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Sample records for oncorhynchus mykiss cross-talk

  1. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  2. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctane sulfonate in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) by intra-arterial injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, and either urine or expired water. The data were then an...

  3. Nomenclature of mitochondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graziano, Sara L.; Brown, K.H.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2005-01-01

    Congruence of genetic data is critical for comparative and collaborative studies on natural fish populations. A comprehensive list of reported mitochrondrial DNA haplotypes for Oncorhynchus mykiss generated using the S-Phe/P2 primer set is presented as a resource for future investigations of this species.

  4. Formation of chromosome aberrations in androgenetic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Ocalewicz, K; Dobosz, S; Kuzminski, H; Goryczko, K

    2009-12-01

    Residues of maternal nuclear DNA in the form of chromosome fragments were observed in the healthy and morphologically normal androgenetic rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. A hypothetical model for formation of chromosome re-arrangements caused by the incomplete maternal nuclear DNA inactivation in the androgenetic rainbow trout was proposed in the present paper.

  5. Estrogenic Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential estrogenic activity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was determined using separate screening and dose response studies with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results of this study indicate that some PFAAs may act as estrogens in fish.

  6. Estrogenic Activity of Perfluoroalkyl Acids in Juvenile Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The potential estrogenic activity of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) was determined using separate screening and dose response studies with juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results of this study indicate that some PFAAs may act as estrogens in fish.

  7. Use of streambed substrate as refuge by steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during simulated freshets

    Treesearch

    F. K. Ligon; Rodney Nakamoto; Bret Harvey; P. F. Baker

    2016-01-01

    A flume was used to estimate the carrying capacity of streambed substrates for juvenile steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss seeking refuge from simulated freshets. The simulated freshets had mean water column velocities of c. 1·1 m s−1. The number of O. mykiss finding cover...

  8. Variability in expression of anadromy by female Oncorhynchus mykiss within a river network

    Treesearch

    Justin S. Mills; Jason B. Dunham; Gordon H. Reeves; John R. McMillan; Christian E. Zimmerman; Chris E. Jordan

    2012-01-01

    We described and predicted spatial variation in marine migration (anadromy) of female Oncorhynchus mykiss in the John Day River watershed, Oregon. We collected 149 juvenile O. mykiss across 72 sites and identified locations used by anadromous females by assigning maternal origin (anadromous versus non-anadromous) to each...

  9. Gyrodactylid Ectoparasites in a Population of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Rachel L; Hansen, Adam G; Chan, Maia M; Sanders, George E

    2014-01-01

    A colony of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a decentralized aquatic animal facility was noted to have an increase in morbidity and mortality (from 4 or 5 fish each month to 3 or 4 fish daily) approximately 2 wk after experimental procedures began. The primary clinical signs were erratic swimming behavior and ‘flashing’ of fish against surfaces within housing enclosures. Moribund and normal rainbow trout were presented alive for diagnostic evaluation; samples of water from housing enclosures were provided for water quality assessment. The trout were determined to be infected with gyrodactylids, a common monogenean ectoparasite of the skin and gills in both marine and freshwater fish. This case report describes the diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of gyrodactylids and husbandry modifications associated with the resolution of this clinical aquatic-animal case. PMID:24411786

  10. Magnetic Discrimination Learning in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugh, Cordula V.; Walker, Michael M.

    Although conditioning techniques are the most powerful way to study behavioural responses by animals to external stimuli, the magnetic sense has proved surprisingly resistant to conditioning approaches. This study demonstrated learned discrimination of magnetic field intensity stimuli by a new species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In a unitary conditioned discrimination technique, four juvenile rainbow trout were trained to strike a target at the end of a response bar in anticipation of food. In successive experiments, the trout failed to discriminate the presence and absence of a vibration stimulus, but subsequently learned to discriminate the presence and absence of a magnetic field intensity anomaly (peak intensity of 75 μTesla). The authors conclude that the necessary conditions for training animals to magnetic intensity are the use of spatially distinctive stimuli and of a conditioned response that requires movement.

  11. Hematological, biochemical, and behavioral responses of Oncorhynchus mykiss to dimethoate.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Demet; Can, Canan

    2011-12-01

    The effects of dimethoate on hematological, biochemical parameters, and behavior were investigated in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to sublethal concentrations of 0.0735, 0.3675, and 0.7350 mg/l for 5, 15, and 30 days. Significant decrease was determined in erythrocyte and leukocyte counts, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, and MCH, which was pronounced after prolonged exposure indicating the appearance of microcytic hypochromic anemia. There were no prominent changes in thrombocyte and MCHC. The glucose concentration showed an ascending pattern that proved to be positively correlated with duration. The protein concentration declined in higher dimethoate concentrations following 15 and 30 days. Negative and significant correlation was detected between glucose and protein concentrations. The fish showed remarkable behavioral abnormality such as loss of balance, erratic swimming, and convulsion. Present findings revealed that dimethoate exerts its toxic action even in sublethal concentrations and hematological parameters and abnormal behavior may be sensitive indicators to evaluate pesticide intoxication.

  12. Virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Evenhuis, Jason P; LaFrentz, Benjamin R

    2016-08-09

    Flavobacterium columnare is the causative agent of columnaris disease and is responsible for significant economic losses in aquaculture. F. columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium, and 5 genetic types or genomovars have been described based on restriction fragment length polymorphism of the 16S rRNA gene. Previous research has suggested that genomovar II isolates are more virulent than genomovar I isolates to multiple species of fish, including rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. In addition, improved genotyping methods have shown that some isolates previously classified as genomovar I, and used in challenge experiments, were in fact genomovar III. Our objective was to confirm previous results with respect to genomovar II virulence, and to determine the susceptibility of rainbow trout to other genomovars. The virulence of 8 genomovar I, 4 genomovar II, 3 genomovar II-B, and 5 genomovar III isolates originating from various sources was determined through 3 independent challenges in rainbow trout using an immersion challenge model. Mean cumulative percent mortality (CPM) of ~49% for genomovar I isolates, ~1% for genomovar II, ~5% for the II-B isolates, and ~7% for the III isolates was observed. The inability of genomovar II isolates to produce mortalities in rainbow trout was unanticipated based on previous studies, but may be due to a number of factors including rainbow trout source and water chemistry. The source of fish and/or the presence of sub-optimal environment may influence the susceptibility of rainbow trout to different F. columnare genomovars.

  13. Chromosome rearrangements and survival of androgenetic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Ocalewicz, K; Dobosz, S; Kuzminski, H; Nowosad, J; Goryczko, K

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify the impact of spontaneous and X-radiation-induced chromosome rearrangements on survival rate of androgenetic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Various doses of X irradiation (50, 150, 250, 350 Gy) were used for inactivation of nuclear DNA in oocytes. After the irradiation, eggs were inseminated with normal sperm from 4 males derived from a strain characterized by Robertsonian rearrangements and length polymorphism of the Y chromosome. The haploid zygotes were exposed to a high hydrostatic pressure (7000 psi) to duplicate the paternal DNA. Neither Robertsonian chromosome polymorphism nor the Y chromosome morphology impaired the viability of the androgenetic embryos and alevins. Moreover, survival of eyed embryos of the androgenetic rainbow trout increased significantly with increasing doses of oocyte X irradiation. After 6 months of rearing, only specimens from the 250 and 350 Gy variants survived. The number of fingerlings with remnants of the maternal genome in the forms of chromosome fragments was higher in the 250 Gy group. Intraindividual variation of chromosome fragment number was observed, and some individuals exhibited haploid/diploid mosaicism and body malformations. Individuals irradiated with less than 250 Gy died, presumably because of the conflict between intact paternally derived chromosomes and the residues of maternal genome in the form of chromosome fragments.

  14. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) invasion and the spread of hybridization with native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyer, M.C.; Muhlfeld, C.C.; Allendorf, F.W.

    2008-01-01

    We analyzed 13 microsatellite loci to estimate gene flow among westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi, populations and determine the invasion pattern of hybrids between native O. c. lewisi and introduced rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, in streams of the upper Flathead River system, Montana (USA) and British Columbia (Canada). Fourteen of 31 sites lacked evidence of O. mykiss introgression, and gene flow among these nonhybridized O. c. lewisi populations was low, as indicated by significant allele frequency divergence among populations (?ST = 0.076, ?ST = 0.094, P < 0.001). Among hybridized sites, O. mykiss admixture declined with upstream distance from a site containing a hybrid swarm with a predominant (92%) O. mykiss genetic contribution. The spatial distribution of hybrid genotypes at seven diagnostic microsatellite loci revealed that O. mykiss invasion is facilitated by both long distance dispersal from this hybrid swarm and stepping-stone dispersal between hybridized populations. This study provides an example of how increased straying rates in the invasive taxon can contribute to the spread of extinction by hybridization and suggests that eradicating sources of introgression may be a useful conservation strategy for protecting species threatened with genomic extinction. ?? 2008 NRC.

  15. Toxicokinetics of perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Consoer, Daniel M; Hoffman, Alex D; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Kosian, Patricia A; Nichols, John W

    2014-11-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) confined to respirometer-metabolism chambers were dosed with perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) by intra-arterial (i.a.) injection and sampled to obtain concentration time-course data for plasma, urine, and expired water. The data were then analyzed by compartmental modeling to estimate rates of renal and branchial clearance. Averaged across all animals, the renal clearance rate (1.35mL/h/kg) was more than ten times greater than the branchial clearance rate (0.12mL/h/kg). The average whole-body elimination half-life was 12.6d, which is somewhat longer than values obtained in previous studies with smaller trout. The tissue distribution of PFOA was assessed by collecting tissues at the end of chambered exposures and in a separate tissue time-course experiment. From the time-course study it appeared that an internal steady-state was established within 24h of i.a. injection. Consistent with previous studies, the rank order of PFOA concentration in tissues at steady state was: plasma>liver>kidney>muscle. In a second set of chambered experiments, fish were exposed to PFOA in water to determine the rate of branchial uptake. Branchial uptake rates were too low to assess directly by measuring PFOA concentrations in inspired and expired water. Uptake rate constants (mean 0.19L/d/kg; 0.1% uptake efficiency) were therefore estimated by compartmental modeling using plasma concentration time-course data and model parameters derived from the elimination experiments. It is clear from this effort that elimination of PFOA by trout occurs primarily via the renal route. This finding is consistent with numerous studies of mammals and suggests that trout possess membrane transporters that facilitate the movement of PFOA from plasma to urine. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Response of steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations to debris flows

    Treesearch

    Jason L. White; Bret C. Harvey

    2017-01-01

    To better understand the effects of debris flows on salmonid populations, we studied juvenile steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in six streams in the Klamath Mountains of northern California: three affected by debris flows on 01 January 1997 and three that experienced elevated streamflows but no debris flows. We surveyed...

  17. Effects of incubation temperatures on embryonic and larval survival in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Incubation temperature is commonly used by hatcheries to manipulate hatch date in salmonids including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Target dates for hatching often change during the incubation period and require a sudden adjustment in temperature. Although there are many studies charac...

  18. Observations on side-swimming rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in water recirculation aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    During a controlled 6-month study using six replicated water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS), it was observed that rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in all WRAS exhibited a higher-than-normal prevalence of side-swimming (i.e. controlled, forward swimming, but with misaligned orientation suc...

  19. Biological characteristics and population status of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in southeast Alaska.

    Treesearch

    Samuel C. Lohr; Mason D. Bryant

    1999-01-01

    We reviewed existing data to determine the range and distribution of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in southeast Alaska, summarized biological characteristics, and determined population status of steelhead stocks. Unique or sensitive stocks that may require consideration in planning land management activities are identified within the data...

  20. Growth enhancement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by passive immunisation against somatostatin-14

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were passively immunised against somatostatin-14 (SS-14) using an antibody originating from egg laying chicken (Gallus domesticus). Fish were immunised weekly (0, 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 d) with chicken egg yolk derived immunoglobulin (IgY) against SS-14 (1:25 ...

  1. Fatty acid partitioning varies across fillet regions during sexual maturation in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are commonly reared as diploids (2N, two sets of chromosomes) or triploids (3N, three sets of chromosomes). Sexual maturation in 2N has negative effects on production efficiency, nutrient retention, and fillet quality. On the other hand, 3N female rainbow trout ...

  2. Effects of sex steroids on indices of protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) white muscle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Effects of 17-estradiol (E2), testosterone, and 5a-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on protein turnover and proteolytic gene expression were determined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary myocytes and white muscle tissue. E2 reduced rates of protein synthesis and increased rates of protein degr...

  3. Sensory analysis of rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, fed enriched black soldier fly prepupae, hermetia illucens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A growth trial and fillet sensory analysis were conducted to examine the effects of replacing dietary fish meal with black soldier fly (BSF) prepupae, Hermetia illucens, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. A practical-type trout diet was formulated to contain 45% protein; four test diets were dev...

  4. Carnosine supplementation to an all-plant protein diet for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fishmeal may contain “unknown growth factors” that have yet to be identified for their physiological role. As fishmeal levels in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feeds are reduced, the dietary loss of these compounds may contribute to growth reductions. One such compound, identified in fishmeal...

  5. Use of streambed substrate as refuge by steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss during simulated freshets.

    PubMed

    Ligon, F K; Nakamoto, R J; Harvey, B C; Baker, P F

    2016-04-01

    A flume was used to estimate the carrying capacity of streambed substrates for juvenile steelhead or rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss seeking refuge from simulated freshets. The simulated freshets had mean water column velocities of c. 1·1 m s(-1). The number of O. mykiss finding cover within the interstices of the substrate was documented for different substrate sizes and levels of embeddedness. The availability of suitable refuges determined the carrying capacity of the substrate for O. mykiss. For the size of the O. mykiss tested [mean ± s.d. fork length (L(F)) = 122 ± 12.6 mm], the number of interstices with depths ≥200 mm measured with a 14.0 mm diameter flexible plastic tube was the best predictor of the number of O. mykiss able to find cover (r(2)  = 0.75). Oncorhynchus mykiss seeking refuge from freshets may need deeper interstices than those seeking concealment at autumn or winter base flows. The availability of interstices suitable as refuge from high flows may determine autumn and winter carrying capacity. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Spread of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and nonnative rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hitt, Nathaniel P.; Frissell, Christopher A.; Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Fred W. Allendorf,

    2003-01-01

    We examined spatial and temporal patterns of hybridization between native westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi, and nonnative rainbow trout, O. mykiss, in streams of the Flathead River system in Montana, U.S.A. We detected hybridization in 24 of 42 sites sampled from 1998 to 2001. We found new Oncorhynchus mykiss introgression in seven of 11 sample populations that were determined to be nonhybridized in 1984. Patterns of spatial autocorrelation and linkage disequilibrium indicated that hybridization is spreading among sites and is advancing primarily via post-F1 hybrids. Although hybridized populations were distributed widely throughout the study area, the genetic contribution from O. mykiss decreased with increasing upstream distance from the Flathead River mainstem, suggesting that O. mykiss introgression is spreading in an upstream direction. The spread of hybridization may be constrained more by demographic than by environmental factors, given that (i) hybridized populations generally encompassed the range of environmental variability in nonhybridized populations, and (ii) hybridization status was more strongly associated with neighborhood statistics than measured environmental gradients.

  7. Water velocity influences prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus)

    Treesearch

    John J. Piccolo; Nicholas F. Hughes; Mason D. Bryant

    2008-01-01

    We examined the effects of water velocity on prey detection and capture by drift-feeding juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) and steelhead (sea-run rainbow trout,Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) in laboratory experiments. We used repeated-measures analysis of variance to test the effects of velocity, species, and the velocity x species interaction on prey capture...

  8. Muscle wound healing in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J G; Andersen, E W; Ersbøll, B K; Nielsen, M E

    2016-01-01

    We followed the progression of healing of deep excisional biopsy punch wounds over the course of 365 days in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by monitoring visual wound healing and gene expression in the healing muscle at regular intervals (1, 3, 7, 14, 38 and 100 days post-wounding). In addition, we performed muscle texture analysis one year after wound infliction. The selected genes have all previously been investigated in relation to vertebrate wound healing, but only few specifically in fish. The selected genes were interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 and -β3, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) -9 and -13, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), fibronectin (FN), tenascin-C (TN-C), prolyl 4-hydroxylase α1-chain (P4Hα1), lysyl oxidase (LOX), collagen type I α1-chain (ColIα1), CD41 and CD163. Wound healing progressed slowly in the presented study, which is at least partially due to the low temperature of about 8.5 °C during the first 100 days. The inflammation phase lasted more than 14 days, and the genes relating to production and remodeling of new extracellular matrix (ECM) exhibited a delayed but prolonged upregulation starting 1-2 weeks post-wounding and lasting until at least 100 days post-wounding. The gene expression patterns and histology reveal limited capacity for muscle regeneration in rainbow trout, and muscle texture analyses one year after wound infliction confirm that wounds heal with fibrosis. At 100 dpw epidermis had fully regenerated, and dermis partially regenerated. Scales had not regenerated even after one year. CD163 is a marker of "wound healing"-type M2c macrophages in mammals. M2 macrophage markers are as yet poorly described in fish. The pattern of CD163 expression in the present study is consistent with the expected timing of presence of M2c macrophages in the wound. CD163 may thus potentially prove a valuable marker of M2 macrophages - or a subset hereof - in fish. We subjected a group of fish to

  9. Serotonin-induced brain glycogenolysis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Pérez-Maceira, Jorge J; Mancebo, María J; Aldegunde, Manuel

    2012-09-01

    In this study, we evaluated the serotonin-mediated control of cerebral glycogen levels in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of serotonin (5-HT) to normoglycemic trout (time and dose response) decreased glycogen levels in the brain and increased brain glycogen phosphorylase activity (time response). In hypoglycemic fish (that had been fasted for 5 and 10 days), there was a time-dependent decrease in brain glycogen levels; under these conditions, i.c.v. administration of 5-HT also reduced the brain glycogen content in fish that had been fasted for 5 days. In fish with local cerebral hypoglycemia (induced by 2-DG administration), the glycogen levels decreased and, as above, i.c.v. administration of 5-HT also lowered the glycogen content. In hyperglycemic fish, 5-HT did not affect glycogen levels. Administration of receptor agonists 5-HT1A (8-OH-DPAT), 5-HT1B (anpirtoline and CP93129) or 5-HT2 (α-m-5-HT) decreased the brain glycogen levels. This effect was antagonized by the administration of receptor antagonists 5-HT1A (WAY100135 and NAN190), 5-HT1B (NAS181) and 5-HT2B/C (SB206553). Administration of the receptor agonists (±)-DOI (5-HT2A/2C), m-CPP (5-HT2B/2C), BW723C86 (5-HT2B) and WAY 161503 (5-HT2C) led to decreases in the levels of brain glycogen. We found that 5-HT is involved in the modulation of brain glycogen homeostasis in the rainbow trout, causing a glycogenolytic effect when fish are in a normoglycemic or hypoglycemic state, but not when they are in a hyperglycemic state. 5-HT1A, 5-HT1B, 5HT2B and 5-HT2C-like receptors appeared to be involved in the glycogenolytic action of 5-HT, although the effect mediated by 5-HT1A or 5-HT1B was apparently stronger.

  10. Diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphisms for identifying westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi), Yellowstone cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii bouvieri) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kalinowski, S T; Novak, B J; Drinan, D P; Jennings, R deM; Vu, N V

    2011-03-01

    We describe 12 diagnostic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays for use in species identification among rainbow and cutthroat trout: five of these loci have alleles unique to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), three unique to westslope cutthroat trout (O. clarkii lewisi) and four unique to Yellowstone cutthroat trout (O. clarkii bouvieri). These diagnostic assays were identified using a total of 489 individuals from 26 populations and five fish hatchery strains.

  11. Variability in expression of anadromy by female Oncorhynchus mykiss within a river network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mills, Justin S.; Dunham, Jason B.; Reeves, Gordon H.; McMillan, John R.; Zimmerman, Christian E.; Jordan, Chris E.

    2012-01-01

    We described and predicted spatial variation in marine migration (anadromy) of female Oncorhynchus mykiss in the John Day River watershed, Oregon. We collected 149 juvenile O. mykiss across 72 sites and identified locations used by anadromous females by assigning maternal origin (anadromous versus non-anadromous) to each juvenile. These assignments used comparisons of strontium to calcium ratios in otolith primordia and freshwater growth regions to indicate maternal origin. We used logistic regression to predict probability of anadromy in relation to mean annual stream runoff using data from a subset of individuals. This model correctly predicted anadromy in a second sample of individuals with a moderate level of accuracy (e.g., 68% correctly predicted with a 0.5 classification threshold). Residuals from the models were not spatially autocorrelated, suggesting that remaining variability in the expression of anadromy was due to localized influences, as opposed to broad-scale gradients unrelated to mean annual stream runoff. These results are important for the management of O. mykiss because anadromous individuals (steelhead) within the John Day River watershed are listed as a threatened species, and it is difficult to discern juvenile steelhead from non-anadromous individuals (rainbow trout) in the field. Our results provide a broad-scale description and prediction of locations supporting anadromy, and new insight for habitat restoration, monitoring, and research to better manage and understand the expression of anadromy in O. mykiss.

  12. Using scale characteristics and water temperature to reconstruct growth rates of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Beakes, M P; Sharron, S; Charish, R; Moore, J W; Satterthwaite, W H; Sturm, E; Wells, B K; Sogard, S M; Mangel, M

    2014-01-01

    Juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss from a northern California Central Valley population were reared in a controlled laboratory experiment. Significantly different rates of growth were observed among fish reared under two ration treatments and three temperature treatments (8, 14 and 20°C). Wider circulus spacing and faster deposition was associated with faster growth. For the same growth rate, however, circulus spacing was two-fold wider and deposited 36% less frequently in the cold compared to the hot temperature treatment. In a multiple linear regression, median circulus spacing and water temperature accounted for 68% of the variation in observed O. mykiss growth. These results corroborate previous research on scale characteristics and growth, while providing novel evidence that highlights the importance of water temperature in these relationships. Thus, this study establishes the utility of using scale analysis as a relatively non-invasive method for inferring growth in salmonids.

  13. Functional characterization of a BCL10 isoform in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Mazzone, Pellegrino; Scudiero, Ivan; Coccia, Elena; Ferravante, Angela; Paolucci, Marina; D’Andrea, Egildo Luca; Varricchio, Ettore; Pizzulo, Maddalena; Reale, Carla; Zotti, Tiziana; Vito, Pasquale; Stilo, Romania

    2015-01-01

    The complexes formed by BCL10, MALT1 and members of the family of CARMA proteins have recently been the focus of much attention because they represent a key mechanism for regulating activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel isoform of BCL10 in the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, which we named tBCL10. tBCL10 dimerizes, binds to components of the CBM complex and forms cytoplasmic filaments. Functionally, tBCL10 activates NF-κB transcription factor and is inhibited by the deubiquitinating enzyme A20. Finally, depletion experiments indicate that tBCL10 can functionally replace the human protein. This work demonstrates the evolutionary conservation of the mechanism of NF-κB activation through the CBM complex, and indicates that the rainbow trout O.mykiss can serve as a model organism to study this pathway. PMID:25834783

  14. Functional characterization of a BCL10 isoform in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Mazzone, Pellegrino; Scudiero, Ivan; Coccia, Elena; Ferravante, Angela; Paolucci, Marina; D'Andrea, Egildo Luca; Varricchio, Ettore; Pizzulo, Maddalena; Reale, Carla; Zotti, Tiziana; Vito, Pasquale; Stilo, Romania

    2015-01-01

    The complexes formed by BCL10, MALT1 and members of the family of CARMA proteins have recently been the focus of much attention because they represent a key mechanism for regulating activation of the transcription factor NF-κB. Here, we report the functional characterization of a novel isoform of BCL10 in the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, which we named tBCL10. tBCL10 dimerizes, binds to components of the CBM complex and forms cytoplasmic filaments. Functionally, tBCL10 activates NF-κB transcription factor and is inhibited by the deubiquitinating enzyme A20. Finally, depletion experiments indicate that tBCL10 can functionally replace the human protein. This work demonstrates the evolutionary conservation of the mechanism of NF-κB activation through the CBM complex, and indicates that the rainbow trout O . mykiss can serve as a model organism to study this pathway.

  15. First isolation of Pseudocohnilembus persalinus (Ciliophora: Scuticociliatida) from freshwater-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Jones, Simon R M; Prosperi-Porta, Gina; LaPatra, Scott E

    2010-10-01

    Ciliated protists were isolated from the ovarian fluid of apparently healthy adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) maintained in freshwater. The organism was identified as Pseudocohnilembus persalinus based on morphometric and morphological analysis of silver-stained specimens obtained from culture and on analysis of ribosomal RNA gene sequences. The cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene sequence of this organism also was characterized. This ciliate has been reported previously as free living only in saline environments and as an endosymbiont in a marine teleost, the olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus). A cyst-like stage may have facilitated the novel occurrence of this organism as an endosymbiont in rainbow trout.

  16. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species

    PubMed Central

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout. PMID:26130859

  17. Histopathological findings in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with 3 different Aeromonas species.

    PubMed

    Zepeda-Velázquez, Andrea Paloma; Vega-Sánchez, Vicente; Salgado-Miranda, Celene; Soriano-Vargas, Edgardo

    2015-07-01

    This study describes the macroscopic and microscopic lesions in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally infected with genetically identified Aeromonas salmonicida, A. hydrophila, and A. veronii species. The genus Aeromonas includes bacteria that naturally inhabit both waterways and organisms. At least 27 Aeromonas species have been identified to date, some of which can cause significant economic losses in aquaculture. As up to 68.8% of Aeromonas isolates may be misidentified in routine biochemical and phenotypic tests, however, reported cases of Aeromonas infection in fish may be wrongly identified. Our findings confirmed that the 3 Aeromonas species studied are associated with septicemia and dermal lesions in rainbow trout.

  18. Ibuprofen metabolism in the liver and gill of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Gomez, C F; Constantine, L; Moen, M; Vaz, A; Wang, W; Huggett, Duane B

    2011-03-01

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the environment has become an important topic of discussion with respect to pharmaceutical absorption, metabolism and elimination in fish. This study investigates the metabolism of ibuprofen by rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In vitro metabolic loss of parent compound was measured in gill and liver S9 and microsomal fractions. Metabolite analysis found 2-hydroxy-ibuprofen as the major metabolite in uninduced S9 fractions. Supplementing S9 fractions with UDPGA did not significantly enhance metabolism. Additionally, assays involving the induction and inhibition of specific CYP isozymes support CYP1A2 as a possible metabolic pathway in fish.

  19. Micronuclei and other nuclear lesions as genotoxicity indicators in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Ayllón, F; Garcia-Vazquez, E

    2001-07-01

    The induction of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in renal erythrocytes of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by six genotoxic compounds is evaluated. Colchicine, mitomycin, cyclophosphamide, acrylamide, methyl-methanesulfonate, and N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea were intraperitoneally injected in trout. Our results show that cyclophosphamide induces the formation of micronuclei and also the other nuclear abnormalities; N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea, acrylamide, and colchicine induce only micronuclei; mitomycin-C induces only other nuclear abnormalities but not micronuclei. Methyl-methanesulfonate does not induce nuclear abnormalities in rainbow trout at the dose assayed in this work. The possible genotoxic origin for the different nuclear abnormalities is discussed. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  20. Abnormal swimming behavior and increased deformities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss cultured in low exchange water recirculation aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Two studies were conducted to determine if accumulating water quality parameters would negatively impact rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss health and welfare within water recirculation aquaculture systems (WRAS) that were operated at low and near-zero water exchange, with and without ozonation, and ...

  1. Identification of Estrogen-responsive Vitelline Envelope Protein Fragments from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Plasma Using Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasma protein biomarkers associated with exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol were isolated and identified using novel sample preparation techniques and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile male and female trout ...

  2. Effect of anthocyanidins on myogenic differentiation in induced and non-induced primary myoblasts from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A study was conducted to test whether an anthocyanidin mixture (peonidin, cyanidin and pelargonidin chloride) modulates myogenesis in both induced and non-induced myogenic cells from juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We evaluated three different anthocyanidin concentrations (1X, 2.5X and...

  3. Acute handling disturbance modulates plasma insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The effects of acute stressor exposure on proximal (growth hormone; GH) and distal (insulin-like growth factor-I; IGF-I and IGF-binding proteins) components of the somatotropic axis are poorly understood in finfish. We exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to a 5-minute handling disturbance to...

  4. Effects of triploidy on growth and protein degradation during the recovery from feed deprivation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying physiological differences between diploid and triploid rainbow trout will help define how ploidy affects mechanisms that impact growth and nutrient utilization. In this study juvenile diploid and triploid female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were either continually fed or fasted f...

  5. Enhancing highly unsaturated omega-3 fatty acids in phase-fed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Alaskan fish oils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this research was to investigate differences in the kinetics of fatty acids (FA) deposition in fillets of market-sized (approximately 450g) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing commercial Alaskan fish oils versus menhaden oil. Comparisons were made with FA leve...

  6. Habitat-specific biomass, survival and growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during summer in a small coastal stream

    Treesearch

    Bret C. Harvey; Jason L. White; Rodney J. Nakamoto

    2005-01-01

    We observed significant habitat-scale variation in the density, survival, and growth of 811 passive integrated transponder tagged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) enclosed for 63—68 days at natural density in 59 individual habitats (pools and riffles) in a small coastal California stream in summer 2001. The initial habitat-scale...

  7. Identification of Estrogen-responsive Vitelline Envelope Protein Fragments from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Plasma Using Mass Spectrometry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Plasma protein biomarkers associated with exposure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol were isolated and identified using novel sample preparation techniques and state-of-the-art mass spectrometry and bioinformatics approaches. Juvenile male and female trout ...

  8. Effects of frying in various cooking oils on fatty acid content of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Our goal was to describe the effects of frying with various oils on the fatty acid content of rainbow trout. Four different oils were evaluated (peanut oil, high oleic sunflower oil, corn oil, and canola oil). Farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets were sliced into three portions and eac...

  9. The effects of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) on the use of spatial resources and behavior of rosyside dace (Clinostomus funduloides)

    Treesearch

    Pedro A. Rincón; Gary D. Grossman

    1998-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and rosyside dace (Clinostomus fitnduloides) exhibit substantial overlap in microhabitat use in Coweeta Creek, North Carolina, USA. We conducted a replicated experiment in an artificial stream to assess the effects of both the presence of rainbow trout and dace density on: 1) microhabitat use, 2...

  10. A second generation integrated map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome: analysis of synteny with model fish genomes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    In this paper we generated DNA fingerprints and end sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from two new libraries to improve the first generation integrated physical and genetic map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome. The current version of the physical map is compose...

  11. Continuous exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus during early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss(Walbaum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 100,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L or 140 fish/L, with a tank flow rat...

  12. Continuous Exposure to Infectious Pancreatic Necrosis Virus (IPNV) During Early Life Stages of Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10, 1,000, or 10,000 pfu/L of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish/L (low) or 140 fish/L (high), and wate...

  13. Effects of plant protein blends on growth performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant protein levels in aquafeeds are increasing in response to the high cost and limited availability of fishmeal for production of animal feeds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant protein blends on growth and feed utilization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and t...

  14. Over the falls? Rapid evolution of ecotypic differentiation in steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Pearse, Devon E; Hayes, Sean A; Bond, Morgan H; Hanson, Chad V; Anderson, Eric C; Macfarlane, R Bruce; Garza, John Carlos

    2009-01-01

    Adaptation to novel habitats and phenotypic plasticity can be counteracting forces in evolution, but both are key characteristics of the life history of steelhead/rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Anadromous steelhead reproduce in freshwater river systems and small coastal streams but grow and mature in the ocean. Resident rainbow trout, either sympatric with steelhead or isolated above barrier dams or waterfalls, represent an alternative life-history form that lives entirely in freshwater. We analyzed population genetic data from 1486 anadromous and resident O. mykiss from a small stream in coastal California with multiple barrier waterfalls. Based on data from 18 highly variable microsatellite loci (He = 0.68), we conclude that the resident population above one barrier, Big Creek Falls, is the result of a recent anthropogenic introduction from the anadromous population of O. mykiss below the falls. Furthermore, fish from this above-barrier population occasionally descend over the falls and have established a genetically differentiated below-barrier subpopulation at the base of the falls, which appears to remain reproductively isolated from their now-sympatric anadromous ancestors. These results support a hypothesis of rapid evolution of a purely resident life history in the above-barrier population in response to strong selection against downstream movement.

  15. Effect of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Golestan, Ghazale; Salati, Amir Parviz; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Zakeri, Mohammad; Moradian, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Aloe vera has been used worldwide in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries due to the plethora of biological activities of its constituents. This study was done to evaluate the effects of dietary aloe vera on growth and lipid peroxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total number of 480 O. mykiss (mean weight 9.50 ± 0.85 g) were randomized into four experimental groups including one control and three experimental groups that aloe vera was incorporated in their diet at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 g kg-1. Trial was done for eight weeks. Then biometry and blood sampling were done. Plasma malondialdehyde, ferric reducing ability of plasma and growth index were estimated at the end of study. The results showed that aloe vera extract did not affect growth indices. Malondialdehyde was increased in the experimental group compared to the control group but ferric reducing ability of plasma showed a decrease in experimental groups (p < 0.05) compared to the control group. Our findings showed that dietary aloe vera have adverse effects on antioxidant defense system in O. mykiss. PMID:25992253

  16. Early Marine Migration Patterns of Wild Coastal Cutthroat Trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Their Hybrids

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Megan E.; Goetz, Fred A.; Van Doornik, Donald M.; Tezak, Eugene P.; Quinn, Thomas P.; Reyes-Tomassini, Jose J.; Berejikian, Barry A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported for hybrids but little information has been published comparing the behavior of hybrids to the pure species. Methodology/Principal Findings This study used acoustic telemetry to record the movements of 52 cutthroat, 42 steelhead x cutthroat hybrids, and 89 steelhead smolts, all wild, that migrated from Big Beef Creek into Hood Canal (Puget Sound, Washington). Various spatial and temporal metrics were used to compare the behavior of the pure species to their hybrids. Median hybrid residence time, estuary time, and tortuosity values were intermediate compared to the pure species. The median total track distance was greater for hybrids than for either cutthroat or steelhead. At the end of each track, most steelhead (80%) were located near or north of the Hood Canal, as expected for this seaward migrating species, whereas most cutthroat (89%) were within 8 kilometers of the estuary. Most hybrids (70%) were detected leaving Hood Canal, though a substantial percentage (20%) remained near the Big Beef Creek estuary. More hybrids (7.5%) than pure cutthroat (4.5%) or steelhead (0.0%) were last detected in the southern reaches of Hood Canal. Conclusions/Significance Given the similarity in freshwater ecology between the species, differences in marine ecology may play an important role in maintaining species integrity in areas of sympatry. PMID:20862225

  17. Early marine migration patterns of wild coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki), steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and their hybrids.

    PubMed

    Moore, Megan E; Goetz, Fred A; Van Doornik, Donald M; Tezak, Eugene P; Quinn, Thomas P; Reyes-Tomassini, Jose J; Berejikian, Barry A

    2010-09-20

    Hybridization between coastal cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) and steelhead or rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been documented in several streams along the North American west coast. The two species occupy similar freshwater habitats but the anadromous forms differ greatly in the duration of marine residence and migration patterns at sea. Intermediate morphological, physiological, and performance traits have been reported for hybrids but little information has been published comparing the behavior of hybrids to the pure species. This study used acoustic telemetry to record the movements of 52 cutthroat, 42 steelhead x cutthroat hybrids, and 89 steelhead smolts, all wild, that migrated from Big Beef Creek into Hood Canal (Puget Sound, Washington). Various spatial and temporal metrics were used to compare the behavior of the pure species to their hybrids. Median hybrid residence time, estuary time, and tortuosity values were intermediate compared to the pure species. The median total track distance was greater for hybrids than for either cutthroat or steelhead. At the end of each track, most steelhead (80%) were located near or north of the Hood Canal, as expected for this seaward migrating species, whereas most cutthroat (89%) were within 8 kilometers of the estuary. Most hybrids (70%) were detected leaving Hood Canal, though a substantial percentage (20%) remained near the Big Beef Creek estuary. More hybrids (7.5%) than pure cutthroat (4.5%) or steelhead (0.0%) were last detected in the southern reaches of Hood Canal. Given the similarity in freshwater ecology between the species, differences in marine ecology may play an important role in maintaining species integrity in areas of sympatry.

  18. Detection of viruses in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Korea by RT-LAMP assay.

    PubMed

    Suebsing, Rungkarn; Kim, Jeong-Ho; Kim, Seok Ryel; Park, Myung-Ae; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2011-10-01

    The viral diseases have been the serious problem in salmonid farming, and rainbow trout is not an exception. In this study, routine surveys were conducted for detecting of viruses in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Korea during 2009-2010. Head kidneys from individual fish were employed for virus detection by using a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay. Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), and viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) were the target viruses in this study. 53.5% (46/86) were found to be IPNV-positive, while IHNV and VHSV showed RT-LAMP negative during examination for 2 years. Ten IPNV-positive samples were randomly selected for viral isolation and the cells showing CPEs were subjected to RT-LAMP, RT-PCR, and direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the rainbow trout isolate has high similarity homologies with the VR-299 strain, as previously described.

  19. Dietary effects of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Yeganeh, Sakineh; Teimouri, Mahdi; Amirkolaie, Abdolsamad Keramat

    2015-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets containing 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% of Spirulina platensis on hematological and serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish (n=180; 101±8 g) were randomly divided into fifteen 300 L fiberglass tanks in triplicates for a period of ten weeks. The RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, total protein and albumin levels increased significantly in the groups supplemented with S. platensis. Dietary inclusion of S. platensis had no significant effects on hematocrit, cholesterol, triglyceride and lactate of the blood. HDL-cholesterol was larger in rainbow trout fed 10% S. platensis in comparison with the other diets, whereas LDL-cholesterol significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. Cortisol and glucose significantly decreased with increasing of S. platensis inclusion. The present results demonstrate that inclusion of 10% S. platensis can be introduced as an immunostimulant in rainbow trout diets. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Geographic distribution of chromosome and microsatellite DNA polymorphisms in Oncorhynchus mykiss native to western Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Thorgaard, G.H.

    1999-01-01

    Chromosome studies of native populations of Oncorhynchus mykiss (steelhead and rainbow trout) in western Washington and southern British Columbia revealed the presence of two evolutionarily distinct chromosome lineages. Populations between, and including, the Elwha River, Washington, and Chilliwack River, British Columbia, contained 2n = 60 chromosomes. Populations on the central Washington coast contained 2n = 58 chromosomes. The north Washington coast and western Strait of Juan de Fuca contained individuals with 58, 59, or 60 chromosomes, suggesting this is a transition zone between 58 and 60 chromosome groups. The differences in chromosomal structure between 2n = 58 and 2n = 60 groups are presumably a Robertsonian rearrangement and an inversion. Allelic variation at three microsatellite loci (One ??6, One ??11 and Omy 77) also was examined, and no significant variation was detected among the 58 and 60 chromosome races. A hypothesis is presented concerning the origin of the 60 chromosome lineage.

  1. Effects of some pesticides on the vital organs of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Capkin, Erol; Terzi, Ertugrul; Boran, Halis; Yandi, Ilhan; Altinok, Ilhan

    2010-12-01

    Gill, trunk kidney, spleen, and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined after exposure to different sublethal concentrations of carbosulfan (25, 50 and 200 μgL(-1)), propineb (3, 6 and 24 mgL(-1)), and benomyl (2, 5 and 20 mgL(-1)) for 14 days. Lesions were observed in gill, trunk kidney, spleen, and liver of rainbow trout exposed to either concentration of pesticides. The most important lesions were determined in the highest concentrations of pesticides. Lamellar fusion, lamellar hyperplasia, epithelial lifting, vacuolization of epithelial tissue, epithelial necrosis, hypertrophy and sloughing of epithelium were observed on fish exposed to carbosulfan, propineb and benomyl. Fish had cell necrosis, degeneration and oedemas in liver, trunk kidney and spleen. None of these lesions were seen in control fish.

  2. Whole body and tissue blood volumes of two strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1990-01-01

    1. Estimates of apparent packed cell, plasma and total blood volumes for the whole body and for 13 selected tissues were compared between Kamloops and Wytheville strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by the simultaneous injection of two vascular tracers, radiolabeled trout erythrocytes (51Cr-RBC) and radioiodated bovine serum albumin (125I-BSA).2. Whole body total blood volume, plasma volume and packed cell volume were slightly, but not significantly greater in the Wytheville trout, whereas, the apparent plasma volumes and total blood volumes in 4 of 13 tissues were significantly greater in the Kamloops strain.3. Differences were most pronounced in highly perfused organs, such as the liver and kidney and in organs of digestion such as the stomach and intestines.4. Differences in blood volumes between the two strains may be related to the greater permeability of the vascular membranes in the Kamloops strain fish.

  3. Comparative cardiovascular effects of four fishery anesthetics in spinally transected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, K.T.; Gingerich, W.H.; Fater, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    1. We compared the effects of four anesthetics on heart rate, dorsal and ventral aortic blood pressure, and electrocardiograms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). 1. Exposure to the local anesthetics tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) and benzocaine hydrochloride (BZH) produced minimal cardiovascular alterations. Mean dorsal aortic pressure (DAP) decreased during exposure to MS-222, and mean DAP and mean ventral aortic pressure (VAP) increased 15% during recovery from BZH. 3. Exposure to the general anesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE) or the hypnotic agent etomidate (ET) dramatically decreased heart rate and blood pressures and altered EKG patterns. 4. During recovery, VAP and DAP increased above baseline for an extended period. Heart rate and EKG patterns rapidly returned to normal.

  4. Cholinergic and behavioral neurotoxicity of carbaryl and cadmium to larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauvais, S.L.; Jones, S.B.; Parris, J.T.; Brewer, S.K.; Little, E.E.

    2001-01-01

    Pesticides and heavy metals are common environmental contaminants that can cause neurotoxicity to aquatic organisms, impairing reproduction and survival. Neurotoxic effects of cadmium and carbaryl exposures were estimated in larval rainbow trout (RBT; Oncorhynchus mykiss) using changes in physiological endpoints and correlations with behavioral responses. Following exposures, RBT were videotaped to assess swimming speed. Brain tissue was used to measure cholinesterase (ChE) activity, muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MChR) number, and MChR affinity. ChE activity decreased with increasing concentrations of carbaryl but not of cadmium. MChR were not affected by exposure to either carbaryl or cadmium. Swimming speed correlated with ChE activity in carbaryl-exposed RBT, but no correlation occurred in cadmium-exposed fish. Thus, carbaryl exposure resulted in neurotoxicity reflected by changes in physiological and behavioral parameters measured, while cadmium exposure did not. Correlations between behavior and physiology provide a useful assessment of neurotoxicity.

  5. Comparative cardiovascular effects of four fishery anesthetics in spinally transected rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fredricks, K.T.; Gingerich, W.H.; Fater, D.C.

    1993-01-01

    1. We compared the effects of four anesthetics on heart rate, dorsal and ventral aortic blood pressure, and electrocardiograms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).2. Exposure to the local anesthetics tricaine methanesulfonate (MS-222) and benzocaine hydrochloride (BZH) produced minimal cardiovascular alterations. Mean dorsal aortic pressure (DAP) decreased during exposure to MS-222, and mean DAP and mean ventral aortic pressure (VAP) increased 15% during recovery from BZH.3. Exposure to the general anesthetic 2-phenoxyethanol (2-PE) or the hypnotic agent etomidate (ET) dramatically decreased heart rate and blood pressures and altered EKG patterns.4. During recovery, VAP and DAP increased above baseline for an extended period. Heart rate and EKG patterns rapidly returned to normal.

  6. Long-term effects of propolis on serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Beyraghdar Kashkooli, Omid; Ebrahimi Dorcheh, Eisa; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Samie, Abdolhossein

    2011-03-01

    Long-term effects of propolis administration on serum biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. To determine the possible toxicity and side effects of propolis, fish were fed on diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.5, 4.5 and 9 g propolis/kg diet for 8 weeks. At the end of the experiment, various seric biochemical parameters were determined. Our results showed that all dosages induced no significant alterations in growth parameters and the seric levels of total protein, albumin, globulin, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides and activities of glutamic pyruvic transaminase, glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase, when compared to the control group. On the basis of our findings, propolis is a non-toxic substance for rainbow trout and its long-term administration might not have any side effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss ladderlectin, but not intelectin, binds viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus IVb.

    PubMed

    Reid, A; Young, K M; Lumsden, J S

    2011-06-16

    The innate immune system of fish is critical for rapid detection and immediate response to infection, as well as to orchestrate the adaptive branch of the immune system. Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss ladderlectin and intelectin are plasma pattern recognition receptors (PRR) for bacterial and fungal pathogens of rainbow trout, but their role as PRRs for virus is unknown. Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) IVb is a recently described fish pathogen in the Great Lakes, and rainbow trout can be experimentally infected. Using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, rainbow trout plasma ladderlectin significantly (p < 0.05) bound purified VHSV while intelectin did not. In addition, plasma ladderlectin but not intelectin was eluted from a VHSV-conjugated Toyopearl column using EDTA. Protein identification was confirmed with polyclonal antiserum used with slot immunoblot, 1-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide electrophoresis, and Western immunoblot.

  8. Efficacy of selected oral chemotherapeutants against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis (Ciliophora: Ophyroglenidae) infecting rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Shinn, Andrew P; Wootten, Rodney; Côté, Isabelle; Sommerville, Christina

    2003-06-20

    The chemotherapeutic efficacy of 6 in-feed compounds against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis Fouquet, 1876 was assessed using experimental infections of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) fingerlings. Trial doses of 104 ppm amprolium hydrochloride or 65 ppm clopidol fed to fish for 10 d prior to infection significantly reduced the number of trophonts establishing in trout fingerlings by 62.0 and 35.2% respectively. In-feed treatments of infected trout with either 63 or 75 ppm amprolium hydrochloride, 92 ppm clopidol, or 38, 43 or 47 ppm salinomycin sodium for 10 d also significantly reduced the number of surviving trophonts by 77.6 and 32.2% for amprolium, 20.1% for clopidol and 80.2, 71.9 and 93.3% respectively for salinomycin sodium.

  9. Avoidance response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to hexavalent chromium solutions.

    PubMed

    Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2007-12-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on one-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to evaluate their ability to detect and avoid hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Test fish were given a choice to discriminate between clean water and Cr(6+) solutions of six sublethal concentrations ranging from 0.0015 to 0.3 mg Cr/L in a counter-current flow, steep gradient chamber. The intensity of avoidance response reached a significant level at test concentrations of 0.003 mg Cr/L and higher, and was directly proportional to the Cr(6+) concentration logarithm. Avoidance threshold was estimated through regression analysis and to be 0.0017 mg Cr/L. This result is approximately sixfold lower than maximum-permitted concentration of 0.01 mg Cr/L accepted as the Lithuanian water-quality guideline for the protection of aquatic life.

  10. Use of behavioral responses of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in identifying sublethal exposure to hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Svecevicius, Gintaras

    2009-05-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted in a flow-through apparatus on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss to evaluate the sensitivity of a number of their behavioral responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)). Test fish were exposed to Cr(6+) concentrations corresponding to 0.001-1 parts of the rainbow trout 96-h LC50 (0.029-28.5 mg Cr/L, respectively) in short-term (15 min) tests. Sensitivity parameter responses could be arranged into the following sequence: latent period of detection response = locomotor activity > gill ventilation frequency > coughing rate. All the rainbow trout responses were sensitive behavioral indicators of sublethal exposure. Behavioral responses meet the criteria as rapid tools for bioassay testing and could be easily standardized using Cr(6+) as a reference toxicant.

  11. Avoidance of copper and zinc by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss pre-exposed to copper.

    PubMed

    Svecevičius, Gintaras

    2012-01-01

    Laboratory tests were conducted on 1-year-old rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in a counter-current flow, steep-gradient chamber to evaluate their ability to detect and avoid copper and zinc at concentrations of 0.1 mg Cu/L and 1 mg Zn/L, respectively, after 10-day pre-exposure to five copper sublethal concentrations ranging from 0.1 to 0.5 mg Cu/L and after 10-day re-acclimation period in clean water. Avoidance response intensity in affected fish significantly decreased with increase in pre-exposure Cu concentration. The strength of avoidance response to Cu and Zn test solutions in pre-exposed fish after re-acclimation gradually increased in a concentration-dependent order.

  12. Fast genomic biomarker responses of retene and pyrene in liver of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Räsänen, Kati; Arsiola, Tiina; Oikari, Aimo

    2012-10-01

    We studied the transcriptive effects of two PAHs, retene (RET) and pyrene (PYR), in three equimolar sublethal concentrations (0.9-10 μg/L) in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. After 24 h of in vivo exposure, expressions of selected genes (CYP1A, Hsp30, Hsp70, Grp78, Sep15, GP1) were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). These PAHs changed the studied gene transcriptions differently, but not significantly, except for CYP1A, which was induced only by RET. RET induced CYP1A gene expression even at low, environmentally realistic concentrations in the liver of juvenile rainbow trout.

  13. Immunocytochemical localization of carbonic anhydrase in the pseudobranch tissue of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, S. M.; Mazlan, A. G.; Simon, K. D.; Delaunoy, J. P.; Laurent, P.

    2014-01-01

    Pseudobranch function has long interested scientists, but its role has yet to be elucidated. Several studies have suggested that pseudobranchs serve respiratory, osmoregulatory, and sensory functions. This work investigated the immunolocalization of pseudobranch carbonic anhydrase (CA) in the teleost fish species rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to clarify its physiological function. CA was purified from rainbow trout gills O. mykiss and specific antibodies were raised. Immunoblotting between tissue homogenates of pseudobranch and gill CA antibodies showed specific immunostaining with only one band corresponding to CA in the pseudobranch homogenate. Results of immunohistochemical technique revealed that CA was distributed within pseudobranch cells and more precisely in the apical parts (anti-vascular) of cells. The basal (vascular) parts of cells, tubular system, blood capillaries, and pillar cells were not immunostained. Immunocytochemistry confirmed these results and showed that some CA enzyme was cytoplasmic and the remainder was linked to membranous structures. The results also showed that the lacunar tissue layers did not display immunoperoxidase activity. Our results indicated that pseudobranch CA may have a function related to the extracellular medium wherein CA intervenes with the mechanism of stimulation of afferent nerve fibers. PMID:24510712

  14. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) 7-day survival and growth test method.

    PubMed

    Lazorchak, James M; Smith, Mark E

    2007-10-01

    A short-term method was developed in this study for conducting subchronic survival and growth renewal toxicity tests with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis). Previously published early life-stage methods for various salmonid species involve test durations of 30 to 90 days. This trout method, however, follows a previously published 7-day fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) growth method. The tests performed in this study measured subchronic growth and survival effects using standard reference toxicants (ammonium chloride, potassium chloride, phenol, and zinc sulfate), receiving water, and effluent samples. The test results were compared with performance criteria and results for 7-day survival and growth tests with P. promelas to determine the level of comparability between the two species. The results from tests with both salmonid species indicated that this 7-day survival and growth test method using O. mykiss and S. fontinalis provides reproducible results with various reference toxicant materials and can be used successfully to detect potential toxicity in environmental samples.

  15. Fluvial rainbow trout contribute to the colonization of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in a small stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weigel, Dana E.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Powell, Madison S.

    2013-01-01

    Life history polymorphisms provide ecological and genetic diversity important to the long term persistence of species responding to stochastic environments. Oncorhynchus mykiss have complex and overlapping life history strategies that are also sympatric with hatchery populations. Passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags and parentage analysis were used to identify the life history, origin (hatchery or wild) and reproductive success of migratory rainbow/steelhead for two brood years after barriers were removed from a small stream. The fluvial rainbow trout provided a source of wild genotypes to the colonizing population boosting the number of successful spawners. Significantly more parr offspring were produced by anadromous parents than expected in brood year 2005, whereas significantly more parr offspring were produced by fluvial parents than expected in brood year 2006. Although hatchery steelhead were prevalent in the Methow Basin, they produced only 2 parr and no returning adults in Beaver Creek. On average, individual wild steelhead produced more parr offspring than the fluvial or hatchery groups. Yet, the offspring that returned as adult steelhead were from parents that produced few parr offspring, indicating that high production of parr offspring may not be related to greater returns of adult offspring. These data in combination with other studies of sympatric life histories of O. mykiss indicate that fluvial rainbow trout are important to the conservation and recovery of steelhead and should be included in the management and recovery efforts.

  16. Comparison of reproductive development in triploid and diploid female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Han, Y; Liu, M; Zhang, L Lan; Simpson, B; Zhang, G Xue

    2010-05-01

    The diploid rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss reached sexual maturity 3 years after hatching and its oogenesis underwent four stages, which were oogonia, primary oocyte, secondary oocyte and egg. Reproductive development and hormone changes of 4 to 35 month-old female O. mykiss were investigated using histological and radioimmunoassay methods in order to provide a theoretical and practical basis for the use of triploid female O. mykiss. The oogonium of the triploid female could develop into the oocytes of the prophase with abortion occurring later; the oogonium was surrounded by stroma cells to form the oogonium cluster and the gonads showed a virilescent tendency when the oogonium clusters were gradually replaced by spermatogenic-like cytocysts. After 13 months, amounts of gonadotropic hormone (GtH-I, GtH-II) and oestradiol (17beta-E(2)) in triploid females were lower than in diploid fish at corresponding time periods, but the amounts of testosterone (T) increased consistently after 21 months and were more than in diploid fish in the corresponding time periods (P > 0.05). The infertility of triploid females resulted from meiosis failure, which caused developmental abortion of oocytes and oogonium formed cytocysts before the prophase oocytes. The cytocyst formation was due to the lack of the normal interaction of ovum and follicular cells, the development of follicular cells producing steroids were inhibited, the arylate path from T to 17beta-E(2) was interrupted, concentration of 17beta-E(2) decreased and concentration of T increased in the blood, the content of vitellogenin (Vg) decreased in the liver with a low 17beta-E(2) and high T caused to ovaries to show a tendency to be virilescent.

  17. [Sex identification of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Rud, Yu P; Maistrenko, M I; Buchatskii, L P

    2015-01-01

    A polymerase chain reaction-based test for rapid sex identification of the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss has been elaborated. Using the data deposited with the NCBI genome bank, nucleotide sequences of the specific sex-linked locus of salmonid species have been analyzed and the oligonucleotide primers have been selected. The length of the amplification products is 800 nucleotide pairs. Amplification specificity has been tested by nucleotide analysis of the amplicon sequences. All PCR products match the Y chromosome region housing the corresponding specific locus. A comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequences of the fragments carrying the rainbow trout (and other salmonid species) sex-linked marker demonstrates a high degree of identity, amounting to 95-99%. The maximal identity between the sequences (99%) is observed when analyzing representatives of the same genus, for example, Oncorhynchus. Thus, the sex is detectable by a simple PCR test, thereby allowing the male revertants emerging via hormonal sex reversion to be identified. This test is a rapid diagnostic method, since it requires only 1 day for testing and informing the fish farm on its results. Results of abdomen opening of rainbow trout revertants and examination of their hormonal status are also described.

  18. Sperm metabolism of the telost fishes Chalcalburnus chalcoides and Oncorhynchus mykiss and its relation to motility and viability.

    PubMed

    Lahnsteiner, F; Berger, B; Weismann, T

    1999-09-01

    In the teleost fish Chalcalburnus chalcoides (Cyprinidae) the influence of metabolic inhibitors, substrates, coenzymes, and oxygen concentrations on spermatozoal parameters during motility and during immotile incubation was studied, the respiration rate was characterized, representative metabolite levels were measured, and the results were compared with Oncorhynchus mykiss (Salmonidae). In Chalcalburnus chalcoides the sperm motility rate, the average path swimming velocity, the motility duration, and the viability of immotile semen were significantly reduced in the presence of inhibitors of respiration (potassium cyanide, 2.4-dinitrophenol, atractyloside). Anaerobic conditions (<1 mg O(2)/liter) and inhibition of the tricarboxylic acid cycle by malonate and >7.5 mmol/liter succinate had similar effects on the sperm motility parameters and on the viability of immotile spermatozoa. Pyruvate and coenzyme A (an acyl-group carrier during oxidative carboxylation of pyruvate) prolonged the duration of sperm motility and the viability of immotile incubated spermatozoa, and also increased the spermatozoal respiration rate. Glucose levels significantly decreased during motility and during immotile storage and, under anaerobic conditions, the levels of lactate increased indicating that pyruvate derived from glycolysis. The respiration rate and the glycolytic rate significantly increased during motility. Therefore oxidative phosphorylation, tricarboxylic acid cycle, and aerobic glycolysis are central energy-supplying pathways for spermatozoa of Chalcalburnus chalcoides. The stimulatory effect of pyruvate and coenzyme A indicated that glycolysis is a rate-controlling pathway. Similar results were obtained for Oncorhynchus mykiss with the only exception that the stimulatory effect of coenzyme A was more significant than the stimulatory effect of pyruvate. When the sperm motility-activating saline solutions were optimized in aspects of energy supply, ionic composition, and

  19. Molecular characterization of a novel orthomyxovirus from rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Batts, William N.; LaPatra, Scott E; Katona, Ryan; Leis, Eric; Fei Fan Ng, Terry; Bruieuc, Marine S O; Breyta, Rachel; Purcell, Maureen; Waltzek, Thomas B; Delwart, Eric; Winton, James

    2017-01-01

    A novel virus, rainbow trout orthomyxovirus (RbtOV), was isolated in 1997 and again in 2000 from commercially-reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Idaho, USA. The virus grew optimally in the CHSE-214 cell line at 15°C producing a diffuse cytopathic effect; however, juvenile rainbow trout exposed to cell culture-grown virus showed no mortality or gross pathology. Electron microscopy of preparations from infected cell cultures revealed the presence of typical orthomyxovirus particles. The complete genome of RbtOV is comprised of eight linear segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA having highly conserved 5′ and 3′-terminal nucleotide sequences. Another virus isolated in 2014 from steelhead trout (also O. mykiss) in Wisconsin, USA, and designated SttOV was found to have eight genome segments with high amino acid sequence identities (89–99%) to the corresponding genes of RbtOV, suggesting these new viruses are isolates of the same virus species and may be more widespread than currently realized. The new isolates had the same genome segment order and the closest pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 16–42% with Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), the type species and currently only member of the genus Isavirus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. However, pairwise comparisons of the predicted amino acid sequences of the 10 RbtOV and SttOV proteins with orthologs from representatives of the established orthomyxoviral genera and a phylogenetic analysis using the PB1 protein showed that while RbtOV and SttOV clustered most closely with ISAV, they diverged sufficiently to merit consideration as representatives of a novel genus. A set of PCR primers was designed using conserved regions of the PB1 gene to produce amplicons that may be sequenced for identification of similar fish orthomyxoviruses in the future.

  20. Transcription profiling in environmental diagnostics: health assessments in Columbia River basin steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Connon, Richard E; D'Abronzo, Leandro S; Hostetter, Nathan J; Javidmehr, Alireza; Roby, Daniel D; Evans, Allen F; Loge, Frank J; Werner, Inge

    2012-06-05

    The health condition of out-migrating juvenile salmonids can influence migration success. Physical damage, pathogenic infection, contaminant exposure, and immune system status can affect survival probability. The present study is part of a wider investigation of out-migration success in juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and focuses on the application of molecular profiling to assess sublethal effects of environmental stressors in field-collected fish. We used a suite of genes in O. mykiss to specifically assess responses that could be directly related to steelhead health condition during out-migration. These biomarkers were used on juvenile steelhead captured in the Snake River, a tributary of the Columbia River, in Washington, USA, and were applied on gill and anterior head kidney tissue to assess immune system responses, pathogen-defense (NRAMP, Mx, CXC), general stress (HSP70), metal-binding (metallothionein-A), and xenobiotic metabolism (Cyp1a1) utilizing quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology. Upon capture, fish were ranked according to visual external physical conditions into good, fair, poor, and bad categories; gills and kidney tissues were then dissected and preserved for gene analyses. Transcription responses were tissue-specific for gill and anterior head kidney with less significant responses in gill tissue than in kidney. Significant differences between the condition ranks were attributed to NRAMP, MX, CXC, and Cyp1a1 responses. Gene profiling correlated gene expression with pathogen presence, and results indicated that gene profiling can be a useful tool for identifying specific pathogen types responsible for disease. Principal component analysis (PCA) further correlated these responses with specific health condition categories, strongly differentiating good, poor, and bad condition ranks. We conclude that molecular profiling is an informative and useful tool that could be applied to indicate and monitor numerous population

  1. Acute and chronic effects of erythromycin exposure on oxidative stress and genotoxicity parameters of Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, S; Antunes, S C; Correia, A T; Nunes, B

    2016-03-01

    Erythromycin (ERY) is a macrolide antibiotic used in human and veterinary medicine, and has been detected in various aquatic compartments. Recent studies have indicated that this compound can exert biological activity on non-target organisms environmentally exposed. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of ERY in Oncorhynchus mykiss after acute and chronic exposures. The here adopted strategy involved exposure to three levels of ERY, the first being similar to concentrations reported to occur in the wild, thus ecologically relevant. Catalase (CAT), total glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) activities and lipid peroxidation (TBARS levels) were quantified as oxidative stress biomarkers in gills and liver. Genotoxic endpoints, reflecting different types of genetic damage in blood cells, were also determined, by performing analysis of genetic damage (determination of the genetic damage index, GDI, measured by comet assay) and of erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs). The results suggest the occurrence of a mild, but significant, oxidative stress scenario in gills. For acutely exposed organisms, significant alterations were observed in CAT and GRed activities, and also in TBARS levels, which however are modifications with uncertain biological interpretation, despite indicating involvement of an oxidative effect and response. After chronic exposure, a significant decrease of CAT activity, increase of GPx activity and TBARS levels in gills was noticed. In liver, significant decrease in TBARS levels were observed in both exposures. Comet and ENAs assays indicated significant increases on genotoxic damage of O. mykiss, after erythromycin exposures. This set of data (acute and chronic) suggests that erythromycin has the potential to induce DNA strand breaks in blood cells, and demonstrate the induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities. Overall results indicate that both DNA damaging effects induced by

  2. Infection experiments with novel Piscine orthoreovirus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Taksdal, Torunn; Olsen, Anne Berit; Wessel, Øystein; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Alencar, Anna Luiza Farias; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    A new disease in farmed rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) was described in Norway in 2013. The disease mainly affected the heart and resembled heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and a search for a similar virus in the diseased rainbow trout led to detection of a sequence with 85% similarity to PRV. This finding called for a targeted effort to assess the risk the new PRV-variant pose on farmed rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon by studying infection and disease pathogenesis, aiming to provide more diagnostic knowledge. Based on the genetic relationship to PRV, the novel virus is referred to as PRV-Oncorhynchus mykiss (PRV-Om) in contrast to PRV-Salmo salar (PRV-Ss). In experimental trials, intraperitoneally injected PRV-Om was shown to replicate in blood in both salmonid species, but more effectively in rainbow trout. In rainbow trout, the virus levels peaked in blood and heart of cohabitants 6 weeks post challenge, along with increased expression of antiviral genes (Mx and viperin) in the spleen, with 80–100% of the cohabitants infected. Heart inflammation was diagnosed in all cohabitants examined 8 weeks post challenge. In contrast, less than 50% of the Atlantic salmon cohabitants were infected between 8 and 16 weeks post challenge and the antiviral response in these fish was very low. From 12 weeks post challenge and onwards, mild focal myocarditis was demonstrated in a few virus-positive salmon. In conclusion, PRV-Om infects both salmonid species, but faster transmission, more notable antiviral response and more prominent heart pathology were observed in rainbow trout. PMID:28678799

  3. Infection experiments with novel Piscine orthoreovirus from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in salmonids.

    PubMed

    Hauge, Helena; Vendramin, Niccolo; Taksdal, Torunn; Olsen, Anne Berit; Wessel, Øystein; Mikkelsen, Susie Sommer; Alencar, Anna Luiza Farias; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Dahle, Maria Krudtaa

    2017-01-01

    A new disease in farmed rainbow trout (Onchorhyncus mykiss) was described in Norway in 2013. The disease mainly affected the heart and resembled heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). HSMI is associated with Piscine orthoreovirus (PRV), and a search for a similar virus in the diseased rainbow trout led to detection of a sequence with 85% similarity to PRV. This finding called for a targeted effort to assess the risk the new PRV-variant pose on farmed rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon by studying infection and disease pathogenesis, aiming to provide more diagnostic knowledge. Based on the genetic relationship to PRV, the novel virus is referred to as PRV-Oncorhynchus mykiss (PRV-Om) in contrast to PRV-Salmo salar (PRV-Ss). In experimental trials, intraperitoneally injected PRV-Om was shown to replicate in blood in both salmonid species, but more effectively in rainbow trout. In rainbow trout, the virus levels peaked in blood and heart of cohabitants 6 weeks post challenge, along with increased expression of antiviral genes (Mx and viperin) in the spleen, with 80-100% of the cohabitants infected. Heart inflammation was diagnosed in all cohabitants examined 8 weeks post challenge. In contrast, less than 50% of the Atlantic salmon cohabitants were infected between 8 and 16 weeks post challenge and the antiviral response in these fish was very low. From 12 weeks post challenge and onwards, mild focal myocarditis was demonstrated in a few virus-positive salmon. In conclusion, PRV-Om infects both salmonid species, but faster transmission, more notable antiviral response and more prominent heart pathology were observed in rainbow trout.

  4. Molecular characterization of a novel orthomyxovirus from rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Batts, William N; LaPatra, Scott E; Katona, Ryan; Leis, Eric; Ng, Terry Fei Fan; Brieuc, Marine S O; Breyta, Rachel B; Purcell, Maureen K; Conway, Carla M; Waltzek, Thomas B; Delwart, Eric; Winton, James R

    2017-02-15

    A novel virus, rainbow trout orthomyxovirus (RbtOV), was isolated in 1997 and again in 2000 from commercially-reared rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Idaho, USA. The virus grew optimally in the CHSE-214 cell line at 15°C producing a diffuse cytopathic effect; however, juvenile rainbow trout exposed to cell culture-grown virus showed no mortality or gross pathology. Electron microscopy of preparations from infected cell cultures revealed the presence of typical orthomyxovirus particles. The complete genome of RbtOV is comprised of eight linear segments of single-stranded, negative-sense RNA having highly conserved 5' and 3'-terminal nucleotide sequences. Another virus isolated in 2014 from steelhead trout (also O. mykiss) in Wisconsin, USA, and designated SttOV was found to have eight genome segments with high amino acid sequence identities (89-99%) to the corresponding genes of RbtOV, suggesting these new viruses are isolates of the same virus species and may be more widespread than currently realized. The new isolates had the same genome segment order and the closest pairwise amino acid sequence identities of 16-42% with Infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV), the type species and currently only member of the genus Isavirus in the family Orthomyxoviridae. However, pairwise comparisons of the predicted amino acid sequences of the 10 RbtOV and SttOV proteins with orthologs from representatives of the established orthomyxoviral genera and a phylogenetic analysis using the PB1 protein showed that while RbtOV and SttOV clustered most closely with ISAV, they diverged sufficiently to merit consideration as representatives of a novel genus. A set of PCR primers was designed using conserved regions of the PB1 gene to produce amplicons that may be sequenced for identification of similar fish orthomyxoviruses in the future. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Mapping and Expression of Candidate Genes for Development Rate in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hale, Matthew C; Colletti, John A; Gahr, Scott A; Scardina, Julie; Thrower, Frank P; Harmon, Matthew; Carter, Megan; Phillips, Ruth B; Thorgaard, Gary H; Rexroad, Caird E; Nichols, Krista M

    2014-01-01

    Development rate has important implications for individual fitness and physiology. In salmonid fishes, development rate correlates with many traits later in life, including life-history diversity, growth, and age and size at sexual maturation. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), a quantitative trait locus for embryonic development rate has been detected on chromosome 5 across populations. However, few candidate genes have been identified within this region. In this study, we use gene mapping, gene expression, and quantitative genetic methods to further identify the genetic basis of embryonic developmental rate in O. mykiss Among the genes located in the region of the major development rate quantitative trait locus (GHR1, Clock1a, Myd118-1, and their paralogs), all were expressed early in embryonic development (fertilization through hatch), but none were differentially expressed between individuals with the fast- or slow-developing alleles for a major embryonic development rate quantitative trait locus. In a follow-up study of migratory and resident rainbow trout from natural populations in Alaska, we found significant additive variation in development rate and, moreover, found associations between development rate and allelic variation in all 3 candidate genes within the quantitative trait locus for embryonic development. The mapping of these genes to this region and associations in multiple populations provide positional candidates for further study of their roles in growth, development, and life-history diversity in this model salmonid. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Genetic Association 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  6. Discovery and characterization of single-nucleotide polymorphisms in steelhead/rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Abadía-Cardoso, Alicia; Clemento, Anthony J; Garza, John Carlos

    2011-03-01

    Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have several advantages over other genetic markers, including lower mutation and genotyping error rates, ease of inter-laboratory standardization, and the prospect of high-throughput, low-cost genotyping. Nevertheless, their development and use has only recently moved beyond model organisms to groups such as salmonid fishes. Oncorhynchus mykiss is a salmonid native to the North Pacific rim that has now been introduced throughout the world for fisheries and aquaculture. The anadromous form of the species is known as steelhead. Native steelhead populations on the west coast of the United States have declined and many now have protected status. The nonanadromous, or resident, form of the species is termed rainbow, redband or golden trout. Additional life history and morphological variation, and interactions between the forms, make the species challenging to study, monitor and evaluate. Here, we describe the discovery, characterization and assay development for 139 SNP loci in steelhead/rainbow trout. We used EST sequences from existing genomic databases to design primers for 480 genes. Sanger-sequencing products from these genes provided 130 KB of consensus sequence in which variation was surveyed for 22 individuals from steelhead, rainbow and redband trout groups. The resulting TaqMan assays were surveyed in five steelhead populations and three rainbow trout stocks, where they had a mean minor allele frequency of 0.15-0.26 and observed heterozygosity of 0.18-0.35. Mean F(ST) was 0.204. The development of SNPs for O. mykiss will help to provide highly informative genetic tools for individual and stock identification, pedigree reconstruction, phylogeography and ecological investigation. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Evaluating Adaptive Divergence Between Migratory and Nonmigratory Ecotypes of a Salmonid Fish, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Matthew C.; Thrower, Frank P.; Berntson, Ewann A.; Miller, Michael R.; Nichols, Krista M.

