarina; Buss, Elizabeth; Shaha, Manish; Rechler, Willi; Ramanathan, Suresh Y.; Singh, Bhuvanesh

    2014-01-01

    The activity of cullin-RING type ubiquitination E3 ligases is regulated by neddylation, a process analogous to ubiquitination that culminates in covalent attachment of the ubiquitin-like protein Nedd8 to cullins. As a component of the E3 for neddylation, SCCRO/DCUN1D1 plays a key regulatory role in neddylation and, consequently, cullin-RING ligase activity. The essential contribution of SCCRO to neddylation is to promote nuclear translocation of the cullin-ROC1 complex. The presence of a myristoyl sequence in SCCRO3, one of four SCCRO paralogues present in humans that localizes to the membrane, raises questions about its function in neddylation. We found that although SCCRO3 binds to CAND1, cullins, and ROC1, it does not efficiently bind to Ubc12, promote cullin neddylation, or conform to the reaction processivity paradigms, suggesting that SCCRO3 does not have E3 activity. Expression of SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO-promoted neddylation by sequestering cullins to the membrane, thereby blocking its nuclear translocation. Moreover, SCCRO3 inhibits SCCRO transforming activity. The inhibitory effects of SCCRO3 on SCCRO-promoted neddylation and transformation require both an intact myristoyl sequence and PONY domain, confirming that membrane localization and binding to cullins are required for in vivo functions. Taken together, our findings suggest that SCCRO3 functions as a tumor suppressor by antagonizing the neddylation activity of SCCRO. PMID:25349211

  13. Loss of platelet-derived growth factor-stimulated phospholipase activity in NIH-3T3 cells expressing the EJ-ras oncogene

    SciTech Connect

    Benjamin, C.W.; Tarpley, W.G.; Gorman, R.R.

    1987-01-01

    Data indicating that the 21-kDa protein (p21) Harvey-ras gene product shares sequence homology with guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) has stimulated research on the influence(s) of p21 on G-protein-regulated systems in vertebrate cells. Previous work demonstrated that NIH-3T3 mouse cells expressing high levels of the cellular ras oncogene isolated from the EJ human bladder carcinoma (EJ-ras) exhibited reduced hormone-stimulated adenylate cyclase activity. The authors now report that in these cells another enzyme system thought to be regulated by G proteins is inhibited, namely phospholipases A/sub 2/ and C. NIH-3T3 cells incubated in plasma-derived serum release significant levels of prostaglandin E/sub 2/ (PGE/sub 2/) as determined by radioimmunoassay when exposed to platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) at 2 units/ml. The lack of PDGF-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ release from EJ-ras-transfected cells is not due to a defect in the prostaglandin cyclooxygenase enzyme, since incubation of control cells and EJ-ras-transfected cells in 0.33, 3.3, or 33 ..mu..M arachidonate resulted in identical levels of PGE/sub 2/ release. The lack of PDGF-stimulated PGE/sub 2/ release from EJ-ras-transfected cells also does not result from the loss of functional PDGF receptors. EJ-ras-transformed cells bind 70% as much /sup 125/I-labeled PDGF as control cells and are stimulated to incorporate (/sup 3/H)thymidine and to proliferate after exposure to PDGF. Determination of total water-soluble inositolphospholipids and changes in the specific activities of phosphatidylcholine in control and EJ-ras-transfected cells demonstrated that PDGF-stimulated phospholipase C and A/sub 2/ activities are inhibited in the EJ-ras-transfected cells.

  14. Mechanism of activation of the mouse c-mos oncogene by the LTR of an intracisternal A-particle gene.

    PubMed Central

    Horowitz, M; Luria, S; Rechavi, G; Givol, D

    1984-01-01

    In the mouse myeloma XRPC-24 the DNA of an intracisternal A-particle (IAP) is inserted within the coding region of c-mos. This insertion splits the c-mos into a 3' rc-mos and a 5' rc-mos separated by approximately 4.7 kb of IAP DNA. The insertion is in a head-to-head orientation and brings the 5' LTR of the IAP in juxtaposition to the 3' rc-mos such that the IAP and the 3' rc-mos are transcribed in opposite directions. The intact c-mos gene is usually dormant, whereas the 3' rc-mos is actively transcribed and is capable of transforming NIH3T3 cells. In an effort to understand the nature of this activation we mapped the 5' ends of the 3' rc-mos mRNA present in XPRC-24. We found two main mRNA start sites, one mapping to the junction of the 3' rc-mos and the 5' LTR, and the other located 10 nucleotides upstream to this junction, within the 5' LTR. This result indicates that the 3' rc-mos in XRPC-24 was activated by insertion of a promoter provided by the LTR of an IAP genome. Furthermore, the 5' LTR appears to possess promoter activities in two directions. This conclusion was confirmed by the fact that this 5' LTR, in both orientations, was able to activate the bacterial gene coding for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) in the modular vector pSVOCAT. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 5. PMID:6098457

  15. Signaling pathways regulating cartilage growth plate formation and activity.

    PubMed

    Samsa, William E; Zhou, Xin; Zhou, Guang

    2017-02-01

    The growth plate is a highly specialized and dynamic cartilage structure that serves many essential functions in skeleton patterning, growth and endochondral ossification in developing vertebrates. Major signaling pathways initiated by classical morphogens and by other systemic and tissue-specific factors are intimately involved in key aspects of growth plate development. As a corollary of these essential functions, disturbances in these pathways due to mutations or environmental factors lead to severe skeleton disorders. Here, we review these pathways and the most recent progress made in understanding their roles in chondrocyte differentiation in growth plate development and activity. Furthermore, we discuss newly uncovered pathways involved in growth plate formation, including mTOR, the circadian clock, and the COP9 signalosome.

  16. Role of Notch and its oncogenic signaling crosstalk in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shanchun; Liu, Mingli; Gonzalez-Perez, Ruben R.

    2011-01-01

    The Notch signaling plays a key role in cell differentiation, survival, and proliferation through diverse mechanisms. Notch signaling is also involved in vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Moreover, Notch expression is regulated by hypoxia and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, IL-6 and leptin). Entangled crosstalk between Notch and other developmental signaling (Hedgehog and Wnt), and signaling triggered by growth factors, estrogens and oncogenic kinases, could impact on Notch targeted genes. Thus, alterations of the Notch signaling can lead to a variety of disorders, including human malignancies. Notch signaling is activated by ligand binding, followed by ADAM/Tumor necrosis factor-α-converting enzyme (TACE) metalloprotease and γ-secretase cleavages that produce the Notch intracellular domain (NICD). Translocation of NICD into the nucleus induces the transcriptional activation of Notch target genes. The relationships between Notch deregulated signaling, cancer stem cells and the carcinogenesis process reinforced by Notch crosstalk with many oncogenic signaling pathways suggest that Notch signaling may be a critical drug target for breast and other cancers. Since current status of knowledge in this field changes quickly, our insight should be continuously revised. In this review, we will focus on recent advancements in identification of aberrant Notch signaling in breast cancer and the possible underlying mechanisms, including potential role of Notch in breast cancer stem cells, tumor angiogenesis, as well as its crosstalk with other oncogenic signaling pathways in breast cancer. We will also discuss the prognostic value of Notch proteins and therapeutic potential of targeting Notch signaling for cancer treatment. PMID:21193018

  17. Retroviral Oncogenes: A Historical Primer

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Peter K.

    2012-01-01

    Retroviruses are the original source of oncogenes. The discovery and characterization of these genes were made possible by the introduction of quantitative cell biological and molecular techniques for the study of tumor viruses. Key features of all retroviral oncogenes were first identified in src, the oncogene of Rous sarcoma virus. These include non-involvement in viral replication, coding for a single protein, and cellular origin. The myc, ras and erbB oncogenes quickly followed src, and these together with pi3k are now recognized as critical driving forces in human cancer. PMID:22898541

  18. The Lysosome Rupture-activated TAK1-JNK Pathway Regulates NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Masahiro; Matsuzawa, Atsushi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Ichijo, Hidenori

    2014-01-01

    Lysosome rupture triggers NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. However, the underlying mechanism is not fully understood. Here we showed that the TAK1-JNK pathway, a MAPK signaling pathway, is activated through lysosome rupture and that this activation is necessary for the complete activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome through the oligomerization of an adapter protein, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (ASC). We also revealed that the activation of the TAK1-JNK pathway is sustained through Ca2+ ions and that calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II functions upstream of the TAK1-JNK pathway and specifically regulates lysosome rupture-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation. These data suggest a novel role for the TAK1-JNK pathway as a critical regulator of NLRP3 inflammasome activation. PMID:25288801

  19. Targeted disruption of the murine fps/fes proto-oncogene reveals that Fps/Fes kinase activity is dispensable for hematopoiesis.

    PubMed

    Senis, Y; Zirngibl, R; McVeigh, J; Haman, A; Hoang, T; Greer, P A

    1999-11-01

    The fps/fes proto-oncogene encodes a cytoplasmic protein-tyrosine kinase that is functionally implicated in the survival and terminal differentiation of myeloid progenitors and in signaling from several members of the cytokine receptor superfamily. To gain further insight into the physiological function of fps/fes, we targeted the mouse locus with a kinase-inactivating missense mutation. Mutant Fps/Fes protein was expressed at normal levels in these mice, but it lacked detectable kinase activity. Homozygous mutant animals were viable and fertile, and they showed no obvious defects. Flow cytometry analysis of bone marrow showed no statistically significant differences in the levels of myeloid, erythroid, or B-cell precursors. Subtle abnormalities observed in mutant mice included slightly elevated total leukocyte counts and splenomegaly. In bone marrow hematopoietic progenitor cell colony-forming assays, mutant mice gave slightly elevated numbers and variable sizes of CFU-granulocyte macrophage in response to interleukin-3 (IL-3) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Tyrosine phosphorylation of Stat3 and Stat5A in bone marrow-derived macrophages was dramatically reduced in response to GM-CSF but not to IL-3 or IL-6. This suggests a distinct nonredundant role for Fps/Fes in signaling from the GM-CSF receptor that does not extend to the closely related IL-3 receptor. Lipopolysaccharide-induced Erk1/2 activation was also reduced in mutant macrophages. These subtle molecular phenotypes suggest a possible nonredundant role for Fps/Fes in myelopoiesis and immune responses.

  20. Activation of H-ras oncogenes in male B6C3F1 mouse liver tumors induced by vinthionine or 2-chloroethyl-methyl sulfide.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Y W; Lee, G H; Liem, A; Miller, J A

    1996-06-01

    Vinthionine (S-vinyl-DL-homocysteine) is hepatocarcinogenic in rats and mice. [Vinyl-14C]vinthionine binds covalently to rat liver DNA, RNA and protein in vivo, but not in vitro. This amino acid is directly mutagenic in Salmonella typhimurium TA100 and TA1535; the mechanism of its metabolic activation in vivo in bacteria and liver is under study. In the present study liver tumors were induced in 12-day-old male B6C3F1 mice by single i.p. injections of vinthionine or the alkylating agent 2-chloroethyl methyl sulfide (CEMS). At 10 months the gross tumors were examined for the presence of activated H-ras oncogenes. DNA was isolated from single tumors per mouse from 37 mice treated with vinthionine and from 31 mice treated with CEMS. These DNAs were screened for codon 61 mutations by restriction fragment length polymorphism of PCR-amplified H-ras gene fragments. Thirty seven of 37 vinthionine-induced hepatomas had H-ras mutations in this codon, which consisted of seven C-->A transversions in the first base, with 29 A-->T transversions and one A-->G transition in the second base. Twenty five of 31 CEMS-induced hepatomas had mutations in the same codon, which consisted of seven C-->A transversions in the first base, with eight A-->T transversions and 10 A-->G transitions in the second base. These mutation spectra are quite different to that noted by others in spontaneous hepatomas in untreated B6C3F1 mice. These data appear to result from the covalent binding of these carcinogens to the liver DNA.

  1. Apoptosis and autophagy: BIM as a mediator of tumour cell death in response to oncogene-targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Gillings, Annette S; Balmanno, Kathryn; Wiggins, Ceri M; Johnson, Mark; Cook, Simon J

    2009-11-01

    The BCL-2 homology domain 3 (BH3)-only protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 interacting mediator of cell death (BIM) is a potent pro-apoptotic protein belonging to the B-cell lymphoma 2 protein family. In recent years, advances in basic biology have provided a clearer picture of how BIM kills cells and how BIM expression and activity are repressed by growth factor signalling pathways, especially the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 and protein kinase B pathways. In tumour cells these oncogene-regulated pathways are used to counter the effects of BIM, thereby promoting tumour cell survival. In parallel, a new generation of targeted therapeutics has been developed, which show remarkable specificity and efficacy in tumour cells that are addicted to particular oncogenes. It is now apparent that the expression and activation of BIM is a common response to these new therapeutics. Indeed, BIM has emerged from this marriage of basic and applied biology as an important mediator of tumour cell death in response to such drugs. The induction of BIM alone may not be sufficient for significant tumour cell death, as BIM is more likely to act in concert with other BH3-only proteins, or other death pathways, when new targeted therapeutics are used in combination with traditional chemotherapy agents. Here we discuss recent advances in understanding BIM regulation and review the role of BIM as a mediator of tumour cell death in response to novel oncogene-targeted therapeutics.

  2. ETV6-NTRK3 fusion oncogene initiates breast cancer from committed mammary progenitors via activation of AP1 complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhe; Tognon, Cristina E.; Godinho, Frank J.; Yasaitis, Laura; Hock, Hanno; Herschkowitz, Jason I.; Lannon, Chris L.; Cho, Eunah; Kim, Seong-Jin; Bronson, Roderick T.; Perou, Charles M.; Sorensen, Poul H.; Orkin, Stuart H.

    2007-01-01

    SUMMARY To better understand the cellular origin of breast cancer, we developed a mouse model that recapitulates expression of the ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) fusion oncoprotein, the product of the t(12;15)(p13;q25) translocation characteristic of human secretory breast carcinoma. Activation of EN expression in mammary tissues by Wap-Cre leads to fully penetrant, multifocal malignant breast cancer with short latency. We provide genetic evidence that in nulliparous Wap-Cre;EN females, committed alveolar bipotent or CD61+ luminal progenitors, are targets of tumorigenesis. Furthermore, EN transforms these otherwise transient progenitors through activation of the AP1 complex. Given increasing relevance of chromosomal translocations in epithelial cancers, such mice serve as a paradigm for the study of their genetic pathogenesis and cellular origins, and generation of novel preclinical models. SIGNIFICANCE For the largest class of human tumors, those of epithelial origin, little is known about their initiating genetic hits or cells of origin. Whether tissue stem cells or more committed progenitors are targets for transformation is uncertain. We developed a system in which epithelial tumorigenesis can be assessed from the initial event to frank malignancy. In this breast cancer model based on chromosomal translocation, we show through genetic marking that committed mammary progenitors, rather than mammary stem cells, are direct targets of transformation. We show that activation of the AP1 complex represents a critical downstream event of the ETV6-NTRK3 translocation. Further focus on this transcriptional complex as a target in human breast cancer is warranted. PMID:18068631

  3. Pathogen-secreted proteases activate a novel plant immune pathway.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Li, Jian-Feng; Niu, Yajie; Zhang, Xue-Cheng; Woody, Owen Z; Xiong, Yan; Djonović, Slavica; Millet, Yves; Bush, Jenifer; McConkey, Brendan J; Sheen, Jen; Ausubel, Frederick M

    2015-05-14

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades play central roles in innate immune signalling networks in plants and animals. In plants, however, the molecular mechanisms of how signal perception is transduced to MAPK activation remain elusive. Here we report that pathogen-secreted proteases activate a previously unknown signalling pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana involving the Gα, Gβ, and Gγ subunits of heterotrimeric G-protein complexes, which function upstream of an MAPK cascade. In this pathway, receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1) functions as a novel scaffold that binds to the Gβ subunit as well as to all three tiers of the MAPK cascade, thereby linking upstream G-protein signalling to downstream activation of an MAPK cascade. The protease-G-protein-RACK1-MAPK cascade modules identified in these studies are distinct from previously described plant immune signalling pathways such as that elicited by bacterial flagellin, in which G proteins function downstream of or in parallel to an MAPK cascade without the involvement of the RACK1 scaffolding protein. The discovery of the new protease-mediated immune signalling pathway described here was facilitated by the use of the broad host range, opportunistic bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The ability of P. aeruginosa to infect both plants and animals makes it an excellent model to identify novel immunoregulatory strategies that account for its niche adaptation to diverse host tissues and immune systems.

  4. Biological basis of personalized anticoagulation in cancer: oncogene and oncomir networks as putative regulators of coagulopathy.

    PubMed

    D'Asti, Esterina; Rak, Janusz

    2016-04-01

    Activation of stromal response pathways in cancer is increasingly viewed as both a local and systemic extension of molecular alterations driving malignant transformation. Rather than reflecting passive and unspecific responses to anatomical abnormalities, the coagulation system is a target of oncogenic deregulation, impacting the role of clotting and fibrinolytic proteins, and integrating hemostasis, inflammation, angiogenesis and cellular growth effects in cancer. These processes signify, but do not depend on, the clinically manifest coagulopathy and thrombosis. In this regard, the role of driver mutations affecting oncoprotein coding genes such as RAS, EGFR or MET and tumour suppressors (PTEN, TP53) are well described as regulators of tissue factor (TF), protease activated receptors (PAR-1/2) and ectopic coagulation factors (FVII). Indeed, in both adult and pediatric brain tumours the expression patterns of coagulation and angiogenesis regulators (coagulome and angiome, respectively) reflect the molecular subtypes of the underlying diseases (glioblastoma or medulloblastoma) as defined by their oncogenic classifiers and clinical course. This emerging understanding is still poorly established in relation to the transforming effects of non-coding genes, including those responsible for the expression of microRNA (miR). Indeed, several miRs have been recently found to regulate TF and other effectors. We recently documented that in the context of the aggressive embryonal tumour with multilayered rosettes (ETMR) the oncogenic driver miR (miR-520g) suppresses the expression of TF and correlates with hypocoagulant tumour characteristics. Unlike in adult cancers, the growth of pediatric embryonal brain tumour cells as spheres (to maintain stem cell properties) results in upregulation of miR-520g and downregulation of TF expression and activity. We postulate that oncogenic protein and miR coding genes form alternative pathways of coagulation system regulation in different

  5. Activation of human papillomavirus type 18 E6-E7 oncogene expression by transcription factor Sp1.

    PubMed Central

    Hoppe-Seyler, F; Butz, K

    1992-01-01

    The human papillomavirus 18 (HPV18) E6 and E7 proteins are considered to be primarily responsive for the transforming activity of the virus. In order to analyse the molecular mechanisms resulting in viral oncoprotein expression, it is necessary to identify the factors involved in the transcriptional regulation of the E6/E7 genes. Here we define by gel retardation experiments a sequence aberrant Sp1 binding site present in the promoter proximal part of the viral transcriptional control region (Upstream Regulatory Region, URR). Functional analyses employing transient reporter assays reveal that this Sp1 element is required for an efficient stimulation of the HPV18 E6/E7-promoter. Mutation of the Sp1 element in the natural context of the HPV18 URR leads to a strong decrease in the activity of the E6/E7-promoter in several cell lines. The magnitude of reduction varies between different cell types and is higher in cell lines of epithelial origin when compared with nonepithelial cells. Cotransfection assays using Sp1 expression vector systems further define the promoter proximal HPV18 Sp1 binding motif as a functional Sp1 element in vivo and show that its integrity is essential for the stimulation of the E6/E7-promoter by augmented levels of Sp1. These results indicate, that the cellular transcription factor Sp1 plays an important role for the stimulation of the E6/E7-promoter by the viral URR and represents a major determinant for the expression of HPV18 transforming genes E6 and E7. Images PMID:1336181

  6. TC21 mediates transformation and cell survival via activation of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt and NF-kappaB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Rong, Rong; He, Qin; Liu, Yusen; Sheikh, M Saeed; Huang, Ying

    2002-02-07

    The signaling pathways of TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival are not well-established. In this study, we have investigated the role of PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway in oncogenic-TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival. We found that oncogenic-TC21 stimulated the PI3-K activity. This was associated with the activation of Akt, a key component of PI3-K signaling pathway. We also found that TC21 interacted and formed complex with PI3-K. Mutations in the GTP-binding region of TC21, which enhanced GTP-binding potential of this protein, also stimulated its association with PI3-K, suggesting that PI3-K may preferentially interact with the GTP-bound form. Suppression of PI3-K and Akt by specific inhibitors LY294002 and Wortmannin reversed TC21-induced transformation. Likewise, inhibition of PI3-K activity by the PI3-K phosphotase PTEN reduced TC21-mediated focus formation in NIH3T3 cells. Investigation of TC21's effect on cell survival revealed that mutant-TC21 expressing cells were more resistant to etoposide- and cisplatin-induced cell death, and this was associated with the activation of anti-apoptotic protein NF-kappaB, a downstream target of Akt. Treatment of PI3-K inhibitor LY294002 significantly suppressed TC21-mediated NF-kappaB activation. In conclusion, we have identified PI3-K as an effector of TC21 and demonstrated that the PI3-K/Akt signaling pathway plays important roles in TC21-mediated transformation and cell survival.

  7. Legionella pneumophila lipopolysaccharide activates the classical complement pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Mintz, C S; Schultz, D R; Arnold, P I; Johnson, W

    1992-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a gram-negative bacterium capable of entering and growing in alveolar macrophages and monocytes. Complement and complement receptors are important in the uptake of L. pneumophila by human mononuclear phagocytes. The surface molecules of L. pneumophila that activate the complement system are unknown. To identify these factors, we investigated the effects of L. pneumophila lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the classical and alternative complement pathways of normal human serum by functional hemolytic assays. Although incubation of LPS in normal human serum at 37 degrees C resulted in the activation of both pathways, complement activation proceeded primarily through the classical pathway. Activation of the classical pathway by LPS was dependent on natural antibodies of the immunoglobulin M class that were present in various quantities in sera from different normal individuals but were absent in an immunoglobulin-deficient serum obtained from an agammaglobulinemic patient. Additional studies using sheep erythrocytes coated with LPS suggested that the antibodies recognized antigenic sites in the carbohydrate portion of LPS. The ability of LPS to interact with the complement system suggests a role for LPS in the uptake of L. pneumophila by mononuclear phagocytes. PMID:1612744

  8. Stretch-activated pathways and left ventricular remodeling.

    PubMed

    Force, Thomas; Michael, Ashour; Kilter, Heiko; Haq, Syed

    2002-12-01

    Stretch of cardiomyocytes in vivo occurs in response to a number of stimuli, including pressure or volume overload, but it is most clearly seen following relatively large, acute myocardial infarctions. It is in this setting that stretch is most clearly related to the pathogenesis of heart failure. Stretch of the remote, noninfacted myocardium leads to the activation of a large number of cellular signal transduction pathways, which sets into motion a series of what are designed to be compensatory responses to the increased wall stress on the surviving myocardium. Herein, we will discuss the cellular pathways activated by cell stretch, which appear to trigger the initial steps in the pathogenesis of ventricular dilatation following myocardial infarction. We will discuss what is known of the "stretch sensors," which convert the mechanical stimulus into molecular signals. I will then introduce the specific cellular signaling pathways activated by stretch and discuss the evidence for their involvement in remodeling. Since many of these pathways will be covered in more detail in specific sections to follow, this will serve as an introduction to stretch-activated signaling. Finally, we will briefly examine later phases of the response, including advanced heart failure. The goal is to identify molecular modulators that might serve as targets for pharmacologic or molecular intervention.

  9. Targeting lymphocyte activation through the lymphotoxin and LIGHT pathways

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Summary Cytokines mediate key communication pathways essential for regulation of immune responses. Full activation of antigen-responding lymphocytes requires cooperating signals from the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related cytokines and their specific receptors. LIGHT, a lymphotoxin-β (LTβ)-related TNF family member, modulates T-cell activation through two receptors, the herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM) and indirectly through the LT-β receptor. An unexpected finding revealed a non-canonical binding site on HVEM for the immunoglobulin superfamily member, B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA), and an inhibitory signaling protein suppressing T-cell activation. Thus, HVEM can act as a molecular switch between proinflammatory and inhibitory signaling. The non-canonical HVEM-BTLA pathway also acts to counter LTβR signaling that promotes the proliferation of antigen-presenting dendritic cells (DCs) within lymphoid tissue microenvironments. These results indicate LTβ receptor and HVEM-BTLA pathways form an integrated signaling circuit. Targeting these cytokine pathways with specific antagonists (antibody or decoy receptor) can alter lymphocyte differentiation and activation. Alternately, agonists directed at their cell surface receptors can restore homeostasis and potentially reset immune and inflammatory processes, which may be useful in treating autoimmune and infectious diseases and cancer. PMID:18613837

  10. Mechanisms of T Cell Activation and Pathways of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abais-Battad, Justine M.; Rudemiller, Nathan P.; Mattson, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Significant advancements have been made in the search for antigens and pathways responsible for activation of the adaptive immune response, furthering our understanding of the factors contributing to hypertension and potentially leading to the development of new and more effective therapies. PMID:26125645

  11. Targeting CK2-driven non-oncogene addiction in B-cell tumors.

    PubMed

    Mandato, E; Manni, S; Zaffino, F; Semenzato, G; Piazza, F

    2016-11-24

    Genetic mutations of oncogenes often underlie deranged cell growth and altered differentiation pathways leading to malignant transformation of B-lymphocytes. However, addiction to oncogenes is not the only drive to lymphoid tumor pathogenesis. Dependence on non-oncogenes, which act by propelling basic mechanisms of cell proliferation and survival, has also been recognized in the pathobiology of lymphoid leukemias, lymphomas and multiple myeloma. Among the growing number of molecules that may uphold non-oncogene addiction, a key place is increasingly being recognized to the serine-threonine kinase CK2. This enzyme is overexpressed and overactive in B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia, multiple myeloma, chronic lymphocytic leukemia and non-Hodgkin lymphomas, such as mantle cell, follicular, Burkitt's and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. In these tumors, CK2 may serve the activity of oncogenes, similar to BCR-ABL and c-MYC, control the activation of critical signaling cascades, such as NF-κB (nuclear factor-κB), STAT3 (signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) and PTEN/PI3K/AKT (phosphatase and tensin homolog protein/phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKR thymoma), and sustain multiple cellular stress-elicited pathways, such as the proteotoxic stress, unfolded protein and DNA-damage responses. CK2 has also been shown to have an essential role in tuning signals derived from the stromal tumor microenvironment. Not surprisingly, targeting CK2 in lymphoid tumor cell lines or mouse xenograft models can boost the cytotoxic effects of both conventional chemotherapeutics and novel agents, similar to heat-shock protein 90, proteasome and tyrosine kinases inhibitors. In this review, we summarize the evidence indicating how CK2 embodies most of the features of a cancer growth-promoting non-oncogene, focusing on lymphoid tumors. We further discuss the preclinical data of the use of small ATP-competitive CK2 inhibitors, which hold the promise to be additional options in novel drug

  12. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency in T-ALL through activation of both the PI3K–AKT and JAK–STAT3 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yuzugullu, Haluk; Von, Thanh; Thorpe, Lauren M; Walker, Sarah R; Roberts, Thomas M; Frank, David A; Zhao, Jean J

    2016-01-01

    Loss of PTEN, a negative regulator of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathway, is a frequent event in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, suggesting the importance of phosphoinositide 3-kinase activity in this disease. Indeed, hyperactivation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase pathway is associated with the disease aggressiveness, poor prognosis and resistance to current therapies. To identify a molecular pathway capable of cooperating with PTEN deficiency to drive oncogenic transformation of leukocytes, we performed an unbiased transformation screen with a library of tyrosine kinases. We found that activation of NTRK2 is able to confer a full growth phenotype of Ba/F3 cells in an IL3-independent manner in the PTEN-null setting. NTRK2 activation cooperates with PTEN deficiency through engaging both phosphoinositide3-kinase/AKT and JAK/STAT3 pathway activation in leukocytes. Notably, pharmacological inhibition demonstrated that p110α and p110δ are the major isoforms mediating the phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT signaling driven by NTRK2 activation in PTEN-deficient leukemia cells. Furthermore, combined inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 significantly suppressed proliferation of PTEN-mutant T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia both in culture and in mouse xenografts. Together, our data suggest that a unique conjunction of PTEN deficiency and NTRK2 activation in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia, and combined pharmacologic inhibition of phosphoinositide 3-kinase and STAT3 signaling may serve as an effective and durable therapeutic strategy for T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. PMID:27672444

  13. Mutant calreticulin requires both its mutant C-terminus and the thrombopoietin receptor for oncogenic transformation

    PubMed Central

    Elf, Shannon; Abdelfattah, Nouran S.; Chen, Edwin; Perales-Patón, Javier; Rosen, Emily A.; Ko, Amy; Peisker, Fabian; Florescu, Natalie; Giannini, Silvia; Wolach, Ofir; Morgan, Elizabeth A.; Tothova, Zuzana; Losman, Julie-Aurore; Schneider, Rebekka K.; Al-Shahrour, Fatima; Mullally, Ann

    2016-01-01

    Somatic mutations in calreticulin (CALR) are present in approximately 40% of patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) but the mechanism by which mutant CALR is oncogenic remains unclear. Here, we demonstrate that expression of mutant CALR alone is sufficient to engender MPN in mice and recapitulates the disease phenotype of CALR-mutant MPN patients. We further show that the thrombopoietin receptor, MPL is required for mutant CALR-driven transformation through JAK-STAT pathway activation, thus rendering mutant CALR-transformed hematopoietic cells sensitive to JAK2 inhibition. Finally, we demonstrate that the oncogenicity of mutant CALR is dependent on the positive electrostatic charge of the C-terminus of the mutant protein, which is necessary for physical interaction between mutant CALR and MPL. Together, our findings elucidate a novel paradigm of cancer pathogenesis and reveal how CALR mutations induce MPN. PMID:26951227

  14. A specific protein, p92, detected in flat revertants derived from NIH/3T3 transformed by human activated c-Ha-ras oncogene.

    PubMed

    Fujita, H; Suzuki, H; Kuzumaki, N; Müllauer, L; Ogiso, Y; Oda, A; Ebisawa, K; Sakurai, T; Nonomura, Y; Kijimoto-Ochiai, S

    1990-01-01

    Total proteins from a mouse embryo fibroblast cell line NIH/3T3, NIH/3T3 cells transformed by human activated c-Ha-ras (EJ-ras) oncogene (EJ-NIH/3T3), and the two flat revertant cell lines, R1 and R2, were analyzed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (IEF and NEPHGE). Several hundred polypeptides were resolved as seen by silver staining. Common alterations in four polypeptide spots were observed in the revertants when compared with NIH/3T3 and EJ-NIH/3T3 cells. In these alterations, a new polypeptide spot p92-5.7 (designated by molecular weight x 10(-3) and pI) was detected only in the revertants and not in NIH/3T3 and EJ-NIH/3T3 cells. Furthermore, the expression level of p92-5.7 seemed to be associated with the flat morphology and the reduced tumorigenicity of the revertants. Polypeptide p92-5.7 was also not detected in the total proteins extracted from BALB/3T3 cells, NIH Swiss mouse primary embryo fibroblasts, NRK (normal rat kidney) cells, and L6 (rat myoblast). Subcellular fractionation of total protein from R1 cells revealed that the p92-5.7 was present in the cytosol. Western blot analysis using an anti-gelsolin antibody demonstrated that the p92-5.7 might be a variant form of gelsolin which is thought to be an actin regulatory protein or a gelsolin-like polypeptide. These results may suggest that the expression of p92-5.7 detected only in the revertants is associated, at least in part, with the reversion. This may be the first demonstration of specific protein expression in the flat revertants.

  15. Oncogenic herpesvirus KSHV Hijacks BMP-Smad1-Id signaling to promote tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Liang, Deguang; Hu, Hao; Li, Shasha; Dong, Jiazhen; Wang, Xing; Wang, Yuhan; He, Li; He, Zhiheng; Gao, Yuan; Gao, Shou-Jiang; Lan, Ke

    2014-07-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is the etiological agent of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), a malignancy commonly found in AIDS patients. Whether KS is a true neoplasm or hyperplasia has been a subject of intensive debate until recently when KSHV is unequivocally shown to efficiently infect, immortalize and transform rat primary mesenchymal precursor cells (MM). Moreover, KSHV-transformed MM cells (KMM) efficiently induce tumors with hallmark features of KS when inoculated into nude mice. Here, we showed Smad1 as a novel binding protein of KSHV latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA interacted with and sustained BMP-activated p-Smad1 in the nucleus and enhanced its loading on the Id promoters. As a result, Ids were significantly up-regulated in KMM cells and abundantly expressed in human KS lesions. Strikingly, genetic and chemical inhibition of the BMP-Smad1-Id pathway blocked the oncogenic phenotype of KSHV-transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. These findings illustrate a novel mechanism by which a tumor virus hijacks and converts a developmental pathway into an indispensable oncogenic pathway for tumorigenesis. Importantly, our results demonstrate the efficacy of targeting the BMP-Smad1-Id pathway for inhibiting the growth of KSHV-induced tumors, and therefore identify the BMP pathway as a promising therapeutic target for KS.

  16. Oncogenes in melanoma: an update.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    Melanoma is a highly aggressive tumour with poor prognosis in the metastatic stage. BRAF, NRAS, and KIT are three well-known oncogenes involved in melanoma pathogenesis. Targeting of mutated BRAF kinase has recently been shown to significantly improve overall survival of metastatic melanoma patients, underscoring the particular role of this oncogene in melanoma biology. However, recurrences regularly occur within several months, which supposedly involve further oncogenes. Moreover, oncogenic driver mutations have not been described for up to 30% of all melanomas. In order to obtain a more complete picture of the mutational landscape of melanoma, more recent studies used high-throughput DNA sequencing technologies. A number of new oncogene candidates such as MAPK1/2, ERBB4, GRIN2A, GRM3, RAC1, and PREX2 were identified. Their particular role in melanoma biology is currently under investigation. Evidence for the functional relevance of some of these new oncogene candidates has been provided in in vitro and in vivo experiments. However, these findings await further validation in clinical studies. This review provides an overview on well-known melanoma oncogenes and new oncogene candidates, based on recent high-throughput sequencing studies. The list of genes discussed herein is of course not complete but highlights some of the most significant of recent findings in this area. The new candidates may support more individualized treatment approaches for metastatic melanoma patients in the future.

  17. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis identifies activation of the RET and IGF-1R/IR signaling pathways in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    DeNardo, Bradley D; Holloway, Michael P; Ji, Qinqin; Nguyen, Kevin T; Cheng, Yan; Valentine, Marcus B; Salomon, Arthur; Altura, Rachel A

    2013-01-01

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumor of childhood with a heterogenous clinical presentation that reflects differences in activation of complex biological signaling pathways. Protein phosphorylation is a key component of cellular signal transduction and plays a critical role in processes that control cancer cell growth and survival. We used shotgun LC/MS to compare phosphorylation between a human MYCN amplified neuroblastoma cell line (NB10), modeling a resistant tumor, and a human neural precursor cell line (NPC), modeling a normal baseline neural crest cell. 2181 unique phosphorylation sites representing 1171 proteins and 2598 phosphopeptides were found. Protein kinases accounted for 6% of the proteome, with a predominance of tyrosine kinases, supporting their prominent role in oncogenic signaling pathways. Highly abundant receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) phosphopeptides in the NB10 cell line relative to the NPC cell line included RET, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor/insulin receptor (IGF-1R/IR), and fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1). Multiple phosphorylated peptides from downstream mediators of the PI3K/AKT/mTOR and RAS pathways were also highly abundant in NB10 relative to NPC. Our analysis highlights the importance of RET, IGF-1R/IR and FGFR1 as RTKs in neuroblastoma and suggests a methodology that can be used to identify potential novel biological therapeutic targets. Furthermore, application of this previously unexploited technology in the clinic opens the possibility of providing a new wide-scale molecular signature to assess disease progression and prognosis.

  18. Increased sugar uptake promotes oncogenesis via EPAC/RAP1 and O-GlcNAc pathways

    PubMed Central

    Onodera, Yasuhito; Nam, Jin-Min; Bissell, Mina J.

    2013-01-01

    There is a considerable resurgence of interest in the role of aerobic glycolysis in cancer; however, increased glycolysis is frequently viewed as a consequence of oncogenic events that drive malignant cell growth and survival. Here we provide evidence that increased glycolytic activation itself can be an oncogenic event in a physiologically relevant 3D culture model. Overexpression of glucose transporter type 3 (GLUT3) in nonmalignant human breast cells activated known oncogenic signaling pathways, including EGFR, β1 integrin, MEK, and AKT, leading to loss of tissue polarity and increased growth. Conversely, reduction of glucose uptake in malignant cells promoted the formation of organized and growth-arrested structures with basal polarity, and suppressed oncogenic pathways. Unexpectedly and importantly, we found that unlike reported literature, in 3D the differences between “normal” and malignant phenotypes could not be explained by HIF-1α/2α, AMPK, or mTOR pathways. Loss of epithelial integrity involved activation of RAP1 via exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC), involving also O-linked N-acetylglucosamine modification downstream of the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. The former, in turn, was mediated by pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) interaction with soluble adenylyl cyclase. Our findings show that increased glucose uptake activates known oncogenic pathways to induce malignant phenotype, and provide possible targets for diagnosis and therapeutics. PMID:24316969

  19. Drosophila myeloid leukemia factor acts with DREF to activate the JNK signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Yanai, H; Yoshioka, Y; Yoshida, H; Nakao, Y; Plessis, A; Yamaguchi, M

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila myelodysplasia/myeloid leukemia factor (dMLF), a homolog of human MLF1, oncogene was first identified by yeast two-hybrid screen using the DNA replication-related element-binding factor (DREF) as bait. DREF is a transcription factor that regulates proliferation-related genes in Drosophila. It is known that overexpression of dMLF in the wing imaginal discs through the engrailed-GAL4 driver causes an atrophied wing phenotype associated with the induction of apoptosis. However, the precise mechanisms involved have yet to be clarified. Here, we found the atrophied phenotype to be suppressed by loss-of-function mutation of Drosophila Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), basket (bsk). Overexpression of dMLF induced ectopic JNK activation in the wing disc monitored with the puckered-lacZ reporter line, resulting in induction of apoptosis. The DREF-binding consensus DRE sequence could be shown to exist in the bsk promoter. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays in S2 cells with anti-dMLF IgG and quantitative real-time PCR revealed that dMLF binds specifically to the bsk promoter region containing the DRE sequence. Furthermore, using a transient luciferase expression assay, we provide evidence that knockdown of dMLF reduced bsk gene promoter activity in S2 cells. Finally, we show that dMLF interacts with DREF in vivo. Altogether, these data indicate that dMLF acts with DREF to stimulate the bsk promoter and consequently activates the JNK pathway to promote apoptosis. PMID:24752236

  20. The RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway controls cell invasion by inhibition of Rac activity

    PubMed Central

    Thuault, Sylvie; Comunale, Franck; Hasna, Jessy; Fortier, Mathieu; Planchon, Damien; Elarouci, Nabila; De Reynies, Aurélien; Bodin, Stéphane; Blangy, Anne; Gauthier-Rouvière, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is the most common soft tissue sarcoma of skeletal muscle origin in children and adolescents. Among RMS subtypes, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS), which is characterized by the presence of the PAX3-FOXO1A or PAX7-FOXO1A chimeric oncogenic transcription factor, is associated with poor prognosis and a strong risk of metastasis compared with the embryonal subtype (ERMS). To identify molecular pathways involved in ARMS aggressiveness, we first characterized the migratory behavior of cell lines derived from ARMS and ERMS biopsies using a three-dimensional spheroid cell invasion assay. ARMS cells were more invasive than ERMS cells and adopted an ellipsoidal morphology to efficiently invade the extracellular matrix. Moreover, the invasive potential of ARMS cells depended on ROCK activity, which is regulated by the GTPase RhoE. Specifically, RhoE expression was low in ARMS biopsies, and its overexpression in ARMS cells reduced their invasion potential. Conversely, ARHGAP25, a GTPase-activating protein for Rac, was up-regulated in ARMS biopsies. Moreover, we found that ARHGAP25 inhibits Rac activity downstream of ROCKII and is required for ARMS cell invasion. Our results indicate that the RhoE/ROCK/ARHGAP25 signaling pathway promotes ARMS invasive potential and identify these proteins as potential therapeutic targets for ARMS treatment. PMID:27413008

  1. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eighteen PCDPSs were tested in the H4IIE-luc transactivation assay, with 13/18 causing concentration-dependent AhR activation. Potencies of several congeners were similar to those of mono-ortho substituted polychlorinated biphenyls. A RNA sequencing (RNA-seq)-based transcriptomic analysis was performed on H4IIE cells treated with two PCDPS congeners, 2,2',3,3',4,5,6-hepta-CDPS, and 2,4,4',5-tetra-CDPS. Results of RNA-seq revealed a remarkable modulation on a relatively short gene list by exposure to the tested concentrations of PCDPSs, among which, Cyp1 responded with the greatest fold up-regulation. Both the identities of the modulated transcripts and the associated pathways were consistent with targets and pathways known to be modulated by other types of AhR agonists and there was little evidence for significant off-target effects within the cellular context of the H4IIE bioassay. The results suggest AhR activation as a toxicologically relevant mode of action for PCDPSs suggests the utility of AhR-related toxicity pathways for predicting potential hazards associated with PCDPS exposure in mammals and potentially other vertebrates. Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of en

  2. Importance of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor in HER2, FGFR2 and MET-unamplified gastric cancer with and without Ras pathway activation

    PubMed Central

    Saisana, Marina; Griffin, S. Michael; May, Felicity E.B.

    2016-01-01

    Amplification of seven oncogenes: HER2, EGFR, FGFR1, FGFR2, MET, KRAS and IGF1R has been identified in gastric cancer. The first five are targeted therapeutically in patients with HER2-positivity, FGFR2- or MET-amplification but the majority of patients are triple-negative and require alternative strategies. Our aim was to evaluate the importance of the IGF1R tyrosine kinase in triple-negative gastric cancer with and without oncogenic KRAS, BRAF or PI3K3CA mutations. Cell lines and metastatic tumor cells isolated from patients expressed IGF1R, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) activated the PI3-kinase/Akt and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathways. IGF-1 protected triple-negative cells from caspase-dependent apoptosis and anoikis. Protection was mediated via the PI3-kinase/Akt pathway. Remarkably, IGF-1-dependent cell survival was greater in patient samples. IGF-1 stimulated triple-negative gastric cancer cell growth was prevented by IGF1R knockdown and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathway inhibition. The importance of the receptor in cell line and metastatic tumor cell growth in serum-containing medium was demonstrated by knockdown and pharmacological inhibition with figitumumab. The proportions of cells in S-phase and mitotic-phase, and Ras/Raf/MAP-kinase pathway activity, were reduced concomitantly. KRAS-addicted and BRAF-impaired gastric cancer cells were particularly susceptible. In conclusion, IGF1R and the IGF signal transduction pathway merit consideration as potential therapeutic targets in patients with triple-negative gastric cancer. PMID:27437872

  3. Pridopidine activates neuroprotective pathways impaired in Huntington Disease

    PubMed Central

    Geva, Michal; Kusko, Rebecca; Soares, Holly; Fowler, Kevin D.; Birnberg, Tal; Barash, Steve; -Wagner, Avia Merenlender; Fine, Tania; Lysaght, Andrew; Weiner, Brian; Cha, Yoonjeong; Kolitz, Sarah; Towfic, Fadi; Orbach, Aric; Laufer, Ralph; Zeskind, Ben; Grossman, Iris; Hayden, Michael R.

    2016-01-01

    Pridopidine has demonstrated improvement in Huntington Disease (HD) motor symptoms as measured by secondary endpoints in clinical trials. Originally described as a dopamine stabilizer, this mechanism is insufficient to explain the clinical and preclinical effects of pridopidine. This study therefore explored pridopidine’s potential mechanisms of action. The effect of pridopidine versus sham treatment on genome-wide expression profiling in the rat striatum was analysed and compared to the pathological expression profile in Q175 knock-in (Q175 KI) vs Q25 WT mouse models. A broad, unbiased pathway analysis was conducted, followed by testing the enrichment of relevant pathways. Pridopidine upregulated the BDNF pathway (P = 1.73E-10), and its effect on BDNF secretion was sigma 1 receptor (S1R) dependent. Many of the same genes were independently found to be downregulated in Q175 KI mice compared to WT (5.2e-7 < P < 0.04). In addition, pridopidine treatment upregulated the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) response, D1R-associated genes and the AKT/PI3K pathway (P = 1E-10, P = 0.001, P = 0.004, respectively). Pridopidine upregulates expression of BDNF, D1R, GR and AKT/PI3K pathways, known to promote neuronal plasticity and survival, as well as reported to demonstrate therapeutic benefit in HD animal models. Activation of S1R, necessary for its effect on the BDNF pathway, represents a core component of the mode of action of pridopidine. Since the newly identified pathways are downregulated in neurodegenerative diseases, including HD, these findings suggest that pridopidine may exert neuroprotective effects beyond its role in alleviating some symptoms of HD. PMID:27466197

  4. Frequent PTEN genomic alterations and activated phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway in basal-like breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Marty, Bérengère; Maire, Virginie; Gravier, Eléonore; Rigaill, Guillem; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Kappler, Marion; Lebigot, Ingrid; Djelti, Fathia; Tourdès, Audrey; Gestraud, Pierre; Hupé, Philippe; Barillot, Emmanuel; Cruzalegui, Francisco; Tucker, Gordon C; Stern, Marc-Henri; Thiery, Jean-Paul; Hickman, John A; Dubois, Thierry

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Basal-like carcinomas (BLCs) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 overexpressing (HER2+) carcinomas are the subgroups of breast cancers that have the most aggressive clinical behaviour. In contrast to HER2+ carcinomas, no targeted therapy is currently available for the treatment of patients with BLCs. In order to discover potential therapeutic targets, we aimed to discover deregulated signalling pathways in human BLCs. Methods In this study, we focused on the oncogenic phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in 13 BLCs, and compared it with a control series of 11 hormonal receptor negative- and grade III-matched HER2+ carcinomas. The two tumour populations were first characterised by immunohistochemistry and gene expression. The PI3K pathway was then investigated by gene copy-number analysis, gene expression profiling and at a proteomic level using reverse-phase protein array technology and tissue microarray. The effects of the PI3K inhibition pathway on proliferation and apoptosis was further analysed in three human basal-like cell lines. Results The PI3K pathway was found to be activated in BLCs and up-regulated compared with HER2+ tumours as shown by a significantly increased activation of the downstream targets Akt and mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin). BLCs expressed significantly lower levels of the tumour suppressor PTEN and PTEN levels were significantly negatively correlated with Akt activity within that population. PTEN protein expression correlated significantly with PTEN DNA copy number and more importantly, reduced PTEN DNA copy numbers were observed specifically in BLCs. Similar to human samples, basal-like cell lines exhibited an activation of PI3K/Akt pathway and low/lack PTEN expression. Both PI3K and mTOR inhibitors led to basal-like cell growth arrest. However, apoptosis was specifically observed after PI3K inhibition. Conclusions These data provide insight into the molecular pathogenesis of BLCs and implicate the

  5. Oncogenic regulation of tumor metabolic reprogramming

    PubMed Central

    Tarrado-Castellarnau, Míriam; de Atauri, Pedro; Cascante, Marta

    2016-01-01

    Development of malignancy is accompanied by a complete metabolic reprogramming closely related to the acquisition of most of cancer hallmarks. In fact, key oncogenic pathways converge to adapt the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, lipids and nucleic acids to the dynamic tumor microenvironment, conferring a selective advantage to cancer cells. Therefore, metabolic properties of tumor cells are significantly different from those of non-transformed cells. In addition, tumor metabolic reprogramming is linked to drug resistance in cancer treatment. Accordingly, metabolic adaptations are specific vulnerabilities that can be used in different therapeutic approaches for cancer therapy. In this review, we discuss the dysregulation of the main metabolic pathways that enable cell transformation and its association with oncogenic signaling pathways, focusing on the effects of c-MYC, hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF1), phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K), and the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) on cancer cell metabolism. Elucidating these connections is of crucial importance to identify new targets and develop selective cancer treatments that improve response to therapy and overcome the emerging resistance to chemotherapeutics. PMID:28040803

  6. Heterologous activation of the actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway in Streptomyces lividans.

    PubMed Central

    Romero, N M; Parro, V; Malpartida, F; Mellado, R P

    1992-01-01

    A DNA fragment of Streptomyces fradiae is able to activate the antibiotic actinorhodin biosynthetic pathway when cloned in Streptomyces lividans. The activator DNA region has been sequenced and its transcription initiation and termination sites accurately mapped in vivo. This DNA encodes a 132 nucleotides long transcript which is apparently responsible for the actinorhodin production phenotype, possibly acting as an antisense RNA. The sequence of the activator gene revealed no homology with any other known Streptomyces coelicolor genes concerned with actinorhodin biosynthesis or its pleiotropic regulation. Images PMID:1614864

  7. ESCRT-III on endosomes: new functions, new activation pathway.

    PubMed

    Woodman, Philip

    2016-01-15

    The multivesicular body (MVB) pathway sorts ubiquitinated membrane cargo to intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) within the endosome, en route to the lysosomal lumen. The pathway involves the sequential action of conserved protein complexes [endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRTs)], culminating in the activation by ESCRT-II of ESCRT-III, a membrane-sculpting complex. Although this linear pathway of ESCRT activation is widely accepted, a study by Luzio and colleagues in a recent issue of the Biochemical Journal suggests that there is greater complexity in ESCRT-III activation, at least for some MVB cargoes. They show that ubiquitin-dependent sorting of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I to the MVB requires the central ESCRT-III complex but does not involve either ESCRT-II or functional links between ESCRT-II and ESCRT-III. Instead, they propose that MHC class I utilizes histidine-domain protein tyrosine phosphatase (HD-PTP), a non-canonical ESCRT interactor, to promote ESCRT-III activation.

  8. The oncogenic action of ionizing radiation on rat skin

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    Progress has occurred in several areas corresponding to the specific aims of the proposal: (1) Progression and multiple events in radiation carcinogenesis of rat skin as a function of LET; (2) cell cycle kinetics of irradiated rat epidermis as determined by double labeling and double emulsion autoradiography; (3) oncogene activation detected by in situ hybridization in radiation-induced rat skin tumors; (4) amplification of the c-myc oncogene in radiation-induced rat skin tumors as a function of LET; and (5) transformation of rat skin keratinocytes by ionizing radiation in combination with c-Ki-ras and c-myc oncogenes. 111 refs., 13 figs., 12 tabs.

  9. A novel small molecule agent displays potent anti-myeloma activity by inhibiting the JAK2-STAT3 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Jingyu; Xu, Yujia; Wang, Siyu; Xu, Xin; Ji, Peng; Yu, Yang; Cao, Biyin; Han, Kunkun; Hou, Tingjun; Xu, Zhuan; Kong, Yan; Jiang, Gaofeng; Tang, Xiaowen; Qiao, Chunhua; Mao, Xinliang

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic STAT3 signaling pathway is emerging as a promising target for the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM). In the present study, we identified a novel STAT3 inhibitor SC99 in a target-based high throughput screen. SC99 inhibited JAK2-STAT3 activation but had no effects on other transcription factors such as NF-κB, and kinases such as AKT, ERK, and c-Src that are in association with STAT3 signaling pathway. Furthermore, SC99 downregulated the expression of STAT3-modulated genes, including Bcl-2, Bcl-xL, VEGF, cyclin D2, and E2F-1. By inhibiting the STAT3 signaling, SC99 induced MM cell apoptosis which could be partly abolished by the ectopic expression of STAT3. Furthermore, SC99 displayed potent anti-MM activity in two independent MM xenograft models in nude mice. Oral administration of SC99 led to marked decrease of tumor growth within 10 days at a daily dosage of 30 mg/kg, but did not raise toxic effects. Taken together, this study identified a novel oral JAK2/STAT3 inhibitor that could be developed as an anti-myeloma agent. PMID:26814430

  10. FAM83D activates the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and promotes cell proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Dong; Han, Sheng; Peng, Rui; Wang, Xing; Yang, Xin-Xiang; Yang, Ren-Jie; Jiao, Chen-Yu; Ding, Dong; Ji, Gu-Wei; Li, Xiang-Cheng

    2015-03-06

    Publicly available microarray data suggests that the expression of FAM83D (Family with sequence similarity 83, member D) is elevated in a wide variety of tumor types, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, its role in the pathogenesis of HCC has not been elucidated. Here, we showed that FAM83D was frequently up-regulated in HCC samples. Forced FAM83D expression in HCC cell lines significantly promoted their proliferation and colony formation while FAM83D knockdown resulted in the opposite effects. Mechanistic analyses indicated that FAM83D was able to activate the MEK/ERK signaling pathway and promote the entry into S phase of cell cycle progression. Taken together, these results demonstrate that FAM83D is a novel oncogene in HCC development and may constitute a potential therapeutic target in HCC. - Highlights: • FAM83D is up-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines. • Ectopic expression of FAM83D promotes HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. • Depletion of FAM83D inhibits HCC cell proliferation and colony formation. • FAM83D activates the MEK/ERK signaling pathway in HCC.

  11. Oncogenic RAS alters the global and gene-specific histone modification pattern during epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colorectal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Peláez, Ignacio Mazón; Kalogeropoulou, Margarita; Ferraro, Angelo; Voulgari, Angeliki; Pankotai, Tibor; Boros, Imre; Pintzas, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    The presence of different forms of histone covalent modifications, such as phosphorylation, acetylation and methylation in localized promoter regions are markers for chromatin packing and transcription. Activation of RAS signalling pathways through oncogenic RAS mutations is a hallmark of colorectal cancer. Overexpression of Harvey-Ras oncogene induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in Caco-2 cells. We focused on the role of epigenetic modifications of histone H3 and its dependence on RAS signal transduction pathways and oncogenic transformation. Using cell lines stably overexpressing oncogenic Harvey-RAS with EMT phenotype, we studied the acquired changes in the H3 histone modification patterns. Two genes show inverse protein expression patterns after Ha-RAS overexpression: Cyclin D1, a cell cycle-related gene, and the EMT marker-gene E-cadherin. We report that these two genes demonstrate matching inverse histone repression patterns on their promoter, while histone markers associated with an active state of genes were affected by the RAS-activated signalling pathway MEK-ERK-MSK1. Furthermore, we show that though the level of methyltransferases enzymes was increased, the status of H3 three-methylation at lysine 27 (H3K27me(3)), associated with gene repression on the promoter of Cyclin D1, was lower. Together, these results suggest that histone covalent modifications can be affected by oncogenic RAS pathways to regulate the expression of target genes like Cyclin D1 or E-cadherin and that the dynamic balance of opposing histone-modifying enzymes is critical for the regulation of cell proliferation.

  12. The Cryptococcus neoformans Alkaline Response Pathway: Identification of a Novel Rim Pathway Activator

    PubMed Central

    Ost, Kyla S.; O’Meara, Teresa R.; Huda, Naureen; Esher, Shannon K.; Alspaugh, J. Andrew

    2015-01-01

    The Rim101/PacC transcription factor acts in a fungal-specific signaling pathway responsible for sensing extracellular pH signals. First characterized in ascomycete fungi such as Aspergillus nidulans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Rim/Pal pathway maintains conserved features among very distantly related fungi, where it coordinates cellular adaptation to alkaline pH signals and micronutrient deprivation. However, it also directs species-specific functions in fungal pathogens such as Cryptococcus neoformans, where it controls surface capsule expression. Moreover, disruption of the Rim pathway central transcription factor, Rim101, results in a strain that causes a hyper-inflammatory response in animal infection models. Using targeted gene deletions, we demonstrate that several genes encoding components of the classical Rim/Pal pathway are present in the C. neoformans genome. Many of these genes are in fact required for Rim101 activation, including members of the ESCRT complex (Vps23 and Snf7), ESCRT-interacting proteins (Rim20 and Rim23), and the predicted Rim13 protease. We demonstrate that in neutral/alkaline pH, Rim23 is recruited to punctate regions on the plasma membrane. This change in Rim23 localization requires upstream ESCRT complex components but does not require other Rim101 proteolysis components, such as Rim20 or Rim13. Using a forward genetics screen, we identified the RRA1 gene encoding a novel membrane protein that is also required for Rim101 protein activation and, like the ESCRT complex, is functionally upstream of Rim23-membrane localization. Homologs of RRA1 are present in other Cryptococcus species as well as other basidiomycetes, but closely related genes are not present in ascomycetes. These findings suggest that major branches of the fungal Kingdom developed different mechanisms to sense and respond to very elemental extracellular signals such as changing pH levels. PMID:25859664

  13. Activation of the JAK/STAT pathway in Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Tulunay, A; Dozmorov, M G; Ture-Ozdemir, F; Yilmaz, V; Eksioglu-Demiralp, E; Alibaz-Oner, F; Ozen, G; Wren, J D; Saruhan-Direskeneli, G; Sawalha, A H; Direskeneli, H

    2015-03-01

    Th1/Th17-type T-cell responses are upregulated in Behcet's disease (BD). However, signaling pathways associated with this aberrant immune response are not clarified. Whole-genome microarray profiling was performed with human U133 (Plus 2.0) chips using messenger RNA of isolated CD14(+) monocytes and CD4(+) T cells from peripheral blood mononucleated cell (PBMC) in patients with BD (n = 9) and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 9). Flow cytometric analysis of unstimulated (US) and stimulated (phytohaemagglutinin) signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT3) and pSTAT3 expressions of PBMCs were also analyzed (BD and HC, both n = 26). Janus family of kinase (JAK1) was observed to be upregulated in both CD14(+) monocytes (1.95-fold) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes (1.40-fold) of BD patients. Using canonical pathway enrichment analysis, JAK/STAT signaling was identified as activated in both CD14(+) monocytes (P = 9.55E-03) and in CD4(+) lymphocytes (P =8.13E-04) in BD. Interferon signaling was also prominent among upregulated genes in CD14(+) monocytes (P = 5.62E-05). Glucocorticoid receptor signaling and interleukin (IL-6) signaling were among the most enriched pathways in differentially expressed genes in CD14+ monocytes (P = 2.45E-09 and 1.00E-06, respectively). Basal US total STAT3 expression was significantly higher in BD (1.2 vs 3.45, P < 0.05). The JAK1/STAT3 signaling pathway is activated in BD, possibly through the activation of Th1/Th17-type cytokines such as IL-2, interferon (IFN-γ), IL-6, IL-17 and IL-23.

  14. Pathway-selective antagonism of proteinase activated receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Suen, J Y; Cotterell, A; Lohman, R J; Lim, J; Han, A; Yau, M K; Liu, L; Cooper, M A; Vesey, D A; Fairlie, D P

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Proteinase activated receptor 2 (PAR2) is a GPCR associated with inflammation, metabolism and disease. Clues to understanding how to block PAR2 signalling associated with disease without inhibiting PAR2 activation in normal physiology could be provided by studies of biased signalling. Experimental Approach PAR2 ligand GB88 was profiled for PAR2 agonist and antagonist properties by several functional assays associated with intracellular G-protein-coupled signalling in vitro in three cell types and with PAR2-induced rat paw oedema in vivo. Key Results In HT29 cells, GB88 was a PAR2 antagonist in terms of Ca2+ mobilization and PKC phosphorylation, but a PAR2 agonist in attenuating forskolin-induced cAMP accumulation, increasing ERK1/2 phosphorylation, RhoA activation, myosin phosphatase phosphorylation and actin filament rearrangement. In CHO-hPAR2 cells, GB88 inhibited Ca2+ release, but activated Gi/o and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. In human kidney tubule cells, GB88 inhibited cytokine secretion (IL6, IL8, GM-CSF, TNF-α) mediated by PAR2. A rat paw oedema induced by PAR2 agonists was also inhibited by orally administered GB88 and compared with effects of locally administered inhibitors of G-protein coupled pathways. Conclusions and Implications GB88 is a biased antagonist of PAR2 that selectively inhibits PAR2/Gq/11/Ca2+/PKC signalling, leading to anti-inflammatory activity in vivo, while being an agonist in activating three other PAR2-activated pathways (cAMP, ERK, Rho) in human cells. These findings highlight opportunities to design drugs to block specific PAR2-linked signalling pathways in disease, without blocking beneficial PAR2 signalling in normal physiology, and to dissect PAR2-associated mechanisms of disease in vivo. PMID:24821440

  15. Oncogenic KRAS triggers MAPK-dependent errors in mitosis and MYC-dependent sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents

    PubMed Central

    Perera, David; Venkitaraman, Ashok R.