    2013-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing and the application of population genomic and association approaches have made it possible to detect selection and unravel the genetic basis to variable phenotypic traits. The use of these two approaches in parallel is especially attractive in nonmodel organisms that lack a sequenced and annotated genome, but only works well when population structure is not confounded with the phenotype of interest. Herein, we use population genomics in a nonmodel fish species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to better understand adaptive divergence between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes and to further our understanding about the genetic basis of migration. Restriction site-associated DNA (RAD) tag sequencing was used to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in migrant and resident O. mykiss from two systems, one in Alaska and the other in Oregon. A total of 7920 and 6755 SNPs met filtering criteria in the Alaska and Oregon data sets, respectively. Population genetic tests determined that 1423 SNPs were candidates for selection when loci were compared between resident and migrant samples. Previous linkage mapping studies that used RAD DNA tag SNPs were available to determine the position of 1990 markers. Several significant SNPs are located in genome regions that contain quantitative trait loci for migratory-related traits, reinforcing the importance of these regions in the genetic basis of migration/residency. Annotation of genome regions linked to significant SNPs revealed genes involved in processes known to be important in migration (such as osmoregulatory function). This study adds to our growing knowledge on adaptive divergence between migratory and nonmigratory ecotypes of this species; across studies, this complex trait appears to be controlled by many loci of small effect, with some in common, but many loci not shared between populations studied. PMID:23797103

  8. A novel role for pigment genes in the stress response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Uniza Wahid; Øverli, Øyvind; Hinkle, Patricia M.; Pasha, Farhan Ahmad; Johansen, Ida Beitnes; Berget, Ingunn; Silva, Patricia I. M.; Kittilsen, Silje; Höglund, Erik; Omholt, Stig W.; Våge, Dag Inge

    2016-01-01

    In many vertebrate species visible melanin-based pigmentation patterns correlate with high stress- and disease-resistance, but proximate mechanisms for this trait association remain enigmatic. Here we show that a missense mutation in a classical pigmentation gene, melanocyte stimulating hormone receptor (MC1R), is strongly associated with distinct differences in steroidogenic melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) mRNA expression between high- (HR) and low-responsive (LR) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We also show experimentally that cortisol implants increase the expression of agouti signaling protein (ASIP) mRNA in skin, likely explaining the association between HR-traits and reduced skin melanin patterning. Molecular dynamics simulations predict that melanocortin 2 receptor accessory protein (MRAP), needed for MC2R function, binds differently to the two MC1R variants. Considering that mRNA for MC2R and the MC1R variants are present in head kidney cells, we hypothesized that MC2R activity is modulated in part by different binding affinities of the MC1R variants for MRAP. Experiments in mammalian cells confirmed that trout MRAP interacts with the two trout MC1R variants and MC2R, but failed to detect regulation of MC2R signaling, possibly due to high constitutive MC1R activity. PMID:27373344

  9. Cytotoxicity of atorvastatin and simvastatin on primary rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Ellesat, Kathrin Sabine; Tollefsen, Knut-Erik; Asberg, Anders; Thomas, Kevin V; Hylland, Ketil

    2010-09-01

    Statins are cholesterol-lowering pharmaceuticals and commonly prescribed drugs in European countries. Their discharge into the aquatic environment has increased in the last few years and they are present at detectable levels in most sewage effluents. The aim of the present study was to quantify the cytotoxic effects of acid and lactone forms of two statins, atorvastatin and simvastatin, as well as selected metabolites (ortho- and para-hydroxy atorvastatin acid, ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin lactone, simvastatin hydroxyl carboxylic acid, and 3''hydroxy simvastatin lactone) to hepatocytes from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Hepatocytes were exposed for 24, 48, and 72 h to different concentrations of each test substance (0.4-400 microM). Cytotoxicity was measured as metabolic inhibition and loss of membrane integrity with the fluorescent probes alamar blue (AB) and 5-carboxyfluorescein diacetate, acetoxymethyl ester (CFDA-AM), respectively. Atorvastatin, simvastatin, and ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin lactone had dose-dependent cytotoxic effects on hepatocytes. Simvastatin was more toxic than atorvastatin and the lactone form more toxic than the acid form. Exposure time affected atorvastatin and ortho-hydroxy atorvastatin lactone but not simvastatin toxicity.

  10. The effect of creosote on vitellogenin production in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherry, J.P.; Whyte, J.J.; Karrow, N.A.; Gamble, A.; Boerman, H.J.; Bol, N.C.; Dixon, D.G.; Solomon, K.R.

    2006-01-01

    As part of a broader investigation into the effects of creosote treatments on the aquatic biota in pond microcosms, we examined the possible implications for vitellogenin (Vtg) production in Oncorhynchus mykiss [rainbow trout (RT)]. Vtg is the precursor of egg yolk protein and has emerged as a useful biomarker of exposure to estrogenic substances. Our a priori intent was to assess the ability of the creosote treatments (nominal cresoste concentrations were 0, 3, and 10 ??l/L immediately after the last subsurface addition) to induce estrogenic responses in RT. The data showed no evidence of an estrogenic response in the treated fish. During the course of the experiment, however, the fish matured and began to produce Vtg, probably in response to endogenous estrogen. A posteriori analysis of the Vtg data from the maturing fish showed that after 28 days, the plasma Vtg concentrations were about 15-fold lower in fish from the creosote-treated microcosms compared with fish from the reference microcosm. Although the experiment design does not permit mechanistic insights, our observation suggests that exposure of female fish to PAH mixtures such as creosote can impair the production of Vtg with possible health implications for embryos and larvae. ?? 2006 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

  11. Effects of gastric distension on the cardiovascular system in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Seth, Henrik; Sandblom, Erik; Holmgren, Susanne; Axelsson, Michael

    2008-05-01

    When animals feed, blood flow to the gastrointestinal tract increases to ensure an adequate oxygen supply to the gastrointestinal tissue and an effective absorption of nutrients. In mammals, this increase depends on the chemical properties of the food, as well as, to some extent, on the mechanical distension of the stomach wall. By using an inflatable nitrile balloon positioned in the stomach, we investigated the cardiovascular responses to mechanical stretch of the stomach wall in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Distension with a volume equivalent to a meal of 2% of the body mass increased dorsal aortic blood pressure by up to 29%, and central venous blood pressure increased transiently nearly fivefold. The increase in arterial pressure was mediated by an increased vascular resistance of both the systemic and the intestinal circulation. Cardiac output, heart rate, and stroke volume (SV) did not change, and only transient changes in gut blood flow were observed. The increase in arterial pressure was abolished by the alpha-adrenergic antagonist prazosin, indicating an active adrenergic vasoconstriction, whereas the venous pressor response could be the consequence of a passive increase in intraperitoneal pressure. Our results show that mechanical distension of the stomach causes an instantaneous increase in general vascular resistance, which may facilitate a redistribution of blood to the gastrointestinal tract when chemical stimuli from a meal induce vasodilation in the gut circulation. The normal postprandial increase in gut blood flow in teleosts is, therefore, most likely partly dependent on mechanical stimuli, as well as on chemical stimuli.

  12. Mechanisms of fenthion activation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to hypersaline environments

    SciTech Connect

    Lavado, Ramon Rimoldi, John M.; Schlenk, Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Previous studies in rainbow trout have shown that acclimation to hypersaline environments enhances the toxicity to thioether organophosphate and carbamate pesticides. In order to determine the role of biotransformation in this process, the metabolism of the thioether organophosphate biocide, fenthion was evaluated in microsomes from gills, liver and olfactory tissues in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to freshwater and 17 per mille salinity. Hypersalinity acclimation increased the formation of fenoxon and fenoxon sulfoxide from fenthion in liver microsomes from rainbow trout, but not in gills or in olfactory tissues. NADPH-dependent and independent hydrolysis was observed in all tissues, but only NADPH-dependent fenthion cleavage was differentially modulated by hypersalinity in liver (inhibited) and gills (induced). Enantiomers of fenthion sulfoxide (65% and 35% R- and S-fenthion sulfoxide, respectively) were formed in liver and gills. The predominant pathway of fenthion activation in freshwater appears to be initiated through initial formation of fenoxon which may be subsequently converted to the most toxic metabolite fenoxon R-sulfoxide. However, in hypersaline conditions both fenoxon and fenthion sulfoxide formation may precede fenoxon sulfoxide formation. Stereochemical evaluation of sulfoxide formation, cytochrome P450 inhibition studies with ketoconazole and immunoblots indicated that CYP3A27 was primarily involved in the enhancement of fenthion activation in hypersaline-acclimated fish with limited contribution of FMO to initial sulfoxidation.

  13. Staphylococcus warneri, a resident skin commensal of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with pathobiont characteristics.

    PubMed

    Musharrafieh, Rami; Tacchi, Luca; Trujeque, Joshua; LaPatra, Scott; Salinas, Irene

    2014-02-21

    Commensal microorganisms live in association with the mucosal surfaces of all vertebrates. The skin of teleost fish is known to harbor commensals. In this study we report for the first time the presence of an intracellular Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus warneri that resides in the skin epidermis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). S. warneri was isolated from healthy hatchery trout skin epithelial cells. In situ hybridization confirmed the intracellular nature of the bacterium. Skin explants exposed in vitro to S. warneri or the extracellular pathogen Vibrio anguillarum show that S. warneri is able to induce an anti-inflammatory cytokine status via TGF-β1b compared to the pro-inflammatory responses (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-∝) elicited by V. anguillarum. In vivo experiments showed that S. warneri is not pathogenic to rainbow trout when injected intraperitoneally at high concentrations. However, S. warneri is able to stimulate V. anguillarum growth and biofilm formation on rainbow trout scales. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout skin commensals such as S. warneri have the potential to become indirect pathobionts by enhancing growth and biofilm formation of pathogens such as V. anguillarum. These results show that fish farming practices (i.e. handling and other manipulations) can alter the skin microbiota and compromise the skin health of rainbow trout. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Metabolic Adjustments to Short-Term Diurnal Temperature Fluctuation in the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Callaghan, Neal Ingraham; Tunnah, Louise; Currie, Suzanne; MacCormack, Tyson James

    In rainbow trout, warmer temperatures increase metabolic rate, which can be energetically stressful. Diel fluctuations in water temperatures are common in rivers, raising the question of whether fish experience metabolic preconditioning with repeated heat stress. In this study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792) were subjected to three temperature treatments consisting of either a constant exposure to 16°C, a single exposure to 24°C, or three cycles between 16° and 24°C. Metabolic responses were investigated, including patterns of regulation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and its substrates, key metabolic enzymes, and several relevant metabolites. In liver and, to a lesser extent, in heart, patterns of signal transduction suggest an increasingly anabolic phenotype with successive heat cycles. Inhibition of Raptor in the heart suggests lowered gross protein synthesis after multiple heat cycles. Fish also showed recovery of glycogen stores and lipid synthesis after multiple thermal cycles, while they maintained baseline plasma glucose levels. The animals showed no evidence of hypoxemia, and our results suggest rainbow trout exposed to repeated thermal cycles were not at risk of metabolic substrate depletion. Collectively, our data indicate that, when exposed to fluctuating but noncritical thermal cycles, rainbow trout may adopt a new metabolic phenotype to sequester readily accessible metabolic substrates in the liver in preparation for more severe or sustained thermal exposures.

  15. Biogenic Amines and Predictive Models of Quality of Rainbow Trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) Fillets during Storage.

    PubMed

    Li, Qingzheng; Lv, Jian; Zhang, Longteng; Dong, Zehong; Feng, Ligeng; Luo, Yongkang

    2017-02-01

    To estimate biogenic amines and changes in quality of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) fillets at different temperatures, we determined the sensory attributes, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), total viable counts (TVC), and biogenic amines (BAs) of samples that were untreated (CK) or dry cured with 1.8% salt (T). There was no significant difference between CK and T samples in terms of TVB-N, TVC, and BAs. TVB-N and TVC increased significantly (P < 0.05) with storage time at 3, 9, and 15°C. Putrescine (PUT) and cadaverine (CAD) increased significantly (P < 0.05) at -3, 3, 9, and 15°C during storage. Histamine formed more easily when storage temperatures were higher. The kinetic models of sensory scores for TVB-N, TVC, PUT, CAD, and the sum of PUT and CAD (PUT+CAD) in T samples versus storage time and temperature were developed based on the Arrhenius equation. High regression coefficients (R(2) > 0.9) indicated the acceptability of the kinetic model for predicting changes in the quality of the rainbow trout fillets. Relative errors between predicted and experimental values of TVB-N, TVC, and PUT+CAD were all within 10% except for TVB-N on day 6. The prediction model based on TVB-N, TVC, and PUT+CAD can be applied to evaluate changes in quality of rainbow trout fillets from -3 to 15°C (270 to 288 K).

  16. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) detection, avoidance, and chemosensory effects of oil sands process-affected water.

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Pyle, Greg G

    2017-06-01

    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) - a byproduct of the oil sands industry in Northern Alberta, Canada - is currently stored in on-site tailings ponds. The goal of the present study was to investigate the interaction of OSPW with the olfactory system and olfactory-mediated behaviours of fish upon the first encounter with OSPW. The response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to different concentrations (0.1, 1, and 10%) of OSPW was studied using a choice maze and electro-olfactography (EOG), respectively. The results of the present study showed that rainbow trout are capable of detecting and avoiding OSPW at a concentration as low as 0.1%. Exposure to 1% OSPW impaired (i.e. reduced sensitivity) the olfactory response of rainbow trout to alarm and food cues within 5 min or less. The results of the present study demonstrated that fish could detect and avoid minute concentrations of OSPW. However, if fish were exposed to OSPW-contaminated water and unable to escape, their olfaction would be impaired. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Staphylococcus warneri, a resident skin commensal of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with pathobiont characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Rami, Musharrafieh; Luca, Tacchi; Joshua, Trujeque; Scott, LaPatra; Irene, Salinas

    2014-01-01

    Commensal microorganisms live in association with the mucosal surfaces of all vertebrates. The skin of teleost fish is known to harbor commensals. In this study we report for the first time the presence of an intracellular Gram positive bacteria, Staphylococcus warneri that resides in the skin epidermis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). S. warneri was isolated from healthy hatchery trout skin epithelial cells. In situ hybridization confirmed the intracellular nature of the bacterium. Skin explants exposed in vitro to S. warneri or the extracellular pathogen Vibrio anguillarum show that S. warneri is able to induce an anti-inflammatory cytokine status via TGF-β 1b compared to the pro-inflammatory responses (IL-1β , IL-6 and TNF-α) elicited by V. anguillarum. In vivo experiments showed that S. warneri is not pathogenic to rainbow trout when injected intraperitoneally at high concentrations. However, S. warneri is able to stimulate V. anguillarum growth and biofilm formation on rainbow trout scales. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout skin commensals such as S. warneri have the potential to become indirect pathobionts by enhancing growth and biofilm formation of pathogens such as V. anguillarum. These results show that fish farming practices (i.e. handling and other manipulations) can alter the skin microbiota and compromise the skin health of rainbow trout. PMID:24438987

  18. Heat shock protein (HSP70) RNA expression differs among rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) clonal lines.

    PubMed

    Heredia-Middleton, Pilar; Brunelli, Joseph; Drew, Robert E; Thorgaard, Gary H

    2008-04-01

    Heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, 70 kDa) is the most commonly expressed protein in response to thermal stress. The extent of its expression is associated with differences in environmental temperatures. We investigated the heat shock response in red blood cells collected from one-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three different clonal lines of rainbow trout (Arlee, OSU and Whale Rock) were utilized, originating from habitats that likely experienced different thermal profile. The relative expression of HSP70 from blood cells treated at 13 degrees C, 16 degrees C, 18 degrees C, 20 degrees C, 22 degrees C, and 24 degrees C was quantified using real-time PCR. The use of red blood cells allows for the control and replication of HSP70 expression patterns. Relative expression of HSP70 differed significantly among the three clonal lines. The Arlee line had the lowest HSP70 response of the three clonal lines at any temperature; indicating a heritable difference. Maximum expression of HSP70 occurred at 22 degrees C in the OSU line and at 24 degrees C in the Whale Rock line. The discovery of variation in HSP70 expression among the clonal lines indicates that future studies to map the genetic control of HSP70 expression differences are possible.

  19. Reproducible challenge model to investigate the virulence of Flavobacterium columnare genomovars in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Lafrentz, B R; Lapatra, S E; Shoemaker, C A; Klesius, P H

    2012-11-08

    Flavobacterium columnare is a Gram-negative bacterium that causes columnaris disease and has significant economic impacts on aquaculture production worldwide. Molecular analyses have demonstrated that there is genetic diversity among F. columnare isolates. A review of the published literature that used restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of the 16S rRNA gene revealed that all isolates typed from salmonids were Genomovar I. Our objective was to develop a laboratory challenge model for F. columnare in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) and use the model to determine the virulence of Genomovar I and II isolates. Six F. columnare isolates were obtained from rainbow trout experiencing losses due to columnaris disease and were determined to be Genomovar I. Three of these were chosen for a preliminary assessment of virulence, and isolate 051-10-S5 was chosen for additional experiments to determine the reproducibility of the waterborne challenge model. In 2 independent experiments, cumulative percent mortalities (CPM) were 49 ± 10% and 50 ± 19%. Challenge of rainbow trout with Genomovar I and II isolates demonstrated a difference in the CPM, with the Genomovar II isolates inducing significantly higher CPM. This reproducible waterborne challenge model for columnaris disease in rainbow trout will be useful to investigate host-pathogen interactions, vaccine development, and other potential control strategies. This research also provides a basis for further defining the molecular diversity and virulence associated with F. columnare genomovars in rainbow trout and other salmonid species.

  20. Effect of nanosilver on metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): An investigation using different respirometric approaches.

    PubMed

    Murray, Laura; Rennie, Michael D; Svendsen, Jon C; Enders, Eva C

    2017-10-01

    Nanosilver (nAg) has been incorporated into many consumer products, including clothing and washing machines, because of its antimicrobial properties. Consequently, the potential for its release into aquatic environments is of significant concern. Documented toxic effects on fish include altered gene expression, gill damage, and impaired gas exchange, as well as mortality at high nAg concentrations. The present study reports the effects of nAg on the metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to environmentally relevant concentrations (0.28 ± 0.02 μg/L) and higher (47.60 ± 5.13 μg/L) for 28 d, after which their standard metabolic rate (SMR), forced maximum metabolic rate (MMRf ), and spontaneous maximum metabolic rate (MMRs ) were measured. There was no effect observed in SMR, MMRf , or MMRs , suggesting that nAg is unlikely to directly affect fish metabolism. On average, MMRs tended to be greater than MMRf , and most MMRs occurred when room lighting increased. The timing of MMRf chase protocols was found to affect both MMRf and SMR estimates, in that chasing fish before respirometric experiments caused higher MMRf estimates and lower SMR estimates. Although compounded effects involving nAg and other environmental stressors remain unknown, the present study indicates that the tested range of nAg is unlikely to constrain fish metabolism. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2722-2729. © 2017 SETAC. © 2017 SETAC.

  1. Gene expression in the liver of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during the stress response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Momoda, T.S.; Schwindt, A.R.; Feist, G.W.; Gerwick, L.; Bayne, C.J.; Schreck, C.B.

    2007-01-01

    To better appreciate the mechanisms underlying the physiology of the stress response, an oligonucleotide microarray and real-time RT-PCR (QRT-PCR) were used to study gene expression in the livers of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). For increased confidence in the discovery of candidate genes responding to stress, we conducted two separate experiments using fish from different year classes. In both experiments, fish exposed to a 3??h stressor were compared to control (unstressed) fish. In the second experiment some additional fish were exposed to only 0.5??h of stress and others were sampled 21??h after experiencing a 3??h stressor. This 21??h post-stress treatment was a means to study gene expression during recovery from stress. The genes we report as differentially expressed are those that responded similarly in both experiments, suggesting that they are robust indicators of stress. Those genes are a major histocompatibility complex class 1 molecule (MHC1), JunB, glucose 6-phosphatase (G6Pase), and nuclear protein 1 (Nupr1). Interestingly, Nupr1 gene expression was still elevated 21??h after stress, which indicates that recovery was incomplete at that time. ?? 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Signatures of natural selection among lineages and habitats in Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Limborg, Morten T; Blankenship, Scott M; Young, Sewall F; Utter, Fred M; Seeb, Lisa W; Hansen, Mette H H; Seeb, James E

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in molecular interrogation techniques now allow unprecedented genomic inference about the role of adaptive genetic divergence in wild populations. We used high-throughput genotyping to screen a genome-wide panel of 276 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for the economically and culturally important salmonid Oncorhynchus mykiss. Samples included 805 individuals from 11 anadromous and resident populations from the northwestern United States and British Columbia, and represented two major lineages including paired populations of each life history within single drainages of each lineage. Overall patterns of variation affirmed clear distinctions between lineages and in most instances, isolation by distance within them. Evidence for divergent selection at eight candidate loci included significant landscape correlations, particularly with temperature. High diversity of two nonsynonymous mutations within the peptide-binding region of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II (DAB) gene provided signatures of balancing selection. Weak signals for potential selection between sympatric resident and anadromous populations were revealed from genome scans and allele frequency comparisons. Our results suggest an important adaptive role for immune-related functions and present a large genomic resource for future studies.

  3. Cytokine expression in leucocytes and gut cells of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, induced by probiotics.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do-Hyung; Austin, Brian

    2006-12-15

    Understanding how the various host cells respond to probiotic bacteria in vitro may provide important insight into elaborate immune responses triggered by beneficial bacteria. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed pattern of the mRNA expression of cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-8, TNF-alpha and TGF-beta) in head kidney (HK) leucocytes and gut cells isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) after co-culturing with live probiotics. HK leucocytes and gut cells adjusted to 5 x 10(6) and 2 x 10(6) ml(-1), respectively, in L-15 medium containing 25% decomplemented FCS and 300 mg l(-1) L-glutamine were co-cultured with Carnobacterium maltaromaticum B26 and C. divergens B33 at an multiplicity of infection of 25 for 6 and 12 h. Quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction using SYBR Green I was employed to determine the mRNA expression of studied genes. Although neither probiotic strains significantly induced mRNA of the cytokines in gut cells, expression ratios of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha of HK cells were significantly higher, suggesting that these bacteria can stimulate innate immunity in rainbow trout.

  4. Characterization of NPY receptor subtypes Y2 and Y7 in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Larsson, Tomas A; Larson, Earl T; Fredriksson, Robert; Conlon, J Michael; Larhammar, Dan

    2006-06-01

    We report the cloning and pharmacological characterization of two neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor subtypes, Y2 and Y7, in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). These subtypes are approximately 50% identical to each other and belong to the Y2 subfamily of NPY receptors. The binding properties of the receptors were investigated after expression in human HEK-293 EBNA cells. Both receptors bound the three zebrafish peptides NPY, PYYa, and PYYb, as well as porcine NPY and PYY, with affinities in the nanomolar range that are similar to mammalian Y2. The affinity of the truncated porcine NPY fragments, NPY 13-36 and NPY 18-36 was markedly lower compared to mammalian and chicken Y2. This suggests that mammalian and chicken Y2 are unique among NPY receptors in their ability to bind truncated peptide fragments. The antagonist BIIE0246, developed for mammalian Y2, did not bind either of the two rainbow trout receptors. Our results support the proposed expansion of this gene family by duplications before the gnathostome radiation. They also reveal appreciable differences in the repertoire and characteristics of NPY receptors between fish and tetrapods stressing the importance of lineage-specific gene loss as well as sequence divergence after duplication.

  5. The effect of different holding conditions for environmental monitoring with caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hanson, Niklas; Guttman, Elin; Larsson, Ake

    2006-10-01

    Biomarkers in fish can be a useful tool for environmental monitoring of aquatic ecosystems when diffuse pollution is becoming more important and new chemicals are being created continuously. There are, however, a number of drawbacks with this method. Because of environmental variability, health status of wild fish populations may differ between years, leading to unrepresentative results in long term studies. Furthermore, genetic or adaptive differences between populations complicate the interpretation of studies on different sites. The use of farmed fish, placed in cages, can reduce these problems. However, experimental conditions are likely to differ between sites. For practical reasons it may, e.g., be neccesary to use different types of caging. Here, the use of net cages and flow through tanks has been compared for a number of biomarkers. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were placed in net cages and flow through tanks in the river Göta Alv, in western Sweden, during three different periods in 2004 and 2005. No differences between types of caging were found for any biomarker. Therefore, the results suggest that net cages and flow through tanks can be used and compared in environmental monitoring using biomarkers in caged rainbow trout. However, efforts should be taken to reduce differences in experimental conditions, e.g., light intensity and feeding levels.

  6. Electronic tags and genetics explore variation in migrating steelhead kelts (oncorhynchus mykiss), Ninilchik river, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.; Turner, S.M.; Zimmerman, C.E.

    2011-01-01

    Acoustic and archival tags examined freshwater and marine migrations of postspawn steelhead kelts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Ninilchik River, Alaska, USA. Postspawn steelhead were captured at a weir in 2002-2005. Scale analysis indicated multiple migratory life histories and spawning behaviors. Acoustic tags were implanted in 99 kelts (2002-2003), and an array of acoustic receivers calculated the average speed of outmigration, timing of saltwater entry, and duration of residency in the vicinity of the river mouth. Ocean migration data were recovered from two archival tags implanted in kelts in 2004 (one male and one female). Archival tags documented seasonal differences in maximum depth and behavior with both fish spending 97% of time at sea <6 m depth (day and night). All study fish were double tagged with passive integrated transponder (PIT) tags implanted in the body cavity. Less than 4% of PIT tags were retained in postspawn steelhead. Molecular genetics demonstrated no significant differences in genetic population structure across years or among spawning life history types, suggesting a genetically panmictic population with highly diverse life history characteristics in the Ninilchik River.

  7. Effects of atrazine on hepatic metabolism and endocrine homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Salaberria, Iurgi Hansen, Bjorn Henrik; Asensio, Vega; Olsvik, Pal A.; Andersen, Rolf A.; Jenssen, Bjorn Munro

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world and is now under scrutiny for its alleged capacity to disrupt the endocrine system. Exhibiting negligible interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER), ATZ's mode of action remains to be elucidated. ATZ may act as an inducer of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, although other mechanisms should also be taken into consideration such as impairment of hepatic metabolism. Therefore we administered juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) a dose of either 2 or 200 {mu}g ATZ/kg, or of carrier control phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and we measured plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) 6 days after exposure. Simultaneously we analyzed hepatic gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), and catalase (CAT) activity. Although sex steroid levels showed no significant alterations, we found a dose-dependent increase in Vtg and a concomitant decrease in CYP1A. There was no effect of ATZ on GST-P mRNA levels but GST-P was positively correlated with CYP1A. Also, CYP1A was negatively correlated with liver CAT and E2, and varied with T concentrations in a hormetic manner. The results showed that ATZ can alter hepatic metabolism, induce estrogenic effects and oxidative stress in vivo, and that these effects are linked.

  8. NORs inheritance analysis in crossings including individuals from two stocks of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Porto-Foresti, Fábio; Oliveira, Claudio; Tabata, Yara Aiko; Rigolino, Marcos Guilherme; Foresti, Fausto

    2002-01-01

    Silver nitrate staining of rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss) chromosomes, for the identification of the nucleolar organizing regions (NORs), revealed that in individuals from Núcleo Experimental de Salmonicultura de Campos do Jordão (Brazil) NORs were located in the long arms of submetacentric pair while in specimens from Mount Shasta (USA) NORs were located in the short arms of a submetacentric pair. Cytogenetic analysis of the offspring, obtained through artificial crosses including individuals from both stocks, allowed the identification of NORs in two submetacentric chromosomes, one in the short arms and the other in the long arms, confirming the effectiveness of the hybridization process. Complementary results obtained using the FISH technique with 18S and 5S rDNA probes showed that NOR-bearing chromosomes exhibited a cluster of 5S genes located in tandem with the 18S gene cluster in both stocks. The results allow us to suggest that the difference in NOR-bearing chromosomes found between the two stocks is likely to be due to pericentric inversion involving the chromosome segment where 18S and 5S rDNA genes are located. The presence of ribosomal genes in the long arms of a submetacentric chromosome is apparently a particular characteristic of the rainbow trout stock of Campos do Jordão and might be used as a chromosome marker in studies of controlled crosses in this species.

  9. Acute effects of chlorinated resin acid exposure on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, C.J.; Sweeting, R.M.; Farrell, A.P.; McKeown, B.A.; Johansen, J.A.

    1995-06-01

    The effects of an acute exposure to either 14-monochlorodehydroabietic acid (MCDHAA) or 12,14-dichlorodehydroabietic acid (DCDHAA) were examined in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The experimentally determined 96-h LC50 values (and their 95% confidence limits) were 1.03 (0.72, 1.48) and 0.91 (0.70, 1.21) mg/L, for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively. To measure effects on several biochemical parameters, swimming performance, and disease resistance, juvenile trout were exposed for 24 h to sublethal concentrations of one or the other resin acid in an intermittent-flow respirometer. Hematocrit, plasma lactate, and liver protein were significantly affected by exposure to the highest dose (80% of the 96-h LC50 value) of either of the resin acids. Plasma cortisol levels were 14- and 3-fold higher than were controls. Resistance to infection by Aeromonas salmonicida was significantly reduced; the cumulative percent mortalities due to furunculosis in fish exposed to MCDHAA or DCDHAA reached 20 and 26%, respectively. Swimming performance, measured as critical swimming speed (mean values 6.32 {+-} 0.20 and 5.93 {+-} 0.15 body lengths per second for MCDHAA and DCDHAA, respectively), was not significantly affected by resin acid exposure.

  10. Effect of nanosilver on cortisol release and morphometrics in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Murray, Laura; Rennie, Michael D; Enders, Eva C; Pleskach, Kerri; Martin, Jonathan D

    2016-11-17

    Nanosilver (nAg) is a nanoparticle commonly incorporated into consumer products for its antimicrobial properties that has been detected in aquatic environments. Toxic effects of nAg on fish have been observed, and nAg may induce a stress response in fish in the form of increased blood plasma cortisol. Effects of nAg exposure on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated over a 28-d period using blood plasma cortisol concentrations as an indicator of stress. Several morphometric measures (growth, Fulton's condition factor, and hepatosomatic index [HSI]) were also taken during the experiment to investigate potential whole-body effects of exposure, and concentrations of nAg in fish muscle tissue were measured. Fish were exposed to environmentally relevant (average 0.28 μg/L) and higher (average 47.60 μg/L) exposure concentrations of nAg. The results showed a significant increase in blood plasma cortisol for both exposure treatments. A significant effect on HSI by treatment dependent on exposure time was also observed, although no obvious trend was detected, whereas other morphometric measures were not affected by nAg exposure. In addition, Ag was detected in fish muscle tissue. The results indicate that although nAg did engage the stress response in fish, it did not affect growth or condition under the experimental conditions and time frame investigated. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;9999:1-8. © 2016 SETAC.

  11. Genetic variation of resistance to mercury poisoning in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins.

    PubMed

    Blanc, J M; McIntyre, J D; Simon, R C

    2003-09-01

    Newly hatched steelhead alevins were obtained from the factorial breeding of 24 male and 10 female steelhead trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Each set of offspring were in a separate cell. They were tested for resistance to intoxication by methylmercuric chloride (CH3HgCl) in water at a nearly constant mercury concentration of 8 microg l(-1). High mortality (81% of the tested alevins) occurred within 2 weeks. Resistance to intoxication, as measured by the time to death, as well as by the survival rate, shared high paternal and maternal variation with negligible interaction. Heritability of time to death was 0.59 +/- 0.17; heritability of survival (all-or-none trait) was lower (0.26 +/- 0.09). Mercury in dead alevins increased with time to death, exhibiting a large environmental variation and (comparatively) negligible genetic influence. At the end of the bioassay, the mercury content in survivors varied widely (3-21 microg g(-1) wet weight). The content was greater than, but correlated with that of dead alevins from the same cells, and it showed little relation with survival rate. Thus, it seems that resistance to poisoning implies a tolerance to high levels of mercury rather than a limitation of its accumulation.

  12. Effect of catch-and-release angling on growth and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pope, K.L.; Wilde, G.R.; Knabe, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Catch-and-release angling is popular in many parts of the world and plays an increasingly important role in fish conservation efforts. Although survival rates associated with catch-and-release angling are well documented for many species, sublethal effects have been less studied. An experiment was conducted to directly assess the effects of catch-and-release angling on growth and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Catch-and-release events were simulated in laboratory tanks maintained at 15-16 ??C with hooks manually placed in pre-designated locations in the mouths of the fish. There were no differences in standard length (P = 0.59) or wet weight (P = 0.81) gained between caught and uncaught fish over a 1-month angling and recovery period. Survival was 96.99 ?? 0.06% for rainbow trout caught and released, and did not vary with number (one, two or four) of captures. Thus, catch-and-release angling appears to have little effect on growth and mortality of rainbow trout hooked in the mouth. ?? 2007 The Authors. Journal compilation 2007 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Histopathological changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after exposure to sublethal composite nitrogen fertilizers.

    PubMed

    Capkin, Erol; Birincioglu, Serap; Altinok, Ilhan

    2009-10-01

    Subchronic toxicity of composite inorganic fertilizers such as ammonium sulfate [fertilizer A; (NH(4))(2)SO(4); 21% NH(4)-N)], composite fertilizer 15-15-15 (fertilizer B; commercial formulation: 15% NH(4)-N, 15% phosphorus, and 15% potassium oxide), and composite fertilizer 25-5-10 (fertilizer C; commercial formulation: 25% NH(4)-N, 5% phosphorus, and 10% potassium oxide) on the skin, liver, kidney, pancreas, and gills of the juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was studied in two-week toxicity tests under static-renewal test conditions. Fish exposed to sublethal concentrations of fertilizers did not show any behavioral abnormality compared to control groups. Histological lesions were observed in skin, gills, liver, pancreas, and trunk kidney of the fish. In the epidermis, degenerated/vacuolated epithelial cells, microcystic dilatations, and intracellular edema of mucus cell were observed. Liver had swollen and degenerated hepatocytes without losing adenoid structure. Hematopoietic tissues had necrosis and vacuolar degeneration on proximal tubules of the kidney. In order, the most affected organs were skin, liver, and kidney.

  14. Effects of Haematococcus pluvialis supplementation on antioxidant system and metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Sheikhzadeh, Najmeh; Tayefi-Nasrabadi, Hossein; Oushani, Ali Khani; Enferadi, Mohammad Hamed Najafi

    2012-04-01

    Effects of commercial source for astaxanthin (Haematococcus pluvialis) (H.p) on antioxidant power, specific marker enzymes, and some metabolites were examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed on diets containing 1, 3, and 10 g microalga kg(-1) feed for 30 days. Serum total antioxidant activity and lipid peroxidation product, indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), significantly enhanced with different doses of administration, indicating the elevated antioxidant status in all treatment groups. In group fed with high dose of alga, significantly elevated aspartate aminotransferase activity (AST) was noted, indicating damage of normal liver function in this group. Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were not affected in all groups. Although serum total protein remained unaffected, serum glucose level was decreased significantly in lower doses of administration. Furthermore, triglyceride and cholesterol levels showed significant decrease in 3 g kg(-1) microalga group by modulation of lipid metabolism in this group. On the other hand, in highest dose, significant increase in lipids was observed, indicating the slight dysfunction in lipid metabolism in this treatment group. The present study suggests that Haematococcus pluvialis especially in dose of 3 g kg(-1) feed administration may effectively enhance the antioxidant system and some biochemical parameters in rainbow trout.

  15. Ceramides are involved in the regulation of food intake in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Velasco, Cristina; Librán-Pérez, Marta; Otero-Rodiño, Cristina; López-Patiño, Marcos A; Míguez, Jesús M; Soengas, José L

    2016-10-01

    We hypothesize that ceramides are involved in the regulation of food intake in fish. Therefore, we assessed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) the effects of intracerebroventricular treatment with C6:0 ceramide on food intake. In a second experiment, we assessed the effects in brain areas of ceramide treatment on neuropeptide expression, fatty acid-sensing systems, and cellular signaling pathways. Ceramide treatment induced a decrease in food intake, a response opposed to the orexigenic effect described in mammals, which can be related to enhanced mRNA abundance of cocaine and amphetamine-related transcript and proopiomelanocortin and decreased mRNA abundance of Agouti-related protein and neuropeptide Y. Fatty acid-sensing systems appear to be inactivated by ceramide treatment. The mRNA abundance of integrative sensors AMPK and sirtuin 1, and the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling pathways dependent on protein kinase B, AMPK, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), and forkhead box protein O1 (FoxO1) are generally activated by ceramide treatment. However, there are differences between hypothalamus and hindbrain in the phosphorylation status of AMPK (decreased in hypothalamus and increased in hindbrain), mTOR (decreased in hypothalamus and increased in hindbrain), and FoxO1 (increased in hypothalamus and decreased in hindbrain) to ceramide treatment. The results suggest that ceramides are involved in the regulation of food intake in rainbow trout through mechanisms comparable to those characterized previously in mammals in some cases.

  16. Metabolism and elimination of benzocaine by rainbow-trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, J.R.; Gingerich, W.H.; Allen, J.L.

    1991-01-01

    1. Branchial and urinary elimination of benzocaine residues was evaluated in adult rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss, given a single dorsal aortic dose of c-14-benzocaine hydrochloride.^2. Branchial elimination of benzocaine residues was rapid and accounted for 59.2% Of the dose during the first 3 h after dosing. Renal elimination of radioactivity was considerably slower; the kidney excreted 2.7% Dose within 3 h and 9.0% Within 24 h. Gallbladder bile contained 2.0% Dose 24 h after injection.^3. Of the radioactivity in radiochromatograms from water taken 3 min after injection, 87.3% Was benzocaine and 12.7% Was n-acetylated benzocaine. After 60 min, 32.7% Was benzocaine and 67.3% Was n-acetylated benzocaine.^4. Of the radioactivity in radiochromatograms from urine taken 1 h after dosing, 7.6% Was para-aminobenzoic acid, 59.7% Was n-acetylated para-aminobenzoic acid, 19.5% Was benzocaine, and 8.0% Was n-acetylated benzocaine. The proportion of the radioactivity in urine changed with time so that by 20 h, 1.0% Was para-aminobenzoic acid and 96.6% Was n-acetylated para-aminobenzoic acid.^5. Benzocaine and a more hydrophobic metabolite, n-acetylated benzocaine, were eliminated primarily through the gills; renal and biliary pathways were less significant elimination routes for benzocaine residues.

  17. Effects of copper on immune system parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Dethloff, G.M.; Bailey, H.C.

    1998-09-01

    Agricultural, urban, industrial, and mining sources release metals into waterways. The effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on integrated physiological processes in fish, such as immunocompetency, are not well understood. The objective of this study was to determine the physiological effects of a range of sublethal copper concentrations on Shasta-strain rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed in soft water. Trout were sampled after 3, 7, 14, and 21 d of exposure to copper. The percentage of monocytes was consistently elevated at 26.9 {micro}g Cu/L, and the percentage of lymphocytes was decreased. A consistent increase in the percentage of neutrophils occurred at 26.9 and 6.4 {micro}g Cu/L. Respiratory burst activity was decreased for all concentrations at all sampling days, but a significant reduction occurred only at 14 and 21 d of exposure to copper. B-like cell proliferation was decreased by exposure to the higher copper concentrations. Proliferation results, however, had high variability. T-like cell proliferation and phagocytosis were not altered. Hepatic copper concentration was consistently elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 {micro}g Cu/L; no correlation was found between hepatic copper concentration and the immune system responses investigated. Consistent alterations in immunological parameters suggest that these parameters could serve as indicators of chronic metal toxicity in natural systems.

  18. Altered burst swimming in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to natural and synthetic oestrogens.

    PubMed

    Osachoff, H L; Osachoff, K N; Wickramaratne, A E; Gunawardane, E K; Venturini, F P; Kennedy, C J

    2014-08-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to two concentrations each of 17β-oestradiol (E2; natural oestrogen hormone) or 17α-ethinyl oestradiol (EE2; a potent synthetic oestrogen hormone) to evaluate their potential effects on burst-swimming performance. In each of six successive burst-swimming assays, burst-swimming speed (Uburst ) was lower in fish exposed to 0.5 and 1 µg l(-1) E2 and EE2 for four days compared with control fish. A practice swim (2 days prior to exposure initiation) in control fish elevated initial Uburst values, but this training effect was not evident in the 1 µg l(-1) EE2-exposed fish. Several potential oestrogen-mediated mechanisms for Uburst reductions were investigated, including effects on metabolic products, osmoregulation and blood oxygen-carrying capacity. Prior to burst-swimming trials, fish exposed to E2 and EE2 for 4 days had significantly reduced erythrocyte numbers and lower plasma glucose concentrations. After six repeated burst-swimming trials, plasma glucose, lactate and creatinine concentrations were not significantly different among treatment groups; however, plasma Cl(-) concentrations were significantly reduced in E2- and EE2-treated fish. In summary, E2 and EE2 exposure altered oxygen-carrying capacity ([erythrocytes]) and an osmoregulatory-related variable ([Cl(-) ]), effects that may underlie reductions in burst-swimming speed, which will have implications for fish performance in the wild.

  19. Blood cells in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss milt: relation to milt collection method and sampling period.

    PubMed

    Ciereszko, A; Wlasow, T; Dobosz, S; Goryczko, K; Glogowski, J

    2004-10-01

    The presence of blood cells in milt of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) collected every week between the middle at the end of the spawning season, either by stripping or by catheterization was investigated. Basic sperm biological and biochemical characteristics were also evaluated. Because milt often becomes contaminated with blood during collection, we also studied the influence of experimental blood contamination on sperm motility and biochemical parameters of seminal plasma. We demonstrated the presence of blood cells (erythrocytes, lymphoid, and phagocytes) in rainbow trout milt collected by both methods. Both sampling period and collection method influenced sperm characteristics, however the relationship between these characteristics and blood cells are not clear at present. A high number of blood cells in milt was found in some samples, possibly due to inflammation, because at the same time we observed bacteria and elevated levels of protein and antiproteinase activity in contaminated samples. Experimental contamination of milt with blood did not influence sperm motility, protein concentration and LDH activity of the 5-day-stored semen. Our study demonstrated that blood cells were present in rainbow trout milt. Blood cells may also appear in milt as a result of bleeding and their elevated levels are present during inflammation.

  20. Compensatory growth response of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum following short starvation periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azodi, Maryam; Ebrahimi, Eisa; Farhadian, Omidvar; Mahboobi-Soofiani, Nasrollah; Morshedi, Vahid

    2015-07-01

    This sixty-day study was performed to determine the effects of short-term starvation and re-feeding cycles on growth, feeding performances and body composition of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three hundred trout fingerlings with an average initial weight of 17.5±0.06 g were randomly distributed in 15 circular fiberglass tanks. The fish were exposed to 5 different feeding regimes; control: continuously fed twice daily to apparent satiation; T1: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 2 days; T2: starved for 1 day and re-fed for 4 days; T3: starved for 3 days and re-fed for 12 days; T4: starved for 4 days and re-fed for 16 days. At the end of the experiment, growth performance, feed utilization, whole body ash and moisture contents were not significantly ( P>0.05) different among the treatments. However, whole body protein content in T3 was significantly higher than other treatments ( P<0.05). A significant difference in whole body fat content was observed between T3 and the control group at the end of the experiment ( P<0.05). In conclusion this experiment suggests that feeding schedules involving starvation (1-4 days) and re-feeding cycles are a promising feed management tool for rainbow trout culture.

  1. Chronic stress of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss at high altitude: a field study.

    PubMed

    Hunt von Herbing, I; Pan, T-C F; Méndez-Sánchez, F; Garduño-Paz, M; Hernández-Gallegos, O; Ruiz-Gómez, M L; Rodríguez-Vargas, G

    2015-07-01

    The stress response of Oncorhynchus mykiss in high-altitude farms in central Mexico was investigated over two seasons: the cool (9·1-13·7° C) dry winter season, and the warmer (14·7-15·9° C), wetter summer season. Fish were subjected to an acute stress test followed by sampling of six physiological variables: blood cortisol, glucose, lactate, total antioxidant capacity, haemoglobin concentration and per cent packed cell volume (VPC %). Multivariate analyses revealed that lactate and total antioxidant capacity were significantly higher in the summer, when water temperatures were warmer and moderate hypoxia (4·9-5·3 mg l(-1) ) prevailed. In contrast, plasma cortisol was significantly higher in the winter (mean ± s.e.: 76·7 ± 4·0 ng ml(-1) ) when temperatures were cooler and dissolved oxygen levels higher (6·05-7·9 mg l(-1) ), than in the summer (22·7 ± 3·8 ng ml(-1) ). Haemoglobin concentrations (mg dl(-1) ) were not significantly different between seasons, but VPC % was significantly higher in the summer (50%) than in the winter (35%). These results suggest that in summer, effects of high altitude on farmed fish are exacerbated by stresses of high temperatures and hypoxia, resulting in higher blood lactate, increased total antioxidant capacity and elevated VPC % levels. © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  2. Flavobacterium psychrophilum, invasion into and shedding by rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Madetoja, J; Nyman, P; Wiklund, T

    2000-10-25

    The infection route of Flavobacterium psychrophilum into rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was studied using bath and cohabitation challenges as well as oral challenge with live feed as a vector. Additionally, the number of bacterial cells shed by infected fish into the surrounding water was determined in the cohabitation experiment and in challenge experiments at 3 different water temperatures. The experiments showed that skin and skin mucus abrasion dramatically enhanced the invasion of F. psychrophilum into the affected fish in bath and cohabitation challenges. Disruption of the skin is discussed as an important invasion route for F. psychrophilum into the fish. The shedding rate of F. psychrophilum by infected fish was associated with water temperature and the mortality of the infected fish. High numbers of F. psychrophilum cells were released into the water by dead rainbow trout during a long time period compared to the numbers of cells shed by live fish. The results emphasise the importance of removing dead and moribund fish from rearing tanks in order to diminish the infection pressure against uninfected fish in commercial fish farms. In immunohistochemical examinations of organs and tissues of orally infected fish, F. psychrophilum cells were detected in only 1 fish out of 31 studied. Mortality of the orally challenged fish was not observed in the experiment.

  3. The therapeutic use of isometamidium chloride against Cryptobia salmositica in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Ardelli, B F; Woo, P T

    1999-09-14

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss injected intramuscularly with isometamidium chloride (0.01 or 0.1 mg kg-1) at 3 wk post-infection and given a booster 2 wk later had significantly lower parasitaemias than infected controls. Packed cell volume increased after treatment and remained higher than in infected controls. The concentration of isometamidium in plasma was highest at 2 wk after injection and then declined. An intramuscular dose of 1.0 mg kg-1 of isometamidium chloride at 1, 2 and 3 wk postinfection (preclinical) significantly reduced the parasitaemia in rainbow trout 2 wk after treatment. A booster at 9 wk postinfection (chronic disease phase) reduced the parasitaemia further in all fish. The packed cell volume in these fish was higher than in infected controls. Treatment at 5, 6, and 7 wk postinfection (acute disease) had no effects and parasitaemias in treated fish were higher than in infected controls; also, anti-Cryptobia salmositica antibodies and titres of complement-fixing antibody were higher in these than in infected controls. Incubation of immune plasma or complement with isometamidium for 3 h did not affect the lytic titres of complement-fixing antibodies nor rainbow trout complement.

  4. Comparison of biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared in two different trout farms'

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karatas, Tayfun

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare biochemical parameters of cultured rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum, 1972) reared in two different trout farms' (Agri and Erzurum). The average weights of fish were 150±10gr for first station (Agri), 230±10gr for second station (Erzurum). Fishes used in research were randomly caught from pools, and fifteen pieces were used for each group. Fishes were fed with commercial trout feed with 45-50% crude protein twice a day. The levels of AST, ALT, LDL, total cholesterol and triglyceride in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be higher (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Whereas, the levels of HDL in the second station (Erzurum) were found to be lower (p<0.05) than that of first station (Agri). Differences in the levels of total cholesterol and AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, triglyceride may be associated with size, sex, sexual maturity and environmental conditions (temperature, pH, hardness and dissolved oxygen).

  5. Development and pharmacokinetic evaluation of erythromycin lipidic formulations for oral administration in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Serdoz, Francesca; Voinovich, Dario; Perissutti, Beatrice; Grabnar, Iztok; Hasa, Dritan; Ballestrazzi, Rodolfo; Coni, Ettore; Pellegrini, Enrico

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this work was to enhance the bioavailability of erythromycin base when administered orally in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Since erythromycin is normally given in the form of medicated feed, in this study three new types of feed formulation were developed. A self-emulsifying system and two types of double microemulsions (O/W/O) were prepared, characterized and adsorbed on a commercial extruded diet for fish. The emulsified systems were based on saturated polyglycolized glycerides and mono- and diglycerides of medium-chain fatty acids (as oily phase), Tween 80 (as surfactant) and, in the case of double microemulsions, distilled water. The systems differed in percentage composition and for the amount and position of erythromycin in different phases. The three medicated feed were then administered orally by means of a gastric probe to rainbow trout and their relative bioavailability was estimated in comparison with that obtained after oral administration of feed with erythromycin powder. For each medicated feed, 80 fish were tested. Finally, plasma profiles of erythromycin after single administration of medicated feeds were used to predict profiles obtainable by administering once-daily medicated feeds for 7 consecutive days. The results proved that the feeds containing microemulsified erythromycin provided largely superior oral bioavailability and the advantage of obtaining the same efficacy against bacterial infections with a much lower dose of drug. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Induction of oxidative stress by selenomethionine in isolated hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Misra, Sougat; Hamilton, Charmain; Niyogi, Som

    2012-06-01

    Fish are exposed to environmental selenium predominantly in the form of dietary selenomethionine (SeMet). The present study was designed to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the toxicity of SeMet using isolated hepatocytes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as the model experimental system. Cells were exposed to an increasing range of SeMet (0-1000 μM) over 24h, and the time-dependent effects on cell viability, response of enzymatic antioxidants, thiol redox, intracellular calcium balance and caspase-mediated apoptosis were evaluated. SeMet was found to be toxic only at the highest exposure dose (1000 μM), with ∼15% decrease in cell viability. Although modest increases in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were recorded following SeMet exposure, the ratio of reduced to oxidized glutathione decreased in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting a gradual progression towards an oxidative intracellular environment. The peroxidation of membrane lipids also increased with increasing SeMet exposure dose. In addition, a rapid increase in intracellular calcium level and the activation of caspase 3/7 enzymes were recorded at the highest exposure dose, indicating that SeMet at a high exposure dose causes cell death probably via apoptosis. Overall, our study demonstrated that oxidative stress plays a key role in the cytotoxicity of SeMet in fish. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Chronic social stress impairs thermal tolerance in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    LeBlanc, Sacha; Middleton, Stephen; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Currie, Suzanne

    2011-05-15

    When faced with limited resources, juvenile salmonid fish form dominance hierarchies that result in social stress for socially subordinate individuals. Social stress, in turn, can have consequences for the ability of the fish to respond to additional stressors such as pathogens or exposure to pollutants. In the present study, the possibility that social stress affects the ability of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to tolerate acute increases in water temperature was investigated. To this end, we first evaluated physiological and cellular stress responses following a 1 h heat shock in juvenile fish in dominance hierarchies. We measured stress hormone (cortisol and catecholamines) concentrations and blood, brain and liver tissue levels of three heat shock proteins (HSPs), the stress inducible HSP70, the constitutive HSC70 and HSP90, in dominant and subordinate trout. No effects of social status on the hormonal response to the heat stress were detected, but the cellular heat shock response in the brain and liver of dominant and subordinate individuals was inhibited. We then assessed thermal tolerance in dominant and subordinate fish through critical thermal maximum temperature (CT(max)) trials and measured HSPs following the heat shock. Subordinate fish were less thermally tolerant than their dominant counterparts. We conclude that social stress impacts the ability of fish to respond, on a cellular scale and in a tissue-specific manner, to increases in water temperature, with likely consequences for overall fitness.

  8. Subunit vaccine candidates against Aeromonas salmonicida in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Louise von Gersdorff; Skov, Jakob; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Holm Mattsson, Andreas; Dalsgaard, Inger; Kania, Per Walter; Buchmann, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is the etiological agent of furunculosis and a major fish health problem in salmonid aquaculture worldwide. Injection vaccination with commercial mineral oil-adjuvanted bacterin vaccines has been partly successful in preventing the disease but in Danish rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) aquaculture furunculosis outbreaks still occur. In this study we tested the efficacy of experimental subunit vaccines against A. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout. We utilized in silico screening of the proteome of A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain A449 and identified potential protective protein antigens that were tested by in vivo challenge trial. A total of 14 proteins were recombinantly expressed in Escherichia coli and prepared in 3 different subunit vaccine combinations to immunize 3 groups of rainbow trout by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection. The fish were exposed to virulent A. salmonicida 7 weeks after immunization. To assess the efficacy of the subunit vaccines we evaluated the immune response in fish after immunization and challenge infection by measuring the antibody levels and monitoring the survival of fish in different groups. The survival of fish at 3 weeks after challenge infection showed that all 3 groups of fish immunized with 3 different protein combinations exhibited significantly lower mortalities (17–30%) compared to the control groups (48% and 56%). The ELISA results revealed significantly elevated antibody levels in fish against several protein antigens, which in some cases were positively correlated to the survival. PMID:28182704

  9. Identification of a novel cathelicidin gene in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chin-I; Pleguezuelos, Olga; Zhang, Yong-An; Zou, Jun; Secombes, Christopher J

    2005-08-01

    We report the cloning of a novel antimicrobial peptide gene, termed rtCATH_1, found in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The predicted 216-residue rtCATH_1 prepropeptide consists of three domains: a 22-residue signal peptide, a 128-residue cathelin-like region containing two identifiable cathelicidin family signatures, and a predicted 66-residue C-terminal cationic antimicrobial peptide. This predicted mature peptide was unique in possessing features of different known (mammalian) cathelicidin subgroups, such as the cysteine-bridged family and the specific amino-acid-rich family. The rtCATH_1 gene comprises four exons, as seen in all known mammalian cathelicidin genes, and several transcription factor binding sites known to be of relevance to host defenses were identified in the 5' flanking region. By Northern blot analysis, the expression of rtCATH_1 was detected in gill, head kidney, and spleen of bacterially challenged fish. Primary cultures of head kidney leukocytes from rainbow trout stimulated with lipopolysaccharide or poly(I x C) also expressed rtCATH_1. A 36-residue peptide corresponding to the core part of the fish cathelicidin was chemically synthesized and shown to exhibit potent antimicrobial activity and a low hemolytic effect. Thus, rtCATH_1 represents a novel antimicrobial peptide gene belonging to the cathelicidin family and may play an important role in the innate immunity of rainbow trout.

  10. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute copper toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Lipton, Josh; Welsh, Paul G

    2002-03-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Past and present habitat for this species includes waterways contaminated with heavy metals released from mining activities. Because the sensitivity of this species to copper was previously unknown, we conducted acute copper toxicity tests with bull and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in side-by-side comparison tests. Bioassays were conducted using water at two temperatures (8 degrees C and 16 degrees C) and two hardness levels (100 and 220 mg/L as CaCO3). At a water hardness of 100 mg/L, both species were less sensitive to copper when tested at 16 degrees C compared to 8 degrees C. The two species had similar sensitivity to copper in 100-mg/ L hardness water, but bull trout were 2.5 to 4 times less sensitive than rainbow trout in 220-mg/L hardness water. However, when our results were viewed in the context of the broader literature on rainbow trout sensitivity to copper, the sensitivities of the two species appeared similar. This suggests that adoption of toxicity thresholds that are protective of rainbow trout would be protective of bull trout; however, an additional safety factor may be warranted because of the additional level of protection necessary for this federally threatened species.

  11. Puffy skin disease (PSD) in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): a case definition.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, C E; Nolan, E T; Feist, S W; Crumlish, M; Richards, R H; Williams, C F

    2015-07-01

    Puffy skin disease (PSD) is a disease that causes skin pathology in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum). Incidence of PSD in UK fish farms and fisheries has increased sharply in the last decade, with growing concern from both industry sectors. This paper provides the first comprehensive case definition of PSD, combining clinical and pathological observations of diseased rainbow trout from both fish farms and fisheries. The defining features of PSD, as summarized in the case definition, were focal lateral flank skin lesions that appeared as cutaneous swelling with pigment loss and petechiae. These were associated with lethargy, poor body condition, inappetance and low level mortality. Epidermal hyperplasia and spongiosis, oedema of the dermis stratum spongiosum and a mild diffuse inflammatory cellularity were typical in histopathology of skin. A specific pathogen or aetiology was not identified. Prevalence and severity of skin lesions was greatest during late summer and autumn, with the highest prevalence being 95%. Atypical lesions seen in winter and spring were suggestive of clinical resolution. PSD holds important implications for both trout aquaculture and still water trout fisheries. This case definition will aid future diagnosis, help avoid confusion with other skin conditions and promote prompt and consistent reporting. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Inhibition of fish pathogens by the microbiota from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Nahuelquín, Yanina; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M

    2015-04-01

    This work reports the isolation and taxonomic identification of the cultivable total microbiota (TM) and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) and rearing environment from selected stages of the life-cycle, and the evaluation of the LAB antimicrobial activity against the main fish pathogens. TM and LAB isolates were randomly selected and identified by 16S rRNA and/or superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Although a great diversity in the TM was observed, Enterobacteriaceae and Aeromonadaceae were clearly prevalent, while the genus Lactococcus was the predominant LAB. From a total of 1620 randomly selected LAB, 1159 isolates (71.5%) showed antimicrobial activity. From these, 248 isolates (21.4%) selected for their activity against, at least, four fish pathogens, were taxonomically identified, being Lactococcus lactis the most common species (164 isolates, 66.1%). Interestingly, 88 isolates (35.5%), including 55 L. lactis isolates, exerted activity against four strains of the rainbow trout pathogen Lactococcus garvieae. Our results demonstrate that rainbow trout and rearing environment are potential sources for the isolation of LAB, mainly lactococci, active against L. garvieae and other fish pathogens. Moreover, this is the first study describing the cultivable TM and LAB from rainbow trout intestine and rearing environment along the fish life-cycle. The host-derived LAB active against fish pathogens comprise potential candidates as probiotics in rainbow trout farming as an alternative or complementary strategy to antibiotics and vaccines for disease prevention.

  13. Nutrient content in the muscle and skin of fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rebolé, A; Velasco, S; Rodríguez, M L; Treviño, J; Alzueta, C; Tejedor, J L; Ortiz, L T

    2015-05-01

    The nutrient content in the muscle and edible skin parts of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets, sampled at two growth stages, was evaluated. The average concentrations of protein and essential amino acids were higher in the muscle than in the skin. The chemical scores reached a value of 1.0 for the amino acids in the muscle and ranged from 0.40 (tryptophan) to 0.94 (threonine) in the skin. The average lipid content and the saturated fatty acids/polyunsaturated fatty acids and n-6/n-3 ratios were higher in the skin than in the muscle, whereas the proportion of docosahexaenoic acid (C22:6 n-3) was higher in the muscle. Significant differences were found for the essential minerals analysed, except for Cu. The concentrations of Na, K and Mg were higher and those of Ca, P, Fe, Mn and Zn were lower in the muscle than in the skin. Significant effects of the fish growth on the composition were detected.

  14. Embryotoxicity of extracts from Lake Ontario rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes)

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, G.E.; Metcalfe, T.L.; Metcalfe, C.D. . Environmental and Resources Studies Program); Huestis, S.Y. )

    1994-09-01

    Various preparative techniques were used to extract nonpolar organic compounds from the muscle tissue of Lake Ontario rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In this extract, PCBs and organochlorine compounds were detected in nanogram-per-milliliter quantities, and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans were detected in picogram-per-milliliter quantities. The extract and various subfractions of the extract were tested for embryotoxicity in a bioassay with embryos of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). The whole extract was embryotoxic to medaka, as were an extract fraction containing PCBs (fraction A) and extract fractions containing nonpolar organochlorine compounds (fractions B and C). When subfractions prepared from fraction A were tested for embryotoxicity, a subfraction containing non-ortho-substituted PCB congeners was embryo-toxic, whereas subfractions containing mono-ortho- and di-ortho-substituted PCB congeners were relatively nontoxic. Pathological lesions characteristic of exposure to planar halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons were observed only in embryos exposed to the non-ortho-PCB subfraction. The non-ortho-PCB subfraction of fraction A was more toxic than the original fraction A, which indicates that nontoxic PCBs reduce the toxicity of the non-ortho-PCBs through some unknown mechanism. This study indicates that organochlorine compounds and non-ortho-substituted PCBs have the potential to be embryotoxic to early life stages of Great lakes fish, but nontoxic contaminants can modify this toxic response. These data are relevant to the interpretation of correlations between embryo mortalities and concentrations of persistent organic contaminants in Great Lakes salmonids.

  15. Effect of vitamin C on innate immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Leal, Esther; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2017-08-01

    Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid, is an essential micronutrient that influences a wide variety of physiological processes, including immunological functions. Although the positive effects of vitamin C supplementation on the immunological status of fish has been established in different species, the bases for these positive effects are still unknown. Hence, the aim of our study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of vitamin C on several innate immune functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocyte populations. For this, we assessed the effects exerted on the established rainbow trout monocyte-macrophage cell line RTS11, and compared them to those observed in trout head kidney leukocytes. Our results demonstrate that vitamin C increases the production of reactive oxygen species and the percentage of phagocytic cells in both cell populations. On the other hand, vitamin C had no effect on the surface MHC II levels and only in the case of RTS11 cells increased the capacity of these cells to migrate towards the CK9 chemokine. Finally, vitamin C also increased the transcription of several pro-inflammatory and antimicrobial genes elicited by Escherichia coli, with some differences depending on the cell population studied. Our results contribute to further understand how vitamin C supplementation regulates the fish immune system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Medicinal plant extracts modulate respiratory burst and proliferation activity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) leukocytes.

    PubMed

    Bulfon, Chiara; Galeotti, Marco; Volpatti, Donatella

    2017-09-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of Aloe vera, Curcuma longa, Echinacea purpurea, Lavandula officinalis, Origanum vulgare, Panax ginseng, and Rheum officinale extracts on leukocytes purified from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) head kidney. The cells were cultured in a medium containing increasing doses of extracts; afterwards, they were tested for reactive oxygen species production after stimulation with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and proliferation in the presence or absence of phytohemagglutinin from Phaseolus vulgaris (PHA-P). After a 2-h exposure, the extracts of L. officinalis, O. vulgare, and R. officinale strongly reduced the oxidative burst activity of PMA-stimulated leukocytes, in a dose-dependent manner (P ≤ 0.05). A. vera, C. longa, E. purpurea, and P. ginseng extracts reduced this response with lower efficacy and especially at lower concentrations. On the contrary, the highest concentration of ginseng extract stimulated the respiratory burst of leukocytes compared to untreated control cells. After a 72-h exposure, the extracts of L. officinalis, R. officinale, C. longa, E. purpurea, and P. ginseng had a clear dose-dependent stimulatory effect on leukocyte proliferation (P ≤ 0.05). The results suggest that these medicinal plants can be considered as reliable sources of new antioxidants or immunostimulants to be used in aquaculture.

  17. Cellular components of probiotics control Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Abbass, A; Sharifuzzaman, S M; Austin, B

    2010-01-01

    Subcellular components of the probiotics Aeromonas sobria GC2 and Bacillus subtilis JB-1, when administered to rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, conferred protection against a new biogroup of Yersinia ruckeri. Thus, intraperitoneal or intramuscular injection of rainbow trout with cell wall proteins (CWPs), outer membrane proteins (OMPs), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), whole cell proteins (WCPs) and live cells followed by challenge on day 8 with Y. ruckeri led to 80-100% survival compared with 10% survival in the controls. Sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) profiles of WCPs and OMPs from GC2 had 10 and 5 variable protein bands in comparison to 11 and 5 bands in the WCPs and CWPs from JB-1. Proteomic analyses were employed following SDS-PAGE to categorize one dominant protein of 104.7 kDa from the CWPs of JB-1 and equated it with 'Bacillus spp. endoglucanase' with a Mascot score >69. These results point to the potential of using cellular components of probiotics for protection of fish against bacterial diseases.

  18. Hypothermic storage of isolated spermatogonia and oogonia from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Falahatkar, Bahram; Poursaeid, Samaneh; Kitada, Ryota; Yoshizaki, Goro

    2017-03-14

    A growing number of fish species are endangered due to human activities. A short- or long-time preservation of gametes could conserve genetic resources of threatened fish species. The aim of this study was to evaluate a hypothermic condition for short-term preservation of spermatogonia and oogonia cells isolated from immature transgenic rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and to determine the maximum time point for further transplantation. Viability rate of germ cells was investigated after isolation and during storage at 4 °C up to 24 h. Dulbecco's modification of Eagle's medium supplemented with Hepes fetal bovine serum and l-glutamine was used as hypothermic storage media. The results showed that while viability decreased following 24 h storage, the remaining viable cells did not vary morphologically as well as GFP intensity retained similar to those observed in freshly isolated cells. The hypothermal storage study indicated that culture medium is suitable for preserving germ cells in the short periods of time. Simplicity, easily available culture media and low cost provide new insight into hypothermic conditions for preserving and transporting of germ cells for next applied and basic studies.

  19. An experimental vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila can induce protection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPatra, S.E.; Plant, K.P.; Alcorn, S.; Ostland, V.; Winton, J.

    2010-01-01

    A candidate vaccine against Aeromonas hydrophila in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, was developed using a bacterial lysate. To test the strength of protection, A. hydrophila challenge models were compared using injection into both the intraperitoneal (IP) cavity and the dorsal sinus (DS) with selected doses of live bacteria washed in saline or left untreated. Unlike the IP route, injection into the DS with either saline washed or unwashed cells resulted in consistent cumulative mortality and a dose response that could be used to establish a standard challenge having an LD50 of approximately 3 × 107 colony forming units per fish. Survivors of the challenge suffered significantly lower mortality upon re-challenge than naïve fish, suggesting a high level of acquired resistance was elicited by infection. Passive immunization using serum from hyper-immunized fish also resulted in significantly reduced mortality indicating protection can be transferred and that some portion of resistance may be antibody mediated. Vaccination of groups of rainbow trout with A. hydrophila lysate resulted in significant protection against a high challenge dose but only when injected along with Freund’s complete adjuvant. At a low challenge dose, mortality in all groups was low, but the bacterial lysate alone appeared to offer some protection.

  20. Effects of atrazine on hepatic metabolism and endocrine homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Salaberria, Iurgi; Hansen, Bjørn Henrik; Asensio, Vega; Olsvik, Pål A; Andersen, Rolf A; Jenssen, Bjørn Munro

    2009-01-01

    The herbicide atrazine (ATZ) is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world and is now under scrutiny for its alleged capacity to disrupt the endocrine system. Exhibiting negligible interaction with the estrogen receptor (ER), ATZ's mode of action remains to be elucidated. ATZ may act as an inducer of the enzyme aromatase, which converts androgens to estrogens, although other mechanisms should also be taken into consideration such as impairment of hepatic metabolism. Therefore we administered juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) a dose of either 2 or 200 microg ATZ/kg, or of carrier control phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and we measured plasma concentrations of testosterone (T), 17beta-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (Vtg) 6 days after exposure. Simultaneously we analyzed hepatic gene expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 1A and pi-class glutathione S-transferase (GST-P), and catalase (CAT) activity. Although sex steroid levels showed no significant alterations, we found a dose-dependent increase in Vtg and a concomitant decrease in CYP1A. There was no effect of ATZ on GST-P mRNA levels but GST-P was positively correlated with CYP1A. Also, CYP1A was negatively correlated with liver CAT and E2, and varied with T concentrations in a hormetic manner. The results showed that ATZ can alter hepatic metabolism, induce estrogenic effects and oxidative stress in vivo, and that these effects are linked.

  1. Accumulation and disposition of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Haukås, Marianne; Mariussen, Espen; Ruus, Anders; Tollefsen, Knut Erik

    2009-11-08

    The brominated flame retardant hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) has been reported in environmental samples worldwide. The three diastereomers, alpha-, beta- and gamma-HBCD, behave differently in aquatic food webs; likely depending on different factors influencing assimilation efficiency and metabolism. In the present study, two oral exposure experiments with rainbow trout were performed to assess the role of selective uptake on diastereomer-specific accumulation and disposition of HBCD to liver, brain and muscle. In both experiments, juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were administrated a technical HBCD-mixture in commercial feed (10mgkg(-1)), followed by up to 21 days of food deprivation. Already 6h after exposure, the HBCD accumulation was significant, and the concentrations peaked 4-8 days after the exposure. The relative change in HBCD pattern during the accumulation process (0-8 days), suggested that there was a diastereomer-selective uptake of alpha- and beta-HBCD in the rainbow trout. During the initial 48h, considerable amounts of all three diastereomers were distributed to liver, brain and muscle. A 70% reduction in SigmaHBCD levels after 21 days, indicated elimination of HBCD from brain and liver, but no clear elimination from the muscle was observed. Differences in HBCD pattern between organs at the end of the experiment support a proposal of an organ-specific diastereomer accumulation.

  2. Two novel muramidases from skin mucosa of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Fernandes, J M O; Kemp, G D; Smith, V J

    2004-05-01

    Two novel antibacterial muramidases were purified to homogeneity from skin exudates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Unusually, one has an acidic isoelectric point and it is the first anionic muramidase to be reported for fish. Its molecular mass is 14,268 Da, as determined by mass spectrometry. The other muramidase is cationic with a mass of 14,252 Da. Partial N-terminal amino acid sequencing and peptide mapping strongly point to it being a c-type lysozyme, the first to be purified and characterised from skin of a salmonid. Its optimum pH ranges from 4.5 to 5.5 and its optimum temperature, at pH 5.0, is 33-49 degrees C, although it still exhibits activity at 5 degrees C. It is strongly bactericidal to the Gram-(+) bacterium Planococcus citreus, with a minimum bactericidal concentration of 100 U ml(-1), but is neither chitinolytic nor haemolytic. These two muramidases probably contribute to epithelial defence of the fish against microbes, either alone or in synergism with antibacterial peptides.

  3. Dimethoate-induced oxidative stress and DNA damage in Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Dogan, Demet; Can, Canan; Kocyigit, Abdurrahim; Dikilitas, Murat; Taskin, Abdullah; Bilinc, Hasan

    2011-06-01

    The present study was conducted in order to investigate pro-oxidant activity of dimethoate in liver and brain tissues following sublethal pesticide exposure for 5, 15 and 30 d by using SOD, GPx, CAT enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation as biomarkers as well as DNA damaging potential via detecting% Tail DNA, Tail moment and Olive tail moment as endpoints in erythrocytes of Oncorhynchus mykiss in an in vitro experiment. Antioxidant enzyme activities were found to elicit two staged response which was an initial induction followed by a sharp inhibition in liver tissue while a sustained increase in GPx activity and slight stimulation in SOD activity were detected in brain tissue. Lipid peroxidation showed an ascending pattern throughout the exposure period in both tissues and a decreasing trend was determined in tissue protein levels which was proved to be positively correlated with duration. Similar findings were obtained from outcomes preferred to quantify DNA damage and TM was decided to reflect the extent of damage more sensitively because of determined positive correlation with concentrations applied. Considering these results, it can be concluded that oxidative stress condition evoked by dimethoate could not be responded effectively and genotoxic nature of pesticide was proven by determined clastogenic effect possibly via being an alkylation agent or stimulating the production of reactive species.