    2016-01-01

    Oncogenic KRAS induces cell proliferation and transformation, but little is known about its effects on cell division. Functional genetic screens have recently revealed that cancer cell lines expressing oncogenic KRAS are sensitive to interference with mitosis, but neither the mechanism nor the uniformity of anti-mitotic drug sensitivity connected with mutant KRAS expression are yet clear. Here, we report that acute expression of oncogenic KRAS in HeLa cells induces mitotic delay and defects in chromosome segregation through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway activation and de-regulated expression of several mitosis-related genes. These anomalies are accompanied by increased sensitivity to anti-mitotic agents, a phenotype dependent on the transcription factor MYC and its downstream target anti-apoptotic protein BCL-XL. Unexpectedly, we find no correlation between KRAS mutational status or MYC expression levels and anti-mitotic drug sensitivity when surveying a large database of anti-cancer drug responses. However, we report that the co-existence of KRAS mutations and high MYC expression predicts anti-mitotic drug sensitivity. Our findings reveal a novel function of oncogenic KRAS in regulating accurate mitotic progression and suggest new avenues to therapeutically target KRAS-mutant tumours and stratify patients in ongoing clinical trials of anti-mitotic drugs. PMID:27412232

  16. Activated factor XI increases the procoagulant activity of the extrinsic pathway by inactivating tissue factor pathway inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Erik I.; Matafonov, Anton; Cheng, Qiufang; Zientek, Keith D.; Gailani, Dave; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2015-01-01

    Activation of coagulation factor XI (FXI) may play a role in hemostasis. The primary substrate of activated FXI (FXIa) is FIX, leading to FX activation (FXa) and thrombin generation. However, recent studies suggest the hemostatic role of FXI may not be restricted to the activation of FIX. We explored whether FXI could interact with and inhibit the activity of tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). TFPI is an essential reversible inhibitor of activated factor X (FXa) and also inhibits the FVIIa-TF complex. We found that FXIa neutralized both endothelium- and platelet-derived TFPI by cleaving the protein between the Kunitz (K) 1 and K2 domains (Lys86/Thr87) and at the active sites of the K2 (Arg107/Gly108) and K3 (Arg199/Ala200) domains. Addition of FXIa to plasma was able to reverse the ability of TFPI to prolong TF-initiated clotting times in FXI- or FIX-deficient plasma, as well as FXa-initiated clotting times in FX-deficient plasma. Treatment of cultured endothelial cells with FXIa increased the generation of FXa and promoted TF-dependent fibrin formation in recalcified plasma. Together, these results suggest that the hemostatic role of FXIa may be attributed not only to activation of FIX but also to promoting the extrinsic pathway of thrombin generation through inactivation of TFPI. PMID:25587039

  17. [Activators, receptors and signal transduction pathways of blood platelets].

    PubMed

    Shaturnyĭ, V I; Shakhidzhanov, S S; Sveshnikova, A N; Panteleev, M A

    2014-01-01

    Platelet participation in hemostatic plug formation requires transition into an activated state (or, rather, variety of states) upon action of agonists like ADP, thromboxane A , collagen, thrombin, and others. The mechanisms of action for different agonists, their receptors and signaling pathways associated with them, as well as the mechanisms of platelet response inhibition are the subject of the present review. Collagen exposed upon vessel wall damage induced initial platelet attachment and start of thrombus formation, which involves numerous processes such as aggregation, activation of integrins, granule secretion and increase of intracellular Ca2+. Thrombin, ADP, thromboxane A , and ATP activated platelets that were not initially in contact with the wall and induce additional secretion of activating substances. Vascular endothelium and secretory organs also affect platelet activation, producing both positive (adrenaline) an d negative (prostacyclin, nitric oxide) regulators, thereby determining the relation of activation and inhibition signals, which plays a significant role in the formation of platelet aggregate under normal and pathological conditions. The pathways of platelet signaling are still incompletely understood, and their exploration presents an important objective both for basic cell biology and for the development of new drugs, the methods of diagnostics and of treatment of hemostasis disorders.

  18. The role of small adaptor proteins in the control of oncogenic signaling driven by tyrosine kinases in human cancer

    PubMed Central

    Naudin, Cécile; Chevalier, Clément; Roche, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Protein phosphorylation on tyrosine (Tyr) residues has evolved as an important mechanism to coordinate cell communication in multicellular organisms. The importance of this process has been revealed by the discovery of the prominent oncogenic properties of tyrosine kinases (TK) upon deregulation of their physiological activities, often due to protein overexpression and/or somatic mutation. Recent reports suggest that TK oncogenic signaling is also under the control of small adaptor proteins. These cytosolic proteins lack intrinsic catalytic activity and signal by linking two functional members of a catalytic pathway. While most adaptors display positive regulatory functions, a small group of this family exerts negative regulatory functions by targeting several components of the TK signaling cascade. Here, we review how these less studied adaptor proteins negatively control TK activities and how their loss of function induces abnormal TK signaling, promoting tumor formation. We also discuss the therapeutic consequences of this novel regulatory mechanism in human oncology. PMID:26788993

  19. Miltefosine Suppresses Hepatic Steatosis by Activating AMPK Signal Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yaqin; Tong, Xing; Li, Kexue; Bai, Hui; Li, Xiaoyu; Ben, Jingjing; Zhang, Hanwen; Yang, Qing; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose It has been accepted that AMPK (Adenosine monophosphate–activated protein kinase) activation exhibits many beneficial effects on glucolipid metabolism. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) is an important lysophospholipid which can improve blood glucose levels in diabetic mice and attenuate inflammation by activating AMPK signal pathway in macrophages. Synthetic alkylphospholipids (ALPs), such as miltefosine, is used as an alternate of LPC for the clinical application. Here, we investigated whether miltefosine could have an impact on hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders. Experimental Approach Mice were fed with high fat diet (HFD) for 16 weeks to generate an obese model. Next, the obese mice were randomly divided into three groups: saline-treated and miltefosine-treated (2.5 or 5 mg/kg/d) groups. Miltefosine was intraperitoneally administrated into mice for additional 4 weeks plus HFD treatment. Key Results It was shown that miltefosine treatment could substantially improve glucose metabolism, prevented hepatic lipid accumulation, and inhibited liver inflammation in HFD-fed mice by activating AMPK signal pathway. In vitro, miltefosine stimulated AMPKα phosphorylation both in time and dose dependent manner and decreased lipid accumulation in liver cells. When a specific AMPK inhibitor compound C was used to treat mice, the antagonistic effects of miltefosine on HFD-induced mouse hyperlipidaemia and liver steatosis were abolished. Treatment with miltefosine also dramatically inhibited the HFD-induced liver inflammation in mice. Conclusions and Implications Here we demonstrated that miltefosine might be a new activator of AMPK signal pathway in vivo and in vitro and be useful for treatment of hepatic steatosis and related metabolic disorders. PMID:27681040

  20. Oncogenic and oncosuppressive signal transduction at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Oparka, Monika; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The different mechanisms employed by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors to regulate cell death pathways are strictly linked to their localization. In addition to the canonical control of apoptosis at a transcriptional/nuclear level, intracellular zones are emerging as pivotal sites for the activities of several proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors. Here, we review the function of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interface as a primary platform for decoding danger signals as well as a structural accommodation for several regulator or effector proteins. PMID:27308328

  1. Oncogenic CARMA1 couples NF-κB and β-catenin signaling in diffuse large B-cell lymphomas

    PubMed Central

    Bognar, M K; Vincendeau, M; Erdmann, T; Seeholzer, T; Grau, M; Linnemann, J R; Ruland, J; Scheel, C H; Lenz, P; Ott, G; Lenz, G; Hauck, S M; Krappmann, D

    2016-01-01

    Constitutive activation of the antiapoptotic nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway is a hallmark of the activated B-cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (DLBCL). Recurrent oncogenic mutations are found in the scaffold protein CARMA1 (CARD11) that connects B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling to the canonical NF-κB pathway. We asked how far additional downstream processes are activated and contribute to the oncogenic potential of DLBCL-derived CARMA1 mutants. To this end, we expressed oncogenic CARMA1 in the NF-κB negative DLBCL lymphoma cell line BJAB. By a proteomic approach we identified recruitment of β-catenin and its destruction complex consisting of APC, AXIN1, CK1α and GSK3β to oncogenic CARMA1. Recruitment of the β-catenin destruction complex was independent of CARMA1-BCL10-MALT1 complex formation or constitutive NF-κB activation and promoted the stabilization of β-catenin. The β-catenin destruction complex was also recruited to CARMA1 in ABC DLBCL cell lines, which coincided with elevated β-catenin expression. In line, β-catenin was frequently detected in non-GCB DLBCL biopsies that rely on chronic BCR signaling. Increased β-catenin amounts alone were not sufficient to induce classical WNT target gene signatures, but could augment TCF/LEF-dependent transcriptional activation in response to WNT signaling. In conjunction with NF-κB, β-catenin enhanced expression of immunosuppressive interleukin-10 and suppressed antitumoral CCL3, indicating that β-catenin can induce a favorable tumor microenvironment. Thus, parallel activation of NF-κB and β-catenin signaling by gain-of-function mutations in CARMA1 augments WNT stimulation and is required for regulating the expression of distinct NF-κB target genes to trigger cell-intrinsic and extrinsic processes that promote DLBCL lymphomagenesis. PMID:26776161

  2. Prediction of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks based on network topology.

    PubMed

    Acencio, Marcio Luis; Bovolenta, Luiz Augusto; Camilo, Esther; Lemke, Ney

    2013-01-01

    Cancer has been increasingly recognized as a systems biology disease since many investigators have demonstrated that this malignant phenotype emerges from abnormal protein-protein, regulatory and metabolic interactions induced by simultaneous structural and regulatory changes in multiple genes and pathways. Therefore, the identification of oncogenic interactions and cancer-related signaling networks is crucial for better understanding cancer. As experimental techniques for determining such interactions and signaling networks are labor-intensive and time-consuming, the development of a computational approach capable to accomplish this task would be of great value. For this purpose, we present here a novel computational approach based on network topology and machine learning capable to predict oncogenic interactions and extract relevant cancer-related signaling subnetworks from an integrated network of human genes interactions (INHGI). This approach, called graph2sig, is twofold: first, it assigns oncogenic scores to all interactions in the INHGI and then these oncogenic scores are used as edge weights to extract oncogenic signaling subnetworks from INHGI. Regarding the prediction of oncogenic interactions, we showed that graph2sig is able to recover 89% of known oncogenic interactions with a precision of 77%. Moreover, the interactions that received high oncogenic scores are enriched in genes for which mutations have been causally implicated in cancer. We also demonstrated that graph2sig is potentially useful in extracting oncogenic signaling subnetworks: more than 80% of constructed subnetworks contain more than 50% of original interactions in their corresponding oncogenic linear pathways present in the KEGG PATHWAY database. In addition, the potential oncogenic signaling subnetworks discovered by graph2sig are supported by experimental evidence. Taken together, these results suggest that graph2sig can be a useful tool for investigators involved in cancer research

  3. Ras oncogene and inflammation: partners in crime.

    PubMed

    Sparmann, Anke; Bar-Sagi, Dafna

    2005-06-01

    It is well established that Ras oncogenes facilitate neoplastic conversion by stimulating tumor cell growth, survival and motility. However, current studies have indicated that the role of Ras in malignant transformation extends beyond these cell-intrinsic effects to include the establishment of a pro-tumorigenic host environment. We have recently demonstrated that Ras-induced secretion of the chemokine Interleukin-8 (CXCL-8/IL-8) elicits a local inflammatory reaction that is critical for neo-vascularization and sustained tumor growth. Our data identify a novel mechanism by which the Ras oncogene promotes tumor-host interactions that are essential for cancer progression, and suggest that CXCL-8 could serve as a surrogate marker for in-vivo Ras activity.

  4. Pathways to URM Retention: IBP's Professional Development and Mentoring Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, A.; Williamson Whitney, V.; Ricciardi, L.; Detrick, L.; Siegfried, D.; Fauver, A.; Ithier-Guzman, W.; Thomas, S. H.; Valaitis, S.

    2013-05-01

    As a not for profit organization, the Institute for Broadening Participation (IBP) hosts a variety of initiatives designed to increase the retention of underrepresented minority (URM) students pursuing pathways in STEM. IBP also assists with formative program evaluation design and implementation to help strengthen URM recruitment and retention elements. Successful initiatives include virtual and face-to-face components that bring together URM students with established URM and other scientists in academia, government and industry. These connections provide URMs with mentoring, networking opportunities, and professional skill development contributing to an improved retention rate of URM students. IBP's initiatives include the NASA One Stop Shopping Initiative (NASA OSSI), Pathways to Ocean Science and Engineering, and the Minorities Striving and Pursuing Higher Degrees of Success (MS PHD'S) in Earth System Science (ESS) Professional Development Program. The NASA OSSI recruits and facilitates student engagement in NASA education and employment opportunities. Pathways to Ocean Science connects and supports URM students with Ocean Science REU programs and serves as a resource for REU program directors. Pathways to Engineering has synthesized mentoring resources into an online mentoring manual for URM students that has been extensively vetted by mentoring experts throughout the country. The mentoring manual, which is organized by roles, provides undergraduates, graduates, postdocs, faculty and project directors with valuable resources. MS PHD'S, one of IBP's longest running and most successful initiatives, focuses on increasing the retention rate of URM students receiving advanced degrees in ESS. The program addresses barriers to retention in ESS including isolation, lack of preparation and professional development, and lack of mentoring. Program activities center on peer-to-peer community building, professional development exercises, networking experiences, one

  5. Rb-dependent cellular senescence, multinucleation and susceptibility to oncogenic transformation through PKC scaffolding by SSeCKS/AKAP12

    PubMed Central

    Akakura, Shin; Nochajski, Peter; Gao, Lingqiu; Sotomayor, Paul; Matsui, Sei-ichi

    2010-01-01

    A subset of AKAPs (A Kinase Anchoring Proteins) regulate signaling and cytoskeletal pathways through the spaciotemporal scaffolding of multiple protein kinases (PK), such as PKC and PKA, and associations with the plasma membrane and the actin-based cytoskeleton. SSeCKS/Gravin/Akap12 expression is severely downregulated in many advanced cancers and exhibits tumor- and metastasis-suppressing activity. akap12-null (KO) mice develop prostatic hyperplasia with focal dysplasia, but the precise mechanism how Akap12 prevents oncogenic progression remains unclear. Here, we show that KO mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEF) exhibit premature senescence marked by polyploidy and multinucleation, and by increased susceptibility to oncogenic transformation. Although p53 and Rb pathways are activated in the absence of Akap12, senescence is dependent on Rb. Senescence is driven by the activation of PKCα, which induces p16Ink4a/Rb through a MEK-dependent downregulation of Id1, and PKCδ, which downregulates Lats1/Warts, a mitotic exit network kinase required for cytokinesis. Our data strongly suggest that Akap12 controls Rb-mediated cell aging and oncogenic progression by directly scaffolding and attenuating PKCα/δ. PMID:21099353

  6. BH3 mimetics activate multiple pro-autophagic pathways.

    PubMed

    Malik, S A; Orhon, I; Morselli, E; Criollo, A; Shen, S; Mariño, G; BenYounes, A; Bénit, P; Rustin, P; Maiuri, M C; Kroemer, G

    2011-09-15

    The BH3 mimetic ABT737 induces autophagy by competitively disrupting the inhibitory interaction between the BH3 domain of Beclin 1 and the anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-X(L), thereby stimulating the Beclin 1-dependent allosteric activation of the pro-autophagic lipid kinase VPS34. Here, we examined whether ABT737 stimulates other pro-autophagic signal-transduction pathways. ABT737 caused the activating phosphorylation of AMP-dependent kinase (AMPK) and of the AMPK substrate acetyl CoA carboxylase, the activating phosphorylation of several subunits of the inhibitor of NF-κB (IκB) kinase (IKK) and the hyperphosphorylation of the IKK substrate IκB, inhibition of the activity of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and consequent dephosphorylation of the mTOR substrate S6 kinase. In addition, ABT737 treatment dephosphorylates (and hence likewise inhibits) p53, glycogen synthase kinase-3 and Akt. All these effects were shared by ABT737 and another structurally unrelated BH3 mimetic, HA14-1. Functional experiments revealed that pharmacological or genetic inhibition of IKK, Sirtuin and the p53-depleting ubiquitin ligase MDM2 prevented ABT737-induced autophagy. These results point to unexpected and pleiotropic pro-autophagic effects of BH3 mimetics involving the modulation of multiple signalling pathways.

  7. Oncogenes: The Passport for Viral Oncolysis Through PKR Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Janaina

    2016-01-01

    The transforming properties of oncogenes are derived from gain-of-function mutations, shifting cell signaling from highly regulated homeostatic to an uncontrolled oncogenic state, with the contribution of the inactivating mutations in tumor suppressor genes P53 and RB, leading to tumor resistance to conventional and target-directed therapy. On the other hand, this scenario fulfills two requirements for oncolytic virus infection in tumor cells: inactivation of tumor suppressors and presence of oncoproteins, also the requirements to engage malignancy. Several of these oncogenes have a negative impact on the main interferon antiviral defense, the double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase (PKR), which helps viruses to spontaneously target tumor cells instead of normal cells. This review is focused on the negative impact of overexpression of oncogenes on conventional and targeted therapy and their positive impact on viral oncolysis due to their ability to inhibit PKR-induced translation blockage, allowing virion release and cell death. PMID:27486347

  8. Molecular Process Producing Oncogene Fusion in Lung Cancer Cells by Illegitimate Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    PubMed Central

    Seki, Yoshitaka; Mizukami, Tatsuji; Kohno, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Constitutive activation of oncogenes by fusion to partner genes, caused by chromosome translocation and inversion, is a critical genetic event driving lung carcinogenesis. Fusions of the tyrosine kinase genes ALK (anaplastic lymphoma kinase), ROS1 (c-ros oncogene 1), or RET (rearranged during transfection) occur in 1%–5% of lung adenocarcinomas (LADCs) and their products constitute therapeutic targets for kinase inhibitory drugs. Interestingly, ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions occur preferentially in LADCs of never- and light-smokers, suggesting that the molecular mechanisms that cause these rearrangements are smoking-independent. In this study, using previously reported next generation LADC genome sequencing data of the breakpoint junction structures of chromosome rearrangements that cause oncogenic fusions in human cancer cells, we employed the structures of breakpoint junctions of ALK, RET, and ROS1 fusions in 41 LADC cases as “traces” to deduce the molecular processes of chromosome rearrangements caused by DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and illegitimate joining. We found that gene fusion was produced by illegitimate repair of DSBs at unspecified sites in genomic regions of a few kb through DNA synthesis-dependent or -independent end-joining pathways, according to DSB type. This information will assist in the understanding of how oncogene fusions are generated and which etiological factors trigger them. PMID:26437441

  9. Restoration of DNA-Binding and Growth-Suppressive Activity of Mutant Forms of p53 Via a PCAF-Mediated Acetylation Pathway

    PubMed Central

    PEREZ, RICARDO E.; KNIGHTS, CHAD D.; SAHU, GEETARAM; CATANIA, JASON; KOLUKULA, VAMSI K.; STOLER, DANIEL; GRAESSMANN, ADOLF; OGRYZKO, VASILY; PISHVAIAN, MICHAEL; ALBANESE, CHRISTOPHER; AVANTAGGIATI, MARIA LAURA

    2013-01-01

    Tumor-derived mutant forms of p53 compromise its DNA binding, transcriptional, and growth regulatory activity in a manner that is dependent upon the cell-type and the type of mutation. Given the high frequency of p53 mutations in human tumors, reactivation of the p53 pathway has been widely proposed as beneficial for cancer therapy. In support of this possibility p53 mutants possess a certain degree of conformational flexibility that allows for re-induction of function by a number of structurally different artificial compounds or by short peptides. This raises the question of whether physiological pathways for p53 mutant reactivation also exist and can be exploited therapeutically. The activity of wild-type p53 is modulated by various acetyl-transferases and deacetylases, but whether acetylation influences signaling by p53 mutant is still unknown. Here, we show that the PCAF acetyl-transferase is down-regulated in tumors harboring p53 mutants, where its re-expression leads to p53 acetylation and to cell death. Furthermore, acetylation restores the DNA-binding ability of p53 mutants in vitro and expression of PCAF, or treatment with deacetylase inhibitors, promotes their binding to p53-regulated promoters and transcriptional activity in vivo. These data suggest that PCAF-mediated acetylation rescues activity of at least a set of p53 mutations. Therefore, we propose that dis-regulation of PCAF activity is a pre-requisite for p53 mutant loss of function and for the oncogenic potential acquired by neoplastic cells expressing these proteins. Our findings offer a new rationale for therapeutic targeting of PCAF activity in tumors harboring oncogenic versions of p53. PMID:20589832

  10. The gsp oncogene disrupts Ras/ERK-dependent prolactin gene regulation in gsp inducible somatotroph cell line.

    PubMed

    Pertuit, M; Romano, D; Zeiller, C; Barlier, A; Enjalbert, A; Gerard, C

    2011-04-01

    The MAPK ERK1/2 cascade regulates all the critical cellular functions, and in many pathological situations, these regulatory processes are perturbed. It has been clearly established that this cascade is an integrative point in the control of the pituitary functions exerted by various extracellular signals. In particular, ERK1/2 cross talk with the cAMP pathway is determinant in the control of somatolactotroph hormonal secretion exerted via neuropeptide receptors. GH-secreting adenomas are characterized by frequent cAMP pathway alterations, such as constitutive activation of the α-subunit of the heterotrimeric Gs protein (the gsp oncogene), overexpression of Gsα, and changes in the protein kinase A regulatory subunits. However, it has not yet been established exactly how these alterations result in GH-secreting adenomas or how the ERK1/2 cascade contributes to the process of GH-secreting adenoma tumorigenesis. In this study on the conditional gsp-oncogene-expressing GH4C1 cell line, expression of the gsp oncogene, which was observed in up to 40% of GH-secreting adenomas, was found to induce sustained ERK1/2 activation, which required activation of the protein kinase A and the GTPases Ras and Rap1. All these signaling components contribute to the chronic activation of the human prolactin promoter. The data obtained here show that Ras plays a crucial role in these processes: in a physiopathological context, i.e. in the presence of the gsp oncogene, it switched from being a repressor of the cAMP/ protein kinase A ERK-sensitive prolactin gene control exerted by neuropeptides to an activator of the prolactin promoter.

  11. Variations in active outflow along the trabecular outflow pathway.

    PubMed

    Cha, Elliott D K; Xu, Jia; Gong, Lihua; Gong, Haiyan

    2016-05-01

    Previous tracer studies have shown segmental outflow in the trabecular meshwork (TM) and along the inner wall (IW) of Schlemm's canal (SC). Whether segmental outflow is conserved distal to SC has not yet been investigated. This study aims to investigate whether the segmented pattern of outflow is conserved in distal outflow pathways by using a newly developed global imaging method and to evaluate variations of active outflow in three distinct regions along trabecular outflow pathway. Six normal whole globe human eyes were first perfused at 15 mmHg to establish a stable baseline outflow facility. The anterior chamber was then exchanged (5 mL) and perfused with fluorescent microspheres (0.002% v/v, 200 μL) to label areas of active outflow. All eyes were perfusion fixed and dissected into anterior segments. The TM and scleral surface were en face imaged globally. Effective filtration area (EFA) and fluorescent tracer distribution and intensity were analyzed in global images for both the TM and episcleral veins (EPVs). Anterior segments were further dissected into a minimum of 16 radial wedges, from which frontal sections were cut, stained, and imaged, using confocal microscopy. EFA from all three locations along the trabecular outflow pathway were measured and compared. Additionally, TM thickness, SC height, and total number of collector channels (CC) were analyzed and compared between active and inactive areas of outflow. Statistical analysis was performed using Student's t-tests and Wilcoxon signed-rank test with a required significance of p ≤ 0.05. All three locations showed a segmental outflow pattern. The TM had a significantly higher mean EFA (86.3 ± 3.5%) compared to both the IW (34.7 ± 2.9%; p ≤ 0.01) and EPVs (41.1 ± 3.8%; p ≤ 0.01). No significant difference in mean EFA was found between IW and EPVs. Preferential active outflow was observed in the nasal and inferior quadrants. TM thickness was significantly larger in areas of active

  12. Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Audemard, Eric; Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2014-08-22

    Highlights: • Oncogenic H-ras stimulates emission of extracellular vesicles containing double-stranded DNA. • Vesicle-associated extracellular DNA contains mutant N-ras sequences. • Vesicles mediate intercellular transfer of mutant H-ras DNA to normal fibroblasts where it remains for several weeks. • Fibroblasts exposed to vesicles containing H-ras DNA exhibit increased proliferation. - Abstract: Cell free DNA is often regarded as a source of genetic cancer biomarkers, but the related mechanisms of DNA release, composition and biological activity remain unclear. Here we show that rat epithelial cell transformation by the human H-ras oncogene leads to an increase in production of small, exosomal-like extracellular vesicles by viable cancer cells. These EVs contain chromatin-associated double-stranded DNA fragments covering the entire host genome, including full-length H-ras. Oncogenic N-ras and SV40LT sequences were also found in EVs emitted from spontaneous mouse brain tumor cells. Disruption of acidic sphingomyelinase and the p53/Rb pathway did not block emission of EV-related oncogenic DNA. Exposure of non-transformed RAT-1 cells to EVs containing mutant H-ras DNA led to the uptake and retention of this material for an extended (30 days) but transient period of time, and stimulated cell proliferation. Thus, our study suggests that H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.

  13. Bim Regulation of Lumen Formation in Cultured Mammary Epithelial Acini Is Targeted by Oncogenes

    PubMed Central

    Reginato, Mauricio J.; Mills, Kenna R.; Becker, Esther B. E.; Lynch, Danielle K.; Bonni, Azad; Muthuswamy, Senthil K.; Brugge, Joan S.

    2005-01-01

    Epithelial cells organize into cyst-like structures that contain a spherical monolayer of cells that enclose a central lumen. Using a three-dimensional basement membrane culture model in which mammary epithelial cells form hollow, acinus-like structures, we previously demonstrated that lumen formation is achieved, in part, through apoptosis of centrally localized cells. We demonstrate that the proapoptotic protein Bim may selectively trigger apoptosis of the centrally localized acinar cells, leading to temporally controlled lumen formation. Bim is not detectable during early stages of three-dimensional mammary acinar morphogenesis and is then highly upregulated in all cells of acini, coincident with detection of apoptosis in the centrally localized acinar cells. Inhibition of Bim expression by RNA interference transiently blocks luminal apoptosis and delays lumen formation. Oncogenes that induce acinar luminal filling, such as ErbB2 and v-Src, suppress expression of Bim through a pathway dependent on Erk-mitogen-activated protein kinase; however, HPV 16 E7, an oncogene that stimulates cell proliferation but not luminal filling, is unable to reduce Bim expression. Thus, Bim is a critical regulator of luminal apoptosis during mammary acinar morphogenesis in vitro and may be an important target of oncogenes that disrupt glandular epithelial architecture. PMID:15899862

  14. HER2 missense mutations have distinct effects on oncogenic signaling and migration.

    PubMed

    Zabransky, Daniel J; Yankaskas, Christopher L; Cochran, Rory L; Wong, Hong Yuen; Croessmann, Sarah; Chu, David; Kavuri, Shyam M; Red Brewer, Monica; Rosen, D Marc; Dalton, W Brian; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Cravero, Karen; Button, Berry; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Cidado, Justin; Erlanger, Bracha; Parsons, Heather A; Manto, Kristen M; Bose, Ron; Lauring, Josh; Arteaga, Carlos L; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Park, Ben Ho

    2015-11-10

    Recurrent human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) missense mutations have been reported in human cancers. These mutations occur primarily in the absence of HER2 gene amplification such that most HER2-mutant tumors are classified as "negative" by FISH or immunohistochemistry assays. It remains unclear whether nonamplified HER2 missense mutations are oncogenic and whether they are targets for HER2-directed therapies that are currently approved for the treatment of HER2 gene-amplified breast cancers. Here we functionally characterize HER2 kinase and extracellular domain mutations through gene editing of the endogenous loci in HER2 nonamplified human breast epithelial cells. In in vitro and in vivo assays, the majority of HER2 missense mutations do not impart detectable oncogenic changes. However, the HER2 V777L mutation increased biochemical pathway activation and, in the context of a PIK3CA mutation, enhanced migratory features in vitro. However, the V777L mutation did not alter in vivo tumorigenicity or sensitivity to HER2-directed therapies in proliferation assays. Our results suggest the oncogenicity and potential targeting of HER2 missense mutations should be considered in the context of cooperating genetic alterations and provide previously unidentified insights into functional analysis of HER2 mutations and strategies to target them.

  15. HER2 missense mutations have distinct effects on oncogenic signaling and migration

    PubMed Central

    Zabransky, Daniel J.; Yankaskas, Christopher L.; Cochran, Rory L.; Wong, Hong Yuen; Croessmann, Sarah; Chu, David; Kavuri, Shyam M.; Red Brewer, Monica; Rosen, D. Marc; Dalton, W. Brian; Cimino-Mathews, Ashley; Cravero, Karen; Button, Berry; Kyker-Snowman, Kelly; Cidado, Justin; Erlanger, Bracha; Parsons, Heather A.; Manto, Kristen M.; Bose, Ron; Lauring, Josh; Arteaga, Carlos L.; Konstantopoulos, Konstantinos; Park, Ben Ho

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) missense mutations have been reported in human cancers. These mutations occur primarily in the absence of HER2 gene amplification such that most HER2-mutant tumors are classified as “negative” by FISH or immunohistochemistry assays. It remains unclear whether nonamplified HER2 missense mutations are oncogenic and whether they are targets for HER2-directed therapies that are currently approved for the treatment of HER2 gene-amplified breast cancers. Here we functionally characterize HER2 kinase and extracellular domain mutations through gene editing of the endogenous loci in HER2 nonamplified human breast epithelial cells. In in vitro and in vivo assays, the majority of HER2 missense mutations do not impart detectable oncogenic changes. However, the HER2 V777L mutation increased biochemical pathway activation and, in the context of a PIK3CA mutation, enhanced migratory features in vitro. However, the V777L mutation did not alter in vivo tumorigenicity or sensitivity to HER2-directed therapies in proliferation assays. Our results suggest the oncogenicity and potential targeting of HER2 missense mutations should be considered in the context of cooperating genetic alterations and provide previously unidentified insights into functional analysis of HER2 mutations and strategies to target them. PMID:26508629

  16. Oncogenic Ras differentially regulates metabolism and anoikis in extracellular matrix-detached cells.

    PubMed

    Mason, J A; Davison-Versagli, C A; Leliaert, A K; Pape, D J; McCallister, C; Zuo, J; Durbin, S M; Buchheit, C L; Zhang, S; Schafer, Z T

    2016-08-01

    In order for cancer cells to survive during metastasis, they must overcome anoikis, a caspase-dependent cell death process triggered by extracellular matrix (ECM) detachment, and rectify detachment-induced metabolic defects that compromise cell survival. However, the precise signals used by cancer cells to facilitate their survival during metastasis remain poorly understood. We have discovered that oncogenic Ras facilitates the survival of ECM-detached cancer cells by using distinct effector pathways to regulate metabolism and block anoikis. Surprisingly, we find that while Ras-mediated phosphatidylinositol (3)-kinase signaling is critical for rectifying ECM-detachment-induced metabolic deficiencies, the critical downstream effector is serum and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase-1 (SGK-1) rather than Akt. Our data also indicate that oncogenic Ras blocks anoikis by diminishing expression of the phosphatase PHLPP1 (PH Domain and Leucine-Rich Repeat Protein Phosphatase 1), which promotes anoikis through the activation of p38 MAPK. Thus, our study represents a novel paradigm whereby oncogene-initiated signal transduction can promote the survival of ECM-detached cells through divergent downstream effectors.

  17. DEK Proto-Oncogene Expression Interferes with the Normal Epithelial Differentiation Program

    PubMed Central

    Wise-Draper, Trisha M.; Morreale, Richard J.; Morris, Teresa A.; Mintz-Cole, Rachael A.; Hoskins, Elizabeth E.; Balsitis, Scott J.; Husseinzadeh, Nader; Witte, David P.; Wikenheiser-Brokamp, Kathryn A.; Lambert, Paul F.; Wells, Susanne I.

    2009-01-01

    Overexpression of the DEK gene is associated with multiple human cancers, but its specific roles as a putative oncogene are not well defined. DEK transcription was previously shown to be induced by the high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) E7 oncogene via E2F and Rb pathways. Transient DEK overexpression was able to inhibit both senescence and apoptosis in cultured cells. In at least the latter case, this mechanism involved the destabilization of p53 and the decreased expression of p53 target genes. We show here that DEK overexpression disrupts the normal differentiation program in a manner that is independent of either p53 or cell death. DEK expression was distinctly repressed upon the differentiation of cultured primary human keratinocytes, and stable DEK overexpression caused epidermal thickening in an organotypic raft model system. The observed hyperplasia involved a delay in keratinocyte differentiation toward a more undifferentiated state, and expansion of the basal cell compartment was due to increased proliferation, but not apoptosis. These phenotypes were accompanied by elevated p63 expression in the absence of p53 destabilization. In further support of bona fide oncogenic DEK activities, we report here up-regulated DEK protein levels in both human papilloma virus-positive hyperplastic murine skin and a subset of human squamous cell carcinomas. We suggest that DEK up-regulation may contribute to carcinoma development at least in part through increased proliferation and retardation of differentiation. PMID:19036808

  18. Bioreactor Transient Exposure Activates Specific Neurotrophic Pathway in Cortical Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmitti, V.; Benedetti, E.; Caracciolo, V.; Sebastiani, P.; Di Loreto, S.

    2010-02-01

    Altered gravity forces might influence neuroplasticity and can provoke changes in biochemical mechanisms. In this contest, neurotrophins have a pivotal role, particularly nerve growth factor (NGF) and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A suspension of dissociated cortical cells from rat embryos was exposed to 24 h of microgravity before plating in normal adherent culture system. Expression and transductional signalling pathways of NGF and BDNF were assessed at the end of maturational process (8-10 days in vitro). Rotating wall vessel bioreactor (RWV) pre-exposition did not induce changes in NGF expression and its high affinity receptor TrkA. On the contrary both BDNF expression and its high affinity receptor TrkB were strongly up-regulated, inducing Erk-5, but not Erk-1/2 activation and, in turn, MEF2C over-expression and activation. According to our previous and present results, we postulate that relatively short microgravitational stimuli, applied to neural cells during the developmental stage, exert a long time activation of specific neurotrophic pathways.

  19. Activation of the TGFβ pathway impairs endothelial to haematopoietic transition.

    PubMed

    Vargel, Özge; Zhang, Yang; Kosim, Kinga; Ganter, Kerstin; Foehr, Sophia; Mardenborough, Yannicka; Shvartsman, Maya; Enright, Anton J; Krijgsveld, Jeroen; Lancrin, Christophe

    2016-02-19

    The endothelial to haematopoietic transition (EHT) is a key developmental process where a drastic change of endothelial cell morphology leads to the formation of blood stem and progenitor cells during embryogenesis. As TGFβ signalling triggers a similar event during embryonic development called epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), we hypothesised that TGFβ activity could play a similar role in EHT as well. We used the mouse embryonic stem cell differentiation system for in vitro recapitulation of EHT and performed gain and loss of function analyses of the TGFβ pathway. Quantitative proteomics analysis showed that TGFβ treatment during EHT increased the secretion of several proteins linked to the vascular lineage. Live cell imaging showed that TGFβ blocked the formation of round blood cells. Using gene expression profiling we demonstrated that the TGFβ signalling activation decreased haematopoietic genes expression and increased the transcription of endothelial and extracellular matrix genes as well as EMT markers. Finally we found that the expression of the transcription factor Sox17 was up-regulated upon TGFβ signalling activation and showed that its overexpression was enough to block blood cell formation. In conclusion we showed that triggering the TGFβ pathway does not enhance EHT as we hypothesised but instead impairs it.

  20. The Metastasis Suppressor, N-MYC Downstream-regulated Gene-1 (NDRG1), Down-regulates the ErbB Family of Receptors to Inhibit Downstream Oncogenic Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Kovacevic, Zaklina; Menezes, Sharleen V; Sahni, Sumit; Kalinowski, Danuta S; Bae, Dong-Hun; Lane, Darius J R; Richardson, Des R

    2016-01-15

    N-MYC downstream-regulated gene-1 (NDRG1) is a potent growth and metastasis suppressor that acts through its inhibitory effects on a wide variety of cellular signaling pathways, including the TGF-β pathway, protein kinase B (AKT)/PI3K pathway, RAS, etc. To investigate the hypothesis that its multiple effects could be regulated by a common upstream effector, the role of NDRG1 on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and other members of the ErbB family, namely human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3), was examined. We demonstrate that NDRG1 markedly decreased the expression and activation of EGFR, HER2, and HER3 in response to the epidermal growth factor (EGF) ligand, while also inhibiting formation of the EGFR/HER2 and HER2/HER3 heterodimers. In addition, NDRG1 also decreased activation of the downstream MAPKK in response to EGF. Moreover, novel anti-tumor agents of the di-2-pyridylketone class of thiosemicarbazones, namely di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone and di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, which markedly up-regulate NDRG1, were found to inhibit EGFR, HER2, and HER3 expression and phosphorylation in cancer cells. However, the mechanism involved appeared dependent on NDRG1 for di-2-pyridylketone 4,4-dimethyl-3-thiosemicarbazone, but was independent of this metastasis suppressor for di-2-pyridylketone 4-cyclohexyl-4-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone. This observation demonstrates that small structural changes in thiosemicarbazones result in marked alterations in molecular targeting. Collectively, these results reveal a mechanism for the extensive downstream effects on cellular signaling attributed to NDRG1. Furthermore, this study identifies a novel approach for the treatment of tumors resistant to traditional EGFR inhibitors.

  1. Inactivation of oncogenic cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase 4D by miR-139-5p in response to p53 activation

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Bo; Wang, Kebing; Liao, Jun-Ming; Zhou, Xiang; Liao, Peng; Zeng, Shelya X; He, Meifang; Chen, Lianzhou; He, Yulong; Li, Wen; Lu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence highlights the important roles of microRNAs in mediating p53’s tumor suppression functions. Here, we report miR-139-5p as another new p53 microRNA target. p53 induced the transcription of miR-139-5p, which in turn suppressed the protein levels of phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), an oncogenic protein involved in multiple tumor promoting processes. Knockdown of p53 reversed these effects. Also, overexpression of miR-139-5p decreased PDE4D levels and increased cellular cAMP levels, leading to BIM-mediated cell growth arrest. Furthermore, our analysis of human colorectal tumor specimens revealed significant inverse correlation between the expression of miR-139-5p and that of PDE4D. Finally, overexpression of miR-139-5p suppressed the growth of xenograft tumors, accompanied by decrease in PDE4D and increase in BIM. These results demonstrate that p53 inactivates oncogenic PDE4D by inducing the expression of miR-139-5p. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15978.001 PMID:27383270

  2. Neuronal activity promotes myelination via a cAMP pathway.

    PubMed

    Malone, Misti; Gary, Devin; Yang, In Hong; Miglioretti, Anna; Houdayer, Thierry; Thakor, Nitish; McDonald, John

    2013-06-01

    Neuronal activity promotes myelination in vivo and in vitro. However, the molecular events that mediate activity-dependent myelination are not completely understood. Seven, daily 1 h sessions of patterned electrical stimulation (ESTIM) promoted myelin segment formation in mixed cultures of dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and oligodendrocytes (OLs); the increase in myelination was frequency-dependent. Myelin segment formation was also enhanced following exposure of DRGs to ESTIM prior to OL addition, suggesting that ESTIM promotes myelination in a manner involving neuron-specific signaling. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels in DRGs were increased three-fold following ESTIM, and artificially increasing cAMP mimicked the ability of ESTIM to promote myelination. Alternatively, inhibiting the cAMP pathway suppressed ESTIM-induced myelination. We used compartmentalized, microfluidic platforms to isolate DRG soma from OLs and assessed cell-type specific effects of ESTIM on myelination. A selective increase or decrease in DRG cAMP levels resulted in enhanced or suppressed myelination, respectively. This work describes a novel role for the cAMP pathway in neurons that results in enhanced myelination.

  3. Oncogenic Kit signals on endolysosomes and endoplasmic reticulum are essential for neoplastic mast cell proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Obata, Yuuki; Toyoshima, Shota; Wakamatsu, Ei; Suzuki, Shunichi; Ogawa, Shuhei; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Abe, Ryo

    2014-01-01

    Kit is a receptor-type tyrosine kinase found on the plasma membrane. It can transform mast cells through activating mutations. Here, we show that a mutant Kit from neoplastic mast cells from mice, Kit(D814Y), is permanently active and allows cells to proliferate autonomously. It does so by activating two signalling pathways from different intracellular compartments. Mutant Kit from the cell surface accumulates on endolysosomes through clathrin-mediated endocytosis, which requires Kit’s kinase activity. Kit(D814Y) is constitutively associated with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, but the complex activates Akt only on the cytoplasmic surface of endolysosomes. It resists destruction because it is under-ubiquitinated. Kit(D814Y) also appears in the endoplasmic reticulum soon after biosynthesis, and there, can activate STAT5 aberrantly. These mechanisms of oncogenic signalling are also seen in rat and human mast cell leukemia cells. Thus, oncogenic Kit signalling occurs from different intracellular compartments, and the mutation acts by altering Kit trafficking as well as activation. PMID:25493654

  4. TNF-α-inducing protein of Helicobacter pylori induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer cells through activation of IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guodong; Tang, Na; Wang, Chao; Xiao, Linqiao; Yu, Minjun; Zhao, Lanhua; Cai, Hengling; Han, Liang; Xie, Chengyuan; Zhang, Yan

    2017-03-04

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-inducing protein (Tipα) is a newly identified carcinogenic factor secreted by Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori). Although it has been proved that Tipα is a strong inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial process of migration, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Current evidence indicates that the oncogenic transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 3 (STAT3) is inappropriately activated in multiple malignancies, including gastric cancer. In this study, we showed that Tipα significantly down-regulated the expression of EMT-related markers E-cadherin as well as up-regulated N-cadherin and vimentin in SGC7901 cells, with typical morphological changes of EMT. Tipα also promoted proliferation and migration of SGC7901 cells. Furthermore, Tipα activated interleukin-6 (IL-6)/STAT3 signaling pathway in SGC7901 cells. The effects of Tipα treatment observed was abolished when we block IL-6/STAT3 signaling pathway. Altogether, our data demonstrated that Tipα may accelerate tumor aggressiveness in gastric cancer by promoting EMT through activation of IL-6/STAT3 pathway.

  5. A structural pathway for activation of the kinesin motor ATPase

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mikyung; Zhang, Xiaohua; Park, Cheon-Gil; Park, Hee-Won; Endow, Sharyn A.

    2001-01-01

    Molecular motors move along actin or microtubules by rapidly hydrolyzing ATP and undergoing changes in filament-binding affinity with steps of the nucleotide hydrolysis cycle. It is generally accepted that motor binding to its filament greatly increases the rate of ATP hydrolysis, but the structural changes in the motor associated with ATPase activation are not known. To identify the conformational changes underlying motor movement on its filament, we solved the crystal structures of three kinesin mutants that decouple nucleotide and microtubule binding by the motor, and block microtubule-activated, but not basal, ATPase activity. Conformational changes in the structures include a disordered loop and helices in the switch I region and a visible switch II loop, which is disordered in wild-type structures. Switch I moved closer to the bound nucleotide in two mutant structures, perturbing water-mediated interactions with the Mg2+. This could weaken Mg2+ binding and accelerate ADP release to activate the motor ATPase. The structural changes we observe define a signaling pathway within the motor for ATPase activation that is likely to be essential for motor movement on microtubules. PMID:11387196

  6. Copper is required for oncogenic BRAF signaling and tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Brady, Donita C.; Crowe, Matthew S.; Turski, Michelle L.; Hobbs, G. Aaron; Yao, Xiaojie; Chaikuad, Apirat; Knapp, Stefan; Xiao, Kunhong; Campbell, Sharon L.; Thiele, Dennis J.; Counter, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    The BRAF kinase is mutated, typically V600E, to induce an active oncogenic state in a large fraction of melanoma, thyroid, hairy cell leukemia, and to a lesser extent, a wide spectrum of other cancers1,2. BRAFV600E phosphorylates and activates the kinases MEK1 and MEK2, which in turn phosphorylate and activate the kinases ERK1 and ERK2, stimulating the MAPK pathway to promote cancer3. Targeting MEK1/2 is proving to be an important therapeutic strategy, as a MEK1/2 inhibitor provides a survival advantage in metastatic melanoma4, which is increased when co-administered with a BRAFV600E inhibitor5. In this regard, we previously found that copper (Cu) influx enhances MEK1 phosphorylation of ERK1/2 through a Cu-MEK1 interaction6. We now show that genetic loss of the high affinity Cu transporter Ctr1 or mutations in MEK1 that disrupt Cu binding reduced BRAFV600E-driven signaling and tumorigenesis. Conversely, a MEK1-MEK5 chimera that phosphorylates ERK1/2 independent of Cu or an active ERK2 restored tumor growth to cells lacking Ctr1. Importantly, Cu chelators used in the treatment of Wilson disease7 reduced tumor growth of both BRAFV600E-transformed cells and cells resistant to BRAF inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that Cu-chelation therapy could be repurposed to treat BRAFV600E mutation-positive cancers. PMID:24717435

  7. Multiple oncogenic mutations and clonal relationship in spatially distinct benign human epidermal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hafner, Christian; Toll, Agustí; Fernández-Casado, Alejandro; Earl, Julie; Marqués, Miriam; Acquadro, Francesco; Méndez-Pertuz, Marinela; Urioste, Miguel; Malats, Núria; Burns, Julie E.; Knowles, Margaret A.; Cigudosa, Juan C.; Hartmann, Arndt; Vogt, Thomas; Landthaler, Michael; Pujol, Ramón M.; Real, Francisco X.

    2010-01-01

    Malignant tumors result from the accumulation of genetic alterations in oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Much less is known about the genetic changes in benign tumors. Seborrheic keratoses (SK) are very frequent benign human epidermal tumors without malignant potential. We performed a comprehensive mutational screen of genes in the FGFR3-RAS-MAPK and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)-AKT pathways from 175 SK, including multiple lesions from each patient. SK commonly harbored multiple bona fide oncogenic mutations in FGFR3, PIK3CA, KRAS, HRAS, EGFR, and AKT1 oncogenes but not in tumor suppressor genes TSC1 and PTEN. Despite the occurrence of oncogenic mutations and the evidence for downstream ERK/MAPK and PI3K pathway signaling, we did not find induction of senescence or a DNA damage response. Array comparative genomic hybridization (aCGH) analysis revealed that SK are genetically stable. The pattern of oncogenic mutations and X chromosome inactivation departs significantly from randomness and indicates that spatially independent lesions from a given patient share a clonal relationship. Our findings show that multiple oncogenic mutations in the major signaling pathways involved in cancer are not sufficient to drive malignant tumor progression. Furthermore, our data provide clues on the origin and spread of oncogenic mutations in tissues, suggesting that apparently independent (multicentric) adult benign tumors may have a clonal origin. PMID:21078999

  8. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase.

    PubMed

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S; Carlomagno, Francesca; Santoro, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the 'DFG-out' inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the 'gatekeeper' V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET.

  9. Identification of Novel Small Molecule Inhibitors of Oncogenic RET Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Moccia, Marialuisa; Liu, Qingsong; Guida, Teresa; Federico, Giorgia; Brescia, Annalisa; Zhao, Zheng; Choi, Hwan Geun; Deng, Xianming; Tan, Li; Wang, Jinhua; Billaud, Marc; Gray, Nathanael S.

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic mutation of the RET receptor tyrosine kinase is observed in several human malignancies. Here, we describe three novel type II RET tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that inhibit the cellular activity of oncogenic RET mutants at two digit nanomolar concentration. These three compounds shared a 3-trifluoromethyl-4-methylpiperazinephenyl pharmacophore that stabilizes the ‘DFG-out’ inactive conformation of RET activation loop. They blocked RET-mediated signaling and proliferation with an IC50 in the nM range in fibroblasts transformed by the RET/C634R and RET/M918T oncogenes. They also inhibited autophosphorylation of several additional oncogenic RET-derived point mutants and chimeric oncogenes. At a concentration of 10 nM, ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01 inhibited RET kinase and signaling in human thyroid cancer cell lines carrying oncogenic RET alleles; they also inhibited proliferation of cancer, but not non-tumoral Nthy-ori-3-1, thyroid cells, with an IC50 in the nM range. The three compounds were capable of inhibiting the ‘gatekeeper’ V804M mutant which confers substantial resistance to established RET inhibitors. In conclusion, we have identified a type II TKI scaffold, shared by ALW-II-41-27, XMD15-44 and HG-6-63-01, that may be used as novel lead for the development of novel agents for the treatment of cancers harboring oncogenic activation of RET. PMID:26046350

  10. Strategies of oncogenic microbes to deal with WW domain-containing oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Yu-Yan; Hsiao, Jenn-Ren; Chang, Nan-Shan

    2015-01-01

    WW domain-containing oxidoreductase (WWOX) is a well-documented tumor suppressor protein that controls growth, survival, and metastasis of malignant cells. To counteract WWOX’s suppressive effects, cancer cells have developed many strategies either to downregulate WWOX expression or to functionally inactivate WWOX. Relatively unknown is, in the context of those cancers associated with certain viruses or bacteria, how the oncogenic pathogens deal with WWOX. Here we review recent studies showing different strategies utilized by three cancer-associated pathogens. Helicobactor pylori reduces WWOX expression through promoter hypermethylation, an epigenetic mechanism also occurring in many other cancer cells. WWOX has a potential to block canonical NF-κB activation and tumorigenesis induced by Tax, an oncoprotein of human T-cell leukemia virus. Tax successfully overcomes the blockage by inhibiting WWOX expression through activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. On the other hand, latent membrane protein 2A of Epstein–Barr virus physically interacts with WWOX and redirects its function to trigger a signaling pathway that upregulates matrix metalloproteinase 9 and cancer cell invasion. These reports may be just “the tip of the iceberg” regarding multiple interactions between WWOX and oncogenic microbes. Further studies in this direction should expand our understanding of infection-driven oncogenesis. PMID:25488911

  11. Liposomal encapsulation of deguelin: evidence for enhanced antitumor activity in tobacco carcinogen-induced and oncogenic K-ras-induced lung tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Woo, Jong K; Choi, Dong Soon; Tran, Hai T; Gilbert, Brian E; Hong, Waun Ki; Lee, Ho-Young

    2009-04-01

    Deguelin has shown promising chemopreventive and therapeutic activities in diverse types of cancers. However, the potential side effect of deguelin over a certain dose could be the substantial hurdle in the practical application of the drug. One of the successful strategies for the use of deguelin in clinical trials could be lung-specific delivery of the drug. The present study evaluates the efficacy of liposome-encapsulated deguelin with a dose of 0.4 mg/kg, which is 10 times less than the dose (4 mg/kg) for preventive and therapeutic activities validated in previous in vivo studies. Liposomal deguelin revealed cytotoxic activity in vitro in premalignant and malignant human bronchial epithelial cells and non-small cell lung cancer cells through the same mechanistic pathway previously reported for deguelin (i.e., suppression of the heat shock protein 90 chaperone function and induction of apoptosis). Delivery of liposomal deguelin at a dose of 0.4 mg/kg by intranasal instillation resulted in markedly increased drug partitioning to the lungs compared with that of 4 mg/kg deguelin or 0.4 mg/kg liposomal deguelin administered by oral gavage. Lung-specific delivery of deguelin (0.4 mg/kg) via nasal or intratracheal instillation in a liposomal formulation also showed significant chemopreventive and therapeutic activities in 4-(methylnitrosoamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone/benzo(a)pyrene-treated A/J mice and K-rasLAC57Bl6/129/sv F1 mice with no detectable toxicity. Our findings support the potential use of deguelin in a liposomal formulation via lung-specific delivery to improve efficacy and to reduce the potential side effects of the agent.

  12. The PRKCI and SOX2 Oncogenes are Co-amplified and Cooperate to Activate Hedgehog Signaling in Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Justilien, Verline; Walsh, Michael P.; Ali, Syed A.; Thompson, E. Aubrey; Murray, Nicole R.; Fields, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY We report that two oncogenes co-amplified on chromosome 3q26, PRKCI and SOX2, cooperate to drive a stem-like phenotype in lung squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC). PKCι phosphorylates SOX2, a master transcriptional regulator of stemness, and recruits it to the promoter of Hedgehog Acyl Transferase (HHAT), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in Hh ligand production. PKCι-mediated SOX2 phosphorylation is required for HHAT promoter occupancy, HHAT expression, and maintenance of a stem-like phenotype. Primary LSCC tumors coordinately overexpress PKCι, SOX2, and HHAT, and require PKCι-SOX2-HHAT signaling to maintain a stem-like phenotype. Thus, PKCι and SOX2 are genetically, biochemically and functionally linked in LSCC, and together they drive tumorigenesis by establishing a cell autonomous Hh signaling axis. PMID:24525231

  13. Non-degradative ubiquitination of the Notch1 receptor by the E3 ligase MDM2 activates the Notch signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Susanne; Sczaniecka, Matylda; McLaren, Lorna; Russell, Fiona; Gladstone, Karen; Hupp, Ted; Wallace, Maura

    2013-03-15

    The Notch receptor is necessary for modulating cell fate decisions throughout development, and aberrant activation of Notch signalling has been associated with many diseases, including tumorigenesis. The E3 ligase MDM2 (murine double minute 2) plays a role in regulating the Notch signalling pathway through its interaction with NUMB. In the present study we report that MDM2 can also exert its oncogenic effects on the Notch signalling pathway by directly interacting with the Notch 1 receptor through dual-site binding. This involves both the N-terminal and acidic domains of MDM2 and the RAM [RBP-Jκ (recombination signal-binding protein 1 for Jκ)-associated molecule] and ANK (ankyrin) domains of Notch 1. Although the interaction between Notch1 and MDM2 results in ubiquitination of Notch1, this does not result in degradation of Notch1, but instead leads to activation of the intracellular domain of Notch1. Furthermore, MDM2 can synergize with Notch1 to inhibit apoptosis and promote proliferation. This highlights yet another target for MDM2-mediated ubiquitination that results in activation of the protein rather than degradation and makes MDM2 an attractive target for drug discovery for both the p53 and Notch signalling pathways.

  14. Transforming properties of Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in vitro and their transcriptional activity in feline squamous cell carcinoma in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Altamura, Gennaro; Corteggio, Annunziata; Pacini, Laura; Conte, Andrea; Pierantoni, Giovanna Maria; Tommasino, Massimo; Accardi, Rosita; Borzacchiello, Giuseppe

    2016-09-15

    Felis catus papillomavirus type 2 (FcaPV2) DNA is found in feline cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs); however, its biological properties are still uncharacterized. In this study, we successfully expressed FcaPV2 E6 and E7 putative oncogenes in feline epithelial cells and demonstrated that FcaPV2 E6 binds to p53, impairing its protein level. In addition, E6 and E7 inhibited ultraviolet B (UVB)-triggered accumulation of p53, p21 and pro-apoptotic markers such as Cleaved Caspase3, Bax and Bak, suggesting a synergistic action of the virus with UV exposure in tumour pathogenesis. Furthermore, FcaPV2 E7 bound to feline pRb and impaired pRb levels, resulting in upregulation of the downstream pro-proliferative genes Cyclin A and Cdc2. Importantly, we demonstrated mRNA expression of FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 in feline SCC samples, strengthening the hypothesis of a causative role in the development of feline SCC. - Highlights: • FcaPV2 E6 binds to and deregulates feline p53 protein. • FcaPV2 E7 binds to and deregulates feline pRb protein. • FcaPV2 oncogenes inhibit UVB-induced apoptosis. • FcaPV2 E6E7 and E7 increase the lifespan of primary cells. • FcaPV2 E2, E6 and E7 are expressed at the mRNA level in feline SCC in vivo.

  15. Specific pathways mediating inflammasome activation by Candida parapsilosis

    PubMed Central

    Tóth, Adél; Zajta, Erik; Csonka, Katalin; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Netea, Mihai G.; Gácser, Attila

    2017-01-01

    Candida albicans and C. parapsilosis are human pathogens causing severe infections. The NLRP3 inflammasome plays a crucial role in host defence against C. albicans, but it has been previously unknown whether C. parapsilosis activates this complex. Here we show that C. parapsilosis induces caspase-1 activation and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) secretion in THP-1, as well as primary, human macrophages. IL-1β secretion was dependent on NLRP3, K+-efflux, TLR4, IRAK, Syk, caspase-1, caspase-8 and NADPH-oxidase. Importantly, while C. albicans induced robust IL-1β release after 4 h, C. parapsilosis was not able to stimulate the production of IL-1β after this short incubation period. We also found that C. parapsilosis was phagocytosed to a lesser extent, and induced significantly lower ROS production and lysosomal cathepsin B release compared to C. albicans, suggesting that the low extent of inflammasome activation by C. parapsilosis may result from a delay in the so-called “signal 2”. In conclusion, this is the first study to examine the molecular pathways responsible for the IL-1β production in response to a non-albicans Candida species, and these results enhance our understanding about the immune response against C. parapsilosis. PMID:28225025

  16. Risk assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables.

    PubMed

    Keikotlhaile, B M; Spanoghe, P; Steurbaut, W

    2011-01-01

    Pesticides are used in agriculture to improve food security by assuring good harvest, however, they can have harmful effects in human beings and animals. One of the harmful effects of pesticides is their carcinogenicity. Exposure to oncogenic compounds may result in cancer to the exposed animal or person. In this paper, exposure assessment of oncogenic potency of pesticides was performed from raw and processed fruits and vegetables. The oncogenic risk was calculated by multiplying the estimated daily intake (EDI) of the pesticide residue with the oncogenic potency factor (Q*) of the concerned pesticide. The total potential oncogenic risk was calculated to be 2.76 x 10(-3) before processing and 8.97 x 10(-4) after processing. The risk was higher than the EPA acceptable limit of 1 x10(-6). Despite the calculated levels exceeding the EPA acceptable limit, food processing activities reduced the dietary oncogenic risk to an average 33.8%.