  4. Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Ultra-Low Dose Cancer Studies*

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David E.; Orner, Gayle; Willard, Kristin D.; Tilton, Susan; Hendricks, Jerry D.; Pereira, Clifford; Benninghoff, Abby D.; Bailey, George S.

    2010-01-01

    Cancer risk assessment utilizing rodents requires extrapolation across five orders of magnitude to estimate the Virtually Safe Dose (VSD). Regulatory agencies rely upon the Linear Extrapolated Dose (LED) except when sufficient information on mechanism of action justifies alternative models. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been utilized at Oregon State University as a model for human cancer for forty years. Low cost and high capacity, made possible by our unique facility, along with low spontaneous background and high sensitivity, allow design and conduct of statistically challenging studies not possible in rodents. Utilization of custom microarrays demonstrates similarities in gene expression in trout and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have completed one study employing over 42,000 trout with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and determined the dose resulting in 1 additional cancer in 5,000 animals, a 50-fold enhancement over the mouse ED01 study. Liver tumor incidence at low dose deviated significantly from linearity (concave down), whereas, DBP-DNA adductions deviated slightly (convex up). A second study is underway with aflatoxin B1 (AFB1). Results to date indicate AFB1 at low dose, in contrast to DBP, elicits a linear dose-response function on the log-log scale which falls below the LED with a slope slightly greater than 1.0. Such studies demonstrate the statistical power of the trout cancer model and strengthen the case for incorporation of these data-sets into risk assessment for these environmental human carcinogens. PMID:19135172

  5. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and ultra-low dose cancer studies.

    PubMed

    Williams, David E; Orner, Gayle; Willard, Kristin D; Tilton, Susan; Hendricks, Jerry D; Pereira, Clifford; Benninghoff, Abby D; Bailey, George S

    2009-03-01

    Cancer risk assessment utilizing rodents requires extrapolation across five orders of magnitude to estimate the Virtually Safe Dose (VSD). Regulatory agencies rely upon the Linear Extrapolated Dose (LED) except when sufficient information on mechanism of action justifies alternative models. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) has been utilized at Oregon State University as a model for human cancer for forty years. Low cost and high capacity, made possible by our unique facility, along with low spontaneous background and high sensitivity, allow design and conduct of statistically challenging studies not possible in rodents. Utilization of custom microarrays demonstrates similarities in gene expression in trout and human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We have completed one study employing over 42,000 trout with dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) and determined the dose resulting in 1 additional cancer in 5000 animals, a 50-fold enhancement over the mouse ED(01) study. Liver tumor incidence at low dose deviated significantly from linearity (concave down), whereas, DBP-DNA adductions deviated slightly (convex up). A second study is underway with aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)). Results to date indicate AFB(1) at low dose, in contrast to DBP, elicits a linear dose-response function on the log-log scale which falls below the LED with a slope slightly greater than 1.0. Such studies demonstrate the statistical power of the trout cancer model and strengthen the case for incorporation of these data-sets into risk assessment for these environmental human carcinogens.

  6. Effects of Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium) extract on selected immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Asadi, M.S.; Mirvaghefei, A.R.; Nematollahi, M.A.; Banaee, M.; Ahmadi, K.

    2012-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium) is a medical plant containing diverse chemically-active substances with biological properties. The present study was conducted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of watercress extract on immunological and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed for 21 days with diet supplemented with 0.1% and 1% of watercress extract per 1 kg food and with a normal diet as control. Hematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), RBC index like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) as well as immunological parameters such as peroxidase, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein, albumin and globulin levels were measured after 21 days of watercress extract treatment. The results indicated that oral administration of 1 % watercress extract in fish may enhance some hematological and immunological parameters including Hb and MCHC, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein and globulin levels, compared to the controls after 21 days of experimental period. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of watercress extract may be useful to improve fish’s immune system. PMID:26623289

  7. Effects of Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium) extract on selected immunological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Asadi, M S; Mirvaghefei, A R; Nematollahi, M A; Banaee, M; Ahmadi, K

    2012-01-01

    Watercress (Nasturtium nasturtium) is a medical plant containing diverse chemically-active substances with biological properties. The present study was conducted to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of watercress extract on immunological and hematological parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were fed for 21 days with diet supplemented with 0.1% and 1% of watercress extract per 1 kg food and with a normal diet as control. Hematological parameters such as red blood cells (RBC) and white blood cells (WBC), hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb), RBC index like mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) as well as immunological parameters such as peroxidase, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein, albumin and globulin levels were measured after 21 days of watercress extract treatment. The results indicated that oral administration of 1 % watercress extract in fish may enhance some hematological and immunological parameters including Hb and MCHC, lysozyme and complement activities, total protein and globulin levels, compared to the controls after 21 days of experimental period. In conclusion, on the basis of these results, oral administration of watercress extract may be useful to improve fish's immune system.

  8. Growth of age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) in the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan

    SciTech Connect

    Bellgraph, Brian J.; Thompson, Bradley E.; Hayes, Daniel B.; Riley, Timothy S.

    2006-12-01

    We sampled ten sites within the Pine River watershed, Alcona County, Michigan. In 2001, age-0 steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were collected to determine growth rates. In 2002, emergence dates of steelhead were determined by observational studies and age-0 steelhead and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) were collected to determine growth rates. Steelhead emergence occurred from late June to mid-July 2002. Growth rates of both species varied among branches within the watershed (P<0.05). Steelhead growth varied from 0.24 to 0.42 mm/day and brook trout growth varied from 0.22 to 0.37 mm/day.

  9. Novel molecular markers differentiate Oncorhynchus mykiss (rainbow trout and steelhead) and the O. clarki (cutthroat trout) subspecies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    A suite of 26 PCR-based markers was developed that differentiates rainbow (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). The markers also differentiated rainbow from other cutthroat trout subspecies (O. clarki), and several of the markers differentiated between cutthroat trout subspecies. This system has numerous positive attributes, including: nonlethal sampling, high species-specificity and products that are easily identified and scored using agarose gel electrophoresis. The methodology described for developing the markers can be applied to virtually any system in which numerous markers are desired for identifying or differentiating species or subspecies.

  10. Evaluation of angler effort and harvest of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), Lake Scanewa, Washington, 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liedtke, Theresa L.; Kock, Tobias J.; Ekstrom, Brian K.; Tomka, Ryan G.; Rondorf, Dennis W.

    2011-01-01

    A creel evaluation was conducted in Lake Scanewa, a reservoir on the Cowlitz River, to monitor catch rates of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and determine if the trout fishery was having negative impacts on juvenile anadromous salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.) in the system. The trout fishery, which is supported by releases of 20,000 fish (2 fish per pound) per year from June to August, was developed to mitigate for the construction of the Cowlitz Falls Dam in 1994. The trout fishery has a target catch rate of at least 0.50 fish per hour. Interviews with 1,214 anglers during the creel evaluation found that most anglers targeted rainbow trout (52 percent) or Chinook and coho salmon (48 percent). The interviewed anglers caught a total of 1,866 fish, most of which were rainbow trout (1,213 fish; 78 percent) or coho salmon (311 fish; 20 percent). We estimated that anglers spent 17,365 hours fishing in Lake Scanewa from June to November 2010. Catch rates for boat anglers (1.39 fish per hour) exceeded the 0.50 fish per hour target, whereas catch rates for shore anglers (0.35 fish per hour) fell short of the goal. The combined catch rates for all trout anglers in the reservoir were 0.96 fish per hour. We estimated that anglers harvested 7,584 (95 percent confidence interval = 2,795-12,372 fish) rainbow trout during the study period and boat anglers caught more fish than shore anglers (5,975 and 1,609 fish, respectively). This estimate suggests that more than 12,000 of the 20,000 rainbow trout released into Lake Scanewa during 2010 were not harvested, and could negatively impact juvenile salmon in the reservoir through predation or competition. We examined 1,236 stomach samples from rainbow trout and found that 2.1 percent (26 fish) of these samples contained juvenile fish. Large trout (greater than 300 millimeters) had a higher incidence of predation than small trout (less than 300 millimeters; 8.50 and 0.06 percent, respectively). A total of 39 fish were found in rainbow

  11. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brieuc, Marine S. O.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Palmer, Alexander D.; Naish, Kerry A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h2 = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h2 = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  12. Linking personality to larval energy reserves in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Andersson, Madelene Åberg; Höglund, Erik

    2012-01-01

    There is a surging interest in the evolution, ecology and physiology of personality differences. However, most of the studies in this research area have been performed in adult animals. Trait variations expressed early in development and how they are related to the ontogeny of an animal's personality are far less studied. Genetic differences as well as environmental factors causing functional variability of the central serotonergic system have been related to personality differences in vertebrates, including humans. Such gene-environment interplay suggests that the central serotonergic system plays an important role in the ontogeny of personality traits. In salmonid fishes, the timing of emergence from spawning nests is related to energy reserves, aggression, and social dominance. However, it is currently unknown how the size of the yolk reserve is reflected on aggression and dominance, or if these traits are linked to differences in serotonergic transmission in newly emerged larvae. In this study we investigated the relationship between yolk reserves, social dominance, and serotonergic transmission in newly emerged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) larvae. This was conducted by allowing larvae with the same emergence time, but with different yolk sizes, to interact in pairs for 24 h. The results show that individuals with larger yolks performed more aggressive acts, resulting in a suppression of aggression in individuals with smaller yolks. A higher brain serotonergic activity confirmed subordination in larvae with small yolks. The relationship between social dominance and yolk size was present in siblings, demonstrating a link between interfamily variation in energy reserves and aggression, and suggests that larger yolk reserves fuel a more aggressive personality during the initial territorial establishment in salmonid fishes. Furthermore, socially naïve larvae with big yolks had lower serotonin levels, suggesting that other factors than the social environment

  13. The effect of peptidoglycan enriched diets on antimicrobial peptide gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Casadei, Elisa; Bird, Steve; Vecino, Jose L González; Wadsworth, Simon; Secombes, Christopher J

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of feeding rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) peptidoglycan (PG) enriched diets on antimicrobial peptide (AMP) gene expression. Fish were divided into 5 groups and fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 50 and 100 mg PG/Kg, and sampled 1, 7 and 14 days later. The expression of eight AMP genes (four defensins, two cathelicidins and two liver expressed AMPs) was determined in skin, gill, gut and liver, tissues important for first lines of defence or production of acute phase proteins. Up-regulation of many AMPs was found after feeding the PG enriched diets, with sequential expression seen over the time course studied, where defensins were typically expressed early and cathelicidins and LEAPs later on. A number of clear differences in AMP responsiveness between the tissues examined were also apparent. Of the four PG concentrations used, 5 mg PG/Kg did not always elicit AMP gene induction or to the same degree as seen with the other diets. The three higher dose groups generally showed similar trends although differences in fold change were more pronounced in the 50 and 100 mg PG/Kg groups. Curiously several AMPs were down-regulated after 14 days of feeding in gills, gut and liver. Nevertheless, overall the PG enriched diets had a positive effect on AMP expression. Further investigations now need to be undertaken to confirm whether this higher AMP gene expression correlates with protection against common bacterial diseases and if PG enriched diets have value as a means to temporarily boost the piscine immune system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Intersex Occurrence in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Male Fry Chronically Exposed to Ethynylestradiol

    PubMed Central

    Depiereux, Sophie; Liagre, Mélanie; Danis, Lorraine; De Meulder, Bertrand; Depiereux, Eric; Segner, Helmut; Kestemont, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the male-to-female morphological and physiological transdifferentiation process in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to exogenous estrogens. The first objective was to elucidate whether trout develop intersex gonads under exposure to low levels of estrogen. To this end, the gonads of an all-male population of fry exposed chronically (from 60 to 136 days post fertilization – dpf) to several doses (from environmentally relevant 0.01 µg/L to supra-environmental levels: 0.1, 1 and 10 µg/L) of the potent synthetic estrogen ethynylestradiol (EE2) were examined histologically. The morphological evaluations were underpinned by the analysis of gonad steroid (testosterone, estradiol and 11-ketotestosterone) levels and of brain and gonad gene expression, including estrogen-responsive genes and genes involved in sex differentiation in (gonads: cyp19a1a, ER isoforms, vtg, dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b; brain: cyp19a1b, ER isoforms). Intersex gonads were observed from the first concentration used (0.01 µg EE2/L) and sexual inversion could be detected from 0.1 µg EE2/L. This was accompanied by a linear decrease in 11-KT levels, whereas no effect on E2 and T levels was observed. Q-PCR results from the gonads showed downregulation of testicular markers (dmrt1, sox9a2; sdY; cyp11b) with increasing EE2 exposure concentrations, and upregulation of the female vtg gene. No evidence was found for a direct involvement of aromatase in the sex conversion process. The results from this study provide evidence that gonads of male trout respond to estrogen exposure by intersex formation and, with increasing concentration, by morphological and physiological conversion to phenotypic ovaries. However, supra-environmental estrogen concentrations are needed to induce these changes. PMID:25033040

  15. Genetic variation underlying resistance to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in a steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population.

    PubMed

    Brieuc, Marine S O; Purcell, Maureen K; Palmer, Alexander D; Naish, Kerry A

    2015-11-17

    Understanding the mechanisms of host resistance to pathogens will allow insights into the response of wild populations to the emergence of new pathogens. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is endemic to the Pacific Northwest and infectious to Pacific salmon and trout (Oncorhynchus spp.). Emergence of the M genogroup of IHNV in steelhead trout O. mykiss in the coastal streams of Washington State, between 2007 and 2011, was geographically heterogeneous. Differences in host resistance due to genetic change were hypothesized to be a factor influencing the IHNV emergence patterns. For example, juvenile steelhead trout losses at the Quinault National Fish Hatchery (QNFH) were much lower than those at a nearby facility that cultures a stock originally derived from the same source population. Using a classical quantitative genetic approach, we determined the potential for the QNFH steelhead trout population to respond to selection caused by the pathogen, by estimating the heritability for 2 traits indicative of IHNV resistance, mortality (h² = 0.377 (0.226 - 0.550)) and days to death (h² = 0.093 (0.018 - 0.203)). These results confirm that there is a genetic basis for resistance and that this population has the potential to adapt to IHNV. Additionally, genetic correlation between days to death and fish length suggests a correlated response in these traits to selection. Reduction of genetic variation, as well as the presence or absence of resistant alleles, could affect the ability of populations to adapt to the pathogen. Identification of the genetic basis for IHNV resistance could allow the assessment of the susceptibility of other steelhead populations.

  16. The effects of copper on blood and biochemical parameters of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dethloff, G.M.; Schlenk, D.; Khan, S.; Bailey, H.C.

    1999-01-01

    Metals are released into aquatic systems from many sources, often at sublethal concentrations. The effects of sublethal concentrations of metals on fish are not entirely understood. The objective of this study was to determine the hematological and biochemical effects of a range of copper concentrations (6.4, 16.0, 26.9 ??g Cu/L) on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) over a prolonged period of time. Trout were exposed to copper, and, at intervals of 3, 7, 14, and 21 days, selected parameters were evaluated. Hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, and plasma cortisol levels were elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L at day 3 and then returned to levels comparable to control fish. Plasma protein and lactate levels were not significantly altered in trout from any copper treatment. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression were consistently elevated in trout exposed to 26.9 ??g Cu/L. Both of these parameters stabilized by day 3, with only hepatic copper concentration showing a further increase at day 21. Hepatic copper concentration and hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression appear to be robust indicators of copper exposure. Most blood-based parameters evaluated appear to be associated with a transitory, nonspecific stress response. The return of elevated hematological and biochemical parameters to control levels after 3 days and thestabilization of hepatic metallothionein mRNA expression and copper concentration over a similar time period suggested acclimation to dissolved copper at 26.9 ??g/L. Further analysis of the data on blood-based parameters indicated that certain parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, plasma glucose, plasma cortisol) may be useful in field monitoring.

  17. The orexinergic system in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss and its regulation by dietary lipids.

    PubMed

    Varricchio, Ettore; Russo, Finizia; Coccia, Elena; Turchini, Giovanni Mario; Francis, David Scott; Paolucci, Marina

    2015-08-01

    In this study, we report the distribution of orexin A (OXA), orexin B (OXB), and orexin receptor (OX2R) immunoreactive (ir) cells in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract of Oncorhynchus mykiss fed diets with different dietary fatty acid compositions. Trout were fed five iso-energetic experimental diets containing fish oil, or one of four different vegetable oils (olive, sunflower, linseed, and palm oils) as the added dietary lipid source for 12 weeks. OXA, OXB, and OX2R immunoreactive neurons and nervous fibers were identified in the lateral and ventro-medial hypothalamus. OXA, OXB, and OX2R ir cells were found in the mucosa and glands of the stomach and in the mucosa of both the pyloric cecae and intestine. OX2R ir cells were localized in the mucosa layer of both the pyloric cecae and intestine. These immunohistochemical (IHC) results were confirmed via Western blotting. Antibodies against preproorexin (PPO) crossreacted with a band of ∼16 kDa in the hypothalamus, stomach, pyloric cecae, and intestine. Antibodies against OX2R crossreacted with a band of ∼38 kDa in the hypothalamus, pyloric cecae, and intestine. The presence and distribution of OXA, OXB, and OX2R ir cells in the hypothalamus and gastrointestinal tract did not appear to be affected by dietary oils. The presence of orexin system immunoreactive cells in the stomach, pyloric cecae, and intestine of rainbow trout, but not in the enteric nervous system, could suggest a possible role of these peptides as signaling of gastric emptying or endocrine modulation, implying a main local action played by orexins.

  18. Shifting Thresholds: Rapid Evolution of Migratory Life Histories in Steelhead/Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Phillis, Corey C; Moore, Jonathan W; Buoro, Mathieu; Hayes, Sean A; Garza, John Carlos; Pearse, Devon E

    2016-01-01

    Expression of phenotypic plasticity depends on reaction norms adapted to historic selective regimes; anthropogenic changes in these selection regimes necessitate contemporary evolution or declines in productivity and possibly extinction. Adaptation of conditional strategies following a change in the selection regime requires evolution of either the environmentally influenced cue (e.g., size-at-age) or the state (e.g., size threshold) at which an individual switches between alternative tactics. Using a population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) introduced above a barrier waterfall in 1910, we evaluate how the conditional strategy to migrate evolves in response to selection against migration. We created 9 families and 917 offspring from 14 parents collected from the above- and below-barrier populations. After 1 year of common garden-rearing above-barrier offspring were 11% smaller and 32% lighter than below-barrier offspring. Using a novel analytical approach, we estimate that the mean size at which above-barrier fish switch between the resident and migrant tactic is 43% larger than below-barrier fish. As a result, above-barrier fish were 26% less likely to express the migratory tactic. Our results demonstrate how rapid and opposing changes in size-at-age and threshold size contribute to the contemporary evolution of a conditional strategy and indicate that migratory barriers may elicit rapid evolution toward the resident life history on timescales relevant for conservation and management of conditionally migratory species. © The American Genetic Association. 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Quantitative evaluation of macrophage aggregates in brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwindt, Adam R.; Truelove, Nathan; Schreck, Carl B.; Fournie, John W.; Landers, Dixon H.; Kent, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    Macrophage aggregates (MAs) occur in various organs of fishes, especially the kidney, liver and spleen, and contain melanin, ceroid/lipofuscin and hemosiderin pigments. They have been used as indicators of a number of natural and anthropogenic stressors. Macrophage aggregates occur in salmonids but are poorly organized, irregularly shaped, and are generally smaller than those in derived teleosts. These features complicate quantification, and thus these fishes have seldom been used in studies correlating MAs with environmental stressors. To alleviate these complications, we developed color filtering algorithms for use with the software package ImagePro Plus® (Media Cybernetics) that select and quantify pigmented area (i.e. colors ranging from gold to brown to black) in tissue sections. Image analysis results compared well with subjective scoring when tested on brook trout Salvelinus fontinalis and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss captured from high-elevation lakes or hatcheries. Macrophage aggregate pigments correlated positively with age and negatively with condition factor. Within individual fish, pigmentation correlated positively among organs, suggesting that the kidney, liver or spleen are suitable indicator organs. In age-matched fishes, MA pigments were not different between hatcheries and lakes in the organs examined. Between lakes, differences in pigments were observed in the kidney and spleen, but were not explained by age, condition factor, sex or maturation state. Our results indicate that quantification of the area occupied by MA pigments is an efficient and accurate means of evaluating MAs in salmonid organs and that organ pigmentation correlates with age and condition factor, as seen in studies with more derived fishes. 

  20. Tissue distribution and residue depletion of metronidazole in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Mitrowska, Kamila; Pekala, Agnieszka; Posyniak, Andrzej

    2015-01-01

    Tissue distribution and residue depletion of metronidazole (MNZ) was studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following oral administration of MNZ in feed at the average dose of 25 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for 7 days at 11 ± 2°C. The MNZ concentration in feed was 0.25% while daily feed intake was 1% of body weight. The concentrations of MNZ and its main metabolite, hydroxymetronidazole (MNZOH), in fish tissues were determined by LC-MS/MS. The drug was well distributed in tissues with maximum concentrations on day 1 post-administration. At this time, the mean MNZ concentrations in muscle, skin, kidney, liver and gill were 14,999, 20,269, 15,070, 10,102 and 16,467 µg kg(-1) respectively. MNZ was converted into MNZOH with the ratio of MNZOH:MNZ up to 7% in all fish tissues throughout the withdrawal period. This shows that MNZ itself is the main residue in rainbow trout. MNZ was detected at the level close to the decision limit (0.20 µg kg(-1)) in muscle, skin and muscle with adhering skin up to 42 days, while in kidney, liver and gill it was up to 28 days post-administration. MNZOH was eliminated more rapidly from fish tissues and it was present in muscle alone up to 21 days. The elimination half-lives of MNZ and MNZOH in rainbow trout tissues were 1.83-2.53 and 1.24-2.12 days, respectively. When muscle without skin was analysed, higher MNZ and MNZOH concentrations were detected, and for a longer period of time, than in muscle with adhering skin. Thus muscle alone could be more appropriate for the effective residue control of MNZ in rainbow trout. For the same reason, it is also essential to ensure direct cooling immediately after sampling, since MNZ and its metabolite degrade in fish muscle and skin stored in non-freezing conditions.

  1. Functional characterization of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Abcg2a (Bcrp) transporter.

    PubMed

    Zaja, Roko; Popović, Marta; Lončar, Jovica; Smital, Tvrtko

    2016-12-01

    ABCG2 (BCRP - breast cancer resistance protein) belongs to the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) superfamily. It plays an important role in the disposition and elimination of xeno- and endobiotics and/or their metabolites in mammals. Likewise, the protective role of ABC transporters, including Abcg2, has been reported for aquatic organisms. In our previous study we have cloned the full gene sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Abcg2a and showed its high expression in liver and primary hepatocytes. Based on those insights, the main goal of this study was to perform a detailed functional characterization of trout Abcg2a using insect ovary cells (Spodoptera frugiperda, Sf9) as a heterologous expression system. Membrane vesicles preparations from Sf9 cells were used for the ATPase assay determinations and basic biochemical properties of fish Abcg2a versus human ABCG2 have been compared. A series of 39 physiologically and/or environmentally relevant substances was then tested on interaction with trout Abcg2a and human ABCG2. Correlation analysis reveals highly similar pattern of activation and inhibition. Significant activation of trout Abcg2a ATPase was observed for prazosin, doxorubicine, sildenafil, furosemid, propranolol, fenofibrate and pheophorbide. Pesticides showed either a weak activation (malathione) or strong (endosulfan) to weak (chlorpyrifos, fenoxycarb, DDE) inhibition of trout Abcg2a ATPase while the highest activation was obtained for benzo(a)pyrene, curcumine and testosterone. In conclusion, data from this study offer the first characterization of fish Abcg2a, reveal potent interactors among physiologically or environmentally relevant substances and point to similarities regarding strengths and interactor preferences between human ABCG2 and fish Abcg2a. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Genomic structure and expression of uncoupling protein 2 genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Coulibaly, Issa; Gahr, Scott A; Palti, Yniv; Yao, Jianbo; Rexroad, Caird E

    2006-08-09

    Uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2) belongs to the superfamily of mitochondrial anion carriers that dissociate the respiratory chain from ATP synthesis. It has been determined that UCP2 plays a role in several physiological processes such as energy expenditure, body weight control and fatty acid metabolism in several vertebrate species. We report the first characterization of UCP2s in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two UCP2 genes were identified in the rainbow trout genome, UCP2A and UCP2B. These genes are 93% similar in their predicted amino acid sequences and display the same genomic structure as other vertebrates (8 exons and 7 introns) spanning 4.2 kb and 3.2 kb, respectively. UCP2A and UCP2B were widely expressed in all tissues of the study with a predominant level in macrophage-rich tissues and reproductive organs. In fry muscle we observed an increase in UCP2B expression in response to fasting and a decrease after refeeding in agreement with previous studies in human, mouse, rat, and marsupials. The converse expression pattern was observed for UCP2A mRNA which decreased during fasting, suggesting different metabolic roles for UCP2A and UCP2B in rainbow trout muscle. Phylogenetic analysis including other genes from the UCP core family located rainbow trout UCP2A and UCP2B with their orthologs and suggested an early divergence of vertebrate UCPs from a common ancestor gene. We characterized two UCP2 genes in rainbow trout with similar genomic structures, amino acid sequences and distribution profiles. These genes appeared to be differentially regulated in response to fasting and refeeding in fry muscle. The genomic organization and phylogeny analysis support the hypothesis of a common ancestry between the vertebrate UCPs.

  3. Genetic Architecture of Migration-Related Traits in Rainbow and Steelhead Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Hecht, Benjamin C.; Thrower, Frank P.; Hale, Matthew C.; Miller, Michael R.; Nichols, Krista M.

    2012-01-01

    Although migration plays a critical role in the evolution and diversification of species, relatively little is known of the genetic architecture underlying this life history in any species. Rainbow and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) naturally segregate for both resident and migratory life-history types, respectively, as do other members of the salmonid family of fishes. Using an experimental cross derived from wild resident rainbow and wild migratory steelhead trout from Southeast Alaska and high throughput restriction-site associated DNA (RAD) tag sequencing, we perform a quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis to identify the number, position, and relative contribution of genetic effects on a suite of 27 physiological and morphological traits associated with the migratory life history in this species. In total, 37 QTL are localized to 19 unique QTL positions, explaining 4–13.63% of the variation for 19 of the 27 migration-related traits measured. Two chromosomal positions, one on chromosome Omy12 and the other on Omy14 each harbor 7 QTL for migration-related traits, suggesting that these regions could harbor master genetic controls for the migratory life-history tactic in this species. Another QTL region on Omy5 has been implicated in several studies of adaptive life histories within this species and could represent another important locus underlying the migratory life history. We also evaluate whether loci identified in this out-crossed QTL study colocalize to genomic positions previously identified for associations with migration-related traits in a doubled haploid mapping family. PMID:22973549

  4. Exposure to seawater increases intestinal motility in euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Brijs, Jeroen; Hennig, Grant W; Gräns, Albin; Dekens, Esmée; Axelsson, Michael; Olsson, Catharina

    2017-07-01

    Upon exposure to seawater, euryhaline teleosts need to imbibe and desalinate seawater to allow for intestinal ion and water absorption, as this is essential for maintaining osmotic homeostasis. Despite the potential benefits of increased mixing and transport of imbibed water for increasing the efficiency of absorptive processes, the effect of water salinity on intestinal motility in teleosts remains unexplored. By qualitatively and quantitatively describing in vivo intestinal motility of euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), this study demonstrates that, in freshwater, the most common motility pattern consisted of clusters of rhythmic, posteriorly propagating contractions that lasted ∼1-2 min followed by a period of quiescence lasting ∼4-5 min. This pattern closely resembles mammalian migrating motor complexes (MMCs). Following a transition to seawater, imbibed seawater resulted in a significant distension of the intestine and the frequency of MMCs increased twofold to threefold with a concomitant reduction in the periods of quiescence. The increased frequency of MMCs was also accompanied by ripple-type contractions occurring every 12-60 s. These findings demonstrate that intestinal contractile activity of euryhaline teleosts is dramatically increased upon exposure to seawater, which is likely part of the overall response for maintaining osmotic homeostasis as increased drinking and mechanical perturbation of fluids is necessary to optimise intestinal ion and water absorption. Finally, the temporal response of intestinal motility in rainbow trout transitioning from freshwater to seawater coincides with previously documented physiological modifications associated with osmoregulation and may provide further insight into the underlying reasons shaping the migration patterns of salmonids. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  5. Cold-acclimation leads to differential regulation of the steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) coronary microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Isabel A. S. F.; Hein, Travis W.

    2015-01-01

    The regulation of vascular resistance in fishes has largely been studied using isolated large conductance vessels, yet changes in tissue perfusion/vascular resistance are primarily mediated by the dilation/constriction of small arterioles. Thus we adapted mammalian isolated microvessel techniques for use in fish and examined how several agents affected the tone/resistance of isolated coronary arterioles (<150 μm ID) from steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to 1, 5, and 10°C. At 10°C, the vessels showed a concentration-dependent dilation to adenosine (ADE; 61 ± 8%), sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 35 ± 10%), and serotonin (SER; 27 ± 2%) (all values maximum responses). A biphasic response (mild contraction then dilation) was observed in vessels exposed to increasing concentrations of epinephrine (EPI; 34 ± 9% dilation) and norepinephrine (NE; 32 ± 7% dilation), whereas the effect was less pronounced with bradykinin (BK; 12.5 ± 3.5% constriction vs. 6 ± 6% dilation). Finally, a mild constriction was observed after exposure to acetylcholine (ACh; 6.5 ± 1.4%), while endothelin (ET)-1 caused a strong dose-dependent increase in tone (79 ± 5% constriction). Acclimation temperature had varying effects on the responsiveness of vessels. The dilations induced by EPI, ADE, SER, and SNP were reduced/eliminated at 5°C and/or 1°C as compared with 10°C. In contrast, acclimation to 5 and 1°C increased the maximum constriction induced by ACh and the sensitivity of vessels to ET-1 (but not the maximum response) at 1°C was greater. Acclimation temperature had no effect on the response to NE, and responsiveness to BK was variable. PMID:25715834

  6. Effects of intracerebroventricular administered fluoxetine on cardio-ventilatory functions in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kermorgant, Marc; Lancien, Frédéric; Mimassi, Nagi; Tyler, Charles R; Le Mével, Jean-Claude

    2014-09-01

    Fluoxetine (FLX) is a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor present in the aquatic environment which is known to bioconcentrate in the brains of exposed fish. FLX acts as a disruptor of various neuroendocrine functions in the brain, but nothing is known about the possible consequence of FLX exposure on the cardio-ventilatory system in fish. Here we undertook to investigate the central actions of FLX on ventilatory and cardiovascular function in unanesthetized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of FLX (dosed between 5 and 25 μg) resulted in a significantly elevated total ventilation (VTOT), with a maximum hyperventilation of +176% (at a dose of 25μg) compared with vehicle injected controls. This increase was due to an increase in ventilatory amplitude (VAMP: +126%) with minor effects on ventilatory frequency. The highest dose of FLX (25 μg) produced a significant increase in mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (PDA: +20%) without effects on heart rate (ƒH). In comparison, intra-arterial injections of FLX (500-2,500 μg) had no effect on ventilation but the highest doses increased both PDA and ƒH. The ICV and IA cardio-ventilatory effects of FLX were very similar to those previously observed following injections of 5-HT, indicating that FLX probably acts via stimulating endogenous 5-HT activity through inhibition of 5-HT transporter(s). Our results demonstrate for the first time in fish that FLX administered within the brain exerts potent stimulatory effects on ventilation and blood pressure increase. The doses of FLX given to fish in our study are higher than the brain concentrations of FLX in fish that result from acute exposure to FLX through the water. Nonetheless, our results indicate possible disrupting action of long term exposure to FLX discharged into the environment on central target sites sensitive to 5-HT involved in cardio-ventilatory control.

  7. Social stress modulates the cortisol response to an acute stressor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, J D; Gollock, M J; Gilmour, K M

    2014-01-15

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) of subordinate social status, circulating cortisol concentrations were elevated under resting conditions but the plasma cortisol and glucose responses to an acute stressor (confinement in a net) were attenuated relative to those of dominant trout. An in vitro head kidney preparation, and analysis of the expression of key genes in the stress axis prior to and following confinement in a net were then used to examine the mechanisms underlying suppression of the acute cortisol stress response in trout experiencing chronic social stress. With porcine adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) as the secretagogue, ACTH-stimulated cortisol production was significantly lower for head kidney preparations from subordinate trout than for those from dominant trout. Dominant and subordinate fish did not, however, differ in the relative mRNA abundance of melanocortin-2 receptor (MC2R), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) or cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) within the head kidney, although the relative mRNA abundance of these genes was significantly higher in both dominant and subordinate fish than in sham trout (trout that did not experience social interactions but were otherwise treated identically to the dominant and subordinate fish). The relative mRNA abundance of all three genes was significantly higher in trout exposed to an acute net stressor than under control conditions. Upstream of cortisol production in the stress axis, plasma ACTH concentrations were not affected by social stress, nor was the relative mRNA abundance of the binding protein for corticotropin releasing factor (CRF-BP). The relative mRNA abundance of CRF in the pre-optic area of subordinate fish was significantly higher than that of dominant or sham fish 1h after exposure to the stressor. Collectively, the results indicate that chronic social stress modulates cortisol production at the level of the interrenal cells, resulting in an attenuated

  8. Experimental evaluation of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss predation on longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turek, Kelly C.; Pegg, Mark A.; Pope, Kevin L.

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and in-stream enclosure experiments were used to determine whether rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss influence survival of longnose dace Rhinichthys cataractae. In the laboratory, adult rainbow trout preyed on longnose dace in 42% of trials and juvenile rainbow trout did not prey on longnose dace during the first 6 h after rainbow trout introduction. Survival of longnose dace did not differ in the presence of adult rainbow trout previously exposed to active prey and those not previously exposed to active prey ( = 0.28, P = 0.60). In field enclosures, the number of longnose dace decreased at a faster rate in the presence of rainbow trout relative to controls within the first 72 h, but did not differ between moderate and high densities of rainbow trout (F2,258.9 = 3.73, P = 0.03). Additionally, longnose dace were found in 7% of rainbow trout stomachs after 72 h in enclosures. Rainbow trout acclimated to the stream for longer periods had a greater initial influence on the number of longnose dace remaining in enclosures relative to those acclimated for shorter periods regardless of rainbow trout density treatment (F4,148.5 = 2.50, P = 0.04). More research is needed to determine how predation rates will change in natural environments, under differing amounts of habitat and food resources and in the context of whole assemblages. However, if rainbow trout are introduced into the habitat of longnose dace, some predation on longnose dace is expected, even when rainbow trout have no previous experience with active prey.

  9. Immune responses to methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Celik Altunoglu, Yasemin; Bilen, Soner; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2017-08-01

    The immune stimulating effects of the methanolic extract of black cumin (Nigella sativa) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was evaluated. Variable concentrations of black cumin methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg(-1) of feed] were individually added to the basal diet and rainbow trout was fed for 30 days to assess the innate immune responses and growth performance. Feed conversion ratio significantly decreased in the group fed with 0.5 g kg(-1) black cumin extract. Respiratory burst activity was observed to be the highest in the 0.5 g kg(-1) black cumin extract fed group. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were significantly increased in fish of experimental groups compared to control (P < 0.05). TGF-β gene expression increased in black cumin 0.5 g kg(-1) treated group. IL-1β and TGF-β gene expressions decreased in black cumin 0.1 g kg(-1) administered group. Expression of IL-12 gene diminished in both the experimental groups. There was no significant difference in survival rates between black cumin extract treated fish groups and control (P > 0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. The results indicate that the methanolic extract of black cumin is a stimulator of some innate humoral immune responses, but it is ineffective for cytokine-related gene trancriptions in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effects of aquaculture production noise on hearing, growth, and disease resistance of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wysocki, L.E.; Davidson, J. W.; Smith, M.E.; Frankel, A.S.; Ellison, W.T.; Mazik, P.M.; Popper, A.N.; Bebak, J.

    2007-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture production often utilizes equipment (e.g., aerators, air and water pumps, harvesters, blowers, filtration systems, and maintenance machinery) that increases noise levels in fish culture tanks. Consequently, chronic exposure to elevated noise levels in tanks could negatively impact cultured species. Possible effects include impairment of the auditory system, increased stress, and reduced growth rates. The objective of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of sound exposure on the hearing sensitivity, growth, and survival of cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Two cohorts of rainbow trout were cultured for 8??months in replicated tanks consisting of three sound treatments: 115, 130, or 150 decibels referenced at 1 micropascal (dB re 1????Pa root mean square [RMS]) levels. Auditory evoked potential (AEP) recordings revealed no significant differences in hearing thresholds resulting from exposure to increased ambient sound levels. Although there was no evident noise-induced hearing loss, there were significant differences in hearing thresholds between the two fish cohorts examined. No statistical effect of sound treatment was found for growth rate and mortality within each fish cohort. There was no significant difference in mortality between sound treatments when fish were exposed to the pathogen Yersinia ruckeri, but there was significantly different mortality between cohorts. This study indicated that rainbow trout hearing sensitivity, growth, survival, stress, and disease susceptibility were not negatively impacted by noise levels common to recirculating aquaculture systems. These findings should not be generalized to all cultured fish species, however, because many species, including catfish and cyprinids, have much greater hearing sensitivity than rainbow trout and could be affected differently by noise. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Influence of light and food on the circadian clock in liver of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Juan; Míguez, Jesús M; Naderi, Fatemeh; Soengas, José L; López-Patiño, Marcos A

    2017-09-21

    Several reports support the existence of multiple peripheral oscillators in fish, which may be able to modulate the rhythmic functions developed by those tissues hosting them. Thus, a circadian oscillator has been proposed to be located within fish liver. In this vertebrate group, the role played by the circadian system in regulating metabolic processes in liver is mostly unknown. We, therefore investigated the liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) as a potential element participating in the regulation of circadian rhythms in fish by hosting a functional circadian oscillator. The presence and expression pattern of main components of the circadian molecular machinery (clock1a, bmal1, per1 and rev-erbβ-like) were assessed. Furthermore, the role of environmental cues such as light and food, and their interaction in order to modulate the circadian oscillator was also assessed by exposing animals to constant conditions (absence of light for 48 h, and/or a 4 days fasting period). Our results demonstrate the existence of a functional circadian oscillator within trout liver, as demonstrated by significant rhythms of all clock genes assessed, independently of the environmental conditions studied. In addition, the daily profile of mRNA abundance of clock genes is influenced by both light (mainly clock1a and per1) and food (rev-erbβ-like), which is indicative of an interaction between both synchronizers. Our results point to rev-erbβ-like as possible mediator between the influence of light and food on the circadian oscillator within trout liver, since its daily profile is influenced by both light and food, thus affecting that of bmal1.

  12. Biomagnification and tissue distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Goeritz, Ina; Falk, Sandy; Stahl, Thorsten; Schäfers, Christoph; Schlechtriem, Christian

    2013-09-01

    The present study investigated the biomagnification potential as well as the substance and tissue-specific distribution of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in market-size rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout with an average body weight of 314 ± 21 g were exposed to perfluorobutane sulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in the diet for 28 d. The accumulation phase was followed by a 28-d depuration phase, in which the test animals were fed with nonspiked trout feed. On days 0, 7, 14, 28, 31, 35, 42, and 56 of the present study, fish were sampled from the test basin for PFAS analysis. Biomagnification factors (BMFs) for all test compounds were determined based on a kinetic approach. Distribution factors were calculated for each test compound to illustrate the disposition of PFASs in rainbow trout after 28 d of exposure. Dietary exposure of market-size rainbow trout to PFASs did not result in biomagnification; BMF values were calculated as 0.42 for PFOS, >0.23 for PFNA, >0.18 for PFHxS, >0.04 for PFOA, and >0.02 for PFBS, which are below the biomagnification threshold of 1. Liver, blood, kidney, and skin were identified as the main target tissues for PFASs in market-size rainbow trout. Evidence was shown that despite relative low PFAS contamination, the edible parts of the fish (the fillet and skin) can significantly contribute to the whole-body burden. Copyright © 2013 SETAC.

  13. Proteomic analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) intestinal epithelia: physiological acclimation to short-term starvation.

    PubMed

    Baumgarner, Bradley L; Bharadwaj, Anant S; Inerowicz, Dorota; Goodman, Angela S; Brown, Paul B

    2013-03-01

    The intestinal epithelia form the first line of defense against harmful agents in the gut lumen of most monogastric vertebrates, including teleost fishes. Previous investigations into the effect of starvation on the intestinal epithelia of teleost fishes have focused primarily on changes in morphological characteristics and targeted molecular analysis of specific enzymes. The goal of this study was to use a comprehensive approach to help reveal how the intestinal epithelia of carnivorous teleost fishes acclimate to short-term nutrient deprivation. We utilized two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) to conduct the proteomic analysis of the mucosal and epithelial layer of the anterior gut intestinal tract (GIT) from satiation fed vs. 4 week starved rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A total of 40 proteins were determined to be differentially expressed and were subsequently picked for in-gel trypsin digestion. Peptide mass fingerprint analysis was conducted using matrix assisted laser desorption time-of-flight/time-of-flight. Nine of the 11 positively identified proteins were directly related to innate immunity. The expression of α-1 proteinase inhibitor decreased in starved vs. fed fish. Also, the concentration of one leukocyte elastase inhibitor (LEI) isomer decreased in starved fish, though the concentration of another LEI isomer increased in due to starvation. In addition, starvation promoted an increased concentration of the important xenobiotic-transporter p-glycoprotein. Finally, starvation resulted in a significant increase in type II keratin E2. Overall, our results indicate that starvation promoted a reduced capacity to inhibit enzymatic stress but increased xenobiotic resistance and paracellular permeability of epithelial cells in the anterior intestine of rainbow trout. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Molecular characterization of PRR13 and its tissue-specific expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Verleih, Marieke; Rebl, Alexander; Köllner, Bernd; Korytář, Tomáš; Kotterba, Günter; Anders, Eckhard; Wimmers, Klaus; Goldammer, Tom

    2010-12-01

    The proline-rich protein 13 (PRR13) is reported to be a key regulator of the resistance to cytostatica by decreasing the copy number of the proapoptotic gene thrombospondin-1. We isolated and characterized the complete PRR13 gene sequence of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The gene comprises four exons and three introns, the latter of comparatively short lengths (100-811 bp). The full-length PRR13 cDNA consists of 1,101 nucleotides, including an open reading frame of 563 bp, which is predicted to encode a 187 amino acid protein with a molecular mass of 18.8 kDa. A continuous stretch of ten serine residues at the C-terminus is highly conserved and characteristic for vertebrate PRR13, but not for other known proline-rich proteins. Phylogenetic analyses suggest a clear separation of teleostean PRR13 proteins and those from mammalian and reptilian species. Comparison of the tissue-specific PRR13 mRNA abundance in two strains of the rainbow trout coastal form (TCO Steelhead II-WA vs. BORN Steelhead II-Germany) revealed an increased expression in the BORN trout in nearly all examined tissues. The major expression differences were detected in gill (2.29-fold) and in liver tissue (2.16-fold). Hence, the increased PRR13 expression in BORN trout might cause improved protection from natural cytostatica and therefore support our assumption that PRR13 is a candidate gene possibly involved in the varying ability of the two rainbow trout strains to handle environmental stress under local conditions of the Southern Baltic.

  15. The influence of social status on hepatic glucose metabolism in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, Kathleen M; Kirkpatrick, Sheryn; Massarsky, Andrey; Pearce, Brenda; Saliba, Sarah; Stephany, Céleste-Élise; Moon, Thomas W

    2012-01-01

    The effects of chronic social stress on hepatic glycogen metabolism were examined in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss by comparing hepatocyte glucose production, liver glycogen phosphorylase (GP) activity, and liver β-adrenergic receptors in dominant, subordinate, control, fasted, and cortisol-treated fish. Hepatocyte glucose production in subordinate fish was approximately half that of dominant fish, reflecting hepatocyte glycogen stores in subordinate trout that were just 16% of those in dominant fish. Fasting and/or chronic elevation of cortisol likely contributed to these differences based on similarities among subordinate, fasted, and cortisol-treated fish. However, calculation of the "glycogen gap"--the difference between glycogen stores used and glucose produced--suggested an enhanced gluconeogenic potential in subordinate fish that was not present in fasted or cortisol-treated trout. Subordinate, fasted, and cortisol-treated trout also exhibited similar GP activities (both total activity and that of the active or a form), and these activities were in all cases significantly lower than those in control trout, perhaps reflecting an attempt to protect liver glycogen stores or a modified capacity to activate GP. Dominant trout exhibited the lowest GP activities (20%-24% of the values in control trout). Low GP activities, presumably in conjunction with incoming energy from feeding, allowed dominant fish to achieve the highest liver glycogen concentrations (double the value in control trout). Liver membrane β-adrenoceptor numbers (assessed as the number of (3)H-CGP binding sites) were significantly lower in subordinate than in dominant trout, although this difference did not translate into attenuated adrenergic responsiveness in hepatocyte glucose production in vitro. Transcriptional regulation, likely as a result of fasting, was indicated by significantly lower β(2)-adrenoceptor relative mRNA levels in subordinate and fasted trout. Collectively, the data

  16. Trace classical conditioning in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): what do they learn?

    PubMed

    Nordgreen, Janicke; Janczak, Andrew Michael; Hovland, Anne Lene; Ranheim, Birgit; Horsberg, Tor Einar

    2010-03-01

    There are two main memory systems: declarative and procedural memory. Knowledge of these two systems in fish is scarce, and controlled laboratory studies are needed. Trace classical conditioning is an experimentally tractable model of declarative memory. We tested whether rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) can learn by trace conditioning and form stimulus-stimulus, as opposed to stimulus-response, associations. We predicted that rainbow trout trained by trace conditioning would show appetitive behaviour (conditioned response; CR) towards the conditioned stimulus (CS; light), and that the CR would be sensitive to devaluation of the unconditioned stimulus (US; food). The learning group (L, N = 14) was trained on a CS + US contingency schedule with a trace interval of 3.4 s. The control group (CtrL, N = 4) was kept on a completely random schedule. The fish that learnt were further trained as either an experimental (L, N = 6) or a memory control (CtrM, N = 3) group. The L group had the US devalued. The CtrM group received only food. No fish in the CtrL group, but nine fish from the L group conditioned to the light. When tested, five L fish changed their CRs after US devaluation, indicating learning by stimulus-stimulus association of the light with the food. CtrM fish retained their original CRs. To the best of our knowledge, this experiment is the first to show that rainbow trout can learn by trace classical conditioning. The results indicate that the fish learnt by 'facts-learning' rather than by reflex acquisition in this study.

  17. Early biochemical effects of Microcystis aeruginosa extracts on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gélinas, Malorie; Juneau, Philippe; Gagné, François

    2012-03-01

    Microcystins (MC) are usually the predominant cyanotoxins associated with cyanobacterial blooms in natural surface waters. These toxins are well-known hepatotoxic agents that proceed by inhibiting protein phosphatase in aquatic biota; recent studies have also reported oxidative stress and disruption of ion regulation in aquatic organisms. In the present study, young trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to crude extracts of Microsystis aeruginosa for four days at 15 °C. The level of microcystins was calculated to confirm the presence of toxins in these crude extracts: 0, 0.75, 1.8 and 5 μg/L. Protein phosphatase measured in the liver increased by at least 3-fold and is significantly as a result of exposure to these sublethal concentrations of crude extract, his indicates an early defense response against protein phosphatase inhibition from cyanotoxins. This was corroborated by the decreased phosphate content in proteins found in the liver and brain. No increase in glutathione-S transferase (GST) activity was observed and lipid peroxidation was unaffected in both liver and brain tissue exposed to the cyanobacterial extracts. The data revealed that the proportion of the reduced (metal-binding) form of metallothionein (MT) decreased by two-fold relative to the control group (with a concomitant increase in the proportion of the oxidized form). The level of phosphate associated with MT increased by 1.5-fold at the highest concentration of crude extract. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in brain tissue was decreased after exposure to the highest concentration of crude extract, suggesting a slowdown in neural activity. However, no biotransformation processes or detoxification of GST was triggered. Our findings show early sign of biochemical effects of MC-LR in young trout. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Purification and characterization of calpain and calpastatin from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Saito, Masataka; Li, Hongqi; Thompson, Valery F; Kunisaki, Naomichi; Goll, Darrel E

    2007-04-01

    Although the calpain system has been studied extensively in mammalian animals, much less is known about the properties of mu-calpain, m-calpain, and calpastatin in lower vertebrates such as fish. These three proteins were isolated and partly characterized from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, muscle. Trout m-calpain contains an 80-kDa large subunit, but the approximately 26-kDa small subunit from trout m-calpain is smaller than the 28-kDa small subunit from mammalian calpains. Trout mu-calpain and calpastatin were only partly purified; identity of trout mu-calpain was confirmed by labeling with antibodies to bovine skeletal muscle mu-calpain, and identity of trout calpastatin was confirmed by specific inhibition of bovine skeletal muscle mu- and m-calpain. Trout mu-calpain requires 4.4+/-2.8 microM and trout m-calpain requires 585+/-51 microM Ca(2+) for half-maximal activity, similar to the Ca(2+) requirements of mu- and m-calpain from mammalian tissues. Sequencing tryptic peptides indicated that the amino acid sequence of trout calpastatin shares little homology with the amino acid sequences of mammalian calpastatins. Screening a rainbow trout cDNA library identified three cDNAs encoding for the large subunit of a putative m-calpain. The amino acid sequence predicted by trout m-calpain cDNA was 65% identical to the human 80-kDa m-calpain sequence. Gene duplication and polyploidy occur in fish, and the amino acid sequence of the trout m-calpain 80-kDa subunit identified in this study was 83% identical to the sequence of a trout m-calpain 80-kDa subunit described earlier. This is the first report of two isoforms of m-calpain in a single species.

  19. Genetics of Microenvironmental Sensitivity of Body Weight in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Selected for Improved Growth

    PubMed Central

    Janhunen, Matti; Kause, Antti; Vehviläinen, Harri; Järvisalo, Otso

    2012-01-01

    Microenvironmental sensitivity of a genotype refers to the ability to buffer against non-specific environmental factors, and it can be quantified by the amount of residual variation in a trait expressed by the genotype’s offspring within a (macro)environment. Due to the high degree of polymorphism in behavioral, growth and life-history traits, both farmed and wild salmonids are highly susceptible to microenvironmental variation, yet the heritable basis of this characteristic remains unknown. We estimated the genetic (co)variance of body weight and its residual variation in 2-year-old rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using a multigenerational data of 45,900 individuals from the Finnish national breeding programme. We also tested whether or not microenvironmental sensitivity has been changed as a correlated genetic response when genetic improvement for growth has been practiced over five generations. The animal model analysis revealed the presence of genetic heterogeneity both in body weight and its residual variation. Heritability of residual variation was remarkably lower (0.02) than that for body weight (0.35). However, genetic coefficient of variation was notable in both body weight (14%) and its residual variation (37%), suggesting a substantial potential for selection responses in both traits. Furthermore, a significant negative genetic correlation (−0.16) was found between body weight and its residual variation, i.e., rapidly growing genotypes are also more tolerant to perturbations in microenvironment. The genetic trends showed that fish growth was successfully increased by selective breeding (an average of 6% per generation), whereas no genetic change occurred in residual variation during the same period. The results imply that genetic improvement for body weight does not cause a concomitant increase in microenvironmental sensitivity. For commercial production, however, there may be high potential to simultaneously improve weight gain and increase its

  20. Localization of rem2 in the central nervous system of the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Downs, Anna G; Scholles, Katie R; Hollis, David M

    2016-12-01

    Rem2 is member of the RGK (Rem, Rad, and Gem/Kir) subfamily of the Ras superfamily of GTP binding proteins known to influence Ca(2+) entry into the cell. In addition, Rem2, which is found at high levels in the vertebrate brain, is also implicated in cell proliferation and synapse formation. Though the specific, regional localization of Rem2 in the adult mammalian central nervous system has been well-described, such information is lacking in other vertebrates. Rem2 is involved in neuronal processes where the capacities between adults of different vertebrate classes vary. Thus, we sought to localize the rem2 gene in the central nervous system of an adult anamniotic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In situ hybridization using a digoxigenin (DIG)-labeled RNA probe was used to identify the regional distribution of rem2 expression throughout the trout central nervous system, while real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) further supported these findings. Based on in situ hybridization, the regional distribution of rem2 occurred within each major subdivision of the brain and included large populations of rem2 expressing cells in the dorsal telencephalon of the cerebrum, the internal cellular layer of the olfactory bulb, and the optic tectum of the midbrain. In contrast, no rem2 expressing cells were resolved within the cerebellum. These results were corroborated by rtPCR, where differential rem2 expression occurred between the major subdivisions assayed with the highest levels being found in the cerebrum, while it was nearly absent in the cerebellum. These data indicate that rem2 gene expression is broadly distributed and likely influences diverse functions in the adult fish central nervous system.

  1. Distribution of T Cells in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Skin and Responsiveness to Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Leal, Esther; Granja, Aitor G.; Zarza, Carlos; Tafalla, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Although the skin constitutes the first line of defense against waterborne pathogens, there is a great lack of information regarding the skin associated lymphoid tissue (SALT) and whether immune components of the skin are homogeneously distributed through the surface of the fish is still unknown. In the current work, we have analyzed the transcription of several immune genes throughout different rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin areas. We found that immunoglobulin and chemokine gene transcription levels were higher in a skin area close to the gills. Furthermore, this skin area as well as other anterior sections also transcribed significantly higher levels of many different immune genes related to T cell immunity such as T cell receptor α (TCRα), TCRγ, CD3, CD4, CD8, perforin, GATA3, Tbet, FoxP3, interferon γ (IFNγ), CD40L and Eomes in comparison to posterior skin sections. In agreement with these results, immunohistochemical analysis revealed that anterior skin areas had a higher concentration of CD3+ T cells and flow cytometry analysis confirmed that the percentage of CD8+ T lymphocytes was also higher in anterior skin sections. These results demonstrate for the first time that T cells are not homogeneously distributed throughout the teleost skin. Additionally, we studied the transcriptional regulation of these and additional T cell markers in response to a bath infection with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV). We found that VHSV regulated the transcription of several of these T cell markers in both the skin and the spleen; with some differences between anterior and posterior skin sections. Altogether, our results point to skin T cells as major players of teleost skin immunity in response to waterborne viral infections. PMID:26808410

  2. Intramuscular challenge of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with two Norwegian field strains of Flavobacterium psychrophilum.

    PubMed

    Fredriksen, Børge N; Furevik, Anette; Gauthier, David; Egenberg, Marie; Paulsen, Erik D; Brudeseth, Bjørn

    2013-08-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing occurrence of Flavobacterium psychrophilum infections in farmed salmonids in Norway. The current study describes two field isolates of F. psychrophilum collected from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings and post smolts in Norway. Virulence of the two isolates was tested in vivo by intramuscular (IM) and/or intraperitoneal (IP) challenge of disease free, un-vaccinated rainbow trout. The isolates were concluded to be highly virulent compared to a reference isolate as they yielded high mortality after IM challenge even at low challenge doses. The more virulent of the two isolates was further used to establish a challenge model to evaluate the efficacy of vaccines against infections with F. psychrophilum. Three groups were included in the vaccination-challenge study; a vaccinated group given a 6 antigen (Ag) component vaccine containing F. psychrophilum antigens (6 Ag/F.psy(+)), a control vaccinated group administered a similar 5 antigen component vaccine without F. psychrophilum antigens (5 Ag/F.psy(-)), and a non-injected negative control group. Results from the IM challenge demonstrated that 1) our challenge model is able to discriminate between protected and unprotected experimental groups and 2) that the vaccine induced protection is specific against F. psychrophilum as mortality in the 5 Ag/F.psy(-) group was equally high as in the negative control, while the 6 Ag/F.psy(+) induced a high level of protection (RPS60 = 86.7%). The present study is one of the first to describe protection against F. psychrophilum infections induced by a multicomponent injection vaccine.

  3. Flavobacterium oncorhynchi sp. nov., a new species isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zamora, L; Fernández-Garayzábal, J F; Svensson-Stadler, L A; Palacios, M A; Domínguez, L; Moore, E R B; Vela, A I

    2012-03-01

    Eighteen isolates of a Gram-negative, catalase and oxidase-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, recovered from diseased rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), were characterized, using a polyphasic taxonomic approach. Studies based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis showed that that the eighteen new isolates shared 99.2-100% sequence similarities. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that isolates from trout belonged to the genus Flavobacterium, showing the highest sequence similarities to F. chungangense (98.6%), F. frigidimaris (98.1%), F. hercynium (97.9%) and F. aquidurense (97.8%). DNA-DNA reassociation values between the trout isolates (exemplified by strain 631-08(T)) and five type strains of the most closely related Flavobacterium species exhibited less than 27% similarity. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 33.0 mol%. The major respiratory quinone was observed to be menaquinone 6 (MK-6) and iso-C(15:0), C(15:0) and C(16:1) ω7c the predominant fatty acids. The polar lipid profile of strain 631-08(T) consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, unknown aminolipids AL1 and AL3, lipids L1, L2, L3 and L4 and phospholipid PL1. The novel isolates were differentiated from related Flavobacterium species by physiological and biochemical tests. On the basis of the evidence from this polyphasic study, it is proposed that the isolates from rainbow trout be classified as a new species of the genus Flavobacterium, Flavobacterium oncorhynchi sp. nov. The type strain is 631-08(T) (= CECT 7678(T) = CCUG 59446(T)).

  4. Chronic toxicity of 14 phthalate esters to Daphnia magna and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Rhodes, J.E.; Adams, W.J.; Biddinger, G.R.; Robillard, K.A.; Gorsuch, J.W.

    1995-11-01

    Chronic toxicity studies were performed with commercial phthalate esters and Daphnia magna (14 phthalates) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) (six phthalates). For the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP)--the results of the studies indicated a general trend in which toxicity for both species increased as water solubility decreased. The geometric mean maximum acceptable toxicant concentration(GM-MATC) for D. magna ranged from 0.63 to 34.8 mg/L. For the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters--dihexyl phthalate (DHP), butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate (BOP), di-(n-hexyl, n-octyl, n-decyl) phthalate (610P), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), diisooctyl phthalate (DIOP), diisononyl phthalate (DINP), di-(heptyl, nonyl, undecyl) phthalate (711P), diisodecyl phthalate (DIDP), diundecyl phthalate (DUP), and ditridecyl phthalate (DTDP)--the GM-MATC values ranged from 0.042 to 0.15 mg/L. Survival was equally sensitive and sometimes more sensitive than reproduction. The observed toxicity to daphnids with most of the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters appeared to be due to surface entrapment or a mode of toxicity that is not due to exposure to dissolved aqueous-phase chemical. Early life-stage toxicity studies with rainbow trout indicated that survival (DMP) and growth (DBP) were affected at 24 and 0.19 mg/L, respectively. This pattern of observed toxicity with the lower-molecular-weight phthalate esters and not the higher-molecular-weight phthalate esters is consistent with previously reported acute toxicity studies for several aquatic species.

  5. Potential effects of changes in temperature and food resources on life history trajectories of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benjamin, Joseph R.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing temperatures and changes in food resources owing to climate change may alter the growth and migratory behavior of organisms. This is particularly important for salmonid species like Oncorhynchus mykiss, where some individuals remain in freshwater to mature (nonanadromous Rainbow Trout) and others migrate to sea (anadromous Steelhead). Whether one strategy is adopted over the other may depend on the individual's growth and size. In this study, we explored (1) how water temperature in Beaver Creek, a tributary to the Methow River, Washington, may increase under four climate scenarios, (2) how these thermal changes may alter the life history trajectory followed by O. mykiss (i.e., when and if to smolt), and (3) how changes in food quality or quantity might interact with increasing temperatures. We combined bioenergetic and state-dependent life history models parameterized for O. mykiss in Beaver Creek to mimic baseline life history trajectories. Based on our simulations, when mean water temperature was increased by 0.6°C there was a reduction in life history diversity and a 57% increase in the number of individuals becoming smolts. When mean temperature was increased by 2.7°C, it resulted in 87% fewer smolts than in the baseline and fewer life history trajectories expressed. A reduction in food resources led to slower growth, more life history trajectories, and a greater proportion of smolts. In contrast, when food resources were increased, fish grew faster, which reduced the proportion of smolts and life history diversity. Our modeling suggests that warmer water temperatures associated with climate change could decrease the life history diversity of O. mykiss in the central portion of their range and thereby reduce resiliency to other disturbances. In addition, changes in food resources could mediate or exacerbate the effect of water temperature on the life history trajectories of O. mykiss.

  6. The effects of ozonation on performance, health and welfare of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in low-exchange water recirculation aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A controlled four-month trial was conducted to compare the effects of ozonation (oxidation-reduction potential setpoint = 250 mV) versus no ozonation on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance, health, and welfare in replicated WRAS operated at low exchange rates (0.26% of the total recirculat...

  7. The effects of ozone and water exchange rates on water quality and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance in replicated water recirculating systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance and water quality were evaluated and compared within six replicated 9.5 cubic meter water recirculating aquaculture systems (WRAS) operated with and without ozone at various water exchange rates. Three separate studies were conducted: 1) low water exchan...

  8. Evaluation of supplemental fish bone meal made from Alaska seafood processing byproducts and dicalcium phosphate in plant-protein based diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We report performance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a balanced dietary mix of plant-proteins supplemented with either fish bone meal (FBM) derived from Alaskan seafood processing byproducts or dicalcium phosphate. Seven experimental diets were formulated to contain two levels of dicalci...

  9. Diel movement and habitat use of the golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aguabonita in their native habitat on the Golden Trout Wilderness, California

    Treesearch

    K.R. Matthews

    1996-01-01

    Abstract.—I used radio transmitters to determine the diel habitat use and movement patterns of California golden trout Oncorhynchus mykiss aquabonita inside and outside cattle exclosures on the South Fork Kern River, Golden Trout Wilderness, California. Twenty-three golden trout were monitored from September 10 to 19, 1993, during 216 diel-tracking hours at four study...

  10. Genome-wide association studies reveal similar genetic architecture with shared and unique QTL for Bacterial Cold Water Disease resistance in two rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) breeding populations

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) causes significant mortality and economic losses in salmonid aquaculture. In previous studies, we identified moderate-large effect QTL for BCWD resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the recent availability of a 57K SNP array and a genome phys...

  11. Comparing the effects of high vs. low nitrate on the health, performance, and welfare of juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss within water recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Previous research indicates that rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) begin to exhibit health and welfare problems when cultured within water recirculating aquaculture systems (WRAS) operated at low exchange (6.7 days hydraulic retention time) and a mean feed loading rate of 4.1 kg feed/m3 daily make...

  12. Dataset of proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) measured using a novel GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized that simultaneously measures expression of a suite of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. The dataset ...

  13. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)CCAAT/enhancer binding protein genes and their responses to induction by GH in vitro and in vivo

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    CCAAT/enhancer-binding proteins (C/EBPs) are transcription factors consisting of six isoforms and play diverse physiological roles in vertebrates. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), in addition to the reported C/EBPbeta1,we have isolated cDNA of four other isoforms, C/EBPalpha, C/EBPbeta2, C/E...

  14. Morphological and molecular characterisation of Gyrodactylus salmonis (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) isolates collected in Mexico from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Rubio-Godoy, Miguel; Paladini, Giuseppe; Freeman, Mark A; García-Vásquez, Adriana; Shinn, Andrew P

    2012-05-25

    Gyrodactylus salmonis (Yin et Sproston, 1948) isolates collected from feral rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) in Veracruz, southeastern Mexico are described. Morphological and molecular variation of these isolates to G. salmonis collected in Canada and the U.S.A. is characterised. Morphologically, the marginal hook sickles of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis closely resemble those of Canadian specimens - their shaft and hook regions align closely with one another; only features of the sickle base and a prominent bridge to the toe permit their separation. The 18S sequence determined from the Mexican specimens was identical to two variable regions of SSU rDNA obtained from a Canadian population of G. salmonis. Internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions (spanning ITS1, 5.8S and ITS2) of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis are identical to ITS sequences of an American population of G. salmonis and to Gyrodactylus salvelini Kuusela, Ziętara et Lumme, 2008 from Finland. Analyses of the ribosomal RNA gene of Mexican isolates of G. salmonis show 98-99% similarity to those of Gyrodactylus gobiensis Gläser, 1974, Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957, and Gyrodactylus rutilensis Gläser, 1974. Mexican and American isolates of G. salmonis are 98% identical, as assessed by sequencing the mitochondrial cox1 gene. Oncorhynchus mykiss is one of the most widely-dispersed fish species in the world and has been shown to be an important vector for parasite/disease transmission. Considering that Mexican isolates of G. salmonis were collected well outside the native distribution range of all salmonid fish, we discuss the possibility that the parasites were translocated with their host through the aquacultural trade. In addition, this study includes a morphological review of Gyrodactylus species collected from rainbow trout and from other salmonid fish of the genus Oncorhynchus which occur throughout North America.

  15. Growth, immune responses and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) supplemented with commercial probiotics.

    PubMed

    Ramos, M A; Gonçalves, J F M; Batista, S; Costas, B; Pires, M A; Rema, P; Ozório, R O A

    2015-07-01

    The influence of two commercial probiotics on the growth, innate immune parameters and intestinal morphology of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) juveniles (initial weight: 16.4 ± 0.4 g) was evaluated. Two probiotic types: A, multi-species (Bacillus sp., Pedicoccus sp., Enterococcus sp., Lactobacillus sp.) and B, mono-species (Pediococcus acidilactici) were tested at two levels each (A1: 1.5 g kg(-1), 8.6 × 10(5) CFU g(-1); A2: 3 g kg(-1), 1.6 × 10(6) CFU g(-1); B1: 0.1 g kg(-1), 2.6 × 10(4) CFU g(-1); B2: 0.2 g kg(-1), 7.2 × 10(4) CFU g(-1)) versus an unsupplemented diet (C). Diets were distributed to sextuplicate tanks, three times a day to visual satiation for 8 weeks. Growth performance and immune responses (plasma lysozyme, ACH50, peroxidase and head kidney respiratory burst) were determined at 4 and 8 weeks of feeding. Body composition and intestine morphology were determined at the end of the feeding trial. At 8 weeks, the lower dose of multi-species probiotic (A1) improved growth rate, while both probiotic types improved feed conversion rate compared to the control animals, at the lower dose of multi-species (A1) and at the higher dose of mono-species (B2) probiotics. Body composition did not vary between treatments. At 4 weeks, ACH50 activity was significantly higher in fish fed higher dose of B probiotic (B2, 123.7 ± 50.6 vs 44.1 ± 7.7 U.ml(-1) in control). At 8 weeks, lysozyme activity was higher in fish fed A1 (13.1 ± 5.2 μg ml(-1)) diet compared to fish fed control diet (7.8 ± 1 μg ml(-1)). Plasma peroxidase and head-kidney respiratory burst did not differ among the dietary treatments. Villi length and integrity and goblet cell counting of a cross section of the anterior intestine were not significantly different between groups. Results suggest benefits in zootechnical performance and immune humoral responses using both probiotic types, in a dose dependent manner, without apparent alterations in intestinal morphology.

  16. Growth hormone receptors in ovary and liver during gametogenesis in female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gomez, J M; Mourot, B; Fostier, A; Le Gac, F

    1999-03-01

    Changes of growth hormone receptivity in the ovary during the reproductive cycle were studied in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A method for characterizing growth hormone receptors in crude ovary homogenate was required for this. Binding of radiolabelled recombinant rainbow trout growth hormone (125I-labelled rtGH) to crude ovary preparation was dependent on ovarian tissue concentration. The sites were specific to growth hormone, with no affinity for prolactins and gonadotrophins. Similar high affinities for 125I-labelled rtGH were obtained with crude ovary (4.2 x 10(9) +/- 0.3 mol l-1) and crude liver preparations (4.9 x 10(9) +/- 0.1 mol l-1) at all stages of ovogenesis, and with ovarian membrane preparations (8.2 x 10(9) mol l-1) tested at the beginning of vitellogenesis. Ovarian growth hormone receptor concentration was highest during the early phases of follicular development (endogenous vitellogenesis: 315-310 fmol g-1 ovary) and decreased regularly during oocyte and follicular growth (exogenous vitellogenesis) to reach a minimal value at oocyte maturation (42 fmol g-1 ovary). In postovulated fish, binding was at a similar level (297 fmol g-1 ovary) to that found in endogenous vitellogenesis. Conversely, the absolute binding capacity of the whole ovary was low from immaturity to early exogenous vitellogenesis (0.1-0.6 pmol per pair of gonads), increased slowly during vitellogenesis and more markedly during rapid oocyte growth and at the time of final maturation (10.8 pmol per pair of gonads). In postovulated fish, the absolute binding capacity decreased partially (4.4 pmol per pair of gonads). Mean hepatic growth hormone receptor concentration did not vary with the reproductive stage for most of the cycle (3.0-4.5 pmol g-1 liver) except in endogenous vitellogenesis where significantly higher concentrations were observed (6.7 pmol g-1 liver). Individual ovarian growth hormone receptor concentrations were correlated with hepatic growth hormone receptor

  17. Innate immune and growth promoting responses to caper (Capparis spinosa) extract in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Bilen, Soner; Altunoglu, Yasemin Celik; Ulu, Ferhat; Biswas, Gouranga

    2016-10-01

    Cytokine responses, non-specific immune activity and growth promotion effect of dietary caper (Capparis spinosa) supplementation were examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Rainbow trout (12.04 ± 0.71 g) were fed diets containing three doses of caper methanolic extract [0 (Control), 0.1 and 0.5 g kg(-1) of feed] for 30 days. At the end of the feeding trial, expression levels of cytokine genes that included IL-1β, IL-8, TGF-β, IL-12p40, TNF-α1 and IL-10 in head kidney was analyzed using qRT-PCR, and blood and serum were collected to determine superoxide anion production (SAP), phagocytic, lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities. Expression levels of all cytokines, except TNF-α1 were elevated in the 0.1 g kg(-1) caper extract fed fish group compared to other groups. In 0.5 g kg(-1) caper extract treated fish, only IL-12p40 and IL-10 genes were up-regulated compared to control group fish. SAP was increased in both caper extract treated groups compared to the control, and the highest level was observed in the 0.1 g kg(-1) group. Phagocytic activity in both the caper extract treated groups was increased compared to control with no differences observed between those groups. Lysozyme and myeloperoxidase activities were recorded to be the highest in the 0.1 g kg(-1) fed fish group compared to other groups. Growth promotion was affected positively when caper doses were increased. Survival rate was significantly higher in 0.1 and 0.5 g kg(-1) caper extract treated fish groups compared to control (P < 0.05) after challenged with Aeromonas hydrophila. These results indicate that caper extract stimulates innate immunity through cytokine-mediated responses and promote growth in rainbow trout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Identification, characterization and genetic mapping of TLR1 loci in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Palti, Yniv; Rodriguez, M Fernanda; Gahr, Scott A; Purcell, Maureen K; Rexroad, Caird E; Wiens, Gregory D

    2010-01-01

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-microbial defense but there is limited understanding of how teleosts recognize microbial molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1 and 2 form a heterodimer involved in recognizing peptidoglycans and lipoproteins of microbial origin. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR1 gene ortholog and its mRNA expression. Two TLR1 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA sequencing and genetic linkage analyses. Full length cDNA clone and direct sequencing of four BACs revealed an intact omTLR1 open reading frame (ORF) located on chromosome 14 and a second locus on chromosome 25 that contains a TLR1 pseudogene. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes that extends beyond the TLR1 gene sequences. The omTLR1 gene includes a single large coding exon similar to all other described TLR1 genes, but unlike other teleosts it also has a 5' UTR exon and intron preceding the large coding exon. The omTLR1 ORF is predicted to encode an 808 amino-acid protein with 69% similarity to the Fugu TLR1 and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Phylogenetic analysis grouped omTLR1 with other fish TLR1 genes on a separate branch from the avian TLR1 and mammalian TLR1, 6 and 10. omTLR1 expression levels in rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes were not affected by the human TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 agonists diacylated lipoprotein (Pam(2)CSK(4)) and triacylated lipoprotein (Pam(3)CSK(4)). However, due to the lack of TLR6 and 10 genes in teleost genomes and up-regulation of TLR1 mRNA in response to LPS and bacterial infection in other fish species we hypothesize an important role for omTLR1 in anti-microbial immunity. Therefore, the identification of a TLR2 ortholog in rainbow trout and the development of assays to measure ligand binding and downstream

  19. Gene expression patterns in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to a suite of model toxicants.

    PubMed

    Hook, Sharon E; Skillman, Ann D; Small, Jack A; Schultz, Irvin R

    2006-05-25

    The increased availability and use of DNA microarrays has allowed the characterization of gene expression patterns associated with exposure to different toxicants. An important question is whether toxicant induced changes in gene expression in fish are sufficiently diverse to allow for identification of specific modes of action and/or specific contaminants. In theory, each class of toxicant may generate a gene expression profile unique to its mode of toxic action. In this study, isogenic (cloned) rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to sublethal levels of a series of model toxicants with varying modes of action, including ethynylestradiol (xeno-estrogen), 2,2,4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47, thyroid active), diquat (oxidant stressor), chromium VI, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a period of 1-3 weeks. An additional experiment measured trenbolone (anabolic steroid; model androgen) induced gene expression changes in sexually mature female trout. Following exposure, fish were euthanized, livers removed and RNA extracted. Fluorescently labeled cDNA were generated and hybridized against a commercially available Atlantic Salmon/Trout array (GRASP project, University of Victoria) spotted with 16,000 cDNA's. The slides were scanned to measure abundance of a given transcript in each sample relative to controls. Data were analyzed via Genespring (Silicon Genetics) to identify a list of up- and downregulated genes, as well as to determine gene clustering patterns that can be used as "expression signatures". The results indicate each toxicant exposure caused between 64 and 222 genes to be significantly altered in expression. Most genes exhibiting altered expression responded to only one of the toxicants and relatively few were co-expressed in multiple treatments. For example, BaP and Diquat, both of which exert toxicity via oxidative stress, upregulated 28 of the same genes, of over 100 genes altered by either treatment. Other genes associated with steroidogenesis

  20. Performance of juvenile steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) produced from untreated and cryopreserved milt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Michael C.; Rubin, Stephen P.; Hensleigh, Jay E.; Reisenbichler, Reginald R.; Wetzel, Lisa A.

    2005-01-01

    Despite the expanding use of milt cryopreservation in aquaculture, the performance of fish produced from this technique has not been fully explored beyond initial rearing stages. We compared the performance of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss produced from untreated (UM) and cryopreserved milt (CM) and reared for 4–9 months. For the 1996 brood, CM alevins were heavier (∼ 1.7%, P < 0.01) than UM alevins and length was influenced by a significant milt-by-family interaction (P < 0.03) suggesting a greater treatment effect for some families. No significant differences were found in length or weight (P > 0.05) for 1997 brood alevins and percent yolk was similar for both broods (P > 0.34). In growth and survival experiment I (GSE-I, 1996), UM and CM juveniles reared in separate tanks and fed to satiation (130 days) showed no significant differences in survival, length or weight (P > 0.05) between milt groups. In contrast, for UM and CM siblings reared in the same tank for 210 days on a low food ration (GSE-II), survival was similar (P > 0.05), but length (UM 4% > CM, P < 0.05) and possibly weight (UM 15% > CM, P = 0.08), were influenced by cryopreservation. Fish from the 1997 brood (GSE-III) were reared for 313 days in a repeat of GSE-II and no differences were found in survival (P = 0.47), length (P = 0.75) or weight (P = 0.76) suggesting considerable heterogeneity between broods. Performance of the 1996 brood was also tested for response to stress and a disease challenge. Cortisol responses of juveniles exposed to acute stress were not significantly different (P = 0.19), but mean cortisol was consistently and significantly greater (P < 0.01) for CM than UM fish exposed to a 48-h stress (increased density). After exposure to three dosages of the bacteria, Listonella anguillarum, we found similar mortality proportions (P = 0.72) for UM and CM fish. Variable juvenile performance for the parameters tested indicated significant

  1. Identification, characterization and genetic mapping of TLR1 loci in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palti, Y.; Rodriguez, M.F.; Gahr, S.A.; Purcell, M.K.; Rexroad, C. E.; Wiens, G.D.

    2010-01-01

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-microbial defense but there is limited understanding of how teleosts recognize microbial molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1 and 2 form a heterodimer involved in recognizing peptidoglycans and lipoproteins of microbial origin. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR1 gene ortholog and its mRNA expression. Two TLR1 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA sequencing and genetic linkage analyses. Full length cDNA clone and direct sequencing of four BACs revealed an intact omTLR1 open reading frame (ORF) located on chromosome 14 and a second locus on chromosome 25 that contains a TLR1 pseudogene. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes that extends beyond the TLR1 gene sequences. The omTLR1 gene includes a single large coding exon similar to all other described TLR1 genes, but unlike other teleosts it also has a 5??? UTR exon and intron preceding the large coding exon. The omTLR1 ORF is predicted to encode an 808 amino-acid protein with 69% similarity to the Fugu TLR1 and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Phylogenetic analysis grouped omTLR1 with other fish TLR1 genes on a separate branch from the avian TLR1 and mammalian TLR1, 6 and 10. omTLR1 expression levels in rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes were not affected by the human TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 agonists diacylated lipoprotein (Pam2CSK4) and triacylated lipoprotein (Pam3CSK4). However, due to the lack of TLR6 and 10 genes in teleost genomes and up-regulation of TLR1 mRNA in response to LPS and bacterial infection in other fish species we hypothesize an important role for omTLR1 in anti-microbial immunity. Therefore, the identification of a TLR2 ortholog in rainbow trout and the development of assays to measure ligand binding and downstream signaling

  2. Identification, characterization and genetic mapping of TLR1 loci in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Palti, Yniv; Rodriguez, M. Fernanda; Gahr, Scott A.; Purcell, Maureen K.; Rexroad, Caird E.; Wiens, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Induction of innate immune pathways is critical for early anti-microbial defense but there is limited understanding of how teleosts recognize microbial molecules and activate these pathways. In mammals, Toll-like receptors (TLR) 1 and 2 form a heterodimer involved in recognizing peptidoglycans and lipoproteins of microbial origin. Herein, we identify and describe the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) TLR1 gene ortholog and its mRNA expression. Two TLR1 loci were identified from a rainbow trout bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library using DNA sequencing and genetic linkage analyses. Full length cDNA clone and direct sequencing of four BACs revealed an intact omTLR1 open reading frame (ORF) located on chromosome 14 and a second locus on chromosome 25 that contains a TLR1 pseudogene. The duplicated trout loci exhibit conserved synteny with other fish genomes that extends beyond the TLR1 gene sequences. The omTLR1 gene includes a single large coding exon similar to all other described TLR1 genes, but unlike other teleosts it also has a 5' UTR exon and intron preceding the large coding exon. The omTLR1 ORF is predicted to encode an 808 amino-acid protein with 69% similarity to the Fugu TLR1 and a conserved pattern of predicted leucine-rich repeats (LRR). Phylogenetic analysis grouped omTLR1 with other fish TLR1 genes on a separate branch from the avian TLR1 and mammalian TLR1, 6 and 10. omTLR1 expression levels in rainbow trout anterior kidney leukocytes were not affected by the human TLR2/6 and TLR2/1 agonists diacylated lipoprotein (Pam2CSK4) and triacylated lipoprotein (Pam3CSK4). However, due to the lack of TLR6 and 10 genes in teleost genomes and up-regulation of TLR1 mRNA in response to LPS and bacterial infection in other fish species we hypothesize an important role for omTLR1 in anti-microbial immunity. Therefore, the identification of a TLR2 ortholog in rainbow trout and the development of assays to measure ligand binding and downstream signaling are

  3. Toxicogenomic responses in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes exposed to model chemicals and a synthetic mixture.

    PubMed

    Finne, E F; Cooper, G A; Koop, B F; Hylland, K; Tollefsen, K E

    2007-03-10

    As more salmon gene expression data has become available, the cDNA microarray platform has emerged as an appealing alternative in ecotoxicological screening of single chemicals and environmental samples relevant to the aquatic environment. This study was performed to validate biomarker gene responses of in vitro cultured rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes exposed to model chemicals, and to investigate effects of mixture toxicity in a synthetic mixture. Chemicals used for 24h single chemical- and mixture exposures were 10 nM 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), 0.75 nM 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro-di-benzodioxin (TCDD), 100 microM paraquat (PQ) and 0.75 microM 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (NQO). RNA was isolated from exposed cells, DNAse treated and quality controlled before cDNA synthesis, fluorescent labelling and hybridisation to a 16k salmonid microarray. The salmonid 16k cDNA array identified differential gene expression predictive of exposure, which could be verified by quantitative real time PCR. More precisely, the responses of biomarker genes such as cytochrome p4501A and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase to TCDD exposure, glutathione reductase and gammaglutamyl cysteine synthetase to paraquat exposure, as well as vitellogenin and vitelline envelope protein to EE2 exposure validated the use of microarray applied to RNA extracted from in vitro exposed hepatocytes. The mutagenic compound NQO did not result in any change in gene expression. Results from exposure to a synthetic mixture of the same four chemicals, using identical concentrations as for single chemical exposures, revealed combined effects that were not predicted by results for individual chemicals alone. In general, the response of exposure to this mixture led to an average loss of approximately 60% of the transcriptomic signature found for single chemical exposure. The present findings show that microarray analyses may contribute to our mechanistic understanding of single contaminant mode of action as well

  4. How the efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ventricular muscle changes with cycle frequency.

    PubMed

    Harwood, Claire L; Young, Iain S; Altringham, John D

    2002-03-01

    Different species of animals require different cardiac performance and, in turn, their cardiac muscle exhibits different properties. A comparative approach can reveal a great deal about the mechanisms underlying myocardial contraction. Differences in myocardial Ca(2+) handling between fish and mammals suggest a greater energy cost of activation in fish. Further, while there is considerable evidence that heart rate (or cycle frequency) should have a profound effect on the efficiency of teleost cardiac muscle, this effect has been largely overlooked. We set out to determine how cycle frequency affects the power output and efficiency of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) ventricular muscle and to relate this to the heart's function in life. We measured power output and the rate of oxygen consumption ((O(2))) and then calculated efficiency over a physiologically realistic range of cycle frequencies. In contrast to mammalian cardiac muscle, in which (O(2)) increases with increasing heart rate, we found no significant change in (O(2)) in the teleost. However, power output increased by 25 % as cycle frequency was increased from 0.6 to 1.0 Hz, so net and total efficiency increased. A maximum total efficiency of 20 % was achieved at 0.8 Hz, whereas maximum power output occurred at 1.0 Hz. We propose that, since the heart operates continuously, high mechanical efficiency is a major adaptive advantage, particularly at lower heart rates corresponding to the more commonly used slower, sustainable swimming speeds. Efficiency was lower at the higher heart rates required during very fast swimming, which are used during escape or prey capture. If a fixed amount of Ca(2+) is released and then resequestered each time the muscle is activated, the activation cost should increase with frequency. We had anticipated that this would have a large effect on the total energy cost of contraction. However, since (O(2)) remains constant, less oxygen is consumed per cycle at high frequencies. We

  5. Puffy Skin Disease Is an Emerging Transmissible Condition in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Irene; Verner-Jeffreys, David W.; van Aerle, Ronny; Paley, Richard K.; Peeler, Edmund J.; Green, Matthew; Rimmer, Georgina S. E.; Savage, Jacqueline; Joiner, Claire L.; Bayley, Amanda E.; Mewett, Jason; Hulland, Jonathan; Feist, Stephen W.

    2016-01-01

    The transmission of puffy skin disease (PSD) to rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum was tested in the laboratory by conducting co-habitation challenges with puffy skin (PS)-affected fish (Trojans) collected from the field. Two separate challenges were conducted using Trojans sourced from two different sites and diploid (first trial) or triploid (second trial) naïve fish. PSD-specific clinical signs were observed in both groups of naïve fish, with 66% of the fish sampled during the challenges showing signs of varying severity. The first clinical features of PSD were presented as white oval skin patches on one or both flanks 15–21 days post-challenge (dpc). The extent of the lesions ranged from 10 to 90% of the body surface, depending on the severity of the lesion. Both the severity and number of affected fish increased during the challenge. Macroscopically, oedema of the skin and multifocal petechial haemorrhaging were observed towards the end of the trials. Abnormal fish behaviour consisting of “flashing” and excessive mucous production was noted from 15 dpc onwards. Fish with severe PSD lesions also displayed inappetence and associated emaciation. Rodlet cells were observed in 41% of the fresh skin scrapes analysed from the second trial. Histologically epidermal oedema was observed in 31% of the naive fish showing gross pathology, with additional 12% displaying epidermal hyperplasia, mostly observed at the end of the challenge. Other concomitant features of the PSD lesions in challenged fish were epithelial erosion and sloughing, and occasionally mild or focal inflammation. No consistent pathology of internal organs was observed. The parasites Ichthyophthirius multifiliis and Ichthyobodo necator were observed in skin samples of a proportion of naïve challenged fish and in Trojans but not in control fish. The presence of these and other known fish pathogens in the skin of PSD-fish was confirmed by high-throughput sequencing analysis. In summary, we

  6. Effects of triploidy induction on antioxidant defense status in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during early development.

    PubMed

    Taghipoor, Kaveh; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Salati, Amir Parviz; Pasha-Zanoosi, Hossein; Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine the antioxidant status of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during the early stages of development (fertilized egg, eyed egg, alevin and fry) as an effect of triploidy induction. Eggs and milt were taken from eight females and six males. After insemination, the eggs were incubated at 10°C for 10min. Half of the fertilized eggs were then subjected to heat-shock for 10min submerged in a 28°C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder were incubated normally and used as diploid controls. Three batches of eggs were randomly selected from each group (control and heat-shocked) and were incubated at 10-11°C under the same environmental conditions in hatchery troughs until the fry stage. Triplicate samples of fertilized eggs from each experimental group were randomly selected 1.5h post-fertilization and at the eyed egg stage of development (18 days post-fertilization, dpf). At 27 dpf, triplicate samples of alevins were chosen from each group. Based on ploidy determination experiment performed on both groups, nine diploid and nine triploid fry (76 dpf) were also selected. The triploidy induction success rate was 87.1%. Vitamin C was in lesser concentrations in fertilized eggs and eyed eggs of the heat-shock treatment group as compared with eggs of the diploid group. Alevins of the heat-shock treatment group had a lower superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity than alevins of the diploid group. Glutathione peroxidase (GPx) level was greater in fertilized eggs and alevins of the heat-shock treatment group as compared to diploids. Catalse (CAT) activity was greater in fertilized eggs, alevins and fry of the heat-shock treatment group than those of the diploid group. Malondialdehyde (MDA), as an index of lipid peroxidation, was in greater concentration in fertilized eggs of the group that was heat-shocked, but it was lesser in alevins and fry of the group in which the eggs were heat-shocked as compared to diploid counterparts

  7. Selection for upper thermal tolerance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhongqi; Snow, Michael; Lawrence, Craig S; Church, Anthony R; Narum, Shawn R; Devlin, Robert H; Farrell, Anthony P

    2015-03-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) in southern Western Australia have undergone passive selection for over 19 generations to survive high water temperatures. Based on the conceptual model of 'oxygen- and capacity-limited thermal tolerance', we measured critical thermal maximum (CTmax), maximum heart rate (fH,max) and aerobic scope to test the hypothesis that these rainbow trout can maintain aerobic scope at high temperatures through a robust cardiac performance supporting oxygen delivery. Across five family groups CTmax averaged 29.0±0.02°C. Aerobic scope was maximized at 15.8±0.3°C (Topt), while the upper pejus temperature (Tpej, set at 90% of maximum aerobic scope) was 19.9±0.3°C. Although aerobic scope decreased at temperatures above Topt, the value at 25°C remained well over 40% of the maximum. Furthermore, pharmacologically stimulated fH,max increased with temperature, reaching a peak value between 23.5±0.4 and 24.0±0.4°C (Tmax) for three family groups. The Arrhenius breakpoint temperature (TAB) for fH,max was 20.3±0.3 to 20.7±0.4°C, while the average Q10 breakpoint temperature (TQB, when the incremental Q10<1.6) for fH,max was 21.6±0.2 to 22.0±0.4°C. Collectively, fH,max progressively became less temperature dependent beyond 20°C (TAB and TQB), which coincides with the upper Tpej for aerobic scope. Although upper thermal performance indices for both aerobic scope and fH,max were compared among family groups in this population, appreciable differences were not evident. Compared with other populations of rainbow trout, the present assessment is consistent with the prediction that this strain has undergone selection and shows the ability to tolerate higher water temperatures. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Growth-related quantitative trait loci in domestic and wild rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Somatic growth is a complex process that involves the action and interaction of genes and environment. A number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously identified for body weight and condition factor in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and two other salmonid species, were used to further investigate the genetic architecture of growth-influencing genes in this species. Relationships among previously mapped candidate genes for growth and their co-localization to identified QTL regions are reported. Furthermore, using a comparative genomic analysis of syntenic rainbow trout linkage group clusters to their homologous regions within model teleost species such as zebrafish, stickleback and medaka, inferences were made regarding additional possible candidate genes underlying identified QTL regions. Results Body weight (BW) QTL were detected on the majority of rainbow trout linkage groups across 10 parents from 3 strains. However, only 10 linkage groups (i.e., RT-3, -6, -8, -9, -10, -12, -13, -22, -24, -27) possessed QTL regions with chromosome-wide or genome-wide effects across multiple parents. Fewer QTL for condition factor (K) were identified and only six instances of co-localization across families were detected (i.e. RT-9, -15, -16, -23, -27, -31 and RT-2/9 homeologs). Of note, both BW and K QTL co-localize on RT-9 and RT-27. The incidence of epistatic interaction across genomic regions within different female backgrounds was also examined, and although evidence for interaction effects within certain QTL regions were evident, these interactions were few in number and statistically weak. Of interest, however, was the fact that these predominantly occurred within K QTL regions. Currently mapped growth candidate genes are largely congruent with the identified QTL regions. More QTL were detected in male, compared to female parents, with the greatest number evident in an F1 male parent derived from an intercross between domesticated and wild strain of

  9. Gene expression patterns in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to a suite of model toxicants

    PubMed Central

    Hook, Sharon E.; Skillman, Ann D.; Small, Jack A.; Schultz, Irvin R.

    2008-01-01

    The increased availability and use of DNA microarrays has allowed the characterization of gene expression patterns associated with exposure to different toxicants. An important question is whether toxicant induced changes in gene expression in fish are sufficiently diverse to allow for identification of specific modes of action and/or specific contaminants. In theory, each class of toxicant may generate a gene expression profile unique to its mode of toxic action. In this study, isogenic (cloned) rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were exposed to sublethal levels of a series of model toxicants with varying modes of action, including ethynylestradiol (xeno-estrogen), 2,2,4,4′-tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47, thyroid active), diquat (oxidant stressor), chromium VI, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a period of 1–3 weeks. An additional experiment measured trenbolone (anabolic steroid; model androgen) induced gene expression changes in sexually mature female trout. Following exposure, fish were euthanized, livers removed and RNA extracted. Fluorescently labeled cDNA were generated and hybridized against a commercially available Atlantic Salmon/Trout array (GRASP project, University of Victoria) spotted with 16,000 cDNA’s. The slides were scanned to measure abundance of a given transcript in each sample relative to controls. Data were analyzed via Genespring (Silicon Genetics) to identify a list of up- and downregulated genes, as well as to determine gene clustering patterns that can be used as “expression signatures”. The results indicate each toxicant exposure caused between 64 and 222 genes to be significantly altered in expression. Most genes exhibiting altered expression responded to only one of the toxicants and relatively few were co-expressed in multiple treatments. For example, BaP and Diquat, both of which exert toxicity via oxidative stress, upregulated 28 of the same genes, of over 100 genes altered by either treatment. Other genes associated with

  10. Renal responses to acute lead waterborne exposure in the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Patel, Monika; Rogers, Joseph T; Pane, Eric F; Wood, Chris M

    2006-12-30

    The possible nephrotoxic effects of waterborne lead exposure (as Pb(NO3)2) were investigated in the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Kidney lead accumulation was time-dependent, increasing upon exposure to 0.57+/-0.01 mg dissolved Pb L(-1) for up to 96 h with a significantly higher burden occurring in the posterior kidney compared to the anterior segment. Urine analyses in trout exposed to 1.20+/-0.09 mg dissolved Pb L(-1) revealed a significant increase in urinary lead excretion rate throughout 96 h of exposure. Urine flow rate and glomerular filtration rate (GFR) were not impacted with the exception of a significant decrease in GFR from 84 to 96 h in lead-exposed trout. Urine pH decreased significantly over time in lead-exposed fish. Correspondingly, urine ammonia excretion rate showed a marked increase from 48 h onwards. In experimental fish, urine glucose excretion was significantly greater by 96 h while urine lactate, urea and protein excretion were not significantly altered by lead exposure. The urine excretion rate of Ca2+ increased significantly by approximately 43% after only 24 h of lead exposure, and was maintained at a higher rate than controls for up to 96 h. Magnesium excretion increased in a time-dependent fashion, reaching a two- to three-fold rise by 96 h. In contrast, rates of Na+ and Cl- excretion were decreased in experimental fish by approximately 30% by 48 h, this trend continuing for the duration of lead-exposure. There were no changes in any of these parameters in similarly treated control fish. Clearance ratio analyses indicated progressive decreases in the net reabsorption efficiencies of the renal system for Ca2+, Mg2+, Pb, and glucose, suggesting that the active tubular transport mechanisms for these substances were inhibited by lead exposure, while Na+, K+, Cl-, lactate, and protein reabsorptions were unaffected. Net ammonia secretion increased. We conclude that changes in renal function both reflect and help to minimize

  11. Low social status impairs hypoxia tolerance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Thomas, J B; Gilmour, K M

    2012-07-01

    In the present study, chronic behavioural stress resulting from low social status affected the physiological responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to a subsequent acute stressor, exposure to hypoxia. Rainbow trout were confined in fork-length matched pairs for 48-72 h, and social rank was assigned based on behaviour. Dominant and subordinate fish were then exposed individually to graded hypoxia (final water PO(2), PwO(2) = 40 Torr). Catecholamine mobilization profiles differed between dominant and subordinate fish. Whereas dominant fish exhibited generally low circulating catecholamine levels until a distinct threshold for release was reached (PwO(2) = 51.5 Torr corresponding to arterial PO(2), PaO(2) = 24.1 Torr), plasma catecholamine concentrations in subordinate fish were more variable and identification of a distinct threshold for release was problematic. Among fish that mobilized catecholamines (i.e. circulating catecholamines rose above the 95% confidence interval around the baseline value), however, the circulating levels achieved in subordinate fish were significantly higher (459.9 ± 142.2 nmol L(-1), mean ± SEM, N = 12) than those in dominant fish (130.9 ± 37.9 nmol L(-1), N = 12). The differences in catecholamine mobilization occurred despite similar P(50) values in dominant (22.0 ± 1.5 Torr, N = 6) and subordinate (22.1 ± 2.2 Torr, N = 8) fish, and higher PaO(2) values in subordinate fish under severely hypoxic conditions (i.e. PwO(2) < 60 Torr). The higher PaO(2) values of subordinate fish likely reflected the greater ventilatory rates and amplitudes exhibited by these fish during severe hypoxia. At the most severe level of hypoxia, subordinate fish were unable to defend arterial blood O(2) content, which fell to approximately half (0.60 ± 0.13 mL O(2) g(-1) haemoglobin, N = 9) that of dominant fish (1.08 ± 0.09 mL O(2) g(-1) haemoglobin, N = 9). Collectively, these data indicate that

  12. Functionalization impacts the effects of carbon nanotubes on the immune system of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Klaper, Rebecca; Arndt, Devrah; Setyowati, Kristin; Chen, Jian; Goetz, Frederick

    2010-10-15

    Recent studies have demonstrated the potential for manufactured nanomaterials to reach the aquatic environment. There is a need to determine if these materials will have an impact on aquatic species and at what level of exposure. In addition there is a need to develop models to test the potential effects of the multitude of particle types in production on aquatic vertebrates. The purpose of this research was to determine the impact of manufactured nanomaterials on the immune system of an aquatic vertebrate model, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We investigated how structure and type of functionalization of manufactured nanomaterials could affect immunotoxicity. To assess immunotoxicity, we used a well-studied trout macrophage primary cell culture system in conjunction with the expression of IL-1β and IFNα for proinflammatory and antiviral gene expression. There was a significant difference among the different carbon nanotube-based nanomaterials in their level of stimulation of IL-1β in macrophage cells and the dose at which they became stimulatory. At concentrations that were sublethal to cells, almost all nanomaterials were stimulatory at some concentration. Single-walled nanotubes and multi-walled nanotubes that were differentially functionalized to be water-soluble, varied in their effects; specifically the concentrations at which they were stimulatory and they were more stimulatory to IL-1β expression compared with unfunctionalized nanotubes. Each functionalized nanotube type caused a dose-dependent response with the lowest exposures (0.05-1.0 μg/ml) having no stimulatory response and at the highest concentrations (5 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml) stimulating a response similar to the positive LPS positive control. Anionic functionalized multi-walled nanotubes and zwitterionic single-walled nanotubes were stimulatory at the lowest dose (0.5 μg/ml). Sodium deoxycholate, often used to suspend nanomaterials, was also tested and was as stimulatory to the

  13. Ghrelin receptor (GHS-R)-like receptor and its genomic organisation in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Kaiya, Hiroyuki; Mori, Tsukasa; Miyazato, Mikiya; Kangawa, Kenji

    2009-08-01

    Ghrelin, a GH-releasing and appetite-regulating peptide that is released from the stomach is an endogenous ligand for growth hormone secretagogue-receptor (GHS-R). Two types of GHS-R are accepted to be present, a functional GHS-R1a and GHS-R1b with unknown function. In this study, we identified cDNA that encodes protein with close sequence similarity to GHS-R and exon-intron organization of the GHS-R genes in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Two variants of GHS-R1a proteins with 387-amino acids, namely DQTA/LN-type and ERAT/IS-type, were identified. In 3'-RACE PCR and genomic PCR, we also identified three GHS-R1b orthologs that are consisted of 297- or 300-amino acids with different amino acid sequence at the C-terminus, in addition to the DQTA/LN-type and ERAT/IS-type variations. Genomic PCR revealed that the genes are composed of two exons separated by an intron, and that two GHS-R1a and three GHS-R1b variants are generated by three distinct genes. GHS-R1a and GHSR-1b mRNA were predominantly expressed in the pituitary, followed by the brain. Identified DQTA/LN-type or ERAT/IS-type GHS-R1a cDNA was transfected into mammalian cells, and intracellular calcium ion mobilization assay was carried out. However, we did not find any response to rat ghrelin and a homologous ligand, des-VRQ trout ghrelin, of either receptor in vitro. We found that unexpected mRNA splicing had occurred in the transfected cells, suggesting that the full-length, functional receptor protein might not be generated in the cells. Gene structure and characterization of protein sequence identified in this study were closely similar to other GHS-R, but to conclude that it is a GHS-R for rainbow trout, further study is required to confirm activation of GHS-R1a by ghrelin or GHS. Thus we designated the identified receptor proteins in this study as GHS-R-like receptor (GHSR-LR).

  14. Using broad landscape level features to predict redd densities of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow River watershed, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    We used broad-scale landscape feature variables to model redd densities of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Methow River watershed. Redd densities were estimated from redd counts conducted from 2005 to 2007 and 2009 for steelhead trout and 2005 to 2009 for spring Chinook salmon. These densities were modeled using generalized linear mixed models. Variables examined included primary and secondary geology type, habitat type, flow type, sinuosity, and slope of stream channel. In addition, we included spring effect and hatchery effect variables to account for high densities of redds near known springs and hatchery outflows. Variables were associated with National Hydrography Database reach designations for modeling redd densities within each reach. Reaches were assigned a dominant habitat type, geology, mean slope, and sinuosity. The best fit model for spring Chinook salmon included sinuosity, critical slope, habitat type, flow type, and hatchery effect. Flow type, slope, and habitat type variables accounted for most of the variation in the data. The best fit model for steelhead trout included year, habitat type, flow type, hatchery effect, and spring effect. The spring effect, flow type, and hatchery effect variables explained most of the variation in the data. Our models illustrate how broad-scale landscape features may be used to predict spawning habitat over large areas where fine-scale data may be lacking.

  15. Spatial and temporal spawning dynamics of native westslope cutthroat trout, Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi, introduced rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and their hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muhlfeld, C.C.; McMahon, T.E.; Belcer, D.; Kershner, J.L.

    2009-01-01

    We used radiotelemetry to assess spatial and temporal spawning distributions of native westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi; WCT), introduced rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; RBT), and their hybrids in the upper Flathead River system, Montana (USA) and British Columbia (Canada), from 2000 to 2007. Radio-tagged trout (N = 125) moved upriver towards spawning sites as flows increased during spring runoff and spawned in 29 tributaries. WCT migrated greater distances and spawned in headwater streams during peak flows and as flows declined, whereas RBT and RBT hybrids (backcrosses to RBT) spawned earlier during increasing flows and lower in the system. WCT hybrids (backcrosses to WCT) spawned intermediately in time and space to WCT and RBT and RBT hybrids. Both hybrid groups and RBT, however, spawned over time periods that produced temporal overlap with spawning WCT in most years. Our data indicate that hybridization is spreading via long-distance movements of individuals with high amounts of RBT admixture into WCT streams and stepping-stone invasion at small scales by later generation backcrosses. This study provides evidence that hybridization increases the likelihood of reproductive overlap in time and space, promoting extinction by introgression, and that the spread of hybridization is likely to continue if hybrid source populations are not reduced or eliminated.

  16. Behavioural type in newly emerged steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss does not predict growth rate in a conventional hatchery rearing environment.

    PubMed

    Conrad, J L; Sih, A

    2009-10-01

    Behavioural assays were conducted on newly emerged steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss to investigate the presence of behavioural syndromes and to determine whether behavioural type in young fish predicts growth rate in a conventional hatchery rearing environment. Individual fry were consistent in their position choice and activity behaviours across safe and unsafe contexts, as well as among assays conducted on different days. Position choice and activity behaviours, however, were not necessarily correlated to each other. Both behaviours predicted feeding rates during behavioural assays, but there was no relationship between fry behaviour and subsequent growth rate or survival during the first 3 months of hatchery rearing. These results support the hypothesis that selection in captivity may be relaxed with respect to behavioural type rather than directional, allowing for increased behavioural variance in domesticated populations. Modest magnitudes of correlations among fry behaviours, however, suggest that behavioural type may be unstable at the onset of the juvenile feeding stage.

  17. Phylogenetic relationships of Iranian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) based on the glycoprotein gene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Adel, Milad; Amiri, Alireza Babaalian; Dada, Maryam; Kurath, Gael; Laktarashi, Bahram; Ghajari, Amrolah; Breyta, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a member of family Rhabdoviridae and genus Novirhabdoviridae, causes a highly lethal disease of salmon and trout. In Iran IHNV was first detected in 2001 on farms rearing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To evaluate the genetic relationships of IHNV from northern and western Iran, the sequences of a 651-nt region of the glycoprotein gene were determined for two Iranian isolates. These sequences were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates representing the five known genogroups of IHNV. Iranian isolates were most closely related to European isolates within the genogroup E rather than those of North American genogroups U, M and L, or the Asian genogroup J. It appears that Iranian IHNV was most likely introduced to Iran from a source in Europe by the movement of contaminated fish eggs.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships of Iranian infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) based on the glycoprotein gene.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Amiri, Alireza Babaalian; Dadar, Maryam; Breyta, Rachel; Kurath, Gael; Laktarashi, Bahram; Ghajari, Amrolah

    2016-03-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), a member of family Rhabdoviridae and genus Novirhabdoviridae, causes a highly lethal disease of salmon and trout. In Iran IHNV was first detected in 2001 on farms rearing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). To evaluate the genetic relationships of IHNV from northern and western Iran, the sequences of a 651-nt region of the glycoprotein gene were determined for two Iranian isolates. These sequences were analyzed to evaluate their genetic relatedness to worldwide isolates representing the five known genogroups of IHNV. Iranian isolates were most closely related to European isolates within the genogroup E rather than those of North American genogroups U, M and L, or the Asian genogroup J. It appears that Iranian IHNV was most likely introduced to Iran from a source in Europe by the movement of contaminated fish eggs.

  19. A loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) method for detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gunimaladevi, I; Kono, T; Lapatra, S E; Sakai, M

    2005-05-01

    A reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) protocol was developed for detection of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) RNA in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). A set of four primers, two outer and two inner primers for the RT-LAMP and the LAMP assay, were designed based on the sequence of G-protein of IHNV. Time and temperature conditions were optimized for 60 min at 63 degrees C for both RT-LAMP and LAMP protocols. The detection limit was found to be similar for both RT-LAMP and LAMP. When the sensitivity of RT-LAMP and LAMP were compared with conventional nested PCR, a10-fold higher sensitivity was seen for the LAMP protocols.

  20. Some Antioxidants and Malondialdehyde Levels in the Flesh of Rainbow Trout, (Oncorhynchus mykiss W., 1792) from Various Feeding Habitats.

    PubMed

    Ural, M S; Karatas, F; Calta, M

    2015-11-08

    The present study was aimed to find the effect of feeding habitats on the amounts of some antioxidants (vitamin A, E, C, ß-carotene and selenium) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in the flesh of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). For this purpose, vitamins (A, C and E), β-carotene amounts and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined by HPLC and selenium amount was determined by fluorometric method in the flesh of rainbow trout obtained from various feeding habitats. The highest amounts of vitamins (A, C and E), β-carotene and selenium were found in the flesh of wild rainbow trout (WRT), followed by cage reared rainbow trout (CRRT) and pond reared rainbow trout (PRRT). However, the levels of MDA in the flesh of PRRT were the highest, followed by CRRT and the lowest in WRT.

  1. A new species of myxozoan (Myxosporea) from the brain and spinal cord of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Idaho.

    PubMed

    Hogge, Carla I; Campbell, Matthew R; Johnson, Keith A

    2008-02-01

    A new species of Myxosporea, Myxobolus neurotropus n. sp., is described from the brain and spinal cord of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Duncan Creek, Owyhee County, Idaho. Spores are oval, have 2 pyriform polar capsules, and possess a thick spore wall (sutural rim) with a short intracapsular offshoot. The mean spore dimensions are length 11.8 microm, width 10.8 microm, and thickness 8.8 microm. This myxozoan is compared to other described Myxobolus species found in cranial tissues of salmonids in terms of spore morphology and phylogenetic analysis. Because it is found in brain and spinal cord, it is encountered while performing screening tests for Myxobolus cerebralis, the causative agent of salmonid whirling disease. Where chronic inflammation and granulomatous lesions are associated with M. cerebralis, histological examination shows no host response to M. neurotropus n. sp. A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test is included as an aid in properly identifying the species.

  2. Effects of acid rock drainage on stocked rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): an in-situ, caged fish experiment.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew S; McKnight, Diane M; Jaros, Chris L; Marchitto, Thomas M

    2007-07-01

    In-situ caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) studies reveal significant fish toxicity and fish stress in a river impacted by headwater acid rock drainage (ARD). Stocked trout survival and aqueous water chemistry were monitored for 10 days at 3 study sites in the Snake River watershed, Colorado, U.S.A. Trout mortality was positively correlated with concentrations of metals calculated to be approaching or exceeding conservative toxicity thresholds (Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd). Significant metal accumulation on the gills of fish stocked at ARD impacted study sites support an association between elevated metals and fish mortality. Observations of feeding behavior and significant differences in fish relative weights between study site and feeding treatment indicate feeding and metals-related fish stress. Together, these results demonstrate the utility of in-situ exposure studies for stream stakeholders in quantifying the relative role of aqueous contaminant exposures in limiting stocked fish survival.

  3. Comparative diets of subyearling Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) in the Salmon River, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead (O. mykiss) have established naturalized populations throughout the Great Lakes. Young-of-year of these species occur sympatrically for about one month in Lake Ontario tributaries. This study examined the diets of subyearling Chinook salmon and steelhead relative to available food in the Salmon River, New York. Terrestrial invertebrates and trichopterans were the major prey of Chinook salmon, whereas steelhead fed primarily on baetid nymphs and chironomid larvae. Diet overlap was low (0.45) between the species. The diet of Chinook was closely associated to the composition of the drift (0.88). Steelhead diet drew equally from the drift and benthos during the first year of the study, but more closely matched the benthos during the second year. Differences in prey selection, perhaps associated with differences in fish size, in addition to apparent differences in feeding mode (drift versus benthic), likely reduce competitive interactions between these species.

  4. Severe, chronic proliferative kidney disease (PKD) induced in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss held at a constant 18 degrees C.

    PubMed

    Morris, D J; Ferguson, H W; Adams, A

    2005-09-23

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD), caused by the myxozoan parasite Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae, is well documented as a seasonal disease of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Water temperatures influence the course of the infection both within the fish and the invertebrate host, the recovery of fish from the disease being accelerated with decreasing water temperatures. During this study, groups of rainbow trout were held at a constant temperature (18 degrees C) for a sustained period of time following initial exposure to T. bryosalmonae. While the majority of these fish had recovered from the clinical disease after 9 mo, 10% remained infected, showing clinical signs of disease. A histological study revealed that the majority exhibited very high parasite loads and unusually severe symptoms of PKD. This demonstrates that while most rainbow trout can recover from PKD independent of water temperature, there exists a sub-population that cannot.

  5. Behavioral response of young rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to forest fire-retardant chemicals in the laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wells, Jason B.; Little, Edward E.; Calfee, Robin D.

    2004-01-01

    Fire-retardant chemicals often are applied in relatively pristine and environmentally sensitive areas that are potentially inhabited by endangered or threatened aquatic species. Avoidance of contaminants is an adaptive behavior that may reduce exposure to harmful conditions. We evaluated the avoidance responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to concentrations of fire-retardant chemicals and alternate constituent formulations ranging from 0.65 to 26 mg/L. Countercurrent avoidance chambers were used in a flow-through design with receiving water at each end and a drain at the center to create a distinct boundary between treatment water and reference water. Rainbow trout consistently avoided water treated with retardants at all concentrations tested. The magnitude of the avoidance response did not appear to follow a concentration-response relationship, but rather was an all-or-none response.

  6. Behavioral response of young rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to forest fire-retardant chemicals in the laboratory.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jason B; Little, Edward E; Calfee, Robin D

    2004-03-01

    Fire-retardant chemicals often are applied in relatively pristine and environmentally sensitive areas that are potentially inhabited by endangered or threatened aquatic species. Avoidance of contaminants is an adaptive behavior that may reduce exposure to harmful conditions. We evaluated the avoidance responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to concentrations of fire-retardant chemicals and alternate constituent formulations ranging from 0.65 to 26 mg/L. Countercurrent avoidance chambers were used in a flow-through design with receiving water at each end and a drain at the center to create a distinct boundary between treatment water and reference water. Rainbow trout consistently avoided water treated with retardants at all concentrations tested. The magnitude of the avoidance response did not appear to follow a concentration-response relationship, but rather was an all-or-none response.

  7. Effects of dietary sesame oil on growth performance, chemical composition, lipid oxidation, and sensory characteristics of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Hematzadeh, Azar; Jalali Sayed, Mohamad Ali

    2017-09-28

    The present study, the effects of dietary sesame oil (SO) on growth performance and fillet composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Twenty-five fish were randomly allocated in three groups by three replication, in mean initial weight 53.3 g in each tank. Experimental diets consisted of fish oil (FO), sesame oil (SO) and 1:1 blends of two oils, fish oil and sesame oil (FOSO). Dietary sesame oil had no significant effect on growth rate or feed conversion ratio. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between dietary treatments for ash content in fillet of fish. The fillet lipid content was lower in fish fed by sesame oil, but the moisture and the protein were higher. Furthermore, Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test was changed in different groups and it was lower in SO. The organoleptic indices were affected by dietary oils and FO group had more fishy flavour.

  8. Ecosystem experiment reveals benefits of natural and simulated beaver dams to a threatened population of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Bouwes, Nicolaas; Weber, Nicholas; Jordan, Chris E.; Saunders, W. Carl; Tattam, Ian A.; Volk, Carol; Wheaton, Joseph M.; Pollock, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    Beaver have been referred to as ecosystem engineers because of the large impacts their dam building activities have on the landscape; however, the benefits they may provide to fluvial fish species has been debated. We conducted a watershed-scale experiment to test how increasing beaver dam and colony persistence in a highly degraded incised stream affects the freshwater production of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following the installation of beaver dam analogs (BDAs), we observed significant increases in the density, survival, and production of juvenile steelhead without impacting upstream and downstream migrations. The steelhead response occurred as the quantity and complexity of their habitat increased. This study is the first large-scale experiment to quantify the benefits of beavers and BDAs to a fish population and its habitat. Beaver mediated restoration may be a viable and efficient strategy to recover ecosystem function of previously incised streams and to increase the production of imperiled fish populations. PMID:27373190

  9. Theoretical life history responses of juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss to changes in food availability using a dynamic state-dependent approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Romine, Jason G.; Benjamin, Joseph R.; Perry, Russell W.; Casal, Lynne; Connolly, Patrick J.; Sauter, Sally S.

    2013-01-01

    Marine subsidies can play an important role in the growth, survival, and migratory behavior of rearing juvenile salmonids. Availability of high-energy, marine-derived food sources during critical decision windows may influence the timing of emigration or the decision to forego emigration completely and remain in the freshwater environment. Increasing growth and growth rate during these decision windows may result in an altered juvenile population structure, which will ultimately affect the adult population age-structure. We used a state dependent model to understand how the juvenile Oncorhynchus mykiss population structure may respond to increased availability of salmon eggs in their diet during critical decision windows. Our models predicted an increase in smolt production until coho salmon eggs comprised more than 50 percent of juvenile O. mykiss diet at the peak of the spawning run. At higher-than intermediate levels of egg consumption, smolt production decreased owing to increasing numbers of fish adopting a resident life-history strategy. Additionally, greater growth rates decreased the number of age-3 smolts and increased the number of age-2 smolts. Increased growth rates with higher egg consumption also decreased the age at which fish adopted the resident pathway. Our models suggest that the introduction of a high-energy food source during critical periods of the year could be sufficient to increase smolt production.

  10. Effect of acetaminophen exposure in Oncorhynchus mykiss gills and liver: detoxification mechanisms, oxidative defence system and peroxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Ramos, A S; Correia, A T; Antunes, S C; Gonçalves, F; Nunes, B

    2014-05-01

    The increasing presence of pharmaceutical drugs in nature is cause of concern due to the occurrence of oxidative stress in non-target species. Acetaminophen is widely used in human medicine as an analgesic and antipyretic drug, and it is one of the most sold non-prescription drugs. The present study aimed to assess the toxic effects of acetaminophen (APAP) in Oncorhynchus mykiss following acute and chronic exposures in realistic levels. In order to evaluate the APAP effects in the rainbow trout, gills and liver were analyzed with biochemical biomarkers, such as catalase (CAT), total and selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GRed) and glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) activity and also lipid peroxidation levels (TBARS). The results obtained in all tests indicate that a significant response of oxidative stress was established, along with the increase of APAP concentrations. The establishment of an oxidative stress scenario occurred with the involvement of all tested biomarkers, sustaining a generalized set of pro-oxidative effects elicited by APAP. Additionally, the occurrence of oxidative damage strongly suggests the impairment of the antioxidant defense mechanism of O. mykiss. It is important to note that the occurrence of oxidative deleterious effects and peroxidative damages occurred for concentrations similar to those already reported for several freshwater ecosystems. The importance of these assumptions is further discussed under the scope of ecological relevance of the assessment of effects caused by pharmaceuticals in non-target organisms.

  11. PCBs can diminish the influence of temperature on thyroid indices in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Buckman, Andrea H; Fisk, Aaron T; Parrott, Joanne L; Solomon, Keith R; Brown, Scott B

    2007-10-15

    The influence of PCBs on the thyroid status of rainbow trout was assessed at various temperatures to identify if PCB mixtures, as well OH-PCBs produced via biotransformation of parent PCBs, can illicit thyroid effects in fish. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held at 8, 12 or 16 degrees C were exposed to dietary concentrations of an environmentally relevant mixture of PCBs for 30 days followed by a depuration phase. Two additional treatments at 12 degrees C included higher concentrations of PCBs (congeners 77, 126 and 169) known to induce CYP1A in fish (referred to as CYP1A treatment) and PCBs (congeners 87, 99, 101, 153, 180, 183 and 194) known to induce CYP2B in mammals (referred to as CYP2 treatment), to assess the influence of more biologically relevant PCB congeners on thyroid indices in fish. Growth rate and liver somatic index varied with water temperature (p<0.05) but did not differ between PCB exposed and control fish (p>0.05) and mortality was low in all treatments. Changes in some measures of thyroid status were apparent in PCB-exposed fish held in the 12 and 16 degrees C treatments while other measures showed no change in any treatment. The natural inverse relationship between thyroid epithelial cell height (TECH) and temperature, was diminished after 30 days of exposure to PCBs as the epithelial cell height in PCB-exposed fish was significantly augmented in the 12 and 16 degrees C treatments compared to controls at these temperatures (p<0.05). However, after 20 days of depuration, TECH values in the PCB exposed fish returned to control values. The natural linear gradient between T(4) outer-ring deiodinase activity (ORD) and temperature was also diminished after 30 days of exposure to PCBs. PCB-exposed fish from the 16 degrees C treatment had significantly lower deiodinase activities (p<0.05) compared to controls at this temperature, but deiodinase activities returned to normal by day 20 of depuration. No differences were observed in T(3

  12. Differences in neurobehavioral responses of chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to copper and cobalt: Behavioral avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Hansen, J.A.; Marr, J.C.A.; Lipton, J.; Cacela, D.; Bergman, H.L.

    1999-09-01

    Behavioral avoidance of copper (Cu), cobalt (Co), and a Cu and Co mixture in soft water differed greatly between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha). Chinook salmon avoided at least 0.7 {micro}g Cu/L, 24 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 1.0 {micro}g Cu/L and 0.9 {micro}g Co/L, whereas rainbow trout avoided at least 1.6 {micro}g Cu/L, 180 {micro}g Co/L, and the mixture of 2.6 {micro}g Cu/L and 2.4 {micro}g Co/L. Chinook salmon were also more sensitive to the toxic effects of Cu in that they failed to avoid {ge}44 {micro}g Cu/L, whereas rainbow trout failed to avoid {ge}180 {micro}g Cu/L. Furthermore, following acclimation to 2 {micro}g Cu/L, rainbow trout avoided 4 {micro}g Cu/L and preferred clean water, but chinook salmon failed to avoid any Cu concentrations and did not prefer clean water. The failure to avoid high concentrations of metals by both species suggests that the sensory mechanism responsible for avoidance responses was impaired. Exposure to Cu concentrations that were not avoided could result in lethality from prolonged Cu exposure or in impairment of sensory-dependent behaviors that are essential for survival and reproduction.

  13. Growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J N; Beauchamp, D A

    2016-09-01

    Increased freshwater growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss improved survival to smolt and adult stages, thus prompting an examination of factors affecting growth during critical periods that influenced survival through subsequent life stages. For three tributaries with contrasting thermal regimes, a bioenergetics model was used to evaluate how feeding rate and energy density of prey influenced seasonal growth and stage-specific survival of juvenile O. mykiss. Sensitivity analysis examined target levels for feeding rate and energy density of prey during the growing season that improved survival to the smolt and adult stages in each tributary. Simulated daily growth was greatest during warmer months (1 July to 30 September), whereas substantial body mass was lost during cooler months (1 December to 31 March). Incremental increases in annual feeding rate or energy density of prey during summer broadened the temperature range at which faster growth occurred and increased the growth of the average juvenile to match those that survived to smolt and adult stages. Survival to later life stages could be improved by increasing feeding rate or energy density of the diet during summer months, when warmer water temperatures accommodated increased growth potential. Higher growth during the summer period in each tributary could improve resiliency during subsequent colder periods that lead to metabolic stress and weight loss. As growth and corresponding survival rates in fresh water are altered by shifting abiotic regimes, it will be increasingly important for fisheries managers to better understand the mechanisms affecting growth limitations in rearing habitats and what measures might maintain or improve growth conditions and survival. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  14. RNA-seq reveals differential gene expression in the brains of juvenile resident and migratory smolt rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hale, Matthew C; McKinney, Garrett J; Thrower, Frank P; Nichols, Krista M

    2016-12-01

    Many migratory traits are heritable, but there is a paucity of evidence identifying the molecular mechanisms underlying differentiation in alternative migratory tactics, or in linking variation in gene expression to migratory behaviors. To that end, we examined differential gene expression in the brain transcriptome between young steelhead trout that had undergone the smoltification process, and resident rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Sashin Creek, Alaska. Samples were sequenced from two time points: immediately before (at 20months of age) and during (2years of age) the presumed peak of smoltification. Smolt and resident individuals came from two genetic crosses, one where both parents were migratory, and another where both parents were residents. A total of 533 (1.9%) genes were differentially expressed between crosses, or between smolt and resident samples. These genes include some candidate migratory genes (such as POMC), as well as genes with no previous known involvement in the migratory process. Progeny from resident parents showed more upregulated genes than progeny from migrant parents at both time points. Pathway analysis showed enrichment in 227 biological pathways between cross type, and 171 biological pathways were enriched between residents and smolts. Enriched pathways had connections to many biofunctions, and most were only enriched in one contrast. However, pathways connected to phototransduction were enriched between both cross type and migratory tactics in 11 out of 12 contrasts, suggesting there are fundamental differences in how smolts and residents process light in the brain. The genes and pathways described herein constitute an a priori candidate list for future studies of migration in other populations of O. mykiss, and other migratory species. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Mitochondrial DNA variation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) across its native range: testing biogeographical hypotheses and their relevance to conservation.

    PubMed

    McCusker, M R; Parkinson, E; Taylor, E B

    2000-12-01

    North-western North America has been repeatedly glaciated over most of the past two million years, with the most recent glaciation occurring between 60 000 and 10 000 years ago. Intraspecific genetic variation in many species has been shaped by where they survived glaciation and what postglacial recolonization routes were used. In this study, molecular techniques were used to investigate biogeographical, taxonomic and conservation issues in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation was assessed using a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, focusing mainly on the previously understudied northern extent of the species' range. Two phylogenetically distinct mitochondrial lineages were found that differed from each other by up to 1.8% in sequence. Although the geographical distributions of the two clades overlap extensively, diversity and distributional analyses strongly suggest that trout survived glaciation in both coastal and inland refugia followed by postglacial gene flow and secondary contact. Postglacial dispersal into British Columbia most likely occurred from the Queen Charlotte Islands and the Columbia River. Although trout most likely also survived glaciation along the coast of Washington, Oregon and California, as well as near the Bering Strait, evidence suggests that dispersal into British Columbia from these areas was limited. Sequence analysis of mitochondrial haplotypes revealed higher diversity in California than in the northern part of the species' range, indicating an ancient presence of the species in the south. Phylogeographic divergence probably predates adaptive variation in the species as suggested by evidence for parallel evolution of life history types across the range of O. mykiss.

  16. Possibilities to control Ichthyophthirius multifiliis infestation with medicated feed in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and chub (Leuciscus cephalus).

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hafez, Ghada; Lahnsteiner, Franz; Mansour, Nabil

    2014-03-01

    In the present study, the treatment of ichthyophthiriasis with medicated feed was investigated in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, and chub, Leuciscus cephalus. The anti-parasitics toltrazuril and imidocarb; the antibiotics doxycycline, erythromycin and sulphadiazine and the anti-inflammatory acetylsalicylic acid were tested. In vitro experiment revealed that all tested anti-parasitics and antibiotics were effective in killing the isolated trophonts and theronts. Minimum doses for killing 100 % of the viable trophonts and for inhibiting the development of theronts were 3 mg/L for doxycycline, 30 mg/L for erythromycin, 2 mg/L for imidocarb dipropionate, 30 mg/L for sulphadiazine and 20 mg/L for toltrazuril. Acetylsalicylic acid (40 mg/kg fish/day), doxycycline (3 and 6 mg/kg/day), erythromycin (40 mg/kg/day), imidocarb dipropionate (5.0 mg/kg/day), sulphadiazine (40 mg/kg/day), toltrazuril (20 and 40 mg/kg/day) and combinations of doxycycline and toltrazuril (3 + 20 mg/kg/day, 6 + 40 mg/kg/day) were tested as medicated feed. When administered as medicated feed, only doxycycline, toltrazuril and combinations of doxycycline and toltrazuril reduced the fish mortality and infestation level. Best results were obtained by feeding a combination of 6 mg/kg/day doxycycline and 40 mg/kg/day toltrazuril. In O. mykiss, this treatment reduced the mortality rate from 100 to 50 ± 14 % after 10 days and the infestation level from grade 4 (≥100 trophonts per skin mucus sample) to 3.5 (50-100 trophonts). In L. cephalus, the mortality rate was decreased from 100 to 39 ± 5 % and the infestation level from grades 4 to 2 (ten to 50 trophonts) after 10 days.

  17. Growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss under size-selective pressure limited by seasonal bioenergetic and environmental constraints

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Jamie N.; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Increased freshwater growth of juvenile steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss improved survival to smolt and adult stages, thus prompting an examination of factors affecting growth during critical periods that influenced survival through subsequent life stages. For three tributaries with contrasting thermal regimes, a bioenergetics model was used to evaluate how feeding rate and energy density of prey influenced seasonal growth and stage-specific survival of juvenile O. mykiss. Sensitivity analysis examined target levels for feeding rate and energy density of prey during the growing season that improved survival to the smolt and adult stages in each tributary. Simulated daily growth was greatest during warmer months (1 July to 30 September), whereas substantial body mass was lost during cooler months (1 December to 31 March). Incremental increases in annual feeding rate or energy density of prey during summer broadened the temperature range at which faster growth occurred and increased the growth of the average juvenile to match those that survived to smolt and adult stages. Survival to later life stages could be improved by increasing feeding rate or energy density of the diet during summer months, when warmer water temperatures accommodated increased growth potential. Higher growth during the summer period in each tributary could improve resiliency during subsequent colder periods that lead to metabolic stress and weight loss. As growth and corresponding survival rates in fresh water are altered by shifting abiotic regimes, it will be increasingly important for fisheries managers to better understand the mechanisms affecting growth limitations in rearing habitats and what measures might maintain or improve growth conditions and survival.

  18. A bioinformatics-based update on microRNAs and their targets in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Yang, Liandong; He, Shunping

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) participate in various vitally biological processes via controlling target genes activity and thousands of miRNAs have been identified in many species to date, including 18,698 known animal miRNA in miRBase. However, there are only limited studies reported in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) especially via the computational-based approaches. In present study, we systematically investigated the miRNAs in rainbow trout using a well-developed comparative genome-based homologue search. A total of 196 potential miRNAs, belonging to 124 miRNA families, were identified, most of which were firstly reported in rainbow trout. The length of miRNAs ranged from 17 to 24 nt with an average of 20 nt while the length of their precursors varied from 47 to 152 nt with an average of 85 nt. The identified miRNAs were not evenly distributed in each miRNA family, with only one member per family for a majority, and multiple members were also identified for several families. Nucleotide U was dominant in the pre-miRNAs with a percentage of 30.04%. The rainbow trout pre-miRNAs had relatively high negative minimal folding free energy (MFE) and adjusted MFE (AMFE). Not only the mature miRNAs but their precursor sequences are conserved among the living organisms. About 2466 O. mykiss genes were predicted as potential targets for 189 miRNAs. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that nearly 2093, 2107, and 2081 target genes are involved in cellular component, molecular function, and biological processes respectively. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis illuminated that these miRNAs targets might regulate 105 metabolic pathways, including those of purine metabolism, nitrogen metabolism, and oxidative phosphorylation. This study has provided an update on rainbow trout miRNAs and their targets, which represents a foundation for future studies. © 2013.

  19. Ecological interactions between hatchery summer steelhead and wild Oncorhynchus mykiss in the Willamette River basin, 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Harnish, Ryan A.; Green, Ethan D.; Vernon, Christopher R.; Mcmichael, Geoffrey A.

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which juvenile hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead overlap in space and time, to evaluate the extent of residualism among hatchery summer steelhead in the South Santiam River, and to evaluate the potential for negative ecological interactions among hatchery summer steelhead and wild winter steelhead. Because it is not possible to visually discern juvenile winter steelhead from resident rainbow trout, we treated all adipose-intact juvenile O. mykiss as one group that represented juvenile wild winter steelhead. The 2014 study objectives were to 1) estimate the proportion of hatchery summer steelhead that residualized in the South Santiam River in 2014, 2) determine the extent to which hatchery and naturally produced O. mykiss overlapped in space and time in the South Santiam River, and 3) characterize the behavioral interactions between hatchery-origin juvenile summer steelhead and naturally produced O. mykiss. We used a combination of radio telemetry and direct observations (i.e., snorkeling) to determine the potential for negative interactions between hatchery summer and wild winter steelhead juveniles in the South Santiam River. Data collected from these two independent methods indicated that a significant portion of the hatchery summer steelhead released as smolts did not rapidly emigrate from the South Santiam River in 2014. Of the 164 radio-tagged steelhead that volitionally left the hatchery, only 66 (40.2%) were detected outside of the South Santiam River. Forty-four (26.8% of 164) of the radio-tagged hatchery summer steelhead successfully emigrated to Willamette Falls. Thus, the last known location of the majority of the tagged fish (98 of 164 = 59.8%) was in the South Santiam River. Thirty-three of the tagged hatchery steelhead were detected in the South Santiam River during mobile-tracking surveys. Of those, 21 were found to be alive in the South Santiam River over three months after

  20. Isolation and identification of viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in Iran.

    PubMed

    Ahmadivand, Sohrab; Soltani, Mehdi; Mardani, Karim; Shokrpoor, Sara; Rahmati-Holasoo, Hooman; Mokhtari, Abbas; Hasanzadeh, Reza

    2016-04-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) is a rhabdovirus that causes one of the most important fish diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) production industry. During the present study from October 2014 to July 2015, the virus causing viral hemorrhagic septicemia (VHS) was isolated and identified in rainbow trout farms from five of sixteen farms experiencing mass mortalities in six provinces of Iran with major trout production. Cumulative mortalities at VHSV-positive farms ranged from 30 to 70%. Clinical signs of disease included exophthalmia, petechial hemorrhages in the mandible and around the eyes, a swollen abdomen and darkening of the integument, widespread petechiae of the musculature and pyloric regions, severe congestion of the kidney, and pale enlarged livers. In addition, histopathologic examinations of tissues showed severe lesions in muscle, kidney and liver, which were compatible with those already described for VHS. Furthermore, homogenates tissues of diseased fish induced cytopathic effects (CPE) in CHSE-214 cells, and confirmatory diagnosis of VHS was made by RT-PCR reactions. To our knowledge, this is the first report of isolation and identification of VHSV from farmed trout in Iran, which may have originated from Europe.

  1. The organochlorine o,p'-DDD disrupts the adrenal steroidogenic signaling pathway in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lacroix, Martin; Hontela, Alice

    2003-08-01

    The mechanisms of action of o,p'-DDD on adrenal steroidogenesis were investigated in vitro in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Acute exposures to o,p'-DDD inhibited ACTH-stimulated cortisol secretion while cell viability decreased significantly only at the highest concentration tested (200 microM o,p'-DDD). Stimulation of cortisol secretion with a cAMP analogue (dibutyryl-cAMP) was inhibited at a higher concentration than that needed to inhibit ACTH-stimulated cortisol synthesis in cells exposed to o,p'-DDD. Forskolin-stimulated cortisol secretion and cAMP production, and NaF-stimulated cAMP production were inhibited in a concentration-dependent manner by o,p'-DDD. In contrast, basal cortisol secretion was stimulated while basal cAMP production was unaffected by o,p'-DDD. Pregnenolone-stimulated cortisol secretion was enhanced by o,p'-DDD at a physiologically relevant pregnenolone concentration, while o,p'-DDD inhibited cortisol secretion when a pharmacological concentration of pregnenolone was used. Our results suggest that the cAMP generation step is a target in o,p'-DDD-mediated disruption of ACTH-stimulated adrenal steroidogenesis in rainbow trout but that other downstream targets such as steroidogenic enzymes responsible for cortisol synthesis might also be affected.

  2. Physiological measures of neurotoxicity of diazinon and malathion to larval rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and their correlation with behavioral measures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauvais, S.L.; Jones, S.B.; Brewer, S.K.; Little, E.E.

    2000-01-01

    Relations between neurotoxicants and changes in physiological parameters and behavior were investigated in larval rainbow trout (RBT; Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to sublethal concentrations of two organophosphate pesticides (OPs). Fish were exposed to diazinon and malathion in static-renewal experiments. After exposures for 24, 96, or 96 h, followed by 48 h of recovery, individual RBT were videotaped to assess locomotory behaviors. Brain tissue from the same fish was assayed for the physiological endpoints, cholinesterase (ChE) activity, muscarinic cholinergic receptor (MChR) number (B(max)), and MChR affinity (K(D)). Cholinesterase activity decreased significantly with increasing concentrations of both diazinon and malathion and differed significantly among exposure durations, with 24- and 96-h means less than 48-h recovery means. Decreases in B(max) with OP concentration were not significant for either chemical, and K(D) was unaffected. Changes in swimming speed and distance were significantly correlated with changes in ChE activity for both chemicals; rate of turning was significantly correlated with ChE activity in malathion exposures. These results suggest that correlations between physiological and behavioral changes previously seen in mammals also occur in fish.

  3. The combine effects of salting and thyme oil on sensory and chemical changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fillets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yildiz, Pınar Oǧuzhan

    2016-04-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the combine effects of salting and thyme oil on chemical and sensory changes of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) during storage (4°C) was investigated over a period of 24 days. There groups were constituted: group A-control salted, group B-salted samples with 0.4% of thyme oil and group C-salted samples with 0.8% of thyme oil. Fillets were subject to chemical (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances-TBARS, total volatile base nitrogen-TVB-N) and sensory analyses on certain days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21 and 24th days) of storage. Five experienced panelists, academic staff who were trained in sensory descriptors for fishes, were employed to evaluate the quality of trout fillets during storage. Rainbow trout fillets were assessed on the basis of appearance, taste, texture and odour characteristics using a nine point descriptive scale. TVB-N and TBARS values increased in the duration of storage time in all groups. TVB-N and TBARS values in control groups were higher than other groups. Group C samples were assessed as the most acceptable products by the panellists. Difference in chemical and sensory changes between samples was found to be significant (p<0.05) during storage period.

  4. Effects of temperature on disease progression and swimming stamina in Ichthyophonus-infected rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kocan, R.; Hershberger, P.; Sanders, G.; Winton, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were infected with Ichthyophonus sp. and held at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C for 28 days to monitor mortality and disease progression. Infected fish demonstrated more rapid onset of disease, higher parasite load, more severe host tissue reaction and reduced mean-day-to-death at higher temperature. In a second experiment, Ichthyophonus-infected fish were reared at 15 ??C for 16 weeks then subjected to forced swimming at 10 ??C, 15 ??C and 20 ??C. Stamina improved significantly with increased temperature in uninfected fish; however, this was not observed for infected fish. The difference in performance between infected and uninfected fish became significant at 15 ??C (P = 0.02) and highly significant at 20 ??C (P = 0.005). These results have implications for changes in the ecology of fish diseases in the face of global warming and demonstrate the effects of higher temperature on the progression and severity of ichthyophoniasis as well as on swimming stamina, a critical fitness trait of salmonids. This study helps explain field observations showing the recent emergence of clinical ichthyophoniasis in Yukon River Chinook salmon later in their spawning migration when water temperatures were high, as well as the apparent failure of a substantial percentage of infected fish to successfully reach their natal spawning areas. ?? 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The impact of small irrigation diversion dams on the recent migration rates of steelhead and redband trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weigel, Dana E.; Connolly, Patrick J.; Powell, Madison S.

    2013-01-01

    Barriers to migration are numerous in stream environments and can occur from anthropogenic activities (such as dams and culverts) or natural processes (such as log jams or dams constructed by beaver (Castor canadensis)). Identification of barriers can be difficult when obstructions are temporary or incomplete providing passage periodically. We examine the effect of several small irrigation diversion dams on the recent migration rates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three tributaries to the Methow River, Washington. The three basins had different recent migration patterns: Beaver Creek did not have any recent migration between sites, Libby Creek had two-way migration between sites and Gold Creek had downstream migration between sites. Sites with migration were significantly different from sites without migration in distance, number of obstructions, obstruction height to depth ratio and maximum stream gradient. When comparing the sites without migration in Beaver Creek to the sites with migration in Libby and Gold creeks, the number of obstructions was the only significant variable. Multinomial logistic regression identified obstruction height to depth ratio and maximum stream gradient as the best fitting model to predict the level of migration among sites. Small irrigation diversion dams were limiting population interactions in Beaver Creek and collectively blocking steelhead migration into the stream. Variables related to stream resistance (gradient, obstruction number and obstruction height to depth ratio) were better predictors of recent migration rates than distance, and can provide important insight into migration and population demographic processes in lotic species.

  6. Differential virulence mechanisms of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) include host entry and virus replication kinetics.

    PubMed

    Peñaranda, Ma Michelle D; Purcell, Maureen K; Kurath, Gael

    2009-09-01

    Host specificity is a phenomenon exhibited by all viruses. For the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), differential specificity of virus strains from the U and M genogroups has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), M IHNV strains are consistently more prevalent and more virulent than U IHNV. The basis of the differential ability of these two IHNV genogroups to cause disease in rainbow trout was investigated in live infection challenges with representative U and M IHNV strains. When IHNV was delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the mortality caused by U IHNV increased, indicating that the low virulence of U IHNV is partly due to inefficiency in entering the trout host. Analyses of in vivo replication showed that U IHNV consistently had lower prevalence and lower viral load than M IHNV during the course of infection. In analyses of the host immune response, M IHNV-infected fish consistently had higher and longer expression of innate immune-related genes such as Mx-1. This suggests that the higher virulence of M IHNV is not due to suppression of the immune response in rainbow trout. Taken together, the results support a kinetics hypothesis wherein faster replication enables M IHNV to rapidly achieve a threshold level of virus necessary to override the strong host innate immune response.

  7. Sympathetic, parasympathetic and enteric regulation of the gastrointestinal vasculature in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under normal and postprandial conditions.

    PubMed

    Seth, Henrik; Axelsson, Michael

    2010-09-15

    The control of the gastrointestinal hyperemia that occurs after feeding in most animals is of fundamental importance for the subsequent absorption, metabolism and redistribution of nutrients. Yet, in fish, it has received little attention and the nature of it is far from clear. We sought to investigate the importance of extrinsic and intrinsic innervation of the gastrointestinal tract in the regulation of gastrointestinal blood flow in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The contribution of the extrinsic innervation, i.e. by the sympathetic and the parasympathetic nervous system, was examined by comparing the response to the injection of a predigested nutrient diet into the proximal intestine of untreated fish with the response in fish in which the splanchnic and vagal innervation of the gut had been removed. We also injected the predigested nutrient diet into anaesthetized fish treated with tetrodotoxin that would block the intrinsic innervation of the gut (i.e. enteric nervous system). Our results confirm the notion that the sympathetic portion of the extrinsic innervation maintains the basal vascular tone, but neither the splanchnic nor the vagal innervation is fundamental to the postprandial hyperemia. However, the tetrodotoxin treatment completely abolished the postprandial hyperemia, indicating the importance of the enteric nervous system. In conclusion, it seems as though the enteric nervous system is essential to the regulation of the postprandial hyperemia, and that the extrinsic innervation is involved mainly in the regulation of gastrointestinal blood flow under normal conditions and in response to central coordination with other organs.

  8. A soluble nonglycosylated recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) G-protein induces IFNs in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Verjan, Noel; Ooi, Ei Lin; Nochi, Tomonori; Kondo, Hidehiro; Hirono, Ikuo; Aoki, Takashi; Kiyono, Hiroshi; Yuki, Yoshikazu

    2008-07-01

    Viral glycoproteins interact with cell-surface receptors to mediate virus entry and innate immune system activation. We found that a soluble recombinant infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus G-protein (rIHNV-G) stimulated an early innate immune response mediated by proinflammatory cytokines, IFN1 and IFN-gamma in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry. Expression of both IFN1 and IFN-gamma mRNA transcripts was an early event and was rIHNV-G dose-dependent. In addition, preliminary evidence revealed that the innate immune response induced by rIHNV-G protein could protect rainbow trout fry from a subsequent IHNV virus challenge. Finally, the binding and distribution of FITC-rIHNV-G protein on rainbow trout spleen and head kidney leukocytes resemble morphological changes which occur on the cell membrane during antigen-receptor interaction including membrane reorganization, patching, polarization and capping. Thus a soluble nonglycosylated rIHNV-G protein could mediate the activation of rainbow trout leukocytes, with concomitant production of proinflammatory cytokines and IFNs.