  17. Murine Polyomavirus Cell Surface Receptors Activate Distinct Signaling Pathways Required for Infection

    PubMed Central

    O’Hara, Samantha D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Virus binding to the cell surface triggers an array of host responses, including activation of specific signaling pathways that facilitate steps in virus entry. Using mouse polyomavirus (MuPyV), we identified host signaling pathways activated upon virus binding to mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Pathways activated by MuPyV included the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), FAK/SRC, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. Gangliosides and α4-integrin are required receptors for MuPyV infection. MuPyV binding to both gangliosides and the α4-integrin receptors was required for activation of the PI3K pathway; however, either receptor interaction alone was sufficient for activation of the MAPK pathway. Using small-molecule inhibitors, we confirmed that the PI3K and FAK/SRC pathways were required for MuPyV infection, while the MAPK pathway was dispensable. Mechanistically, the PI3K pathway was required for MuPyV endocytosis, while the FAK/SRC pathway enabled trafficking of MuPyV along microtubules. Thus, MuPyV interactions with specific cell surface receptors facilitate activation of signaling pathways required for virus entry and trafficking. Understanding how different viruses manipulate cell signaling pathways through interactions with host receptors could lead to the identification of new therapeutic targets for viral infection. PMID:27803182

  18. Serotonin activates overall feeding by activating two separate neural pathways in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Song, Bo-mi; Avery, Leon

    2012-02-08

    Food intake in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans requires two distinct feeding motions, pharyngeal pumping and isthmus peristalsis. Bacteria, the natural food of C. elegans, activate both feeding motions (Croll, 1978; Horvitz et al., 1982; Chiang et al., 2006). The mechanisms by which bacteria activate the feeding motions are largely unknown. To understand the process, we studied how serotonin, an endogenous pharyngeal pumping activator whose action is triggered by bacteria, activates feeding motions. Here, we show that serotonin, like bacteria, activates overall feeding by activating isthmus peristalsis as well as pharyngeal pumping. During active feeding, the frequencies and the timing of onset of the two motions were distinct, but each isthmus peristalsis was coupled to the preceding pump. We found that serotonin activates the two feeding motions mainly by activating two separate neural pathways in response to bacteria. For activating pumping, the SER-7 serotonin receptor in the MC motor neurons in the feeding organ activated cholinergic transmission from MC to the pharyngeal muscles by activating the Gsα signaling pathway. For activating isthmus peristalsis, SER-7 in the M4 (and possibly M2) motor neuron in the feeding organ activated the G(12)α signaling pathway in a cell-autonomous manner, which presumably activates neurotransmission from M4 to the pharyngeal muscles. Based on our results and previous calcium imaging of pharyngeal muscles (Shimozono et al., 2004), we propose a model that explains how the two feeding motions are separately regulated yet coupled. The feeding organ may have evolved this way to support efficient feeding.

  19. PROX1 promotes human glioblastoma cell proliferation and invasion via activation of the nuclear factor-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xuchang; Wan, Xuefeng; Wei, Xinting

    2017-02-01

    Prospero homeobox protein 1 (PROX1) is highly expressed in high-grade malignant astrocytic gliomas. However, the role of PROX1 in the pathogenesis of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) remains unclear. The present study overexpressed PROX1 in human GBM cell lines and examined its effects on cell growth, tumorigenesis, and invasiveness. In addition, the involvement of the nuclear factor‑κB (NF‑κB) signaling pathway in the action of PROX1 was examined. It was identified that overexpression of PROX1 significantly increased the proliferation and colony formation of glioblastoma cells, compared with empty vector‑transfected controls. Furthermore, ectopic expression of PROX1 promoted the growth of GBM xenograft tumors. Western blot analysis revealed that PROX1 overexpression induced nuclear accumulation of NF‑κB p65 and upregulated the expression levels of the NF‑κB responsive genes cyclin D1 and matrix metallopeptidase 9. An NF‑κB reporter assay demonstrated that PROX1‑overexpressing glioblastoma cells had significantly greater NF‑κB‑dependent reporter activities compared with empty vector‑transfected controls. Transfection of a dominant inhibitor of κBα mutant into PROX1‑overexpressing cells significantly impaired their proliferation and invasion capacities, which was accompanied by reduced levels of nuclear NF‑κB p65. Collectively, these data indicated that PROX1 serves an oncogenic role in GBM and promotes cell proliferation and invasiveness potentially via activation of the NF‑κB signaling pathway. Therefore, PROX1 may represent a potential target for the treatment of GBM.

  20. KLF4 suppresses HDACi induced caspase activation and the SAPK pathway by targeting p57(Kip2).

    PubMed

    Ky, Nung; Lim, Chuan Bian; Li, Jinming; Tam, James P; Hamza, Mohamed Sabry; Zhao, Yan

    2009-09-01

    Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) belongs to a family of evolutionarily conserved zinc finger-containing transcription factors. It has been shown to mediate self renewal and pluripotency, regulate adipogenesis and play a critical role in monocyte differentiation. KLF4 is also highly expressed in squamous cell carcinomas and in 70% of all primary human breast cancers, suggesting a putative role for KLF4 as being an oncogene and as an antiapoptotic factor. However, the mechanism of this regulation remains unclear. Here, we show that KLF4 is induced during histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment, and regulates the extrinsic apoptosis pathway by inhibiting caspase cleavage. In addition, KLF4 binds to the p57(Kip2) promoter and transcriptionally upregulates its expression, which in turn inhibits the stress activated protein kinase cascade and c-Jun phosphorylation. Our findings indicate that in cancer cells that express high levels of KLF4 may be refractory to HDACi treatment. Results of our study demonstrate an unexpected antiapoptotic function of KLF4, and suggest an important cell fate determinant following histone deacetylase inhibitor induced apoptosis.

  1. Friend leukemia virus integration 1 activates the Rho GTPase pathway and is associated with metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Song, Wei; Li, Wei; Li, Lingyu; Zhang, Shilin; Yan, Xu; Wen, Xue; Zhang, Xiaoying; Tian, Huimin; Li, Ailing; Hu, Ji-Fan; Cui, Jiuwei

    2015-09-15

    Breast cancer is the most prevalent malignant disease in women worldwide. In patients with breast cancer, metastasis to distant sites directly determines the survival outcome. However, the molecular mechanism underlying metastasis in breast cancer remains to be defined. In this report, we found that Friend leukemia virus integration 1 (FLI1) proto-oncogene was differentially expressed between the aggressive MDA-MB231 and the non-aggressive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Congruently, immunohistochemical staining of clinical samples revealed that FLI1 was overexpressed in breast cancers as compared with the adjacent tissues. The abundance of FLI1 protein was strongly correlated with the advanced stage, poor differentiation, and lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients. Knockdown of FLI1 with small interfering RNAs significantly attenuated the potential of migration and invasion in highly metastatic human breast cancer cells. FLI1 oncoprotein activated the Rho GTPase pathway that is known to play a role in tumor metastasis. This study for the first time identifies FLI1 as a clinically and functionally important target gene of metastasis, providing a rationale for developing FLI1 inhibitors in the treatment of breast cancer.

  2. In vitro and in vivo synergy of MCP compounds with mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway- and microtubule-targeting inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Skobeleva, Natalia; Menon, Sanjay; Weber, Lutz; Golemis, Erica A; Khazak, Vladimir

    2007-03-01

    An important clinical task is to coherently integrate the use of protein-targeted drugs into preexisting therapeutic regimens, with the goal of improving treatment efficacy. Constitutive activation of Ras-dependent signaling is important in many tumors, and agents that inhibit this pathway might be useful in numerous therapeutic combinations. The MCP compounds were identified as inhibitors of Ras-Raf interactions and previously shown to inhibit multiple Ras-dependent transformation phenotypes when used as monoagents in cell culture analyses. In this study, we investigate the ability of the MCP110 compound to synergistically enhance the activity of other therapeutic agents. In both a defined K-Ras-transformed fibroblast model and in human tumor cell lines with mutationally activated Ras, MCP110 selectively synergizes with other agents targeting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway, and with multiple agents (paclitaxel, docetaxel, and vincristine) targeting the microtubule network. The synergistic activity of MCP110 and paclitaxel was further established by experiments showing that in Kaposi's sarcoma oncogenically transformed cell lines, cellular models for tumors treated with taxanes in the clinic and in which Raf-dependent signaling plays an important role, MCP110 synergizes with paclitaxel and limit growth. Finally, in vivo testing indicate that MCP110 is bioavailable, inhibits the growth of LXFA 629 lung and SW620 colon carcinoma cells in xenograft models, and again strongly synergizes with paclitaxel. Together, these findings indicate that MCP compounds have potential to be effective in combination with other anticancer agents.

  3. Neem Limonoids as Anticancer Agents: Modulation of Cancer Hallmarks and Oncogenic Signaling.

    PubMed

    Nagini, Siddavaram

    2014-01-01

    Neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) is one of the most versatile medicinal plants, widely distributed in the Indian subcontinent. Neem is a rich source of limonoids that are endowed with potent medicinal properties predominantly antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anticancer activities. Azadirachtin, gedunin, and nimbolide are more extensively investigated relative to other neem limonoids. Accumulating evidence indicates that the anticancer effects of neem limonoids are mediated through the inhibition of hallmark capabilities of cancer such as cell proliferation, apoptosis evasion, inflammation, invasion, and angiogenesis. The neem limonoids have been demonstrated to target oncogenic signaling kinases and transcription factors chiefly, NF-κB, Wnt/β-catenin, PI3K/Akt, MAPK, and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Neem limonoids that target multiple pathways that are aberrant in cancer are ideal candidates for cancer chemoprevention and therapy.

  4. Analysis of Ah receptor pathway activation by brominated flame retardants.

    PubMed

    Brown, David J; Van Overmeire, Ilse; Goeyens, Leo; Denison, Michael S; De Vito, Michael J; Clark, George C

    2004-06-01

    Brominated flame-retardants (BFRs) are used as additives in plastics to decrease the rate of combustion of these materials, leading to greater consumer safety. As the use of plastics has increased, the production and use of flame-retardants has also grown. Many BFRs are persistent and have been detected in environmental samples, raising concerns about the biological/toxicological risk associated with their use. Most BFRs appear to be non-toxic, however there is still some concern that these compounds, or possible contaminants in BFRs mixtures could interact with cellular receptors. In this study we have examined the interaction of decabromodiphenyl ether, Firemaster BP4A (tetrabromobisphenol A), Firemaster PHT4 (tetrabromophthalic anhydride), hexabromobenzene, pentabromotoluene, decabromobiphenyl, Firemaster BP-6 (2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl) and possible contaminants of BFR mixtures with the Ah receptor. Receptor binding and activation was examined using the Gel Retardation Assay and increased expression of dioxin responsive genes was detected using the reporter gene based CALUX assay. The results demonstrate the ability of BFRs to activate the AhR signal transduction pathway at moderate to high concentrations as assessed using both assays. AhR-dependent activation by BFRs may be due in part to contaminants present in commercial/technical mixtures. This was suggested by our comparative analysis of Firemaster BP-6 versus its primary component 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl. Some technical mixtures of brominated flame-retardants contain brominated biphenyls, dioxins or dibenzofurans as contaminants. When tested in the CALUX assay these compounds were found to be equivalent to, or more active than their chlorinated analogues. Relative effective potency values were determined from dose response curves for these brominated HAHs.

  5. Oncogenic Kras is required for both the initiation and maintenance of pancreatic cancer in mice

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Meredith A.; Bednar, Filip; Zhang, Yaqing; Brisset, Jean-Christophe; Galbán, Stefanie; Galbán, Craig J.; Rakshit, Sabita; Flannagan, Karen S.; Adsay, N. Volkan; Pasca di Magliano, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is almost invariably associated with mutations in the KRAS gene, most commonly KRASG12D, that result in a dominant-active form of the KRAS GTPase. However, how KRAS mutations promote pancreatic carcinogenesis is not fully understood, and whether oncogenic KRAS is required for the maintenance of pancreatic cancer has not been established. To address these questions, we generated two mouse models of pancreatic tumorigenesis: mice transgenic for inducible KrasG12D, which allows for inducible, pancreas-specific, and reversible expression of the oncogenic KrasG12D, with or without inactivation of one allele of the tumor suppressor gene p53. Here, we report that, early in tumorigenesis, induction of oncogenic KrasG12D reversibly altered normal epithelial differentiation following tissue damage, leading to precancerous lesions. Inactivation of KrasG12D in established precursor lesions and during progression to cancer led to regression of the lesions, indicating that KrasG12D was required for tumor cell survival. Strikingly, during all stages of carcinogenesis, KrasG12D upregulated Hedgehog signaling, inflammatory pathways, and several pathways known to mediate paracrine interactions between epithelial cells and their surrounding microenvironment, thus promoting formation and maintenance of the fibroinflammatory stroma that plays a pivotal role in pancreatic cancer. Our data establish that epithelial KrasG12D influences multiple cell types to drive pancreatic tumorigenesis and is essential for tumor maintenance. They also strongly support the notion that inhibiting KrasG12D, or its downstream effectors, could provide a new approach for the treatment of pancreatic cancer. PMID:22232209

  6. Sonic Hedgehog Promotes Cementoblastic Differentiation via Activating the BMP Pathways.

    PubMed

    Bae, Won-Jung; Auh, Q-Schick; Lim, Hyun-Chang; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2016-10-01

    Although sonic hedgehog (SHH), an essential molecule in embryogenesis and organogenesis, stimulates proliferation of human periodontal ligament (PDL) stem cells, the effects of recombinant human SHH (rh-SHH) on osteoblastic differentiation are unclear. To reveal the role of SHH in periodontal regeneration, expression of SHH in mouse periodontal tissues and its effects on the osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation in human cementoblasts were investigated. SHH is immunolocalized to differentiating cementoblasts, PDL cells, and osteoblasts of the developing mouse periodontium. Addition of rh-SHH increased cell growth, ALP activity, and mineralization nodule formation, and upregulated mRNA expression of osteoblastic and cementoblastic markers. The osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation of rh-SHH was abolished by the SHH inhibitor cyclopamine (Cy) and the BMP antagonist noggin. rh-SHH increased the expression of BMP-2 and -4 mRNA, as well as levels of phosphorylated Akt, ERK, p38, and JNK, and of MAPK and NF-κB activation, which were reversed by noggin, Cy, and BMP-2 siRNA. Collectively, this study is the first to demonstrate that SHH can promote cell growth and cell osteoblastic/cementoblastic differentiation via BMP pathway. Thus, SHH plays important roles in the development of periodontal tissue, and might represent a new therapeutic target for periodontitis and periodontal regeneration.

  7. High density lipoproteins induce cell cycle entry in vascular smooth muscle cells via mitogen activated protein kinase-dependent pathway.

    PubMed

    Nofer, J R; Junker, R; Pulawski, E; Fobker, M; Levkau, B; von Eckardstein, A; Seedorf, U; Assmann, G; Walter, M

    2001-04-01

    In this study we found that HDL acts as a potent and specific mitogen in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) by stimulating entry into S-phase and DNA synthesis in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, induction of cyclins D1, E, and A, as well as activation of cyclin D-dependent kinases as inferred from phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb). Moreover, HDL induced activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway including Raf-, MEK-1, and ERK1/2, as well as the expression of proto-oncogen c-fos, which is controlled by ERK1/2. PD98059, an inhibitor of MEK-1 blocked the mitogenic activity of HDL and cyclin D1 expression. HDL-induced VSMC proliferation, cell cycle progression, cyclin D1 expression, and activation of the Raf-1/MEK-1/ERK1/2 cascade were blocked by preincubation of cells with pertussis toxin indicating involvement of trimeric G-protein. By contrast, none of these responses was inhibited by the protein kinase C inhibitor, GF109203X. The mitogenic effects of native HDL were not mimicked by apo A-I, reconstituted HDL containing apo A-I, or cholesterol-containing liposomes. In conclusion, HDL possesses an intrinsic property to induce G-protein- and MAP-kinase-dependent proliferation and cell cycle progression in VSMC. The strong and specific mitogenic effect of HDL should be taken into account, when therapeutic strategies to elevate the plasma level of these lipoproteins are developed.

  8. LINE-1 ORF-1p functions as a novel HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway co-activator and promotes the growth of MDA-MB-231 cell.

    PubMed

    Yang, Qian; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Fan; Wang, Chunping; Lu, Yinying; Gao, Xudong; Zhu, Yunfeng; Yang, Yongping

    2013-12-01

    Long interspersed nucleotide element (LINE)-1 ORF-1p is encoded by the human pro-oncogene LINE-1. It is involved in the development and progression of several human carcinomas, such as hepatocellular carcinoma and lung and breast cancers. The hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/ETS-1 signaling pathway is involved in regulation of cancer cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion. The biological function of the interaction between LINE-1 ORF-1p and the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway in regulation of human breast cancer proliferation remains largely unknown. Here, we showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p enhanced ETS-1 transcriptional activity and increased expression of downstream genes of ETS-1. Interaction between ETS-1 and LINE-1 ORF-1p was identified by immunoprecipitation assays. LINE-1 ORF-1p modulated ETS-1 activity through cytoplasm/nucleus translocation and recruitment to the ETS-1 binding element in the MMP1 gene promoter. We also showed that LINE-1 ORF-1p promoted proliferation and anchorage-independent growth of MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. By investigating a novel role of the LINE-1 ORF-1p in the HGF/ETS-1 signaling pathway and MDA-MB-231 cells, we demonstrated that LINE-1 ORF-1p may be a novel ETS-1 coactivator and molecular target for therapy of human triple negative breast cancer.

  9. The MSX1 homeobox transcription factor is a downstream target of PHOX2B and activates the Delta-Notch pathway in neuroblastoma

    SciTech Connect

    Revet, Ingrid; Huizenga, Gerda; Chan, Alvin; Koster, Jan; Volckmann, Richard; Sluis, Peter van; Ora, Ingrid; Versteeg, Rogier; Geerts, Dirk

    2008-02-15

    Neuroblastoma is an embryonal tumour of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system (SNS). One of the master regulator genes for peripheral SNS differentiation, the homeobox transcription factor PHOX2B, is mutated in familiar and sporadic neuroblastomas. Here we report that inducible expression of PHOX2B in the neuroblastoma cell line SJNB-8 down-regulates MSX1, a homeobox gene important for embryonic neural crest development. Inducible expression of MSX1 in SJNB-8 caused inhibition of both cell proliferation and colony formation in soft agar. Affymetrix micro-array and Northern blot analysis demonstrated that MSX1 strongly up-regulated the Delta-Notch pathway genes DLK1, NOTCH3, and HEY1. In addition, the proneural gene NEUROD1 was down-regulated. Western blot analysis showed that MSX1 induction caused cleavage of the NOTCH3 protein to its activated form, further confirming activation of the Delta-Notch pathway. These experiments describe for the first time regulation of the Delta-Notch pathway by MSX1, and connect these genes to the PHOX2B oncogene, indicative of a role in neuroblastoma biology. Affymetrix micro-array analysis of a neuroblastic tumour series consisting of neuroblastomas and the more benign ganglioneuromas showed that MSX1, NOTCH3 and HEY1 are more highly expressed in ganglioneuromas. This suggests a block in differentiation of these tumours at distinct developmental stages or lineages.

  10. Galectin-1 induces invasion and the epithelial-mesenchymal transition in human gastric cancer cells via non-canonical activation of the hedgehog signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chong, Yang; Tang, Dong; Gao, Jun; Jiang, Xuetong; Xu, Chuanqi; Xiong, Qingquan; Huang, Yuqin; Wang, Jie; Zhou, Huaicheng; Shi, Youquan; Wang, Daorong

    2016-01-01

    Galectin-1 (Gal-1) has been reported to be an independent prognostic indicator of poor survival in gastric cancer and overexpression of Gal-1 enhances the invasiveness of gastric cancer cells. However, the downstream mechanisms by which Gal-1 promotes invasion remains unclear. Moreover, the function of Gal-1 in the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in gastric cancer has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we observed Gal-1 expression was upregulated and positively associated with metastasis and EMT markers in 162 human gastric cancer tissue specimens. In vitro studies showed Gal-1 induced invasion, the EMT phenotype and activated the non-canonical hedgehog (Hh) pathway in gastric cancer cell lines. Furthermore, our data revealed that Gal-1 modulated the non-canonical Hh pathway by increasing the transcription of glioma-associated oncogene-1 (Gli-1) via a Smoothened (SMO)-independent manner, and that upregulation of Gal-1 was strongly associated with gastric cancer metastasis. We conclude that Gal-1 promotes invasion and the EMT in gastric cancer cells via activation of the non-canonical Hh pathway, suggesting Gal-1 could represent a promising therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of gastric cancer metastasis. PMID:27835885

  11. Atypical Protein Kinase Cι as a human oncogene and therapeutic target

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Peter J.; Justilien, Verline; Riou, Philippe; Linch, Mark; Fields, Alan P.

    2014-01-01

    Protein kinase inhibitors represent a major class of targeted therapeutics that has made a positive impact on treatment of cancer and other disease indications. Among the promising kinase targets for further therapeutic development are members of the Protein Kinase C (PKC) family.The PKCs are central components of many signaling pathways that regulate diverse cellular functions including proliferation, cell cycle, differentiation, survival, cell migration, and polarity. Genetic manipulation of individual PKC isozymes has demonstrated that they often fulfill distinct, nonredundant cellular functions.11 Participation of PKC members in different intracellular signaling pathways reflects responses to varying extracellular stimuli, intracellular localization, tissue distribution, phosphorylation status, and intermolecular interactions. PKC activity, localization, phosphorylation, and/or expression are often altered in human tumors, and PKC isozymes have been implicated in various aspects of transformation, including uncontrolled proliferation, migration, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and resistance to apoptosis. Despite the strong relationship between PKC isozymes and cancer, to date only atypical PKCiota has been shown to function as a bona fide oncogene, and as such is a particularly attractive therapeutic target for cancer treatment. In this review, we discuss the role of PKCiota in transformation and describe mechanism-based approaches to therapeutically target oncogenic PKCiota signaling in cancer. PMID:24231509

  12. IL-17/Th17 Pathway Is Activated in Acne Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Kelhälä, Hanna-Leena; Palatsi, Riitta; Fyhrquist, Nanna; Lehtimäki, Sari; Väyrynen, Juha P.; Kallioinen, Matti; Kubin, Minna E.; Greco, Dario; Tasanen, Kaisa; Alenius, Harri; Bertino, Beatrice; Carlavan, Isabelle; Mehul, Bruno; Déret, Sophie; Reiniche, Pascale; Martel, Philippe; Marty, Carine; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Voegel, Johannes J.; Lauerma, Antti

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms of inflammation in acne are currently subject of intense investigation. This study focused on the activation of adaptive and innate immunity in clinically early visible inflamed acne lesions and was performed in two independent patient populations. Biopsies were collected from lesional and non-lesional skin of acne patients. Using Affymetrix Genechips, we observed significant elevation of the signature cytokines of the Th17 lineage in acne lesions compared to non-lesional skin. The increased expression of IL-17 was confirmed at the RNA and also protein level with real-time PCR (RT-PCR) and Luminex technology. Cytokines involved in Th17 lineage differentiation (IL-1β, IL-6, TGF-β, IL23p19) were remarkably induced at the RNA level. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines (TNF-α, IL-8, CSF2 and CCL20), Th1 markers (IL12p40, CXCR3, T-bet, IFN-γ), T regulatory cell markers (Foxp3, IL-10, TGF-β) and IL-17 related antimicrobial peptides (S100A7, S100A9, lipocalin, hBD2, hBD3, hCAP18) were induced. Importantly, immunohistochemistry revealed significantly increased numbers of IL-17A positive T cells and CD83 dendritic cells in the acne lesions. In summary our results demonstrate the presence of IL-17A positive T cells and the activation of Th17-related cytokines in acne lesions, indicating that the Th17 pathway is activated and may play a pivotal role in the disease process, possibly offering new targets of therapy. PMID:25153527

  13. Chronic Oxidative Stress Causes Amplification and Overexpression of ptprz1 Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase to Activate β-Catenin Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shang, Donghao; Akatsuka, Shinya; Ohara, Hiroki; Dutta, Khokon Kumar; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Abe, Kouichiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2007-01-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase ζ or receptor tyrosine phosphatase β) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16∼552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the β-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated β-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear β-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating β-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification. PMID:18055543

  14. Chronic oxidative stress causes amplification and overexpression of ptprz1 protein tyrosine phosphatase to activate beta-catenin pathway.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ting; Shang, Donghao; Akatsuka, Shinya; Ohara, Hiroki; Dutta, Khokon Kumar; Mizushima, Katsura; Naito, Yuji; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu; Izumiya, Masashi; Abe, Kouichiro; Nakagama, Hitoshi; Noguchi, Noriko; Toyokuni, Shinya

    2007-12-01

    Ferric nitrilotriacetate induces oxidative renal tubular damage via Fenton-reaction, which subsequently leads to renal cell carcinoma (RCC) in rodents. Here, we used gene expression microarray and array-based comparative genomic hybridization analyses to find target oncogenes in this model. At the common chromosomal region of amplification (4q22) in rat RCCs, we found ptprz1, a tyrosine phosphatase (also known as protein tyrosine phosphatase zeta or receptor tyrosine phosphatase beta) highly expressed in the RCCs. Analyses revealed genomic amplification up to eightfold. Despite scarcity in the control kidney, the amounts of PTPRZ1 were increased in the kidney after 3 weeks of oxidative stress, and mRNA levels were increased 16 approximately 552-fold in the RCCs. Network analysis of the expression revealed the involvement of the beta-catenin pathway in the RCCs. In the RCCs, dephosphorylated beta-catenin was translocated to nuclei, resulting in the expression of its target genes cyclin D1, c-myc, c-jun, fra-1, and CD44. Furthermore, knockdown of ptprz1 with small interfering RNA (siRNA), in FRCC-001 and FRCC-562 cell lines established from the induced RCCs, decreased the amounts of nuclear beta-catenin and suppressed cellular proliferation concomitant with a decrease in the expression of target genes. These results demonstrate that chronic oxidative stress can induce genomic amplification of ptprz1, activating beta-catenin pathways without the involvement of Wnt signaling for carcinogenesis. Thus, iron-mediated persistent oxidative stress confers an environment for gene amplification.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation Factor ERLIN2: Oncogenic Roles and Molecular Targeting of Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-01

    phenotype. Oncogenes, such as Her2 , play important roles in uncontrolled proliferation and survival of breast cancer cells. However, cancer cells must...transforming roles of ERLIN2 and molecular mechanisms by which ERLIN2 coordinates ER pathways in breast cancer have not been elucidated. In this... signaling in aggressive forms of human breast cancer . Accordingly, we propose that ERLIN2 represents a novel class of oncogenic factors and that

  16. Oncogenes and RNA splicing of human tumor viruses.

    PubMed

    Ajiro, Masahiko; Zheng, Zhi-Ming

    2014-09-01

    Approximately 10.8% of human cancers are associated with infection by an oncogenic virus. These viruses include human papillomavirus (HPV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCV), human T-cell leukemia virus 1 (HTLV-1), Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV). These oncogenic viruses, with the exception of HCV, require the host RNA splicing machinery in order to exercise their oncogenic activities, a strategy that allows the viruses to efficiently export and stabilize viral RNA and to produce spliced RNA isoforms from a bicistronic or polycistronic RNA transcript for efficient protein translation. Infection with a tumor virus affects the expression of host genes, including host RNA splicing factors, which play a key role in regulating viral RNA splicing of oncogene transcripts. A current prospective focus is to explore how alternative RNA splicing and the expression of viral oncogenes take place in a cell- or tissue-specific manner in virus-induced human carcinogenesis.

  17. Zfx facilitates tumorigenesis caused by activation of the Hedgehog pathway

    PubMed Central

    Palmer, Colin J.; Galan-Caridad, Jose M.; Weisberg, Stuart P.; Lei, Liang; Esquilin, Jose M.; Croft, Gist F.; Wainwright, Brandon; Canoll, Peter; Owens, David M.; Reizis, Boris

    2014-01-01

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway regulates normal development and cell proliferation in metazoan organisms, but its aberrant activation can promote tumorigenesis. Hh-induced tumors arise from various tissues and they may be indolent or aggressive, as is the case with skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) or cerebellar medulloblastoma (MB), respectively. Little is known about common cell-intrinsic factors that control the development of such diverse Hh-dependent tumors. Transcription factor Zfx is required for the self-renewal of hematopoietic and embryonic stem cells, as well as for the propagation of acute myeloid and T-lymphoblastic leukemias. We report here that Zfx facilitates the development of experimental BCC and MB in mice initiated by deletion of the Hh inhibitory receptor Ptch1. Simultaneous deletion of Zfx along with Ptch1 prevented BCC formation and delayed MB development. In contrast, Zfx was dispensable for tumorigenesis in a mouse model of glioblastoma. We used genome-wide expression and chromatin binding analysis in a human MB cell line to characterize direct, evolutionarily conserved targets of Zfx, identifying Dis3L and Ube2j1 as two targets required for the growth of the human MB cells. Our results establish Zfx as a common cell-intrinsic regulator of diverse Hh-induced tumors, with implications for the definition of new therapeutic targets in these malignancies. PMID:25164012

  18. Lymphatic system: an active pathway for immune protection.

    PubMed

    Liao, Shan; von der Weid, P Y

    2015-02-01

    Lymphatic vessels are well known to participate in the immune response by providing the structural and functional support for the delivery of antigens and antigen presenting cells to draining lymph nodes. Recent advances have improved our understanding of how the lymphatic system works and how it participates to the development of immune responses. New findings suggest that the lymphatic system may control the ultimate immune response through a number of ways which may include guiding antigen/dendritic cells (DC) entry into initial lymphatics at the periphery; promoting antigen/DC trafficking through afferent lymphatic vessels by actively facilitating lymph and cell movement; enabling antigen presentation in lymph nodes via a network of lymphatic endothelial cells and lymph node stroma cell and finally by direct lymphocytes exit from lymph nodes. The same mechanisms are likely also important to maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we will discuss how the morphology and gene expression profile of the lymphatic endothelial cells in lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes provides a highly efficient pathway to initiate immune responses. The fundamental understanding of how lymphatic system participates in immune regulation will guide the research on lymphatic function in various diseases.