  9. Dual DNA vaccination of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against two different rhabdoviruses, VHSV and IHNV, induces specific divalent protection.

    PubMed

    Einer-Jensen, Katja; Delgado, Lourdes; Lorenzen, Ellen; Bovo, Giuseppe; Evensen, Øystein; Lapatra, Scott; Lorenzen, Niels

    2009-02-18

    DNA vaccines encoding the glycoprotein genes of the salmonid rhabdoviruses VHSV and IHNV are very efficient in eliciting protective immune responses against their respective diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The early anti-viral response (EAVR) provides protection by 4 days post vaccination and is non-specific and transient while the specific anti-viral response (SAVR) is long lasting and highly specific. Since both VHSV and IHNV are endemic in rainbow trout in several geographical regions of Europe and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) on the Pacific coast of North America, co-vaccination against the two diseases would be a preferable option. In the present study we demonstrated that a single injection of mixed DNA vaccines induced long-lasting protection against both individual and a simultaneous virus challenge 80 days post vaccination. Transfected muscle cells at the injection site expressed both G proteins. This study confirms the applied potential of using a combined DNA vaccination for protection of fish against two different rhabdoviral diseases.

  10. Complete mitochondrial genome of the hybridized fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss ♀ × Atlantic salmon ♂).

    PubMed

    Wang, Fenghua; He, Enpeng; Li, Yanhong; Cai, Xiaodi; Ma, Wen

    2016-11-01

    In this study, 16 sets of primers were used to amplify contiguous, overlapping segments of the complete mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the hybridized fish (Oncorhynchus mykiss ♀ × Atlantic salmon ♂) in order to characterize and compare their mitochondrial genomes. The total length of the mitochondrial genome is 16,658 bp and deposited in the GenBank with accession numbers KP218514. The organization of the mitochondrial genomes contained 37 genes (13 protein-coding genes, two ribosomal RNA, and 22 transfer RNAs) and a major non-coding control region which was similar to those reported mitochondrial genomes. Most genes were encoded on the H-strand, except for the ND6 and eight tRNA genes, encoding on the L-strand. Similarity and divergence analysis also showed that hybrid offspring were genetically closer to mother parent than father parent. These results indicate that, despite hybridization, the mitochondrial genomes of these hybrids remain maternally inherited.

  11. Biological control of Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using Aeromonas phage PAS-1.

    PubMed

    Kim, J H; Choresca, C H; Shin, S P; Han, J E; Jun, J W; Park, S C

    2015-02-01

    The potential control efficacy of Aeromonas phage PAS-1 was evaluated against Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) model in this study. The phage was co-cultured with the virulent A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida strain AS05 that possesses the type III secretion system (TTSS) ascV gene, and efficient bacteriolytic activity was observed against the bacteria. The administration of PAS-1 in rainbow trout demonstrated that the phage was cleared from the fish within 200 h post-administration, and a temporal neutralizing activity against the phage was detected in the sera of phage-administrated fish. The administration of PAS-1 (multiplicity of infection: 10 000) in A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infected rainbow trout model showed notable protective effects, with increased survival rates and mean times to death. These results demonstrated that Aeromonas phage PAS-1 could be considered as an alternative biological control agent against A. salmonicida subsp. salmonicida infections in rainbow trout culture. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Topographical Mapping of the Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Microbiome Reveals a Diverse Bacterial Community with Antifungal Properties in the Skin

    PubMed Central

    Lowrey, Liam; Woodhams, Douglas C.; Tacchi, Luca

    2015-01-01

    The mucosal surfaces of wild and farmed aquatic vertebrates face the threat of many aquatic pathogens, including fungi. These surfaces are colonized by diverse symbiotic bacterial communities that may contribute to fight infection. Whereas the gut microbiome of teleosts has been extensively studied using pyrosequencing, this tool has rarely been employed to study the compositions of the bacterial communities present on other teleost mucosal surfaces. Here we provide a topographical map of the mucosal microbiome of an aquatic vertebrate, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Using 16S rRNA pyrosequencing, we revealed novel bacterial diversity at each of the five body sites sampled and showed that body site is a strong predictor of community composition. The skin exhibited the highest diversity, followed by the olfactory organ, gills, and gut. Flectobacillus was highly represented within skin and gill communities. Principal coordinate analysis and plots revealed clustering of external sites apart from internal sites. A highly diverse community was present within the epithelium, as demonstrated by confocal microscopy and pyrosequencing. Using in vitro assays, we demonstrated that two Arthrobacter sp. skin isolates, a Psychrobacter sp. strain, and a combined skin aerobic bacterial sample inhibit the growth of Saprolegnia australis and Mucor hiemalis, two important aquatic fungal pathogens. These results underscore the importance of symbiotic bacterial communities of fish and their potential role for the control of aquatic fungal diseases. PMID:26209676

  13. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Minor, Kirsty L.; Anderson, Victoria L.; Davis, Katie S.; Van Den Berg, Albert H.; Christie, James S.; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J.; Van West, Pieter

    2014-01-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments. PMID:25088077

  14. Continuous exposure to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus during early life stages of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Bebak, J; McAllister, P E

    2009-02-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), were exposed continuously to infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) at 0, 10(1), 10(3) or 10(5) plaque forming units (pfu) L(-1) of water to estimate the effects of chronic IPNV exposure on early life stages. Fish density averaged 35 fish L(-1) (low density) or 140 fish L(-1) (high density), and the tank flow rate was 250 mL(-1) min. Virus exposure began at 6 days before hatch and continued until fish were 44 days old. Cumulative per cent mortality, analysis of survival and hazard functions, and discrete-time event analysis were used to explore the patterns of survival and mortality. In eggs and fish exposed to IPNV, mortality significantly greater than in the 0 pfu L(-1) exposure did not occur until IPNV concentration was 10(5) pfu L(-1) at low fish density and 10(3) pfu IPNV L(-1) at high fish density. These results suggest that in the natural aquatic environment, where rainbow trout densities are likely to be considerably lower than in this study, mortality resulting from infection with IPNV will very likely not occur when ambient concentrations of virus are < or =10(3) pfu IPNV L(-1). In aquaculture rearing units, trout density is likely to be as high or higher than the densities used in this study. Therefore, continuous inputs of virus at concentrations greater than 10(1) pfu L(-1) may result in IPN epidemics in aquaculture facilities.

  15. Effect of parental exposure to trenbolone and the brominated flame retardant BDE-47 on fertility in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irv; Brown, Kim H; Nagler, James J

    2008-07-01

    We exposed sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to BDE-47 (a polybrominated diphenyl ether) and female rainbow trout to trenbolone (an anabolic steroid). Male trout were orally exposed for 17 days to 55 microg/kg/day BDE-47 and female trout continuously exposed for 60-77 days to a measured trenbolone water concentration of 35 ng/L. After the exposure, eggs and semen were collected and in vitro fertilization trials performed using a sperm:egg ratio of 300,000:1. In the BDE-47 study, eggs from control females were fertilized with semen from exposed males, while in the trenbolone study, eggs from exposed females were fertilized with semen from control males. All treatments were evaluated at two-three early developmental time-points representing first cleavage (0.5 day), embryonic keel (9 days), and eyed stages (19 days), respectively. The results indicated that BDE-47 exposure did not alter fertility as embryonic survival was similar between control and exposed groups. Trenbolone exposure also did not alter embryo survival. However, in the embryos fertilized with eggs from trenbolone exposed females, a noticeable delay in developmental progress was observed. On day 19 when eye development is normally complete, the majority of the embryos either lacked eyes or displayed under-developed eyes, in contrast to control embryos. This finding suggests steroidal androgen exposure in sexually maturing female rainbow trout can impact developmental timing of F1 offspring.

  16. In vitro and in vivo effects of phytoestrogens on protein turnover in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) white muscle.

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Beth M

    2014-09-01

    Soybeans and other legumes investigated as fishmeal replacements in aquafeeds contain phytoestrogens capable of binding to and activating estrogen receptors. Estradiol has catabolic effects in salmonid white muscle, partially through increases in protein turnover. The current study determines whether phytoestrogens promote similar effects. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) primary myocyte cultures, the phytoestrogens genistein, daidzein, glycitein, and R- and S-equol reduced rates of protein synthesis and genistein, the phytoestrogen of greatest abundance in soy, also increased rates of protein degradation. Increased expression of the ubiquitin ligase fbxo32 and autophagy-related genes was observed with high concentrations of genistein (100 μM), and R- and S-equol (100 μM) also up-regulated autophagy-related genes. In contrast, low genistein concentrations in vitro (0.01-0.10 μM) and in vivo (5 μg/g body mass) decreased fbxo32 expression, suggesting a potential metabolic benefit for low levels of genistein exposure. Phytoestrogens reduced cell proliferation, indicating that effects of phytoestrogens extend from metabolic to mitogenic processes. Co-incubation of genistein with the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI 182,780, ameliorated effects of genistein on protein degradation, but not protein synthesis or cell proliferation, indicating that effects of genistein are mediated through ER-dependent and ER-independent mechanisms. Collectively, these data warrant additional studies to determine the extent to which dietary phytoestrogens, especially genistein, affect physiological processes that impact growth and nutrient retention. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Evaluation of strobe lights to reduce turbine entrainment of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kock, Tobias J.; Evans, Scott D.; Liedtke, Theresa L.; Rondorf, Dennis W.; Kohn, Mike

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a radiotelemetry evaluation to determine if strobe lights could be used to decrease turbine entrainment of juvenile steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at Cowlitz Falls Dam, Washington. We found that radio-tagged juvenile steelhead approached and entered two spillbays (one lighted, one unlighted) in equal proportions. However, the presence of strobe lights was associated with decreased spillbay residence time of juvenile steelhead and increased passage through induction slots (secondary turbine intakes located upstream of the ogee on the spillway). Mean residence time of tagged fish inside the lighted spillbay was 14 min compared to 62 min inside the unlighted spillbay. Radio-tagged steelhead passed through induction slots at a higher proportion in the lighted spillbay (55%) than in the unlighted spillbay (26%). Recent studies have suggested that strobe lights can induce torpor in juvenile salmonids. We believe that strobe light exposure affected fish in our study at a location where they were susceptible to high flows thereby reducing mean residence time and increasing the proportion of tagged fish entering induction slots in the lighted spillbay. Our results suggest that factors such as deployment location, exposure, and flow are important variables that should be considered when evaluating strobe lights as a potential fish-deterring management tool.

  18. Genetic characterization of hybridization and introgression between anadromous rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) and coastal cutthroat trout (o. clarki clarki)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Young, W.P.; Ostberg, C.O.; Keim, P.; Thorgaard, G.H.

    2001-01-01

    Interspecific hybridization represents a dynamic evolutionary phenomenon and major conservation problem in salmonid fishes. In this study we used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to describe the extent and characterize the pattern of hybridization and introgression between coastal rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). Hybrid individuals were initially identified using principle coordinate analysis of 133 polymorphic AFLP markers. Subsequent analysis using 23 diagnostic AFLP markers revealed the presence of F1, rainbow trout backcross, cutthroat trout backcross and later-generation hybrids. mtDNA analysis demonstrated equal numbers of F1 hybrids with rainbow and cutthroat trout mtDNA indicating reciprocal mating of the parental types. In contrast, rainbow and cutthroat trout backcross hybrids always exhibited the mtDNA from the recurrent parent, indicating a male hybrid mating with a pure female. This study illustrates the usefulness of the AFLP technique for generating large numbers of species diagnostic markers. The pattern of hybridization raises many questions concerning the existence and action of reproductive isolating mechanisms between these two species. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that introgression between anadromous populations of coastal rainbow and coastal cutthroat trout is limited by an environment-dependent reduction in hybrid fitness.

  19. Effects of Using Tricaine Methanesulfonate and Metomidate before Euthanasia on the Contractile Properties of Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Jordan C; Syme, Douglas A

    2016-01-01

    Because many anesthetics work through depressing cell excitability, unanesthetized euthanasia has become common for research involving excitable tissues (for example muscle and nerve) to avoid these depressive effects. However, anesthetic use during euthanasia may be indicated for studies involving isolated tissues if the potential depressive effects of brief anesthetic exposure dissipate after subsequent tissue isolation, washout, and saline perfusion. We explore this here by measuring whether, when applied prior to euthanasia, standard immersion doses of 2 fish anesthetics, tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS; 100 mg/L, n = 6) and methyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-imidazole-5-carboxylate (metomidate, 10 mg/L, n = 6), have residual effects on the contractile properties (force and work output) of isolated and saline-perfused ventricular compact myocardium from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Results suggest that direct exposure of muscle to immersion doses of TMS—but not metomidate—impairs muscle contractile performance. However, brief exposure (2 to 3 min) to either anesthetic during euthanasia only—providing that the agent is washed out prior to tissue experimentation—does not have an effect on the contractile properties of the myocardium. Therefore, the use of TMS, metomidate, and perhaps other anesthetics that depress cell excitability during euthanasia may be indicated when conducting research on isolated and rinsed tissues. PMID:27657711

  20. Impacts of chloramine-T treatment on antioxidant enzyme activities and genotoxicity in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Boran, H; Altinok, I

    2014-05-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) were exposed to therapeutic, and higher concentrations of chloramine-T (Cl-T) to assess the effects of this chemical on the antioxidant enzyme system and genetic structure. Red blood cells acetylcholinesterase, ∆-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase, paraoxonase and liver glutathione S-transferase activity were increased at 10 and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish, while they were decreased at 30 mg L(-1) Cl-T-exposed fish. On the other hand, liver catalase activity and liver protein levels increased at 10 mg L(-1) and decreased at 20 and 30 mg L(-1) concentrations of Cl-T. Liver super-oxide dismutase activity decreased at 10 mg L(-1) and 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T and increased at 30 mg L(-1) of Cl-T. Compared to control, comet assay indicated that Cl-T did not cause significant DNA damage to red blood cells of the fish. Results indicate that 10 or 20 mg L(-1) Cl-T can be safely used to prevent or treat external parasitic and bacterial infection of rainbow trout. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Copper binding affinity of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) gills: Implications for assessing bioavailable metal

    SciTech Connect

    MacRae, R.K.; Smith, D.E.; Swoboda-Colberg, N.; Meyer, J.S.; Bergman, H.L. . Dept. of Zoology and Physiology)

    1999-06-01

    In this study, the authors determined the conditional stability constant (log K[prime]) of copper for the gills of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss; RBT) and brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis; BT). Using toxicity-based complexation bioassays, which measure the effect of competing organic ligands on copper toxicity, the RBT gill copper log K[prime] range was 6.4 to 7.2. Using a Scatchard analysis of gill Cu accumulation, the RBT log K[prime] was 7.50 and the BT log K[prime] was 7.25. The close agreement in RBT log K[prime] values between these two methods suggests that measurement of gill copper accumulation is an acceptable alternative for determining a toxicity-based gill copper binding affinity. The results also suggest that there is either a single gill copper binding component or, more realistically, multiple components with similar binding properties that function collectively to define a single toxicologically relevant copper conditional stability constant. These results suggest analytical approaches to measuring bioavailable metal concentrations, such as geochemical modeling where biological ligands are included in speciation calculations, may adequately simulate complex biological ligands. A method to convert gill copper accumulation to a bioavailable water criterion is also discussed.

  2. An attenuated virus vaccine appears safe to the central nervous system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after intranasal delivery.

    PubMed

    Larragoite, Erin T; Tacchi, Luca; LaPatra, Scott E; Salinas, Irene

    2016-02-01

    Nasal vaccines are very effective but the olfactory organ provides direct access of antigens to the brain. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is known to cause high mortalities in salmonids. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of a live attenuated IHNV nasal (I.N) vaccine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the olfactory organ, the vaccine was detected 1 and 4 days after primary I.N vaccination but not in the intramuscular (i.m) or control groups. In the brain, IHNV was detected by RT-qPCR 4 and 21 days after i.m primary vaccination. One i.m and one I.N vaccinated trout were positive at days 4 and 28 days post-boost, respectively. Presence of IHNV in the brain of i.m vaccinated fish correlated with moderate increases in IL-1β and TNF-α expression in this tissue. These results demonstrate that IHNV vaccine lasts for 4 days in the local nasal environment and that nasal vaccination appears to be safe to the CNS of rainbow trout.

  3. Differential Expression of Genes that Control Respiration Contribute to Thermal Adaptation in Redband Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri).

    PubMed

    Garvin, Michael R; Thorgaard, Gary H; Narum, Shawn R

    2015-05-04

    Organisms can adapt to local environmental conditions as a plastic response or become adapted through natural selection on genetic variation. The ability to adapt to increased water temperatures will be of paramount importance for many fish species as the climate continues to warm and water resources become limited. Because increased water temperatures will reduce the dissolved oxygen available for fish, we hypothesized that adaptation to low oxygen environments would involve improved respiration through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To test this hypothesis, we subjected individuals from two ecologically divergent populations of inland (redband) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) with historically different temperature regimes (desert and montane) and their F1 progeny to diel cycles of temperature stress and then examined gene expression data for 80 nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS subunits that participate in respiration. Of the 80 transcripts, 7 showed ≥ 2-fold difference in expression levels in gill tissue from desert fish under heat stress whereas the montane fish had none and the F1 only had one differentially expressed gene. A structural analysis of the proteins encoded by those genes suggests that the response could coordinate the formation of supercomplexes and oligomers. Supercomplexes may increase the efficiency of respiration because complexes I, III, and IV are brought into close proximity and oligomerization of complex V alters the macrostructure of mitochondria to improve respiration. Significant differences in gene expression patterns in response to heat stress in a common environment indicate that the response was not due to plasticity but had a genetic basis.

  4. A putative serine protease, SpSsp1, from Saprolegnia parasitica is recognised by sera of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Minor, Kirsty L; Anderson, Victoria L; Davis, Katie S; Van Den Berg, Albert H; Christie, James S; Löbach, Lars; Faruk, Ali Reza; Wawra, Stephan; Secombes, Chris J; Van West, Pieter

    2014-07-01

    Saprolegniosis, the disease caused by Saprolegnia sp., results in considerable economic losses in aquaculture. Current control methods are inadequate, as they are either largely ineffective or present environmental and fish health concerns. Vaccination of fish presents an attractive alternative to these control methods. Therefore we set out to identify suitable antigens that could help generate a fish vaccine against Saprolegnia parasitica. Unexpectedly, antibodies against S. parasitica were found in serum from healthy rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The antibodies detected a single band in secreted proteins that were run on a one-dimensional SDS-polyacrylamide gel, which corresponded to two protein spots on a two-dimensional gel. The proteins were analysed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Mascot and bioinformatic analysis resulted in the identification of a single secreted protein, SpSsp1, of 481 amino acid residues, containing a subtilisin domain. Expression analysis demonstrated that SpSsp1 is highly expressed in all tested mycelial stages of S. parasitica. Investigation of other non-infected trout from several fish farms in the United Kingdom showed similar activity in their sera towards SpSsp1. Several fish that had no visible saprolegniosis showed an antibody response towards SpSsp1 suggesting that SpSsp1 might be a useful candidate for future vaccination trial experiments.

  5. The Effects of Acute Waterborne Exposure to Sublethal Concentrations of Molybdenum on the Stress Response in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Ricketts, Chelsea D.; Bates, William R.; Reid, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    To determine if molybdenum (Mo) is a chemical stressor, fingerling and juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to waterborne sodium molybdate (0, 2, 20, or 1,000 mg l-1 of Mo) and components of the physiological (plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit) and cellular (heat shock protein [hsp] 72, hsp73, and hsp90 in the liver, gills, heart, and erythrocytes and metallothionein [MT] in the liver and gills) stress responses were measured prior to initiation of exposure and at 8, 24, and 96 h. During the acute exposure, plasma cortisol, blood glucose, and hematocrit levels remained unchanged in all treatments. Heat shock protein 72 was not induced as a result of exposure and there were no detectable changes in total hsp70 (72 and 73), hsp90, and MT levels in any of the tissues relative to controls. Both fingerling and juvenile fish responded with similar lack of apparent sensitivity to Mo exposure. These experiments demonstrate that exposure to waterborne Mo of up to 1,000 mg l-1 did not activate a physiological or cellular stress response in fish. Information from this study suggests that Mo water quality guidelines for the protection of aquatic life are highly protective of freshwater fish, namely rainbow trout. PMID:25629693

  6. The evolutionary history of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) along the US Pacific Coast: Developing a conservation strategy using genetic diversity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nielsen, J.L.

    1999-01-01

    Changes in genetic variation across a species range may indicate patterns of population structure resulting from past ecological and demographic events that are otherwise difficult to infer and thus provide insight into evolutionary development. Genetic data is used, drawn from 11 microsatellite loci amplified from anadromous steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) sampled throughout its range in the eastern Pacific Ocean, to explore population structure at the southern edge in California. Steelhead populations in this region represent less than 10% of their reported historic abundance and survive in very small populations found in fragmented habitats. Genetic data derived from three independent molecular systems (allozymes, mtDNA, and microsatellites) have shown that the southernmost populations are characterized by a relatively high genetic diversity. Two hypothetical models supporting genetic population substructure such as observed were considered: (1) range expansion with founder-flush effects and subsequent population decline; (2) a second Pleistocene radiation from the Gulf of California. Using genetic and climatic data, a second Pleistocene refugium contributing to a southern ecotone seems more feasible. These data support strong conservation measures based on genetic diversity be developed to ensure the survival of this uniquely diverse gene pool.

  7. Organically bound tritium (OBT) formation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): HTO and OBT-spiked food exposure experiments.

    PubMed

    Kim, S B; Shultz, C; Stuart, M; McNamara, E; Festarini, A; Bureau, D P

    2013-02-01

    In order to determine the rate of organically bound tritium (OBT) formation, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to tritiated water (HTO) or OBT-spiked food. The HTO (in water) exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of approximately 7000 Bq/L and the OBT (in food) exposure study was conducted using a tritium activity concentration of approximately 30,000 Bq/L. Fish in both studies were expected to be exposed to similar tritium levels assuming 25% incorporation of the tritiated amino acids found in the food. Four different sampling campaigns of HTO exposure (Day 10, 30, 70, 140) and five different sampling campaigns of OBT-spiked food exposure (Day 9, 30, 70, 100, 140) were conducted to measure HTO and OBT activity concentrations in fish tissues. OBT depuration was also evaluated over a period of 30 days following the 140 d exposure studies. The results suggested that the OBT formation rate was slower when the fish were exposed to HTO compared to when the fish were ingesting OBT. In addition, the results indicated that OBT can bioaccumulate in fish tissues following OBT-spiked food exposure.

  8. Effects of didecyldimethylammonium chloride on the biochemistry, swimming performance, gill histology and disease resistance of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, B.D.; Wood, A.W.; Farrell, A.P.; Kennedy, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    The acute lethal and sublethal toxicity of the antisapstain didecyldimethylammonium chloride (DDAC) to juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was investigated. The 96-h LC{sub 50} value in a flow-through exposure system was 0.4 mg-1{sup {minus}1}. Plasma cortisol, glucose and lactate levels were significantly elevated after an acute 24-h exposure to 0.4 mg-1{sup {minus}1}. Values for hepato-somatic index (HSI), haematocit, leucocrit, plasma haemoglobin, and liver glycogen remained unchanged. Swimming performance decreased significantly after exposure to 0.2 mg-1{sup {minus}1} for exposure durations of 12-h and 24-h and to 0.4 mg{sup {minus}1} for exposure durations of 12-h, 24-h, and 48-h. Scanning electron microscopic analysis revealed no gross lesions in gill epithelia as a result of toxicant exposure. In disease challenge experiments, exposure to sublethal concentrations of DDAC for 24-h did not effect the susceptibility of rainbow trout to the pathogen Vibrio anguilarum. Of a suite of toxicity tests, specific biochemical markers were unsatisfactory in revealing sublethal toxic effects. These were best revealed by an integrative measure of performance, namely swimming performance, but not disease resistance.

  9. Genetic characterization of hybridization and introgression between anadromous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki).

    PubMed

    Young, W P; Ostberg, C O; Keim, P; Thorgaard, G H

    2001-04-01

    Interspecific hybridization represents a dynamic evolutionary phenomenon and major conservation problem in salmonid fishes. In this study we used amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) markers to describe the extent and characterize the pattern of hybridization and introgression between coastal rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki). Hybrid individuals were initially identified using principle coordinate analysis of 133 polymorphic AFLP markers. Subsequent analysis using 23 diagnostic AFLP markers revealed the presence of F1, rainbow trout backcross, cutthroat trout backcross and later-generation hybrids. mtDNA analysis demonstrated equal numbers of F1 hybrids with rainbow and cutthroat trout mtDNA indicating reciprocal mating of the parental types. In contrast, rainbow and cutthroat trout backcross hybrids always exhibited the mtDNA from the recurrent parent, indicating a male hybrid mating with a pure female. This study illustrates the usefulness of the AFLP technique for generating large numbers of species diagnostic markers. The pattern of hybridization raises many questions concerning the existence and action of reproductive isolating mechanisms between these two species. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that introgression between anadromous populations of coastal rainbow and coastal cutthroat trout is limited by an environment-dependent reduction in hybrid fitness.

  10. Effects of excretory/secretory products from Anisakis simplex (Nematoda) on immune gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Bahlool, Qusay Z M; Skovgaard, Alf; Kania, Per W; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-09-01

    Excretory/secretory (ES) products are molecules produced by parasitic nematodes, including larval Anisakis simplex, a parasite occurring in numerous marine fish hosts. The effects of these substances on host physiology have not been fully described. The present work elucidates the influence of ES substances on the fish immune system by measuring immune gene expression in spleen and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally with ES products isolated from A. simplex third stage larvae. The overall gene expression profile of exposed fish showed a generalized down-regulation of the immune genes tested, suggesting a role of ES proteins in immunomodulation. We also tested the enzymatic activity of the ES proteins and found that lipase, esterase/lipase, valine and cysteine arylamidases, naphthol-AS-BI-phosphohydrolase and α-galactosidase activities were present in the ES solution. This type of hydrolytic enzyme activity may play a role in nematode penetration of host tissue. In addition, based on the notion that A. simplex ES products may have an immune-depressive effect (by minimizing immune gene expression) it could also be suggested that worm enzymes directly target host immune molecules which would add to a decreased host immune response and increased worm survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Central effects of native urotensin II on motor activity, ventilatory movements, and heart rate in the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Lancien, Frédéric; Leprince, Jérôme; Mimassi, Nagi; Mabin, Dominique; Vaudry, Hubert; Le Mével, Jean-Claude

    2004-10-15

    Urotensin II (UII) has been originally isolated from fish urophysis. However, in fish as in mammals, UII is also produced in brain neurons. Although UII binding sites are widely distributed in the fish central nervous system (CNS), little is known regarding its central activities. In the present study, we have investigated the effects of intracerebroventricular (ICV) administration of synthetic trout UII on the duration of motor activity (ACT; evidenced by bursts of activity on the trace of the ventilatory signal), ventilatory frequency (VF), ventilatory amplitude (VA), and heart rate (HR) in unanesthesized trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. ICV injection of very low doses of UII (1 and 5 pmol) produced a dose-dependent increase of ACT without affecting VF, VA, or HR. At a higher dose (50 pmol), UII stimulated ACT as well as VF, VA, and HR. ICV injection of trout angiotensin II (5 pmol) did not affect ACT, VF, and VA, but provoked a robust increase in HR. These data provide the first evidence that central administration of UII stimulates motor activity in a nonmammalian vertebrate.

  12. Effects of elevated dietary iron on the gastrointestinal expression of Nramp genes and iron homeostasis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Kwong, Raymond W M; Hamilton, Charmain D; Niyogi, Som

    2013-04-01

    Diet is the primary source of iron (Fe) for freshwater fish, and the absorption of Fe is believed to occur via the Nramp family of divalent metal transporters (also called DMT1). Presently, the homeostatic regulation of dietary Fe absorption in fish is poorly understood. This study examined the gastrointestinal mRNA expression of two Nramp isoforms, Nramp-β and Nramp-γ, in the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), following exposure to elevated dietary Fe [1,256 mg Fe/kg food vs. 136 mg Fe/kg food (control)] for 14 days. The physiological performance, plasma Fe status and tissue-specific accumulation of Fe were also evaluated. In general, the mRNA expression level of Nramp was higher in the intestine relative to the stomach. Interestingly, fish fed on a high-Fe diet exhibited a significant induction in Nramp expression after 7 days, followed by a decrease to the level observed in control fish on day 14. The increase in Nramp expression correlated with the elevated gastrointestinal and plasma Fe concentrations. However, the hepatic Fe concentration remained unchanged during the entire exposure period, indicating strong homeostatic regulation of hepatic Fe level in fish. Fish appeared to handle increased systemic Fe level by elevating the plasma transferrin level, thereby enhancing the Fe-binding capacity in the plasma. Overall, our study provides new interesting insights into the homeostatic regulation of dietary Fe uptake and handling in freshwater fish.

  13. Differential virulence mechanisms of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) include host entry and virus replication kinetics

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penaranda, M.M.D.; Purcell, M.K.; Kurath, G.

    2009-01-01

    Host specificity is a phenomenon exhibited by all viruses. For the fish rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV), differential specificity of virus strains from the U and M genogroups has been established both in the field and in experimental challenges. In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), M IHNV strains are consistently more prevalent and more virulent than U IHNV. The basis of the differential ability of these two IHNV genogroups to cause disease in rainbow trout was investigated in live infection challenges with representative U and M IHNV strains. When IHNV was delivered by intraperitoneal injection, the mortality caused by U IHNV increased, indicating that the low virulence of U IHNV is partly due to inefficiency in entering the trout host. Analyses of in vivo replication showed that U IHNV consistently had lower prevalence and lower viral load than M IHNV during the course of infection. In analyses of the host immune response, M IHNV-infected fish consistently had higher and longer expression of innate immune-related genes such as Mx-1. This suggests that the higher virulence of M IHNV is not due to suppression of the immune response in rainbow trout. Taken together, the results support a kinetics hypothesis wherein faster replication enables M IHNV to rapidly achieve a threshold level of virus necessary to override the strong host innate immune response. ?? 2009 SGM.

  14. Environmental enrichment in steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) hatcheries: Field evaluation of aggression, foraging, and territoriality in natural and hatchery fry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tatara, C.P.; Riley, S.C.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Reforms for salmonid hatcheries include production of hatchery fish with behavioral characteristics similar to wild conspecifics. Enrichment of the hatchery environment has been proposed to achieve this goal. Field experiments of steelhead (i.e., sea-run rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry from a common stock reared under natural (i.e., stream), enriched hatchery, and conventional hatchery conditions indicated no significant differences in the rates of foraging or aggression between rearing treatments. However, the rates of foraging and aggression of natural fry were significantly affected by the type of hatchery fry stocked with them. Natural steelhead fry fed at lower rates and exhibited higher rates of aggression when stocked with steelhead fry raised in enriched hatchery environments. Territory sizes of steelhead fry ranged from 0.015 to 0.801 m2; were significantly, positively related to body length; and were not significantly different between rearing treatments. We conclude that hatchery steelhead fry released into streams establish territories that are proportional to their body length and similar in size to territories of natural steelhead fry. Our results indicate that both conventional and enriched hatchery environments produce natural social behaviors in steelhead released as fry and that fry from enriched hatchery environments may alter the foraging and aggressive behavior of natural, resident steelhead fry. ?? 2008 NRC.

  15. Effect of linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) on non-specific defence mechanisms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Bakirel, Tülay; Keleş, Oya; Karataş, Süheyla; Ozcan, Mukaddes; Türkmen, Gülhan; Candan, Akin

    2005-01-26

    Linear alkylbenzene sulphonate (LAS) is among the most widely disseminated xenobiotics to enter waste streams and the aquatic environment. In the present investigation, we present a novel approach to evaluate in toxicity of LAS. The effects of sublethal levels (0.2 and 0.4 mg/l) of LAS on non-specific immune system, phagocytosis, respiratory burst and lyzosyme activity, and specific growth rate in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, during a 54-day exposure were examined by a static bioassay test procedure. The phagocytic activity of leukocytes from fish exposed to 0.4 mg/l LAS statistically decreased compared with the control fish values. No significant reductions were observed in the extra-intracellular respiratory burst and lysozyme activities after exposure to LAS at any of the concentrations tested. The final body weight in fish groups exposed to the LAS were found to be significantly lower than in the control. The specific growth rate results also supported the result above. The results of this study showed sublethal doses (0.2-0.4 mg/l) of LAS caused to statistically insignificant suppression of non-specific immune system mechanisms excluding phagocytosis in fish at laboratory conditions. These doses of LAS may produce potential synergism on immune system when presented with other environmental pollutants.

  16. The malleable gut microbiome of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Diet-dependent shifts of bacterial community structures.

    PubMed

    Michl, Stéphanie Céline; Ratten, Jenni-Marie; Beyer, Matt; Hasler, Mario; LaRoche, Julie; Schulz, Carsten

    2017-01-01

    Plant-derived protein sources are the most relevant substitutes for fishmeal in aquafeeds. Nevertheless, the effects of plant based diets on the intestinal microbiome especially of juvenile Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) are yet to be fully investigated. The present study demonstrates, based on 16S rDNA bacterial community profiling, that the intestinal microbiome of juvenile Rainbow trout is strongly affected by dietary plant protein inclusion levels. After first feeding of juveniles with either 0%, 50% or 97% of total dietary protein content derived from plants, statistically significant differences of the bacterial gut community for the three diet-types were detected, both at phylum and order level. The microbiome of juvenile fish consisted mainly of the phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria, and thus fits the salmonid core microbiome suggested in previous studies. Dietary plant proteins significantly enhanced the relative abundance of the orders Lactobacillales, Bacillales and Pseudomonadales. Animal proteins in contrast significantly promoted Bacteroidales, Clostridiales, Vibrionales, Fusobacteriales and Alteromonadales. The overall alpha diversity significantly decreased with increasing plant protein inclusion levels and with age of experimental animals. In order to investigate permanent effects of the first feeding diet-type on the early development of the microbiome, a diet change was included in the study after 54 days, but no such effects could be detected. Instead, the microbiome of juvenile trout fry was highly dependent on the actual diet fed at the time of sampling.

  17. Differential Expression of Genes that Control Respiration Contribute to Thermal Adaptation in Redband Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri)

    PubMed Central

    Garvin, Michael R.; Thorgaard, Gary H.; Narum, Shawn R.

    2015-01-01

    Organisms can adapt to local environmental conditions as a plastic response or become adapted through natural selection on genetic variation. The ability to adapt to increased water temperatures will be of paramount importance for many fish species as the climate continues to warm and water resources become limited. Because increased water temperatures will reduce the dissolved oxygen available for fish, we hypothesized that adaptation to low oxygen environments would involve improved respiration through oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). To test this hypothesis, we subjected individuals from two ecologically divergent populations of inland (redband) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss gairdneri) with historically different temperature regimes (desert and montane) and their F1 progeny to diel cycles of temperature stress and then examined gene expression data for 80 nuclear- and mitochondrial-encoded OXPHOS subunits that participate in respiration. Of the 80 transcripts, 7 showed ≥ 2-fold difference in expression levels in gill tissue from desert fish under heat stress whereas the montane fish had none and the F1 only had one differentially expressed gene. A structural analysis of the proteins encoded by those genes suggests that the response could coordinate the formation of supercomplexes and oligomers. Supercomplexes may increase the efficiency of respiration because complexes I, III, and IV are brought into close proximity and oligomerization of complex V alters the macrostructure of mitochondria to improve respiration. Significant differences in gene expression patterns in response to heat stress in a common environment indicate that the response was not due to plasticity but had a genetic basis. PMID:25943341

  18. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Chris M.

    2015-01-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC). Although urea is produced by embryos and larvae, urea excretion (Jurea) is typically low until yolk sac absorption, increasing thereafter. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of Jurea by posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following hatch, whole body urea concentration decreased over time, while Jurea increased following yolk sac absorption. From 12 to 40 days posthatch (dph), extra-branchial routes of excretion accounted for the majority of Jurea, while the gills became the dominant site for Jurea only after 55 dph. This represents the most delayed branchial ontogeny of any process studied to date. Urea transporter (UT) gene expression in the gills and skin increased over development, consistent with increases in branchial and extra-branchial Jurea. Following exposure to 25 mmol/l urea, the accumulation and subsequent elimination of exogenous urea was much greater at 55 dph than 12 dph, consistent with increased UT expression. Notably, UT gene expression in the gills of 55 dph larvae increased in response to high urea. In summary, there is a clear increase in urea transport capacity over posthatch development, despite a decrease in OUC activity. PMID:26608657

  19. Physiological and molecular ontogeny of branchial and extra-branchial urea excretion in posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2016-02-01

    All teleost fish produce ammonia as a metabolic waste product. In embryos, ammonia excretion is limited by the chorion, and fish must detoxify ammonia by synthesizing urea via the ornithine urea cycle (OUC). Although urea is produced by embryos and larvae, urea excretion (J(urea)) is typically low until yolk sac absorption, increasing thereafter. The aim of this study was to determine the physiological and molecular characteristics of J(urea) by posthatch rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Following hatch, whole body urea concentration decreased over time, while J(urea) increased following yolk sac absorption. From 12 to 40 days posthatch (dph), extra-branchial routes of excretion accounted for the majority of J(urea), while the gills became the dominant site for J(urea) only after 55 dph. This represents the most delayed branchial ontogeny of any process studied to date. Urea transporter (UT) gene expression in the gills and skin increased over development, consistent with increases in branchial and extra-branchial J(urea). Following exposure to 25 mmol/l urea, the accumulation and subsequent elimination of exogenous urea was much greater at 55 dph than 12 dph, consistent with increased UT expression. Notably, UT gene expression in the gills of 55 dph larvae increased in response to high urea. In summary, there is a clear increase in urea transport capacity over posthatch development, despite a decrease in OUC activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  20. How much does inbreeding contribute to the reduced fitness of hatchery-born steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the wild?

    PubMed

    Christie, Mark R; French, Rod A; Marine, Melanie L; Blouin, Michael S

    2014-01-01

    Many declining populations are supplemented with captive-born individuals that are released directly into the wild. Because captive-born individuals can have lower fitness in the wild than their wild-born counterparts, a comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the reduced fitness of these individuals is required for appropriate conservation and management decisions. Inbreeding among captive-born individuals is one plausible mechanism because captive breeding programs frequently use small numbers of breeders to create large numbers of siblings that are subsequently released together into the wild. We tested this hypothesis in a supplementation program for steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from the Hood River, Oregon, for which first-generation hatchery fish were demonstrated to have lower fitness in the wild than their wild-born counterparts. To determine the contribution of inbreeding to this fitness decline, we first assigned 11 run-years of hatchery steelhead (3005 fish) back to their broodstock parents (462 fish) using 8 polymorphic microsatellite loci. By combining pedigree analyses with species-specific estimates of genetic load, we found that inbreeding could at most account for a 1-4% reduction in the fitness of hatchery fish relative to wild fish. Thus, inbreeding alone cannot adequately explain the 15% average fitness decline observed in first-generation hatchery fish from this population.

  1. Chronic toxicity of verapamil on juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): effects on morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Velisek, Josef; Zlabek, Vladimir; Grabic, Roman; Machova, Jana; Kolarova, Jitka; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2011-01-30

    In this study, the toxic effects of verapamil (VRP) were studied on juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by chronic semi-static bioassay. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of VRP (0.5, 27 and 270 μg/L) for 0, 21 and 42 d. Multiple biomarkers were measured, including morphological indices, hematological parameters and antioxidant responses of different tissues (brain, gill, liver, muscle and intestine). Based on the results, there was no significant change in all parameters measured in fish exposed to VRP at environmental related concentration, but VRP-induced stress in fish exposed to higher concentrations reflected the significant changes of physiological and biochemical responses. Through principal component analysis and integrated biomarker response assessment, effects induced by VRP-stress in each test group were distinguished. Additionally, all parameters measured in this study displayed various dependent patterns to VRP concentrations and exposure time using two-way ANOVA statistic analysis. In short, the multiple responses in fish indicated that VRP induced physiological stress and could be used as potential biomarkers for monitoring residual VRP in aquatic environment; but molecular and genetic mechanisms of these physiological responses in fish are not clear and need to be further studied. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Increased gastrointestinal blood flow: An essential circulatory modification for euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) migrating to sea

    PubMed Central

    Brijs, Jeroen; Axelsson, Michael; Gräns, Albin; Pichaud, Nicolas; Olsson, Catharina; Sandblom, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The large-scale migrations of anadromous fish species from freshwater to seawater have long been considered particularly enigmatic, as this life history necessitates potentially energetically costly changes in behaviour and physiology. A significant knowledge gap concerns the integral role of cardiovascular responses, which directly link many of the well-documented adaptations (i.e. through oxygen delivery, water and ion transport) allowing fish to maintain osmotic homeostasis in the sea. Using long-term recordings of cardiorespiratory variables and a novel method for examining drinking dynamics, we show that euryhaline rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) initiate drinking long before the surrounding environment reaches full seawater salinity (30–33 ppt), suggesting the presence of an external osmo-sensing mechanism. Onset of drinking was followed by a delayed, yet substantial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow through increased pulse volume exclusively, as heart rate remained unchanged. While seawater entry did not affect whole animal energy expenditure, enhanced gastrointestinal perfusion represents a mechanism crucial for ion and water absorption, as well as possibly increasing local gastrointestinal oxygen supply. Collectively, these modifications are essential for anadromous fish to maintain homeostasis at sea, whilst conserving cardiac and metabolic scope for activities directly contributing to fitness and reproductive success. PMID:26000616

  3. Elemental signatures in otoliths of hatchery rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): Distinctiveness and utility fo detecting origins and movement

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibson-Reinemer, D. K.; Johnson, B.M.; Martinez, P.J.; Winkelman, D.L.; Koenig, A.E.; Woodhead, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    Otolith chemistry in freshwater has considerable potential to reveal patterns of origin and movement, which would benefit traditional fisheries management and provide a valuable tool to curb the spread of invasive and illicitly stocked species. We evaluated the relationship between otolith and water chemistry for five markers (Ba/Ca, Mn/Ca, Sr/ Ca, Zn/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the existing hatchery system in Colorado and Wyoming, USA, to provide controlled, seminatural conditions. Otolith Ba/Ca, Sr/Ca, and 87Sr/86Sr reflected ambient levels, whereas Mn/Ca and Zn/Ca did not. Using only the markers correlated with water chemistry, we classified fish to their hatchery of origin with up to 96% accuracy when element and isotope data were used together. Large changes in 87Sr/Sr were evident in otolith transects, although subtler changes in Sr/Ca were also detectable. Our results suggest the relatively few otolith markers that reflect ambient chemistry can discriminate among locations and track movements well enough to provide valuable insight in a variety of applied contexts.

  4. Granulomatous enteritis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) associated with soya bean meal regardless of water dissolved oxygen level.

    PubMed

    Mosberian-Tanha, P; Landsverk, T; Press, C M; Mydland, L T; Schrama, J W; Øverland, M

    2017-09-25

    This study investigated morphological changes associated with soya bean meal-induced enteritis (SBMIE) in distal intestine (DI) of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed a soya bean meal (SBM)-based diet and exposed to normoxia or hypoxia created by optimal and low water flow rates, respectively. A 28-day adaption period was followed by a 42-day challenge period where 600 fish were subjected to dietary challenge and/or hypoxia. Twelve tanks each containing 50 juvenile trout were assigned randomly in triplicate to each treatment. Histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation revealed pathological features that have not previously been described in association with SBMIE. Vacuolar degeneration of epithelial cells mainly at the base of mucosal folds, epithelial cysts, epithelial dysplasia, necrosis, shedding of necrotic cells, and granulomatous inflammation including infiltration of enlarged, sometimes finely vacuolated or "foamy" macrophages, multinucleated giant cells and increased proliferation of fibroblasts were observed. Acid-fast bacteria were not detected in enlarged macrophages; however, these cells contained AB-PAS- and sometimes cytokeratin-positive material, which was interpreted to be of epithelial/goblet cell origin. Hypoxia did not affect the morphological changes in DI. These results suggest that SBM was associated with a granulomatous form of enteritis in DI of rainbow trout regardless of water oxygen level. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The role of beaver in shaping steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) habitat complexity and thermal refugia in a central Oregon stream

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consolati, F.; Wheaton, J. M.; Neilson, B. T.; Bouwes, N.; Pollock, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    The incised and degraded habitat of Bridge Creek, tributary to the John Day River in central Oregon, is thought to be limiting the local population of ESA-listed steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Restoration efforts for this watershed are aimed to improve their habitat through reconnecting the channel with portions of its former floodplain (now terraces) to increase stream habitat complexity and the extent of riparian vegetation. This is being done via the installation of over a hundred beaver dam support (BDS) structures that are designed to either mimic beaver dams or support existing beaver dams. The overall objective of this study is to determine if the BDS structures have had an effect on stream channel habitat complexity and thermal refugia in selected sections of Bridge Creek. Analysis of stream temperature data in restoration treatment and control areas will show the effects of beaver dams on stream temperature. Analysis of aerial imagery and high resolution topographic data will exhibit how the number and types of geomorphic units have changed after the construction of beaver dams. Combined, the results of this research are aimed to increase our understanding of how beaver dams impact fish habitat and stream temperature.

  6. Landscape scale measures of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) bioenergetic growth rate potential in Lake Michigan and comparison with angler catch rates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, T.O.; Rutherford, E.S.; Brines, Shannon J.; Geddes, C.A.; Mason, D.M.; Schwab, D.J.; Fleischer, G.W.

    2004-01-01

    The relative quality of a habitat can influence fish consumption, growth, mortality, and production. In order to quantify habitat quality, several authors have combined bioenergetic and foraging models to generate spatially explicit estimates of fish growth rate potential (GRP). However, the capacity of GRP to reflect the spatial distributions of fishes over large areas has not been fully evaluated. We generated landscape scale estimates of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) GRP throughout Lake Michigan for 1994-1996, and used these estimates to test the hypotheses that GRP is a good predictor of spatial patterns of steelhead catch rates. We used surface temperatures (measured with AVHRR satellite imagery) and acoustically measured steelhead prey densities (alewife, Alosa pseudoharengus) as inputs for the GRP model. Our analyses demonstrate that potential steelhead growth rates in Lake Michigan are highly variable in both space and time. Steelhead GRP tended to increase with latitude, and mean GRP was much higher during September 1995, compared to 1994 and 1996. In addition, our study suggests that landscape scale measures of GRP are not good predictors of steelhead catch rates throughout Lake Michigan, but may provide an index of interannual variation in system-wide habitat quality.

  7. Characterisation of chemosensory trigeminal receptors in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss: responses to chemical irritants and carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Mettam, Jessica J; McCrohan, Catherine R; Sneddon, Lynne U

    2012-02-15

    Trigeminally innervated, mechanically sensitive chemoreceptors (M) were previously identified in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, but it is not known whether these receptors are responsive only to noxious, chemical irritants or have a general chemosensory function. This study aimed to characterise the stimulus-response properties of these receptors in comparison with polymodal nociceptors (P). Both P and M gave similar response profiles to acetic acid concentrations. The electrophysiological properties were similar between the two different afferent types. To determine whether the receptors have a nociceptive function, a range of chemical stimulants was applied to these receptors, including non-noxious stimuli such as ammonium chloride, bile, sodium bicarbonate and alarm pheromone, and potentially noxious chemical irritants such as acetic acid, carbon dioxide, low pH, citric acid, citric acid phosphate buffer and sodium chloride. Only irritant stimuli evoked a response, confirming their nociceptive function. All receptor afferents tested responded to carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in the form of mineral water or soda water. The majority responded to 1% acetic acid, 2% citric acid, citric acid phosphate buffer (pH 3) and 5.0 mol l(-1) NaCl. CO(2) receptors have been characterised in the orobranchial cavity and gill arches in fish; however, this is the first time that external CO(2) receptors have been identified on the head of a fish. Because the fish skin is in constant contact with the aqueous environment, contaminants with a low pH or hypercapnia may stimulate the nociceptive system in fish.

  8. Tissue-specific accumulation and speciation of selenium in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to elevated dietary selenomethionine.

    PubMed

    Misra, Sougat; Peak, Derek; Chen, Ning; Hamilton, Charmain; Niyogi, Som

    2012-05-01

    The toxicity of selenium in fish is influenced by its chemical speciation and the exposure route. In the natural environment, selenium exposure to fish occurs primarily in the form of selenomethionine in diet. Thus, the main objective of this study was to examine the tissue-specific selenium burden and speciation in fish exposed to elevated dietary selenomethionine. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were treated with dietary selenomethionine (40 μg g(-1) dry mass) for 2 weeks, and at the end of the exposure different tissue samples were collected to assess the tissue-specific distribution and speciation of selenium. We used synchrotron-based X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) to determine the selenium speciation profile. Selenomethionine, selenocysteine and selenocystine were found to be the predominant form of selenium in all of the tissues; however their relative proportion varied across different tissues. In general, the organs primarily involved in selenium handling in fish (e.g., liver, kidney) accumulated a higher percentage of selenocystine. We also found that dietary selenomethionine exposure resulted into a marked increase in selenium burden of all major tissues in fish including the brain. Collectively, our findings provide new insights into the tissue-specific distribution and speciation of selenium in fish exposed to selenomethionine via diet. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identification by in situ hybridization of segmented filamentous bacteria in the intestine of diarrheic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Urdaci, M C; Regnault, B; Grimont, P A

    2001-01-01

    Nonculturable segmented filamentous bacteria (SFB) have been described in the gut of rats, mice and chickens, and 16S rRNA sequences for these organisms are available. These organisms, peripherically related to Clostridium phylogenetic group I, have been provisionally named 'Candidatus Arthromitus'. This work reports the observation of similar bacteria in the intestinal content of the distal intestine, preferentially, in the adult rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) that exhibited episodic acute diarrhea, usually during the summer. Abdominal distension, intestinal fluid-mucus content and epithelium detachment were observed in trout. The demonstration that the observed microorganisms are bacteria and belong in the 'Candidatus Arthromitus' group was achieved by in situ hybridization with, respectively, a eubacterial probe and an oligonucleotide probe designed to react specifically with SFB 16S rRNA (encoded by the rrs gene) sequences. The sequenced rrs gene was compared with published sequences and found to be closely related to (although distinct from) other SFB sequences. Implication of these bacteria in trout diarrheic illness remains hypothetical.

  10. Comparative efficacy of candling and glass plate compression for detection of diphyllobothriosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) musculature.

    PubMed

    Torres, P; Puga, S

    2011-12-01

    The efficiency of the direct candling technique on fillets (candling 1) was compared with examination of cuts 4 mm thick or less (candling 2) and glass plate compression for the detection of plerocercoids of Diphyllobothrium spp. in muscles of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Application of the three procedures gave the following results (percentage of infected fish/percentage of isolated plerocercoids): candling 1: 40.9/22, candling 2: 29.5/18.8, glass plate compression: 29.5/59.2, and combination of candling 1 and 2: 70.5/40.8. The combination of the three techniques yielded 100% sensitivity: 44 infected fish were detected of 77 trout examined. When different regions of the musculature were compared using the three techniques, a high density of plerocercoids and the highest percentage of infection (90.9%; 40 infected trout) were detected in the ventral musculature. Candling 1, candling 2 and glass plate compression on the ventral musculature gave the following case numbers and percentages, respectively, for the total of 44 cases: 9 (20.5%), 9 (20.5%), and 22 (50%).

  11. Modulation of innate immune response, mucosal parameters and disease resistance in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) upon synbiotic feeding.

    PubMed

    Hoseinifar, Seyed Hossein; Mirvaghefi, Alireza; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Sharifian, Maryam; Esteban, M Ángeles

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigates the effects of dietary supplements of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), Pediococcus acidilactici and P. acidilactici + GOS on innate immune response, skin mucus as well as disease resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings (15.04 ± 0.52 g). After 8 weeks of feeding, several innate immune (lysozyme, alternative complement and respiratory burst activities) and skin mucus parameters (bactericidal activity against Streptococcus faecium, Streptococcus iniae, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli and mucus protein content) were studied. The results indicated that the three supplemented diet significantly increased innate immune response and skin mucus parameters in rainbow trout. The highest innate immune response, skin mucus activity as well as protein level was observed in synbiotic fed fish. Furthermore, at the end of the feeding experiment, some fish were intraperitoneally injected with Streptococcus iniae to determine the disease resistance. The mortality of fingerlings fed supplemented diet was significantly lower than fish from control group being the lowest mortality recorded in synbiotic fed fish group.

  12. Effects of sodium chloride on chronic silver toxicity to early life stages of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Dethloff, Gail M; Naddy, Rami B; Gorsuch, Joseph W

    2007-08-01

    The chronic (early life stage) toxicity of silver to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) was determined in flow-through exposures. Rainbow trout embryos were exposed to silver (as AgNO3) from 48 h or less postfertilization to 30 d postswimup in soft water in the presence and absence of 49 mg/L of NaCl (30 mg/L of Cl). The studies determined effect levels for rainbow trout exposed throughout an extended development period and assessed possible protective effects of sodium chloride. Lowest-observed-effect concentrations were greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver for survival, mean day to hatch, mean day to swimup, and whole-body sodium content in both studies. Whole-body silver concentrations increased significantly at 0.13 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and at 1.09 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. The maximum-acceptable toxicant concentration for growth was greater than 1.25 microg/L of dissolved silver in unmodified water and 0.32 microg/L of dissolved silver in amended water. Whole-body silver concentrations were more sensitive than survival and growth end points in unmodified water. Interpretation of sodium chloride effects on chronic silver toxicity to rainbow trout was complicated by differences in measured effect levels that were potentially the result of strain differences between test organisms in the two studies.

  13. Comparative embryotoxicity of pulp mill extracts in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), American flagfish (Jordanella floridae) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes).

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Guchardi, John; Beyger, Lindsay; Krause, Rachelle; Holdway, Douglas

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Chilean pulp mill effluent extracts (untreated, primary and secondary treated pulp mill effluents), along with steroid standards (testosterone and 17β-estradiol) and a wood extractive standard (beta-sitosterol) on developing post-fertilized fish embryos. Our study included a cold freshwater species, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and two warm freshwater species American flagfish (Jordanella floridae) and Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes). Embryotoxicity results included delay in time to hatch and decreased hatchability but no significant egg and larvae mortality was observed in the pulp mill extract exposed embryos. By contrast, significant early hatching and increased hatchability were observed in beta-sitosterol exposed embryos, along with high mortality of testosterone exposed embryos across species. Teratogenic responses were observed in medaka embryos in all treatments. Abnormalities were detected starting at development stages 19-20 (2-4 somite stages) and included optical deformities (micro-opthalmia, 1 or 2 eyes) and lack of development of brains and hearts. Additionally, phenotypic sex identification of surviving offspring found female-biased sex-ratios in all treatments except testosterone across species. Overall, our study indicated that Chilean pulp and paper mill extractives caused embryotoxicity (post-fertilized embryos) across species and irrespective of the effluent treatment. The effects were mainly associated with delayed time to hatch, decreased hatchability, and species-specific teratogenesis.

  14. Spatial Distribution of Gyrodactylus salmonis (Monogenea) on the Body of Captive Fingerling Oncorhynchus mykiss, Including Attachment Within the Olfactory Chamber.

    PubMed

    Lari, Ebrahim; Cone, David K; Goater, Cameron P; Pyle, Greg G

    2016-04-01

    Gyrodactylus salmonis is a common ectoparasite on the fins and body of North American salmonids in fresh water. In this study, the spatial distribution of G. salmonis on 60 captive hatchery-reared rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss , is reported. The highest parasite densities occurred on 5 × 5-mm(2) sections of the dorsal fin followed by the trunk, other fins, and the olfactory chamber, with the lowest densities on the head. The finding of infections within the olfactory chamber of 93% of the fish was unexpected. One possibility is that such infections represented spillover from high-density infrapopulations that occur on the skin and fins. However, this possibility is unlikely, because worm densities at various sites along the body surface of infected fish did not correlate with densities within the olfactory chamber. The parasite conceivably enters the chamber either via water incurrent or by crawling in from the head and subsequently remaining at this site to feed and reproduce. Results from scanning electron microscopy are consistent with physical modification to the olfactory epithelium associated with the attachment/reattachment of the opisthaptor and epithelial grazing.

  15. The first report of Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 (Platyhelminthes, Monogenea) on Italian cultured stocks of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Paladini, Giuseppe; Gustinelli, Andrea; Fioravanti, Maria L; Hansen, Haakon; Shinn, Andrew P

    2009-11-12

    The monogenean Gyrodactylus salaris Malmberg, 1957 is considered one of the most important parasites of wild salmonids in the European Community due to the heavy ecological and economical damage it has inflicted on Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) parr populations. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is susceptible to G. salaris and can act as a suitable carrier host and, consequently, its trade in EU territory is restricted in relation to the status of "recognized free" zones. Despite the economic importance of rainbow trout farming in Italy, information on the Italian gyrodactylid fauna is lacking and prior to this study, G. salaris had not been officially reported. During a routine health examination of farmed rainbow trout stock throughout Central and Northern Italy in 2004-2005, five fish farms were found to be infected with G. salaris alongside three other gyrodactylids. Morphological and molecular characterisation confirmed the presence of G. salaris, Gyrodactylus teuchis Lautraite, Blanc, Thiery, Daniel et Vigneulle, 1999 and Gyrodactylus derjavinoides Malmberg, Collins, Cunningham et Jalali, 2007, while Gyrodactylus truttae Gläser, 1974 was identified by morphological analysis only. The findings from this study extend the distribution of G. salaris within Europe and highlight the importance of the rainbow trout trade in its dissemination.

  16. Intestinal nematodes affect selenium bioaccumulation, oxidative stress biomarkers, and health parameters in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hursky, Olesya; Pietrock, Michael

    2015-02-17

    In environmental studies, parasites are often seen as a product of enhanced host susceptibility due to exposure to one or several stressors, whereas potential consequences of infections on host responses are often overlooked. Therefore, the present study focused on effects of parasitism on bioaccumulation of selenium (Se) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Joint effects of biological (parasite) and chemical (Se) stressors on biomarkers of oxidative stress (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD)), and fish health (condition factor (K), hepatosomatic index (HSI), gross energy) were also examined. Fish of the control group received uncontaminated food, while test fish, either experimentally infected with the nematode Raphidascaris acus or not, were exposed to dietary selenomethionine (Se-Met) at an environmentally relevant dose over 7 weeks. Selenium bioaccumulation by the parasite was low relative to its host, and parasitized trout showed slowed Se accumulation in the muscle as compared to uninfected fish. Furthermore, GST and SOD activities of trout exposed to both Se-Met and parasites were generally significantly lower than in fish exposed to Se-Met alone. Gross energy concentrations, but not K or HSI, were reduced in fish exposed to both Se-Met and R. acus. Together the experiment strongly calls for consideration of parasites when interpreting effects of pollutants on aquatic organisms in field investigations.

  17. An attenuated virus vaccine appears safe to the central nervous system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after intranasal delivery

    PubMed Central

    Larragoite, Erin T.; Tacchi, Luca; LaPatra, Scott E.

    2016-01-01

    Nasal vaccines are very effective but the olfactory organ provides direct access of antigens to the brain. Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) is known to cause high mortalities in salmonids. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the safety of a live attenuated IHNV nasal (I.N) vaccine in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the olfactory organ, the vaccine was detected 1 and 4 days after primary I.N vaccination but not in the intramuscular (i.m) or control groups. In the brain, IHNV was detected by RT-qPCR 4 and 21 days after i.m primary vaccination. One i.m and one I.N vaccinated trout were positive at days 4 and 28 days post-boost, respectively. Presence of IHNV in the brain of i.m vaccinated fish correlated with moderate increases in IL-1β and TNF-α expression in this tissue. These results demonstrate that IHNV vaccine lasts for 4 days in the local nasal environment and that nasal vaccination appears to be safe to the CNS of rainbow trout. PMID:26772477

  18. Enhancement of the immune response and protection induced by probiotic lactic acid bacteria against furunculosis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Balcázar, José Luis; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol; Vendrell, Daniel; Gironés, Olivia; Muzquiz, José Luis

    2007-10-01

    We analysed the effect of probiotic strains on the cellular and humoral immune responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and their capacity to prevent furunculosis during a challenge trial. Probiotic strains (Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis CLFP 100, Leuconostoc mesenteroides CLFP 196, and Lactobacillus sakei CLFP 202) were administered orally to fish for 2 weeks at 10(6) CFU g(-1) of feed. In comparison to untreated control fish, the phagocytic activity of head kidney leukocytes and the alternative complement activity in serum were significantly greater in all probiotic groups at the end of the second week. With the exception of the group fed with Lactobacillus sakei, superoxide anion production was also significantly increased in the probiotic groups. Analysis of lysozyme activity did not exhibit any significant difference in the probiotic and control groups. Fifteen days after the start of the probiotic feeding, fish were challenged with Aeromonas salmonicida ssp. salmonicida. The fish supplemented with probiotics exhibited survival rates ranging from 97.8% to 100%, whereas survival was 65.6% in fish not treated with the probiotics. These results demonstrate that probiotic supplementation to fish can reduce the severity of furunculosis, and suggest that this reduction may be associated with enhanced humoral and cellular immune response.

  19. New subtype of salmonid alphavirus (SAV), Togaviridae, from Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in Norway.

    PubMed

    Hodneland, K; Bratland, A; Christie, K E; Endresen, C; Nylund, A

    2005-09-05

    In Europe, 2 closely related alphaviruses (Togaviridae) are regarded as the causative agents of sleeping disease (SD) and salmon pancreas disease (SPD): SD virus (SDV) has been isolated from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss in France and the UK, while SPD virus (SPDV) has been isolated from salmon Salmo salar in Ireland and the UK. Farmed salmonids in western Norway also suffer from a disease called pancreas disease (PD), and this disease is also believed to be caused by an alphavirus. However, this virus has not yet been characterised at the molecular level. We have cultured a Norwegian salmonid alphavirus from moribund fishes diagnosed with cardiac myopathy syndrome (CMS) and fishes diagnosed with PD. The virus has also been found in salmon suffering from haemorrhagic smolt syndrome in the fresh water phase. The genomic organisation of the Norwegian salmonid alphavirus is identical to that in SPDV and SDV, and the nucleotide sequence similarity to the other 2 alphaviruses is 91.6 and 92.9%, respectively. Based on the pathological changes, host species and the nucleotide sequence, we suggest naming this virus Norwegian salmonid alphavirus (NSAV). Together with SPDV and SDV it constitutes a third subtype of salmonid alphavirus (SAV) species within the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae.

  20. Fish in hot water: hypoxaemia does not trigger catecholamine mobilization during heat shock in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Currie, S; Ahmady, E; Watters, M A; Perry, S F; Gilmour, K M

    2013-06-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to an acute heat shock (1 h at 25 °C after raising water temperature from 13 °C to 25 °C over 4 h) mount a significant catecholamine response. The present study investigated the proximate mechanisms underlying catecholamine mobilization. Trout exposed to heat shock in vivo exhibited a significant reduction in arterial O(2) tension, but arterial O(2) concentration was not affected by heat shock, nor was catecholamine release during heat shock prevented by prior and concomitant exposure to hyperoxia (to prevent the fall in arterial O(2) tension). Thus, catecholamine mobilization probably was not triggered by impaired blood O(2) transport. Heat-shocked trout also exhibited an elevation of arterial CO(2) tension coupled with a fall in arterial pH, but these factors are not expected to trigger catecholamine release. The changes in blood O(2) and CO(2) tension occurred despite a significant hyperventilatory response to heat shock. Future studies should investigate whether catecholamine mobilization during heat shock in rainbow trout is triggered by a specific effect of high temperature activating the sympathetic nervous system via a thermosensitive transient receptor potential channel.

  1. Identification of estrogen-responsive vitelline envelope protein fragments from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) plasma using mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Salinas, K; Hemmer, M J; Serrano, J; Higgins, L; Anderson, L B; Benninghoff, A D; Williams, D E; Walker, C

    2010-11-01

    Plasma peptides previously associated with exposure of juvenile male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to the hormone 17β-estradiol (E2) were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Specifically, plasma peptides of interest were fractionated and subsequently identified via spectra obtained by MALDI QqTOF MS/MS and LC-MALDI TOFTOF MS/MS analysis, de novo sequencing and database matching. The two peptide masses were identified as significant matches for fragments of the C-terminal propeptides from rainbow trout vitelline envelope protein (VEP)α and VEPγ isoforms. Our findings document the presence of the C-terminal propeptides from rainbow trout VEPα and VEPγ proteins in the bloodstream of juvenile male rainbow trout exposed to E2 via MALDI-TOF-MS detection. We provide three possible explanations for the presence of C-terminal propeptides in the bloodstream, as well as compare previously obtained hepatic transcriptomic results with the plasma proteomic results obtained in the present study.

  2. A microsatellite linkage map of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) characterized by large sex-specific differences in recombination rates.

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, T; Danzmann, R G; Gharbi, K; Howard, P; Ozaki, A; Khoo, S K; Woram, R A; Okamoto, N; Ferguson, M M; Holm, L E; Guyomard, R; Hoyheim, B

    2000-01-01

    We constructed a genetic linkage map for a tetraploid derivative species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), using 191 microsatellite, 3 RAPD, 7 ESMP, and 7 allozyme markers in three backcross families. The linkage map consists of 29 linkage groups with potential arm displacements in the female map due to male-specific pseudolinkage arrangements. Synteny of duplicated microsatellite markers was used to identify and confirm some previously reported pseudolinkage arrangements based upon allozyme markers. Fifteen centromeric regions (20 chromosome arms) were identified with a half-tetrad analysis using gynogenetic diploids. Female map length is approximately 10 M, but this is a large underestimate as many genotyped segments remain unassigned at a LOD threshold of 3.0. Extreme differences in female:male map distances were observed (ratio F:M, 3.25:1). Females had much lower recombination rates (0.14:1) in telomeric regions than males, while recombination rates were much higher in females within regions proximal to the centromere (F:M, 10:1). Quadrivalent formations that appear almost exclusively in males are postulated to account for the observed differences. PMID:10880492

  3. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase: First evidence of expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cortés, Jimena; Alvarez, Claudio; Santana, Paula; Torres, Elisa; Mercado, Luis

    2016-12-01

    The role of enzymes as active antimicrobial agents of the innate immunity in teleost fish is proposed in diverse works. Secretion of Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) has been described in higher vertebrates; it degrades l-tryptophan in extracellular environments associated mainly with mucosal organs. The effect of IDO on decreasing amino acid concentration may inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In fish the study of this molecule is still. Here we report the identification of an Onchorhyncus mykiss IDO homologue (OmIDO). IDO was cloned, sequenced, and the primary structure shows conservation of key functional sites. The constitutive expression is altered when the fish is challenged with LPS as a pathogen-associated molecular pattern (PAMPs). Up-regulation of IDO was shown preferentially in the fish's mucosal cells. In order to obtain evidence of a possible regulation mechanism, an in vitro cell model was used for to show that OmIDO is induced by rIFN. These study has identified a Indoleamine 2,3-dyoxigenase in O. mykiss will contribute to expands our knowledge of the function this protein in fish immune response. These findings allow to propose the use of OmIDO as a molecular indicator of strength of the animal's immune response and wellbeing. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. A comparison of genetic ariation between an anadromous steelhead, Oncorhynchus mykiss, population and seven derived populations sequestered in freshwater for 70 years

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thrower, Frank; Guthrie, Charles; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Joyce, John

    2004-01-01

    In 1926 cannery workers from the Wakefield Fisheries Plant at Little Port Walter in Southeast Alaska captured small trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from a portion of Sashin Creek populated with a wild steelhead (anadromous O. mykiss) run. They planted them into Sashin Lake which had been fishless to that time and separated from the lower stream by two large waterfalls that prevented upstream migration of any fish. In 1996 we sampled adult steelhead from the lower creek and juvenile O. mykiss from an intermediate portion of the creek, Sashin Lake, and five lakes that had been stocked with fish from Sashin Lake in 1938. Tissue samples from these eight populations were compared for variation in: microsatellite DNA at 10 loci; D-loop sequences in mitochondrial DNA; and allozymes at 73 loci known to be variable in steelhead. Genetic variability was consistently less in the Sashin Lake population and all derived populations than in the source anadromous population. The cause of this reduction is unknown but it is likely that very few fish survived to reproduce from the initial transplant in 1926. Stockings of 50–85 fish into five other fishless lakes in 1938 from Sashin Lake did not result in a similar dramatic reduction in variability. We discuss potential explanations for the observed patterns of genetic diversity in relation to the maintenance of endangered anadromous O. mykiss populations in freshwater refugia.

  5. Influence of water quality on silver toxicity to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas), and water fleas (Daphnia magna)

    SciTech Connect

    Karen, D.J.; Ownby, D.R.; Forsythe, B.L.; Bills, T.P.; La Point, T.W.; Cobb, G.B.; Klaine, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Toxicity bioassays were conducted to quantify water quality conditions under which silver, as silver nitrate, is toxic to Oncorhynchus mykiss. Pimephales promelas, and Daphnia magna. Bioassays for P. promelas and D. magna were conducted as static replacement tests, whereas a flow-through bioassay system was modified and used for O. mykiss. Results from 96-h toxicity bioassays for O. mykiss indicated that chloride, hardness, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) protected against silver toxicosis, with DOC affording the highest protective effects. For P. promelas and D. magna, little protection was provided by increased CaCo+O{sub 3} alone, whereas DOC had a major ameliorating influence on measured silver toxicity. Lower concentrations of chloride had little effect on reducing silver nitrate toxicity. Dissolved organic carbon was more important than hardness for predicting the toxicity of ionic silver in natural waters to O. mykiss, P. promelas, and D. magna. Similarly, DOC significantly reduced silver nitrate toxicity to trout, whereas Cl{sup {minus}} and hardness had only a minor protective effect. However, Cl{sup {minus}}/DOC mixtures showed a greater-than-additive protective effect. Thus, the authors suggest that incorporating an organic carbon coefficient into the silver criterion equation will enhance the criterion values for site specificity.

  6. Analysis of CYP4501A1, PAHs metabolites in bile, and genotoxic damage in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed to Biobío River sediments, Central Chile.

    PubMed

    Inzunza, Bárbara; Orrego, Rodrigo; Peñalosa, Marcelina; Gavilán, Juan F; Barra, Ricardo

    2006-10-01

    The responses of cytochrome P4501A1 in the liver, the appearance of fluorescent metabolites in bile, and genotoxic damage in erythrocytes were studied in Oncorhynchus mykiss exposed under laboratory conditions to sediments taken from the Biobio River, central Chile. Samples were taken at four sampling sites in the Biobio River, following a pollution gradient from the discharge, where Stations 2 and 3 are impacted by a petrochemical industrial discharge effluent. Chemical analysis indicates polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) presence in a range of 2000 to 7000 ng g(-1) dry weight in sediments from Stations 2 and 3, respectively. Both the CYP1A1 activity and the bile metabolites of O. mykiss exposed to the PAH-contaminated sediments present statistically significant differences with respect to the other stations. Additionally, the comet assay revealed notable genotoxic damage in trout erythrocytes from Stations 2 and 3, an effect that was not observed at the other stations.