  19. Lgd regulates the activity of the BMP/Dpp signalling pathway during Drosophila oogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morawa, Kim Sara; Schneider, Markus; Klein, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    The tumour suppressor gene lethal (2) giant discs (lgd) is involved in endosomal trafficking of transmembrane proteins in Drosophila. Loss of function results in the ligand-independent activation of the Notch pathway in all imaginal disc cells and follicle cells. Analysis of lgd loss of function has largely been restricted to imaginal discs and suggests that no other signalling pathway is affected. The devotion of Lgd to the Notch pathway was puzzling given that lgd loss of function also affects trafficking of components of other signalling pathways, such as the Dpp (a Drosophila BMP) pathway. Moreover, Lgd physically interacts with Shrub, a fundamental component of the ESCRT trafficking machinery, whose loss of function results in the activation of several signalling pathways. Here, we show that during oogenesis lgd loss of function causes ectopic activation of the Drosophila BMP signalling pathway. This activation occurs in somatic follicle cells as well as in germline cells. The activation in germline cells causes an extra round of division, producing egg chambers with 32 instead of 16 cells. Moreover, more germline stem cells were formed. The lgd mutant cells are defective in endosomal trafficking, causing an accumulation of the type I Dpp receptor Thickveins in maturing endosomes, which probably causes activation of the pathway. Taken together, these results show that lgd loss of function causes various effects among tissues and can lead to the activation of signalling pathways other than Notch. They further show that there is a role for the endosomal pathway during oogenesis.

  20. Dynamic Hedgehog signalling pathway activity in germline stem cells.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Z; Szczepny, A; McLaughlin, E A; Meistrich, M L; Zhou, W; Ustunel, I; Loveland, K L

    2014-03-01

    Although the contribution of Hedgehog (Hh) signalling to stem cell development and oncogenesis is well recognised, its importance for spermatogonial stem cells (SSCs) has not been established. Here we interrogate adult rat SSCs using an established model in which only undifferentiated spermatogonial cells remain in the testis at 15 weeks following irradiation, and spermatogonial differentiation is induced within 4 weeks by gonadotrophin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH-ant) administration. Synthesis of Hh pathway components in untreated adult rat testes was compared with that in irradiated testes prior to and after GnRH-ant exposure using in situ hybridization. In adult testes with complete spermatogenesis, the Desert Hedgehog ligand transcript, Dhh, was detected in Sertoli cells, some spermatogonia and in spermatocytes by in situ hybridization. Spermatogenic cells were identified as sites of Hh signalling through detection of transcripts encoding the Hh receptor, Ptc2 transcripts and proteins for the key downstream target of Hh signalling, Gli1 and the Hh transcriptional activator, Gli2. Remarkably, the undifferentiated spermatogonia present in irradiated adult rat testes contained Dhh in addition to Ptc2, Gli1 and Gli2, revealing the potential for an autocrine Hh signalling loop to sustain undifferentiated spermatogonial cells. These transcripts became undetectable by in situ hybridization following GnRH-ant induction of spermatogonial differentiation, however, detection of Gli1 protein in spermatogonia in all groups indicates that Hh signalling is sustained. This is the first evidence of active Hh signalling in mammalian male germline stem cells, as has been documented for some cancer stem cells.

  1. An Interaction with Ewing's Sarcoma Breakpoint Protein EWS Defines a Specific Oncogenic Mechanism of ETS Factors Rearranged in Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kedage, Vivekananda; Selvaraj, Nagarathinam; Nicholas, Taylor R; Budka, Justin A; Plotnik, Joshua P; Jerde, Travis J; Hollenhorst, Peter C

    2016-10-25

    More than 50% of prostate tumors have a chromosomal rearrangement resulting in aberrant expression of an oncogenic ETS family transcription factor. However, mechanisms that differentiate the function of oncogenic ETS factors expressed in prostate tumors from non-oncogenic ETS factors expressed in normal prostate are unknown. Here, we find that four oncogenic ETS (ERG, ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5), and no other ETS, interact with the Ewing's sarcoma breakpoint protein, EWS. This EWS interaction was necessary and sufficient for oncogenic ETS functions including gene activation, cell migration, clonogenic survival, and transformation. Significantly, the EWS interacting region of ERG has no homology with that of ETV1, ETV4, and ETV5. Therefore, this finding may explain how divergent ETS factors have a common oncogenic function. Strikingly, EWS is fused to various ETS factors by the chromosome translocations that cause Ewing's sarcoma. Therefore, these findings link oncogenic ETS function in both prostate cancer and Ewing's sarcoma.

  2. Balanced activity in basal ganglia projection pathways is critical for contraversive movements

    PubMed Central

    Tecuapetla, Fatuel; Matias, Sara; Dugue, Guillaume P.; Mainen, Zachary F.; Costa, Rui M.

    2014-01-01

    The basal ganglia, and the striatum in particular, have been implicated in the generation of contraversive movements. The striatum projects to downstream basal ganglia nuclei through two main circuits, originating in striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons, and different models postulate that the two pathways can work in opposition or synergistically. Here we show striatonigral and striatopallidal neurons are concurrently active during spontaneous contraversive movements. Furthermore, we show that unilateral optogenetic inhibition of either or both projection pathways disrupts contraversive movements. Consistently, simultaneous activation of both neuron types produces contraversive movements. Still, we also show that imbalanced activity between the pathways can result in opposing movements being driven by each projection pathway. These data show that balanced activity in both striatal projection pathways is critical for the generation of contraversive movements and highlights that imbalanced activity between the two projection pathways can result in opposing motor output. PMID:25002180

  3. Targeted Cancer Therapy: Vital Oncogenes and a New Molecular Genetic Paradigm for Cancer Initiation Progression and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Rudolph E.

    2016-01-01

    It has been declared repeatedly that cancer is a result of molecular genetic abnormalities. However, there has been no working model describing the specific functional consequences of the deranged genomic processes that result in the initiation and propagation of the cancer process during carcinogenesis. We no longer need to question whether or not cancer arises as a result of a molecular genetic defect within the cancer cell. The legitimate questions are: how and why? This article reviews the preeminent data on cancer molecular genetics and subsequently proposes that the sentinel event in cancer initiation is the aberrant production of fused transcription activators with new molecular properties within normal tissue stem cells. This results in the production of vital oncogenes with dysfunctional gene activation transcription properties, which leads to dysfunctional gene regulation, the aberrant activation of transduction pathways, chromosomal breakage, activation of driver oncogenes, reactivation of stem cell transduction pathways and the activation of genes that result in the hallmarks of cancer. Furthermore, a novel holistic molecular genetic model of cancer initiation and progression is presented along with a new paradigm for the approach to personalized targeted cancer therapy, clinical monitoring and cancer diagnosis. PMID:27649156

  4. Developmental-stage-dependent transcriptional response to leukaemic oncogene expression

    PubMed Central

    Regha, Kakkad; Assi, Salam A.; Tsoulaki, Olga; Gilmour, Jane; Lacaud, Georges; Bonifer, Constanze

    2015-01-01

    Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) is characterized by a block in myeloid differentiation the stage of which is dependent on the nature of the transforming oncogene and the developmental stage of the oncogenic hit. This is also true for the t(8;21) translocation that gives rise to the RUNX1-ETO fusion protein and initiates the most common form of human AML. Here we study the differentiation of mouse embryonic stem cells expressing an inducible RUNX1-ETO gene into blood cells as a model, combined with genome-wide analyses of transcription factor binding and gene expression. RUNX1-ETO interferes with both the activating and repressive function of its normal counterpart, RUNX1, at early and late stages of blood cell development. However, the response of the transcriptional network to RUNX1-ETO expression is developmental stage specific, highlighting the molecular mechanisms determining specific target cell expansion after an oncogenic hit. PMID:26018585

  5. Oncogenic mutations in intestinal adenomas regulate Bim-mediated apoptosis induced by TGF-β

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Zoltán; Band, Arja M.; Kallio, Pauliina; Högström, Jenny; Hyvönen, Ville; Kaijalainen, Seppo; Ritvos, Olli; Haglund, Caj; Kruuna, Olli; Robine, Sylvie; Louvard, Daniel; Ben-Neriah, Yinon; Alitalo, Kari

    2014-01-01

    In the majority of microsatellite-stable colorectal cancers (CRCs), an initiating mutation occurs in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) or β-catenin gene, activating the β-catenin/TCF pathway. The progression of resulting adenomas is associated with oncogenic activation of KRas and inactivation of the p53 and TGF-β/Smad functions. Most established CRC cell lines contain mutations in the TGF-β/Smad pathway, but little is known about the function of TGF-β in the early phases of intestinal tumorigenesis. We used mouse and human ex vivo 3D intestinal organoid cultures and in vivo mouse models to study the effect of TGF-β on the Lgr5+ intestinal stem cells and their progeny in intestinal adenomas. We found that the TGF-β–induced apoptosis in Apc-mutant organoids, including the Lgr5+ stem cells, was mediated by up-regulation of the BH3-only proapoptotic protein Bcl-2–like protein 11 (Bim). BH3-mimetic compounds recapitulated the effect of Bim not only in the adenomas but also in human CRC organoids that had lost responsiveness to TGF-β–induced apoptosis. However, wild-type intestinal crypts were markedly less sensitive to TGF-β than Apc-mutant adenomas, whereas the KRas oncogene increased resistance to TGF-β via the activation of the Erk1/2 kinase pathway, leading to Bim down-regulation. Our studies identify Bim as a critical mediator of TGF-β–induced apoptosis in intestinal adenomas and show that the common progression mutations modify Bim levels and sensitivity to TGF-β during intestinal adenoma development. PMID:24825889

  6. NOTCH receptors in gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers: oncogenes or tumor suppressors?

    PubMed

    Huang, Tingting; Zhou, Yuhang; Cheng, Alfred S L; Yu, Jun; To, Ka Fai; Kang, Wei

    2016-12-09

    Gastric cancer (GC) ranks the most common cancer types and is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death. Due to delayed diagnosis and high metastatic frequency, 5-year survival rate of GC is rather low. It is a complex disease resulting from the interaction between environmental factors and host genetic alterations that deregulate multiple signaling pathways. The Notch signaling pathway, a highly conserved system in the regulation of the fate in several cell types, plays a pivotal role in cell differentiation, survival and proliferation. Notch is also one of the most commonly activated signaling pathways in tumors and its aberrant activation plays a key role in cancer advancement. Whether Notch cascade exerts oncogenic or tumor suppressive function in different cancer types depends on the cellular context. Mammals have four NOTCH receptors that modulate Notch pathway activity. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary on the functional role of NOTCH receptors in gastric and other gastrointestinal cancers. Increasing knowledge of NOTCH receptors in gastrointestinal cancers will help us recognize the underlying mechanisms of Notch signaling and develop novel therapeutic strategies for GC.

  7. ENL links histone acetylation to oncogenic gene expression in acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Wan, Liling; Wen, Hong; Li, Yuanyuan; Lyu, Jie; Xi, Yuanxin; Hoshii, Takayuki; Joseph, Julia K; Wang, Xiaolu; Loh, Yong-Hwee E; Erb, Michael A; Souza, Amanda L; Bradner, James E; Shen, Li; Li, Wei; Li, Haitao; Allis, C David; Armstrong, Scott A; Shi, Xiaobing

    2017-03-09

    Cancer cells are characterized by aberrant epigenetic landscapes and often exploit chromatin machinery to activate oncogenic gene expression programs. Recognition of modified histones by 'reader' proteins constitutes a key mechanism underlying these processes; therefore, targeting such pathways holds clinical promise, as exemplified by the development of bromodomain and extra-terminal (BET) inhibitors. We recently identified the YEATS domain as an acetyl-lysine-binding module, but its functional importance in human cancer remains unknown. Here we show that the YEATS domain-containing protein ENL, but not its paralogue AF9, is required for disease maintenance in acute myeloid leukaemia. CRISPR-Cas9-mediated depletion of ENL led to anti-leukaemic effects, including increased terminal myeloid differentiation and suppression of leukaemia growth in vitro and in vivo. Biochemical and crystal structural studies and chromatin-immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing analyses revealed that ENL binds to acetylated histone H3, and co-localizes with H3K27ac and H3K9ac on the promoters of actively transcribed genes that are essential for leukaemia. Disrupting the interaction between the YEATS domain and histone acetylation via structure-based mutagenesis reduced the recruitment of RNA polymerase II to ENL-target genes, leading to the suppression of oncogenic gene expression programs. Notably, disrupting the functionality of ENL further sensitized leukaemia cells to BET inhibitors. Together, our data identify ENL as a histone acetylation reader that regulates oncogenic transcriptional programs in acute myeloid leukaemia, and suggest that displacement of ENL from chromatin may be a promising epigenetic therapy, alone or in combination with BET inhibitors, for aggressive leukaemia.

  8. Fusion oncogenes in salivary gland tumors: molecular and clinical consequences.

    PubMed

    Stenman, Göran

    2013-07-01

    Salivary gland tumors constitute a heterogeneous group of uncommon diseases that pose significant diagnostic and therapeutic challenges. However, the recent discovery of a translocation-generated gene fusion network in salivary gland carcinomas as well in benign salivary gland tumors opens up new avenues for improved diagnosis, prognostication, and development of specific targeted therapies. The gene fusions encode novel fusion oncoproteins or ectopically expressed normal or truncated oncoproteins. The major targets of the translocations are transcriptional coactivators, tyrosine kinase receptors, and transcription factors involved in growth factor signaling and cell cycle regulation. Notably, several of these targets or pathways activated by these targets are druggable. Examples of clinically significant gene fusions in salivary gland cancers are the MYB-NFIB fusion specific for adenoid cystic carcinoma, the CRTC1-MAML2 fusion typical of low/intermediate-grade mucoepidermoid carcinoma, and the recently identified ETV6-NTRK3 fusion in mammary analogue secretory carcinoma. Similarly, gene fusions involving the PLAG1 and HMGA2 oncogenes are specific for benign pleomorphic adenomas. Continued studies of the molecular consequences of these fusion oncoproteins and their down-stream targets will ultimately lead to the identification of novel driver genes in salivary gland neoplasms and will also form the basis for the development of new therapeutic strategies for salivary gland cancers and, perhaps, other neoplasms.

  9. Activation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae filamentation/invasion pathway by osmotic stress in high-osmolarity glycogen pathway mutants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, K. D.; Williams, K. E.; Ullmann, B. D.; Gustin, M. C.; McIntire, L. V. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are frequently used signal transduction mechanisms in eukaryotes. Of the five MAPK cascades in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the high-osmolarity glycerol response (HOG) pathway functions to sense and respond to hypertonic stress. We utilized a partial loss-of-function mutant in the HOG pathway, pbs2-3, in a high-copy suppressor screen to identify proteins that modulate growth on high-osmolarity media. Three high-copy suppressors of pbs2-3 osmosensitivity were identified: MSG5, CAK1, and TRX1. Msg5p is a dual-specificity phosphatase that was previously demonstrated to dephosphorylate MAPKs in yeast. Deletions of the putative MAPK targets of Msg5p revealed that kss1delta could suppress the osmosensitivity of pbs2-3. Kss1p is phosphorylated in response to hyperosmotic shock in a pbs2-3 strain, but not in a wild-type strain nor in a pbs2-3 strain overexpressing MSG5. Both TEC1 and FRE::lacZ expressions are activated in strains lacking a functional HOG pathway during osmotic stress in a filamentation/invasion-pathway-dependent manner. Additionally, the cellular projections formed by a pbs2-3 mutant on high osmolarity are absent in strains lacking KSS1 or STE7. These data suggest that the loss of filamentation/invasion pathway repression contributes to the HOG mutant phenotype.

  10. Metabolic pathways in immune cell activation and quiescence.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Erika L; Pearce, Edward J

    2013-04-18

    Studies of immune system metabolism ("immunometabolism") segregate along two paths. The first investigates the effects of immune cells on organs that regulate whole-body metabolism, such as adipose tissue and liver. The second explores the role of metabolic pathways within immune cells and how this regulates immune response outcome. Distinct metabolic pathways diverge and converge at many levels, and, therefore, cells face choices as to how to achieve their metabolic goals. There is interest in fully understanding how and why immune cells commit to particular metabolic fates and in elucidating the immunologic consequences of reaching a metabolic endpoint by one pathway versus another. This is particularly intriguing, given that metabolic commitment is influenced not only by substrate availability but also by signaling pathways elicited by metabolites. Thus, metabolic choices in cells enforce fate and function, and this area will be the subject of this review.

  11. RET oncogene in MEN2, MEN2B, MTC and other forms of thyroid cancer.

    PubMed

    Lodish, Maya B; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2008-04-01

    Hereditary medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC) is caused by specific autosomal dominant gain-of-function mutations in the RET proto-oncogene. Genotype-phenotype correlations exist that help predict the presence of other associated endocrine neoplasms as well as the timing of thyroid cancer development. MTC represents a promising model for targeted cancer therapy, as the oncogenic event responsible for initiating malignancy has been well characterized. The RET proto-oncogene has become the target for molecularly designed drug therapy. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors targeting activated RET are currently in clinical trials for the treatment of patients with MTC. This review will provide a brief overview of MTC and the associated RET oncogenic mutations, and will summarize the therapies designed to strategically interfere with the pathologic activation of the RET oncogene.

  12. c-Abl antagonizes the YAP oncogenic function

    PubMed Central

    Keshet, R; Adler, J; Ricardo Lax, I; Shanzer, M; Porat, Z; Reuven, N; Shaul, Y

    2015-01-01

    YES-associated protein (YAP) is a central transcription coactivator that functions as an oncogene in a number of experimental systems. However, under DNA damage, YAP activates pro-apoptotic genes in conjunction with p73. This program switching is mediated by c-Abl (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene) via phosphorylation of YAP at the Y357 residue (pY357). YAP as an oncogene coactivates the TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) family transcription factors. Here we asked whether c-Abl regulates the YAP–TEAD functional module. We found that DNA damage, through c-Abl activation, specifically depressed YAP–TEAD-induced transcription. Remarkably, c-Abl counteracts YAP-induced transformation by interfering with the YAP–TEAD transcriptional program. c-Abl induced TEAD1 phosphorylation, but the YAP–TEAD complex remained unaffected. In contrast, TEAD coactivation was compromised by phosphomimetic YAP Y357E mutation but not Y357F, as demonstrated at the level of reporter genes and endogenous TEAD target genes. Furthermore, YAP Y357E also severely compromised the role of YAP in cell transformation, migration, anchorage-independent growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human mammary MCF10A cells. These results suggest that YAP pY357 lost TEAD transcription activation function. Our results demonstrate that YAP pY357 inactivates YAP oncogenic function and establish a role for YAP Y357 phosphorylation in cell-fate decision. PMID:25361080

  13. Oncogenic ras-driven cancer cell vesiculation leads to emission of double-stranded DNA capable of interacting with target cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Tae Hoon; Chennakrishnaiah, Shilpa; Audemard, Eric; Montermini, Laura; Meehan, Brian; Rak, Janusz

    2014-08-22

    Cell free DNA is often regarded as a source of genetic cancer biomarkers, but the related mechanisms of DNA release, composition and biological activity remain unclear. Here we show that rat epithelial cell transformation by the human H-ras oncogene leads to an increase in production of small, exosomal-like extracellular vesicles by viable cancer cells. These EVs contain chromatin-associated double-stranded DNA fragments covering the entire host genome, including full-length H-ras. Oncogenic N-ras and SV40LT sequences were also found in EVs emitted from spontaneous mouse brain tumor cells. Disruption of acidic sphingomyelinase and the p53/Rb pathway did not block emission of EV-related oncogenic DNA. Exposure of non-transformed RAT-1 cells to EVs containing mutant H-ras DNA led to the uptake and retention of this material for an extended (30days) but transient period of time, and stimulated cell proliferation. Thus, our study suggests that H-ras-mediated transformation stimulates vesicular emission of this histone-bound oncogene, which may interact with non-transformed cells.

  14. CD147 reinforces [Ca2+]i oscillations and promotes oncogenic progression in hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Tang, Juan; Guo, Yun-Shan; Yu, Xiao-Ling; Huang, Wan; Zheng, Ming; Zhou, Ying-Hui; Nan, Gang; Wang, Jian-Chao; Yang, Hai-Jiao; Yu, Jing-Min; Jiang, Jian-Li; Chen, Zhi-Nan

    2015-10-27

    Oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ concentrations ([Ca2+]i) mediate various cellular function. Although it is known that [Ca2+]i oscillations are susceptible to dysregulation in tumors, the tumor-specific regulators of [Ca2+]i oscillations are poorly characterized. We discovered that CD147 promotes hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) metastasis and proliferation by enhancing the amplitude and frequency of [Ca2+]i oscillations in HCC cells. CD147 activates two distinct signaling pathways to regulate [Ca2+]i oscillations. By activating FAK-Src-IP3R1 signaling pathway, CD147 promotes Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and enhances the amplitude of [Ca2+]i oscillations. Furthermore, CD147 accelerates ER Ca2+refilling and enhances the frequency of [Ca2+]i oscillations through activating CaMKP-PAK1-PP2A-PLB-SERCA signaling pathway. Besides, CD147-promoted ER Ca2+ release and refilling are tightly regulated by changing [Ca2+]i. CD147 may activate IP3R1 channel under low [Ca2+]i conditions and CD147 may activate SERCA pump under high [Ca2+]i conditions. CD147 deletion suppresses HCC tumorigenesis and increases the survival rate of liver-specific CD147 knockout mice by regulating [Ca2+]i oscillations in vivo. Together, these results reveal that CD147 functions as a critical regulator of ER-dependent [Ca2+]i oscillations to promote oncogenic progression in HCC.

  15. Targeting oncogenic KRAS in non-small cell lung cancer cells by phenformin inhibits growth and angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi Dong; Wei, Sheng Quan; Wang, Qin Yi

    2015-01-01

    Tumors require a vascular supply to grow and can achieve this via the expression of pro-angiogenic growth factors. Many potential oncogenic mutations have been identified in tumor angiogenesis. Somatic mutations in the small GTPase KRAS are the most common activating lesions found in human cancer, and are generally associated with poor response to standard therapies. Biguanides, such as the diabetes therapeutics metformin and phenformin, have demonstrated anti-tumor activity both in vitro and in vivo. The extracellular regulated protein kinases (ERK) signaling is known to be a major cellular target of biguanides. Based on KRAS activates several down-stream effectors leading to the stimulation of the RAF/mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (RAF/MEK/ERK) and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) pathways, we investigated the anti-tumor effects of biguanides on the proliferation of KRAS-mutated tumor cells in vitro and on KRAS-driven tumor growth in vivo. In cancer cells harboring oncogenic KRAS, phenformin switches off the ERK pathway and inhibit the expression of pro-angiogenic molecules. In tumor xenografts harboring the KRAS mutation, phenformin extensively modifies the tumor growth causing abrogation of angiogenesis. These results strongly suggest that significant therapeutic advantage may be achieved by phenformin anti-angiogenesis for the treatment of tumor. PMID:26807315

  16. Small molecule stabilization of the KSR inactive state antagonizes oncogenic Ras signalling

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Neil S.; scopton, Alex P.; Dar, Arvin C.

    2016-01-01

    Deregulation of the Ras–mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is an early event in many different cancers and a key driver of resistance to targeted therapies1. Sustained signalling through this pathway is caused most often by mutations in K-Ras, which biochemically favours the stabilization of active RAF signalling complexes2. Kinase suppressor of Ras (KSR) is a MAPK scaffold3–5 that is subject to allosteric regulation through dimerization with RAF6,7. Direct targeting of KSR could have important therapeutic implications for cancer; however, testing this hypothesis has been difficult owing to a lack of small-molecule antagonists of KSR function. Guided by KSR mutations that selectively suppress oncogenic, but not wild-type, Ras signalling, we developed a class of compounds that stabilize a previously unrecognized inactive state of KSR. These compounds, exemplified by APS-2-79, modulate KSR-dependent MAPK signalling by antagonizing RAF heterodimerization as well as the conformational changes required for phosphorylation and activation of KSR-bound MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase). Furthermore, APS-2-79 increased the potency of several MEK inhibitors specifically within Ras-mutant cell lines by antagonizing release of negative feedback signalling, demonstrating the potential of targeting KSR to improve the efficacy of current MAPK inhibitors. These results reveal conformational switching in KSR as a druggable regulator of oncogenic Ras, and further suggest co-targeting of enzymatic and scaffolding activities within Ras–MAPK signalling complexes as a therapeutic strategy for overcoming Ras-driven cancers. PMID:27556948

  17. The PRKD1 promoter is a target of the KRas-NF-κB pathway in pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Döppler, Heike; Panayiotou, Richard; Reid, Elizabeth M.; Maimo, Willibroad; Bastea, Ligia; Storz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Increased expression of PRKD1 and its gene product protein kinase D1 (PKD1) are linked to oncogenic signaling in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, but a direct functional relationship to oncogenic KRas has not been established so far. We here describe the PRKD1 gene promoter as a target for oncogenic KRas signaling. We demonstrate that KRas-induced activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway is one mechanism of how PRKD1 expression is increased and identify the binding sites for NF-κB in the PRKD1 promoter. Altogether, these results describe a novel mechanism governing PRKD1 gene expression in PDA and provide a functional link between oncogenic KRas, NF-κB and expression of PRKD1. PMID:27649783

  18. Master Regulators of Oncogenic KRAS Response in Pancreatic Cancer: An Integrative Network Biology Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background KRAS is the most frequently mutated gene in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), but the mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response to oncogenic KRAS are still not fully understood. We aimed to uncover transcription factors that regulate the transcriptional response of oncogenic KRAS in pancreatic cancer and to understand their clinical relevance. Methods and Findings We applied a well-established network biology approach (master regulator analysis) to combine a transcriptional signature for oncogenic KRAS derived from a murine isogenic cell line with a coexpression network derived by integrating 560 human pancreatic cancer cases across seven studies. The datasets included the ICGC cohort (n = 242), the TCGA cohort (n = 178), and five smaller studies (n = 17, 25, 26, 36, and 36). 55 transcription factors were coexpressed with a significant number of genes in the transcriptional signature (gene set enrichment analysis [GSEA] p < 0.01). Community detection in the coexpression network identified 27 of the 55 transcription factors contributing to three major biological processes: Notch pathway, down-regulated Hedgehog/Wnt pathway, and cell cycle. The activities of these processes define three distinct subtypes of PDAC, which demonstrate differences in survival and mutational load as well as stromal and immune cell composition. The Hedgehog subgroup showed worst survival (hazard ratio 1.73, 95% CI 1.1 to 2.72, coxPH test p = 0.018) and the Notch subgroup the best (hazard ratio 0.62, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.93, coxPH test p = 0.019). The cell cycle subtype showed highest mutational burden (ANOVA p < 0.01) and the smallest amount of stromal admixture (ANOVA p < 2.2e–16). This study is limited by the information provided in published datasets, not all of which provide mutational profiles, survival data, or the specifics of treatment history. Conclusions Our results characterize the regulatory mechanisms underlying the transcriptional response to oncogenic

  19. Reduced stability of retinoblastoma protein by gankyrin, an oncogenic ankyrin-repeat protein overexpressed in hepatomas.

    PubMed

    Higashitsuji, H; Itoh, K; Nagao, T; Dawson, S; Nonoguchi, K; Kido, T; Mayer, R J; Arii, S; Fujita, J

    2000-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common cancers in Asia and Africa, where hepatitis virus infection and exposure to specific liver carcinogens are prevalent. Although inactivation of some tumor suppressor genes such as p53 and p16INK4Ahas been identified, no known oncogene is commonly activated in hepatocellular carcinomas. Here we have isolated genes overexpressed in hepatocellular carcinomas by cDNA subtractive hybridization, and identified an oncoprotein consisting of six ankyrin repeats (gankyrin). The expression of gankyrin was increased in all 34 hepatocellular carcinomas studied. Gankyrin induced anchorage-independent growth and tumorigenicity in NIH/3T3 cells. Gankyrin bound to the product of the retinoblastoma gene (RB1), increasing its phosphorylation and releasing the activity of the transcription factor E2F-1. Gankyrin accelerated the degradation of RB1 in vitro and in vivo, and was identical to or interacted with a subunit of the 26S proteasome. These results demonstrate the importance of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in the regulation of cell growth and oncogenic transformation, and indicate that gankyrin overexpression contributes to hepatocarcinogenesis by destabilizing RB1.

  20. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC

    PubMed Central

    Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-01-01

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice. PMID:26392334

  1. A constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway due to BRAFV600E positively regulates AHR pathway in PTC.

    PubMed

    Occhi, Gianluca; Barollo, Susi; Regazzo, Daniela; Bertazza, Loris; Galuppini, Francesca; Guzzardo, Vincenza; Jaffrain-Rea, Marie Lise; Vianello, Federica; Ciato, Denis; Ceccato, Filippo; Watutantrige-Fernando, Sara; Bisognin, Andrea; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Boscaro, Marco; Scaroni, Carla; Mian, Caterina

    2015-10-13

    The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor mediating the toxicity and tumor-promoting properties of dioxin. AHR has been reported to be overexpressed and constitutively active in a variety of solid tumors, but few data are currently available concerning its role in thyroid cancer. In this study we quantitatively explored a series of 51 paired-normal and papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) tissues for AHR-related genes. We identified an increased AHR expression/activity in PTC, independently from its nuclear dimerization partner and repressor but strictly related to a constitutive active MAPK/ERK pathway. The AHR up-regulation followed by an increased expression of AHR target genes was confirmed by a meta-analysis of published microarray data, suggesting a ligand-independent active AHR pathway in PTC. In-vitro studies using a PTC-derived cell line (BCPAP) and HEK293 cells showed that BRAFV600E may directly modulate AHR localization, induce AHR expression and activity in an exogenous ligand-independent manner. The AHR pathway might represent a potential novel therapeutic target for PTC in the clinical practice.

  2. Oncogenic viruses and tumor glucose metabolism: like kids in a candy store.

    PubMed

    Noch, Evan; Khalili, Kamel

    2012-01-01

    Oncogenic viruses represent a significant public health burden in light of the multitude of malignancies that result from chronic or spontaneous viral infection and transformation. Although many of the molecular signaling pathways that underlie virus-mediated cellular transformation are known, the impact of these viruses on metabolic signaling and phenotype within proliferating tumor cells is less well understood. Whether the interaction of oncogenic viruses with metabolic signaling pathways involves enhanced glucose uptake and glycolysis (both hallmark features of transformed cells) or dysregulation of molecular pathways that regulate oxidative stress, viruses are adept at facilitating tumor expansion. Through their effects on cell proliferation pathways, such as the PI3K and MAPK pathways, the cell cycle regulatory proteins p53 and ATM, and the cell stress response proteins HIF-1α and AMPK, viruses exert control over critical metabolic signaling cascades. Additionally, oncogenic viruses modulate the tumor metabolomic profile through direct and indirect interactions with glucose transporters, such as GLUT1, and specific glycolytic enzymes, including pyruvate kinase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and hexokinase. Through these pathways, oncogenic viruses alter the phenotypic characteristics and energy-use methods of transformed cells; therefore, it may be possible to develop novel antiglycolytic therapies to target these dysregulated pathways in virus-derived malignancies.