  7. Use of lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, and stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, as feed additives to prevent Aeromonas hydrophila infection in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Awad, E; Austin, B

    2010-05-01

    Feeding rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), with 1% lupin, Lupinus perennis, mango, Mangifera indica, or stinging nettle, Urtica dioica, for 14 days led to reductions in mortality after challenge with Aeromonas hydrophila. In addition, there was significant enhancement in serum bactericidal activity, respiratory burst and lysozyme activity in the treatment groups compared to the controls. Use of lupin and mango led to the highest number of red blood and white blood cells in recipient fish, with use of stinging nettle leading to the highest haematocrit and haemoglobin values; the highest value of mean corpuscular volume and haemoglobin was in the control groups and those fed with stinging nettle.

  8. Proteome changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fertilized eggs as an effect of triploidization heat-shock treatment.

    PubMed

    Babaheydari, Samad Bahrami; Keyvanshokooh, Saeed; Dorafshan, Salar; Johari, Seyed Ali

    2016-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to explore proteome changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fertilized eggs as an effect of triploidization heat-shock treatment. Eggs and milt were taken from eight females and six males. The gametes were pooled to minimize the individual differences. After insemination, the eggs were incubated at 10°C for 10min. Half of the fertilized eggs were then subjected to heat shock for 10min submerged in a 28°C water bath to induce triploidy. The remainder were incubated normally and used as diploid controls. Three batches of eggs were randomly selected from each group and were incubated at 10-11°C under the same environmental conditions in hatchery troughs until the fry stage. Triplicate samples of 30 eggs (10 eggs per trough) from each group were randomly selected 1.5h post-fertilization for proteome extraction. Egg proteins were analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometry. Based on the results from the statistical analyses, 15 protein spots were found to decrease significantly in abundance in heat-shock treated group and were selected for identification. Out of 15 protein spots showing altered abundance, 14 spots were successfully identified. All of the egg proteins identified in our study were related to vitellogenin (vtg). Decreased abundance of vitellogenin in heat-shock treated eggs in our study may either be explained by (i) higher utilization of vtg as an effect of increased cell size in triploids or (ii) changed metabolism in response to heat-shock stress and (iii) diffusion of vtg through chorion due to incidence of egg shell damage. Decreased abundance of vitellogenin in heat-shock treated eggs was associated with reduced early survival rates and lowered growth performance of triploid fish.

  9. The Effect of Hatchery Release Strategy on Marine Migratory Behaviour and Apparent Survival of Seymour River Steelhead Smolts (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Balfry, Shannon; Welch, David W.; Atkinson, Jody; Lill, Al; Vincent, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Early marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of hatchery-reared Seymour River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts was examined over a four year period (2006–2009) to assess the impact of various management strategies on improving early marine survival. Acoustically tagged smolts were released to measure their survival using estuary and coastal marine receivers forming components of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Early marine survival was statistically indistinguishable between releases of summer run and winter run steelhead races, night and day releases, and groups released 10 days apart. In 2009, the survival of summer run steelhead released into the river was again trialed against groups released directly into the ocean at a distance from the river mouth. Apparent survival was improved significantly for the ocean released groups. The health and physiological status of the various release groups were monitored in years 2007–2009, and results indicate that the fish were in good health, with no clinical signs of disease at the time of release. The possibility of a disease event contributing to early marine mortality was further examined in 2009 by vaccinating half of the released fish against common fish diseases (vibriosis, furunculosis). The results suggest that marine survival may be enhanced using this approach, although not to the extent observed when the smolts were transported away from the river mouth before release. In summary, direct experimental testing of different release strategies using the POST array to measure ocean survival accelerated the scientific process by allowing rapid collection of data which enabled the rejection of several existing theories and allowed tentative identification of several new alternative approaches that might improve early marine survival of Seymour River steelhead. PMID:21468320

  10. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2014-01-01

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout. PMID:24270019

  11. Biochemical and molecular heterogeneity among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in North West Germany.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yidan; Runge, Martin; Michael, Geovana Brenner; Schwarz, Stefan; Jung, Arne; Steinhagen, Dieter

    2013-10-21

    Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is one of the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Europe. More recently, non-motile vaccine resistant isolates appear to have evolved and are causing disease problems throughout Europe, including Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation of biochemical and molecular characteristics of Y. ruckeri isolates collected in north west Germany as a basis for strain differentiation. The isolates originated mainly from rainbow trout and were characterised by biochemical profiling, 16S rDNA sequencing, repetitive sequence-based PCRs, including (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). In total, 83 isolates were characterised, including 48 isolates collected during a field study in north west Germany. All isolates were confirmed as Y. ruckeri by the API 20E system. Five isolates were additionally confirmed as Y. ruckeri by Y. ruckeri-specific PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. Only 17 isolates hydrolyzed Tween 80/20. Sixty-six isolates (79.5%) were non-motile. Two different patterns were obtained by REP-PCR, five patterns by ERIC-PCR, four patterns by (GTG)5-PCR and three patterns by BOX-PCR. NotI-directed PFGE resulted in 17 patterns that differed from each other by 25-29 fragments. Isolates from the field study clustered together as PFGE type C. According to the results of API 20E, repetitive sequence-based PCRs and PFGE, these isolates could be subdivided into 27 different groups. The detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation scheme developed in this study could be used to help trace the dissemination of Y. ruckeri isolates, and thus may represent part of improved disease monitoring plans in the future.

  12. Comparative analysis of innate immune responses to Streptococcus phocae strains in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Salazar, Soraya; Oliver, Cristian; Yáñez, Alejandro J; Avendaño-Herrera, Ruben

    2016-04-01

    Streptococcus phocae subsp. salmonis is a Gram-positive bacterium that causes mortality only in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) farmed in Chile, even when this species is co-cultured with rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This susceptibility could be determined by innate immune response components and their responses to bacterial infection. This fish pathogen shares subspecies status with Streptococcus phocae subsp. phocae isolated from seals. The present study compared innate immune system mechanisms in Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout when challenged with different S. phocae, including two isolates from Atlantic salmon (LM-08-Sp and LM-13-Sp) and two from seal (ATCC 51973(T) and P23). Streptococcus phocae growth was evaluated in the mucus and serum of both species, with rainbow trout samples evidencing inhibitory effects. Lysozyme activity supported this observation, with significantly higher (p < 0.01) expression in rainbow trout serum and mucus as compared to Atlantic salmon. No differences were found in phagocytic capacity between fish species when stimulated with ATCC 51973(T) and P23. Against all S. phocae strains, rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon showed up to two-fold increased bactericidal activity, and rainbow trout demonstrated up to three-fold greater reactive oxygen species production in macrophages. In conclusion, the non-specific humoral and cellular barriers of Atlantic salmon were immunologically insufficient against S. phocae subsp. salmonis, thereby facilitating streptococcosis. Moreover, the more robust response of rainbow trout to S. phocae could not be attributed to any specific component of the innate immune system, but was rather the consequence of a combined response by the evaluated components.

  13. Sex biased survival and differences in migration of wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts from two coastal Oregon rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thompson, Neil F.; Leblanc, Camille A.; Romer, Jeremy D.; Schreck, Carl B.; Blouin, Michael S.; Noakes, David L. G.

    2016-01-01

    In salmonids with partial migration, females are more likely than males to undergo smoltification and migrate to the ocean (vs. maturing in freshwater). However, it is not known whether sex affects survivorship during smolt migration (from fresh water to entry into the ocean). We captured wild steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts in two coastal Oregon rivers (USA) and collected fin tissue samples for genetic sex determination (2009; N = 70 in the Alsea and N = 69 in the Nehalem, 2010; N = 25 in the Alsea). We implanted acoustic tags and monitored downstream migration and survival until entry in to the Pacific Ocean. Survival was defined as detection at an estuary/ocean transition array. We found no effect of sex on smolt survivorship in the Nehalem River in 2009, or in the Alsea River in 2010. However, males exhibited significantly lower survival than females in the Alsea River during 2009. Residency did not influence this result as an equal proportion of males and females did not reach the estuary entrance (11% of males, 9% of females). The sexes did not differ in timing or duration of migration, so those variables seem unlikely to explain sex-biased survivorship. Larger males had higher odds of survival than smaller males in 2009, but the body size of females did not affect survivorship. The difference in survivorship between years in the Alsea River could be due to flow conditions, which were higher in 2010 than in 2009. Our findings suggest that sex may affect steelhead smolt survival during migration, but that the difference in survivorship may be weak and not a strong factor influencing adult sex ratios.

  14. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury

    PubMed Central

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V.; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A.; Obukhov, Dmitry K.

    2016-01-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1–4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration. PMID:27212918

  15. Proliferative kidney disease in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under intensive breeding conditions: Pathogenesis and haematological and immune parameters.

    PubMed

    Palikova, Miroslava; Papezikova, Ivana; Markova, Zdenka; Navratil, Stanislav; Mares, Jan; Mares, Lukas; Vojtek, Libor; Hyrsl, Pavel; Jelinkova, Eva; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike

    2017-03-06

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) is an endoparasitic disease of salmonid fish caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa: Malacosporea). This study presents a comprehensive view on PKD development in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared at an intensive fish breeding facility, with focus on mortality, pathology/histopathology, haematological findings and immune functions. Diseased and reference fish were sampled monthly and time course of natural infection was followed up from the onset of clinical signs (September 2014) to full recovery (January 2015). PKD- associated cumulative mortality was 30% with a peak value in October, while immunohistochemical testing indicated a continuous significant decrease in T. bryosalmonae numbers from September to December; with no parasites detected in January. During peak clinical infection, a significant decrease in red blood cell counts, haematocrit values, haemoglobin concentration, along with a reduction in lymphocytes and a significant phagocyte elevation corresponding with an increase in phagocyte oxidative burst were measured in comparison to control animals. Complement activity and total immunoglobulin plasma concentrations were also elevated, though only during the initial monitoring period (September). Individuals surviving PKD, recovered and were able to fully regenerate both renal structure and haematopoietic parameters to normal levels. Changes in the red blood cell parameters indicate anaemia and a decreased oxygen transportation capacity during the clinical disease phase. Together with an increased oxygen demand at higher temperatures and decreased oxygen solubility this could lead to decompensation and elevated mortality. The stimulation of immune parameters, and especially oxidative phagocytic burst, is likely to have had a strong effect on both, regeneration and elimination of the pathogenic agent.

  16. Nutrient-induced gastrointestinal hyperemia and specific dynamic action in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)--importance of proteins and lipids.

    PubMed

    Seth, Henrik; Sandblom, Erik; Axelsson, Michael

    2009-02-01

    Mechanical gastric distension induces a dorsal aortic pressor response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with no change in gastrointestinal blood flow. To elucidate what role chemical stimuli from the digested food has on the postprandial cardiovascular response, a new method was developed to investigate the contribution of individual nutrient components. Three predigested experimental diets were injected directly into the proximal intestine of rainbow trout and cardiac output (CO), gut blood flow (Qcma), heart rate (HR), and stroke volume (SV) were recorded. Specific dynamic action (SDA) was estimated by measuring oxygen consumption. When a balanced diet (50% protein, 25% fat, 15% carbohydrate) was injected, Qcma and CO increased within 1 h by 45 and 27%, respectively. The response to a high-protein diet (70% protein, 5% fat, 15% carbohydrate) was quantitatively similar but delayed, with a maximal blood flow response after 2 h. With a high-lipid diet (60% fat, 15% protein, 15% carbohydrate), the peak increase in Qcma by 22% occurred after 30 min and thereafter declined rapidly. The SDA response (19%) to the balanced diet was temporally matched with the hyperemia. With a high-protein diet, the response is delayed and enlarged (34%) compared with the balanced diet. The high-lipid diet gave no significant SDA response. We conclude that the chemical composition of the food influences the postprandial hyperemia and the SDA, such that the components appear to work in a synergistic fashion. The present results also demonstrate that both redistribution of blood flow and an overall increase in CO contribute to the postprandial increase in gut blood flow in this species.

  17. Cholecystokinin as a regulator of cardiac function and postprandial gastrointestinal blood flow in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Seth, Henrik; Gräns, Albin; Axelsson, Michael

    2010-05-01

    We have studied the potential role of CCK as a regulator/modulator of the postprandial increase in gastrointestinal blood flow. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were instrumented with pulsed Doppler flow probes to measure the effects of CCK on cardiac output and gastrointestinal blood flow. Furthermore, vascular preparations were used to study the direct effects of CCK on the vessels. In addition, we used in situ perfused hearts to further study the effects of CCK on the cardiovascular system. When the sulfated form of CCK-8 was injected at a physiological concentration (0.19 pmol/kg) in vivo, there was a significant increase in the gastrointestinal blood flow (18 +/- 4%). This increase in gastrointestinal blood flow was followed by a subsequent increase in cardiac output (30 +/- 6%). When the dose was increased to 0.76 pmol/kg, there was only a 14 +/- 6% increase in gastrointestinal blood flow; possibly due to a dose-dependent increase in the gill vascular resistance as previously reported or a direct effect on the heart. Nevertheless, CCK did not affect the isolated vessel preparations, and thus, it seems unlikely that CCK has a direct effect on the blood vessels of the second or third order. CCK did, however, have profound effects on the dynamics of the heart, and without a change in cardiac output, there was a significant increase in the amplitude (59 +/- 4%) and rate (dQ/dt: 55 +/- 4%; -dQ/dt: 208 +/- 49%) of the phasic flow profile. If and how this might be coupled to a postprandial gastrointestinal hyperemia remains to be determined. We conclude that CCK has the potential as a regulator of the postprandial gastrointestinal blood flow in fish and most likely has its effect by inducing a gastrointestinal hyperemia. The mechanism by which CCK acts is at present unknown.

  18. Characterization of Pediococcus acidilactici strains isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) feed and larvae: safety, DNA fingerprinting, and bacteriocinogenicity.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Poeta, Patrícia; Igrejas, Gilberto; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M

    2016-05-03

    The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) as probiotics constitutes an alternative or complementary strategy to chemotherapy and vaccination for disease control in aquaculture. The objectives of this work were (1) the in vitro safety assessment of 8 Pediococcus acidilactici strains isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) feed and larvae; (2) the evaluation of their genetic relatedness; (3) the study of their antimicrobial/bacteriocin activity against fish pathogens; and (4) the biochemical and genetic characterization of the bacteriocin produced by the strain displaying the greatest antimicrobial activity. Concerning the safety assessment, none of the pediococci showed antibiotic resistance nor produced hemolysin or gelatinase, degraded gastric mucin, or deconjugated bile salts. Four strains (50%) produced tyramine or putrescine, but the corresponding genes were not amplified by PCR. Enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR) fingerprinting allowed clustering of the pediococci into 2 well-defined groups (68% similarity). From the 8 pediococci displaying direct antimicrobial activity against at least 3 out of 9 fish pathogens, 6 strains (75%) were identified as bacteriocin producers. The bacteriocin produced by P. acidilactici L-14 was purified, and mass spectrometry and DNA sequencing revealed its identity to pediocin PA-1 (PedPA-1). Altogether, our results allowed the identification of 4 (50%) putatively safe pediococci, including 2 bacteriocinogenic strains. ERIC-PCR fingerprinting was a valuable tool for genetic profiling of P. acidilactici strains. This work reports for the first time the characterization of a PedPA-1-producing P. acidilactici strain isolated from an aquatic environment (rainbow trout larvae), which shows interesting properties related to its potential use as a probiotic in aquaculture.

  19. Transcriptomic and proteomic analyses of splenic immune mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) infected by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Long, Meng; Zhao, Juan; Li, Tongtong; Tafalla, Carolina; Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Xiehao; Gong, Xiaoning; Shen, Zhixin; Li, Aihua

    2015-06-03

    Furunculosis caused by Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida is an epidemic disease among salmonids, including rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, the immune mechanisms that are elicited in rainbow trout against the invasion of A. salmonicida are not yet fully understood. In this study, we examined the spleen to investigate the immune response of rainbow trout at 3days post-infection by A. salmonicida at the transcriptome and proteome levels by using Illumina-seq and iTRAQ methods, respectively. A total of 1036 genes and 133 proteins were found to undergo differential expression during the immune response of the spleen against A. salmonicida infection. Gene ontology and KEGG analysis were conducted among the differentially expressed genes and proteins, revealing that immune system process and response to stimulus were the top two biological processes, and immune system, signaling molecules and interaction, and immune diseases were the differential pathways activated. Correlation analysis of transcriptomic and proteomic results showed 17 proteins (11 upregulated and 6 downregulated) having consistent expression at RNA and protein levels. Moreover, protein-protein interaction analysis showed that diseases, proteasome, aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis, and nucleotide metabolism were the main interactions among the consistently expressed proteins. Consequently, these upregulated proteins, namely, ferritin, CD209, IL13Rα1, VDAC2, GIMAP7, PSMA1, and two ANXA11s could be considered as potential biomarkers for rainbow trout immune responses. This study provides the first identification of immune markers through an analysis of the differential expression of both genes and their corresponding protein products in the spleen of rainbow trout after infection by A. salmonicida, shedding light on the molecular mechanisms triggered in rainbow trout against A. salmonicida infection and providing new molecular targets for further immunological research in fish. Copyright

  20. Isolation and Functional Characterisation of a fads2 in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Δ5 Desaturase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Hamid, Noor Khalidah; Carmona-Antoñanzas, Greta; Monroig, Óscar; Tocher, Douglas R.; Turchini, Giovanni M.; Donald, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, are intensively cultured globally. Understanding their requirement for long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) and the biochemistry of the enzymes and biosynthetic pathways required for fatty acid synthesis is important and highly relevant in current aquaculture. Most gnathostome vertebrates have two fatty acid desaturase (fads) genes with known functions in LC-PUFA biosynthesis and termed fads1 and fads2. However, teleost fish have exclusively fads2 genes. In rainbow trout, a fads2 cDNA had been previously cloned and found to encode an enzyme with Δ6 desaturase activity. In the present study, a second fads2 cDNA was cloned from the liver of rainbow trout and termed fads2b. The full-length mRNA contained 1578 nucleotides with an open reading frame of 1365 nucleotides that encoded a 454 amino acid protein with a predicted molecular weight of 52.48 kDa. The predicted Fads2b protein had the characteristic traits of the microsomal Fads family, including an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain containing the heme-binding motif (HPPG), histidine boxes (HDXGH, HFQHH and QIEHH) and three transmembrane regions. The fads2b was expressed predominantly in the brain, liver, intestine and pyloric caeca. Expression of the fasd2b in yeast generated a protein that was found to specifically convert eicosatetraenoic acid (20:4n-3) to eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5n-3), and therefore functioned as a Δ5 desaturase. Therefore, rainbow trout have two fads2 genes that encode proteins with Δ5 and Δ6 desaturase activities, respectively, which enable this species to perform all the desaturation steps required for the biosynthesis of LC-PUFA from C18 precursors. PMID:26943160

  1. Fate of Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) after infection of brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abd-Elfattah, Ahmed; Saleh, Mona; El-Matbouli, Mansour

    2013-11-25

    Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae (Myxozoa) is the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease in salmonids. We assessed differences in intensity of T. bryosalmonae infection between brown trout Salmo trutta and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from the clinical phase of infection onwards. Specific pathogen-free fish were exposed to T. bryosalmonae spores under controlled laboratory conditions and sampled at 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, and 17 wk post exposure (wpe), and the transmission of T. bryosalmonae from infected fish to the bryozoan Fredericella sultana was observed. Parasite load was determined in fish kidneys by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR), and parasite stages were detected in kidney, liver, and spleen tissues at different time points by immunohistochemistry. T. bryosalmonae was successfully transmitted from infected brown trout to F. sultana colonies but not from infected rainbow trout. Body length and weight of infected brown trout did not differ significantly from control brown trout during all time points, while length and weight of infected rainbow trout differed significantly compared to controls from 10 to 17 wpe. qRT-PCR revealed that parasite load was significantly higher in kidneys of brown trout compared with rainbow trout. Immunohistochemistry showed high numbers of intra-luminal stages (sporogonic stages) in kidneys of brown trout with low numbers of pre-sporogonic stages. Sporogonic stages were not seen in kidneys of rainbow trout; only high numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were detected. Numbers of pre-sporogonic stages were low in the spleen and liver of brown trout but high in rainbow trout. These data confirmed that there are differences in the development and infection progress of T. bryosalmonae between brown trout and rainbow trout.

  2. Molecular cloning and functional characterization of two forms of Pax8 in the rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Katagiri, Nobuto; Uemae, Youji; Sakamoto, Joe; Hidaka, Yoshie; Susa, Takao; Kato, Yukio; Kimura, Shioko; Suzuki, Masakazu

    2014-01-01

    We have identified two distinct Pax8 (a and b) mRNAs from the thyroid gland of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which seemed to be generated by alternative splicing. Both Pax8a and Pax8b proteins were predicted to possess the paired domain, octapeptide, and partial homeodomain, while Pax8b lacked the carboxy-terminal portion due to an insertion in the coding region of the mRNA. RT-PCR analysis showed each of Pax8a and Pax8b mRNAs to be abundantly expressed in the thyroid and kidney. In situ hybridization histochemistry further detected the expression of Pax8 mRNA in the epithelial cells of the thyroid follicles of the adult trout and in the thyroid primordial cells of the embryo. The functional properties of Pax8a and Pax8b were investigated by dual luciferase assay. The transcriptional regulation by the rat thyroid peroxidase (TPO) promoter was found to be increased by Pax8a, but not by Pax8b. Pax8a further showed synergistic transcriptional activity with rat Nkx2-1 for the human TPO upstream region including the enhancer and promoter. On the other hand, Pax8b decreased the synergistic activity of Pax8a and Nkx2-1. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay additionally indicated that not only Pax8a but also Pax8b can bind to the TPO promoter and enhancer, implying that the inhibitory effect of Pax8b might result from the lack of the functional carboxy-terminal portion. Collectively, the results suggest that for the trout thyroid gland, Pax8a may directly increase TPO gene expression in cooperation with Nkx2-1 while Pax8b may work as a non-activating competitor for the TPO transcription. PMID:24380675

  3. Yersinia ruckeri lipopolysaccharide is necessary and sufficient for eliciting a protective immune response in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Welch, Timothy J; LaPatra, Scott

    2016-02-01

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, has been controlled successfully using immersion-applied bacterin vaccines for several decades. While the host response to vaccination and the mechanism of protection of this vaccine have been elucidated, the bacterial components eliciting protection have remained unclear. Here we show that highly purified serotype O1 Y. ruckeri lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is sufficient to induce a protective response to experimental challenge in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Dose response experiments demonstrated that Y. ruckeri LPS at doses of 1 ng/fish and above resulted in essentially complete protection and doses as low as 0.01 ng/fish (1.38 ng/kg) resulted in significant protection, thus demonstrating the extremely high potency of this immunogen. Analysis of the Y. ruckeri genome identified a cluster of putative O-antigen biosynthetic genes specific to serotype O1 strains. This cluster primarily consisted of genes encoding proteins predicted to function in the biosynthesis of legionamic acid, a nonulosonic acid known to be part of the O-polysaccharide repeat of O1 Y. ruckeri. Mutation of the nab2 gene, a nonulosonic acid biosynthesis gene (nab gene), resulted in production of severely truncated forms of LPS. Vaccination with bacterin vaccines derived from the nab2 mutant and its wild type parent strain demonstrated that LPS is a required component of the whole-cell bacterin vaccine and suggests that LPS is the only cellular component contributing to the protective response elicited by this vaccine. We speculate that the exceptionally high potency of Y. ruckeri LPS accounts for the unusual success of this vaccine when delivered by immersion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Effects of sex steroids on expression of genes regulating growth-related mechanisms in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Beth M; Weber, Gregory M

    2015-05-15

    Effects of a single injection of 17β-estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), or 5β-dihydrotestosterone (DHT) on expression of genes central to the growth hormone (GH)/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) axis, muscle-regulatory factors, transforming growth factor-beta (TGFβ) superfamily signaling cascade, and estrogen receptors were determined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) liver and white muscle tissue. In liver in addition to regulating GH sensitivity and IGF production, sex steroids also affected expression of IGF binding proteins, as E2, T, and DHT increased expression of igfbp2b and E2 also increased expression of igfbp2 and igfbp4. Regulation of this system also occurred in white muscle in which E2 increased expression of igf1, igf2, and igfbp5b1, suggesting anabolic capacity may be maintained in white muscle in the presence of E2. In contrast, DHT decreased expression of igfbp5b1. DHT and T decreased expression of myogenin, while other muscle regulatory factors were either not affected or responded similarly for all steroid treatments. Genes within the TGFβ superfamily signaling cascade responded to steroid treatment in both liver and muscle, suggesting a regulatory role for sex steroids in the ability to transmit signals initiated by TGFβ superfamily ligands, with a greater number of genes responding in liver than in muscle. Estrogen receptors were also regulated by sex steroids, with era1 expression increasing for all treatments in muscle, but only E2- and T-treatment in liver. E2 reduced expression of erb2 in liver. Collectively, these data identify how physiological mechanisms are regulated by sex steroids in a manner that promotes the disparate effects of androgens and estrogens on growth in salmonids. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Short-term exposure to 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol decreases the fertility of sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Schultz, Irvin R; Skillman, Ann; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G; Nagler, James J

    2003-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17 alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly used oral contraceptive that has been increasingly detected in sewage effluents. This study determined whether EE2 exposure adversely affected reproduction in sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed male trout to graded water concentrations of EE2 (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/ L) for 62 d leading up to the time of spawning. Semen and blood plasma samples were removed from each fish. Semen was used to fertilize groups of eggs from one nonexposed female. As a measure of fertility, eggs were incubated for 28 d after fertilization to determine the proportion that attained the eyed stage of embryonic development. Additional endpoints also measured included sperm motility, spermatocrit, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, testis histology, and circulating plasma levels of the sex steroids 17 alpha, 20 beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20-DHP) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Exposure to 1,000 ng/L of EE2 caused complete mortality of the treatment group by day 57. Exposure to lower EE2 water concentrations (10 and 100 ng/L) caused an increase in sperm density, while a significant reduction in testis mass was observed only in the 100-ng/L exposure group. Most significantly, semen harvested from fish exposed to 10 and 100 ng/L EE2 caused an approximately 50% reduction in the number of eggs attaining the eyed stage of embryonic development. Plasma levels of 17,20-DHP in exposed fish were roughly twice the level of the controls, while levels of 11-KT were significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100 ng/L EE2. These results suggest that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to detrimental reproductive effects of short-term exposures to environmentally relevant levels of EE2.

  6. A second generation integrated map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome: analysis of conserved synteny with model fish genomes.

    PubMed

    Palti, Yniv; Genet, Carine; Gao, Guangtu; Hu, Yuqin; You, Frank M; Boussaha, Mekki; Rexroad, Caird E; Luo, Ming-Cheng

    2012-06-01

    DNA fingerprints and end sequences from bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) from two new libraries were generated to improve the first generation integrated physical and genetic map of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) genome. The current version of the physical map is composed of 167,989 clones of which 158,670 are assembled into contigs and 9,319 are singletons. The number of contigs was reduced from 4,173 to 3,220. End sequencing of clones from the new libraries generated a total of 11,958 high quality sequence reads. The end sequences were used to develop 238 new microsatellites of which 42 were added to the genetic map. Conserved synteny between the rainbow trout genome and model fish genomes was analyzed using 188,443 BAC end sequence (BES) reads. The fractions of BES reads with significant BLASTN hits against the zebrafish, medaka, and stickleback genomes were 8.8%, 9.7%, and 10.5%, respectively, while the fractions of significant BLASTX hits against the zebrafish, medaka, and stickleback protein databases were 6.2%, 5.8%, and 5.5%, respectively. The overall number of unique regions of conserved synteny identified through grouping of the rainbow trout BES into fingerprinting contigs was 2,259, 2,229, and 2,203 for stickleback, medaka, and zebrafish, respectively. These numbers are approximately three to five times greater than those we have previously identified using BAC paired ends. Clustering of the conserved synteny analysis results by linkage groups as derived from the integrated physical and genetic map revealed that despite the low sequence homology, large blocks of macrosynteny are conserved between chromosome arms of rainbow trout and the model fish species.

  7. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic effects of the herbicide clopyralid to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Fairchild, J F; Allert, A L; Feltz, K P; Nelson, K J; Valle, J A

    2009-11-01

    Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is a pyridine herbicide frequently used to control invasive, noxious weeds in the northwestern United States. Clopyralid exhibits low acute toxicity to fish, including the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). However, there are no published chronic toxicity data for clopyralid and fish that can be used in ecological risk assessments. We conducted 30-day chronic toxicity studies with juvenile rainbow trout exposed to the acid form of clopyralid. The 30-day maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for growth, calculated as the geometric mean of the no observable effect concentration (68 mg/L) and the lowest observable effect concentration (136 mg/L), was 96 mg/L. No mortality was measured at the highest chronic concentration tested (273 mg/L). The acute:chronic ratio, calculated by dividing the previously published 96-h acutely lethal concentration (96-h ALC(50); 700 mg/L) by the MATC was 7.3. Toxicity values were compared to a four-tiered exposure assessment profile assuming an application rate of 1.12 kg/ha. The Tier 1 exposure estimation, based on direct overspray of a 2-m deep pond, was 0.055 mg/L. The Tier 2 maximum exposure estimate, based on the Generic Exposure Estimate Concentration model (GEENEC), was 0.057 mg/L. The Tier 3 maximum exposure estimate, based on previously published results of the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems model (GLEAMS), was 0.073 mg/L. The Tier 4 exposure estimate, based on published edge-of-field monitoring data, was estimated at 0.008 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity data to estimated environmental concentrations of clopyralid indicates that the safety factor for rainbow trout exposed to clopyralid at labeled use rates exceeds 1000. Therefore, the herbicide presents little to no risk to rainbow trout or other salmonids such as the threatened bull trout.

  8. Host-derived probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus improves resistance against Streptococcus iniae infection in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) via immunomodulation.

    PubMed

    Safari, Reza; Adel, Milad; Lazado, Carlo C; Caipang, Christopher Marlowe A; Dadar, Maryam

    2016-05-01

    The present study evaluated the benefits of dietary administration of host-derived candidate probiotics Enterococcus casseliflavus in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental diets were prepared by incorporating the microorganisms in the basal feed at 3 inclusion levels (i.e. 10(7) CFU g(-1) of feed [T1], 10(8) CFU g(-1) of feed [T2], 10(9) CFU g(-1) of feed [T3]). The probiotic feeds were administered for 8 weeks, with a group fed with the basal diet serving as control. The effects on growth performance, gut health, innate immunity and disease resistance were evaluated. Results showed that growth performance parameters were significantly improved in T2 and T3 groups. Activities of digestive enzymes such as trypsin and lipase were significantly higher in these two groups as well. Gut micro-ecology was influenced by probiotic feeding as shown by the significant increase in intestinal lactic acid bacteria and total viable aerobic counts in T2 and T3. Humoral immunity was impacted by dietary probiotics as total serum protein and albumin were significantly elevated in T3. The levels of serum IgM significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups at week 8; with the T3 group registering the highest increment. Respiratory burst activity of blood leukocytes were significantly improved in T2 and T3. Hematological profiling further revealed that neutrophil counts significantly increased in all probiotic fed groups. Challenge test showed that probiotic feeding significantly improved host resistance to Streptococcus iniae infection, specifically in T2 and T3 where a considerable modulation of immune responses was observed. Taken together, this study demonstrated E. casseliflavus as a potential probiotics for rainbow trout with the capability of improving growth performance and enhancing disease resistance by immunomodulation.

  9. Environmental estrogens inhibit growth of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by modulating the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor system.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Andrea M; Kittilson, Jeffrey D; Martin, Lincoln E; Sheridan, Mark A

    2014-01-15

    Although environmental estrogens (EE) have been found to disrupt a wide variety of developmental and reproductive processes in vertebrates, there is a paucity of information concerning their effects on organismal growth, particularly postembryonic growth. In this study, we exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to 17β-estradiol (E2) β-sitosterol (βS), or 4-n-nonylphenol (NP) to assess the effects of EE on overall organismal growth and on the growth hormone-insulin-like-growth factor (GH-IGF) system. EE treatment significantly reduced food conversion, body condition, and body growth. EE-inhibited growth resulted from alterations in peripheral elements of the GH-IGF system, which includes multiple GH receptors (GHRs), IGFs, and IGF receptors (IGFRs). In general, E2, βS, and NP reduced the expression of GHRs, IGFs, and IGFRs; however, the effects varied in an EE-, tissue-, element type-specific manner. For example, in liver, E2 was more efficacious than either βS, and NP in reducing GHR expression, and the effect of E2 was greater on GHR 1 than GHR2 mRNA. By contrast, in gill, all EEs affected GHR expression in a similar manner and there was no difference in the effect on GHR1 and GHR 2 mRNA. With regard to IGF expression, all EEs reduced hepatic IGF1 and IGF2 mRNA levels, whereas as in gill, only E2 and NP significantly reduced IGF1 and IGF2 expression. Lastly, E2 and NP reduced the expression of IGFR1A and IGFR1B mRNA expression similarly in gill and red and white muscle, whereas βS had no effect on expression of IGFR mRNAs. These findings indicate that EEs disrupt post-embryonic growth by reducing GH sensitivity, IGF production, and IGF sensitivity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The physiological consequences of exposure to chronic, sublethal waterborne nickel in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): exercise vs resting physiology.

    PubMed

    Pane, Eric F; Haque, Aziz; Goss, Greg G; Wood, Chris M

    2004-03-01

    In rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), following chronic (42 day) exposure to both 384 microg Ni l(-1) and 2034 microg Ni l(-1), Ni accumulation was greatest in the gill, kidney and plasma, with the plasma as the main sink for Ni. Indeed, trapped plasma analysis revealed that extensive loading of Ni in the plasma accounted for substantial percentages of accumulated Ni in several tissues including the liver and heart. Accumulated Ni in the gill and kidney was less dependent on plasma Ni concentration, suggesting a more intracellular accumulation of Ni in these tissues. We present evidence for a clear, persistent cost of acclimation to chronic, sublethal Ni exposure. Chronic (40-99 day) exposure to sublethal waterborne Ni (243-394 microg Ni l(-1); approximately 1% of the 96 h LC(50)) impaired the exercise physiology, but not the resting physiology, of rainbow trout. Ni acted as a limiting stressor, decreasing maximal rates of oxygen consumption (MO2,max) during strenuous exercise in trout exposed for 34 days to sublethal Ni. This drop in high-performance gas exchange was attributed mainly to a reduction in relative branchial diffusing capacity (D(rel)) caused by thickening of secondary lamellae. Morphometric analysis of the gills of chronically exposed fish revealed overall swelling of secondary lamellae, as well as hypertrophic respiratory epithelia within secondary lamellae. Additionally, contraction of the lamellar blood pillar system and narrowing of interlamellar water channels occurred, possibly contributing to decreased high-performance gas exchange. Decreased aerobic capacity persisted in fish previously exposed to nickel despite a clean-water exposure period of 38 days and an almost complete depuration of gill Ni, suggesting that extrabranchial mechanisms of chronic Ni toxicity may also be important. Chronic impairment of such a dynamically active and critical organ as the gill may depress the overall fitness of a fish by impairing predator avoidance, prey

  11. Intestinal ammonia transport in freshwater and seawater acclimated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): evidence for a Na+ coupled uptake mechanism.

    PubMed

    Rubino, Julian G; Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2015-05-01

    In vitro gut sac experiments were performed on freshwater and 60% seawater acclimated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under treatments designed to discern possible mechanisms of intestinal ammonia transport. Seawater acclimation increased ammonia flux rate into the serosal saline (Jsamm) in the anterior intestine, however it did not alter Jsamm in the mid- or posterior intestine suggesting similar mechanisms of ammonia handling in freshwater and seawater fish. Both fluid transport rate (FTR) and Jsamm were inhibited in response to basolateral ouabain treatment, suggesting a linkage of ammonia uptake to active transport, possibly coupled to fluid transport processes via solvent drag. Furthermore, decreases in FTR and Jsamm caused by low Na(+) treatment indicated a Na(+) linked transport mechanism. Mucosal bumetanide (10(-4) M) had no impact on FTR, yet decreased Jsamm in the anterior and mid-intestine, suggesting NH4(+) substitution for K(+) on an apical NKCC, and at least a partial uncoupling of ammonia transport from fluid transport. Additional treatments (amiloride, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)amiloride (EIPA), phenamil, bafilomycin, 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI), high sodium) intended to disrupt alternative routes of Na(+) uptake yielded no change in FTR or Jsamm, suggesting the absence of direct competition between Na(+) and ammonia for transport. Finally, [(14)C]methylamine permeability (PMA) measurements indicated the likely presence of an intestinal Rh-mediated ammonia transport system, as increasing NH4Cl (0, 1, 5 mmol l(-1)) concentrations reduced PMA, suggesting competition for transport through Rh proteins. Overall, the data presented in this paper provide some of the first insights into mechanisms of teleost intestinal ammonia transport.

  12. Acute exposure to waterborne copper inhibits both the excretion and uptake of ammonia in freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Lim, Michael Yu-Ting; Zimmer, Alex M; Wood, Chris M

    2015-02-01

    In freshwater fish, exposure to sub-lethal concentrations of waterborne copper (Cu) results in inhibitions of ammonia excretion (Jamm) and Na(+) uptake (J(Na)in), yet the mechanisms by which these occur are not fully understood. In the present study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry exposed to 50μg/l Cu for 24h displayed a sustained 40% decrease in Jamm and a transient 60% decrease in J(Na)in. Previously, these effects have been attributed to inhibitions of gill Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and/or carbonic anhydrase (CA) activities by Cu. Trout fry did not display significant reductions in the branchial activities of these enzymes or H(+)-ATPase over 24h Cu exposure. Recently, Rhesus (Rh) glycoproteins, bi-directional NH3 gas channels, have been implicated in the mechanism of Cu toxicity. Juvenile trout were exposed to nominal 0, 50, and 200μg/l Cu for 3-6h under control conditions (ammonia-free water) followed by 6h exposure to high environmental ammonia (HEA; 1.5mmol/l NH4HCO3). HEA led to significant ammonia uptake in control fish (0μg/l Cu), and exposure to 50 and 200μg/l Cu resulted in significant reductions of ammonia uptake during HEA exposure. This is the first evidence that Cu inhibits both the excretion and uptake of ammonia, implicating bi-directional Rh glycoproteins as a target for Cu toxicity. We propose a model whereby Rh blockade by Cu causes the sustained inhibition of Jamm and transient inhibition of J(Na)in, with H(+)-ATPase potentially aiding in J(Na)in recovery. More work is needed to elucidate the role of Rh proteins in sub-lethal Cu toxicity.

  13. Experiences from a biomarker study on farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) used for environmental monitoring in a Swedish river.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Niklas; Larsson, Ake

    2009-07-01

    Biomarkers in fish may serve as a useful tool for evaluating the pollution load in the environment and for early warning signals about new environmental threats. By employing a strategy with fish that are caged or reared in tanks, problems linked to migration and feeding status can be reduced or eliminated. Such a strategy, however, also may introduce other confounding factors linked to, for example, hierarchical behavior or disease outbreaks. In the present study, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were reared in plastic tanks at four sites in the Göta älv river system (plus one external reference) in western Sweden during 2006 and 2007. Because of low population density and high water turnover in the area, pollution levels are expected to be low. Therefore, this should be a good test for the sensitivity of the methodology. Several significant differences were found between sites as well as between years, such as ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites in bile, and concentration of inorganic ions in blood plasma, but it also was seen that factors other than pollution could be contributing to these differences. The condition factor (CF) varied between sites, possibly because of differences in feeding resulting from variations in water turbidity. Furthermore, even the small differences in CF that were found within sites correlated significantly to several of the biomarkers. It was shown that PAHs likely are the most important EROD inducers in Göta älv and that variation over time is greater than variation between sites. Because CF differed between sites despite a standardized feeding ration, starving of the fish during the exposure period should be considered for future studies.

  14. Effects of polychlorinated biphenyls on whole animal energy mobilization and hepatic cellular respiration in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Nault, Rance; Al-Hameedi, Samar; Moon, Thomas W

    2012-05-01

    The production of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was banned in 1977 but these chemicals persist in the environment and threaten aquatic organisms. PCB exposure often results in activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and increases in hepatic detoxification mechanisms. Activation of these detoxification mechanisms is believed to be associated with energetic demands that may come at the expense of other physiological processes such as growth, activity and reproduction. We tested the hypothesis that exposure to sub-lethal levels of PCBs results in increased energy demand and energy mobilization using both an in vivo and in vitro approach. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) received a single intraperitoneal sub-lethal dose (50μgkg(-1)) of 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB 126) and left for 10d after which standard oxygen consumption and plasma and liver metabolites were assessed. PCB 126 exposed trout did not alter standard oxygen consumption but did increase plasma glucose concentration implying the mobilization of glucose to cope with this exposure regime. Cellular respiration was assessed in trout hepatocytes exposed to PCB 126 or PCB 77 (3,3'4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl) two AhR activators but with different potencies (PCB 126≫PCB 77). Mitochondrial respiration was assessed by stimulating complex II with succinate and although no increases in respiration were associated with PCB exposure in non-stimulated cells, PCB 77 impaired mitochondrial respiration by preventing stimulation of complex II respiration and potentially masking any actual energetic costs of PCB exposure. These studies suggest that energy is mobilized upon exposure to PCBs, however, actual increases in energy demand may be overshadowed by impaired mitochondrial respiration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of water hardness and temperature on the acute toxicity of mercuric chloride on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Terzi, Ertugrul; Verep, Bulent

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the toxicity of mercuric chloride (HgCl(2)), an important pollutant threatening water resources for many years, and the effects of water temperature and hardness on the toxicity in cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (4.79 ± 0.16 g; 7.38 ± 0.24 cm; mean ± SD) were investigated at different temperatures (12 and 17°C) and hardness concentrations (35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) as calcium carbonate, CaCO(3)). For this purpose, the acute toxicity tests were performed by 96-h static tests in different water temperatures and water hardness concentrations. For acute toxicity tests, solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.2 mg l(-1) were used at 12°C and solutions ranging from 0.4 to 1.0 mg l(-1) at 17°C. The LC(50) values of HgCl(2) that killed 50% of rainbow trout within 96 h in the hardness concentrations of 35, 70 and 120 mg l(-1) CaCO(3) were calculated using probit analysis, and were found to be 0.725, 0.788, 0.855 mg l(-1) at 12°C and 0.670, 0.741, 0.787 mg l(-1) at 17°C, respectively. Consequently, the toxicity of HgCl(2) on rainbow trout decreased when the temperature decreased from 17 to 12°C. Toxicity increased when the hardness decreased from 120 to 35 mg l(-1) CaCO(3). In contrast to temperature, water hardness presents a negative effect on the toxicity of HgCl(2).

  16. Osmotic Regulation of a Novel Flavin-Containing Monooxygenase in Primary Cultured Cells from Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Aparicio-Fabre, Rosaura; Li, Qi; Schlenk, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    A cDNA encoding a hepatic isoform of flavin-containing monooxygenase (hFMO) (EF063736) containing an open reading frame of 1792 base pairs (bp) and encoding 554 amino acids was cloned and sequenced from liver mRNA of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The genomic sequence of hFMO was also characterized and was 4.379 kilobases, possessing 10 exons and 9 introns (EU519462). Structural analysis of the promoter region showed several cis-acting elements including putative glucocorticoid and osmoregulatory response elements, which have been reported to be functionally related to induction of flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) proteins in vertebrates. The amino acid sequence showed 74% identity to a putative FMO gene from fugu (Takifugu rubripes; Q6ZZY9), 52 to 55% to zebrafish (Brachydanio rerio; Q5RGM6, Q5RGM3, Q6TLD2, Q7T1D7) FMO5, and 54 and 50% to human FMO1 (Q01740), FMO3 (P49326), and FMO5 (P49326). Southern blot analysis using a 180-bp fragment of the hFMO cDNA indicated at least seven potential genes. Treatment of primary trout hepatocytes with cortisol and sodium chloride for 24 h enhanced hFMO expression. Expression of hFMO was not detected in untreated or solute-treated primary cultures of gill epithelial cells, suggesting tissue-specific expression of hFMO. Induction of hFMO is consistent with the occurrence of cis-osmoregulatory and glucocorticoid response elements identified in the 5′-upstream sequence, indicating regulation of hFMO in response to hypersaline conditions and the osmoregulatory hormone cortisol. PMID:18372402

  17. Effects of the anti-androgen cyproterone acetate (CPA) on oocyte meiotic maturation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Rime, Hélène; Nguyen, Thaovi; Ombredane, Kevin; Fostier, Alexis; Bobe, Julien

    2015-07-01

    In the present study, we aimed at characterizing the effect of cyproterone acetate (CPA), an anti-androgenic compound, on oocyte meiotic maturation in a freshwater teleost fish species, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fully-grown post-vitellogenic ovarian follicles were incubated in vitro with CPA, luteinizing hormone (Lh) or a combination of CPA and Lh. Incubations were also performed using a combination of Lh and testosterone (T). The occurrence of oocyte maturation (i.e., resumption of the meiotic process) was assessed by monitoring germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) after a 72h in vitro incubation. The effect of CPA on the production of 17,20β-dihydroxy-4-pregnen-3-one (17,20βP), the natural maturation-inducing steroid (MIS), was quantified by radioimmunoassay. Our results show that CPA dramatically inhibits Lh-induced oocyte maturation and MIS synthesis. We also observed a synergistic effect of Lh and T on oocyte maturation in highly competent oocytes (i.e., able to resume meiosis after stimulation by low doses of Lh). Our results also show that a combination of CPA and Lh inhibits phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), kinases that are associated with oocyte maturation in many species. As a whole, our results indicate that CPA has a potential to alter meiotic maturation in rainbow trout. Further analyses are, however, needed to determine the mechanisms by which this anti-androgen interferes with the meiotic process. Furthermore, the present study provides a framework for better understanding of the ecological consequences of exposure to anti-androgens and resulting meiotic maturation abnormalities observed in trout.

  18. Effects of copper, hypoxia and acute temperature shifts on mitochondrial oxidation in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) acclimated to warm temperature.

    PubMed

    Sappal, Ravinder; Fast, Mark; Stevens, Don; Kibenge, Fred; Siah, Ahmed; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-12-01

    Temperature fluctuations, hypoxia and metals pollution frequently occur simultaneously or sequentially in aquatic systems and their interactions may confound interpretation of their biological impacts. With a focus on energy homeostasis, the present study examined how warm acclimation influences the responses and interactions of acute temperature shift, hypoxia and copper (Cu) exposure in fish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were acclimated to cold (11°C; control) and warm (20°C) temperature for 3 weeks followed by exposure to environmentally realistic levels of Cu and hypoxia for 24h. Subsequently, mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) respiratory activity supported by complexes I-IV (CI-IV), plasma metabolites and condition indices were measured. Warm acclimation reduced fish condition, induced aerobic metabolism and altered the responses of fish to acute temperature shift, hypoxia and Cu. Whereas warm acclimation decelerated the ETS and increased the sensitivity of maximal oxidation rates of the proximal (CI and II) complexes to acute temperature shift, it reduced the thermal sensitivity of state 4 (proton leak). Effects of Cu with and without hypoxia were variable depending on the acclimation status and functional index. Notably, Cu stimulated respiratory activity in the proximal ETS segments, while hypoxia was mostly inhibitory and minimized the stimulatory effect of Cu. The effects of Cu and hypoxia were modified by temperature and showed reciprocal antagonistic interaction on the ETS and plasma metabolites, with modest additive actions limited to CII and IV state 4. Overall, our results indicate that warm acclimation came at a cost of reduced ETS efficiency and increased sensitivity to added stressors.

  19. Effects of in vitro nickel exposure on the macrophage-mediated immune functions of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Bowser, D.H.; Frenkel, K.; Zelikoff, J.T. )

    1994-03-01

    Nickel is occurs naturally in the geophysical environment. It has become a common byproduct of industrialization. Nickel is released into the atmosphere and coal-burning power plants and trash incinerators, and is also discharged into waste water by industries which convert scrap or new nickel into alloys. The effluent that spreads to streams, rivers, and lakes may disrupt the integrity of the aquatic environment. Excess nickel contamination is hazardous to aquatic ecosystems due to its existence and bioaccumulation. While the adverse health effects associated with nickel exposure have been extensively examined in mammalian systems, very little is known concerning nickel's effects on aquatic organisms. Although trace amounts of nickel are necessary for maintaining the metabolic homeostasis of some vertebrate species, larger amounts of nickel have been shown to be toxic. In addition to being both genotoxic and carcinogenic, nickel modulates immunological functions in a variety of mammalian species. The toxic effects of nickel on the numbers, activity, and ultrastructure of macrophages (M[o]) have been well-studied. A number of other toxic metals such as copper, manganese, and cadmium modulate the immune responses of fish. To appraise the immunomodulating potential of nickel on fish, and to begin to establish baseline parameters of altered immune function as potential biomarkers of in vivo nickel exposure, elicited peritoneal macrophages from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were treated in vitro with increasing concentrations of nickel sulfate (NiSO[sub 4]). Following exposure, M[o] activities important for maintaining host immunocompetence were evaluated and these include; mobility (random and stimulus-directed), production of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI), acid phosphatase activity, and phagocytosis. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  20. Evidence for facilitated diffusion of urea across the gill basolateral membrane of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    McDonald, M Danielle; Wood, Chris M

    2004-05-27

    Recent in vivo evidence suggests that the mechanism of branchial urea excretion in the ammoniotelic rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is carrier-mediated. Further characterization of this proposed mechanism was achieved by using an in vitro isolated basolateral membrane vesicle (BLMV) preparation in which isolated gill membranes were used to determine a variety of physiological properties of the transporter. BLMV demonstrated two components of urea uptake, a linear component at concentrations up to 17.5 mmol x l(-1) and a saturable component (K(0.5)=0.35+/-0.01 mmol x l(-1); V(max)=0.14+/-0.02 micromol mg protein(-1) h(-1)) with a Hill constant of 1.35+/-0.18 at low, physiologically relevant urea concentrations (<2 mmol x l(-1)). Saturable uptake of urea at 1 mmol x l(-1) by BLMV was reduced by 88.5% when incubated with 0.25 mmol x l(-1) phloretin, a potent blocker of UT-type facilitated diffusion urea transport mechanisms. BLMV also demonstrated differential handling of urea versus urea analogues at 1 mmol x l(-1) concentrations and total analogue/total urea uptake ratios were 32% for acetamide and 84% for thiourea. Saturable urea uptake at 1 mmol x l(-1) was significantly reduced by almost 100% in the presence of 5 mmol x l(-1) thiourea but was not affected by 5 mmol x l(-1) acetamide or 5 mmol x l(-1) N-methylurea. Lastly, total urea uptake at 1 mmol x l(-1) by BLMV was sensitive to temperatures above and below the temperature of acclimation with a Q(10)>2 suggesting a protein carrier-mediated process. Combined, this evidence indicates that a facilitated diffusion urea transport mechanism is likely present in the basolateral membrane of the rainbow trout gill.

  1. Efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the control of Argulus coregoni (Crustacea: Branchiura) on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Hakalahti, T; Lankinen, Y; Valtonen, E T

    2004-09-08

    Efficacy of in-feed treatment with emamectin benzoate (Slice) for the control of ectoparasitic Argulus coregoni on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was tested under laboratory and field conditions. In both experiments fish were fed with fish feed to deliver a therapeutic dose of 0 (control) or 50 microg emamectin benzoate kg(-1) d(-1) (treatment) for a period of 7 d. After 3 d of challenge with A. coregoni in the laboratory, the infestation level in treated fish was lower than that observed in the controls (p < 0.001). Efficacy of 100% against newly hatched A. coregoni metanauplii and adults and 80% against juveniles was observed. In the field, trial medication was undertaken at 2 sections on a flow-through canal with 1 wk between treatments. Mean infestations of 100 to 200 A. coregoni per fish with 100% prevalence was recorded prior to medication. Following the treatment, the mean infestation of A. coregoni on fish declined to 31 lice per fish at Section A and 2.5 lice per fish at Section B. Then, after 28 d of treatment, the number of lice per fish was < 1 at Section A; in contrast the mean number of A. coregoni per fish at the control section was > 20. The prevalence of A. coregoni remained < 50% over a period of 72 d of treatment, but started to increase again thereafter. This suggests that emamectin benzoate concentration in fish remained at a level high enough to kill A. coregoni over a period of 9 wk. Emamectin benzoate was very effective in the control of A. coregoni infesting trout.

  2. Gastro-intestinal transport of calcium and cadmium in fresh water and seawater acclimated trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Klinck, Joel S; Wood, Chris M

    2013-03-01

    Transport of calcium (Ca) and cadmium (Cd) was examined along the gastro-intestinal tract (GIT) of freshwater and seawater Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus (FWT and SWTies respectively) using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Based on known physiological differences between FWT and SWT which aid in regulating ion levels and osmolarity, we hypothesized that SWT would have lower rates of Ca uptake. Also, we predicted that Cd rates would also be lower because Cd is known to share a common transport mechanism with Ca. Kinetics of Ca and Cd transport were determined using mucosal salines of varying concentrations [1, 10, 30, 60, and 100 (mmolL(-1) for Ca, μmolL(-1) for Cd)]. Linear and saturating relationships were found for Ca for FWT and SWT, but overall SWT had lower rates. Linear and/or saturating relationships were also found for Cd uptake, but rates varied little between fish types. Elevated Ca had no inhibitory effect on Cd transport, and Ca channel blockers nifedipine and verapamil had little effect on Ca or Cd uptake. However, lanthanum reduced Ca transport into some compartments. A 21 day in vivo feeding experiment was also performed where FWT and SWT were exposed to control diets or Cd-spiked diets (552 μg Cd g(-1) food). Whole body Cd uptake between fish types was similar, but the majority of Cd in SWT remained in the posterior intestine tissue, while FWT transported more Cd through their gut wall. Overall it appears that large differences in Ca and Cd uptake between FWT and SWT exist, with SWT generally having lower rates.

  3. Time course of hepatic gene expression and plasma vitellogenin protein concentrations in estrone-exposed juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Osachoff, Heather L; Brown, Lorraine L Y; Tirrul, Leena; van Aggelen, Graham C; Brinkman, Fiona S L; Kennedy, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    Estrone (E1), a natural estrogen hormone found in sewage effluents and surface waters, has known endocrine disrupting effects in fish, thus, it is a contaminant of emerging concern. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to an environmentally-relevant concentration of E1 (24ng/L E1 [0.1nM]) for 7d and then placed in clean water for a 9d recovery period. RNA sequencing showed transcripts from numerous affected biological processes (e.g. immune, metabolic, apoptosis, clotting, and endocrine) were altered by E1 after 4d of treatment. The time course of E1-inducible responses relating to vitellogenesis was examined daily during the two phases of exposure. Hepatic gene expression alterations evaluated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR) were found during the treatment period for vitellogenin (VTG), vitelline envelope proteins (VEPs) α, β and γ, and estrogen receptor α1 (ERα1) transcripts. ERα1 was the only transcript induced each day during the treatment phase, thus it was a good indicator of E1 exposure. Gradual increases occurred in VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts, peaking at d7. VTG transcript was only elevated at d4, making it less sensitive than VEPs to this low-level E1 treatment. Inductions of ERα1, VEPα, VEPβ and VEPγ transcripts ceased 1d into the recovery phase. Plasma VTG protein concentrations were not immediately elevated but peaked 7d into the recovery phase. Thus, elevated vitellogenesis-related gene expression and protein production occurred slowly but steadily at this concentration of E1, confirming the sequence of events for transcripts and VTG protein responses to xenoestrogen exposure.

  4. Ecotoxocological effects of short-term exposure to a human pharmaceutical Verapamil in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi-Hua; Li, Ping; Randak, Tomas

    2010-09-01

    Verapamil (VRP) is a calcium channel blocker that is a highly prescribed compound and commonly present in aquatic environment, but the ecotoxicological effects of this pharmaceutical in fish have not been fully documented. In this study, the toxic effects of VRP were studied in juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, by acute static bioassay. In the acute test, the median lethal concentration (LC50, 2.72 mg/L) was evaluated and the behavioral changes were obviously intensified with increasing VRP concentrations. Compared to the control, oxidative stress was observed in fish tissues with different levels after short-term exposure to sublethal concentrations (0.27 and 1.35 mg/L) of VRP. Activities of SOD and GPx in fish brain were induced at 0.27 mg/L VRP, but all the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPx and GR) in fish brain were decreased at 1.35 mg/L VRP. When compared to the control, all the antioxidant enzymes in gill were decreased in both treated groups, but there was no significant change in muscle. Additional, muscle DNA/RNA ratio in fish exposed at 1.35 mg/L VRP was significantly lower than that in the control. Furthermore, through chemometrics of all parameters measured in fish exposed to sublethal VRP concentrations using principal component analysis, two groups with 89.8% of total accumulated variance were distinguished. In short, the physiological and biochemical responses in of fish indicated that VRP-induced environmental stress; but according to VRP residual status in the natural environment, more long-term experiments at lower concentrations will be necessary in the future. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The sub-lethal effects and tissue concentration of the human pharmaceutical atenolol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Christoph; Burkina, Viktoriia; Fedorova, Ganna; Grabicova, Katerina; Stara, Alzbeta; Velisek, Josef; Zlabek, Vladimir; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Grabic, Roman; Kocour Kroupova, Hana

    2014-11-01

    Atenolol is a highly prescribed anti-hypertensive pharmaceutical and a member of the group of β-blockers. It has been detected at concentrations ranging from ng L(-1) to low μg L(-1) in waste and surface waters. The present study aimed to assess the sub-lethal effects of atenolol on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and to determine its tissue-specific bioconcentration. Juvenile rainbow trout were exposed for 21 and 42 days to three concentration levels of atenolol (1 μg L(-1) - environmentally relevant concentration, 10 μg L(-1), and 1000 μg L(-1)). The fish exposed to 1 μg L(-1) atenolol exhibited a higher lactate content in the blood plasma and a reduced haemoglobin content compared with the control. The results show that exposure to atenolol at concentrations greater than or equal to 10 μg L(-1) significantly reduces both the haematocrit value and the glucose concentration in the blood plasma. The activities of the studied antioxidant enzymes (catalase and superoxide dismutase) were not significantly affected by atenolol exposure, and only the highest tested concentration of atenolol significantly reduced the activity of glutathione reductase. The activities of selected CYP450 enzymes were not affected by atenolol exposure. The histological changes indicate that atenolol has an effect on the vascular system, as evidenced by the observed liver congestion and changes in the pericardium and myocardium. Atenolol was found to have a very low bioconcentration factor (the highest value found was 0.27). The bioconcentration levels followed the order liver>kidney>muscle. The concentration of atenolol in the blood plasma was below the limit of quantification (2.0 ng g(-1)). The bioconcentration factors and the activities of selected CYP450 enzymes suggest that atenolol is not metabolised in the liver and may be excreted unchanged.

  6. Functional diets modulate the acute phase protein response in Oncorhynchus mykiss subjected to chronic stress and challenged with Vibrio anguillarum.

    PubMed

    Castro-Osses, Darlyng; Carrera-Naipil, Crisleri; Gallardo-Escárate, Cristian; Gonçalves, Ana Teresa

    2017-07-01

    The acute phase response to pathogens alters the production of proinflammatory cytokines that, in turn, activate the synthesis of acute phase proteins. These proteins neutralize, prevent, and indicate tissue damage, thereby influencing the specific immune response and allowing the organism to regain homeostasis. Functional diets based in pre- and probiotics are used in aquaculture to improve fish health and resistance to diseases, but there is an information gap on the mechanisms involved in these effects and if these diets are efficient when fish are raised under high stocking densities. This study aimed an evaluation of the acute phase response in Oncorhynchus mykiss fed functional diets supplemented with pre- and probiotics (i.e. mannan-oligosaccharides and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively) and challenged by either Vibrio anguillarum or chronic stress via maintenance under high stocking densities. For this, the relative expression of acute phase response related genes in liver, and of inflammatory response related genes in head kidney was evaluated by RT-qPCR. The supplemented diets differentially modulated the acute phase protein response to the assessed challenge conditions, specifically evidencing an overexpression of the genes HAPT, SAA, LECT2, and IL-1β under chronic stress and of HAPT, IL-1β, IL8, and LECT2 at 24 h post-challenge with V. anguillarum. The observed early-stage regulation of acute phase proteins and of the immune response by the probiotic S. cerevisiae and by prebiotic mannan-oligosaccharides suggests that both supplements have high immunostimulatory potentials for fish farmed under high stocking densities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of hatchery release strategy on marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of Seymour River steelhead smolts (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Balfry, Shannon; Welch, David W; Atkinson, Jody; Lill, Al; Vincent, Stephen

    2011-03-29

    Early marine migratory behaviour and apparent survival of hatchery-reared Seymour River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) smolts was examined over a four year period (2006-2009) to assess the impact of various management strategies on improving early marine survival. Acoustically tagged smolts were released to measure their survival using estuary and coastal marine receivers forming components of the Pacific Ocean Shelf Tracking (POST) array. Early marine survival was statistically indistinguishable between releases of summer run and winter run steelhead races, night and day releases, and groups released 10 days apart. In 2009, the survival of summer run steelhead released into the river was again trialed against groups released directly into the ocean at a distance from the river mouth. Apparent survival was improved significantly for the ocean released groups. The health and physiological status of the various release groups were monitored in years 2007-2009, and results indicate that the fish were in good health, with no clinical signs of disease at the time of release. The possibility of a disease event contributing to early marine mortality was further examined in 2009 by vaccinating half of the released fish against common fish diseases (vibriosis, furunculosis). The results suggest that marine survival may be enhanced using this approach, although not to the extent observed when the smolts were transported away from the river mouth before release. In summary, direct experimental testing of different release strategies using the POST array to measure ocean survival accelerated the scientific process by allowing rapid collection of data which enabled the rejection of several existing theories and allowed tentative identification of several new alternative approaches that might improve early marine survival of Seymour River steelhead.

  8. Short-term exposure to 17alpha-ethynylestradiol decreases the fertility of sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Irv R.; Skillman, Ann D.; Nicolas, Jean-Marc; Cyr, Daniel G.; Nagler, James J.

    2003-06-01

    The synthetic estrogen 17alpha-ethynylestradiol (EE2) is a commonly used oral contraceptive that has been increasingly detected in sewage effluents. This study determined whether EE2 exposure adversely affected reproduction in sexually maturing male rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). We exposed male trout to graded water concentrations of EE2 (10, 100, and 1,000 ng/ L) for 62 d leading up to the time of spawning. Semen and blood plasma samples were removed from each fish. Semen was used to fertilize groups of eggs from one nonexposed female. As a measure of fertility, eggs were incubated for 28 d after fertilization to determine the proportion that attained the eyed stage of embryonic development. Additional endpoints also measured included sperm motility, spermatocrit, gonadosomatic and hepatosomatic indices, testis histology, and circulating plasma levels of the sex steroids 17alpha, 20beta-dihydroxyprogesterone (17,20-DHP) and 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT). Exposure to 1,000 ng/L of EE2 caused complete mortality of the treatment group by day 57. Exposure to lower EE2 water concentrations (10 and 100 ng/L) caused an increase in sperm density, while a significant reduction in testis mass was observed only in the 100-ng/L exposure group. Most significantly, semen harvested from fish exposed to 10 and 100 ng/L EE2 caused an approximately 50% reduction in the number of eggs attaining the eyed stage of embryonic development. Plasma levels of 17,20-DHP in exposed fish were roughly twice the level of the controls, while levels of 11-KT were significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100 ng/L EE2. These results suggest that sexually maturing male rainbow trout are susceptible to detrimental reproductive effects of short-term exposures to environmentally relevant levels of EE2.

  9. Evaluation of Optimum Dietary Threonine Requirement by Plasma Free Threonine and Ammonia Concentrations in Surgically Modified Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Hyeonho; Park, Gunjun; Ok, Imho; Katya, Kumar; Heung, Silas; Bai, Sungchul C.

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the dietary threonine requirement by measuring the plasma free threonine and ammonia concentrations in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss after dorsal aorta cannulation. A total of 70 fish (average initial weight 506±8.2 g) were randomly distributed into each of the 14 net cages (5 fish/cage). After 48 hours (h) of feed deprivation, each group was intubated at 1% body weight with one of the seven L-amino acid based diets containing graded levels of threonine (0.42%, 0.72%, 0.92%, 1.12%, 1.32%, 1.52%, or 1.82% of diet, dry matter basis). Blood samples were taken at 0, 5, and 24 h after intubation. Post-prandial plasma free threonine concentrations (PPthr) of fish 5 h after intubation with diets containing 1.32% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine (p<0.05). Post-absorptive free threonine concentrations (PAthr) after 24 h of intubation of the fish with diets containing 0.92% or more threonine were significantly higher than those of fish intubated with diets containing 0.72% or less threonine. Post-prandial plasma ammonia concentrations (PPA, 5 h after intubation) were not significantly different among fish intubated with diets containing 1.12% or less threonine, except the PPA of fish intubated with diet containing 0.42% threonine. Broken-line model analyses of PPthr, PAthr, and PPA indicated that the dietary threonine requirement of rainbow trout should be between 0.95% (2.71) and 1.07% (3.06) of diet (% of dietary protein on a dry matter basis). PMID:25656187

  10. EVALUATION OF WASTEWATER TREATMENT BY OZONATION FOR REDUCING THE TOXICITY OF CONTAMINANTS OF EMERGING CONCERN TO RAINBOW TROUT (ONCORHYNCHUS MYKISS).

    PubMed

    Maya, Nicholas; Evans, Jaden; Nasuhoglu, Deniz; Isazadeh, Siavash; Yargeau, Viviane; Metcalfe, Chris D

    2017-08-16

    While conventional wastewater treatment technologies are effective at removing many contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) from municipal wastewater, some contaminants are not removed efficiently. Ozonation may be a treatment option for reducing the concentrations of recalcitrant CECs in wastewater, but this process may generate toxic transformation-products. In the present study, we conducted semi-batch experiments to ozonate municipal wastewater effluent (WWE) spiked with 5 commonly detected CECs. The purpose of the study was to evaluate whether ozonation increased or decreased biological responses indicative of sublethal toxicity in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) with extracts prepared from ozonated and non-ozonated WWE. Blood, liver and brain tissues were collected from the fish at 72 h post-injection for analysis of a battery of biomarkers. In fish i.p. injected with the extracts from non-ozonated WWE, significant induction of plasma vitellogenin (VTG) was observed, but ozonation of the MWWE spiked with CECs significantly reduced this estrogenic response. However, in fish injected with extracts from spiked MWWE after ozonation, the balance of hepatic glutathione in its oxidized (i.e. GSSG) form was altered, indicating oxidative stress. Levels of the neurotransmitter, serotonin, were significantly elevated in brain tissue from trout injected with the extracts from ozonated spiked MWWE; a biological response that has not been previously reported in fish. Other in vivo biomarkers showed no significant changes across treatments. These results indicate that ozonation reduces the estrogenicity of wastewater, but may increase other sublethal responses. The increase in biomarker responses after ozonation may be due to the formation of biologically active products of transformation of CECs, but further work is needed to confirm this conclusion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article

  11. Identification and expression analysis of an IL-18 homologue and its alternatively spliced form in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Bird, Steve; Truckle, Jonathan; Bols, Niels; Horne, Mike; Secombes, Chris

    2004-05-01

    A homologue of interleukin 18 has been identified from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. The trout IL-18 gene spans 3.7 kb and consists of six exons and five introns, sharing the same gene organization with its human counterpart. The putative translated protein is 199 amino acids in length with no predicted signal peptide. Analysis of the multiple sequence alignment reveals a conserved ICE cut site, resulting in a mature peptide of 162 amino acids. The trout IL-18 shares 41-45% similarity with known IL-18 molecules and contains an IL-1 family signature motif. It is constitutively expressed in a wide range of tissues including brain, gill, gut, heart, kidney, liver, muscle, skin and spleen. Transcription is not modulated by lipopolysaccharide, poly(I:C) or trout recombinant IL-1beta in primary head kidney leucocyte cultures and RTS-11 cells, a macrophage cell line. However, expression is downregulated by lipopolysaccharide and rIL-1beta in RTG-2 cells, a fibroblast-like cell line. An alternatively spliced form of IL-18 mRNA has also been found and translates into a 182 amino acid protein with a 17 amino acid deletion in the precursor region of the authentic form. This alternatively spliced form is also widely expressed although much lower than the authentic form. Interestingly, its expression is upregulated by lipopolysaccharide and poly(I:C), but is not affected by rIL-1beta in RTG-2 cells. The present study suggests that alternative splicing may play an important role in regulating IL-18 activities in rainbow trout.

  12. Relative sensitivity of bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to acute exposures of cadmium and zinc.

    PubMed

    Hansen, James A; Welsh, Paul G; Lipton, Josh; Cacela, Dave; Dailey, Anne D

    2002-01-01

    Bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) were recently listed as threatened in the United States under the federal Endangered Species Act. Present and historical habitat of this species includes waterways that have been impacted by metals released from mining and mineral processing activities. We conducted paired bioassays with bull trout and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to examine the relative sensitivity of each species to Cd and Zn independently and as a mixture. A total of 15 pairs of acute toxicity bioassays were completed to evaluate the effects of different water hardness (30 or 90 mg/L as CaCO3), pH (6.5 or 7.5), and temperature (8 or 12 degrees C) on Cd and Zn toxicity. For both species, the acute toxicity of both Cd and Zn was greater than previously observed in laboratory studies. Bull trout were about twice as tolerant of Cd and about 50% more tolerant of Zn than were rainbow trout. Higher hardness and lower pH water produced lower toxicity and slower rates of toxicity in both species. Elevated temperature significantly increased the sensitivity of bull trout to Zn but decreased the sensitivity (not significantly) of rainbow trout to Zn. At a hardness of 30 mg/L, the toxicity values (i.e., median lethal concentration; 120-h LC50) for both species were lower than the current U.S. national water quality criteria for protection of aquatic life, indicating that current national criteria may not be protective of sensitive salmonids--including the threatened bull trout--in low calcium waters.

  13. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons benzo[a]pyrene and phenanthrene inhibit intestinal lipase activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    de Gelder, Stefan; Sæle, Øystein; de Veen, Bas T H; Vos, Joëlle; Flik, Gert; Berntssen, Marc H G; Klaren, Peter H M

    2017-08-01

    Elevated levels of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are detected in aquafeeds where fish oils are (partially) replaced by vegetable oils. The highly lipophilic PAHs solubilize readily in oil droplets and micelles in the intestinal lumen that can affect enzymatic lipid digestion by altering lipase activity. We therefore investigated the effect of two PAHs, benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene (PHE), on bile salt-activated lipase (BAL) activity in desalted luminal extracts of the proximal intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) using the triacylglycerides rapeseed oil and fish oil as substrates. The hydrolysis of rapeseed oil and fish oil measured at a calculated substrate concentration of 2.2mM, increased linearly up to 30min at 15°C. Substrate dependency under initial velocity conditions was described by simple Michaelis-Menten kinetics with a Km value of 1.2mM for rapeseed and fish oil. Rapeseed oil hydrolysis was inhibited by 1nM BaP and 10nM PHE. The hydrolysis of fish oil was only inhibited by 10μM BaP. The in vitro lipase activity data were corroborated by TLC/HPLC analysis of the reaction products, showing that in the presence of BaP and PHE, 46-80% less free fatty acids (FFA) were hydrolysed from rapeseed and fish oil triacylglycerides. The presence of low concentrations of BaP and PHE decreased rapeseed oil hydrolysis by BAL whereas fish oil hydrolysis was not affected. The replacement of fish oil by rapeseed oil in aquafeeds introduces PAHs that could affect lipid digestion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cell proliferation and apoptosis in optic nerve and brain integration centers of adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after optic nerve injury.

    PubMed

    Pushchina, Evgeniya V; Shukla, Sachin; Varaksin, Anatoly A; Obukhov, Dmitry K

    2016-04-01

    Fishes have remarkable ability to effectively rebuild the structure of nerve cells and nerve fibers after central nervous system injury. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In order to address this issue, we investigated the proliferation and apoptosis of cells in contralateral and ipsilateral optic nerves, after stab wound injury to the eye of an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Heterogenous population of proliferating cells was investigated at 1 week after injury. TUNEL labeling gave a qualitative and quantitative assessment of apoptosis in the cells of optic nerve of trout 2 days after injury. After optic nerve injury, apoptotic response was investigated, and mass patterns of cell migration were found. The maximal concentration of apoptotic bodies was detected in the areas of mass clumps of cells. It is probably indicative of massive cell death in the area of high phagocytic activity of macrophages/microglia. At 1 week after optic nerve injury, we observed nerve cell proliferation in the trout brain integration centers: the cerebellum and the optic tectum. In the optic tectum, proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-immunopositive radial glia-like cells were identified. Proliferative activity of nerve cells was detected in the dorsal proliferative (matrix) area of the cerebellum and in parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers whereas local clusters of undifferentiated cells which formed neurogenic niches were observed in both the optic tectum and cerebellum after optic nerve injury. In vitro analysis of brain cells of trout showed that suspension cells compared with monolayer cells retain higher proliferative activity, as evidenced by PCNA immunolabeling. Phase contrast observation showed mitosis in individual cells and the formation of neurospheres which gradually increased during 1-4 days of culture. The present findings suggest that trout can be used as a novel model for studying neuronal regeneration.

  15. Biochemical and molecular heterogeneity among isolates of Yersinia ruckeri from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum) in north west Germany

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Enteric Redmouth Disease (ERM), caused by Yersinia ruckeri, is one of the most important infectious diseases in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture in Europe. More recently, non-motile vaccine resistant isolates appear to have evolved and are causing disease problems throughout Europe, including Germany. The aim of this study was to analyse the variation of biochemical and molecular characteristics of Y. ruckeri isolates collected in north west Germany as a basis for strain differentiation. The isolates originated mainly from rainbow trout and were characterised by biochemical profiling, 16S rDNA sequencing, repetitive sequence-based PCRs, including (GTG)5-PCR, BOX-PCR, ERIC-PCR and REP-PCR, and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results In total, 83 isolates were characterised, including 48 isolates collected during a field study in north west Germany. All isolates were confirmed as Y. ruckeri by the API 20E system. Five isolates were additionally confirmed as Y. ruckeri by Y. ruckeri-specific PCR and 16S rDNA sequencing. Only 17 isolates hydrolyzed Tween 80/20. Sixty-six isolates (79.5%) were non-motile. Two different patterns were obtained by REP-PCR, five patterns by ERIC-PCR, four patterns by (GTG)5-PCR and three patterns by BOX-PCR. NotI-directed PFGE resulted in 17 patterns that differed from each other by 25–29 fragments. Isolates from the field study clustered together as PFGE type C. According to the results of API 20E, repetitive sequence-based PCRs and PFGE, these isolates could be subdivided into 27 different groups. Conclusions The detailed molecular and phenotypic characterisation scheme developed in this study could be used to help trace the dissemination of Y. ruckeri isolates, and thus may represent part of improved disease monitoring plans in the future. PMID:24144165

  16. Oleic Acid and Octanoic Acid Sensing Capacity in Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss Is Direct in Hypothalamus and Brockmann Bodies

    PubMed Central

    Librán-Pérez, Marta; López-Patiño, Marcos A.; Míguez, Jesús M.; Soengas, José L.

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we provided evidence for the presence in hypothalamus and Brockmann bodies (BB) of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss of sensing systems responding to changes in levels of oleic acid (long-chain fatty acid, LCFA) or octanoic acid (medium-chain fatty acid, MCFA). Since those effects could be attributed to an indirect effect, in the present study, we evaluated in vitro if hypothalamus and BB respond to changes in FA in a way similar to that observed in vivo. In a first set of experiments, we evaluated in hypothalamus and BB exposed to increased oleic acic or octanoic acid concentrations changes in parameters related to FA metabolism, FA transport, nuclear receptors and transcription factors, reactive oxygen species (ROS) effectors, components of the KATP channel, and (in hypothalamus) neuropeptides related to food intake. In a second set of experiments, we evaluated in hypothalamus the response of those parameters to oleic acid or octanoic acid in the presence of inhibitors of fatty acid sensing components. The responses observed in vitro in hypothalamus are comparable to those previously observed in vivo and specific inhibitors counteracted in many cases the effects of FA. These results support the capacity of rainbow trout hypothalamus to directly sense changes in MCFA or LCFA levels. In BB increased concentrations of oleic acid or octanoic acid induced changes that in general were comparable to those observed in hypothalamus supporting direct FA sensing in this tissue. However, those changes were not coincident with those observed in vivo allowing us to suggest that the FA sensing capacity of BB previously characterized in vivo is influenced by other neuroendocrine systems. PMID:23533628

  17. Expression of immune-related genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) induced by probiotic bacteria during Lactococcus garvieae infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Sánchez, Tania; Balcázar, José Luis; Merrifield, Daniel L; Carnevali, Oliana; Gioacchini, Giorgia; de Blas, Ignacio; Ruiz-Zarzuela, Imanol

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on the control of lactococcosis as well as to assess the impact of probiotics on the expression of immune-related genes in the head kidney and intestine of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis and Leuconostoc mesenteroides, were administered orally at 10⁶ CFU g⁻¹ feed to fish for 36 days. Twenty-one days after the start of the feeding period, fish were challenged with Lactococcus garvieae. Only the fish fed the diet containing Lb. plantarum showed significantly (P < 0.05) improved protection against L. garvieae compared to the control. Subsequently, real-time PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α in the head kidney, and IL-8, Tlr5 and IgT in the intestine of the control and Lb. plantarum groups. IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α gene expression were significantly up-regulated by Lb. plantarum. Moreover, the mRNA levels of IL-10, IL-8 and IgT were significantly higher in the Lb. plantarum group after L. garvieae infection, suggesting that Lb. plantarum can stimulate the immune response of rainbow trout. PCR-DGGE revealed no detectable levels of the probiotics or the pathogen present on the distal intestinal mucosa. These findings demonstrate that direct probiotic-host interactions with the intestine are not always necessary to induce host stimulatory responses which ultimately enhance disease resistance. Furthermore, as L. garvieae did not colonise the intestinal tract, and therefore likely did not infect via this route, the antagonistic properties of the probiotic candidate towards L. garvieae were likely of little influence in mediating the improved disease resistance which could be attributed to the elevated immunological response.

  18. Trace elements in farmed fish (Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idella and Oncorhynchus mykiss) from Beijing: implication from feed.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Haifeng; Qin, Dongli; Mou, Zhenbo; Zhao, Jiwei; Tang, Shizhan; Wu, Song; Gao, Lei

    2016-06-01

    Concentrations of 30 trace elements, Li, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, Zn, Se, Sr, Co, Al, Ti, As, Cs, Sc, Te, Ba, Ga, Pb, Sn, Cd, Sb, Ag, Tm, TI, Be, Hg and U in major cultured freshwater fish species (common carp-Cyprinus carpio, grass carp-Ctenopharyngodon idella and rainbow trout-Oncorhynchus mykiss) with the corresponding feed from 23 fish farms in Beijing, China, were investigated. The results revealed that Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Sr, Se were the major accumulated essential elements and Al, Ti were the major accumulated non-essential elements, while Mo, Co, Ga, Sn, Cd, Sb, Ag, Tm, U, TI, Be, Te, Pb and Hg were hardly detectable. Contents of investigated trace elements were close to or much lower than those in fish from other areas in China. Correlation analysis suggested that the elemental concentrations in those fish species were relatively constant and did not vary much with the fish feed. In comparison with the limits for aquafeeds and fish established by Chinese legislation, Cd in 37.5% of rainbow trout feeds and As in 20% of rainbow trout samples exceeded the maximum limit, assuming that inorganic As accounts for 10% of total As. Further health risk assessment showed that fish consumption would not pose risks to consumers as far as non-essential element contaminants are concerned. However, the carcinogenic risk of As in rainbow trout for the inhabitants in Beijing exceeded the acceptable level of 10(-)(4), to which more attention should be paid.

  19. Consecutive emamectin benzoate and deltamethrin treatments affect the expressions and activities of detoxification enzymes in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cárcamo, Juan Guillermo; Aguilar, Marcelo N; Carreño, Constanza F; Vera, Tamara; Arias-Darraz, Luis; Figueroa, Jaime E; Romero, Alex P; Alvarez, Marco; Yañez, Alejandro J

    2017-01-01

    Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) subjected to three consecutive, alternating treatments with emamectin benzoate (EMB) and deltamethrin (DM) during outbreaks of Caligus rogercresseyi in a farm located in southern Chile (Hornopiren, Chiloé), were studied to determine the effects of these treatments on the protein and enzymatic activity levels of cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A), flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) in different tissues. Consecutive and alternating EMB/DM treatments resulted in a 10-fold increase and 3-fold decrease of CYP1A protein levels in the intestine and gills, respectively. Notably, CYP1A activity levels decreased in most of the analyzed tissues. FMO protein and activity levels markedly increased in the kidney and the intestine. GST was up-regulated in all tissues, either as protein or enzyme activity. When comparing consecutive EMB/DM treatments against previous studies of EMB treatment alone, CYP1A activity levels were similarly diminished, except in muscle. Likewise, FMO activity levels were increased in most of the analyzed tissues, particularly in the muscle, kidney, and intestine. The increases observed for GST were essentially unchanged between consecutive EMB/DM and EMB only treatments. These results indicate that consecutive EMB/DM treatments in rainbow trout induce the expression and activity of FMO and GST enzymes and decrease CYP1A activity. These altered activities of detoxification enzymes could generate imbalances in metabolic processes, synthesis, degradation of hormones and complications associated with drug interactions. It is especially important when analyzing possible effects of consecutive antiparasitic treatments on withholding periods and salmon farming yields.

  20. Effects of carbon dioxide exposure on intensively cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss: Physiological responses and fillet attributes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Danley, M.L.; Kenney, P.B.; Mazik, P.M.; Kiser, R.; Hankins, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (261.6 ?? 24.7 g initial weight, mean ?? SEM) at 13.1 ?? 0.2 C were exposed for 94 d to one of three CO2 treatments: control (22.1 ?? 2.8 mg/L), medium (34.5 ?? 3.8 mg/L), or high (48.7 ?? 4.4 mg/L). Trout were checked daily for survival, and fish were sampled at 0, 28, 56, and 84 d for physiological responses, growth, and fillet quality assessments. Trout were also challenged to a 15-min crowding stress at 93 d to assess their ability to initiate a stress response during hypercapnia. Chronically exposed trout showed nearly 100% survival through 84 d exposure (1 of 1,500 fish died). Growth and physiological results showed that increasing elevated CO2 concentrations result in corresponding decreased growth rates and CO2-specific physiological parameters: The medium and high CO2 treatments had significantly slower growth and subsequently smaller fish by 84 d. Exposed trout also showed significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma chloride for medium and high CO2 treatments compared to the control from 28 through 84 d. Decreased growth and smaller fish in the medium and high CO2 treatments resulted in correspondingly smaller fresh and smoked fillet weights. Chronic CO2 exposure did not result in notable changes in ultimate muscle pH. Exposure to 15-min crowding stress at 93 d resulted in significant changes in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, glucose, and chloride for all treatment groups. CO2-specific changes were detected in hematocrit, plasma cortisol, and plasma chloride responses following the 15-min crowding stress. ?? Copyright by the World Aquaculture Society 2005.

  1. New insights into the nutritional regulation of gluconeogenesis in carnivorous rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): a gene duplication trail.

    PubMed

    Marandel, Lucie; Seiliez, Iban; Véron, Vincent; Skiba-Cassy, Sandrine; Panserat, Stéphane

    2015-07-01

    The rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is considered to be a strictly carnivorous fish species that is metabolically adapted for high catabolism of proteins and low utilization of dietary carbohydrates. This species consequently has a "glucose-intolerant" phenotype manifested by persistent hyperglycemia when fed a high-carbohydrate diet. Gluconeogenesis in adult fish is also poorly, if ever, regulated by carbohydrates, suggesting that this metabolic pathway is involved in this specific phenotype. In this study, we hypothesized that the fate of duplicated genes after the salmonid-specific 4th whole genome duplication (Ss4R) may have led to adaptive innovation and that their study might provide new elements to enhance our understanding of gluconeogenesis and poor dietary carbohydrate use in this species. Our evolutionary analysis of gluconeogenic genes revealed that pck1, pck2, fbp1a, and g6pca were retained as singletons after Ss4r, while g6pcb1, g6pcb2, and fbp1b ohnolog pairs were maintained. For all genes, duplication may have led to sub- or neofunctionalization. Expression profiles suggest that the gluconeogenesis pathway remained active in trout fed a no-carbohydrate diet. When trout were fed a high-carbohydrate diet (30%), most of the gluconeogenic genes were non- or downregulated, except for g6pbc2 ohnologs, whose RNA levels were surprisingly increased. This study demonstrates that Ss4R in trout involved adaptive innovation via gene duplication and via the outcome of the resulting ohnologs. Indeed, maintenance of ohnologous g6pcb2 pair may contribute in a significant way to the glucose-intolerant phenotype of trout and may partially explain its poor use of dietary carbohydrates.

  2. Response of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) D-11 cell line to 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) exposure.

    PubMed

    Ferraris, M; Flora, A; Fornasari, D; Radice, S; Marabini, L; Frigerio, S; Chiesara, E

    2002-08-01

    The rainbow trout cytochrome P4501A gene subfamily consists of two members, CYP1A1 and CYP1A3, which are induced by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). In this study, we investigated the induction of cytochrome P4501A3 in the rainbow trout (Onchorhynchus mykiss) D-11 cell line after 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) exposure by generating chimeric constructs in which a 2.3 kb fragment or portion of the 5'-flanking region of the trout cytochrome CYP1A3 gene was fused to the firefly luciferase (Luc) gene. The constructs were then transiently transfected into the trout D-11 cells and their transcriptional activity measured by luciferase assay after treatment with different 3MC concentrations. Maximal induction following exposure to 2 microM 3MC was 2.2-fold after 72 h. Deletion of the region specifying the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) of the mRNA encoding the CYP1A3 gene increased unstimulated luciferase activity but also led to a loss of response to 3MC treatment. This finding suggests that the region specifying the 5'UTR contains a negative element that is also involved in the transcriptional response to 3MC.

  3. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Ford, Michael J; Murdoch, Andrew R; Hughes, Michael S; Seamons, Todd R; LaHood, Eric S

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26-93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24-54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River.

  4. Heterochrony and the development of the escape response: prehatching movements in the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Gibb, Alice C; Liu, Corina; Swanson, Brook O

    2007-10-01

    Teleost fishes produce coordinated escape responses (C-starts) at hatching. This implies that essential swimming morphologies and motor behaviors develop during the incubation interval while the embryo is in the chorion. We examined prehatching motor behaviors in rainbow trout Oncorhycus mykiss (considered morphologically mature at hatching) and compared this species with zebrafish Danio rerio (considered morphologically immature) and assessed two hypotheses concerning the development of escape behavior. (1) Escape behavior is associated with the formation of key elements of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems; thus, the escape response appears early in ontogeny, when these elements form. (2) Escape behavior is not directly associated with the formation of underlying morphological elements; instead, it appears at hatching (i.e. when needed). We find that rainbow trout, like zebrafish, respond to touch early in the incubation interval, but do not demonstrate a complete C-start (including the second, propulsive stage) until shortly before hatching. At hatching, rainbow trout and zebrafish are similar in the degree of development of the chondocranium, paired fins and visceral arches (which comprise the larval jaw and gill support); however, rainbow trout have incipient rays in their unpaired fins (dorsal, anal and caudal), whereas zebrafish retain the embryonic fin fold. Although rainbow trout are more mature in axial swimming morphology at hatching, the essential neural and musculoskeletal systems that produce a coordinated escape response are functional at hatching in both species. This finding supports the evolutionary hypothesis that an effective escape response is critical for the survival of newly hatched teleost fishes.

  5. Broodstock History Strongly Influences Natural Spawning Success in Hatchery Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, Andrew R.; Hughes, Michael S.; Seamons, Todd R.; LaHood, Eric S.

    2016-01-01

    We used genetic parentage analysis of 6200 potential parents and 5497 juvenile offspring to evaluate the relative reproductive success of hatchery and natural steelhead (Onchorhynchus mykiss) when spawning in the wild between 2008 and 2011 in the Wenatchee River, Washington. Hatchery fish originating from two prior generation hatchery parents had <20% of the reproductive success of natural origin spawners. In contrast, hatchery females originating from a cross between two natural origin parents of the prior generation had equivalent or better reproductive success than natural origin females. Males originating from such a cross had reproductive success of 26–93% that of natural males. The reproductive success of hatchery females and males from crosses consisting of one natural origin fish and one hatchery origin fish was 24–54% that of natural fish. The strong influence of hatchery broodstock origin on reproductive success confirms similar results from a previous study of a different population of the same species and suggests a genetic basis for the low reproductive success of hatchery steelhead, although environmental factors cannot be entirely ruled out. In addition to broodstock origin, fish size, return time, age, and spawning location were significant predictors of reproductive success. Our results indicate that incorporating natural fish into hatchery broodstock is clearly beneficial for improving subsequent natural spawning success, even in a population that has a decades-long history of hatchery releases, as is the case in the Wenatchee River. PMID:27737000

  6. Comparing the effects of feeding a grain- or a fish meal-based diet on water quality, waste production, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within low exchange water recirculating aquaculture systems

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Feeding a fish meal-free grain-based diet (GB) was compared to feeding a fish meal-based diet (FM) relative to water quality criteria, waste production, water treatment process performance, and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss performance within six replicated water recirculating aquaculture system...

  7. Dataset of proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) measured using a novel GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay.

    PubMed

    Kutyrev, Ivan; Cleveland, Beth; Leeds, Timothy; Wiens, Gregory D

    2017-04-01

    A GeXP multiplex, RT-PCR assay was developed and optimized that simultaneously measures expression of a suite of immune-relevant genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), concentrating on tumor necrosis factor and interleukin-1 ligand/receptor systems and acute phase response genes. The dataset includes expression values for drpt, il11a, il1b1, il1b2, il1b3, il1r-like-1(e3-5), il1r-like-1(e9-11), il1r1-like-a, il1r1-like-b, il1r2, saa, tnfa1, tnfa2, tnfa3, tnfrsf1a, tnfrsf1a-like-a, tnfrsf1a-like-b, tnfrsf5, and tnfrsf9. Gene expression was measured at four time-points post-challenge in both a resistant line (ARS-Fp-R) and a susceptible line (ARS-Fp-S) of rainbow trout. In addition, fish body weight, spleen index and the Flavobacterium psychrophilum load are reported. These data are an extension of information presented and discussed in "Proinflammatory cytokine and cytokine receptor gene expression kinetics following challenge with Flavobacterium psychrophilum in resistant and susceptible lines of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)" (Kutyrev et al., 2016) [1].

  8. Fatty-acid profiles of white muscle and liver in stream-maturing steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss from early migration to kelt emigration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Penney, Zachary L.; Moffitt, Christine M.

    2015-01-01

    The profiles of specific fatty acids (FA) in white muscle and liver of fasting steelhead troutOncorhynchus mykiss were evaluated at three periods during their prespawning migration and at kelt emigration in the Snake–Columbia River of Washington, Oregon and Idaho, to improve the understanding of energy change. Twenty-seven FAs were identified; depletion of 10 of these was positively correlated in liver and white muscle of prespawning O. mykiss. To observe relative changes in FA content more accurately over sampling intervals, the lipid fraction of tissues was used to normalize the quantity of individual FA to an equivalent tissue wet mass. Saturated and monounsaturated FAs were depleted between upstream migration in September and kelt emigration in June, whereas polyunsaturated FAs were more conserved. Liver was depleted of FAs more rapidly than muscle. Three FAs were detected across all sampling intervals: 16:0, 18:1 and 22:6n3, which are probably structurally important to membranes. When structurally important FAs of O. mykiss are depleted to provide energy, physiological performance and survival may be affected.

  9. Differences in the induction of cyp1A and related genes in cultured rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Additional considerations for the use of EROD activity as a biomarker.

    PubMed

    Valdehita, A; Fernández-Cruz, M L; Torrent, F; Sericano, J L; Navas, J M

    2012-07-01

    Two rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss fish farms were repeatedly sampled in order to observe the variability of ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity and of related genes in the liver. Fish coming from fish farm A exhibited EROD levels that could be considered as basal according to the scientific literature, however, EROD activity in fish coming from fish farm B was significantly increased. This was accompanied by augmented aryl hydrocarbon receptor (ahr) and cytochrome P4501A (cyp1A) messenger RNA expression and reduced oestrogen receptor (er) and vitellogenin (vtg) transcription. Only sediment extracts from the entry channel of fish farm B induced EROD activity in O. mykiss cultured cells, however, this induction could not be explained by the levels of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB) measured in the sediments. The results of this study point out that O. mykiss cultured in fish farms could be used as sentinels for indication of pollution. In this particular work, however, no conclusive evidence has been found for a relationship between the presence of PAHs and PCBs and the observed EROD induction.

  10. Effects of heat stress on respiratory burst, oxidative damage and SERPINH1 (HSP47) mRNA expression in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanni; Liu, Zhe; Li, Zhen; Shi, Haina; Kang, Yujun; Wang, Jianfu; Huang, Jinqiang; Jiang, Li

    2016-04-01

    For rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, high temperature is a major abiotic stress that limits its growth and productivity. In this study, spleen macrophage respiratory burst (RB), serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), serum malondialdehyde (MDA) and mRNA expression of the SERPINH1 (HSP47) gene in different tissues (liver, spleen, head kidney and heart) were measured in unstressed (18 °C) and heat-stressed (25 °C) fish. Spleen macrophage RB activity, serum SOD activity and MDA content all increased significantly (P < 0.05) during heat shock, and peaked at 8, 12 and 4 h, respectively. SERPINH1 mRNA expression responded in a time- and tissue-specific manner to heat stress, which was mainly reflected in the significant up-regulation in all tissues (P < 0.05) and greater expression in the liver than the other tissues (P < 0.05). During the heat-shock recovery period, the MDA content returned to the unstressed level. These results indicate that heat shock causes cell injury, induces oxidative damage and promotes SERPINH1 mRNA expression, which plays an important protective function during heat stress in O. mykiss. In practice, close attention should be given to temperature changes in O. mykiss production to reduce the effects of high temperature.

  11. Gene expression patterns in Rainbow Trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, exposed to a suite of model toxicants

    SciTech Connect

    Hook, Sharon E.; Skillman, Ann D.; Small, Jonathan A.; Schultz, Irv R.

    2006-05-25

    The increased availability and use of DNA microarrays has allowed the characterization of gene expression patterns associated with different toxicants. An important question is whether toxicant induced changes in gene expression in fish are sufficiently diverse to allow for identification of specific modes of action and/or specific contaminants. In theory, each class of toxicant may generate a gene expression profile unique to its mode of toxic action. We exposed isogenic (cloned) rainbow trout Oncorhyncus mykiss, to sublethal levels of a series of model toxicants with varying modes of action, including ethynylestradiol (xeno-estrogen), trenbolone (anabolic steroid; model androgen), 2,2,4,4´tetrabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-47, thyroid active), diquat (oxidant stressor), chromium VI, and benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) for a period of 1-3 weeks. Following exposure, fish were euthanized, livers harvested and RNA extracted. Fluorescently labeled cDNA were generated and hybridized against a commercially available Atlantic Salmon / Trout array (GRASP project, University of Victoria) spotted with 16,000 cDNA’s. The slides were scanned to measure abundance of a given transcript in each sample relative to controls. Data were analyzed via Genespring (Silicon Genetics) to identify a list of up and down regulated genes, as well as to determine gene clustering patterns that can be used as “expression signatures”. Our analysis indicates each toxicant generated specific gene expression profiles. Most genes exhibiting altered expression responded to only one of the toxicants. Relatively few genes are co-expressed in multiple treatments. For example, BaP and Diquat, both of which exert toxicity via oxidative stress, up-regulated 28 of the same genes, of over 100 genes altered by ether treatment. Other genes associated with steroidogenesis, p450 and estrogen responsive genes appear to be useful for selectively identifying toxicant mode of in fish, suggesting a link between gene expression

  12. Transcription of immune genes upon challenge with viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) in DNA vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cuesta, A; Tafalla, C

    2009-01-07

    Even though DNA vaccination has proven as one of the most effective methods in controlling fish rhabdoviruses, the immune mechanisms responsible for protection are still unknown. Many studies have focused on studying which cytokines and immune genes are triggered in response to the vaccine at different times post-vaccination. However, to elucidate the mechanism(s) responsible for protection, to our understanding it is also of great relevance to study the immune response to the virus in fish that have been previously vaccinated and compare it to the effects that the virus might have on non-vaccinated fish. This type of study has never been performed to date in fish. Thus, in the current work, we vaccinated rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) with a DNA vaccine against viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and 30 days post-vaccination we challenged the fish with a virulent VHSV. It was then, that we studied the immune response to the virus at very early times post-infection in fish, in order to compare the effects of VHSV on vaccinated or non-vaccinated trout. We studied the levels of expression of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class Ialpha and IIalpha genes, immunoglobulin M (IgM), CD8alpha, type I interferon (IFN), Mx, IFN-gamma and natural killer enhancing factor (NKEF) in head kidney, spleen and blood. When we compared the effect that VHSV had on vaccinated fish to the effect that the virus produced in fish vaccinated with the empty plasmid, the genes that were significantly up-regulated were IL-1beta and MHC IIalpha in the spleen at day 1 post-infection, MHC Ialpha in all organs at day 1 post-infection, and IFN and Mx in the spleen and blood at days 1 and 3 post-infection, respectively. Genes that correlate with an increased specific immune response were not significantly increased in response to VHSV in these vaccinated animals. The results suggest that DNA vaccination induces a memory state in fish that, on the

  13. Divergent spatial regulation of duplicated fatty acid-binding protein (fabp) genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Bayır, Mehtap; Bayır, Abdulkadir; Wright, Jonathan M

    2015-06-01

    The increased use of plant oil as a dietary supplement with the resultant high dietary lipid loads challenges the lipid transport, metabolism and storage mechanisms in economically important aquaculture species, such as rainbow trout. Fatty acid-binding proteins (Fabp), ubiquitous in tissues highly active in fatty acid metabolism, participate in lipid uptake and transport, and overall lipid homeostasis. In the present study, searches of nucleotide sequence databases identified mRNA transcripts coded by 14 different fatty acid-binding protein (fabp) genes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), which include the complete minimal suite of seven distinct fabp genes (fabp1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 10 and 11) discovered thus far in teleost fishes. Phylogenetic analyses suggest that many of these extant fabp genes in rainbow trout exist as duplicates, which putatively arose owing to the teleost-specific whole genome duplication (WGD); three pairs of duplicated fabp genes (fabp2a.1/fabp2a.2, fabp7b.1/fabp7b.2 and fabp10a.1/fabp10a.2) most likely were generated by the salmonid-specific WGD subsequent to the teleost-specific WGD; and fabp3 and fabp6 exist as single copy genes in the rainbow trout genome. Assay of the steady-state levels of fabp gene transcripts by RT-qPCR revealed: (1) steady-state transcript levels differ substantially between fabp genes and, in some instances, by as much as 30×10(4)-fold; (2) some fabp transcripts are widely distributed in many tissues, whereas others are restricted to one or a few tissues; and (3) divergence of regulatory mechanisms that control spatial transcription of duplicated fabp genes in rainbow trout appears related to length of time since their duplication. The suite of fabp genes described here provides the foundation to investigate the role(s) of fatty acid-binding proteins in the uptake, mobilization and storage of fatty acids in cultured fish fed diets differing in lipid content, especially the use of plant oil as a dietary supplement

  14. Acute handling disturbance modulates plasma insulin-like growth factor binding proteins in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Shepherd, B S; Aluru, N; Vijayan, M M

    2011-04-01

    The effects of acute stressor exposure on proximal (growth hormone [GH]) and distal (insulin-like growth factor-I [IFG-I] and insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins [IFGBPs]) components of the somatotropic axis are poorly understood in finfish. Rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were exposed to a 5-min handling disturbance to mimic an acute stressor episode, and levels of plasma GH, IGF-I, and IGFBPs at 0, 1, 4, and 24 h post-stressor exposure were measured. An unstressed group was also sampled at the same clock times (09:00, 10:00, 13:00, and 08:00 [the following day]) as acute stress sampling to determine temporal changes in the above somatotropic axis components. The acute stressor transiently elevated plasma cortisol and glucose levels at 1 and 4 h post-stressor exposure, whereas no changes were seen in the unstressed group. Plasma GH levels were not affected by handling stress or sampling time in the unstressed animals. Plasma IGF-I levels were significantly depressed at 1 and 4 h post-stressor exposure, but no discernible temporal pattern was seen in the unstressed animals. Using a western ligand blotting technique, we detected plasma IGFBPs of 21, 32, 42, and 50 kDa in size. The plasma levels of the lower-molecular-weight IGFBPs (21 and 32 kDa) were unaffected by handling stressor, nor were there any discernible temporal patterns in the unstressed animals. By contrast, the higher-molecular-weight IGFBPs (42 and 50 kDa) were affected by stress or time of sampling. Levels of the 42-kDa IGFBP levels significantly decreased over the sampling period in unstressed control animals, but this temporal drop was eliminated in stressed animals. Levels of the 50-kDa IGFBPs also decreased significantly over the sampling time in unstressed trout, whereas handling disturbance transiently increased levels of this IGFBP at 1 h but not at 4 and 24 h post-stressor exposure compared with the control group. Overall, our results suggest that acute stress adaptation involves

  15. Evaluation of Enterococcus spp. from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed, and rearing environment against fish pathogens.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Carlos; Muñoz-Atienza, Estefanía; Hernández, Pablo E; Herranz, Carmen; Cintas, Luis M; Igrejas, Gilberto; Poeta, Patrícia

    2015-04-01

    The use of lactic acid bacteria of aquatic origin as probiotics constitutes an alternative strategy to the antibiotic treatment for disease control in aquaculture. Enterococci are currently used as probiotics in human and animal health. In this study, we evaluated the safety of 64 enterococci isolated from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum), feed and rearing environment, and their antimicrobial activity against 9 fish pathogens. The 64 enterococcal isolates were identified to the species level by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), using specific primers for the different enterococcal species, and confirmed by superoxide dismutase gene sequencing. Enterococcus faecium and E. hirae were the most common species (42.2 and 35.9%, respectively). A total of 48 isolates (75%) showed phenotypic resistance to at least 1 antibiotic determined by a disk-diffusion method, and 25 isolates (39.1%) harbored at least 1 antibiotic resistance gene [erm(B), tet(M), tet(S), tet(K), tet(L), tet(T), vanC2, and aad(E)], detected by PCR. One (1.6%) isolate produced gelatinase and none produced hemolysin, using a plate assay. The virulence genes gelE (46.9%), efaAfs (17.2%), agg (1.6%), and hyl (1.6%) were detected by PCR. A total of 48 isolates (75%) exerted antimicrobial activity against 1 or more of the tested fish pathogens, using a stab-on-agar test. From these isolates, 21 (43.8%) harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene (entP, entL50A and entL50B, hirJM79, entSE-K4, entQ and entA), detected by PCR. None of the enterococci showed bile deconjugation and mucin degradation abilities. A total of 17 enterococcal isolates (26.6%) that did not harbor any antibiotic resistance or virulence factor were considered safe for application as probiotics, including 6 isolates (35.3%) that showed antimicrobial activity against at least 1 fish pathogen and harbored at least 1 bacteriocin-encoding gene. Rainbow trout, feed, and rearing environment constitute an appropriate source for the

  16. Protective effects of the prebiotic on the immunological indicators of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) infected with Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Yarahmadi, Peyman; Ghafari Farsani, Hamed; Khazaei, Amin; Khodadadi, Mohammad; Rashidiyan, Ghasem; Jalali, M Ali

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effects of dietary administration of commercial prebiotic, Immunogen, on immunological indicators, enzymatic responses and stress tolerance in juvenile (81.65 ± 1.49) rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following Aeromonas hydrophila infection. The first group of fish was fed with the diet containing 2 g kg(-1) Immunogen whilst the control group received the diet free of Immunogen. There were three replicates per group. After 6 weeks feeding, the control group were divided into two treatments injected with saline buffer (control), and 1.5 × 10(8) CFU A. hydrophila respectively. The fish fed with the Immunogen supplemented diet were also injected with 1.5 × 10(8) CFU A. hydrophila. Our results revealed that dietary Immunogen increased the level of white blood cell (WBC) and percentage of lymphocyte (P < 0.05), however, the level of red blood cell (RBC), Hematocrit (Hct), hemoglobin (Hb) and percent of monocyte decreased in Untreated-Challenged group but unaffected in the group fed with Immunogen (P < 0.05). The level of lysozyme, alternative complement, antiprotease activity, total protein, albumin and globulin decreased in Untreated- Challenged group compared to control group. However, there was an increase in the level of lysozyme, alternative complement, antiprotease activity, bactericidal activity, in the Treated- Challenged group compared to other groups (P < 0.05). Serum alkali phosphatase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase, significantly increased fallowing challenge with A. hydrophila but in the Treated-Challenged group, there was no significant difference compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level was not different between groups (P > 0.05). Serum cortisol and glucose levels were higher in the challenge group, but these levels were lower in fish under challenge that were fed Immunogen-supplemented diet in contrast to the group fed control diet

  17. Effects of Pb plus Cd mixtures on toxicity, and internal electrolyte and osmotic balance in the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Clemow, Yvonne H; Wilkie, Michael P

    2015-04-01

    The physiological and toxicological effects of Cd and Pb have been thoroughly studied, but relatively little work has been done to determine how mixtures of these metals affect fishes in soft (<100 μmol L(-1)Ca(2+)) slightly acidic (pH ∼6) waters typical of many lakes in the Canadian Shield and other regions. Recently, it has been suggested that acute exposure to Cd plus Pb mixtures (3h) had greater than additive effects on both Ca(2+) and Na(+) influx, which could potentially exacerbate disturbances to ion balance and result in greater toxicity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The goal of the present study was to test this hypothesis by assessing the physiological and toxicological effects of Cd plus Pb mixtures over longer time periods (3-5 days), but at relatively low, more environmentally relevant concentrations of these metals. Accordingly, toxicity and measurements of blood acid-base regulation (PaO2, pHa), hematology (Ht, Hb, MCHC, and Protein), ionic composition (body ions and plasma Ca(2+), Na(+), Cl(-), osmolality), unidirectional Na(+) fluxes and branchial Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity were measured in rainbow trout exposed to Cd plus Pb mixtures. Experiments on rainbow trout, implanted with dorsal aortic catheters for repetitive blood sampling, demonstrated that exposure to Pb alone (26 nmol PbL(-1)) was less toxic than Cd alone (6 nmol CdL(-1)), which was much less toxic to the fish than a Cd plus Pb mixture (7 nmol CdL(-1) plus 45 nmol PbL(-1)), which led to greater than additive 80% mortality by 5d. Both Cd and Pb inhibited Na(+) influx over 3d exposure to the metals, which was partially offset by decreases in the diffusive efflux (outflux) of Na(+) across the gill. Despite an absence of detectable effects of Pb alone on plasma ion balance, Cd plus Pb mixtures exacerbated Cd-induced reductions in plasma Ca(2+) concentration, and resulted in pronounced reductions in plasma Na(+), Cl(-), and osmolality. No effects on Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activity

  18. An ecological risk assessment of the acute and chronic effects of the herbicide clopyralid to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fairchild, J.F.; Allert, A.L.; Feltz, K.P.; Nelson, K.J.; Valle, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Clopyralid (3,6-dichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid) is a pyridine herbicide frequently used to control invasive, noxious weeds in the northwestern United States. Clopyralid exhibits low acute toxicity to fish, including the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus). However, there are no published chronic toxicity data for clopyralid and fish that can be used in ecological risk assessments. We conducted 30-day chronic toxicity studies with juvenile rainbow trout exposed to the acid form of clopyralid. The 30-day maximum acceptable toxicant concentration (MATC) for growth, calculated as the geometric mean of the no observable effect concentration (68 mg/L) and the lowest observable effect concentration (136 mg/L), was 96 mg/L. No mortality was measured at the highest chronic concentration tested (273 mg/L). The acute:chronic ratio, calculated by dividing the previously published 96-h acutely lethal concentration (96-h ALC50; 700 mg/L) by the MATC was 7.3. Toxicity values were compared to a four-tiered exposure assessment profile assuming an application rate of 1.12 kg/ha. The Tier 1 exposure estimation, based on direct overspray of a 2-m deep pond, was 0.055 mg/L. The Tier 2 maximum exposure estimate, based on the Generic Exposure Estimate Concentration model (GEENEC), was 0.057 mg/L. The Tier 3 maximum exposure estimate, based on previously published results of the Groundwater Loading Effects of Agricultural Management Systems model (GLEAMS), was 0.073 mg/L. The Tier 4 exposure estimate, based on published edge-of-field monitoring data, was estimated at 0.008 mg/L. Comparison of toxicity data to estimated environmental concentrations of clopyralid indicates that the safety factor for rainbow trout exposed to clopyralid at labeled use rates exceeds 1000. Therefore, the herbicide presents little to no risk to rainbow trout or other salmonids such as the threatened bull trout. ?? 2009 US Government.

  19. Effects of varying densities on serum reproductive parameters in pen-reared juvenile female rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss farms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhishuai; Wen, Haishen; Li, Jifang; He, Feng; Liu, Qun; Wang, Jinhuan; Guan, Biao; Wang, Qinglong

    2017-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to assess the effect of varying densities on serum reproductive parameters of immature rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Experimental trout were maintained in intensive, pen-reared farms for 300 days in fresh water reservoirs. Initial densities were 4.6, 6.6, and 8.6 kg/m3 (40, 60, 80 ind./m3), indicated as SD1, SD2, SD3, and final densities were 31.1, 40.6, 49.3 kg/m3, respectively. A summary of the ovarian stages were observed by histological examination. Serum E2 (estradiol), T (testosterone) were evaluated by radioimmunoassay and FSH (follicle-stimulating-hormone), LH (luteinizing-hormone), vitellogenin, 17α,20β-P (17α,20βdihydroxy4-pregnen-3-one) were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Our findings demonstrated that ovarian development were retarded (from stage III to stage IV) at highest rearing density (SD3) after 180 days of intensive culture (over 40.6 kg/m3). In addition, we observed an inverse relationship between serum reproductive parameters and rearing density. Furthermore, compared to serum reproductive parameters of SD1, E2, T, FSH, vitellogenin, 17α,20β-P, GSI and LH of two higher density groups decreased firstly and significantly at 60 (over 15.9 kg/m 3 ), 180 (over 31.7 kg/m 3 ), 180 (over 40.6 kg/m3), 240 (over 36 kg/m3), 240 (over 36 kg/m3), 240 (over 45 kg/m3) and 300 (over 49.3 kg/m3) days, respectively. Comparing serum reproductive parameters within the same ovarian development stage of rainbow trout from varying densities revealed that higher population density also led to significantly lower overall serum reproductive parameters. Overall, this study presents the reproductive, endocrinological parameters of juvenile female rainbow trout at high rearing densities and indicates the need for rainbow trout (114.44±5.21 g, 19.69±0.31 cm) that are initially stocked at 6.6 or 8.6 kg/m3 should be classified and subdivided into lower density after 180 days of farming (not over 31.7 kg/m3).

  20. Combined effects of diets and temperature on mitochondrial function, growth and nutrient efficiency in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Eya, Jonathan C; Yossa, Rodrigue; Perera, Dayan; Okubajo, Olasupo; Gannam, Ann

    2017-10-01

    A 4×3 factorial experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two dietary protein sources (mixed fishmeal/plant protein-, and plant protein- based diet), two dietary lipid levels (10% and 20%) and three water temperatures (10°C, 14°C, and 18°C) on the growth performance, nutrient utilization efficiencies and mitochondrial enzyme complex activities in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (average weight±SD, 39.5±5g) over a 180day rearing period. At the end of the experiment, weight gain (WG), condition factor (CF), and feed efficiency (FE) were significantly affected by diet×temperature interaction (P<0.05). Specific growth rate (SGR) was significantly affected by increasing temperature (P<0.05). The plant protein-based diets led to a higher CF than the mixed fishmeal/plant protein-based diets. The protein productive value (PPV), protein efficiency ratio (PER), lipid efficiency ratio, (LER) and lipid productive value (LPV) were all significantly affected by diet×temperature interaction (P<0.05). The diet×temperature interaction also had significant effects on mitochondrial enzyme complexes II, V and citrate synthase in the liver, complexes II and IV in the intestine, and complex IV in the muscle (P<0.05). Temperature had a significant main effect on the activity of the enzymatic complexes I and III in the liver, complex III and citrate synthase in the intestine, and complexes I, II, III, V and citrate synthase in the muscle (P<0.05). Diet had a significant main effect on complexes I and III in the liver, complexes II and III for the intestine and complexes I and II in the muscle (P<0.05). The significant temperature x diet interaction observed has practical ecological implications explicitly demonstrating how changes in temperature regimens as anticipated in the rising global temperature can influence organismal performance in relation to changes in dietary formulations (replacing fishmeal based diet with plant protein based ingredients). To illustrate

  1. Modulation of cadmium-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and volume changes by temperature in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Onukwufor, John O; Kibenge, Fred; Stevens, Don; Kamunde, Collins

    2015-01-01

    We investigated how temperature modulates cadmium (Cd)-induced mitochondrial bioenergetic disturbances, metal accumulation and volume changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). In the first set of experiments, rainbow trout liver mitochondrial function and Cd content were measured in the presence of complex I substrates, malate and glutamate, following exposure to Cd (0-100 μM) at three (5, 13 and 25 °C) temperatures. The second set of experiments assessed the effect of temperature on Cd-induced mitochondrial volume changes, including the underlying mechanisms, at 15 and 25 °C. Although temperature stimulated both state 3 and 4 rates of respiration, the coupling efficiency was reduced at temperature extremes due to greater inhibition of state 3 at low temperature and greater stimulation of state 4 at the high temperature. Cadmium exposure reduced the stimulatory effect of temperature on state 3 respiration but increased that on state 4, consequently exacerbating mitochondrial uncoupling. The interaction of Cd and temperature yielded different responses on thermal sensitivity of state 3 and 4 respiration; the Q10 values for state 3 respiration increased at low temperature (5-13 °C) while those for state 4 increased at high temperature (13-25 °C). Importantly, the mitochondria accumulated more Cd at high temperature suggesting that the observed greater impairment of oxidative phosphorylation with temperature was due, at least in part, to a higher metal burden. Cadmium-induced mitochondrial volume changes were characterized by an early phase of contraction followed by swelling, with temperature changing the kinetics and intensifying the effects. Lastly, using specific modulators of mitochondrial ion channels, we demonstrated that the mitochondrial volume changes were associated with Cd uptake via the mitochondrial calcium uniporter (MCU) without significant contribution of the permeability transition pore and/or potassium channels. Overall, it appears that

  2. Viability and DNA fragmentation of rainbow trout embryos (Oncorhynchus mykiss) obtained from eggs stored at 4 °C.

    PubMed

    Ubilla, A; Valdebenito, I; Árias, M E; Risopatrón, J

    2016-05-01

    In vitro storage of salmonid eggs leads to aging of the cells causing a decline in quality and reducing their capacity to develop and produce embryos. The quality of salmonid embryos is assessed by morphologic analyses; however, data on the application of biomarkers to determine the cell viability and DNA integrity of embryos in these species are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect on embryo development, viability and DNA fragmentation in the embryonic cells of in vitro storage time at 4 °C of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) eggs. The embryos were obtained by IVF from eggs stored for 0 (control), 48, and 96 hours at 4 °C. At 72 hours after fertilization, dechorionated embryos were examined to determine percentages of developed embryos (embryos with normal cell division morphology), viability (LIVE/DEAD sperm viability kit), and DNA integrity (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT] dUTP nick-end labeling assay). The percentage of developing embryos decreased (P < 0.05) with storage time of the eggs (95.10 ± 2.55; 88.14 ± 4.50; 79.99 ± 6.60 for 0, 48, and 96 hours, respectively). Similarly, cell viability decreased (P < 0.05; 96.07 ± 7.15; 80.42 ± 8.55; 77.47 ± 7.88 for 0, 48, and 96 hours, respectively), and an increase (P < 0.05) in DNA fragmentation in the embryos was observed at 96-hour storage. A positive correlation was found between cell DNA fragmentation and storage time (r = 0.8173; P < 0.0001). The results revealed that terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase [TdT] dUTP nick-end labeling assay technique is reliable mean to assess the state of the DNA in salmonid embryos and that in vitro eggs storage for 96h reduces embryo development and cell DNA integrity. DNA integrity evaluation constitutes a biomarker of the quality of the ova and resulting embryos so as to predict their capacity to produce good-quality embryos in salmonids, particularly under culture conditions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc

  3. Two interleukin-17C-like genes exist in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss that are differentially expressed and modulated.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tiehui; Martin, Samuel A M; Secombes, Christopher J

    2010-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-17 family members (IL-17A-F) are key players in adaptive immune responses and have a central role in coordinating innate and adaptive immunity. Here, we report on two novel IL-17 homologues in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, trout (t) IL-17C1 and tIL-17C2, that share 73.7% amino acid identity. The two tIL-17C-like molecules have relatively higher sequence identities to IL-17Cs from fish and mammals and the fish IL-17C-like molecules phylogenetically form a specific clade that groups with the mammalian IL-17C and IL-17E clades. However, the gene organisation of the fish IL-17C-like molecules is closer to mammalian IL-17Es than to IL-17Cs, and this taken together with other factors suggest the fish IL-17C-like genes may have arisen from an ancestral gene that gave rise to mammalian IL-17C and IL-17E. The expression of tIL-17Cs was detectable in all the eight tissues examined, with the expression of tIL-17 mainly contributed by tIL-17C1 in gills and skin, and by tIL-17C2 in spleen, head kidney and brain. The expression of tIL-17Cs was modulated by inflammatory stimulants, including IL-1beta, interferon-gamma, LPS and PolyIC, in a trout macrophage cell line (RTS-11). IL-1beta was the most potent inducer of tIL-17C2 but only had a minor effect on the expression of tIL-17C1. LPS and PolyIC were also potent inducers of tIL-17C2. The expression of tIL-17Cs was also up-regulated by bacterial infection, with the extent and increase more dramatic for tIL-17C2. The broad distribution of expression and differential modulation of tIL-17Cs by inflammatory stimulants and infection suggest important roles of the two tIL-17Cs in the salmonid immune system. Copyright (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Cryptobia salmositica-induced anorexia on feeding behavior and immune response in juvenile rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Chin, Adrian; Guo, Fu Ci; Bernier, Nicholas J; Woo, Patrick T K

    2004-01-28

    At 10 degrees C, rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (n = 13 per group) infected with Cryptobia salmositica Katz, 1951 became anorexic at 3 wk post-infection (w.p.i.), with feed-intake decreasing significantly from 1.33 to 0.94% body weight (b.w.). Anorexia was most severe at 4 w.p.i. (0.80% b.w.), coinciding with peak parasitemia (9.2 x 10(6) parasites ml blood(-1)) and anemia. At 8 w.p.i., fish had recovered their appetite although they still had contained detectable parasites (6.8 x 10(5) parasites ml(-1)) and were anemic (pack cell volume, PCV, of 24.4%). However at 5 degrees C, anorexia occurred at 5 w.p.i. (0.81% b.w.), and was most severe at 7 w.p.i. (0.40% b.w.). At 8 w.p.i. (0.43% b.w.), fish displayed high parasitemia (4.6 x 10(6) parasites ml(-1)) and low PCV (10.8%). Fish at 5 degrees C had lower gastric evacuation (GE) rates (GE48h) than 10 degrees C fish, however there were no differences between infected and naive fish at both temperatures. Before anorexia, there was no significant correlation between mean share of meal (MSM, a measure of how food was partitioned within a group) and coefficient of variation in feeding but this became significant during anorexia (p = 0.02 and p = 0.0002 at 10 and 5 degrees C respectively). Significant correlations were detected between b.w. and MSM before onset of anorexia at 10 degrees C (p = 0.005) and 5 degrees C (p = 0.02); this was maintained at 10 degrees C (p = 0.001) but not at 5 degrees C (p = 0.98). Fish on an anorexic diet (0.93% b.w.) responded well at 10 degrees C to a live C. salmositica vaccine; this could partly be due to constant antigenic stimulation by the live vaccine.

  5. Effects of domestication and growth hormone transgenesis on mRNA profiles in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Devlin, R H; Sakhrani, D; White, S; Overturf, K

    2013-11-01

    Growth rate can be genetically modified in many vertebrates by domestication and selection and more recently by transgenesis overexpressing growth factor genes [e.g., growth hormone (GH)]. Although the phenotypic end consequence is similar, it is currently not clear whether the same modifications to physiological pathways are occurring in both genetic processes or to what extent they may interact when combined. To investigate these questions, microarray analysis has been used to assess levels of mRNA in liver of wild-type and growth-modified strains of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). This species has been used as a model because nondomesticated wild strains are available as comparators to assess genetic and physiological changes that have arisen both from domestication and from GH transgenesis. The analysis examined pure wild-type and pure domesticated strains as well as 2 different GH transgenes (with markedly different growth effects) both in pure wild and in wild × domesticated hybrid backgrounds. Liver mRNA showed highly concordant changes (Pearson correlations; r>0.828; P<0.001) in levels in domesticated and GH transgenic fish, relative to wild-type, for both up- and downregulated genes. Furthermore, among domesticated, transgenic, and their hybrid genotypes, a strong correlation (P<0.001) was found between growth rate and the number of genes affected (r=0.761 for downregulated mRNA and r=0.942 for upregulated mRNA) or between growth rate and mRNA levels relative to wild-type (r=0.931 for downregulated mRNA and r=0.928 for upregulated mRNA). One GH transgenic strain was found to affect growth and mRNA levels similar to domestication whereas effects of the other GH transgenic strain were much stronger. For both GH transgenes, a hybrid domesticated×wild background influenced growth rate and mRNA levels to only a small extent relative to the transgenes in a pure wild-type genetic background. Functional analysis found that genes involved in immune function

  6. The effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion, and survival of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davidson, J.; Bebak, J.; Mazik, P.

    2009-01-01

    Intensive aquaculture systems, particularly recirculating systems, utilize equipment such as aerators, air and water pumps, blowers, and filtration systems that inadvertently increase noise levels in fish culture tanks. Sound levels and frequencies measured within intensive aquaculture systems are within the range of fish hearing, but species-specific effects of aquaculture production noise are not well defined. Field and laboratory studies have shown that fish behavior and physiology can be negatively impacted by intense sound. Therefore, chronic exposure to aquaculture production noise could cause increased stress, reduced growth rates and feed conversion efficiency, and decreased survival. The objective of this study was to provide an in-depth evaluation of the long term effects of aquaculture production noise on the growth, condition factor, feed conversion efficiency, and survival of cultured rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Rainbow trout were cultured in replicated tanks using two sound treatments: 117??dB re 1????Pa RMS which represented sound levels lower than those recorded in an intensive recycle system and 149??dB re 1????Pa RMS, representing sound levels near the upper limits known to occur in recycle systems. To begin the study mean fish weights in the 117 and 149??dB tanks were 40 and 39??g, respectively. After five months of exposure no significant differences were identified between treatments for mean weight, length, specific growth rates, condition factor, feed conversion, or survival (n = 4). Mean final weights for the 117 and 149??dB treatments were 641 ?? 3 and 631 ?? 10??g, respectively. Overall specific growth rates were equal, i.e. 1.84 ?? 0.00 and 1.84 ?? 0.01%/day. Analysis of growth rates of individually tagged rainbow trout indicated that fish from the 149??dB tanks grew slower during the first month of noise exposure (p < 0.05); however, fish acclimated to the noise thereafter. This study further suggests that rainbow trout growth

  7. Cross-Talk in QPSK Communication Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Tien Manh; Owens, Yvette

    1994-01-01

    This report investigates the effects of cross-talk on the Bit Error Rate (BER) performance of QPSK communication systems. There are four different sources that can cause cross-talk in QPSK systems, namely, a band-limited channel, asymmetry in filters, phase imbalance between the channels, and imperfect carrier tracking. This report emphasizes the last two problems (where either phase imbalance in the local VCOs or imperfect carrier tracking exists).

  8. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Porcher, Scott T.; Smerud, Justin R.

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximize anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167–404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l−1 AQUI-S® 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g−1, respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all −1.

  9. Effect of dietary macronutrient proportion on intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): comparative study.

    PubMed

    Furné, M; García-Gallego, M; Hidalgo, M C; Sanz, A

    2016-08-01

    Three isoenergetic diets varying the proportion of dietary energy supplied by each of the macronutrients (carbohydrate, lipid, or protein) were delivered, to farmed sturgeon (Acipenser naccarii) and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), to test the possible effects on the intermediate metabolism and oxidative status in liver, white muscle, and heart. In trout, there is an adaptive metabolic response to an increase in lipids and carbohydrates in the diet. However, this does not happen in the sturgeon. These differences may be due to different dietary habits of both species. In terms of oxidative status, only the liver displayed oxidative stress in both species, showing an increase in the lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities after feeding with the high-lipid and high-protein diet.

  10. Antimicrobial peptide CAP18 and its effect on Yersinia ruckeri infections in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum): comparing administration by injection and oral routes.

    PubMed

    Chettri, J K; Mehrdana, F; Hansen, E B; Ebbensgaard, A; Overgaard, M T; Lauritsen, A H; Dalsgaard, I; Buchmann, K

    2017-01-01

    The antimicrobial peptide CAP18 has been demonstrated to have a strong in vitro bactericidal effect on Yersinia ruckeri, but its activity in vivo has not been described. In this work, we investigated whether CAP18 protects rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) against enteric red mouth disease caused by this pathogen either following i.p. injection or by oral administration (in feed). It was found that injection of CAP18 into juvenile rainbow trout before exposure to Y. ruckeri was associated with lowered mortality compared to non-medicated fish although it was less effective than the conventional antibiotic oxolinic acid. Oral administration of CAP18 to trout did not prevent infection. The proteolytic effect of secretions on the peptide CAP18 in the fish gastrointestinal tract is suggested to account for the inferior effect of oral administration. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Transcriptome Analyses Reveal Lipid Metabolic Process in Liver Related to the Difference of Carcass Fat Content in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Guo; Gu, Wei; Sun, Peng; Bai, Qingli

    2016-01-01

    Excessive accumulation of carcass fat in farm animals, including fish, has a significant impact on meat quality and on the cost of feeding. Similar to farmed animals and humans, the liver can be considered one of the most important organs involved in lipid metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). RNA-seq based whole transcriptome sequencing was performed to liver tissue of rainbow trout with high and low carcass fat content in this study. In total 1,694 differentially expressed transcripts were identified, including many genes involved in lipid metabolism, such as L-FABP, adiponectin, PPAR-α, PPAR-β, and IGFBP1a. Evidence presented in this study indicated that lipid metabolic process in liver may be related to the difference of carcass fat content. The relevance of PPAR-α and PPAR-β as molecular markers for fat storage in liver should be worthy of further investigation. PMID:27652256

  12. Pros and cons of fish skin cells in culture: long-term full skin and short-term scale cell culture from rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Rakers, Sebastian; Klinger, Matthias; Kruse, Charli; Gebert, Marina

    2011-12-01

    Here, we report the establishment of a permanent skin cell culture from rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The cells of the fish skin cell culture could be propagated over 60 passages so far. Furthermore, we show for the first time that it is possible to integrate freshly harvested rainbow trout scales into this new fish skin cell culture. We further demonstrated that epithelial cells derived from the scales survived in the artificial micro-environment of surrounding fibroblast-like cells. Also, antibody staining indicated that both cell types proliferated and started to build connections with the other cell type. It seems that it is possible to generate an 'artificial skin' with two different cell types. This could lead to the development of a three-dimensional test system, which might be a better in vitro representative of fish skin in vivo than individual skin cell lines.

  13. Determination of the exposure parameters that maximise the concentrations of the anaesthetic/sedative eugenol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue.

    PubMed

    Meinertz, J R; Porcher, S T; Smerud, J R; Gaikowski, M P

    2014-01-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the anaesthetic/sedative concentrations and durations that would maximise anaesthetic/sedative residue concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) skin-on fillet tissue. Rainbow trout (167-404 g) were exposed to 50 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E (10% active ingredient, eugenol) in 17°C freshwater for durations up to 1440 min, 100 and 250 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 240 min, and 500 and 1000 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations up to 90 min. Fish exposed to 100 mg l(-1) AQUI-S(®) 20E for durations of 30, 60, 120 and 240 min had the greatest eugenol concentrations in the fillet tissue, 50, 58, 54 and 62 µg g(-1), respectively. All other exposure concentrations and durations resulted in significantly lower eugenol concentrations, i.e. all < 39 µg g(-1).

  14. The in vitro effect of bovine lactoferrin on the activity of organ leukocytes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and wels catfish (Silurus glanis).

    PubMed

    Małaczewska, J; Wójcik, M; Wójcik, R; Siwicki, A K

    2010-01-01

    Lactoferrin (LF) is a glycoprotein found in milk, neutrophil granules, secretions and selected organs of mammals. Lactoferrin exhibits antibacterial, antiviral, fungicidal, immunoregulatory and other functions. Although fish are devoid of this protein and its cell receptors, LF effect on the immune mechanisms of fish has been demonstrated. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of bovine lactoferrin, applied in vitro, on the activity of head kidney and spleen leukocytes in three freshwater fish species: rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), European eel (Anguilla anguilla) and wels catfish (Silurus glanis). The obtained results validate LF beneficial effect on the respiratory burst of phagocytes in rainbow trout and wels catfish despite the fact that the potential killing activity against Aeromonas hydrophila was not stimulated in any of the studied species. Bovine lactoferrin enhanced the proliferation of T-lymphocytes in rainbow trout and European eel, as well as of B-lymphocytes in rainbow trout.

  15. Long-term trends in naturalized rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations in the upper Esopus Creek, Ulster County, New York, 2009–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    George, Scott D.; Baldigo, Barry P.

    2016-05-13

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Cornell Cooperative Extension of Ulster County, New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation, and the New York City Department of Environmental Protection, surveyed fish communities annually on the main stem and tributaries of the upper Esopus Creek, Ulster County, New York, from 2009 to 2015. This report summarizes the density, biomass, and size structure of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and brown trout (Salmo trutta) populations from the 2015 surveys along with data from the preceding 6 years. The mean density of rainbow trout populations in 2015 was 98 fish per 0.1 hectare, which was the highest value observed since 2010, and the mean biomass of rainbow trout populations in 2015 was 864 grams per 0.1 hectare, which was the highest value observed since 2012.

  16. Analysis of olfactory sensitivity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reveals their ability to detect lactic acid, pyruvic acid and four B vitamins.

    PubMed

    Valdés, Joaquín; Olivares, Jesús; Ponce, Daniela; Schmachtenberg, Oliver

    2015-08-01

    Salmonid fishes like the rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have a highly developed olfactory sense that allows them to perceive some odorants at very low concentrations, such as certain amino acids and bile salts. Previous behavioral and electrophysiological studies in salmonids have shown strong responses to human skin odor. Because this stimulus represents a complex and heterogeneous mixture of components, we sought to determine which odorants contribute to the sensitive detection of human skin odor by salmonids. In vivo electroolfactogram recordings in O. mykiss revealed lactic acid, pyruvic acid and two B vitamins, thiamine and riboflavin, as novel, potent odorants which triggered responses at nanomolar concentrations. Two more B vitamins, nicotinic and pantothenic acid, were detected at micromolar concentrations. These compounds share important roles in cellular energy metabolism, supporting an original role in food search and feeding behavior of this species and most likely other fishes. The olfactory detection of B vitamins by salmonids represents a new paradigm in chemosensation, warranting further investigation in other teleosts.

  17. Depletion of isoeugenol residues from the fillet tissue of AQUI-S™ exposed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meinertz, Jeffery R.; Schreier, Theresa M.

    2009-01-01

    There is a critical need in U.S. public aquaculture and fishery management for an approved sedative that allows for the immediate release of fish after sedation. AQUI-STM is a fish anesthetic/sedative approved for use in several countries and until recently was being developed in the U.S. as a sedative for immediate release of fish after sedation. The U.S. National Toxicology Program reported that isoeugenol (the active ingredient in AQUI-STM) exposed male mice showed clear evidence of carcinogenicity, therefore efforts within the U.S. Department of Interior to develop AQUI-STM as a sedative that allows for immediate release ceased. Despite the ruling, AQUI-STM still has the potential to be approved as an anesthetic with a short withdrawal time. Among the data required to gain approval for use in the U.S. are data describing the composition and depletion of all AQUI-STM residues from fish fillet tissue. A total residue depletion study for AQUI-STM was conducted by exposing market-sized rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (mean weight, 502.7 ± 54 g; s.d.) to 8.9 mg/L of 14C-[URL]-isoeugenol for 60 min in 17 °C water. The 14C-[URL]-isoeugenol was mixed with a surfactant resulting in a mixture that mimicked AQUI-STM. Groups of fish (n = 6) were sampled immediately after the exposure (0-h sample group) and at 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h thereafter. Total isoeugenol-equivalent residue concentrations in the fillet tissue were determined by oxidizing triplicate subsamples of homogenized skin-on fillet tissue from each fish to 14CO2 and enumerating the radioactivity by static liquid scintillation counting. Isoeugenol concentrations in fillet tissue were determined by extracting homogenized fillet tissue with solvents and determining the isoeugenol concentrations in the extracts with high performance liquid chromatography techniques. The mean total isoeugenol-equivalent residue concentrations in the 0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4-h sample groups were 55.4, 32.0, 19.8, 11

  18. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2002 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan; Blodgett, Joe

    2003-07-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing means could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and again develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and evaluated reconditioning (short and long-term) success and diet formulations at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakima River. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (CJEF, located at Yakima River kilometer 48) from March 12 to June 13, 2002. In total, 899 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 19.8% (899 of 4,525) of the entire 2001-2002 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks and were fed freeze-dried krill, Moore-Clark pellets, altered Moore-Clark pellets (soaked in krill extract and dyed), or a combination of the altered Moore

  19. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2003 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan; Blodgett, Joe

    2004-03-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and evaluated reconditioning (short and long-term) success and diet formulations at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakima River. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 12 March to 28 May 2003. In total, 690 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.8% (690 of 2,235) of the entire 2002-2003 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks, fed freeze-dried krill and received hw-wiegandt multi vit dietary supplement; long-term steelhead kelts also received Moore-Clark pellets

  20. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R.

    2006-01-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 11 March to 23 June 2005. In total, 519 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 15.0% (519 of 3,451) of the entire 2004-2005 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  1. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2000 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Allen F.; Beaty, Roy E.; Hatch, Douglas R.

    2001-12-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family salmonidae. Natural rates of repeat spawning for Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. Increasing this repeat spawning rate using fish culture techniques could assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to grow and develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for local populations. The primary purpose of this project in 2000 was to test the general feasibility of collecting, feeding, and treating steelhead kelts in a captive environment. Steelhead kelts were collected from the Yakima River at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (Rkm 48) from 12 March to 13 June 2000. Kelts were reconditioned at adjacent Prosser Hatchery in both rectangular and circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus, and we tested the use of ivermectin to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Some the kelts that died during the reconditioning process were analyzed via pathology and gonad histology to ascertain the possible cause of death and to describe their reproductive development at the time of death. All surviving specimens were released for natural spawning on 12 December 2000. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on the proportion of fish that survived captivity, gained weight, and on the number of fish that successfully underwent gonadal recrudescence. Many of the reconditioned kelts were radio tagged to assess their spawning migration behavior and

  2. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2005-2006 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John; Hatch, Douglas R.

    2006-12-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a natural life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Estimated rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the current expression of repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of four study groups (in river release, direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 7 March to 8 June 2006. In total, 348 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 17.0% (348 of 2,002) of the entire 2005-2006 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. Steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially (first 2

  3. Dissecting the immune pathways stimulated following injection vaccination of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) against enteric redmouth disease (ERM).

    PubMed

    Wangkahart, Eakapol; Secombes, Christopher J; Wang, Tiehui

    2017-07-27

    Enteric redmouth disease (ERM or yersiniosis) is one of the most important diseases of salmonids and leads to significant economic losses. It is caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Yersinia ruckeri but can be controlled by bacterin vaccination. The first commercial ERM vaccine was licenced in 1976 and is one of the most significant and successful health practices within the aquaculture industry. Although ERM vaccination provides complete protection, knowledge of the host immune response to the vaccine and the molecular mechanisms that underpin the protection elicited is limited. In this report, we analysed the expression in spleen and gills of a large set of genes encoding for cytokines, acute phase proteins (APPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in response to ERM vaccination in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Many immune genes in teleost fish are known to have multiple paralogues that can show differential responses to ERM vaccination, highlighting the necessity to determine whether all of the genes present react in a similar manner. ERM vaccination immediately activated a balanced inflammatory response with correlated expression of both pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (eg IL-1β1-2, TNF-α1-3, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10A etc.) in the spleen. The increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines may explain the systemic upregulation of APPs (eg serum amyloid A protein and serum amyloid protein P) and AMPs (eg cathelicidins and hepcidin) seen in both spleen and gills. We also observed an upregulation of all the α-chains but only one β-chain (p40B2) of the IL-12 family cytokines, that suggests specific IL-12 and IL-23 isoforms with distinct functions might be produced in the spleen of vaccinated fish. Notably the expression of Th1 cytokines (IFN-γ1-2) and a Th17 cytokine (IL-17A/F1a) was also up-regulated and correlated with enhanced expression of the IL-12 family α-chains, and the majority of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, APPs and AMPs. These expression

  4. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2001 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Anders, Paul J., Evans, Allen F.

    2002-12-01

    Repeat spawning is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are artificially and in some cases severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the natural expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing means could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and again develop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and sea-trout (S. trutta). The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To address recovery, we captured wild emigrating steelhead kelts from the Yakima River and tested reconditioning and the effects of several diet formulations on its success at Prosser Hatchery on the Yakama Reservation. Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Evaluation Facility (CJEF, located at Yakima River kilometer 48) from 12 March to 5 July 2001. Kelts were reconditioned in circular tanks and fed a mixed diet of starter paste, adult sized trout pellets, and freeze-dried krill. Formalin was used to control outbreaks of fungus and we tested the use of Ivermectin{trademark}to control internal parasites (e.g., Salmincola spp.). Surviving specimens were released for natural spawning in two groups on 15 November 2001 and 18 January 2002. Overall success of the reconditioning process was based on

  5. Evaluation of the protective immunogencity of the N, P, M, NV and G proteins of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss using DNA vaccines

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Corbeil, S.; LaPatra, S.E.; Anderson, E.D.; Jones, J.; Vincent, B.; Hsu, Ya Li; Kurath, G.

    1999-01-01

    The protective immunogenicity of the nucleoprotein (N), phosphoprotein (P), matrix protein (M), non-virion protein (NV) and glycoprotein (G) of the rhabdovirus infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) was assessed in rainbow trout using DNA vaccine technology. DNA vaccines were produced by amplifying and cloning the viral genes in the plasmid pCDNA 3.1. The protective immunity elicited by each vaccine was evaluated through survival of immunized fry after challenge with live virus. Neutralizing antibody titers were also determined in vaccinated rainbow troutOncorhynchus mykiss fry (mean weight 2 g) and 150 g sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. The serum from the 150 g fish was also used in passive immunization studies with naïve fry. Our results showed that neither the internal structural proteins (N, P and M) nor the NV protein of IHNV induced protective immunity in fry or neutralizing antibodies in fry and 150 g fish when expressed by a DNA vaccine construct. The G protein, however, did confer significant protection in fry up to 80 d post-immunization and induced protective neutralizing antibodies. We are currently investigating the role of different arms of the fish immune system that contribute to the high level of protection against IHNV seen in vaccinated fish.

  6. Individual condition, standard metabolic rate, and rearing temperature influence steelhead and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) life histories

    Treesearch

    Matthew R. Sloat; Gordon H. Reeves

    2014-01-01

    We reared juvenile Oncorhychus mykiss with low and high standard metabolic rates (SMR) under alternative thermal regimes to determine how these proximate factors influence life histories in a partially migratory salmonid fish. High SMR significantly decreased rates of freshwater maturation and increased rates of smoltification in females, but not...