  3. Prediction of Pathway Activation by Xenobiotic-Responsive Transcription Factors in the Mouse Liver

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drugs and environmentally-relevant chemicals activate xenobioticresponsive transcription factors (TF). Identification of target genes of these factors would be useful in predicting pathway activation in in vitro chemical screening. Starting with a large compendium of Affymet...

  4. Activation of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription pathway involved in megakaryocyte proliferation induced by vanadium resembles some aspects of essential thrombocythemia.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Villalva, Adriana; Piñon-Zarate, Gabriela; Falcon-Rodriguez, Carlos; Lopez-Valdez, Nelly; Bizarro-Nevares, Patricia; Rojas-Lemus, Marcela; Rendon-Huerta, Erika; Colin-Barenque, Laura; Fortoul, Teresa I

    2016-05-01

    Vanadium (V) is an air pollutant released into the atmosphere by burning fossil fuels. Also, it has been recently evaluated for their carcinogenic potential to establish permissible limits of exposure at workplaces. We previously reported an increase in the number and size of platelets and their precursor cells and megakaryocytes in bone marrow and spleen. The aim of this study was to identify the involvement of Janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) pathway and thrombopoietin (TPO) receptor, and myeloproliferative leukemia virus oncogene (Mpl), in megakaryocyte proliferation induced by this compound. Mice were exposed twice a week to vanadium pentoxide inhalation (0.02 M) and were killed at 4th, 6th, and 8th week of exposure. Phosphorylated JAK2 (JAK2 ph), STAT3 (STAT3 ph), STAT5, and Mpl were identified in mice spleen megakaryocytes by cytofluorometry and immunohistochemistry. An increase in JAK2 ph and STAT3 ph, but a decrease in Mpl at 8-week exposure was identified in our findings. Taking together, we propose that the morphological findings, JAK/STAT activation, and decreased Mpl receptor induced by V leads to a condition comparable to essential thrombocythemia, so the effect on megakaryocytes caused by different mechanisms is similar. We also suggest that the decrease in Mpl is a negative feedback mechanism after the JAK/STAT activation. Since megakaryocytes are platelet precursors, their alteration affects platelet morphology and function, which might have implications in hemostasis as demonstrated previously, so it is important to continue evaluating the effects of toxics and pollutants on megakaryocytes and platelets.

  5. Asporin enhances colorectal cancer metastasis through activating the EGFR/Src/cortactin signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    He, Yonggang; Hu, Lei; Wu, Haoxuan; Ye, Feng; Zhao, Ren

    2016-01-01

    Asporin has been implicated as an oncogene in various types of human cancers; however, the roles of asporin in the development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC) have not yet been determined. With clinical samples, we found that asporin was highly expressed in CRC tissues compared to adjacent normal tissues and the asporin expression levels were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis status and TNM stage of the patients. Through knockdown of asporin in CRC cell lines RKO and SW620 or overexpression of asporin in cell lines HT-29 and LoVo, we found that asporin could enhance wound healing, migration and invasion abilities of the CRC cells. Further more, with the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) tube formation assays and the xenograft model, we found that asporin promoted the tumor growth through stimulating the VEGF signaling pathway. The portal vein injection models suggested that asporin overexpression stimulated the liver metastasis of HT29 cell line, while asporin knockdown inhibited the liver metastasis of RKO cell line. In addition, asporin was found to augment the phosphorylation of EGFR/Src/cortactin signaling pathway, which might be contributed to the biological functions of asporin in CRC metastasis. These results suggested that asporin promoted the tumor growth and metastasis of CRC, and it could be a potential therapeutic target for CRC patients in future. PMID:27705916

  6. Activation of GABA-A Receptor Ameliorates Homocysteine-Induced MMP-9 Activation by ERK Pathway

    PubMed Central

    TYAGI, NEETU; GILLESPIE, WILLIAM; VACEK, JONATHAN C.; SEN, UTPAL; TYAGI, SURESH C.; LOMINADZE, DAVID

    2010-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a risk factor for neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. Homocysteine (Hcy) induces redox stress, in part, by activating matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which degrades the matrix and leads to blood–brain barrier dysfunction. Hcy competitively binds to γ-aminbutyric acid (GABA) receptors, which are excitatory neurotransmitter receptors. However, the role of GABA-A receptor in Hcy-induced cerebrovascular remodeling is not clear. We hypothesized that Hcy causes cerebrovascular remodeling by increasing redox stress and MMP-9 activity via the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway and by inhibition of GABA-A receptors, thus behaving as an inhibitory neurotransmitter. Hcy-induced reactive oxygen species production was detected using the fluorescent probe, 2′–7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate. Hcy increased nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-oxidase-4 concomitantly suppressing thioredoxin. Hcy caused activation of MMP-9, measured by gelatin zymography. The GABA-A receptor agonist, muscimol ameliorated the Hcy-mediated MMP-9 activation. In parallel, Hcy caused phosphorylation of ERK and selectively decreased levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4). Treatment of the endothelial cell with muscimol restored the levels of TIMP-4 to the levels in control group. Hcy induced expression of iNOS and decreased eNOS expression, which lead to a decreased NO bioavailability. Furthermore muscimol attenuated Hcy-induced MMP-9 via ERK signaling pathway. These results suggest that Hcy competes with GABA-A receptors, inducing the oxidative stress transduction pathway and leading to ERK activation. PMID:19308943

  7. Evidence for a novel signal transduction pathway activated by platelet-derived growth factor and by double-stranded RNA

    SciTech Connect

    Hall, D.J.; Jones, S.D.; Rollins, B.J.; Stiles, C.D. ); Stiles, C.D. ); Kaplan, D.R.; Whitman, M. )

    1989-04-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and the synthetic double-stranded RNA poly(I) x poly(C) (poly(I x C)) stimulate transcription of the JE gene in BALB/c-3T3 fibroblasts. The response of JE to poly(I x C) does not appear to be channeled through any known component of the PDGF receptor signal transduction apparatus. In addition, JE sequences upstream of the transcription start site are devoid of previously identified poly(I x C)-responsive elements, such as those found in the beta-interferon gene. These data suggest that a novel signal transduction pathway regulates the JE response to PDGF and double-stranded RNA. The c-myc and c-fos proto-oncogenes also respond to this pathway but with poor efficiency. However, this pathway operates very efficiently on other PDGF-inducible genes that encode the secretory proteins KC and M-CSF.

  8. Progesterone Alters Kynurenine Pathway Activation in IFN-γ-Activated Macrophages – Relevance for Neuroinflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    de Bie, J.; Lim, C. K.; Guillemin, G. J.

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the kynurenine pathway (KP), the major biochemical pathway for tryptophan metabolism, is dysregulated in many inflammatory disorders that are often associated with sexual dimorphisms. We aimed to identify a potential functional interaction between the KP and gonadal hormones. We have treated primary human macrophages with progesterone in the presence and absence of inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (interferon-γ) that is known to be a potent inducer of regulating the KP enzyme. We found that progesterone attenuates interferon-γ-induced KP activity, decreases the levels of the excitotoxin quinolinic acid, and increases the neuroprotective kynurenic acid levels. We also showed that progesterone was able to reduce the inflammatory marker neopterin. These results may shed light on the gender disparity in response to inflammation. PMID:27980422

  9. Agmatine : metabolic pathway and spectrum of activity in brain.

    PubMed

    Halaris, Angelos; Plietz, John

    2007-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous neuromodulator that, based on animal studies, has the potential for new drug development. As an endogenous aminoguanidine compound (1-amino-4-guanidinobutane), it is structurally unique compared with other monoamines. Agmatine was long thought to be synthesised only in lower life forms, until its biosynthetic pathway (decarboxylation of arginine) was described in the mammalian brain in 1994. Human arginine decarboxylase has been cloned and shown to have 48% identity to ornithine decarboxylase. In neurons of the brain and spinal cord, agmatine is packaged into synaptic vesicles and released upon neuronal depolarisation. Other evidence of a neuromodulation role for agmatine is the presence of a specific cellular uptake mechanism and a specific metabolic enzyme (agmatinase; which forms putrescine).Initially, agmatine was conceptualised as an endogenous clonidine-displacing substance of imidazoline receptors; however, it has now been established to have affinity for several transmembrane receptors, such as alpha(2)-adrenergic, imidazoline I(1) and glutamatergic NMDA receptors. In addition to activity at these receptors, agmatine irreversibly inhibits neuronal nitric oxide synthase and downregulates inducible nitric oxide synthase. Endogenous agmatine is induced in response to stress and/or inflammation. Stressful conditions that induce agmatine include hypoxic-ischaemia and cold-restraint stress of ulcerogenic proportion. Induction of agmatine in the brain seems to occur in astrocytes, although neurons also synthesise agmatine. The effects of injected agmatine in animals include anticonvulsant-, antineurotoxic- and antidepressant-like actions. Intraperitoneal or intracerebroventricular injections of agmatine rapidly elicit antidepressant-like behavioural changes in the rodent forced swim test and tail suspension test. Intraperitoneal injections of agmatine into rats and mice also elicit acute anxiolytic-like behavioural changes in the elevated

  10. Combining immunotherapy with oncogene-targeted therapy: a new road for melanoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Aris, Mariana; Barrio, María Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of skin melanocytes; its incidence and mortality have been increasing steadily over the last 50 years, now representing 3% of total tumors. Once melanoma metastasizes, prognosis is somber and therapeutic options are limited. However, the discovery of prevalent BRAF mutations in at least 50% of melanoma tumors led to development of BRAF-inhibitors, and other drugs targeting the MAPK pathway including MEK-inhibitors, are changing this reality. These recently approved treatments for metastatic melanoma have made a significant impact on patient survival; though the results are shadowed by the appearance of drug-resistance. Combination therapies provide a rational strategy to potentiate efficacy and potentially overcome resistance. Undoubtedly, the last decade has also born a renaissance of immunotherapy, and encouraging advances in metastatic melanoma treatment are illuminating the road. Immune checkpoint blockades, such as CTLA-4 antagonist-antibodies, and multiple cancer vaccines are now invaluable arms of anti-tumor therapy. Recent work has brought to light the delicate relationship between tumor biology and the immune system. Host immunity contributes to the anti-tumor activity of oncogene-targeted inhibitors within a complex network of cytokines and chemokines. Therefore, combining immunotherapy with oncogene-targeted drugs may be the key to melanoma control. Here, we review ongoing clinical studies of combination therapies using both oncogene inhibitors and immunotherapeutic strategies in melanoma patients. We will revisit the preclinical evidence that tested sequential and concurrent schemes in suitable animal models and formed the basis for the current trials. Finally, we will discuss potential future directions of the field.

  11. Multiple endocrine neoplasias type 2B and RET proto-oncogene

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia type 2B (MEN 2B) is an autosomal dominant complex oncologic neurocristopathy including medullary thyroid carcinoma, pheochromocytoma, gastrointestinal disorders, marphanoid face, and mucosal multiple ganglioneuromas. Medullary thyroid carcinoma is the major cause of mortality in MEN 2B syndrome, and it often appears during the first years of life. RET proto-oncogene germline activating mutations are causative for MEN 2B. The 95% of MEN 2B patients are associated with a point mutation in exon 16 (M918/T). A second point mutation at codon 883 has been found in 2%-3% of MEN 2B cases. RET proto-oncogene is also involved in different neoplastic and not neoplastic neurocristopathies. Other RET mutations cause MEN 2A syndrome, familial medullary thyroid carcinoma, or Hirschsprung's disease. RET gene expression is also involved in Neuroblastoma. The main diagnosis standards are the acetylcholinesterase study of rectal mucosa and the molecular analysis of RET. In our protocol the rectal biopsy is, therefore, the first approach. RET mutation detection offers the possibility to diagnose MEN 2B predisposition at a pre-clinical stage in familial cases, and to perform an early total prophylactic thyroidectomy. The surgical treatment of MEN 2B is total thyroidectomy with cervical limphadenectomy of the central compartment of the neck. When possible, this intervention should be performed with prophylactic aim before 1 year of age in patients with molecular genetic diagnosis. Recent advances into the mechanisms of RET proto-oncogene signaling and pathways of RET signal transduction in the development of MEN 2 and MTC will allow new treatment possibilities. PMID:22429913

  12. Combining Immunotherapy with Oncogene-Targeted Therapy: A New Road for Melanoma Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Aris, Mariana; Barrio, María Marcela

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of skin melanocytes; its incidence and mortality have been increasing steadily over the last 50 years, now representing 3% of total tumors. Once melanoma metastasizes, prognosis is somber and therapeutic options are limited. However, the discovery of prevalent BRAF mutations in at least 50% of melanoma tumors led to development of BRAF-inhibitors, and other drugs targeting the MAPK pathway including MEK-inhibitors, are changing this reality. These recently approved treatments for metastatic melanoma have made a significant impact on patient survival; though the results are shadowed by the appearance of drug-resistance. Combination therapies provide a rational strategy to potentiate efficacy and potentially overcome resistance. Undoubtedly, the last decade has also born a renaissance of immunotherapy, and encouraging advances in metastatic melanoma treatment are illuminating the road. Immune checkpoint blockades, such as CTLA-4 antagonist-antibodies, and multiple cancer vaccines are now invaluable arms of anti-tumor therapy. Recent work has brought to light the delicate relationship between tumor biology and the immune system. Host immunity contributes to the anti-tumor activity of oncogene-targeted inhibitors within a complex network of cytokines and chemokines. Therefore, combining immunotherapy with oncogene-targeted drugs may be the key to melanoma control. Here, we review ongoing clinical studies of combination therapies using both oncogene inhibitors and immunotherapeutic strategies in melanoma patients. We will revisit the preclinical evidence that tested sequential and concurrent schemes in suitable animal models and formed the basis for the current trials. Finally, we will discuss potential future directions of the field. PMID:25709607

  13. Different role of cAMP pathway on the human mast cells HMC-1(560) and HMC-1(560,816) activation.

    PubMed

    Barreiro-Costa, Olalla; Tobío, Araceli; Alfonso, Amparo; Botana, Luis M

    2014-05-01

    HMC-1 are inflammatory cells that release vasoactive substances such as histamine. These cells have the c-kit receptor permanently activated in the membrane due to mutations in the proto-oncogene c-kit: Val-560 → Gly and Asp-816 → Val. Thus, there are two known cellular lines: HMC-1(560) and HMC-1(560,816) . These mutations are involved in a disease called mastocitosys. In the present paper both lines were used to study the influence of cAMP/PKA/PDEs pathway on the histamine release and Ca(2+) signaling since this pathway is often involved in these process. For this, the cells were preincubated with cAMP/PKA/PDEs modulators such as dibutyryl cAMP (dbcAMP), forskolin, H89, rolipram, IBMX, or imidazole and then stimulated with ionomycin. When cells were stimulated with agents that increase cAMP levels, the histamine release was not modified in HMC-1(560) but decreased in HMC-1(560,816) cells. The same happened when PKA was blocked. Furthermore, PDEs role on histamine release was independent of cAMP in HMC-1(560) cells and possibly also in HMC-1(560,816) cells. By contrast, the modulation of PKA and PDEs together changed the response in both cellular lines, therefore a relationship between them was suggested. All these modulatory effects on histamine release are Ca(2+) -independent. On the other hand, the effect of c-kit modulation on the cAMP/PKA/PDEs pathway was also checked. This receptor was blocked with STI571 (imatinib) and BMS-354825 (dasatinib), but only the last one caused a decrease in the cellular response to ionomycin. This article demonstrates for the first time than the cAMP/PKA/PDEs pathway is involved in the activation of HMC-1(560) and HMC-1(560,816) cells.

  14. Angiogenic activity of sesamin through the activation of multiple signal pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Byung-Hee; Lee, Jung Joon; Kim, Jong-Dai; Jeoung, Dooil; Lee, Hansoo; Choe, Jongseon; Ha, Kwon-Soo; Kwon, Young-Geun; Kim, Young-Myeong

    2010-01-01

    The natural product sesamin has been known to act as a potent antioxidant and prevent endothelial dysfunction. We here found that sesamin increased in vitro angiogenic processes, such as endothelial cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, as well as neovascularization in an animal model. This compound elicited the activation of multiple angiogenic signal modulators, such as ERK, Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), NO production, FAK, and p38 MAPK, but not Src. The MEK inhibitor PD98059 and the PI3K inhibitor Wortmannin specifically inhibited sesamin-induced activation of the ERK and Akt/eNOS pathways. These inhibitors reduced angiogenic events, with high specificity for MEK/ERK-dependent cell proliferation and migration and PI3K/Akt-mediated tube formation. Moreover, inhibition of p38 MAPK effectively inhibited sesamin-induced cell migration. The angiogenic activity of sesamin was not associated with VEGF expression. Furthermore, this compound did not induce vascular permeability and upregulated ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression, which are hallmarks of vascular inflammation. These results suggest that sesamin stimulates angiogenesis in vitro and in vivo through the activation of MEK/ERK-, PI3K/Akt/eNOS-, p125{sup FAK}-, and p38 MAPK-dependent pathways, without increasing vascular inflammation, and may be used for treating ischemic diseases and tissue regeneration.

  15. SOX9 drives WNT pathway activation in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Fen; Ye, Huihui; He, Housheng Hansen; Gerrin, Sean J.; Chen, Sen; Tanenbaum, Benjamin A.; Sowalsky, Adam G.; He, Lingfeng; Wang, Hongyun; Balk, Steven P.; Yuan, Xin

    2016-01-01

    The transcription factor SOX9 is critical for prostate development, and dysregulation of SOX9 is implicated in prostate cancer (PCa). However, the SOX9-dependent genes and pathways involved in both normal and neoplastic prostate epithelium are largely unknown. Here, we performed SOX9 ChIP sequencing analysis and transcriptome profiling of PCa cells and determined that SOX9 positively regulates multiple WNT pathway genes, including those encoding WNT receptors (frizzled [FZD] and lipoprotein receptor-related protein [LRP] family members) and the downstream β-catenin effector TCF4. Analyses of PCa xenografts and clinical samples both revealed an association between the expression of SOX9 and WNT pathway components in PCa. Finally, treatment of SOX9-expressing PCa cells with a WNT synthesis inhibitor (LGK974) reduced WNT pathway signaling in vitro and tumor growth in murine xenograft models. Together, our data indicate that SOX9 expression drives PCa by reactivating the WNT/β−catenin signaling that mediates ductal morphogenesis in fetal prostate and define a subgroup of patients who would benefit from WNT-targeted therapy. PMID:27043282

  16. Liquid biopsy for detection of actionable oncogenic mutations in human cancers and electric field induced release and measurement liquid biopsy (eLB).

    PubMed

    Tu, Michael; Chia, David; Wei, Fang; Wong, David

    2016-01-21

    Oncogenic activations by mutations in key cancer genes such as EGFR and KRAS are frequently associated with human cancers. Molecular targeting of specific oncogenic mutations in human cancer is a major therapeutic inroad for anti-cancer drug therapy. In addition, progressive developments of oncogene mutations lead to drug resistance. Therefore, the ability to detect and continuously monitor key actionable oncogenic mutations is important to guide the use of targeted molecular therapies to improve long-term clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Current oncogenic mutation detection is based on direct sampling of cancer tissue by surgical resection or biopsy. Oncogenic mutations were recently shown to be detectable in circulating bodily fluids of cancer patients. This field of investigation, termed liquid biopsy, permits a less invasive means of assessing the oncogenic mutation profile of a patient. This paper will review the analytical strategies used to assess oncogenic mutations from biofluid samples. Clinical applications will also be discussed.

  17. Liquid Biopsy for Detection of Actionable Oncogenic Mutations in Human Cancers and Electric Field Induced Release and Measurement Liquid Biopsy (eLB)

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Michael; Chia, David; Wei, Fang; Wong, David

    2015-01-01

    Oncogenic activations by mutations in key cancer genes such as EGFR and KRAS are frequently associated with human cancers. Molecular targeting of specific oncogenic mutations in human cancer is a major therapeutic inroad for anti-cancer drug therapy. In addition, progressive developments of oncogene mutations lead to drug resistance. Therefore, the ability to detect and continuously monitor key actionable oncogenic mutations is important to guide the use of targeted molecular therapies to improve long-term clinical outcomes in cancer patients. Current oncogenic mutation detection is based on direct sampling of cancer tissue by surgical resection or biopsy. Oncogenic mutations were recently shown to be detectable in circulating bodily fluids of cancer patients. This field of investigation, termed liquid biopsy, permits a less invasive means of assessing the oncogenic mutation profile of a patient. This paper will review the analytical strategies used to assess oncogenic mutations from biofluid samples. Clinical applications will also be discussed. PMID:26645892

  18. Activity-based profiling of the proteasome pathway during hepatitis C virus infection.

    PubMed

    Nasheri, Neda; Ning, Zhibin; Figeys, Daniel; Yao, Shao; Goto, Natalie K; Pezacki, John Paul

    2015-11-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection often leads to chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. The stability of the HCV proteins is controlled by ubiquitin-dependent and ubiquitin-independent proteasome pathways. Many viruses modulate proteasome function for their propagation. To examine the interrelationship between HCV and the proteasome pathways we employed a quantitative activity-based protein profiling method. Using this approach we were able to quantify the changes in the activity of several proteasome subunits and found that proteasome activity is drastically reduced by HCV replication. The results imply a link between the direct downregulation of the activity of this pathway and chronic HCV infection.

  19. CDC25 phosphatases as potential human oncogenes.

    PubMed

    Galaktionov, K; Lee, A K; Eckstein, J; Draetta, G; Meckler, J; Loda, M; Beach, D

    1995-09-15

    Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are activated by CDC25 phosphatases, which remove inhibitory phosphate from tyrosine and threonine residues. In human cells, CDC25 proteins are encoded by a multigene family, consisting of CDC25A, CDC25B, and CDC25C. In rodent cells, human CDC25A or CDC25B but not CDC25C phosphatases cooperate with either Ha-RASG12V or loss of RB1 in oncogenic focus formation. Such transformants were highly aneuploid, grew in soft agar, and formed high-grade tumors in nude mice. Overexpression of CDC25B was detected in 32 percent of human primary breast cancers tested. The CDC25 phosphatases may contribute to the development of human cancer.

  20. Pathway modeling of microarray data: A case study of pathway activity changes in the testis following in utero exposure to dibutyl phthalate (DBP)

    SciTech Connect

    Ovacik, Meric A.; Sen, Banalata; Euling, Susan Y.; Gaido, Kevin W.; Ierapetritou, Marianthi G.; Androulakis, Ioannis P.

    2013-09-15

    Pathway activity level analysis, the approach pursued in this study, focuses on all genes that are known to be members of metabolic and signaling pathways as defined by the KEGG database. The pathway activity level analysis entails singular value decomposition (SVD) of the expression data of the genes constituting a given pathway. We explore an extension of the pathway activity methodology for application to time-course microarray data. We show that pathway analysis enhances our ability to detect biologically relevant changes in pathway activity using synthetic data. As a case study, we apply the pathway activity level formulation coupled with significance analysis to microarray data from two different rat testes exposed in utero to Dibutyl Phthalate (DBP). In utero DBP exposure in the rat results in developmental toxicity of a number of male reproductive organs, including the testes. One well-characterized mode of action for DBP and the male reproductive developmental effects is the repression of expression of genes involved in cholesterol transport, steroid biosynthesis and testosterone synthesis that lead to a decreased fetal testicular testosterone. Previous analyses of DBP testes microarray data focused on either individual gene expression changes or changes in the expression of specific genes that are hypothesized, or known, to be important in testicular development and testosterone synthesis. However, a pathway analysis may inform whether there are additional affected pathways that could inform additional modes of action linked to DBP developmental toxicity. We show that Pathway activity analysis may be considered for a more comprehensive analysis of microarray data.

  1. Interplay Between Metabolism and Oncogenic Process: Role of microRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aastha; Singh, Saurabh; Bhatt, Anant Narayan; Pandey, Sanjay; Sandhir, Rajat; Dwarakanath, Bilikere S.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a complex disease that arises from the alterations in the composition and regulation of several genes leading to the disturbances in signaling pathways, resulting in the dysregulation of cell proliferation and death as well as the ability of transformed cells to invade the host tissue and metastasize. It is increasingly becoming clear that metabolic reprograming plays a critical role in tumorigenesis and metastasis. Therefore, targeting this phenotype is considered as a promising approach for the development of therapeutics and adjuvants. The process of metabolic reprograming is linked to the activation of oncogenes and/or suppression of tumor suppressor genes, which are further regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs) that play important roles in the interplay between oncogenic process and metabolic reprograming. Looking at the advances made in the recent past, it appears that the translation of knowledge from research in the areas of metabolism, miRNA, and therapeutic response will lead to paradigm shift in the management of this disease. PMID:26740741

  2. Dividing and conquering: controlling advanced melanoma by targeting oncogene-defined subsets.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Keith T

    2012-10-01

    For decades, therapy for advanced melanoma has lagged behind most of the cancer field owing to its intrinsic resistance to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy and limited impact of cytokine-based immunotherapy. The opportunity to develop molecularly targeted therapy emerged with the discovery of activating mutations in BRAF, a component of the long studied MAP kinase pathway. These mutations are found in approximately 50 % of patients with regionally advanced or metastatic melanoma and appear to be one of the initiating steps in the development of primary melanoma. Additional oncogenic events, particularly those that affect tumor suppressor genes, are essential for development of invasive and metastatic melanoma. Nonetheless, mutated BRAF retains its central contribution to melanoma pathophysiology even in advanced stage disease as manifested by the remarkable antitumor effects and alteration the natural history of metastatic melanoma of selective BRAF inhibitors. After initial response, resistance commonly emerges within a few months' time and the field has focused on delineating molecular mechanisms of resistance toward the goal of improving upon the early therapeutic effects of single agent BRAF inhibition. Combination regimens are currently undergoing clinical investigation. NRAS and CKIT mutant melanoma represent the next oncogene defined melanoma subsets for which initial targeted therapy approaches are being explored, with early evidence suggesting progress with MEK and CKIT inhibitors, respectively. A considerable subset of patients have melanomas that are not defined by the presence of BRAF, NRAS, or CKIT mutations and, thus, the elucidation of the entire melanoma genome is being pursued with the hope of identifying additional therapeutic targets.

  3. Activation of endogenous c-fos proto-oncogene expression by human T-cell leukemia virus type I-encoded p40 sup tax protein in the human T-cell line, Jurkat

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Kinya; Ohtani, Kiyoshi; Nakamura, Masataka; Sugamura, Kazuo )

    1989-08-01

    The authors examined the ability of the trans-acting factor p40{sup tax} of human T-cell leukemia virus type I (HTLV-I), which is thought to be a crucial molecule in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I, to activate expression of a set of endogenous cellular genes related to T-cell proliferation. For this purpose, they established a subclone (JPX-9) of Jurkat cells that was stably transfected with an expression plasmid containing the p40{sup tax} gene, whose expression is definitively dependent on heavy-metal ions. Expression of the interleukin-2 receptor {alpha} chain in JPX-9 cells was induced in response to the induction of p40{sup tax} expression, as has been demonstrated by others in transient transfection experiments with Jurkat cells. In addition, they found that significant enhancement of expression of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos was closely associated with expression of p40{sup tax}. Continuous enhancement in the level of c-fos mRNA was observed in the presence of p40{sup tax}. These results suggest that (i) in addition to the interleukin-2-interleukin-2 receptor system, cellular genes such as c-fos, which regulate normal T-cell growth, are also activated directly or indirectly by p40{sup tax} and (ii) p40{sup tax}-induced modulation of gene expression plays a crucial role in T-cell transformation by HTLV-I.

  4. Activation of factor XII-dependent pathways in human plasma by hematin and protoporphyrin.

    PubMed Central

    Becker, C G; Wagner, M; Kaplan, A P; Silverberg, M; Grady, R W; Liem, H; Muller-Eberhard, U

    1985-01-01

    Intravenous administration of hematin is effective in the treatment of acute exacerbations of the inducible porphyrias. In the course of such treatment, coagulopathies have occurred that are characterized by prolongation of prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, and formation of fibrin split products. In experiments in vitro with normal human plasma, we observed that hematin and protoporphyrin activated Factor XII-dependent pathways of coagulation and fibrinolysis, and that they generated kallikrein activity. Incubation of protoporphyrin with purified Factor XII resulted in activation as measured by amidolysis of a chromogenic substrate. Neither coproporphyrin, uroporphyrin, delta-aminolevulinic acid, porphobilinogen, or bilirubin activated Factor XII-dependent pathways. Exposure of serum containing added uroporphyrin, coproporphyrin, and protoporphyrin, but not hematin, to ultraviolet light (405 nm) resulted in activation of the classical pathway of the complement system. On the other hand, exposure of plasma containing uroporphyrin or coproporphyrin to ultraviolet light did not result in activation of Factor XII-dependent pathways. PMID:4031058

  5. NF-κB signaling pathway as target for antiplatelet activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Rojas, Armando; Palomo, Iván

    2016-07-01

    In different nucleated cells, NF-κB has long been considered a prototypical proinflammatory signaling pathway with the expression of proinflammatory genes. Although platelets lack a nucleus, a number of functional transcription factors are involved in activated platelets, such as NF-κB. In platelet activation NF-κB regulation events include IKKβ phosphorylation, IκBα degradation, and p65 phosphorylation. Multiple pathways contribute to platelet activation and NF-κB is a common pathway in this activation. Therefore, in platelet activation the modulation of NF-κB pathway could be a potential new target in the treatment of inflammation-related vascular disease therapy (antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities).