  7. Kelt Reconditioning: A Research Project to Enhance Iteroparity in Columbia Basin Steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss), 2004 Annual Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Hatch, Douglas R.; Branstetter, Ryan; Whiteaker, John

    2004-11-01

    Iteroparity, the ability to repeat spawn, is a life history strategy that is expressed by some species from the family Salmonidae. Rates of repeat spawning for post-development Columbia River steelhead Oncorhynchus mykiss populations range from 1.6 to 17%. It is expected that currently observed iteroparity rates for wild steelhead in the Basin are severely depressed due to development and operation of the hydropower system and various additional anthropogenic factors. Increasing the expression of historical repeat spawning rates using fish culturing methods could be a viable technique to assist the recovery of depressed steelhead populations, and could help reestablish this naturally occurring life history trait. Reconditioning is the process of culturing post-spawned fish (kelts) in a captive environment until they are able to reinitiate feeding, growth, and redevelop mature gonads. Kelt reconditioning techniques were initially developed for Atlantic salmon Salmo salar and sea-trout S. trutta. The recent Endangered Species Act listing of many Columbia River Basin steelhead populations has prompted interest in developing reconditioning methods for wild steelhead populations within the Basin. To test kelt steelhead reconditioning as a potential recovery tool, wild emigrating steelhead kelts were placed into one of three study groups (direct capture and transport, short-term reconditioning, or long-term reconditioning). Steelhead kelts from the Yakima River were collected at the Chandler Juvenile Monitoring Facility (CJMF, located on the Yakima River at river kilometer 75.6) from 15 March to 21 June 2004. In total, 842 kelts were collected for reconditioning at Prosser Hatchery. Captive specimens represented 30.5% (842 of 2,755) of the entire 2003-2004 Yakima River wild steelhead population, based on fish ladder counts at Prosser Dam. All steelhead kelts were reconditioned in 20-foot circular tanks, and fed freeze-dried krill initially or for the duration of the

  8. Spatial partitioning and asymmetric hybridization among sympatric coastal steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus), coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki) and interspecific hybrids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostberg, C.O.; Slatton, S.L.; Rodriguez, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Hybridization between sympatric species provides unique opportunities to examine the contrast between mechanisms that promote hybridization and maintain species integrity. We surveyed hybridization between sympatric coastal steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki) from two streams in Washington State, Olsen Creek (256 individuals sampled) and Jansen Creek (431 individuals sampled), over a 3-year period. We applied 11 O. mykiss-specific nuclear markers, 11 O. c. clarki-specific nuclear markers and a mitochondrial DNA marker to assess spatial partitioning among species and hybrids and determine the directionality of hybridization. F1 and post-F1 hybrids, respectively, composed an average of 1.2% and 33.6% of the population sampled in Jansen Creek, and 5.9% and 30.4% of the population sampled in Olsen Creek. A modest level of habitat partitioning among species and hybrids was detected. Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicated that all F 1 hybrids (15 from Olsen Creek and five from Jansen Creek) arose from matings between steelhead females and cutthroat males implicating a sneak spawning behaviour by cutthroat males. First-generation cutthroat backcrosses contained O. c. clarki mtDNA more often than expected suggesting natural selection against F1 hybrids. More hybrids were backcrossed toward cutthroat than steelhead and our results indicate recurrent hybridization within these creeks. Age analysis demonstrated that hybrids were between 1 and 4 years old. These results suggest that within sympatric salmonid hybrid zones, exogenous processes (environmentally dependent factors) help to maintain the distinction between parental types through reduced fitness of hybrids within parental environments while divergent natural selection promotes parental types through distinct adaptive advantages of parental phenotypes.

  9. Spatial partitioning and asymmetric hybridization among sympatric coastal steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus), coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki) and interspecific hybrids.

    PubMed

    Ostberg, Carl O; Slatton, Stacey L; Rodriguez, Russell J

    2004-09-01

    Hybridization between sympatric species provides unique opportunities to examine the contrast between mechanisms that promote hybridization and maintain species integrity. We surveyed hybridization between sympatric coastal steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss irideus) and coastal cutthroat trout (O. clarki clarki) from two streams in Washington State, Olsen Creek (256 individuals sampled) and Jansen Creek (431 individuals sampled), over a 3-year period. We applied 11 O. mykiss-specific nuclear markers, 11 O. c. clarki-specific nuclear markers and a mitochondrial DNA marker to assess spatial partitioning among species and hybrids and determine the directionality of hybridization. F1 and post-F1 hybrids, respectively, composed an average of 1.2% and 33.6% of the population sampled in Jansen Creek, and 5.9% and 30.4% of the population sampled in Olsen Creek. A modest level of habitat partitioning among species and hybrids was detected. Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicated that all F1 hybrids (15 from Olsen Creek and five from Jansen Creek) arose from matings between steelhead females and cutthroat males implicating a sneak spawning behaviour by cutthroat males. First-generation cutthroat backcrosses contained O. c. clarki mtDNA more often than expected suggesting natural selection against F1 hybrids. More hybrids were backcrossed toward cutthroat than steelhead and our results indicate recurrent hybridization within these creeks. Age analysis demonstrated that hybrids were between 1 and 4 years old. These results suggest that within sympatric salmonid hybrid zones, exogenous processes (environmentally dependent factors) help to maintain the distinction between parental types through reduced fitness of hybrids within parental environments while divergent natural selection promotes parental types through distinct adaptive advantages of parental phenotypes.

  10. Investigations of Bull Trout (Salvelinus Confluentus), Steelhead Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss), and Spring Chinook Salmon (O. Tshawytscha) Interactions in Southeast Washington Streams. Final Report 1992.

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Keith D.

    1995-01-01

    The goal of this two year study was to determine if supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and spring chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) negatively impacted wild native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) through competitive interactions. Four streams with varying levels of fish supplementation activity were sampled in Southeast Washington. Tasks performed during this study were population density, relative abundance, microhabitat utilization, habitat availability, diet analysis, bull trout spawning ground surveys, radio telemetry of adult bull trout, and growth analysis. Results indicate that bull trout overlapped geographically with the supplemented species in each of the study streams suggesting competition among species was possible. Within a stream, bull trout and the supplemented species utilized dissimilar microhabitats and microhabitat utilization by each species was the same among streams suggesting that there was no shifts in microhabitat utilization among streams. The diet of bull trout and O. mykiss significantly overlapped in each of the study streams. The stream most intensely supplemented contained bull trout with the slowest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained bull trout with the fastest growth. Conversely, the stream most intensely supplemented contain steelhead with the fastest growth and the non-supplemented stream contained steelhead with the slowest growth. Growth indicated that bull trout may have been negatively impacted from supplementation, although other factors may have contributed. At current population levels, and current habitat quantity and quality, no impacts to bull trout as a result of supplementation with hatchery reared steelhead trout and spring chinook salmon were detected. Project limitations and future research recommendations are discussed.

  11. Steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss metabolic rate is affected by dietary Aloe vera inclusion but not by mounting an immune response against formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida.

    PubMed

    Zanuzzo, F S; Urbinati, E C; Nash, G W; Gamperl, A K

    2015-07-01

    The oxygen consumption (MO2) of two groups of 10° C acclimated steelhead trout Oncorhynchus mykiss was measured for 72 h after they were given a 100 µl kg(-1) intraperitoneal injection of formalin-killed Aeromonas salmonicida (ASAL) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). In addition, plasma cortisol levels were measured in fish from both groups prior to, and 1 and 3 h after, they were given a 30 s net stress. The first group was fed an unaltered commercial diet for 4 weeks, whereas the second group was fed the same diet but with 0·5% (5 g kg(-1) ) Aloe vera powder added; A. vera has potential as an immunostimulant for use in aquaculture, but its effects on basal and acute phase response (APR)-related metabolic expenditures and stress physiology, are unknown. Injection of ASAL v. PBS had no measurable effect on the MO2 of O. mykiss indicating that the APR in this species is not associated with any net increase in energy expenditure. In contrast, incorporating 0·5% A. vera powder into the feed decreased routine metabolic rate by c. 8% in both injection groups and standard metabolic rate in the ASAL-injected group (by c. 4 mg O2 kg(-1) h(-1) ; 5%). Aloe vera fed fish had resting cortisol levels that were approximately half of those in fish on the commercial diet (c. 2·5 v. 5·0 ng ml(-1) ), but neither this difference nor those post-stress reached statistical significance (P > 0·05). © 2015 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  12. Relationship between effective population size, inbreeding and adult fitness-related traits in a steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) population released in the wild.

    PubMed

    Naish, K A; Seamons, T R; Dauer, M B; Hauser, L; Quinn, T P

    2013-03-01

    Inbreeding is of concern in supportive breeding programmes in Pacific salmonids, Oncorhynchus spp, where the number of breeding adults is limited by rearing space or poor survival to adulthood, and large numbers are released to supplement wild stocks and fisheries. We reconstructed the pedigree of 6602 migratory hatchery steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) over four generations, to determine the incidence and fitness consequences of inbreeding in a northwest USA programme. The hatchery maintained an effective population size, Ñ(e) = 107.9 from F(0) to F(2), despite an increasing census size (N), which resulted in a decreasing N(e)/N ratio (0.35 in F(0) to 0.08 in F(2)). The reduced ratio was attributed to a small broodstock size, nonrandom transfers and high variance in reproductive success (particularly in males). We observed accumulation of inbreeding from the founder generation (in F(4), percentage individuals with inbreeding coefficients Δf > 0 = 15.7%). Generalized linear mixed models showed that body length and weight decreased significantly with increasing Δf, and inbred fish returned later to spawn in a model that included father identity. However, there was no significant correlation between Δf and age at return, female fecundity or gonad weight. Similarly, there was no relationship between Δf and reproductive success of F(2) and F(3) individuals, which might be explained by the fact that reproductive success is partially controlled by hatchery mating protocols. This study is one of the first to show that small changes in inbreeding coefficient can affect some fitness-related traits in a monitored population propagated and released to the wild.

  13. Cross Talk Between Growth and Immunity: Coupling of the IGF Axis to Conserved Cytokine Pathways in Rainbow Trout.

    PubMed

    Alzaid, Abdullah; Castro, Rosario; Wang, Tiehui; Secombes, Christopher J; Boudinot, Pierre; Macqueen, Daniel J; Martin, Samuel A M

    2016-05-01

    Although disease and infection is associated with attenuated growth, the molecular pathways involved are poorly characterized. We postulated that the IGF axis, a central governor of vertebrate growth, is repressed during infection to promote resource reallocation towards immunity. This hypothesis was tested in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) challenged by Aeromonas salmonicida (AS), a Gram-negative bacterial pathogen, or viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSv) at hatch, first feeding, and 3 weeks after first feeding. Quantitative transcriptional profiling was performed for genes encoding both IGF hormones, 19 salmonid IGF binding proteins (IGFBPs) and a panel of marker genes for growth and immune status. There were major differences in the developmental response of the IGF axis to AS and VHSv, with the VHSv challenge causing strong down-regulation of many genes. Despite this, IGFBP-1A1 and IGFBP-6A2 subtypes, each negative regulators of IGF signaling, were highly induced by AS and VHSv in striking correlation with host defense genes regulated by cytokine pathways. Follow-up experiments demonstrated a highly significant coregulation of IGFBP-1A1 and IGFBP-6A2 with proinflammatory cytokine genes in primary immune tissues (spleen and head kidney) when trout were challenged by a different Gram-negative bacterium, Yersinia ruckeri. Based on our findings, we propose a model where certain IGFBP subtypes are directly regulated by cytokine signaling pathways, allowing immediate modulation of growth and/or immune system phenotypes according to the level of activation of immunity. Our findings provide new and comprehensive insights into cross talk between conserved pathways regulating teleost growth, development, and immunity.

  14. Exploring Early Micronutrient Deficiencies in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by Next-Generation Sequencing Technology – From Black Box to Functional Genomics

    PubMed Central

    Olsvik, Pål A.; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn; Waagbø, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This work studies final nutritional status and transcriptional responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792) (28 g) after a 10 week feeding experiment designed to elucidate the effect of adding a vitamin and mineral premix on growth, health, and nutritional endpoints. Juvenile fish were fed a either a diet supplemented with a vitamin and mineral premix (Diet S) or the same diet without premix supplementation (Diet U). The analyzed micronutrient composition of diets differed accordingly. Pooled livers from 15 fish from each dietary group were used to create suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries that were sequenced with 454 FLX GS Titanium Technology. In total 552 812 reads were sequenced from the two cDNA libraries. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was then used to characterize the hepatic transcriptome of the two dietary groups of rainbow trout. In the present communication we discuss how selected micronutrients may affect the transcriptome at suboptimal status by directly impacting the cellular metabolism, functions, and structures, and by introducing respective compensatory mechanisms. Processes related to lipid metabolism, peptide hydrolysis, oxygen transportation, and growth development were mostly affected. Considering the transcriptomics data relative to changes in nutritional status from the feeding study and the background phenotypic outcome of growth performance and gill histopathology, the outcome of the transcriptional profiling are suggested to be mainly related to suboptimal pantothenic acid and vitamin C nutrition. PMID:23894486

  15. Effects of water temperature on the toxicity of 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to developing rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howe, G.E.; Marking, L.L.; Bills, T.D.; Boogaard, M.A.; Mayer, F.L.

    1994-01-01

    Early-life-stage (ELS) toxicity tests were conducted to determine the effect of selected water temperatures on the toxicity of 4-nitrophenol and 2,4-dinitrophenol to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). NOECs were determined for growth and mortality at selected time intervals and water temperatures of 7, 12, and 17 degree C. As tests progressed, NOECs leveled to constant time-independent values that were similar for tests at each temperature. In 4-nitrophenol tests, the time-independent NOEC values at 7, 12, and 17 degree C, respectively, were 1.16, 1.20, and 1.16 mg/L for growth and 3.40, 3.38, and 2.20 mg/L for mortality. For 2,4-dinitrophenol, time-independent NOEC values at 7, 12, and 17 degree C, respectively, were 1.07, 0.50, and 0.80 mg/L for growth and 1.30, 1.89, and 1.60 mg/L for mortality. Temperature did, however, affect the rate at which time- independent NOECs were reached. More time was required to reach time-independent NOECs as temperature decreased. For example, the time-independent NOEC in 4-nitrophenol tests at 17 degree C was reached in 14 d, whereas it required 42 d at 7 degree C.

  16. Modes of transmission of Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) via the skin and digestive tract in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Lee, S-J; Yokoyama, H; Ogawa, K

    2004-08-01

    Glugea plecoglossi (Microspora) is a significant cause of economic loss in cultured ayu, Plecoglossus altivelis, in Japan, due to the unsightly appearance of infected fish harbouring xenomas in the body cavity. Modes of transmission of G. plecoglossi via the skin and digestive tract were studied in an experimental infection model using rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss. Combined with Uvitex 2B and in situ hybridization (ISH) assays, the early development of G. plecoglossi was successfully traced. Following a bath exposure of fish Uvitex 2B-labelled G. plecoglossi spores were observed to attach to microscopic injuries (trypan blue-positive sites) of fish skin, after which ISH-positive sporoplasms were found to invade the epidermis as early as 5 min post-infection (PI), migrating rapidly to the subdermis. It was also shown that G. plecoglossi entering via the skin does not spread into the internal organs but develops into subdermal xenomas. After rainbow trout were exposed to G. plecoglossi spores by oral intubation, spores germinated in the intestinal lumen, followed by penetration of sporoplasms into the gut mucosal epithelium 5 min PI. In vitro trials determining stimulation factors (fish mucus, changes in pH, digestive enzymes) for the extrusion of the polar tube were inconclusive. The present study indicates that skin wounds and the gut epithelium can be portals of entry of G. plecoglossi and that natural infection in fish seems to occur perorally rather than via the skin.

  17. Effects of ozone, ultraviolet and peracetic acid disinfection of a primary-treated municipal effluent on the immune system of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Hébert, N; Gagné, F; Cejka, P; Bouchard, B; Hausler, R; Cyr, D G; Blaise, C; Fournier, M

    2008-08-01

    Municipal sewage effluents are complex mixtures that are known to compromise the health condition of aquatic organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impacts of various wastewater disinfection processes on the immune system of juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). The trout were exposed to a primary-treated effluent for 28 days before and after one of each of the following treatments: ultraviolet (UV) radiation, ozonation and peracetic acid. Immune function was characterized in leucocytes from the anterior head kidney by the following three parameters: phagocytosis activity, natural cytotoxic cells (NCC) function and lymphocyte (B and T) proliferation assays. The results show that the fish mass to length ratio was significantly decreased for the primary-treated and all three disinfection processes. Exposure to the primary-treated effluent led to a significant increase in macrophage-related phagocytosis; the addition of a disinfection step was effective in removing this effect. Both unstimulated and mitogen-stimulated T lymphocyte proliferation in fish decreased dramatically in fish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to fish exposed to either the primary-treated effluent or to aquarium water. Stimulation of T lymphocytes proliferation was observed with the peracetic acid treatment group. In conclusion, the disinfection strategy used can modify the immune system in fish at the level of T lymphocyte proliferation but was effective to remove the effects on phagocytosis activity.

  18. Estimating recruitment dynamics and movement of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River in Grand Canyon using an integrated assessment model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Korman, Josh; Martell, Steven J.D.; Walters, Carl J.; Makinster, Andrew S.; Coggins, Lewis G.; Yard, Michael D.; Persons, William R.

    2012-01-01

    We used an integrated assessment model to examine effects of flow from Glen Canyon Dam, Arizona, USA, on recruitment of nonnative rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Colorado River and to estimate downstream migration from Glen Canyon to Marble Canyon, a reach used by endangered native fish. Over a 20-year period, recruitment of rainbow trout in Glen Canyon increased with the annual flow volume and when hourly flow variation was reduced and after two of three controlled floods. The model predicted that approximately 16 000 trout·year–1 emigrated to Marble Canyon and that the majority of trout in this reach originate from Glen Canyon. For most models that were examined, over 70% of the variation in emigration rates was explained by variation in recruitment in Glen Canyon, suggesting that flow from the dam controls in large part the extent of potential negative interactions between rainbow trout and native fish. Controlled floods and steadier flows, which were originally aimed at partially restoring conditions before the dam (greater native fish abundance and larger sand bars), appear to have been more beneficial to nonnative rainbow trout than to native fish.

  19. Phase I metabolism of 3-methylindole, an environmental pollutant, by hepatic microsomes from carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Zlabek, Vladimir; Burkina, Viktoriia; Borrisser-Pairó, Francesc; Sakalli, Sidika; Zamaratskaia, Galia

    2016-05-01

    We studied the in vitro metabolism of 3-methylindole (3MI) in hepatic microsomes from fish. Hepatic microsomes from juvenile and adult carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were included in the study. Incubation of 3MI with hepatic microsomes revealed the time-dependent formation of two major metabolites, 3-methyloxindole (3MOI) and indole-3-carbinol (I3C). The rate of 3MOI production was similar in both species at both ages. No differences in kinetic parameters were observed (p = 0.799 for Vmax, and p = 0.809 for Km). Production of I3C was detected only in the microsomes from rainbow trout. Km values were similar in juvenile and adult fish (p = 0.957); Vmax was higher in juvenile rainbow trout compared with adults (p = 0.044). In rainbow trout and carp, ellipticine reduced formation of 3MOI up to 53.2% and 81.9% and ketoconazole up to 65.8% and 91.3%, respectively. The formation of I3C was reduced by 53.7% and 51.5% in the presence of the inhibitors ellipticine and ketoconazole, respectively. These findings suggest that the CYP450 isoforms CYP1A and CYP3A are at least partly responsible for 3MI metabolism. In summary, 3MI is metabolised in fish liver to 3MOI and I3C by CYP450, and formation of these metabolites might be species-dependent.

  20. Study of the viral interference between infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) and infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Byrne, N; Castric, J; Lamour, F; Cabon, J; Quentel, C

    2008-05-01

    The resistance of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to an infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) challenge following a preceding non-lethal infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) was investigated through experimental dual infections. Trout initially infected with IPNV were inoculated 14 days later with IHNV. Single infections of trout with 1 of the 2 viruses or with cell culture supernatant were also carried out and constituted control groups. No mortality was noted in fish after a single infection with IPNV. This virus had no influence on the head kidney leucocyte phagocytic activity and plasma haemolytic complement activity. IHNV induced a high mortality (72%) and reduced the macrophage phagocytic activity and complement haemolytic activity. It also induced a late production of anti-IHNV antibodies which occurred after clearance of the virus in the fish. In trout co-infected with both viruses, a mortality rate of 2% occurred and the immune parameters were similar to those observed in the fish infected with IPNV only, demonstrating that in co-infected trout IPNV inhibits the effects of IHNV. The studied parameters did not allow us to define the mechanism of interference occurring between these 2 viruses, but some hypothesis are put forward to explain the interference between the 2 viruses.

  1. Virulence of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus and Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus coinfection in rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) and nucleotide sequence analysis of the IHNV glycoprotein gene.

    PubMed

    Alonso, M; Rodríguez Saint-Jean, S; Pérez-Prieto, S I

    2003-08-01

    The outcomes of a coinfection of rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) with Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) strain S46 and Infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) strain S46 was determined after waterborne infection. Trout infected with the IHNV/IPNV.S46 sample, (a mixed sample containing equal infectious titers of the viruses) showed 50% less mortality than fish infected with either of the reference viruses alone. Forty-five days after the coinfection, IPNV antigens were detected by flow cytometry in 49 to 63% of the leukocytes from the surviving trout; whereas, only 9-15.6% of the leukocytes expressed IHNV viral antigens. IPNV was easily detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), whereas, for IHNV, a second step of amplification of a 753 bp fragment corresponding to the internal sequences of the IHNV G gene was necessary to optimize viral detection. The sequence of the IHNV gene involved in virulence, the glycoprotein (G) gene, was determined for the IHNV.S46 and compared with other sequences available in the GenBank. Changes found were not located in the antigenic domains of the glycoprotein and were considered not significant.

  2. Comparison of plasma and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration.

    PubMed

    Kyuchukova, Ralica; Milanova, Aneliya; Pavlov, Alexander; Lashev, Lubomir

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the serum and tissue disposition of enrofloxacin and its active metabolite ciprofloxacin in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio) after a single oral administration at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1). Concentrations of enrofloxacin in the serum of rainbow trout showed high variability with two peaks at the third and 24th hour after administration. The highest concentrations were found in the liver. The curves of liver levels showed similar changes to the respective serum samples. In the muscles, enrofloxacin concentrations were also higher compared with the respective serum samples. Ciprofloxacin concentrations were lower and showed smaller variations in all investigated tissues. The serum and tissue concentrations of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin in common carp showed two peaks, with the first Cmax at the third hour after drug administration as in rainbow trout. Concentrations of both investigated substances were higher in the liver than in the serum. The differences in common carp were less pronounced in comparison with rainbow trout. Relatively high levels of both substances were found in the muscles. Seven days after treatment enrofloxacin concentrations in the serum and tissues were within the therapeutic levels for most of the sensitive microorganisms in trout. Lower concentrations of its metabolite ciprofloxacin were found in the investigated tissues at the last sampling point. Lower levels of both substances were found in carp.

  3. Trace Metal Levels in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) Cultured in Net Cages in a Reservoir and Evaluation of Human Health Risks from Consumption.

    PubMed

    Varol, Memet; Kaya, Gülderen Kurt; Alp, Sumru Anık; Sünbül, Muhammet Raşit

    2017-09-19

    Although fish consumption has positive health effects, metals accumulated in fish can cause human health risks. In this study, the levels of ten metals in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in the Keban Dam Reservoir, which has the biggest rainbow trout production capacity in Turkey, were determined and compared with the maximum permissible levels (MPLs). Also, human health risks associated with rainbow trout consumption were assessed. The metal concentrations in rainbow trout were found below the MPLs. The estimated daily intake of each metal was much lower than the respective tolerable daily intake. The target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal and total THQ for combined metals did not exceed 1, indicating no health risk for consumers. The cancer risk (CR) value for inorganic arsenic was within the acceptable lifetime risk range of 10(-6) and 10(-4). For carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic effects, the maximum allowable fish consumption rates were high enough to ensure the human health. According to these results, the consumption of rainbow trout farmed in the Keban Dam Reservoir does not pose a risk on human health.

  4. Cytokine modulation by stress hormones and antagonist specific hormonal inhibition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) head kidney primary cell culture.

    PubMed

    Khansari, Ali Reza; Parra, David; Reyes-López, Felipe E; Tort, Lluís

    2017-09-01

    A tight interaction between endocrine and immune systems takes place mainly due to the key role of head kidney in both hormone and cytokine secretion, particularly under stress situations in which the physiological response promotes the synthesis and release of stress hormones which may lead into immunomodulation as side effect. Although such interaction has been previously investigated, this study evaluated for the first time the effect of stress-associated hormones together with their receptor antagonists on the expression of cytokine genes in head kidney primary cell culture (HKPCC) of the freshwater rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and the seawater gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The results showed a striking difference when comparing the response obtained in trout and seabream. Cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) decreased the expression of immune-related genes in sea bream but not in rainbow trout and this cortisol effect was reverted by the antagonist mifepristone but not spironolactone. On the other hand, while adrenaline reduced the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6) in rainbow trout, the opposite effect was observed in sea bream showing an increased expression (IL-1β, IL-6). Interestingly, this effect was reverted by antagonist propranolol but not phentolamine. Overall, our results confirm the regional interaction between endocrine and cytokine messengers and a clear difference in the sensitivity to the hormonal stimuli between the two species. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Heavy metal and arsenic concentrations in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in a dam reservoir on the Firat (Euphrates) River: Risk-based consumption advisories.

    PubMed

    Varol, Memet; Kaya, Gülderen Kurt; Alp, Alper

    2017-12-01

    The concentrations of ten metals in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) farmed in the Karakaya Dam Reservoir (Turkey) on the Firat River were determined. The metal concentrations in rainbow trout did not exceed the maximum permissible levels. Biomagnification factors (BMF) of ten metals were <1, indicating that these metals were not biomagnified. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of each metal was much lower than the respective tolerable daily intake (TDI). The target hazard quotient (THQ) for individual metal and total THQ for combined metals were lower than 1, indicating no health risk for consumers due to the intake of either individual metal or combined metals. The cancer risk (CR) value for toxic inorganic As was below 10(-6), indicating no carcinogenic risk. According to the calculated maximum allowable consumption rates (CRmm), an adult may safely consume 28 meals of rainbow trout from the dam reservoir per month with no adverse carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic health effects. According to these results, the consumption of rainbow trout farmed in this dam reservoir is completely safe for human health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Are brown trout Salmo trutta fario and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss two of a kind? A comparative study of salmonids to temperature-influenced Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae infection.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C; Schmidt-Posthaus, H; Segner, H; Wahli, T; Strepparava, N

    2017-09-15

    Proliferative kidney disease (PKD) of salmonids caused by Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae causes high mortalities of wild brown trout (Salmo trutta fario) and farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) at elevated water temperatures. Here the aim was to compare the temperature-dependent modulation of T. bryosalmonae in the two salmonid host species, which display different temperature optima. We used a novel experimental set-up in which we exposed brown trout and rainbow trout to an identical quantified low concentration of T. bryosalmonae for a short time period (1 hr). We followed the development of the parasite in the fish hosts for 70 days. PKD prevalence and parasite kinetics were assessed using qPCR. Exposures were performed at temperatures (12°C and 15°C) that reflect an environmental scenario that may occur in the natural habitat of salmonids. T. bryosalmonae infection was confirmed earliest in brown trout kept at 15°C (day 7 post-exposure) while, in all other groups, T. bryosalmonae was not confirmed until day 15 post-exposure. Moreover, significantly greater infection prevalence and a faster increase of parasite intensity were observed in brown trout kept at 15°C than in all other groups. These results indicate that PKD is differentially modulated by water temperature in related host species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. What goes around comes around: an investigation of resistance to proliferative kidney disease in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) following experimental re-exposure.

    PubMed

    Bailey, C; Segner, H; Wahli, T

    2017-04-21

    Rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss surviving proliferative kidney disease (PKD) are reported not to develop the disease upon re-exposure. However, the mechanisms involved in the immune response to re-exposure are unknown. We examined disease susceptibility and the immune response of naive 1+ rainbow trout when first exposed to Tetracapsuloides bryosalmonae in comparison with that of 1+ rainbow trout re-exposed to T. bryosalmonae. PKD pathogenesis, parasite burden and transcriptional signatures of the host immune response were assessed at 10, 25 and 40 d.p.e (days post-exposure). In addition, we evaluated the presence of IgM+ B cells in the blood and the posterior kidney. The exposure of 1+ rainbow trout to T. bryosalmonae for the first time resulted in 100% infection prevalence, high parasite burdens and severe clinical PKD, while re-exposed fish were either able to avoid reinfection completely or mount an earlier and more efficient adaptive-type immune response. This response was characterized by a greater amount of IgM+ B cells in the blood and elevated mRNA levels of secretory IgM in the posterior kidney which minimized pathogen burden and kidney inflammation. Our findings suggest that rainbow trout is able to develop immune protection against T. bryosalmonae. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Effects of triploidy on growth and protein degradation in skeletal muscle during recovery from feed deprivation in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Cleveland, Beth M; Weber, Gregory M

    2013-09-01

    Identifying physiological differences between diploid and triploid rainbow trout will help define how ploidy affects mechanisms that impact growth and nutrient utilization. Juvenile diploid and triploid female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were either continually fed or fasted for one week, followed by four weeks of refeeding, and indices of growth and proteolysis-related gene expression in skeletal muscle were measured. Fasting reduced growth, and based on gene expression analysis, increased capacity for protein degradation. Regardless of feeding treatment, triploids displayed slightly greater feed intake and specific growth rates than diploids. Continually fed triploids displayed lower expression of several autophagy-related genes than diploids, suggesting that reduced rates of protein degradation contributed to their faster growth. Reduced expression of ubiquitin ligases fbxo32 and fbxo25 and autophagy-related genes during refeeding implicates reduced proteolysis in recovery growth. At one week of refeeding triploids exhibited greater gains in eviscerated body weight and length, whereas diploids exhibited greater gains in gastrointestinal tract weights. During refeeding two autophagy-related genes, atg4b and lc3b, decreased within one week to continually fed levels in the triploids, but in diploids overshot in expression at one and two weeks of refeeding then rebounding above continually fed levels by week four, suggesting a delayed return to basal levels of proteolysis. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Comprehensive analysis of lncRNAs and mRNAs in skeletal muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to estradiol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jian; Koganti, Prasanthi P; Yao, Jianbo; Wei, Shuo; Cleveland, Beth

    2017-09-18

    Estradiol (E2) is a steroid hormone that negatively affects muscle growth in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), but the mechanisms directing with this response are not fully understood. To better characterize the effects of E2 in muscle, we identified differentially regulated mRNAs and lncRNAs in juvenile rainbow trout exposed to E2. Here, we performed next-generation RNA sequencing and comprehensive bioinformatics analyses to characterize the transcriptome profiles, including mRNAs and long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), in skeletal muscle of rainbow trout injected with E2. A total of 226 lncRNAs and 253 mRNAs were identified as differentially regulated. We identified crucial pathways, including several signal transduction pathways, hormone response, oxidative response and protein, carbon and fatty acid metabolism pathways. Subsequently, a functional lncRNA-mRNA co-expression network was constructed, which consisted of 681 co-expression relationships between 164 lncRNAs and 201 mRNAs. Moreover, a lncRNA-pathway network was constructed. A total of 65 key lncRNAs were identified that regulate 20 significantly enriched pathways. Overall, our analysis provides insights into mRNA and lncRNA networks in rainbow trout skeletal muscle and their regulation by E2 while understanding the molecular mechanism of lncRNAs.

  10. Effects of Waterborne Copper, Cyanide, Ammonia, and Nitrite on Stress Parameters and Changes in Susceptibility to Saprolegniosis in Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    PubMed Central

    Carballo, M.; Munoz, M. J.; Cuellar, M.; Tarazona, J. V.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of toxic exposures on the susceptibility of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to saprolegniosis were evaluated. Fish were exposed to sublethal concentrations of copper (0.25 mg/liter), cyanide (0.07 mg/liter), ammonia (0.5 mg/liter), and nitrite (0.24 mg/liter) for 24 h. After exposure, the fish were challenged by Saprolegnia parasitica (3.6 x 10(sup6) zoospores per liter) for 10 min. Cortisol and cholesterol were used to indicate stress response. Similar increases of cortisol were found for the four tested chemicals. All fish with cortisol levels higher than 370 ng/ml developed the disease, while only 24% of the fish with cortisol levels lower than 370 ng/ml were infected. Cholesterol levels remained unchanged after toxic exposure. Increased susceptibilities to the pathogen were observed for ammonia (71%), copper (57%), nitrite (50%), and cyanide (33%). The increases in susceptibility as a result of cyanide and nitrite exposure could be explained by the stress response. For copper and ammonia, the combination of two different effects, the stress response and specific impairments of the defense mechanism of trout against saprolegniosis, should be considered. PMID:16535039

  11. Determination of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle-tissue of rainbow-trout (Oncorhynchus-mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Allen, John L.; Gofus, J.E.; Meinertz, Jeffery R.

    1994-01-01

    Malachite green, an effective antifungal therapeutant used in fish culture, is a known teratogen. We developed a method to simultaneously detect both the chromatic and leuco forms of malachite green residues in the eggs, fry, and adult muscle tissue of rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). Homogenates of these tissues were fortified with [c-14] malachite green chloride and extracted with 1% (v/v) acetic acid in acetonitrile or in methanol. The extracts were partitioned with chloroform, dried, redissolved in mobile phase, and analyzed by liquid chromatography (lc) with postcolumn oxidation of leuco malachite green to the chromatic form. Lc fractions were collected every 30 s for quantitation by scintillation counting. Recoveries of total [c-14] malachite green chloride residue were 85 and 98% in eggs fortified with labeled malachite green at concentrations of 0.5 And 1.00 Mug/g, respectively; 68% in fry similarly fortified at a concentration of 0.65 Mug/g; and 66% in muscle homogenate similarly fortified at a level of 1.00 Mug/g. The method was tested under operational conditions by exposing adult rainbow trout to 1.00 Mg/l [c-14] malachite green chloride bath for 1 h. Muscle samples analyzed by sample oxidation and scintillation counting contained 1.3 And 0.5 Mug/g total malachite green chloride residues immediately after exposure and after a 5-day withdrawal period, respectively.

  12. Cardiovascular actions of the stress-related neurohormonal peptides, corticotropin-releasing factor and urotensin-I in the trout Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Le Mével, Jean-Claude; Mimassi, Nagi; Lancien, Frédéric; Mabin, Dominique; Conlon, J Michael

    2006-03-01

    In this review, we summarize the most significant data concerning the cardiovascular effects of centrally and peripherally administered synthetic trout corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and urotensin-I (U-I) in our animal model, the unanesthetized trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Although there is more than 60% sequence identity between these two stress-related neurohormonal peptides, CRF and U-I-induced differential actions upon the mean dorsal aortic blood pressure (Pda) and the heart rate (HR) in trout maintained under similar experimental situations. After intracerebroventricular injections, only U-I induced an increase in Pda while in non-cannulated trout, CRF only decreased the HR and elevated the heart rate variability by a presumed activation of the parasympathetic nervous system activity to the heart. The CRF antagonist, the alpha-helical CRF(9-41) blocked these central actions of CRF. After intra-arterial (IA) injections, U-I induced a direct hypotensive action and an elevation in HR. This hypotensive phase was reversed to hypertension by the release of catecholamines. IA injection of CRF caused no change in Pda or HR. These cardiovascular effects are compared with the much better established actions of CRF and the orthologous urocortins in mammals.

  13. Microencapsulation of a putative probiotic Enterobacter species, C6-6, to protect rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), against bacterial coldwater disease.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, B; Cain, K D; Nowak, B F; Bridle, A R

    2016-01-01

    Flavobacterium psychrophilum is the causative agent of bacterial coldwater disease (BCWD), which has a major impact on salmonid aquaculture globally. An Enterobacter species, C6-6, isolated from the gut of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), has been identified as a potential probiotic species providing protection against BCWD. This study examined the effects of alginate microencapsulation on the protective efficacy of C6-6 against BCWD in vivo when administered to rainbow trout fry orally or by intraperitoneal (IP) injection. Viable C6-6 bacteria were microencapsulated successfully, and this process (microencapsulation) did not significantly deteriorate its protective properties as compared to the administration of non-microencapsulated C6-6 bacteria. Both oral and IP delivery of C6-6 achieved significantly better protection than control treatments that did not contain C6-6 bacteria. The highest relative percent survival (RPS) resulted from IP delivery (71.4%) and was significantly greater than the highest oral RPS (38.6%). Successful intestinal colonization was not critical to protective effects of C6-6. The study showed that C6-6 administration, with or without encapsulation, was a viable choice for protecting fry from BCWD especially when administered intraperitoneally.

  14. Effects of pulp and paper mill discharges on caged rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): biomarker responses along a pollution gradient in the Biobio River, Chile.

    PubMed

    Orrego, Rodrigo; Burgos, Abed; Moraga-Cid, Gustavo; Inzunza, Barbara; Gonzalez, Margarita; Valenzuela, Ariel; Barra, Ricardo; Gavilán, Juan F

    2006-09-01

    Caging experiments were conducted using hatchery-reared, immature, female rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in three previously defined areas of the Biobio River (south central Chile) representing a pollution gradient from the pulp and paper mill discharges area: a pre-impact area (upstream area, reference location), an impact area (area directly influenced), and a postimpact area (downstream area, less influenced). No significant changes were observed in the physiological index as represented by condition factor (K) and liver somatic index during different sampling times (after 11, 21, and 30 d of exposure). Ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase activities were significantly higher in trout caged at the impact and postimpact discharges areas (two- to fourfold) compared with the reference (pre-impact) area, and a strong inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity, reaching 50%, was observed mainly in fish caged at the impact area. A significant endocrine-disrupting effect (reproductive level) was evidenced by significant increments in gonad somatic index and plasma vitellogenin levels combined with an induction of gonad maturation (presence of vitellogenic oocytes) in trout caged at the impact and postimpact areas. These results, generated by an in situ approach, confirmed our group's findings for trout exposed to sediment in the laboratory: discharges of pulp mill effluent in the Biobio River are associated with the effects evaluated at different biological levels.

  15. The effects of the pyrethroid insecticide, bifenthrin, on steroid hormone levels and gonadal development of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) under hypersaline conditions.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, Kristy L; Riar, Navneet; Schlenk, Daniel

    2013-06-01

    The San Francisco Bay Estuary and Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta (Bay-Delta) is an important breeding and nursery ground for fish. Of particular interest are salmonids that migrate through fresh and saltwater areas polluted with various contaminants including bifenthrin, a widely used pyrethroid insecticide. Male steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to bifenthrin (0.1 and 1.5μg/L) for two weeks had a lower gonadosomatic index (GSI) in freshwater but were not affected by concurrent bifenthrin exposure and saltwater acclimation. Plasma estradiol-17β (E2) levels and ovarian follicle diameter of fish exposed to bifenthrin (0.1 and 1.5μg/L) in freshwater significantly increased. Under hypersaline conditions, fish exposed to bifenthrin had significantly reduced E2 levels and smaller follicles, and unhealthy ovarian follicles were observed. Given the occurrence of bifenthrin in surface waters of the Bay Delta, understanding the impact of bifenthrin on wildlife is necessary for improving risk assessments of pyrethroids in this important ecosystem. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Conservation prioritization in widespread species: the use of genetic and morphological data to assess population distinctiveness in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Eric B; Tamkee, Patrick; Keeley, Ernest R; Parkinson, Eric A

    2011-01-01

    Prioritization of efforts to maintain biodiversity is an important component of conservation, but is more often applied to ecosystems or species than within species. We assessed distinctiveness among 27 populations of rainbow trout (Salmonidae: Oncorhynchus mykiss) from British Columbia, Canada, using microsatellite DNA variation (representing historical or contemporary demography) and morphology (representing adaptive variation). Standardized genetic scores, that is, the average deviation across individuals within populations from the overall genetic score generated by factorial correspondence analysis, ranged from 1.05 to 4.90 among populations. Similar standardized morphological scores, generated by principal components analysis, ranged from 1.19 to 5.35. There was little correlation between genetic and morphological distinctiveness across populations, although one population was genetically and morphologically the most distinctive. There was, however, a significant correlation (r = 0.26, P = 0.008) between microsatellite (FST) and morphological (PST) divergence. We combined measures of allelic richness, genetic variation within, and divergence among, populations and morphological variation to provide a conservation ranking of populations. Our approach can be combined with other measures of biodiversity value (habitat, rarity, human uses, threat status) to rationalize the prioritization of populations, especially for widespread species where geographic isolation across distinct environments promotes intraspecific variability. PMID:25567956

  17. Establishment of a comprehensive reference transcriptome for vertebral bone tissue to study the impacts of nutritional phosphorus deficiency in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss, Walbaum).

    PubMed

    Le Luyer, J; Deschamps, M-H; Proulx, E; Poirier Stewart, N; Joly Beauparlant, C; Droit, A; Robert, C; Vandenberg, G W

    2014-10-31

    Reducing dietary phosphorus (P) is a common approach to reduce effluent P outputs. The potential resulting P-deficiency is known to negatively impact fish bone condition and might result in vertebral deformities. To date, no large-scale study involving deep sequencing of the bone transcriptome has been conducted in salmonids and vertebral molecular changes remain poorly described. This study aims to provide the first comprehensive vertebral transcriptome for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) to allow functional and quantitative expression studies. Fish weighing 60.8±1.6g, were fed for 27weeks using two practical diets having 0.29% (deficient) and 0.45% (sufficient) available phosphorus (P), respectively. Deep sequencing was conducted using HiSeq2000 Illumina 100 paired-end technology from pooled P-deficient and P-sufficient fish and individuals displaying vertebral deformities. Over 140 million trimmed paired-end reads were assembled de novo with Trinity and resulted in 679,869 transcripts with a mean length of 542.5bp. From these sequences, 340,747 matched with referenced ESTs from rainbow trout. Furthermore, 141,909 and 117,564 sequences were functionally annotated against Nr and Uniprot databases, respectively. Interestingly, we observed putative homologue sequences for most of the key components involved in bone formation and turnover in mammals.

  18. Effects of somatostatin on the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis and seawater adaptation of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppinga, J.; Kittilson, J.; McCormick, S.D.; Sheridan, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Growth hormone (GH) has been shown to contribute to the seawater (SW) adaptability of euryhaline fish both directly and indirectly through insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1). This study examined the role of somatostatin-14 (SS-14), a potent inhibitor of GH, on the GH-IGF-1 axis and seawater adaptation. Juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were injected intraperitoneally with SS-14 or saline and transferred to 20??ppt seawater. A slight elevation in plasma chloride levels was accompanied by significantly reduced gill Na+, K+-ATPase activity in SS-14-treated fish compared to control fish 12??h after SW transfer. Seawater increased hepatic mRNA levels of GH receptor 1 (GHR 1; 239%), GHR 2 (48%), and IGF-1 (103%) in control fish 12??h after transfer. Levels of GHR 1 (155%), GHR 2 (121%), IGF-1 (200%), IGF-1 receptor A (IGFR1A; 62%), and IGFR1B (157%) increased in the gills of control fish 12??h after transfer. SS-14 abolished or attenuated SW-induced changes in the expression of GHR, IGF-1, and IGFR mRNAs in liver and gill. These results indicate that SS-14 reduces seawater adaptability by inhibiting the GH-IGF-1 axis. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Efficacy of an extract from garlic, Allium sativum, against infection with the furunculosis bacterium, Aeromonas salmonicida, in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyer, Kate E.; Getchell, Rodman G.; Cornwell, Emily R.; Wooster, Gregory A.; Ketola, H. George; Bowser, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Juvenile rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were fed diets containing 0, 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0% of a garlic extract, challenged with a modified 50% lethal dose of Aeromonas salmonicida and monitored for 28 d. There were significant increases in survival of trout fed 0.5 and 1.0% garlic extract as compared to the control and 2.0% garlic extract groups. A target animal safety study was performed at varying increments using the target dose of 0.5% garlic extract at 0× (0% garlic extract), 1× (0.5% garlic extract), 3× (1.5% garlic extract), and 5× (2.5% garlic extract) for 3× (6 wk) the duration of the original study. There was a significant increase in the level of circulating lymphocytes and a significant decrease in the level of circulating monocytes. The latter correlated to an increased level of pigment-containing macrophage centers within the renal tissue as garlic extract dosing increased, denoting a potential deleterious inflammatory effect as macrophage infiltration became severe at the highest dose. These studies suggest that feeding low-dose (0.5% or 1.0%) garlic extract improves survivability in rainbow trout when challenged with A. salmonicida and appears safe; however, higher levels do not appear to be effective and may cause deleterious effects on health.

  20. Can long chain n-3 fatty acids from feed be converted into very long chain n-3 fatty acids in fillets from farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lušnic Polak, M.; Demšar, L.; Luzar, U.; Polak, T.

    2017-09-01

    The link between the basic chemical and fatty acid composition of trout feed on one hand and trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) meat (fillet) was investigated.. The content of 52 fatty acids from feed and trout meat lipids was determined by in-situ transesterification and capillary column gas-liquid chromatography. On average, 100 g of trout feed contained 7.4 g of moisture, 47.7 g of proteins, 6.09 g of ash, 21.4 g of fat, and as for fatty acid composition, 47.8 wt. % were monounsaturated, 34.0 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.1 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 1.88, n-6/n-3 ratio 1.74, 0.80 wt. % of trans and 3.28 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids. On average, 100 g of trout meat contained 76.1 g of moisture, 21.4 g of proteins, 1.34 g of ash, 2.52 g of fat, and in the fatty acid composition 42.1 wt. % were monounsaturated, 38.2 wt. % were polyunsaturated and 18.9 wt. % were saturated fatty acids, with the PS ratio 2.02, n-6/n-3 ratio 0.98, 0.95 wt. % of trans and 13.25 wt. % of very long chain n-3 fatty acids.

  1. Exploring early micronutrient deficiencies in rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) by next-generation sequencing technology--from black box to functional genomics.

    PubMed

    Olsvik, Pål A; Hemre, Gro-Ingunn; Waagbø, Rune

    2013-01-01

    This work studies final nutritional status and transcriptional responses of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum 1792) (28 g) after a 10 week feeding experiment designed to elucidate the effect of adding a vitamin and mineral premix on growth, health, and nutritional endpoints. Juvenile fish were fed a either a diet supplemented with a vitamin and mineral premix (Diet S) or the same diet without premix supplementation (Diet U). The analyzed micronutrient composition of diets differed accordingly. Pooled livers from 15 fish from each dietary group were used to create suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) cDNA libraries that were sequenced with 454 FLX GS Titanium Technology. In total 552 812 reads were sequenced from the two cDNA libraries. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was then used to characterize the hepatic transcriptome of the two dietary groups of rainbow trout. In the present communication we discuss how selected micronutrients may affect the transcriptome at suboptimal status by directly impacting the cellular metabolism, functions, and structures, and by introducing respective compensatory mechanisms. Processes related to lipid metabolism, peptide hydrolysis, oxygen transportation, and growth development were mostly affected. Considering the transcriptomics data relative to changes in nutritional status from the feeding study and the background phenotypic outcome of growth performance and gill histopathology, the outcome of the transcriptional profiling are suggested to be mainly related to suboptimal pantothenic acid and vitamin C nutrition.

  2. Presence of UV filters in surface water and the effects of phenylbenzimidazole sulfonic acid on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following a chronic toxicity test.

    PubMed

    Grabicova, Katerina; Fedorova, Ganna; Burkina, Viktoriia; Steinbach, Christoph; Schmidt-Posthaus, Heike; Zlabek, Vladimir; Kocour Kroupova, Hana; Grabic, Roman; Randak, Tomas

    2013-10-01

    UV filters belong to a group of compounds that are used by humans and are present in municipal waste-waters, effluents from sewage treatment plants and surface waters. Current information regarding UV filters and their effects on fish is limited. In this study, the occurrence of three commonly used UV filters - 2-phenylbenzimidazole-5-sulfonic acid (PBSA), 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone (benzophenone-3, BP-3) and 5-benzoyl-4-hydroxy-2-methoxy-benzenesulfonic acid (benzophenone-4, BP-4) - in South Bohemia (Czech Republic) surface waters is presented. PBSA concentrations (up to 13μgL(-1)) were significantly greater than BP-3 or BP-4 concentrations (up to 620 and 390ngL(-1), respectively). On the basis of these results, PBSA was selected for use in a toxicity test utilizing the common model organism rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Fish were exposed to three concentrations of PBSA (1, 10 and 1000µgL(-1)) for 21 and 42 days. The PBSA concentrations in the fish plasma, liver and kidneys were elevated after 21 and 42 days of exposure. PBSA increased activity of certain P450 cytochromes. Exposure to PBSA also changed various biochemical parameters and enzyme activities in the fish plasma. However, no pathological changes were obvious in the liver or gonads.

  3. Effects of dietary cholesterol supplementation on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal or rapeseed meal.

    PubMed

    Deng, Junming; Zhang, Xi; Long, Xiaowen; Tao, Linli; Wang, Zhen; Niu, Guoyi; Kang, Bin

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of cholesterol on growth and cholesterol metabolism of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets with cottonseed meal (CSM) or rapeseed meal (RSM). Four experimental diets were formulated to contain 550 g kg(-1) CSM or 450 g kg(-1) RSM with or without 9 g kg(-1) supplemental cholesterol. Growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with 450 g kg(-1) RSM were inferior to fish fed diets with 550 g kg(-1) CSM regardless of cholesterol level. Dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the growth rate of fish fed diets with RSM, and growth rate and feed utilization efficiency of fish fed diets with CSM. Similarly, dietary cholesterol supplementation increased the plasma total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and triiodothyronine levels, but decreased the plasma triglycerides and cortisol levels of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. In addition, supplemental cholesterol increased the free cholesterol and TC levels in intestinal contents, but decreased the hepatic 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA reductase activity of fish fed diets with RSM or CSM. These results indicate that 9 g kg(-1) cholesterol supplementation seems to improve the growth of rainbow trout fed diets with CSM or RSM, and the growth-promoting action may be related to the alleviation of the negative effects caused by antinutritional factors and/or make up for the deficiency of endogenous cholesterol in rainbow trout.

  4. Negligible risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), from an infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) endemic area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    LaPatra, S.E.; Batts, W.N.; Overturf, K.; Jones, G.N.; Shewmaker, W.D.; Winton, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    To assess the risk of transmission of infectious haematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, from an area where the virus is endemic, 240 freshly eviscerated fish (225-500 g) exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities were tested for IHNV by virus isolation and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Commercially produced rainbow trout, approximately 1-year-old, that exhibited spinal deformities were considered to have had a high likelihood of having survived an outbreak of IHN. Serological analysis of fish exhibiting spinal curvature or spinal compression types of deformities for anti-IHNV antibodies resulted, in 71 and 50% of the serum samples, respectively, with detectable neutralization activity suggesting previous infection with IHNV. A portion of the skin and muscle in the area of the deformity was collected, as well as brain tissue from each commercially processed fish. Tissue homogenates were tested for IHNV using the epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line pretreated with polyethylene glycol and the chinook salmon embryo (CHSE-214) cell line using standard methods. Nested, reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR for the detection of IHNV used the central 1231 bp portion of the glycoprotein (G) challenge studies and is suggested as a mechanism responsible for virus clearance. These results provide scientific information that can be used to assess the risk associated with the movement of processed rainbow trout from an IHNV endemic area.

  5. The influence of oocyte cortisol on the early ontogeny of intelectin and TLR-5, and changes in lysozyme activity in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) embryos.

    PubMed

    Li, Mao; Russell, Spencer K; Lumsden, John S; Leatherland, John F

    2011-12-01

    The ontogeny of lysozyme activity, intelectin, TLR-5M and TLR-5S gene expression and intelectin localization was examined in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) reared from oocytes immersed for 3h prior to fertilization in either ovarian fluid alone (CC) or cortisol-enriched ovarian fluid at either 100 ng mL(-1) (C1) or 1000 ng mL(-1) (C2) [final oocyte cortisol concentrations were ~3, ~5, and ~7.5 ng oocyte(-1) for the CC, C1 and C2 treatment groups, respectively]. Lysozyme activity was elevated in the cortisol-treated groups from the zygote until 13-days post fertilization (dpf), but was not affected at 21-dpf. Intelectin levels were elevated in both cortisol treatment groups at 12-hpf (2-cell stage) and then suppressed between 36- and 48-hpf. Intelectin mRNA transcript levels were elevated in both cortisol treatment groups in oocytes; there were no differences among treatment groups at 1- and 5-dpf, and suppressed in the C2 treatment group in 13-dpf and 26-dpf. TLR-5 mRNA transcripts were higher in cortisol-treated oocytes prior to fertilization; TLR-5S mRNA was more abundant than TLR-5M mRNA. The ontogeny of the gene expression patterns, and the gene, lectin and lysozyme responses to oocyte cortisol adjustments suggest an important role of innate immune systems in the early cleavage stages of embryonic cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Hemato - Immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity, and survival in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) following the diet supplemented with Mentha piperita against Yersinia ruckeri.

    PubMed

    Adel, Milad; Pourgholam, Reza; Zorriehzahra, Jalil; Ghiasi, Maryam

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to assess the potential effects of Mentha piperita on the hemato - immunological and biochemical parameters, skin antibacterial activity and protection against Yersinia ruckeri infection in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish were divided into 4 groups before being fed diets supplemented with 0, 1, 2 and 3% of Mentha piperita (MP) plant extract for 8 weeks. Dose-dependent increases immune (both in skin mucus and blood serum) and hematological parameters (number of red and white cells, hematocrit and hemoglobin contents), as well as in respiratory burst activity, total protein, albumin, and neutrophil levels in fish fed supplemented diets compared to the control fish. Furthermore, dietary MP plant extract supplements have no significant effect on blood biochemical parameters and enzymatic activities of liver determined in serum of rainbow trout. After 8 weeks the cessation of feeding with MP plant extract, survival rates of 54.4%, 63.6% and 75.2% were recorded in groups which received 1, 2 and 3% of MP plant extract of feed, respectively, compared to 34.6% survivals in the control. This study underlying several positive effects of dietary administration of MP plant extract to farmed fish.

  7. Effect of modified atmosphere and vacuum packaging on TVB-N production of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and carp (Cyprinus carpio) cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babić Milijašević, J.; Milijašević, M.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Vranić, D.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of our research was to examine the influence of packaging in modified atmosphere and vacuum on the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) content in muscle of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and common carp (Cyprinus carpio), as well as to determine the most suitable gas mixtures for packing of these freshwater species. Three sample groups of trout and carp cuts were investigated. The two groups were packaged in modified atmosphere with different gas ratios: 90%CO2+10%N2 (MAP 1) and 60%CO2+40%N2 (MAP 2), whereas the third group of fish cuts were vacuum packaged. During trials, the trout and carp cuts were stored in refrigerator at 3°C±0.5°C. Determination of TVB-N was performed on 1, 4, 7, 9, 12 and 14 days of storage. The obtained results indicate that the investigated mixtures of gases and vacuum had a significant influence on the values of TVB-N in trout and carp cuts. The lowest increase in TVB-N was established in trout and carp cuts packaged in MAP 1, whereas the highest increase was established in vacuum packaged cuts. Based on the obtained results, it can be concluded that the gas mixture consisting of 90% CO2 and 10% N2 was the most suitable for packaging of fresh trout and carp cuts in terms of TVB-N value.

  8. Effects of Methanolic Pomegranate Peel Extract on the Chemical, Sensory, Textural, and Microbiological Properties of Gutted Rainbow Trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) during Frozen Storage.

    PubMed

    Berizi, Enayat; Shekarforoush, Seyed Shahram; Hosseinzadeh, Saeid

    2016-10-01

    The effects of methanolic pomegranate peel extract (MPPE) on the quality of gutted rainbow trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss ) were examined periodically during 6 months of storage at -18°C. Fresh samples were dipped (ratio of fish to liquid, 1:2 [wt/vol]) in sterile water or in sterile water containing 1, 2, or 4% (wt/vol) MPPE and packed in low-density polyethylene pouches. The control and treated samples were analyzed monthly for microbiological, chemical, sensory, and textural characteristics. Microbial growth in samples was significantly reduced by MPPE treatment (P < 0.05). Smaller increases in the values for total volatile base nitrogen, peroxide, and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances and better oxidative stability were also obtained. Moreover, higher organoleptic scores were recorded. However, regarding the general acceptability, the highest score was achieved in the 1% MPPE group. Greater hardness and chewiness were obtained with 4% MPPE (P < 0.05). Therefore, dipping fish in MPPE can be considered an effective method to extend the shelf life and the overall quality of the product.

  9. The effects of the lampricide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) on fuel stores and ion balance in a non-target fish, the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Birceanu, Oana; Sorensen, Lisa A; Henry, Matthew; McClelland, Grant B; Wang, Yuxiang S; Wilkie, Michael P

    2014-03-01

    The pesticide 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol (TFM) is used to control sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) populations in the Great Lakes through its application to nursery streams containing larval sea lampreys. TFM uncouples oxidative phosphorylation, impairing mitochondrial ATP production in sea lampreys and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). However, little else is known about its sub-lethal effects on non-target aquatic species. The present study tested the hypotheses that TFM exposure in hard water leads to (i) marked depletion of energy stores in metabolically active tissues (brain, muscle, kidney, liver) and (ii) disruption of active ion transport across the gill, adversely affecting electrolyte homeostasis in trout. Exposure of trout to 11.0mgl(-1) TFM (12-h LC50) led to increases in muscle TFM and TFM-glucuronide concentrations, peaking at 9h and 12h, respectively. Muscle and brain glycogen was reduced by 50%, while kidney and muscle lactate increased with TFM exposure. Kidney ATP and phosphocreatine decreased by 50% and 70%, respectively. TFM exposure caused no changes in whole body ion (Na(+), Cl(-), Ca(2+), K(+)) concentrations, gill Na(+)/K(+) ATPase activity, or unidirectional Na(+) movements across the gills. We conclude that TFM causes a mismatch between ATP supply and demand in trout, leading to increased reliance on glycolysis, but it does not have physiologically relevant effects on ion balance in hard water.

  10. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss.

    PubMed

    Galt, Nicholas J; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M; Barrows, Frederic T; Biga, Peggy R

    2014-06-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five weeks of high-fat diet (HFD; 25 % lipid) intake increased white muscle lipid content and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10 % lipid) intake. In addition, HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and myostatin-1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, myostatin-1b, and myostatin-2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish.

  11. High-fat diet reduces local myostatin-1 paralog expression and alters skeletal muscle lipid content in rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

    PubMed Central

    Galt, Nicholas J.; Froehlich, Jacob Michael; Meyer, Ben M.; Barrows, Frederic T.; Biga, Peggy R.

    2014-01-01

    Muscle growth is an energetically demanding process that is reliant on intramuscular fatty acid depots in most fishes. The complex mechanisms regulating this growth and lipid metabolism are of great interest for human health and aquaculture applications. It is well established that the skeletal muscle chalone, myostatin, plays a role in lipid metabolism and adipogenesis in mammals; however, this function has not been fully assessed in fishes. We therefore examined the interaction between dietary lipid levels and myostatin expression in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Five-weeks of high-fat (HFD; 25% lipid) dietary intake increased white muscle lipid content, and decreased circulating glucose levels and hepatosomatic index when compared to low-fat diet (LFD; 10% lipid) intake. In addition HFD intake reduced myostatin-1a and -1b expression in white muscle and myostatin-1b expression in brain tissue. Characterization of the myostatin-1a, -1b, and -2a promoters revealed putative binding sites for a subset of transcription factors associated with lipid metabolism. Taken together, these data suggest that HFD may regulate myostatin expression through cis-regulatory elements sensitive to increased lipid intake. Further, these findings provide a framework for future investigations of mechanisms describing the relationships between myostatin and lipid metabolism in fish. PMID:24264425

  12. Aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry in a laboratory flume and a comparison with observations in natural streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riley, S.C.; Tatara, C.P.; Scheurer, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We quantified the aggression and feeding of naturally reared steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fry stocked into a laboratory flume with naturally reared fry or hatchery-reared fry from conventional and enriched rearing environments at three densities in the presence and absence of predators, and compared the aggression and feeding observed in the flume to that observed in two streams. Steelhead fry attack rate increased with density and was reduced in the presence of predators, but was not affected by rearing treatment. Threat rate appeared to increase with density and was significantly affected by rearing treatment combination, but was not significantly affected by predator presence. Feeding rate was not affected by density or rearing treatment, but was reduced in the presence of predators. The rate of aggression by steelhead fry in two streams was lower than that observed in the laboratory and did not increase with density. Rates of aggression and feeding of hatchery-reared and wild steelhead fry were not significantly different in the streams. Overall, we found no evidence that hatchery rearing environments caused higher aggression in steelhead fry. Laboratory observations of salmonid aggression, particularly at high density, may not reflect aggression levels in the wild. ?? 2005 NRC.

  13. Early ocean survival and marine movements of hatchery and wild steelhead trout ( Oncorhynchus mykiss) determined by an acoustic array: Queen Charlotte Strait, British Columbia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welch, David W.; Ward, Bruce R.; Batten, Sonia D.

    2004-03-01

    Early ocean movements, residency, and survival of steelhead (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were examined in Queen Charlotte Strait, a large (20×100 km2) marine area separating Vancouver Island from the mainland. The results provide the first detailed data on the ocean biology of hatchery and wild steelhead smolts. Initial ocean movements were not strongly directed, with most smolts swimming in the range of 0.2-0.5 body length (BL) s-1. The majority (78%) vacated Queen Charlotte Strait within 1 week of release in freshwater. Relative marine survival of hatchery smolts surgically implanted 1 month prior to release was identical to that of wild smolts implanted on the day of release; survival of hatchery smolts transported to the study site, implanted, and released all on the same day was significantly lower. The results suggest that the early marine survival of hatchery and wild smolts may be fundamentally similar, but that the cumulative stress of transportation and surgery may reduce post-surgery survival. Hatchery smolts moved at higher average swimming speeds than wild smolts, but the difference was not statistically significant. Early marine survival within the study region appears to be relatively high (⩾55%), contradicting assumptions that the early marine phase is the critical period for determining salmon recruitment.

  14. The integration of in vivo and in vitro metabolism assays to investigate the stereoselective behaviors of benalaxyl in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Gu, Xu; Yao, Ting

    2013-01-01

    The bioconcentration and elimination of racemic benalaxyl (BX) in trout liver microsomes and in juvenile rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated to determine whether the fish can bioconcentrate and degrade this fungicide enantioselectively. Both enantiomers of BX were extracted with organic solvents and evaluated using high-performance liquid chromatography. In the microsomes, BX degradation followed first-order kinetics, and the S-(+) enantiomer of BX was eliminated twice as rapidly as the R-(-) enantiomer, resulting in residues enriched for R-(-)-BX. In vivo experiment, chiral analysis showed an obvious selective bioconcentration of BX based on statistically altered enantiomer fractions (EFs) in the fish compared with the values in the water. The R-(-)-BX was initially preferentially bioconcentrated by rainbow trout and then dissipated more slowly than its antipode. The mean half-lives for individual enantiomers were calculated as 31.6 h for R-(-)-BX and 20.3 h for the S-(+)-form. The results of the study showed that the degradation of BX enantiomers was stereoselective in rainbow trout.

  15. Tissue specific uptake of inactivated and live Yersinia ruckeri in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss): visualization by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Khimmakthong, Umaporn; Deshmukh, Sidhartha; Chettri, Jiwan Kumar; Bojesen, Anders Miki; Kania, Per Walter; Dalsgaard, Inger; Buchmann, Kurt

    2013-01-01

    Understanding of uptake and invasion routes of Yersinia ruckeri, causing Enteric Red Mouth Disease (ERM) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), is essential for improved understanding of the pathogenicity and immune response mechanisms associated this disease. The present work shed light on areas of invasion in rainbow trout by the use of immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques. Fish were exposed to live or formalin inactivated bacteria and samples were subsequently taken for histology from various outer and inner surfaces. We applied a specific monoclonal antibody and specific oligonucleotide probes binding to Y. ruckeri (serotype O1, biotype 2) in tissue sections and were able to demonstrate a tissue specific uptake of this bacterium (both formalin inactivated and live form). Uptake and subsequent translocation dynamics at various surfaces demonstrated different site specific propensities between the formalin inactivated and live bacterial organisms. Lateral lines, dorsal fin, epidermis and gastro-intestinal tract mucosal tissue were the primary areas where bacterial uptake was demonstrated readily after exposure. The fate of internalized bacterial organisms within the host suggested that central immune organs are involved in the final antigen processing. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Serum disposition of bovine lactoferrin after oral and anal administration and its proteolytic cleavage by gastric transit in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.).

    PubMed

    Cecchini, Stefano; Caputo, Anna R

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown an immunomodulatory effect of orally administered bovine lactoferrin (LF) in fish, but the process of digestion was not characterized. In the present study, we investigated the fate of bovine LF after oral and anal administration, and studied the appearance of intact LF in the bloodstream and its proteolytic attack during the gastric transit in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) held at 9 degrees C and 18 degrees C. Data obtained showed the presence of intact bovine LF in the bloodstream only after anal administration in fish held at 18 degrees C and the presence of several peptides derived from bovine LF in the gastric content. Immunoblotting analysis showed that only a part of bovine LF-derived peptides reacted with the applied anti-bovine LF antibody. The concentration of intact bovine LF, after 30 min of administration, in the gastric content of fish reared at 18 degrees C, being extremely low, if any, led us to suspect that the immunoregulatory effect of dietary bovine LF shown in fish by several authors is not due to the intact form but to bioactive fragments, originated by the proteolytic attack during the gastric transit, as demonstrated in higher vertebrates.

  17. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) as a novel method in ecotoxicology--determination of morphometric and somatic data in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Markus; Rizzo, Larissa Y; Lammers, Twan; Gremse, Felix; Schiwy, Sabrina; Kiessling, Fabian; Hollert, Henner

    2016-02-01

    Fish are important sentinel organisms for the assessment of water quality and play a central role in ecotoxicological research. Of particular importance to the assessment of health and fitness of fish stocks in response to environmental conditions or pollution are morphometric (e.g. Fulton's condition index) and somatic indices (e.g. hepatosomatic, and gonadosomatic index). Standard measurements of somatic indices are invasive and require, by definition, the sacrifice of examined animals, thus prohibiting longitudinal studies and relocation of animals captured in the field. As a potential solution, in the present study, we propose the use of micro-computed tomography (μCT) as imaging modality to non-invasively tomographically image rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to different sediment suspensions. We here demonstrate that μCT can be used as a tool to reliably measure the volumes of different organs, which could then be applied as a substitute of their weights in calculation of somatic indices. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to report the results of μCT analyses in the context of ecotoxicological research in rainbow trout. It has the potential to greatly increase the information value of experiments conducted with fish and also to potentially reduce the number of animals required for studying temporal effects through facilitating longitudinal studies within the same individuals.

  18. [Reparative Neurogenesis in the Brain and Changes in the Optic Nerve of Adult Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss after Mechanical Damage of the Eye].

    PubMed

    Puschina, E V; Varaksin, A A; Obukhov, D K

    2016-01-01

    Reparative proliferation and neurogenesis in the brain integrative centers after mechanical eye injury in an adult trout Oncorhynchus mykiss have been studied. We have found that proliferation and neurogenesis in proliferative brain regions, the cerebellum, and the optic tectum were significantly enhanced after the eye injury. The cerebellum showed a significant increase in the proliferative activity of the cells of the dorsal proliferative zone and parenchymal cells of the molecular and granular layers. One week after the injury, PCNA-positive radial glia cells have been identified in the tectum. We have found for the first time that the eye trauma resulted in the development of local clusters of undifferentiated cells forming so called neurogenic niches in the tectum and cerebellum. The differentiation of neuronal cells detected by labeling cells with antibodies against the protein HuC/D occurred in the proliferative zones of the telencephalon, the optic tectum, cerebellum, and medulla of a trout within 2 days after the injury. We have shown that the HuC/D expression is higher in the proliferative brain regions than in the definitive neurons of a trout. In addition, we have examined cell proliferation, migration, and apoptosis caused by the eye injury in the contra- and ipsilateral optic nerves and adjacent muscle fibers 2 days after the trauma. The qualitative and quantitative assessment of proliferation and apoptosis in the cells of the optic nerve of a trout has been made using antibodies against PCNA and the TUNEL method.

  19. Effects of dietary supplementation of synbiotic on growth performance, serum biochemical parameters and carcass composition in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings.

    PubMed

    Mehrabi, Z; Firouzbakhsh, F; Jafarpour, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of a synbiotic (Biomin IMBO) on serum parameters and feeding efficiency in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fingerlings. The fish with initial average weight of 4.59 ± 0.2 g were randomly assigned to four dietary treatments for two months. The dietary treatment (0.5, 1 and 1.5 g/kg of diet) was supplemented with basal diet and non-supplemented basal diet was used as control. After two months, all treatments supplemented with synbiotic showed significant (p < 0.05) increase in final mean weight, weight gain percentage, specific growth rate, condition factor, food conversion efficiency and survival rate, compared to the control group. Among all supplemented treatments, the best result in terms of growth factors and survival was observed in the treatment supplemented with 1 g synbiotic per kilogram of diet. Furthermore, supplementation with symbiotic, specifically 1 and 1.5 g/kg, significantly (p < 0.05) increased the total serum protein, but there was no significant (p > 0.05) difference in globulin content, albumin/globulin ratio, and triglyceride content among experimental treatments. In terms of body composition, carcass protein content of fish fed with synbiotic significantly (p < 0.05) increased compared to the control. These results revealed that a feeding regime with synbiotic for two months led to a significant increase in growth performance, survival rate and feeding efficiency in rainbow trout fingerlings.

  20. Characterisation of aroma-active and off-odour compounds in German rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Part I: Case of aquaculture water from earthen-ponds farming.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Mohamed Ahmed Abbas; Buettner, Andrea

    2016-11-01

    Comprehensive analyses were accomplished to explore the odorous molecules responsible for off-odour development in earthen-ponds rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) aquaculture farming in Germany. In this part of the study, water odorants were extracted using solvent-assisted flavour evaporation (SAFE); then, extracts were analysed by one- and two- dimensional high resolution gas chromatography coupled with olfactometry and mass spectrometry using two columns with different polarity (DB-FFAP and DB-5). Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) of the solvent extract samples revealed 54 odorants, and 47 of them were identified. In this study, a series of compounds is described for the first time in German earthen-ponds rainbow trout aquaculture water including, amongst others, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone (furaneol), vanillin, (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, 4-ethyloctanoic acid, 3-methylindole (skatole), 5α-androst-16-en-3-one (androstenone), and 2-(2-butoxyethoxy) ethanol. Moreover, the sensory experiment indicated that (E)-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal, (E,E)-2,4-octadienal, and 1-octen-3-one are the main contributors to the metallic, cucumber, and mushroom notes of the samples.

  1. The peptide hormone cholecystokinin modulates the tonus and compliance of the bulbus arteriosus and pre-branchial vessels of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

    PubMed

    Seth, Henrik; Axelsson, Michael; Gräns, Albin

    2014-12-01

    The bulbus arteriosus is a compliant structure between the ventricle and ventral aorta of teleost fish. It serves as a "wind-kessel" t