  6. Immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Liu, Jiabin; Lu, Yahong; Gong, Yongchang; Zhu, Min; Chen, Fei; Liang, Zi; Zhu, Liyuan; Kuang, Sulan; Hu, Xiaolong; Cao, Guangli; Xue, Renyu; Gong, Chengliang

    2015-06-01

    The JAK/STAT, Toll, Imd, and RNAi pathways are the major signaling pathways associated with insect innate immunity. To explore the different immune signaling pathways triggered in response to pathogenic micro-organism infections in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, the expression levels of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (BmSTAT), spatzle-1 (Bmspz-1), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LB (BmPGRP-LB), peptidoglycan-recognition protein LE (BmPGRP-LE), argonaute 2 (Bmago2), and dicer-2 (Bmdcr2) genes after challenge with Escherichia coli (E. coli), Serratiamarcescens (Sm), Bacillus bombyseptieus (Bab), Beauveriabassiana (Beb), nucleopolyhedrovirus (BmNPV), cypovirus (BmCPV), bidensovirus (BmBDV), or Nosemabombycis (Nb) were determined using real-time PCR. We found that the JAK/STAT pathway could be activated by challenge with BmNPV and BmBDV, the Toll pathway could be most robustly induced by challenge with Beb, the Imd pathway was mainly activated in response to infection by E. coli and Sm, and the RNAi pathway was not activated by viral infection, but could be triggered by some bacterial infections. These findings yield insights into the immune signaling pathways activated in response to different pathogenic micro-organisms in the silkworm.

  7. Deregulated tryptophan-kynurenine pathway is linked to inflammation, oxidative stress, and immune activation pathway in cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiongxin; Liu, Danxia; Song, Ping; Zou, Ming-Hui

    2016-01-01

    The kynurenine (Kyn) pathway is the major route for tryptophan (Trp) metabolism, and it contributes to several fundamental biological processes. Trp is constitutively oxidized by tryptophan 2, 3-dioxygenase in liver cells. In other cell types, it is catalyzed by an alternative inducible indoleamine-pyrrole 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO) under certain pathophysiological conditions, which consequently increases the formation of Kyn metabolites. IDO is up-regulated in response to inflammatory conditions as a novel marker of immune activation in early atherosclerosis. Besides, IDO and the IDO-related pathway are important mediators of the immunoinflammatory responses in advanced atherosclerosis. In particular, Kyn, 3-hydroxykynurenine, and quinolinic acid are positively associated with inflammation, oxidative stress (SOX), endothelial dysfunction, and carotid artery intima-media thickness values in end-stage renal disease patients. Moreover, IDO is a potential novel contributor to vessel relaxation and metabolism in systemic infections, which is also activated in acute severe heart attacks. The Kyn pathway plays a key role in the increased prevalence of cardiovascular disease by regulating inflammation, SOX, and immune activation. PMID:25961549

  8. Prevention of tumor growth driven by PIK3CA and HPV oncogenes by targeting mTOR signaling with metformin in oral squamous carcinomas expressing OCT3

    PubMed Central

    Madera, Dmitri; Vitale-Cross, Lynn; Martin, Daniel; Schneider, Abraham; Molinolo, Alfredo A.; Gangane, Nitin; Carey, Thomas E.; McHugh, Jonathan B.; Komarck, Christine M.; Walline, Heather M.; William, William N.; Seethala, Raja R.; Ferris, Robert; Gutkind, J. Silvio

    2015-01-01

    Most head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) exhibit a persistent activation of the PI3K-mTOR signaling pathway. We have recently shown that metformin, an oral antidiabetic drug that is also used to treat lipodystrophy in HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals, diminishes mTOR activity and prevents the progression of chemically-induced experimental HNSCC premalignant lesions. Here, we explored the preclinical activity of metformin in HNSCCs harboring PIK3CA mutations and HPV oncogenes, both representing frequent HNSCC alterations, aimed at developing effective targeted preventive strategies. The biochemical and biological effects of metformin were evaluated in representative HNSCC cells expressing mutated PIK3CA or HPV oncogenes (HPV+). The oral delivery of metformin was optimized to achieve clinical relevant blood levels. Molecular determinants of metformin sensitivity were also investigated, and their expression levels examined in a large collection of HNSCC cases. We found that metformin inhibits mTOR signaling and tumor growth in HNSCC cells expressing mutated PIK3CA and HPV oncogenes, and that these activities require the expression of organic cation transporter 3 (OCT3/SLC22A3), a metformin uptake transporter. Co-expression of OCT3 and the mTOR pathway activation marker pS6 were observed in most HNSCC cases, including those arising in HIV+ patients. Activation of the PI3K-mTOR pathway is a widespread event in HNSCC, including HPV− and HPV+ lesions arising in HIV+ patients, all of which co-express OCT3. These observations may provide a rationale for the clinical evaluation of metformin to halt HNSCC development from precancerous lesions, including in HIV+ individuals at risk of developing HPV-associated cancers. PMID:25681087

  9. Impact of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway on the subproteome of detergent-resistant microdomains of colon carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Recktenwald, Christian V; Lichtenfels, Rudolf; Wulfaenger, Jens; Müller, Anja; Dressler, Sven P; Seliger, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Lipid rafts play a key role in the regulation of fundamentally important cellular processes, including cell proliferation, differentiation, and survival. The composition of such detergent-resistant microdomains (DRMs) is altered under pathologic conditions, including cancer. Although DRMs have been analyzed in colorectal carcinoma little information exists about their composition upon treatment with targeted drugs. Hence, a quantitative proteomic profiling approach was performed to define alterations within the DRM fraction of colorectal carcinoma cells upon treatment with the drug U0126, an inhibitor of the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. Comparative expression profilings resulted in the identification of 300 proteins, which could partially be linked to key oncogenic signaling pathways and tumor-related cellular features, such as cell proliferation, adhesion, motility, invasion, and apoptosis resistance. Most of these proteins were downregulated upon inhibitor treatment. In addition, quantitative proteomic profilings of cholesterol-depleted versus intact lipid rafts were performed to define, which U0126-regulated target structures represent bona fide raft proteins. Selected differentially abundant raft proteins were validated at the mRNA and/or protein level using U0126- or Trametinib-treated cells. The presented data provide insights into the molecular mechanisms associated with the response to the treatment with MEK inhibitors and might also lead to novel candidates for therapeutic interventions.

  10. Long non-coding RNA ZFAS1 is an unfavourable prognostic factor and promotes glioma cell progression by activation of the Notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Kai; Ji, Zhiwu; She, Kun; Yang, Qingyan; Shao, Lianbin

    2017-03-01

    Survival of patients with glioma remains poor, which is largely attributed to active carcinogenesis. Accumulating evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in tumor initiation and progression. However, the function of lncRNA ZFAS1 in glioma is still unclear. In the current study, we found that ZFAS1 was upregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. High ZFAS1 expression in glioma tissues was significantly correlated with advanced tumor stage and poor overall survival. Furthermore, in vitro assays demonstrated that ZFAS1 inhibition significantly suppressed glioma cell proliferation, migration and invasion. Importantly, we further confirmed that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the Notch signaling pathway was inactivated in the glioma cells after ZFAS1 knockdown. Thus, our findings indicated that ZFAS1 could exhibit a tumor oncogenic role in glioma progression by regulating EMT and Notch signaling pathway. LncRNA ZFAS1 might serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma patients.

  11. Suppression of Type I Interferon Signaling Overcomes Oncogene-Induced Senescence and Mediates Melanoma Development and Progression.

    PubMed

    Katlinskaya, Yuliya V; Katlinski, Kanstantsin V; Yu, Qiujing; Ortiz, Angelica; Beiting, Daniel P; Brice, Angela; Davar, Diwakar; Sanders, Cindy; Kirkwood, John M; Rui, Hallgeir; Xu, Xiaowei; Koumenis, Constantinos; Diehl, J Alan; Fuchs, Serge Y

    2016-04-05

    Oncogene activation induces DNA damage responses and cell senescence. We report a key role of type I interferons (IFNs) in oncogene-induced senescence. IFN signaling-deficient melanocytes expressing activated Braf do not exhibit senescence and develop aggressive melanomas. Restoration of IFN signaling in IFN-deficient melanoma cells induces senescence and suppresses melanoma progression. Additional data from human melanoma patients and mouse transplanted tumor models suggest the importance of non-cell-autonomous IFN signaling. Inactivation of the IFN pathway is mediated by the IFN receptor IFNAR1 downregulation that invariably occurs during melanoma development. Mice harboring an IFNAR1 mutant, which is partially resistant to downregulation, delay melanoma development, suppress metastatic disease, and better respond to BRAF or PD-1 inhibitors. These results suggest that IFN signaling is an important tumor-suppressive pathway that inhibits melanoma development and progression and argue for targeting IFNAR1 downregulation to prevent metastatic disease and improve the efficacy of molecularly target and immune-targeted melanoma therapies.

  12. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  13. Phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor CYLD by the breast cancer oncogene IKKε promotes cell transformation

    PubMed Central

    Hutti, Jessica E.; Shen, Rhine R.; Abbott, Derek W.; Zhou, Alicia Y.; Sprott, Kam M.; Asara, John M.; Hahn, William C.; Cantley, Lewis C.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The non-canonical IKK family member IKKε is essential for regulating anti-viral signaling pathways and is a recently-discovered breast cancer oncoprotein. Although several IKKε targets have been described, direct IKKε substrates necessary for regulating cell transformation have not been identified. Here, we performed a screen for putative IKKε substrates using an unbiased proteomic and bioinformatic approach. Using a positional scanning peptide library assay we determined the optimal phosphorylation motif for IKKε and used bioinformatic approaches to predict IKKε substrates. Of these potential substrates, serine 418 of the tumor suppressor CYLD was identified as a likely site of IKKε phosphorylation. We confirmed that CYLD is directly phosphorylated by IKKε, and that IKKε phosphorylates serine 418 in vivo. Phosphorylation of CYLD at serine 418 decreases its deubiquitinase activity and is necessary for IKKε-driven transformation. Together, these observations define IKKε and CYLD as an oncogene-tumor suppressor network that participates in tumorigenesis. PMID:19481526

  14. Genome-Wide Chromosomal Targets of Oncogenic Transcription Factors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-04-01

    cancer. Cancer involves, at least in part, aberrant programs of gene expression often mediated by oncogenic transcription factors activating downstream...networks that underlie complex gene expression programs that are activated in cancer. Indeed, transcription factors have been proposed as targets of...some of the limitations of ChIP-chip analysis and can be applied to transcription factors important in breast cancer such as c-myc and ER ( estrogen

  15. Oncogenic ras-induced expression of cytokines: a new target of anti-cancer therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Ancrile, Brooke B; O'Hayer, Kevin M; Counter, Christopher M

    2008-02-01

    The Ras family of small guanosine triphosphatases normally transmit signals from cell surface receptors to the interior of the cell. Stimulation of cell surface receptors leads to the activation of guanine exchange factors, which, in turn, convert Ras from an inactive GDP-bound state to an active GTP-bound state. However, in one third of human cancers, RAS is mutated and remains in the constitutively active GTP-bound state. In this oncogenic state, RAS activates a constellation of signaling that is known to promote tumorigenesis. One consequence of this oncogenic RAS signal in cancer cells is the upregulation of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and chemokine growth-regulated oncogene 1 (GRO-1). We review the evidence supporting a role for these cytokines in oncogenic RAS-driven solid tumors.

  16. Metabolic pathways promoting cancer cell survival and growth.

    PubMed

    Boroughs, Lindsey K; DeBerardinis, Ralph J

    2015-04-01

    Activation of oncogenes and loss of tumour suppressors promote metabolic reprogramming in cancer, resulting in enhanced nutrient uptake to supply energetic and biosynthetic pathways. However, nutrient limitations within solid tumours may require that malignant cells exhibit metabolic flexibility to sustain growth and survival. Here, we highlight these adaptive mechanisms and also discuss emerging approaches to probe tumour metabolism in vivo and their potential to expand the metabolic repertoire of malignant cells even further.

  17. Estradiol and Estrogen Receptor Agonists Oppose Oncogenic Actions of Leptin in HepG2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Minqian; Shi, Haifei

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a significant risk factor for certain cancers, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Leptin, a hormone secreted by white adipose tissue, precipitates HCC development. Epidemiology data show that men have a much higher incidence of HCC than women, suggesting that estrogens and its receptors may inhibit HCC development and progression. Whether estrogens antagonize oncogenic action of leptin is uncertain. To investigate potential inhibitory effects of estrogens on leptin-induced HCC development, HCC cell line HepG2 cells were treated with leptin in combination with 17 β-estradiol (E2), estrogen receptor-α (ER-α) selective agonist PPT, ER-β selective agonist DPN, or G protein-coupled ER (GPER) selective agonist G-1. Cell number, proliferation, and apoptosis were determined, and leptin- and estrogen-related intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed. HepG2 cells expressed a low level of ER-β mRNA, and leptin treatment increased ER-β expression. E2 suppressed leptin-induced HepG2 cell proliferation and promoted cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Additionally E2 reversed leptin-induced STAT3 and leptin-suppressed SOCS3, which was mainly achieved by activation of ER-β. E2 also enhanced ERK via activating ER-α and GPER and activated p38/MAPK via activating ER-β. To conclude, E2 and its receptors antagonize the oncogenic actions of leptin in HepG2 cells by inhibiting cell proliferation and stimulating cell apoptosis, which was associated with reversing leptin-induced changes in SOCS3/STAT3 and increasing p38/MAPK by activating ER-β, and increasing ERK by activating ER-α and GPER. Identifying roles of different estrogen receptors would provide comprehensive understanding of estrogenic mechanisms in HCC development and shed light on potential treatment for HCC patients. PMID:26982332

  18. Effect of cellular determination on oncogenic transformation by chemicals and oncogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, M A; Gonzales, F; Jones, P A

    1988-01-01

    Three developmentally determined myogenic cell lines derived from C3H 10T1/2 C18 (10T1/2) mouse embryo cells treated with 5-azacytidine were compared with the parental 10T1/2 line for their susceptibility to oncogenic transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene or the activated human c-Ha-ras oncogene. Neither the 10T1/2 cells nor the myogenic derivatives grew in soft agar or formed tumors in nude mice. In contrast to 10T1/2 cells, the three myogenic derivatives were not susceptible to transformation by 3-methylcholanthrene, so that cellular determination altered the response of 10T1/2 cells to chemical carcinogen. On the other hand, all cell types were transformed to a tumorigenic phenotype following transfection with the activated c-Ha-ras gene. The transfected myogenic cells expressed both the c-Ha-ras gene and the muscle determination gene MyoD1. In contrast to other reports, the presence of as many as six copies of the c-Ha-ras gene per genome did not prevent the formation of striated muscle cells which expressed immunologically detectable muscle-specific myosin. The expression of the c-Ha-ras gene does not therefore necessarily preclude the expression of the determination gene for myogenesis or prevent end-stage myogenic differentiation. Images PMID:2460742

  19. Stem cell factor-mediated activation pathways promote murine eosinophil CCL6 production and survival.

    PubMed

    Dolgachev, Vladislav; Thomas, Molly; Berlin, Aaron; Lukacs, Nicholas W

    2007-04-01

    Eosinophil activation during allergic diseases has a detrimental role in the generation of pathophysiologic responses. Stem cell factor (SCF) has recently shown an inflammatory, gene-activating role on eosinophils and contributes to the generation of pathophysiologic changes in the airways during allergic responses. The data in the present study outline the signal transduction events that are induced by SCF in eosinophils and further demonstrate that MEK-mediated signaling pathways are crucial for SCF-induced CCL6 chemokine activation and eosinophil survival. SCF-mediated eosinophil activation was demonstrated to include PI-3K activation as well as MEK/MAPK phosphorylation pathways. Subsequent analysis of CCL6 gene activation and production induced by SCF in the presence or absence of rather specific inhibitors for certain pathways demonstrated that the MEK/MAPK pathway but not the PI-3K pathway was crucial for the SCF-induced CCL6 gene activation. These same signaling pathways were shown to initiate antiapoptotic events and promote eosinophil survival, including up-regulation of BCL2 and BCL3. Altogether, SCF appears to be a potent eosinophil activation and survival factor.

  20. MAPK pathway activation by chronic lead-exposure increases vascular reactivity through oxidative stress/cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Simões, Maylla Ronacher; Aguado, Andrea; Fiorim, Jonaína; Silveira, Edna Aparecida; Azevedo, Bruna Fernandes; Toscano, Cindy Medice; Zhenyukh, Olha; Briones, Ana María; Alonso, María Jesús; Vassallo, Dalton Valentim; Salaices, Mercedes

    2015-03-01

    Chronic exposure to low lead concentration produces hypertension; however, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. We analyzed the role of oxidative stress, cyclooxygenase-2-dependent pathways and MAPK in the vascular alterations induced by chronic lead exposure. Aortas from lead-treated Wistar rats (1st dose: 10 μg/100 g; subsequent doses: 0.125 μg/100 g, intramuscular, 30 days) and cultured aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) from Sprague Dawley rats stimulated with lead (20 μg/dL) were used. Lead blood levels of treated rats attained 21.7 ± 2.38 μg/dL. Lead exposure increased systolic blood pressure and aortic ring contractile response to phenylephrine, reduced acetylcholine-induced relaxation and did not affect sodium nitroprusside relaxation. Endothelium removal and L-NAME left-shifted the response to phenylephrine more in untreated than in lead-treated rats. Apocynin and indomethacin decreased more the response to phenylephrine in treated than in untreated rats. Aortic protein expression of gp91(phox), Cu/Zn-SOD, Mn-SOD and COX-2 increased after lead exposure. In cultured VSMCs lead 1) increased superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and gene and/or protein levels of NOX-1, NOX-4, Mn-SOD, EC-SOD and COX-2 and 2) activated ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK. Both antioxidants and COX-2 inhibitors normalized superoxide anion production, NADPH oxidase activity and mRNA levels of NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2. Blockade of the ERK1/2 and p38 signaling pathways abolished lead-induced NOX-1, NOX-4 and COX-2 expression. Results show that lead activation of the MAPK signaling pathways activates inflammatory proteins such as NADPH oxidase and COX-2, suggesting a reciprocal interplay and contribution to vascular dysfunction as an underlying mechanisms for lead-induced hypertension. - Highlights: • Lead-exposure increases oxidative stress, COX-2 expression and vascular reactivity. • Lead exposure activates MAPK signaling pathway. • ROS and COX-2 activation by

  1. Activation of the c-abl oncogene by viral transduction or chromosomal translocation generates altered c-abl proteins with similar in vitro kinase properties.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, R L; Konopka, J B; Witte, O N

    1985-01-01

    The v-abl protein of Abelson murine leukemia virus is a tyrosine-specific kinase. Its normal cellular homolog, murine c-abl, does not possess detectable tyrosine kinase activity in vitro. Previously, we have detected tyrosine kinase activity in vitro for an altered c-abl gene product (c-abl P210) in the K562 human chronic myelogenous leukemia cell line. The expression of this variant c-abl gene product correlates with chromosomal translocation and amplification of the c-abl gene in K562 cells. Like v-abl, c-abl P210 is a fusion protein containing non-abl sequences near the amino terminus of c-abl. We compared the in vitro tyrosine kinase activity of c-abl P210 with that of wild-type murine v-abl. The remarkable similarities of these two proteins with respect to cis-acting autophosphorylation, trans-acting phosphorylation of exogenous substrates, and kinase inhibition, using site-directed abl-specific antisera, suggested that c-abl P210 could function similarly to v-abl in vivo. In addition, c-abl P210 possessed an associated serine kinase activity in immunoprecipitates. The serine kinase activity was not inhibited by site-directed, abl-specific antisera that inhibit the tyrosine kinase activity, suggesting that the serine kinase activity is not an intrinsic property of c-abl P210. Thus, the activation of the c-abl gene in a human leukemia cell line may have functional consequences analogous to activation of the c-abl gene in Abelson murine leukemia virus. Images PMID:4039028

  2. Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Xing-Xing; Yin, Bai-Shuang; Yang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Xin; Su, Li-Xue; Fan, Hong-Gang; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Xylazine is a potent analgesic extensively used in veterinary and animal experimentation. Evidence exists that the analgesic effect can be inhibited using adenosine 5’-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors. Considering this idea, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the AMPK signaling pathway is involved in the central analgesic mechanism of xylazine in the rat. Xylazine was administrated via the intraperitoneal route. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem were collected for determination of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMPKα mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα levels using western blot. The results of our study showed that compared with the control group, xylazine induced significant increases in AMPK activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum after rats received xylazine (P < 0.01). Increased AMPK activities were accompanied with increased phosphorylation levels of LKB1 in corresponding regions of rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα in these regions returned or tended to return to control group levels. However, in the brainstem, phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα protein levels were decreased by xylazine compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicates that xylazine alters the activities of LKB1 and AMPK in the central nervous system of rats, which suggests that xylazine affects the regulatory signaling pathway of the analgesic mechanism in the rat brain. PMID:27049320

  3. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Takebayashi, Shin-Ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-08-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells.

  4. Retinoblastoma protein promotes oxidative phosphorylation through upregulation of glycolytic genes in oncogene-induced senescent cells

    PubMed Central

    Takebayashi, Shin-ichiro; Tanaka, Hiroshi; Hino, Shinjiro; Nakatsu, Yuko; Igata, Tomoka; Sakamoto, Akihisa; Narita, Masashi; Nakao, Mitsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Metabolism is closely linked with cellular state and biological processes, but the mechanisms controlling metabolic properties in different contexts remain unclear. Cellular senescence is an irreversible growth arrest induced by various stresses, which exhibits active secretory and metabolic phenotypes. Here, we show that retinoblastoma protein (RB) plays a critical role in promoting the metabolic flow by activating both glycolysis and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in cells that have undergone oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). A combination of real-time metabolic monitoring, and metabolome and gene expression analyses showed that OIS-induced fibroblasts developed an accelerated metabolic flow. The loss of RB downregulated a series of glycolytic genes and simultaneously reduced metabolites produced from the glycolytic pathway, indicating that RB upregulates glycolytic genes in OIS cells. Importantly, both mitochondrial OXPHOS and glycolytic activities were abolished in RB-depleted or downstream glycolytic enzyme-depleted OIS cells, suggesting that RB-mediated glycolytic activation induces a metabolic flux into the OXPHOS pathway. Collectively, our findings reveal that RB essentially functions in metabolic remodeling and the maintenance of the active energy production in OIS cells. PMID:26009982

  5. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    DOE PAGES

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; ...

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referredmore » to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.« less

  6. Ras-GTP dimers activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Nan, Xiaolin; Tamgüney, Tanja M.; Collisson, Eric A.; Lin, Li -Jung; Pitt, Cameron; Galeas, Jacqueline; Lewis, Sophia; Gray, Joe W.; McCormick, Frank; Chu, Steven

    2015-06-16

    Rat sarcoma (Ras) GTPases regulate cell proliferation and survival through effector pathways including Raf-MAPK, and are the most frequently mutated genes in human cancer. Although it is well established that Ras activity requires binding to both GTP and the membrane, details of how Ras operates on the cell membrane to activate its effectors remain elusive. Efforts to target mutant Ras in human cancers to therapeutic benefit have also been largely unsuccessful. Here we show that Ras-GTP forms dimers to activate MAPK. We used quantitative photoactivated localization microscopy (PALM) to analyze the nanoscale spatial organization of PAmCherry1-tagged KRas 4B (hereafter referred to KRas) on the cell membrane under various signaling conditions. We found that at endogenous expression levels KRas forms dimers, and KRasG12D, a mutant that constitutively binds GTP, activates MAPK. Overexpression of KRas leads to formation of higher order Ras nanoclusters. Conversely, at lower expression levels, KRasG12D is monomeric and activates MAPK only when artificially dimerized. Moreover, dimerization and signaling of KRas are both dependent on an intact CAAX (C, cysteine; A, aliphatic; X, any amino acid) motif that is also known to mediate membrane localization. These results reveal a new, dimerization-dependent signaling mechanism of Ras, and suggest Ras dimers as a potential therapeutic target in mutant Ras-driven tumors.

  7. Acetylation of the human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 Tax oncoprotein by p300 promotes activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Lodewick, Julie; Lamsoul, Isabelle; Polania, Angela; Lebrun, Sylvie; Burny, Arsene; Ratner, Lee; Bex, Francoise

    2009-03-30

    The oncogenic potential of the HTLV-1 Tax protein involves activation of the NF-{kappa}B pathway, which depends on Tax phosphorylation, ubiquitination and sumoylation. We demonstrate that the nuclei of Tax-expressing cells, including HTLV-1 transformed T-lymphocytes, contain a pool of Tax molecules acetylated on lysine residue at amino acid position 346 by the transcriptional coactivator p300. Phosphorylation of Tax on serine residues 300/301 was a prerequisite for Tax localization in the nucleus and correlated with its subsequent acetylation by p300, whereas sumoylation, resulting in the formation of Tax nuclear bodies in which p300 was recruited, favored Tax acetylation. Overexpression of p300 markedly increased Tax acetylation and the ability of a wild type HTLV-1 provirus, -but not of a mutant provirus carrying an acetylation deficient Tax gene-, to activate gene expression from an integrated NF-{kappa}B-controlled promoter. Thus, Tax acetylation favors NF-{kappa}B activation and might play an important role in HTLV-1-induced cell transformation.

  8. Activation of the Jasmonic Acid Plant Defence Pathway Alters the Composition of Rhizosphere Bacterial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Carvalhais, Lilia C.; Dennis, Paul G.; Badri, Dayakar V.; Tyson, Gene W.; Vivanco, Jorge M.; Schenk, Peer M.

    2013-01-01

    Jasmonic acid (JA) signalling plays a central role in plant defences against necrotrophic pathogens and herbivorous insects, which afflict both roots and shoots. This pathway is also activated following the interaction with beneficial microbes that may lead to induced systemic resistance. Activation of the JA signalling pathway via application of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) alters the composition of carbon containing compounds released by roots, which are implicated as key determinants of rhizosphere microbial community structure. In this study, we investigated the influence of the JA defence signalling pathway activation in Arabidopsis thaliana on the structure of associated rhizosphere bacterial communities using 16S rRNA gene amplicon pyrosequencing. Application of MeJA did not directly influence bulk soil microbial communities but significant changes in rhizosphere community composition were observed upon activation of the jasmonate signalling pathway. Our results suggest that JA signalling may mediate plant-bacteria interactions in the soil upon necrotrophic pathogen and herbivorous insect attacks. PMID:23424661

  9. Activation of AhR-mediated toxicity pathway by emerging pollutants polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides

    EPA Science Inventory

    Polychlorinated diphenyl sulfides (PCDPSs) are a group of environmental pollutants for which limited toxicological information is available. This study tested the hypothesis that PCDPSs could activate the mammalian aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) mediated toxicity pathways. Eight...

  10. ASBESTOS-INDUCED ACTIVATION OF CELL SIGNALING PATHWAYS IN HUMAN BRONCHIAL EPITHELIAL CELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using respiratory epithelial cells transfected with either superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase, the authors tested the hypothesis that the activation of the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor signal pathway after asbestos exposure involves an oxidative stress. Western blot...

  11. Dicer-2-dependent activation of Culex Vago occurs via the TRAF-Rel2 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Paradkar, Prasad N; Duchemin, Jean-Bernard; Voysey, Rhonda; Walker, Peter J

    2014-04-01

    Despite their importance as vectors of human and livestock diseases, relatively little is known about innate antiviral immune pathways in mosquitoes and other insects. Previous work has shown that Culex Vago (CxVago), which is induced and secreted from West Nile virus (WNV)-infected mosquito cells, acts as a functional homolog of interferon, by activating Jak-STAT pathway and limiting virus replication in neighbouring cells. Here we describe the Dicer-2-dependent pathway leading to WNV-induced CxVago activation. Using a luciferase reporter assay, we show that a NF-κB-like binding site in CxVago promoter region is conserved in mosquito species and is responsible for induction of CxVago expression following WNV infection. Using dsRNA-based gene knockdown, we show that the NF-κB ortholog, Rel2, plays significant role in the signaling pathway that activates CxVago in mosquito cells in vitro and in vivo. Using similar approaches, we also show that TRAF, but not TRAF-3, is involved in activation of Rel2 after viral infection. Overall the study shows that a conserved signaling pathway, which is similar to mammalian interferon activation pathway, is responsible for the induction and antiviral activity of CxVago.

  12. High-risk oncogenic HPV genotype infection associates with increased immune activation and T cell exhaustion in ART-suppressed HIV-1-infected women

    PubMed Central

    Papasavvas, Emmanouil; Surrey, Lea F.; Glencross, Deborah K.; Azzoni, Livio; Joseph, Jocelin; Omar, Tanvier; Feldman, Michael D.; Williamson, Anna-Lise; Siminya, Maureen; Swarts, Avril; Yin, Xiangfan; Liu, Qin; Firnhaber, Cynthia; Montaner, Luis J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Persistence of human papillomavirus (HPV) and cervical disease in the context of HIV co-infection can be influenced by introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and sustained immune activation despite ART. We conducted a cross-sectional study in order to evaluate immune activation/exhaustion in ART-suppressed HIV+ women with or without high-risk (HR) HPV-related cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). 55 South African women were recruited in three groups: HR (-) (n = 16) and HR (+) (n = 15) HPV with negative cervical histopathology, and HR (+) HPV with CIN grade 1/2/3 (n = 24). Sampling included endocervical brushing (HPV DNA genotyping), Pap smear (cytology), colposcopic punch biopsy (histopathology, histochemical evaluation of immune cells), and peripheral blood (clinical assessment, flow cytometry-based immune subset characterization). Statistics were done using R2.5.1. Irrespective of the presence of CIN, HR (+) HPV women had higher circulating levels of T cells expressing markers of activation/exhaustion (CD38, PD1, CTLA-4, BTLA, CD160), Tregs, and myeloid subsets expressing corresponding ligands (PDL1, PDL2, CD86, CD40, HVEM) than HR (-) HPV women. A decrease in circulating NK cells was associated with CIN grade. CD4+ T cell count associated negatively with T cell exhaustion and expression of negative regulators on mye